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COMMERCIAL Df If irUf 
FISHERIESntf iLff 




Vol.21, No. 7 



FISH and WILDLIFE SERVICE 

United States Department of the Interior 
Washington, DC 



JULY 1959 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FRED A. SEATON, SECRETARY 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ARNIE J. SUOMELA, COMMISSIONER 



BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

DONALD L. MCKERNAN, DIRECTOR 

DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 
AND SERVICES 

HAROLD E. CROWTHER, CHIEF 




COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



A review of d-evelopments and news of the fishery industries 
prepared in the BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES. 

Joseph Pileggi, Editor 
H. M. Bearse, Assistant Editor 




Mailed free to members of the fishery and allied industries. Address correspondence and requests 
to the: Chief, Branch of Market News, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Department of the Interior, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Publication of material from sources outside the Bureau is not an endorsement. The Bureau is not 
responsible for the accuracy of facts, views, or opinions contained in material from outside sources. 

Although the contents of the publication have not been copyrighted and may be reprinted freely, 
reference to the source is appreciated. 

The printing of this publication has been approved by the Director of t h e Bureau of t h e Budget, 
May 21, 1957. 5/3V60 



CONTENTS 



COVER: A catch of red snapper and some grouper made by the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Commercial Fisheries' exploratory fishing vessel Silver Bay on 
Campeche Bank in the Gulf of Mexico. This vessel has been conducting 
simulated commercial red snapper trawling in order to determine the a- 
vailability of red snapper to trawling gear. (See p, 33 of this issue.) 



Shrimp Exploration in Central Alaskan Waters by the M/V John N. Cobb , July-August 1958, by Melvin R. Greenwood. 
Current Status of the Inter -American Development Bank, by Raymond E. Steele 



RESEARCH IN SERVICE LABORATORIES: 

Proximate Com,po3ition of Gulf of Mexico Industrial Fish, 
Part 3 - Fall Studies (1958), by Mary H. Thompson. . . . 
Technical Note No, 54 - Dicarbonyl Compounds as Com- 
ponents of Fish Odor, by George F. Mangan, Jr 

TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS: 

Alaska: 

Fish and Game Board Sets Policy 

Fish and Game Board Prepares for State Control .... 
California: 
Crab and Shrimp Studied off Central California Coast 

(M/V N. B^ Scofield Cruise 59-S-2) 

Pelagic Fish and Barracuda Studied off Baja California 

Coast (M/V Alaska Cruise 59-A-2) 

Aerial Census of Commercial Fishing Continued (Air- 
plane Spotting Flights 59-4, 59-5, and 59-6) 

Canned Fish: 

Shipping Methods Study 

Can s--Shipments for Fishery Products, January-March 

1959 

Clams: 

Studies Develop Source of Seed and Planting Techniques 
Crabs: 

Green Crabs Controlled with Chemical 

Federal Purchases of Fishery Products: 

Department of Defense Purchases, January-April 1959 
Great Lakes Fishery Investigations: 
Program of the Research Vessel Cisco for 1959 . , . 
Western Lake Superior Fishery Survey (M/V Siscowet 

Cruise 1) 

Western Lake Erie Biological Research Continued (M/V 

Georg e L^. Cruises 1 and 2) 

Gulf Exploratory Fishery Program: 
Commercial Red Snapper Trawling Operations on Cam- 
peche Bank Completed (M/V Silver Bay Cruise 16) . . . 
Exploratory Fishing for Mldwater IP'lsh Stocks Between 
Mississippi Delta and Brownsville, Tex. (M/V Oregon 

Cruise 58) 

Mldwater Trawling for School Fish In the North Central 

Gulf of Mexico (M/V Oregon Cruise 59) 

Gulf Fishery Investigations: 

Shrimp 

Red Tide Studies 

Industrial Fishes 

Maine Sardines: 

Canned Stocks, April 1, 1959 

North Atlantic Fisheries Exploration and Gear Research: 
Good Catches of Tuna Taken on Edge of Gulf Stream 
South-By-East of Nantucket (M/V Delaware Cruise 
59-6) 



Page 

16 



21 
24 



24 
24 



25 
25 
26 
29 
29 
29 
30 
31 
31 
32 
32 



34 

36 

37 
38 
39 



40 



TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS (Contd.): 
North Pacific Exploratory Fishery Program: 
Devices to Improve Otter-Trawl Performance Tested 

(M/V John N. Cobb Cruise 42) 

Salmon: 

California Plants Marked King Salmon Flngerlings . , . 
South Carolina: 
Fisheries Biological Research Progress, January- 
March 1959 

Spot: 

Abundance In Chesapeake Bay Predicted Lower In 1959 
Standards: 
Proposed Standards for Frozen Cod Fillets and Bread- 
ed Portions Reviewed at Meetings 

Transportation: 
Exempt Trucking of Fresh and Frozen Fishery Products 

Under Study 

Tuna: 
California Captain Fishing Out of Puerto Rico Reports 

Tuna Plentiful in Eastern Atlantic 

United States Fishing Fleet Additions, March 1959 .... 
U. S. Foreign Trade: 

Edible Fishery Products, February 1959 

Edible Fishery Products, March 1959 

Groundflsh Fillet Imports, April 1959 

Imports of Canned Tuna In Brine Under Quota 

Imports of Selected Fishery Products, January -March 

1959 

Exports of Selected Fishery Products, January-March 

1959 

Value of Fishing Tackle Imports Highest on Record . . 

Wholesale Prices, May 1959 

FOREIGN: 

International: 
Food and Agriculture Organization: 
Use of Atomic Byproducts in Preserving Foods .... 
International Standards for Chemical Additives to Food 

Proposed 

Improved Mldwater Trawling Method Demonstrated . . 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: 

Fourteenth Session of the Contracting Parties 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Commission: 

Annual Meeting in Montreal 

More Countries to Fish on Northwest Atlantic Fishing 

Grounds 

Protocol Amending Convention Enters Into Force . . . 
Northwest Pacific Fisheries Commission: 
Japanese North Pacific Salmon Mothershlp Quota for 

1959 

Japan Proposes Cut in Salmon Quota at Meeting .... 



Page 

1 

14 

Page 



41 
42 

43 

44 



46 
46 

47 
47 
48 
48 



49 
49 
49 
51 



51 
52 



52 
53 



53 
54 



54 

54 



Contents Continued Page 125. 






July 1959 



Washington 25,D.C. 



Vol.21,No.7 



SHRIMP EXPLORATION IN CENTRAL ALASKAN WATERS 
BY M/V JOHN N. COBB , JULY- AUGUST 1958 

By Melvin R. Greenwood'!' 

SUMMARY 

The growth of Alaskan shrimping, which began in 1916, was apparently handi- 
capped by the high cost of hand picking of shrimp and by high transportation rates. 
The introduction in 1956 of peeling machines on the West Coast for processing the 
small cocktail-size shrimp and the subsequent successful use of those machines, 
has renewed interest in the possibilities of expanding the existing Alaskan fishery. 




Fig. 1 - Central Alaska. Outline shows areas explored by the John N . Cobb , diiring shrimp explorations in July and Au- 
gust 1958. 

Considerable information regarding the latent shrimp resources of Alaska has 
been obtained in recent years through explorations conducted by the U. S. Bureau of 
Comxnercial Fisheries. To assess th e shrimp populations of Lower Cook Inlet and 

^Fishery Methods and Equipment Specialist, Branch of Exploratory Fidiing and Gear Research, Division of Industrial Re- 
seardi and Services, U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Seattle, Wash. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Kodiak Island, the Bureau's exploratory fishing vessel, John N. Cobb did exploratory 
fishing between July 22 and August 26, 1958. During the cruise a total of 109 drags 
was made using Gulf of Mexico-type shrimp trawls. 

Excellent shrimp catches in Kachemak and Marmot Bays consisted of up to 
1,770 and l,400pounds of heads-on shrimp per half -hour tow, respectively. Trawl- 




Fig. 2 - Cod end of shrimp trawl on John N. Cobb with catch of shrimp from Nuka Passage, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. 

ing in numerous other areas--Alitak, Kukak, Nuka, and Uganik Bays, Inner Nuka 
Passage, Port Dick, and Raspberry Strait--also produced good catches. In contrast 
to exploratory findings in other areas. Central Alaskan catches contained substan- 
tial quantities of sidestripe shrimp with averages for individual drags ranging from 
23 to 69 whole shrimp per pound and coonstripe shrinap with drag averages ranging 
from 16 to 84 shrimp per pound. Pink shrimp averaging 56 to the pound in some 
drags, were also common. 

Most good shrimp catches contained relatively few fish. Although considerable 
poor trawling bottom was indicated by echo-sounding, the grounds actually fished 
were almost entirely free of bottom obstructions. Snags were encountered only twice 
during the cruise. 

BACKGROUND 

Shrimp fishing in Alaska began in the southeastern region near Petersburg and 
Wrangell in 1916, and it has since become an important "off-season" fishery (Wigu- 
toff 1953). Expansion of shrimping to other areas of Alaska has been attempted; 
however, those occasional ventures have been sporadic and on a small scale (Bow- 
er 1917-48; and Thompson 1950-56). Apparently the growth of the fishery has been 
handicapped by the high cost of hand-picking small pink shrimp and high transporta- 
tion rates. The successful use of mechanical peeling machines, introduced to the 
West Coast in 1956, has served to renew interest in the expansion of the Alaskan 
shrimp fishery. 



July 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 3 

In recent years the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has acquired consider- 
able information concerning the latent shrimp resources in various waters of Alaska, 
From 1950 through 1957, nine shrimp explorations were conducted; 5 off Southeast- 
ern Alaska, 1 in Yakutat Bay, 2 in Prince William Sound, and 1 extending from near 
the Shumagin Islands to the Unalaska Island area.i/ These explorations revealed 
numerous areas having commercial potential. The naost successful cruise was 
made in 1957 when catches ranged up to 3,800 pounds in a half -hour drag in the 
Shumagin Island area. Although results of earlier explorations were not as out- 
standing, catches might have been larger if fishing had been conducted with a Gulf- 
type trawl rather than with a small beam trawl. 

In some Central Alaskan waters, commercial fishermen periodically have re- 
ported large catches of shrimp. Indications of a potential shrimp resource in Olga 
Bay, Kodiak Island, were noted during king-crab explorations conducted by the U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service in 1940 (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1942). Pink shrimp 
were also taken in a midwater trawl between Cape Douglas and Shuyak Island in 1957 
(Aron 1958). The Lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak Island areas, however, had not been 
systematically explored for shrimp prior to 1958. 

Between July 22 and August 26, 1958, the shrimp resources in Central Alaskan 
waters were assessed by the Bureau's North Pacific Fisheries Exploration and 
Gear Research Station. Fishing was carried out with the exploratory fishing ves- 
sel jJohn N. Cobb in waters of Lower Cook Inlet, along the Kenai Peninsula, and ad- 
jacent to Kodiak Island (fig. 1). Objectives of the cruise were to: (1) locate and 
determine species, size, and abundance of shrimp, (2) determine the bottom condi- 
tions on prospective shrimp grounds, and (3) collect oceanographic data which could 
be helpful in understanding shrimp distribution as related to the environment. 

GEAR USED 

All but two drags during the cruise were made with a l|-inch mesh,2^/ standard 
43-foot, 3./ Gulf of Mexico-type, flat shrimp trawl similar to that described bySchae- 
fers and Johnson (1957). The net was attached directly to the back of the doors with 
two-foot extensions of the headrope and footrope. 

The ground chain of the 43-foot net was equal in length to the footrope. Its ends 
were shackled at the junction points of the breastlines and footrope, and 14-link 
dropper chains were hung between the footrope and ground chain at intervals of 24 
inches. During the last few drags of the cruise the net was fished with the dropper 
chains removed, leaving the ground chain attached only at its ends. The trawl was 
towed with a single cable attached to a 25-fathom bridle ahead of the doors. 

Two drags were made with a l|^-inch mesh, 70-foot, Gulf of Mexico-type, semi- 
balloon shrimp trawl (fig. 3). 4/ This net was towed in the conventional otter -trawl- 
ing manner with warps from the vessel to each door. Seven-foot headrope and foot- 
rope extensions, plus 5-foot chains fastened to the trailing edge of the door, result- 
ed in a total distance of 12 feet between the door and the net. 

Both nets were fished using standard Gulf of Mexico-type doors (Bullis 1951), 
which are lighter than doors used by Pacific coast otter trawlers. Doors for the 
small net measured 2| by 5 feet and weighed 160 pounds each, while the doors for 
the large nets measured 3^ by 8 fe et and weighed 385 pounds each. 

i/For restUts of those surveys see: Schaefeis 1951, 1953; Ellson and Livingstone 1952; Schaefeis and Smith 1954; Schae- 
fets et al 1955; Greenwood 1958; and Johnson 1959. 

2/ All mesh sizes referred to in this report are stretched n^easure including 1 knot. 

3/Net sizes given in this report represent the length of the footrope, excluding the extension straps. 

4/Note that the net in figure 3 is drawn in conformance with the net-illustiating method proposed by W. Dickson at the 
International Fiihing Gear Congress, Hamburg, Germany, 1957; i. e. , all lengths are true to scale (stretched meas- 
ure), while all widths are reduced 50 percent. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



TOP SECTION 

HEADROPE 57 FEET 



BOTTOM SECTION 

FOOTROPE 70 FEET 




Tripline rings - 

Lazyline 

Doors 



2 meshes (4 bars) to 3-1/fl" rope 
2 meshes to 2^" rope 

16 links, J" chain per 12" rope 

2^" galvanized iron rings attached 
meshes from bottom of b^g 



17 same as lazyline rings, attached 
16 meshes from bottom of bag 



15 fathoms of i" nylon 

8 feel X 40", approximately 330 pounds each 



Fig. 3 - Seventy-foot Gulf of Mexico-type semiballoon shrimp trawl used during shrimp explorations in Central 
Alaska. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



A warp-length to water-depth ratio (scope) of approximately 3 to 1 was used, 
and the nets were towed at speeds between 2.5 and 3.0 knots. Drags were of 30- 
minute duration, except for five 15 -minute drags off Port Dick, where the lack of 
available grounds precluded longer tows. 

FISHING RESULTS 

Three species of shrimp were taken in commercial quantities during the cruise. 
Small cocktail-size pink shrimp ( Pandalus borealis ) were taken throughout the area 
of operation. A larger species- -sidestripe shrimp (Pandalopsis dispar) were also 
found to be widely distributed. Coon- stripe shrimp ( Pandalus hypsinotus ), repre- 
sentatives of another larger species, were caught mostly in the Kenai Peninsula area. 
Other species which were taken in small quantities included: dock shrimp (Pandalus 
danae ) , spot shrimp (Pandalus platyceros ) , humpy shrimp (Pandalus goniurus) , Eulas 
suckleyi , Eulas macilentus , and several species of gray shrimp belonging to thefam- 
ily Crangonidae. 




fig. 4 - Catch of shrimp on sorting table aboard M/V John N. Cobb in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, 
holds 1,000 pounds of shrimp, level -full. 



Note: Sorting table 



Excellent shrimp catches were made in Kachemak Bay and Marmot Bay r.ear 
the towns of Homer, Seldovia, and Kodiak. Catches as large as 1,770 pounds of 
shrimp were taken in Kachemak Bay, and catches up to 1,400 pounds were taken in 
Marmot Bay. The average catch, for drags made in those two bays, was 655 and 
603 pounds, respectively. 

Trawling in many smaller bays and inlets, within about 5 to 11 hours running 
time of Homer, Seldovia and Kodiak, also produced good catches. Drags in Alitak 
Kukk, Nuka, and Uganik Bays, inner Nuka Passage, Port Dick, Raspberry Strait, 
and off Cape Douglas yielded shrimp at rates ranging from 265 to 950 pounds per 
half hour. 



In contrast to the results of Bureau explorations conducted off Washington and 
Oregon, many shrimp catches taken off Alaska contained substantial quantities of 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 




July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 




RINITY ISLANDS 



LEGEND : 

SHRIMP- TRAWL DRAG 



"<• 



-U_ 



Fig. 6 - The Kodiak Island and Shelikof Strait areas of Central Alaska showing location of shrimp-trawl 
drags made by the John N. Cobb during Augvist of 1958. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



sidestrlpe and coonstripe shrimp. In several bays along the Kenai Peninsula those 
species were predominant in the catches. 

Although the slopes of many of the bays were found to be relatively steep, clear 
trawling bottom prevailed in most areas fished. Snags were encountered only twice 
during the cruise, and in both instances net damage was slight. The bottom was 
composed of mud or a mixture of mud and sand in areas yielding good catches of 
shrimp. 

The location of each of the 109 exploratory drags made during the investigation 
is diagramatically presented in figures 5 and 6. 

FISHING RESULTS IN LOWER COOK INLET AND KENAI PENINSULA AREAS : 
The best catches in the Lower Cook Inlet and Kenai Peninsula areas were made in 

Kachemak Bay, off Cape Douglas, 
in Port Dick, in Nuka Passage, 
and off Ragged Island. Most drags 
made in Cook Inlet and in offshore 
waters south of Kenai Peninsula 
yielded little or no shrimp. 

Kachemak Bay : The most 
productive catches in Kachemak 
Bay were taken from a deep area 
off Homer Spit and the northern 
slope of the gully which runs a- 
long the southern shoreline be- 
tween Homer Spit and Seldovia 
Bay. Five drags made in depths 
ranging from 53 to 92 fathoms in 
and near the deep, which is lo- 
cated about 5 miles southwest of 
the end of Homer Spit, resulted 
in catches of 360 to 1,020 pounds 
of shrimp. From 36 to 79 percent 
of those catches consisted of 26- 
to 48-count£' sidestripes. On the 
north slope of the gully near Sel- 
dovia Bay, two drags made at 
depths between 39 and 50 fathoms 
caught 740 and 1,770 pounds of 
shrimp, mostly 200-count pinks. 
One drag made in Tutka Bay, in 
41 to 52 fathoms, resulted in 810 
pounds of mixed pink and coon- 
stripe shrimp. The coonstripe 
shrimp, which made up about 39 
percent of this catch, averaged 
28 shrimp per pound heads on. 

Cook Inlet: Catches in Lower 
Cook Inlet were poor. Twelve 





Fig. 7 - Hoisting cod end full of shrimp over rail of John N. Cobb in 
Kachemak Bay, Alaska. 



drags made between Kachemalc Bay and Kamishak Bay at depths between 15 and 86 
fathoms caught about 70 pounds of shrimp. Most of the inlet south of Anchor Point 
is shallow (less than 40 fathoms), and a large part of the bottom is irregular and 
probably not suitable for trawling . 

_^A11 shrimp counts given in this report indicate the average number of heads-on individuals per pound, and were obtain- 
ed from random samples. Selected shiimp, i.e. , those caught with larger mesh nets, or graded shrimp, would be ex- 
pected to count out much larger than do the random samples. Catch rates are expressed as pounds of heads-on shrimp. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Cape Douglas : Two drags, raade 7 to 11 miles off Cape Douglas in 88 to 91 fath- 
oms, resulted in 540 and 600 pounds of mixed pink and sidestripe shrimp. Side- 
stripes accounted for 15 and 33 percent of those catches, respectively. 

Port Dick: The limited area suitable for trawling, and the relatively steep side 
slopes in Port Dick made it necessary to shorten the trawling time of most drags to 
15 minutes. The upper end of West Arm afforded the best trawling bottom despite 
a large kelp bed which was encountered about 3 miles from the end of the bay. Three 
drags made in this area at depths between 58 and 101 fathoms yielded 240 and 360 
pounds of shrimp in the 15-minute drags and 870 pounds in the half -hour drag. Four 
drags were made on the steep side slopes of Port Dick. One of those drags, start- 
ing in 139 fathoms and ending in 36 fathoms, yielded 540 pounds in 30 minutes. The 
average catch rate for all drags made in Port Dick was 510 pounds of shrimp per 
half hour drag. 

Catches in Port Dick were composed of mixed pink, sidestripe, and coonstripe 
shrimp. Although pink shrimp dominated the catches, a considerable quantity of 
sidestripe and coonstripe shrimp were taJcen. Pinks ranged in size from 75 to 120 
count; sidestripes, from 37 to 69 count; and coonstripes, from 30 to 84 count. 

OFFSHORE WATERS SOUTH OF KENAI PENINSULA : Only trace amounts of 
shrimp were taken in three drags made in offshore waters 6 to 8 miles south of Gore 
Point. Extensive soundings, 
within about 10 miles of the pen- 
insula, revealed no other likely 
offshore shrimp -trawling grounds 
between Nuka Bay and the east- 
ern entrance to Cook Inlet. 

Nuka Passage : Three drags 
made in the inner part of Nuka 
Passage, at depths ranging from 
49 to 84 fathoms, produced from 
390 to 780 pounds of shrimp each. 
The catches were composed of 
about half pink shrimp and half 
mixed sidestripes and coonstripes. 
The pinks averaged 71 to 96 
shrimp to the pound, while the 
sidestripes ran 44 to 69 per 
pound. The coonstripes in those 
catches averaged 23 to 27 shrimp 
per pound. 



Nuka Bay Area : Fishing re- 
sults in Nuka Bay indicated the 
presence of a large shrimp pop- 
ulation which was widely distrib- 
uted throughout the bay. The best 
catches were made in East Arm 
at depths between 47 to 124 fath- 
oms. Five drags made in this area yielded from 240 to 330 pounds of shrimp each. 
Those catches consisted of 32 to 62 percent pinks, 33 to 62 percent sidestripes, and 
1 to 9 percent coonstripes. The size of pink shrimp taken in that area ranged from 
86 to 109 shrimp per pound, while sidestripes ranged from 41 to 58 to the pound. A 
snag was encountered in East Arm where the net was fished too close to the subma- 
rine moraine of McCarty Glacier. 




Fig. 8 - Ready to spill catch of shrimp onto sorting table aboard M/V 
John N. Cobb in Kodiak Island area. 



10 



COMMERCIAL, FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



In other portions of Nuka Bay, at depths between 69 and 158 fathoms, six drags 
resulted in 150 to 280 pounds of shrimp. Those catches consisted of 54 to 71 percent 
pinks ranging from 67 to 73 shrimp per pound, 25 to 45 percent sidestripes ranging 
from 27 to 40 shrimp per pound, and up to 12percent coonstripes whichran 16 to 21 
shrimp per pound (heads on). 

A single drag made southwest of Ragged Island yielded a catch of relatively 
large shrimp. In a total catch of 450 pounds, 39 percent of the catch comprised 86- 
count pinks, 55 percent was composed of 23-count sidestripes, and 6 percent was 
18-count coonstripes. 

FISHING RESULTS IN THE KODIAK ISLAND AND SHELIKOF STRAIT AREA: 
Explorations during the last half of the Central Alaskan cruise were conducted prin- 
cipally in Marmot Bay and Shelikof Strait. Excellent catches of shrimp were made 
in Marmot Bay, but catches in Shelikof Strait were generally poor. Some of the small 
bays and inlets along Kodiak Island and Shelikof Strait yielded good catches. 

Marmot Bay Area: Although the bottom in Marmot Bay was generally clear, 
irregular bottom, suitable for short drags only, was found in the gully on the north 

side of Spruce Island. Fif- 
teen drags in Marmot Bay 
yielded an average of 603 
pounds of shrimp each. 

In Inner Marmot Bay six 
drags at depths from 58 to 
109 fathoms resulted in 350 
to approximately 1 ,400 pounds 
of shrimp per drag. 6./ Those 
catches were composed of 
56 to 83 percent pinks rang- 
ing in size from 104 to 127 
shrimp per pound. Sidestripe 
shrimp, which comprised the 
balance of those catches, 
ranged from 34 to 51 shrimp 
to the pound. 

Three drags made off 
Izhut Bay in 93 to 111 fath- 
oms caught 730, 850, and 
1,300 pounds of shrimp each. 
Those c at che s were com- 
posed of 73, 69, and 92 per- 
cent pinks with average counts 
of 135 to 172 per pound. The 
balance of the catch was side- 
stripe shrimp averaging from 
41 to 5 1 individuals to the pound. 




Fig. 9 - 

during 



A catch consisting predominantly of fish, taken from Shelikaf Strait 

exploratory fishing. 



In Outer Marmot Bay six drags were made at depths between 69 and 110 fath- 
oms. Except for drag No. 103, which produced approximately 700 pounds of pink 
shrimp averaging 94 shrimp to the pound, catches ranged from 120 to 300 pounds 
per drag. Those catches were composed of 54 to 89 percent pinks which ran 59 to 
77 shrimp per pound. The remaining portions of the catches were 24- to 42-count 
sidestripes. 

Shelikof Strait : Pink and sidestripe shrimp were found distributed throughout 
Shelikof Strait, but in concentrations considerably less than found in adjacent bays. 

6/The size of liie largest catch had to be estimated and comits were unobtainable as the whole catch was lost when the 
cod end parted from the intermediate as the catch was being lifted over the stem rail. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



11 



The best catches were made on the bank between Shuyak Island and Cape Douglas in 
depths of 82 to 88 fathoms. Two drags in this area yielded 200 and 300 pounds of 
shrimp containing 7 2 and 90 percent pinks averaging 96 and 70 shrimp per pound, 
respectively. Sidestripe shrimp, which made up the balance of those catches, ran 
45 and 53 shrimp to the pound. A drag off Raspberry Island in 106 to 107 fathoms 
resulted in 250 pounds of which 63 percent was 44-count sidestripes and 37 percent 
was 81-count (heads-on) pinks. 

The remaining 33 drags made in Shelikof Strait at depths ranging between 68 and 
154 fathoms yielded up to 180 pounds of shrimp per drag. 

Miscellaneous Bays and Inshore Waters : Although fishing results were gener- 
ally good in each of the five smaller bodies of water fished in the Kodiak area, in- 
sufficient time was available to determine the full extent of trawlable grounds or the 
distribution of shrimp. Priority was given to exploring offshore waters during the 
the final phase of the cruise; consequently only eight drags were made in those pro- 
tected waters. 



The single drag made in Kukak Bay in 57 to 63 fathoms caught 950 pounds of 
shrimp; about half pinks and half sidestripes. The pinks averaged 117 shrimp to 
the pound, while the sidestripes averaged 32 shrimp per pound. 



Table 1 - Miscellaneoxu Fish--Percentage in Drags Catcliing 150 or More Pounds of Shrimp per Half Hour | 




Number of drags 

(those catching I50 

pounds or more shrijnp 

per hair Dour) 


Poimds ofheads-on 

shrimp per 

half -hour draq 


Hiticeiianeous fish 

(percentage of total 

catch weight) 


Predominant species of 
miscellaneous fish 


Range 


Avg. 


Range | Avg . 


COOK 

ISLET 

AND 

KENAI 

PENINSULA 

AREA 


Nuka P&8sa£e 
Kachemak Bay 
Tutka Bay 


3 
B 


390 - 775 
150 - 1,770 


612 
708 
810 


. . (Perce 

3 - 15 

2 - 22 


8 
9 


Alaska pollock 

halibut, herring, sculpin 

flathead end yellowfln "sole" 


Port Dick 1/ 
Nuka Bay 

off Cape Douglas 


7 

11 

2 


180 - 870 
150 - 330 
5U0 - 600 


513 
248 
570 


7 - 27 

8 - 37 
26 - 26 


U 
16 
?7 


Alaska pollock 

turbot^ 

Alaaka pollock, turbot 


off Ragged Island 
Cook Inlet 
off Gore Point 


1 






1*50 




39 


turbot 


KODIAK 

ISLAND 

AND 

SHELIKOF 

STRAIT 

AREA 


Alitak Bay 
Kukak Bay 
off Izhut Bay 


2 
1 

3 


500 - 900 
730 - 1,300 


700 
950 
960 


2 - I4 
13 - 2I< 


4 
13 
16 


sculpin 

turbot 

turbot 


inner Marvot Bay 
Ugonlk Bay 
outer Marmot Bay 


S/ 5 
2 

5 


350 - 1,100 
200 - 1,000 
150 - 700 


610 
600 
319 


k . 32 
25 - '•9 
28 - 63 


IV 
30 
U 


turbot 

Alaaka pollock, yellowfln "sole'" 

flsthead "sole", turbot 


Shelikof Strait 

Raspberry Strait 
Uyak Bay 


6 

1 
2 


160 - 300 


207 

650 
200 


29 - 73 
70 - 83 


55 

59 

78 


Pacific ocean perch, flathead "sole", 
Alaaka pollock, turbot 

sableflsh, flathead "aole", turbot 

flathead "sole", Alaska pollock, 
turbot 


jyincludes five 15-minute drags. Catch analysis adjusted to half -hour rate. 
2/Does not include Drag No. 98 as catch breakdown was not obtained. 
3/ Arrow -toothed flounder. 



One drag made in Uganik Bay (South Arm) in 35 to 41 fathoms caught 1,000 
pounds of shrimp. That catch was 87 percent pink and dock shrimp and 13 percent 
coonstripes. Counts for those species were 117, 129, and 81 heads-on individuals 
to the pound, respectively. The other drag in Uganik Bay was made in 88 to 94 fath- 
oms and caught 200 pounds of shrimp. 



12 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Two drags made in Uyak Bay each caught 200 pounds of shrimp of which more 
than half was sidestripes. 

Two drags in Alitak Bay caught 500 and 900 pounds of shrimp consisting of ap- 
proximately 80 percent pink and dock shrimp and 20 percent sidestripes and coon- 
stripes. Pinks ranged from 108 to 133 shrimp per pound; dock shrimp averaged 
115; sidestripes averaged 40; and coonstripes averaged 65 shrimp per pound. 

The single drag made in Raspberry Strait caught 650 pounds of 115-count pink 
shrimp, 

MISCELLANEOUS FISH CATCH : In catches containing 150 pounds of shrimp 



or more, the weight of incidentally-caught fish varied between 2 and 83 percent of 
the total catch (table 1). Areas producing the least amount of miscellaneous fish in- 
cluded: Alitak Bay, Kachemak Bay, Nuka Passage, and Tutka Bay. Areas producing 
a considerable anaount of miscellaneous fish included: Outer Marmot Bay, Raspber- 
ry Strait, Shelikof Strait, and Uyak Bay. The latter areas generally yielded medio- 
cre or poor catches of shrimp. 

The most commonly caught miscellaneous fish were Alaska pollock ( Theragra 
chalcogramma ) and turbot (arrow-toothed flounder, Atheresthes stomias). Flat- 
head "sole" ( Hippoglossoides elassodon ) were caught in considerable numbers in 
several areas. Other food fish noted in the catches included: halibut ( Hipploglos- 
sus stenolepsis) , herring ( Clupea pallasii) , Pacific ocean perch ( Sebastodes alutus ), 
sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria, and the yellowfin "sole" (Limanda aspera). 

King crab ( Paralithodes camtschatica) were caught in small numbers. Only 35 
of the 109 drags caught king crab and only 7 of those caught more than 5 crabs. 



MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS 

Weather and oceanographic observations were recorded at each fish position. 
Air ternperatures averaged about 51° F., surface water temperatures averaged a- 
bout 49 F., and bottom water temperatures averaged about 42.5° F. during the ex 
plorations in Central Alaska (table 2). 



7/ 



Table 2 - Summary of Temperature Observations Made During 
Shrimp Explorations in Central Alaska 



Air temperatures 

Surface temperatures .... 
Bottom temperatures .... 
Difference between surface 
and bottom temperatures 



Cook Inlet - Kenai 
Peninsula Area 



Range 



49' 

46 

41 



"^6 
-53.5 
-47 



1.0-12.5 



:^ 



51.7 
49.6 
43.4 

6.2 



Kodiak Island - Shelikof 
Strait Area 



Rgngi 



48 
45 
38 



_F. 
-56 
-51 
-44.5 



2.0-11.5 



:mmi 



IK 

51.1 
49.0 
41.9 

7.2 



Although rain occurred on approximately half the days spent in Central Alaska, 
and fog was occasionally encountered, at no time were fishing operations curtailed 
because of weather conditions. When wind and sea conditions made fishing in open 
waters undesirable explorations were carried out in sheltered areas. 

APPENDIX 



A detailed fishing log showing the fishing positions, time on bottom, catch par- 
ticulars, and other pertinent data for each drag is available as an appendix to the 

T/Supplemental oceanographic information is available at the Seattle office of the Branch of Exploratory Fishing and 
Ceai Research. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



13 



reprint of this article. Write for Separate 553, which contains Table 3 - Fishing 
Los- -Shrimp Trawl Drags Made in Lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak Island Area-- 
July 22 to August 26, 1958--U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Exploratory Fishing 
Vessel John N. Cobb. 



LITERATURE CITED 



ARON, WILLIAM 

1958. Preliminary Report of Midwater Trawling Stud- 
ies in the Norfli Pacific Ocean. Reference 
58-3, TechnicaJ Report, University of Wash- 
ington Department of Oceanography, Febru- 
ary, pp. 1-64. 

BOWER, WARD T. 

1917-1921. Alaska Fisheries and Fur Industries, 1916- 
1920 (5 publications). U. S. Bureau of Fish- 
eries. 

1922-1939. Alaska Fisheries and Fur-Seal Industries, 
1921-1938 (18 publications). U. S. Bureau 
of Fisheries. 

1940-1948. Alaska Fidieries and Fur-Seal Industries, 
1939-1946 (8 publications). U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service Statistical Digest. 

BULLIS, HARVEY R. , Jr. 

1951. Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Trawl Designs. U.S. 

Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery Leaflet 
394, September, pp. 1-16. 

ELLSON, J. G., and LIVINGSTONE, ROBERT, Jr. 

1952. The John N. Cobb's Shellfish Explorations in 

Certain Southeastern Alaskan Waters, Spring 
1951. Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 
14, no. 4 (AprU), pp. 1-20. (Also Separate 
No. 311.) 

GREENWOOD, MELVIN R. 

1958. Bottom Trawling Explorations off Southeastern 

Alaska, 1956-1957. Commercial Fisheries 
Review , vol. 20, no. 12 (December), pp. 
9-21. (Also Separate No. 532.) 

JOHNSON, HAROLD C. 

1959. King Crab, Shrimp, and Bottom Fish Explora- 

tions Conducted in Certain Watere from the 
Shumagin Islands to Unalaska, Alaska, by the 
M/V Tordenskiold --Summer and Fall, 1957. 
Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 21, no. 3 
(March), pp. 7-19. (Also Separate No. 543.) 



SCHAEFERS, EDWARD A. 

195 1 . The lohn N . Cobb's Shellfish Explorations in 
Certain Southeastern Alaskan Waters, Spring 
and Fall of 1950 (A Preliminary Report). 
Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 13, no. 4 
(AprU), pp. 9-19. (Also Separate No. 278.) 

1953. Shellfish Explorations in Certain Southeastern 
Alaskan Waters by the lohn N. Cobb, Spring 
of 1952. Commercial Fisheries Review, vol. 
15, no. 3 (March), pp. 1-18. (Also Separate 
No. 343.) 



1954. 



and SMITH, KEITH A. 

Shellfish Explorations in fee Yakutat Bay Area, 
Alaska, by the John N. Cobb . Spring 1953. 
Commercial Fisheries Review, vol. 16, no. 3 
(March), pp. 1-12. (Also Separate No. 368.) 

and GREENWOOD, M. R, 



1955. Bottom Fish and Shellfish Explorations in the 
Prince William Sound Area, Alaska, 1954. 
Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 17, no. 
4 (April), pp. 6-28. (Also Separate No. 398.) 

and JOHNSON, HAROLD C. 

1957. Shrimp Explorations off the Washington Coast, 
Fall of 1955 and Spring of 1956. Commer - 
cial Fisheries Review , vol. 19, no. 1 (Janu- 
ary), pp. 9-25. (Also Separate No. 465.) 

THOMPSON, SETONH. 

1950-1956. Alaska Fisheries and Fur-Seal Industries, 
1947-1954 (8 publications). U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service Statistical Digest. 

U. S. FISH and WILD LffE SERVICE 

1942. Report of the Alaska Crab Investigations. Fish - 
ery Market News , vol. 4, no. 5a (Supplement) 
(May), pp. 1-107. 

WIGUTOFF, NORMAN B. 

1953. Alaska's Shrimp Industry. Commercial Fisher- 
ies Review , vol 15, no. 3 (March), pp. 19- 
24. (Also Separate No. 344.) 



Note: The shrimp explorations in Central Alaskan Waters were planned and carried out m cooperation wi& the Alaska 
Region, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, and the Alaska Department of Fisheries. Members of the fishing industry were 
also consulted for views and ideas concerning the project. Representetives from aU three groups accompanied the JohnN. 
Cobb at various times during fishing activities. 





STERN RIG FOR TOWING TH£ TRAWL 



14 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 7 

CURRENT STATUS OF THE INTER -AMERICAN 
DEVELOPMENT BANK 

By Raymond E. Steele* 

When the proposed Inter-American Development Bank is approved by the members of 
the Organization of American States through their regular legislative processes, it will be 
simpler and easier for United States businessmen to invest in Latin American industries. 
Since many United States fisheries interests have invested or are contemplating investing 
or working with Latin American countries in developing the fisheries of diose countries, it 
would be to their advantage to study the purpose, responsibilities and functions of the In- 
ter-American Development Bank, and how it can aid them in financing Latin American 
fisheries activities. . . . Editor. 



The Inter-American Economic and Social Council on April 8 this year met in 
Washington and toasted the results of its fruitful work. The Specialized Committee 
of the Council termed it "Final Act." It set in motion the proposed "inter -American 
Development Bank." 

In the remarks of the Chairman of the Council at the April 8 meeting is this ex- 
pression: "In thus completing its appointed task, this Committee has set forth the 
instrument of organization of what will doubtless become the most important inter- 
American institution dedicated to the promotion of economic development in our 
countries." 

The Chairman meant "our countries" as being Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, 
Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, 
Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, 
and Venezuela. The "instrument ' is the charter of the Bank itself . Membership 
shall be comprised of the above countries. "The purpose of the Bank shall be to 
contribute to the acceleration of the process of economic development of the mem- 
ber countries, individually and collectively." (Article I). 

The functions of the Bank as set forth in Section 2, Article I, are as follows: 

"Section 2. Functions 

(a) To implement its purpose, the Bank shall have the following functions: 

(i) to promote the investment of public and private capital for develop- 
ment purposes; 

(ii) to utilize its own capital, funds raised by it in financial markets, and 
other available resources, for financing the development of the 
member countries, giving priority to those loans and guarantees 
that will contribute most effectively to their economic growth; 

(iii) to encourage private investment in projects, enterprises, and activ- 
ities contributing to the economic development and to supplement 
private investment when private capital is not available on reason- 
able terms and conditions; 

(iv) to cooperate with the member countries to orient their development 
policies toward a better utilization of their resources, in amanner 
consistent with the objectives of making their economies more comple- 
mentary and of fostering the orderly growth of their foreign trade; and 

(v) to provide technical assistance for the preparation, financing, and im- 
plementation of development plans and projects, including the study 
__^_ of priorities and the form ulation of specific project proposals. 

* Attorney, National Press Building, Washington, D. C. 



July 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 15 

(b) In carrying out its functions, the Bank shall cooperate as far as possible 
with national and international institutions and with private sources supplying in- 
vestment capital." 

The authorized capital, referred to as the Fund is one billion dollars. Of this 
sum $850,000,000 shall be divided into 85,000 shares having a par value of $10,000 
each, which is divided up as follows according to total subscriptions: Argentina - 
10,134; Bolivia - 828; Brazil - 10,314; Chile - 3,832; Colombia - 2,830; CostaRica - 
414; Cuba - 3,684; Dominican Republic - 552; Ecuador - 552; El Salvador - 414; 
Guatemala - 552; Haiti - 414; Honduras - 414; Mexico - 6,630; Nicaragua - 414; 
Panama - 414; Paraguay - 414; Peru - 1,382; United States -35,000; Uruguay- 1,106; 
Venezuela - 5,526. 

Further legislative action on the part of the above countries is necessary before 
the Bank can get in business. Article XV states: "This Agreement (Charter) shall 
be deposited with the General Secretariat of the Orgsinization of American States, 
where it shall remain open until December 31, 1959, for signature by the represent- 
atives of the Countries listed in Annex A (the 21 countries). Each signatory country 
shall deposit with the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States an 
instrument setting forth that it has accepted or ratified this Agreement in accordance 
with its own laws and has taken the steps necessary to enable it to fulfill all of its 
obligations under this Agreement." 

This means that the legislatures of the respective countries have until the last 
of this year to appropriate the necessary funds for the Bank and formally adopt the 
charter. Due to the popularity of the Bank proposal in the Latin American countries 
there is little likelihood that any of them will refuse to act before the December 31 
deadline. In the case of the United States, the proposal is reputed to be quite popu- 
lar with the Congress and the Administration as well. It is the type of foreign aid 
program that seems to have great appeal in this country. Though the United States 
is to supply most of the funds for the Bank, it places a responsibility on each mem- 
ber country that is not inherent in our present grant-in-aid program. 

There is, of course, great speculation as to when the Bank actually will be in 
business. The best guess is not before the end of the year. Besides the legislative 
action which must be taken by the member countries, the Bank will have to be set 
up under the "Organization and Management" provisions contained in Article VIII 
before it can function. Section one of this article states: "The Bank shall have a 
Board of Governors, a Board of Executive Directors; a President, an Executive Vice 
President, a Vice President in charge of the Fund, and such other officers and staff 
as may be considered necessary. 

One of the provisions of the charter that will have great appeal to American in- 
vestors is contained in Article XI, Section 4, " Immunity of Assets . Property and as- 
sets of the Bank, wheresoever located and by whomsoever held, shall be considered 
public international property and shall be immune from search, requisition, confis- 
cation, expropriation, or any other form of taking or foreclosure by executive or 
legislative action." 

The location of the Bank will be Washington, D. C. Arrangements are going on 
behind the scenes to house it at some desirable spot within the city. It will be some- 
time yet before the public is advised of the modus operandi the Bank will employ be- 
fore receiving applications for loans. Meanwhile the stage is being set for various 
projects to get under way once the Bank is in business. An economic conference 
gets under way in Buenos Aires on April 27 which is designed to further study the 
development needs of Latin American countries. The chairman of the Inter-Ameri- 
can Economic and Social Council had this to say: "We are certain that the Inter- 
American Development Bank will fulfill a truly important function in a moment of 
special significance to the economic evolution of the Hemisphere and we are also confi- 
dent that the scope and effect of this action will surpass our most optimistic expectations." 



16 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 




IN SERVICE LABORATORIES 

PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF 
GULF OF MEXICO INDUSTRIAL FISH 

Part 3 - Fall Studies (1958) 

By Mary H, Thompson* 

ABSTRACT 

The piotein, oil, ash, and moisture content of limited samples of 17 species of 
industrial fish commonly taken during the fall in the Gulf of Mexico area are report- 
ed. Included also are length and weight data for those same species. The method 
of sampling is evaluated. 



INTRODUCTION 



Studies staxted in the winter of 1958 on the proximate composition of Gulf of 
Mexico industrial fish have been continued to include the fall months. The project 

was undertaken to provide more com- 
plete information for use by industrial 
fisheries on the protein, oil, ash, and 
moisture content of 17 representative 
species of industrial fish found in the 
area. Length and weight data have also 
been obtained. 

Observations made during the fall 
months (September, October, and No- 
vember.) point to the necessity for tabu- 
lating the data seasonally, as moisture 
and oil content varies markedly in some 
species with meteorological conditions. 
The data should be gathered over a long 
period of time in order to show the true 
trends and variations. Since, however, 
there is an immediate need by industry 
for this information, an effort has been 
made to disseminate it as recorded. 

SAMPLES 

All samples for the fall series have 
been collected by laboratory personnel 
from boats landing in the Pascagoula 
area. These samples had been well iced 
for 2 to 3 days previous to collection and 
k/**i '^•^bT "M^'f^..^:^ -^M ^^'"'■X were in good to excellent condition upon 

^X •Me^^^*'*^^^^^m^ i-*^s>3!^^''>s.''"*'5i arrival at the laboratory. They were 

immediately frozen in plastic bags and 
stored at -20° F. until analyzed. 

* Chemist, Gulf and South Atlantic Technological Research, Division of Industrial Research and Services, U. S. Bureau 




Fig . 1 - Shrimp is a valuable byproduct of industrial fishing . 



of Commercial Fisheries, Pascagoula, Miss. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



17 



ORIGINAL SAMPLE 
OF FISH 



PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS 

The frozen fish were thawed, rinsed, and drained before physical measurements 
were made. The length measurements were of two types. Those species having a 
well-defined fork tail were meas- 
ured from the extreme tip of the 
mouth to the apex of the angle 
formed by the two sides of the 
tail. These are referred to in 
table 3 as "forktail" measure- 
ments. Those species having 
a more or less blunt tail were 
measured from the extreme end 
of the mouth to the farthest ex- 
tension of the tail. These are 
referred to in table 3 as "over- 
all" measurements. All length 
measurements are recorded in 
centimeters. 

Weight measurements have 
been recorded in grams and 
were obtained by means of a 
double-beam balance. These 
figures are also given in table 
3. 







r 




1 






1 










1 




lA 




IB 






1 










r 1 








lAl 1 


l-l 












1 










lAlA 




lAlB 





23 



2B1 



2B2 



2B2A 



2B2B 



Fig. 2 - Procedure used in method B for obtaining analytical samples. 
Subsamples IB, 2A, 1A2, and 2B1 are discarded. Subsamples lAlA, 
lAlB, 2B2A, and 2B2B are taken for analysis. 

With the smaller fish (scad and anchovies), a random sample of 20 fish was se- 
lected for length and weight measurements as being representative of the whole lot. 



Table 1 - Comparison of Sampling Methods A and B--SUver Perch | 


Sampling 
Method 


Sample 
Designation 


Number of 
Fish in 
Each Sample 


Lensth 


Weieht 


ComDosition of Sample 1 


Kange 


Average 


Range 


Average 


Protein 


ou 


Ash 


Moisture 








Cm. 


Cm. 


Grams 


Grams 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Method A 


1 


4 


16.3-17.5 


16.8 


43.5-61.3 


51.4 


15.9 


1.5 


3.15 


79.1 




2 


4 


15.5-18.4 


16.9 


49.9-62.6 


54.4 


16,9 


2.4 


5.07 


75.6 




3 


4 


15.9-17.8 


17.0 


40.0-61.4 


51.2 


16.4 


2.5 


4.74 


76.2 




4 


4 


14.8-17.1 


16.7 


32.3-50.1 


50.4 


16.5 


2.4 


4.97 


76.6 


Average or range 


16 


14.8-18.4 


16.9 


32.3-62.6 


51.9 


16.4 


2.2 


4. 48 


76.9 


Method B 


LA LA 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16.9 


2.8 


5.56 


75.4 




LA LB 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16.6 


2.7 


5.68 


74.9 




2B 2A 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


16.5 


2.8 


5.38 


75.5 




2B 2B 


_ 


_ 


. 


_ 


- 


16.3 


2.7 


5.98 


75.2 


Average or range 


15 


13.1-17.5 


15.8 


24.6-55.8 


40.0 


16.6 


2.8 


5.72 


75.3 



PROXIMATE COMPOSITION 



The methods of proximate analysis used were described in detail in Part 1 of 
this series (Thompson 1959). 

A study was made during the fall season in an effort to determine the best meth- 
ods of sampling and grinding the fish. The procedure in use affords a range of val- 
ues for each species, as the protein, oil, ash, and moisture content tends to vary 
within the species in any given season. It was necessary to determine whether this 



18 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



was a true range or merely represented variations in sampling techniques. Two 
series of tests were made: one on silver perch and one on white trout. In each 
series, two methods of preparation were used: Method A and Method B. 







Table 2 - Comparison of Sampling Methods A and B— WWte Trout 




1 


Sampling 
Method 


Sample 
Designation 


Number of 

Fish in 

Each Sample 


Length 


Weight 


Composition of Samole 


Range 


Average 


Range 


Averagel Protein 


ou 


Ash 


Moisture 








Cm. 


Cm. " 


Grams 


Grams 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


Percen'c 


Method A 


1 


2 


21.3-24.0 


22.7 


105.8-133.3 


119.6 


17.4 


7.4 


2.41 


72.9 




2 


2 


22.2-23.9 


23.1 


132.2-141.1 


136.7 


17.6 


7.3 


2.56 


72.3 




3 


2 


21.6-24.2 


22.9 


lis. 1-136. 6 


125.8 


17.6 


4.6 


2.86 


74.9 




4 


2 


19.9-21.4 


20.7 


90.6-104.7 


97.7 


.18.2 


5.5 


3.89 


72.2 


Average 


or range 


8 


19.9-24.2 


22.4 


90.6-141.1 


120.0 


17.7 


6.2 


2.93 


73.1 


Method B 


lA lA 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17.6 


6.1 


3.91 


73.1 




lA IB 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17.5 


6.0 


3.42 


72.7 




2B Zk 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17.6 


5.£ 


3.30 


73.0 




2B 2B 


- 


- 


_ 


. 


_ 


17.9 


5.1 


3.91 


72.9 


Average 


or range 


10 


20.3-23.7 


21.9 


93.2-124.7 


110.0 


17.7 


6.0 


3.64 


72.9 



In Method A, the following procedure was employed: 

1. Select at random a large lot of fish from an incoming fishing vessel. 

2. From the lot, take sufficient silver perch or white trout to make a sample 
with an aggregate weight of at least 150 to 200 grams. 



Table 3 - LxDcation of Catch and Physical Measurements of Indu 


strial Fish Commonly Obtained 


in the PaU 




Name 


Date 
1958 


Location 


Total 
Number 

of Fish 
Analyzed 


Type 
of 
Measure- 
ment 


Len 


^th 


Wei 


isht 


Common 


Scientific 


Range 


Average 


Range 


|tm 

Average 


Anchovies. . . . 

Bumper 

Butterflsh. . . . 

Croaker 

Croaker, banded 

Grunt 

Hardheads. . . . 
Harvesttlshi' . 
Menhnden . . . 
Razorbellies . . 
Round herring . 
Scad 

SUver eels . . . 

(CuUassfish) 
SUver perch 

Method A . . 
SUver perch 

Method B . . 
Spots 

Threadfln-' . . 
White trout. 

Method A . . 
White trout. 

Method B . . 


^xchoa hepsetus 


Oct. 

Sept. 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

Nov. 

Oct. 

Oct. 


Horn Is. 

Gulf Shores 

Gtilf Shores 

Gulf Shores 

East Gulf 

Gulf Shores 

East Gulf 

Gulf Shores 

Pascagoula 

River 
Gtilf Shores 

East Gulf 

Horn Is. 

Gulf Shores 

Horn Is. 

Horn Is . 

Gulf Shores 

Sand Is. 

Horn Is. 

Horn Is. 


40 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

11 

7 

8 

20 

11 

24 

4 

16 

15 

12 

16 

8 

10 


ForktaU 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
Over-aU 
Over-all 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
Over-aU 
Over-aU 
Over-all 
ForktaU 
ForktaU 
Over-all 
Over-aU 


Cm. 
10.4-12.7 

16.6-29.9 

8.1-16.0 

19.3-21.4 

18.5-20.5 

13.0-19.0 

14.3-21.8 

14.2-15.7 

13.0-18.0 

11.8-14.4 

15.1-21.0 

10.9-14.4 

65.0-72.1 

14.8-18.4 

13.1-17.5 

14.6-16.2 

12.9-16.5 

19.9-24.2 

20.3-23.7 


Cm. 
11.5 

19.2 

13.0 

20.7 

19.5 

16.0 

17.4 

15.3 

16.3 

13.0 

18.4 

11.8 

67.4 

16.9 

15.8 

15.4 

14.6 

22.4 

21.9 


Graxs 
10.6-20.4 

65.6-97.2 

16.8-135.6 

73.5-110.2 

83.9-124.5 

31.3-121.7 

40.2-145.7 

57.7-84.2 

42.4-122.5 

27.8-51.0 

42.2-106.9 

15.1-30.0 

147.1-211.5 

32.3-52.6 

24.6-55.8 

44.6-62.8 

29.7-73.1 

90.5-141.1 

93.2-124.7 


Grams 
13.7 

80.3 

76.4 

94.7 

103.1 
67.1 
69.4 
68.8 
94.8 
58.6 
75.3 
19.6 

179.5 
51.9 
40.0 
55.1 
47.7 

120.0 

110.0 


Chloroscombrus chrysurus 


Poronotus triacanthus 


Micropogon undulatus 


Larimus fasciatus 


Haemulon sp. 


Galeichthys felis 


Peprilis alepidotus 


Brevoortia patronus 


Harengula pensacolae 


Btrumeus teres 


Trachurus lathami 


Trichiurus lepturus 


Bairdella chrysura 


Bairdella chrysura 


Leiostomus xanthurus 


Polydactylus octonemus 


Cynoscion sp. 


Cyiioscion sp. 




lyFigurej are from 3 lamplei, instead of the usual 4. 
Z/Flguies are fiom 5 tajnplei, instead of tlie usual 4. 
Notei Data on tlie ciDximate analvils of these fiA aie fouiid 


in table 4 . 















July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



19 



3. Pass the sample through a food grinder (such as a General Food Grinder, 
Model H) three times. 

4. Take a portion of the ground material for an analytical sample. 

5. Repeat steps 2, 3, and 4, so as to form three additional ajialytical samples. 

Thus, in Method A, four analytical samples result from four separate samples 
of fish. 

In Method B, the entire lot is ground, divided in half, each portion reground, 
and half of the latter portions discarded. Each of the resultant samples is in turn 
reground, half of each discarded, and the remaining halves divided into two samples 
for analysis, as indicated in figure 2. Thus, in Method B, four analytical samples 
also result. 



Table 4 - Proximate Composition of Limited Samplesi.' of Industrial Fish Commonly 


Obtained In the Fall 




Common Name 


Total 

Number 

of Fish 

Analyzed 


Protein 


ou 


Ash 


Moisture 


Range 


Average 


Range 


Average 


Range 


Average 


Range 


Average 




40 
8 


Percent 
16.1-16.4 

18.1-19.2 


Percent 
16.2 

18.6 


Percent 
2.7-3.8 

4.7-5.4 


Percent 
3.1 

5.1 


Percent 
3.53-3.91 

3.11-5.13 


Percent 
3.69 

3.91 


Percent 
76.6-78.2 

70.2-73.4 


Percent 


77.2 

72.2 


Bumper 


Butterflsh 


8 


16.1-16.9 


16.6 


1.5-3.1 


2.6 


1.92-2.85 


2.37 


76.9-80.6 


78.5 


Croaker. . . 


8 


16.0-17.1 


16.5 


2.9-4.2 


3.6 


2.73-5.29 


3.96 


74.3-76.9 


76.0 


Croaker, banded 


b 


17.5-18.1 


17.8 


1.5-2.8 


2.3 


3.08-4.54 


4.03 


74.2-76.9 


75.6 


Grunt 


8 


16.0-17.1 


16.6 


7.1-11.8 


9.9 


2.99-4.48 


3.71 


68.1-72.5 


70.2 


Hardheads 


11 


15.4-16.0 


15.7 


7.9-9.7 


8.8 


4.23-6.31 


5.34 


69.1-70.8 


69.8 


Harvestflahl/ 


7 


18.0-18.5 


18.3 


2.9-4.7 


3.6 


2.02-2.94 


2.60 


74.1-75.9 


75.1 


Menhaden 


8 
20 


14.7-14.9 
18.1-18.8 


14.8 
18.5 


15.1-16.8 
6.2-7.3 


16.0 
6.7 


2.79-3.90 
4.80-6.92 


3.38 
5.82 


63.9-66.7 
68.5-70.2 


65.4 
69.0 


Razorbellie» 


Round herring 


11 


18.3-19.0 


18.7 


1.1-4.7 


3.0 


3.47-3.82 


3.72 


73.7-77.1 


75.3 


Scad 


2-1 

1 


16.9-17.5 
17.5-18.0 


17.3 
17.8 


2.0-2.5 
1.9-3.3 


2.2 

2.7 


3.03-4.28 
3.09-4.04 


3.55 
3.51 


76.5-77.6 
75.5-77.8 


76.9 
76.4 


Sliver eels, (Cutiasaiish) 


SUver perch. Method A . 


16 


15.9-16.9 


16.4 


1.5-2.5 


2.2 


3.15-5.07 


4.48 


75.6-79.1 


76.9 


SUver perch. Method B . 


15 


16.3-16.9 


16.6 


2.7-2.8 


2.8 


5.56-6.38 


5.72 


74.9-75.5 


75.3 


Spots 


12 


16.7-17.1 


16.9 


2.4-4.1 


3.5 


3.34-4.31 


4.00 


75.7-77.3 


76.7 


Threadllnl' 


16 


17.3-18.3 


17.8 


5.1-8.5 


6.8 


3.44-4.12 


3.73 


69.9-72.9 


71.7 


White trout, Method A . . 


8 


17.4-18.2 


17.7 


4.6-7.4 


6.2 


2.41-3.69 


2.93 


72.2-74.9 


73.1 


White trout. Method B . . 


10 


17.5-17.9 


17.7 


5.9-6.1 


6.0 


3.30-3.91 


3.64 


72.7-73.1 


72.9 


_t/71u iiTTirllng wu <kma by method A, u d«icrlb«d aada 
trip by oa» veacl. 

J^lgurcs uc from 5 nmplea, bntejul oi du i^Hl 4. 
Notu Data od du pfayslcja measurement of Aam fllh an 


"PfOThnire Ca 
tend la TaUe 


npodtloa. " 
3. 


F(v e«£hfpccl«s, 


Ihc data an n 


[vcaentatlvc only 


oflkafiAafl 


iMttpmcim laula 


dan ana 



Method A produces four different samples and therefore gives a range of values. 
Method B produces four samples, all of which should give the same values for a 
check of the grinding and sampling techniques and, in addition, produces two pairs 
of samples that should give the same values for a check of the analytical procedure. 

Since both original samples for Methods A and B came from the same lot of 
fish, the mean values for both methods should agree. It was found that the mean of 
Method A in all cases fell within 3 standard deviations from the mean of Method B. 
Inasmuch as there is the possibility of variation in size and maturity of the fish at 
any one time, as well as other factors which seem to influence the proximate com- 



20 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



position, it was felt that in many instances a range as well as a mean would be de- 
sirable. Thus the method giving the range of values (Method A) was chosen in pref- 
erence to that giving one value for each lot. Tables 1 and 2 show the results of the 
comparison between these two methods using both silver perch and white trout. 



Table 5 - Seasonal Changes in Oil and Moisture 
Contents — Summer to Fall 


Common Name 


Change in 

Oil Content 

Summer to 

Fall 


Change in 

Moisture 

Content 

Summer to 

Fall 


Anchovies 


(Perc 

+0.5 
-0.9 
-3.6 
0.0 
+2.1 
-3.9 
-1.8 
+1.7 
+0.1 
-9.4 
+5.0 
+ 1.2 


:ent) 

-0.1 
+0.9 
+2.5 
0.0 
-1.2 
+2.1 
+2.1 
-2.8 
-1.5 
+8.6 
-4.9 
-1.2 


Bumper 


Butterfish 

Croaker . . 


Hardheads 


Harvestfish 

Menhaden 

Razorbellies 

Silver eels (Cutlassfish) . 

Spots 

Threadfin 

White trout 


Note: These estimations aie based on only a few samples. Although the esti- 
mates represent the best presently available knowledge, further studies may 
change them. 



Results of the present 
analysis are given in tables 
3 and 4. In these tables, 
the total number of fish 
used may be divided by 
four to provide the approx- 
imate size of each sub- 
sample. 

Table 5 indicates the 
seasonal changes in oil and 
moisture content of several 
species. Changes in pro- 
tein and ash content are 
small; generally, the ranges 
overlap from one season to 
the next. These changes 
therefore are not presented. 

For evaluation of trends, 
it is advisable to have a 
large number of samples 
over aperiod of years 
(Stansby 1954). According- 
ly, the data accumulated are being presented without discussion in an effort to bring 
this information before the industry as soon as possible. Parts 1 and 2 of this series 
(Thompson 1959) together with the present part 3, provide proximate analysis infor- 
mation for some species on a four-seasonbasis,yet the entirepicture of fluctuations 
is not definitive. It will be necessary to obtain more samples to attain any degree 
of completeness. 



LITERATURE CITED 



STANSBY, M. E. 

1954. Composition of Certain Species of Fresh Water 
Fish. I. Introduction: The determination of 
the Variation of Composition of Fish. Food 
Research, vol. 19, no. 2 (March -April), pp. 
231-234. 

THOMPSON, MARYH. 

1959. Proximate Composition of Gulf of Mexico In- 
dustrial Fish. Part 1 - Winter and Spring of 




1958 Studies. Commercial Fisheries Re - 
view, vol. 21, no 2a (Supplement), February, 
pp. 17-20. 

Proximate Composition of Gulf of Mexico In- 
dustrial Fish. Part 2 - Summer of 1958 
Studies. Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 
21, no. 2a (Supplement), February, pp. 
21-23. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



21 



TECHNICAL NOTE NO. 54 - DICARBONYL COMPOUNDS 
AS COMPONENTS OF FISH ODOR 

ABSTRACT 

The presence of dicarbonyl and A-hydroxy carbonyl compounds of four carbon 
atoms or less, are indicated in 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives of mixed car- 
bonyl compounds prepared from fresh and from frozen haddock. These compounds may 
be important odor and flavor components and possibly could be used as the basis for ob- 
jective quality tests for fishery products. 

INTRODUCTION 

It has long been known that dicarbonyl compounds are important contributors to 
the flavor and odor of foodstuffs. Previous investigators have reported that diace- 
tyl is partially responsi- 
ble for the flavor and 
odor of butter and bread 
(Van Niel, Kluyver, and 
Dirx 1929; Hooft, Visser, 
and DeLeeuw 1935). Kee- 
ney (1957) reported the 
isolation of unknown ek, 
B-dicarbonyl compounds 
from heated milk; and 
Underwood, Lerito, and 
Willets (1956) reported 
the isolation of a number 
of «Jx-dicarbonyl com- 
pounds from maple syrup, 
Lundberg (1957) and 
Privett, Chipault, Sch- 
lenk, and Lundberg (1958) 
reported that the odor 
and flavor components of 
oxidized fish oils con- 
sist largely of unsaturated _ . , , „ , ,.„ 

carbonyl and dicarbonyl ^'9- ' " ^^ P«P"ation of derivatives f«>m frozen haddock fUlets. 

compounds. Sinnhuber and Yu (1958) have suggested that malonaldehyde is the car- 
bonyl compound active in the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test for oxidative rancidity 
in fishery products. They refer to the work of Patton and Kurtz (1951) who con- 
cluded that malonaldehyde was the compound responsible for the red color develop- 
ed with TBA reagent in oxidized milk fat. 

The preparation of derivatives of dicarbonyl compounds from the neutral vola- 
tile distillate of haddock fillets are reported in this note. 

PROCEDURE 

The samples used in these experiments were skinless haddock fillets obtained 
either from fish that had been out of the water less than 24 hours or from fish that 
had been frozen and stored for 3 months at 14 F.(-10° C.) and then thawed in air 
at room temperature for 8 hours. The neutral volatile distillate, which exhibited a 
characteristic fish odor, was obtained by distilling a 1,500-gram sample of finely 
chopped fillet at room temperature under a vacuum of less than 1 micron (mer- 
cury) pressure. The volatile distillate was collected by condensation in a receiver 
immersed in liquid nitrogen. 

The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives of the carbonyl compounds present 
in the distillate were prepared by the method of Neuberg, Grauer, and Pisha (1952). 




22 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Fifty milliliters of a 60-percent perchloric acid solution containing 1.2 grams of 
2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine were added to 50 milliliters of the neutral volatile dis- 
tillate. This reaction mixture was allowed to stand at room temperature for 24 
hours. The resulting precipitate was centrifuged, washed with 30-percent perch- 
loric acid and distilled water, and then oven dried at 122 F. (fig. 1). 

RESULTS 

The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives were obtained from samples of 
both fresh and frozen haddock fillets. Although exact quantitative data were not ob- 
tained, the yield of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives from the frozen samples 
was considerably greater than the yield from the fresh samples. A melting point 
determination gave little information except to indicate that the precipitate was not 
a pure compound. The melting point was indefinite, and decomposition of the de- 
rivative occurred. The derivatives were insoluble in ethanol and methanol, partial- 
ly soluble in benzene and dioxane, but soluble in sodium ethylate. In sodium ethy- 
late the derivatives formed a deep violet color, which is characteristic of dicar- 
bonyl and o»> -hydroxy compounds (Neuberg and Strauss 1945). Infrared spectra in- 
dicated that the compounds were probably aliphatic in nature and that the greater 
percentage of the compounds contained four or less carbon atoms. 

Dicarbonyl or ci,-hydroxy carbonyl compounds may prove to be important com- 
ponents of the odors of other fishery products such as fish oil and fish meal. It is 
also suggested that the production of the violet color by the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydra- 
zine derivatives in sodium ethylate may serve as the basis for an objective quality 
test for fishery products. 

SUMMARY 

A neutral volatile distillate from fresh and frozen stored skinless haddock fil- 
lets was condensed at liquid nitrogen temperature by distillation at room tempera- 
ture. A 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution was added to the distillate, and a pre- 
cipitate was allowed to form for 24 hours at room temperature. The precipitate 
was then centrifuged, washed with 30-percent perchloric acid and distilled water, 
and then dried. No quantitative data were obtained on the amount of derivative 
formed; however, the frozen fish yielded a greater amount of derivative than did the 
fresh fish. The melting range of the derivative was large (indicating a mixture, not 
a pure compound) and decomposition occurred. 

Color reaction in sodium ethylate, solubility data, and infrared spectra indi- 
cated that the derivatives had been formed from dicarbonyl and «». -hydroxy carbon 
compounds of four or less carbon atoms. The carbonyl compounds may prove to be 
important components of the flavors and odors in fishery products, and a test for 
these compounds may serve as objective quality indexes in fishery products. 

— By George F. Mangan, Jr., Formerly Chemist, 
Fishery Technological Laboratory, 
U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 
East Boston, Mass. 



LITERATURE CITED 



HOOFT, F; VISSER, T.j and DELEEUW, F. ]. G. 

1935. The Occurrence of Acetylmethylcarbinol in 

Bread and Its Relation to Bread Flavor, Cereal 
Chemistry , vol. 12, no. 3 (May), pp. 213- 
229. 

KEENEY, M. 

1957. Regeneration of Carbonyls from 2,4-dinitTO- 
phenylhydrazones with Levulinic Acid, An - 



alytical Chemistry , vol. 29, no. 10 (Octo- 
ber), pp. 1489-1491. 

LUNDBERG, W. O. 

1957. Fish Oil Research at the Hormel Institute, 

Commercial Fisheries Review Supplement, 
vol. 19, no. 4A (April), pp. 5-8. 

NEUBERG, C; GRAUER, A.; and PISHA, B. V. 

1952. The Precipitation of Carbonyl Compounds with 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



23 



2,4-dinitTophenvldrazine. Analytica Chimica 
Acta, vol. 7, no. 1 (June), pp. 238-242. 

, and STRAUSS, E. 

1945. Miciode termination of Dicaibonyl Compounds. 
On the Coloring of Nitro Compounds in Alka- 
line Solutions, Archives of Biochemistry and 
Bio -Physics, vol. 7, pp. 211-230. 

PATTON, S., and KURTZ, G. W. 

1951. 2-Thiobarbituric Acid as a Reagent for De- 
tecting Milk Fat Oxidation, loumal of Dairy 
Science, vol. 34, no. 7 (July), pp. 669-674). 

PRTVETT, O. S.; CHIPAULT, J. R.; SCHLENK, H.; and 
LUNDBERG, W. O. 

1958. Chemical and Nutritional Studies on Fish Oils. 
Commercial Fisheries Review Supplement, 
vol. 20, no. IIA (November), pp. 18-23. 



SINNHUBER, R. O., and YU, T. C. 

1958. 2-Thiobarbituric Acid Method for the Measiue- 
ment of Rancidity in Fishery Products. II. The 
Determination of Malonaldahyde, Food Tech - 
nology, vol. 12, no. 1 (January), pp. 9-12. 

UNDERWOOD, J. C; LERITO, H. G.; and WILUTS, 
C. O. 

1956. Triose Compounds in Maple Syrup, Food Re - 
search , vol. 21, no. 5 (October), pp. 589- 
597. 

VANNIEL, C. B.; KLUYVER, A. J.; and DIRX, H. G. 
1929. Uber das Butteraroma, Biochemische Zeit - 
schrift, vol. 210, May, pp. 234-251. 



SALMON SALAD 

The new season's stock of canned salmon becomes available to the consum- 
er towards the latter part of August. There are five separate and distinct species 
of salmon that comprise the bulk of the salmon canned in the United States. They 

are the king, sockeye, silver, 
pink, and chum. These are all 
found in the waters of the Pa- 
cific extending from Alaska to 
California. 

Almost everyone enj o y s 
the characteristic rich flavor 
of salmon. The meat is fine 
in texture, yet firm and moist. 
The protein content is sub- 
stantial in quantity and excel- 
lent in quality. Salmon con- 
tains the important mineral 
elements calcium, phospho- 
rous, and iodine; and has 
generous quantities ofvita- 
m i n s A and D, thiamine, and 
riboflavin. 

Each of these species of 
salmon is equally nutritious, 
the difference being in the color and oil content of the meat and these differences 
accoimt largely for the range in price. Thus the budgetwise homemaker is en- 
abled to buy according to her specific needs. 




Salad. 



The home economists of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service suggest "Salmon 



SALMON SALAD 

Ij CAN (16 ounces) salmon 
J CUP MAYONNAISE OR SALAD DRESSING 

1 CUP CHOPPED CELERY 

2 TABLESPOONS CHOPPED SWEET PICKLE 



2 TABLESPOONS CHOPPED ONION 

2 HARD-COOKED EGGS, CHOPPED 

LETTUCE 

1 HARD-COOKED EGG, SLICED 



Drain salmon. Br eak into large pie c e. Combine all ingredients except 
lettuce and egg. Serve on lettuce; garnish with egg slices. Serves 6. 



24 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 




TRENDS 

AND 



DEVELOPMENTS 




Alaska 



FISH AND GAME BOARD SETS POLICY : The 

newly-created Alaska Board of Fish and Game has 
endorsed the Governor's policy decisions relating 
to the fisheries resources of Alaska, made prior to 
the creation of that Board, the Board Chairman an- 
nounced May 7, 1959, 

"The Board is pleased with the stand taken by 
the Governor on fish and game policy, made by him 
during the interim period prior to the convening of 
this Board. We are in complete harmony with the 
previous action," the Chairman said. 

The Chairman and the Board also indicated ap- 
proval of the selection of Clarence L. Anderson to 
head the new departm.ent. He was selected from a 
list of seven candidates submitted to Governor 
Egan by the Board. 



We believe that the first state legislature in 
the enactment of legislation covering the Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game (Chapter 94, SLA 1959) has 
created a workable and commendable act. We are 
in complete harmony and intend to assume the re- 
sponsibility placed upon the Board by the fish and 
game legislation," the Chairman continued. 

The Board, which convened May 5, has already 
adopted bylaws governing the meetings of the Board, 
elected a chairman, made recommendations for a 
Commissioner to head the department, and met the 
special legal counsel to the Governor on fisheries. 
Governor Egan and his counsel outlined the policies 
adopted by the Governor previous to the activation 
of the Board, and fisheries counsel briefed the 
Board on litigation now in progress over fish traps. 



:^ sic >J: :^ sj; 



FISH AND GAME BOARD PREPARES FOR STATE CON - 
TROL: The Alaska Board of Fish and Game adjourned on May 
11, 1959, after providing for immediate assumption of State 
fish and game control, should Federal authority be success- 
fully challenged in the courts. 

The Board laid the groundwork for State control by de- 
claring that an emergency now exists with regard to the 
question of jurisdiction over fish and game in Alaska. The 
Board also declared the constitutionality of the Westland 
amendment to the statehood act is seriously questioned, 
with the public well aware of it and that, further, this con- 
stitutional question raises doubt as to the legality of Fed- 
eral control of Alaska fish and game. 

In a series of resolutions the Board further declared that 
should Federal control be successfully challenged, a possi- 
ble enforcement hiatus could encourage violations of the 
existing laws and regulations. 

For the foregoing reasons the Board found it necessary 
to prepare to assume, at a moment's notice, state control 
of fish and game. 



Therefore the Board prepared, by resolution, to confirm 
at a moment's notice a full complement of rules and regu- 
lations to govern the fishing industry of Alaska by the state 
aeencv. 



. . u piepaieu, uy reeuiuiion, lo coniir 

at a moment's notice a full complement of rules and regu 
o govern the fi'^*"'-™ '"'^"''*— - "* ai^«i — k„ 4.1 — i-,*-*, 
agency. 

In conformity with Article 4 of the Administrative Pro- 
cedures Act of 1959, the Board having found that an emer- 
gency exists, as above outlined, it ordered the commercial 
fishery regulations of May 8, 1959, and the sport fish and 
game regulations of May 8, 1959, under study by the Board 
since it first met, to be properly identified. The rough 
draft material accordingly was ordered placed in special 
folders and signed by the Board and Commissioner as to 
identity. 

The Commissioner was instructed to prepare from the 
rough drafts a set of clear copies of the regulations to be 
sent to all members of the Board as soon as possible. 



The Commissioner, in event of emergency, has been 
directed to poll the Board by telegram, telephone, or the 
quickest means of communication possible, on the follow- 
ing: 

a. Do the facts as outlined constitute an emergency. 

b. Does an emergency now exist? 

c. Do you now wish to adopt the regulations of May 8, 
1959? 

The Board will answer by return mail. 

The proposed regulations largely conform to existing 
Federal regulations, except where the State Constitution 
or legislative acts dictate otherwise. 

By this means, the Board feels the general public will 
be appraised of the fact that State jurisdiction will im- 
mediately be assumed should Federal control be success- 
fully challenged, with State rules and regulations largely 
conforming to the Federal acts now governing. Therefore, 
the possibility of profit by gambling on the question of lack 
of Federal jurisdiction will be eliminated, the Board feels. 

The Board also reconstituted the old local advisory com- 
mittees which existed under Territorial status, with the pro- 
viso that additional committees be appointed to represent 
areas now without such bodies. Fourteen committees existed 
under the old department. 

"In the past these advisory committees have done a mar- 
velous job of keeping a finger on the pulse of public opinion 
and generally providing a necessary liaison between the 
governing bodies and the general public," the Chairman of 
the Board said. 

Guide regulations to be promulgated by the Department 
were discussed but final action deferred until the October 
meeting of the Board in order that public opinion could be 
heard on the matter. 

"The Board welcomes any suggestions interested parties 
may have on these regulations. Preferably such suggestions 
should be in writing, in order that full and careful study can 
be made by all members of the Board," said the Chairman. 

A A A A A A 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



25 



California 



CRAB AND SHRIMP STUDIED OFF CENTRAL 
CALIFORNjUTCOAST (M/V N. B. Scofleld Cruise 
59-S-2): The Central California coastal waters 
from the vicinity of Salt Point, Sonoma County, 
south to Pescadero Point, San Mateo County were 
surveyed (March 8-April 1, 1959) by the California 
Department of Fish and Game research vessel 
N. B. Scofleld . The purpose was to conduct crab- 
trap savings-gear tests by comparing the catches 
of traps equipped with one 4-inch, two 4-inch, two 
4i-inch, and two 4i-inch circular escape ports. 
These tests were cfesigned to determine the opti- 
mum size and arrangement of escape ports for 
maximum retention of legal males and maximum 
escapement of sublegal male and female crabs. 
Other objectives were: (1) to investigate the dis- 
tribution and relative abundance of juvenile crabs; 
and (2) to investigate the distribution, size, and 
sex of shrimp in the Bodega Bay area through ex- 
ploratory beam trawling. 

Crab Escape - Port Tests: Comparison fishing 
trials were conducted in commercially -productive 
crab areas, using equal numbers of traps equipped 
with the four different escape-port arrangements. 
A total of 224 individual trap sets was made at 4 
locations. 

Distribution and Relative Abundance of Juveni le 
Crabs : Dungeness crabs were taken in 20 of 61 
tows using a 10-foot beam trawl with 1 - to Ij-inch 
mesh nets. Trawling with commercial size otter- 
trawl gear with a 4i-inch mesh net and a 2-inch 
mesh cod end resulted in crab catches at 13 of 16 
locations. Catches of juveniles were low for both 
types of gear and areas of abundance were not lo- 
cated with trawl methods. 



Catches of sublegal male crabs at the trap sites 
were uniformly low with the exception of the 
station southeast of Pt. Reyes. The catch of sub- 
legals was 7.3 per trap at this station. The 
average catch of sublegal males was 2.4 per trap 
for all trap sites. 

Shrimp : A total of 45 tows were made both on 
and off the known shrimp beds in an effort to locate 
shrimp concentrations. These shrimp drags were 
in the area from Salt Point to Point Reyes. Drags 
ranged in depth from 20 to 198 fathoms, with the 
majority in normed. shrimp producing depths of 30 
to 70 fathoms. No concentrations of shrimp were 
located although small quantities were taken in 28 
of the 55 drags. 

The lack of shrimp concentrations in this area 
at this time of year is not unique. A similar con- 
dition was noted in February and March 1957. How- 
ever, the 1957 season was successful, indicating 
that though there is a lack of shrimp in the area 
early in the year, concentrations can appear later. 

Carapace measurements were made and stages 
of sexual development were observed--51 percent 
of the shrimp were males, 41 percent were females, 
cind 8 percent were transitional between males and 
females; 29 percent of the females were carrying 
eggs. 

Measurements indicated an average size of 18.8 
mm. for males, with modes at 13 and 19 mm. The 
average size of transltionals was 20.0 mm. and the 
average size of the females was 21.2 mm. 



5j: sjc j[c 5;: ajc 



PELAGIC FISH AND BARRACUDA STUDIED 
OFF BAJA CALIFORNIA COAST (M/V ~Alaska 
Cruise 59-A-2): The coastal waters off central 
Baja California, Mexico, from Ballenas Bay north- 
ward to San Quentln Bay were surveyed (Febru- 
ary 27-March 18, 1959) by the California Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game research vessel Alaska 
to sample the spring spawning population of sar- 
dines. Other objectives were: (1) to sample young 
sardines from the August-September spawning pe- 
riod off central Baja California; (2) to collect live 
sardines for genetic studies conducted by the U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, La Jolla; (3) to sample 
sardine. Pacific mackerel, jack mackerel, and an- 
chovies for determining their distribution and rel- 
ative abundance; (4) to troll for surface feeding 
species of fish; and (5) to develop barracuda tag- 
ging techniques prior to the 1959 sportfishing sea- 
son by catching and tagging whenever possible and 
observing mortality and tag retention in the live- 
bait wells. 

Seventy-six night-light stations were occupied. 
At each station fish were attracted by three 750- 
watt and one 1,500-watt night lights. The lights 
were placed on both sides of the vessel. After £in 
hour of illumination the 750-watt lights were ex- 
tinguished the 1,500-watt light was dimmed, and 
the Bevlngton blanket net was set. At times, snag 



gangs and lures were used to catch fish, particu- 
larly when they were wild and tended to avoid the 
net. 

Sardines were sampled at 10 stations, northern 
anchovies at 10, Pacific mackerel at 6, and 
jack mackerel at 5. A total of 487 miles was scout- 
ed at night between stations, and 22 sardine, 61 an- 
chovy, 2 Pacific mackerel, and 25 unidentified 
schools were observed. 




Fig. 1 -CallfDmli DepuCment of Fidi Game '■ reteaich veawl M/V 

Alaska. 



26 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Sardines were sampled and observed most fre- 
quently in the Sebastian Vizcaino Bay area between 
Pt. San Eugenio and Santa Rosalia Bay. Some large 
schools (up to 90 tons) were seen in tills area. A 
large concentration of anchovy schools was pres- 
ent along the east side of Cedros Island. 

Sairdines were difficult to sample because of 
their erratic behavior beneath the light. Only two 



y 


^ 


END \ 




S"M"«nb> Asan Quintin 


\ 


't\ 


1 


TRTf 


V in° 


'?lpt. Baja 




i \ 


^ 


Sacramento RF.V 

'■- .\^Bluff P 


X^ 


v^T^ 


\...^^^lanca Bay * 




VVPlava Maria V/N 
DjX Bay . U 




% ^*VSanta Rosalia \ 


San BenltD Is. A W 


/ ) 


Cedios Is V X-.: 


4 Ij 


Natividad Is'!^. 

■■c 


V<- «^ pt Malarnmo 


Legend: 




Each mark represents one lample. 

• - Sardines. 




j^ - Anchovy. 




■5*\ 


^ ~ Pacific mackerel. 




'■ \^ San Roque Bay 


Q- Jack mackerel. 




'■■■-.•■'■ ')^— .^an Hipolito 


1 - Barracuda. 




S\ ^'^^ J} 


»..-. - Vessel track. 


1 


5 START 1 










-I II - \ 



Fig. 2 - M/V Alaska Cruise 59-A-2 (February 27 -March 18, 
1959). 



blainket net sets produced 50 or more fish. Many 
schools remained deep with a few individuals dart- 
ing to the surface. Schools of this type sounded 
immediately, when the blanket net touched the 
water. 

Almost all sardines examined had enlarged 
gonads indicating close proximity to spawning. 
Lengths of sardines ranged from 120 mm. to 204 
mm. with modes at approximately 135 mm. and 
165 mm. Larval and post-larval fish were taken 
at two stations near Cedros Island. 

Sea surface temperatures ranged from 14.1 C. 
(57.4° F.) off Pt. Canoas to 18.4° C. (65.1° F.) in 
Ballenas Bay. Aside from these extremes, water 
temperatures were quite uniform, ranging from 
16° C. to 17° C. (60.8° F. to 62.6° F.). In general 
temperatures were nearly 1° C. cooler than en- 
countered during the same time in 1958. 

Ninety-three barracuda, caught at three differ- 
ent locations, were tagged and placed in the ves- 
sel's bait wells. On March 2, 25 fish caught In 
Ballenas Bay were tagged alternately with spaghetti- 
loop tags (13) and tuna dart tags (12). Twenty-one 
caught off Asuncion Island on March 5 were tagged 
in the same meinner (10 loop and 11 dart). Off Ced- 
ros Island on March 8, 47 were tagged (22 with a 
toggle -type, 21 with darts and 4 with loop tags). 
The 93 fish ranged in length from 21 to 30 Inches. 

All the fish were caught with small barbless 
feather lures. While being tagged, they were held 
to prevent movement. The dart and toggle tags 
were placed above the lateral line between the two 
dorsal fins. The loop tags were inserted slightly 
posterior to the second dorsal fin. 

Only four fish (4.3 percent) died during the 
cruise. Three of the 44 fish containing dart tags 
and one of 27 with loop tags succumbed. 

A decrease in the abundance of giant kelp ( Ma- 
crocystls ) from the previous summer was noted. 
Kelp beds off Asuncion Island and the miouth of 
Turtle Bay had nearly disappeared. Other beds 
were less dense than usual. 



* * * 



AERIAL CENSUS OF COMMERCIAL FISHING 
CONTINUED : Airplane Spotting FUghr59-4: The 
inshore area from the Mexican border to the Ore- 
gon border was surveyed from the air (March 23- 
26, 1959) by the California Department of Fish and 
Game Cessna 170 (1359D) to determine the distri- 
bution and abundance of pelagic fish schools. 

Although weather conditions were not Ideal, 
some coverage of the entire California coast was 
possible during the four days devoted to the sur- 
vey. Visibility north of San Simeon ranged from 
fair to poor, while atmospheric conditions south of 
San Simeon were fair to excellent. Strong winds, 
broken clouds, rain, and low overcast were en- 
countered along the central and north coasts. 

Only a few pelagic fish schools were in evidence. 
No schools were seen north of Morro Bay and only 
three small unidentified schools were observed 
south of Newport Beach. 



Eighty anchovy schools were present in Estero 
Bay, between Morro Rock and Estero Point from 
1 to 3 miles offshore. All were medium to large 
in size and were compact and dense in appearance. 
Sixteen similar anchovy schools were present in 
the area between Morro Bay and Pt. Arguello and 
16 more schools were seen near Santa Barbara. 

From 1 to 2 miles offshore between the Santa 
Monica breakwater and the Malibu pier, 71 anchovy 
schools were counted. Like those at Morro Bay, 
they were dense and well defined. 

Twenty-nine small, scattered schools of ancho- 
vies were observed south of Santa Monica Bay, 4 
off Huntington Beach and 25 off Newport Beach. 

Generally, dirty water prevailed along the coast, 
ranging from turbid grey-green and brown to a 
typical red-tide condition. In Los Angeles-Long 
Beach Harbor It was red-brown in appearanc* and 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



27 



^ H C^Monterey 



Anchovy school group. 
No. of anchovy schools. 
No, of gray whales. 

^\ - Areas of "red tide." 




lewport Beach 



Fig. 1 - Airplane Spotting Flight 59-4 (March 23-26, 
1959). 

dirty brown water was present from Pt. Fermin to 
Redondo Beach. An outbreak of red tide was ob- 
served between Redondo Beach and El Segundo. It 
consisted of several "tomato-red" streaks running 
from shore to about one mile offshore. During the 
week of the survey, Marineland of the Pacific re- 
ported concentrations of 10 million dinoflagellates 
(40 percent Noctiluca sp.) per liter of water in the 
Palos Verde s Peninsula area. 

A total of 44 northbound grey whales was seen; 
5 were actively feeding on 7 small "swarms" of 
euphasiids one-half mile off the town of Mendocino. 

Airplane Spotting Flight 59-5 : The survey to 
determine the distribution and abundance of pelagic 
fish schools was continued (April 13-16, 1959) by 
the Department's Cessna 170 along the Inshore 
area from the Mexican border to the Russian River 

Poor visibility again hindered observations 
north of Los Angeles Harbor, but conditions were 
excellent during the day spent scouting south of 
there. 

Only 24 schools were sighted north of Point 
Conception; 18 were sardines and were observed 
off Lucia (between Piedras Blancas and Pt. Sur). 
All were large, well defined spots. Six medium- 
size anchovy schools were present just outside 
Morro Rock. 



What appeared to be a large concentration of 
sardines was noted between Point Conception and 
a point a few miles north of Goleta, extending one 
to four miles offshore. Schools within this group 
were deep and varied in size. Some were small 
spots, but the majority were quite large and dense. 
Positive identification was difficult, but these schools 
were in clear blue water and behaved in a manner 
typical of sardines. 

Three small school groups of anchovies were 
observed between Goleta and Point Mugu. Each 
was within one mile of shore and was composed of 
a thin, stringy, almost continuous mass of fish. In 
the case of the group seen off of Ventura, an approx- 
imate count of the number of schools was impossible, 

Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor contained 153 
anchovy schools, the majority at the San Pedro end 
of the harbor. 

A large concentration of anchovies was present 
between Seal Beach and Newport Beach. These fish 
were noted in the surf line and offshore to about one 
mile. The water in the area was dirty green-brown 
in color. 

Eleven scattered sardine schools were seen be- 
tween Newport Beach and La JoHa. 

Forty-one anchovy schools and three schools of 
yellowtall were counted between Mission Bay and 
Point Loma. 

Thirty -one anchovy schools were observed close 
to shore along the Coronado Strand. 



L£CEND: 


A 


Aochovy t<:lioo] group. 


Number of uchovy ichooU 


% 


- Sardine tcfaool group. 


H 


- Number of ludmc (chooLs 


w^ 


- Number of gray wfaalcf . 


YT 


- Number of yellowlail (cbooli 




Fig. 2 - Airplane Spotting Flight 59 -5 (April 13-16, 
1959). 



28 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Only six gray whales were sighted during this 
flight. A female and calf were resting at the sur- 
face in a kelp bed about one -quarter mile offshore 
near Gavlota. 

The water in the Inshore area of Santa Monica 
Bay was again quite dirty, but no intense outbreak 
of red tide was observed. 

Airplane Spotting Flight 59-6 : The coastal wa- 
ters from Monterey to the California-Oregon bor- 
der were surveyed from the air (April 15-16, 1959) 
by the Department's Cessna 180 to determine fish- 
ing localities and relative fishing intensity of the 
northern California crab fleet. 




Fig. 3 - Flight Report of Cessna 180 {59-6— April 15-16, 
1959). 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review. March 1959, p. 26; and Jime 1959, p. 28. 



y^OREGON 

iVcALIFORNLA 
pSmith River 


'/ 


^yCrescent City 


M 


\VvKlamath River 


III 
III 


'/ 


'n Big Lagoon 


Vxrinidad Head 


ylJuad River 


JP 


Legend: 


Uf 

. /Eureka 


/ Line of 
/ " crab traps. 




/"^^^^Eel River 



Fig. 4 - Flight Report of Cessna 180 (59-6--Aprll 15-16, 
1959). 

Strong northwest winds and heavy seas hamper- 
ed observations of crab trap buoys in the survey 
area north of the Golden Gate. Adverse flying con- 
ditions forced the abandonment of observations in 
the area between the Eel River and Point Arena. 

Thirty-four trap lines were sighted in the area 
between the Eel River and the Oregon border, the 
majority in shallow depths. Concentrations of gear 
were found between the Klamath River and Big La- 
goon. 

Twenty-nine lines of crab gear were observed 
between tiie Russian River and Martin's Beach, 
with the greatest concentration off Stlnson's Beach 
in shallow to moderate depths. Four lines were 
seen in Monterey Bay off Moss Landing. 




July 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 29 

Canned Fish 

SHIPPING METHODS STUDY : A survey of canned fish distribution in the United 
States for the period July 1-December 31, 1958, has been made by the Bureau of the 
Census of the U. S. Department of Commerce. Arrangements have been made by the 
U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries to obtain information on transportation as- 
pects, or shipping methods used to ship those products. 

The Bureau is financing an analysis of the data obtained, so as to provide in- 
formation on the average length of haul, freight rates, and volume shipped to the 
various rail freight-rate territories of canned tuna, salmon, and sardines. Sepa- 
rate tabulations will be made for each one of those canned fishery products. A sup- 
plementary tabulation will show percentage distribution of the number of shipments 
by size of sales invoice and by type of carrier for all the larger packers canning 
each one of those products. The study is expected to be completed late in the sum- 
mer of 1959. Subsequently an analysis for the first six months of 1959 may be un- 
dertaken. 




Cans--Shipments for Fishery Products, January -March 1959 

Total shipments of metal cans during January-March 1959 
amounted to 19,450 short tons of steel (based on the amount of 
steel consumed in the manufacture of cans) as compared with 
23,189 tons in the same period a year ago. Canning of fishery 
products in January-March this year was confined largely to tuna 
and Gulf oysters. The decline in the shipment of metal cans dur- 
ing January-March this year as compared with the same period 

in 1958 may be due to lighter advance orders for cans for the 1959 salmon canning 

season. 

Note: Statistics cover all commercial and captive plants known to be producing metal cans. Reported in base boxes of 
steel consumed in the manufacture of cans, the data for fishery products are converted to tons of steel by using the 
factor: 23.0 base boxes of steel equal one short ton of steel. 





Clams 

STUDIES DEVELOP SOURCE OF SEED AND PLANTING T ECHNIQUES : Days 
of plenty for the people of two continents who like hard-shell clams seem to be in 
the making. Two developments are climaxing years of hard work on the part of bi- 
ologists of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, the Bureau announced on 
April 30. 

One is that a source of "seed" has been proved and can be developed. The oth- 
er is proof that "seed" can be planted under conditions which will assure clams of 
the littleneck or cherrystone size a year after spawning. 

The story in brief is a victory over the numerous predators which attacked the 
clam at every cycle of development. The big problem in hard-shell clam propaga- 
tion has been getting the seed. Oyster set could be secured in many places but not 
so with hard-shell clams. The clam fishery was dependent entirely upon natural 
sequences, many of which were not so good. 

Eight years ago, scientists at the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries' shellfish 
laboratory at Milford, Conn., began work on producing clam "seed" from parent 



30 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



clams held in the laboratory. That task has been successfully completed and a tech- 
nique for captive culture has been devised. The laboratory-spawned clams have 

been planted in predator-protect- 
ed areas and have thrived. 

The result is that the Mil- 
ford laboratory has shipped up- 
wards to a million of these tiny 
creatures to various parts of the 
Atlantic coast to investigate their 
rates of growth and survival un- 
der widely different environmen- 
tal conditions. 

Clams --one -sixteenth of an 
inch long- -which the Milford lab- 
oratory shipped to Florida State 
University for planting in warm 
Gulf waters under predator-free 
conditions developed into 2.5-inch 
restaurant-size specimens in just 
a year. In colder areas it takes 
as long as 3 or 4 years for clams 
to make that growth. 

The laboratory also has just 
recently shipped 150,000 small 
hatchery-bred clams to England 
SLtid France for a new start in the 
clam fisheries in those countries. 




New Englandseed of the hard clam , Mercenaria mercenaria . transplant- 
ed to Florida grew new shell (white portion) during January -March 1959. 



Thus the long hours at the laboratories have not only shown the clam industry 
how to produce seed clams necessary for a stable fishery but have made it possible 
for the producer to put his plantings in areas which can be protected from predators. 

Other research by the Bureau is perfecting control methods for clam predators 
and improving "fences" or barriers used to keep the predators away from the clam 
beds. Still another study is probing the effect of silting and other water conditions 
upon this important shellfish. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review . June (1959), p. 33. 



Crabs 



GREEN CRABS CONTROLLED WITH CHEMICAL : To control the green crabs 
which destroy clams, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory 
at Boothbay Harbor is using lindane. Samples of green crabs taken in February 1959 
from burrows in creek banks near Wells, Me., support previous observations that 
the lindane barrier was effective during the past summer months. After digging 
in many places along the banks within the protected area, the biologists found only 
five small crabs while one five-foot section of a creek outside the barrier area con- 
tained about 200 crabs of all size classes. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



31 



Federal Purchases of Fishery Products 

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PURCHASES, JANUARY-APRIL 1959: Fresh and 



Table 1 - Fresh and Frozen Fishery Products 

Purchased by Military Subsistence Market 

Centers, April 1959 with Comparisons 



QUANTITY 



April 



1959 I 195"8" 



Jan. -Apr. 



1959 I 1958 



(1,000 Lbs.) 
2,188 I 2,232 |7,137 | 7,256 



VALUE 



April 



1959 I 1958 



Jan. 



-Apr. 
I 1958 



...... ($1,000) .... 

982 I 1,190 I 3,782 [4,142 



Frozen Fishery Products: For the use of the Armed Forces under the Department 
of Defense, 2.2 million pounds 
(value $1.0 million) of fresh 
and frozen fishery products 
were purchased in April 1959 
by the Military Subsistence 
Market Centers. This ex- 
ceeded the quantity purchased 
in March by 8.2 percent, but 
was 2.0 percent under the a- 
mount purchased in April 1958. 

The value of the purchases in April 1959 was lower by 16.7 percent as compared 
with March and 17.5 percent less than for April 1958. 

During the first four months of 1959 purchases totaled 7.1 million pounds (val- 
ued at $3.8 million)--a decrease of 1.6 percent in quantity and 8.7 percent in value 
as compared with the similar period in 1958. 

Prices paid for fresh and frozen fishery products by the Department of Defense 
in April 1959 averaged 44.9 cents a pound, about 13.4 cents less than the 58.3 cents 
paid in March and 8.4 cents less than the 53.3 cents paid during April 1958. 

The lower average price for purchases this April was due to a sharp drop in 
fillet prices and smaller purchases of shrimp smd oysters. 

Canned Fishery 
Products: Tuna was 
the principal canned 
fishery product pur- 
chased for the use of 
the Armed Forces 
during April this year. 
In the first four months 
of 1958, purchases of 
canned tuna were up 
47.4 percent and can- 
ned sardines were up eightfold as compared with the same period in 1958. No can- 
ned salmon was purchased during January-April 1959 as compared to 1.3 million 
pounds in the same months of 1958 . 

Note: Armed Forces installations generally make some local purchases not included in the data given; actual total pur- 
chases are higher dian indicated because local purchases are not obtainable. 



Table 2 - Canned Fishery Products Purchased by 

Militciry Subsistence Market Centers, 
April 1959 with Comparisons 



Product 



Tuna 

Salmon 

Sardine 



QUANTITY' 



April 



1959 1958 



Jan. -Apr. 



1959 1958 



. .(1,000 LbsJ. 



539 



15 



543 

86 

9 



1,408 



280 



V ALUE 
April 



1959 11958 



Jan. -Apr. 




($1,000) 
658 



46 



1959 I 1958 



482 
724 

12 




Great Lakes Fishery Investigations 



PROGRAM OF THE RESEARCH VESSEL "CIS- 
CO" FOR 1959 : During 1959 the U. S. Bureau^oT 
Commercial Fisheries research vessel Cisco will 
operate along the south side of Lake Superior, east 
of the Keweenaw Peninsula. Primary objectives 
will be to determine the abundance, composition, 
and distribution of the fish stocks, with emphasis 
on lake trout and chubs. 

Much of the life -history and population studies 
of lake trout conducted in 1953 by the Cisco will be 
repeated this year to determine what changes have 
taken place during the past 6 years of severe sea- 




Cl<co. reiearch 
tlgatiOQs. 



esiel of the Service's Great Lake* Fiiherie* Invej- 



32 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



lamprey Infestation. Major attention will be given 
the younger lake trout since information on them 
is least available from the commercial fishery. 
The small trout will be sampled with trawls and 
small-mesh gill nets. The abundance and distribu- 
tion of spawning lake trout will be studied, when 
large-mesh gill nets will be set over known spawn- 
ing grounds. All spawning trout and some smcdler 




SEA LAHPREr FEEDING ON A TROUT. 



trout will be tagged and released. The lake trout 
data collected by the Cisco should add materially 
to the information gathered by other means so that 
a good idea of the present lake trout stocks cind of 
the contribution of the hatchery-reared trout can 
be obtained. 

Collections of trout and of other species will be 
made with gill nets set systematically in various 
areas. Sets will be mostly at 15, 25, 50, 75, and 
100 fathoms, and the nets will contain the following 
mesh sizes: U, li, 2. 2^, 2i, 3. 3i, 4, U. 5, 5i, 
and 6 inches extension measure. TTie information 
obtained from these nets may give an accurate 
enough picture of present populations, especially 
of lake trout and chubs to permit assessment in 
future years of the changes brought about by the 
anticipated drastic reduction in sea lamprey popu- 
lations . 

Limnological investigations will be more limited 
than in 1953, but some of the same areas will be 
sampled to detect environmental changes which 
might have occurred. Collections and observations 
will include plankton, bottom organisms, water for 
chemical analysis, water temperatures, Secchi- 
disc readings, and water currents. 



:{c :^ :^ 7^ ^ 



WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR FISHERY SUR - 
VEY (M/V Siscowet Cruise 1): The first cruise 
oTEe U. S 



Bureau of Commercial Fisheries re- 
search vessel Siscowet during the 1959 season was 
conducted (AprU 27-May 6, 1959) in the Apostle 
Island area of western Lake Superior. Objectives 
of the cruise included studies on various species 
of chubs, and trawling with small-mesh trawls for 
fry and yearling stages of whitefish, lake trout, 
menomlnee whitefish, herring, and smelt. Trawl- 
ing and gill-net fishing were conducted southeast 
of Stockton Island, south of Oak Island, west of 
Michigan Island, southeast of Rocky Island, east of 
Manitou Island, and south of Long Island in Chequa- 
megon Bay. A small mesh net was also towed to 
capture fish larva. Bathythermograph casts were 
made at each station. 

GiU nets (1-, li-, 2-, 2^-, 2i-, 2^-, and 3-inch 
mesh) were fished to sample various size groups 
of the species mentioned above. Chubs ( Leucich - 
thys hoyi and L. zenithicus ) dominated the catch 
in 50 fathoms southeast of Stockton Island. The 
condition of the gonads suggested these fish had 
spawned last fall or early winter. The catch from 
nets set south of Long Island was light, consisting 
of very few herring, menomlnee whitefish, white 
sucker, perch, and walleye. Nets set southeast of 
Rocky Island caught 370 menomlnee whitefish vary- 
ing in size from 4 to 17 inches. East of Manitou 
Island a set was made on a bank varying in depth 



from 25 to 35 fathoms. L. hoyi, menominee white- 
fish, and lonenose suckers dominated the catch. 
Seven small (6 to 11 inches) lake trout were also 
captured. South of Oak Island the catch from two 
sets consisted mainly of L. hoyi and smelt. Thir- 
teen small (4 to 16 inches! lake trout and 16 (6 to 
13 inches) whitefish were also taken. 

Trawl catches were generally light. One 24- 
minute tow south of Oak Island took over 1,000 
smelt (4 to 8 inches) and 2 small lake trout. Tows 
made southeast of Stockton Island took small num- 
bers of slimy muddlers, ninespine sticklebacks, 
smelt, and johnny darters. Because of the poor 
catches in this area tows were conducted at night 
to determine If larger samples could be collected 
by trawling after dark. Nighttime trawl catches 
were increased by the addition of menominee white- 
fish to the catch. A total of 89 menominee white- 
fish were taken in one tow. 

Tows were made with the fish-larva net over 
the rocky bottom west of Michigan Island. No fish 
were captured. 

Surface temperatures varied from 35.0° F. 
southeast of Stockton Island to 41.5° F. south of 
Long Island in Chequamegon Bay. There was no 
evidence of stratification at any of the stations 
visited as temperatures remained fairly constant 
from surface to bottom. 



***** 



WESTERN LAKE ERIE BIOLOGICAL RE- 
SEARCH CONTINUED (M/V" ^eorge L." Crulies 
1 and 2): The U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fish- 
eries research vessel Musky , used on Lake Erie 
in 1957 and 1958, was found to be unseaworthy and 
the vessel was destroyed after the engine and equip- 
ment were removed. A 34-foot trap-net boat, the 



George L. , was leased for 1959 to continue blolog- 
ical research on Lake Erie fish. 

Cruise 1 ( January 1- March 1959) : Thick ice 
formed over western Lake Erie during a severe 
winter but most of it had disappeared by April 1. 
A two-day limnological and fish population study 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



33 



was made through the Ice near South Bass Island 
In February in cooperation with the Ohio Division 
of WlldUie. The water temperature was 34° F.; 
few fish were caught. 

The Madtom . a 16-foot boat equipped for trawl- 
ing. Is used as an auxiliary to the George L. for 
work in very shallow water. Trawl catches by the 
Madtom in Sandusky Bay and Cedar Point-Huron 
area in March consisted mostly of yellow perch, 
emerald shiners, and spot-tail minnows. Few fish 
were found in waters less than 10 feet deep. 

Cruise 2 ( April 1-30): The George L. was given 
a test run on April 15 when several trawl tows were 
made off Cedar Point Beach and In Sandusky Bay. 
Large numbers of spot-tail minnows were taken. 
Many yellow perch eggs were found on a gill-net 
set overnight although none of the numerous fe- 
male perch taken by trawl and glU net appeared to 
be ripe or spent. Water temperature was 47° F. 
Most of the perch in Sandusky Bay had spawned by 



April 30, but a large percentage of the female perch 
captured in the ladce were still full of eggs. 

Samples of important species of fish in the com- 
mercial catch were taken at several ports In Ohio. 
The Pennsylvania Fish Commission assisted by 
collecting samples in Pennsylvania ports. Catches 
of yellow perch and sheepshead were high and 
catches of waUeye were fair In Ohio waters. Cold 
water and ice greatly limited fishing In Pennsylva- 
nia and New York. 

Most of the yellow perch taken in the commer- 
cial fishery of Ohio were 3 years old, but about 50 
percent of the catch was less than 8.5 Inches long 
and had to be returned to the lake. Walleyes or 
yellow pike taken were mostly "jumbo" or "No. 
l"--few smaller fish were caught. 

Environmental conditions in several areas in 
western Lake Erie were examined during the yel- 
low pike and yellow perch spawning period by the 
Ohio Division of Wildlife and the Bureau's Labora- 
tory. 



Gulf Exploratory Fishery Program 

COMMERCIAL RED SNAPPER TRAWLING OPERATIONS ON CAMPECHE BANK 



COMPLETED (M/V Silver Bay Cruise 16): A total marketable catch of 21,471 pounds 

pounds of grouper) was taken in 18 fishing days by 
ries' exploratory fishing vessel Silver Bay , while 



(19,166 pounds of snapper and 2,305 
the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fishe 
conducting simulated commercial 
red snapper trawling operations 
on Campeche Bank in April 1959. 
Trawling operations were con- 
fined to three areas in the vicini- 
ty of Cay Areas, where concen- 
trations of snapper ( Lutianus spj 
had been located during previous 
Silver Bay cruises. This cruise 



completes the programmed study 
of availability of red snapper to 
trawling gear. 

A total of 97 trawl stations 
were completed in depths rang- 
ing from 21 to 55 fathoms. With 
the exception of three stations at 
which a new type 88 -foot square 
trawl (no top square) was tested, 
all trawl stations were made with 
a 54-foot headrope-74-foot foot- 
rope nylon trawl rigged with 20- 
inch rollers the full length of the 
footrope and fished with standard 
V/D rig between the doors and the 
trawl. The trials with the 88-foot 
square trawl indicated a marked de- 
crease in catching efficiency as com- 
pared to the standard trawl. 




.««*' 



Legend: 

Number of tows in trawling areas: 

Areo^^ A — 46 Tows 
ACIO0I B — 14 Tows 

Ar«o C — 37 Tows 



M/V Silver Bay Cruise 16 (April 2-May 6, 1959). 



The catch (see table) was comprised of five species of snapper and six species of 
grouper. Approximately 75 percent of the snapper were red snapper (Lutianus ay a ); 



34 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



approximately 50 percent large (10 pounds or over), 20 percent medium (5-10 pounds) and 
30 percent small fish (1-5 pounds). Negligible amounts of small, unmarketable snap- 
per were taken due to the use of a large-mesh cod end. 

Best fishing was encountered in Area A (see chart) in 38 to 45 fathoms. Forty- 
six trawl drags in this area produced 11,904 pounds of red snapper and 902 pounds 
of grouper. Catches averaged 2,000 pounds per 12-hour fishing day with individual 
catches ranging from 115 to 1,000 pounds per 90-minute tow. The bottom was char- 
acterized by a sand and gravel bank which sloped gently from 38 to 55 fathoms with 
approximately 14 miles of clear trawling bottom extending in a northwest-southeast 
direction. No gear was damaged or lost in this area. 

Fourteen tows in Area B failed to produce profitable catches of snapper and 
grouper, although the bottom throughout the area was characterized by broken coral 
and sponge formations. A total of 1,283 pounds of snapper and 410 pounds of group- 



Table 1 - Catch of Snapp 


er and Grouper by M/V Silver Bay du 


ring Crui 


3e 16 


Species 


Common Name 


Weight 


Total 


Average 


Range 


Lutianus aya 


Red snapper 

Mutton or king snapper 

Lane or rainbow snapper 

Schoolmaster snapper 

Gray snapper 

Yelloweye or silk snapper 

Hogfish 




. .(Lbs.) . 


' i- 20 
5- 22 

1- 4 

2- 10 
5- 30 

3- 5 
2- 8 


14,271 

3,760 

624 

251 

175 

11 

74 


8 

10 

H 

5 

20 

4 

5 


Lutianus analis 


Lutianus synagris 


Lutianus apodus 


Lutianus griseus 


Lutianus vivanus 


Lachnolaimus maximus . 




19,166 


Mycteroperca bonaci . . . 


Black grouper 

Scamp 

Red grouper 

Warsaw grouper 

Katy Mitchell or rock hind 

Jewfish 


948 
628 
427 
20 
22 
260 


15 

8 

10 

12 

3 

130 


6- 30 
2- 10 
4- 12 
8- 15 
1- 6 
60-200 


Mycteroperca falcata . . . 


Epinephelus morio .... 


Garrupa nigrita 


Epinephelus adscensionis 


Promicrops itaira 




2,305 



er were taken in the 14 tows with the majority of the tows producing less than 100 
pounds of marketable fish. Gear damage in 1Jie area was light and was confined to 
minor rips and tears. 

Thirty-seven trawling stations completed in Area C resulted in a total catch 
of 5,979 pounds of snapper and 993 pounds of grouper. Severe gear damage was ex- 
perienced in the area due to the prevalence of large coral formations and rocks, and 
on one occasion most of the trawl webbing and one trawl boaxd was lost. 

Three exploratory tows were completed on rocky and broken bottom in the vi- 
cinity of 24O10' north latitude, 97°25' west longitude in 22 to 49 fathoms. No signifi- 
cant catches were made in this area. 

* * * * * 



EXPLORATORY FISHING FOR MED WATER FISH STOCKS BETWEEN MISSIS - 
SIPPI DELTA AND BROWN SVILLE,T^X . (M/V Oregon Cruise 58): The survey of 
available stocks of midwater fish in the Gulf of Mexico was continued by the U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries exploratory fishing vessel Oregon on a 23-day 
cruise that ended on April 30, 1959. During the cruise the vessel made 41 tows 
with 40- and 60-foot nylon midwater trawls in the 5-50 fathoms depth range be- 
tween the Mississippi Delta and Brownsville, Tex. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



35 



Between Brownsville and Aransas Pass, Tex., numerous schools of mixed small 
thread herring ( Opi sthonema ) , razorbellies (Harengula ) , chub mackerel (Scomber ), 
and round herring (Etrumeus) were encountered. All catches indicated that only 
small juvenile fish were present, and escapement through the meshes was heavy. 

From Aransas Pass to Cameron, La., midwater fish schools were light and 
scattered. When sampled they yielded round herring, anchovies (Anchoa), and chub 
mackerel. Again all catches contained only very young fish and the apparent escape- 
ment was great. 




M/V Oregon Cruise 58 (April 8-30, 1959). 

Between Cameron and the Mississippi Delta the schools were dispersed near 
the bottom. Razorbellies, thread herring, and anchovies were mixed with bottom- 
dwelling species. Several of these tows had up to 500 pounds of anchovies mixed in 
a 1,500-pound catch. The gear was subjected to some unplanned durability tests off 
Mississippi River Southwest Pass when two manta rays weighing approximately one 
ton each were caught. 

Southwest of Ship Shoal numerous large schools of menhaden ( Brevoortia) were 
seen at the surface. Efforts to catch these during both day and night drags were un- 
successful. 



***** 



36 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



MIDWATER TRAWLING FOR SCHOOL FISH M THE NORTH CENTRAL GULF 
OF MEXICO (M/V Oregon Cruise 59): Round-the-clock scouting transects and trawl- 
ing operations, designed to provide additional information on the seasonal occurrence 
of school fish and their avsiilability to midwater trawling gear, was accomplished 
during the May 20-27, 1959, cruise of the M/V Oregon. A total of 60 tows was made 
using 40- and 60-foot square midwater trawls of nylon mesh varying in size from 5 
inches in the wings to ^ inch in the bag. 

With few exceptions, observed schools were confined to waters shallower than 
20 fathoms, and even there concentrations of the density met with on previous U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Oregon cruises were absent. Most sets were made 
on light and scattered depth-recorder traces and produced catches ranging from 10 
to 200 pounds of mixed anchovies ( Anchoa ), scad ( Decapterus) , razorbellies ( Haren - 




M/V Oregon Cruise 59 (May 20-27, 1959). 

gula) , and round herring ( Etrumeus) . Best midwater catches were obtained immedi- 
ately before sunset and after sunrise when the fish schools were presumably at a 
point midway between their nighttime surface and daytime bottom positions. Night- 
time midwater trawling was unproductive as was "blind" towing. 

Near-bottom trawling, conducted east and west of the Mississippi River Delta 
at regular intervals, resulted in up to 3,000 pounds of mixed industrial fishes--pre- 
dominantly croakers, spot, and porgies. Best near-bottom, catches were obtained 
east of the Delta. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



37 



It is becoming increasingly evident that the art of midwater trawling differs 
considerably from that of bottom trawling and that comprehensive gear studies are 
indicated if optimum efficiency is to be obtained. Direct observation of the mid- 
water gear by SCUBA divers is being planned for future cruises. 

Numerous schools of surface fish were observed east of Pass-a-Loutre and 
were tentatively identified as small anchovies. 

Samples were collected and frozen for future study by Service technologists. 



Gulf Fishery Investigations 



Following are some of the highlights of the stud- 
ies conducted by the Galveston, Tex., Biological 
Laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fish- 
eries during January-March 1959. 

SHRIMP : In January, a thorough coverage of 
shrimp landing ports in Florida was undertaken to 



STAINED 
SHRIMP 

50< REWARD 

Shrimp have been marked with blue, green and red biological staint — in order to 
obtain information on migrations and growth. The color appears only on both tides 
of the head (in the gills) as shown in the illustration. 

Look for color here 




A reward of 50^ will be paid for ttorned shrimp when returned with the following 
informotion: 



L Exact place tlw 

S. Data <Im ihHaiii wen caaght. 

NOTIFY BY MAIL THE U. S- FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE , BIOLOGICAL 
LABORATORY, P.O.BOX 3098 . GALVESTON. TEXAS, OR CONTACT ANY 
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE AGENT OR REPRESENTATIVE 



Stolned shrimp must be verified by Fish ond Wildlife Service biologist 
before poyment. The stains used are approved for this use by the 
Food ond Drug Admlnletroflon. 



Fig. 1 - Poster placed at key points in the Gulf States 
area encouraging tiie return of stained shrimp. 



provide for recovery of stained shrimp released 
in the nursery grounds of upper Florida Bay. Fort 
Myers, Tampa, and all ports along the west coast 
were included as well as Key West and Marathon 
cind Stock Island. 

The first probable recovery of a stained shrimp 
was reported during this period. Four verified re- 
coveries of stained shrimp released at Flamingo 
were tsiken on the Tortugas grounds and turned in 
by shrimp fishermen. The trypan blue stain used 
remained clear in shrimp recovered after fully 3 
months and 26 days "out time." Calculated from 
the center of the 8 -day release period and the mean 
release size, pink shrimp from the National Park 
nursery grounds grew at the rate of 3 mm. cara- 
pace length per month while moving 90 to 100 miles 
to the Tortugas trawling area. Stated another way, 
these small 120-140 count (heads-off) shrimp tri- 
pled their weight in a four-month period. 

Another staining project was completed at Low- 
er Matecumbe Key in March with the release of 
4,000 shrimp taken, stained, and released on the 
fringe of Everglades National Park In outer Florida 
Bay. The first recovery from these releases near 
Lower Matecumbe Key showed up in the Tortugas 
fishery March 16, just 46 days after release. The 
shrimip had traveled approximately 74 miles. 

At Key West it was reported that a blue -stained 
shrimp had been definitely picked up in the Atlantic 
Ocean southwest of Marathon in January — this is 
listed a? a probable recovery since the shrimp was 
never turned in. This report partly confirms think- 
ing on migration routes of pink shrimp entering the 
Tortugas grounds from upper Florida Bay. Large 
numbers probably move south through the Keys 
particularly at Channel Two, Whale Harbor, Tea 
Table Key, and Bahia Honda Key. These shrimp 
then move down Hawk Channel westward to the area 
of Marquesas Keys then north and northwestward 
across the Tortugas grounds. 

One problem in shrimp staining has been the 
limitation of only three available colors. This 
could lead to confusion if too many releases were 
made in contiguous areas over a short period. By 
mixing stains, two additional colors, purple and 
brown, have been developed. 

Analysis of data on seasonal changes in size 
and species composition of trawl hauls in Clear 
Lake were continued this quarter. Effort was con- 
centrated on analyzing stomach contents of fish 



38 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



collected In the lake during the past year to deter- 
mine the degree of predation by juvenile fishes on 
post-larval and juvenile penaeid shrimp. 

Thus far, 1,723 fish stomachs collected from 
January through July 1958, have been studied. 
They include 870 croakers ( Micropogon undulatus) ; 
216 sand trout ( Cynoscion arenarius ); 26 spotted 
trout ( Cynoscion nebuloaus ); 52 redfish ( Scianops 
oscellahis ); 71 spotfin whiffs ( Citharichthys spilop - 
terus); 35 spot croakers (Leiostomus xanthurus) ; 
50 gafftopsail catfish ( Bagre marlnus) ; 13 hard- 
head catfish ( Galeichthys Felis); and several minor 
species numbering ten or fewer specimens each. 

The dominEint type food organism in the stomachs 
examined are listed in decreasing order of percent- 
age frequency occurrence: copepods, mysids, fish, 
polychaetes, amphipods, decapods (mostly grass 
shrimp and crabs), isopods, and insects. 

The most abundant game fish, croaker, appar- 
ently fed on penaeid shrimp to a very limited ex- 
tent; major food items included copepods, mysids. 




and fish. Of the other gamefishes, redfish and 
spotted trout did not occur in abundance at the lake 
except when post-larval penaeid shrimp were ab- 
sent. The sand trout, also a game fish, fed mainly 
on mysids and larval grass shrimp and to a lesser 
extent, post-larval penaelds. 

An interesting aspect of the results to date is 
that although several species of fish were present 
during a period of abundance of penaeid post-larvae, 
their stomachs contained mostly other Crustacea, 
viz., copepods, mysids, grass shrimp larvae, and 
amphipods. 

RED TIDE STUDIES : Studies to determine the 
nutritional value of specific trace metals were con- 
tinued. Preliminary results indicate that media 
contEiining molybdenum, strontium, barium, rubidi- 
um, manganese, zinc, titanium, and zirconium were 
as good or better for the growth of Gymno dinium 
breve than control media with no trace metal ad- 
ditives. X3h the other hand, media containing chro- 
mium, vanadium, aluminum, nickel, and copper did 
not improve growth with the concentrations used. 

Experiments were conducted to determine the 
effects of variations of the calcium and phosphorus 
content of media on the growth of G. breve . The 
results indicate that G. breve will not grow inmedia 
if the calcium content is less than .05 grams per 
liter or greater than 2.5 grams per liter. Within 
the above range, growth depends on the phosphorus 
concentration. More phosphorus is required if the 
calcium concentration is low and less phosphorus 
if the calcium concentration is high. These results 
indicate that a balance of calcium and phosphorus 
is required for good growth of G. breve and that 



specific ratios of these elements may be necessary 
for blooms of this organism to develop. 

Investigation of the temperature tolerance of 
cultures of G. breve has been continued during this 
quarter. The absolute low limit of temperature 
tolerance seems to be about 7° C. (44.6° F.)--for 
10 ml. cultures maintained at a distance of two 
inches from a 14-watt fluorescent tube. The time 
required for this temperature to be lethal is ap- 
parently related to the rapidity with which the test 
cultures are cooled to this level. 

At the other end of the tolerance range, a tem- 
perature of 30° C. (86° F.) reduced culture popu- 
lations to less than 10 percent of the inital level 
after one week of exposure. Four hours of expo- 
sure to 35° C. (95° F.) reduced the culture popula- 
tions to less than one percent of the original level. 
Twenty-four hours at this temperature was found 
to be 100 percent lethal. 

Attempts to determine the effect of pH's above 
8.2 on the growth of G. breve have not been suc- 
cessful thus far. 

The screening of organic chemicals was start- 
ed during the latter part of this quarter. The ob- 
ject of this program is to discover organics with 
specific toxicity to G. breve. Thus far, a dozen of 
the hundred or so chemicals screened have shown 
various degrees of toxicity. Of these, three killed 
all organisms within a 0.01 to 0.04 p.p.m. range. 

A total of 369 samples were collected during 
this period and G. breve were present at 27.4 per- 
cent of the stations. The northern range of G. 
breve is now limited to the St. Petersburg Beach 
area, although G. breve were still found south along 
the coast to Venice and from the mouth of Tampa 
Bay to 40 miles offshore. No G. breve were in the 
fresh and brackish water samples taken in Tampa 
Bay. The general incidence of G. breve decreased 
even in the deeper neritic waters due mainly to the 
adverse environmental factors present during the 
winter months. The vertical distribution of this 
organism still exhibits patchy distribution and due 
to the low range of numbers no apparent diurnal 
migration can be shown. 

G. breve were still present as far offshore as 
we sampled (40 miles) and to depths of 128 feet. 
It would be desirable to extend our offshore sam- 
pling, at least for spot checking to determine how 
far offshore this organism may occur during pe- 
riods of non-red tide. The surface samples in all 
subareas still have the highest incidence of G. 
breve, 24.8 percent compared to 11.4 percent for 
the bottom water samples. 

Concentrations of G. breve ranged from 0-200/1. 
The highest concentrations were again present in 
waters exceeding 18 feet. All stations showed a 
seasonal decline with the exception of Egmont Key 
south to Venice where a gradual Increased inci- 
dence was noticed during March. 

The low range in numbers follows the same pat- 
tern shown during other years (1955-1958) and 
probably represents the minimal population level 
of G. breve . 

Large "butterfly" cells of G. breve were again 
present offshore. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



39 



INDUSTRIAL, FISHES: Periodic sampling of 
the catches of trawlers operating out of Pasca- 




goula. Miss., supplying pet food plants continued 
as the principal activity. Present data indicate 
that there Is a much greater variance between ves- 
sels than within individual ones as to species com- 
position. Therefore, in order to obtain reasonably 
accurate determination of species composition with 
the man hours available for this work, it was neces- 
sary to sample as many of the vessels landing fish 
as possible even at a slight sacrifice of sample 
size within individual loads due to the small sam- 
ple size adopted. The average number of species 
per sample, the total number of boats landed, the 
number of boats sampled, Euid the percent of boats 
sampled from October 1958 through January 1959 
is as follows: 





1958 


1959 
Jan. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Average number of 
species per sample . . 

No. boats landing .... 

No. boats sampled .... 

Percentage of boats 
sampled 


20 

155 

10 

6.5 


22 

118 

22 

18.6 


21 

129 

23 

17.8 


14 
95 
40 

42.1 



Fig. 2 - Dumping fiih into tante at beginning of conveyc 
line at a Gulf of Mexico plant using industrial fish in can 
ed pet food. 



The species composition by weight and numbers 
of the Industrial fish catch has been determined 
since October. The percentages by weight of the 
miore important species from October to February 
1958-1959 are: 



Percentage of 


1938 


1959 
Jan. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Croaker (Micropogon 
undulatus) 

Spot (Letostomus 
xanthurus) 

Weakfish (Cyno scion sp.) 

Miscellaneous 


54.7 

3.0 

9.3 

35.7 


51.2 

9.1 

1.5 

38.2 


66.2 

9.8 

6.7 

17.3 


39.6 

23.0 
11.1 
26.3 




Maine Sardines 

CANNED STOCKS , APRIL 1, 1959 : Distributors' stocks of Maine sardines total- 
ed 254,000 actual cases on April 1, 1959--39,000 cases or 13.0 percent less than the 
293,000 cases on hand April 1, 1958, according to estimates made by the U. S. Bureau 
of the Census. 

Canners' stocks on April 1, 1959, totaled 474,000 standard cases (100 3|-oz. 
cans), about unchanged from the 476,000 cases on hand April 1, 1958. 



Canned Maine Sardines --Whole sale Distributors' and Canners' Stocks, 
April 1, 1959 with Comparisons 


Type 


Unit 


1958/59 Season 


1957/58 Season | 


4/1/59 


1/1/59 


11/1/58 


7/1/58 


671/58 


4/1/57 


1/1/58 


Distributors 


1,000 
Actual Cases 


254 


268 


312 


184 


237 


293 


230 


Canners 


1,000 
Standard Cases±' 


474 


891 


1,037 


386 


235 


476 


1,111 


1/100 3|-oz. cans equal one standard case. | 



The 1958 pack from the season which opened on April 15, 1958, amounted to 
2,021,000 standard cases as compared with 2,117,151 standard cases in 1957. 



40 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



The supply as of April 1, 1959, totaled 2,434,000 standard cases, or 4.3 percent 
less than the total supply of 2,543,000 cases as of April 1, 1958. Shipments from 
April 15, 1958, to April 1, 1959, amounted to 1,960,000 standard cases as compared 
with 2.067,000 cases from April 15, 1957, to April 1, 1958. 




I North Atlantic Fisheries Exploration and Gear Research 



GOOD CATCHES 0_F TUNA TAKEN ON EDGE OF GULF STREAM SOUTH -BY- 
EAST OF NANTUCKET (M/V Delaware Cruise 59-67: Commercial quantities of 
tuna weFe found to be readily available to long-line gear in an area on the edge of 
the Gulf Stream about 140 miles south-by-east of Nantucket, during a May 18-29 
cruise of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries exploratory fishing vessel Del- 
aware. In seven fishing days, the vessel caught about 35 tons of tuna (mostly blue- 
fin) on about two-thirds of the amount of gear which would be used on a commercial 
fishing trip. 




M/V Delaware Cruise 59-6 (May 18-29, 1959). 

The specific objective of the cruise was to explore for concentrations of tuna, 
in a limited area, along the north edge of the Gulf Stream approximately 140 miles 
south-by-east of Nantucket Lightship. The location was determined by analysis of 
data obtained during previous long-line fishing explorations by the Delaware . 

Seven long-line sets were made during this cruise, and a total of 380 "baskets" 
of gear were fished. Each basket of gear was of standard 10-hook commercial type. 
At Stations 1, 3, 5, 6, and 7 (see chart), 33 tons of bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus ) 
were caught in five days of fishing utilizing only 280 baskets of gear. This was a 
catch rate of 15.6 bluefin per 100 hooks. The surface temperatures at these stations 
ranged from 51° F. to 6 3.5° F. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



41 



The southermost station (lat. 38°06' N., long. 68°16' W.), located near the axis 
of the GuK Stream, yielded three species of tuna: yellowfin ( Thunnus albacares ), 
big-eyed (Thunnus obesus ), and albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) . No bluefin tuna were 
taken at that station. The surface water temperature was 73° F. 

No gear loss or significant damage was experienced during the cruise. Rela- 
tively few sharks were caught and only one tuna was shark-bitten. Notable was the 
absence of the white -tip shark ( Pterolamiops longimanus) even in the warmer waters 
where yellowfin were taken. Previous cruises have shown that later in the season 
this species is one of the commonest sharks in the area. 

The bluefin tuna averaged about 150 pounds; the size range was from 120-450 
pounds. Yellowfin tuna taken at Station 4 ranged from 30-130 pounds each. 

Bathythermograph casts were m.ade at each station to determine subsurface 
temperatures. Evidence from the bathythermograph traces indicated the presence 
of a convergence of cool water with the warmer water of the Gulf Stream. 

A total of 97 bluefin tuna were tagged with plastic dart tags and released. Tag- 
ging operations, in addition to other biological collections and oceanographic obser- 
vations, were conducted in cooperation with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. 

At the conclusion of the cruise, 25 tons of tuna were unloaded and placed in stor- 
age at Providence, R. I. 



North Pacific Exploratory Fishery Program 

DEVICES TO IMPROVE OTTER - TRAWL PERFORMANCE TESTED (M/V John N. 
Cobb Cruise 42): Several recently -developed devices designed to provide data on ot- 
ter-trawl performance and bottom conditions were tested during a three-week cruise 
(ended May 1, 1959) of the U. S. Bureau of Conamercial Fisheries exploratory fish- 
ing vessel John N. Cobb. In addition, 
a cooperative tagging program was 
carried out with biologists of the Ore- 
gon Fish Commission. 

The instrumentation studies in- 
cluded tests of a new electrical trawl 
cable designed to monitor and telemeter 
information from the fishing gear on the 
ocean floor to the bridge of the vessel. 
The cable, which has the dual purpose 
of operating as a standard trawl warp 
for fishing gear and for carrying elec- 
trical impulses, performed satisfacto- 
rily and no conductor breakages were 
noted during operations. Information 
telemetered through the cable included 
a measure of the depth at which the net 
is operating, the temperature of the wa- 
ter at the net, and information on the 
performance of the fishing gear. The 
latter information, which is monitored 
by a newly-designed "on-bottom-indi- 
cator," shows via a light on the bridge 

of the vessel when the trawl doors reach the bottom and whether or not the net is 
fishing on the ocean floor. When the doors are functioning properly, a light flashes 




Fig. 1 
Cobb. 



The Bureau's exploratory fishing vessel John N. 



42 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 




CAPE FALCON 



'MANHATTAN 
BEACH 



CAPE LOOKOUT 



CASCADE HEAD 



OREGON 



CAPE FOULWEATHER 



M/V John 21- Cobb Cruise 42 (April 1959) . 



on in the pilothouse of the vessel. If 
the trawling speed is too fast or cur- 
rents are encountered which alter the 
performance of the gear (causing it to 
lift from the bottom), then the circuit 
is broken and the light on the bridge 
goes off. This new device could be of 
considerable value to commercial trawl- 
ers and eliminate much of the guess- 
work from trawl fishing. 

Another device perfected during 
the cruise was an automatic bottom 
sampler with a quick release device 
for easy attachment and removal from 
a trawl door. When the trawl door con- 
tacts the bottom the instrument scoops 
up a sample of the bottom and automat- 
ically closes and retracts. The device 
will allow fishermen or scientists to be 
accurately informed about bottom types 
in areas they fish. 

A cooperative tagging program was 
conducted off the Oregon Coast in the 
vicinity of Manhattan Beach and Ocean 
Lake. A total of 5,102 tagged fish were 
released in two weeks of fishing. Of 
this total, 4,565 were English "sole" 
and 537 petrale "sole." Biologists from 
the Oregon Fish Commission hope that 
this tagging experiment will assist in 
determining the migrational habits of 
those species. 



Sal 



mon 



CALIFORNIA PLANTS MARKED KING SALMON FINGERLINGS : The first 
phase of an investigation into the life history of the king salmon was completed late 
in May 1959 by the California Department of Fish and Game biologists. The investi- 
gation is designed to learn why the valuable sport and food fish has declined in re- 
jcent years and what, if anything, can be done. It is hoped the project will ultimately 
ipoint out ways of improving salmon fishing. 

"It will be no overnight project," the Department's Director cautioned. "Be- 
cause the life cycle of the king salmon is approximately four years, we cannot ex- 
pect any real results from the first experiment until at least 1962." 

The first experiment consisted of releasing one million tiny king salmon (2 to 
3 inches long), bearing distinctive marks, at three places in the Sacramento River. 
This large-scale, complex operation began and ended in less than two months. Next 
year the number of marked fish released will be doubled. 

Primary purpose of the first phase of the project is to measure differences in 
survival of fish released at various distances from the ocean. Effects of the differ- 
ences will be measured as those fish appear in sport and commercial landings and 
on the spawning beds. 



July 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 43 

"While a more comprehensive project is planned for each of the next four years, 
practical problems arising from this year's work must first be solved if we are to 
succeed," the Director stated. He pointed out the results of this year's experi- 
ment were far different than the experience learned in a preliminary test the De- 
partment conducted in 1958. 

"A few thousand fingerlings were transported last year from fresh to salt wa- 
ter in live-bait tanks aboard a boat and survival was nearly perfect, almost 100 
percent," the Director reports. 

"Using essentially the same technique and the same boat we found that survival 
this year ranged from 30 percent to 90 percent," he stated. "Our scientists have 
not yet pinned down the reasons for such a wide variation." 

Another group of fish was trucked directly to the salt-water release site. Once 
there, salt water was pumped into the truck tajik until fish were in water of the same 
salinity and temperature as that into which they were released. Six different lots 
received this treatment and their survival ranged from 10 percent to 40 percent. 

On the other hand, survival of the two groups released at different places in 
fresh water has averaged about 90 percent. 

Since quick transportation, with high survival, is essential to the success of the 
project, California biologists will continue experiments to try to solve the problem 
this yeax. 

Personnel stationed at the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Coleman Hatchery, 
located on Battle Creek near Redding, produced the fish and provided facilities for 
Department personnel to do the marking. In addition, the Federal agency trucked 
one-fourth of the marked fish to Hamilton City (near Chico) for release. Depart- 
ment personnel and trucks transported the remaining 750,000 marked fish to either 
Rio Vista or Tiburon (near Sausalito) for release. 



South Carolina 

FISHERIES BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH PROGRESS , JAJNfUARY - MARCH 1959 : 
Oyster Research : All experimental oysters showed a moderate amount of growth 
during the first quarter of 1959, but considerably more than during the conaparable 
period of 1958. Less than one percent died. Last year for the same period of time 
it was about five percent. This coincided with the extreme cold. 

Seed oysters brought from Long Island in November grew at about a comparable 
rate as South Carolina seed. The New England seed suffered no greater mortality 
than young local oysters. 

In February, a trunk was placed under the causeway between the two larger ex- 
perimental ponds. This will allow the use of water from either pond for flushing the 
other pond when it is drained. A trial of this system in the latter part of March in- 
dicated its practicability, and it should be very helpful in controlling silting, one of 
the greatest problems connected with pond cultivation of oysters. 

Shrimp Research : Experimental trawl hauls were made regularly throughout 
the quarter. The results have been tabulated, and compared with the catches made 
in 1958 and with the mean catch for a comparable time from 1953 through 1956. 
The cold winter of 1958--the coldest in 25 years--decreased the availability of the 
catch. This year shows a remarkable recovery. Croaker, shrimp, and crabs are 



44 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 2.1, No. 7 

raore abundant than before the freeze. If there is a cause-effect relationship be- 
tween the availability of shrimp in this quarter with the catch the following fall, then 
this should be a good year for white shrimp. There is the possibility, however, that 
the excessive rains of this March (over 6 inches in 12 hours) will upset any favor- 
able balance due to increased availability of shrimp this quarter. 

Crab Research : Again this year biologists from the U. S. Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries Laboratory at Beaufort, N. C, have joined forces with Bears Bluff 
Laboratory to tag mature blue crabs. Over 2,000 crabs were tagged in March, Ap- 
proximately a third were tagged and released near the mouth of Five Fathom Creek, 
25 m.iles north of Charleston. A third were released in the immediate vicinity of 
Charleston Harbor, and the remaining third were handled near the mouth of the North 
Edisto River. Fishermen are urged to return these tags to help increase knowledge 
about the movement of crabs. The tagging work last year indicated that although 
most of the crabs were caught near where they were tagged, some crabs moved a 
considerable distance. (Progress Report No. 39, January-March 1959, of the Bears 
Bluff Laboratories, Wadmalaw Island, S. C,) 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review . February 1959, p. 32. 



Spot 

ABUNDANCE IN CHESAPEAKE BAY PREDICTED LOWER IN 1959 : Although 
1959 will probably be a poor year for catching spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus ) in great 
numbers, the chances of catching an oversized one are the best in many years, ac- 
cording to a marine biologist at the Virginia Fisheries Laboratory. Since 1955 Vir- 
ginia biologists have been studying this species from its early development through 
the nursery areas and into the commercial fishery. 

The sport and commercial fishery for spot is generally supported by two-year 
old or younger fish. From their abundance in monthly trawl surveys and from scale 
readings to determine the ages of fish in the commercial catch, the biologists here 
found that spot hatched in the winter of 1955/56 met with unusual success, and un- 
usually great numbers were present in the Bay the following spring and summer. 
Many large spot a.ppeared in the fishery in 1958, survivors of that successful spawn- 
ing. 

"it is unusual to find spot past three years old in the commercial catch," the 
biologist stated, "but because of the high abundance of young fish in 1956 a larger 
than usual number should appear this summer, so that fishermen have the best op- 
portunity in years of catching a fish of record size. Because the abundance of young 
spot decreased in 1957 and 1958, not as many will be available to fishermen this 
summer as last year. Seventeen times as many small spot were taken in samples 
collected by the Laboratory biologists in 1956 as in 1957, and three times as many 
as were present in 1958." 

The biologists estimate that not more than 15 percent of all of the spot present 
in Chesapeake Bay and its rivers are caught annually by commercial and sport fish- 
ermen, and that approximately 60 percent die from predation, disease, and other 
natural causes, or leave the Bay. This indicates that the number of fish taken by the 
fishery has a relatively small effect on catches in subsequent years. "When natural 
conditions favor the larval and young fish, there are plenty for all fishermen," the 
biologist stated. 

Spot make a very rapid growth during their first two years. At the end of the 
first summer they average about 5 inches, though some may be as much as 7 inches 
long, but by the end of the second summer they average nearly 9 inches, and weigh 



July 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 45 

about a half pound. That little or no growth occurs during the winter months has 
been proved by sampling the winter trawl fishery. 

Biologists at the Virginia Fisheries Laboratory are confident that through their 
sampling devices they can give fishermen an accurate prediction of the relative a- 
bundance of spot at least a year in advance. 



--% 



Standards 

PROPOSED STANDARDS FOR FROZEN COD FILLETS AND BREADED POR - 
TIONS REVIEWED AT MEETINGS : United States Standards for Grades of (1) Fro- 
zen Cod Fillets and (2) Frozen Raw Breaded Portions--prepared by the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Commercial Fisheries after careful consideration of all data and views sub- 
mitted by individual members of industry, trade associations, and from other 
sources--were the subject of further review at a series of public meetings held be- 
tween June 9-15, 1959. 

These standards are designed to serve as a convenient basis for sale in whole- 
sale transactions, for establishing quality -control programs, and for determining 
loan values on stocks. They will also enable inspection and grading of these com- 
modities by the Federal inspection service of the Bureau, which service is available 
for the inspection of other processed fish products as well. 

It is the policy of the Bureau to build standards of quality that (1) will accurate- 
ly represent differences in market value; (2) will bring about a uniform quality de- 
scription in simple, easily understood terms upon which satisfactory trading can be 
effected; and (3) may be useful in establishing quality -control programs. 

The proposed standards for frozen cod fillets and frozen raw breaded portions 
were reviewed at public meetings in Boston on June 9, 1959, in Chicago, June 11, 
1959, and in Seattle on June 15, 1959. Following the final review of the proposed 
standards for frozen cod fillets and frozen raw breaded portions, taking into con- 
sideration the comments received, the standards will be published in the Federal 
Register . 

Packers, brokers, distributors, users, and other interested parties were in- 
vited to attend the meetings or send in comments on the proposed standards. 




Transportation 

EXEMPT TRUCKING OF FRESH AND FROZEN FISHERY PRODUCTS UNDER 
STUDY : A study of exempt trucking" of fresh and frozen fish and shellfish is being 
made by the U. S. Bureau of Com- 
mercial Fisheries. The firm 
awarded the c on tr act to make 
the study will interview about 
350 shippers and 200 carriers 
of fresh and frozen fishery 
products in 28 states covering 
allproducing areas of the country. r . '- " " 

Little is known about the transportation of fresh and frozen fishery products. 
Motor carriers are not subject to economic regulation by the I. C. C. when trans- 




46 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



porting these products. Therefore, there is no reporting of movement of such items 
as to number of vehicles and tons carried, nor is there a requirement to publish 
rates and adhere to specific routes. This exemption from regulation is based on 
the fact that those fishery products are perishable and production is seasonal and 
cannot be scheduled. These requirements preclude their movement by firmly es- 
tablished routes or on established schedules. 

The objective of the study is to ascertain the significance of "exempt truck" 
transportation to fresh and frozen fish and shellfish producers, dealers, and proc- 
essors. The study will be mainly concerned with the value of the service rendered 
by the exempt truckers as com.pared with the regulated service. 



Tuna 

CALIFORNIA CAPTAIN FISHING OUT OF PUERTO RICO REPORTS TUNA 
PLENTIFUL m EASTERN ATLANTIC : A San Diego tuna vessel captain fishing out 
of Ponce, Puerto Rico, says that tuna are plentiful in Eastern Atlantic. The captain 
returned to San Diego in April for a visit after making a pioneering voyage to Afri- 
can waters on the 148 -foot clipper Chicken of the 
Sea . The vessel is owned by a California fish can- 
nery and is 1 of 8 former California clippers now 
fishing for the company's cannery in Ponce, Puerto 
Rico. The San Diego captain is on his second voy- 
age to west African waters, together with one or 
two other boats from the same company. 

He said that the vessel's 17 -man crew caught 
450 tons of tuna in 14 days of fishing. Most of the 
110-day trip, he said, was spent making courtesy 
calls on government officials in ports along the 
west coast of Africa in preparation for more visits by the company's clippers. 

"We saw tuna every day from the time we left Puerto Rico till we reached the 
African coast," he said. He reported that there was plenty of herring to be had for 
bait near the African coast. 

Most of the catch was made about 100 miles south of Dakar and about 120 miles 
offshore. 

At times, he reported, the crew poled yellowfin tuna as fast as they could pull 
them in. The fish weighed from 40 to 60 pounds each. 

Now fishing out of Ponce are the clippers American Beauty , Western Ace, West - 
ern King , American Queen , Espiritu Santo , Corsair , and Beverly Lyn, all formerly 
of San Diego. 




United States Fishing Fleet-'Additions 

MARCH 1959 : A total of 29 vessels of 5 net tons and over were issued first 
documents as fishing craft during March 1959- -24 less than in March 1958. The 
Gulf area led all other areas with 9 vessels, followed by the Chesapeake with 8 ves- 
sels, the South Atlantic with 6, and the New England and Middle Atlantic areas with 
3 each. 

jyincludes both commercial and sport fishing craft. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



47 



Table 2 - U. S. Vessels 

Issued First Documents 

as Fishing Craft, by 

Tonnage, March 1959 



Table 1 - U. S. Vessels Issued First Documents as 
Fishing Craft, by Areas, March 1959 



Area 



New England . , 
Middle Atlantic 
Chesapeake . . , 
South Atlantic 

Gulf 

Pacific , 

Great Lakes . 

Alaska 

Virgin Islands 



Total, 



March 



1959 1958 



Jan.-Mar. 



19 59 1 1958 
(isiumber) . . 



Total! 
1958 



3 


1 


3 


- 


8 


7 


6 


9 


9 


27 


- 


6 



"W 



TT 



5 

3 

21 

18 

25 

8 

3 

2 



"W 



3 
3 
24 
32 
62 
19 
2 
3 
1 
1W 



13 

13 

99 

135 

270 

112 

10 

31 

1 

"5M 



Net Tons 



5 to 
10 to 
20 to 
30 to 
40 to 



~5" 
19 
29 
39 
49 



180 to 189 



Total 



Number 



TT 
8 
3 
5 

1 
1 



29 



Note: Vessels assigned to the various sections on the basis of their home ports. 



From January-March 
1959, a total of 85 vessels 
were documented as fish- 
ing craft, a decline of 64 
vessels as compared with the first three months of 1958. Most of this decline oc- 
curred in the Gulf area with 37 vessels documented as compared with the 1958 three- 
months period. 




U. S. Foreign Trade 



EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCTS . FEBRUARY 1959: Im- 
ports of edible fresh, frozen, and processed fish and shell- 
fish into the United States during February 1959 decreased 
by 17.5 percent in quantity and 14.1 percent in value as com- 
pared with January 1959. The decrease was due primarily 



[jTiports : 



United States Foreign Trade in Edible Fishery Products, 
February 1959 with Comparisons 



Item 



Fish & shellfish: 
Iiesfa, frozen, 6 
processed-1/ . . 



Exports : 



Fish and shellfish:y 

Processed only— 

(excluding fresh 

and frozen) . . 



TebT 



CPuantity 



1959 I 1958 



Year 



1958 



(Millions of Lbs.) 



72.5 



62.3 



956.8 



3.3 2.8 



41.2 



Value 



Feb. 



1959 I 19581 1958 



Year 



. (Millions of $) 



21.3 



1.0 



18.3 



0.8 



278.4 



15.6 



1/Includes pastes, sauces, clam chowder, and juice, and 
other specialties. 



to lower imports of groundfish fillets (down 10.6 million 
pounds) and canned tuna in brine (down 1.7 million pounds), 
and to a lesser degree, a decrease in the imports of shrimp 
and frozen tuna other than albacore. These decreases were 
partly offset by a 2.7-million-pound increase in the imports 
of fillets other than groundfish and frozen albacore tuna 
(up 3.6 million pounds). 

Compared with February 1958, the imports in February 
1959 were up by 16.9 percent in quantity andl6.4 percent in 
value due to higher imports of frozen albacore and other tuna 
(up 12.0 million pounds), and frozen shrimp (up 3.0 million 
pounds). Compensating, in part, for the increases was a drop 
of about 3.6 million pounds in the imports of groundfish and 
other fillets. 

United States exports of processed fish and shellfish in 
February 1959 increased by 38.2 percent in quantity and 
25.0 percent in value as compared with January 1959. 
Compared with the same month in 1958, the exports in Feb- 
ruary 1959 were higher by 19.8 percent in quantity and un- 
changed in value. The exports this February as compared 
with the same month in 1958 were up due to increased ex- 
ports of California sardines. 



>;= * >;< :Jc >!« 



EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCTS , MARCH 1959 : Imports of 
edible fresh, frozen, and processed fish and shellfish into the 
United States during March 1959 increased by 12.1 percent in 
quantity and 21.3 percent in value as compared with February 
1959, The increase was due primarily to higher imports of 
groundfish fillets (up 2.2 million pounds) and canned salmon 
(up 3.6 million pounds), and to a lesser degree, an Increase 
in the Imports of frozen shrimp, canned sardines, and fresh 
and frozen salmon. These increases were partly offset by a 
1.2-million-pound decrease In the imports of frozen albacore 
tuna. 

Compared with March 1958, the imports in March 1959 
were up by 22.8 percent in quantity and 10.5 percent in value 
due to higher Imports of groundfish fillets (up 1.3 million 
pounds), frozen tuna Including albacore (up 12.0 million 
pounds), and frozen shrimp (up 3.5 million pounds). Com- 
pensating, in part, for the Increases was a drop of about 0.6 
million pounds in the imports of canned tuna and frozen spiny 
lobsters (down 0.7 million pounds). 



United States Foreign Trade in Edible Fishery Products, 
March 1959 with Comparisons 



Item 



Imports : 
Fish C shellfish: 
Fresh, frozen, & 
processedl/ . . 



Exports : 
Fish G shellfish: 
processed onlyl/ 
(excluding fresh 
and frozen). . 



Quantity 



March 
19591 1958 



Year 



1958 



(MUlionsof Lbs.) 



84.1 



68.5 



956.8 



Value 



March 



19591 1958 1958 



Year 



. (Millions of $) 



24.3 



7.7 2.1 41.2 2.1 0.6 15.6 



22.0 



278.4 



X/Includes pastes, sauces, clam chowder and juice, and 
other specialties. 



48 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



United States exports of processed fish and shellfish in 
March 1959 were up 131.9 percent in quantity and 110.0 
percent in value as compared with February 1959. Com- 
pared with the same month in 1958, the exports in March 
1959 were higher by 260.3 percent in quantity and 250.0 



percent in value. The exports this March as compared with 
the same month in 1958 increased due to the better stocks 
of California sardines available for export to foreign mar- 
kets. 



^ 3}; ?^ :^ :^ 



GROUNDFISH FILLET IMPORTS. APRIL 1959 : 
During April 1959, U. S. imports of groundfish and 
ocean perch fillets and blocks amounted to 19.1 
million pounds--an Increase of 4.8 million pounds 
(33 percent) as compared with the corresponding 
month of last year. 

Iceland was the leading shipper with 7.8 million 
pounds- -a gain of 3.1 million pounds compared with 
April 1958. Canada was second with 5.8 million 
pounds- -1.3 million pounds below the same month 
of last year. Denmark followed with 3.7 million 
pounds (up 1.7 million pounds), and Norway with 
1.1 million pounds compared with only 4,000 pounds 
in April of 1958. 



During the first four months of 1959, imports 
of cod, haddock, hake, pollock, cusk, and ocean 
perch fillets, including blocks, amounted to 60.6 
million pounds. Compared with the same period 
of last year, this was a gain of 14.4 million pounds 
or 31 percent. Canada (22.8 million pounds) sup- 
plied 38 percent of the 1959 four-months total; Ice- 
land 34 percent (20.8 million pounds); Norway and 
Denmark each 12 percent. The remaining 4 per- 
cent was supplied by West Germany, Mlquelon and 
St. Pierre, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, 
and Ireland. 



***** 



IMPORTS OF CANNED TUNA 
m BRINE inSfDER QUOTA : The 
quantity of tuna canned in brine 
which may be imported into 
the United States during the 
calendar year 1959 at the 12i- 
percent rate of duty is 52,372,574 
pounds. Any imports in excess 




of the quota will be dutiable at 25 percent ad 
valorem. 

Imports January 1-May 2, 1959, amounted to 
14,958,862 pounds, according to data compiled by 
the U. S. Bureau of Customs. During January 1- 
May 3, 1958, a total of 12,490,111 pounds had been 
imported. The quota for 1958 of 44,693,874 pounds 
was reached on November 20, 1958. 



5j: * * * * 



IMPORTS OF SELECTED FISHERY PRODUCTS . 
JANUARY-MARCH 1959: First quarter trends 



showed further gains in United States imports of 
groundfish and ocean-perch fillets, tuna, shrimp, 
scallops, and fish meal. 

Groundfish and Ocean - Perch Fillets and Blocks : 
Imports during the first quater of 1959 were 19 
percent above the same quarter of 1958. Canadian 
shipments of groundfish were lower this year, but 
Icelandic, Norwegian, and Danish shipments were 
higher. 

Tuna , Fresh or 
Frozen : Imports 
during the first 
quarter of 1959 
continued at a 
high level. Al- 
bacore imports 
were up 29 per- 
cent over the 
same 1958 peri- 
od; other tuna, 
mainly yellowfin 
and big-eyed, 
were up 129 per- 
cent. Japan, by far 
the leading source, 
shipped both Atlantic- 
and Pacific-caughttuna. 
In addition, shipments 
from Peru during the first 

quarter of 1959 were nearly four times those of 
the comparable 1958 quarter. 




Tuna, Canned in Brine : Imports for the first 
three months of r559 were 32 percent higher than 
in the same period of 1958. The 1959 quota of can- 
ned tuna in brine which may enter the United States 
at the 12|-percent rate of duty was fixed at 
52,372,574 pounds. 

Shrimp, Mostly Frozen : Imports continued their 
upward trend. Receipts from abroad were 60 per- 
cent above those of the first quarter of 1958. Mex- 
ico was the leading source, shipping 55 percent of 
the total. Japan, with an impressive gain, followed 
Panama in quantity of shrimp supplied. 

Lobster, Fresh, or Frozen : In the first quarter 
of 1959, lobster imports from Canada were 35 per- 
cent less than in the first quarter of 1958; spiny- 
lobster Imports from other countries were 11 per- 
cent greater. Increased spiny-lobster imports 
from Australia and New Zealand offset decreased 
imports from the Union of South Africa. 

Sea Scallops, Fresh or Frozen : Imports for the 
first three months of 1959 were double those of the 
same period of 1958. More than two-thirds of the 
increase was the result of higher receipts from 
Japan. 

Canned Sardines : With increased shipments 
from Norway and Portugal, imports of canned in 
oil for January to March 1959 were 29 percent a- 
bove those of January to March 1958. Because of 
greater domestic supplies of canned California 
sardines not in oil, first quarter imports of that 
product were much below imports for the first 
quarter of 1958. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



49 



Canned Salmon : During the first quarter of 
1959, imports were up 8 percent over the same 
period of 1958. Japan's share of this trade rose 
to 94 percent; Canada's share fell to 6 percent. 

Canned Crabmeat : January to March 1959 Im- 
ports were 39 percent above those of the similar 
period in 1958. Japan supplied almost the entire 
amount. 

Oysters ( Mostly Canned ) ; Imports during the 
first quarter of 1959 were 60 percent above those 
during the similar period of 1958. As with canned 
crabmeat, nearly all came from Japan. 

Fish Meal: Imports during the first quarter 
were more than double those of the first quarter 
of 1958. Receipts from Peru continued at an in- 
creased rate thereby making that country the lead- 
ing foreign source of this product, as it was in 
1958. During the first three months of 1959 re- 
ceipts from Angola and Canada were about twice 
those of the same period of 1958. 

EXPORTS OF SELECTED FISHERY PRODUCTS , 
JANUARY - MARCH 1959: Canned Sardines, Not in 
Oil : Exports for the first quarter of 1959 were a- 



bout four times those of the same period of 1958. 
Due to the improved pilchard catch in the 1958 sea- 
son, larger supplies of canned California sardines 
were available for export. 

Canned Mackerel and Anchovies : Reduced sup- 
plies of these products resulted in lower exports 
as compared with the same 1958 period, and much 
lower compared with the same 1957 period. 

Canned Salmon: During the first three months 
of 1959, canned salmon exports were nearly nine 
times those of the like period of 1958. The prima- 
ry reason for the increase was exceptionally large 
shipments (2,131,579 pounds) to the Philippines in 
March 1959. 

Canned Squid : During the first three months 
of 1959, exports were 74 percent below those of 
the comparable period of 1958. The Philippines, 
which has been the main market for this product. 
Imported larger amounts. 

Fish Oils , Inedible : Primarily as a result of 
lower sales to the three leading markets--West 
Germany, the Netherlands, and Canada- -exports 
of fish oils during the first quarter of 1959 were 
29 percent below those of the same period of 1958. 



;|c 5[< 5|c :^ 5[< 



VALUE OF FISHING TACKLE IMPORTS HIGHEST ON 
RECORD : United States imports of sport fishing tackle, e- 
quipment, andparts in 1958 amounted to $6,853,403 for an 
all-time high. This amount represents an 11.5-percent in- 
crease over 1957 imports and more than a fourfold increase 
over 1950, according to the Consumer Durable Goods Di- 
vision, U. S. Department of Commerce. 

Reel imports, which numbered 1,504,453, valued at 
$3,593,288, acounted for more than half of the value of all 
tackle imports. Although 1,070,190 reels from Japan, valued 
at $1,067,466. far exceeded imports from any other country 
numerically, the value of reels from France exceeded those 



from Japan by about 47 percent. Imports of French reels in 
1958 numbered 294,488 and were valued at $1,566,334. Jap- 
anese reels averaged 99 cents each and French reels $5.32; 
however, reels from Western Germany topped the average 
price of all at $8.11 each. U.S. imports of West German 
reels numbered 22,862, and were valued at $185,431. 

Two other classes of imports exceeded $1 million each 
and with the reels accounted for almost 90 percent of the 
year's imports: hooks, other than snelled, $1,117,269; 
and the "basket" class including snelled hooks, artificial 
baits and flies, and fly boxes, $1,300,825. 



Wholesale Prices, May 1959 



Wholesale prices from April to May this year showed no sig- 
nificant change over-all, but they were somewhat lower than a 
year earlier. Prices for fresh salt-water fish were higher in 
most instances, while processed frozen fishery products prices 
were lower. Demand was good, but catches were unusually 
light for this time of year. The May 1959 edible fish and shell- 
fish (fresh, frozen, and canned) wholesale price index (121.7 
percent of the 1947-49 average) was only 0.8 percent less than 
the previous month and 5.4 percent lower than in the same 
month of 1958. 

With lower landings of salt-water fish, especially in the 
New England area, prices for certain fresh processed fish 
and shellfish products, like haddock fillets, in May rose a- 
bove those reported in April, but most prices were lower than 
ayear earlier. On the other hand, fresh-water fish prices in 
May were lower than in April, when higher prices prevailed 
because of the Jewish holidays. Since there was a very sub- 
stantial drop in the landings of haddock at Boston, prices for 
fresh large drawn haddock rose (27.6 percent) in May, but 
they were lower (4.6 percent) than for the same month of 1958. 
With the arrival of fresh halibut on the market in May, prices 
for that fish were higher (4.8 percent) than in April and just 
slightly higher than in 1958. Salmon landings continued light 
in May and prices rose (1.6 percent) above April, but they 
were significantly lower (3.2 percent) than in the same month 
of 1958. The May 1959 wholesale price index for the drawn, 
dressed, and whole finfish subgroup rose 2.5 percent over the 



previous month, but was 1.9 percent lower than for the same 
month of 1958. 

Among the fresh processed fish, small haddock fillets re- 
flected the lower haddock landings in New England with 
prices in May 21.0 percent higher than in April, but 4.2 per- 




cent lower than in May 1958. Some improvement in shi .mp 
landings and a slight decrease in demand caused the shrimp 
prices in May to drop slightly below those in April and 
dropped 8.9 percent below May 1958. There was almost no 
change in the fresh processed fish and shellfish subgroup in- 
dex from April to May this year, but it was 4.4 percent lower 
than in the same month of 1958. 

Improvements in stocks and Increased imports of frozen 
processed fishery products were the causes attributed to the 



50 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



general drop in prices from April to May, and those prices 
were also lower than in May 1958. Frozen haddock fillet 
prices dropped(7.0 percent) from April to May and they were 
also lower (2.9 percent) than in the sameperiod of 1958. Fro- 
zen shrimp prices at Chicago in May were lower (8.2 percent) 
than in April and 16 percent lower than in May 1958 when 
prices had reached a rather high level. From April to May 
1958, the wholesale price indexfor processed frozenfish and 
shellfish dropped 6.4 percent and was 10.7 percent lower than 
in the same period of 1958. 

From April to May there were only slight changes in the 
prices for canned fishery products, but compared with a 
year earlier the price changes were more significant. Canned 
salmon prices were fairly steady with indications that canned 



pink salmon prices might strengthen in June. With substan- 
tial stocks and in spite of the tuna fleet tie-up on the West 
Coast, canned tuna prices dropped 1.8 percent from April to 
May and were 7.3 percent lower than in the same period of 
1958, California sardine and Maine sardine prices rose in 
May. Export sales of California sardines picked up, while 
the new season for Maine sardines which opened on April 15 
had not yet really started because early season landings in 
Maine were light. Compared to May 1958, when the available 
stocks were very light, California sardine prices this May 
were 36.6 percent lower. On the other hand, Maine sardine 
prices this May were 11.3 percent higher than in May 1958 
because of light stocks and a good demand. The over-all 
canned fishery products subgroup index in May 1958 was 5.5 
percent lower than in the same month a year earlier. 



Table 1 - Wholesale Average Prices and Indexes for Edible Fish and Shellfish, May 1959 with Comparisons 


Groi5), Subgroup, and Item Specification 


Point of 
Pricing Unit 


Avg. Pricesl/ 
($) 


Indexes 
(1947-49=100) 


i^LL FISH & SHELLFISH (Fresh, Frozen, & Canned) . . 






May 
1959 


Apr. 
1959 


May 
1959 

121.7 


Apr. 
1959 

122.7 


Mar. 
1959 

128.2 


May 
1958 

128.6 




Fresh & Frozen Fishery Products: 


138.1 


139.6 


148.8 


146.0 


Drawn, Dressed, or Whole Hnfish; 


145.5 


141.9 


153.6 


148.3 


Haddock, Ige., offshore, drawn, fresh 

Halibut, West., 20/80 lbs., drsd., fresh or froz. 
Salmon, king, Ige. & med., drsd., fresh or froz. 

Whitefish,L. Superior, drawn, fresh 

WhitefishJ.. Erie pound or gill net, md., fresh 
Yellow pike, L.Michigan&Huron, rnd., fresh . 


Boston 
New York 
New York 
Chicago 
New York 
New York 


lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 


.10 
.35 
.78 
.78 
.95 
.60 


.08 
.33 
.76 
.98 
1.08 
.71 


97.0 
107.0 
174.1 
192.1 
192.1 
140.7 


76.0 
102.1 
171.3 
241.7 
217.4 
166.5 


149.2 
103.1 
168.5 
166.1 
161.8 
170.0 


101.7 
106.7 
179.8 
190.9 
202.2 
111.4 


Processed,FVesh (Fish & Shellfish): 


136.4 


136.5 


145.8 


142.7 


Fillets, haddock, sml., skins on, 20-lb. tins . . 
Shrunp, Ige. (26-30 count), headless, fresh . . 
Oysters, shucked, standards 


Boston 
New York 
Norfolk 


lb. 
lb. 
gal. 


.35 

.86 

5.63 


.29 

.87 

5.75 


117.4 
136.7 
139.2 


97.0 
137.4 
142.3 


161.6 
143.8 
145.4 


122.5 
150.1 
136.1 


Processed, Frozen (Fish & Shellfish): 


119.8 


128.3 


133.9 


134.1 


Fillets: Flounder, skinless, 1-lb. pkg 

Haddock, sniL,skins on, 1-lb. pkg. . . . 

Ocean perch, skins on, 1-Ib. pkg. . . . 
Shrimp, Ige. (26-30 count), 5-lb. pkg 


Boston 
Boston 
Boston 
Chicago 


lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 


.39 
.33 
.28 
.76 


.40 
.36 
.30 
.83 


100.8 
103.6 
112.8 

117.6 


103.4 
111.4 
118.8 
128.1 


106.0 
124.0 
118.8 
132.3 


103.4 
106.7 
118.8 
140.0 


Canned Fishery Products: 


98.6 


99.0 


98.8 


104.3 


Salmon, pink, No. 1 tall (16 oz.), 48 cans/cs. . . . 
Tuna, It. meat, chunk. No. 1/2 tuna (6-1/2 oz.), 
48 cans/cs 


Seattle 
Los Angeles 
Los Angeles 
New York 


cs. 
cs. 
cs. 
cs. 


22.50 

10.80 

7.15 

8.35 


22.50 

11.00 

7.00 


117.4 
77.9 
83.9 


117.4 
79.3 
82.2 
87.5 


116.1 
79.3 
86.9 
87.5 


120.0 
84.0 

132.4 
79.8 


Sardines, Calif., torn. pack.No. 1 oval (15 oz.), 
48 cans/cs 


Sardines, Maine, keyless oil. No. 1/4 drawn 
(3-3/4 oz.), 100 cans/cs 


8.22 88.8 


1/ Represent average prices for one day (Monday or Tuesday) during the week in which the 15th of the month occurs. These 
prices are published as indicators of movement and not necessarily absolute level. Daily Market News Service "Fish- 
ery Products R^wrts" should be referred to for actual prices. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



51 




International 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 
ORGANIZATION 



USE OF ATOMIC BYPRODUCTS IN PRESERVING FOODS: 

Studies on the treatment of some foodstuffs with rela- 
tively low dosages of ionizing radiations have advanced in 
Europe to a point where some practical applications of 
the method may be developed in the reasonably near fu- 
ture provided that the wholesomeness of the treated food 
has been assured. 

A report completed by the Food and Agriculture Or- 
ganization (FAO) says, in guarded and qualified language, 
that impressive progress has been made in the past few 
years in laboratory use of radiations in extending the 
storage life of foods and in killing undesirable organisms 
in food. 

The report is a summary of the European meeting on 
the use of ionizing radiations for food preservation, held 
in November 1958 at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy 
Authority's Atomic Energy Research Establishnnent at 
Harwell. It was attended by 176 representatives of 17 
European members of FAO, and by 22 observers from five 
non-European members, and 14 international organizations. 

On the basis of review papers presented by invited 
specialists from European countries and the United States, 
the meeting surveyed the present status of food irradiation, 
evaluated the technique's potential for European countries, 
and considered the need for and possibilities of organizing 
international cooperation in research. 

The report warns that many basic problems remain 
to be solved before radiation treatment of foods for the 
extension of their storage life will be ready for widespread 
development and application. But, it points out, "a few 
possible applications of irradiation, such as the inacti- 
vation of Salmonella in egg products and of certain para- 
sites in meat, the disinfestation of grain and certain pack- 
aged products, and the suppression of sprouting in potatoes 
and root crops, are approaching the stage at which com- 
mercial exploitation might be considered, provided that 
the wholesomeness of the treated foods had been assured." 

Food irradiation was still in the stage of laboratory 
research in Europe but plans under way in the United 
States for pilot and demonstration plants "reflect confi- 
dence in the process." 

Present indications were that treatments involving 
the use of substerilizating doses of radiation, rather than 
the higher sterilizing doses, were "more likely to lead 
to practical applications in the reasonably near future." 

Treatment with moderate doses had produced a five- 
fold increase in the storage life of certain meats and meat 
products, fish, and some fruits and vegetables. The food 
poisoning organism Salmonella, frequently found in egg 
products, had been successfully killed in frozen whole egg 
pulp. The irradiation process, the report says, performs 
its work without appreciably raising the temperature and 
thereby cooking foods, and the product need not be removed 
from its package. 

Treatment with higher doses, intended to give a ster- 
ile food in which no microbial spoilage is possible, pro- 
duced changes in color, flavor, odor, and texture which 
were considered objectionable. This problem would have 



to be solved before such treatments were likely to be used 
on a wide scale. 

The meeting agreed that the potential value of food 
irradiation as a method of preservation "justified con- 
siderable investment in research." It recommended that 
European governments encourage and support such re- 
search, and that appropriate forms of international coop- 
eration in this research be established to reduce its cost. 
It asked that FAO establish a permanent technical working 
group on food irradiation to review developments in the 
field, and that the Organization set up such other technical 
groups as will be necessary to study the problem of formu- 
lating fundamental principles governing the use of irradi- 
ation and methods of testing irradiated foods for whole- 
someness; the aim would be to evolve a common basis 
for legislation on the subject in individual countries, other 
such technical groups might be formed to study microbio- 
logical and entomological aspects of food irradiation. 



>!c * 5[i: sfc * 

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS 
FOR CHEMICAL ADDITIVES 

TO FOOD PROPOSED: 

A joint committee of the Food and Ag- 
riculture Organization (FAO) and the 
World Health Organization (WHO) has 
made a move towards identifying and es- 
tablishing standards of purity on an inter- 
national basis for commonly-used chem- 
icals which are added to many foods. 

The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee 
on Food Additives which met in Rome in 
December has begun to draw up provi- 
sional specifications for a number of the 
more important food additives, with spe- 
cial reference to antimicrobial preserv- 
atives (used in fruit juices, jams, etc.) 
and antioxidants (used for stabilization of 
fats and oils). Earlier meetings of the 
joint committee had agreed that food addi- 
tives should be identifiable, and that es- 
tablished specifications of purity were 
the best means of excluding harmful im- 
purities from food additives. 

At the December meeting, delegates 
stated that specifications or standards of 
purity have been established for only a 
small portion of the increasing number 
of chemical substances which are cur- 
rently added to the world's food supply. 



52 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



International (Contd.): 

Substances added to foods, it was 
pointed out, are used for a variety of 
purposes, among them the preservation, 
flavoring, and coloration of foodstuffs. 
The joint meeting said that the identity 
and concentration of major components 
of a food additive must be known in or- 
der to carry out an effective investiga- 
tion of its properties. It drew up pro- 
visional specifications for two major 
groups of the most commonly-used food 
additives, that is the antimicrobials and 
the antioxidants. These specifications 
include the chemical name and popular 
synonym of each substance, its descrip- 
tion and chemical or structural formula, 
the percentage of each component, pro- 
posed identification tests, and accept- 
able standards of purity. 

>!« ^ :^ :^ :{e 



IMPROVED MIDWATER TRAWLING 
METHOD DEMONSTRATED: 



Promising catches of herring and sprat have been made 
with a new type of one-boat midwater trawl gear, consisting 
of a high opening nylon net, hydrofoil otter boards, and an 
echo-sounder oscillator attached to the headline of the net 
for continuous trawl depth indication and fish detection. 

This method has been perfected by a gear technologist 
on the staff of the Fisheries Division of the Food and Agri- 
culture Organization (FAO), Rome. It is based on experi- 
mental work carried out by him when a member of the Insti- 
tut fur Netz- und Materialforschung, Hamburg. 

The technologist was loaned by FAO to the Institute in De- 
cember 1958 to carry out midwater trawling experiments with 
a typical German North Sea cutter. These boats are about 
24 meters (79 feet) over-all, powered with 150 hp. engines. 
When trawling in midwater the cutters usually work in pairs, 
two boats towing one net between them. In Germany there is 
also a rather primitive one -boat method using conventional 
otter boards which are kept at the desired depth by attaching 
them to big surface floats. The experiments were concen- 
trated on improving the one-boat trawl. 

The main problem in midwater trawling has been to tow 
the net at the proper depth to catch the fish, and control the 
net so that it can be quickly raised or lowered as desired. 
The shorter the warps and the higher the towing speed, the 
higher the net will travel through the water. But this general 
rule applies only to a small degree to the one-boat trawl 
where the depth of the net has to be adjusted by changing the 
length of the strops connecting the otter boards with the sur- 
face. Furthermore, accurate adjustment of the net to the ac- 
tual depth of the fish requires continuous indication of the 
depth of the net, so that the proper action can be taken in time. 

The basic idea of the improved method is not new. It con- 
sists of attaching an oscillator (transducer) to the net and 
connecting it by cable to the echo-sounding unit installed on 
board. 

An echo-sounder oscillator attached to the bosom part of 
the headline to sound downwards indicates not only the depth 
of the net but also the position of the foot-rope and the fish in 
the net- opening and below the net, as well as the sea bottom. 

This enables the fisherman to know the depth of the net, 
check if the gear is operating properly, and to see if the fish 
in the path of the net are really caught. With some experi- 
ence, he should be able to estimate the rate of catch and so 
determine the right time for hauling. These very obvious ad- 



vantages make it much easier to accept the slight trouble of 
handling an extra cable. 

The experimental net had an opening height of 8 to 10 
meters (26-33 feet) and, to improve its manoeuverability, 
hydrofoil otter boards, designed by F, Suberkriib, Hamburg, 
were used. These provide a good sheer at a considerably 
lower drag as compared with the conventional boards. The 
warp is attached above the center of the board which gives 
an inward tilt, the lift varying with the towing speed. This 
increases considerably the influence of speed variations on 
the depth of the net, and enables the captain to regulate the 
depth through engine control. 

This new gear combination enables the captain to practice 
"aimed" fishing in what has hitherto been mostly a blind 
operation. 

The captain of the cutter chartered for the experiments was 
soon able to handle the gear and, since the experiments, has 
successfully fished with it on a commercial scale. He has 
often caught the same amount, or even more, than have the 
pair-trawl boats fishing nearby. 

German deep-sea trawler companies are very interested 
in midwater trawling for herring, particularly as an addi- 
tional method for craft of 400 to 500 British registered tons 
and 600 to 800 hp., which are not suitable for fishing on 
the distant grounds off Greenland, Newfoundland, and La- 
brador. 

Considering the promising results of the cutter experi- 
nnent, it was advisable to test this type of gear with a medi- 
um-sized deep-sea trawler, too. The experiments were 
carried out with a steam trawler of 4,000 BRT and 600 hp, 
in the northern North Sea during February 1959. A very 
big and light nylon trawl was made which worked with an 
opening height of 12 to 14 meters (39-46 feet). Basically the 
same echo-sounder oscillator arrangement was used but 
with an automatic electric winch, which was essential for 
handling the 400-fathom cable needed for fishing at about 
110 fathoms. 

The method proved to be applicable for these bigger craft 
and valuable experience was gained for future improvements. 
Catches of up to 3 1/2 tons of herring per haul were made, 
which were considered fairly good in view of the limited 
size and density of the schools present. 

An interesting innovation was tested during these trials, 
that of an oscillator on the trawl headline transmitting concur- 
rently up to the surface and down to the bottom. This gives 
the captain much better information on the actual trawl 
depth. Irregularities of the bottom profile may be mistaken 
for net movements and vice versa but the indication of 
the trawl's distance from the surface eliminates this dif- 
ficulty completely. 

The result of these experiments, financed by the German 
Ministry of Agriculture on request of the German fishing in- 
dustry, is a big step forward in improving the technique of 
commercial midwater trawling. 

It is likely that this method of "aimed" trawling may lead 
to exploiting pelagic fish resources which have not been, or 
only to a limited extent, fished so far. 

GENERAL AGREEMENT 
ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 

FOURTEENTH SESSION OF 
THE CONTRACTING PARTIES: 

Important issues of Internationa 1 
trade policy confronted the thirty-seven 
countries that are signatory to the Gen- 
eral Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(GATT) when they convened in Geneva 
on May 11, 1959, for their 14th General 
Session. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



53 



International (Contd.): 

Among the major issues requiring ac- 
tion is the United States proposal that 
the Contracting Parties undertake anoth- 
er general round of tariff negotiations in 
1960. 

The steady improvement in Western 
Europe's payments position in recent 
years has raised certain issues for the 
Contracting Parties. The GATT speci- 
fies that with certain exceptions quanti- 
tative restrictions should be used to cur- 
tail imports only when required to safe- 
guard a country's foreign exchange re- 
serves by bringing payments back into 
balance with receipts. 

A third intersessional committee 
charged with responsibility for recom- 
mending ways to expand international 
trade with particular reference to the 
exports of less-developed countries, will 
submit its work program to the Contract- 
ing Parties. 

The request of Yugoslavia to partici- 
pate in the work of the Contracting Par- 
ties on an associate basis will also come 
up at the 14th Session. While not prepared 
to assume the full obligations of a contract- 
ing party to the GATT, the Yugoslavs 
would like to bring their trade and their 
commercial procedures more closely in- 
to line with those of the other GATT sig- 
natories, and are seeking to do so through 
a form of associate participation. 

In addition, the Session will deal with 
a number of other matters including actions 
taken by certain Latin American countries 
to supplement their effective tariff rates 
by the imposition of surcharges, the ap- 
plication of Israel for accession to the 
GATT, further consideration of the im- 
pact of the overseas territories provi- 
sions of the Rome Treaty on the trade of 
third countries, a number of complaints 
by governments against specific actions 
taken by other governments, and various 
proposals for improving procedures. 

NORTHWEST ATLANTIC 
FISHERIES COMMISSION 

ANNUAL MEETING IN MONTREAL : 

The Ninth Annual Meeting of the Inter- 
national Commission for the Northwest 



Atlantic Fisheries was held in Montreal, 
Canada, in the week beginning June 1, 
1959. From May 26-30, the Standing 
Committee on Research and Statistics 
and the Groups of Scientific Advisers to 
Panels 3, 4, and 5 met. In order to fa- 
cilitate the work of the various research 
groups several ad-hoc committees and 
the chairmen were appointed in advance 
to make preparations for the formal meet- 
ings. 

Commissioners, advisers, and experts 
from the 12 member countries partici- 
pated in the meeting. The Commission 
invited the following to send observers: 
The Food and Agriculture Organization; 
International Council for the Exploration 
of the Sea; International Fisheries Con- 
vention 1946; International North Pacific 
Fisheries Commission; International Pa- 
cific Halibut Commission; International 
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission; 
Great Lakes Fisheries Commission; Po- 
land; and World Meteorological Organi- 
zation. 

3!« i\t >|C ^ 5jc 

MORE COUNTRIES TO FISH ON 
NORTHWEST ATLANTIC 
FISHING GROUNDS: 




The Polish fishing industry, which has 
been expanding rapidly during recent years, 
expects to extend its 
activities to the 
Northwest Atlantic 
area this coming 
summer. Due to 
the extension of 
fishing to the banks 
off eastern North 
America, Poland has 
become interested in 
the work of the International Commission 
for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries. 
The Commission has invited Poland to 
send observers to the Commission's 1959 
annual meeting. 

The Belgiums are looking for new fish- 
ing grounds since the extension of Ice- 
land's territorial waters to 12 miles. 
Recently a Belgium fishing firm sent two 
trawlers to test the fishing grounds off 
Labrador. The vessels found the grounds 
so rich in ocean perch stocks that capac- 
ity loads of 250 metric tons were taken 
in seven days. 



54 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



International (Contd.): 

The two trawlers are new and large 
enough to permit fishing trips of up to 30 
days. They are fully equipped to permit 
filleting, freezing, and salting of the catch 
as well as the manufacture of fish meal. 
The Belgium firm plans to send smaller 
trawlers from its fleet to the Banks off 
Labrador and Newfoundland and to the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence as a result of the 
successful initial trips of the two large 
vessels. 

Brazil has acquired three large trawlers 
intended for fishing on banks off the United 
States and Canada. A special port with 
processing facilities has been established 
to handle the catches of these vessels. This 
is a new venture for Brazil which has in 
the past imported its salt cod. 

In addition to the above, Cuba has started 
to fish for cod in the Northwest Atlantic. 

5!c ^ sic J,^ >[C 

PROTOCOL AMENDING CON- 
VENTION ENTERS INTO FORCE: 

The protocol (dated at Washington 
June 25, 1956) between the United States 
of America and other countries, amend- 
ing the International Northwest Atlantic 
Fisheries Convention of February 8, 1949, 
entered into force on January 10, 1959. 

NORTHWEST PACIFIC 
FISHERIES COMMISSION 

JAPANESE NORTH PACIFIC SALMON 
MOTHERSHIP QUOTA FOR 1959: 

The third annual meeting of the Jap- 
anese-Soviet Commission for Northwest 
Pacific Fisheries came to an end on 
May 13, the 122nd day since negotiations 
began, with acceptance by Japan of a 
salmon catch quota in the treaty area of 
85,000 metric tons. Despite Japan's in- 
itial request for a 165,000-ton quota, on 
the grounds that 1959 is a peaJt year in 
pink salmon abundance, she finally ac- 
cepted, in the face of unyielding Soviet 
insistence that the salmon resources of 
the Far East are decliningunder the pres- 
sure of the Japanese fishery, a quota 
considerably below last year's 110,000 
tons and the 1957 quota of 120,000 tons. 



In addition, the Japanese consented to 
a number of other restrictions on their high- 
seas fishery. The process of closingfish- 
ing grounds to Japanese fleets, which re- 
sulted in their being completely shut out 
from the Sea of Okhotsk at the 1958 ne- 
gotiations, has now spread to the Pacific, 
with establishment of a new closed area 
north of 48 N. between the Kuriles and 
160 E. The closed waters around the 
Komandorski Island have also been slight- 
ly widened. The Japanese have under- 
taken to enlarge the mesh of their nets to 
65 millimeters (2.56 inches) knot-to-knot 
over a four-year period beginning in 1960 
and to begin studies leading to an increase 
in net-twine diameter. The 1959 red salm- 
on catch quota has been cut to 8 million 
fish from last year's 11 million, with the 
additional proviso that not more than 2.5 
million of these are to be taken west of 
165 E. 

The 16 canneryships and 460 fishing 
boats were due to sail on May 15. The sail- 
ing may be delayed, however, unless can- 
neryship operators and fishingvessel own- 
ers come to a speedy agreement on fish 
prices. Since it has not been possible to 
reduce the participating fleets below last 
year 's level, despite the sharply reduced 
total catch limit, the fishing boat operators 
are seeking an increase in fish prices of a- 
bout 25 percent to enable them to break 
even at the expected average catch per 
boat. In any event, it is being predicted that 
there will have to be a thorough reorganiza- 
tion and a considerable reduction of the fish- 
ery before next season, and the boat owners 
who expect to be squeezed out are already 
beginning to talk of seeking compensation 
from the Japanese Government, the United 
States Embassy in Tokyo reported on 
May 15, 1959. 

sjc sic sjc a[c sjc 

JAPAN PROPOSES CUT IN 
SALMON QUOTA AT MEETING : 

A North Pacific salmon catch quota of 
90,000 tons for this year was proposed by 
Japan May 10, 1959, at the 38th session of 
the Commission meeting in Tokyo. The 
Japanese also proposed a quota of 80,000 
tons for 1960. The Russians referred the 
proposal to Moscow. Originally Japan had 
asked for a quota of 160,000 tons for this 
season and gradually scaled it down 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



55 



International (Contd.): 

to 110,000 tons. On the other hand, Rus- 
sia insisted that the quota be 70,000 tons. 

Japan decided to scale down her salm- 
on quota in order to avoid prolonged ne- 
gotiations because the salmon fishing 
season was about to start. Japanese 
salmon fishing fleets were ready to sail 
from Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan's north- 
ernmost main island, as soon as approval 
was granted by the Japanese Government 

Russians told the Japanese that next 
year's catch should be decided on the ba- 
sis of the status of the fish resources 
when the Commission meets next year. 

On May 10 the Commission adopted 
two resolutions (1) urging both govern- 
ments to conduct a joint scientific sur- 
vey of salmon, salmon trout, herring, 
and crab resources, and (2) to exchange 
scientists and fishery experts. 

By late April it was reported that, in 
addition to what had been agreed upon by 
that time, the Russians were attempting 
to get agreement from Japan for estab- 
lishing a fish corridor stretching from 
the entrance to Onekotan Channel up to 
longitude 160 E. in the Pacific and an- 
other corridor stretching from the en- 
trance to UruD Channel eastward up to 
longitude 160 E. The Russians had in- 
dicated that if Japan would agree to es- 
tablishing those corridors to permit 
spawning salmon to migrate to the Rus- 
sian streams unmolested, the Japanese 
salmon catch quota might be increased 
from the Russian proposal of 70,000 met- 
ric tons. On the other hand, the Japan- 
ese lowered their original quota of 
165,000 tons to 130,000 tons. 

At that time, in view of the trend of the 
negotiations, the Japanese salmon indus- 
try agreed to reduce its salmon mother- 
ship fleet in the North Pacific from 16 to 13. 

INTERNATIONAL WHALING 
COMMISSION 

PROTOCOL TO WHALING CON- 
VENTION RATIFIED BY BRAZIL : 

The protocol amending the Internation- 
al Whaling Convention of 1946, done in 
Washington on November 19, 1956, has 



been ratified by Brazil and deposited with 
the U. S. Department of State on May 4, 
1959. The ratification of the protocol by 
Brazil completed the required number of 
signatory countries and the protocol en- 
tered into force on that date pursuant to 
Article III (2), the U. S. Department of 
State reported on May 5, 1959. 

UNITED NATIONS 

STATISTICS ON FISH LANDED 
IN FOREIGN CO UNTR IES: 

Statistics on fish landed by fishing 
craft of one country in ports other than 
those belonging to that country are treat- 
ed differently by various countries. Since 
it is desirable that those landings be in- 
cluded in national fishery statistics in a 
uniform manner, the eighth session of 
the United Nations Statistical Commis- 
sion in 1954 recommended as follows: 

"Wherever the size of landings is of 
importance and wherever it is possible 
to do so, countries should include in their 
import statistics fish landed directly from 
foreign fishing craft and include in their 
export statistics fish landed abroad by 
'domestic fishing craft'." 

The ninth session of the United Nations 
Statistical Commission endorsed the pro- 
posal in 1956. 

At the Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion meeting on fishery statistics in Ed- 
inburgh, Scotland, in September 1958, a 
review will be made of the progress the 
various nations have made in adopting 
the recommendation. 

WHALING 

THREE WHALING NATIONS DISCUSS 
ANTARCTIC QUOTA PROBLEM: 

Representatives of the whaling indus- 
tries of Norway, Japan, and Great Brit- 
ain met in Oslo on April 24 and 25, 1959. 
In a release to the press by the Norwe- 
gian Whaling Association it was stated 
that the discussions were a continuation 
of the talks held in Tokyo last February 
between representatives of the Norwegian 
and Japanese industries in regard to the 
question of the distribution of the whale 
quota among the whaling nations. No 
agreement was reached during the Oslo 
discussions, but it is expected that the 



56 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



International (Contd.): 

matter will be brought to a conclusion 
at a meeting of the representatives of 
the Governments of Great Britain, Japan, 
the Netherlands, and Norway in London 
in the near future, the release stated. 

***** 

FOUR NATIONS FAIL TO REACH 
AGREEMENT ON ANTARCTIC 
BLUE -WHALE UNI T QUOTA: 

Government and whaling industry rep- 
resentatives from Japan, Norway, the 
United Kingdom, and the Netherlands met 
in Tokyo May 18-22, 1959, todiscuss the 
allocation of the 1960 Antarctic baleen 
whale catch among their fleets. The con- 
ference stemmed from the decision taken 
by the five Antarctic whaling nations at 
London in November 1958 to abandon the 
practice of free competition for the whales 
under an over-all catch limit set by the 
International Whaling Commission. Be- 
cause this free competition was causing 
financial distress to some of the Euro- 
pean whaling companies, it was decided 
at the London conference to allot 20 per- 
cent (3,000 units) of the total catch quota 
of 15,000 blue-whale units to the Soviet 
Union, on condition that the Soviet fleets 
would not be increased unduly in the next 
few years. The Tokyo conference failed 
to solve the problem of allocating the re- 
maining 12,000 blue-whale units among 
the four other countries. 

A number of preliminary meetings- - 
one between Norwegians and Japanese at 
Tokyo in February 1959, one at Oslo a- 
mong Japanese, British, and Norwegians 
late in April 1959, and one at Amster- 
dam between the Norwegians and Dutch 
early in May 1959--failed to reconcile 
the various claims by those nations to 
what they consider their fair share of the 
whale catch. According to Tokyo trade 
press sources, the most active line of 
maneuvering has been a Japanese attempt 
to induce the Norwegians to retire three 
fleets and sell their catch rights to Ja- 
pan, with the Norwegians simultaneous- 
ly trying to buy the single Netherlands 
whaling fleet. Each country is, of course, 
demanding an allocation that would guar- 
antee profitable operation of its fleets. 



It is expected that the International 
Whaling Commission, to which 17 nations 
belong (including the United States) will 
try to find a solution at its annual meet- 
ing scheduled for June 24 in London. At 
that time there will be only six days be- 
fore the June 30 deadline, when the con- 
ditional withdrawals of Japan, the Nether- 
lands, and Norway from the International 
Whaling Convention become effective. 
These conditional withdrawals were made 
as bargaining moves in the struggle for 
catch allocations, but if they are carried 
through, the Antarctic whale stocks will 
in effect be exposed to unlimited exploita- 
tion. It is generally accepted that un- 
limited catching would soon reduce the 
resource to the point where only the State- 
supported fleets could afford to continue 
operations, the United States Embassy 
in Tokyo reported on May 15, 1959. 

According to a dispatch from Agence 
France Press , the chairman of the Nor- 
wegian Whaling Council, who headed the 
6-member Norwegian delegation to the 
non-productive Tokyo talks, said that 
Great Britain offered to reduce its share 
of the undistributed 12,000 blue-whale 
units from 2,250 to 2,200 units, while 
Norwegian negotiators indicated willing- 
ness to cut Norway's quota by 100 units, 
subject to government approval, to make 
it 5,000. The Netherlands and Japan, on 
the other hand, adhered to their demands 
of 1,200 and 4,900 units, respectively. 
The limit for the annual catch is set each 
year by the 18 -nation International Whal- 
ing Commission. 

Meanwhile, the Norwegian Whaling 
Council has published No. 41 and No. 42 
of International Whaling Statistics, show- 
ing the decline in the number of blue 
whales caught in the Antarctic during the 
period between February 1 and March 4, 
in percentage of the combined blue whale 
and finback catch. In the 1931/32 season, 
blue whales constituted 61.9 percent of 
the catch. In the last season before World 
War II, 1937/38, the percentage dropped to 
16.5 percent. Since the war, through the 
1951/52 season, the percentage of blue 
whales varied between 31.9 and 22.9, with 
a radical drop in the following sixseasona. 
In 1955/56 the blue whale percentage waS 
down to 11.5 and for the entire 1957/58 sea- 
son it was only 6.3 percent. 

Note: One blue-whale unit equals 1 blue whale, 2 finbacks, 
Z'z hiunpbacks, or 6 sei whales. 



c=3t.i«OCIK> 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



57 



Aden 

FISHERIES TRENDS, 1958: 

During 1958 the Aden Colony Fisher- 
ies Department program for moderniza- 
tion of the fishing industry continued to 
meet with success. Three additional 
boats were mechanized and four more 
were in the process of being mechanized. 
The fleet of mechanized fishing vessels 
numbered 27 as of the end of the year. 
In addition, nylon nets continued to re- 
place nets made of cotton or hemp and 
during the year 70 nylon nets were pur- 
chased by the fishermen. 

Biological and technical studies car- 
ried out during the year indicated that 
good fishing grounds existed 10-15 miles 
offshore. The problem faced by the Fish- 
eries Department was ways and means of 
inducing the conservative fishermen to 
give up their old habit of fishing close to 
shore and try new and more distant 
grounds. The technologists of the De- 
partment prepared and shipped a sample 
of pickled mackerel to Zanzibar. The 
shipment was well received and once the 
new fish processing station is completed 
a new export market may be developed. 

The amount of cured fish produced 
for export increased to 3,121 long tons 
as compared with 2,750 tons in 1957. 
Fish meal exports in 1958 reached 478 
tons and showed a satisfactory increase 
for the third year in a row. The fisher- 
ies officers are hoping that the effect of 
the summer monsoon season on the catch 
will be offset in the future by moderniza- 
tion of the fishing fleet, the United States 
Consul at Aden reported on February 26, 
1959. 



American Samoa 

MORE KOREANS FISH 
FOR TUNA CANNERY : 

The first Korean tuna long-line vessel 
to fish for the tuna cannery in American 
Samoa arrived early in 1958, and a sec- 
ond vessel arrived in September 1958. 
Six additional Korean vessels were re- 
ported to be scheduled to enter this fish- 
ery under contract to the tuna cannery 
( Pacific Islands Monthly, March 1959). 



The American Samoa cannery is operated 
by a United States west coast tuna can- 
ning company. 



Australia 

TUNA FIRM CONDUCTS SURVEY OF 
CONSUMER EATING HABITS: 



As part of a campaign to sell more 
fish, a New South Wales tuna canning 
firm with factories at Eden and Narooma, 
is sponsoring a survey of the eating hab- 
its of Australians. Although the survey 
is incomplete, early returns indicate that 
about 52 percent of the Australian fami- 
lies eat fresh or frozen fish — about three 
times as much fresh as frozen, and most- 
ly prefer flathead and bream. At least 
96 percent of the families interviewed 
eat some kind of canned fish. The com- 
plete survey will cover thousands of fam- 
ilies and the results will be analyzed by 
the University of New South Wales. 

Most of the big chain food stores are 
featuring canned tuna in weekly specials 
and the tuna cannery sales manager states 
that sales are booming. The special price 
for a large can of tuna is 2s.5^d. (about 
27.5 U. S. cents.) 

The New South Wales tuna canning 
company handled about 2,000 long tons 
of tuna in 1958. A determined effort will 
be made to develop an export trade in 
frozen tuna to the United States. Repre- 
sentatives of the firm were in the United 
States in April surveying prospects for 
frozen- tuna exports. 

* >i= * * * 

TUNA LANDINGS HIGHER 
IN 1958/59 SEASON: 

Landings of tuna from the late fall and 
winter fishery off South Australia and 
New South Wales were over 2,369 tons, 
or more than 68 percent higher than the 
1,495 tons reported from the same areas 
the previous season. The landings in 
South Australia and New South Wales 
make up about 90 percent of the tuna 
landed in Australia. 

Most of the tuna landed in Australia 
is canned or frozen. As a result of an 



58 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Australia (Contd.): 

early 1959 visit of an Australian trade 
mission to the United States, there is 
some prospect that tuna shipments to 
west coast United States canners will be 
resumed. The last shipments were made 
on a trial basis in 1951 and 1955. As 
the catch of tuna in Australia is limited 
at the present time by lack of freezer 
space in Australian fishing ports, ex- 
ports of all types of tuna (frozen and 
canned) to the United States and other 
countries will not exceed 2,000 tons. 
(United States Embassy in Canberra re- 
ported on May 6, 1959.) 

^ :^i; i'fi sfc sjc 

FISH CANNING INDUSTRY : 

Australia imported large quantities of 
canned fish before World War II. During 
the war years, much effort was put into 
developing the fish canning industry. To 
protect its young industry, the Govern- 
ment imposed restrictions on the im- 
ports of canned fish. This hurt several 
exporting nations, especially Norway. 

At present, Australia has 17 fish can- 
ning factories. Most of them were built 
recently and are equipped with the most 
modern facilities, including refrigera- 
tion units for storage. A few factories 
have special installations for holdingfish 
in sea water at temperatures of -1 C. 
(32 -34 F.), which keeps fish fresh for 
7 or 8 days. 

Annual fishery production in Australia 
amounts to about 400,000 metric tons of 
fish and 14,000 tons of crustaceans. Aus- 
tralia imports about 8,000 tons of refrig- 
erated or frozen fish a year. Production 
of canned fish totals about 3,000 tons 
annually, but an additional 3,000 is im- 
ported each year to satisfy the demand 
( Industria Conserva , Vigo, Spain, Janu- 
ary 1959). 



PLAN TO USE HELICOPTERS 
TO PICK UP SHRIMP FROM 
FISHING VESSELS AT SEA: 

Helicopters may soon be used as de- 
livery vans for shrimp from the Rock- 
hampton grounds off Queensland, Aus- 
tralia. Under a plan now being worked 



out, a helicopter will be sent to the shrimp 
fleet in Keppel Bay to pick up catches 
from the boats for immediate delivery to 
markets. The helicopter was expected to 
begin operations when shrimp fishing be- 
gan in the Keppel Bay area in April or 
May. Hovering over trawlers, the heli- 
copter will haul the baskets of shrimp up 
from the boats on a winch-powered cable 
and hook. The helicopter would also take 
supplies out to the shrimp boats to en- 
able them to stay at sea longer. 




Belgium 

CONSUMPTION OF FISHERY 
PRODUCTS, 1958: 



During 1958 the consumption of fish- 
ery products in Belgium amounted to 
117,099 metric tons (about 258 million 



Table 1 - Belqium's Consumption of Fishery Products, 19581 




Fresh 


Processed 


Carmed 


Total 1 


Consumption of 


(Metric Tonsl 1 


Market Fish: 


9,246 


12, 289 




21,535 


Herrinqi/ . . 
Spratl/ • . . 


1,756 


- 


_ 


1,756 


Mackerell/ . 


1,341 


168 


- 


1,509 


Pilchards!/ . 


65 




2,646 


2,711 


Sardinesl/- ■ 


_ 


- 


3,648 


3,648 


Salmonl/ • • 


_ 


- 


3,601 


3,601 


Other fish . . 


1/46,577 


641 


4,994 


52,212 


Total fish • ■ 


58; 985 


13,098 


14,889 


86,972 


Consumption of 










Shellfish:^ 










Shrimp . . 


3, 157 


- 


- 


3,157 


Lobster & 










Crawfish. . 


493 


- 


1,636 


2,129 


Mussels . . . 


21,761 


- 


- 


21,761 


Oysters . . . 


1,440 


- 


- 


1,440 


Other shellfish 


1,640 


_ 


- 


1,640 


Total shellfish 


28,491 


- 


1,636 


30, 127 


1/ Bulk used for 


canning . 








2/ Nearly all co 


nsumed fre 


:sh. 







pounds). The total included 86,972 tons 
of marine finfish and 30, 127 tons of shell- 
fish (United States Consulate in Antwerp, 
report dated May 13, 1959.) 

* * * * * 

IMPORTED CANNED 
TUNA PRICES, MAY 1959: 



Imported canned tuna prices c.i.f. 
Antwerp, Belgium, early in May 1959 were 
as follows: all solid pack in oil, 48 cans /cs. 
Japan: lightmeat, 7-oz. US$7.00 and 3^oz. 
$3.80; whitemeat, 7-oz. $8. 00 and 3^ oz. 
$4.25; and Peru: lightmeat, 7-oz. $6.30 
and 3| oz. $3.80. About all the tuna im- 
ported into Belgium comes from Japan 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



59 



Belgium (Contd.)r 

and Peru, the United States Consul in 
Antwerp reported on May 13, 1959. 




Brazil 

NEW FISH PROCESSING PLANT: 

A new fish processingplant was sched- 
uled to begin operations in June near the 
town of Maracana which is located on the 
Brazilian coast about 60 miles northeast 
of Belem and near the mouth of the Ama- 
zon River. The new plant expects to 
process fish and shellfish caught in the 
Amazon River and its tributaries and 
from the Atlantic Ocean. This fish plant 
will be the first of its kind to operate in 
that area. Processing operations will 
include the freezing of fish and shellfish, 
the drying of "pirarucu" for sale in Bel- 
em and the Braganca railroad region, 
canned fish for export, and possibly the 
importation of cod for further process- 
ing. 

British Honduras 

FISHERY PRODUCTS 
EXPORTS HIGHER IN 1958 ; 

Exports of fishery products from Brit- 
ish Honduras were higher in 1958. Ex- 
ports of fish remained steady, but spiny 
lobster exports increased from US$178,000 
in 1957 to more than $225,000 in 1958. 
Exports in 1955 were valued at only 
$90,000, Reasons for the increase were 
due to a better "run" and less "anarchy" 
in the local industry, resulting in a more 
intensive effort. 

There is now only one purchaser for 
packing and export. The Government ap- 
parently believes there is room for one 
more concessionaire although the reasons 
for this belief appear to be based on the 
desire for competition and the fact that 
the 1958 catch was relatively good. Near- 
ly all of the entire catch of spiny lobsters 
is shipped by air to the United States. 
Fishing methods remain primitive al- 
though the one concessionaire (an Ameri- 
can-owned company) has some modern 




equipment. Most of the catch is made by 
small privately-owned fishing sailboats. 



Canada 



DOGFISH ERADICATION PROGRAM DISAPPOINTING: 

Canada's west coast dogfish eradication and subsidy pro- 
gram, which ended March 31 after three months of fishing, 
was "very disappointing," according to a fisheries depart- 
ment spokesman in Vancouver, B. C, 

A total of 2,470 tons of the shark-like predators was 
taken in two separate operations on dogfish populations in 
the Gulf of Georgia. Biologists estimated that to keep the 
population under control, about 30,000 tons of dogfish should 
be killed every year. 

British Columbia fishery interests, despite the failure of 
the three-months fishery, are asking the government to re- 
establish the program. The groups want a $250,000 fund to 
be set up again and the operation spread over a full calendar 
year. Reports of trawler skippers who took part in this win- 
ter's fishery indicatethat dogfish are not present in the Gulf 
during the winter months, and they say that a summer and 
faU fishery would be much more productive. 

Only $67,300 of the $250,000 set aside for the program was 
used during the winter's fishery. The time limit set on the 
subsidy program was up on March 31, and on that date the 
remainder of the money went back into general funds. The 
killing program, using chartered trawlers, was split into 
two separate fishing periods. The first (from January 19 to 
February 15) was the most disappointing, with 5 boats taking 
less than 250 tons. The second part of the program (from 
March 9 to 31) was more successful, with only 3 boats taking 
about the same tonnage in the shorter period. Boats lost 5 
days of fishing in this second phase because of seasonal bad 
weather in the Gulf, which saw gale force southeast winds 
blowing for unusually long periods. 

The liver program continued uninterrupted from January 
12 to March 31, and accounted for 353,000 pounds of livers 
landed at Vancouver and Steveston. All but 8,000 pounds of 
the total came from the Gulf of Georgia. The livers were 
produced entirely by independent trawlers and long-liners. 

Cost of the dogfish on a tonnage basis was rather high. 
The government paid an average of $27.40 a ton, including 
the cost of the charters and the subsidy of 10<^ a pound on 
livers. For the charter boats alone, the cost of catching dog- 
fish was $45 a ton. 



:^ >[£ 5!< s|<: sj: 

QUEBEC FISH INSPECTION NOW 
UNDER FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: 



Responsibility for administering the 
Fish Inspection Act and the Meat and 
Canned Foods Act as it concerns fishery 
products in the Province of Quebec has 
been transferred by mutual agreement 
from the Government of Quebec to the 
Government of Canada, the Fisheries 
Minister announced in Ottawa on May 19. 
The transfer was effective as of April 1, 
1959. 

In 1923, by agreement between the two 
governments, the administration of Que- 
bec's fishery resource became the 



60 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21. No. 7 



Canada (Contd.): 

responsibility of the Province. Except 
for fish inspection, this arrangement con- 
tinues with respect to the control of the com- 
mercial fisheries under the Fisheries Act. 



The formation of the Quebec Area 
completes the establishment, to bring 
about uniform inspection on a national 
basis, of the Inspection and Consumer 
Service of the Federal Department of 
Fisheries. 



>]i ;Ic ^c 5|c 



COMMERCIAL FISHING 
LICENSES ISSUED IN BRITISH 
COLUMBIA INCREASED IN 1958: 

A record number of commercial fish- 
ing licenses was issued during 1958 to 
British Columbia fishermen. In 1958 
14,266 licenses were issued as compared 
to 12,016 in 1957. 



engaged in commercial fishing on a part- 
time basis. 

Of the 14,266 licenses issued, it has 
been estimated that only about 7,700 rep- 
resented fishermen who are wholely or 
primarily dependent on the fishing indus- 
try for a livelihood. 




Typical of the vessels used in British Columbia fisheries are gill -netters--the most common type of vessel used to catch 
salmon on the west coast of Canada, Purse -seiners and traps are also used to catch salmon. 



The increases have been attributed 
primarily to the fact that expectat ions 
for the 1958 fishing season were high 
and a large number of sport fishermen 



In 1958, 3,673 persons took out li- 
censes for the first time. Of this group, 
1,623 were t rol 1 e rs, 1,313 were gill- 
netters, and 409 were assistants in salm- 
on purse seiners. 



5j: 3[< 5jc s|c :{c 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL, FISHERIES REVIEW 



61 



Canada (Contd.): 

ATOMIC POWER MAY CANCEL 
NEED FOR HYDROELECTRIC POWER 
FROM RIVERS WITH FISH RUNS: 

Atomic power may eliminate any need 
to develop the hydroelectric potential of 
the Eraser River in British Columbia, 
declares the Canadian Fisheries Minister. 
Development of the hydroelectric poten- 
tial of the Fraser "may be apassingthing," 
he said, "because economic atomic pow- 
er might be possible soon. But the need 
for fish as a high-protein food is becom- 
ing greater annually." The M i n i s t e r 
told the Canadian Commons Fisheries 
Committee late in April that any hydro- 
electric program on the Fraser which 
would wipe out its salmon industry for a 
temporary benefit would be very poor 
reasoning. 

"This is a powerful argument in favor 
of steps to safeguard fish resources now 
and in the future," he said. These ob- 
servations were made by the Minister 
during a study of a preliminary report on 
flood control and hydroelectric power in 
the Fraser River basin. 

The Minister said the least objection- 
al plan for flood control and power de- 
velopment proposed no construction of 
dams on the main stem of the Fraser. 

"At present there is no economic or 
practical device which can be recom- 
mended to pass migrant young salmon 
safely downstream at high dams," the 
Minister noted about other plans. 

He said the demand for power was 
growing at a phenomenal rate. But there 
are alternatives to development of the 
Fraser, including the Columbia and Peace 
River systems. A huge coal-burning 
thermal plant being built in the Vancou- 
ver area would also relieve pressure. 

The most immediate problem, how- 
ever, was flood control. This could be 
achieved by building dams on Fraser 
tributaries. Some power also would be 
produced and the $34 million salmon fish- 
ery would not be threatened. 

The director of conservation for the 
Fisheries Department said, "we can have 



flood control and fish." The best method 
is construction of dams in the upper reaches 
of the river. 



MARKETING OF NEWFOUNDLAND 
SALTED GROUNDFISH: 



i ~On August 1, 1958, the Canadian Gov- 
ernment decided that the exclusive right 
to export processed salted fish from New- 
foundland, held by the Newfoundland As- 
sociated Fish Exporters Limited, would 
not be extended beyond July 31, 1959. By 
the Act of Union between Canada and New- 
foundland, the exclusive license to export 
salted fish, which had been granted to 
that Organization by the Commission of 
Government, was continued for a period 
of five years in order to allow the order- 
ly development of alternative marketing 
arrangements during this period of tran- 
sition. At the expiration of the license 
arrangement in 1954, it was again agreed 
to continue the exclusive license for a 
further period of three years, with the 
qualification that interprovincial trade in 
salt bulk was freed from this restriction. 
Subsequently, two extensions of one mar- 
keting year each were granted, the final 
one on August 1, 1958. Thus, the salt 
fish industry of Newfoundland has had a 
ten-year period in which to adopt mar- 
keting methods in conformity with the 
practice of this trade in other Canadian 
Atlantic Provinces and Quebec. 

Serious consideration was given to al- 
ternative methods of marketing salt fish 
in Newfoundland. An Interdepartmental 
Committee made an extensive and exhaus- 
tive survey of the situation. Exporters, 
processors, fishermen, and government 
officials in the Atlantic Provinces and 
the Province of Quebec were interviewed 
and were given an opportunity to present 
their views. 

After full consideration of all aspects 
j of the trade, it was not found possible 
nor deemed in the best interests of the 
salt fish industry to adopt alternative 
methods of controlled marketing in the 
Province of Newfoundland. Accordingly, 
the export marketing of Atlantic Coast 
salted fish after July 31, 1959, will be 
carried out on the basis of free compe- 
tition. 



62 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Canada (Contd.): 

The Government will continue its 
present practice of supervising the in- 
spection of Atlantic Coast salted fish by 



theDepartment of Fisheries and will ex- 
tend to exporters trade promotion as - 
sistance through the Department of Trade 
and Commerce in Canada and our Trade 
Commissioner Service abroad. 




Freighter loading Newfoundland salted cod for delivery to Portugal. 




Ceylon 

JAPANESE AID SOUGHT 
IN 5 -YEAR FISHERY PLAN : 

Ceylon has requested Japan's full co- 
operation in a $70 million five-year fish- 
ery program scheduled to start in Oc- 
tober 1959. The gigantic project en- 
visages construction of harbors, fishing 
fleets, and refrigeration plants. 

The fishery program was based on a 
report submitted last fall to the Ceylon- 
ese Government on findings of a Japan- 
ese survey mission. 



Despite a huge demand for fish in Cey- 
lon, output is only 30 percent of the de- 
mand and some $100 million worth is im- 
ported yearly. Under the five-year pro- 
ject, the amount imported is to be re- 
placed by domestic fisheries. 

Although it is not yet known to what 
extent the Japanese Government will co- 
operate, observers point out that it would 
be difficult for Japan to participate in the 
harbor construction project since this 
would call for an Export-Import Bank loan. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



63 



Ceylon (Contd.): 

Opinion favoring the acceptance of the 
Ceylonese proposal is said being advanced 



The Government, however, is giving 
careful consideration to the project in 
view of relations with other countries, 
such as Thailand, which is also seeking 




r^'^^^ 



-^•».. 

"«.- 




Beach seine fishing in MuUativu, Ceylon. 



within the Government since the country 
is one of Japan's major markets (last 
year's exports totaled $36 million and 
imports $5.7 million). 



Japan's help in the construction of fish- 
ing ports. ( The Japan Times , April 14, 
1959.) 



Cuba 

CLOSED SEASON FOR BULLFROGS, 
SPONGES, AND CERTAIN FINFISH: 

The National Fisheries Institute of 
Cuba revoked the closed season invoked 
on April 1, 1959, on the capture of bull- 
frogs. The termination order effective 
on April 30, 1959, was published in the 
Official Gazette of April 28, 1959. The 
reasons given for the revocation was 
that the bullfrog spawning season was al- 




ready over, plus economic and social de- 
mands on the part of fishermen and pack- 
ers whose main source of income is the 
export of frog legs to the United States. 

Another resolution, published in the 
Official Gazette of April 29, 1959, im- 
posed a closed season on the capture of 
sponges effective May 5, 1959, in the 
northern maritime zone of Caibarien 
and the southern maritime zone of 



64 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Cuba (Contd.): 

Batabano. Sponge fishing is still per- 
mitted off the north coast of Vuelta Aba- 
jo in the province of Pinar del Rio. The 
closed season will remain in effect until 
cancelled by a subsequent resolution. 



Denmark 

FISH MEAL PRODUCTION, 
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS, 1958 : 

Production of fish meal in Denmark 
increased about 14 percent, or from 
58,000 metric tons in 1957 to 66,000 tons 
in 1958. The total available supply (pro- 
duction, imports, and stocks on hand) in- 
creased from 69,000 tons in 1957 to about 
80,000 tons in 1958, due to increases of 
8,000 tons in production and 4,000 tons 
in imports. The increasd production in 
1958 was due to better landings of her- 
ring and sand eel or launce. Consump- 
tion of meal in Denmark was 22,000 tons 
in 1958 and 24,000 tons in 1957. 

Inl958atotal of 53,000 tons were ex- 
ported as compared with 42,000 tons in 
1957. Denmark's best customers for fish 
meal were the United Kingdom with 
23,000 tons or 44.1 percent and Holland 
with 16,000 tons or 31.7 percent. The U- 
nited States purchased 991 tons, and the 
balance of the exports of about 53,000 
tons was exported to 10 other countries. 



The same resolution also imposed 
closed seasons, effective May 5, 1959, 
on the following fish species, to remain 
in effect until cancelled by subsequent 
resolutions: Biajaiba (L an e Snapper), 
Corvinas ( Croakers ), and Ro bal o s 
(Snooks)--United States Embassy, Ha- 
vana, dispatch dated May 18, 1959. 




Table 1 - Danish Exports and Imports of Fish Meal, 1958 | 


Destination 


Herring 
Meal 


Other 
Fish Meal 


Total 


Exports: 


.... (Metric Tons) ... 1 


United Kingdom 

HoUand 

West Germany 

Italy 

United States 

France 

Czechoslovakia 

Belgium -Luxemburg , . . 
Finland 


22,739 

16,114 

2,799 

2,446 

991 

907 

475 

396 

341 

280 

207 

95 

81 


585 

639 

2,470 

10 

u 

398 

894 

15 


23, 324 

16,753 

5,269 

2,456 

991 

907 

475 

396 

341 

280 

207 

95 

479 

894 

15 


Philippines 

Switzerland 

Sweden 

East Germany 

Otiier countries 


Totals 


47,877 


5,011 


52, 882 


Origin 
Imports: 


90 


6,926 

3,832 


7,016 
3,832 


Iceland 

Norway 


Totals 


90 


10,758 


10,848 


\J Less than 1 metric ton. | 



Imports of fish meal by Denmark totaled 
11,000 tons--all from Iceland and Nor- 
way. 



ale ilc 3|c :^c -^ 



MARINE OIL EXPORTS, 
IMPORTS, AND SUPPLIES, 1958 : 

During 1958 the available Danish sup- 
plies of marine oils (fish-liver oil, fish 
oil, and marine-mammal oils), totaled 
40,099 metric tons or 2,000 tons more 
than in 1957. This relatively minor in- 
crease was due to a larger domestic 
production as well as to increased im- 
ports of herring oil from West Germany, 
which more than offset a reduction of the 
whale oil imports. The larger domestic 
production of fish oil was due to increased 
landings of herring and launce or sand 
eel. The reduced imports of whale oil 
are explained by smaller requirements 



of the margarine industry, the output of 
which was reduced in 1958. 

The requirements of marine oils for 
both domestic and export purposes in- 
creased roughly by 4,000 tons. Conse- 
quently, the inventories of marine oils 
were reduced throughout 1958 as the sup- 
plies only increased 2,000 tons. Whale 
oil was the principal stock that was re- 
duced. This seems a logical develop- 
ment as it is expected that the margar- 
ine industry will use smaller quantities 
than formerly. In other words, reduc- 
tion of inventories may be considered a 
process of adjustment to lower require- 
ments. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



65 



Denmark (Contd.); 

The increased exports of 2,000 tons of 
marine oils were made up of primarily 
herring oil. The major share of the in- 



creased exports was shipped to Sweden 
and West Germany. (Foreign Agricul- 
ture Service of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture report from Copenhagen 
dated April 17, 1959.) 



Table 1 - Danish Supply and Distribution of Marine Oils. 1957-1958 



Type 



T55B 

Fish-liver oil 

Fish (incl. herring) oil . . 
Whale and seal blubber oil 

Whale oil 

Seal oil . 



Opening 
Stocks 
Jan. 1 



SUPPLY 



Produc- 
tion 



Imports 



Total 
Supply 



D 1 S T R I B U T ION 



Exports 



Consump- 
tion 



Ending 
Stocte 
Dec. 31 



Total 
Distribu- 
tion 



n.a. 

2,298 

n.a, 

7,747 
n. a. 



200 

16,980 

1,000 

n.a. 

106 



1,416 

5,235 

16 

5,099 

2 



(Metric Tons) 



1,616 
24,513 

1,016 

12, 846 

108 



119 
11,349 

102 
98 



1,497 
9,383 
1,016 
9,073 
10 



n.a. 

3,781 

n.a. 

3,671 

n.a. 



1,616 
24,513 

1,016 

12,846 

108 



Total 



10,_045 



18_,_286 



11.768 



40.099 



11.668 



20,979 



7.452 



40,099 



1957 

Fish-liver oil 

Fish (incl. herring) oil . . 
Whale and seal blubber oil 

Whale oil 

Seal oil . 



Total 



n.a. 

706 

n.a, 

7,606 

n.a. 



8.312 



200 

13,957 

1,000 

n.a. 

n. a. 



1,736 
2,603 



10, 263 

20 



1,936 
17,266 

1,000 

17,869 

20 



316 
8,593 

105 

14 



1,620 

6,375 

1,000 

10, 17 

6 



n.a. 

2,298 

n.a. 

7,747 

n.a. 



1,936 
17,266 

1,000 

17,869 

20 



15. 157 



14. 622 



38.091 



9,028 



19,018 



10.045 



38.091 



n.a.= not available. 



Table 2 - Denmark's Imports of Marine Oils by Country of Origin, 1958 | 


Coimtry 


Oil 


Other 


Total 


Fish-liver I Herring I Whale 


West Germany 

Norway 

Iceland 


... . rMptrir Tom^ 1 


296 
853 
220 

1 
45 

1 


3,951 

385 

1 

478 

370 
50 


3 
5,096 


l/l8 


4,250 

6,352 

221 

479 

45 

370 

51 




Angola 

Other 


Total . 


1,416 


5,235 


5.099 


18 


11_.768 


il Whale and seal blubber (16 tons and seal oil (2 tons). | 



Table 3 - Denmark's Exports of Marine Oils by Country of Destination, 1958 



Country 



Oil 



Fish -liver | Herring 



Whaie 



Seal 



Total 



West Germany , . . . 

Norway , 

Sweden 

Italy 

Belgium -Luxemburg , 

Spain 

Czechoslovakia . , , 

Hungary 

Other 



57 


2,063 


- 


1,513 


28 


7,082 


5 


9 


5 


26 


4 


163 


- 


251 


15 


222 


5 


- 



Total 



.(Metric Tons) 
31 



28 



43 



56 

2 
22 

18 



2,207 

1,515 

7, 132 

60 

31 

167 

251 

280 

25 



119 



11.349 



102 



98 



11,668 



3|C >[c 9JC 3JC jfc 



REVIEW OF FAROE 
ISLANDS FISHERIES, 1958 : 

Salted fish production in 1958 amount- 
ed to 29,850 metric tons or 450 tons above 
1957. Landings from off the coast of Ice- 
land of 7,800 tons were lower than in 
1957, but the landings from the fisheries 
off Greenland were a record 19,250 tons 
in 1958 (12,800 tons in 1957). Local fish- 
ing around the Faroe Islands yielded 
1,550 tons of salted cod as compared with 



2,800 tons the preceding year. The drop 
was due to an increase in the sale of 
11,000 tons of fresh iced -fish to the Brit- 
ish--about double the 1957 figure. Her- 
ring landings in 1958 of 136,000 barrels 
were about the same as for 1957. The 
whaling industry had a poor year in 1958 
with only 57 whales captured as com- 
pared with 199 the preceding year. 

Exports of all products from the Far- 
oes in 1958 totaled 91.7 million kroner 



66 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Denmark (Contd.): 

(US$13.3 million), about the same as in 

1957. Exports of salted fish accounted 
for 21.3 million kroner (US$3.1 million) 
as compared v/ith 15.6 million kroner 
(US$2.3 million) the year before while 
dried fish exports of 33.2 million kron- 
er (US$4.8 million) in 1958 were down 
about 5.3 million kroner (US$767,000) 
from 1957. As of January 1, 1958, in- 
ventories of exportable products amount- 
ed to 12.5 million kroner (US$1.8 mil- 
lion). 

Exporters of salted fish in 1958 were 
beset by difficulties in selling dried fish 
to Spain and Brazil. Payments on ex- 
ports to Spain were slow and conditions 
in the Brazilian market were unsettled. 
The difficulties experienced in selling 
dried cod brought about increased sales 
of salted fish. This development result- 
ed in less call for loans by the fishing 
industry since export of salted fish re- 
sults in quicker payment to the proces- 
sors of the fish. 

The Faroe Islands fishing fleet was 
increased by one vessel in 1958. 

The Bank of the Faroes loaned 22.8 
million kroner (US$3.3 million) to the 
fishing and fish processing industry in 

1958, according to the annual report of 
the F(^roya Bank in Thorshavn, the largest 
bank in the Faroe Islands. (United States 
Embassy, Copenhagen, report dated 
March 25.) 




El Salvador 

SHRIMP FISHERY TRENDS: 

On February 7, 1959, the largest fish- 
ing company in El Salvador inaugurated 
a shrimp freezing plant and a pier for its 
6 boats at its Pacific Coast base of oper- 
ations at Puerto El Triunfo, on the Bay 
of Jiquilisco. Prior to construction of 
this pier, fishing boats operating from 
this "port" have had to be loaded and un- 
loaded across extensive mud flats. The 
freezing installation, which uses power 
brought in over a new transmission line, 
has a freezer with a rated hourly capac- 
ity of some 3,500 pounds and a cold- 



storage room for some 180,000 pounds 
of shrimp. The frozen shrimp is truck- 
ed to San Salvador, from where the larg- 
est proportion is then flown to the United 
States. 

At the inaugural ceremonies at Puerto 
El Triunfo, a company spokesman em- 
phasized the contribution that this rela- 
tively new industry is making to the ec- 
onomy and made a strong plea for more 
Government support (issuance of licenses 
to operate additional fishing boats). The 
firm is presentlycapitalized at US$400,000, 
of which half is Salvadoran, about 45 per- 
cent that of the Portuguese fishermen 
who brought in the boats, and the balance 
Panamanian. 

The 1958 landings by Salvadoran fish- 
ermen amounted to 1,116,879 pounds of 
fish, 846,051 pounds of shrimp, and 
92,191 pounds of small shrimp (camaron- 
cillo), according to preliminary Govern- 
ment statistics. The shrimp landings 
are believed to be a mixture of heads-on 
and heads -off weight, but principally 
heads -off. 




German Democratic Republic 

CANNED TUNA PRICES, MAY 1, 1959: 

Importers and other trade sources in 
West Germany report that most of the 
canned tuna imported is of Japanese and 
Peruvian origin. According to trade 
sources in the Hamburg area imported 
canned tuna prices (c.i.f. Hamburg) as 
of May 1, 1959, were: Japan; all solid 
pack, 48 cans per case: light meat (skip- 
jack and yellowfin) in cottonseed oil, 7- 
oz. cans US$6. 50-6. 80, S^-oz. cans $3.65- 
3.85; light meat (bluefin and big-eyed) 
in cottonseed oil fancy B, 7-oz. cans 
$6.35, 3-|-oz. cans $3.50; light meat (skip- 
jack and yellowfin) in aspic, 7-oz. cans 
$6.40 a case; flakes, 7-oz. cans $6.40- 
6.45; Peru: light meat in cottonseed oil, 
solid pack, 48cans/cs., 7-oz., top brand, 
$6.75; other brands, $6.20-6.35; 32-oz. 
96 cans/cs., $6.45. 

Prices c.i.f. Hamburg for the top Pe- 
ruvian brand (fancy white solid pack in 
cottonseed oil for a case of 48 7-oz. cans) 
rose from $5.45 as of April 15 to $6.75 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



67 



German Federal Republic (Contd.): 

on or about May 1. Light meat solid 
pack in cottonseed oil as of May 1 was 
$6.20-6.35 for 7-oz. cans (48 to the case) 
and $6.45 for 3|-oz. cans (96 to the case). 
The Hamburg importers expect some de- 
crease in c.i.f. canned tuna prices from 
the pack of the 1959 season. 



Ite 



Iceland 

GROUNDFISH LANDINGS 
IMPROVE IN APRIL: 

The groundfish catches in April 1959 
by Icelandic inshore vessels improved so 
much that it now appears likely that, de- 
spite the poor catches in February and 
March, the total catch of the main winter 
season will exceed last year's record. 
Ordinarily, catches fall off in late April, 
although the season does not officially end 
until May 10. However, catches contin- 
ued good this April and freezing plants 
were working overtime. 

The best quality cod is caught ear- 
lier in the season, by the line boats, but 
the bad weather limited the catches of 
fish at that time. A higher proportion of 
the present catch is being rejected by the 
freezing plants as unfit for filleting- - 
though suitable for stockfish. It is by no 
means certain, therefore, that the export 
value of the catch will be as high as in 
1958, according to an April 24, 1959, dis- 
patch from the United States Embassy in 
ReyKjavik. 

j[< 3|C >|C >!« }\i 

CONTRACTS FOR THREE LARGE 
TRAWLERS FROM WEST GERMANY: 
The Icelandic press has announced 
that contracts have been signed by pri- 
vate owners for the construction of three 
large trawlers by a West Germany ship- 
yard to be financed by a ten-year West 
German bank credit. Two of the 950-ton 
ships will be purchased by a herring and 
fish meal factory at Akranes, and the 
third by a fish producer of Akureyri. The 
contracts are subject to approval by the 
Icelandic Government, which must guar- 
antee the loans. If the contracts are ap- 
proved, the trawlers will be delivered 
January 31, 1961. 



The bulk of the Icelandic large trawl- 
er fleet has returned to the Newfound- 
land fishing grounds, two months ahead 
of last year. It is primarily for this dis- 
tant type of fishing that the larger trawl- 
ers are needed, according to an May 22, 
1959, dispatch from the United States 
Embassy in Reykjavik. 

s[c >Jc 5le sic sjs 

LARGE TRAWLER TO BE 
BUILT IN WEST GERMANY: 



The town council of Hafnarfjordur, 
Iceland, has authorized the municipal 
trawler company to proceed with a con- 
tract to buLLd a 900-1,000 ton super- 
trawler in Bremerhaven, West Germany. 
The new vessel will replace the trawler 
Juli, lost with all hands this past winter. 
The new trawler, when completed, will 
be the largest in Iceland and will have a 
capacity of 500 metric tons of iced fish, 
the United States Embassy in Reykjavik 
reported on April 24, 1959. 

5!c s',!; jjc ije 5!c 

INVESTMENT IN FISHING 
INDUSTRY HIGHER IN 1958: 



Investments during 1958 in the Ice- 
landic fishing industry are estimated to 
be up about 8 percent as compared with 
1957, with an increase in the tonnage of 
the fishing fleet more than offsetting a 
decline in additions to processing plants. 
For the purposes of asset formation, in- 
vestment in fishing vessels is calculated 
on the basis of construction performed 
during the year, whether in Iceland or 
abroad for the Icelandic account, and on 
this basis a rise of about two-thirds ov- 
er and above the 1957 level was expect- 
ed. During 1958 the following vessels 
actually were added to the fishing fleet: 
2 (replacement) trawlers, 1,491 tons 
total; 11 fishing boats, 1,439 tons total; 
and 3 (East German) trawlers, 747 tons 
total. 

Investments in fish-processing plants 
in 1958 were estimated to be only two- 
thirds as much as in 1957, and the lowest 
level in four years. This was only nat- 
ural, in view of the considerable idle ca- 
pacity existing most of the year and es- 
pecially in the smaller ports. This 
problem has focused public attention on 
the need to replenish the fleets of both 
the trawlers and motor boats. When 



68 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Iceland (Contd.): 

ample fish supplies are delivered, freez- 
ing plants are relatively more profitable 
investments than boats or trawlers. But 
this is not so when raw material is lack- 
ing (as it has been for most plants out- 
side the Faxa Bay and Westman Islands 
areas). Having succeeded in getting 
state loans for local freezing plants or 
herring factories, many of these smaller 
ports have now turned to the Government 
for help in obtaining the fishing vessels 
necessary to assure raw material to keep 
the plants operating. 

The major effort to meet this prob- 
lem has been the scheme to purchase 12 
new East German 250-ton fishing ves- 
sels, capable of trawling in home wa- 
ters. Three of these were delivered be- 
fore the end of 1958, with the rest ex- 
pected to arrive in 1959. All are des- 
tined for smaller ports outside the more 
populous southwest area of the country. 
(United States Consulate dispatch of 
April 30, 1959, from Reykjavik.) 



FISHING LIMITS DISPUTE WITH 
BRITISH FLARES UP AGAIN: 

The refusal of the British to recog- 
nize Iceland's extension of fishing limits 
from 4 to 12 miles from the coastline 
has been the cause of friction between 
the two governments for some time. 
Two incidents concerning British trawl- 
ers ( Carell a and Swanella) allegedly 
fishing inside Iceland's four-mile fish- 
ing limit have brought the dispute in the 
headlines again because the British have 
refused to accept the Icelandic Coast 
Guard reckonings. 

On April 18, the Iceland Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs released the substance 
of a note delivered to the Foreign Min- 
ister by the British in reply to the 
Icelandic note of protest of March 26, in 
connection with the C arella incident. The 
note said that: (1) the British Govern- 
ment does not recognize Iceland's fish- 
ing limits outside the three-mile terri- 
torial waters limit and therefore repudi- 
ates the right of Icelandic Coast Guard 
cutters to seize foreign vessels "on the 
high seas;" (2) the British trawler 
Carella was not within the four-mile de- 



marcation as computed by the Icelandic 
Coast Guard cutter; (3) the British Gov- 
ernment considers the regulations on a 
12-mile fisheries jurisdiction to be in- 
valid according to international law; and 
(4) pending the outcome of the prospec- 
tive International Conference on the Law 
of the Sea in 1960, a temporary agree- 
ment on fisheries be reached either by 
negotiations or by referring the matter 
to the International Court. 

An editorial in an Icelandic newspa- 
per stated that the purpose of British 
"provocative action" is to lay the ground- 
work for world-wide support for some 
kind of Faroese-solution (six-mile fish- 
ery limit) issue at the next Law of the 
Sea Conference in 1960. 

The Icelandic Coast Guard reports 
that 29 British trawlers were sighted 
fishing within the 12 -mile fishery limit 
on April 21 in three areas protected by 
British warships. The areas are off 
Adalvik, the Eldey Bank, and the Sel- 
vog Bank. (United States Embassy re- 
port from Reykjavik, April 22, 1959.) 




Iran 

SHRIMP FISHERY IN THE 
PERSIAN GULF EXPANDING: 

In order to help develop the Iranian 
shrimp industry in the Persian Gulf, a 
small fleet of trawlers is being shipped 
to Iran. Four of the 60-foot trawlers 
passed through the port of New York 
City in mid-April on the deck of the 
freighter Neidenfesls . The trawlers 
were loaded at Cristobal, Panama, and 
are scheduled to land at Khorramshahr, 
Iran. 

In addition, the 1,000-ton mothership 
Moyon I is due at Khorramshahr around 
mid-May. Later an additional three 
trawlers will arrive, which will make a 
total of seven trawlers. 

The shrimp fleet was outfitted by a 
New York City importing company. The 
trawlers will be manned by Americans 
and some Europeans who will teach the 
Iranians how to operate them and fish 
for shrimp. The President of the New 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



69 



Iran (Contd.): 

York importing firm points out that Iran 
at present has only one trawler and one 
mothership in operation. Shrimp ship- 
ments to the United States from that op- 
eration average about 100,000 pounds a 
month. With the addition of the seven 



Israel 

TUNA FISHING COMPANY 
WITH JAPANESE SWISS 
PARTICIPATION IN OPERATION : 

The Shimu Maru, the vessel fishing 
for the Joint Israeli-Japanese-Swiss 
Fishing company, started operations in 
November 1958 and mid-April had land- 
ed two trips of tuna- -600 metric tons of 
fish. It was expected that by mid-May a 
third trip of 280 tons would be landed. 

The Japanese Company operating the 
vessel with a complement of Israeli 




trawlers and the second mothership 
monthly shipments to the United States 
are expected to reach one million 
pounds a month. The New York im- 
porting firm is the selling agent in the 
United States for the Iranian fishing 
company which has the fishing rights in 
Iranian waters. 



fishermen sells the fish to the company 
in Israel at $255 a metric ton, but since 
there is an Israeli commodity price ad- 
justment tax of $380 a ton levied on 
frozen tuna, the actual price of the tuna 
is $644 a ton delivered. 

The sale of the tuna is handled by the 
company established in Israel. Collec- 
tive farms and armed forces are the 
principal buyers, but a part of the fish 
is sold in the local markets. In spite of 
the high price, reports indicate that 
there is a demand for the frozen tuna 
landed by the Shimu Maru. 



Italy 



ELECTRONIC DEVICE TO 

MEASURE STRAIN ON 

OTTER TRAW LS D EVELOPED: 

A new electronic device which fits 
easily on a conventional trawl winch, 
and which not only saves the net from 
being torn or lost, but tells how much 
fish is in the net, is in the process of 
being patented by an Italian inventor. 
The device is the successor to an ear- 
lier invention which measured only how 
many fish were in the net. The inventor 
states that his new device is a very sim- 
ple arrangement of great value to the 
trawling fleets of the world. It will be 
especially useful to deep-sea trawlers, 
and boats dragging in rough waters. 

The device consists mainly of two 
hinged collars attached to the terminals 
of the winch. Two dynamometers fitted 
with electroacoustical devices are 
coupled to the collars, and anchored to 
the deck. 

Main purpose of the invention is to a- 
void destroying the net on rough bottom. 



or on obstacles unseen on sounding e- 
quipment. It will also, by measuring 
the strain on the towing lines, give a 
measure of how much fish is in the net. 



A warning signal, working through a 
voltmeter, is placed on the bridge and 
in the engineroom, giving a permanent 
and instantaneous reading of the strains 
developed by the trawl. A horn is 
sounded and a red light flashes imme- 
diately, when the net becomes fouled on 
the bottom or on an obstacle. 

The device is so set up on the winch that 
it automatically disengages when the strain 
reaches the danger level. When this brake 
is released the winch is then runningfree, 
lettiiig out line until the net is free, or until 
the ship is stopped or diverted. 

A San Francisco company is negoti- 
ating with the inventor for manufacturing 
rights, and it is expected the new device 
will be on the market within a year. Pat- 
ents are pending in the United States, Can- 
ada, Italy, and Norway, and manufacturing 
rights throughout the world have been re- 
served for a year. 



70 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Italy (Contd.): 




(A) Electrical warning and correctional device fits on side of trawl winch; warns skipper and engi- 

neer when strain on towing line reaches danger point. Device also gives accurate indication 
of weight of fish in net. 

(B) Fitting device to side of trawl winch, collar is fastened to axle of winch, but can be unhinged 

for non.xal operation. Lining, similar to auto brake lining, is fitted tightly around axle. 
Variation of strains coming from towing lines is transmitted through the winch axle to the 
bearings in the collar, and then to the spring of the dynamometer. Voltmeters then register 
strain. 

(C) Hook on ends of dynamometer are hooked to special attachment running from winch to 

deck--see (B). Any change in strain on towing lines around the winch is registered by 
the two voltmeters--see (D). 

(D) Device can also be fitted to winches of limited capacity as shown. 




July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



71 



Japan 

TUNA EXPORT QUOTAS 
FOR 1959 SET BY 
PRODUCERS' ASSOCIATIONS: 

In preparation for the beginning of a 
new export year on April 1, 1959, Japa- 
nese tuna industry associations held a 
series of meetings to set export produc- 
tion quotas and check prices, and to de- 
cide the terms of allotment of the quotas 
among their members. 

The Export Tuna Canners' Associa- 
tion has decided on a total production 
quota of canned tuna in brine for export 
to the United States of 2,450,000 cases, 
with a possible increase of another 
10,000 cases. This increase of about 25 
percent over the 1958 export quota of 2 
million cases reflects. the rise in the U- 
nited States canned tuna pack and con- 
sumption. 

The Export Tuna Freezers' Associa- 
tion has set its production quotas for U- 
nited States exports and the division of 
production between vessel-frozen and 



shore-frozen fish. The quota for alba- 
core is 29,700 tons, of which 2,910 tons 
can be frozen aboard fishing vessels and 
1,590 tons aboard motherships. Exports 
of tuna loins will be limited to 2,970 tons, 
at minimum prices of $730 for albacore 
and $565 for yellowfin. Export produc- 
tion of frozen yellowfin has been divided 
on the basis of 35,000 tons for freezers 
in Japan shipping by freighter and 120 
landings for fishing vessels delivering 
fish directly in foreign ports (Atlantic 
fishery). The vessels will be under the 
further limitation that no vessels may 
make more than two such landings for 
export to the United States within one 
year. It has been estimated that 120 
clipper landings will represent between 
35,000 and 40,000 tons of tuna. Check 
prices per short ton for frozen yellow- 
fin have been set at $190 for large, $210 
for medium, and $220 for small fish. 

The Freezers' Association has de- 
cided to set its 1959 broadbill swordfish 
production quota at 4,455 tons, down 
slightly from last year's 5,000 tons be- 
cause of slow sales. 



1 




^'Sf I'T* T '^°'^° "^°^",^* ^^ M"ke'- T^e fish have been landed from the 300-ton tuna long-linerat 
the dock. Tuna were caught in the Indian Ocean. ■.uu* luny imerai 

* * >ic * * 



72 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Japan (Contd.): 

TUNA MOTHERSHIP 
OPERATIONS AND RESEARCH : 

Licensing policies for Japanese tuna 
mothership operations for 1959 were 
announced on April 8, 1959, by the Fish- 
ery Agency. The basic production limit 
for the tuna mothership fishery in 1959 
will be 13,600 metric tons, but this limit 
may be exceeded by as much as 9,300 
tons if some of the participating fishing 
companies agree to lay up their vessels 
for corresponding periods during the 
rest of the year. Since the operating 
plans of the principal companies en- 
gaged in this fishery, as reported by the 
trade press, already exceed this limit, 
the Fishery Agency is faced with the task 
of apportioning the production quota a- 
mong license applicants in accordance 
with their past production records. 

On April 4, the Fishery Agency issued 
a significant directive aimed at strength- 
ening and coordinating the activities of 
the research vessels, fisheries guidance 
vessels, and training ships which various 
local governments are using to fish for 
tuna. Noting that the number of such 
vessels has increased rapidly in recent 
years, and now totals more than 40, the 
directive states that, if they are used 
primarily to earn income, there is a 
danger that they will have the effect of 
economically oppressing commercial 
tuna fishermen. The directive prescribes 
a very broad program of standard ob- 
servations, including keeping of fishing 
records, collection of biological speci- 
mens, tagging, morphometric measure- 
ments, scale and blood samples, and 
larval fish collection. The data and 
specimens will be kept and processed by 
the Nankai Regional Fisheries Research 
Laboratory. The result should be a great 
strengthening of tuna research in Japan. 
(United States Embassy, Tokyo, AprU 1, 
1959.) 

:^ )|« ^ •>',< ^{i 

ALBACORE TUNA FISHING 
SLOW IN DEVELOPING: 

According to an early April report is - 
sued by the Fisheries Research Team of 
Takai University, the water temperature 
around the usual albacore fishing ground 
stretching southeasterly from Japan's 
mid-Honshu had dropped slightly from 
the last 10-day period. 



Hidden in the main cold water mass 
are thick groups of small as well as me- 
dium- and large-sized albacore and on 
March 26 a school of 24-pound albacore 
mixed with yellowfin and skipjack was 
seen to rise to the surface. Act of rising 
up near the surface is done usually at 
daybreak and just before sunset. The 
general pattern of water mass formation 
looks quite similar to last year. 

As for an immediate outlook, waters 
within 30°-31° N., 133°-135° E., in the 
offing of Shikoku have a greater prob- 
ability of containing small- and medium- 
sized fish schools rising up to the sur- 
face. Catches after the first 10-day 
period of April should exceed the actual 
result achieved last year, according to 
the prediction. 

^i :>): ^ sjc sic 

PRICE CUT ON CANNED 
WHITE MEAT TUNA IN BRINE: 

Provisionally the Japanese Tuna 
Packers' Association Directors on 
April 15, 1959, decided to recognize a 
$1.00 per case cut in the price of white 
meat tuna canned in brine sold to the U- 
nited States for the next, or 5th, "sale 
period" only. Prices for lightmeat tuna 
remained unchanged. 

For the 4th "sale period," total ex- 
ports of 350,000 cases are expected by 
the packers, of which albacore would be 
250,000 cases. Packers are reported 
paying about $300 a short ton ex-vessel 
for albacore tuna. However, if albacore 
landings continue light, the cut in price 
will probably be reconsidered. 

^ J{: )'fi ?!< s[c 

REDUCED PRICE STIMULATES 
SALES OF TUNA LOINS: 



According to a Japanese newspaper 
report on March 5, 1959, the reduced 
check prices of US$730 (formerly $850) 
a ton for albacore loins and $565 (for- 
merly $620-640) for yellowfin tuna loins 
have resulted in increased sales to the 
United States. The former check prices 
for tuna loins were fixed when market 
conditions were favorable, but under the 
weaker market of the past few months 
those prices were too high and sales 
lagged. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



73 



Japan (Contd.): 

Due to the slow market for tuna loins 
since the first of the year, trade sources 
predicted that it would be difficult to dis- 
pose of the entire 3,000-metric-tonquota 
before the end of the fiscal year ending 
March 31, 1959. 

))( * >:; * >:« 

EXPLORATORY TUNA FISHING 
VESSEL REPORTS GOOD CATCHES 

OFF GA L APAGOS ISLAND S: 

The Japanese pelagic fisheries guid- 
ance vessel Iwaki Maru from Fukushima 
Prefecture was due back in Misaki the 
latter part of March from its trip to the 
eastern Pacific. The vessel left Japan 
for its third trip during December 1958. 

The vessel reported that upon arriv- 
ing at the fishing grounds off the Gala- 
pagos Islands (123 18' W. long, and 
6° 25' S. lat.) the first long-line set 
yielded 28 yellowfin and 5 big-eyed tuna, 
47 large bonito, 20 broadbill swordfish, 
and 4 striped and black marlins--total 
weight 5.3 metric tons. Following the 
first set, catches averaged 5.6-6.5 tons 
or about twice what was obtained during 
the vessel's second trip. It was expect- 
ed that the vessel would have a full load 
of 236 tons by early March and be on its 
way back to its home port two or three 
weeks ahead of schedule. 

;|< Jc ;;< =;t * 

NORTHWEST PACIFIC SALMON 
FISHERY QUOTA FOR 1959: 

A quota of 85,000 metric tons of salm- 
on has been set by the International 
Northwest Pacific Fisheries Comnnission 
for the 1959 Japanese mothership salmon 
fishery. The quota is 23 percent below 
the quota of 110,000 tons in effect for the 
1958 season and about 29 percent under 
the quota of 120,000 tons in effect for 
1957. The quota agreement was reached 
on May 13, 1959, after nearly four months 
of negotiations between the Japanese and 
Russian delegates to the Commission. 
The original request by the Japanese at 
the start of the negotiations was for a 
165,000-ton limit with the Russians 
countering with an offer of a 50,000 -ton 
limit. 



Acceptance of the reduced quota by the 
Japanese is going to mean a heavyblowto 
those directly and indirectly concerned 
with the Japanese Northwest Pacific high- 
seas salmon fishery, according to a spokes- 
man for the Japanese Federation of Salm- 
on Fishing Cooperatives. 

3]i >J: ;[< s!« sj: 

PLAN TO CAN PET 
FOOD FROM FISH WASTE: 



~ Japanese high-seas salmon packers 
are planning to pack pet food from waste 
salmon at their land processing estab- 
lishments this season. Reports indicate 
that there is an increasing demand from 
the United States for Japanese canned 
pet food. Also, a number of Hokkaido fish 
canners have now begun to plan packing 
of pet food from such fish as saury, her- 
ring, Atka mackerel, etc., as maybe 
caught locally. It is even said that some 
sample lots have already been canned by 
a few canners who hope to get into mass 
production in the future. The major fish- 
ery items canned in Hokkaido are pink 
salmon, king crab, Kegani crab, Hanasaki 
crab, saury, squid, scallop, clam, and 
whale meat. 

>,■< >;; * 5i< * 

WHALE MEAT SOLD TO 

UNITED STATES FOR PET FOOD: 

A contract sale of 1,000 metric tons 
of Antarctic whale meat for use in canned 
pet food was announced in mid-April by 
a Japanese company. The price of the 
sale was $240 a ton c.i.f. New York City. 
Another Japanese company is reported 
negotiating a similar sale. 

sic 5|c :[; sjc j{c 

FISH SAUSAGE DEMAND 
REFLECTS CHANGING FOOD HABITS: 
Changing food preferences are bring- 
ing a boom to the Japanese manufacture 
of fish sausage and similar products. 
Figures released by the Japan Fish Sau- 
sage Manufacturers' Association indi- 
cate that production of conventional types 
of fish sausage and "ham" was up to 
49,190 metric tons in 1958, as compared 
with 38,217 metric tons in 1957, and a 
further increase of at least 20 percent is 
being predicted for 1959. Since the fall 



74 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Japan (Contd.): 

of 1958, the manufacturers have been 
busy introducing new products, such as 
"salami," "sliced ham," and "corned 
beef," and although production statistics 
seem to be lacking for those exotic 
items, they are also expected to develop 
greatly during 1959. 

Competition is keen among the man- 
ufacturers of the new foods, principally 
the three or four largest marine prod- 
ucts companies in Japan, and the effect 
of the fish sausage boom is also seen on 
competing food products. Last year, 
fish sausage and ham production nearly 
equaled that of meat sausage and ham, 
and it will probably surpass the latter 
in 1959. The popularity of these handy, 
relatively imperishable foods is also 
said to be holding back expansion of de- 
mand for fresh fish. 

A comparison between Japanese con- 
sumption of marine products during 
1948 and 1958 reflects the change in de- 
mand. Taking 1948 consumption as 100, 
the 1958 indices for the following foods 
are: fresh fish 112, salted and dried 
fish 153, refrigerated products 268, and 
whale meat 460 (United States Embassy 
in Tokyo, May 1, 1959.) 

5;c :>[i 3>: ;!; >|; 

CANNED SARDINE PRICE 
TO WEST AFRICA CUT: 

A cut of 28 cents a case was recently 
made by the Japan Canned Fish and 
Shellfish Sales Company for sales to 
West Africa of small No. 1 type canned 
sardines. West Africa, before 1958, 
purchased about 150,000 cases of Japa- 
nese canned sardines, but recently South 
African sardines have cut into the sales 
of Japanese sardines to that area. In 
1958, exports of canned sardines from 
Japan to West Africa were only about 
50,000 cases. Therefore, in an attempt 
to bolster sales to that area, the Japa- 
nese announced the cut in price. 



CANNED SAURY 

PACK TARGET REDUCED : 

As much as 640,000 cases of canned 
saury were in stock as of the first part 



of April and only 340,000 cases were ex- 
pected to be moved by the end of August, 
according to a report of a meeting of the 
Japan Export Canned Saury Manufacturers 
Association on April 13, 1959. At first 
the Association was planning on a pack 
target of about 650,000 cases, but be- 
cause of the unsold stocks on hand it is 
planned to reduce the target to 600,000 
cases for the new pack season. 



Korea 



7^ 



INCREASE IN EXPORTS OF 
FISHERY PRODUCTS PLANNED: 

The Republic of Korea trade program 
for the second half of 1959 includes an 
estimated US$4.6 million in exports of 
fishery products. The planned exports 
of fishery products include $570,000 of 
frozen shrimp. Considerable interest in 
Korean shrimp supplies has developed 
in the United States and this item may 
become a substantial source of foreign 
exchange in the future. 




Mexico 

MERIDA SHRIMP FISHERY 
TRENDS, MARCH 1959: 

The Mexican shrimp fishing industry 
in the Campeche and Ciudad del Carmen 
areas of the Gulf of Mexico has declined 
to the point of crisis due to small catch- 
es, lower prices on the world market, 
and increased costs of operation. The 
small catches are believed to be due in 
part to natural causes, but they may al- 
so be the result of past fishing practices, 
particularly the heavy catches of small 
immature shrimp. 

Increased costs of petroleum, oil, and 
repairs have forced some boat owners, 
whose margin of profit is at best quite 
low, to tie up their vessels, thus leaving 
idle fishermen who must seek economic 
assistance from, the cooperatives. 

Representatives of the various sec- 
tors of the shrimp industry assembled 
to consider means of combating the 
problem and adopted a program which 
would ban catches of small shrimp and 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



75 



Mexico (Contd.): 

forbid their purchase by the cooperatives ^ 
declare white shrimp out of season for 
three months, and work toward a strict 
control of fishing throughout the Gulf of 
Mexico, the latter presumably contem- 
plating action at the diplomatic level. 
(United States Consul dispatch of 
April 3, 1959, from Merida.) 

^ >[c >It: ?!« 3!< 



VOLUNTARY CLOSED SEASON FOR 
SHRIMP FISHING IN CAMPECHE AREA : 

The fishermen's cooperatives and the shrimp industry of 
Ciudad del Carmen and Campeche, Mexico, have agreed on 
a two-months (April 1 to May 31) closed area which extends 
out into the Gulf of Mexico nine miles. The agreement, 
which was reached on March 31, includes penalties and the 
boat crews are required to sign a copy of the agreement. 
The agreement also bans the catch or purchase of shrimp 
smaller than 50 to the pound heads on. The penalties and 
rules are: 

1. Three months suspension for the crews of ships 
caught fishing within nine miles of shore. 

2. Permanent suspension in case of repetition. 

3. For capture or transport of white shrimp ( Penaeus 
setlferus ), confiscation of the catch and the penalties 
mentioned above. 

4. If a boat owner desires to force the crew to fish 
within nine miles, he must do so in writing. The same 
penalties will be applied to the ship and the owner will 
be obliged to maintain the crew during the penalty period 

5- Any company buying or found having white shrimp in 
possession will be penalized as follows: (a) confiscation 
of the shrimp; (b) expulsion from the National Chamber 
of the Fishery Industry; (c) request to the authorities to 
close the plant. 

6. The cooperatives will not issue certificates for white 
shrimp during the closed period. (According to Mexican 
law legal transactions involving shrimp must be accom- 
panied by a certificate from a fishing cooperative.) 

T-. The Chamber, the cooperatives, and the authorities 
will undertake the enforcement and any ship caught with- 
in nine miles will have the penalties applied automati- 
cally without recourse. 

8. The Chamber, cooperatives, and the authorities will, 
upon termination of the closed season, send ships to de- 
termine whether the closed season should be extended or 
not. 

The Ciudad del Carmen-Campeche area in the Gulf of 
Mexico has been suffering from low catches of shrimp 
since the fall of 1958. The closed season is an attempt to 
prevent the capture of small white shrimp and to increase 
catches later on. However, since practically the entire 
range of the adult white- shrimp population is involved in 
the closed area, the results of the closed season may not 
be those anticipated by the proponents of the measure. 
Depending upon the recruitment rate of small shrimp and 
growth and natural mortality rates the area could wind up 
inhabited by a smaller total poundage of shrimp at the end 
of the closed season than at the beginning. 

In any event, the measure, if complied with, should elim- 
inate shipments of white shrimp from this region to the 
United States for two months. Normally, on an annual basis, 
about one-third of the Ciudad del Carmen landings are white 
shrimp whereas the Campeche landings are composed of a 
small percentage of whites. 

The Mexican shrimp industry not only in the Carmen- 
Campeche area but elsewhere in the Gulf of Mexico is in a 



very distressed condition because of light catches. The 
industry is further plagued by rising costs of operation. 

Shrimp landings for the first quarter of 1P59 in the Cam- 
peche-Carmen area totaled 2.8 million pounds heads on as 
compared to 4.7 miUion pounds the same quarter in 1958. 

Shrimp landings for the first quarter of 1959 in the Cam- 
peche-Carmen area totaled 2.8 million pounds heads on as 
compared to 4.7 million pounds the same quarter in 1958. 
(United States Embassy dispatch from Mexico dated April 3, 
1959.) 




Morocco 

FISHERY PRODUCTS LANDINGS 

AND FOREIGN TRADE: 

Landings of fish and shellfish in Mo- 
rocco (includes both Northern and South- 
ern Zones) during 1957 were about 
142,776 metric tons, a record for recent 
years. The 1957 landings were greater 
than in 1956 by about one-third. Land- 
ings were curtailed at the height of the 
season due to lack of buying interest on 
the part of the fish canners. The mar- 
ket for canned fish was depressed, but 
demand was good for fish meal. Al- 
though the fish meal manufacturers 
could have utilized surplus sardine 
catches for fish meal, they were prevent- 
ed from buying the surplus because the 
fishermen's labor union, would not al- 
low the vessels to sell fish unwanted 
by the canners at the lower price of- 
fered for fish for reduction into fish 
meal. 

With a large stock of canned sar- 
dines unsold from 1957, the outlook 
was not bright for the canning indus- 
try in 1958. 

Landings in 1957 included 109,828 
tons of sardines, 9,373 tons of tuna, 
22,734 tons of other finfish, and 841 
tons of shellfish. The canning indus- 
try consumed 70,630 tons of sardines 
and 6,856 tons of other fish; the re- 
duction plants used 31,276 tons; 21,776 
tons were sold for human consumption; 
6,684 tons were frozen for export; and 
the balance used for bait, salting, and 
unspecified purposes. 

Morocco's production of processed 
fishery products amounted to 70,438 
tons--canned sardines 27,089 tons, -can- 
ned tuna 17,401 tons, other canned fish 



76 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Morocco (Contd.) 



Tabl 


e 1 - Moro 


cjco's^xTMrfjiyof Fist 


lerv Products, 

British African 

Territories 


1957 








Product 


France 


West 
Geimanv 


French West 
Africa 


Italy 


United 
States 


Algeria 


Other 
Countries 


Total 


Sardines: 


_ ... .fMetrir. Ton.i^ 1 


10,661 

4,979 

3,581 

648 


2,890 


2,050 
13 


1,709 
61 


1,661 


313 


60 

411 
37 


5,755 
3 

42 


25,039 

5, 116 

3,992 

727 




Fresh 




Salted 


Total Sardines 


19,869 


2,890 


2,063 


1,770 


1,661 


313 


508 


5,800 


34,874 


Tuna: 


888 
504 


- 


28 


6 


- 


- 


140 


143 
26 


1,199 
536 




Fresh 


Total Tuna 


1,392 


_ 


28 


6 


- 


- 


140 


169 


1,735 


Other fresh fish 

Shellfish , frozen or fresh . . 

Shellfish, canned 

Otiier, dried and salted . . . 
Mackerel, canned 


333 

181 

50 

94 

774 

2,944 

1,699 


9 

2,712 
161 


5 


144 

299 

16 

60 

285 

23 


- 


3,482 


2,712 

129 

3 

38 

260 


611 

4 

4 

24 

27 

3,278 

215 

14 


3,805 

613 

73 

165 

1, 121 

12,701 

2,098 

14 


Fish oil2/. 


Other canned 


Totals 


27,336 


5,772 


2,096 


2,603 


1,661 


3,795 


3,790 


10, 146 


57, 199 


1/ bouthem zone only. 
2/ Includes cod-liver oil. 







663 tons, salted fish 1,597 tons, frozen 
fish about 5,000 tons, fish meal 12,764 
tons, fish oil 2,927 tons, and fertilizer 
2,997 tons. 

Exports of fishery products from 
the southern zone of Morocco in 
1957 totaled 57,199 tons. France was 
Morocco's best customer and account- 
ed for 47.8 percent, or 27,336 tons, of 
the total exports. The United States 
purchased about 4,795 tons--3,482 



tons of fish meal and 1,313 tons of 
sardines. 

Imports of fishery products by Moroc- 
co in 1957 totaled 1,677 tons, and included 
1,618 tons of freshfish, 295 tons of salted 
fish, 354 tons of shellfish, and 10 tons of 
salmon and other products. The United 
States share of Morocco's imports of 
fishery products was only about 7 tons of 
canned salmon. (United States Embassy 
in Casablanca, November 10, 1958.) 



Mozambique 

PORTUGUESE -AMERICAN 
COMPANY TO FISH FOR 
SHRIMP AND SPINY LOBSTER: 

A new fishing company formed with 
Portuguese and American capital (about 
US$105,000), with headquarters inLou- 
renco Marques, M o z a m b i qu e, was 
scheduled to start fishing for shrimp and 
spiny lobsters about July 1. Late in May 
the company was waiting for the delivery 
of two fishing vessels from the United 
States, and later on additional boats will 
be added to the fleet. 

A contract has been signed by the new 
company with the Mozambique railroad 
administration for the use of a large part 
of the only refrigerated warehouse in 
Lourenco Marques. In the initial stages. 



plans call for the sale of shrimp and 
lobsters to Mozambique and neighboring 
territories. Later, when space becomes 
available on reeferships, the firm expects 
to export shrimp and spiny lobsters to 
the United States. 

All individuals or firms interested in 
entering commercial fishing ventures in 
Mozambique must be licensed by the 
Government. All licensed fishermen are 
required to report their catches to the 
Port Captain, who attempts to regulate 
the licensing of fishermen in order to a- 
void over supplies in the markets. 

Commercial fishery statistics on the 
landings of fish and shellfish in the fish- 
ing ports of Mozambique are difficult to 
obtain. During 1956, the latest year for 
which statistics are available, fish 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



77 



Mozambique Contd.): 

entering those ports amounted to 5.9 mil- 
lion pounds; shellfish, 0.6 million pounds; 
shrimp, 0.6 million pounds; and unclassi- 
fied or other fishery products, 0.2 mil- 
lion pounds. The principal port was Lou- 
renco Marques where about 57 percent of 
the total fish and shellfish was landed. 
(United States Consulate dispatch of 
May 20, 1959, from Lourenco Marques.) 



Q 



Netherlands 

UNITED STATES CANNED 

TUNA PRICED TOO 

HIGH TO MEET COMPETITION: 

According to a Netherlands importer, 
Japan and Peru are practically the only 
suppliers of canned tuna to the Nether- 
lands. Wholesale prices quoted c.i.f. 
Rotterdam late in April for Japanese and 
Peruvian canned tuna were: Japan: white 
meat, solid pack in oil, 7-oz. cans, 48 
cans/cs., US$7. 00-7. 50 and in Sj-oz. 
cans, 48 cans/cs., $4.00-4.50; light meat 
in oil, solid pack, 7-oz. cans, 48 cans/cs., 
$6.00 and 3|-oz. cans, 48 cans/cs., $3.00- 
3.50; Peru: light meat, solid pack in oil, 
7-oz. cans, 48 cans/cs., $6.00. 

One of the leading brands of canned 
tuna on the Netherlands market is pro- 
duced by the Peruvian subsidiary of a 
large California tuna cannery. As of the 
end of April the Peruvian subsidiary was 
reported unable to make offers for ship- 
ment to the Netherlands because canned 
tuna stocks from the 1958/59 catch were 
about exhausted. The latest offer from 
the Peruvian firm (April 15) for solid- 
pack tuna in oil was $5.80 (probablyf.o.b. 
Peru) a case of 48 7-oz. cans, the United 
States Consul at Rotterdam reported on 
April 29. 

?[c >!« >Ic ij; sjc 

IMPORTED CANNED 
TUNA PRICES, MAY 1959 : 

The following imported canned tuna 
prices c.i.f. Netherlands were reported 
by import trade sources early in May 
1959. Japan: light meat tuna (skipjack or 
yellowfin) in cottonseed oil, solid pack, 
7-oz., 48 cans/cs., US$7.21; 3|-oz., 48 



cans/cs., $4.27. Peru: bonito, light meat 
in cottonseed oil, solid pack, 7-oz., 48 
cans/cs., $6.30; 3|-oz., 48 cans/cs., 
$3.92 a case. 

Importers state that there is very 
little demand for canned tuna in Holland 
and that a large part of the purchases 
a-e re-exported. Consumers prefer the 
solid pack light meat canned tuna, a U- 
nited States Embassy dispatch (May 12, 
1959) from the Hague states. 



Norway 

LOFOTEN AREA COD 
LANDINGS HIGHER IN 1959: 



Reports from North Norway indicate 
that the 1959 cod fisheries in the Lofoten 
waters produced more fish and better 
earnings than in several years, despite 
record-low participation. The season 
was officially called off April 24, mark- 
ing the departure of inspectors and fish- 
ermen alike. Between 9,000 and 10,000 
fishermen took part in this year's ven- 
ture on the Lofoten banks spawning 
grounds of the mature Arctic cod. 

The total catch was 44,177 metric tons, 
which exceeded the 1958 quantity by about 
11,000 tons. Largest landings were made 
by vessels operating out of Henningsvag 
and Svolvaer. First-hand value of the 
catch is estimated at some Kr. 44 million 
(US$6,160,000). Earnings per fisherman 
for the 3-months season ranged from Kr. 
4,000 to Kr. 8,000 (US$560-$1,120). 

According to a Troms(^ newspaper, the 
result was fairly satisfactory. Fisher- 
men using jigs and hand lines did espec- 
ially well. For a while, though, rough 
weather forced vessels to stay in port 
many days. Storms also caused exten- 
sive loss of gear. ( News of Norway. 
May 7, 1959.) 

^ ;Ic sjc ;]; sis 

COD FISHERY 
TRENDS, APRIL 1959: 



Landings of spawning and spring cod 
as of April 18, 1959, in the Troms and 
Lofoten areas of Norway amounted to 
100,551 metric tons. (As of April 24 



78 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Norway (Contd.): 

spawning cod landings in the Lofoten area 
were reported to be 44,177 tons.) The 
landings through April 18 were substan- 
tially higher than the 89,813 tons landed 
in the same period of 1958. 

Of cod landings from Troms and 
Lofoten, 64,270 tons were sold for dry- 
ing, 15,293 tons for salting, and 20,088 



tons for the filleting, freezing, and 
fresh trade. 

The vessels fishing out of M0re og 
Romsdal and Sogn og Fjordane started 
long-line fishing on the deep-sea banks. 
Heavier landings of ling, cusk, and 
halibut are expected from those oper- 
ations, the Norwegian fisheries peri- 
odical Fiskets Gang reported on 
April 23, 1959. 






SHIP FRESH FISH BY AIR: 

In Aelesund--one of Norway's leading 
fishery centers --a new airport has 
recently been put into service. Lobsters, 
salmon, sea trout, oysters, etc., are 
shipped daily by plane more than 300 
miles to Oslo to be consumed just a few 
hours after capture. 



The airline operating between Aele- 
sund and Oslo was established after ex- 
tensive research into the fish-freight 
possibilities. The fishermen's associa- 
tions that are making aerial fish ship- 
ments are especially interested in the 
success of the airline. ( Industrias Pes - 
queras, Vigo, Spain, February 1, 1959.) 



Panama 

PINK SHRIMP FAIL TO 
APPEAR FOR SECOND TIME: 

The Panamanian pink shrimp ( Pen - 
aeus brevirostris ) fishing season (usual- 
ly starts in February or March) failed 
to materialize for the second straight 
year. In spite of the perfect setting of 
cold water (down to 70 F.), strong 
northeasterly winds and no rains, pink 
or "rojo" catches were extremely spot- 
ty and the total take was as low if not 



lower than in 195 8. White shrimp, how- 
ever, have appeared this year before the 
'beginning of the rains and are quite plen- 
tiful, but the catches have a high per- 
centage of small immature shrimp. A 
proposed basic law for regulating the 
shrimp industry is under consideration. 

The Taboga fish meal plant now has 
three purse seiners fishing with an aver- 
age daily take of 60 tons of fish, primar- 
ily anchovetta. (United States Embassy, 
Panama, report of April 21, 1959.) 




A fleet of shrimp trawlers at the pier of a Panamanian fishery company. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



79 



Peru 

BONITO AND ANCHOVY CATCHES 
L OWER IN CHIMBOTE AREA: 

Scarcities of anchovy and bonito in 
waters off Chimbote, Peru, have caused 
an increase in prices of Peruvian fish 
meal and canned bonito. The pack of 
canned bonito in 1958 amounted to about 
600,000 cases--one third of the 1956- 
1957 pack. A recent survey showed that 
Chimbote 's fish meal plants and bonito 
canning factories are operating at only 
20-25 percent of capacity. 

The fishery for anchovy to be used in 
fish meal manufacture has been good in 
the cold waters north and south of Cal- 
lao. However, due to the long distance, 
fish from there cannot be shipped to 
Chimbote because it spoils en route. 
( Industrias Pesqueras , Vigo, Spain, 
March 15, l'95975 

5|c >!c ;;s i'fi s{c 

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL MARINE 

PRODUCTS, 1957-1958: 

Expanding exports of fish meal at 
satisfactory prices continued to make 
the Peruvian fisheries industry one of 



the bright spots in the economy. The 
value of fish meal exports in 1958 ex- 
ceeded that of zinc or gold, and is ex- 
pected to be higher in 1959. Most fish 
meal exports are to non-United States 
destinations. Peruvian suppliers have 
contracts to supply West Germany with 
fish meal needs for the first half of 1959 
up to about US$5 million. 



Peruvian Exports of Principal Marine Products, 1957-1958 



Products 



Canned bonito 
Fish meal . . 
Frozen tuna . . 
Frozen skipjack 
Sperm oil . . . 



1958 



1957 



.(Metric 



Tons). 



12,541 


17,857 


105,777 


61,645 


9,808 


6,634 


6,073 


5,337 


7.352 


4,435 



Shipments of frozen tuna and skip- 
jack to the United States increased 
32.7 percent in tonnage from 1957 to 

1958. Catches of tuna continued to be 
good in the first quarter of 1959. Two 
United States-owned operating com- 
panies in Peru had 13 United States 
flag vessels fishing for tuna out of 
Peruvian ports during most of the first 
quarter of 1959 and 5 more vessels 
are expected, according to a April 27, 

1959, dispatch from the United States 
Embassy in Lima, Peru. 





Fishermen put theii boats into the water from the beach of the small bay north of Huarmey, Peru. Lima receives 
a large percentage of its supply of fresh fish from this type of fishing. 

anaaooaDDDDoaDa 



80 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Poland 

MOTHERSHIP EQUIPPED WITH HELI- 
COPTER-LANDING DECK AND ALL 

FACILITIES: 

Polish herring drifters are now at- 
tended by a mothership, which has been 
constructed to provide the fishermen 
with all they need during work and lei- 
sure while on the fishing grounds. 

Not only does she store the fish in 
refrigerated holds, supply the drifters 
with fuel and oil, water, salt, and barrels, 
and make repairs, but she is fitted with 
surgery and hospital facilities, a cinema 
and lecture room, and a library. She al- 
so has tailor, shoemaker, and barber 
shops. 

In addition the use of a helicopter in 
times of emergency when rough weather 
precludes ordinary means of transfer, 
has been provided for by a special heli- 
copter-landing deck on the poop. 

A second auxiliary vessel operating 
with the drifter fleet carries thefishback 
to the home port. 

A typical Polish mothership with the 
fishing fleets is about 470 feet long, with 
a speed of 13 knots, and a crew of 261. 

Smaller fishing vessels such as drift- 
ers often experience great difficulty in 
mooring alongside bigger ships, risking 
the danger of severe damage by collision 
in rough seas. To meet this contingency 
the Polish mothership 's hull has been 
strengthened by thicker plating along the 
waterline. When the drifters, loaded 
with herring, come alongside to unload 
their catch or load up with water and 
other necessities, four vessles can be 
accommodated at a time--two on each 
side of the mothership. 

Her lifting capacity is greatly in- 
creased to facilitate the various deck 
operations needed to handle big catches 
of herring. This equipment includes six 
derricks around the foremast, including 
two side derricks and one 25 -ton der- 
rick. There are two 5 -ton derricks for- 
ward of the forecastle, and two of three 
tons aft of the forecastle. The poop 
mast also has another four 5-ton 
derricks. 



Economy in manpower has been 
achieved by installing electric-driven 
cargo winches, so that one man can con- 
trol two winches --essential for swift and 
efficient lifting operations to the various 
decks. 

Four electric capstans, each of three 
tons pulling power, are installed, and 
the two -shaft propelling plant has two 
propeller units, reciprocating engine,, 
exhaust steam turbine, and two atmos- 
phere water-tube boilers. 

The steam turbine engines are re- 
versible," and have two low-pressure and 
two high-pressure cylinders. Total out- 
put is 5,000 i.h.p. at 120 r.p.m. Electric 
power is generated by four steam turbine 
generator sets of 250 k.w. each. 

Adequate supplies of drinking water 
for the drifters' crews are ensured by 
the use of two evaporators, which also 
supply water for the boilers. The speedy 
transfer of fresh water, fuel, and lubri- 
cating oil from the mothership to the 
drifters is facilitated by a set of pumps 
linked with the respective store contain- 
ing these essential daily needs. 

The hold of the mothership where the 
fish is stored until it can be transferred 
to the carrier vessel is cooled by re- 
frigerating machinery, situated on the 
first tweendeck near the main propelling 
plant. This is of a compressor type ar- 
ranged for direct cooling of the holds by 
a system of brine coils. The three com- 
pressors ensure the cooling of five holds 
32 F. Two ammonia compressors are 
installed for cooling the provision store 
on the upper tweendeck. Special barrel 
conveyors have been provided for load- 
ing both upper and lower holds. 

During loading operations at sea it is 
often necessary for the mothership to 
operate in deep water, and she has been 
provided with special deep anchoring, 
capable of a depth of 1,300 feet and ad- 
ditional to the normal bow and stern 
anchor equipment. This deep anchoring 
consists of a special davit, an anchor, a 
steel chain cable, and a cable stopper. 

The drifters can be supplied with 
fuel, oil, and water at four different 
points of the mothership, and the problena 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



81 



Poland (Contd.): 

of mooring at sea has been solved by 
special floating and vertical fenders 
which hang down the sides of the ship. 
(The Fi shing News, April 10, 1959.) 




Portugal 

CANNED FISH EXPORTS, 

JANUARY 1959: 

Portugal's exports of canned fish 
during January 1959, amounted to 3,476 
metric tons (189,000 cases), valued at 
US$1.8 million as compared with 3,078 
tons, valued at US$1.8 million for the 
same period in 1958. Sardines in olive 
oil exported during January 1959 amount- 
ed to 2,371 tons, valued at US$1.2 million 



Portuquese Canned Fish Exports, January 1959 | 


Species 


lanuaA' 1959 1 


Sardines ui olive oil 

Sardine G saidinelike fish in brine . . . 
Tuna & tunalike fish in olive oil ... . 
Anchovy fUlets 


Metric 
Tons 


US$ 
1,000 


2,371 
70 
160 

344 

448 

S3 


1,206 

15 

108 

237 

209 

29 


Other fish 


Total 


3,476 


1,804 



During January 1959, the leading 
canned fish buyer was Italy with 695 tons 
(valued at US$351,000), followed by Ger- 
many with 562 tons (valued at US$289,000), 
United States with 415 tons (valued at 
US$283,000), Great Britain with 354 tons 
(valued at US$171,000), and Belgium - 
Luxenbourg with 282 tons (valued at 
US$139,000). Exports to the United 
States included 200 tons of anchovies, 45 
tons of tuna, and 162 tons of sardines. 
(Conservas de Peixe, March 1959.) 



CANNED FISH PACK, JANUARY 1959: 

The total pack of canned fish for Jan- 
uary 1959 amounted to 2,359 metric tons 
as compared with 2,560 tons for the same 
period in 1958. Canned sardines in oil 
(1,557 tons) accounted for 66.0 percent of 
the January 1959 total pack, lower by 
20.6 percent than the pack of 1,960 tons 
for the same period of 1958, the March 
1959 Conservas de Peixe reports. 



Portuguese Canned Fish Pack, [anuary 1959 



Product 



Quantity 



In Metric 
Tons 



1,557 

1 

597 

136 

2 

6fi_ 



2,359 



In 1,000 
Cases 



60 

4 



148 



In olive oil : 

Sardines 

Sardinelike fish 

Anchovy fillets 

Tuna, 

Mackerel 

. Other species 

Total 

Note: Values unavailable. 

sic ;!; 5|i sji ;I« 



FISHERIES TRENDS, JANUARY 1959: 

Sardine Fishing: During January 
1959, the Portuguese fishing fleet landed 
4,051 metric tons of sardines (valued at 
US$341,565 ex-vessel or about $84.30 a 
ton). 

Canneries purchased 52.7 percent or 
2,133 tons of the sardines (valued at 
US$185,496 ex-vessel) or about $86.90 a 
ton) during January. Only 25 tons were 
salted, and the balance of 1,893 tons was 
purchased for the fresh fish market. 

Other Fishing: The January 1959 
landings of fish other than sardines were 
principally 6,441 tons of chinchards (val- 
ue US$207,409). ( Conservas de Peixe , 
March 1959.) 

■J!L * * ^,c * 

EFFECT OF EUROPEAN COMMON 
MARKET ON FISH CANNING INDUSTRY: 



The Portuguese fish canners have ex- 
pressed the view that the European Com- 
mon Market is a bad omen for the fish 
canning industry, especially if Morocco 
should join this group or become associ- 
ated with a Free Trade area because of 
its special relationship to France. Sev- 
eral important canners reaffirmed their 
industry's fear of Moroccan competition 
and pointed out that there had been ar^ 
increase of exports of fresh Moroccan" 
sardines to France for canning in the 
latter country. It was pointed out that 
the six Common Market countries con- 
sumed from 50-60 percent of total Por- 
tuguese sardine exports and loss of this 
market to Morocco would have a serious 
effect on the industry. Most sources felt 
that sales to the United States could be 
increased, provided that the industry 



82 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Portugal (Contd.): 

greatly reduced the great number of 
brand names and invested more heavily 
in advertising in the United States. 



Singapore 



MARKET FOR CALIFORNIA SARDINES: 

Prior to 1952 California sardines (pilchards) enjoyed a 
substantial market in the Singapore area and most of the 




Table 1 - Singapore's Imports of Canned Sardines and 
Pilchards by Country of Origin and Value, 1958 


Product & Country 
of Origin 


Quantity 


Value ^ 


Sardines: 


Long Tons 

900 
80 
18 
12 
11 
4 

I 


M$1,000 

1,084 
96 
62 
25 
26 
5 
9 
11 


US$1,000 

354 
31 
20 

8 

8 

1 

I 


Union of South Africa 

Japan 

Norway 

Portugal 

Canada 

Netherlands 

United States 

Other 


Total Sardines .... 


1,032 


1,318 


428 


Pilchards: 


2,109 

1 


2,439 
1 


798 
2/ 


Union of South Africa 
Other 


lyValuet converted at rate of M$3.055 = US$1. 
2/VaIiie lets than USSSOO. 



shipments were made through Singapore. After the failure 
in catches of California sardines during the period 1952-57, 
Singapore importers of sardines established trading contacts 
with suppliers in South Africa and Japan. Currently im- 
porters in Singapore have committed themselves to these 
packers for supplies and the immediate prospects for in- 
creasing sales of California pilchards are not bright. How- 
ever, it is believed that a sales promotion campaign could 
do much to re-establish the California packers' position in 
this market. Certain developments have taken place which 
may prevent the development of the market through Singa- 
pore to regain its pre-1952 level. An important factor is 
the existence of a customs duty of 25 percent in the Federa- 
tion of Malaya on non-Commonwealth pilchards as com- 
pared to an imperial preferential duty of only 10 percent. 
Another factor is the gradual development of direct trading 
channels in many of the markets previously supplied from 
Singapore. 

During the five-year period of 1954-58 the average an- 
nual quantity of sardines and pilchards retained in Malaya 
was about 2,359 long tons of which approximately 90 per- 
cent were consumed in the Federation of Malaya and the 
remainder in Singapore. During the same period average 
annual exports to surrounding areas (excluding the Fed- 
eration) amounted to 1,437 long tons. According to re- 
liable sources about 55 percent of total imports of sardines 
and pilchards into Malaya are consumed in the Federation 
of Malaya. 

There are no figures showing inventories of pilchards 
and sardines held in Singapore and the Federation. Market 
sources indicate, however, that a three months supply is 
normally stocked and that stocks are estimated at about 
800 long tons. 

Importers report that consumers prior to 1957 preferred 
California pilchards over any other because they tended to 



be fatter and contain more oil than competitive brands. 
Price factors, of course, are of considerable importance and 
California products at the present time suffer a disadvantage 
because of the preferential treatment accorded South African 
sardines in the Federation of Malaya. 

There are some prejudices against Japanese products as 
a result of the Japanese occupation of this area during the 
war, but these prejudices are rapidly diminishing and the Jap- 
anese are in a relatively favorable competitive position in 
the market at the present time. 



It is doubtful that much of the 1958 pack of California pil- 
chards can be placed in the area served by Singapore since 
most importers have already committed themselves to 
South Africa or Japan for supplies. Traders report that they 
were discouraged from placing orders with California packers 
because of the relatively high prices quoted, reported to be 
as much as US$9. 00 f.o.b. Los Angeles for ovals. Prices of 
California pilchards, they report, have been substantially 
reduced in recent weeks and more interest has been ex- 
pressed in these supplies, particularly for the 1959 pack. 

Importers in Singapore state that Japanese suppliers 
have labeled sauries and horse mackerel as sardines be- 
cause of consumer preferences. At one time certain brands 
of South African pilchards were also labeled as sardines 
for shipment to markets where such labeling improved 
sales. The Singapore Government is now more strict about 
labeling requirements and has prevented such mislabeling 
(United States Consul at Singapore, April 10,1959), 



Sardines: 



Pilchards; 



Table 2 - Singapore's-^ Imports of Sardines 
and Pilchards, 1954-58 



Product 



1958 . 
1957. 
1956. 
1955. 
1954. 



1958. 
1957. 
1956. 
1955. 
1954. 



Total . 



Quantity 



Long Tons 

1,031 
1,942 
1,432 
714 
1,062 



6,181 



2,110 
2,639 
2,755 
3,229 
2,066 



12.799 



M$1.000 

1,317 
2,437 
1,634 
867 
1.383 



7,638 



2,441 
3,131 
3,207 
3,559 
2,451 



14.789 



U5$l,0Qa 



431 
798 
535 
284 
453 



2,501 



799 
1,025 
1,050 
1,165 

802 



^Exclusive of trade between Singapore and the Federation of Malaya 



4.841 



Table 3 - Singapore's^ Exports of Sardines 
and Pilchards, 1954-58 



Sardines: 



1958. 
1957. 
1956 . 
1955. 
1954. 



Total . 



Pilchards: 



1958. 
1957. 
1956. 
1955 . 
1954. 



Total . 



Quantity 



Long Tons 

1,812 
1,301 
1.452 
1,170 
995 



6,730 



59 

64 

74 

124 

135 



456 



Value 



M$1,000 

2,145 
1,573 
1,696 
1,316 
1,115 



7,845 



71 

72 

85 

140 

152 



520 



US$1,000 



702 
515 
555 
431 
365 



2,568 



23 
24 
28 
46 
50 



lyExdusive of trade between Singapore and the Federation of Malaya. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



83 



Singapore (Contd.): 



Table 4 - Prices (c.i.f.) at Singapore April 1959 for Canned Pilchards 




and Competing Canned Fish Products 




Cases 


Japan 


South African 


California 


Saury 


Jack Mackerel 


Pilchards 


[All tomato sauce): 


M$/cs. 


US$/cs. 


M$/cs. 


US$/cs. 


M$/cs. 


US$/cs. 


M$/cs. 


US$/cs. 




48-16 02. Oval. . . 


23.00 


7.53 


19.05 


6.24 


- 


- 


24.70 


8.09 


48-16 oz. Tall . . . 


21.50 


7.04 


18.70 


6.12 


22.00 


7.20 


21.35 


6.99 


96- 9 oz. Tall . . . 


25.00 


8a8 


21.60 


7.07 


- 


- 


- 


- 


48- 8 oz. Tall . . . 


- 


- 


- 


- 


12.70 


4.16 


- 


- 


100-5 oz. Round. . 


20.00 


6.55 


18.50 


6.06 


20.80 


6.81 


- 


- 




Sweden 

FISHERMEN OFFERED INSURANCE 

O N LING CATCHES: 

The Swedish High Seas Fishermen's 
Sales Association in Goteborg has de- 
cided to arrange for insurance on ling 
catches for its members. For example, 
in case of engine breakdown, such a policy 
would give a fisherman a certain com- 
pensation for the catch which he normal- 
ly would have made if the engine had not 
failed. 

This type of insurance is of great im- 
portance to the fishermen, according to 
the Chairman of the Association. Ves- 
sels holding such policies will be reim- 
bursed for oil, ice, bait, and salt ex- 
penditures and also for loss of income 
up to an amount of 20,000 crowns 
(US$3,866) in case of a broken trip. 

The interest of Swedish fishermen in 
ling fishing north of the Hebrides and 
Shetland islands has increased and 40 
vessels have this year announced that they 
plan to participate, as compared with 30 
vessels in 1958. The first boats were 
scheduled to leave about the end of April 
and some boats plan to make two trips, 
the United States Consul in Goteborg re- 
ported on April 21, 1959. 

Ex-vessel prices are the same as in 
1958 or 1.00 crown per kilo (8.8 U. S. 
cents a pound) for fresh ling, 0.60 crown 
per kilo (5.3 U. S. cents a pound) for 



fresh cod, and 0.50 crowns per kilo (4.4 
U. S. cents a pound) for salted ling. 

sic ^ijc >I« ^le )^ 

OSCILLOSCOPE AND ELECTRIC 
GROUND WIRE DEVELOPED 
AS AID TO NAVIGATION: 

Navigation of a vessel along an elec- 
tric wire placed on the sea bottom was 
recently demonstrated in the Sound be- 
tween Sweden and Denmark by two Swed- 
ish inventors from Malmo, Sweden. A 
film of the demonstration was shown on 
the Swedish television circuit on May 7, 
1959. 

An electric wire in the form of a tri- 
angular track was laid at the bottom of 
the Sound and the navigator of a motor 
boat followed the electric wire with the 
assistance of an oscilloscope. The nav- 
igator operated in a closed room and had 
no view in any direction, thus being re- 
stricted to navigating solely with the aid 
of the oscilloscope and the electric wire. 

When a vessel fitted with an oscillo- 
scope is above the electric wire, an 
arrow on the instrument used by the nav- 
igator will point straight down. Should 
the vessel deviate from the wire, for 
example starboard, the arrow will point 
to the port side of the vessel, or vice 
versa. 

This system of navigation, it is claimed, 
could be very useful in narrow channels and 
ports as well as in darkness and fog. 



84 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Sweden (Contd.): 

The electric wire was connected to 
the ordinary Malmo city lighting system, 
the United States Consul in Goteborg re- 
ported on May 8, 1959. 

■:ffi ;I< ■i\<. :>\<. "^ 

FACILITIES FOR QUICK-FREEZING 

FISH EXPANDED: 

The Helsingborg Cold Storage Plant 
in Helsingborg has opened a new large 
fish-filleting section which was con- 
structed by a largeSwedishfish-process- 
ing company. 

The processing room has four auto- 
miatic filleting machines, two of which 
are rented from another Swedish fish- 
processing company, with a total capac- 
ity of 1,500 half boxes of cod (contain- 
ing 45 kilos or about 99 pounds) in 10 
hours. The volume of the storage space 
in the plant amounts to 67,000 cubic 
meters and the freezing capacity for 
herring is about 30,000 half boxes a week. 

During a recent visit of West Coast 
fishermen to the plant, the director of 
the operating company told them that his 
company first of all wishes to take care 
of fish caught by Swedish fishermen, and 
that imports will be limited to fish which 
cannot be supplied by Swedish fishermen. 
The director also said that the company 
has decided that fish more than two days 
old cannot be used for preparation of top- 
quality products. 

The director also said that because of 
its size the new fillet section cannot be 
made to pay if fishing for cod is carried 
on for only 4 to 6 weeks, as in the Baltic 
at present. He raised the question 
whether fishing for cod in the Baltic could 
not start in January rather than in the 
middle of April. 

Quick-freezing as a method of pres- 
ervation is relatively new in Sweden and 
will therefore be subject to many im- 
provements, according to the director of 
tlie Helsingborg plant. No one could have 
anticipated, he said, that quick-frozen 
cod fillets would have become as popular 
as they are today. Also, no one believes 
that the present system of freezing her- 
ring, which now is done relatively slowly. 



with the herring in boxes containing 45 
kilos, will continue in the future. 

Research work at the cold storage 
plant regarding freezing and storage of 
herring deals with important problems, 
such as the storage fitness at different 
temperatures and preservation methods. 
Other factors, such as the freezing 
velocity when herring is frozen in boxes 
compared with freezing of herring in 
chunks or in various other packing ma- 
terial is also being investigated, the U- 
nited States Consul in Goteborg reported 
on May 11, 1959. 

3l< sj: 5l< >ls :^ 

FISHING INDUSTRY, 1958: 

Preliminary data on the landings of 
fishery products by the Swedish fishing 
fleet in 1958 indicates a total of 215,206 
metric tons (474.3 million pounds) land- 
ed at home and abroad in 1958, an in- 
crease of 6 percent as compared with 
1957, when 202,100 metric tons (445.4 
million pounds) were landed, but 2 per- 
cent less than the total landings in 1955 
(the largest landings on record) when 
219,900 metric tons were landed. The 
figures include fish for industrial pur- 
poses, such as used in the production of 
fish oil and fish meal. The latter cate- 
gory has during the latter years increased 
and represented in 1958 over 12 percent 
of the total landings at home and abroad. 

Landings in Sweden accounted for 69 
percent of the total landed and the re- 
maining 31 percent were landed in Den- 
mark, West Germany, and Great Britain. 
Compared with 1957, the quantities of 
fish landed in Sweden dropped by 10 per- 
cent, while the landings abroad increased 
by 76 percent. 

The total value of the 1958 landings 
increased by 3 percent and amounted to 
149.1 million crowns (US$28.8 million) 
as compared with 145.2 million crowns 
(US$28.0 million) in 1957. The value of 
the 1958 landings exeededthe 1955 value by 
12 percent. The increase in the value of 
the catch in 1958 originates from landings 
abroad, which increased by 66 percent as 
compared with 1957, while the value of 
the landings in Sweden dropped by 6 per- 
cent. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



85 



Sweden (Contd.): 

Herring landings made up 45 percent 
of the total catch and increased by 6 
percent over 1957. Baltic herring, which 
made up 9 percent of the total catch in- 



1957, a decrease of 10 percent. This de- 
crease orginates from the West and South 
Coast areas, where the landings dropped 
by 18 and 2 percent, respectively. The 
landings on the East Coast on the other 
hand increased by 20 percent. 



Table 1 ^wedish Fish Landings by Main Species (including landings in foreign ports) 



Species 



Herring and Baltic herring: 

Herring 

Baltic herring 

Cod 

Haddock 

Whiting 

Ling 

Other cod 

Mackerel 

Sprat 

O'ther 

Not specified 

Industrial fish 

Total 



Quantity 



1958 ' 1957 
.(Metric Tons). 



97,112 

19,370 

26,932 

5,987 

2,778 

3,057 

5,086 

13,287 

2,188 

1/9,113 

4,351 

25,945 

215,206 



92,028 

14,044 

32,059 

6,832 

2,137 

3,531 

6,825 

11,952 

3,470 

10,223 

4,879 

14,118 

202,100 



Value 



1958 



.(Sw. Kr 



50 

10 

17 

5 

2 

3 

4 

9 

3, 

32, 

5, 

4, 

149, 



350 
511 
561 
717 
101 
032 
490 
230 
670 
754 
202 
452 
070 



1957 
1,000). . 

46,029 
8,909 

19,432 
5,903 



1958 I 1957 
. (US$1,000). 



,575 

,384 

,282 

,885 

,838 

34,274 

5,530 

2,159 

145,200 



1/ Includes: flatfish 2,721 tonsi eel 1,487 tons; salmon species 1,222 tons; and shellfish 3,683 tons 



9,718 

2,029 

3,389 

1,103 

405 

585 

857 

1,781 

708 

6,322 

1,004 

859 

28,770 



8,884 
1,719 
3,750 
1,139 

304 

653 
1,019 
1,522 

934 
6,615 
1,067 

417 
28,023 



creased by 38 percent, and mackerel, 
which comprised 6 percent of the total 
catch, increased by 11 percent. Ground- 
fish species, comprising 20 percent of 
the total catch, decreased on the other 
hand by 15 percent. Sprat dropped by 
37 percent and landings of eel and salm- 
on decreased by 22 and 16 percent re- 
spectively. 

The total quantity of fish landed in 
Sweden amounted to 148,4 38 metric tons 
as compared with 164,125metric tons in 



The total quantity of fish landed in 
foreign ports in 1958 by Swedish fisher- 
men amounted to 44,583 metric tons as 
compared with 28,347 metric tons in 
1957. Herring increased by 57 percent 
as compared with 1957 and made up 67 
percent of the total landings abroad. 
The landings of herring in German and 
British ports dropped considerably and 
were slightly more than one-fourth of 
the landings in 1957, while the landings 
in Denmark increased by 185 percent. 
Other species landed in foreign ports 



Table 2 - Swedish Fish Landings in Swedish Ports Only by Main Species 



Species 



Quantity 



1958 



1957 



Value 



1958 



1957 



(Sw. Kr. 1,000) 



19^81 r^Fr 

(US$1, 000) 



Herring and Baltic herring: 

Herring 

Baltic herring 

Cod 

Haddock 

Whiting 

Ling 

Other cod 

Mackerel 

Sprat 

Other 

Not specified 

Industrial fish 

Total . . . 



.(Metric Tons). 



52,529 

19,370 

26,329 

5,287 

2,246 

3,034 

4,297 

8,416 

2,111 

1/9,077 

4,209 

11,533 

148,438 



63,681 

14,044 

31,655 

6,057 

1,974 

3,481 

6,189 1 

10,060 

3,206 

9,999 

4,610 

9,179 

164,135 



28,016 

10,511 

17,163 

5,221 

1,754 

3,019 

3,917 

6,317 

3,572 

32,695 

5,087 

2,143 

119,415 



I 148,438 I 164,135 | 119,415 12 

; eel 1,487 tons; salmon species 1,222 tons; shellfish 3,683 



52,156 
8,909 

L9,123 
5,373 
1,478 
3,364 
4,823 
6,930 
4,641 

53,944 
5,286 
1.318 

>7,345 



5,407 

2,029 

3,312 

1,008 

338 

583 

756 

1,219 

689 

6,310 

982 

414 

23,047 



6,206 

1,720 

3,691 

1,037 

285 

649 

931 

1,337 

896 

6,551 

1,020 

254 

24,577 



\J Includes: flatfish 2, 685 tons 



86 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Sweden (Contd.): 

increased even more. Cod, for example, 
increased by 449 percent, mackerel by 
255 percent, and industry fish by 195 
percent. 

In terms of value, 90 percent of the 
landings abroad came from Denmark, 
5 percent from Great Britain, and 5 per- 
cent from West Germany, as compared 
with 49, 24, and 27 percent, respective- 
ly, in 1957. 

Swedish exports reached a new record 
in 1958. Sweden's exports of fish and 
fish products in 1958 (including direct 
landings) had a value of 70 million 
crowns (US$13.5 million) compared with 
60 million crowns (US$11.6 million) in 
1957. Direct landings in Denmark which 
increased in value from 8.7 millioncrowns 
(US$1.7 million)in 1957 to 26.6 million 
crowns (US$5.1 million) in 1958 were re- 
sponsible for the increase. The quantity 
of fish landed in Danish ports rose from 
21,500 metric tons in 1957 to almost 
62,000 metric tons in 1958. The total 
value of the direct landings in all foreign 
ports increased from 18 million crowns 
(US$3.5 million) in 1957 to almost 30 mil- 
lion crowns (US$5.8 million) in 1958. 

While the direct landings increased 
greatly last year, exports of fish and 
fish products from Sweden dropped 
slightly from 42.2 million crowns (US$8.2 
million) in 1957 to 39.9 million crowns 
(US$7.7 million) in 1958. The large di- 
rect Swedish landings made Denmark 
the leading importer of fish and fish 
products from Sweden in 1958. Danish 
imports totaled 32.5 million crowns 
(US$6.3 million) in value and thus re- 
presented almost 50 percent of the total 
value of Sweden's exports of fish and 
fish products. (It is of interest to note 
that the main part of the direct landings 
in Denmark is re-exported to other coun- 
tries, chiefly West and East Germany.) 

Exports to East Germany, which prior 
to 1958 had been the main market for 
Swedish fish and fish products, declined 
in value to 12.7 million crowns (US$2.5 
million) in 1958 from 20 million crowns 
(US$3.7 million) in 1957. 



Swedish imports of fish and fish prod- 
ucts in 1958 increased by over 20 million 
crowns (US$3.7 million) over 1957 and 
totaled 106 million crowns (US$20.5 mil- 
lion). The greatest import increase con- 
sisted of frozen fish fillets, which in- 
creased by almost 50 percent in value or 
13.6 million crowns (US$2.6 million). 
Imports of frozen fish fillets increased 
in quantity by over 40 percent compared 
with 1957 and reached a record. More 
than 70 percent of the quantity of import- 
ed frozen fish fillets came from Norway 
in 1958 and were as great as the en- 
tire import of frozen fillets from all 
countries in 1957. 

The average price per pound for the 
1958 catch (excluding fish for industrial 
purposes) amounted to 6.7 U. S. cents and 
remained unchanged from 1957. The 
average price for most species was 
somewhat higher than in 1957; for ex- 
ample sprat increased from 12.2 U. S. 
cents a pound to 14.7 U. S. cents a pound 
in 1958. On the other hand the price for 
Baltic herring and shrimp dropped. 

The average price for herring landed 
in foreign ports by Swedish fishermen 
amounted to 4.4 U. S. cents a pound, which 
was somewhat lower than the price re- 
ceived at the fish auction in Goteborg, 
which was about 9.8 U. S. cents a pound. 
Landings in West Germany brought the 
highest price, or an average of 5.8 U. S. 
cents a pound, as compared with 4.3 U. S. 
cents a pound in Danish and British ports. 
(United States Consul dispatch from 
Goteborg, dated May 19, 195 9.) 

Note: Values converted at rate of 1 Swedish kionor or 
crown equals US$0. 193. 



^ 



Tunisia 

FISHERIES LANDINGS 
INCREASED SINCE 1955: 

Landings of fish and shellfish in Tu- 
nisia have increased from 10,533 metric 
tons in 1955 to 14,937 tons in 1958. The 
increase has been gradual- -landings of 
11,607 tons in 1956 were 10.2 percent 
above 1955 and the 13,789 tons landed 
in 1957 were about 18.8 percent above 
1956. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



87 



Tunisa (Contd,): 

Fishing is a common occupation all 
along Tunisia's 812-mile coastline. The 
most important fishing area is the Gulf 
of Gabes in which Tunisia claims ex- 
clusive fishing rights out to about 27.3 
fathoms (50 meters). Most fishing is 
carried out close to shore with simple 
equipment. A small sponge fishery has 
existed for many years out of Sfax and 
Djerva. (United States Embassy dis- 
patch from Tunis, dated May 11, 1959.) 



Union of South Africa 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA AND SOUTH-WEST AFRICA 
CANNED FISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING. 1958: 

Landings of pilchard (sardine) and jack mackerel (maas- 
banker) by the Union of South Africa's fishermen in 1958 
were the best since 1952 and marked the first year since the 
establishment of the quota in 1952 that the 250,000-ton quota 
was exceeded. The South African Division of Fisheries de- 
clared the season for pilchards and jack mackerel (maas- 
banker) fishing closed on August 31, for the balance of the 
year. The season for the catching in South-West African 
waters was closed shortly after this date, when the 250,000- 
ton quota was reached. Landings in South Africa in 1958 
for the canning and fish meal industries totaled 298,854 
short tons as compared with 219,615 tons in 1957. Total 
landings were made up of 214,533 tons of pilchards (1957- 
118,524 tons), 62,190 tons of jack mackerel (1957-93,218 
tons), and 22.131 tons of true mackerel (1957-7,873 tons). 
Landings for canning and reduction in South-West Africa 
were 257,592 tons in 1958 as compared with 254,976 tons 
in 1957. 

Fish Canning: Fish canners in South Africa and South- 
West Africa reportedly paid about ^74.105. (US$12.60) a 
ton ex-vessel for pilchards, jack mackerel, and true mack- 
erel in 1958. During the first nine months of 1958 (prelim- 
inary data) the South African fish canners packed 3,317,586 
cases of pilchard, 296.098 cases of jack mackerel, and 
93,885 cases of true mackerel. Nearly all canning opera- 
tions had ceased by September. 



Fish Megil; Preliminary estimates of fish meal pro- 
duction in 1958 by the Union of South Africa totaled 56,170 
short tons and production in South-West African for the same 
period amounted to 46,277 tons. From January 1 to Novem- 
ber 30, 1958, the Union consumed 19,781 tons; 35,915 tons 
were exported; and 4,335 tons were on hand as of that date. 
For the January 1- November 30, 1958, period, South-West 
Africa sold 1,753 tons in the local market, exported 47,566 
tons, and had 6,703 tons on hand as of November 30. At the 
end of 1958, according to trade estimates, not more than 
2,000 tons were on hand. 

Fish Oil: The production of fish oil in 1958 by Union of 
South Africa totaled 13,392 long tons and by South-West Afri- 
ca 10,751 long tons. Exports from both areas for the first 
eleven months of 1958 amounted to 14,356 long tons; local 
consumption was 8,459 long tons; and inventories as of Nov- 
ember 30, 1958. were 3,327 long tons. 

Canned Fish Exports and Inventories: Estimates for 
the period January 1- September 30, 1958, indicate exports 
of 2,138,412 cases of pilchards. 276.122 cases of jack mack- 
erel, and 58,324 cases of true mackerel from the Union and 
South-West Africa. Inventories as of September 30, 1958, 
were 1,999,196 cases of pilchards, 18,111 cases of jack 
mackerel, and 8,651 cases of true mackerel. Year-end 1958 
inventories were estimated to be not more than 750,000 cases. 
Although the pack of canned pilchards, jack and true mack- 
erel was up about 600,000 cases in 1958 as compared with 
1957, December 31, 1958, inventories were estimated to be 
about 200,000 cases under the quantity onhandDecember 31, 
1957. 

Canned Fish Prices : Prices f.o.b. Cape Town for canned 
fish fluctuated only slightly according to trade sources in 
South Africa. The f.o.b, prices varied according to foreign 
marketing area. The South African fish canners attempt to 
adhere closely to price quotations recommended by the South 
African Association of Fish Canners. The price schedules are 
drawn up after consultations between the individual canners 
and the Association. 



Competitive Position and Market Prospects : South 
African fish canners have not thus far expressed any seri- 
ous concern over the present competitive position of their 
products on the international market. The countries most 
frequently mentioned as competitors are Japan in the Far 
Eastern market and the Netherlands in the West African 
market. Of these two countries, Japan is regarded as the 
most serious threat. Local sources report that Japanese 
pilchards are generally quoted slightly higher in the Philip- 
pine market than those from South Africa. It is believed, 
however, that the Japanese mackerel pike or saury is offer- 
ing increasing competition to South Africa. Several local ex- 
porters have nevertheless estimated that shipments to the 
Philippines in 1958 exceeded those of the previous year. 



Table 1 - Canned Pil 
f.o 


2hard and Jack Mackerel January 1959 P 
b. Cape Town, South Africa 


rices 




Product 


Cans/Cs. 


For 
Philippines 


For 

Malayal/ 


For 
United 
Kingdom 


2/ 


Pilchard: 






48 
48 
48 
48 
100 
48 


( 


US$ Per Ca 


se) 

6.21 

7.58 
3.96 
6.58 
3.28 


15-oz. tall, tomato 


6.10 
5.85 

4.22 
6.04 


7.00 
7.74 
6.74 


15-oz. tall, natural 


15-oz. oval, tomato .... 


8-oz. buffet, tomato 


5i-oz. jitney, tomato 

5y-oz. iitnev, tomato 


Jack Mackerel: 






48 
48 


4.95 


6.44 




15-oz. tall, natural 


15-oz. tall, tomato 


y All Malayan prices less 5 percent. 

2/ All United Kingdom prices less 2ipercent 









88 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Union of South Africa (Contd.): 



With respect to the Philippine market. South African 
canners consider that their most serious competitive dis- 
advantage is presently that of delivery time. Only a month- 
ly service presently is available out of Cape Town and 
transit time requires 30 days. Both the United States and 
Japan can offer shorter delivery dates. It may also be of 
interest to note that South African canners do not consider 
their pilchards as a serious competitor to the United 
States product in the Philippines. The latter product, it 
is reported in South Africa, is regarded as of a generally 
higher quality and is sought by a consumer class different 
from that buying South African pilchards. 

Canners in the Union of South Africa appear to be uni- 
formly optimistic that the pilchard catch in 1959 will be 
as good as that of 1958. There is, however, some concern 



over marketing prospects in the coming year. Assuming 
that the total catch of pilchards, jack mackerel, and mack- 
erel again approaches 300,000 tons, it is believed that to- 
tal production of canned fish will increase further due 
primarily to a steady improvement in the level of efficiency 
in canning factories. At the present time it is estimated 
that on an average, from 12-13 cases, consisting of 48 1-lb. 
cans per case, are produced from one ton of raw fish. As 
canneries have been gaining experience this figure has gone 
up and is expected to register further improvement. Due 
to the early shut down in 1958, Union canners have also had 
more time to recondition and improve their factories. 

There is no question that local canners could afford to 
lower their prices on the international market if such a 
step becomes necessary. There are, incidentally, no Gov- 
ernment subsidies covering the export of South African 
fishery products. The Government does, however, partici- 
pate in a vigorous and extensive fisheries research pro- 



Table 2- Union of South Africa and South-West Africa Canned Pilchard and Mackerel 
Pack and Distribution, January-September 1958 


Product, Type of 
Can & Pack 


Net Wt. 
Per Can 


No. 
Cans/Cs. 


Pack 


Export 


Domestic 
Sales 


Inventory 
9/30/58 


Pilchards; 


Oz. 

15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 

8 

8 

8 

8 

5^ 

12 
12 


48 
48 
48 
48 
24 
24 
48 
48 
48 
48 
100 
100 
48 
48 
48 
48 


(Cases) 


Ovals, tomato 

Ovals, natural 

Tails, tomato 

Tails, natural 

Oval, tomato 

Oval, natural 

Buffet, tomato 

Buffet, natural 

Halves, tomato 

Halves, natural 

Jitney, tomato 

Jitney, natural 

Jitney, tomato 

Jitney, natural 

12 oz.J^/, tomato 

12 oz.J:^/, natural .... 


105,788 

680,541 
394,818 
170,085 

653,157 

61,361 

24,408 

7,514 

645,022 
75,572 

344,650 
6,169 

122,272 
26,229 


79,643 

488,347 

271,845 

96,061 

541,655 

24,352 

17,220 

2,276 

391,971 

53,019 

167,612 

1 

1,460 

2,950 


10,353 

47,234 
24,060 

47,988 

14,592 

14,523 

5,944 

740 

41,388 
7,027 
2,500 
1,000 


40,076 

517,335 

171,825 

74,024 

432,550 

52,905 

10,598 

1,699 

352,278 
48,469 

155,536 
98 

118,312 
23,491 


Totals 


- 


- 


3,317,586 


2,138,412 


217,349 


1,999,196 


Jack Mackerel: 


15 

15 

15 

15 

14 

14 

8 

8 

8 

8 


48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 


20,721 
223,217 

1,305 

107 

14,933 

35,815 


75 

12,099 

233,395 

473 

2,905 

27,175 


272 

118 

9,604 

27,192 

438 

2,561 

100 

12,105 

13,422 


528 
10,729 

682 

7 

1,274 

4,891 


Ovals, tomato 

Ovals, natural 

Tails, tomato 

Tails, natural 

Rounds, tomato 

Rounds, natural 

Buffet, tomato 

Buffet, natural 

Halves, tomato 

Halves, natural 


Totals 


- 


- 


296,098 


276,122 


65,812 


18,111 


True Mackerel: 

Tails, tomato 

Tails, natural 

Halves, tomato 

Halves, natural 

, Rounds, tomato 

Rounds, natural 


15 
15 
8 
8 
14 
14 


48 
48 
48 
48 
48 
48 


3,405 

78,055 

3,473 

7,952 

1,000 


3 

56,475 

197 

1,648 

1 


2,362 

30,021 

4,756 

8,633 

31 

923 


697 
2,853 

792 
3,959 

117 

233 


Totals 


- 


_ 


93,885 


58,324 


46,727 


8,651 


Grand Total 


- 




3,707,569 


2,472,858 


329,888 


2,025,958 


ly New can size (used for string beans) introduced in 1958 which has not proven very successful and may be discontinued. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



89 



Union of South Africa (Contd.): 



gram. As has been previously reported. Government con- 
trols do exist which limit the annual catch of pilchards and 
jack mackerel in the Union of South Africa and in South West 
Africa. 

Should the industry's present optimism over fishing pros- 
pects in the current year prove well founded, total produc- 
tion of canned pilchards, jack mackerel, and mackerel in 
the Union of South Africa and South-West Africa might eas- 
ily reach or even slightly exceed 4,000,000 cases. 




Union of South Africa and 
South-Wesf Africa 



UNION AND SOUTH-WEST AFRICA 

FISH CATCH, 1958: 

In 1958, for the first time in the his- 
tory of the Southern African fishing Indus - 
try, the total fish catch for the Union and 
South-West Africa passed 700,000 short 
tons. The total of 714,000 tons was more 
than 20,000 tons higher than the 1952 rec- 
ord catch of 693,688 tons. It was nearly 
100, 000 tons higher than the catch in 1957. 

The bigincrease in calendar year 1958 
was largely due to the good catches of pil- 
chards, maasbanker, and mackerel off the 
Cape west coast. After several indifferent 
seasons, the 14 factories along some 200 
miles of coast from Hout Bay to Thorn 
Bay processed 298,854 short tons of pe- 
lagic shoal fish (pilchard, maasbanker, 
and mackerel), compared with 219,615 
tons in 1957 and 170,316 tons in 1956. 
The total catch was second only to the 
300,560 tons landed in 1952. 



Maasbanker landings of 62,190 tons 
compare with 93,218 tons in 1957 and 
50,233 tons in 1956. The record for this 
fish was 130,228 tons in 1954. 

The mackerel catch of 22,131 tons 
compares with 7,873 tons in 1957 and 
the record 35,927 tons in 1956. 

For the fifth successive year the trawl- 
ed fish catch set a new record and passed 
100,000 tons for the first time. The total 
catch of 82,871 tons of dressed fish plus 
20,570 tons of "offal" (waste after dress- 
ing fish) was 103,441 tons. 

Although the spiny lobster catch of 
8,000 tons was below the 14,000 tons 
landed in 1957, the estimated line fish 
and snoek catch remained at about 36,000 
tons. 

The South African Trawl fish catch 
(including offal) rose from 199,928,092 
pounds in 1957 to 206,882,186 pounds in 
1958. The catch (in pounds) was made 
up as follows (with 1957 figures in brack- 
ets): hake 137,972,319 (133,312,067), 
kingklip 2,662,491 (2,399,411), sole 
2,325,071 (2,505,317), kabeljou 1,066,509 
(1,338,546), pangas 4,461,036 (6,862,623), 
silverfish 238,055 (545,338), angelfish 
2,725 (5,726), gurnard 591,918 (186,492) 
jacopever 2,120,895 (1,390,181), John 
dory 6, 150 (86,559), maasbanker 4,569,429 
(2,173,334), skate 65,585 (47,914), steen- 
bras 6,031 (59,714), stonebass nil 13,200), 
stumpnose red 235,408 (75,042), stump- 
nosewhite 1, 150 (91,300), heads 3,190,900 
(3,290,550), shark livers 4,767,127 
(3,792,267), hake livers 78, 158 (555, 147), 



Table 1 - Union of South Africa's and South-West Africa's Shoal Fish Landings 
and Fish Meal and Oil Production, Fiscal Yearsl/ 1956/57-1957/58 


Area 


Landings Fish 
Shoal2/ 


Production of ii/ | 


Fish Meal 


Fish Oil 


1957/58 1 1956/57 


1957/58 1 1956/57 


1957/58 1 1956/57 


Union of South Africa. . 
South-West Africa. . . . 


(Short Tons) 


. . (Long 


Tons) . . 


303,135 
257,064 


183,592 
245,134 


61,746 
46,380 


35,553 
44,910 


13,667 
10,772 


10,207 
9,433 


Total 


560,199 


426,726 


108,126 


80,463 


24,439 


19,640 


Ij Accounting fiscal year (October 1-September 30) as used by the Fisheries Development Corporation of South Africa. 

Figures different than given in text for calendar yeais. 
2/ Pilchards, maasbanker or jack mackerel, and mackerel. 
3/ Pack of canned fish not given. 



The record pilchard catch of 214,533 
tons, compared with 118,524 tons in 1957 
and 84,156 tons in 1956. The previous 
highest figure for pilchards was 187,424 
tons in 1952. 



roes 317,614 (342,801), squid 290,493 
(216,275), other fish 773,122 (475,287), 
and offal 41,140,000 (40,256,000). 

The total Union of South Africa fish 
catch was, therefore, 446,295 tons, com- 



90 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



Union of South Africa and 
South-West Africa (Contd.): 

pared with 359,879 tons in 1957, 311,429 
tons in 1956, and the previous record 
total of 427,268 tons in 1952. 

South-West Africa's Walvis Bay's 
pilchard industry keeps as close as pos- 



2,500 tons of snoek, 2,500 tons of white- 
fish and about 5,000 tons of spiny lobster, 
the total South-West African catch was 
just under 268,000 tons. 

The general condition of the fish land- 
ed in the Union in 1958 was such that 
processing results were a trifle disap- 
pointing and, as in the case of the previ- 




Aboard a Soulii African spiny lobster fishing boat at the dock prior to unloading. Boat fished in Hout's bay area. 



sible to the 250,000-ton yearly quota, 
although in calendar year 1958 it rose 
slightly above that limit to 257,592 tons, 
compared with 254,976 tons in 1957 and 
251,047 tons in 1956. With an estimated 



ous season, the optimum yields of earlier 
years were not achieved. Once again the 
main shoals were found well south of St. 
Helena Bay, the main center of the Union's 
industry. The industry based on Walvis 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



91 



Union of South Africa and 
South-West Africa (Contd.): 

Bay enjoyed another highly successful 
season. 

The overseas demand for fish meal 
remained very firm throughout 1958. 
The poor winter herring season in Nor- 
way contributed towards this situation. 
Export sales were effected readily at 
favorable prices after the demand of the 
local market had been satisfied at an 
agreed price considerably below that 
obtained on foreign markets. The Union 
and South-West Africa occupy a very 
prominent position in world fish meal 
markets, being second only to Norway 
as exporters of that commodity. 

The overseas demand for fish body 
oil did not, however, follow the same 
pattern, but fell considerably as a re- 
sult of butter and fat surpluses in Europe. 
As a consequence, the average selling 
price per long ton of fish body oil re- 
vealed a significant drop, but the indus- 
try was able to offset this in some meas- 
ure by taking advantage of the reduced 
rates for bulk tankers. On balance, how- 
ever, producers had a satisfactory year. 

While factories at Walvis Bay re- 
corded heavy production of canned fish 
over the past season, the output of Union 
factories was limited by the condition of 
the fish delivered to them after a mod- 
erately long haul from the catching area. 
The sales of canned fish were satisfac- 
tory at profitable prices. 

The demand for frozen spiny lobster 
remained very firm at satisfactory 
prices, but the difficulties in this aspect 
of the inshore industry lie in the catch- 
ing side, where an imbalance has mani- 
fested itself as between different fishing 
areas. Whereas some areas reported 
satisfactory landings albeit at the price 
of greater effort, others suffered a very 
serious fall in catch, a development 
which was faithfully reflected in the ac- 
counts of the companies c oncerned. 

Note; Also see Commercial Fisheries Review . March 
1959, p. 68. 



U. S. S. R. 

TUNA VESSELS REPORTED FISHING 
NEAR CAROLINE ISLANDS: 




According to a report from a Japanese 
tuna fishing vessel, a Russian fishing 
vessel was sighted fishing for tuna in the 
Caroline Islands area on February 17, 
1959. At the time of the sighting, tuna 
were being hauled aboard the Russian 
vessel. The crew appeared to consist 
of about 20 persons, including some 
women. Another Russian vessel was 
reported sighted nearby. 

Prior to the sighting of these Russian 
vessels, the Russians had announced that 
they might enter the Pacific tuna fishery 
and in October 1958 a fishery survey ves- 
sel had departed for an exploratory tuna 
fishing survey ( Pacific Islands Monthly , 
March 1959). 

^ ^"^ sjc :{i: ;|i 

EXPANSION OF OCEAN 
RESEARCH PLANNED: 



Soviet marine scientists are to ex- 
tend their ocean research activities con- 
siderably during the next few years. In 
1959, two new research vessels, the 
Voeikov and the Shokalsky, will make 
their maiden voyages to the Pacific 
Ocean. The two new research ships 
were named after prominent Russian 
oceanographers. 

The Vityaz , the largest research ves- 
sel which was engaged in oceanographic 
investigations in the North and South Pa- 
cific in 1958 and also visited San Fran- 
cisco in November 1958, will conduct 
surveys in the Indian Ocean in 1959. 



SUBMARINE RETURNS FROM FISHERY RESEARCH CRUISE: 
The Soviet submarine Severyanka ( The Northerner ), which 
has been converted to conduct research for the fishing indus- 
try, returned early this year from a successful 24-day scien- 
tific cruise, having covered some 4,000 miles since leaving 
the Kola Peninsula. This was the submarine's second voyage. 
The maiden trip was undertaken in the Barents Sea following 
her trials. 

Manning the vessel on the research side were young scien- 
tists from the U.S.S.R. Institute of Marine Fisheries and 
Oceanography. 

The expedition established at what time of the day or night 
and at what depth various kinds of fish are most likely to be 
located. Interesting conclusions were drawn concerning the 
reaction of fish, particularly herring, to the sub's search- 
lij_'hts. It was ascertained that at night the herring were in 
a passive state and did not react in any way to the advance of 



92 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



U. S. S. R. (Contd.): 

the vessel nor to the glare of her lights. From 8 a.m. or 
9 a.m., when the herring move down to a greater depth, they 
become increasingly active and the reaction of the fish to the 
electric light becomes acute. 

Observations also lead to the conclusion that herring can 
only be caught in quantities during their vertical migration 
in the morning and the evening. 

The Soviet Minister for Fisheries said that he believed 
that this venture was the first of its kind in relation to fish- 
ing. Its purpose was primarily for the solution of many 
problems connected with the fishing industry, such as the 
structure of shoals, the behavior of fish under different con- 
ditions --particularly during fishing operations; the observa- 
tion of trawls and drift nets at various depths, with a view 
to their improvement; and extensive oceanographic read- 
ings. Other life in the sea was observed, such as jellyfish 
and plankton. 

The Minister pointed out that while bathyspheres had 
their uses and were in fact already in operation, they were 
limited to vertical movement, were not adapted for long 
underwater submersion, and had to rely to a great degree 
upon chance as to whether anything of interest was seen. 
On the other hand, a submarine, such as the Severyanka . 
could actively penetrate the deep-sea world for a long period. 

The Severyanka is equipped with underwater television 
for conducting researches directly ahead; echo-sounders op- 
erating upwards and downwards; instruments for taking exact 
measurements of the salinity, illumination, temperature, rate 
of flow, and the percentage of oxygen dissolved in the sea- 
water. There are also devices for taking samples of the sea 
bed and the surrounding water, apparatus for underwater 
filming and photographing, and close-range and long-range 
searchlights. 

The instruments incorporate all the latest techniques in 
radio and electrical engineering maJcing for compactness and 
efficiency. Some of the instruments are newly-devised for 
this submarine and have not hitherto been tried--such as the 
dissolved hydrogen recorder, a thermosaltmeter, the silt 
sampler, and the current recorders. 

The Severyanka is to make several more research trips 
during 1959 ( World Fishing. March 1959). 



^'^^ *^^^ <20?=:5* 



United Kingdom 



FACTORYSHIP-TRAWLER "FAIRTRY II 
SAILS ON MAID EN VOYAGE: 



The British firm in Leith, Scotland, that owns the factory- 
ship-trawler Fairtry I^ is adding two similar vessels to its 
fleet. Fairtry II, the first of the two new ones, sailed on its 
maiden voyage on April 2 from Glasgow. 

Fairtry 11, like its sistership, is equipped with stern 
trawling. The steep ramp up to the trawl deck from the water- 
line is less humped and less steep than on the Fairtry I. to 
reducethedrag when winching aboard a full trawl. The trawl 
is shot down this ramp, rollers and all, obviating the neces- 
sity for the manhandling that is required on a conventional 
side-trawler. 

The fuUtrawlisalso brought up the ramp, using a 270 hp. 
electric trawl winch. The double cod end is lashed together 
once the trawl is up and then hoisted by the gantry to empty 
the /ish on to the trawl deck; a hydraulically-operated gate 
closes the ramp entry to prevent fish from falling back into 
the sea. Once emptied on to the trawl deck, the fish are then 
transferred to the factory deck below through two chutes, one 
on each side of the deck, which can also be closed off by hy- 
draulically-operated hatches. 

From the trawl deck, the fish go into a number of pounds, 
built of corrugated alloy boards, and are hand-sorted for 
size and type. Anything other than the variety being fished' 
for at the time is usually left in the pounds and iced up to a- 



wait the end of the run before being processed. Halibut, when 
caught, are headed and gutted by hand and hooked on to an 
overhead conveyor to go first to a blast freezer and then, still 
on their conveyor links, to a special subzero storage hold. 

Since cod is the main catch, with pollock and ocean perch 
next, the production line is set up for it. Large fish are slit 
and the livers removed before being sent to the filleters. 
Medium and small fish are passed, untouched, along chutes 
to their respective filleting machines. 

The sequence is as follows: Factory hand takes graded 
fish from chute, puts it into a heading machine. Another 
hand takes it off and puts it into the filleter; from there it 
goes to one of two skinners. At each stage, offal is automati- 
cally diverted down to the fish-meal and fish-oil plants on 
the deck beneath, which have a capacity of 10 tons of dried 
fish meal a day. The meal is immediately bagged and trans- 
ferred to dry storage with a capacity of 300 tons. Livers-- 
from the big fish only, the smaller fish are not considered 
to be worth bothering about--go from the pounds into a 
macerator and then a two-stage digester and extractor; de- 
pending on the quantity available, the macerated livers can 
either pass through two extractors in succession or each ex- 
tractor can be used separately. 

Fillets eventually arrive at the weighing point. One op- 
erator takes them off as they arrive and weighs them into 7- 
pound, 14-pound, or 28-pound lots; the production is arranged 
so that he will not have to separate large from small fillets, 
which are not packed together, naturally. The scale is gim- 
bal-mountedso as to remain level, whatever the motion of the 
vessel. He then packs them neatly into trays of their appropri- 
ate weights, first lining the tray with waxed paper and placing 
in it, upside down, a packing slip for process identification, 
grade, and type of fish. 

When sufficient trays have been filled, they are loaded into 
one of the five plate freezers, each of which can freeze six 
tons of fillets in 24 hours. After freezing, the blocks are 
packed into fiberboard cases holding 56 pounds, wire-bound 
and then passed down a spiral conveyor into the cold-storage 
holds for stacking. 

The ship is Diesel-electric powered by three five-cylinder 
engines each developing 1,340 hp., and each of which drives a 
directly-coupled generator developing 535 kw. ax 400 v. In 
tandem with each main generator is a270kw. auxiliary gene - 




Fig. 1 - Fairtry D— this is one of two new laxge factnry- 
ship stern txawleis constructed for a large British fishing 
company. Tbe same company owns Fairtry I, and also 
the Fairtry Iff now under construction. 

rator for the electrical supplies on board. The main driving 
motor, situated right aft, is a double armature machine rated 
at 2,000 s. hp., with a maximum speed of 130 r.p.m. and di- 
rect-coupled to the propeller shaft. 

When the trawler is proceeding at its maximum speed, all 
three generators are required to supply the propulsion motor, 
but, on the fishing grounds, any one of the three main genera- 
tors can be isolated and used to supply power to the trawl- 
winch motor. Thus sudden demands for extra power either 
for propulsion or for the trawl winch can be met, and the 
skipper could get increased power by bringing in an extra 
generator within 15 seconds. 

Control of the engines is normally from the bridge, the 
engineroom taking over only in emergencies. Three tele- 
graphs are provided, giving port and starboard positions on 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



93 



United Kingdom (Contd.): 

the bridge, and a starboard control position only on the boat 
deck aft to simplify manoeuvring when shooting or hauling 
the trawl. Operation of any one of the telegraphs causes the 
pointers of the other two to move to a corresponding position. 

The refrigerating machinery is installed at the forward end 
oftheengineroom. The two two-stage compressors deal with 
the refrigeration necessary for 30 tons of fish a day ^through 
the freezers and also maintain a temperature of -10 F. in 
•the storage holds. 




Fig. 2 - Looking ait along the trawl deck of F airtry Jl. 
Trawl is winched up the ramp at the far end with tile 
gate raised; the g ate is lowered to prevent fish falling 
back and the trawl emptied on deck; the two chutes 
(one at each end of the bobbin storage racks) are opened 
and the fish are carried to the processing deck below. 

Crew quarters are of a very high standard, consisting of 
four-berth cabins, with two-berth cabins for the higher rat- 
ings. Officers have single-berth cabins. There is an ade- 
quate supply of showers and a well-equipped galley to feed 
the crew on a cafeteria system, as well as an excellently- 
fitted recreation room. 

Fairtrv il^is 235 feet over-all by 48 feet breadth-moulded 
25 feet depth-moulded to the main deck and 41 feet 6 inches 
depth to the bridge deck. With a crew, including factory per- 
sonnel, of 96, she is able to stay at sea for 12 weeks without 
any difficulty; fuel oil capacity is 700 tons and a maximum 
consumption of 7 tons per day gives her plenty of margin. 



GRANTS AND LOANS TO FISHING 
VESSELS TO MARCH 31. 1959: 

Grants to the British inshore and 
near- and middle-water fishing fleets 
by the White Fish Authority (under the 
White Fish Act of 1953 and Herring In- 
dustries Act of 1957) as of March 31, 
1959, amounted to about US$17.3 million, 
and loans totaled about $34,8 million. 



Aberdeen, among the major fishing ports, 
has received the biggest share of grants 
and loans for conversions, new engines, 
and new construction since the start of 
the program. 

Grants for construction since the be- 
ginning of the program in 1953 totaled 
$16,624,000; for conversion of near- and 
middle-water vessels, $210,000; and for 
the purchase of new engines, $435,000. 
Loans for new vessels for the near- and 
middle-water fleets amounted to 
$33,100,000; for conversions the total 
was $891,000; and for new engines, 
$769,000. 

Grants by the Herring Industries 
Board made to owners at the smaller 
ports since the passage of Herring In- 
dustries Act in 1957 totaled $497,000 
for construction of new vessels and 
$127,000 for new engines. Loans to the 
herring fleets totaled $671,000 for con- 
struction of new vessels and $175,000 
for engine replacements. 



* * 



INTEREST RATE ON LOANS TO 
FISHING INDUSTRY REVISED: 

The British White Fish Authority an- 
nounced that, as a result of a recent 
change in the rates of interest charged 
to them by Treasury, their own rates of 
interest will be changed on loans as of 
March 31, 1959. The new rates are: on 
loans for more than five years, 4| per- 
cent; on loans for more than 10 years 
but not more than 15 years, 5j percent: 
and on loans for more than 15 years, 5|, 
percent. 

The new rates do not apply, however, 
where the final installment of a loan or 
interim installments in current cases 
were paid by the Authority before 
March 31, 1959. 

The Authority's loans are connected 
with the building of new fishing vessels 
of not more than 140 feet; the purchase, 
in certain circumstances, of new engines 
and nets and gear for inshore vessels; 
the construction and equipment of process- 
ing plants; and the formation and develop- 
ment of cooperatives. 

iff :^ :ff :^ s;c 



94 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



United Kingdom (Contd.): 

MARINE OIL IMPORTS AND 
WHALE OIL PRODUCTION: 

Imports of marine oils by the United 
Kingdom during 1958 decreased 9.0 per- 
cent as compared with 1957. Whale oil 
imports, the most important during both 
years, decreased 3.9 percent in 1958 as 
compared with 1957. 



United Kinqdom Imports of Marine Oils, 1957-1958 | 


Type 


1958 1 1957 


Vitamin A oil 

Sperm oil, imrefined 

Whale oil 

Others 


(1,000 Long Tons) 

0.3 0.4 

8.6 14.6 

136.4 141.9 

1.8 4.8 


Total 


147.1 


161.7 1 



Britain's Antarctic whale oil produc- 
tion in 1958 was 49,900 long tons as com- 
pared with 58,100 in 1957. In addition, 
6,700 tons were produced in the Falkland 
Islands (12,500 tons in 1957), the Foreign 
Agriculture Service of the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture reports in an A- 
pril 17, 1959, dispatch from London. 

In 1958, Britain used 80,000 long tons 
of whale oil in margarine and 47,000 tons 
in compound cooking fat as compared with 
67,000 tons and 44,000 tons, respectively, 
in 1957. 



Venezuela 

FISH-PROCESSING INDUSTRY: 

The canning plant at Cumana, Estado 
Sucre, Venezuela, has a complete ship- 
to-can operation, fishing with boats built 
by the firm, importing United States tin- 
plate, lithographing and producing cans, 
and packing sardines in tomato sauce, 
picante sauce, peanut oil, and in natural 
pack. Fish meal and fish oil are also 
produced. 

The Cumaya plant employs approxi- 
mately 480 workers at salaries of from 
Bs. 6.00 to Bs. 8.00 (US$1.80 to $2.40) 
a day. Canned fish production in the 
1958 season totaled 217,000 cases of 
sardines (48-100 cans per case depend- 
ing upon size of pack) and the pack for 
the present season is running at about 
the same level. 



This firm produced 240,000 cans 
(round, square, rectangular) in 1957 and 
purchased the balance locally. It plans to 
enlarge its facilities for the production of 
cans and to produce a key-opened can. 

The Cumana firm will soon be work- 
ing with Japanese interests in fishing for 
and canning tuna. 

The processing plant at Mariguitar, 
Estado Sucre, is a well-equipped plant 
and employs some 400 persons, includ- 
ing fishermen. Sardines are packed in 
a variety of styles similar to the Cumana 
plant; also produces fish meal and fish 
oil. The Margarita firm mixes its own 
picante sauce. Cans are purchased in 
Venezuela. 

The fish processing plant located in 
Punta Piedras, Isla Margarita, is a 
small operation, employing some 80 per- 
sons, mostly women. In the past it pack- 
ed sardines, tuna, and shark products. 
Production over the past 5 years has 
averaged 17,000 cases of sardines, 198 
tons of fresh fish, and 12 tons of shark- 
liver oil annually. This plant is seeking 
aid from the Venezuelan Development 
Corporation. At present, however, the 
Punta Piedras plant is concentrating on 
pepetones, the small local clams. 

The labor forces in Venezuelan can- 
neries are about 85 percent female with 
male supervisors, mechanics, and a few 
additional men to do the heavy work. On 
the whole, working conditions, wages, 
other benefits, and training programs 
are far below United States standards. 
Most Venezuelan canneries have local 
unions but there is a gradual movement 
towards an industry-wide organization. 
The major plants are working with signed 
union contracts and salaries are stand- 
ard throughout the industry. 

The plant at Cumana most closely ap- 
proaches American standards for work- 
ing conditions. Its employees are uni- 
formed, work in cl-ean surroundings, 
have an attendant on hand to administer 
first-aid, and maintain a high standard 
of personal cleanliness. This plant also 
provides a daily noon meal (consisting 
of soup, a vegetable, meat, a sweet, and 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



95 



Venezuela (Contd.): 

milk) for its employees. The only thing 
approximating a training program was 
also found in this plant where an employee 
serves as apprentice to an experienced 
worker before taking on any position on 
his own. 

Five Venezuelan firms are now pro- 
ducing fish meal. These plants, all in 
the state of Sucre in eastern Venezuela, 
are located in Cumana, El Barbudo, 
Caiguire, and Mariguitar. 

The quantity of fish meal produced in 
Venezuela is uncertain as local esti- 
mates vary. In 1957 one Government 
source reported 1,480 metric tons and 
a second Government source, 2,110 tons. 




The second Government source reported 
2,120 tons produced in 1958. 

The Venezuelan Development Corpor- 
ation, using figures from the second 
Government source, estimates that Vene- 
zuela is now 48.5 percent self-sufficient 
in fish meal. The nation's principal con- 
sumer is Venezuela's largest producer 
of animal feedstuffs. 

Fish oil is produced in Venezuela only 
by two plants located at Cumana and Mar- 
garita. Another at La Guaira is expected 
to be producing fish meal and oil in the 
near future, the United States Embassy at 
Caracas reported on March 18, 1959. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review. May 1959, 
p. 81. 



OCEANOGRAPHERS MAKE NEW PRECISE GEOLOGICAL TIME CLOCK 

Oceanographers have succeeded in extending back in time the precise date 
of glacial events to well over 100,000 years. Paradoxically, this new informa- 
tion regarding the age of land glaciers is based upon investigations of deep-sea 
sediments taken far from land and two miles below the ocean surface. 

More and more, science is turning to the ocean to find the answers to the 
problems of the earth's history. Geologists of the U. S. Geological Survey and of 
the University of Miami based their findings upon fine sediments which cover 
the floor of the Caribbean Sea. By measurements of radioactive thorium and 
protoactinium in these sediments it has been possible to place the age of the last 
interglacial period at almost exactly 100,000 years ago, thus confirming theo- 
retical estimates previously made. These samples were obtained by deep-sea 
cores taken from the central Caribbean by the Woods Hole Oceanographic In- 
stitution research vessel Atlantis , by means of a device which drives a tube in- 
to the sea floor. Since sediments accumulate at the rate of about 1 inch in 1,000 
years, a core-sampling tube penetrating beneath the sea floor may easily reach 
sediments of 100,000 years or more. 

The radioactive content of the sediments provides a means of dating these 
samples. Other measurements made from the sample give the temperature of 
the sea at the time the sediments was deposited, thus linking it to the various 
glacial and interglacial periods of land, which influence the sea temperatures. 



96 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 




FEDERAL 

ACTIONS 




Department of Commerce 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 

IMPORTED COMMODITY CLASSIFICA- 
TION CHANGES BEING CONSIDERED: 

Consideration is now being given to 
making a limited number of changes in 
the present import commodity classifi- 
cations (Schedule A) effective with the 
January 1960 statistics, according to the 
Bureau of the Census, U. S. Department 
of Commerce. 

In addition to the commodity classi- 
fication changes, it is also planned to 
prepare and release a publication for 
use by importers and their agents pre- 
senting the statistical commodity classi- 
fications in tariff classification arrange- 
ment. This publication (i.e., reporting 
manual for United States importers) 
would assist importers in determining 
the proper statistical classifications ap- 
plicable to any importation and should 
serve to improve the accuracy of the 
reporting and as a result also improve 
the accuracy of the published import sta- 
tistics. 

It bears emphasizing that to carry 
out the work outlined above, changes in 
Schedule A to be effective January 1960 
must be kept to a minimum. Only part 
(and perhaps only a small part) of the 
requests for changes can be made ef- 
fective January 1960. However, it ap- 
pears appropriate to make such changes, 
even though there may be difficulties in 
selecting those which are most urgent, 
since if this is not done, all requests for 
changes must await a full revision of 
Schedule A which may not take place for 
two or three years. 




Federal Trade Commission 

CONSENT ORDER PROHIBITS 
SHRIMP COMPANY FROM 
PAYING ILLEGAL BROKERAGE: 

The Federal Trade Commission on 
May 25, 1959, ordered (Consent Order 
7274, Shrimp) a New Orleans, La., 
shrimp company to stop paying illegal 
brokerage to its customers. 

This action represents the adoption 
by the Commission of an initial decision 
by Hearing Examiner William L. Pack 
based on an order agreed to both by the 
company and the Commission's Bureau 
of Litigation. 

The Commission's complaint, issued 
October 8, 1958, charged that 60 percent 
of the company's sales are not handled 
through brokers, but these direct pur- 
chasers are given allowances approxi- 
mating the normal brokerage fee or price 
reductions reflecting this brokerage. 
These arrangements are forbidden by 
Sec. 2(c) of the Robinson-Patman Amend- 
ment to the Clayton Act, the complaint 
alleged. 

The company's agreement to discon- 
tinue these payments is for settlement 
purposes only and does not constitute an 
admission that it has violated the law. 




Department of the Interior 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ALASKA BRISTOL BAY LIMITED COM- 
MERCIAL SALMON FISHING 
REGULATIONS FOR 1959 ISSUED : 

A limited commercial fishery for red 
salmon in Bristol Bay, Alaska, this year 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



97 



was announced on May 25 by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior. Alaska commercial 
fisheries regulations previously published 
had closed Bristol Bay to commercial 
fishing for red salmon in order to insure 
necessary escapement of spawning fish. 
In announcing the regulations on April 24, 
the Secretary said further changes might 
be forthcoming in light of subsequent de- 
velopments. 

The Secretary said that he had au- 
thorized the change in the regulations 




Sockeye (Red) Salmon 
- ' - (Oncothyncus Nerka) 



after a thorough review of the situation 
in the light of recent developments, in- 
cluding discussions with the Japanese 
regarding the high-seas salmon fishery. 

The new regulation will permit limited 
commercial fishing for red salmon in 
each of the niajor districts of Bristol 
Bay. Both drift nets and set nets will be 
permitted to operate for weekly fishing 
periods determined on the basis of the 
amount of fishing gear registered for 
fishing. 

The regulation provides for a fishery 
of a type similar to recent years, but on 
a much more restricted basis. The so- 
called "gear-time table" will be utilized 
to regulate the fishery. However, short- 
er weekly fishing periods will be allowed 
at a given level of fishing effort than in 
previous years. No change is made in 
the regulations previously promulgated 
for species other than red salmon. 

The Secretary has been informed by 
the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries that 
the high-seas fishery in the North Pacific 
will be less intense generally than last 
year. He has also been informed that the 
total quota of the Japanese fishery has 
been reduced this year and that with re- 
spect to red salmon--the species of 
particular concern in Bristol Bay--the 
Japanese quota throughout the area of 
the North Pacific in which Japanese fish- 



ermen operate has been reduced from 11 
million fish last year to 8 million fish 
this year. 

In the areas frequented by North A- 
merican red salmon stocks, it is ex- 
pected that catches will not be sufficient- 
ly great to preclude a limited commer- 
cial fishery in Bristol Bay on these same 
stocks in the course of their migration to 
the spawning grounds. Secretary Seaton 
emphasized, however, that developments 
during the fishing season for red salmon 
on the high seas and in Bristol Bay will 
be watched very closely, and that fur- 
ther changes in regulations may be nec- 
essary to assure the adequate seeding of 
the spawning grounds to preserve the re- 
source. 

Alaska commercial fisheries regula- 
tions were revised and issuedon March 7, 
1959, and published in the Federal Reg- 
ister of March 19, 1959. For Bristol 
Bay salmon fishing, the revised regula- 
tions merely defined salmon fishing dis- 
tricts and prescribed limitations on per- 
sonal use fishing with nets. A footnote 
explained that the issuance of the com- 
mercial salmon fishery regulations for 
1959 in the Bristol Bay Area were being 
delayed pending clarification of the high- 
seas fishery situation. 

On April 24, the Secretary of the In- 
terior prescribed salmon fishery regu- 
lations for the Bristol Bay area (effective 
May 28, 1959), which imposed a drastic 
curtailment of red salmon fishing in that 
area in the light of an expected small 
cycle run of red salmon in 1959 and the 
prospect of an intense high-seas fishery 
on these same stocks of fish. 

After a thorough review of the situa- 
tion in the light of recent developments, 
including discussions with the Japanese 
Government, regarding the high-seas 
salmon fishery, it was decided to author- 
ize a very limited commercial fishery 
involving all districts of the Bristol Bay 
area. In the areas of the North Pacific 
frequented by North American red salm- 
on stocks, it is expected that catches 
will not be sufficiently great to preclude 
a limited commercial fishery in Bristol 
Bay, Alaska, on these same stocks in the 
course of their migration to the spawn- 
ing grounds. Thus, the May 30 Federal 
Registe r contained amendments to Part 



98 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



104 of the Alaska Commercial Fisheries 
regulations which will permit limited 
commercial fishing for red salmon in 
each of the major districts of Bristol 
Bay. As amended, salmon fishing, ex- 
cept trolling, in the Bristol Bay area is 
prohibited in all districts prior to June 1 
and after August 31, 1959. 

The pertinent part of the regulations 
as they appeared in the Federal Regis- 
ter follow: 

§104.9 (Amendment) 

3. Paragraph (a) of §104.9 is amend- 
ed to read as follows: 

(a) During the period June 22 to 
July 25, the statutory weekly closed peri- 
od of 36 hours is extended so as to limit 
fishing to the number of days per week 
set out in the following table, wherein 
the number of days of fishing is governed 
by the total number of units of gear regis- 
tered for fishing in the respective dis- 
tricts as of 6 p.m. of the Friday imme- 
diately preceding the week in which fish- 
ing is permitted. 



Units of Gear by District | 


Naloiek- 
Kvichak 


Nushagak 


Egogik 


Ugashik 


Day of 
Fishing 
Per Week 


Over ISO 


Over 324 
227-324 


Over 60 


Over 50 


1.0 
2.0 


103-150 


195-226 


49-60 


38-50 


2.5 ■ 


79-102 


162-194 


43-48 


31-37 


3.0 


65-78 


130-161 


39-42 


27-30 


3.5 


55- 64 


113-129 


37-38 


25-26 


4.0 


54 


112 


36 


24 


5.0 



4. Paragraph (c) of §104.9 is amend- 
ed to read as follows: 

(c) Announcement of the total num- 
ber of registrations for each district 
will be made locally within 18 hours 
after the close of registration and by- 
publication in the Federal Register. 

Note; Also see Commercial Fisheries Review ^ June 1959, 
p. 87. 

sjc :^c :^ 5|c 5le 



REGULATIONS AMENDED TO PERMIT 
DRIFT-NET AND PURSE-SEINE SALMON FISHING 
ON ALTERNATE DAYS IN BEAR RIVER SECTIO N: 

Purse seines and drift nets can now be used to fish for 
salmon on alternate days in the Bear River Section of Alas- 
ka. This change was published as an annendment to the 
Alaska Commercial Fisheries Regulations in the June 9 
Federal Re gister . The pertinent part of the amendment 
to the regulations follows: 

Among the proposals submitted by various segments of the 
fishing industry in response to the notice of proposed rule 



making on 1959 Alaska commercial fisheries regulations was 
one which advocated a change in the regulations applicable to 
the Bear River Section, North Central District, Alaska Pen- 
insula Area (Part 105), to accomplish a more equitable dis- 
tribution of the allowable salmon catch among purse-seine 
fishermen and drift-net fishermen who compete with one an- 
other in the local fishery. No change in the prior existing 
regulations for this area was effected in the revision of the 
Subchapter adopted on March?, 1959, principally because the 
dispute arose from organizational factors and from intense 
competition between two forms of fishing gear. 

Subsequent to the adoption of the revision published on 
March 19, 1959, representatives of the operators of the two 
competing forms of fishing gear resolved their differences 
and urged that further controversy be avoided during the 1959 
season by amending the regulations for the Bear River Sec- 
tion to allow purse seines and drift nets to fish on alternate 
days on either side of a line dividing the area in controversy. 
Since management and conservation of the resource will be 
benefited by forestalling further increases in fishing effort 
which otherwise almost certainly would occur in this small 
section, it has been determined to be in the public interest to 
amend the regulations accordingly. 

Paragraph (b) of § 105.5 is amended to read as follows: 

(b) NORTH CENTRAL DISTRICT. (1) Prior to June 21, 
fishing is permitted in all sections with gill nets having a 
mesh size of not less than 8-1/2 inches stretched measure. 

(2) Nelson Lagoon section and General section, from 
6 a.m. June 22 to noon September 30. 

(3) In the Bear River section (i) purse seines and gill nets 
may be used throughout the section from 6 a.m. June 22 to 

6 p.m. June 25 and from 6 a.m. July 22 to noon September 
30; (ii) on June 29 and July 1, 7, 9, 13, 15, and 21, only purse 
seines may be used northeast of the church located near the 
beach about two miles northeast of the mouth of Bear River, 
and only drift nets may be used southwest of the church; and 
(iii) on June 30 and July 2, 6, 8, 14, 16, and 20, only drift nets 
may be used northeast of the church and only purse seines 
may be used southwest of the church. 




White House 

NATIONAL SAFE BOATING 
WEEK. JUNE 28-JULY 4: 

A Presidential proclamation desig- 
nated the week of June 28, 1959, "Na- 
tional Safe Boating Week," affording an 
opportunity to stress vessel safety. 

In part, the proclamation read: 

"NOW, THEREFORE, I DWIGHT D. 
EISENHOWER, President of the United 
States of America, do hereby designate 
the week beginning June 28, 1959, as 
National Safe Boating Week. 

"I urge all boatmen, boating organi- 
zations, the boating industry. State and 
Federal agencies, and all other groups 
interested in boating to join in this ob- 
servance of National Safe Boating Week; 
and I call upon them to exert greater ef- 
fort during that week and throughout the 
boating season to keep boating safe and 
pleasant. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



99 



"I also invite the Governors of the 
States, the Territory of Hawaii, the 
Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the 
possessions of the United States to pro- 
vide for the observance of this week to 
encourage nationwide interest in safe 
boating practices. . ." 

s|c s[; >}e al< sjc 

PRESIDENT SIGNS PACIFIC 
HALIBUT FISHERY REGULATIONS: 

The 1959 proposed regulations of the 
International Pacific Halibut Commis- 
sion were adopted and signed by the 
President on March 31, 1959. The reg- 
ulations were published in the April 16 
Federal Register. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review, April 1, 
1959, p. 60. 




Eighty-Sixth Congress 

(First Session) 

Public bills and resolutions which 
may directly or indirectly affect the 
fisheries and 
allied industries 
are reported up- 
o.i. Introduction, 
referral to com- 
mittees, pertinent 
legislative actions, 
hearings, and oth- 
er actions by the 
House and Senate, 
as well as signature into law or oth- 
er final disposition are covered. 



ALASKA OMNIBUS ACT : The House on June 1 
passed H. R. 7120 , to amend certain laws of the 
United States in light of the admission of the State 
of Alaska into the Union. In addition to a series of 
clarifying amendments the House adopted an a- 
mendment limiting the transfer of Federal proper- 
ty in connection with the transfer of functions to 
this act and the act of July 7, 1958 (P. L. 85-508). 

The Senate Committee on Interior and Insular 
Affairs on May 28 ordered favorably reported with 
amendments S. 1541 and S. Rept. No . SSI - 
Senate Report No. 331 , Alaska Omnibus Bill 
(May 28, 1959, 86th Congress, 1st Session. Report 
of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Af- 
fairs together with individual views to accompany 
S. 1541 ), 60 pp., printed. The report contains 
major provisions of thebill, committee amendments. 



sectional analysis of the bill. Executive Agency re- 
ports, and changes in existing law. The appendix 
contains Legislative Precedents for Grants of Fed- 
eral Property to Newly Admitted States of the Union. 

The Senate on June 3 passed with amendment 
H. R^ 7120 . The amendment substituted the amend- 
ed text of S. 1541 . companion bill, which had first 
been amended by adoption of two technical amend- 
ments of clarifying nature and a further amend- 
ment which provided for transfer without reim- 
bursement, of any real or personail property located 
in Alaska and owned by the United States. Action 
on S. 1541 was postponed indefinitely since H. JR. 
71213 was passed instead by the Senate. The Senate 
requested the concurrence of the House for its a- 
mendments to H. R. 7120. 

The House on June 11 agreed to Senate amend- 
ments, with an amendment, to H. R. 7120 , aind sept 
the bill back to the Senate requesting concurrence 
of the Senate in the amendment. 

The Senate on June 12 concurred In a technical 
House amendment to H. R. 7210 , this action clear- 
ed the bill for the President's signature. The legis- 
lation is largely technical providing changes in 
Federal laws, necessary because of the change in 
Alaska's status from Territory to a State, elimi- 
nating inappropriate references In Federal statutes. 
Other provisions are substantive, terminating cer- 
tain special Federal programs in Alaska, and en- 
abling participation by Alaska in other programs on 
"an equal footing with other States." The bill was 
drafted by the executive agencies concerned with 
the administration of Federal responsibilities in 
Alaska. Two provisions are of particular interest 
to fisheries interests: (1) Alaska will assume 
jurisdiction over its fish and wildlife resources the 
first day of the calendar year following expiration of 
90 calendar days instead of 90 legislative days after 
certification by the Secretary of the Interior that 
the Alaska State Legislature has made "adequate 
provision for the administration, management, and 
conservation of the fish and wildlife resources of 
Alaska in the broad national interest." (The Secre- 
tary of the Interior made the certification on 
April 20. The transfer, therefore, will be effective 
January 1, 1960, unless Congress adjourns before 
the 90 days provided in the bUl.) (2) authorizes the 
President to transfer to Alaska without reimburse- 
ment property used in a function taken over in 
Whole or part by the State. 

Alaska Omnibus Bill (Hearings before the 
Subcommittee on Territorial and Insular Affairs of 
the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, U- 
nited States House of Representatives, 86th Con- 
gress, 1st Session, on H. R. 6091, H. R. 6109 , and 
H. R. 6112 , to amend certain laws of the United 
States in light of the Admission of the State of A- 
laska into the Union, and for other purposes, 
May 4 and 5, 1959), 82 pp., printed. 

Alaska Omnibus Bill (Hearing before the Com- 
mittee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United 
States Senate, 86th Congress, 1st Session, on S. 
1541, a bUl to amend certain laws of the United 
States in light of the Admission of the State of A- 
laska into the Union, and for other purposes. 
May 7, 1959), 82 pp., printed. 



100 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



These reports contain a detailed analysis of the 
legislation and statements presented before the 
committees by representatives of State and Federal 
Agencies. 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERIES INVESTIGATION : 
H. Con . Res . 192 (UUman), a concurrent resolution 
to make an investigation concerning anadromous 
fish in the Columbia River Basin; to the Commit- 
tee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries; introduced 
in House June 2. 

FISHERIES ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1959 : JI. R^ 
7505 (McDowell), a bill to provide a program of 
assistance to correct inequities in the construction 
of fishing vessels, to enable the fishing industry of 
the United States to regain a favorable economic 
status, to provide disaster relief to the oyster in- 
dustry which has been almost completely destroy- 
ed in some areas of the United States, and for 
other purposes; to the Committee on Merchant 
Marine and Fisheries; introduced in House June 2. 
The bill contains certain provisions similar to 
those provided for in H. R. 1_81 and related bills 
previously introduced. Similar to H. R. 181 and 
related bills previously introduced which would 
provide assistance to depressed segments of the 
fishing industry. But, in addition, H. R. 7505 would 
extend disaster loan provisions to include oyster 
producers and processors within segments of the 
fishing industry found to be in a distressed condi- 
tion, or located in a disaster area. Such loans 
would be made for the improvement and moderni- 
zation of plants, and for the relief of distressed 
conditions caused by blight or other catastrophe, 
and upon terms of not more than 20 years and at 
interest rates of not less than 3 percent. The bill 
further provides that when 60 percent or more of 
the oysters in any waters within the United States 
have been destroyed by blight or other catastrophe, 
such area shall be held to have been declared an 
area of major disaster under this Act. 

The Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wildlife 
Co.nservation of the House Committee on Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries held public hearings 
June 4 and 11 on H. R. 181 , and related bills, which 
would provide assistance to depressed segments of 
the fishing industry. Testimony was heard from 
Representative McDowell on the proposed legis- 
lation. 

The Subcommittee on June 15 met in executive 
consideration of, but took no action on H. R. 181 
and related bills, providing a 5-year program of 
assistance to enable depressed segments of the 
fishing industry in the tFnited States to regain a 
favorable economic status. 

FISH HATCHERY TRANSFER : S. 2053 (Johns- 
ton of South Carolina and Thurmond), a bill to pro- 
vide for the acceptance by the United States of a 
fish hatchery in the State of South Carolina; also 
H. R. 7386 (Riley), an identical bill; both introduced 
on May 26; Senate bill referred to the Committee 
on, Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House bill to 
the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. 
Provides authority for the Secretary of the -Interior 
to accept by donation on behalf of the United States, 
title to the Orangeburg County, South Carolina, fish 
hatchery, together with rights to take adequate wa- 
ter from Orangeburg County Lake therefor. 



FISHERIES PRODUCTS INCLUDED IN FOOD - 
ALLOTME NT PROGRAM : The Subcommittee on 
Agricultural Production, Marketing, and Stabiliza- 
tion of Prices of the Senate Committee on Agricul- 
ture and Forestry held hearings June 4, 5, and 8 on 
S. 585, and related bills S. 489, S. 663, S. 862, and 
S. 1884, dealing with the subject of food distribution 
programs. S. 585 would provide that the program 
of commodity distribution be expanded to include 
fishery products and certain other foods among 
items available for distribution to needy families 
so as to assure an adequate diet, reduce certain 
surpluses, and for other purposes. 

FISH AND WILDLIFE AID THROUGH^EQUIP - 
MENT TRANSFER : S. 210TTBible), a bill to provide 
that surplus personal property of the United States 
may be donated to the States for the promotion of 
fish and wildlife management activities, and for 
other purposes; introduced in Senate June 2; also 
H. R. 7535 (Mclntire) introduced in House June 2, 
H. K. 7580 (Fulton) introduced in House June 3, and 
H. R. 7584 (Baring) introduced in House June 5; re- 
ferred to respective Senate and House Committee 
on Government Operations. Similar to H. R. 7190 
previously introduced. Provides change in exist- 
ing laws to include State Fish and Game Depart- 
ments among State agencies eligible for receipt by 
transfer of surplus Federal Government Property 
and equipment for use in furthering their fish and 
wildlife conservation, restoration, and educational 
objectives. 

IMPORTATION OF POLLUTED SHELLFISH 
PROHIBITED : S. 2112 (Jackson & 7 other Sena- 
tors), a bill to prohibit the importation into the 
United States of polluted shellfish; to the Commit- 
tee on Finance; introduced in Senate June 4. Sim- 
ilar to H. R. 1244 and related bills previously in- 
troduced. 

INTERIOR DEPARTMENT APPROPRIATIONS: 

The Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Ap- 
propriations on June 2, in executive session, 
marked up and ordered favorably reported to the 
full committee with amendments H. R. 5915 , fiscal 
1960 appropriations for the Department of the In- 
terior and related agencies. Included are funds for 
the Fish and Wildlife Service and its two Bureaus. 

Interior Department and Related Agencies Ap - 
propriationsTor 1960~ THearings before a Subcom- 
mittee on Appropriations, United States Senate, 
86th Congress, 1st Session, on H. R. 5915 , making 
appropriations for the Department of the Interior 
and related agencies for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1960, and for other purposes), 1109 pp., 
printed. Contains budget estimates. House allow- 
ances, and testimony presented by witnesses and 
representatives of the Department of the Interior 
and Related Agencies in connection with appropri- 
ations for Fiscal Year 1960. Included are funds 
for the Fish and Wildlife Service and its two 
Bureaus. 

The Senate Committee on Appropriations, in 
executive session, on June 5 ordered favorably re- 
ported with amendments H. R. 5915 (S. Rept. No. 
345). As approved, the bill would provide the De- 
partment a total of $478,785,025, an increase of 
$10,678,225 over the House-passed figure of 
$468,106,800. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



101 



Senate Report No. 345 , Interior Department and 
Related Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1960 (June 5, 
1959, 86th Congress, 1st Session, Report of the 
Senate Committee on Appropriations to accompany 
H. R. 591 5). 39 pp., printed. Lists by agencies ap- 
propriations for the 1959 fiscal, including funds 
provided for salary cost increases in the Second 
Supplemental Appropriations Act, 1959, Public Law 
86-30; the Budget estimates, 1960; House allowance; 
and Committee recommendation. Included are funds 



for the Fish and Wildlife Service and its two 
reaus. 



Bu- 



By unanimous vote, the Senate on June 8 passed 
with amendments H. R. 5915. The Senate insisted 
on its amendments, asked for a conference with 
the House, and appointed conferees. As passed by 
the Senate the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wild- 
life is allowed $14,693,625, anincrease of $1,385,625 
over the amount allowed by the House. The Bu- 
reau of Commercial Fisheries is allowed $6,906,300, 
an increase of $978,300 over the funds allowed by 
the House and $694,700 less than the budget esti- 
mate--Administration of Alaska Fisheries was al- 
lowed $1 million; Senate recommended restoration 
of House cut of $378,000 for marketing, technology 
and research activities; also allowed $50,000 for 
fish vessel mortgage insurance program, $3 mil- 
lion for fisheries loan fund, $325,000 for general 
administrative expenses, $345,000 for, construction 
(of which $185,000 is for salt-water system for 
Galveston biological laboratory, $25,000 for labora- 
tory building at Karluk, Alaska, $35,000 for Pas- 
cagoula dock repairs); and allowed an increase of 
$100,000 for plans for a new vessel to replace re- 
search vessel Albatross III. For the Office of the 
Commissioner of Fish and Wildlife Service the 
Senate allowed $340,000. 

The House disagreed to Senate amendments to 
H. R. 5915 ; agreed to a conference requested by 
the Senate; and on June 11 appointed conferees. 

Senate and House Conferees, in executive ses- 
sion on June 11, agreed to file a conference report 
on the differences between Senate- and House-pass- 
ed versions of H^ R^ 5915 . 

House Report No. 5^45^, Department of Interior 
and Related Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1960 
(June 12, 1959, 86th Congress, 1st Session, Report 
of the Joint Senate and House Committee of Con- 
ference to accompany H. R. 5915 ), 9 pp., printed. 
Contains committee recommendations to House and 
Senate on the disagreeing votes of the two Houses 
on the amendments of the Senate to bill (H. R. 5915) , 
making appropriations for the Department of the 
Interior and related agencies for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1960, and for other purposes. In- 
cluded are funds for the Fish and Wildlife Service 
and its two Bureaus. For the Office of the Com- 
missioner of Fish and Wildlife Service, the Joint 
Committee allowed for salaries and expenses 
$340,000, the same as provided by the House and 
Senate but $3,000 under the budget estimate. For 
the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the Com- 
mittee allowed $17, 561, 200--an increase of 
$853,200 over the amount originally provided. by the 
House, but $1,173, 625 under the amount provided by 
the Senate and $69,000 under the amount requested in 
the budget estimate. For the Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, the Committee allowed $10, 015, 000--an 
Increase of $517,000 over the amount provided by the 



House, but $741, 300 under the amount provided by the 
Senate, and $1,156, 200 under budget estimates. 

The House and Senate on June 15 adopted con- 
ference report on and cleared for the President 
H. R. 5915, fiscal I960 appropriations for the De- 
partment of the Interior, and related agencies. 

POWER PROJECTS FISHERIES RESOURCE S 
PROTECTION : Amendments to S. 1420 (Neuber- 
ger), a bUl to promote the conservation of migra- 
tory fish and game by requiring certain approval 
by the Secretary of the Interior of licenses issued 
under the Federal Power Act; to the Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce; introduced in 
Senate June 3. Provides technical amendments to 
S. 1420 (Neuberger) introduced in Senate March 16, 
T959; bill provides the Fish and Wildlife Service 
with collateral jurisdiction in Federal Power Com- 
mission decisions affecting hydroelectric power 
development in areas where dams would impair 
migratory fisheries resources and wildlife values. 

PRICE DISCRIMINATION ENFORCEMENT OF 
ORDERS: The Antitrust Subcommittee of the 
House Committee on the Judiciary held hearings 
on May 27-28 and ordered favorably reported 
H. R. 432 , and related bills, to amend section 1 1 of 
the~Clayton Act to provide for the more expeditious 
enforcement of cease-desist orders issued there- 
under. 

PROTECTION OF FISHING RIGHTS RELATIVE 
TO MILITARY CLOSURES: A joint resolution of 
the Legislative Assembly of the State of California 
was presented to the House on May 28. The Me- 
morial urges that the Congress of the United States 
and the Secretary of Defense be requested to take 
all steps necessary to insure that prior to the 
closure of any area to fishermen by the military 
authorities, that a public hearing be held in the 
area affected, except when such closing is a mat- 
ter of extreme urgency, and that all such closures 
be limited to those areas and times when such 
closing is vital to our national defense with rea- 
sons for such closing being made public whenever 
compatible with security restrictions; referred to 
the Committee on Public Works. 

P UERTO RICO AND UNITED STATES COM- 
PACT AMENDMENTS : The Senate Committee on 
Interior and Insular Affairs held hearings June 9 
on S. 2023. , to provide for amendments to the com- 
pacT between the people of Puerto Rico and the 
U. S. with testimony favoring its enactment from 
Governor and Resident Commissioner of the Com- 
monwealth. Hearings were recessed subject to 
call of the Chair. The proposed amendments are 
largely technical in order to eliminate inappropri- 
ate provisions, and to clarify, develop, and perfect 
the terms of existing law so as to achieve better 
fulfillment of purposes and strengthen the compact. 

SHRIMP CO NSERVATION CONVENTION WITH 
CUBA : The Senate on June 4 unanimously voted to 
adopt resolution providing for ratification of con- 
vention between the United States and Cuba for the 
conservation of shrimp, signed at Havana on Au- 
gust 15,1958 (Ex. B, 86thCongress , 1st session ). 
It will remain in force for 10 years and thereafter 
until terminated on one year's notice by either 
party. Instruments of ratification will be exchanged 
between the United States and Cuba and a meeting 



102 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



will be held soon to organize the Commission and 
draft legislation drawn up to submit to Congress 
and $100,000 budget to finance for first year. 

SHIP MORTGAGE INSURANCE AMENDMENT 
OF 1959 : The Subcommittee on Merchant Marine 
of the House Committee on Merchant Marine and 
Fisheries on June 5 ordered favorably reported to 
the full committee^. 1434, to amend title XI of the 
Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended, with re- 
spect to insurance of ship mortgages. 

SMALL BUSINESS ACT OF 1938 AMENDMENTS : 
A draft of proposed legislation to amend The Small 
Business Investment Act of 1938, and for other pur- 
poses (with accompanying papers) was transmitted 
to the Senate and House by the Administrator of the 
Small Business Administration; referred to the 
respective Senate and House Committee on Banking 
and Currency on June 3. 

The Senate Select Committee on Small Business on 
June 3 held hearings for the purpose of reviewing the 
activities and programs of the Small Business Admini' 
stration, with especial emphasis on the operation of the 
Small Business Investment Act. 

STARFISH ERADICATION IN LONG ISLAND 
SOUND : The Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wild- 
life Conservation of the House Committee on Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries on June 3 conducted 
hearings on H. R. 3087 and related bills to eradi- 
cate starfish in Long Island Sound and adjacent 
waters. Witnesses heard were Representatives 
Wainwright and Giaimo. 

STATE DEPARTMENT APPROPRIATIONS : De - 
partment of State and Justice, the Judiciary, and 
Related Agencies Appropriations for 1960 (hearings 
before the Subcommittee on Appropriations for the 
Department of State, United States House of Repre- 
sentatives, 86th Congress, 1st Session), 1126 pp., 
printed. Contains budget estimates and testimony 
presented by witnesses and representatives of the 
Department of State and related agencies in con- 
nection with appropriations for fiscal year 1960. 
Included are funds for the international fisheries 
commissions to enable the United States to meet its 
obligations in connection with participation in eight 
such commissions pursuant to treaties or conven- 
tions, and implementing Acts of Congress. 

H. _R. 7343 (Rooney), a bill making appropriations 
for the Departments of State and Justice, the Judi- 
ciary, and related agencies for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1960, and for other purposes; referred 
to the Committee on Appropriations; introduced in 
House May 21. Included are funds for the inter- 
national fisheries commissions. 

House Report No. 376 , Departments of State and 
Justice, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies Ap- 
propriation Bill, Fiscal Year 1960 (May 21, 1959, 
86th Congress, 1st Session, Report of the House 
Committee on Appropriations to accompany H. R. 
7343), 28 pp., printed. Contains budget estimates 



and amounts recommended by the Committee in 
comparison with the 1959 appropriations. Com- 
mittee recommended $l,725,000--an increase of 
$61,300 over the 1959 fiscal year appropriations to 
meet increased pay costs, but $29,000 below the 
amount of the budget request--for the international 
fisheries commissions. 

The House on May 27 passed H. R.7343, Depart- 
ments of State and Justice, the Judiciary, and Re- 
lated Agencies Appropriation Bill, Fiscal Year 
1960; referred to the Senate Committee on Appro- 
priations on May 28. 

The Subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations 
Committee conducted hearings June 8, 9, 10, 11, 
and on June 12 concluded hearings on H. R. 7343. 

UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF IN DEPRESSED 
AREAS: H. J. Res. 411 (Slack), a House joint res- 
olution to provide for a special research inquiry 
into the causes of chronic unemployment in eco- 
nomically depressed areas, and for other purposes; 
to the Committee on Government Operations; in- 
troduced in House June 3. 

UNEMPLO YMENT TAX PROVISIONS FOR 

(East- 



CERTAIN FISHING ACTIVITIES : _ 

land), a bill to provide that the tax imposed by the 



^ 2125 
X impose 
Federal Unemployment Tax shall not apply with 
respect to service performed by individuals in con- 
nection with certain fishing and related activities; 
to the Committee on Finance; introduced in Senate 
June 5. The bill would amend paragraph (17) of 
section 3306 (c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 
1954 (relating to the definition of "employment" for 
purposes of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act). 
Provides that unemployment tax shall not apply 
with respect to service performed by an individual 
in (or as an officer or member of the crew of a 
vessel while it is engaged in) the catching, taking, 
harvesting, cultivating, or farming of any kind of 
fish, shellfish, Crustacea, sponges, seaweeds, or 
other aquatic forms of animal and vegetable life 
(including service performed by any such individ- 
ual as an ordinary incident to any such activity), 
except service performed in connection with the 
catching or taking of halibut or salmon for com- 
mercial purposes. 

WAGES: H. R. 7490 (Frelinghuysen), a bill to 
amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as a- 
mended; to the Committee on Education and Labor; 
introduced in House June 2. Identical to_S. 1967 
previously introduced which would extend coverage 
under the Fair Labor Standards Act, and for other 
purposes. The proposed amendments would not 
change the present status of employees employed 
in executive, administrative, professional, or out- 
side sales capacities. Exemptions would remain 
unchanged for fishermen; for agricultural and ir- 
rigation workers, learners, apprentices, messen- 
gers, and handicapped workers; for workers on 
agricultural commodities in the area of production; 
for seamen on-foreign vessels; and for newsboys. 




July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



103 




^gimsmwm 



#.ju i ji» i i i mL..;i. i , i j i .tiM>». ipi!!WP!»ii>Bwi;^ag[pj 



FISHERY 

INDICATORS 




CHART / - FISHERY LANDINGS for SELECTED STATES 



In Millioni oi Poiindi 



MAINE, MASSACHUSETTS. AND RHODE ISLAND 




JAN F£e MAR aPR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA. AND GEORGIA 





CUMULAT 1 VE 

4 MOS. 1959 
4 ° 1956 
12 1958 


39.1 
31.2 
325.0 


11(1111 








t 


100 
80 
60 
40 
20 








/\ 


/ \ 
j \ 


i 

1 






.^-^x 


1 

1 




^ 


\^' ^ 


1 1 



J&N FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



FLORIDA 


18 
16 
14 
12 
10 
3 



COnuLATIVE DATA 

4 MOS. 1959 - 47.9 
4 ., 1958 - 51.7 
12 1958 - 169.1 


A 






'\ y \ 








JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




140 

120 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 




CALIFORNIA ^^ 


CUMUL*I 1 VE DATA 
4 MOS. igsg - 113.3 




4 „ 1958 - 1 09. 5 
12 1958 - 593.0 








/ \ 




/ 






JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV OEC 



NEW JERSEY AND NEW YORK 



CUHUL 

12 


ATIVE 

1959 
1958 
1958 


£A1A 

- 21.8 

- 20.4 

- 346.4 


1 I 1 1 1 I T 












/- 






\ 








/ 

/ 






\ 

\ 








/ 

/ 






\ 

\ 









./ 






^- 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



ALABAMA, LOUISIANA, MISSISSIPPI, AND TEXAS 



CUMOLATIVF DATA 



T 1 1 r- 



4 


MftS 


1959 


38 


4 


4 




1958 


IQ 


a 


12 





1958 


5T7 






4 ^ 4^ 



V..^ 

■N 



JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 
2 



OREGON 


CUHULAIIVE DATA 




4 MflS. 1959 - 9.4 
4 1958-13.8 
12 1958 - 57. B 










/ \ 


.-^J 




s.^ 


JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV OEC 



104 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



CHART 2 - LANDINGS for SELECTED FISHERIES 



In Millions oi Ponnds 



HADDOCK 
(Maine and Massachusetts) 



1 1 1 1 — 1 — 1 1 


' CUMULATIVE DATA 

5 MOS. 1959 - 49.5 
5 igSB - 58.3 
12 " 1958 - 105.4 


A 












/A 


l/\ 


' / '^■ 


J/ - 


\ 




-^"^-^ 


L-i^/ 




■ 




~^^. -^ 



r'-r^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



OCEAN PERCH 
(Maine and Massachusetts) 



CUMULAT 1 VE 


DATA 


5 MOS. 1959 
5 „ 1 958 
12 1 958 


- 44.7 

- 54.9 

- 148.4 



r^^--^ 




V. 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



In Millions of Ponnds 



28 

24 

20 

16 

12 

8 

4 




, , SHRIMP 
(Gulf States-t' including Florida West Coast) 


CUMULATIVE DATA 




4 MOS . 1 959 - 21.7 
4 1958 - 31.7 
12 1958 - 173.2 




X---S 


.''• \ 


/ 


- 


^'^^^^cT^ 




JAN FES WAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



56 
48 
40 
32 
24 
16 
8 



WHITING 
(Maine and Massachusetts) 


CUMULATIVE DATA 


I 1 1 1 > 1 1 


5 MOS, 1959 - 11 .5 
5 1958 - 7.4 
12 ' 1958 - 102.0 












A 


/ \ 






JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



1/L*. a ALA. DATA BASED ON LANDINGS AT PRINCIPAL PORTS AND ARE NOT COM 



In Thousands of Tons 



MENHADEN 
(East and Gulf Coasts) 



CUMULATIVE DATA 

5 MOS. 1959 - 125.2 
5 ,, 1958 - 63.2 
12 1956 - 763.6 


-r 1 1 1 1 1 1 




















/ ^\ 










1/ 


^ 




\^ J' . . ,'■- 


.y ■ 




JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT 


NOV DEC 





PACIFIC AND JACK MACKEREL 
(California) 


6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



CUMULAT 1 VE DATA 




4 MOS. 1959 - 5.3 
4 1958 - 6.5 
12 1958 - 23.2 




A 




/\ 


A 


\ r- 1 ^'\ 


{ ^ / J 


\ \/ '-■ '---^'' 


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



In Thousands of Tons 



PILCHARD 
(California) 



1 1 1 1' 1 1 


CUMULAT 1 VE DITA 






TOTAL - 101.5 
1957/58 SEASON, 

TOTAL - 20.5 




• 


^ 


\ 








/ 

/ 




\ 
\ 






/ 
/ 




\ 
\ 










LEGEND: 

— — — 1 958/59 
1957/5B 




/ 
/ 




\ 

\ 






^' ..-■ 




•.. \ 

■•■-. ^ 


, 





AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC , JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY 



CUMULATIVE DAT 



TUNA AND TUNALIKE FISH 
-1 1 1 \ r 



4 


MftS 


1959 


43 


8 


4 




1958 


41 




12 




1958 


156 


* 



^V 







JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



105 



CHART 3 - COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS and FREEZINGS 
of FISHERY PRODUCTS 4^ 



lo Millioni of Ponndi 



U. S, & ALASKA HOLDINGS 



y ' 


-1 1 ! I 1 1 1 1 


^1 


\ \ 


.-^ 




\ \ 
\ \ 


J. 1 






.^ / 




\ 

\ 


/ 
/ 
/ 




^>> 


--^^' 





_J ■ I 



J, 



JAN FEB MAR APB MAY JUH6 JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



NEW ENGLAND HOLDINGS- 






JAN fte MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



1/mAINE, MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, AND CONNECT 1 1 





MffiDLE WEST HOLDINGS-' 


40 
36 
32 
28 
24 
20 







\ /-' ■ 


w 


■^\ 


v> — / 




JAN FEB MAR APR WAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



WASHINGTON, OREGON, AND ALASKA HOLDINGS 



,_ ^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



U. S. & ALASKA FREEZINGS 



CUMULATIVE DATA 

5 MQS. 1959 - 93.5 
5 " 1958 - 89.2 
12 1950-322.2 



-I 1 1 r- 




x:::^_ 



JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 





MIDDLE i SOUTH ATLANTIC HOLDINGS^' 


52 
48 
44 
40 
36 
32 


V 


\ 


-. \ 


\ \/ 


\,, 


\ / 


) < 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV OEC 



2/all east coast states from } 



GULF & SOUTH CENTRAL HOLDINGS- 





^ ,—• . 


V X 










.--^ 




•^.y 









JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



4/ALA., hiss., la., TEK 



22 
20 
18 
16 
14 
12 
10 



CALIFORNIA HOLDINGS 




N. /-— 


\/ 


.. V^ ^.-^ 








JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



* Excludes salted, cured, and smoked products. 



106 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



CHART 4 - RECEIPTS and COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS of FISHERY 
PRODUCTS at PRINCIPAL DISTRIBUTION CENTERS 

In Millions of Ponnds 



RECEIPTS-' AT WHOLESALE SALT-WATER MARKET 
(Fresh and Frozen) 



CUHULAT I VE DATA, 

5 MflS. 1Q59 - 64.5 
5 ,p_ 1958 - 64.4 
12 1958 - 164.0 




■--^^ "^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



l/lNCLUDE TRUCK AND RAIL IMPORTS FROM CANADA AND DIRECT VESSEL LANDINGS 
AT NEW YORK CITr, 



NEW YORK 
CITY 



COLD-STORAGE HOLDmGS- 



1 ■ I ■ T 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


\ /^.^ .y 


N 


\^_ 




/ 

/ 


\ 

> 




— 


/ 

/ 




\ 


. .-"' 




■^-^ 


N 






J 



i 



JAN FEB MAR APR >^AY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



I/as REPORTED BY PLANTS IN METROPOLITAN AREA. 



RECEIPTS AT WHOLESALE MARKET 
(Fresh and Froze n) 



CLIHULAT I VE pATA 

5 H^. 1959 - 34.0 
5 1958 - 37.4 

12 1959-92.3 




C 



^ 



.JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CHICAGO 



COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS 



















x" 


-. 


















N \ 
\ \ 
\ \ 






















^ 




• 


^■' 




S ' 


-. 


— '. 




— 


— '' 




< 



JAN FEB UAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



SEATTLE 



BOSTON 



WHOLESALE MARKET RECEIPTS, LANDINGS, 
h IMPORTS (Fresh and Frozen) 



CUHULAT 1 VE DATA 



5 


MflS. 


1959 


3B 





5 




1958 


.V 


■^. 


12 




1958 


105 


7 



^^^^. 



JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS 
T 1 1 1 1 1 r- 



^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CHART 5- E\SH MEAL and OIL PRODUCTION - U.S and ALASKA 



56 

IS 








FISH MEAL 
(In Thousands of To 


ns) 






4 
12 


CUMULAT 1 VE 
MOS. 1959 - 

1958 - 


DATA 

14.2 
11 .7 
247.7 




40 
32 
24 
16 
8 





/• 


^^ 
















/ 

/ 


s 














/ 






\ 
\ 














/ 

/ 






\ 
\ 






L 






/ 


/ 






\_^ 


^X 


^"n 


V: 


"r^^ 


"i " 


^^ 














JAN 


FEB MAR 


APR 


WAY JUNE 


JULY AUG 


SEPT OCT 


NOV 


DEC 



FISH OIL 

(In MUlions of Gallons) 

' ' 1 T 1 1—*— 



CUMULAT 1 VE DATA 


1 1 1 I 1 1 1 


4 1958 - 0.4 
12 1958 - 22.0 










/ 




=---— T-1-*" 1 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



107 



CHART 6 -CANNED PACKS of SELECTED FISHERY PRODUCTS 



In Thousands of Standaid Cases 



TUNA AND TUNALIKE FISH - CALIFORNIA 



CUMULA1 IVE DATA 

4 MOS. 1959 - 3,723.4 
4 1958 - 2,885.6 

1958 - 11,154.5 



-i 1 1 1 1 r- 



^^ 




s 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV QEC 



ANCHOVIES - CALIFORNIA 



1 1 r -v 1 1 1 


CUMULATIVE DAlA 

4 MOS. 1959 - - 
4 " 1958 - 29.9 
12 1958 - 53.7 




^ 


/\ 




,^ 


\ 

\ 




r \ 


\ 

\ 




\ 


\ 




/ \ ^ 



JAN FEB mp APR MAY JUNE JULV MG SEPT OCT KOV DtC 



800 
700 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 



SARDINEsi' (Estimated) - MAINE 


CUMULATIVE DATA 

4 MOS. 1959 - 4.2 
4 " 1958 - 1.3 
12 1958 - 2,100.0 






A 




/ "V 


/ 


) . . . -/ ^^-4 


JAN FEB MAR APR WAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



1/ INCLUDING SEA HERRING. 



MACKEREL - 



■ CALIFORNIA 



CUMLjLATI VE DATA 

4 MOS. 1959 - 66.1 
4 1958 - 103.0 

12 " 1958 - 404.4 



/\ 



r-r 



I \ 

-f V 



*—— ^' I I 1 i ' 1 — - 



^-^^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



2/ INCLUDES PACIFIC MACKEREL AND JACK MACKEREL 



SALMON - ALASKA 



CUMULATI VE Dili 



-I 1 1 1 1 r 



2,944.6 |„ 
2,441 .9 



-t \- 



1 



-■r 



_5^^ 



JAN FEB MAP APR HAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 





STANDARD CASES 




Variety 


No. Cans 


Designation 


Net Wet. 


SARDINES 


100 


\ drawn 


3| oz. 


SHRIMP 


48 


- 


5 oz. 


TUNA 


48 


# 1 tuna 


6 &7 oz. 


PILCHARDS.. 


48 


# 1 oval 


15 oz. 


SALMON 


48 


1-lb. tall 


16 oz. 


ANCHOVIES. . 


43 


i-Ib. 


8 oz. 





SARDINES - 


CALIFORNIA 






CUMULATIVE DATA 
1958/59 SEASON, 






TOTAL - 2,222.6 
1957/58 SEASON, 

TOTAL - 497.8 
















1 \ 




1 \ 
/ \ 




/ \ 





•v: r>^. 



AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FES MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY 



■ 1959/60 
- — — 1958/59 
1957/58 



SHRIMP - GULF STATES 



■ I" 1 1 


CUMULATIVE D^i 
1958/59 SEASON 


1 1 ! - 




AUG. -MAY - 529.7 
1957/58 SEASON, 

AUG. -MAY - 285.6 
1957/58 SEASON, 

TOTAL - 585.9 














.•*"\ 


\ 

V 
\ 

r 




/ 







AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY 



108 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



CHART.7- U.S. F/SHERV PRODUCTS IMPORTS 



In Millions of Pounds 



28 


GROUNDFISH ( 


inc 
Fre 


ud 
.sh 


ing Ocean Perch) FILLETS 
and Frozen! 












5 M^S. 195g - 74.5 






5 „ 1553 - 57.2 
'2 1959 - 155.9 






20 
16 
12 
8 
4 







A A 




A 








l\ /..\ 




/ \ 


/ \ 
/ \ 






r 


- 


/ 


\ 


/ 

/ 










\.- 










JAN FtB MAR APR WAY 


JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV 


DEC 





10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 


SHRIMP FROM MEXICO 
(Fresh and Frozenl 


CUMULATIVE DATA 
4 MOS. 1959 - 19.6 

4 1958-12.3 
12 1958 - 56.1 




/\ 




/ '^-^ 




V ^ 









JAN FtB WAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



28 
24 
20 
16 
12 
8 
4 








TUNA 
(Fresh and Frozen 




A. 




^ 


, 


-- 


\ 


"^ 








^ — ^'' 


/S 






/ 






.^ 


^ 


/ -^v 






CUMULAT 1 VE DATA 

4 H05. 1959 - 85.1 
4 " 195B - 44.3 
12 " 1958 - 198.0 





JAN FEB MAR APR k«Y JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



U. S. IMPORTS OF CANNED TUNA AND TUNALIKE FISH 
(in Oil and in Brine) 



1 1 T 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 1 




K - -''"' 


W^ 


^- \ 
\ 


\' 


\ / 


V 


CUMULATIVE DATA 


V 


> . . . , 


4 , 1958 - 15.9 
12 1956-58.7 


. , :< 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



FILLETS & STEAKS OTHER THAN GROUNDFISH 
(Fresh and Frozen) 



CUMULAT I VE DAJA 



n 1 1 r 



4 


MQS. 


1959 


IB 


fi 






1958 


in 


7 


12 




1958 


62 


7 




^/^•^ 






JAN FES MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



LOBSTER AND SPINY LOBSTER 
(Frp^h ?iriri Frp7.pn| 



CUMULATIVE 


DATA 


4 MOS. 1959 

4 1 958 
12 ' 1958 


14,6 
14.0 
47.4 



?iriri Frp7.pn| 



r 



^ I 




i\ 



^ir^ 



N / 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



14 
12 
10 

a 

6 

4 




SEA HERRING, FRESH, THROUGH MAINE PORTS 1 


CUMULATIVE DATA 

4 MOS. 1959 - 1 .4 
4 195B - 0.3 
12 1956 - 38.6 











A 




y \ 


/"-' 


^..^^^^^^Z \^_ 


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



CANNED SARDINES 
(in Oil and not in Oil) 


CUMULAT 1 VE DATA 

4 MOS. 1959 - 6.9 
4 „ 1958 - 8.7 
12 1958 - 28.2 








A 


,-. 


\ / V^^N^ 






JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



109 



V^^rr'^ 



RECENT 



^^'f^ 



FISHERY PUBLICATIONS 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
PUBLICATIONS 

THESE PROCESSED PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE FREE FROM 
THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION, U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERV- 
ICE, WASHINGTON 25, 0. C. TYPES OF PUBLICATIONS ARE DESIG- 
NATED AS FOLLOWS: 

CFS - CURRENT FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 
AND ALASKA. 

FL - FISHERY LEAFLETS. 

SL - STATISTICAL SECTION LISTS OF DEALERS IN AND PRO- 
DUCERS OF FISHERY PRODUCTS AND BYPRODUCTS. 

SSR.- FISH. SPECIAL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS--F I SHERI ES 
(limited DISTRIBUTION). 

SEP.- SEPARATES (REPRINTs) FROM COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 
REVIEW. 



Number 



Title 



CFS-2007 - Mississippi Landings, January 1959, 

2 pp. 

CFS-2008 - New York Landings, January 1959, 

4 pp. 
CFS-2011 - Massachusetts Landings, November 

1958, 5 pp. 

CFS-2012 - New Jersey Landings, February 1959, 

3 pp. 

CFS-2017 - South Carolina Landings, February 

1959, 2 pp. 

CFS-2018 - Fish Meal and OU, February 1959, 

2 pp. 
CFS-2019 - Massachusetts Landings, December 

1958, 5 pp. 
CFS-2022 - Maine Landings. February 1959, 3 pp. 
CFS-2023 - California Landings, November 1958. 

4 pp. 

CFS-2025 - Shrimp Landings, November 1958, 

6 pp. 

CFS-2026 - Florida Landings, February 1959. 

7 pp. 

CFS-2028 - Texas Landings, January 1959, 3 pp. 
CFS-2029 - Georgia Landings, February 1959, 

2 pp. 
CFS-2030 - Rhode Island Landings, November 

1958, 3 pp. 
CFS-2031 - Maine Landings, 1958 Annual Summary 

by County and Gear, 10 pp. 
CFS-2032 - Maine Landings, 1958 Annual Summary 

by Months, 5 pp. 
CFS-2033 - New York Landings, February 1959, 

4 pp. 
CFS-2034 - Frozen Fish Report, March 1959, 8 pp. 
CFS-2039 - Rhode Island Landings, December 

1958, 3 pp. 
CFS-2044 - Alabama Landings, January 1959,2 pp. 
CFS-2048 - Florida Landings, March 1959, 7 pp. 
CFS-2055 - Mississippi Landings, February 1959, 

2 pp. 

FL-451 - The Striped Bass, by Edward C. Raney, 
6 pp., illus., revised May 1958. (Revision of 
FL-175, March 1946.) 



FL-469 - SeaweedsandTheir Uses, by F. Bruce San- 
ford, 25 pp., November 1958. "Seaweeds are mis- 
named," states the author, "for they are not weeds 
but highly useful plants that yield a number of 
products havingmany important uses. The prod- 
ucts obtained from the seaweeds maybe divided in- 
to two groups: natural and derived. The natural 
products are those in which the seaweed itself is 
used as the end product. These maybe whole, 
ground, or dried. Such products are used primar- 
ily for human food, for animal food, and for ferti- 
lizer. The derived products are those manufac- 
tured from seaweeds by chemical processes. 
Historically these products have included a wide 
variety of materials, such as iodine, acetone, and 
decolorizing carbon. The major derived products, 
both in the present and in the recent past, are those 
that have the ability to form gels and colloidal sus- 
pensions. In the United States, the principal col- 
loidal products made from seaweeds are agar, al- 
gin, and carrageenui. Commercially these de- 
rived products are vastly more important than are 
the natural ones." The author discusses the 
growth habits of the green and blue -green algae, 
brown algae, and red algae; methods of harvesting; 
major constituents in seaweeds; and natural and 
derived products obtained from seaweed. 

Canned Fish Retail Prices: 
FL-476e - February 1959, 27 pp. 
FL-476f - March 1959, 27 pp. 

Canned Fish Consumer Purchases : 
FL-478a - December 1958, 32 pp. 
FL-478b - January 1959, 34 pp. 
FL-478C - February 1959, 34 pp. 
FL-478d - March 1959. 34 pp. 

FL-484 - United States Tuna Fishery. 1911-1958, 
by E. A. Power, 15 pp., illus. Presents abrief 
history and discussion of the development of the 
tuna fishery--one of the United States' leading 
fishery resources. Included are statistical data 
on catch by species; imports and supply of fresh, 
frozen, and canned tuna; and catch and supply of 
bonito and yellowtail. 

SL-157 - Firms Manufacturing Liver and Viscera 
Oil, 1958 (Revised). 

SL-160 - Firms Manufacturing Menhaden Prod- 
ucts, 1958 (Revised). 

SL-161 - Producersof Packaged Fish, 1958 (Revised). 

SSR-Fish. No. 249 - Gulf of Mexico Physical and 
Chemical Data From Alaska Cruises, com- 
piled by Albert Collier, with note on "Some 
Aspects of the Physical Oceanography of the 
Gulf of Mexico," by Kenneth H. Drummond 



no 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



and George B. Austin, Jr., 422 pp., 
October 1958. 



illus. 



SSR-Fish. No. 262 - Corrosion Resistance of Fish 
Tagging Pins, by Albert C. Jensen, 9 pp., illus., 
December 1958. Aquarium -held haddock were 
tagged with nickel and Type 304 stainless steel 
pins to compare the corrosion resistance of the 
two metals. The stainless steel pins proved to 
be superior. 

SSR-Fish. No. 267 - Surface-Current Studies of 
Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron, 1956, by James H. 
Johnson, 89 pp., illus., December 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 268 - Water Quality Studies in the 
Wenatchee River Basin, by Robert Wendell Sea- 
bloom, 39 pp., Ulus., October 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 269 - Gulf of Mexico Plankton In- 
vestigations, 1951-53, by Edgar L. Arnold, Jr., 
56 pp., illus., November 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 270 - Large-Scale Experimental 
Test of Copper Sulfate as a Control for the 
Florida Red Tide, by George A. Rounsefell and 
John E. Evans, 62 pp., illus., December 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 271 - A Laboratory for Fish Be- 
havior Studies, by H. William Newman, 12 pp., 
illus., January 1959. 

SSR-Fish. No. 273 - Background Information for 
Voluntary Grade Standards on Natural Sponges, 
by Robert B. Bennett, 60 pp., illus.. May 1958. 
A report on background information for a grade 
standard on natural sponges. The author dis- 
cusses types of important sponges; grading 
systems; major and minor faults; average de- 
merits characteristic of each type and grade of 
sponge; grading standards and prices; quantita- 
tive tests; selling by weight; and recommenda- 
tions for grading standards. 

SSR-Fish. No. 275 - Spawning Escapement of Oka- 
nogan River Blueback Salmon ( Oncorhynchus 
nerka), 1957, by Donovan R. Craddock, 12 pp., 
illus., December 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 278 - Physical Oceanographic, Bio- 
logical, and Chemical Data- -South Atlantic 
Coast of the United States, M/V T heodore N. 
GUI Cruise 7, by William W. Anderson and 
Jack W. Gehringer, 281 pp., illus., January 1959. 

SSR-Fish. No. 279 - Physical, Chemical, and Bio- 
logical Oceanographic Observations Obtained on 
Expedition Scope in the Eastern Tropical Pacif- 
ic, November -December 1956, by Robert W. 
Holmes and other members of the Scripps Co- 
operative Oceanic Productivity Expedition, 123 
pp., illus., November 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 284 - Publications of the United 

States Bureau of Fisheries, 1871-1940, by Bar- 
bara B. AUer, 205 pp., December 1958. Dis- 
cusses briefly the history of the Bureau of Fish- 
eries and lists the publications of the Bureau 
from 1871 to 1940. More up-to-date publica- 
tions of the Bureau of Fisheries and fishery 
publications of the Fish and Wildlife Service are 
also listed by series, authors, and subjects in 
Circular 36--Fishery Publication Index, 1 920 -54, 



price $1.50 (for sale by Superintendent of Doc- 
uments, U. S. Government Printing Office, 
Washington 25, D. C). 

SSR-Wildlife No. 41 - The Pacific Walrus, com- 
piled by John L. Buckley, 33 pp., illus., Decem- 
ber 1958. A review of current knowledge and_of 
the Pacific walrus and suggested management 
needs. Excessive killing has reduced the Pa- 
cific walrus population from an estimated 
200,000 to approximately 45,000 in the last 100 
years. The decline is continuing. Present 
hunting methods result in the loss of half of the 
walruses killed; and only half of those retrieved 
are fully used. Suggestions for further investi- 
gations are included. 

Annual Report of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Serv - 
ice . Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Bureau 
of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, for the Fiscal 
Year 1958, 44 pp., illus., printed. (Reprinted 
from the Annual Report of the Secretary of the 
Interior , For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 
1958 .) Summarizes the various activities of the 
Service. Describes the activities of the Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries, Industrial Research 
and Services; Alaska Commercial Fisheries; 
Columbia River Fisheries Program; Pribilof 
Islands fur-seal Industry; and biological re- 
search (coastal, inland, and marine fisheries); 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife activi- 
ties discussed include Federal aid to the states 
for the restoration of fish and wildlife; fish 
hatcheries; fishery management services; and 
river basin studies. 

Sep. No. 551 - Shrimp Explorations off Southeast- 
ern Coast of the United States (1956-1958). 

Sep. No. 552 - Research in Service Laboratories 
(June 1959): Contains these articles--"Flavor 
and Odor of Fish - Progress Report;" "Further 
Results on Use of Fish OU for Ore Flotation;" 
and "Shark Repellent." 

THE FOLLOWING SERVICE PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAI LABLE ONLY 
FROM THE S PECIFIC OF F I CE MENTIONED . 

California Fishery Products Monthly Summary , 
March 1959; 13 pp. (Market News Service, U.S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Post Office Bldg., 
San Pedro, Calif.) California cannery receipts 
of tuna and timalike fish and sardines; pack of 
canned tuna, mackerel, and anchovies; market 
fish receipts at San Pedro, Santa Monica, and 
Eureka areas; California and Arizona imports; 
canned fish and frozen shrimp prices; ex-ves- 
sel prices for cannery fish; American Tuna 
Boat Association auction sales; for the month 
indicated. 

(Chicago) Brokers and Importers of Fishery Prod - 
ucts and Byproducts , Chicago , 111 ., 1959 , 6 pp. 
(Market News Service, U. ST Fish and Wildlife 
Service, 565 W. Washington St., Chicago 6, 111.) 

(Chicago) Monthly Summary of Chicago's Fresh 
and Frozen Fishery Products Receipts and 
Wholesale Market Prices , March 1959; flTpp. 
(Market News Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, 565 W. Washington St., Chicago 6, 111.) 
Receipts at Chicago by species and by states and 
provinces for fresh- and salt-water fish and 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



111 



shellfish; and wholesale prices for fresh and 
frozen fishery products; for the month indicated. 

Gulf of Mexico Monthly Landings , Production , and 
Shipments of Fishery Products, March 1959; 
April iyby;~B pp. each. (Market News Service, 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 609-611 Fed- 
eral Bldg., New Orleans 12, La.) Gulf States 
shrimp, oyster, finfish, and blue crab landings; 
crab meat production; LCL express shipments 
from New Orleans; wholesale prices of fish and 
shellfish on the New Orleans French Market; 
and sponge sales; for the months indicated. 

Monthly Summary of Fishery Products Production 
in Selected Areas of Virginia, North Carolina , 
and Maryland , March 1959; April 1959; 4 pp. 
each. (Market News Service, U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, 18 So. King St., Hampton, Va.) 
Fishery landings and production for the Virginia 
areas of Hampton Roads, Lower Northern Neck, 
and Eastern Shore; the Maryland areas of Cris- 
field, Cambridge, and Ocean City; and the North 
Carolina areas of Atlantic, Beaufort, and More- 
head City; together with cumulative and com- 
parative data; for the month indicated. 

New England Fisheries -- Annual Summary , 1958, 
By John J. O'Brien, 50 pp., processed. (Avail- 
able free from the Market News Service, U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, 10 Commonwealth 
Pier, Boston 10, Mass.) Reviews the fish mar- 
keting trends and conditions at the principal 
New England fishery ports, and highlights of 
fisheries in other areas and in selected foreign 
countries. Presents food fish landings byports 
and species; industrial fish landings and ex- 
vessel prices; imports; cold-storage stocks of 
fishery products in New England warehouses; 
fishery landings and ex-vessel prices bymonths 
for ports in Massachusetts (Boston, Gloucester, 
New Bedford, Provincetown, and Woods Hole), 
Maine (Portland and Rockland), Rhode Island 
(Point Judith), and Connecticut (Stonington); 
frozen fishery products prices to primary 
wholesalers at Boston, Gloucester, and New 
Bedford; and monthly landings and ex-vessel 
prices for fares landed at the Boston Fish Pier 
and sold through the New England Fish Exchange. 

New England Fisheries -- Monthly Summary. March 
1^597 21 pp. (Market News Service, U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, 10 Commonwealth Pier, 
Boston 10, Mass.) Reviews the principal New 
England fishery ports, and presents food fish 
landings by ports and species; industrial fish 
landings and ex-vessel prices; imports; cold- 
storage stocks of fishery products in New Eng- 
land warehouses; fishery landings and ex-ves- 
sel prices for ports in Massachusetts (Boston, 
Gloucester, New Bedford, Provincetown, and 
Woods Hole), Maine (Portland and Rockland), 
Rhode Island (Point Judith), and Connecticut 
(Stonington); frozen fishery products prices to 
primary wholesalers at Boston, Gloucester, 
and New Bedford; and landings and ex-vessel 
prices for fares landed at the Boston Fish Pier 
and sold through the New England Fish Ex- 
change; for the month indicated. 

Seattle , Washington , Brokers and Importers of 
Fishery Products . 1959 , 5 pp. (Market News 
Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pier 
42 South, Seattle 4, Wash.) 



(Seattle) Washington, Oregon, and Alaska Receipts 
and Landings of Fishery Products for Selected 
A reas and Fisheries , Monthly Summary , April 
1959, 8 pp. (Market News Service, U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Pier 42 South, Seattle 4, 
Wash.) Includes landings and local receipts, 
with ex-vessel and wholesale prices in some 
instances, as reported by Seattle and Astoria, 
(Ore.) wholesale dealers; also Northwest Pacif- 
ic halibut landings; and Washington shrimp land- 
ings; for the month indicated. 

THE FOLLOWING SERVICE PUBLICATIONS ARE FOR SALE AND 
ARE AVAILABLE ONLY FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENT . 
WASHINGTON 2 5, D. C. 



Morphology of the White Shrimp ( PENAEUS SET - 
IFERUS, Linnaeus 1758), by Joseph H. Young, 
Fishery Bulletin 145 (From Fishery Bulletin of 
the Fish and Wildlife Service, vol. 59), 172 pp., 
illus., printed, $1, 1959. The white shrimp of 
the Gulf of Mexico represents an important 
component of the commercial shrimp catch 
throughout the northern, western, and southern 
margins of that body of water. This study sets 
forth in detail the anatomy of the white shrimp. 

"Observations Made From an Underwater Plastic 
Cage," article. The Progressive Fish - Culturist , 
vol. 20, no. 1, 1958, p. 48, processed, single 
copy 25 cents. 

Study of Age Determination by Hard Parts of Alba - 
core From Central North Pacific and Hawaiian 
Waters, by Tamio Otsu and Richard N. Uchida, 
Fishery Bulletin 150 (from Fishery Bulletin of 
the Fish and Wildlife Service, vol. 59), pp. 
353-363, illus., printed, 15 cents, 1959. 

"A Tag Holder for Use in the Field," by A. C. 
Jensen, article. Progressive Fish - Culturist , 
vol. 20, no. 2, 1958, p. 96, processed, single 
copy 25 cents. 

THE FOLLOWING ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF A FOREIGN LAN- 
GUAGE ART I CLE JS NOT FOR GENERAL DISTRIBUTION . WRITE TO 
U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . GULF F I SHFT?T INVESTIGA - 
T I ONS . GALVESTON . TEX.. ABOUT IT SINCE THAT ORGANIZATION 
DID THE TRANSLAT ING. 

The Shrimp Fishery in Panama I- - Evaluation of 
Our Wealth in 5hrimp , by M. D. Burkenroad, 
J. L. Obarrio, and C. A. Mendoza, translation 
no. 16, 15 pp., illus., processed. A report on 
some of the work and preliminary findings of 
the National Laboratory of Fisheries in Pana- 
ma, dealing with the biological investigation of 
the Panama shrimp. The purpose of this in- 
vestigation is to find out scientifically the po- 
tentialities of Panama's shrimp fishery. Some 
of the problems and methods of investigation 
are discussed. Density of fish populations and 
replacement problems of the large white shrimp 
are described in considerable detail. 

THE FOLLOWING ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS OF FOREIGN LAN- 
GUAGE ARTICLES' ARE NOT FOR GENERAL DISTRIBUT ION . WRITE TO 
U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . PACIFIC SALMON INVESTIGA - 
T|gFiS ,~ 5nTTLE . WASH . . ABOUT THEM SINCE THAT ORGANIZATION 
DID THE TRANSLAT ING. 

Fishery Biology and International Regulation of 
Fisheries , by Hiroaki Aikawa, 19 pp., process- 
ed. Translation Series No. 19. (Reprinted from 
Suisan Kagaku (Fisheries Science), vol. 6, no. 
3-4, December 1957, pp. 2-6). 



112 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



A^ Consideration of International Fisheries, Mainly 
in Relation to t^ie JJ_. N. Draft of Resolution on 
Seas , by Nagamitsu A^ano, 24 pp., processed 
Translation Series No. 21. (Reprinted from 
Suisan Kagaku (Fisheries Science), vol. 6, no. 
3-4, December 1957, pp. 6-12). 



MISCELLANEOUS 
PUBLICATIONS 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND 
WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE OR- 
GANIZATION ISSUING THEM. CORRESPONDENCE REGARDING PUBLICA- 
TIONS THAT FOLLOW SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE RESPECTIVE OR- 
GANIZATION OH PUBLISHER MENTIONED. DATA ON PRICES, IF 
READILY AVAILABLE, ARE SHOWN. 

ADEN COLONY AND PROTECTORATE: 
Aden, 1955 and 1956 , 136 pp., illus., printed, sin- 
gle copy 7s. 6d. (about US$1.05). Her Majesty's 
Stationery Office, York House, Kingsway, Lon- 
don W. C. 2, England, 1958. Contains a section 
on fisheries of Aden Colony and one covering 
those of Aden Protectorate. Each section on 
fisheries discusses areas and methods, organi- 
zation of fishing industry and utilization of 
catches; marketing; events affecting production; 
fisheries department; and development. The 
fishing industry ranks second in the Colony but 
needs considerable development in the Protec- 
torate. Catch statistics for the latter are in- 
cluded. Principal species caught are sardine, 
kingfish, and tuna. 

ALGAE: 
"Composition of the Nucleic Acids of Some Al- 
gae," by Eva M. Low, article, Nature, vol. 182, 
October 18, 1958, p. 1096, printed. St. Martins 
Press, Inc., 103 Park Ave., New York 17, N. Y. 

ALGINATES: 
"A Method for the Fractionation of Alginates," by 
R. H. McDowell, article. Chemistry and Indus - 
tjx, no. 43, October 25, 1958, pp. 1401-1402. 
printed. Society of Chemical Industry, 14 Bel- 
grave Square, London S. W. 1, England. 

ANTIBIOTICS: 
"Fresh Fish. 1--Fish Preservation by Means of 
Antibiotics," by R. J. Nachenius and A. G. Pie- 
naar, article. Annual Report, Fishing Industry 
Research Institute for April 11 -December 31, 
1956 , vol. 10, p. 7, printed. Fishing Industry 
Research Institute, Cape Town, Union of So. 
Africa, 1957. 

"Penetration bi ChlortetracyclLne into Fish Flesh 
and Its Heat Inactivation," by Tetsuo Tomiyama, 
Yasuo Yone, and Kazuo Mikajiro, article, Nip - 
pon Suisan Gakkaishi , vol. 22, 1956-57, pp. 
778-783, printed. Japanese Society of Scientific 
Fisheries, Tokaiku Suisan Kenkyujo, no. 3, 
Tsukijima, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. 

AUSTRALIA: 
Statistical Bulletin: Fishing and Whaling , Aus - 
tralia , no. 3, 1956-57, 18 pp., illus., processed. 
Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, 
Canberra, Australia. This is the third of a 
series of annual bulletins dealing with the fish- 



ing and whaling industry in Australia. The sta- 
tistics cover quantity and value of catch and re- 
lated data, for the year 1956-57 for fisheries 
and the 1957 season for whaling, with compara- 
tive data for the previous 4 years. The bulletin 
is divided into two parts; the first dealing with 
fisheries and the other with whaling. The part 
on fisheries is subdivided into a section on edi- 
ble fishery products--finfish, crustaceans, and 
molluscs; and another on pearl and trochus shells. 

CALIFORNIA: 
Forty - Fifth Biennial Report, California Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game (July 1, 1956, through 
June 30, 195877^3 pp., illus., printed. Califor- 
nia Department of Fish and Game, 722 Capitol 
Ave., Sacramento 14, Calif., October 1958. 
This report covers Ln detail the activities of the 
Department of Fish and Game from July 1, 1956, 
through June 30, 1958. Also included are re- 
ports of policy decisions by the Fish and Game 
Commission, accounts of the activities of the 
Wildlife Conservation and the Marine Research 
Committee. The section on marine resources 
discusses sportfisheries--party boat fishing, 
surf fishing, yellowtail, barracuda and white 
sea bass, and ocean habitat development (de- 
velopment of artificial reefs and new kelp beds); 
shellfisheries--abalone, market crab, ocean 
shrimp, and oysters. This section also discus- 
ses the tuna, sardine, mackerel, and anchovy 
fisheries; bottom fisheries; rockfish; northern 
California sportfish; kelp studies; special pro- 
jects; and the Department's research vessels. 
The section on inland fisheries discusses trout 
hatcheries and the research program, Kokanee 
salmon warm-water fishes, striped bass, and 
sturgeon. The section on salmon and steelhead 
covers the spawner shortage, proposed inves- 
tigations program, inland river studies, coastal 
streams studies, silver salmon, and other ac- 
tivities. 

CANADA: 
"Canada's Shellfish Resources," by J. C. Medcof, 
article. Trade News, vol. 11, no. 9, March 1959, 
pp. 5-7, 9, illus., processed. Department of 
Fisheries of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. The 
author discusses the seven species of shell- 
fish- -scallops, oysters, soft-shell clams, qua- 
haugs, bar clams, blue mussels and periwin- 
kles --which are marketed in Canada. Squid, a 
moUusk but not usually thought of as shellfish, 
are also marketed. In discussing what has been 
done for improvement of the shellfish fisheries 
of Canada, the author states that "Studies of 
shellfish have been conducted by scientists of 
the Federal Department of Fisheries and its 
Research Board with encouraging results in the 
search for ways of boosting the depressed or 
undeveloped state of the shellfish fisheries. 
New scallop beds have been discovered and in- 
dustry has built large and small scallop boats, 
resulting in greatly increased landings. Meth- 
ods have been devised for cleaning oysters, 
soft-shell clams, and quahaugs from beds that 
may be subject to contamination. Bait-worms 
were discovered in southwestern Nova Scotia 
which now bring C$40,000 a year to former 
clam diggers. And efforts to reestablish dis- 
ease-ravaged oyster populations are promising 
although they will not bear fruit for several 
years. . . . Efforts to boost the shellfish fish- 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



113 



THESE PUBLIC.'TIONS «HE NOT »V»1LABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION I SSU I NG THEM. 



eries are continuing. We are encouraging 
heavier harvesting of little-used species like 
bar clams, urging exploitation of known stocks 
of unused species like razor clams, and ex- 
ploring for stocks of species like ocean qua- 
haugs which might be valuable, although they 
are little known or used by industry. Besides 
this we are continuing efforts to Improve and 
popularize efficient mechanized methods of 
fishing shellfish." 

Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Can- 
ada, vol. 16, no. 2, March 1959, pp. 147-246. 
illus., printed. Queen's Printer and Controller 
of Stationery, Ottawa, Canada. Contains, among 
others, the following articles: "The Incidence 
of Nematodes in the Fillets of Small Cod from 
Lockeport, Nova Scotia, and the Southwestern 
Gulf of St. Lawrence," by D. M. Scott and W. R. 
Martin; "Spoilage of Fish in the Vessels at Sea. 
6--Variations in the Landed Quality of Trawler- 
Caught Atlantic Cod and Haddock During a Peri- 
od of 13 Months," by C. H. Castell, Jacqueline 
Dale, and Maxine F. Greenough; "Biochemical 
Studies on Sockeye Salmon During Spawning Mi- 
gration. V--Cholesterol, Fat, Protein, and Wa- 
ter in the Body of the Standard Fish," by D. R. 
Idler and I. Bitners; and "Proteins in Fish 
Muscle. 15--Note on the Preparation of Actin 
from Cod Muscle with Potassium Iodide," by 
J. R. Dingle. 

Supplement to H inks ' "The F ishes of Manitoba, " 
by J. J. Keleher and B. Kooyman, FRB 481, pp. 
103-117, printed. Department of Mines and 
Natural Resources, Province of Manitoba, Winn- 
ipeg, Canada, 1957. 

CANNED FOODS: 
Technical Aspects of the Evaluation of Canned 
Foods , by H. Cheftel, Bulletin No. 13, 52 pp., 
printed. Laboratoire de Recherches, Billan- 
court, France, July 1957. 

CATFISH: 
"The Reproduction and Early Development of the 
Sea Catfish, Galeichthys felis , in the Biloxi 
(Mississippi) Bay, by J. W. Ward, article, 
Copeia, no. 4, 1957, pp. 295-298, printed. A- 
merican Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetol- 
ogists, 34th St. and Girard Ave., Philadelphia 4, 
Pa. 

CHILLING AND FREEZING: 
Hvor Langt er Forskningen Naet Vedrorende Kol - 
ing og Frysning af Fisk . (Research on Chilling 
and Freezing of Fish), by F. Bramsnaes, 8 pp., 
illus., printed in Danish with English summary. 
(Reprinted from Kulde, vol. 12, no. 6, 1958 pp. 
61-64 and vol. 13, no. 1, 1959, pp. 5-9.) Fis- 
keriministeriets Forsogslaboratorium, Copen- 
hagen, Denmark, 1959. 

COD: 

Additions t^ Laboratory Leaflets 19 and 20 Con - 
cerning the Bear Island Cod Fishery . Labora- 
tory Leaflet No. 22 (restricted distribution). 2 
pp., processed. Ministry of Agriculture, Fish- 
eries, and Food, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowes- 
toft, England, June 1958. Further information 



on prospects for the fishery and predictions on 
size of fish are presented. Information is given 
on water conditions and fish distribution; ice 
reports; and stock size and small fish. Accord- 
ing to this report, much of the destruction of 
small cod could be avoided by using a cod-end 
mesh a little larger than the regulation 4| inch- 
es in the Bear Island fishery. A 5-inch mesh 
is recommended. 

La Peche Maritime , vol. 38, no. 972, March 1959, 
84 pp., illus., printed in French. La Peche Mar- 
itime, 190, Boulevard Haussmann, Paris, France. 
Contains, among others, the following articles: 
"Vieille de Quatre Siecles, I'Industrie Francaise 
de la Morue Sera-t-EUe Contrainte a I'Abandon?" 
(Will the French Cod Fishing Industry, Four 
Centuries Old, Have to be Abandoned?), by Jean 
Le Touze; "L'Evolution du Marche de la Morue 
Amenera-EUe Prochainement une Nouvelle 
Orientation de la Flotte de Peche" (WUl the De- 
velopment of the Codfish Market Soon Bring A- 
bout a New Orientation of the Fishing Fleet?), 
by Henri Quesney; "Difficultes Pour I'Arme- 
ment et le Negoce Bordelais de la Morue en 
1958" (Difficulties for the Cod Caiming and Bar- 
rel Trade in 1958), by J. Huret; "Premier Con- 
sommateur de Morue Seche du Monde, le Port- 
ugal Veut Developper la Production Nationale," 
(Portugal, World's First Consumer of Dried 
Codfish, Plans to Develop Its National Produc- 
tion), "La Production Espagnole de Morue Salee 
Atteint 40.000 T." (The Spanish Production of 
Salt Codfish reaches 40.000 Tons); and "L'ln- 
dustrie de la Morue au Canada" (The Codfishing 
Industry in Canada). 

"Two Poisoning Outbreaks in Puerto Rico From 
Salt Preserved Codfish." by Alfonse T. Masi, 
Rafael A. Timothee, Rolando Armijo, Darwin 
Alonso, and Luis E. Malnardi, article. Public 
Health Repor ts, vol. 74, no. 3, March 1959. pp. 
265-270. illus., printed. U. S. Department of 
Health Education, and Welfare, F>ublic Health, 
Service, Washington 25, D. C. 

COMMISSIONS: 
Seventeenth Annual Report of the Atlantic States 
Marine Fisheries Commission (to the Congress 
of the United States and to the Governors and 
Legislators of the Fifteen Compacting States), 
104 pp., printed. Atlantic States Marine Fish- 
eries Commission, 22 West First St., Mount 
Vernon, N. Y., March 1959. Includes a report 
on the state of the Commission and the work of 
the three basic committees--scientlfic, legal, 
and executive. Also contains reports from the 
North Atlantic Section on studies dealing with 
Georges Bank scallops; salt water fishing li- 
censes for anglers; starfish invasion of Long 
Island Sound; and Enfield Dam. The Middle At- 
lantic Section reports on the offshore fishery 
for shad; estuarine problems; proposed salt- 
water barrier in the Delaware River; social 
problems of fishery research; improvement of 
catch statistics; effects of inshore dragging; 
hard clam fishery in Nantucket Sound; and star- 
fish invasion of Long Island Sound. The Chesapeake 
BaySection discusses offshore seining for shad; 
the blue crab research project; improvement of 



114 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDLIFE SERVICE . 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



BUT USUALLY MAY BE 



catch Statistics; waste disposal in Baltimore 
Harbor; and passage of fish over the Conowingo 
Dam. The South Atlantic Section reports on the 
blue, crab project; estuarine research; dangers 
of insecticides; catch statistics; impact of 
weather (freezes and summer droughts) on 
marine fisheries; exploratory fishing in the 
South Atlantic Section; existing shrimp program 
and reciprocity of shrimp licenses; enforcement 
of conservation regulations; and development of 
artificial crab bait. Appendices include, among 
others, reports of the Scientific Committee's 
Biological and Technological Section; report of 
the Legal Committee; a plan for estuarine re- 
search; social problems of fisheries research; 
and a summary of action taken on the Commis- 
sion's resolutions or recommendations to the 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 1957-58. 

COOPERATIVES: 

Check List of Background Material on Fishery 
Cooperatives, FAO/57/11/8640, 14 pp., process- 
ed; Check List of Background Material on Fish - 
ery Cooperatives ( Addendum ), FAO/57/T2/8733, 
1 p., processed. Food and Agriculture Organi- 
zation of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Lists 
of publications dealing specifically with fishery 
cooperatives assembled in connection with the 
FAO Training Center or^ Fishery Cooperatives 
in the Indo-Pacific Region. 

CURING: 
"A New Method for the Production of Smoke," by 
H. Olsen, article, Konserves . vol. 15, June 
1957, p. 61, printed in Danish. Vester Fari- 
magsgade, 31, Copenhagen V, Denmark. 

DENMARK: 
Arsberetning fra Fiskeriministeriets Fors^gs- 
laboratorium for 1958 (Annual Report to the 
Danish Fishing Industry for 1958), 39 pp., illus., 
printed in Danish with English translation of the 
main experimental results. Fiskeriministeriets 
Fors^gslaboratorium, Copenhagen, Denmark, 
1959. 

Publikationer fra Fiskeriministeriets Fors^gs - 
laboratorium . 1945-1958 (Publications from 
Technological Laboratory, Ministry of Fisher- 
ies), 15 pp., processed, in Danish and English. 
Fiskeriministeriets Fors^gslaboratorium, 
Copenhagen, Denmark, March 1959. 

DISTRIBUTION OF FISHES: 
Principles of the Distribution of Fishes and the 
Geological History of the Far - Eastern Seas, by 
G. U. Lindberg, Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada, Translation Series No. 141, 12 pp., 
processed. (Translated from Ocherki po Ob- 
shchim Voprosam Ikhtiologii , pp. 47-51, 1953.) 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biological 
Station, Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1958. 

Some Characteristics of tjie Distribution of Bot - 
torn and Demersal Fishes of Far-Eastern Seas , 
by P. A. Moiseev, Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada, Translation Series No. 94, 10 pp., 
processed. (Translated from Izvestiia Tik- 
hookeanskovo Nauchno -Is sledovatelsko vo In- 



stituta Rybnovo Khoziaistva J. Okeanografii, vol. 
37, 1952, pp. 129-137, Viadivostok.) Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, 
Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1957. 

DUNGENESS CRAB: 
The Fishery and Biology of the Dungeness Crab 
~( CANCER M"5G1STE R Dana nn" Dregon Waters , 
by Kenneth D. Waldron, Contribution No. 24, 
43 pp., illus., printed. Fish Commission Re- 
search Laboratory, Rte. 1, Box 31A, Clacka- 
mas, Ore. Results of studies beginning in 1947 
on the biology of the Dungeness crab in Oregon 
coastal waters. A review is made of the history 
of the fishery with regard to trend of the catch 
by magnitude, area, and season; the develop- 
ment and conduct of the fishery itself; and the 
regulations governing the fishery. 

FILLETS: 
"The Expressible Fluid of Fish Fillets," byR. M. 
Love and O. Karsti, article. Journal of the Sci - 
ence of Food and Agriculture, vol. 9, May 1958, 
pp. 249-268, printeci. Society of Chemical In- 
dustry, 14 Belgrave Square, London, S. W. 1, 
England. 

FISH BAIT: 
Fish Bait Culture and Care, by S. Bradley Kroch- 
mal, 44 pp., illus., printed, $1. S. Bradley 
Krochmal, Suncook, N. H., 1956. 

FISH FLOUR: 
S tudies on the Use of Deodorized Fish Flour in 
Malnutrition (Preliminary Report), by Federico 
Gomex, Rafael Ramos-Galvan, Joaquin Cravioto, 
Silvestre Frenk, and Isabel Labardini, 9 pp., 
illus., printed in English. (Translated reprint 
from Bole tin Medico del Hospital Infantil, vol. 
15, no. 4, pp. 485-493Tr Hospital IiifantU, Mex- 
ico D. F., this project is part of a series of at- 
tempts in the search of an adequate supplement 
for ordinary diets in the Mexican population. 
For the past two years, the Nutrition Depart- 
ment of the Children's Hospital has been study- 
ing fish flour. Results indicate that fish flour 
can be added, in varying percentages, to corn 
meal, beans, and a number of other foods. Fur- 
ther studies ar« being carried out at clinical, 
laboratory, and community level to test more 
completely the potentialities of this protein 
supplement. 

FISH MEAL: 
Fish Flour and Fish Meal by Azeo tropic Solvent 
Processing , by Ezra Levin, 4 pp., illus., print- 
icT (Reprinted from Food Technology, vol. 13, 
no. 2, 1959, pp. 132-135.) The Garrard Press, 
510 North Hickory, Champaign, HI. There is 
now being manufactured at New Bedford, Mass., 
a standardized, uniform, stable whole fish meal, 
equal to the fish from which it is derived, in 
biological value of protein, in unidentified 
growth factors, at a competitive price with con- 
ventional fish meals. It is biologically assayed 
and is standardized to have values 20 percent 
higher than an isolated vegetable protein. The 
advantages of this process of manufacturing fish 
meal are presented. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



115 



THESE PUBLICATIONS »RE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAV BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGAN I ZAT ION ISSUING THEM. 



"Fish Meal. 12--Temperature Differential Con- 
troller," by L.. J. Besseling and A. M. Lewis, 
article. Annua l Report , Fishing Industry Re- 
search Institute , 1955 -56, vol. 9, p. 29, printed. 
Fishing Industry Research Institute, Cape Town, 
Union of South Africa. 

"Spontaneous Heating of Figh McslL," by G. M. 
Dreosti and A. N. Rowan, article. Annual Re - 
p ort, Fishing Industry Research Institute , 1957 , 
vol. 11, pp. 39-45, printed. Fishing Industry 
Research Institute, Cape Town, Union of South 
Africa, 1958. 

FLORIDA: 
(Florida State Board of Conservation) 13th Bien - 
nial Report , 1957 - 1958 (Salt Water Fishing), 59 
pp., illus., printed. Florida State Board of Con- 
servation, Tallahassee, Fla., 1959. Describes 
the activities of the Florida State Board of Con- 
servation during 1957-58, summarizing the goals 
attained and progress achieved in the betterment 
of salt-water conservation. Includes chapters 
on conservation, sports fishing, administration 
of the conservation Department, research, oys- 
ter culture and rehabilitation, enforcement, 
licensing, seafood promotion, information-edu- 
cation, commercial fish landings, and commer- 
cial fishing statistics. It was found necessary, 
during the first half of 1958, to temporarily close 
the Tortugas shrimp area in the interest of con- 
servation. That this conservation measure was 
sound is shown by shrimp landing reports for 
1958. Despite the closed season, Tortugas 
yielded 8 million pounds more shrimp than it did 
in 1957. A major outbreak of red tide during the 
fall of 1957 on Florida's west coast caused the 
loss of countless fish. An extensive attempt was 
made at control by spraying copper sulphate 
from crop-dusting airplanes and from the State 
Board of Conservation's research vessel Mayan . 
According to this report, "When the test was 
finally discontinued in December 1957, a thorough 
analysis of the effects of the control measure 
was begun. This evaluation is continuing but at 
present it appears that the cost of extensive ap- 
plication would be enormous, the effect is short- 
lived, and side -effects on other marine life are 
uncertain." 

"Report on the Sport and Commercial Fisheries 
of the Braden and Manatee Rivers," by James F. 
Murdock, article. Report of the Marine Labora - 
tory of the University of Miami, no. 57-23, 1957, 
22 pp., printed. The Marine Laboratory, Uni- 
versity of Miami, Virginia Key, Miami 49, Fla. 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION: 
Catalogue of FAO Fisheries Publications , com- 
piled by Patricia M. Andrews, FAO/58/9/6896, 
September 1958, 18 pp., processed. Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy. 

Current Bibliography for Aquatic Sciences and 
Fisherie s, vol. 2, no. 1, January 1959, 158 pp., 
processed. Food and Agriculture Organization 
of the United Nations, Viale delle Terme di 
Caracalla, Rome, Italy. Formerly titled Cur - 
rent Bibliography for Fisheries Sciences. 



FOREIGN TRADE: 
Exporting to the United States, 86 pp., illus., 
printed, 5lT cents. Bureau of Customs, U. S. 
Treasury Department, Washington, D. C. (For 
sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D. C). This booklet was prepared primarily 
for the information and assistance of those who 
plan to export to the United States. The volume 
and complexity of imports into this country 
make it necessary that certain definite proce- 
dures be followed, and those who import into the 
United States must have the cooperation of the 
exporter in order to follow the necessary pro- 
cedures. In addition, there are some require- 
ments, such as those relating to marking and 
preparation of invoices, which must be met by 
the exporter himself. This booklet outlines the 
procedures. 

FREEZING: 
"Changes During Freezing and Thawing of Fish," 
by J. Freixo, article, Conservas d^ Peixe, vol. 
13, no. 146, May 1958, pp. 27-28, printed in 
Portuguese. Conservas de Peixe, Sociedade As- 
toria, Lda., Requeirao dos Anjos, 68, Lisbon, 
Portugal. 

FREEZING FISH AT SEA: 
"La Congelation a Bord au Japon" (Freezing A- 
board Vessels in Japan), by R. Daval, article. 
La Peche Maritime , vol. 37, no. 961, April 
1958, pp. 215-216, illus., printed. La Peche 
Maritime, 190 Boulevard Haussmann, Paris, 
France. Reviews the experimental work done 
in Japan on fish chilling and freezing. As re- 
gards chilling of fish (mostly tuna), the author 
believes that a chilling and storage temperature 
1 C. above the freezing point is suitable. When 
freezing, the whole mass of the fish must be 
frozen. The duration of storage in good condi- 
tion was from 1 to 6 weeks for the chilled fish 
and from 3 to 12 months for the frozen fish. 
Three types of vessels were selected to be e- 
quipped with refrigerating plants: fishing boats, 
motherships, and fish carriers. Most of the re- 
frigerating units used ammonia as the refrig- 
erant in direct expansion systems. Only the 
motherships used indirect systems with circu- 
lating brine. Three systems of refrigeration 
were used: air blast, circulating brine, and 
circulating refrigerated sea water. The Japa- 
nese recommend thawing the fish before cook- 
ing; in France, the frozen fish is cooked im- 
mediately after removal from storage. 

FRESHNESS OF FISH: 
"Fresh Fish. 3 --The Assessment of the Fresh- 
ness of Fish by Odor," by A. N. Rowan, article. 
Annual Report, Fishing Industry Research In- 
stitute, April - December 1956 , vol. 10, pp. 8-11, 
printed. Fishing Industry Research Institute, 
Cape Town, Union of South Africa, 1957. 

GEAR: 
"Instrument for Adjusting Equal Lengths of Warp 
Lines of Trawling Gear," by A. Bulmann, arti- 
cle. Die Fischereiwelt , vol. 9, September 1957, 
p. 57, printed in German. Die Fischereiwelt, 
Bundesmlnisteriumfiir Ernahrung, Landwirtschaft 



116 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 21, No. 7 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE , 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



BUT USUALLY MAT BE 



und Forsten, Bremerhaven, German Federal 
Republic. 

Modern Fishing Gear of the World, edited by 
Hilmar Kristjonsson, 680 pp., illus., printed in 
English with abstracts in French and Spanish, 
L5.5s. (US$14.75). Fishing News (Books) Ltd., 
Ludgate House, 110 Fleet St., London, E. C. 4, 
England, 1959. According to the Food and Ag- 
riculture Organization of the United Nations, 
"More progress in the methods of catching fish 
has been made in the last thirty years than in 
the preceding three thousand. Today the waters 
of the world provide 30,000 tons of edible fish 
annually and biologists estimate that that figure 
could be doubled without depleting stocks." To 
assist in that commercial expansion, the Food 
and Agriculture Organization has been steadily 
spreading knowledge of the most modern fish- 
catching techniques. In September 1957, a 
major Congress (International Fishing Gear 
Congress) attended by some 500 delegates from 
all fishing countries of the world, was held in 
Hamburg to hear and discuss over 100 papers 
on all types of fishing gear and equipment. On 
the foundation of those papers and discussions 
this book was issued by the Food and Agricul- 
ture Organization. A fine editorial job of com- 
pression and selection has been done. The pa- 
pers contributed have been arranged in thirteen 
logical sections, amplified where necessary and 
supplemented as required to round out as full 
and authoritative a. presentation as has ever 
been issued on all aspects of modern fish-catch- 
ing equipment. The sections range from details 
and advantages of natural and artificial fibers 
as used in fishing lines and net making, methods 
of specifying gear, the operation of" all types of 
gear, the attraction of fish by light, and the lo- 
cation of fish by electronic methods, and final- 
ly there is a chapter on electrical fishing and 
certain factory operations at sea. In a total of 
some 680 pages are packed nearly half a million 
words as well as over 800 Illuminating specific 
diagrams and general illustrations, making the 
whole a quite remarkable compendium of solid 
information. The book contains a particularly 
comprehensive index making it invaluable for 
reference by practical fishermen, fishery tech- 
nologists, and manufacturers of all types of fish- 
ing gear fronn nets and trawls to floats, trawl 
boards, and all types of electronic gear for fish 
finding. 

GENERAL: 
Development of Commercial Fish Stocks From 
Lake Kronotsk , by E. M. Krokhin and I. I. Kuren- 
kov, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 
Translation Series No. 97, 4 pp., processed. 
(Translated from Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Ikhtio - 
logicheskaia Kommissiia, Trudy Soveshchanii , 
No. 4, 1954, pp. 156-159, MoscowT) Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada, Biological Station, 
Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1957. 

Federal Aid in Fish and Wildlife Restoration (An- 
nual Report on Dingell -Johnson and Pittman- 
Robertson Programs for the Fiscal Year End- 
ing June 30, 1958), 66 pp., illus., printed, 1959. 
Wildlife Management Institute, Wire Bldg., 



Washington 5, D. C. This is the second annual 
report of the Federal Aid Programs to high- 
light one particular phase of the States' activi- 
ties. For 1958 it is "stocking--one of the tools;" 
succeeding reports will highlight other activities 
of the fish and wildlife programs. This report 
contains a general program review, sport fish 
restoration activities, wildlife restoration ac- 
tivities, an extensive summary of stocking, and 
a summary of projects approved by the various 
states during fiscal year 1958. The total amount 
available to the States and Territories under the 
Federal Aid programs in 1958 was slightly more 
than $28 million. Sport-fish restoration activi- 
ties placed greater emphasis on investigational 
work than the previous year. The report was 
prepared by the Branch of Federal Aid of the 
Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. 

Laws Governing the Fluctuations in Abundance of 
Importan t Commercial Fishes, and Methods oF 
Making Catch Predictions, by T. F. Dementeva, 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Transla- 
tion Series No. 185, 22 pp., illus., processed. 
(Translated from Trudy Soveshchanii, No. 1, 
1953, pp. 19-36, Akad, Nauk SSSR, Ikhtiologi- 
cheskaia Kommissiia, Moscow.) Fisheries Re- 
search Board of Canada, Biological Station, 
Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1958. 

"Some Notes on Fisheries in the New Hebrides, 
Fiji, and Tokelaus," by H. van Pel, article, SPC 
Quarterly Bulletin, vol. 9, no. 1, January 1959, 
pp. 42-43, illus., printed, single copy 30 U. S. 
cents. South Pacific Commission, Box 5254, 
G. P. O., Sydney, Australia. The author dis- 
cusses fisheries developments in the New 
Hebrides, stocking of rivers in the Fiji Islands, 
and shell introduction into the Tokelau Islands. 

GERMANY: 
"Die Deutschen Kohleranlandunger 1946/47-1956/ 
57 aus Norwegischen und Islandischen Gewas- 
sern und ihre Abhangigkeit vom Fischbestand" 
(The German Coal-Burning Vessels Landings 
1946/47-1956/57, and their significance on the 
Fish Stocks), by Ulrich Schmidt, article, Be- 
richte der Deutschen Wissenschaftllchen Kom - 
mission fur Meeresforschung , Neue Folge, band 
XV, heft "27 1958, pp. 145-158, illus., printed in 
German with English summary. E. Schweizer- 
bart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nagele u. Ober- 
miller), Stuttgart, Germany. 

HADDOCK: 

"Untersuchungen uber die Vernichtung Untermas- 
siger Schellfische Durch die Deutsche Herings- 
Schleppnetzfischerei in der Nordsee" (Assess- 
ments on the Destruction of Undersized Haddock 
by German Herring Trawling in the North Sea), 
by Dietrich Sahrhage, article, Berichte der 
Deutschen Wissenschaftllchen Kommission fur 
Meeresforschung, Neue Folge, band XV, heft 2, 
1958, pp. 105-131, illus., printed in German with 
English summary. E. Schweizerbart'sche Ver- 
lagsbuchhandlung (Nagele u. Obermiller), Stutt- 
gart, Germany. 

HERRING: 
International Herring Tagging in the North Sea , 
1958, Laboratory Leaflet 23, Tpp., illus., printed. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



117 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDLIFE SERVICE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGAN I ZAT ION ISSUING THEM. 



BUT USUALLY MAY BE 



Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 
Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft, England, 
July 1958. 

Rapports et Proces - Verbaux des Reunions (Con- 
tributions to Special Herring Meetings, 1956-- 
On Herring "Races"), vol. 143, part 2, 158 pp., 
illus., printed in English and French, Kr.30 
(about US$4.35); Conseil Permanent Interna- 
tional pour I'Exploration de la Mer (Internation- 
al Council for Exploration of the Sea), Char- 
lottenlund Slot, Denmark, March 1958. 

The Stock of Herring and the Herring Fisheries 
on the West Coast of Sweden in the First Half of 
the Twentieth Century , by Karl ATAndersson, 
Series Biology, Report No. 8, 40 pp., illus., 
printed. Fishery Board of Sweden, Institute of 
Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden, 1958. 

"Untersuchungen an der Heringslarvenbevolke- 
rung der Innenjade" (Research on the Herring 
Larvae Populations of the Inner Jade Bay), by 
Von A. Buckmann and G. Hempel, article, Hel - 
golander Wis sens chaftliche Meersuntersuchun- 
gen , band 6, heft 1, 1957, pp. 52-70, illus., 
printed in German. Forschungsinstitut der 
Bundesanstalt fur Fischerei, List auf Sylt, Hel- 
goland, Germany. 

HONG KONG: 
Hong Kong Annual Departmental Report b^ the 
Director of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry 
(for the Financial Year 1957/58), 131 pp., illus., 
printed, HK$4.00 (about 70 U. S. cents). Gov- 
ernment Printer, Java Road, Hong Kong. This 
publication contains the annual reports of the 
various divisions of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, Fisheries and Forestry. Included in the 
report of the Fisheries Division is a review of 
its activities during the year, which were di- 
rected mainly to the marine fisheries and the 
mechanization of the fishing fleet, fishery in- 
vestigations, training of fishermen, fresh-water 
fisheries, oyster culture, and pearl culture. 
Charts in the appendix show distant-water and 
main fishing grounds utilized during 1957/58. 
Statistical data are also given on landings of the 
principal species of fish in 1957/58 and on fish- 
ing vessels. 

IRELAND: 

Report on the Sea and Inland Fisheries for the 
Year 1956 ~( Incorporating Statistics of the Cap- 
ture of Salmon, Sea Trout and Eels), 104 pp., 
illus., printed, 4s (about 56 U. S. cents). Gov- 
ernment Publications Sale Office, G. P. O. Ar- 
cade, Dublin, Ireland. This report covers the 
activities of the Fisheries Division of the De- 
partment of Lands, and includes statistics on 
the quantity and value of Ireland's sea and in- 
land fish and shellfish for 1956, and related data. 
Also includes, among others, sections on shrimp 
and crab fishing, salmon on the River Moy, and 
fertilization of some acid or bog lakes in Ireland. 

IRISH MOSS: 
"The Stability of Carrageenin in Dried Irish Moss 
( Chondrus crispus )," by E. Gordon Young and 
D. A. I. Goring, article. Journal of the Science 



of Food and Agriculture , vol. 9, September 1958, 
pp. 539-541 , printed. Society of Chemical In- 
dustry, 14 Belgrave Square, London S. W. 1, 
England. 

IRRADIATION: 
"Microbiological Aspects of Radiation Preserva- 
tion of Food," by C. F. Niven, Jr., article. An- 
nual Review of Microbiology , vol. 12, 1958, pp. 
507-524, printed! Stanford University, Palo 
Alto, Calif. 

JAPAN: 
Bulletin of the Faculty of Fisheries , Hokkaido 
University , vol. 9, no. 4, February 1959, pp. 
259-364 and 4 pp. supplement, illus., printed in 
Japanese with English abstracts. Faculty of 
Fisheries, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Ja- 
pan. Contains, among others, the following ar- 
ticles: "Study on the Salmon Fishing Grounds 
in the North Pacific Ocean," by Tatsuaki Maeda; 
"Studies on Complete Utilization of Squid ( Om- 
mastrephes sloani pacificus ). XVIII- -On the 
Manufacture of Salted Dried Squid Meat," by 
Terushige Motohiro, Seigo Fukushima, and 
Eiichi Tanikawa; "Quality of Edible Seaweeds 
Belonging to the Laminar iaceae . 2--Studies on 
the Quality of Laminaria japonica," by Kiichi 
Murata, Keiichi Oishi, Yuko Tamura, EijiKanai, 
Yukiko Wada, Ichiro Shibata, and Takahisa Ki- 
mura; "Studies on the Decomposition of Alginic 
Acid (Preliminary Report)," by Miki Oguro; 
"Quality of Edible Seaweeds Belonging to the 
Laminar iaceae . 1 --Evaluation of the Quality," 
by Keiichi Oishi, Yuko Tamura, Kinji Sasaki, and 
Kiichi Murata; and "Chemical Studies on Her- 
ing Meat (2)," by Shigeo Sasa. 

Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research 
Laboratory , no. 20, May 1958, 120 pp., illus., 
printed in Japanese with English summaries. 
Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory, 
Tsukishima, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Includes, 
among others, the following papers: "A Mathe- 
matical Consideration of the Effect of Mortality 
and Growth on a Fish Population," by S. Tanaka; 
"Some Aspects on the Water-Soluble Proteins of 
Squid Muscle," by J. J. Matsumoto; and "Histo- 
logical and Histochemical Study of Processing 
the Squid Meat--I. Histological Properties of 
Squid Meat," by T. Tanaka. 

Bulletin of Tokai Regiona l Fisheries Research 
Laboratory (Fisheries Agency) No. 21, August 
1958, 62 pp., illus., printed in Japanese with 
summaries in English. Tokai Regional Fisher- 
ies Research Laboratory, Tsukishima, Chuo-ku, 
Tokyo, Japan. Contains these articles: "A Con- 
sideration on the Rational Exploitation of the 
Stock of Sardine, Sardinops melanosticta (T. &S.)," 
by S. Tanaka; "Efficiency of a Trawl Kite Com- 
pared with Ordinary Trawlers," by S. Takayama 
and T. Koyama; "Swelling, Elongation, Breaking 
Strength, and Elasticity of Synthetic Snell Lines," 
"Breaking Strength of Amilan Rope at Low Tem- 
perature," "Preserving Effect of Copper Naph- 
thenate for Fishing Nets," and "Effect of Tar 
Acids on Synthetic Fiber Fishing Twine," by I. 
Hayashi; and "Action of Polyphosphates in Fish 
Sausage Products--!. Influence of Processing 



118 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE n.SH AND Wl LDLIFE SERVICE , 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM. 



BUT USUALLY MAr BE 



Conditions on the Effects of Phosphates, 
M. Okada and A. Yamazaki. 



by 



Journal of the Tokyo University of Fisheries , vol. 
44, nos7l-2, March 1958, 152 pp., Ulus., print- 
ed. The Tokyo University of Fisheries, Shiba 
Kaigandori 6, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Con- 
tains, among others, these articles: "Influence 
of Change of Storage Temperature, Refreezing 
and Rethawing, and Defrosting Processes upon 
Drip from Frozen Whalemeat," by K. Tanaka, 
and T. Tanaka; "Effect of Bleeding Process Be- 
fore Freezing upon Quality and Protective Ef- 
fect of Glazing and Packaging Materials After 
Freezing Against Moisture Evaporation During 
Cold Storage of Frozen Whalemeat and Skip- 
jack," and 'Freezing, Cold Storage, and Defrost- 
ing of Whole Round Skipjack," by K. Tanaka; 
"Study on the Disposition of Fish Toward the 
Light. 2 --The Strength of Illumination Preferred 
by Fish," by Y. Imamura; "Enrichment Pattern 
Resulting from Eddy Systems in Relation to 
Fishing Grounds," by M. Uda and M. Ishino; and 
"On the Bottom Character of the Submarine Oil 
Field in the Continental Shelf of Northeast 
Honsyu, Japan, and a Consideration on the Re- 
lation Between Submarine Oil Field and Insular- 
shelf or Fisheries Bank," by H. Niino. 

"The Marine Algae of Southern Saghalien," by 
Jun Tokida, article. Memoirs of the Faculty of 
Fisheries, Hokkaido University, vol. 2, no. 1, 
December 1954, 298 pp., illus., printed. The 
Faculty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University, 
Hakodate, Japan. 

A^ Review of the Japanese Salmon Fishery, by Al - 
bert M. Day, and Milo Moore, 27 pp., illus., 
processed. Oregon Fish Commission, 307 State 
Office Bldg., 1400 S. W. 5th Ave., Portland 1, 
Ore., 1959. This report describes the authors' 
impressions of Japanese fisheries while serving 
as advisors to the North Pacific Fisheries Com- 
mission in Tokyo during November 2 to 16, 1958. 
The authors discuss the importance of the Jap- 
anese fisheries; the Tokyo fish market; the 
Hokkaido salmon hatchery system; rearing ponds; 
fry release; and natural spawning. Statistical 
tables are included which cover various aspects 
of the salmon fisheries. The authors state that 
the people of Japan are more dependent upon the 
fish resources of the open seas and their inland 
rivers than any other people on earth. 

"The Species of Gracilaria and Gracilariopsis 
from Japan and Adjacent Waters," by Hikoei 
Ohmi, article. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fish- 
eries, Hokkaido University, vol. 6, no. 1, De- 
cember 1958, 87 pp., illus., printed. The Facul- 
ty of Fisheries, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, 
Japan. 

"Studies on the Manufacture of Algin From Brown 
Algae," by N. Suzuki; article. Memoirs of the 
Faculty of Fisheries , Hokkaido University, vol. 
3, no. 1, August 1955, printed. The Faculty of 
Fisheries, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Ja- 
pan. 

"Studies on the Technical Problems in the Proc- 
essing of Canned Salmon," byEiichi Tanikawa, 



article. Memoirs of the Faculty of Fisheries , 
Hokkaido University, vol. 6, no. 2, December 
1958, pp. 67-138, Ulus., printed. The Facultyof 
Fisheries, Hokkaido University, Hakodate, Ja- 
pan. Results of studies dealing with decompo- 
sition of canned salmon. In clarifying the cause 
of decomposition, the author states that "Accord- 
ing to the observations, the cans were imder- 
sterilized. This may be due to the fact that even 
if unfresh raw salmon was prepared for the 
canning, the processing temperature and time 
used were the same as in case of fresh raw 
material." The author has made a scale which 
shows the adequate processing time correspond- 
ing to the various degrees of freshness of raw 
salmon used. He states that "By this scale, the 
freshness of raw salmon can be estimated, when 
the leaving time between catching and processing 
and storing temperature of the raw materials 
are already known. Next, when the degree of 
freshness is known, the adequate processing 
time will be determined at the certain definite 
processing temperature. The blackening of the 
canned salmon is affected by the freshness of 
the raw salmon, and the smell of the canned 
salmon packed in coated-cans is also affected 
by the freshness." The smell of the canned 
salmon prepared from frozen salmon was 
studied. This smell was clarified to be formed 
from the oxidation of raw salmon fat and oil 
during the freezing storage. "So," the author 
concludes, "frozen salmon should be prepared 
for canning within 50 days of storage. In order 
to prevent the oxidation of oil, 'Sustane 1-F' 
should be applied to raw salmon and the salmon 
should then be frozen. The freshness of the raw 
salmon plays the main part. Therefore, in 
salmon canning, the raw material should be al- 
ways fresh, and the treatment should be per- 
formed rapidly." 

KELP: 
The Relationship Between Sportfishing in the Kelp 
Beds and the Harvesting of Kelp off the Coast of 
California , by David H. Davies, Kelp Investiga- 
tions Program, IMR Reference 58-4, 65 pp., 
illus., processed. Institute of Marine Resources, 
University of California, La JoUa, Calif., Janu- 
ary 10, 1958. 

"A Test on Kelp Supplement," by Thomas F. Daly, 
article, American Fur Breeder , vol. 32, no. 2, 
February 1959, pp. 16-17, illus., printed, single 
copy 50 cents. Fur Farms Publications, Inc., 
405 East Superior St., Duluth 2, Minn. This is 
a report of a controlled test using Norwegian 
seaweed as a supplement to mink feed. Accord- 
ing to the researcher, the test showed that it 
reduced feed cost and at the same time helped 
to produce better pelts. 

KENYA: 
Lake Victoria Fisheries Service , Annual Report 
1957 /58, 45 pp., illus., printed. East African 
High Uommission, Nairobi, Kenya, 1958. Re- 
ports on the general activities of the Lake Vic- 
toria Fisheries Service, including studies on 
motor fishing vessels, radio equipment, ran- 
dom-sample recording, improved fishing boats, 
deep-water fishing survey, fish meal, experi- 
mental fishing, use of gill nets, tilapia fishponds. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



119 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE 0RGANI2AT ION ISSUING THEM . 



fish marking, legal enforcement, and fish culture. 
Also presents statistical summaries of annuf^l 
catches in 1957 at recording stations in Uganda, 
Tanganyika, and Kenya. 

LOUISIANA: 
"Freshwater Commercial Fishing in Louisiana," 
by Lloyd Posey, article, Louisiana Conserva- 
tionist, vol. 11, no. 3, March 1959, pp. 2-4, 
illus., printed. Louisiana Conservationist, Wild 
Life and Fisheries Bldg., 400 Royal St., New 
Orleans, La. Louisiana has approximately 
2,000 square miles of fresh-water areas, many 
of which are utilized in the commercial fishing 
industry. A variety of gear is used in the 
fresh-water fisheries. State law requires that 
each unit of fishing gear be licensed. Catfish, 
buffalofish, silver carp, gar, and spoonbill are 
some of the primary commercial fish caught 
and sold in that State. For the last three years 
the State of Louisiana has conducted a research 
project to determine, among other things, the 
effect of commercial fishing on game fish pop- 
ulations. According to the author, many species 
of commercial fish, especially members of the 
sucker family, are notorious for their ability to 
rapidly overpopulate a body of water. "In areas 
of high concentration, they muddy the water and 
root up the bottom like a herd of hogs." When 
commercial fish are removed from an area 
this allows the game fish to take advantage of 
the additional food and space. 

MARINE BORERS: 
Marine Borers, a Preliminary Bibliography, by 
William F. Clapp and Roman Kenk, no. PB 
131481, 355 pp., processed, $5.00. Office of 
Technical Services, U. S. Department of Com- 
merce, Washington 25, D. C, February 1956. 

Marine Borers, a^ Preliminary Bibliography , 
Part II, by William F. Clapp and Roman Kenk, 
no. PB 131058. 358 pp., processed, $4.75. Of- 
fice of Technical Services, U. S. Department of 
Commerce, Washington 25, D. C, June 1957. 

MARINE RESEARCH: 
Recent Advances in Marine Fishery Research A- 
long the Atlantic Coast (A Report of the Biolog- 
ical Section of the Scientific Committee to the 
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission), 
36 pp., processed. Atlantic States Marine Fish- 
eries Commission, 22 W. First St., Mount Ver- 
non, N. Y., August 1958. At meetings of sec- 
tional units of the Biological Section of the Sci- 
entific Committee it was agreed to prepare for 
the Commissioners, as informational back- 
ground for the 1958 Annual Meeting, summaries 
of progress in research on some of the major 
Atlantic Coast fish and shellfish. These prog- 
ress reports form the main body of this volume. 
A table is included showing the important At- 
lantic fisheries in order of value. 

MARLIN: 
"Preliminary Analysis of the Distribution of 
White Marlin, Makaira albida (Poey), in the 
Gulf of Mexico," by Robert H. Gibbs, Jr.. arti- 
cle. Bulletin of Marine Science of the Gulf and 
Caribbean, vol. 7, no. 4, 1957, pp. 360-369, 



printed. The Marine Laboratory, University of 
Miami, Virginia Key, Miami 49, Fla. 

MEDITERRANEAN FRESH-WATER FISHERIES: 
Inland Water Fisheries in the GFCM Member 
Countries , Studies and Reviews No. 5, 20 pp., 
illus., processed. GFCM Secretariat, Foodand 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
Rome, Italy, February 1959. Presents the re- 
sults of a study utilizing a questionnaire an- 
swered by the GFCM (General Fisheries Coun- 
cil for the Mediterranean) member countries. 
The information assembled was summed up in 
table form, and circulated to the participants of 
the fifth meeting of the GFCM (1958) as working 
document No. D-2. The member countries are 
Egjfpt, France, Greece, Italy. Israel, Morocco, 
Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom (Malta), 
and Yugoslavia. Statistical tables are included 
showing: population and fish production; in- 
land-water fish production; imports -exports; 
present situation of fish culture; per capita 
yearly consumption; population habits concern- 
ing fish consumption; government policy con- 
cerning fish culture; fish species used for cul- 
tivation; proportion of fresh-water fisheries in 
total fish production. 

MIDWATER TRAWL: 
"The Midwater Trawl with Four Otter Boards," 
by J. Von Eitzen, article. Die Fischereiwelt . 
vol. 9, August 1957, p. 61. printed. Bundesmin- 
isterium fur Ernahrung. Landwirtschaft und 
Forsten, Bremerhaven, German Federal Re- 
public. 

MINK FEED: 
"The Recent Rise in Landings of Whole Fish for 
Mink Feed in British Columbia," by C. R. For- 
rester, article. Progress Reports of the Pacif- 
ic Coast Stations , no. Ill, August 1958, pp. 20- 
21, printed! Fisheries Research Board of Can- 
ada, Pacific Fisheries Experimental Station, 
898 Richards St., Vancouver, B. C. Canada. 

MULLET: 
"Offshore Spawning of the Striped Mullet, Mugil 
cephalus, in the Gulf of Mexico." by Edgar L. 
Arnold, Jr. and John R. Thompson, article, 
Copeia , no. 2, 1958, pp. 130-132, printed. A- 
merican Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetol- 
ogists, 34 St. and Girard Ave., Philadelphia 4, 
Pa. 

NETS: 
"Synthetic Drift Nets--Some Preliminary Obser- 
vations," by I. D. Richardson, article. World 
Fishing, vol. 8, no. 4, AprU 1959, pp. 76-78, 
illus., printed. John Trundell, Ltd., St. Rich- 
ards House, Eversholt St., London, N. W. 1, 
England. Interest has been shown by the Eng- 
lish herri.ag industry in the possible use of the 
new synthetic fibers as a replacement for the 
cotton drift net. The author describes some 
tests that were made to compare the two mate- 
rials, and in summary he states that "The main 
point of interest is that the fishing size of the 
cotton net is considerably smaller than the dry 
mesh size; whereas in the case of the synthetic 
net tested, the wet mesh size is similar to its 



120 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 7 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM. 



BUT USUALLY MAY BE 



dry mesh size. Thus a mesh of the same dry size 
in each material will not fish at the same size in 
the water, and due allowaince must be made." 
Only one, type of synthetic material was used for 
comparison, so the results do not necessarily 
apply to herring drift nets made of any other 
synthetic material. 

NEW JERSEY: 
Annual Report , New Jersey Department of Con- 
servation and Economic Development , Division 
of Fish Tnd Game (For the Fiscal Year Com- 
mencing July 1, 1955 and Ending June 30, 1956), 
44 pp., illus., printed. Department of Conser- 
vation and Economic Development, Trenton, 
N. J., June 30, 1956. Reports on the activities of 
the Division of Fish and Game during the fiscal 
year 1955/56; lists the regulations for 1956 
(Fish and Game Code); and includes sections on 
law enforcement and conservation education and 
public relations. A section of the report dis- 
cusses the fisheries management program, fish- 
eries field operations, federal aid to fisheries, 
1955/56 salvage operations and values, Federal 
distribution of fish. New Jersey landings for the 
calendar year 1955, and stocking of inland wa- 
ters by the State Division of Fish and Game. A 
section is also included on wildlife management. 

NIGERIA: 
Annual Report of the Fisheries Department of the 
Eastern Region of Nigeria for the Year, 1957 - 
58, 5 pp., printed, ls"(14 U. S. cents). The 
Government Printer, Enugu, Nigeria, Novem- 
ber 1958. This report covers activities of the 
Fisheries Department, including procurement of 
surf boats, recruitment of trainee fishermen at 
two fishing stations, stocking of fish ponds, the 
fish farm at Umuna, and choice of a site for a 
base for powered sea-fishing boats at James- 
town. 

NORWAY: 
"Fiskerne og Farkostene i Vintersildfisket, 1958" 
(Fishermen and Craft in the Winter Herring 
Fishery, 1958), by Sverre Mollestad, article, 
Fiskets Gang , vol. 45, no. 11, March 12, 1959, 
pp. 166-174, illus., printed in Norwegian. Fis- 
kets Gang, Postgiro Nr. 691 81, Bergen, Norway. 

NUTRITION: 
Food Facts Talk Back (Food Information - Falla- 
cies and Facts), 32 pp., illus., printed, 50 cents. 
The American Dietetic Association, 620 No. 
Michigan Ave., Chicago 11, 111., June 1957. An 
attractive booklet which describes a dietetical- 
ly-sound daily food plan, fallacies about foods 
and nutrition, misconceptions about weight re- 
duction, food myths --pregnancy and lactation, 
and reliable sources of information. Contains 
reference to the food fallacies pertaining to 
fish and shellfish. The authors assert that: 
"The statement that the combination of fish and 
milk is poisonous no doubt originated in days 
before refrigeration, when, by coincidence, 
people who were eating fish that was not strictly 
fresh also happened to be drinking milk at the 
same meal. People who refuse to eat fish and 
drink milk today probably never think of it as 
inconsistent when they eat fish chowder or 
oyster stew made with milk, or fish with cream 



sauce. If two foods can be eaten separately, 
they can also be used in combination without 
harm." 

OCEANOGRAPHY: 
"Effect of Water Clarity on Albacore Catches," 
by G. I. Murphy, article, Limnology and Ocea- 
nography , vol. 4, no. 1, January 1959, pp. 86-93, 
printed. Limnology and Oceanography, Woods 
Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, 
Mass. 

Oceanographic Papers in Japan--1873-1938 (an- 
notated Bibliography) , 239 pp., printed. Japa- 
nese National Commission for tjnesco, Tokyo, 
Japan, March 1957. 

Oceanographic Papers in Japan --1939-1957 (an- 
notated Bibliography), 223 pp., printed. Japa- 
nese National Commission for UNESCO, Tokyo, 
Japan, March 1958. 

OYSTERS: 
The Rise and Decline of the Olympia Oyster , by 
Earl N. Steele, 142 pp., illus., printed. Fulco 
Publications, Box 37, Elma, Wash., 1957. This 
book covers more than 50 years of the lives of 
the pioneer oystermen of Puget Sound, and the 
part they took in the development of the native 
oyster found in the waters of southern Puget 
Sound. It also describes how, after perfecting 
a superior system of oyster culture, which 
yielded abundant crops, they developed a mar- 
ket which readUy utilized the supply. The 
causes of the decline of the industry are dis- 
cussed in some detail. 

PACKAGING: 
Food Packaging Materials , Their Composition 
and Uses , Publication 645, 53 pp., printed. Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences--National Research 
Council, Washington 25, D. C, 1958. The ob- 
jective of this study Is to aid in evaluating the 
importance of current practices in the food 
trades from the standpoint of public health and 
developing principles for selection of compon- 
ents for use in food packaging. The report dis- 
cusses characteristics and uses of different 
types of food packaging and of materials used in 
food packaging. Also among the subjects cov- 
ered are plasticizers, stabilizers, antioxidants, 
release agents, adhesives, printing inks, etc. 
Included in the booklet is a list of chemicals 
used in making packaging materials. 

"Pouch Packaging on Upswing," article, Frosted 
Food Field, vol. 27, October 1958, pp. 34-36, 
printed. Frosted Food Field, Inc.. 321 Broad- 
way, New York 7, N. Y. 

PAKISTAN: 
Annual Report of the Directorate of Fisheries , East 
Pakistan , for the Year Ending March 31 , 1957 . 151 
pp., illus., printed. East Pakistan Government 
Press, Dacca, East Pakistan, 1958. Describes the 
work of the Directorate of Fisheries during 1956 / 
57. Contains, amongothers, sections on Admini- 
stration of the Protection and Conservation of Fish 
Act, 1950; production and development of fish 
farms, reclamation of derelict water areas, nurs- 
ery fish farms, introduction of exotic fish, and 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



121 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTA I NED FROM THC ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



research on control of aquatic vegetation; and 
shrimp culture. Short-term projects were ap- 
proved for transport of fish in the district of 
Sylhet, mechanization of fishing vessels, expan- 
sion of net factory, "grow more fish" campaign, 
and procurement of fishing supplies for needy 
fishermen. The activities of the Technology 
Section fall under two major heads --laboratory 
research and investigations, and operation of 
pilot projects. The report also presents statis- 
tical tables covering quantities of fish exported, 
processed, and transported by species and dis- 
tricts; average wholesale and retail prices for 
various species and types of fish; and number of 
fishermen and vessels in relation to quantity of 
fish landed in various districts. 

PEARL FISHERY: 
"La Aventura de las Perlas" (The Pearling Ad- 
venture), by Carlos Aguero Gomez, article, El 
Agricult pr Venezolano , vol. 22, no. 204, Novem- 
ber-December 1958, pp. 6-9, illus., printed in 
Spanish. El Agricultor Venezolano, Information 
Section, Ministry of Agriculture and Breeding, 
Caracas, Venezuela. 

PEARL SHELL: 

"Pearl Shell Investigation in the Cook Islands," 
by J. L. Noakes, article. South Pacific Commis - 
sion Quarterly Bulletin , vol. 9, no. 1, January 
1959, pp. 22-24, illus., printed, single copy 30 
U. S. cents. South Pacific Commissioii, Box 
5254, G. P. O., Sydney, Australia. 

PILCHARDS: 

The Biology of the South African PUchard ( SAR - 
DINOPS OCELLATAT Tby D. H. Davies, Investi- 
gational Report No. 32, 10 pp., illus., printed. 
(Reprinted from Commerce and Industry , De- 
cember 1957.) Division of Fisheries, Beach 
Road, Sea Point, Cape Town, Union of South 
Africa, 1957. 

PLAICE: 
"Zur Beziehung Zwischen Bestandsdichte und 
Wachstum in der SchoUenbevolkerung der Deut- 
schen Bucht" (With Reference to the Consisten- 
cy and Growth of the Plaice Populations of the 
German Bight), by Gotthilf Hempel, article, 
Berichte der Deutschen Wissenschaftlichen 
Kommission fur Meeresforschung , Neue Folge, 
band XV, heft 2, 1958, pp. 132-144, illus., print- 
ed in German with English summary. E. Sch- 
weizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung (Nagele u. 
Obermiller), Stuttgart, Germany. 

PLANKTON: 
Measurements of Primary Production in the Sea 
(Contributions to Plankton Symposium, 195TY, 
articles, Rappor t et Proces - Verbaux des Re - 
unions, vol. 144, 158 pp., illus., printed in Eng- 
lish and French, Kr. 30 (about US$4.35). Con- 
seil Permanent International pour I'Exploration 
de la Mer, Charlottenlund Slot, Denmark, April 
1958. 

PORTUGAL: 
Gremio dos Armadores da Pesca da Sardinha, 



Relatorio e Contas do Exercicio de 1958 e Or- 
camento para 1959 (Sardine Vessel Owners' 



Guild, Statement of Operations for 1957 and 
Budget for 1958), 22 pp., illus., printed in Por- 
tuguese. Comissao Revisora de Contas, Lisbon, 
Portugal. 

PRESERVATION: 
"Preservation (by Acidification) of Fish Waste 
Products and Poor-Quality Fish," by L. L. 
Lagunov, L. N. Egorova, N. I. Rekhina, and 
M. N. Eremeeva, article, Rybnoe Khoziaistvo , 
vol. 32, no. 9, 1956, pp. 78-83, printed. Minis- 
terstvo Rybnoi Promyshlennosti SSSR, Kotel'ni- 
cheskaia Naberezhiaia D 1/15, Moscow, Zh-240, 
U. S. S. R. 

"Preservation of Fresh Fish," by H. L. A. Tarr, 
article, Archiv fur Fischer elwissenschaft , vol. 
8, 1957, pp. 9-21, printed. Gustav Wenzel &. 
Sohn, Braunschweig, Germany. 

PROMOTION: 

"Development of National and International Co- 
operative Campaigns for Consumer Education on 
Fish," by O. Hanssen, article, Norsk F ryser - 
inaerlng, vol. 10, no. 7-8, 1958, pp. 1-15, print- 
ed in Norwegian. Norsk Fryserinaering, Prim- 
semsgate no. 6, Oslo, Norway. 

RED TIDE: 

"Some Biochemical Aspects of Red Tides and Re- 
lated Oceanographic Problems," by Albert Col- 
lier, article. Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 
3, no. 1. 1958, pp. 33-39, printed. Woods Hole 
Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Mass. 

REFRIGERATED SEA WATER: 

"Transport and Storage of Fish in Refrigerated 
Sea Water," by H. L. A. Tarr and J. S. M. 
Harrison, article. Annual Review and Program , 
Fisheries Council of Canada, April 1957, pp. 35, 
37, 39, 41, printed. Fisheries Council of Can- 
ada, Ottawa, Canada. 

REFRIGERATION: 

"International Survey on Refrigeration Equipment 
and Activities, 1957," section. Bulletin de I'ln- 
stitut International du Froid , vol. 39, no. 1 , r959, 
pp. 213-312, printed in French and English. In- 
stitut International du Froid, 177 Boulevard 
Malesherbes, Paris (17 ), France. The first 
part of the results of a general survey of re- 
frigeration activities in various countries 
made in 1958. 

"Preserving the Catch with Refrigerated Sea Wa- 
ter," by S. W. Roach and J. S. M. Harrison, ar- 
ticle. World Fishing, vol. 8, no. 4, April 1959, 
pp. 88-89, illus., printed. John Trundell, Ltd., 
St. Richards House, Eversholt St., London N. W. 
1, England. The authors describe a 45-ft. steel 
vessel, launched in British Columbia in 1958, 
which was designed to utilize the refrigerated 
sea-water method of fish preservation but which 
can also hold fish in the conventional manner. 
The vessel is primarily a salmon troUer but is 
easily adaptable to halibut long-lining, trawling, 
or crabbing. Refrigeration is supplied by a 
high-speed automotive -type compressor, belt- 
driven by the main engine. 



122 



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THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FJ^SH £ND WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZAT I ON ISSUING THEM. 



SALMON: 
On the Dynamics of Abundance of the Sockeye 
Salmon ( ONCORHYWCHUS NERKA Walb. ), by 
F. V. Krogius, Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada, Translation Series No. 101, 16 pp., 
illus., processed. (Translated from Izvestiia 
Tlkhookeanskovo Nauchno - Issledovatelskovo In- 
stituta Rybnovo Khoziaistva i Okeanografii , vol. 
35, 1951, pp. 1-16, Vladivostok.) Fisheries Re- 
search Board of Canada, Biological Station, 
Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1957. 

"The Future of the Atlantic Salmon," article. 
Trade News, vol. 11, no. 8, February 1959, pp. 
3-6, illus., processed. Department of Fisher- 
ies, Ottawa, Canada. The Atlantic salmon, in 
its fight for survival in Canada, has caught the 
imagination of many people in recent years. 
Concern for its well-being extends beyond the 
ranks of Canadian federal and provincial fish- 
eries administrators and biologists and com- 
mercial and sport fishermen. This was made 
evident by interest shown in two recent speeches 
given by Canadian officials at annual meetings 
of associations of sport fishermen--one in Bos- 
ton and the other in Montreal. It was pointed 
out, in the first speech, that the Canadian Fish- 
eries Department recognizes that the number 
of sport fishermen is increasing but that the 
salmon stocks could be managed to provide both 
a commercial and sport fishery, with certain 
regulatory restrictions. The salmon can still 
be found, in varying numbers, in about 300 
eastern Canadian rivers and streams but in 
many of them the runs are small. The evidence 
still shows that the decline in salmon stocks is 
continuing. However, the Fish Culture Develop- 
ment Branch of the Canadian Department of 
Fisheries and the Fisheries Research Board's 
biological stations, at St. Andrews, New Bruns- 
wick, and St. John's, Newfoundland, have for 
some time given a high priority to all matters 
pertaining to the Atlantic salmon fisheries. So 
has the Marine Biological Station of the Quebec 
Department of Fisheries. 

On the Production of Young Sockeye Salmon ( ON - 
CORHYNCHUS NERKA Walb.). by F. V. Krogius 
and E. M. Krokhin, Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada, Translation Series No. 109, 30 pp., 
illus., processed. (Translated from Izvestiia 
Tlkhookeanskovo Nauchno - Issledovatelskovo In - 
stituta Rybnovo Khoziaistva i Okeanografii , vol. 
28, pp. 3-27.) Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B. C, 
Canada, 1958. 

Qualitative Characteristics of the Stocks and the 
D ynamics of Abundance of the~5utumn Chum 
Salmon of the Amur River , by I. B. Birman, 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Transla- 
tion Series No. 103, 16 pp., illus., processed. 
(Translated from Izvestiia Tlkhookeanskovo 
Nauchno - Issledovatelskovo Instituta Rybnovo 
Khoziaistva i Okeanografii , vol. 35, 1951, pp. 
17-31, Vladivostok.) Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada, Biological Station, Nanaimo, B. C, 
Canada, 1957. 



"Rapid Learning of a Constant Course by Trav- 
elling Schools of Juvenile Pacific Salmon," by 
William S. Hoar, article. Journal of the Fisher - 
ies Research Board of Canada, vol. 15, no. 2, 
W58, pp. 251-274, printed. Queen's Printer and 
Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, Canada. 

"Return of Silver Salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch 



(Walbaum), to Point of Release, by Lauren R. 
Donaldson and George H. Allen, paper. Trans - 
actions of the American Fisheries Society 
(Eighty-Seventh Annual Meeting, 1957), pp. 13- 
22, printed. Librarian, American Fisheries 
Society, Colorado A and M College, Fort Col- 
ins, Colo., 1958. 

Salmon of the Pacific Northwest : Fish vs . Dams , 
by Anthony Netboy, 134 pp., illus., printed. 
Binsfords & Mort, Portland, Ore., 1958. 

"Some Effects of Artificial Light on Salmon Eggs 
Larvae," by Ronald Eisler, Paper, Transactions 
of tjie American Fisheries Society (Eighty-sev- 
enth Annual Meeting, 1957), pp. 151-162, print- 
ed. Librarian, American Fisheries Society, 
Colorado A and M College, Fort Collins, Colo., 
1958. 

SARDINES: 
Etude Intensive d'une Aire de la Ponte de la Sar- 
dine (SARDINA PILCHARDUS Walb.) en A- 
driatique Moyenne en 1950/1951 (Intensive Study 
of a Sardine Spawning Area in the open waters 
of the Adriatic Sea in 1950/1951), by T. Gamu- 
lin and J. Karlovac, Acta Adriatica , vol. 8, no. 
3, 1956, 46 pp., illus., printed in French. In- 
stitute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, 
Yugoslavia. 

"Frozen Sardines," by M. Boury, Revug des 
Travaux de I'lnstitut des Peches Maritimes , vol. 
22, no. 3, September 1958, pp. 255-289, illus., 
printed in French. Institut Scientific et Tech- 
nique des Peche Maritime, 59 Avenue Raymond- 
Poincare, Paris 16, France. A detailed account 
of tests on the freezing of sardines and on the 
processing of frozen sardines. 

Investigations on the Larvae and Postlarvae of 
the Sardine ( SARDINA PILCHARDUS Walb.) in 
the Open Waters of the Adriatic Sea (M. V. Hvar 
Cruises, Researches into Fisheries Biology, 
1948/1949), by J. Karlovac, Reports, vol. 4, no. 
4D, 23 pp., illus., printed in English. Institute 
of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Yugoslavia. 

Preliminarna Opazanja o Srdeli (SARDINA PIL- 
CHARDUS Walb.) Sa Zapadne Obale Istre (Pre- 
liminary Observations on Sardine from the West 
Coast of Istra), by R. Muzinic, Acta A driatica, 
vol. 8, no. 11, 5 pp., illus., printed in Serbo- 
Croatian with English summary. Institute of 
Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Yugoslavia, 
1958. 

Prilog Izucavanju Odnosa Srdele ( SARDINA PIL - 
CHARDUS Walb.) i Njezine Sredine (A Contri- 
bution to the Investigation of Relations of Sardine 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



123 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZAT ION I SSUING THEM . 



to the Environment), by R. Muzinic, Acta A- 
driatica, vol. 8, no. 10, 18 pp., illus., printed in 
Serbo-Croatian with English summary. In- 
stitute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, 
Yugoslavia, 1958. 

SCALLOPS: 

Scallop Recipes, 5 cards, printed. New Bedford 
Seafood Council, 60 No. Water St., New Bedford, 
Mass. Recipes for large quantities--45-50 
servings. 

SHAD: 

"Age and Growth of the American Shad, from 
three Atlantic Coast Rivers," by Donald F. La- 
Pointe, paper, Transactions of The American 
Fisheries Society (Eighty -Seventh Annual 
Meeting, 1957), pp. 139-150, printed. Librarian. 
American Fisheries Society, Colorado A and M 
College, Fort Collins, Colo., 1958. 

SHELLFISH: 
Sanitary Criteria for Shellfish by Species and ty 
Area, by Robert L. Dow, 7 pp., processed. (Re- 
printed from Proceedings of t^ie National Shell - 
fisheries Association , vol. 48, 1958, pp. 23-29.) 
Department of Sea and Shore Fisheries, Augus- 
ta, Me. Recommendations to establish shellfish 
sanitary criteria by species and areas were ap- 
proved by the National Shellfish Sanitation Con- 
ference in 1954 on the basis of laboratory and 
field observations and experiments reported by 
the author. To implement these recommenda- 
tions (1) further studies were conducted in 
Maine to evaluate the relative importance of 
hydrographic, geological, and biological factors 
having actual or potential Influence on the san- 
itary qualities of shellfish growing areas, and 
(2) cooperative experiments among the several 
northeastern states (Maine, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York) have 
been carried on to establish standards for blue 
mussel ( Mytllus edulis ) and soft clam ( Mya 
arenarla) shell s to ck . 

SHRIMP: 

"Australian Prawn Trawling Industry's Promising 
Future," article. World Fishing , vol. 7, no. 30, 
October 1958, p. 31, printed. John Trundell, 
Ltd., St. Richard's House, Eversholt Street, 
London, N. W. 1, England. 

"Convention With Cuba for Conservation of 
Shrimp," article. The Department of State Bul - 
letin vol. 50, no. 1^34 (PublicatiorTSgOTyVpp. 
566-569, printed, single copy 25 cents. Public 
Services Division, Bureau of Public Affairs, 
U. S. Department of State, Washington 25, D. C. 
(For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington 25, D. C.) Contains the text of the 
convention between the United States of Ameri- 
ca and Cuba for the conservation of shrimp, 
signed at Havana on August 15, 1958; the report 
of the Acting Secretary of State; and a message 
of transmittal by the President to the United 
States Senate. 

TAGGING: 

"An Inexpensive Easily Constructed Fish-Mark- 
ing Tag," by Fergus J. O'Rourke, article. Nature , 



vol. 181, no. 4608, 1958, p. 577, printed. St. 
Martin's Press, Inc., 103 Park Ave., New York 
17, N. Y. 

A Preliminary Review of Pertinent Past Tagging 
Investigations on Pink Salmon and Proposal for 
a Co-ordinated Research Program for 1959 , 
Report No. 1, 47 pp., illus., processed. Inter- 
national Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, 
P. O. Box 30, New Westminster, B. C, Canada, 
June 1958. 

THAWING: 
"The Thawing of Blocks of Small Fish," by S. 
Gakicko, K. Penskaja, V. Borodin, and A. Bor- 
novalova, article, Kholodil'naia Tekhnika, no. 
3, 1958, pp. 39-44, illus., printed in Russian. 
(For sale at Four Continent Book Corp., 38 W. 
58th St., New York 19, N. Y.) 

TRADE LIST: 

The Commercial Intelligence Division, Bureau 
of Foreign Commerce, U. S. Department of Com- 
merce, Washington 25, D. C, has published the 
following mimeographed trade list. Copies may 
be obtained by firms in the United States from 
that office or from Department of Commerce field 
offices at $2 each. 

Oils ( Animal , Fish , and Vegetable ) - -Importers , 
Dealer s, Producers , Refiners , and Exporters , 
Paraguay (April 1959T Lists the name and 
address, size of firm, and type of product han- 
dled by each firm. Includes firms dealing in 
fish oils. 

TUNA: 
"Keeping Quality and Cold Storage of Albacores 
Caught off French Western Africa," by J. R. 
Crepey, article. Revue des Travaux de I' Institut 
des Peches Maritimes , vol. 22, no. 3, Septem- 
ber 1958, pp. 291-301, illus., printed in French. 
Institut Scientific et Technique des Peche Mar- 
itime, 59 Avenue Raymond-Poincare, Paris 16, 
France. 

"Tuna Meat Pigment Studies," by J. J. Naughton, 
M. M. Frodyma, and H. Zeitlin, article. Agricul - 
tural and Food Chemistry, vol. 6, no. 12, Decem- 
ber 1958, pp. 933-938, printed. American Chem- 
ical Society, 1801 K St., NW., Washington, D. C. 

TURKEY: 
Balik ve Balikcillk (Fish and Fishery), vol. 7, no. 
4, April 1959, illus., printed in Turkish with Eng- 
lish table of contents. Yeni Valde Han. Kat 5, 
Yeni Postane Karsisi, Istanbul, Turkey. Con- 
tains among others, the following articles: "The 
Activities of the Hydrobiological Research In- 
stitute" (Part II), by Recai Ermin- -reports on 
studies of mullets ( Mugil) , bluefish ( Pomatomus 
saltator ), horse mackerel ( Trachurus ), shrimp, 
lobster, hydrography, the causes of the red tide 
in Izmir, and the pollution of the Golden Horn; 
"Tuna in Turkish Sea Waters and Its Catch" 
(Part I), by Ilham Artuz; " Sarda sarda and its 
Catch" (Part 11), by Sltki Uner; and "About the 
Technical Problems of our Fish Canning Indus- 
try" (Part III), by A. Baki Ugur. 



124 



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THESE PUBLICATIONS ABE NOT AVAIUBLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY HAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORSANUATION ISSUING THEM . 



UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: 
Fourteenth Annua l Report. Fisheries Develop - 
ment Corporation of South~Sfrica Limited (Cov- 
ering Period 1st October, 1957, to 30th Septem- 
ber. 1958), 20 pp., illus., printed in English and 
Afrikaans. Fisheries Development Corporation 
of South Africa, Ltd., Sea-Fare House, 68 Orange 
St., Cape Town, Union of South Africa. Presents 
brief reports on the state of South Africa's fish- 
eries; and research and general activities of the 
Corporation, including the rendering of assist- 
ance to the Department of Fisheries, Thailand. 



WASHINGTON: 

Report of Operations 

Institute, University of Washington) 



19^8 (Fisheries Research 
29 pp., 



illus., printed. College of Fisheries, Seattle 5, 
Wash., March 1959. Contains sections on the 
history of the Fisheries Research Institute, the 
fisheries of Alaska, Alaska salmon industry 
projects, and summary of Federal contract 
projects. Details are presented on red salmon 
studies at Nushagak and Chignik; pink salmon 
studies at Kodiak and in southeastern Alaska; 
high seas salmon tagging; salmon tagging in 
Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound; salmon 
tagging off the west coast of Prince of Wales 
Island; Kvichak red salmon studies; effects of 
logging on the productivity of pink salmon 
streams in Alaska; sea lion studies; stream cat- 
alog of southeastern Alaska; and king crab 
studies. 




JAPANESE OYSTER ON 
UNITED STATES PACIFIC COAST 

The Japanese oyster, Ostrea gigas, was originally im- 
ported to the United States Pacific Coast from Japan during 
the 1920's. It now supports a sizable industry in British Co- 
lumbia and the state of Washington. The Japanese oyster is 
one of the largest in the world; it can attain a length of more 
than afoot, although the average length is less than this. The 
waters of the Northwest, while similar to its native waters, 
are somewhat colder. For this reason, the animal does not 
spawn every year, and seed (young oysters) must be imported 
from Japan. 

- -Sea Secrets , The Marine Laboratory, 
University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 



Editorial Assistant- -Ruth V. Keefe Illustrator- -Gustaf T. Sundstrom 

Compositors--Jean Zalevsky, Alma Greene, Helen Joswick, and Vera Eggleston 

;;t * * >1= =|c 



Photograph Credits: Page by page, the following list gives the source or pho- 
tographer for each photograph in this issue. Photographs on pages not mentioned 
were obtained from the Service's file and the photographers are unknown. 

P. 16--Elliot A. Macklow, Branch of Market Development; pp. 60 & 62— 
Canada, Information Services, Dept. of Fisheries, Ottawa, Canada; p. 62-- 
Ceylon, S. Bunnag, FAO; p. 39 --Fig. 2 - J, P. Gating; p. 41 --Branch of 
Exploratory Fishing and Gear Research, Seattle, Wash.; p. 71--FAO; 
p. 78 --Pat Moren, FAO; p. 79--FAO; p. 90--J. O. Traung, FAO. 



July 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



125 



CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 



FOREIGN (Contd.): 
International (Contd.): 
International Whaling Commission: 

Protocol to Whaling Convention Ratified by Brazil . 
United Nations: 

Statistics on Fish Landed m Foreign Countries . . . 
Whaling: 
Three Whaling Nations Discuss Antarctic Quota 

Problem 

Four Nations Fail to Reach Agreement on Antarctic 

Blue-Whale Unit Quota 

Aden: 

Fisheries Trends, 1958 

American Samoa: 

More Koreans Fish for Tuna Cannery 

Australia: 
Tuna Firm Conducts Survey of Consumer Eating Habits 

Tuna Landings Higher in 1958/59 Season 

Fish Canning Industry 

Plan to Use Helicopters to Pick up Shrimp from Fish- 
ing Vessels at Sea 

Belgium: 

Consumption of Fishery Products, 1958 

Imported Canned Tuna Prices, May 1959 

Brazil: 

New Fish Processing Plant 

British Honduras: 

Fishery Products Exports Higher in 1958 

Canada: 
Dogfish Eradication Program Disappointing ...... 

Quebec Fish Inspection Now Under Federal Govern- 
ment 

Commercial Fishing Licenses Issued in British 

Columbia Increased in 1958 

Atomic Power May Cancel Need for Hydroelectric 

Power from Rivers with Fish Runs 

Marketing of Newfoundland Salted Groundfish 

Ceylon: 

Japanese Aid Sought in 5-Year Fishery Plan 

Cuba: 
Closed Season for Bullfrogs, Sponges, and Certain 

Finfish 

Denmark: 
Fish Meal Production. Imports and Exports, 1958 , . . 
Marine Oil Exports, Imports, and Supplies, 1958 . . . 

Review of Faroe Islands Fisheries, 1958 

El Salvador: 

Shrimp Fishery Trends 

German Federal Republic: 

Canned Tuna Prices, May 1, 1959 

Iceland: 

Groundfish Landings Improve in April 

Contracts for Three Large Trawlers from West 

Germany 

Large Trawler to be Built in West Germany 

Investment in Fishing Industry Higher in 1958 ..... 
Fishing Limits Dispute with British Flares up Again . 
Iran: 

Shrimp Fishery in the Persian Gulf Expanding .... 
Israel: 
Tuna Fishing Company with Japanese Swiss Participa- 
tion in Operation 

Italy: 
Electronic Device to Measure Strain on Otter Trawls 

Developed 

Japan: 
Tuna Export Quotas for 1959 Set by Producers' As- 
sociations 

Tuna Mothership Operations and Research 

Albacore Tuna Fishing Slow in Developing 

Price Cut on Canned White Meat Tuna in Brine .... 

Reduced Price Stimulates Sales of Tuna Loins 

Exploratory Tuna Fishing Vessel Reports Good Catch- 
es off Galapagos Islands 

Northwest Pacific Salmon Fishery Quota for 1959 . . . 

Plan to Can Pet Food from Fish Waste 

Whale Meat Sold to United States for Pet Food 

Fish Sausage Demand Reflects Changing Food Habits . 

Canned Sardine Price to West Africa Cut 

Canned Saury Pack Target Reduced 

Korea: 

Increase in Exports of Fishery Products Planned . . . 
Mexico: 

Merida Shrimp Fishery Trends, March 1959 

Voluntary Closed Season for Shrimp Fishing in Cam- 

peche Area . 

Morocco: 
Fishery Products Landings and Foreign Trade 



Page 

55 
55 

55 

56 

57 

57 

57 
57 
58 

58 

58 
58 

59 

59 

59 

59 

60 

61 
61 



64 
64 
65 

66 

66 

67 

67 
67 
67 
68 



71 
72 
72 
72 
72 

73 
73 
73 
73 
73 
74 
74 



74 
75 
75 



FOREIGN (Contd.): 
Mozambique: 
Portuguese- American Company to Fish for Shrimp and 

Spiny Lobster 

Netherlands: 
United States Canned Tuna Priced Too High to Meet 

Competition 

Imported Canned Tuna Prices, May 1959 

Norway: 

Lofoten Area Cod Landings Higher in 1959 

Cod Fishery Trends, April 1959 

Ship Fresh Fish by Air 

Panama: 

Pink Shrimp Fail to Appear for Second Time 

Peru: 
Bonlto and Anchovy Catches Lower In Chimbote Area . 
Exports of Principal Marine Products, 1957-1958 . . . 
Poland: 
Mothership Equipped with Helicopter-Landing Deck 

and all Facilities 

Portugal: 

Canned Fish Exports, January 1959 

Canned Fish Pack, January 1959 

Fisheries Trends, January 1959 

Effect of European Common Market on Fish Canning 

Industry 

Singapore: 

Market for California Sardines 

Sweden: 

Fishermen Offered Insurance on Ling Catches 

Oscilloscope and Electric Ground Wire Developed As 

Aid to Navigation 

Facilities for Qulck-Freezlng Fish Expanded 

Fishing Industry, 1958 

Tunisia: 

Fisheries Landings Increased Since 1955 

Union of South Africa: 
Union of South Africa and South-West Africa Canned 

Fish Production and Marketing. 1958 

Union of South Africa and South-West Africa: 

Union and South-West Africa Fish Catch, 1958 

U. S. S. R.: 
Tuna Vessels Reported Fishing Near Caroline Islands 

Expansion of Ocean Research Planned 

Submarine Returns from Fishery Research Cruise . . 
United Kingdom: 
Factoryship-Trawler Fairtry II Sails on Maiden 

Voyage 

Grants and Loans to Fishing Vessels to March 31, 1959 
Interest Rate on Loans to Fishing Industry Revised . . 

Marine Oil Imports and Whale Oil Production 

Venezuela: 

Fish-Processing Industry 

FEDERAL ACTIONS: 

Department of Commerce: 
Bureau of the Census: 
Imported Commodity Classification Changes Being 

Considered 

Federal Trade Commission: 
Consent Order Prohibits Shrimp Company from Pay- 
ing Illegal Brokerage 

Department of the Interior: 
Fish and Wildlife Service: 
Alaska Bristol Bay Limited Commercial Salmon 

Fishing Regulations for 1959 Issued 

Regulations Amended to Permit Drift-Net and Purse- 
Seine Salmon Fishing on Alternate Days in Bear 

River Section 

White House; 

National Safe Boating Week, June 28-July 4 

President Signs Pacific Halibut Fishery Regulations 

Eighty-Sixth Congress (First Session) 

FISHERY INDICATORS: 

Chart 1 - Fishery Landings for Selected States 

Chart 2 - Landings for Selected Fisheries 

Chart 3 - Cold-Storage Holdings and Freezings of Fish- 
ery Products 

Chart 4 - Receipts and Cold-Storage Holdings of Fish- 
ery Products at Principal Distribution Centers 

Chart 5 - Fish Meal and Oil Produc tlon--U. S. and 

Alaska 

Chart 6 - Canned Packs of Selected Fishery Products 

Chart 7 - U. S, Fishery Products Imports 

RECENT FISHERY PUBLICATIONS: 

Fish and Wildlife Service Publications 

Miscellaneous Publications 



Page 



77 
77 

77 
77 
78 



79 
79 



81 
81 
81 

81 

82 

83 

83 
84 
84 



91 
91 
91 



92 
93 
93 

94 

95 
96 



96 
96 



98 
99 
99 
103 
103 
104 



106 
107 

108 
109 
109 

112 



^AAAAAA^ 



INT.DUP. .D.C.59- 57054 



OUTDOOR FISH COOKERY 

It's no secret that during the summer months cooking is moved outdoors. Thousands of 
supermarkets will promote "Cook -Out U. S. A." with special displays^ recipes, posters, and 
pennants. 

Nine American fish "Cook -Outs," filmed to reflect the heritage and tradition of the areas 
portrayed, are shown in a new sound-color, 16 mm. film released by the Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries, U. S. Department of the Interior. 




W}u.*"' *'^'' 



tok. 



Designed to intrigue those who cook outdoors- -either in the open spaces or in their own 
backyards- -the film is the 16th in a series of fishery educational motion pictures produced by 
the Bureau. All are available to interested groups on a free loan basis. The "Outdoor Fish 
Cookery" film requires 28 minutes and has been cleared for public service television. 



BARBECUED FISH STEAKS 



2 pounds salmon steaks or other 
fish steaks, fresh or frozen 

2 tablespoons salt 
1 cup water 

1 cup catsup 

X cup salad oil 

3 tablespoons lemon juice 

2 tablespoons vinegar 



2 tablespoons hickory liquid smoke 
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 

1 teaspoon salt 

■J teaspoon grated onion 

i teaspoon powdered mustard 

1^ teaspoon paprika 

1 clove garlic, finely chopped 

3 drofB tabasco 



Thaw frozen steaks. Cut into serving-size portions. Add salt to water. Soak fish in brine 
for 3 minutes. Turn and soak other side for 3 minutes. Drain, Combine remaining ingredients 
and blend thoroughly. Marinate fish in sauce for 30 minutes. Place fish in well-greased hinged 
grills. Grill over moderately hot coals for 7 to 10 minutes or until lightly browned around the 
edges. Baste with sauce. Turn and brush with remaining sauce. Grill for 5 minutes longer or 
until fish flakes easily when tested with a fork. Serves 6. 



II 



!iB8Hjvr a Biaas ja 



COMMERCI ALD^lf ICUI 
FISHERIESItLllLff 




Vol.21, No. 8 



AUGUST 1959 



FISH and WILDLIFE SERVICE 

United States Department o\ the Interior 
Washington, D.C 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FRED A. SEATOh, SECRETARY 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ARNIE J. SUOMELA, COMMISSIONER 



BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

DONALD L. MCKERNAN, DIRECTOR 

DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 
AND SERVICES 

HAROLD E. CROWTHER, CHIEF 




COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



A review of developments and news of the fishery industries 
prepared in the BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES. 

Joseph Pileggi, Editor 
H. M. Bearse, Assistant Editor 




Mailed free to members of the fishery and allied industries. Address correspondence jind requests 
to the: Chief, Branch of Market News, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Department of the Interior, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Publication of material from sources outside the Bureau is not an endorsement. The Bureau is not 
responsible for the accuracy of facts, views, or opinions contained in material from outside sources. 

Although the contents of the publication have not been copyrighted and may be reprinted freely, 
reference to the source is appreciated. 

The printing of this publication has been approved by the Director of t h e Bureau of t h e Budget, 
May 21. 1957. 5/3V60 



CONTENTS 



COVER: DurLng October 19-25. 1959, the Fishing Industry makes its usual 
annual all-out effort to promote the sale and use of fish and shellfish prod- 
ucts. The objective is to increase the over-all and per capita consumption 
of fishery products in the United States. All segments of the fishing and al- 
lied industries and Government are cooperating in the promotion campaign. 



Construction and Catch Selectivity of Albacore Gill Nets Used in the Central North Pacific, by Joseph J. Graham and 
Herbert J. Mann 

Nutritional Values of Fish-Meal Proteins and Their Relation to Processing Variables, by C. R. Grau, Neva L. Karrick, B. D. 
Lundholm, and R, N. Barnes 



Page 

RESEARCH IN SERVICE LABORATORIES: 13 

Canned Tuna Quality Improvement Studies 13 

Chem^ical Composition of Pacific Coast Flah and Shell- 
fish 13 

Control of Drip in Chilled and Frozen Fishery Products 14 
Freezing and Cold Storage of Pacific Oysters and Fresh- 
Water Fish 15 

New Products from Flah Oils 15 

Studies on Chemical Compounds Formed During Spoil- 
age of Flah 17 

TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS: 18 

California: 
Aerial Census of Commercial and Sport Fishing Con- 18 

tinued (Airplane Spotting Flight 59-7) 18 

Pelagic Flah and Barracuda Population Survey off Coast 
Southern California and Northern Baja California (M/V 
Alaska Cruise 59-A-3 Pelagic Fish and Barracuda) . 18 

Canned Fist: 

Canned Fish Purchases. AprQ 1959 19 

Cans- -Shipments for Fishery Products, January-April 

1959 20 

Central Pacific Fisheries Investigations: 
Experlmenta on the Artificial Propagation of Tllapla 

for Tuna Bait Continue to Show Promise 20 

Relationship Found Between Sea Surface Temperature 

and Abundance of Skipjack Tuna 21 

Skipjack Tuna Studies off Hawaii Continued (M/V 

Charles H. Gilbert Cruise 44) 22 

Crabs: 

North and South Caz-ollna Blue Crab Studies 22 

Croakers: 
Fishermen not Reaponsible for Shortage In Chesapeake 

Bay 23 

Federal Purchases of Fishery Products: 

Department of Defense Purchases, January-May 1959 23 

Fish Farming: 

Land Purchased in Arkansas for Research 24 

Fisheries Loan Fund: 

Loans Approved Through May 31, 1959 25 

Gulf Exploratory Fishery Program: 
Royal-Red Shrimp Explorations In Gulf of Mexico (M/V 

Silver Bay Cruise 17) 26 

Insecticides and Pesticides: 
Interior Department Endorses Enlarged Research Pro- 
gram on Effects on Fish and Wildlife 26 

Inspection of Fishery Products: 

Seattle Fish Plant Starts Packing under USD! Inspection 27 
Institutional Consumption: 
Study Points up Potential for Fishery Products In Man- 
ufacturing Plants' Eating Facilities 28 



TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS (Contd.): 
Lobsters: 

Activity and CatchablUty of Lobsters 

Oysters: 

Experiment on Growing Oysters on Rafts 

Salmon: 
Fyke Net Used In Alaska to Measure Red Salmon 

Abundance 

New Type of Salmon Counting Station at Rocky Reach 

Dam on Columbia River 

Scallops: 
Temperature of Ocean Waters Affects SurVl^val of 

Giant Scallops \ 

Shad: 

Atlantic Studies Continued 

Striped Bass: 

Studies In Albemarle Sound, N. C . 

Tuna Consumption Zooms to Record High In Half a 

Century 

United States Fishing Fleet Additions 

U. S. Foreign Trade; 

Edible Fishery Products, April 1959 

Groundfish Fillet Imports, May 1959 

Imports of Canned Tuna In Brine imder Quota as of 

May 30 

Wholesale Prices, June 1959 

FOREIGN: 

International: 
Fish Oils: 

World Fish Oil Exports Up in 1958 

Fisheries Agreements: 

Finnish-Soviet Fishing Agreement Ratified 

Food and Agriculture Organization: 
Chairman Named for World Scientific Meeting on 

Sardines 

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade: 

14th Session of Contracting Parties Ends 

International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Conmilsslon: 
Eraser River Sockeye Salmon Run for 1961 Looks 

Promising 

International Whaling Commission: 
Protocol for Amendment of Convention Enters Into 

Force 

North Pacific Fur Seal Commission: 
Pelagic Research for 1959 Completed by the United 

States 

United Nations: 
Afghanistan Signs Convention on the High Seas .... 
Australia: 
Additional Funds Granted to Promote the Sale of Pearl Shell 



Page 

1 

7 
Page 



29 

29 
30 

30 
30 

31 

32 
33 

33 
34 

34 
35 
37 

37 
37 

38 
38 



Contents Continued Page 87. 



40 
40 



40 
40 



August 1959 



Washington 25,D.C. 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



CONSTRUCTION AND CATCH SELECTIVITY OF ALBACORE 
GILL NETS USED IN THE CENTRAL NORTH PACIFIC 

By Joseph J. Graham* and Herbert J. Mann** 

CONTENTS 



Introduction 1 

Type of Gear Used 2 

Selectivity of Mesh Size 3 



Summary 6 

Literature Cited 6 



INTRODUCTION 



A comprehensive study of the resources of the albacore tuna, Germo alalunga 
'(Bonnaterre), north and northeast of the Hawaiian Island chain under Public Laws 329 
and 466 (the latter known as the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act) has been made by the Pa- 
cific Oceanic Fisheries Investi- 
gations (POFI) of the U. S. Bu- 
reau of Commercial Fisheries. 
One of the important objectives 
of the study has been to uncover 
concentrations of albacore of 
commercial magnitude. It is 
likely such a concentration was 
brought to light by cruises in 1955 
and 1956 (fig. 1). 

The principal gear that made 
this discovery possible was the 
gill net, and events leading up to 
its use by POFI in the North Pa- 
cific began in 1955. During the 
summer of that year, the POFI 
research vessel Hugh M. Smith 
(cruise 30) surveyed the central 
North Pacific (fig. 1) with ves- 
sels of Pacific Salmon Investi- 
gations (PSI) of the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service (Powell and Peterson 1957). The Hugh M. Smith conducted hy- 
drographic stations while determining the distribution and abundance of albacore tuna 
with trolling gear. The PSI vessels attempted to delineate the distribution of high- 
seas salmon by gill -netting at night. Catches of albacore on the trolling gear were 
mediocre. However, albacore were taken in the salmon gill nets at the more south- 
ern stations (48 N.-45 N.) of the PSI vessels. A few of those catches were impres- 
sive, particularly since most of the fish were not gilled, but entangled in the small- 
meshed salmon netsj:'. The following year, during the same period and in the same 
area, the POFI research vessel John R. Manning made a fishing survey (cruise 32) 
in cooperation with PSI. Gill-netting was extended farther south (43° N.) by POFI 
where a greater abundance of albacore was anticipated and larger mesh sizes more 
suitable for albacore were used. Again albacore were found concentrated in about 
the same area, and were taken in that v essel's gill nets in near-commercial quantities. 

* Fishery Research Biologist ( Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations, U. S. Bureau of Commercial 

** Fishery Methods & Equipment Specialist j Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

_!/ Pereonal communication to Director, POFI, Honolulu, T.H., from Chief, Pacific Salmon Investigations, Seattle Wash 
September 20, 19SS. 







"U 


^/ 




^3 


X 


•■'^^.l 


... ,-^^' 


ff^ 

•;•'' 








ll 


k 














-PSI 1955 
-PSI 1956 


\ ^SEATTLE 












\ 


At\ 






% 












^ 


20" 




■^j- 


• «OAHU 

V 































<8 


Cr 170" 16 


O* ISO- 


Wf 130' lio- 1 

1 1 1 — 1 



Fig. 1 - Outline of the general region surveyed during 1955 and 1956 
by Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations and Pacific Salmon Inves- 
tigations. The area of albacore concentrations is shaded. 



COMMERCIAL, FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



TYPE OF GEAR USED 

The gill nets fished by POFI were of a design currently in use in the salmon 
fishery of the northwest coast of America. In addition, trammel nets designed 
specifically by POFI gear specialists for albacore fishing were utilized. The con- 
struction details of both types of nets are shown in figure 2. A unit of gear, the 



END FLOKT COjOR CODED 
ACCORDING TO MESH SIZE 




-LENGTH Of ONE SHACKLE 50 FATHOMS - 




^HANGING -24 LONG 
NO. 15 NYLON SEINE TWINE 
LEADLINE l/4"DIA, COTTON TWINE 

GILL NET 



SPONGEX FLOATS ABOUT 20" INTERVALS 



OUTER WALLS" ON BOTH SIDES OF INNER 
WEBBING. MESH SIZE 18" STRETCHED MEASURE 
TWINE SIZE NQ 15 NYLON SEINE TWINE 



30Z LEAD AT 20" INTERVALS 



SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 
NO SCALE 



EXCESS INNER WEBBING 

TRAMMEL NET 



EXTENSION STRAPS 
I FATHOM 




BREAST LINE 
NO 36 NYLON 
SEINE TWINE 




Fig. 2 - Construction details of POPl albacore nets. 



shackle, measured 50 fathoms in length and about 4 fathoms in depth regardless of 
mesh size. A set at a gill-net station was composed of 12 shackles of gill net and 
2 shackles of trammel net joined together. The mesh sizes of the gill-net shackles 



Table 1 - Gill -Net Specifications 




Mesh Size 
(Stretched) 


Depth 

(Number of 

Meshes) 


Twine Size 

(Ply) 


Guard Mesh 
(Size and Ply) 


Type Hanging 
(Leadline) 


4i 


71 


5 


1 mesh-10 ply, 
1 mesh-8 ply 


2 mesh/hanging, skip 1 


5i" 


59 


5 


n 


M 


6i" 


51 


6 


n 


11 


FT 1 11 

'2 


45 


8 


11 


2 mesh /hanging, skip 



were 4-|- inches, 5j inches, 6-| inches, and 7j inches (stretched mesh). Construction 
details of the gill-net and trammel -net shackles are summarized in tables 1 and 2, 
respectively. Nets were hung in a conventional manner with the webbing 50 percent 



Table 2 - Trammel-Net Specifications J 


Inner Net 


Outer Net I 


Mesh Size 
(Stretched) 


Depth 
(Number of Meshes) 


Twine Size 
(Ply) 


Mesh Size 
(Stretched) 


Depdi 
(Number of Meshes) 


Twine Size 
(Number) 


4i" 


124 


5 


18" 


20 


15 


6i- 


86 


6 


19" 


19 


IS 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



on the corkline so that 100 fathoms of netting (stretched mesh) were hung on 50 fath- 
oms of corkline. Trammel nets differed from the gill nets in the addition of large - 
mesh outer "walls," which enclosed the inner webbing. These outer walls of webbing 
were evenly spaced opposite to each other to allow fish to push the inner webbing 
through the walls and thus pocket themselves. 

Except for the leadline, the nets were made of nylon, and dyed green or grey- 
green to make them less conspicuous in the water. The webbing was constructed 
of bonded double-knotted salmon twine, headlines and corklines of 3 -strand spun 
rope, and breastlines, seizings, and hangings of spun twine. 

SELECTIVITY OF MESH SIZE 

The manner in which albacore were captured during the summer cruise of the 
John R. Manning was not the same for the various meshes of a set. Smaller meshes 
of the gill nets captured fish 
more by entangling than gill- 
ing and the trammel meshes 
captured entirely by entan- 
gling rather than pocketing. 
When a set of nets was re- 
trieved, the tension placed on 
the shackle coming aboard was 
sufficient to disentangle the fish and those not properly gilled sometimes fell out of 
the net before reaching the vessel. Table 3 indicates that more fish were lost from 



Table 3 - The Number of Fish Lost per Mesh Size 

of Gill Net as the Retrieved Gear 

Neared the Vessel 

(The figures in parentheses give tile loss per shackle.) 


Mesh 


4i" 


5i" 


62 


7|" 


Number Lost . 


7(0.21) 


11(0.25) 


5(0.09) 


1(0.03) 



40 


1, 


(N=485) 


^ 30 


II 






LlI 



liJ 

a: 

u- 20 








- 


10 


- 




1 


- 


n 


.1 


IlJ. 




I.I.. . 



CM. 50 
LBS 6.4 



60 70 80 

10.8 16.8 24.6 

LENGTH IN CM. AND ESTIMATED WEIGHT IN LBS. 



90 
34.6 



Fig, 3 - Length frequencies and estimated weight of albacore tuna taken in gill nets during cruise 32 of the re- 
search vessel John R. Manning . 

the smaller meshes tham from the nets of larger meshes during retrieving. The ab- 
sence of fish loss from the trammel mesh probably attests to the entangling efficien- 
cy of its multiple meshes. 



Three size groups of albacore covering a size range of 51 cm. (20 inches) to 
84 cm. (33 inches) fork length (fig. 3) were sampled by the gill nets of the John R. 
Manning . Table 4 shows that over this size range a progressive shift toward larger 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 




a 
3- 






« SI 



III 

O o 

Ja 
•s o 

a) pH 
|1 

l-a 
Is 

o "^ 

p-fi 
1^ 
sis 

'J 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



fish accompanied an increase in mesh sizes from 5j inches to 7j inches. This shift 
was so great in the case of the largest mesh that the small size group (51-60 cm. 
or 20-23 inches) was almost missing from the catch. In contrast, the smallest mesh 
{4^ inches) captured fish from all three size groups sampled (51-60 cm. or 20-23 
inches, 61-70 cm. or 24-28 inches, and 71-80 cm. or 28-31 inches) and small fish 
were not emphasized in the catch. As in the case of the trammel nets it appeared 
that the 4|--inch mesh captured albacore entirely by entangling. 



Table 4 - Lenqth Frequency of Albacore per Mesh Size 1 


Shackel 


Fork Length in cm. 


Totals 


51 


52 


53 


54 


55 


56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


68 


69 


70 


71 


72 


73 


74 


75 


76 


77 


78 


79 


80 


81 


82 


83 


84 


4i 






1 


3 


2 


6 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


2 


5 


8 


4 


3 


4 


- 


1 


- 


1 


3 


3 


5 


3 


1 




- 


- 






1 


57 


4 


- 


6 


10 


8 


7 


4 


2 


1 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


2 


5 


- 


6 


8 


3 


2 


2 


2 


1 


4 


5 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


83 


4 


1 


- 


2 


9 


14 


6 


3 


2 


- 


- 


1 


3 


- 


7 


19 


18 


21 


16 


6 


11 


6 


4 


4 


4 


12 


6 


4 


1 


- 


2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


182 


7i 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


3 


10 


8 


12 


19 


3 


5 


2 


6 


7 


5 


8 


5 


8 


3 


2 


2 


- 


- 


- 


1 


111 


Trammel 


_ 


_ 


2 


1 


1 


4 


_ 


. 


1 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1 


3 


4 


3 


1 


1 


_ 


. 


3 


2 


7 


5 


4 


2 


1 


_ 


_ 


1 


_ 


- 


_ 


47 


Totals 


1 


^ 


15 


21 


25 


20 


5 


3 


1 


1 


1 


4 


2 


15 


42 


38 


46 


47 


17 


18 


11 


15 


15 


23 


33 


20 


20 


6 


2 


4 


1 


- 


^ 


2 


480 



The progressive shift in fish size with increase in mesh size and the ability of 
the larger meshes to gill rather than entangle affect the commercial potentialities 
of the individual meshes. Of the meshes fished, the 7^ inch stands far above the 
others in efficiency in catch when measured both by numbers and by weight of fish 
caught per shackle (table 5). This efficiency is further emphazised in that average 



Table 5 - Catch per Mesh Size Within the Area of Abundance (420-46° N. , 1750-1550 W. ) 
(Fiaures in Parentheses were Determined from the Four Laraest Catchesl/) 


Mesh Size 
(Stretched 
Measiire) 


Albacore 


Weiqht in Pounds 


Percentage 

of Albacore 

Above 10 Lbs. 


No. of Sharks -1 


Total 
Number 


Number Per 
Shackle 


Total 


Per 
Shackle 


Avg. 
Fish 


Total 


Per 
Shackle 


4i" 


(35) 57 


(4.4) 2.0 


855 


(61) 30 


15 1- 


79 


57 


1.9 


Si" 


(48) 84 


(4.8) 2.2 


1,054 


(56) 28 


12 1" 


54 


57 


1.4 


4" 


(105) 186 


(8.0) 3.7 


2,642 


(110) 56 


14 i- 


80 


56 


1.1 


7i" 


(78) 118 


(9.8) 4.2 


1,929 


( 172) 69 


17 1" 


99 


22 


0.7 


Trammel 


(25) 47 


(5.0) 2.8 


773 


(78) 45 


IK 1" 
1° 2 


80 


28 


1.6 


1/ Included in aU figures is the catch for a set which took 10 albacore, but had a soaking time of only 2-2 hours. | 



fish size is greater for this mesh and almost all fish taken exceeded 10 pounds. Be- 
low this size albacore are often not acceptable to canners. Another attractive fea- 
ture of the larger mesh is a lower shark catch per shackle, for while shark damage 
to albacore during the cruise was negligible, their removal from the nets required 
time and resulted in broken meshes. Presumably, the larger mesh of the 7i-inch 
net permitted the slender form of the great blue Prionace glauca (Linnaeus)--the 
most abundant shark- -to pass through rather than gill in the net. 

On the basis of the above data, it is not possible to establish what mesh size 
would be best for fishing albacore commercially with gill nets in the central North 
Pacific, since our most efficient mesh was also the largest used. Powell et al (1952) 
captured albacore of the same size range in the eastern North Pacific using gill nets 
with mesh sizes of 7j inches, 87 inches, and 9^ inches. His data showed that the 
72-inch and Sj^-inch meshes fished with about the same success but the Q^-inchmesh 
experienced a considerable decrease in catch. From Powell's and our own observa- 
tions we conclude that the most efficient mesh size with respect to commercial gain 
would lie between li inches and 8i inches. 



As the gill net was retrieved aboard the John R. Manning , an observer record- 
ed the depth of each albacore in the net by arbitrarily dividing the total depth of the 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



net (by sight) into thirds. A summary of these observations showed that during the 
cruise, 41 percent of the catch was taken in the upper third of the net, 35 percent in 
the middle, and 24 percent in the lower third. Thus, most of the fish were captured 
near the top of the net, but the one quarter near the bottom would suggest that if the 
net had been deeper, more fish might have been taken. Powell et al (1952) also re- 
corded the depth distribution of fish in their nets and found that the majority of the 
albacore were taken near the surface between 1 and 3 fathoms in depth, that is, with- 
in the depth (4 fathoms) of the POFI nets. However, several fish were captured near 
the leadline and it is possible that in some instances the 100-mesh nets, which are 
about twice the depth of the POFI nets, did not fish the entire vertical distribution 
of albacore. The depth of net from which the greatest commercial advantage could 
be realized cannot be ascertained from the above data since such factors as cost of 
netting, ease of retrieving, net storage area aboard the vessel, etc., must be con- 
sidered. Without such considerations, a compromise between the gears used by 
Powell and POFI or 75 meshes would not seem unreasonable. 

SUMMARY 

If we consider our data comparable with that of Powell, the most productive net 
with which to fish albacore commercially in the central North Pacific would have a 
mesh size between 7f inches and 8f inches and a depth of 75 meshes. 

LITERATURE CITED 



POWELL, DONALD E.j ALVERSON, DAYTON L.-, and 
LIVINGSTON, ROBERT, Jr. 

1952. North Pacific Albacore Tuna Exploration — 1950. 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fishery 
Leaflet 402, 56 pp. 

, and PETERSON, ALVIN E. 

1957. Experimental Fishing to Determine Distribution 



of Salmon in the North Pacific Ocean, 1955. 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special 
Scientific Report: Fisheries No. 205, 30 pp. 

TESTER, ALBERT L. 

1956. The Where and Why of Albacore, Pacific Fish- 
erman , vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 21-24. 




LITHUANIAN FISHERMEN TESTING ELECTRICAL FISHING IN BALTIC 

Lithuanian fishermen are testing an electrical fishing method in the 
Baltic in which fish are caught by electrifying patches of water. Special elec- 
trodes connected to a generator aboard the fishing vessel are lowered into the 
water. When current flows between them, fish within several dozen yards of 
the anode are attracted towards it and when sufficient fish have congregated, 
they are pumped by a powerful pump to the deck of the vessel. Only bigger fish 
are attracted and one such installation is stated to be able to service 7 trawlers 
at the same time (Fisheries Newsletter, July 1958). 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



NUTRITIONAL VALUES OF FISH-MEAL PROTEINS AND 
THEIR RELATION TO PROCESSING VARIABLES 

By C. R. Grau,* Neva L. Karrick,** 
B. D. LundhoIm,*':=* and R. N. Barnes**** 

ABSTRACT 

More than 100 commercial and experimental fidi meali were evaluated as sole sources of 
amiao acids in chick diets in an attempt to determine what variables, if any, influence the 
protein quality of fiyh meal. It was found that the quality is influenced by tjie temperature of 
drying and possibly by storage conditions of the meal and by moisture -plus-oil content of the 
meal. 

INTRODUCTION 

Many attempts have been made to relate quality of protein to variation in proc- 
essing methods in the manufacture of fish meal. It is generally thought that spoil- 
age, extremely high temperatures, or long times of drying and other similar treat- 
ments reduced quality. That no simple relationships are involved, however, is clear 
from the extensive older literature and 
from a recent survey (Grau suid Williams ^k ■ m .... 

1955). ■f.**^**;:'- "«»"•"'•''"• 

f.-f M" ^i"»» 

The purpose of the present study there- 
fore was to attempt to discover what proc- 
essing variables, if any, are related to the 
nutritional value of the protein in fish meal. 



PROCEDURE 

The general approach to the problem 
was to study meals produced from one 
species of fish during one year, note proc- 
essing variables of possible significance, 
determine composition of meals, estimate 
protein quality of the meals by measure- 
ment of the growth of chicks, and then study 
the data to see if there was correlat ion 
between theprocessingvariables euid qual- 
ity. 

The data taken included the following; 
date of capture of fish, condition of raw 
material, method of drying the press cake, 
type of meal produced, when sample was 
taken, and proximate composition of the 
meal. The effects of time and temper- 
ature of storage on the nutritive value of 
the meals also were studied. 




Fig. 1 - Battery brooder at the Poultry Husbandry Depart- 
ment, University of California. Chicks are being raised 
prior to feeding an experimental diet to study protein 
quality of fish meals. 



MEAL SAMPLES : The fish meals used in the present work were obtained by 
the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries largely from commercial plants located 
along the Atlantic Coast and the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the meals were made from 
whole menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus ), but two samples of haddock ( Melanogrammus 
aeg-lefinus) fillet waste and two of r osefish ( Sebastodes marinus ) fillet waste from 

* Professor, Department of Poultry Husbandry, Univeoity of California, Davis, Calif. 
** Chemist, Fishery Technological Laboratory, Division of Industrial Research and Services, U. S. Bureau of Com- 
mercial Fisheries, Seattle, Wash. 
*** Formerly Biological Aid ( U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Department of Poultry Husbandry, 

**** Formerly Poultry Husbandman J University of California, Davis, Calif. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



New England also were included. Nearly all of the meals were from regular com- 
mercial sources, but a few (X-series) were produced experimentally in equipment 

of pilot -plant size that had been 
leased by the Bureau. 



Table 1 - Composition of the Diets 



Component 



Level iji Diet 



Mineral, choline, and glucose mixture (see below) . 

Vitamin mixture (see below) 

Soybean oil, crude 

Proteiniy, crude, from fish meal 

Glucose, to a total of 

M ineral , choline , and glucose mixture l 



Percent 



10 
6 

S 

20 

100 



Calcium phosphate, dibasic 
Calcium carbonate .... 
Magnesiiun sulfate • 7 HpO . 
Potassiiun chloride .... 



Sodium chloride (iodized) . 
Sodium silicate • 9 H2O . . 
Aluminum sulfate • 1 8 H2O 

Ferric citrate 

Manganoii5 sulfate -1120 
Zinc sulfate • 7 H2O .... 
Copper sulfate (anhydrous) . 
Cobaltous acetate ■ 4 H2O . 

Choline chloride 

Glucose to make a total of 



3.30 
1.92 
0.6 
0.6 
0.5 
0.2 
0.1 
0.074 
0.03 
0.0063 
0.005 
0.002 
0.20 
10.00 



Vitamin mixture: 



Vitamin A premix (1,000 IXJ per gram) 

Vitamin D premix (1, 500 ICU per gram) 

Vitamin E premix (1 mg. per gram) (440 lU pergram) 

Nicotinic acid 

Calciiun (d) pantothenate 

Tliiamine HCl 

Riboflavin 

Pyridoxin HCl 

Folic acid 

Menadione 

Biotin 

Vitamin B12 

Glucose to make a total of 



0.1 

0.1 

0.1 

0.006 

0.003 

0.001 

0.001 

0.001 

0.001 

0.001 

0.00001 

0.0000022 

6.00 



]J The level of fish meal used is determined by the crude protein 
(N X 6.25) content; thus, if the meal contained 60 percent pro 
tein, the level of meal would be 20 x 100 = 33.3 percent. 

60 



more accurate measure of 
quality could be obtained by 
estimating the amount of 
each amino acid that is a- 
vailable to the animal from 
a particular source of pro- 
tein. Such a measure now 
is being developed, but work 
on it had not been started 
when this investigation was 
undertaken; hence the more 
general method of assessing 
quality was employed. 

The chick-growth meth- 
od used to determine qual- 
ity of protein in the fish meals 
was as follows: Newlyhatch- 
ed white leghorn chicks were 
fed a commercial-type start- 
er mash for 11 days, and 
then the heaviest and light- 
est birds (about 10 percent) 
were discarded. The re- 
maining birds were placed 
at random into converted 



DETERMINATION OF PRO - 
TEIN Q UALITY : A num"Eer~or~ 
different methods of estimating 
the quality of protein have been 
developed; the method of choice 
for any particular product de- 
pends on the use to which the 
dataare to be put (Grau and Car- 
roll 1958). In earlier studies of 
fish meals (Grau and Williams 
1955), a protein source supplied 
all the amino acids in adiet that 
otherwise was composed of puri- 
fied materials. In this method, 
all nutrients except amino acids 
are contained in the basal diet. 
This method has the advantage 
that it yields rapid results and 
indicates deficiencies or imbal- 
ances of amino acids, but it has 
the disadvantages of not differ- 
entiating among meals that sup- 
ply various amounts of amino 
acids above the required levels 
and of rating as poor those pro- 
teins that may be deficient in 
one or two amino acids but that 
could supply amino acids needed 
to supplement other proteins. A 




STORAGE LEGEND : 

\colleqe Park - O'F 

\Z2\-Davis-0'F 
^^B'Z^/j -Rm. Temp. 



6.0 
I 5.7 



jjASONcij fmamjjasond\jfmamjja s on d\j fmam 

1955 I 1956 I 1957 I 1958 



Fig. 2 - The history of the storage time and nutritional value of the positive 
control menhaden meal, GG1-3A65. 

rat cages that housed four birds each. Four such 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Table 2 - Data on Samples 




Codeiy 


Catch 
Date?/ 


Condition 

of Raw 
Materially 


Drying 
Method^y 


Meal 
TypeSy 


Samples 
TakenCy 


Protein 


Oil 


AA 


Moisture 


Growth Rate 
















. . (Per 


cent) . . 




Percent 
GainPerDay 




. . \» %-i 


EBA (haddock) 


1953-54 


G+ 


HA 


- 


- 


59.3 


4.9 


26.0 


7.9 


7.8 


GG2-2B75 


7/13 


G 


D 


FS 


- 


61.2 


8.9 


20.5 


7.4 


7.6 


EBB (haddock) 


1953-54 


G+ 


- 


- 


- 


53.3 


18.9 


20.9 


7.3 


7.5 


CG3-3D75 


7.7 


G 


S 


FS 


- 


63.3 


9.4 


18.5 


9.0 


7.5 


GG1-1B75 


7/13 


G 


S 


FS 


FC 


65.4 


11.8 


17.0 


6.1 


7.5 


GG5-1B75 


7/13 


G 


s 


CS 


EG 


65.6 


12.1 


16.8 


5.2 


7.4 


GG1-6C65 


6/20 


F 


s 


FS 


FC 


56.5 


15.2 


18.5 


8.7 


7.3 


GHl (rosefish) 


6/21 


G 


IIA 


- 


- 


63.3 


11.4 


22.4 


6.3 


7.3 


GG4-1B75 


7/13 


G 


s 


CM 


BG 


61.3 


11.1 


17.1 


6.3 


7.3 


GG1-2B75 


7/13 


G 


D 


FS 


- 


65.8 


10.6 


18.7 


6.4 


7.3 


GG2-IB75 


7/13 


G 


S 


FS 


FC 


66.5 


10.6 


18.3 


4.7 


7.1 


GG8-2B7S 


7/13 


G 


D 


CM 


EG 


62.5 


10.4 


19.3 


6.7 


7.1 


GG11-3D11SD 


11/2 


- 


S 


CS 


- 


64.9 


9.6 


18.4 


6.6 


7.1 


CP70 


1/8/54 


- 


HA 


CM 


- 


58.3 


6.5 


23.2 


9.5 


7.0 


GG7-3D85 


8/30 


- 


S 


FS 


FC 


63.2 


7.9 


18.1 


10.8 


7.0 


CP50 


8/6/52 


- 


HA 


CM 


- 


59.5 


6.1 


21.2 


8.2 


6.9 


GG4-2B75 


7/13 


G 


D 


CS 


BG 


62.6 


10.7 


18.4 


7.3 


6.9 


GH3 (haddock) 


9/28 


G+ 


S 


- 


- 


62.7 


13.0 


18.1 


6.1 


6.9 


GG5-2B75 


7/13 


G 


D 


CM 


BG 


62.8 


10.3 


18.8 


7.1 


6.8 


GG6-2B75 


7/13 


G 


D 


CD 


EG 


63.0 


11.4 


16.7 


7.0 


6.8 


GG7-2B75 


7/13 


G 


D 


CS 


EG 


61.1 


10.4 


20.2 


7.3 


6.7 


GH2 (loseiish) 


9/15 


- 


HA 


- 


- 


58.2 


9.0 


25.9 


7.1 


6.7 


GG3-2B75 


7/13 


G 


D 


CD 


BG 


63.1 


10.9 


16.7 


7.2 


6.6 


GG32-3A105 


10/4 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


60.3 


8.6 


22.8 


7.7 


6.6 


GG11-3D115B 


11/2 


- 


S 


CS 


- 


65.2 


10.7 


18.9 


5.5 


6.6 


GGX23-105 


10/18 


G 


D 


FS 


- 


61.1 


3.8 


19.6 


11.6 


6.5 


GG27-3A105 


10/12 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


58.5 


6.8 


24.8 


8.7 


6.4 


GG11-3D115F 


11/2 


- 


S 


CS 


- 


64.3 


9.8 


19.1 


6.4 


6.4 


GGU-3D115G 


11/2 


- 


S 


CS 


- 


64.5 


10.3 


16.2 


8.6 


6.4 


CP71 


10/26/54 


G 


s 


FS 


- 


58.2 


11.2 


20.1 


8.9 


6.3 


GGS-3D85 


8/24 


E 


s 


FS 


FC 


62.1 


9.2 


20.5 


9.6 


6.3 


GG6-3D8S 


8/30 


G 


s 


FS 


H 


63.6 


9.2 


17.5 


11.6 


6.3 


GG9-3D105 


10/18 


F 


s 


CM 


- 


63.5 


11.4 


18.5 


6.9 


6.3 


GGX24-105 


10/18 


G 


D 


FS 


_ 


58.0 


11.0 


22.6 


7.1 


6.3 


GG15-4D125 


12/9 


F 


HA 


FS 


FC 


60.2 


8.6 


22.3 


7.4 


6.3 


CP73 


6/16 


- 


HA 


FS 


- 


58.4 


9.8 


21.6 


8.0 


6.2 


GG3-3D85 


8/24 


E 


S 


FS 


H 


62.6 


9.8 


20.4 


8.9 


6.2 


GG11-3A95 


8/31 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


54.5 


9.8 


23.5 


9.5 


6.2 


GGX22-105 


10/18 


G 


D 


FS 


- 


57.5 


9.7 


23.4 


7.9 


6.2 


GG33-3A105 


10/20 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


61.1 


8.4 


21.5 


8.9 


6.2 


GG13-3A95 


8/31 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


59.2 


9.5 


21.4 


10.3 


6.1 


GG20-3A95 


9/27 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


60.7 


8.2 


21.0 


8.4 


6.1 


GG29-3A105 


10/18 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


58.7 


8.4 


23.4 


9.0 


6.1 


GG31-3A105 


10/20 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


60.8 


9.1 


21.0 


8.7 


6.1 


GG12-3A95 


8/30 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


59.0 


9.7 


21.3 


9.9 


6.0 


GG25-3A105 


10/16 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


60.4 


7.8 


23.2 


7.8 


6.0 


GG4-3D8S 


8/24 


E 


S 


FS 


H 


62.8 


9.1 


20.0 


9.5 


5.9 


GC7-3A85 


8/30 


G 


HA 


FS 


H 


58.6 


9.4 


20.0 


11.5 


5.9 


GG8-3A85 


8/30 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


61.2 


10.3 


20.3 


9.7 


5.9 


GGX3-95 


9/7 


_ 


HA 


FS 


_ 


55.0 


10.6 


23.8 


10.9 


5.9 


GG23-3A95 


9/28 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


60.2 


7.9 


24.0 


7.6 


5.9 


GGX27-105 


10/20 


G 


D 


FS 


- 


61.0 


8.7 


21.1 


6.7 


5.9 


GG2-3D65 


6/14 


G 


S 


CM 


- 


60.7 


11.5 


21.2 


6.5 


5.8 


GG9-3A85 


8/31 


G 


HA 


FS 


H 


61.3 


9.3 


18.6 


10.5 


5.8 


GGXll-95 


9/28 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


55.6 


11.0 


25.1 


7.0 


5.8 


GG22-3A95 


9/29 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


61.0 


7.9 


22.0 


8.6 


5.8 


GG26-3A105 


10/11 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


58.6 


9.5 


21.7 


9.1 


5.8 


GG4-4D115 


11/2 


- 


HA 


FS 


FC 


62.0 


9.6 


20.3 


6.5 


5.8 


GG1-3B85 


8/31 


G 


HA 


FS 


H 


59.4 


9.4 


18.5 


12.7 


5.7 


GGX5-95 


9/13 


E 


HA 


FS 


- 


57.4 


10. 1 


22.9 


8.6 


5.7 


GG10-1B95 


9/21 


G 


S 


FS 


FC 


65.5 


12.6 


15.2 


5.9 


5.7 


GGX12-95 


9/29 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


59.7 


9.3 


21.7 


8.7 


5.7 


GGX21-10S 


10/13 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


58.1 


9.6 


21.6 


8.9 


5.7 


GG1-3C105 


10/26 


G 


HA 


CS 


_ 


60.6 


11.8 


19.7 


7.6 


5.7 


GG6-4D115 


11/7 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


62.7 


13.4 


14.7 


7.6 


5.7 


GG10-3A85 


8/31 


G 


HA 


FS 


H 


62.2 


9.3 


17.5 


10.5 


5.6 


GG3-3B8S 


8/31 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


58.6 


9.3 


18.6 


13.2 


5.6 


GG17-3A95 


9/8 


_ 


HA 


CM 


- 


62.8 


7.1 


22.8 


7.4 


5.6 


GGX18-105 


10/11 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


59.3 


14.0 


18.6 


7.1 


5.6 


GG24-3A105 


10/4 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


58.6 


9.1 


22.9 


8.6 


5.5 


GG12-4D115 


10/27 


F 


HA 


CS 


- 


62.9 


8.5 


20.9 


7.0 


5.5 


GG18-3A95 


9/13 


E 


HA 


FS 


FC 


61.1 


9.4 


21.6 


7.2 


5.4 


Continued on next 


_2age. 





















10 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 





Table 2 - Data on Samples 


(Contd.) 














Condition 


















Codel/ 


Catch 
Date2/ 


of Raw 

Materiall/ 


Drying 
Method!/ 


Meal 
TypeS/ 


Samples 
Taken6/ 


Protein 


Oil 


Ash 


Moist:ure 


Growth Rat« 






















Percent 


GG5-3A8S 


8/24 


S 


HA 


FS 


FC 




, (Perce 


nt) . . . 
24.9 


10.2 


Gain Per Day 


53.6 


11.1 


5.3 


GGXlO-95 


9/27 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


60.7 


8.7 


21.5 


8.3 


5.3 


GG21-3A95 


9/28 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


59.2 


7.9 


24.8 


7.9 


5.3 


GG30-3A105 


10/18 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


61.3 


9.9 


19.8 


8.3 


5.3 


GG10-3D105 


10/26 


G 


S 


FS 


- 


65.2 


9.5 


19.4 


6.3 


5.3 


GG11-3D115 


11/2 


_ 


S 


CS 


- 


65.3 


9.6 


19.2 


5.5 


5.3 


GG5-4D115 


11/2 


- 


HA 


CS 


- 


62.2 


10.2 


19.8 


6.9 


S.3 


GG8-3D9S 


8/30 


G 


S 


CM 


- 


63.0 


9.7 


19.1 


9.1 


5.2 


GG19-3A95 


9/21 


- 


HA 


FS 


FC 


62.0 


9.1 


20.4 


7.4 


5.2 


GGX16-105 


10/6 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


57.5 


9.8 


24.2 


7.9 


5.2 


GG4-3A85 


8/24 


S 


HA 


FS 


H 


55.0 


10.1 


24.8 


9.3 


5.1 


GG6-3A85 


8/22 


S 


HA 


CM 


- 


60.5 


12.5 


20.3 


7.5 


4.9 


GGX6-95 


9/14 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


59.1 


8.5 


21.9 


8.7 


4.9 


GG4-3B95 


8/31 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


59.3 


11.3 


19.8 


11.2 


4.8 


GG16-3A95 


9/7 


- 


HA 


CM 


- 


62.6 


7.3 


21.8 


7.7 


4.7 


GGXlS-105 


10/6 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


56.1 


12.2 


23.0 


6.8 


4.5 


GG18-4D125 


12/9 


F 


HA 


CS 


- 


60.2 


7.5 


23.3 


6.9 


4.4 


GGX19-105 


10/12 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


54.7 


11.4 


25.1 


7.8 


4.3 


GG13-4DU5 


11/7 


G 


HA 


CM 


- 


62.9 


13.4 


14.8 


7.2 


4.3 


GG14-4D115 


11/9 


_ 


HA 


CM 


- 


64.3 


13.0 


14.7 


6.4 


4.3 


GG19-4D125 


11/16 


E 


HA 


CM 


- 


62.9 


11.7 


17.1 


6.5 


4.2 


GG28-3A10S 


10/14 


G 


HA 


FS 


FC 


58.9 


12.2 


20.2 


8.1 


4.1 


GG11-4D115 


11/9 


_ 


HA 


FS 


FC 


65.0 


13.5 


14.7 


5.5 


4.1 


GG3-3A8S 


8/24 


S 


HA 


FS 


H 


53.6 


12.3 


27.0 


8.6 


3.9 


GGX20-105 


10/12 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


57.0 


10.4 


23.2 


8.3 


3.9 


GGX14-105 


10/4 


G 


HA 


FS 


- 


55.2 


16.2 


22.1 


6.1 


3.4 


\J All meals proce 


^ed fiom menhaden, unless noted otherwise. 












y Catch date— al 


fish caught during 1955 unless marked otherwise. 












3/ Condition of ra 


w material --E - excellent, G - good, F - fresh, S 


- spoiled. 










4/ Drying method - 


--S - steam drier, HA - hot-aii drier, D - dehydron 


Qat drier. 










%J Meal type— FS 


- fresh scrap, CS - cured scrap, CM - cured meal. 


CD - cured dust. 








6/ Samples taken- 


-FC - floor cooled two hoius, H - hot, bagged imn 


lediately, 


BG - beginning of grinning. 


EG - end of 


qrindinq . 















groups were randomized in racks in a room maintained at about 85 
of artificial light was available each day. 



F. Twelve hours 



The chicks were fed diets that contained the ingredients listed in table 1. The 
level of fish meal was adjusted to provide 20 percent crude protein to each diet. 
Feed and water always were available to the birds. The test period lasted 8 days, 
and the rate of growth was expressed as the percent gain per day. This value was 
calculated for each group by dividing the gain per day by the average of the initial 
and final weights and then multiplying by 100. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

The data for the chick-feeding tests are presented in table 2, together with proxi- 
mate analyses and a condensed history of the fish-meal samples. The rate of growth 
varied from 7.8-percent gain per day for meals of highest quality down to 3.4-per- 
cent gain per day for those of lowest quality. 

An examination of the data shows two trends. Both the drying method employed 
during manufacture of the meal and the composition of the meal affected its nutritive 
value. 

The fish meals were prepared in driers of several types: in hot-air driers at 
high temperature and in steam driers and dehydromat driers at lower temperature. 

In table 3, growth rates are tabulated according to the method of drying. All of 
the 15 meals that were of poor quality and resulted in low-growth rate were dried at 
high temperature, whereas 76 percent of the meals of good quality were dried at low 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



11 



temperature. These results indicate that high-temperature drying is associated 

with decreasing quality of the meals. They also indicate, however, that meals of 

good quality can be prepared in high-temperature driers. Accordingly, there must 

be factors other 

than temperature 

that affect meal 

quality. 



Table 3 - Comparison of Protein Quality as Measured by Growth Rate and 
of Temperature Used to Dry Meals 


GrowUi Rate 


Low Temperature 


Hiqh Temperature I 


Percent Gain per Day 


No. of Meak 

19 

16 




Percent 

76 

28 




No. of Meals 


Percent 

24 

72 

100 


6.5 to 7.8 (good) 

5.1 to 6.4 (intermediate) 

3.4 to 5.0 (poor) 


6 

41 
15 



Materials 
making up fish 

meals are liquids (moisture and oil) and solids (protein and ash). The content of 
moisture plus oil, which gives a measure of the liquid-type constituents, has been 
used in table 4 as a means of classifying the meals. A comparison of the meals in 



Table 4 - Comparison of Protein Quality and of Amounts of Moisture -Plus-Oil Contents | 


Growth Rate 


Moisture -Plus-Oil Ranges 1 


12.0 to 16.9 Percent 


17.0 to 18.9 Percent 


19.0 to 26.9 Percent I 


Percent Gain Per Day 

6.5 to 7.8 (good) 

5. 1 to 6.4 (intermediate) 

3.4 to 5.0 (poor) 


No. of Meals 

10 

17 

2 


Percent 


No. of Meals 


Percent 
50 
40 
20 


No. of Meals 


Percent 
12 
30 
67 


38 
30 
13 


13 

23 

3 


3 

17 
10 



three categories of moisture-plus-oil content with the meal quality is shown in table 
4. Meals low in moisture plus oil tend to fall in the group yielding good growth rate 
(38 percent in the good category as compared to only 13 percent in the poor cate- 
gory). Meals having high moisture plus oil tend to fall in the group yielding poor 
growth rate (67 percent in the poor-growth-rate group as compared to only 12 per- 
cent in the high-growth-rate group). There thus seems to be some correlation be- 
tween the composition of the meal as measured by moisture plus oil and the growth 
rate. 

A number of other possible correlations were investigated including those of growth 
rate with condition of raw material from which the meal was made, with protein con- 
tent, with ash content, and with meal type, but no clear-cut trends could be found. 

When the menhaden meals were manufactured, one carefully processed lot was 
set aside as a control. Samples of this meal (GG1-3A65) were kept at unregulated 

room temperature or at F. 
in closed fiberboard drums un- 
til used for biological tests. 
The first tests, in which the 
meal was used as a positive 
control, revealed it to be an ex- 
cellent source of protein. Dur- 
ing the succeeding months, how- 
ever, the quality decreased, as 
is shown in figure 1. 

During the course of this 
research, four different lots of 
the standard menhaden meal 
(GG1-3A65) were used. The 
growth results with these four 
lots are shown in figure 2, to- 
gether with data on time, tem- 
perature, and place of storage. 
Meals were not kept at 0" F. while being shipped from College Park, Md., to Davis, 
Calif. The results indicate that storage at unregulated room temperature was harm- 
ful to the first lot of meal. The other lots showed less adverse effect of storage, 
but those stored at room temperature were not as good as were those kept at F. 
These data are only indicative, but they do suggest the advisability of testing further 
the effects of storage temperature on quality. 



Table 


5 - Effect of Storage on Protein Quality of Fish Meals 1 


Code 


Initial Value 


Storage Time 


Value After Storage 


Percent Gain Per Day 


Months 


Percent Gain Pe.- Day 








OOF. 


85° F. 


GG2-2B75 


7.6* 


2* 


TTT^ 


6.0* 


GG1-1B75 


7.5* 


2* 


7.1* 


6.2* 


GG3-3D75 


7.5 


7 


6.9 


6.2 


GG5-1B75 


7.4 


7 


5.9 


5.9 


GG4-1B75 


7.3 


7 


6.7 


5.3 


GG1-6C65 


7.3 


7 


6.1 


6.7 


GG1-2B75 


7.3* 


2* 


6.7* 


6.9* 


GG2-1B7S 


7.1 


7 


6.9 


6.4 


GG8-2B75 


7.1 


7 


7.0 


5.2 


CP70 


7.0 


7 


6.7 


7.0 


GG4-2B75 


6.9 


7 


6.8 


5.3 


GG6-2B75 


6.8 


7 


7.0 


5.9 


GG5-2B75 


6.8* 


2* 


6.6* 


6.9* 


GG7-2B75 


6.7 


7 


7.1 


6.1 


GG3-2B75 


6.6 


7 


5.3 


5.1 


CP71 


6,3 


7 


6.1 


5.9 


CP73 


6.2 


7 


5.7 


5.5 


Average 


6.9 


7* 


6.5* 


5.9* 


*Two-mont 


hs storage; omitted fro 


m average. 


1 



12 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



The possible adverse effects of storage on protein Quality were studied direct- 
ly by taking a series of meals that had been stored at F. from the time of manu- 
facture in June 1955 until June 1956, when the samples were divided. One-half of 
each sample was stored at F.; and the second half, at a temperature of 85 F. 
Four of these pairs were fed after 2 months; the others, after 7 months. The growth 
results, which are presented in table 5, show that although some of the meals de- 
teriorated at the elevated temperature, others either were not changed in value or, 
even after having deteriorated, contained protein of higher quality than the diet re- 
quired. More critical tests are needed to establish the nature of the observed effect. 

CONCLUSIONS 

1. The results of using a large series of fish meals as the sole source of amino 
acids in chick diets revealed a variation in protein quality. 

2. A correlation has been shown between higher drying temperature used in 
manufacturing meals and a lowering of protein quality, as measured by growth rate 
of chicks fed these meals; but other factors must be important because some meals 
dried at high temperature were of good quality. 

3. There appears to be some correlation between growth rate of chicks and com- 
position of meals as measured by moisture -plus -oil content. This indication needs 
further study. 

4. There also appears to be a correlation between protein quality and the dura- 
tion and temperature at which the meal was stored after manufacture. Again, this 
possible correlation must be confirmed by additional work before it can be consider- 
ed as being definitely established. 

SUMMARY 



More than 100 fish meals were studied as sole sources of amino acids in chick 
diets in an attempt to determine if variables during processing are related to pro- 
tein quality of the final product. For most of these variables, no correlation could 
be established. A relationship between drying temperature during the manufacture 
of the meal and the resulting growth rate when the meal was fed, however, was in- 
dicated. Some indication also was obtained that growth rate of fish meals may be 
related to meal -storage conditions after manufacture and also to the composition of 
the meal as measured by the moisture -plus -oil content. 

Note: Tile continued Interest and aid given this research by the State Feed Laboratory, California Department of Agricul- 
ture, is gratefully acknowledged. We are particularly indebted to Van P. Entwistle and the late William L. Hunter for 
the proximate analysis values reported. 

Acknowledgment is also made to the staff of the College Park and Boston laboratories of the Bureau and particiilarly 
to Dr. Hugo Nilson for his collection and preparation of fish meal samples used in this study. M. E. Stansby of the 
Seattle Technological Laboratory furnished many helpful suggestions. 

LITERATURE CITED 



GRAU, C, R., audWlLLL\MS, M. A. 

1955. Fish Meals as Amino Acid Sources in Chick 
Rations. Poultry Science, vol. 34, no. 4 
(July), pp. 810-817. 



GRAU, C. R., and CARROLL, R. W. 

1958. Evaluation of Protein Quality. Processed Plant 
Protein Foodstuffs (A. M. Altschul, editor), 
Academic Press Inc., New York, N. Y., 
chap. 7. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



13 




CANNED TUNA QUALITY IMPROVEMENT STUDIES 

In the production of canned tuna, it is agreed generally that the methods used 
in handling, chilling, freezing, and storing the fish aboard the tuna clippers ajid 
thawing aboard or in the plant affect the quality of the canned product. As a result 
of the tuna industry's need for more systematic knowledge of the m.any variables in 
freezing of tuna, the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has awarded contracts for 
the past three year for research in the southern California fishery. The studies 
have been concerned primarily with the clipper -caught tuna which are caught far 
from shore and brine-frozen for delivery to the cannery. Both industry axid experi- 
mental conditions have been used to determine the effect of time, temperature, and 
physical handling during chilling and freezing on the general acceptability and yield 
of the precooked tuna and the canned product. Much of this research has been con- 
cerned with the factors in salt absorption during brine-chilling and the subsequent 
thawing. Current studies include the changes related to bacterial growth during the 
chilling and thawing operations. As a result of these various research phases, rec- 
ommendations for improved handling, freezing, and thawing methods are being de- 
veloped in cooperation with the tuna industry. 

As an adjunct to the contract studies, the Bureau's Technological Field Station 
in southern California has undertaken recently more exacting studies of the chemi- 
cal composition of the tuna species and the relation to both vessel and plant proc- 
ess variables. Such knowledge of the changes in chemical constituents as protein, 
oil, salt, minerals, water-soluble vitamins, and objective freshness indices will 
eventually enable better quality control at each stage of preservation and plant proc- 
ess. Knowledge of these changes is important also to assess the effect of preserva- 
tion and process improvements. Information on the content of nutritionally -impor- 
tant components of the fresh-caught tuna in relation to their content in the canned 
product is desirable to determine the effect of natural variations in quality. 

At present these long-range composition studies include an initial project on 
the composition variables in fish of the same lot and species in relation to adequate 
sampling methods. The subsequent phase will consider the application of the labora- 
tory methods for determining composition differences in the raw, precooked, and 
canned fish of the same lot. 



CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF PACIFIC COAST FISH AND SHELLFISH 

The chemical composition of Pacific west coast marine fish is receiving major 
attention at the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries' Seattle Technological Lab- 
oratory. Much of the work deals with proximate composition- -the content of pro- 
tein, oil, moisture, and ash. 

One of the major projects in this program has been a recently completed two- 
year study of the variations in proximate composition of halibut meat with regard 



14 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 8 

to size of fish and different parts of the same fish. The proximate composition of 
tuna is now under study. The over-all plan involves determination of comiposition 
of different parts of light and dark meat in a variety of sizes with regard to species, 
area of capture, and season of capture. Preliminary work has been completed on 
albacore, skipjack, yellowfin, and bluefin tuna to determine the scope of the investi- 
gation. A more intensive study of albacore is now in progress. 

Several species of rockfish and of sole are also under study. Attempts are be- 
ing made to secure additional specimens in order to give adequate coverage for a- 
bout 10 species each of rockfish and sole. When a series of pink salmon now on 
hand have been analyzed, the three -year study on this species will be terminated 
and a start will be made on silver salmon. Som.e work done on the proximate com- 
position of Pacific cod will be continued as additional specimens representative of 
seasonal and area variables become available. 

Work on the composition of fish meals has included proximate analysis, car- 
bonate content, and digestibility of fish-meal protein as determined by the pepsin- 
digestion method. This work has been terminated and reports of the investigations 
are being prepared. 

The sodium content of commercially frozen fish fillets and stealcs is of special 
importance just now due to interest in low sodium diets. Some eastern processors 
dip the fillets and steaks in brine before freezing them. Very little brine dipping is 
used on the west coast. Commercially prepared samples of sole, halibut, silver 
salmon, cod, and ocean perch are being analyzed for sodium content. The samples 
include both fresh-water and brine -dipped products. Comparative results will be 
made available on completion of the analyses. 



CONTROL OF DRIP IN CHILLED AND FROZEN FISHERY PRODUCTS 

When frozen fishery products are thawed, drip in the form of a liquid exudes 
from the product. In most instances, this drip is lost or discarded. If the exudate 
is, in fact, fish protein this practice wastes food. Investigating the factors that affect the 
water retentivity of various frozen fishery products, to develop laboratory proce- 
dures for measuring drip, and to determine some of the constituents of drip are the 
objectives of a project assigned to the Seattle Fishery Biological Laboratory of the 
U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. This information will assist the industry to 
produce a uniform, high-quality fishery product retaining a maximum of the inher- 
ent goodness of the fish and provide information required in the setting up of stand- 
ards or specifications for such fishery products. At present, the species studied is 
halibut. 

The results of our studies indicate that drip or drained weight determinations 
are not entirely meaningful unless standard procedures for their determination are 
used. For example, higher drip content or lower drained weight naay be obtained 
for a product by using a higher thawing temperature and /or longer thawing time. 
Because frozen fishery products are perishable when thawed, we are recommending 
that drip or drained weight determinations be made at a product temperature not ex- 
ceeding 40° F. 



August 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 15 

FREEZING AND COLD STORAGE OF 
PACIFIC OYSTERS AND FRESH -WATER FISH 

Research on the freezing and cold storage of Pacific oysters and fresh-water 
fish is being carried out cooperatively by the Seattle Fishery Technological Labora- 
tory of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries and the Refrigeration Research 
Foundation. The work for several years has included storage-life studies on vari- 
ous species of fresh-water fish from the Great Lakes and Central States areas, 
evaluation of antioxidants for extending the frozen storage life of Pacific oysters, 
and storage-life studies on Pacific oysters. Earlier reports have been published of 
work on fresh-water fish and on the application of antioxidants. 

Currently, the research on Pacific oysters is being confined to methods of freez- 
ing. The major objective of this phase of the work is to produce an individually-fro- 
zen oyster. Two methods of freezing the oysters individually have been attempted; 
immersion in brine-glucose solutions of various concentrations, and blast freezing. 
Immersion-freezing proved unsatisfactory, due to salt pick-up by the oyster meats, 
and the development of rancidity during subsequent frozen storage. The blast-freez- 
ing method has been very successful when the frozen oysters were glazed with eith- 
er ice, 2-percent corn sirup solids, or 1 percent ascorbic acid, prior to storage. 

The blast-frozen oysters were placed separately on metal trays which were 
held in a blast freezer at -20° F. until the oysters were thoroughly frozen. The 
frozen oysters were removed from the trays and separated into 4 groups. One group 
was placed in polyethylene bags without further processing. The other three groups 
were glazed with either water, 1 -percent ascorbic acid, or 2-pe2rcent corn sirup 
solids. Samples of each of these were then placed in polyethylene bags. Each bag 
contained approximately 3 dozen individual oysters. The bags of oysters were all 
stored in fiber cartons in a 0° F. room. 

The group without a glaze deteriorated rapidly. After 4 months, dehydration 
and oxidation caused the samples to be judged on the borderline of acceptability. 
The ice-glazed, corn sirup solids-glazed, and ascorbic acid-glazed samples were 
in excellent condition up to 8 months of storage. After 10 months, the edges had be- 
gun to discolor, causing the meats to have slight off -flavors. However, the product 
was still edible. 

These results indicate that individually blast-frozen oysters glazed with either 
ice, corn sirup solids, or ascorbic acid may have commercial value from the stand- 
point of ease of separation and storage life. 



NEW PRODUCTS FROM FISH OILS 

Marine oils have been used in the past for the manufacture of soaps, paints, and 
varnishes, shortenings, linoleum, and numerous miscellaneous nonfood products in- 
cluding lubricants and greases. During the past 20 years, the United States domestic 
market for marine oils has been declining. Partly as a result of increasing indus- 
trial research on competitive oils, such as linseed and soybean oils, marine oils 
have been used less and less. Also, certain undesirable characteristics, such as 
instability due to autoxidation and ease of rancidification, make marine oils less de- 
sirable as raw materials. At the same time, there are strong indications that the 
European export market, which at the present time consumes a major part of the 
United States production of marine oils for margarine manufacture, etc., may de- 
cline to the point where domestic markets would be unable to make up the difference 
in stabilizing present and future oil econonaies. 



16 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 8 

In an effort to help divert possible economic trouble that could jeopardize the 
future security of the United States marine-oil industry, the U. S. Bureau of Com- 
mercial Fisheries in 1953 began a limited-scale program of investigating the chem- 
istry of marine oils. The principal aim in this early work was to carry out basic 
research on chemical syntheses involving the polyunsaturated fatty acids--so unique 
to marine oils--and report the findings to potential users (industrial labs, etc.). In 
1954, this program got an added boost with the congressional approval of the Salton- 
stall-Kennedy Act. This law sets aside a portion of the funds derivedfrom duties on 
imports of fish and fishery products to be used for the support of government re- 
search in behalf of the fishing industry. 

At the Bureau's Fishery Technological Laboratory in Seattle, investigations of 
chemical syntheses involving fatty acids from marine oils have been and are con- 
tinuing to be carried out. Some of the products of these syntheses include monogly- 
cerides, amines, amides, quaternary ammonium salts, fatty alcohols, alkyl halides, 
epoxides, xanthates, and sodium alkyl sulfates. These products are unique to ma- 
rine oils in that they are derived from fatty acids having 14 to 24 caxbon atoms and 
from to 6 ethylenic double bonds. 

Several problems are associated with research on new products from marine 
oils. Air oxidation is the chief problem when handling polyunsaturated compounds. 
Owing to their high degree of unsaturation, the fatty acids and their derivatives are 
readily polymerizable in many organic reactions. Polymerization and decomposi- 
tion reactions result in undesirable side-products that cause difficulty in the purifi- 
cation of many fatty-acid derivatives. Nitrogen is used continuously in our work as 
a means of providing an inert atmosphere. A centrifugal molecular still is often 
used to purify the liquid products. With this still, for example, it is possible to 
separate about a liter of products from polymeric substances in from two to three 
hours. 

The problem of chemical reactivity is sometimes a determining factor as to 
the type of products obtainable from marine-oil fatty acids. For example, synthesis 
of alkyl halides from the corresponding fatty alcohols does not proceed in the clear- 
cut manner as for the lower members of the aliphatic series. Also, primary and 
secondary halogen atoms attached to C^o to C„„ carbon-chain molecules have been 
found to be very slow to react and the yields far from theoretical. 

Preliminary to much of the organic synthesis work, studies were carried out 
on methods of separating mixtures of long- chain polyunsaturated compounds. Sepa- 
rations by low-pressure fractional distillation are limited by the amount of decom- 
position and polymerization that can occur. Separations of these compounds are 
best carried out by low-temperature fractional crystallization and/or fractional 
crystallization of urea-inclusion compounds of the corresponding straight chain de- 
rivatives. 

Another important activity of the marine-oil program at the Seattle Laboratory 
is the coordination of contract research with universities and other institutions on 
problems associated with the chemistry of marine oils. Presently, there are three 
basic and one applied research contracts actively being carried on. The three basic 
research programs under contract are at the Hormel Institute, University of Min- 
nesota at Austin. These include (1) the determination of the structure and analysis 
of highly unsaturated fatty acids in marine oils, (2) the study of chemical reactions 
of marine-oil fatty acids, and (3) the study of the chemistry of the odor problem in 
marine oils. At the School of Mines and Metallurgy of the University of Minnesota, 
the applied research contract is carried out on the investigation of the utilization of 
marine-oil derivatives in ore flotation. 



August 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 17 

STUDIES ON CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FORMED DURING SPOILAGE OF FISH 

Bacterially-induced spoilage is the most important quality change that occurs 
in fresh fishery products. A number of interrelated factors together produce the 
conditions which lead to this quality change and at the present level of technological 
knowledge it is not possible to completely prevent this change. 

The outer surfaces and intestinal tract of all live fish and shellfish are normal- 
ly inhabited by the bacterial flora of their normal environment --the sea. After cap- 
ture, and death of the animal the natural defenses against bacteria are removed and 
the organisms multiply and gain access to the normally sterile tissues. During sub- 
sequent handling, until the product reaches the consumer, there are opportunities 
for additional bacterial contamination. It is not possible wholly to eliminate the con- 
ditions through which seafoods are contaminated, nor is there an economical method 
available to completely inhibit bacterial growth without altering the desirable fresh 
character of seafoods. 

Practices such as careful evisceration, washing, careful handling of fish, use of 
clean ice, and washing and disinfection of holds, boxes, and other equipment have 
evolved through the years and have been very important in reducing the degree of 
contamination. Adequate icing and rapid distribution of fishery products have re- 
duced the biochemical activities of the bacteria and the length of time that the or- 
ganisms are in contract with the product before it reaches the consumer. The ap- 
plication of these practices has done much in reducing the rate of quality deterior- 
ation due to bacterial growth. However, these inovations have not eliminated bac- 
terial deterioration and it still poses a serious problem. 

In order to develop new practices that will further decrease the rate of bacteri- 
al growth in fishery products additional basic knowledge of the spoilage process is 
needed. Some of the aspects of this problem that merit attention are: (1) The na- 
ture and concentration of some of the lesser known compounds that are formed by 
bacteria in spoiling fish. (2) The evaluation of the resulting compounds in respect 
to their effect on flavor and odor of fish. (3) The study of the biochemical activities 
of some of the predominant groups of organisms that are found on spoiling fish. 

At the Seattle Fishery Technological Laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries, we are determining the content of compounds (metabolite) in fish re- 
sulting from bacterial activity. Efforts thus far have been mainly directed toward 
the development of analytical methods which will be used to estimate these metabo- 
lites in spoiling fish. In the future it is hoped that work can be started on the esti- 
mation of some of the lesser known metabolites such as the carbonyl compounds. It 
would also be interesting to evaluate the effect of some of the known bacterial meta- 
bolites, such as trimethylamine, formic acid, etc., on the flavor and odor of fish. 



18 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 




TRENDS 

AND 



DEVELOPMENTS 




Californio 



AERIAL CENSUS OF COMMERCIAL 



AND SPORT FISHING CONTINUED 
(Airplane Spotting Flight 59-7): The in- 
shore area between the Salinas River, 
Monterey County, to the Gualala River, 
Mendocino County, was surveyed from 
the air (April 25-26, 1959) by the Cali- 
fornia Department of Fish and Game 
Beechcraft and Cessna 180 to assess 
the numbers and distribution of clam 
diggers, aba lone pickers, and hook - 
and- line fishermen. 

Rain squalls and fog prevented ob- 
servations in the majority of the survey 
area on April 25 except the coastline 
from HaK Moon Bay to Bolinas Bay. 
Here visual conditions were poor and 
assessment of fishermen was limited 
to estimates rather than actual counts. 

The entire area was scouted on A- 
pril 26 and a census was made of aba- 
lone pickers, clam diggers, shore fish- 
ermen, and pier fishermen. Tides of 
-1.3 on April 25 and -1.2 on April 26 
favored fishing activities for clams and 
abalone during the morning hours. The 
largest number of clammers was in 
Monterey Bay where 470 pismo clam- 
mers were counted on April 26. Large 
groups of people were observed on both 
days in the area between Pillar Pt. and 
Pt. San Pedro. This is a popular area 
for educational field trips. However, 
some of the people listed were engaged 
in fishing for abalone. 



.Gualala River 



•> 


^F'o^t Ross 




'•.\ Russian River 


ga 


Head'-.VBodega Bay 




-VXTomales Bay 


Pt 


//Drakes Estero 
. ReyesiC<T>s. 

Duxbury Pt/^fv<' 



-^'^X 



/ Pescadero Pt. 
I Pigeon Pt. 



Legend : 



Area surveyed. 



Flight Report of Beechcraft and Cessna 180 (59-7--April 25- 
26, 1959). 



=!: * * o= 



PELAGIC FISH AND BARRACUDA POPULA- 



TION SURVEY OFF COAST SOUTHERN CALIFOR - 
NLS T AND northern BAJ a "CALIFORNI A (M/V 
Alaska Cruise 59-A-3 Pelagic Fish and Barracuda): 
The coast and islands of southern California and 
northern Baja California, from Cape Colnett north 
to Goleta, were surveyed (March 30-April 17, 1959) 



by the California Department of Fish and Game's 
research vessel Alaska. The objectives were (1) 
to sample the spawning population of sardines off 
southern California and northern Baja California; 

(2) to assess the relative abundance of sardines. 
Pacific naackerel, jack mackerel, and anchovies; 

(3) to collect live sardines for genetic studies being 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



19 



conducted by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 
La Jolla; and (4) to refine barracuda tagging tech- 
niques prior to the 1959 sportflshing season by 
catching and tagging barracuda whenever possible 
and observing mortality and tag retention in the 
live -bait well. 



_^ Santa Barbara 




■;xx>v 




■'■.A pt. Hueneme 


.^p^C^ 


-^ 


: 1 San Pedro 




''..,.,.P|^S,-Newport Beach 


S»r) Nlcolu U 


Su Caitllnab, \ 


SiD Clcmea 


■.■ .T^San Diego 



ilJ^ CALIFORNIA^ 
XA ^\ MEXICO 

X 

pAOescanso PI 



Legend : 
Each mark represents 
one sample. 
• - Sardine. 

X " Anchovy, 

A - Pacific mackerel. 



Q - Jack mackerel. 

Indicates locality of 
B " capture for barra- 
. cuda. 

\ - Vessel track 



nTcxka SaotiM 



B'JT 



M/V Alaska Cmise 59-A-3 (March 30-April 17, 1959). 

A total of 76 night-light stations was occupied. 
At each station a 1,500-watt light and four 750- 



watt auxiliary lights were used'. All lights were 
illuminated for approximately one hour, where- 
upon the four auxiliary lights were extinguished 
and the 1,500 -watt light dimmed. The blanket net 
was then set. 

Only 18 of the night-light stations, or 24 percent, 
yielded one or more of the four pelagic species- - 
sardines. Pacific mackerel, jack mackerel, and an- 
chovies. Anchovies were sampled at 11 stations 
(14 percent), jack mackerel at 10 (13 percent), sar- 
dines at six (8 percent), and Pacific mackerel at 
six (8 percent). 

A total of 472 miles were scouted at night be- 
tween stations and 239 fish schools were observed- - 
70 were identified as anchovies, 15 as saury, 4 as 
mackerel, and the remainder unidentified. 

Although fish schools were plentiful In the sur- 
vey area, night-light stations were not as produc- 
tive of fish as on preceding cruises. The low yield 
of fish samples can be partly attributed to poor 
weather conditions. Rough seas in the northern 
Channel Island area prevented occupation of night 
light stations in areas where fish schools were 
visible. In many other areas the efficiency of the 
night lights was probably reduced by the roll of the 
vessel In choppy seas. 

Ten barracuda were caught, tagged with loop 
tags, and placed in the live -bait well. Two of the 
barracuda (36 and 38 inches in length) were caught 
at Todos Santos Island, and eight (20 to 22 inches 
long) were caught off Ensenada. One of the small- 
er fish died and one tag was shed during the cruise. 
Death was probably due to injuries received from 
handling prior to gag application. The shed tag had 
been tied with a square knot rather than the stand- 
ard double overhand knot. 

The barracuda showed little interest or desire 
to feed upon the live anchovies periodically put in 
the bait well with them. 




Canned Fish 

CANNED FISH PURCHASES, APRIL 1959 : Canned tuna purchases by household 
consumers in April 1959 were 847,000 cases of which 47,000 cases were imported. 
By type of pack, domestic-packed tuna purchases were 182,000 cases solid, 509,000 
cases chunk, and 109,000 cases grated or flakes. The average purchase was 1.3 
cans at a time. About 28.1 percent of the households bought all types of canned tuna; 
only 1.7 percent bought the imported product. The average retail price paid for a 7- 
oz. can of domestic solid or fancy was 34.7 cents and for a 6|-oz, can of chunk 28.2 
cents. Imported solid or fancy was bought at 30,6 cents a can. April purchases were 
slightly lower than the 879,000 cases bought in March by 3.6 percent; retail prices 
in most cases were slightly lower. 



During April, household consumer purchases of California sardines were 55,000 
cases; and 25,000 cases imported sardines. The average purchases was 1.9 cans at 
a time for California sardines and 1.7 cans for imported. Only 1.8 percent of the 



20 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 8 

households bought canned California sardines and 1.9 percent imported. The aver- 
age retail price paid for a 1-lb. can of California sardines was 23.0 cents, and for 
a 4-oz. can of imported 25.6 cents. Retail prices were lower for both California 
and imported canned sardines. Because of the liberal stocks of canned California 
sardines, there has been a steady increase in purchases since October 1958. 

Canned salmon purchases in April 1959 were 228,000 standard cases, of which 
122,000 cases were pinks and 48,000 cases reds. The average purchase was 1.2 
cans at a time. About 15.1 percent of the households bought all types of canned 
salmon; 7.6 percent bought pinks. The average retail price paid for a 1-lb. can of 
pink was 55.9 cents and for red 84.8 cents. April purchases were down about 8.4 
percent from the 249,000 cases bought in March. 





Cans— Shipments for Fishery Products, January-April 1959 

Total shipments of metal cans during January-April 1959 
amounted to 29,964 short tons of steel (based on the amount of 
steel consumed in the maniofacture of cans) as compared with 
29,888 tons in the same period a year ago. Canning of fish- 
ery products in January-April this year was confined largely 
to tuna and Gulf oysters. Increased shipments of metal cans 
during April this year as compared with the same month in 
1958 and the preceding month were probably due to later-than- 
normal stockpiling for the late spri ng and summer canning season. 

Note: Statistics cover all cominercial and captive plants known to be producing metal cans. Reported in base boxes of 
steel consumed in the manufacture of cans, the data for fishery products are converted to tons of steel by using lie factor: 
23.0 base boxes of steel equal one short ton of steel. 

Central Pacific Fisheries Investigations- 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION OF TILAPIA FOR TUNA 
BAIT CONTINUE TO SHOW PROMISE : Experiments were carried out at the Honolulu 
Biological Laboratory of the U. S, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries to test a method 
for inducing early spawning in tilapia and to determine the growth of young tilapia in 
fresh water, brackish water (16 parts per thousand) and sea water (33 parts per 
thousand). These experiments in April are part of a series designed to determine 
the economic feasibility of rearing tilapia for use during skipjack live-bait fishing-- 
as a supplement to the natural bait available to Hawaiian fishermen. 

To induce early spawning, heating cables were used in two tanks, one with a 
plastic cover. During the late winter months, January through March, the fry pro- 
duction in the control tank (unheated) was 5,980, 13,777 in the tank with heater and 
cover, and 14,767 in the tank with only the heater. The temperatures in the covered 
tank were as much as 10° F. higher tihan the control and were 2° F. higher in the 
uncovered tank. During March and April, air temperatures increased so that the 
control tank water temperatures did not differ greatly from those in the heated tanks. 
The production in each of those tanks for the two months was: 6,019 in the control, 
1,649 in the covered, and 7,541 in the uncovered. It appears from the results that a 
relatively slight rise in water temperature may create favorable spawning conditions 
and that a relatively large increase in temperature is not necessary. 

Growth of young tilapia in the three aquaria, one each with fresh, brackish, and 
sea water, was very poor, averaging less than 1 millimeter per week, even though 

^Research conducted by the Bureau's Honolulu Biological Laboratory is now listed under "Central Pacific Fisheries Investi- 
gations" instead of "Pacific Oceanic Fisheries Investigations. " 



August 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 21 

the concentration of young in the aquaria was similar to that which produced good 
growth in the larger outdoor tanks. On April 9, a new experiment was started in 
two outdoor tanks, each about 700-gallon capacity. In the first two weeks, the fish 
grew at a rate of 2 millimeters per week in the tank with 6,000 fish and 3 milli- 
meters per week in the tanks with 3,000 fish. In the latter tank, the total growth 
was as great in two weeks as during five weeks in the aquaria. These growth ex- 
periments are being continued with emphasis on variations in growth as induced by 
variations in the type and quantity of the food given to the fish. 

During calendar year 1958, the Honolulu Laboratory operated a tilapia rearing 
plant on the island of Maui. This operation, carried out as an experiment to deter- 
mine the economic feasibility of rearing tilapia for bait to be used in the Hawaiian 
skipjack livebait fishery, yielded a total of over one million fry. In January 1959, 
this plant was reactivated by the Bureau's Honolulu Laboratory with the primary 
objective to determine if early spawning could be induced in order that these sup- 
plemental baitfish could be made available to the skipjack fishermen early in the 
summer season. Heating, filtering, and aeration systems were installed in the tanks, 
along with an improved drainage. Early spawning was successfully induced. More 
favorable weather conditions and water temperatures, along with the improvements 
in the tanks mentioned above, have resulted in a total production of approximately 
567,000 fry by the end of the month of May, this to be compared with 73,000 fry dur- 
ing a similar period in 1958. The total production for the month of May approxi- 
mated 300,000 fry, ten times that for the same month in 1958. 

During May, Bureau biologists met with representatives of the Board of Agri- 
culture and Forestry of the Territory of Hawaii and a Hawaiian Tuna canning firm, 
to discuss the implementation of a Territorial bait-rearing prograxn. The Territo- 
rial legislature made an appropriation of $130,000 for the construction of a bait- 
rearing facility by the Board of Agriculture and Forestry, together with an addition- 
al $51,000 for its operation through the next biennium. 

sjc >|c s;< aj: i'fi 

RELATIONSHIP FOUND BETWEEN SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND 
ABUNDANCE OF SKIPJACK TUNA : A study of the ocean climate for the waters 
surrounding the Hawaiian Island is being made by the U. S. Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries Honolulu Biological Laboratory. One section of this study is concerned 
with the month-to-month, the seasonal, and the year-to-year changes in the temper- 
ature and salinity of the surface waters in this area. Principal emphasis has been 
placed on the gaining of an understanding of those processes which are of primary 
importance in the fluctuations of the oceanographic properties, particularly the sur- 
face temperatures. 

These studies have revealed that the rate of sea surface temperature change at 
any location throughout the area is characteristic of that location. Applying this dis- 
covery to data from the Koko Head monitoring station, a number of applications have 
become apparent. One is that these characteristic curves have a predictive value. 
The time during the early part of the year when the rate of change of temperature 
is zero is associated with the availability of skipjack tuna to the commercial fishery. 
When the index (when the monthly rate of change of temperature is zero) occurs dur- 
ing the last week of February or before, better-than-average total landings for the 
summer fishing season may be expected. When the index occurs later in the spring, 
such as in March, a poor fishing season may be expected. These apparent relation- 
ships imply that the sequence of oceanographic events in the early part of the year 
"set the stage" for a favorable environment (or not so favorable) for the skipjack 
later in the spring and summer. 

This year, the index occurred during the first half of February and the shape 
of the characteristic curve exhibited some features similar to the curve of 1954, a 



22 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 8 

year during which a total of 14 million pounds of skipjack (one of the best years on 
record) was landed at Honolulu. From this it was predicted that the 1959 skipjack 
season would result in a better-than-average catch. The May skipjack catch for the 
Territory, with a reduced fleet, totaled approximately 1.7 million pounds, the second 
highest postwar May landings. The catch for the same month in 1958 was about a 
tenth of this figure; the total 1958 catch was 6.8 million pounds. Hindcasting, using 
the 1958 characteristic curve, suggested that this would be the case. 

***** 

SKIPJACK TUNA STUDIES OFF HAWAII CONTINUED (M/V Charles H. Gilbert 
Cruise 44): Learning more about the skipjack tuna in the waters off Hawaii was the 
objective of a cruise by the fishery research vessel Charles H. Gilbert of the U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory at Honolulu. The vessel re- 
returned June 1 from a 34-day trip, the third in a series. 

Studies of the year-round changes of oceanographic conditions and skipjack land- 
ings have led the scientists at the Bureau's Laboratory to believe that skipjack tuna 
prefer a certain type of water. The year-to-year variations in landings at the Hono- 
lulu cannery may be related to variations in time of entry and amount of this type of 
water, an extension of the California Current, into the Hawaiian area. Its presence 
may be detected by shipboard chemical analysis and temperature measurements. 

During May 1959 the California Current Extension water was spread over a con- 
siderable area surrounding the Hawaiian Islands. Intermingled was water thought to 
be from the Kuroshio Current which flows into the island area from the north and 
west. 

Skipjack schools were seen only when within 100 miles of the Islands, and the 
most promising schools were observed 40-60 miles west and northwest of Kauai 
during mid-May. A number were caught and released after being marked with a 
special tag. Information obtained when these tuna are recaptured will add to knowl- 
edge of the growth and migration of these commercially-important fish. 

Flag-line fishing was carried out and net tows were made to determine the kinds 
and abundance of marine animals to be found in the various types of ocean water en- 
countered during the cruise. 



Crabs 

NORTH AND SOUTH CAROLINA BLUE CRAB STUDIES: The U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries wants to know the cause of the annual fluctuations in size of 
the Atlantic blue crab stocks, the distribution of the stocks, and methods for pre- 
dicting the annual abundance of crabs. 

To find those answers, the Bureau 
is tagging crabs in South Carolina and 
North Carolina. Results of tagging 1,642 
mature crabs (over 5 inches in width) in 
January 1958 in the estuary of the North 
Edisto River, S. C, indicated no substan- 
tial movement of tagged crabs away from 
that area. To substantiate these findings 

and to determine if crab movement in blue crab 

other estuarine areas is similar, 2,088 

tagged crab were released in the North Edisto River, Charleston Harbor, and Bull 
Bay during the January-March 1959 period. As in 1958, the studies are in coopera- 
tion with the Bears Bluff Laboratories, Wadmalaw Island, S. C. 




August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



23 



Of the 6,250 commercial size crabs (over 5 inches in width) tagged in the Neus 
River and Pamlico Sound, N. C, in 1958, 29.3 percent of the Neuse River tagged 
crabs and 16.4 percent of the Pamlico Sound tagged crabs have been recaptured. 



te' 



Croakers 

FISHERMEN NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR SHORTAGE IN CHESAPEAKE BAY: 



Sport and commercial fishermen together catch only one in ten croakers that disap- 
pear from the ChesapeaJce Bay each summer, according to biologists at the Virginia 
Fisheries Laboratory, Gloucester Point, Va. 

"Of all the older croakers entering the capes from the Atlantic each spring, 
two-thirds apparently die or disappear before they return to the ocean in the fcdl," 
points out one of the biologists who has been analyzing the returns of fish tags from 
croaker fishermen during the last two years. "However, only one tenth of the total 
deaths can be attributed to fishermen," he declared. Another biologist, in charge 
of the Laboratory's finfish investigations, adds further that age analysis investiga- 
tions have indicated that croakers are not particularly long-lived fish. The rate of 
decline in numbers of older fish in the Bay compares closely with the estimate made 
from tag returns. 

These results counter the traditional idea that the decline of a fishery is invari- 
ably due to too many fish being caught. Although this may definitely be so from some 
fisheries, it has not been demonstrated to be a primary cause for decline of the 
croaker fishery. Natural causes of decline, though not as obvious to fishermen as 
the fish they see landed in their boats, often play a major part in bringing about a 
scarcity. Many natural conditions reduce the numbers of fishes in the Bay. These 
include long periods of unfavorable weather, disease, and increased numbers of oth- 
er fish which may compete for food or may prey on croakers. 

Studies to date show that commercial and sport fishing in the Bay does account 
for the death of millions of fish, but has relatively little effect on the total abundance 
of croakers in Virginia. Hampering fishing efforts with unsound regulations may rob 
fishermen of their bread and butter and the fishery will not be benefited. 

Unfortunately fishery scientists do not yet have the detailed information needed 
to accurately determine the normal mortality (death) rate of most marine fishes. 
More research in this vital area is necessary. As the biological and physical mech- 
anisms effecting changes in fish populations are better understood, biologists will 
more accurately forecast the abundance of fish and will give explanations for "good 
and poor" fishing seasons. 



Federal Purchases of Fishery Products 



DEPARTMENT OF DE- 



FENSE PURCHASES . JAN - 
UARY - MAY 1959 : Fresh and 
Frozen Fishery Products: 
For the use of the Armed 
Forces under the Department 
of Defense, 2.0 million pounds 
(value $1.1 million) of fresh 
and frozen fishery products 



Table 1 - Fresh and Frozen Fishery Products 
Purchased by Military Subsistence Market 
Centers, May 1959 with Comparisons 



QUANTIT"Y" 



1959 



May 



Jan. -May 



1958 I 1959 I 1958 
(1,000 Lbs.)' 



1,997 I 2.054| 9,134 |9,310 



VALUF 



May 



Jan. -May 



1959 I 19581 1959 | 1958 
($1,000). 



1,035 |1,152| 4,817 I 5,294 



24 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



were purchased in May 1959 by the Military Subsistence Market Centers. This was 
less than the quantity purchased in April by 8.7 percent and 2.8 percent under the 
amount purchased in May 1958. The value of the purchases in May 1959 was higher 
by 5.4 percent as compared with April, but was 10.2 percent less than for 1958. 

For the first five months of 1959 purchases totaled 9.1 million pounds, valued 
at $4.8 million--a decrease of 1.9 percent in quantity and 9.0 percent in value as 
compared with the same period of 1958. 



Prices paid for fresh and frozen fishery products by the Department of Defense 
in May 1959 averaged 51.8 cents a pound, about 6.9 cents higher than the 44.9 cents 
paid in April, but 4.3 cents lower than the 56.1 cents paid during May 1958. 

Canned Fishery Products: Tuna and sardines were the principal canned fishery 
products purchased for the use of the Armed Forces during May 1959. 



Table 2 - Canned Fishery Products Purchased by Military Subsistence 
Market Centers, May 1959 with Comparisons 



Product 



QUANTITY 



1959 



May 



1958 I 1959 
(1,000 Lbs.) 
315 



Jan. -May 



1958 



VALUE 



1959 



May 



1958 ]195 9 
.($1,000) 
158 



Jan. -May 



1958 



Tuna . 
Salmon , 
Sardine 



424 

7 

229 




868 


640 


5 


724 


72 


12 



Note: Armed Forces installations generally make some local puxdiases not included in the data given; actual total pur- 
chases are higher than indicated, because it is not possible to obtain local pvu:chases. 




Fish -Farming 



LAND PURCHASED IN ARKANSAS FOR RE - 
SEARCH : Purchase of two tracts of land in two 
important Arkansas rice, soybean, and cotton grow- 
ing areas for the development of a fish-farming 
research station was announced on June 1 by the 
U. S. Department of the Interior. The land acquired 
for the projects totaled 296 acres. 

The purpose of the research is to provide prac- 
tical ways by which fish-farming can be conducted 
profitably in conjunction with agricultural crop 
growing. The University of Arkansas, through its 
network of agricultural experiment stations, has 
long been interested in finding income crops for 
rotation with rice production, and experience in 
recent years indicates that fish might be such a 
crop. However, numerous problems on stocking, 
disease control, predation, competition, and res- 
ervoir management must be solved before that type 
of fish-farming can be economically feasible. 

On March 15, 1958, the President signed a bill 
which authorizes two major fields of activity: 

(1) Biological research on all the problems of 
fish rearing--selection of species, parasites and 
diseases, reproduction, food requirements, water 
quality, predation and competition, and selective 
breeding for special qualities of growth, disease 
resistance, and tolerance to special conditions. 



(2) Technological improvement- -harvesting 
methods and preparation of fish for the market. 

The two Bureaus of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service --the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wild- 
life and the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries -- 
will work together to carry out all the provisions 
of the Act. The former, which does research on 
fish-cultural problems and fresh-water fishery 
management, and operates some 100 fish hatcher- 
ies over the country, will have responsibility for 
the biological research, and the latter for techno- 
logical and market promotion aspects. 

One of the purchased tracts comprises 85 acres 
immediately adjacent to the Rice Branch Experi- 
ment Station near Stuttgart. The other is 211 acres 
adjoining the Southeast Branch Experiment Station 
at Kelso (P. O. Rohwer). Thus there will be excel- 
lent opportunity for close cooperation, joint re- 
search effort, especially in crop rotations, and 
day-to-day consultation. These opportunities are 
enhanced by the fact that crop research speiiialists 
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture are station- 
ed at one of the two University experiment stations. 

Biologists of the Arkansas Game and Fish Com- 
mission, the Agricultural Extension Service, and 
the Soil Conservation Service of the Department of 
Agriculture have had a long-time interest in man- 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



25 



aged farm ponds and reservoirs for multiple use, 
including fish and waterfowl. They have provided 
technical and extension services and consultation 
to farmers and the general public on pond and res- 
ervoir construction, stocking, and management with 
the best information available. 

Other activities, like fishery economics and 
market promotion and development, are long-es- 
tablished functions of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, and limited assistance has been given to 
fish farmers already. The very great problem of 
weed control will be given attention principally by 
the University of Arkansas Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Department of Agriculture, in coop- 
eration with fishery biologists. 

The U. S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wild- 
life is making plans for construction and staffing 
the new station. The Stuttgart site will have ahead- 
quarters and laboratory building, experimental ponds, 
and a small reservoir. The southeastern land will 
be developed for larger-scale experimentation to 
extend and test the laboratory fisndings. Although 
long-range and fundamental research will be in- 
cluded in the program, it can' reasonably be expect- 
ed that useful results will come from time to time 
for practical application. These will be made avail- 
able promptly through publication to all interested, 
and to the State Game and Fish Commission, the 
Agricultural Extension Service, other State conser- 
vation agencies, and the Soil Conservation Service 
for use in their technical and extension activities. 

The Stuttgart property will have a modern, func- 
tional laboratory, fish-holding facilities, a service 



building for shop, garage, and storage, a reservoir 
lof about 30 acres, and experimental ponds ranging 
from one-tenth acre to one acre in surface area. 
iThe Kelso land already has a building and a high 
gallonage rice well, and an adequate surface water 
supply. Well-stablized levees have been construct- 
ed on three sides of 160 acres of the plot. Five-, 
ten-, and twenty-acre reservoirs are planned for the 
site. There is excellent prospect for experimental 
work on two nearby 80-acre reservoirs to be con- 
structed by the landowner. 

Construction of facilities and the development 
of the two tracts of land for research purposes, 
and initial staffing will proceed as soon as appro- 
priations are made. Engineering specifications 
have not been drawn up, but a general layout plan 
has been made with the advice and assistance of 
Dr. S. W. Ling, fishery expert for the Food and 
Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. 
Dr. Ling recently visited the sites in Arkansas as 
well as several research stations and fish hatch- 
eries in the South. 

Professional staffing contemplates a team of 
research specialists in aquatic biology, microbi- 
ology and parasitology, physiology, biochemistry, 
biostatistics, and genetics. There will also be sup- 
porting personnel for fish handling, water manage- 
ment, and maintenance. 

Work with several groups of fish can be fore- 
seen now. The catfishes, buffalofishes, and basses 
will be important, and an additional good possibility 
is for carefully controlled experiments with a de- 
sirable import which has not yet been tried in the 
United States. 



Fisheries Loan Fund 

LOANS APPROVED THROUGH MAY 31, 1959 : As of May 31, 1959, a total of 
575 applications for fisheries loans totaling $18,610,193 had been received. Of these 
313 ($7,654,233) have been approved, 209 ($5,740,789) have been declined or found 
ineligible, 41 ($1,677,126) have been withdrawn, and 23 ($2,916,029) are pending. 
Several of the pending cases have been deferred indefinitely at the request of the ap- 
plicants. Sufficient funds are available to process new applications when received. 

The following loans were approved between April 1 and May 31, 1959: 

New England Area : Alexis Fagonde, Jr., Beals, Me., $3,000; Murray Pinkham, 
Boothbay Harbor, Me., $4,000; Frederick P. Elwell, St. George, Me., $2,000; Eliza- 
beth N. Corporation, Fairhaven, Mass., $36,830; Tripolina Bramante, Medford, Mass. 
$35,000, C & F Fishing Corporation, New Bedford, Mass., $46,600. 



South Atlantic and Gulf Area : Sidney J. Clopton, Pensacola, Fla. 
Coons & A. E. Moorer, Mt. Pleasant, S. C, $17,000. 



$14,800, W. D. 



California : Wm. Howard Day, San Diego, Calif., $19,950; Wm. G. Huston, San 
Diego, $7,000; Salvatore Tarantino, San Francisco, $2,500. 

Pacific Northwest Area : Kenneth E. Staffenson, Agate Beach, Oreg., $3,500; 
Clayton C. Howe, Anacortes, Wash., $2,000; Alex. C. Prankard, Olympia, Wash., 
$6,232; Earl E. McCarthy, Seattle, Wash., $29,600; Ora L. Olson, Snohomish, Wash. 
$29,524. 



26 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Alaska : Douglas R. Freed, Elfin Cove, $2,500; Edward K. Haffner, Juneau, 
$5,600; Big Dale, Ketchikan, $3,305; Victor Edenso, Ketchikan, $6,000; Arne Iverson, 
$10,500. 

Hawaii: Sea Queen Fishing Co., Honolulu, $20,000. 




Gulf Exploratory Fishery Program 

ROYAL-RED SHRIMP EXPLORATIONS IN GULF OF MEXICO (M/V Silver Bay 
Cruise 17): Trawling transects through the royal-red shrimp grounds off Mobile, 
Ala., and Dry Tortugas were made during a nine-day cruise of the U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries exploratory fishing vessel Silver Bay . The objective of the 

trip was to determine the availa- 
bility of red shrimp in the two 
areas previously delineated by the 
Bureau's vessel Oregon and to 
check on optimum fishing depths. 
Forty-foot trawls were used. 

The best catches were made 
southwest of Dry Tortugas where 
nine drags between 100 and 500 
showed red shrimp present in 
depths ranging from 160 to 300 
fathoms. Fishable concentrations 
were present between 180 and 220 
fathoms. Two four-hour drags in 
200 fathoms caught 500 pounds of 
31/35-count red shrimp. 

Eight drags were made off 
Mobile between 200 and 600 fath- 
oms. Royal-red shrimp were 
present in all catches between 
200 and 400 fathoms but only in 
smiall numbers. 

Four exploratory drags in the 
red shrimp depth range along the 
eastern edge of Campeche Bank 
resulted in gear damage due to 
bad bottom. 




M/V Silver Bay Cruise 17 (June 2 to 12, 1959). 



During the run between Campeche Bank and the North Gulf trawling area numer- 
ous mixed schools of skipjack and blackfin tuna were observed, chiefly in the early 
morning and late afternoon. A large concentration of schools of very small unidenti- 
fied tuna was observed between 27°30' and 28° north latitude along 88°20' west longi- 
tude. 



Insecticides and Pesticides 



INTERIOR DEPARTMENT ENDORSES EN- 
LARGED RESEARCH PROGRAM ON EFFECTS 
ON FISH AND WILDLIFE : Endorsement of legis- 
lation to increase the scope and value of the re- 



search now being conducted to determine the 
effect of insecticides and pesticides upon fish and 
wildlife resources was announced by the U.S. 
Department of the Interior on June 21. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



27 



Investigations which have been made under 
existing legislation clearly indicate a problem 
of much greater magnitude than originally con- 
templated and show that the existing authorization 
is inadequate, the Department report stated- 

In letters to Chairman Warren S. Magnuson of 
the Senate Committee of Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce and to Chairman Herbert C. Bonner 
of the House Committee on Merchant Marine and 
Fisheries, Assistant Secretary Ross L. Leffler 
cited some of the known harmful effects of cur- 
rent practices in the use of pesticides on wildlife 
and on fresh-water and salt-water fish. Four 
major objectives of the research program listed 
in the report are: 

(1) To determine the acute and chronic toxici- 
ties of some 200 basic pesticidal chemicals on the 
market, plus the many which are in various stages 
of development; 

(2) To conduct chemical analyses of plant and 
animal tissue to determine the presence of pesti- 
cide residues, to develop diagnostic procedures 
for determining suspected poisonings, and to 
measure the degree and duration of toxic condi- 
tions in fish and wildlife habitats; 

(3) To carry out field appraisals of immediate 
and long-range effects of pest control operations 
upon fish and wildlife populations; 

(4) To facilitate the compilation and dissemi- 
nation of findings from research studies so that 
chemists, entomologists, and others may apply 
such knowledge in the development of new pest- 
control materials, formulations, and techniques 
of application to minimize hazards to desirable 
forms of animal life. 

The Assistant Secretary for Fish and Wildlife 
pointed out that while in 1940 the wholesale value 
of the pesticides then being used in this country 
was $40 million, this had jumped to $290 million 
in 1956. By 1975, it is estimated that the whole- 
sale value of such materials will aproach the bil- 
lion dollar mark. One -sixth of all the croplands 
and millions of acres of forests, rangelands, and 
marshlands are treated annually with these chem- 
icals. Most of these areas are important wildlife 
and fish habitat. 

Some of the chemicals persist in the soil for 
periods of three to five years or longer. Certain 



food chain organisms, such as earthworms, living 
in treated soil or waters, tend to concentrate the 
poison in their body tissue. Hence, birds like the 
woodcock or robin, as well as aquatic creatures-- 
fishes, crabs, shrimp and oysters- -are affected 
when they feed upon contaminated organisms. 

Studies made to date have shown that DDT may 
kill fish and other aquatic life when applied at 
dosage rates in excess of one-quarter pound per 
acre; two pounds per acre will kill birds; five 
pounds will cause heavy mortality among mam- 
mals. Other insecticides such as heptachlor, 
dieldrin, aldrin, and endrin, have acute toxicity 
ranges of 15 to 200 times that of DDT. 

Considerable aerial spraying is carried out 
over salt-water marshes, particularly in the East, 
and control chemicals applied to land areas adja- 
cent to inshore water reach important fish-produc- 
ing water by drainaga . There is thus need to 
determine the effects of pesticides on inshore 
aquatic life--fish, shrimp, and shellfish- -which 
live in these waters as adults and on these species 
for which the marshes and estuaries are essential 
nursery grounds. Menhaden, shad, striped bass, 
croakers, and sea trout or weakfish are reared 
in those areas during their early stages. Shrimp, 
crabs, oysters, and clams which support major 
commercial fisheries, spend a part or all of their 
lives in inshore environments. 

Findings from limited studies carried out at 
the Galveston Laboratory show that lindane, an 
insecticide employed for the control of mosquitoes, 
is very toxic to shrimp. A total kill of laboratory 
test animals resulted within 24 hours after expo- 
sure to concentrations of the chemical as low as 
five parts per billion. Other findings reveal that 
crabs may be killed by eating fish containing low 
levels of malathion. 

The proposed legislation, H. R. 6813 (S. 1575), 
would raise the authorization from $280, 000 to 
$2, 565, 000 a year. The Assistant Secretary 
stated that while the present appropriation author- 
ization was inadequate, no specific authorization 
should be listed in the Act. He recommended that 
the research program be permitted to expand on 
a logical and scientific basis and that funds be 
requested from Congress as required by circum- 
stances and in accordance with established budget- 
ary procedures. 



Inspection of Fishery Products 

SEATTLE FISH PLANT STARTS PACKING UNDER USDI INSPECTION: Con- 
tinuous USDI inspection of fishery products was started by one of the larger fish 
processors in Seattle the latter part of May. This is the first plant in the Northwest 
to use the voluntary continuous inspection of fishery products now offered by the Bu- 
reau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Department of the Interior, Seattle. Products 
produced under continuous inspection may show on the label the shield bearing the 
U. S. Grade and the words "Packed Under Continuous Inspection of the Department 
of the Interior." Halibut sind salmon steaks and cod fillets are being packed under 
inspection at the plant. Packing of frozen swordfish steaks and king crab meat will 
be included later. 



28 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



U.S. GRADE 



Inspection and grading services are available on a fee basis to processors who 
meet the existing standards of quality for fishery products. Grade standards are 

now available for halibut steaks, fish 
sticks, breaded frozen shrimp, and 
haddock fillets. Grade standards for 
salmon steaks, cod fillets, and frozen 
raw breaded fish portions will be avail- 
able shortly. Inspection services are 
also available to assure whole someness 
of the product and conformity to written 
specifications for fishery products not 
presently covered by established stand- 
ards. 




A— BLUE 



■RED 




Shield using red, white, and 
blue backgrouad. 



Shield with plain 
background . 



There are now 23 plants throughout 
the country packing 47 fishery products under the Bureau's continuous inspection 
program. 




Institutional Consumption 

STUDY POINTS UP POTENTIAL FOR FISHERY PRODUCTS IN MANUFACTUR - 
ING PLANTS ' EATING FACILITIES : The market potential for fish and shelKish 
(fresh, frozen, and canned) in the eating facilities of the Nation's manufacturing 
plants is not being fully exploited, a survey made for the U. S. Department of the In- 
terior indicates. The study shows that 85 percent of the plants with food facilities 
(having 250 employees or more) serve fish and only 52 percent serve shellfish. 

Dun and Bradstreet, Inc., made the survey in conjunction with a larger food sur- 
vey which that firm was making for the Department of Agriculture. The purpose of 
the survey was to discover and point up areas toward which distributors could direct 
attention in their drive to sell more of these highly nutritional fishery products. A 
survey was financed by funds provided by the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act for the better- 
ment of the domestic fishing industry. 

The survey showed that maniifacturing plants in the northeast section of the 
country and on the West Coast are more apt to have fish or shellfish on the menu 
than are plants in the Midwest and South. In the South the use of shellfish on the 
menu is on a par with the Midwest section of the country. 

The survey also showed that the eating places in large plants (plants with over 
1,000 employees) are more consistent users of fish and shellfish than those in the 
smaller plants. 

Half of the large plants which have food facilities are located in the north-cen- 
tral part of the United States. This indicates that the possibilities of increasing the 
sale of fishery products in the manufacturing plants of that region are relatively 
promising. 

The survey showed that company-operated restaurants and cafeterias are more 
consistent users of fishery products than are contractor-operated eating facilities. 






i!t0t~; 



S <^ 



August 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 29 

Lobsters 

ACTIVITY AND CATCHABILITY OF LOBSTERS: The activity and catchability 
of lobsters is being studied by the Canadian Fisheries Research Board's St. Andrews 
Station. The report appears in the Journal of the Fisheries Research Board (vol. 15, 
no. 6). Activity was measured by the speed with which a lobster retreats when a 
bright light is turned on it. 

When lobsters are accustomed to water of a certain temperature, their walking 
rate increases with water temperatures from 36° F. to 50° F. and again from 68° F. 
to 77° F., but there is little change between 50° F. and 68° F. Lobsters used to cold- 
er water became more active when temperature increased, but those used to higher 
temperatures slowed down when moved to either cooler or warmer water. 

Fishing experiments in Passamaquoddy Bay showed how much catches fall off 
as water temperatures go down in the fall. The change in catches fits in well with 
the decline in activity as shown in the laboratory experiment. The relationship be- 
tween activity and catchability helps in the interpretation of catch-per-unit-of-effort 
data. It also explains the improvement in fishing as waters warm in the spring. 



Oysters 

EXPERIMENT ON GROWING OYSTERS ON RAFTS: An oyster raft culture ex- 
periment is being conducted at Taylor's Pond, Chatham, Mass., by the Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory of Woods Hole, Mass. The study in- 
cludes oysters from Virginia, Wareham River and Oyster River, Mass. The seed 
taken from Virginia last fall and held at Taylor's Pond suffered a severe mortality 
during the winter. The few survivors are not growing as rapidly as the native oys- 
ters. If this method of oyster culture is successful, many small salt-water coves 
and bays can be used for raising oysters despite bottom types. 



ISalmon 

FYKE NET USED IN ALASKA TO MEASURE RED SALMON ABUNDANCE : Each 
year since 1955 a fingerling fyke net has been installed on the Kvichak River, Alaska, 
by the Fisheries Research Institute under a Saltonstall-Kennedy Act-financed con- 
tract awarded by the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries to the Institute. The fyke 
net is designed to obtain an index of abundance of the annual seaward migration of 
red saknon--the catch of fingerlings in the net was 203,000 in 1955, 50,000 in 1956, 
23,000 in 1957, and 1,913,000 m 1958. 

The adult red salmon from the oceain which escaped the fishery and entered the 
Kvichak totaled 250,000 in 1955, 9,443,000 in 1956, 2,965,000 in 1957, and 535,000 in 
1958. 

The large migration of fingerlings in 1958 was probably brought about by the 
good escapement in the 1956 brood year and by favorable environmental conditions. 

The migrants in 1958 were two years old while those of other years were chief- 
ly three years old. Because fingerlings from the Kvichak usually spend two winters 
In the ocean to become fully mature before returning to the Kvichak to spawn, a re- 
turn in 1960 of a substantial portion of the migrants in 1958 is implied. 



30 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



NEW TYPE OF SALMON COUNTING STATION AT ROCKY REACH DAM ON 
COLUMBIA RIVER : A radically new type of fish-counting station will be used at 
Rocliy Reach Dam on the Columbia River, the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisher- 
ies Biological Laboratory at Seattle announced. 

At this station the human observer (or camera) is placed in a subsurface room 
and looks through a large plexiglass window at the weir opening from the side. The 
counting gate is on the side rather than in the center of the fishway. Those fish which 
may be traveling up the other side are diverted over by a standard grill. The count- 
ing board will be vertical and will contain controllable lights. The opening will be 
provided with racks for fish-counting tunnels in anticipation of the day when electric 
counters will be available. 




Scallops 

TEMPERATURE OF OCEAN WATERS AFFECTS SURVIVAL OF GIANT SCAL- 
LOPSI Scallops in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence undergo mass mortalities that 
lead to sudden disappearances of local fisheries. A recent report in the Canadian 
Journal of the Fisheries Research Board (vol. 15, no. 6) suggests why. A series of 
critical tests showed that scallops are killed by fairly warm water of 69° F. to740F. 
The exact temperature depends upon the previous temperature experience of the scal- 
lop, since those which are accustomed to warm conditions are more resistant to rap- 
id warming. Sudden flooding of scallop beds by warm water may thus lead to mass 
mortalities. Such floodings have been observed to occur. 

Rapid changes in water temperatures can damage scallop populations in a sec- 
ond way. Scallops, unlike other shellfish, are ordinarily mobile and actually escape 
enemies. Sudden temperature changes such as are known to occur, on the Magdalen 
Shallows, even if not killing, reduce scallop activity and make them easy prey to their 
enemies. Populations can be greatly cut down by predation. 



Shad 

ATLANTIC STUDIES CONTINUED : The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries is 
trying to rehabilitate the greatly depleted Atlantic shad runs. To achieve this goal, 
stream conditions must be improved, pollution abated, fishways built, and adequate 
spawning escapements permitted. The Bureau's present research is designed to 
provide the knowledge needed to do these things successfully. 

Shad _^ ^ 

(Aiosa sapidissima) J^^j^ ^^t Studies on the York River's shad fish- 

ery (including Mattaponi and Pamunkey Riv- 
ers) were begun February 15, 1959, in co- 
operation with the Virginia Fisheries Lab- 
oratory. The objectives of this study are 
to determine total catch, fishing effort, fish- 
ing rate, size of run, and spawning escape- 
ment. As of March 31, a total of 294 shad 
had been tagged at the river mouth. All 

fishermen were asked to keep records of their catch and effort. 

Data collected in 1959 will be used with those obtained since 1953 by the Virginia 
Fisheries Laboratory to determine population parameters for each year that catch and 
effort data are available. When these data have been obtained for a series of years, 
studies can proceed to determine factors affecting population abundance. 




August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



31 



The commercial shad fishing season on St. Johns River closed March 15, 1959. 
While complete catch data have not been received, it is evident that the 1959 catch 
will equal or exceed that of 1958 (552,000 pounds) which was the highest since 1947. 

The sport fishery for shad on the St. Johns River is the largest on the Atlantic 
coast. During the 1959 sport fishing season a voluntary creel census, controlled by 
two sport camp operators, is being conducted. The return of census cards indicated 
that the sport catch will be higher than that in 1958 when 65,000 (approximately 
175,000 pounds) were taken. 




Striped Bass 

STUDIES m ALBEMARLE SOUND, N_. C. : The construction of dams and in- 
creased pollution in the Roanoke River, the most prominent striped bass production 
tributary of Albemarle Sound, threaten sustained abundance of the population. To 
resolve the problems confronting the fishery, a cooperative study for developing this 
river basin by scientific means became necessary. The United States Fish and Wild- 
life Service began to participate in this study in 1955 chiefly because the Southeast- 
ern Power Administration, ad- 
ministered by the Department of 
the Interior, controls the sale of 
power generated by the John H. 
Kerr Dam and needs information 
relative to minimum river flows 
required during the annual striped 
bass spawning migrations. 

In the 1958/59 season the Bu- 
reau of Commercial Fisheries' 
Beaufort, N. C, Biological Labo- 
ratory continued for the third suc- 
cessive year to get catch, effort, 
and age composition data in the 
commercial striped bass fishery. 
In the summer of 1956 seine sam- 
pling in upper Albemarle Sound 
revealed a relatively outstanding 
abundance of young-of-year fish. 
The 1956 year-class first appear- 
ed in the commercial catch dur- 
ing the fall of 1957. The number 
of one-year-old fish from this brood year was above normal. The 1956 year-class 
then constituted the two-year-old portion of the catch in the fall of 1958. 




Attaching disc tag witii nylon thread to striped bass. 



From 1955 through 1958 the fall fishery (September, October, November, and 
December) in Albemarle Sound yielded 1,117,000 pounds of striped bass. Of this 
figure, 20 percent was landed in 1955, 20 percent in 1956, 14 percent in 1957, and 
46 percent in 1958. The largest portion of the 1958 catch can be assumed to be one- 
and two-year-old fish since these two age classes constituted from 88 to 95 percent 
of the total catch each year from 1955 through 1957. Thus, large numbers of young- 
of-year fish in 1956 and increased numbers of one-year-old fish in the catch in 1957 
lead to the conclusion that the pronounced increase in catch in 1958 resulted from 
an exceptionally large year-class produced in 1956. In 1957 an increase in numbers 
of one-year-old fish occurred though the total catch was lower then than for any of 
the fall seasons from 1955 through 1958. 



32 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



State organizations with limited help from the Fish and Wildlife Service are con- 
tinuing Roanoke River striped bass population studies to evaluate on a long-term 
basis the annual abundance of fish in the spawning runs in relation to water discharge 
from power dams and industrial mill-waste loadings. For the fourth consecutive 
year a tag-recovery study was begun in March 1959 to estimate population size, 
spawning escapement and fishing rate. 



Tuna Consumption Zooms to Record High in Half a Century 

Because the Pacific sardine failed to make its annual appearance in United States 
fishing waters in 190 3, a new fishery was born. When the sardine harvest failed, a 
few of the hitherto nonutilized tuna were canned and offered to the American public. 
The canned product was well received and tuna has become the principal fish canned 
in the United States. 



UNITED STATES SUPPLY OF FRESH AND FROZEN TUNA, 1950 - 1958 
(Round Weight Basis) 



300 



200 




1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 



Note: Nearly all of it is canned. 

bluefin, yellowfin, and skipjack- 



In 1958, 36 canneries in seven 
States, American Samoa, Hawaii, 
and Puerto Rico packed 277 mil- 
lion pounds of canned tuna and an 
additional two million pounds of 
tunalike bonito and yellowtail. A- 
nother 46 million pounds of can- 
ned tuna and 12 million pounds of 
canned yellowtail and bonito were 
imported in the United States. 
Tuna is now the leading food fish 
in quantity landed; and in third 
place on the basis of value at the 
ex-vessel level, exceeded only by 
shrim.p and salmon. 

Although the industry was 
started in 1903, records are only 
available from 1911. In 1911 the 
Pacific Coast catch was confined 
to one species, the albacore-- 
850,000 pounds live weight. In 
1958, the catch included albacore, 
•326,000 pounds live weight, valued at $44.6 million. 



Until after the close of World War II 
the United States market was largely sup- 
plied by American fishermen, the imports 
playing a minor part. In the prewar year of 
1939, only 4 percent of the pack produced in 
American canneries was from imported raw 
tuna. In the postwar year of 1949, it was 3 
percent. But in 1958, more than 39 percent 
of the American pack was from imported 
raw tuna. 

The increase in the ratio of imported 
tuna already canned to the total supply was 
not so noticeable. In 1939, the 10 million 
pounds of canned imported tuna was 12.6 
percent of the supply; in 1958, the 46 
million pounds imported already canned, was 14.3 percent of the supply. 




August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



33 



The peak year for the United States pack of bonito and yellowtail was 1947, when 
9 million pounds were canned. In 1958, the pack was two million pounds. The peak 
of imports on those two varieties was 1957, when 15.5 million pounds of canned yel- 
lowtail and bonito were imported. In 1958, the imports of those varieties amounted 
to 12 million pounds. 




United States Fishing Fleet- Additions 

APRIL 1959 : A total of 45 vessels of 5 net tons and over was issued first docu- 
ments as fishing craft during April 1959--14 less than in April 1958. The Gulf area 



Table 1 - U. S. Vessels Issued First Documents as 
Fishing Craft by Areas, April 1959 


Table 2 - U. S. Vessels 
Issued First Documents as 


Area 


April 


Jan. -Apr. 


Total 
1958 


Fishing Crait by Tonnage, 
April 1959 


19591 1958 


1959 [1958 




(^ 


lumber) . . 


.... 


Net Tons 


Number 


New England . 
Middle Atlantic 
Chesapeake . . 
South Atlantic 
Gulf 








1 

9 

5 

15 

13 

2 


4 

7 

5 

28 

10 

5 


6 

3 

30 

23 

40 

21 

3 

4 


7 

3 

31 

37 

90 

29 

2 

8 

1 


13 

13 

99 

135 

270 

112 

10 

31 

1 


5 to 9 

10 to 19 

20 to 29 

30 to 39 

40 to 49 

50 to 59 

90 to 99 


26 
8 
6 
2 

1 
1 
1 


Pacific .... 
Great Lakes . 
Alaska 






Total 


45 


Virgin Islands 






led all other areas with 15 
vessels, followed by the Pa- 
cific with 13 vessels, the 


Total . . . 








45 


59 


130 


208 


684 


Note: Vessels assigned to the various sections on 1iie basis of theii 
ports. 


home 



Chesapeake with 9, the South 
Atlantic with 5, Alaska with 2, and the New England area with 1. 

During January-April 1959, a total of 130 vessels was documented as fishing 
craft- -a decline of 78 vessels as compared with the first four months of 1958. Most 
of the decline occurred in the Gulf area with 50 less vessels documented as com- 
pared with the 1958 four-months peri od. 

_1_/Includes both commercial and sport fishing craft. 



^ 



U. S. Foreign Trade 



EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCTS , 
APRIL 193?" : Imports of edible fresh, 
frozen, and processed fish and shell- 
fish into the United States during April 
1959 increased by 7.5 percent in quan- 
tity and 6.6 percent in value as com- 
pared with March 1959. The increase 
was due primarily to higher imports 
of groundfish fillets (up 8.2 million 
pounds) and frozen albacore and other 
tuna (up 2.7 million pounds), and to a 
lesser degree, an increase in the im- 
ports of shrimp and canned tuna in 
brine. The increase was partly offset 
by a 5.2 million-pound decrease in the 
pounds). 



United States Foreign Trade in Edible Fishery Products, 
April 1959 witii Comparisons 


Item 


Quantity 


Value 1 


April 


Year 
1958 


April 


Year 
1958 


1959 1 1958 


1959 1 1958 


Imports: 


(Mill 
90.4 


ions of 
66.0 


Lbs.) 
956.8 


. (Mi 
25.9 


11 ions c 
19.5 


f $) . 

278.4 


Fish G Shellfish: 
Fresh, frozen, & 
processed jy . . 


Exports: 


5.2 


1.3 


41.2 


1.1 


0.3 


15.6 


Fish and Shellfish: 

Processed onlyl/ 

(excluding fresh 

and frozen} . , 


1/Includes pastes, sauces, clam chowdei 
specialties. 


and juice, and other 



imports of canned salmon (down 5.2 million 



34 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 8 

Compared with April 1958, the imports in April 1959 were up by 37.1 percent 
in quantity and 32.8 percent in value due to higher imports of groundfish fillets (up 
6.6 million pounds), frozen albacore and other tuna (up 11.6 million pounds), and 
frozen shrimp (up 3.7 million pounds). Compensating, in part, for the increases 
was a drop of about 2.5 million pounds in the imports of canned salmon. 

United States exports of processed fish and shellfish in April 1959 were lower 
by 32.1 percent in quantity and 47.6 percent in value as compared with March 1959. 
Compared with the same month in 1958, the exports this April were higher by 294.6 
percent in quantity and 266.7 percent in value. The higher exports in April this year 
as compared with the sam.e month in 1958 were due to better stocks of California 
sardines available for export to foreign markets. 

J,"; 3[c li: sic 9fi 

GROUNDFISH FILLET IMPORTS , MAY 1959 : Imports of groundfish and ocean 
perch fillets and blocks into the United States during May 1959 amounted to 13.9 mil- 
lion pounds- -an increase of 2.9 million pounds, or 26 percent, as compared with the 
same month last year. 

Iceland was the leading country with 5.6 million pounds --a gain of 4.2 million 
pounds compared with May 1958. Canada was second with 4.9 million pounds--2.7 
million pounds less than the corresponding month of last year. Denmark followed 
with 1.7 million pounds (up 400,000 pounds). 

During the first five months of 1959, imports of cod, haddock, hake, pollock, 
cusk, and ocean perch fillets (including blocks) totaled 74.5 million pounds. Com- 
pared with the same period of last year, this was a gain of 17.3 million pounds or 
30 percent. Canada (27.7 million pounds) made up 37 percent of the 1959 five-months 
total. Imports from Iceland (26.4 million pounds) comprised 35 percent of the total, 
while Denmark (9.1 million pounds), and Norway (8.4 million pounds) accounted for 
12 percent and 11 percent of the total, respectively. The remaining 5 percent was 
made up of imports from West Germany, Miquelon and St. Pierre, the Netherlands, 
France, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. 

The quota of groundfish and ocean perch fillets and blocks permitted to enter 
the United States at l-f cents per pounds in the calendar year of 1959 is 36,919,874 
pounds, based on a quarterly quota of 9,229,968 pounds. The quota for the calendar 
year 1958 amounted to 35,892,221 pounds. Imports during individual quarters in ex- 
cess of the established quarterly quota enter at a duty of 2-| cents a pound. 

Note: See Chart 7 in this issue. 



IMPORTS OF CANNED TUNA IN BRINE UNDER QUOTA AS J3F MAY 30: The 
quantity of tuna canned in brine which may be imported into the United States during 
the calendar year 1959 at the 12i-percent rate of duty is 52,372,574 pounds. Any 
imports in excess of the quota will be dutiable at 25 percent ad valorem. 

Imports for January 1-May 30, 1959, amounted to 17,689,773 pounds, according 
to data compiled by the Bureau of Customs. For January 1-May 31, 1958, a total of 
16,035,401 pounds had been imported. The quota for 1958 of 44,693,874 pounds was 
reached on November 20, 1958. 



<Lc 




August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



35 



Wholesale Prices, June 1959 



Wholesale fishery products prices increased slightly from 
May to June this year, but were down substantially from June 
a year ago. The June 1959 edible fish and shellfish (fresh, 
frozen, and canned) wholesale price index (123.5 percent of 
the 1947-49 average) was higher by 1.5 percent from the pre- 









f 


\~n^ 


^ 




r 






Litf 


•B. 




te^ 




^^^p 



ceding month, but down by 6.1 percent from same month of 
1958. During this June groundfish landings continued to drop 
off from the early spring run; fresh halibut were in good sup- 
ply and prices were down from a year ago; and the market, 
for shrimp continued weak due to an oversupply, with prices 
down sharply from last year. 




Table 1 - Wholesale Average Prices and Indexes for Edible Rsh and Shellfish, June 1959 With Comparisons 


Group, Subgroup, and Item Specification 


Point of 
Pricing 


Unit 


Avg. Pricesi' 
($) 


Indexes 
(1947-49=100) 


ALL FISH & SHELLFISH (Fresh, FVozen, & Canned) . . . 






June 
1959 


May 
1959 


June 
1959 

123.5 


May 
1959 

121.7 


Apr. 
1959 

122.7 


June 
1958 

131.5 




Fresh & Frozen Hshery Products: 


139.9 


138.1 


139.6 


150.4 


Drawn, Dressed, or Whole Hnfish: 


147.9 


145.5 


141.9 


147.2 


Haddock, Ige., offshore, drawn, fresh 

Halibut, West., 20/80 lbs., drsd., fresh or froz. 
Salmon, king, Ige. & med., drsd., fresh or froz. 

Whltefish.L, Superior, drawn, fresh 

Whitefish.L. Erie pound or gill net, md., fresh 
Yellow pLke,L.Mlchlgan&Huron, md., fresh . 


Boston 
New York 
New York 
Chicago 
New York 
New York 


lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 
lb. 


.11 
.34 
.78 
.57 
.88 
.68 


.10 
.35 
.78 

.78 
.95 
.60 


109.1 
105.2 
175.8 
140.1 
177.0 
158.3 


97.0 
107.0 
174.1 
192.1 
192.1 
140.7 


76.0 
102.1 
171.3 
241.7 
217.4 
166.5 


121.6 
123.8 
168.5 
132.6 
141.6 
129.0 


Processed,Fresh fHsh & Shellfish): 


136.7 


136.4 


136.5 


151.3 


Fillets, haddock, smL, skins on, 20-lb. tins . . 
Shrimp, Ige. (26-30 count), headless, fresh . . 
Oysters, shucked, standards 


Boston 
New York 
Norfolk 


lb. 
lb. 
gal. 


.38 

.85 
5.75 


.35 
.86 

5.63 


129.3 
133.5 
142.3 


117.4 
136.7 
139.2 


97.0 
137.4 
142.3 


124.2 
163.5 
139.2 


Processed. Frozen (Fish & SheUflsh): 


122.4 


119.8 


128.3 


139.7 


Fillets: Flounder, skinless, 1-lb. pkg 

Haddock, sml,,skins on, 1-lb. pkg. . . . 

Ocean perch, sWns on, 1-lb. pkg. . . . 
Shrimp, Ige. (26-30 count), 5-lb. pkg 


Boston 
Boston 
Boston 
Chicago 


lb. 
lb. 
lb. 

lb. 


.39 
.34 
.28 

.79 


.39 
.33 
.28 

.76 


102.1 
105.2 
112.8 
121.1 


100.8 
103.6 
112.8 
117.6 


103.4 
111.4 
118.8 
128.1 


103.4 
102.0 
116.8 
152.0 


Canned Fishery Products; 


100.4 


98.6 


99.0 


104.7 


Salmon, pink. No. 1 tall (16 oz.), 48 cans/cs. . . . 
Tuna, It. meat, chunk. No. 1/2 tuna (6-1/2 oz.), 

48 cans/cs 

Sardines, Calif., torn, pack, No. 1 oval (15 oz.), 

48 cans/cs 

Sardines, Maine, keyless oil. No. 1/4 drawn 

(3-3/4 oz.), 100 cans/cs 


Seattle 
Los Angeles 
Los Angeles 
New York 


cs. 
cs. 
cs. 
cs. 


23.50 

10.80 

7.15 

8.22 


22.50 

10.80 

7.15 

8.35 


122.6 

77.9 
83.9 
87.5 


117.4 
77.9 
83.9 
88.8 


117.4 
79.3 
82.2 
87.5 


120.0 
84.0 

132.4 
82.5 


1/R^resent average prices for one day (Monday or Tuesday) during the week in which the 15th of the month occurs. These 
prices are published as indicators of movement and not necessarily absolute level. Daily Market News Service "Fish- 
ery Produas Rq»rts" should be referred to for actual prices. 



36 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



The June 1959 wholesale price Index for the drawn, dressed, 
and whole finfish subgroup was up by 1.6 percent from the pre- 
vious month due to substantially higher prices for large drawn 
haddock at Boston and for fresh-water yellow pike at New York 
City, and slightly higher prices for fresh king salmon at New 
York City. Decreases in wholesale prices for drawn whitefish 
(down 27.1 percent) at Chicago and round whitefish at New 
York City (down 7.9 percent) failed to offset the higher had- 
dock, salmon, and yellowpike prices. The subgroup index for 
this June as compared with June last year was about unchanged 
(down only 0.5 percent) because this June's lower drawn had- 
dock prices (down 10.3 percent) and substantially lower fresh 
halibut prices (down 15.0 percent) more than offset higher 
fresh salmon, whitefish, and yellow pike prices. 

The fresh processed fish and shellfish subgroup index from 
May to June this year was about unchanged. Higher haddock 
fillet and shucked oyster prices just about compensated for a 
drop of 2.3 percent in fresh shrimp prices at New York City, 
The subgroup index in June 1959 as compared with June a 
year ago was lower by 9.6 percent because of sharply lower 
prices this June for fresh shrimp (down 18.3 percent). On 
the other hand, this June's prices for fresh haddock fillets 
were higher by 4.1 percent and for shucked oysters were up 
2.2 percent. 

From May to June this year, increases of 1/2 to 1-cent a 
pound in the wholesale prices for frozen flounder and haddock 
fillets at Boston and 3 cents a pound for frozen shrimp at Chi- 
cago resulted in a 2.2-percent rise in the June index for the 
frozen processed fish and shellfish. From June 1958 to June 
this year the subgroup index dropped 12.4 percent, due pri- 
marily to a drop of 20.3 percent in the frozen shrimp prices 



and slight declines in frozen ocean perch and frozen flounder 
fillet prices. The only increase in June this year over the 
same month in 1958 was a 3.1 -percent rise in haddock fillet 
prices. 

In June this year the over-all index of canned fish prices 
rose 1.8 percent over the preceding month, but was down by 
4.1 percent from the same month of 1958. The light stocks of 
canned salmon from the 1958 pack resulted in an increase in 
price of about 4.4 percent ($1 a case) from May to June this 
year. During the same period wholesale prices for canned 
tuna and canned California sardines were unchanged (substan- 
tial discounts offered below quoted prices), but the price of 
canned Maine sardines dropped 1,5 percent. The drop in 
prices for Maine sardines was probably due to the lack of of- 
ferings of packs containing the smaller fish. Packing of Maine 
sardines for the new season did not start until June 1 and the 
pack was limited most of the month because of the lack of pack- 
ing-size sardines. The sharply lower primary price for Cali- 
fornia sardines that has prevailed since the end of the 1958 
packing season in December continued into the month of June. 
Prices for this product in June this year were down 36.6 per- 
cent from June a year ago because the 1958 pack was greater. 
However, Maine sardine prices were higher by 6,1 percent 
and canned salmon was up by 2.2 percent from June a year a- 
go. As of the end of June there were excellent stocks of 
canned lightmeat tuna available; the market for California 
sardines was steady, but substantial stocks remained unsold 
from the 1958 pack; a subnormal pack of salmon was pre- 
dicted with a prospect of high prices and inadequate supplies 
in 1959 and the first half of 1960; and the pack of Maine sar- 
dines was predicted to be light unless the small herring ap- 
pear in large quantities as the season progresses. 




FILLETS KEEP BETTER AT LOW TEMPERATURES 

It is important during transportation and storage that fish be held as 
close to ice temperature as possible, or even a degree or so below. A few de- 
grees in temperature make a difference in the spoilage time. For example, 
five boxes of fillets, which represented a selection of fish of good quality from 
a Canadian plant, were each stored at temperatures ranging between 31.5 and 
77 F. The app roxim at e keeping times were as follows: 31.5 F.--llto 12 
days, 33° F.--6 to 8 days, 37° F.--5 to 6 days, 45 F.--2 to 3 days, 71 F.-- 
22 to 30 hours. 



The reduction in the storage temperature from 37 F. to ^. 
" ' ■' ' ' Even the reduction from 33 to "'' '^ 



31.5 
31.5 F. 



F. 
made 



(5i°) 



doubled the keeping time, 
very significant difference. 

This does not mean, however, that a reduction in storage temperature 
of 37 to 31.5 F. will add 5 or 6 days to the keeping time of all fillets, regard- 
less of qual it y or extent of contamination. ( Spoilage Problems in Fre sh Fish 
Production, Bulletin No. 100, Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Ottawa, 1954.) 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



37 




International 



FISH OILS 

WORLD PISH OIL EXPORTS UP IN 1958 : 

World exports of fish oils (including fish-liver oils) in 
1958 totaled 200.000 short tons, up 5 percent from 1957 
and the same as 1956. A sharp decline in exports from the 
United States was more than offset by larger European ship- 
ments and near- record exports by the Union of South Africa. 

United States fish-oil exports last year were down one- 
fifth from 1957 and were one-third below the record vol- 
ume of 1955. United States shipments to West Germany 
and the Netherlands --the major markets for United States 
fish oils--dropped sharply, probably because of more com- 
petitive prices for vegetable oils and whale oils used in 
making margarine. 



Fish Oils tlncluding Live'r Oils): 
Exports from Specified Countries and Estimated World 
Total, Averages 1935-39 and 1950-54, Annual 1956-58 


Continent and 
Country 


1958i/ 


1957 


1956 


Average 


1950-5411935-39 


North America: 


n nOO short 


tons) 


5.8 
47.0 


3.0 
58.5 


9.3 
71.3 


11.6 
42.2 


12.0 
1.2 


Canada 

United States . . . 


Total 


52.8 


61.5 


80.6 


53.8 


13.2 


Europe: 


12.5 
16.2 

27.0 

11.8 

28.1 

5.5 

3.6 


9.8 
14.3 
20.9 

7.1 
30.7 

4.2 

3.4 


9.7 
9.3 

21.3 
9.1 

38.1 
4.7 
3.8 


6.3 

3.0 

19.6 

14.5 

33.0 

3.8 

4.0 


2.5 

2/4.4 

24.5 

.2 

38.0 

4/ 

6.0 


Denmark 

Germany, West . 

Iceland 

Netherlands 3/ . . 

Norway 

Portugal 

United Kingdom . 


Total 


104.7 


90.4 


96.0 


84.2 


75.6 


Other: 

Angola 

Japan 

Union of So. Africa 


9.4 

6.3 

5n7.9 


13.4 

3.5 

11.4 


5.7 
5.0 
5.4 


6.7 
6.8 
8.9 


.7 

35.0 

2.2 


Total 


33.6 


28.3 


16.1 


22.4 


37.9 


World total 6/. 


200.0 


190.0 


200.0 


177.0 


135.0 


J7 Preliminary 

2/Prewar Ceimany. 

3/May include some vdiale oU. 


4/NotavaUible. 

5/ Jamiaiy -November. 

6/lnclude8 estmiatei for minor exporting countriet. 



Shipments of fish oils from the several Kuropean export- 
ers were up 15 percent in 1958. Norway- -the largest export- 
er in Europe- -maintained shipments at a fairly high level de- 
spite a sharp decline in output; but stocks were substantially 
reduced. Almost all the fish oil exported by European coun- 
tries goes to other Western European countries. Eastern 
Europe, and the Soviet Union. Iceland's exports were up 
sharply. 

Exports of fish oils from the Union of South Africa in the 
first 11 months of 1958 totaled 17,890 tons, and were the 



largest since 1953. ( Foreign Crops and Markets . June 15. 
1959, U. S. Department of Agriculture.) 



FISHERIES AGREEMENTS 

FINNISH -SOVIET FISHING 
AGREEMENT RATIFIED: 

On April 4, 1959, Finland and the 
Soviet Union exchanged ratifications 
in Helsinki of the Finnish-Soviet Fishing 
and Seal Hunting Agreement, which was 
signed in Moscow on February 21, 1959, 
and ratified by Finland on March 6, 
1959. The Finnish press of March 22 
quoted a March 21 Radio Moscow an- 
nouncement that the Presidium of the 
Supreme Soviet "has ratified the a- 
greement by which Finland is allowed 
fishing and seal hunting rights in 
certain Soviet territorial waters." The 
broadcast quoted a TASS news item 
to the effect that the Soviet Govern- 
ment at the request of Finland had a- 
greed "that Finnish citizens in certain 
coastal communes will have the right to 
carry on fishing and seal hunting in cer- 
tain Soviet territorial waters in the 
Gulf of Finland." The agreement carries 
essentially the same words. 

The territorial waters question 
was not involved in the agreement. 
The fishing area involved is entirely 
within three miles of the Soviet coast. 
The F inn i s h - Sov i e t sea boundary 
in that area had been m arked much 
earlier by the Finnish-Soviet Peace 
Treaty, and the Soviets presumably 
consider that they are ceding rights with- 
in their waters. The fishermen involved 
in the agreement would amount to only 
40 or 50 who regularly fish those wa- 
ters. Due to cumbersome Soviet se- 
curity controls, it is expected that still 
fewer are expected to use the priv- 
ilege. 



38 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



International (Contd.): 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 
ORGANIZATION 

CHAIRMAN NAMED FOR WORLD 
SCIENTIFIC MEETING ON SARDINES : 

Donald L. McKernan, Director of the 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, United 
States Fish and Wildlife Service, has been 
named chairman of the World Scientific 
Meeting on the Biology of Sardines and 
Related Species to be Held in Rome, Italy, 
September 14-21. 

The meeting is being held under the 
sponsorship of the Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations. Mc- 
Kernan was the choice of the consultive 
committee which is helping the Biology 
Branch, Fisheries Division, of the United 
Nations set up the conference. Mario 
Ruivo of Portugal is vice chairman. 

Throughout the world the populations of 
sardines (Sardina, Sardinops, and Sardin- 
ella) are subject to massive fluctuations 
which have mystified scientists and made 
consistent harvest and market planning im- 
possible. The purpose of the world meet- 
ing is to consider methods of determining 
the reasons for these violent population 
fluctuations and to eventually create a sys- 
tem of predicting supply in time to give the 
industry a chance to adjust itself to large 
or small harvests. 

Some of the things which the meeting 
hopes to document include: the extent to 
which the sardine resources are beinghar- 
vested; the extent to which exploitation is 
hampered by fluctuations, through lack of 
knowledge of the resources and through the 
lack of biological information about the 
species. Other things which will be con- 
sidered will be the value and means of doc- 
umenting the information about these spe- 
cies already at hand, methods for exchang- 
ing information and teaching services, and 
the type of meetings to be held in the future 
to further the program. 

GENERAL AGREEMENT 
ON TARIFFS AND TRADE 

14th SESSION OF CONTRACTING PARTIES ENDS : 
The Fourteenth Session of the Contracting Par- 
ties to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 
(GATT), which closed May 30, 1959. made impor- 
tant advances towards reducing barriers to world 
trade. 

The Contracting Parties decided to convene a 
tariff conference commencing in September 1960. 
The scope of this conference will cover four cate- 



gories of negotiations: (1) negotiations among Con- 
tracting Parties for new concessions, as proposed 
by the representative of the United States at the 
Thirteenth Session; (2) renegotiations with member 
States of the European Economic Community, pur- 
suant to Article XXIV: 6; (3) any renegotiations of 
concessions in the existing schedules which gov- 
ernments intend to undertake before the end of the 
current three year period of firm validity; (4) ne- 
gotiations with countries wishing to accede to the 
GATT. 

Other major work of the Session dealt with the 
removal of governmental restrictions other than 
tariffs. Such restrictions, largely quantitative con- 
trols over imports, have been a major obstacle to 
world trade in the postwar period. 

A highlight of the Session was the decision reached 
on the important question of German import restric- 
tions. Two years ago it was determined that Ger- 
many was no longer in balance-of-payments diffi- 
culties and, consequently, was no longer entitled 
under the General Agreement to restrict its im- 
ports on that ground. Since that time the GATT has 
provided a mechanism through which a solution ac- 
ceptable both to Germany and her trading partners 
has been sought. 

Under the terms of the decision, Germany has 
agreed to remove all nontariff restrictions on a 
wide variety of goods. Some of these goods will be 
freed from controls as of July 1 of this year; other 
moves will be taken in stages during the three -year 
period of the decision. For the goods still subject 
to licensing, mainly those covered by the Agricul- 
tural Marketing Laws, Germany will endeavor to 
increase the opportunities for the sale of imports, 
without regard to country of origin. 

The Fourteenth Session was the first meeting of 
the Contracting Parties since the convertibility 
measures taken by certain countries at the end of 
last year. The United States Delegation took this 
occasion to express its views on the significance 
of convertibility in the field of trade policy. In a 
comprehensive statement, the United States Dele- 
gation pointed out that the broad establishment of 
external convertibility generally removed the sub- 
stantive distinction that had existed for two decades 
between the currencies of dollar countries and the 
currencies of others. 

The United States statement discussed the in- 
terests of the United States in the removal of dis- 
criminatory restrictions against its exports; it 
discussed also the interests of other countries in 
the removal of discrimination and in the general 
relaxation of governmental controls. There was a 
general favorable response to the United States 
statement. It was discussed in the Plenary Session, 
as well as in the various working parties. Shortly 
before the end of the Session, the United Kingdom 
which had consulted on its balance-of-payments 
restrictions, announced another major move in re- 
moving discriminatory restrictions against dollar 
goods. The wide range of consumer goods and 
foodstuffs covered by these liberalization measures 
will bring the treatment accorded United States im- 
ports substantially closer to the degree of freedom 
enjoyed by European exports in the British market. 

Another major accomplishment of the Fourteenth 
Session was the association of two additional coun- 
tries with the Contracting Parties. Israel's pro- 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



39 



International (Contd.): 

visional accession was approved with full acces- 
sion to take place upon the successful completion 
of tariff negotiations between Israel and the Con- 
tracting Parties in the course of the general round 
of tariff negotiations set for 1960. Limited partici- 
pation by Yugoslavia in the GATT was also ap- 
proved by the Contracting Parties. In addition, 
Poland's application for association with the Con- 
tracting Parties was received and will be given 
careful study by a working party. 

In addition to these major problems, a large 
number of other important subjects were treated 
at the Session. The Contracting Parties adopted 
a recommendation recognizing the desirability of 
avoiding restrictions on the purchase of transport 
insurance. Recommendations on anti-dumping 
matters, subsidies, and state-trading were con- 
sidered and accepted. Requests of countries to 
alter their tariffs were heard, and after careful 
consideration were approved with provisions limit- 
ing the adverse effects on other countries. 

The Contracting Parties also heard reports on 
the consultations held with the European Economic 
Community (EEC) or "Common Market" regarding 
trade problems which might arise from the opera- 
tion of the Rome Treaty. While restating support 
for the successful development of the Community, 
the United States representative strongly protested 
the proposed common external duty of 30 percent 
ad valorem on tobacco as too high. 

The Contracting Parties have decided that the 
tariff conference to convene commencing Septem- 
ber 1960 shall be held in two phases. The first 
phase, up to the end of 1960, will be concerned with 
renegotiations with the European Economic Com- 
munity, and with any re -negotiations of existing 
concessions. The second phase, opening at the 
beginning of January 1961, will be concerned with 
negotiations for new concessions and negotiations 
with countries wishing to accede to GATT. 

In determining the time table outlined above. 
Committee I took into account the fact that the pow- 
ers of the President of the United States enabling 
that country to participate in tariff negotiations 
(under the Trade Agreements Extension Act of 
1958) will expire on June 30, 1962. The Commit- 
tee also noted that, in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the Rome Treaty, the members of the Eu- 
opean Economic Community will start adapting 
their tariffs to the new common tariff on January 1, 
1962, which makes it desirable that the renegotia- 
tions contemplated in Article XXIV; 6 and, for that 
matter, the negotiations conducted by the European 
Economic Community for new concessions, be con- 
cluded before that date. (U. S. Department of State 
news releases of June 1 and May 25.) 

INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON 
FISHERIES COMMISSION 

FRASER RIVER SOCKEYE SALMON 
RUN FOR 1961 LOOKS PROMISING: 

A record-breaking sockeye salmon 
run appears headed for the Fraser River 
in 1961. Staff field reports of the Inter- 



national Pacific Salmon Fisheries Com- 
mission in 1959 indicate that the current 
seaward migration of yearling sockeye 
from the large Stuart and Quesnel Lake 
systems of the Upper Fraser is very 
heavy, exceeding the highest expectations. 

The Washington Director of Fisheries, 
a member of the Commission, said June 4, 
1959, that similar reports preceded the 
famous 1958 Adams River run of 19 million 
fish. He added that with favorable sea sur- 
vival conditions for the young fish now 
moving downstream it is not impossible 
that the 1961 run of sockeye to the Fraser 
River will approach 10 million fish or dou- 
ble the size of the brood-year run in 1957. 

The Commission, which is charged with 
the management of the Fraser River sock- 
eye and pink fishery in both Washington 
and British Columbia waters, has directed 
much of its attention to the reestablish- 
mentof the once-great sockeye runs to the 
Quesnel and Stuart systems which were al - 
most destroyed by the Hell's Gate slide in 
1913. In that year 30 million sockeye were 
harvested principally by Washington fish- 
ermen. Within a few years after the slide, 
the Fraser River salmon runs were almost 
exterminated and it was not until 1945 that 
international action resulted in the con- 
struction of the Hell's Gate Fishways. 

In 1941, the cycle year preceding the 
construction of the fishways, only 1,100 
sockeye salmon spawners were counted on 
the Quesnel River and 5,000 in the Stuart 
system. Four cycle years later in 1957 the 
rtms had been restored to a phenomenal 
level with 230,000 spawners counted in 
the Quesnel and 750,000 in the Stuart. 

INTERNATIONAL WHALING 
COMMISSION 

PROTOCOL FOR AMENDMENT OF 
CONVENTION ENTERS INTO FORCE: 



Protocol to the International Conven- 
tion for the Regulation of Whaling 
(1946) contains a provision for "Methods 
of Inspection." The Protocol was signed 
by the representatives of the Contract- 
ing Governments at Washington on No- 
vember 19, 1956. Since the required 
number of ratifications have been deposit- 
ed, the Protocol to the Convention entered 
into force on May 4, 1959. It was pro- 



40 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



International (Contd.): 

claimed by the President of the United 
States on May 14, 1959. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fidieries Review. October 1958, 
p. 47. 

NORTH PACIFIC FUR 
SEAL COMMISSION 

PELAGIC RESEARCH FOR 1959 
COMPLETED BY THE UNITED STATES : 
On April 29, the U. S. Bureau of Com- 
mercial Fisheries ended its pelagic fur 
seal research for 1959. On that date, the 
last of the three vessels chartered to 
take fur seals at sea was returned to its 
owners. During the 301 ship-days spent 
since mid-January 1959 collecting seals 
off California, Oregon and Washington, a 
total of 1,546 fur seals were captured. 
Studies are under way of the stomach con- 
tents, age, sexual development, and other 
characteristics of the animals. 

Under the Interim Convention on Con- 
servation of North Pacific Fur Seals, the 
United States is obligated to take from 
1,250 to 1,750 seals at sea annually for 
research purposes. The other parties to 
the Convention- -Canada, Japan, and the 
USSR are also obligated to carry on 
pelagic research. 

UNITED NATIONS 

AFGHANISTAN SIGNS 
CONVENTION ON" THE HIGH SEAS: 

Afghanistan on April 28, 1959, ratified 
the Convention on the High Seas, done at 
Geneva April 29, 1958. This Convention 
regulates the general regime of the high 
seas, including jurisdiction over vessels, 
pollution of waters by radioactive waste, 
and other matters. Although more than 
49 nations have signed the Convention on 
the High Seas, the required number of 22 
ratifications have not been received, 
therefore the convention is not i n force. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review January 1959, 
pp. 54-55 




Australia 

ADDITIONAL FUNDS GRANTED TO 
PROMOTE THE SALE OF PEARL SHELL: 



The Australian Government has de- 
cided to grant an additional LA18,000 



(about US$41,000) to promote Australian 
pearl-shell sales in the United States, 
Europe and the United Kingdom. In an- 
nouncing this, the Minister for Trade said 
that Australian pearl shell exports to the 
United States were earning US$1 million 
a year. 

During October 1958, the Australian 
Government, the Australian pearling in- 
dustry, and United States importers of 
pearl shell each contributed LA18,000 to 
launch the publicity campaign. 

>!c ?Ic ;Ic 5]c ^< 

JAPANESE PEARL SHELL FLEET 
OPERATIONS FOR 1959 SEASON: 

An 11-vessel Japanese pearl-shell 
fleet was expected to reach northern Aus- 
tralian waters about June 13 to begin the 
four-months 1959 pearlingseason, states 
a United States Embassy dispatch from 
Canberra, dated May 27, 1959. The Jap- 
anese catch is limited to 375 metric tons 
during 1959 (474 tons taken in 1958), and 
the fleet will not be allowed to operate 
off the coast of Western Australia. 

In announcing the details, the Austral- 
ian Minister for Primary Industry said 
that owing to the improved quality of plas- 
tic buttons, the pearl-shell industry was 
experiencing marketing difficulties, ex- 
cept for quality shell, and production lev- 
els had to be revised accordingly. 

if. ^c ifi i,i ^ 

SHRIMP LANDINGS, 1953-1958 : 

Australian landings of shrimp showed 
substantial increases in fiscal years 
1954/55 and 1955/56, but since then they 
have been dropping steadily (see table.) 



Australian Estimated Shrimp Landings (heads -on), by States, 
1953/54-1957/58 



New South 

Wales . . . . 
Victoria . . . 
Queensland . . 
West Australia 



Total 



1957/581 1956/5711955/56 11954/551 1953/54 



(1,000 Lbs 



1,520 
20 

3,000 
147 



2,386 

2,500 
189 



4.687 I 5.075 I 6. 148 



3,672 

1 

2,400 

75 



Note! Fiscal year — July 1-Jtme 30. 



4,603 
19 

2,000 
26 



3,558 

700 

45 



6.648 ) 4.303 



The 1957/58 landings of 4.7 million 
pounds were down 0.4 million pounds, or 
8 percent, as compared with the 1956/57 
landings, and were 1.4 million pounds, or 
23 percent below the record 6.1 million 
pounds reported in fiscal year 1955/56. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



41 



Brazil 

RECIFE TUNA SALES RESUMED: 

At the beginning of May the Brazilian 
Federal Price and Supply Commission 
raised the retail price of frozen tuna 
from Cr$30 to Cr$45 a kilo (9.8-14.6 
U. S. cents a pound). The Japanese- 
Brazilian marketing company in Recife 
had asked for a price of only Cr$40 a 
kilo (13.0 U. S. cents a pound). Follow- 
ing the increase in prices, frozen tuna 
became fairly plentiful in the retail mar- 
kets. It is believed that the Commission 
raised the retail price to Cr$45 in order 
to provide a greater retail mark-up mar- 
gin. However, when the higher price was 
announced, the Japanese-Brazilian mar- 
keting company immediately raised the 
wholesale price from Cr$23 to Cr$38 a 
kilo (7.5-12.4 U. S. cents a pound). The 
retail and wholesale prices for frozen 
tuna at Recife are subject to further ne- 
gotiations between the marketing com- 
pany and the Commission. (United States 
consulate dispatch from Recife, M ay 11.) 

Notei Values converted at rate of US$1 equals Cr$139.50. 



5j< ^ sic 5>: >!c 

SHRIMP PRODUCTION AND 
FOREIGN TRADE, 1954-1958 : 

Production: Landings of shrimp in 
Brazil were about 45.6 million pounds in 
1957 as compared with about 38.1 million 
pounds in 1956, and 42.9 million pounds 
in 1955, according to official sources. 
Estimates of the landings of shrimp from 
other sources are much lower (about 45- 
50 percent) than official estimates. 

Imports : Shrimp imports by Brazil 
are negligible and amounted to only 440 
pounds of cured shrimp from Japan in 
1955, 602 pounds of canned shrimp from 
the United States in 1954, and 92 pounds 
of canned shrimp from Norway in 1956. 
Other imports of shrimp between 1954 
and 1958 were either nonexistent or in 
quantities too small to report. 

Exports: The only exports of frozen 
shrimp appearing in the official statistics 
of Brazil between 1954 and 1958 were 
made to the United States late in 1958 and 
amounted to 14,400 pounds (value US$3,440 
c.i.f.). In 1955, 743 pounds of canned 
shrimp were exported to Uruguay; in 1957, 



37,000 pounds (value US$18,715 c.i.f.) 
were exported to some unspecified coun- 
tries. In 1958, Ccinada received 90,000 
pounds (value US$41,803 c.i.f.) and the 
Union of South Africa received 2,300 
pounds (value US$1,404 c.i.f.) of canned 
shrimp. 

The statistics on Brazil 's foreign trade 
in shrimp indicate that beginning in 1958 
shipments of both canned and frozen 
shrimp began to pick up and due to fair- 
ly plentiful supplies may increase in the 
future. The 14,400 pounds of frozen 
shrimp exported from Brazil in 1958 ap- 
peared in U. S. Bureau of the Census im- 
port data for February 1959. 



British Guiana 



INITIAL SUCCESS OF 
SHRIMP FISHING VENTURE: 

The private shrimp fishing venture in- 
augurated in April in British Guiana by a 
group of United States fishing companies 
has met with initial success. Shrimp ap- 
parently are being caught in very good 
quantities, with the best locations report- 
ed to be off the coast of French Guiana. 
An initial shipment of 91,000 pounds was 
made to New York during the week of 
May 25 and more are expected to follow 
shortly. 

A fifth United States firm now has be- 
come associated in the venture, accord- 
ing to a United States Consulate dispatch 
from Georgetown of May 29. 





Cuba 

CUBAN MARITIME AGENCY 
ABSORBS FISHERIES ORGANIZATION: 

The Board of Directors and the Execu- 
tive Committee of the National Fisheries 
Institute (Instituto Nacional de la Pesca) 
were dissolved and their powers and du- 
ties entrusted to the delegate of the Cu- 
ban Maritime Agency which recently ab- 
sorbed the formerly autonomous fisheries 
organization. (United States Embassy dis- 
patch from Havana, dated May 21, 1959.) 



42 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Ecuador 



FAO TECHNICIAN REPORTS ON 
SHRIMP FISHING INDUSTRY: 

Ecuador's shrimp stocks are stable, reports a Food and 
Agriculture Organization technician, but the catch per boat 
is lower due to the large number of vessels fishing for the 
available supply. 

His preliminary investigations of the Ecuadoran shrimp 
industry have led him to the conclusion that no special con- 
servation measures may be required to guarantee stable 
shrimp resources along Ecuador's coast, .especially in the 
area of the Gulf of Guayaquil. His opinion is based large- 
ly on the circumstances that the weather along the Ecua- 
doran coastline reflects a practically constant year- 
around environment. According to the technician, the stable 
environment suggests that there may be no special spawning 
season for shrimp, and that shrimp fishing can be scheduled 
during the entire year. When asked if he thought that indis- 
criminate fishing of all types and sizes of shrimp might 
result in depletion of shrimp resources, he pointed out that 
since one female shrimp lays as many as one million eggs, 
there was little reason to believe that continuous fishing 
could destroy shrimp resources. He stated that his tenta- 
tive conclusion is that it would not be necessary to advise 
the Ecuadoran Government to establish closed seasons. 

His investigations led him to believe that Ecuador could 
continue in the future to produce about 3-1/2 to 4 million 
pounds of shrimp for export yearly, provided no unusual 
changes in ocean currents occurred or no large-scale shrimp 
migrations took place. In his opinion, the present recession 
in the local frozen shrimp export trade has been due more 
to the expanded size of the fishing fleet rather than to dis- 
appearance of shrimp from the coast. He feels that the 
problem simply involves too great a number of boats in 
operation. He pointed out that the total volume of catches 
was roughly the same, but that the expanded number of 
boats in operation had resulted in a sharp decline in the 
catch per boat. In commenting upon ways in which the total 
volume of shrimp catches could be increased, he noted 
that only one shrimp trawler was reported to be equipped 
for fishing at depths of 40 fathoms or more. He believed 
that if larger trawlers were available equipped to fish at 
greater depths, the volume of catches could be easily in- 
creased. 

The FAO technician also stated that he had heard 
proposals were under consideration among several fishing 
companies to form a new shrimp fishing association for the 
purpose of better organization among fishing companies, 
the promotion of nnore modern fishing methods, and for the 
solution of problems affecting the industry as a whole. 
Attempts to form such an association had been made before, 
but those efforts failed due to arguments between the com- 
panies. One of the main stumbling blocks to such attempts 
was the question of regulation of fishing so as to exclude 
the catching of small size shrimp. While many companies 
reportedly were in favor of such regulations, several re- 
fused to accept such a prohibition and continued to fish all 
sizes of shrimp. 

He also observed the considerable difficulty which con- 
tinues to exist locally in the matter of obtaining reliable 
statistics on the number of active fishing vessels and the 
landings of shrimp and fish. The only currently feasible 
means of obtaining reasonably-accurate statistics is to 
seek information from all possible sources and to draw 
an average. 

Aside from the decline in the frozen shrimp export trade 
which started in 1958, the industry has been facing two ad- 
ditional problems. One of these concerns the occasional 
attempts of foreign-registered trawlers to engage illegally 
in shrimp fishing in Ecuadoran waters. An example of this 
occurred early in 1959 when some Peruvian-flag trawlers 
were caught by Ecuadoran patrol vessels fishing illegally 
in Ecuadoran waters in the Gulf of Guayaquil. The other 
problem faced by the industry concerns illegal business op- 
erations among the companies themselves. For example, 
several companies recently joined together to submit a pro- 
test against an alleged practice which they reported had 
been set up and which comprised the establishment of small 
companies at the port of Puerto Bolivar, southeast of Guaya- 
quil, which openly purchased up to 50 percent of shrimp 
catches from the captains of fishing vessels at prices higher 
than those in the contracts between the captains andthe large 



companies in Guayaquil. (United States Consulate dispatch 
from Guayaquil, dated May 18, 1959.) 



)!<: sj: >;c sic :^ 

SHRIMP FISHERY TRENDS: 

Ecuador's exports of shrimp (mostly 
frozen) January-March 1959 amounted to 
1,381,000 pounds with an f.o.b. value of 
US$239,962, according to the Central Bank's 
mimeographed Report on Exports and 
Production of Major Crops ! Shrimp ex- 
ports during the year 1958 amounted to 
3,310,000 pounds with an f.o.b. value of 
$812,084, while in 1957 they totaled 
4,490,000 pounds. 

Since trade sources estimate that less 
than 10 percent of all shrimp caught along 
the Ecuadoran coast are sold for domestic 
production, there seems to have been a 
drop in the catch of shrimp from 1957 to 
1958. (United States Embassy dispatch 
from Quito, May 28, 1959.) 




Fiji Islands 

NEGOTIATIONS REPORTED FOR 
JAPANESE VESSELS TO FISH FOR 
BRITISH FIJI ISLANDS CANNERY: 

Lately, attention has been attracted by 
a report that a canning company in the 
Fiji Islands (a British territory near 
Samoa) is hoping to invite Japanese fish- 
ermen and technicians to its newly-built 
cannery. The Japanese Fisheries Agency 
refuses to comment on the report, which 
it says is unconfirmed, but it is arousing 
great expectations in Japanese tuna fish- 
ing circles, where at present there is an 
excess of fishing potential. 

According to the reports, conversa- 
tions have been carried on between offi- 
cials of Wakayama, Mie, and Aichi pre- 
fectures and the president of the Fiji Is- 
lands canning company, who came to Ja- 
pan for the first time in May. It is said 
that the parties are close to signing a 
contract. The scope of the scheme is re- 
ported as follows: 

Prefectural authorities will selectboats 
and fishermen in consultation with local 
fishery cooperative associations and the 
boats will sail from Japan in about three 
months. Vessels of about 150 tons will 
be used. Contracts will be for one year, 
but may be renewed if desired. Living 
quarters have already been built. Tuna 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



43 



Fiji Islands (Contd.): 

can be taken almost all year-round in 
Fijian waters. 

A total of 12 technicians has been re- 
quested, including supervisory engineers, 
refrigeration experts, electricians, and 
office workers. They will have four- 
year contracts, and can bring their fami- 
lies from Japan to live with them. Su- 
"-lervising engineers will receive salaries 
of about ¥200,000 (US$555) a month, plus 
a bonus on sales over the planned goal. 
The equipment and supplies for the new 
cannery have already been purchased. 
(Nippon Suisan Shimbun, June 3, 1959.) 



Greece 

FISHING INDUSTRY 
EXPANDING STEADILY : 

The fishing industry of Greece has 
been expanding steadily since World War 
II. Through the application of a develop- 
ment program, sponsored and financed by 
the United States Aid Mission, the indus- 
try underwent modernization and expan- 
sion during this period. 

Before the war about 3,000 small ves- 
sels, few of which were motor-driven, 
engaged in fishing. Since the war, the 
Greek fishing fleet has increased rapid- 
ly both in the number of vessels and av- 
erage tonnage. At the beginning of 1958 
the Greek fishing fleet consisted of 
12,716 vessels of which 3,515 were mo- 
tor-propelled. The Greek deep-sea fish- 
ing fleet, which accounts for about 75 
percent of the total fish catch, was com- 
posed of 795 motor trawlers and purse- 
seine boats in 1958, as compared to 500 
in 1938 and 683 in 1954. Average ton- 
nage of the deep-sea vessels, most of 
which are of postwar construction, is 
41.4 tons per vessel in 1957 as compared 
with 13.9 tons in 1938. All the deep-sea 
fishing vessels are equipped with import- 
ed or locally-made Diesel or semi-Diesel 
engines. Many craft have cold-storage 
facilities and about 80 motor trawlers 
are equipped with radiotelephone and so- 
nar apparatus. Since 1953 four large fish- 
ing vessels of about 500 gross tons each have 
been added to the country's fishing fleet, 



Landings by the fishing fleet increased 
from 25,000-35,000 metric tons in the 
prewar period to 46,000 tons in 1953, 
60,000 tons in 1955, and 75,000 tons in 
1957. 

Fish processing also has made marked 
progress. Greece has some 120 packing 
plants with annual output of about 6,000- 
6,500 tons, as compared with a prewar 
average of 1,500 tons. The fish process- 
ed are bonito ("Greek salmon"), sardines, 
anchovy, mackerel, and tuna. Greece al- 
so has these fish canning plants process- 
ing primarily bonito, which account for 
90 percent of total canned fish production. 
The Greek fish-canning industry is still 
relatively undeveloped with production in 
1957 only 850 tons. Plans are under way 
for the construction of modern fish mar- 
kets in a number of distribution centers, 
including Piraeus and Patras. These 
will be equipped with modern handling 
and storage facilities. 

Progress is being made in restocking 
and developing fresh-water fisheries, 
particularly in Northern Greece. 

Sponge fishing is carried out in Greek 
waters and off the coast of North Africa. 
Before World War II the inhabitants of 
the islands of Hydra, Aegina, and Limnos 
and those of Trikery (Volos) engaged in 
sponge fishing and made an annual catch 
of some 40-50 tons. Since the war Greek 
sponge production has increased mainly 
because of the annexation of the Dode- 
canese Islands, where sponge fishing is 
an age-long tradition. A total of 149 
sponge-fishing craft were in operation in 
1956, and 169 in 1957. Production was 
115 metric tons in 1956 and 114 metric 
tons in 1957. The Greek sponge fishing 
industry is encountering difficulties on 
the world market because of the compe- 
tition from synthetic sponges and the re- 
quirement of some North African coun- 
tries that high royalties or fees be paid 
before Greek fishermen are permitted 
to operate in their territorial waters. 

Despite the very substantial progress 
made in agricultural and fishery produc- 
tion in the postwar period, Greece still 
depends on imports for a substantial por- 
tion of its food requirements. 




44 



COMMERCIAL, FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Iceland 



FISHERIES TRENDS. JANUARY-MAY 1959 : 

The unusually bad weather in Iceland curtailed fishing 
during n^ost of February and March. However, catches 
were so good the following month that by the end of the in- 
shore season in mid- May landings may have equaled the ex- 
cellent record of 1958. Although the landings picked up, 
there is some question as to whether or not the value of the 
winter season landings will equal the 1958 record. 

Table 1 - Icelandic Landingsi' by Principal Species, 
January- March 1959 with Comparative Data 



Species 



:od 

Haddock 

Ling 

Wolffish or catfish . 

Dcean perch 

Coalfish or pollock. 

Cusk 

herring 

Dther 



Total I 110.363 



January- March 



1958 



74,566 
8,424 
1,171 
3,304 

16,667 

2,785 

2,061 

102 

1,283 



(Metric Tons) 
85,673 
10,543 

2,268 

5,121 

4,792 

3,032 

3,615 

1,422 

1,459 



117.925 



74,338 
9,271 
1,590 
2,838 
2,585 
2,478 
1,779 

1,484 



J/ Except for herring which are landed round, all fiih iue landed drawn. 



As of April 30, or about ten days before the official end of 
the winter season, actual production of frozen fish fillets 
was 1 percent below the April 30 level of 1958. Production 
of salted fish and stockfish was 8 percent and 9 percent, res- 
pectively, below the level of the same period in 1958. Be- 
cause a higher proportion of the late season catch is being 
used for stockfish, it is likely that the final stockfish pro- 
duction will be somewhat higher than last year. And be- 
cause catches held up at the end of the season better than 
usual, it is still possible that total groundfish production may 
equal or exceed that of last year. 



Table 2 - Icelandic Production of Groundfish Products. 
January-April 1959 with Comparative Data 



Product 



Baited fish 

Stockfish 

Frozen fish (mostly fillets) 



January-April 



1958 



(Metric Tons--Product Weight) 



21,000 

4,400 

34,250 



22,910 

4,830 

34,635 



19,670 

2,970 

27,150 



Total landings for January-March this year of 110,363 
metric tons were smaller than for the same period last year, 
but considerably higher than in 1957 (96,363 tons). For most 
species except ocean perch, the catch as of March 31, 1959, 
was no higher than at the same time during the relatively 
poor catch year of 1957. But the situation improved dramati- 
cally in April, and the freezing plants in Faxa Bay and the 
Westman Islands were often working in shifts through week- 
ends and holidays. 

The Icelandic otter trawlers have been at some disadvan- 
tage this year by being excluded from fishing within the new 
12-mile limit for the areas and times when inshore fisheries 
are most attractive. But they were less affected by the ad- 
verse weather. Despite the loss of the Hafnarfjordur trawler 
Juli. which foundered in a storm on the way home from New- 
foundland in February, the total trawler catch for the first 
three months exceeded that of last year. During February 
and March the trawlers fished mostly off the West and South 
coasts. In April several trawlers moved to the cod fisheries 
off the Greenland coast, and an increasing number are now 
returning to the rich ocean perch grounds north of Newfound- 
land, where as much as 25 tons have been taken in a single 
haul of the trawl. Indications are that catches are just as 
good as last fall, and since the trawling on these new grounds 
started much earlier than last year, there may be a real 
problem in finding sufficient markets, other than the U.S.S.R., 
for the vastly increased volume of ocean perch. 



But for the adverse weather in February and March it is 
most probable that the production of fish for the first four 
months would have been well above last year. Catches in 
Faxa Bay in January, before the storms forced the boats to 
port, were one-third higher than last year, and catches were 
on the whole excellent for the boats in April, particularly at 
the Westman Islands. While trawlers caught a larger share 
of the total catch for the first 3 months, the month of April 
saw a rise in the motorboats' share. In the home fishing 
grounds, the trawlers had definitely poorer catches than last 
year, due largely to the 12- mile limit. 

At the level oflkr. 247 millions (US$15.2 million). Iceland's 
exports for the first quarter of 1959 were 28 percent higher 
than in the comparable period of 1958. This was a delayed 
dividend from last year's record fish catch, which left year- 
end stocks of export products at a level Ikr. 71 -million 
(US$4.4 million) higher than at the end of 1957. For the most 
part, these stocks were connposed of frozen fillets from the 
heavy catches of ocean perch from the newly-discovered fish- 
ing grounds north of Newfoundland. Since the 1958 sales con- 
tract with the U.S.S.R. had already been fulfilled in November, 
it was necessary to store the fillets until a new sales contract 
could be negotiated with that country. 

In both 1958 and 1959 the annual sales contract with the 
U.S.S.R. was not concluded until February, but this year the 
Icelandic merchant ships got off to an early start on their de- 
liveries and were actually en route when the agreement was 
signed. 

The sharp increase in exports to the Soviet Union, which 
were 47 percent higher than for the first quarter of 1958, 
was thus due to the factors of accumulated stocks and ear- 
lier deliveries; it provides no indication of a similar increase 
in the annual rate of exports. On an annual basis, exports to 
the U.S.S.R. are likely to be little changed. Although the 1959 
contract provides for 26,000 tons of frozen fillets, compared 
to 25,000 tons in 1958, the fact that the Russians agreed to 
take a much larger proportion of the contract in ocean perch 
(23,000 out of 26,000 tons, compared to 11,000 out of 25,000 
tons last year) means that more cod will be available for sale 
to Free World markets, where the demand for ocean perch is 
limited. 

In the case of sales to the United States, however, the in- 
crease in January- March 1959, which was 43 percent above 
exports for the first quarter of 1958, appears to be due to 
fundamental market factors. The demand and prices have 
continued strong., and with a relatively poor season for the 
Canadian fisheries in the North Atlantic, the Icelanders are 
hopeful of maintaining the present high level of exports to the 
United States. The bulk of the first quarter increase in ship- 
nnents to Russia came from year-end stocks, but virtually the 
whole of the increased shipments to the United States came 
fronn the new winter season 1959 catch. 




Iran 

DEVELOPMENT OF SHRIMP 
FISHERY IN PERSIAN GULF: 

A large expansion of an Iranian com- 
pany's shrimp fishing activities was an- 
nounced earlier this year. The Iranian 
company before the expansion operated 
two shrimp fishing vessels, one mother- 
ship, and a 300-ton cold-storage ware- 
house in Khorramshahr. The company 
ships about 40 to 60 metric tons of shrimp 
a month to the United States. A New York 
City importing firm has sole importing 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



45 



Iran (Contd.): 

rights in the United States for the shrimp 
shipped by the Iranian company. 

The expansion includes the addition of 
seven trawlers and one mothership to 
the Iranian company's fleet. The trawl- 
ers in May were on the high seas, riding 
"piggy-back" on steamers. Four were 
scheduled to arrive at Khorramshahr on 
May 28, and three on June 5, 1959. The 
mothership will arrive in August. The 
trawlers are 65 footers, having a dis- 
placement of 50 tons, and are equipped 
with Diesel engines. The additional 
mothership is 1,000 tons gross registry 
and is equipped for freezing and process- 
ing. 

The additional trawlers were previous- 
ly used in Panamanian waters. They are 
under Panamanian registry and will con- 
tinue to fly the flag of Panama, at least 
for a year. The mothership, the Mayon I, 
is a United States-built vessel now under 
Guatemalan registry. The trawlers are 
owned by a Panamanian company which 
is associated with the New York Citj' im- 
porting firm. The vice-president of the 
New York City firm said that shrimp 
fishing off Panama has been declining and 
that this is one reason for the transfer of 
the vessels to the Persian Gulf. 

In addition to co-managership, the 
New York City importing firm has ex- 
clusive rights to the sale of the Iranian 
company's shrimp production except in 
Iran and Kuwait, states a May 23, 1959, 
United States Embassy dispatch from 
Tehran. 

Mote: Also see >..ommercial fisheries Review , lanuary 1959, 
p. 67. 



The latest price was $780 to $800 a ton 
f.o.b. ( Nikkan Suisan Tsushin, June 8, 
1959.) 



ATLANTIC TUNA FISHERY TRENDS: 




Japan 

ALBACORE LOIN SALES INCREASING: 
According to figures of the Japanese 
Frozen Foods Exporters Association, 
tuna loin sales in April and May amount- 
ed to 350 tons (215 tons of albacore, 135 
tons of yellowfin). There has been a ra- 
pid increase in sales of albacore loins, 
and the price has risen considerably a- 
bove the check price of $730 a ton f.o.b. 



Beginning the latter part of 1958 the 
Japanese started fishing tuna commer- 
cially in the Atlantic Ocean, principally 
in the South Atlantic. A Japanese news- 
paper report states that there are 37 or 
38 Japanese vessels fishing in the Atlan- 
tic Ocean for tuna, according to the Jap- 
anese Export Frozen Tuna Fisheries As- 
sociation. The vessels land their catches 
directly in European and Latin American 
countries, and a large quantity is trans- 
shipped to the United States from Latin 
American countries. In April about 3,000 
metric tons were landed in Italy (2,000 
tons) and Yugoslavia (1,000 tons) at $285 
a ton. The shipment to Yugoslavia was 
the first of several which are to continue 
during the sardine season that began in 
May and ends in November. 



EXPANDING EXPORTS OF 
FROZEN TUNA TO COUNTRIES 
OTHER THAN THE U. S.: 



A large Japanese fisheries company 
has already been exporting frozen tuna 
by direct fishing boat landings in Cuba, 
Greece, and elsewhere. Its No. i_ Zenko 
Maru which made a landing in Greece in 



April, is reported to have put in at Mar- 
seilles, on the Mediterranean coast of 
France, on June 1, and it is thought that 
she may have succeeded in opening 
France to direct export of frozen tuna. 

It is also reported that another Japan- 
ese company has sent its No._25 Koko 
Maru into the harbor of Tripoli, in Libya, 



North Africa, to land about 300 tons of 
frozen tuna there for the first time. 

It is considered certain that the fish 
(mostly yellowfin) were sold at a price 
of around $290 landed. Because the U- 
nited States market has been inactive 
lately, and there has been a large per- 
centage of rejects on fish transshipped 
to the United States, it is thought that there 
will be a tendency to increase direct ex- 
ports to Europe and Africa in the near 
future. ( Nikkan Suisan Tsushin , June 8, 
1959.) 



46 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21. No. 8 



Japan (Contd.): 

EXPORT PRICE DROPS FOR 
FROZEN YE LLOWFIN TUNA: 

The export price for frozen tuna in 
Japan early in June dropped to the check 
price or floor price level of $220 for 20- 
to 80-pound yellowfin. According to re- 
ports, the drop was the result of the low- 
er prices reported on the United States 
west coast during the past few months. 
But no export sales at the $220 f.o.b. 
price have been confirmed. 

Another effect of the falling price is 
that Japanese tuna transshipped through 
foreign ports, which were contracted for 
when prices were higher, are lately being 
subjected to a high rate of rejects by the 
buyers in the United States, the Japanese 
report. Japanese frozen tuna traders are 
particularly perturbed by reports that 
transshipped gilled -and -gutted tuna, 
which have not been the target of many 
rejects hitherto, are meeting with re- 
jects as high as 20 percent when delivered 
in the United States. 

Meanwhile, the Japanese trade is also 
troubled by depleted stocks of canned al- 
bacore for the United States market in 
the face of a summer albacore season 
that does not seem to be able to get start- 
ed. The small lots of albacore that are 
being landed are selling ex-vessel as 
high as $360 a metric ton. Unable to find 
albacore, the boats are landing unusually 
large quantities of skipjack, which, as it 
is reportedly too fat for "katsuobushi" 
makers, is being bought by canners at 
$110 to $170 a metric ton. 

Early in September 1958, the Japan- 
ese reported that the export price of 
frozen yellowfin tuna had dropped from 
its mid-August 1958 peak of $300 a ton 
f.o.b. Japan for 20-80 pound "clipper" 
(ship-frozen) fish. By the end of August 
1958, the price was down to $270 for 
"clipper" fish and $260 for ice-boat fish. 
Frozen skipjack tuna prices also dropped 
from a mid-August 1958 peak of $215 for 
15-pound fish to $180 for 7-10 pound, 
$190 for 10-15 pound, and $200 a ton for 
fish over 15 pounds early in September 
1958. 

For the first five months of this year, 
export prices fluctuated only slightly be- 



low or above the prices that prevailed in 
the autumn-winter of 1958 until earlythis 
June (1959) when the prices dropped to 
the check-price level. 

;;t * * ;): >;c 

EXPORTS OF MARINE PRODUCTS TO 
THE UNITED STATES, 1957 AND 1958: 
During 1958, Japanese exports to the 
United States of all marine products (fro- 
zen and canned fish, marine oils, and mis- 
cellaneous items) of 130,412 metric tons 
were valued at US$67.5 million, an in- 
crease of 31.2 percent in quantity and 15.4 
percent in value, as compared with 1957. 
Frozen tuna exports (62,190 tons) to the 
United States in 1958 were valued at about 
US$19.0 million, an increase of 20.4 per- 
cent in quantity and 25.7 percent in value 
over 1957. Exports of all fishery prod- 
ucts and marine oils were higher in 1958 
as compared with 1957, except for canned 
crab meat exports, which declined 10.0 
percent in quantity and 6.5 percent in value. 



Japan's Exports of Marine Products to the United States, 
1957 and 1958 



Item 



Tuna, frozen. . . . 
Tuna, canned , . . 
Crab meat, canned 
Other canned . . . 
Other fish & shellfish 
Fish & marine 

animal oils . . . 

Total all marine 
products .... 
Pearls, natural & 

cultured 



Quantity 



1958 I 1957" 



(Metric Tons) 
51,629 
12, 870 
2,829 
16,370 
13,370 



62, 190 

13,727 

2,547 

19,590 

16, 465 

15,893 



130,412 



2.363 



99,431 



Value 



1958 



1957 



(US$1,000) 



18,973 
11,754 

5,816 
15,644 

9,391 

5,962 



67,540 



9,047 



15,098 
11,338 

6,219 
13,524 

8,601 

3,546 



58,526 



8.185 



In addition to the marine products 
mentioned, a substantial amount of nat- 
ural and cultured pearls was shipped to 
the United States. 

;[« :^ 3lc :{! 5[< 

EX-VESSEL ALBACORE TUNA 
PRICE AT RECORD HIGH: 

In mid -June, which in normal years 
would be the peak of the season, bait- 
boat albacore landings in Japan were still 
running at the low ebb of around 100 met- 
ric tons a day, and the ex-vessel price 
was rising steadily. On June 13 at Shim- 
izu the price hit 170 yen a kilogram 
(US$430 a short ton), the highest in re- 
cent years. For export frozen the price 
would have to be $470 ashort ton in order 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



47 



Japan (Contd.): 

to break even. Since the present export 
price is barely $360, the freezers have 
no chance of buying at all. Calculating 
back from a frozen tuna export price of 
$360, the ex-vessel price should be about 
125 yen a kilogram ($316 a ton) for bait- 
boat fish and 135 yen ($340 a ton) for 
frozen long-line fish. But the canners 
are saying that if they have to buy bait- 
boat fish at 170 yen a kilogram ($430 a 
ton), they can buy ship-frozen long-line 
fish at 165 yen ($417 a ton). Consequent- 
ly the freezers are also having trouble 
getting any ship-frozen albacore. It ap- 
pears that if present conditions continue, 
it will be impossible to fill more than 
about half of this year's 30,000-ton ex- 
port quota for frozen albacore. ( Nikkan 
Suisan Tsushin June 15, 1959.) 

:^ :(« ^ >[c :^ 

FISHERIES TRENDS IN 
HOKKAIDO AREA: 

Because of a severe decline in vari- 
ous traditional fishing resources in the 
coastal areas of Hokkaido, a great 
change has taken place in the Hokkaido 
fishing industry in postwar years. Be- 
tween 1929-1944, the bulk of the catch 
was herring, sardines, and anchovy, 
which abounded in nearby offshore wa- 
ters. Herring production, which was 
500,000 tons in 1933 has shrunk to less 
than one-tenth of that figure; anchovy 
production, even greater in some years, 
has declined to one-twentieth. The fish- 
ermen of the Island have been able to 
support themselves only by going farther 
out to sea in motorized fishing craft, 
and concentrating on salmon, salmon- 
trout, groundfish, squid, and mackerel. 
The total catch of these species is sev- 
eral times larger than in the prewar 
years. 

Profitable distant sea-fishing grounds 
are in the Sea of Okhotsk and near the 
Soviet -occupied Kurile Islands where, 
however, Japanese fishermen have been 
in recent years faced with the problem 
of seizure and detention by Soviet auth- 
orities. Annual negotiations between Ja- 
pan and the Soviet Union setting restric- 
tions on the catch of salmon, crab, and 
other fish and any future negotiations 
concerning fishing grounds are of great 



concern to the Hokkaido fishing popula- 
tion whose average income is reported 
to have dropped to 58 percent of the pre- 
ware figure. 

Hokkaido still produces 26 percent of 
Japan's total supply of fishery products. 
Salmon accounts for one-quarter of the 
value of the catch which, beside varieties 
mentioned above, includes cod, flatfish, 
scallop, and seaweed. The value of the 
1958 production landed in Hokkaido was 
US$87 million, according to a May 18 
dispatch from the United States Consu- 
late in Sapporo. 

sis ^ s!< sis s!c 

INCREASE IN REJECTS IN 
FROZEN ATLANTIC TUNA DE- 
LIVERIES TO CALIFORNIA CANNERS: 

With the softening of the United States 
market for tuna, the frozen yellowfin 
market in Japan has also been gradually 
softening. The f.o.b. price of frozen 
yellowfin tuna was reported to be as of 
June 10 about $225, close to the check 
price of $220 a short ton. At the same 
time the claims or rejects in California 
on transshipments from the Japanese At- 
lantic tuna fishery are increasing, bring- 
ing headaches to the Japanese industry. 

There are at present about 35 or 36 
Japanese vessels fishing in the Atlantic, 
and in April and May they trans shiped 
3,985 short tons of yellowfin at $235- 
$245 f.o.b. Lately, however, it is said 
that claims have increased to as high as 
30 percent. Some Japanese trade quar- 
ters strongly suspect that these are "mar- 
ket claims" resulting from the good U- 
nited States landings of yellowfin and the 
softening of the canned tuna market, re- 
ports the United States Embassy in Tokyo. 
(From Suisan Keizai Shimbun of June 10, 
1959.) 

3{C ^ ^ 3{C ^ 

LIBERAL LANDINGS OF SMALL YEL- 
LOWFIN TUNA AT SHIMIZU HARBOR: 

A total of 76 metric tons of small yel- 
lowfin tuna from local grounds was land- 
ed at Shimizu, in Shizuoka Prefecture, 
Japan, on May 28. This was the first 
such landings of the year. The fish were 
from 20 to 45 pounds, in good condition, 
and they sold for the fresh trade at 400 



48 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Japan (Contd.): 

to 822 yen per kilogram (about US$1,000 
to US$2,000 a short ton). These fish 
were caught by purse-seiners. The 
schools are reported plentiful in the vi- 
cinity of Mikurashima. Many seiners 
from the Shimizu and Kozu areas have 
gone after them, and it is expected that 
landings will continue. (Report from the 
United States Embassy in Tokyo, based 
on Nippon Suisan Shimbun, June 3.) 



LIGHT LANDINGS OF SUMMER 
ALBACORE TUNA CAUSE PRICE RISE: 
The Japanese summer albacore sea- 
son as of June 9, 1959, still had not been 
able to get started, and landings as of 
that date amounted to only a littl-e over 
2,000 metric tons. As a result the ex- 
vessel price climbed day by day, and at 
Yaizu on June 8 it finally reached 150 
yen a kilogram (about US$380 a short 
ton), astonishing the trade. 

Buying is, of course, all by canners 
for export to the United States, and the 
freezers seem to have completely given 
up any idea of buying summer albacore. 
Even if the price rise stops at 150 yen, 
the canners are saying that they cannot 
break even unless the price per case of 
white meat tuna for export to the United 
States is raised by at least $2 a case 
over that of the last selling period of the 
Canned Tuna Sales Company (which was 
$9.50 f.o.b. Japan). 

Packers in the Shimizu area have be- 
gun packing albacore from the summer 
albacore fishery, but landings as of the 
early part of June continued poor and the 
ex-vessel price ranged from 125 to 150 
yen a kilogram (US$315-380 a short ton). 

Skipjack ex-vessel prices are also 
around $200 a ton, and the canners are 
operating in the realization that they are 
going to take a loss as the break-even 
point on albacore for export is around 
100 yen a kilogram (US$252 a short ton), 
reported the TTnited States Embassy in 
Tokyo from Nikkan Suisan Tsushin of 
June 9' and Suisan Keizai Shimbun of 
June 6. 



MARINE OILS PRODUCTION, 
FOREIGN TRADE, STOCKS, 
AND CONSUMPTION, 1957-1959: 

Production of edible marine -animal 
oils by Japan in 1958 amounted to 138,314 
metric tons, an increase of 20.3 percent 
from the 124,325 tons produced in 1957, 
and a slight decrease from the forecast 
production of 140,315 tons for 1959. 



Japan's Production, Foriegn Trade and Stocks of Marine 
Animal Oils, 1957-1959 




19591/ 1958 


1957 1 


Edible Marine Oils: 


.... (Metric Tons) . . . 

4,280 4,230 4,705 

1,650 1,500 1,807 

250 265 265 

24,040 29,980 23,437 

110.095 102.339 84.803 


Production by type: 

Cod-liver oil 2/ 

Shark-liver oil 2/ 

Other liver oil 2/ 

Fish-body oil 

Whale oil 


Total 


140.315 


138.314 


115,017 


Imports all types 


1,500 


1,495 


357 


Stocks of all types 
on Jan. 1 


15,021 


14,435 


8,951 


Total Supply 


156,836 


154, 244 


124. 325 


Exports 


90.400 


91.761 


25,668 


Inedible Marine Oils: 


34,290 


39.896 


31,778 


Production: 
Sperm oil 


Imports 


_ 


- 


- 


Stocks, beginning 
of year 2/ 


2,834 


_5j019 


4,808 


I'otal Supply 


37,124 


44.915 


36,586 


Exports 


9,940 


16,471 


49. 104 


J^/ Forecast. 

2/ Stocks held by processing factories. 



Japan's imports of both edible or in- 
edible marine oils is negligible. Exports 
of edible marine oils (mostly whale oil) 
in 1958 were up sharply from 1957 and 
the predicted exports for 1959 will be up 
(1.4 per cent) slightly from 1958. 

Production of inedible oils (sperm oil) 
in 1958 increased about 25.6 percentfrom 
1957, but production of sperm oil in 1959 
is predicted to drop 14 percent below that 
for 1958. 

The 16,471 tons of sperm oil exported 
in 1958 was down sharply (66.5 percent) 
from the 49,104 tons exported in 1957. 
The forecast for 1959 indicates a further 
drop of 39,7 percent from the 1958 total. 

;;t ;;= ;;t * * 

NEW VESSELS BEING ADDED 

TO TUNA FLEET: 

On June 5, 1959, the Japanese Fisher- 
ies Agency granted construction permits 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



49 



Japan (Contd.): 

for a number of tuna boats, among them 
a 239-gross-ton live-bait boat, a 245- 
ton bait boat, a 450-tonlong-liner, a 409- 
ton long-liner, and three 95 -ton tuna boats. 

In addition, a Japanese company re- 
cently ordered a 680-ton (gross tonnage) 
tuna boat. Construction cost will be about 
210 million yen (about $583,000). Theves 
sel will have a 1,300-horsepower Diesel 
engine. It was expected to be started in 
July and is scheduled for completion in 
November. 

A Japanese whaling company is mov- 
ing into the tuna fishery because there 
are no further chances for expansion in 
salmon fishing and whaling. The com- 
pany sent its first boat, the No. 3 Akitsu 
Maru (240 tons), to sea in mid-M"ay to fish 
the western Pacific. The company's sec 
ond tuna boat, the 240-ton No . 5^ Akitsu 
Maru, was scheduled to sail on her maid- 
en voyage on June 11. Both of the ves- 
sels were bought from other owners, but 
the company's building two new boats, one 
of 1,000 tons and one of 500 tons. Sched 
uled for completion in October, these new 
vessels will make one trip to the Indian 
Ocean, and then will be sent to the Atlan- 
tic. The company intends to build or buy 
two more tuna boats of 350-450 tons. 

Also Miyazaki Prefecture's new high- 
seas fishery guidance vessel, the Miya - 
zaki Maru, sailed on June 9 on her maid- 
en voyage to conduct fisheries guidance 
and exploratory fishing on southern Pa- 
cific tuna grounds. ( Nikkan S uisan Tsu - 
shin, June 5, 6, & 8, 1959.) ~ 



5|S ^ * * * 

NORTH PACIFIC FACTORYSHIP 
SALMON AND KING 
CRAB FISHERIES TRENDS: 

The Japanese Fisheries Agency an- 
nounced on June 15 the catch of salmon 
and king crab by North Pacific factory- 
ship fleets as of June 10. The salmon 
catch to that date was 19,700 tons. The 
Sea of Okhotsk crab pack was 149,359 
cases, and the crab pack by the Tokei 
Maru fleet in the eastern Bering Sea 
was 45,769 cases. In all cases, the rec- 
ord was better than last year's. The 16 



salmon fleets began operations on May 21 
and 22, and by June 10 their catch was a- 
bout 1,000 metric tons above that of last 
year at the same time, thus making up 
completely the 10 days' delay in leaving 
port. Water temperatures are much high- 
er than last year, all species show signs 
of being more abundant, and pinks in par- 
ticular show indications of a regular odd- 
year high in abundance. The Okhotsk and 
eastern Bering Sea crab operations had 
packed by the end of May more crab than 
at the same time last year by 30,000 cases 
and 10,000 cases, respectively. 

The Canned Salmon Joint Sales Com- 
pany has made tentative contracts with 
United States packers for early shipment 
of 40,000 cases of pink tails, as much as 
possible to be shipped by the end of June. 
Japanese land cannery production has 
lagged, however, particularly of the com- 
paratively unprofitable tall cans, and it 
was considered that at best only about 
20,000 cases could be shipped by the end 
of June, the remainder being carried over 
to July. At present the company has con- 
signments equivalent to about 40,000 
cases of 96 No. 2 cans, of which only a- 
bout 8,000 cases are tails. 

Of the 19,700 tons of salmon caught as 
of June 15, red salmon totaled 6,195 tons 
(36.87 percent), chums 10,200 tons (53.76 
percent), and pink salmon 1,650 tons (8.91 
percent). The average catch per fishing 
boat was 15.21 tons o'" reds, 22.17 tons of 
chums, and 2.67 tons of pinks, for a total 
of 40.05 tons per boat. 

The Japanese-Soviet Fisheries Com- 
mission finally decided on a catch quota 
of 85,000 metric tons of salmon for the 
Japanese fleets within the treaty area 
north of 45 N. longitude on May 13. On 
May 15 the fleets--16 motherships and 
460 fishing boats--sailed for the grounds, 
and deliveries of fish to the motherships 
began on May 22. Reports indicate the 
general pattern of the catch resembles 
that of 1957, a high year in the cycle of 
salmon abundance. Deliveries to the 
motherships have been running 70 to 100 
tons a day, somewhat better than last 
year, and catch rates are 4 to 6 fish per 
shackle of net. As of early in June fish- 
ing was reportedly concentrated between 
165° E. and 171° E., at 46-47 N. 



50 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Japan (Contd.): 

The Japanese Fisheries Agency de- 
cided to divide the catch quota between 
the mothership fleets and the Hokkaido 
land-based fishery in the same propor- 
tion as last year, giving 70,831 tons to 
the mothership fleets (154 tons per catch- 
er boat) and 14,169 tons to the lancj- 
based boats. Licenses on this basis were 
formally granted the mothership opera- 
tors on May 26, and the fishing boats' 
licenses were sent off to the grounds on 
a transport on May 27. 

The price dispute between mothership 
companies and fishing boat owners, which 
threatened briefly to delay the sailing, is 
still unsettled. The fishermen, claiming 
that each boat needs on the average of at 
least 17.5 million yen (US$48,600) to cov- 
er expenses, started with a demand for 
a 25-percent price increase. This would 
bring reds up to 370 yen (US$1.03) from 
last year's 315 (87.5 U. S. cents per fish), 
chums to 175 (48.6 cents) from 125 (34.7 
cents), pinks to 95 (26.4 cents) from 78 
(21.6 cents), and silvers and kings to 260 
(72.2 cents) from 210 (58.3 cents). The 
companies countered with an offer of a 
6.3-percent price increase plus various 
lump-sum adjustments. The two sides 
were reported to be gradually approach- 
ing a compromise. 

It is reported that Soviet patrol boats 
are unusually active on the fishing grounds, 
constantly checking the Japanese catcher 
boats' gear and the distance between their 
nets. ( Nikkan Suisan Tsushin , June 10, 12, 
and 16, 1959.) 

>;! * * * * 

PLAN TO EXPORT FISH 

CANNED FOR PET FOOD 

TO U. S. PET FOOD PACKERS : 

The Japanese are planning to pack fish 
for pet food in large cans for export to 
United States canners of pet food. Esti- 
mates indicate that about 400,000 cases 
of fish for pet food will be shipped to the 
United States by the end of this year as 
compared with the 150,000 cases export- 
ed last year. 

Prices for export f.o.b. Japan range 
from ¥900 (US$2.50) a case for all dark 



meat and about ¥950-980 ($2.70) a case 
for 50-percent dark-meat pack. 

It is expected that the packing of fish 
for pet food to be used by United States 
pet food packers as an ingredient in their 
own pet food will increase. Most of the 
fish for pet food is now being packed in 
the Shizouka district, but interest is in- 
dicated also in this type of industry in 
Hokkaido, Sanriku, and Choshi districts. 

^ 3}c ^ ^ ?|c 

PLAN TO REDEPLOY SALMON 
BOATS TO OTHER FISHERIES: 

The Japanese Fisheries Agency and 
the Japan Salmon Fishermen's Federa- 
tion began on May 29 to assemble and 
consider data on measures to be taken 
in connection with the reorganization of 
the North Pacific salmon fishery, and 
particularly the large-scale anticipated 
reduction in the number of salmon fish- 
ing boats. These discussions will serve 
as a basis for determining the redeploy- 
ment of the salmon fishing boats into tuna 
fishing, trawling, or salmon gill -net fish- 
ing outside the Soviet- Japanese treaty 
area. 

Present movements in connection with 
the large-scale reduction in the number 
of salmon boats are that the Japan Salm- 
on Fishermen's Federation is hoping for 
Government compensation for those leav- 
ing the fishery and for a change-over to 
tuna boats of the 250-ton class. Not all 
of the boats would change to tuna fishing, 
as many as possible being redeployed in- 
to trawling and into salmon fishing south 
of the treaty line. But the salmon fish- 
ermen would like to have as many as pos- 
sible allowed into tuna fishing, at the 
same time having the Government make 
better efforts to weed out the prefectural 
"research vessels," which now number 
about 40 and catch around 24,000 tons of 
tuna a year. On the other hand, the Fed- 
eration of Tuna Fishermen's Cooperative 
Associations is expressing strong oppo- 
sition to any government policy of rede- 
ploying salmon boats into the tuna fishery. 
The Shizuoka Prefecture Tuna Fisher- 
men's Association has made representa- 
tions on this account to Prime Minister 
Kishi, but the local tuna fishermen's as- 
sociations in the north-eastern part of 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



51 



Japan (Contd.): 

the country are not showing any such 
strong opposition. ( Nikkan Suisan Tsu - 
shin , June 1, 1959.) 

***** 

SIXTH ROUND OF CANNED 

TUNA SALES FOR 

EXPORT TO UNITED STATES : 

The Tokyo Canned Tuna Sales Com- 
pany held June 3-5 its sixth round of 
canned tuna sales for United States ex- 
port during this export year. Only light 
meat was offered--110,000 cases (25,000 
cases each of 7-oz. and 13-oz. cans, and 
and 60,000 cases of 2-kg. or 4.4-lb. cans.) 
There will be no change in price, and 
shipment is to be made from June to Au- 
gust. 

Of the 250,000 cases of white meat 
sold in the fifth round of sales for United 
States export, about 140,000 cases re- 
mained to be shipped in June. According 
to trading company sources, the market 
for exports to the United States appears 
rather strong because of short supplies. 
Because of the poor Japanese summer 
albacore catch. United States packers 
are having trouble buying raw material, 
and the price of fish is risin^^ according 
to the Japanese. 

The opinion of the Japanese trade is 
that the export price for white meat canned 
tuna for the United States must soon be 
increased, and in view of the going ex- 
vessel price of 140 yen per kilogram 
(US$35 3 per short ton) for albacore tuna, 
the Japanese packers are strongly of the 
opinion that an increase of around $1 
a case would be completely inadequate. 
(United States Embassy in Tokyo from 
Nikkan Suisan Tsushin, June 3, 1959.) 



SKIPJACK TUNA VESSEL PRICE DROPS 



Large landings of skipjack tuna were 
being made every day late in May and 
early in June at the Onahama market in 
Fukushima Prefecture, and on June 3 
the ex-vessel price dropped to 25 yen a 
kilogram (about $63 a short ton). Small 
2-kilogram (4.4-lb.) fish sold for 50 yen 
(14 U. S. cents) apiece. Landings were 



22 tons on May 31, 35 tons on June 1, 
101 tons on June 2, and 106 tons on June 3. 

The skipjack were taken by pole-and- 
line and by seiners. At first they were 
sold at $125 to $150 a short ton ex-vessel, 
but the successive days of heavy landings 
brought the price down to the $63-$100 
level of June 3. The fish are being ship- 
ped fresh within the prefecture and in 
neighboring prefectures to feed farm- 
hands working at rice transplanting, and 
are also being taken by driers and can- 
ners. 

The main pole-and-line fishing ground 
is 200 to 300 miles east of Cape Nojima 
in Chiba Prefecture, while the seiners 
are fishing about 20 miles off Onahama. 
About 80 seiners from this and other 
prefectures have assembled at the Ona- 
hama base. (Suisan Keizai Shimbun , 
June 9, 1959.) 

s)c ^ sic ^ ;{c 

SUMMER ALBACORE 
FISHING CONTINUES POOR: 

Japanese tuna fishermen continued to 
report poor fishing for summer albacore 
tuna as of the early part of June. Shimi- 
zu, a leading Japanese tuna port, report- 
ed no improvement in landings and can- 
ners of that city have almost given up 
hope of packing any substantial quantity 
of summer albacore tuna this year. Only 
a little over 600 metric tons (or less than 
20 percent of a normal year) have been 
landed at Shimizu from March 24 (when 
the first landing of poled tuna was report- 
ed) until May 25. 

However, skipjack landings have been 
heavy and tuna packers are packing that 
species since the ex-vessel or landed 
price is reported reasonable. Japanese 
canners report that to pack albacore tuna 
at prevailing prices means a loss of a- 
bout 55 U. S. cents a case, while packing 
a case of skipjack tuna at current prices 
means a profit of 55 U. S. cents a case. 

>J; D^ if: :^ >|< 

TUNA CANNERS HARD HIT 
BY ALBACORE SCARCITY: 

The failure of the Japanese summer 
albacore fishery is dealing heavy blows 



52 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Japan (Contd.): 

to both canners and freezers in Japan, 
The canners, in particular, are hard hit 
because they are trying to fill the quota 
for export to the United States. The can- 
ners, who judge that it will be extremely 
difficult to fill their production quotas 
with purchases of bait-boat albacore a- 
lone, are beginning to show an interest 
in buying shipboard-frozen long-line fish, 
which has hitherto been monopolized by 
frozen tuna exporters. The only indica- 
tion of this trend is the purchase of a 
small lot by a company at Yaizu on June 
10 at US$353 a short ton, and an earlier 
purchase by another company, (Nikkan 
Suisan Tsushin, June 11, 1959.) ~ 



;;c i',i :^ ^ 



TUNA INDUSTRY TRENDS AND PROBLEMS : 

When the new Japanese export year began in Aprils the 
fisheries trade press was filled with news of conferences to 
set export quotas and prices for tuna products and to decide 
the allotment of export business among the producers. 
There are reports of trouble for Japanese tuna abroad, and 
moverrents within the other Japanese fisheries are bringing 
pressure upon established operators to permit newcomers 
to enter the tuna mothership field. 

On tuna loin and disk exports, the Japanese freezers are 
reported to have agreed on a 3,000-ton quota for 1959, the 
same as in 1958, but they are said to be having difficulty in 
deciding how to allot this quota among the producers. Fur- 
thermore, it appears that they have been having trouble sell- 
ing the 1958 quota, with only 1,394 tons sold to the end of 
January. Consequently they were moving early in April for 
a price cut of 10 percent, which would bring the check price 
for yellowfin loins to $550 a short ton and albacore to $720. 
The Japanese Fisheries Agency has reportedly been opposing 
the cut, for fear of stirring up new opposition to Japanese loin 
exports in the United States, but there were predictions that 
the Agency will go along with the industry's wishes. 

opposition to a Japanese company's plans to establish can- 
neries in connection with its tuna base projects in Singapore 
and Penang continues among tuna canners in Japan. On Feb- 
ruary 12 a group from the Tuna Export Canners Association 
visited the Fisheries Agency and asked that the overseas base 
plans be stopped because of possible bad effects on the canned 
tuna export trade with the United States, The authorities re- 
portedly have not committed themselves on the questioa, and 
want the industry associations concerned to work out the prob- 
lem with Kaigai Gyogyo. 

The Southeast Asian tuna base projects of the Japanese 
company mentioned in the previous paragraph may also be a 
factor in the Japanese Fishery Agency's decision to seek 
power to apply to the medium-size (under 100 tons gross) 
tuna boats the same kind of regulations that currently limit 
the operations of large tuna boats. These new regulations 
will tighten up requirements for permission to increase the 
tonnage of such vessels and will require them to seek special 
permission to land tuna abroad. It is explained that when the 
present regulations were drawn up, it was not anticipated that 
boats of this size would be based anywhere but in Japanese 
ports; however, the Japanese company's Singapore plans and 
other similar projects envision the operation of smaller Jap- 
anese tuna boats from bases in foreign countries. 

It is reported that the Japanese Frozen Tuna Export As- 
sociation has tentatively set a quota of 12,000 tons for the 
Italian trade, 8,000 tons to be allotted on the basis of past 
performances, and 4,000 tons for special allotment. The 
Italian exports this year must all be on a barter basis, and 
the problem is that there seems little chance of arranging 
enough barter to cover the planned quantity of frozen tuna. 



There is reportedly a strong possibility that the production 
quota for canned tuna for export to the United States will be 
set at 2.5 million cases for the 1959 export year. On the basis 
of demand, it is considered reasonable that this will be 65 
percent white meat and 35 percent light meat, but it is doubt- 
ful that the raw material supply situation will make this ratio 
possible. Shipped exports (as opposed to landings of fish a- 
broad from fishing boats) of frozen yellowfin tuna to the U- 
nited States in 1959 have reportedly been set at 35.000 short 
tons. Discussions are being carried on over whether to sell 
the fish through individual exporters, as at present, or 
through a joint sales company. It is anticipated that the form- 
er method will be used, because of opposition from clipper 
operators to the joint sales company idea. 

Landings of tuna in Central American and Caribbean ports 
for transshipment to United States packers reportedly have 
been hit by reject claims ranging as high as 30 or 40 percent. 
The high reject rate is mostly for the fillets, which are from 
large yellowfin. 

One of the developments that is arousing great interest in 
tuna circles is a move by salmon and saury fishermen in 
northern Japan, particularly Hokkaido, to get permission 
from the Fisheries Agency to enter the mothership tuna 
fishery. The saury fishery seems to grow more unprofit- 
able as catches grow bigger, so these fishermen are seek- 
ing permits that will enable them to spend a good part of 
the year fishing tuna. Two large companies are said to be 
interested in operating motherships, and Hokkaido salmon 
boat owners have set up a Hokkaido Tuna Fishery Associa- 
tion with about 60 boats that they would like to get into tuna 
mothership fleets. The number of salmon and saury boats 
that already have part-time tuna fishing licenses is reportedly 
224, but the terms of their licenses would have to be changed 
in order to enable them to join tuna mothership operations. 
Last year tuna mothership fleets took about 15,000 short tons 
offish, of which 12,000 were taken by the one large company's 
vessels and the balance by another company. 

A Japanese tuna boat reported sighting the Soviet vessel 
Nora fishing tuna in the Caroline Islands. A Russian fleet 
was reported on the saury grounds off northern Honshu, and 
Russian boats were seen on the mackerel grounds west of 
Kyushu. 



:{« :{c :{■: 5|c >}c 



ULTRASONICS USED TO LOCATE 
SALMON IN NORTH PACIFIC: 



A transmitter and a receiver, which 
the Japanese suspend over the side of the 
vessel at a depth of 1.5 meters (about 5 
feet), record the movement and the density 
offish schools and the depths in the sea 
at which they occur. During daylight the 
fish were usually at depths between 30 
and 50 meters (98-164 feet), but toward 
dusk they rose to shallow depths. 

Fish schools concentrate in the deep- 
scattering layer- -pelagic organisms con- 
centrate in layers throughout all oceans 
at varying depths and rise toward the sur- 
face at night. The fish captured in that 
layer were satiated with Euphausia, small 
shrimp-like crustaceans. When the deep- 
scattering layer was near the surface, 
the fish catches improved and the water 
became less transparent. The large a- 
bundance of plankton, the passively float- 
ing or weakly swimming animal and plant 
life, caused the decline in transparency. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



53 



Japan (Contd.): 

The Japanese believe their equipment, 
which they are trying to improve, will 
lead to improved fishing methods. If 
they can use this technique on a large 
scale, they will improve nnateriallytheir 
salmon catch, without increasing the 
present expenditure of effort. 

*>!=** >1= 

VESSEL TO FISH FOR TUNA 

FROM ARGENTINA: 

A Japanese fishing company is send- 
ing the Yoshino Maru to Argentina for 
tuna fishing. 

The company, which is carrying on 
tuna fishing out of Argentina, received 
a report early in June that the fishing 
grounds off Argentina are good, with 
catches of around 1,000 kan (about 4 
short tons) a day. The same company 
had earlier dispatched the 300-ton (gross) 
Eisei Maru to Argentina and because of 
its success the company is considering 
sending the 700-ton Yoshino Maru. The 
attitude of Argentine authorities was be- 
ing checked and if favorable, the vessel 
was scheduled to sail in mid-July. 

Tuna fishing in Argentina is carried 
on in the Atlantic from Mar del Plata. 
Yellowfin and bluefin tuna are landed 
there and used for canning to meet local 
requirements. Demand is said to be in- 
creasing. 

Fishing arrangements with Argentina 
were initiated in the era of President 
Peron, but thereafter, because of politi- 
cal unrest they did not go smoothly. Last 
year around October the project finally 
started to function, and it is said that the 
Argentine government is adopting policies 
of positive aid to the fishery. (Nippon 
Suisan Shimbun, June 3, 1959.) 



Korea 



FISHERIES DEVELOPMENTS, MAY 1959 : 
A ceremony was held on May 12, 1959, 
at Pusan, Korea, to mark the formal trans- 
fer of one 80-ton purse-seine vessel and 
one 70-ton carrier, procured under the 
fisheries development project of the In- 




ternational Cooperation Administration to 
the new owner. These boats were the third 
and fourth received of seven fishing boats 
being built abroad under the fisheries 
program. These boats were commission- 
ed and put to sea immediately. On May 25, 
1959, the seiner was reported to have 
caught nearly 3,500 boxes of fish (about 
100 tons) during the first 10 days at sea 
making it the high production boat by 
mid-June. 

Following delay due to bad weather, 
shrimp fishing got under way along the 
south and west coast about mid-May and 
Pusan processors began receiving ship- 
nnents shortly thereafter. The Central 
Fisheries Inspection Station reported 
that about 40,000 pounds of Korean east 
coast shrimp were frozen for export un- 
der the new inspection regulation between 
mid-March and May 1. Practically all 
of this amount has been shipped. 



Malaya 

JAPANESE -MALAYAN COMPANY TO 
PRODUCE FROZEN AND CANNED TUNA: 



A Japanese fisheries company held its 
regular stock-holders ' meeting on May 29 
and discussed a report on a Malayan - 
Japanese company which is to be estab- 
lished at Penang. The company is a joint 
venture of the Japanese company and 
Chinese businessmen in Malaya. The 
meeting to establish the new concern was 
scheduled for the end of June in Penang. 

The company will be capitalized at 
¥60 million (US$167,000), of which the 
Malayans will invest 51 percent and the 
Japanese 49 percent. There will be 5 
Japanese officers and four Malayans, the 
president to be Malayan. In addition to 
an existing cannery, freezing (5 -ton ca- 
pacity) and cold-storage (166-ton capac- 
ity) facilities are to be built within 8 
months of the time the capital is paid in. 
Contracts to purchase fish will be made 
with 5 Japanese boats. Production plans 
call for landings of 1,621 tons of tuna for 
freezing and 1,188 tons for canning in oil. 
Exports of canned tuna to African and 
Asian countries and to Europe will be 
about 59,900 cases; 14,000 cases will be 
sold to the Malayan armed forces; and 



54 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Malaya (Contd.): 

2j000 cases on the local market. Land- 
ings of about 400 tons will be made for 
the fresh and salted fish trade. (Nikkan 
Suisan Tsushin, May 30, 1959.) 



Mexico 

WEST COAST SHRIMP FLEET 
TIED UP OVER PRICE DISPUTE: 

On May 16, 1959, a dispute over prices 
between fishermen's cooperatives and 
vessel owners on the West Coast of Mex- 
ico tied up the shrimp fleets in the vari- 
ous ports. The East Coast cooperatives, 
recognizing the difficulties the boat own- 
ers are undergoing, settled for a one 
year period ending May 15, 1960, with 
an increase to cover only the cost of 
social security. This amounts to 165 
pesos a metric ton for large shrimp and 
105 pesos for small. This is about 
US$12.00 and $7.64, respectively, a short 
ton with the break between large and 
small at 31-35 count headless. 

The cooperative fishermen (the catch- 
ing of shrimp in Mexico is restricted to 
fishermen belonging to cooperatives) on 
the West Coast are asking for a 25-per- 
cent increase. The boat owners are will- 
ing to concede an increase of 15 percent 
providing that one crew member is elim- 
inated. The normal complement on West 
Coast of Mexico shrimp vessels is seven 
men and on the East Coast five. 

At one stage of the negotiations the 
boat owners offered to sell all boats, 
shore installations, and transportation 
equipment to the cooperatives. However, 
agreement could not be reached as to the 
method of payment. (United States Em- 
bassy dispatch of May 21, 1959, from 
Mexico.) 

SHRIMP PRICE DISPUTE 
BEING SETTLED: 

The dispute over the price to be paid 
Mexican shrimp fishermen on the West 
Coast during the 1959/60 season in open 
waters starting September 16 (season 
closed July 16 through September 15) 



appeared to be well on the way toward set- 
tlement late in May 1959. One organiza- 
tion with operations in Topolobampo and 
Culiacan, Sinaloa, and in Saline Cruze, 
Oaxaca, reached agreement with the co- 
operatives on May 22, 1959, and it was 
expected that similar agreements would 
soon be reached with the remaining West 
Coast cooperatives. 

The agreement calls for a guaranteed 
headless shrimp price of 2,600 pesos 
(about US$208.00) a metric ton, and under 
current prices an additional 400 pesos 
(US$32.00) to be paid the fishermen. 

If the market price for shrimp fluc- 
tuates, the fishermen will share at the 
rate of 15.4 percent in the fluctuations, 
with a guaranteed minimum price of 
2,600 pesos. At present prices the fish- 
ermen will receive about US$43.92 more 
for each metric ton of headless shrimp 
landed--an increase over the 1957-59 
fishermen's price of about 2 U. S. cents 
a pound. 

In addition, the fishermen will be per- 
mitted to bring in one -half ton of fish 
each trip. The cooperatives plan on sell- 
ing the fish in Mexico City, and other con- 
suming centers at low prices, since no 
charges will be assessed for catchingthe 
fish. 

Fishing circles are of the opinion that 
the same arrangements will be made by 
the remainder of the West Coast boat 
owners, and that the seven-day strike 
that tied up two -thirds of Mexico's shrimp 
fleet is now over. 



Morocco 



PROBLEMS IN MARKETING FISHERY PRODUCTS: 

The separation of the Moroccan franc from the French 
franc and the inauguration of the European Common Market 
have caused difficulties for the Moroccan fishing industry. 
However, the marketing problem was pressing even before 
the separation of the franc because of the declining world 
prices for sardines, the high cost price for Moroccan prod- 
ucts, and the stiffened competition from Portugal. 

It is estimated that the separation of the franc is costing 
the canners 535 million francs (about US$1,009,000) this sea- 
son. In addition, upon the inauguration of the European Com- 
mon Market, the 10-percent reduction of custom duties was 
extended to other Organization of European Economic Coop- 
eration countries so that Portugal, for example, gained 150 
francs (US$0.30) per case over Morocco in certain European 
Common Market countries. France, because of her commit- 
ments toward the Common Market will probably be obliged 




August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



55 



Morocco (Contd.): 

to abolish the 12,000-ton duty-free quota for Moroccan 
canned fish, and should this happen, it is hard to see how the 
fishery industry could survive. The cost price of Moroccan 
sardines is 4.000 francs (US$8.16) per case. In France, be- 
cause of the quota, the sale price js 6,000 francs (US$12.24), 
but outside France only 3,400 francs (US$6.94). 

A bitter controversy has brolcen out between the canners 
and the frozen fish industry. The canners blame the latter 
for the nnarlceting problem, claiming that frozen Moroccan 
sardines are canned in France and cut down the market for 
sardines canned in Morocco. The freezing industry believes 
that if it does not supply the fish, the Portuguese will and 
that the trouble with the canning industry is that their tins 
and oil are too expensive. It is pointed out that no great prog- 
ress has been made since the export of beheaded frozen sar- 
dines was forbidden in 1958 and that 1.7 million cases of 
canned fish (about 1.4 million of which were sardines) re- 
mained unsold. An unsatisfactory compromise has been 
achieved and whole frozen sardines may now be exported in 
5-kilogram (11 -lb.) packages. 

The boat-builders at Larache are idle and the northern 
fisheries are suffering from the loss of former markets in 
Spain. It has, in fact, been suggested that no new boats be 
built except to replace old ones so that there will be enough 
work for the existing fleet. 

At Agadir, where over a hundred plants were once opera- 
ting, 80 percent of the 1958 catch went into the manufacture 
of byproducts, fish meal, and fish oil. Because of the much 
lower price paid for sardines going to reduction plants--a- 
bout 9 francs (about 0.8 U.S. cents) a kilo as compared to 
28 francs (5.7 U.S. cents) for fish going to canneries--the 
fisherman's share of the profits went down from 245,000 
francs (US$5B3) for the 1957 fishery to 204,000 francs 
(US$486) in 1958. 

Exports of shrimp, having mounted to 200 metric tons in 
1958. are now falling off sharply. Large amounts of Egyp- 
tian and Scandinavian shrimp have brought the Morrocan 
shrimp price down. 

If the fishery industry should fail, not only would some 
20.000 fishermen and related workers be unemployed, but 
also other industries would be vitally affected, particularly 
can makers and olive-oil producers. 



Netherlands 

FIRST FACTORYSHIP ACQUIRED: 

The Netherlands fishing fleet will ac- 
quire its first factoryship soon. It is the 
Van Ronzalen, a German trawler which 
will be reconditioned by a shipbuilder in 
Ijmuiden and then sent to Rotterdam, 
v/hich will be the ship's base. 

The factoryship will have a process- 
ing plant capable of producing 20 metric 
tons of fish fillets a day. ( Boletin de 
Infornnacion, Sindicato Nacional de la 
Pesca, April 1959, Madrid, Spain.) 




Nicaragua 

SHRIMP INDUSTRY GROWING: 

Although shrimp fishing in Nicaragua 
slowed down during the first quarter of 
1959, it continues to be a growing indus- 
try. One United States firm asked for a 
concession to fish off the Caribbean shore 
and another firm asked for a concession 
to fish off both the Caribbean and the Pa- 
cific shores. 

At the same time a French company, 
which asked for a concession to grow oys- 
ters in Laguna de Perlas north of Blue- 
fields, was granted free entry privileges 
under the Industrial Development Law 
to bring into the country all the machin- 
ery necessary to process and pack fish 
and fish products. (United States Foreign 
Service report of May 28 from Managua.) 



Peru 

EXPORTS OF PRINCIPAL 
MARINE PRODUCTS, 

JANUARY-APRIL 1959 AND YEAR 1958 : 
Exports of principal marine products 
by Peru during the first quarter of 1959 
continued at a high rate. Comparable 



Peruvian Exports of Principal Marine Products, 
Ian -April 1959 and Year 1958 


Marine Products 


Ian. -April 19591; 


Year 195827 | 


Quantity' 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Fish meal 

Fish (frozen, 
canned, etc.) . . . 

Sperm oil 

Fish oil 

Whale meal 

Fertilizer (guano) . . 
Whale oil 


Metric 
Tons 
51,058 

5,778 

3,749 

1,301 

998 

405 


US$ 
1,000 


Metric 

Tons 

105, 777 

30,056 
7,352 
1,643 
1,295 
3/15, 133 
1,695 


US$ 
1,000 
11,635 

7,618 

1,103 

193 

127 

3/1,270 

167 


5,936 

1,879 

481 

129 

117 

34 


Total 


63,289 


8,576 


162,951 


22, 113 


1/ Values converted at rate of 26.40 soles equals US$1 for 

first quarter of 1959 . 
2/ Values converted at rate of 23. 30 soles equals US$1 for 

year 1958. 
3/ Quantity and value 9 mos. 1958. 



data for the first quarter of 1958 are un- 
available except for fish meal. The fish 
meal exports of 51,058 metric tons Jan- 
uary-April 1959 were 30.4 percent high- 
er than the 39, 152 tons exported January- 
May 1958 (United States Embassy in 
Lima, May 25, 1959). 




56 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Somalia 

DEVELOPMENT OF TUNA 
FISHERY SHOWS PROMISE: 

During the September 1958-May 1959 
tuna fishing season, the tuna cannery at 
Candala, Somalia, packed over 16,000 
cases, the largest pack since it has been 
in operation. The cannery at Habo, So- 
malia, after a shutdown of three years 
reopened in April 1959 and up to mid- 
May packed 2,182 cases of tuna. Most of 
the fish have been caught by primitive 
methods (hand-line fishing from canoes) 
by Somali and Arab fishermen as there 
is only one boat in the area equipped with 
long-line gear, loaned to the Candala can- 
nery owner by the International Coopera- 
tion Administration (ICA). However, au- 
thority has just been received from ICA 
to proceed with the construction of two 
27-foot Diesel-powered fishing boats for 
demonstration purposes. At the same 
time the ICA Fisheries Advisor to So- 
malia has started classes to train Somali 
fishermen in the use of long-line fishing 
gear and other modern fishing methods. 

With these steps being taken in the 
modernization of fishing, there is every 
reason to believe that the catches can be 
greatly increased and production multi- 
plied several or many times over. Al- 
most all of the pack is now exported to 
Italy, but a very rough market survey 
indicates there are excellent marketing 
possibilities for tuna and other fish prod- 
ucts in other European countries, includ- 
ing the European Common Market in 
which Somalia may become a member, 
as well as in the Middle East and Africa. 
A Food and Agriculture Organization 
survey report recommended that the fish- 
ing industry was in the No. 1 position for 
both raw material and sale possibilities. 
A full scale survey of the fisheries poten- 
tial of Somalia is now under considera- 
tion. 

It is believed that a survey team should 
include an oceanographer and a marine 
biologist in addition to a fishing expert. 
It is further recommended that the sur- 
vey should include not only the 180-mile 
north coast of Somalia on the Gulf of 
Aden, but also the long (1,150 miles) east 
coast of Somalia on the Indian Ocean. 



Union of South Africa 

PILCHARD-MAASBANKER 
LANDINGS, JANUARY 1959: 

The Union of South Africa's west coast 
pelagic shoal fish catch for January 1959 
(the first month of the 1959 season) was 
10,451 metric tons of pilchards, 49 tons 
of maasbanker (jack mackerel), and 6,139 
tons of mackerel. The total catch was 
16,639 tons, according to the Union's Di- 
vision of Fisheries. These figures com- 
pare with 7,690 tons of pilchards, 150 
tons of maasbanker, and 3,142 tons of 
mackerel in January 1958, and 4,551 tons 
of pilchards, 605 tons of maasbanker, and 
3,267 of mackerel in January 1957. 

The January catch this year yielded 
3,039 tons of fish meal, 141,609 gallons 
of fish-body oil, 1,364,079 pounds canned 
pilchards and maasbanker. ( The South 
African Shipping News and Fishing Indus - 
try Review , March 1959.) 

>;; >;< >!c ^ >;: 

PILCHARD-MAASBANKER 
LANDINGS, FIRST QUARTER 1959 : 

The South African Division of Fisher- 
ies reports that the landings from the 
Cape West Coast pilchard -maasbanker 
fishery in January-March 1959 amounted 
to 76,191 short tons as compared with 
landings of 57,640 tons in January- March 
1958. The first quarter 1959 pilchard- 
maasbanker landings were made up of 
71,043 tons of pilchard and 5,148 tons of 
maasbanker or jack mackerel. In addi- 
tion, the nonquota mackerel landings 
rose sharply to 22,843 tons or 743 tons 
more than the entire catch for 1958. 

It was predicted that Cape West Coast 
landings of pilchards, maasbanker, and 
mackerel in 1959 may establish a new 
record. The best landings of those spe- 
cies occurred in 1952 when about 300,000 
tons were landed. In 1958 a total of 
298,800 tons was landed for processing 
into fish meal, fish oil, and canned fish. 

^ * >!! * * 



RESEARCH ON SPINY 
LOBSTERS PLANNED: 



The Oceana group of South African fish- 
ing companies in May 1959 announced 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



57 



Union of South Africa (Contd.): 

plans to conduct its own research on the 
spiny lobster resources of the Cape West 
Coast. The research planned by this in- 
dustry group of firms is expected initial- 
ly to cost abouttSO, 000-40,000 (US$84,000 
to $112,000). A 67-foot fishing vessel 
will be modified to carry out the pro- 
gram for the benefit of the spiny lobster 
processors in Hout Bay, Lambert's Bay, 
Thorn Bay, Hondeklip Bay, and Port Nol- 
loth. 

The South African Division of Fisher- 
ies conducts extensive research on pe- 
lagic fish, but has not to date begun re- 
search on the spiny lobster in the Cape 
West Coast area. The Division, however, 
is conducting research on the spiny lob- 
ster in the Luderitz area. 




U. S. S. R. 

NEGOTIATING FOR FIVE NEW 
FACTORYSHIP TRAWLERS: 

The Soviet Union is negotiating with 
a shipyard in Kiel, West Germany, for 
the delivery of five new factoryship 
trawlers, according to Dansk Fiskeriti - 
dende (May 22, 1959), a Danish fishery 
trade periodical. The five vessels will 
cost a total of about 75 million marks 
(US$17.9 million). Previously, the same 
shipyard delivered 24 factoryship trawl- 
ers of the Pushkin type to the Soviet 
Union. 

>l! 5[£ ;|< ^ >|c 

FISHING FLEET OPERATING 

IN BERING SEA: 

A Soviet fishing fleet has been report- 
ed operating in the eastern waters of the 
Bering Sea. As of April 27, a substantial 
portion of the Soviet fleet, including about 
40 vessels, was working approximately 
100 miles north of Unimak Island. By 
mid-May, much of the Soviet fleet had 
moved northward to the area between 
Unimak and St Matthew Islands. 

The Soviet fleet has been operating in 
waters along the Arctic ice flow and has 
been moving northward as the ice field 
gradually recedes. Apparently the fleet 



depends upon this ice field as a source 
of ice for preserving the catch, at least 
until it can be transferred from the fish- 
ing vessels to the large motherships. 

There has been no evidence that the 
Soviets are using salmon fishing gear, 
nor is there evidence that the fleet is 
particularly interested in halibut. For 
the most part, the Soviet fleet appears to 
be operating entirely on bottom fish, 
paralleling very closely the operations 
of Japajiese vessels in this area of the 
Bering Sea. 



United Kingdom 

CANNED TUNA PRICES. MAY 1959: 



During May 1959, offerings of tuna or 
tuna -like fish on the British market were 
mainly bonito originating from Peru. 
Since the liberalization of canned salmon 
imports, sales of tuna have decreased 
and differences in c.i.f. quotations may 
be attributed to pressure on some of the 
canned fish importers to move stocks. 
Prices c.i.f. for one prominent brand 
early in May 1959 were as follows: solid 
pack in cottonseed oil (presumably bon- 
ito): 7-oz., 48 cans/case, 43s. (US$6.02) 
a case; S^-oz., 48 cans/case, 28s. ($3.92) 
a case; another brand's prices were: 7- 
oz., 48 cans/case, 50s. lid. ($7.13) a 
case; 3|-oz., 48 cans/case, 31s. 8d. 
($4.43) a case. Japanese solid pack white - 
meat tuna 3j-oz., 48 cans/case, was of- 
fered at 35s. ($4.90) a case. 

Wholesale prices for canned tuna pub- 
lished by a British trade journal in May 
1959 were as follows: solid pack (fancy 
quality), 3|-oz., 96 cans/case, 95s. 9d. 
($13.40) a case and 7-oz., 48 cans/case, 
79s. 3d. ($11.09) a case, select 3-|-oz., 
96 cans/case, 100s. ($14.00) a case; and 
tunny in tomato sauce, 3^-oz., 14s. 2d. 
(1.98) a dozen cans. Retail prices: solid 
pack (fancy quality), 3|-oz., Is. 2.5d. (17 
U. S. cents) a can and 7-oz., 2s. (28 cents) 
a can; select, 3|-oz., Is. 3d. (17.5 cents); 
tunny in tomato sauce, 3^-oz., ls.6d. (21 
cents) a can. 

Canned tuna imported into United King- 
dom enters under the heading "other can- 
ned fish" and exact figures on the imports 



58 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



United Kingdom (Contd.): 

of canned tuna and bonito are unobtain- 
able. Total imports under that heading 
from January-November 1958 amounted 
to about US$3,572,800. Of that amount, 
Peru supplied US$1, 498, GOO and Japan 
supplied US$484,400. All of those im- 
ports are probably tuna because of re- 
strictions on other imports included in 
the category. 

^c sis sic :^ sic 

IMPORT CONTROLS ON CANNED FISH: 

Controls on the import of many con- 
sumer goods from the Dollar Area were 



removed by the United Kingdom effective 
June 8, 1959. Included among the com- 
modities freed of controls are canned fish, 
according to a news release transmitted 
by the United States Embassy in London 
(May 27, 1959). The British press re- 
lease points out that the effect will be a 
further substantial reduction in discrim- 
ination in the operations of import con- 
trols against Canada, the United States, 
and the rest of the Dollar Area. Imports 
of canned fish in the future will receive 
the same treatment as imports from West- 
ern Europe, i.e. freedom from control. 

Import controls on canned salmon only 
were removed by Britain on September 1 7, 
1958. 



FISH FLOUR 

Research onthe production of a neutralfish flour in South Africa is traced as 
far back as 1937. Two researchers investigated methods of producing a neutral 
fish flour which could be added to cereal starch foods, without influencing their 
taste or smell. One of the first issues of the South African Shipping News (Feb- 
ruary 1946) described the progress made and in 1951 the same publication re- 
ported that a completely neutral fish flour with a protein content of more than 85 
percent had been produced from white fish. 

Large-scale production of the flour might, however, have been affected by 
comparatively limited supplies of white fish meal and so for several years the South 
African Fishing Industry Research Institute worked on a process for producing 
the flour from the more abundant pilchard and maasbanker. This work was en- 
couraged by the Union Government which hoped to increase the protein diet of 
South Africa's people by adding fish flour to bread and to mealie meal. 

Eventually in September 1 954 The South African Fishing News reported that 
the Fishing Industry Research Institute had developed a commercially adaptable 
process for the production of fish flour from a cheap and abundant fish." A plant 
was installed in a factory at Dido Valley near Simonstown and soon a neutral fish 
flour, with a protein content of about 80 percent, was being produced on a com- 
mercial scale. Tests conducted by the South African Department of Nutrition 
showed that enriched bread could take up to eight percent of fish flour without 
having its taste, smell or color affected. This enriched bread, with about two 
percent fishflour, is now sold throughout the Cape Western Province and the Dido 
Valley plant has produced nearly 1,000 tons of neutral flour from pilchard and 
maasbanker meal. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



59 



FEDERAL 

ACTIONS 



Department of the Interior 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

BRISTOL BAY ALASKA SALMON FISH- 
ING GEAR REGISTRATIONS ANNOUNCED: 



The total number of units of gear reg- 
istered for use in the salmon fishing dis- 
tricts of Bristol Bay were announced by 
the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisher- 
ies on June 22, 1959. As published in the 
Federal Register of June 23, the num- 
ber of units registered by district as 
of 6 p.m. Friday, June 19, 1959, were 
as follows: 



Kvichak-Naknek 
Nushagak 
Egegik 
Ugashik 



150 units 

293 units 

60 units 

50 units 



sje sj: >|< >!< 3)c 

FISHERY ATTACHE PACT SIGNED : 

On May 5, 1959, Assistant Secretary 
Scott of the Department of State and As- 
sistant Secretary Leffler of the Depart- 
ment of the Interior signed a document 
establishing a fisheries and minerals 
attache program. 

The agreement spells out the respon- 
sibilities of each Department in select- 
ing attaches, the duties of the attaches, 
and the methods for instructing attaches 
as to the types of reporting required 
from abroad on developments that affect 
the United States fishing and minerals 
industries. 

At present, there are two fishery at- 
taches--one in Mexico City as Regional 
Fisheries Officer for Latin America, and 
one in Tokyo as Fisheries Attache for 
Japan. The Bureau has requested that the 
Department of State establish four addi- 
tional regional posts to cover other stra- 
tegic fishing areas of the world. The 



posts recommended will be at the Oslo, 
London, Lisbon, and Bangkok Embassies. 




Treasury Department 

BUREAU OF CUSTOMS 



DECISIONS ON AIRTIGHT CONTAINERS MAY INCREASE 
IMPORT D U TY ON SOME PACKAGED FISHERY PRODUCTS: 

Recent decisions by the U. S.Bureau of Customs hold that 
frozen rainbow trout and fish fillets, packaged in a certain 
manner, are packed in airtight containers, and therefore duti- 
able under Tariff Paragraph 718(b) at 12-1/2 percent ad val- 
orem. Previously they were dutiable at a 1/2 cent a pound in 
the case of whole frozen trout, and 1-1/2 cents a pound for 
frozen fillets other than groundfish, under Tariff Paragraph 
717. These two decisions may be applied to frozen fish fillets 
and other products that are imported in cellophane, polyethy- 
lene, and cryovac, and other modern packaging materials. 
The decisions read as follows: 

Treasury Decision 54826 (47): Fresh or frozen trout, be- 
headed or eviscerated or both, but not further advanced, are 
classifiable under 718(b), Tariff Act of 1930, when packed in 
airtight containers (whether polyethylene, cellophane, cryovac 
bags, or other containers completely sealed so as to be im- 
permeable to air), weighing with their contents not over 15 
pounds each, or if not in airtight containers as fresh-water 
fish under 717(a). 

Treasury Decision 54802(13): Bag made from a sheet con- 
sisting of alayer of cellulose nitrate-coated cellophane and a 
layer of polyethylene in such a way that the inside of the bag is 
polyethylene only, three edges joined by heat sealing, a fish fil- 
let inserted, and the top also heat-sealed, is an airtight con- 
tainer for the purposes of 718(b). If the same fillet is placed 
in an open container or "boat" overwrapped in cellophane and 
waxed paper and sealed in such a way that air can pass in and 
out, the overwrapped "boat" is not an airtight container for 
the purposes of 718(b). 

The two decisions did hold that the products submitted were 
in airtight containers and therefore that the containers were 
impermeable to air. The trout was packed in cryovac; the fil- 
lets were packed in what Is called a poly-cell bag or cellulose- 
film bag. The classification by the Bureau of Customs is be- 
ing protested by the American Seafood Distributors Associa- 
tion and a determination as to impermeability to air will in 
due course be made by the Customs Court in the future. In the 
meantime, packers and importers of all fishery products, 
using the modern packaging methods, must make a decision 
on future shipments, shipments on the water, purchase con- 
tracts, etc., otherwise they will find that what they thought 
would be dutiable at from a 1/2 cent to 1-1/2 cents a pound is 
goingto be assessed at the rate of 12-1/2 percent ad valorem. 

The Bureau of Customs makes no statement of a criteria for 
impermeability to air. They provide no additional information 
on the decisions than Is contained in the summaries. They will 
decide each case as it is presented. Possible interpretations 
of criteria are as follows; 

1. All cryovac containers and all containers packed under 
vacuum will be considered to be airtight containers, and duti- 
able at 12-1/2 percent. 



60 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



2. The heat-sealed polyethylene bag, not packed under 
vacuum, and not of an abnormal thickness, and consisting 
of one layer only, that is used by so many fishery firms, 
will not be considered to be an airtight container, and duti- 
able at the lower rate. 

3. A bag or sack made of a combination of nnaterials, 
such as cellophane and polyethylene, or made from a sheet 
of more than one layer or of an abnormal thickness, whether 
or not packed under vacuum, will be considered to be an air- 
tight container, and dutiable at the 12-1/2 percent rate. 

The determination of airtightness is made as to the im- 
mediate container—the container that immediately surrounds 
the fish. In the case of bagged trout or bagged fillets, which 
are in turn packed in a master carton, the bag is the immedi- 
ate container. That the master carton is cardboard, over- 
wrapped with cellophane, is not important in this determina- 
tion, if within the master carton are individual containers. 
The one-pound fillet packages, packed in a cardboard box 
overwrapped in cellophane, will probably be considered non- 
airtight. 

In a discussion with Bureau of Customs officials on June 
11, 1959, the National Fisheries Institute was advised that, 
"contrary to general opinion" the Bureau's recent decisions 
regarding airtight containers niade from films (polyethelene, 
cellophane, cryovac, etc.) will not adversely affect the duty 
classification of fishery products to the extent believed by 
the industry. 

Fishery products packaged in film of single thickness is 
not considered airtight by the Bureau of Customs, nor is 
multiple thickness packaging considered airtight if the bags 
are NOT heat-sealed. If the open end of a bag is stapled, for 
instance, it is not considered airtight. 




Eighty-Sixth Congress 
(First Session) 

Public bills and resolutions which 
may directly or indirectly affect the 
fisheries and allied industries are re- 
ported upon. Introduction, referral to 




committees, pertinent legislative ac- 
tions, hearings, and other actions by the 
House and Senate, as well as signature 
into law or other final disposition are 
covered. 



ALASKA OMNIBUS ACT : The President on 
June 25 signed into law H. R. 7120, to amend cer- 
tain laws of the United States in light of the admis- 
sion of the State of Alaska into the Union (P. L. 
86-70). The legislation is largely technical pro- 
viding changes in Federal laws, necessary because 
of the change in Alaska's status from Territory to 
a State, eliminating inappropriate references in 
Federal statutes. Other provisions are substan- 
tive, terminating certain special Federal programs 
in Alaska, and enabling participation by Alaska in 
other programs on "an equal footing with other 
States." The bill was drafted by the executive a- 
gencies concerned with the administration of Fed- 
eral responsibilities in Alaska. Two provisions 
are of particular interest to fisheries interests; 
(1) Alaska will assume jurisdiction over its fish 
and wildlife resources the first day of the calendar 
year following expiration of 90 calendar days (in- 
stead of 90 legislative days) after certification by 
the Secretary of the Interior that the Alaska State 
Legislature has made "adequate provision for the 
administration, management, and conservation of 
the fish and wildlife resources of Alaska in the 
broad national interest." (The Secretary of the In- 
terior made the certification on April 20, 1959. 
The transfer, therefore, will be effective January 1, 
1960, unless Congress adjourns before the 90 days 
provided for in the bill.); (2) authorizes the Presi- 
dent to transfer to Alaska without reimbursement 
property used in a function taken over in whole or 
part by the State. 

BONNEVILLE REORGANIZATION ACT OF 

1959 : A draft of proposed legislation entitled "A 
bill to amend the Bonneville Project Act, as amend- 
ed," was transmitted with an accompanying paper 
from the Under Secretary of the Interior to both 
Houses of Congress on June 18; referred to the re- 
spective Senate and House Committees on Public 
Works. The proposed reorganization, among other 
things, would provide that the Bonneville Power 
Corporation set up would try to coordinate its 
programs with fish and wildlife preservation and 
propagation. 

The Subcommittee on Flood Control of the Sen- 
ate Committee on Public Works conducted hear- 
ings July 15, 16, and 17 on S. 1927 , to establish a 
Bonneville Power Corporation. Among other pur- 
poses, the bill provides that the Corporation would 
be responsible for carrying out the policies of the 
Federal Government for comprehensive multiple- 
purpose water resources development and to co- 
ordinate its programs in relationship to other a- 
gencies including those for fish and wildlife pres- 
ervation and propagation. 

COLUMBIA RIVER FISHERIES INVESTIGA- 
TION: The House Committee on Appropriations on 
June 2 ordered favorably reported IL R^ 7509 , the 
Public Works Appropriation BUI 1960 Fiscal 
( House Report No. 424). Included in the Committee 
recommendations were appropriations for the Corps 
of Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation for water 
resource construction programs. 

The House Committee, however, rejected re- 
quests of Columbia River state conservation agen- 
cies and private conservation interests for an ap- 
propriation of $450,000 to begin an intensified 
program to resolve the problem of preserving and 
.restoring fisheries in the face of an expanded dam 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



61 



building program which is rapidly destroying re- 
maining runs of sea-run fish. The fishery pro- 
gram, which had been developed and approved by 
the Columbia Inter-Agency Committee, proposes 
comprehensive research into techniques and 
methods for perpetuating these sport and commer- 
cial fisheries. Funds made available under it 
would be used by State fish and game agencies and 
the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 

The Committee questioned increases requested 
by the Fish and Wildlife Service for its cooperative 
Federal -State Columbia fisheries development pro- 
gram. It approved an appropriation of $1.2 million 
for construction and $1.7 million for operation of 
facilities to compensate for fisheries losses that 
result from river development while stating in its 
report that it ". . . has no intention of permitting 
the Federal water resources construction pro- 
gram in the Northwest to become the vehicle through 
which this section of the country enjoys more than 
its reasonable share of federal funds available for 
regular fish and wildlife preservation work. . ." 

The Committee also repeated its argument that 
river basin studies of the Fish and Wildlife Service 
should be financed by transfer funds from the Corps 
of Engineers and Bureau of Reclamation, but neither 
the Bureau or the Corps included monies in their 
budget requests for these purposes. 

H. R. 7509 passed the House June 9. The Sen- 
ate Appropriation Committee reported H. II. 7509 
on July 8 (Senate Report No . 486 ). The bill was 
passed by the Senate July 9. The Corps of Engi- 
neers was granted planning money for four dams 
within the Snake River drainage which have been 
strongly opposed by conservationists and state and 
federal wildlife agencies. This includes: $770,000 
for Bruce 's Eddy on the North Fork of the Clear- 
water River; $450,000 for Little Goose lock and 
dam, $800,000 for Lower Monumental lock and 
dam and $200,000 for Lower Granite lock and dam, 
all on the lower Snake River. Each of these proj- 
ects will impede movements of sea-run Chinook 
salmon and steelhead trout into spawning waters 
of the Middle Snake River System. Except for the 
funds recommended for the Lower Granite project, 
the same amounts were approved in the version of 
the bill that passed the House June 9. 

The Senate voted appropriations of $750,000 to 
finance River Basin Studies programs of the Bureau 
of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. Earlier the Bureau 
of the Budget had requested that $836,400 be pro- 
vided for this purpose through direct appropriation 
in the Department of Interior and Related Agencies 
Appropriation Bill. But following the rejection of 
this request by both the House and Senate, the res- 
toration of the $750,000 in the Public Works Bill 
represents the recovery of a substantial part of the 
funds that are needed to determine the effects of 
river development programs on fish and wildlife 
and to compensate for losses to these resources. 
Language, written into the bUl in three different 
places, specifically earmarks funds for Fish and 
Wildlife Service studies, investigations and re- 
ports: $500,000 is provided under the "Coordina- 
tion Act Studies" general construction item for the 
Corps of Engineers; $50,000 is designated under the 
general investigations item for the Corps of Engi- 
neers and $200,000 under general investigations 
for the Bureau of Reclamation. In each place lan- 



guage in the bill provides that "wUdlife conserva- 
tion shall receive equal consideration and be con- 
ducted with other features of water resources de- 
velopment programs." 

The Senate also recommended that $280,000 be 
Included in the Bureau of Reclamation item for 
fish and wildlife studies in connection with the 
Missouri Basin Project. This was the amount rec- 
ommended by the Budget Bureau but denied by the 
House which, along with the $750,000 for other 
River Basin Studies programs, is subject to approv- 
al by House Conferees in House-Senate Conference 
Committee since the House bill did not contain 
these funds. 

The Senate approved the budgeted figures of $1.2 
million for construction, and $1.7 million for op- 
eration and maintenance of the Lower Columbia 
River Fish Sanctuary program, the same amounts 
as provided in the House bill. No funds were in- 
cluded in the measure to launch the proposed in- 
tensive research program of the Columbia Inter- 
Agency Committee on the problem of preserving 
and restoring Columbia River fisheries in the face 
of expanded dam-building activities which are rap- 
idly destroying remaining runs of sea-run fish. 

Senate asked for a conference July 9. 

House Repor t No. 424 , Public Works Appropri- 
ation Bill, 1960 (June^l959, 86th Congress, 1st 
Session, Report of the House Committee on Apnro- 
priations to accompany H. R. 7509 , a bill making 
appropriations for the civil functions administered 
by the Department of the Army, certain agencies 
of the Department of the Interior, and the Tennes- 
see Valley Authority, for fiscal year ending June 30, 
1960), 32 pp., printed. Contains budget estimates 
and Committee recommendations. Included are 
certain tabulations of projects for which funds are 
recommended for both planning and actual construe - 
tion and reductions in budget estimates, compara- 
tive statement of appropriations for 1959, esti- 
mates for 1960, and Committee recommendations. 

Senate Report No. 486 , Public Works Appropri- 
ation Bill, 1960 (J"ury S71959, 86th Congress, 1st 
Session, Report of the Senate Committee on Appro- 
priations to accompany H. R. 7509 , a bill making 
appropriations for civil Tunctions administered by 
the Department of the Army, certain agencies of 
the Department of the Interior, and the Tennessee 
Valley Authority), 49 pp., printed. Contains budget 
estimates. House allowances, and Committee rec- 
ommendations. Included are tables showing by 
State, rivers, harbors, and flood control construc- 
tion projects; comparative statement of appropria- 
tions for 1959, estimates for 1960, allowances by 
House, and Senate Committee recommendations. 

COLOR ADDITIVES IN FOODS : H. R. 7624 
(Harris), a bill to protect the publicTiealth by a- 
mending the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act so as to authorize the use of suitable color 
additives in or on foods, drugs, and cosmetics, in 
accordance with regulations prescribing the con- 
ditions (including maximum tolerances) under 
which such additives may be safely used; to the 
Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce; 
introduced in House June 9. The proposed legis- 
lation would expedite the testing of colors to de- 
termine safe levels of use by requiring color 



62 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



manufacturers to do the appropriate research and 
to submit the results to the Food and Drug Admin- 
istration. All types of color additives would be 
subject to the safety requirements of the new law, 
not merely "coal-tar colors" as under present 
regulations. The proposed bill would replace the 
present "coal-tar color" provisions in the Federal 
law enforced by the Food and Drug Administration 
and was introduced as a regulatory measure to in- 
sure safe use of color additives in foods, drugs and 
cosmetics. 

Also S. 2197 (Hill and Goldwater); to the Com- 
mittee on Labor and Public Welfare; introduced in 
Senate June 17. Identical to H. R. 7624 . 

DOGFISH SHARK ERADICATION : H. R. 7759 
(Pelly), a bill to amend the act providing Tor a pro- 
gram to investigate and eradicate the predatory 
dogfish sharks on the Pacific coast in order to ex- 
pand such a program; to the Committee on Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries; introduced in House 
June 16. Similar to S. 1264 and related bills pre- 
viously introduced which provide for extension and 
expansion of the dogfish shark eradication program 
on the Pacific Coast, but while S. 1264 provides for 
an incentive payment for dogfisK, H. R. 7759 pro- 
vides for finding ways and means of eradicating or 
controlling dogfish. 

H. R. 7759 provides for determinations of the 
effects of dogfish removal upon commercial and 
noncommercial species of fish, the level of fishing 
intensity required to reduce depredations of these 
sharks on the fishing grounds, locations of their 
concentrations and migration routes, the value of 
chemical repellents as control agents, and possible 
commercial uses of the dogfish shark that are kill- 
ed as a result of the control program. Chartered 
vessels would be used in these experimental stud- 
ies. Cooperation with Canada also would be sought. 

Dogfish Shark Eradication : Hearings May 22, 
1959, before the Merchant Marine and Fisheries 
Subcommittee, Senate Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce, 86th Congress, 1st Session, on 
S. 1264 (a bill to amend the Act providing for a 
program to eradicate the dogfish shark on the Pa- 
cific coast in order to expand such program), 46 pp., 
printed. Contains purpose and provisions of the 
Bill, legislative background, testimony, and rec- 
ommendations by State, Federal, and industry rep- 
resentatives. Also includes Pacific Coast Dogfish 
Shark Committee's review report "The Menace of 
the Dogfish Shark on the Pacific Coast," with ac- 
companying tables, illustrations, figures showing 
areas of concentrations, and Committee recom- 
mendations. 

The Senate Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce on June 17 ordered favorably reported 
S. 1264 , to amend the Act providing for a program 
to eradicate the dogfish shark on the Pacific coast 
in order to expand such program, with amendments 
(S. Rept . 411 ). The bill amends the Act entitled 
"An Act authorizing and directing the Secretary of 
the Interior to investigate and eradicate the pred- 
atory dogfish sharks to control the depredations of 
this species on the fisheries of the Pacific coast, 
and for other purposes," approved September 2, 
1958 (72 Stat. 1710). Would extend the program 
from a "four year" to a "five year" period; would 
provide incentive payments to fishermen with re- 



spect to dogfish shark carcasses (not to exceed $15 
a ton) or dogfish livers (not to exceed 15 cents a 
pound); and increases funds to implement the pro- 
gram from $95,000 to $325,000. 

Senate Report No. 411, Bounties on Dogffsh 
Sharks (June 22, r559, 86th Congress, 1st Session, 
Report of the Senate Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce to accompany S. 1264 ), 7 pp. , 
printed. Contains purpose and provisions of the 
bill, discusses sharks, predator control, and gear 
damage; indicates proponents and opponents, ap- 
propriations; presents agency comments and changes 
in existing law. 

H. R. 7891 (Westland) introduced in House 
June 2T; similar to S. 1264 . 

S. 1264 Amendments, intended to be proposed by 
Senator Bush to bill S. 1264 (Magnuson), to amend 
the Act providing for a program to eradicate the 
dogfish shark on the Pacific coast in order to ex- 
pand such a program; ordered to lie on the table 
and to be printed; introduced in Senate June 23. 
Would provide amendments to S. 1264 to expand the 
dogfish shark eradication to include a 1 -million- 
dollar program for the eradication or control of 
starfish in Long Islaind Sound and adjacent waters. 

The Senate on July 6 passed with amendments 
and cleared for the House S. 1264 , to expand the 
program to eradicate the dogfish shark in Pacific 
coastal waters. 

As passed by the Senate the dogfish shark eradi- 
cation provisions were passed without amendment 
to the bill as reported from the Committee on In- 
terstate and Foreign Commerce (S. Rept . No. 411 ). 
The Senate agreed to add as an amendment a new 
section to the bill providing for a 1 -million-dollar 
program for the eradication or control of starfish 
and to amend the title of the legislation to read: 
"A bill to amend the Act providing for a program to 
eradicate the dogfish shark on the Pacific coast in 
order to expand such program, and to provide for 
the development and carrjdxLg out of an emergency 
program for the eradication of starfish in Long Is- 
land Sound and adjacent waters." 

DUMPING RESTRICTIONS IN COASTAL WA- 
TERS : H. R. 8058 (Dorn), a biTTto aid navigation 
and protect the fishing industry by prohibiting the 
dumping of certain materials in the coastal navi- 
gable waters of the United States; to the Committee 
on Public Works; introduced in House July 1. Pro- 
vides amendments to the Oil Pollution Act of 1924, 
as amended, to prohibit the discharge of ferrous 
sulfate, ferric hydroxide, ferric oxide, or sulfuric 
acid into or upon the coastal navigable waters from 
any vessel, amd for other purposes. 

DUMPING RESTRICTIONS IN NEW YORK HAR- 
BOR AND ADJACENT WATERS: H. R. 8078 "(Dorn), 
a bill to aid navigation and protect the fishing in- 
dustry in waters adjacent to New York City by pro- 
hibiting the dumping of certain materials in such 
waters; to the Committee on Public Works; intro- 
duced in House July 1. Provides amendment to the 
Act entitled "An Act to prevent obstructive and in- 
jurious deposits within the harbor and adjacent wa- 
ters of New York City, by dumping, or otherwise, 
and to punish and prevent such offenses," approved 
June 29, 1888, as amended (33 U. S. C, sec. 441). 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



63 



Would prohibit the placing, discharging, or deposit- 
ing by any process or in any mEinner of (1) refuse, 
dirt, ashes, cinders, mud, sand, dredgings, sludge, 
acid or any other matter of any kind, other than 
that flowing from streets, sewers, and passing 
therefrom in a liquid state, in the tidal waters of 
the harbor of New York, or its adjacent or tribu- 
tary waters, or in those of Long Island Sound, with- 
in the limits which shall be prescribed by the su- 
pervisor of the harbor; or (2) of ferrous sulfate, 
ferric hydroxide, ferric oxide, or sulfuric acid, 
other than that flowing from streets, sewers, in 
waters with respect to which a permit for the dis- 
charge overboard of oil or water containing oil 
would not be granted by the supervisor of the har- 
bor, is strictly forbidden. The bUl further pro- 
vides for penalties consisting of fines, imprison- 
ment, or both for violation. One -half of any fine 
imposed shall be paid to the person or persons 
giving information leading to conviction. 

FISHERIES ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1959: The 
Subcommittee on Fisheries and WiIHlife of the 
House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisher- 
ies on July 8 met in executive session in consider- 
ation of H. R. 5421 , a bill to provide a program of 
assistance to correct inequities in the construc- 
tion of fishing vessels and to enable the fishing in- 
dustry of the United States to regain a favorable 
economic status, and for other purposes. 

FISH HATCHERIES: The House Committee on 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries on July 9 ordered 
favorably reported to the House H. R. 2398 , to pro- 
vide for the establishment of a fisViTiatchery in 
northwestern Pennsylvania (H. Rept . No. 654 ). 

FISHERY PRODUCTS INCLUDED IN FOOD-AL- 



Food Distribution Pro- 



LOTMENT PROGRAM : _^ 

grams: Hearings Jime 4, 5, and 8, 1959, before a 
Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on Agri- 
culture and Forestry, 86th Congress, 1st Session 
on S. 489, S. 585, S. 663, S. 862, S. 1884 , and 
S. ?"09"F r (Biimo "facilitate the distribution of sur- 
plus food products to needy families in the United 
States, to safeguard the health, efficiency, and 
morale of the American people, to promote the full 
use of agricultural resources, and for other pur- 
poses), 225 pp., printed. Contains purpose and 
provisions of bills, statements, reports, and rec- 
ommendations of representatives of Government 
and industry; individual views and comments on 
legislation; and various tables and charts. S. 585 
provides for inclusion of fish among items in 
"basic food-allotment" provisions of the program. 

FISHING VESSEL CONSTRUCTION SUBSIDIES: 
S. 2338 (Engle and Magnuson), a bill to provide a 
program to correct inequities in the construction 
of fishing vessels and to enable the fishing indus- 
try of the United States to regain a favorable eco- 
nomic and competitive status, and for other pur- 
poses; to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign 
Commerce; introduced in Senate July 7. Provides 
for a differential subsidy in the construction of new 
fishing vessels of up to 33^ percent, and in excep- 
tional cases up to 50 percent. Would also provide 
authority to the Secretary of the Interior to ac- 
quire obsolete or inadequate fishing vessels in 
connection with construction of a new replacement 
vessel. Related to H. R. 5421 and bills previously 
introduced which, among other purposes, provide 
for fishing vessel construction subsidies. 



The Subcommittee on Merchant Marine and Fish- 
eries of the Senate Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce July 9 conducted hearings on 
S. 2338 . 

FISHING VESSEL MORTGAGE INSURANCE 
FUND ACT : S. 2342 (Magnuson, Smathers, and 
Engle), a biircreatmg a Federal Fishing Vessel 
Mortgage Insurance Fund, and for other purposes; 
to the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce; introduced in Senate July 8. Would create 
a Federal Fishing Vessel Mortgage Insurance Fund 
which shall be used by the Secretary of the Interior 
as a revolving fund for the purpose of carrying out 
the ship mortgage provisions of title XI of the Mer- 
chant Marine Act, 1936, as amended, as it applies 
to fishing vessels under the Fish and Wildlife Act 
of 1956 (70 S. T. 1120 ). Further provides that if 
at any time Tun3s are not sufficient to pay any a- 
mount the Secretary of the Interior is required to 
pay on ship mortgage insurance on fishing vessels 
he may issue notes or other obligations to the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury as may be necessary. 

FISH AND WILDLIFE AID THROUGH EQUIP - 
MENT TRANgt'ER : H. R. 7730 (Mclntire), a bill 
to amend section 203 of "the Federal Property and 
Administrative Services Act of 1949 to provide that 
surplus personal property of the United States may 
be donated to the States for the promotion of fish 
and wildlife management activities, and for other 
purposes; to the Committee on Government Opera- 
tions; introduced in House June 15. Similar to 
H. R. 7190 and related bills previously introduced 
which provide for change in existing laws to in- 
clude State Fish and Game Departments among 
State agencies eligible for receipt by transfer of 
surplus Federal Government property and equip- 
ment for use in furthering their wildlife conserva- 
tion, restoration, and educational objectives. 

Also H. R. 7904 (Derwinski) introduced in House 
June 23,~ang S. 2270 (Gruening) introduced in Sen- 
ate June 24; to the respective House and Senate 
Committees on Government Operations. Similar 
to H. R. 7190 and related bills previously intro- 
ducedr 

Special Subcommittee of the Senate Committee 
on Government Operations scheduled hearings to 
begin on July 29 on bills providing for expansion 
of the donable property program authorized under 
the Federal Property and Administrative Services 
Act of 1949, to other public agencies or organiza- 
tions. Includes legislative bills which would in- 
clude State Fish and Game Departments among 
agencies eligible for receipt by transfer of surplus 
Federal Government property and equipment for 
use in furthering wildlife conservation, restora- 
tion, and educational objectives. 

FISH AND WILDLIFE COOPERATIVE TRAIN- 
ING UNITS: The Subcommittee on Fisheries and 
WTTdlife Conservation of the House Committee on 
Merchant Marine and Fisheries held hearings 
July 1 on H. R. 5814 and related bills providing 
for cooperative unit programs of research, edu- 
cation, and demonstration between the Federal 
Government, colleges and universities, the sever- 
al States and Territories, and private organiza- 
tions, and for other purposes. 



64 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 



FOOD MARKETING: The Chairman of the Fed- 
erEil Trade Commission on June 29 transmitted to 
the Congress, pursuant to law, an interim report 
on "Economic Inquiry into Food Marketing" (with 
accompanying papers); referred to the respective 
House and Senate Committees on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce. 

GULF COAST FLORIDA SHRIMP BOAT HAR - 
BORS SURVEYS: A letter from the Secretafy~57 
the Army was presented in the House on June 23, 
transmitting a letter from the Chief of Engineers, 
Department of the Army, dated May 29, 1959, sub- 
mitting a report, together with accompanying pa- 
pers and illustrations, on a review of reports on 
and surveys of Gulf Coast shrimp boat harbors in 
Florida, requested by resolutions of the Commit- 
tee on Rivers and Harbors, House of Representa- 
tives, and from the Committee on Public Works, 
U. S. Senate, adopted June 28, 1946, and Febru- 
ary 14, 1950. Also submitted in response to five 
other congressional authorizations listed in the 
report (H. Doc . No . 183 ); referred to the Commit- 
tee on Public Works. 

IMPORTS OF POLLUTED SHELLFISH PRO- 
HIBITED : H. R. 7754 (Colmer), a bill to amend the 
Public Health Service Act to provide for certain in- 
vestigations and studies by the Surgeon General of 
the United States; to the Committee on Interstate 
and Foreign Commerce; introduced in House June 16. 
Provides for investigations and studies of sanita- 
tion control maintained by foreign countries re- 
lating to harvesting and preparation of shellfish for 
the purpose of determining whether such controls 
meet the minimum standards prescribed for shell- 
fish shipped in interstate commerce in the United 
States. Imports of shellfish from countries which 
fail to meet the minimum sanitary controls would 
be prohibited. The Surgeon General would pro- 
mulgate regulations, establish procedures relating 
to sanitary control, and make available the names 
of foreign countries which comply with prescribed 
standards. 

INSECTICIDES EFFECT UPON FISH AND WILD - 
LIFE : The Subcommittee on Fisheries and Wild- 
life Conservation of the House Committee on Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries held hearings July 1 
on H. R. 5813 and related bills dealing with the ef- 
fect of insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and 
other pesticides upon fish and wildlife and for oth- 
er purposes. 

INTERIOR DEPARTMENT APPROPRIATIONS : 
The President on June 23, 19 59, signed into law 
H. R. 5915 , fiscal 1960 appropriations for the De- 
partment of the Interior, and related agencies 
(P. L. 8660 ). Included are funds for the Fish and 
Wildlife Service and its two Bureaus. 

INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF FISH : 
The House Committee on Merchant Marine and 
Fisheries on July 9 ordered favorably reported to 
the House H. R. 5854 , a bill to clarify a provision 
in the Black Bass Act relating to the interstate 
transportation of fish, and for other purposes 
(H. R. 653) . Provides a technical amendment to 
the Black Bass Act clarifying that only shipment 
of legally taken fish is covered by the Act. 

LAND TRANSFER : S. 2211 (Butler), a bill to 
provide for the conveyance to the State of Mary- 
land of a tract of land located on the campus of the 



University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 
which was previously donated by the State of Mary- 
land to the United States; to the Committee on In- 
terior and Insular Affairs; introduced in Senate 
June 18. Involves Federal lands exclusive of that 
portion on which the Bureau of Commercial Fish- 
eries Technological Laboratory is located. 

MARINE MAMMALS PROTECTION ON HIGH 
SEAS: H. R. 8164 (Saylor), a bill for the protection 
of marine mammals on the high seas, and for other 
purposes: to the Committee on Merchant Marine 
and Fisheries; introduced in House July 9. Pro- 
vides for protection of walrus, polar bear, and sea 
otter on the high seas for conservation, manage- 
ment, and other purposes. 

OCEANOGRAPHY : S. Res. 236 (Magnuson, 
Engle, and Jackson) relative to research on ocean- 
ography and the report of the Committee on Ocean- 
ography to the President; to the Committee on In- 
terstate and Foreign Commerce; introduced in Sen- 
ate June 22, 1959. 

Whereas expanded studies of the oceans and the 
ocean bottoms at all depths are vital to defense 
against enemy submarines, to the operation of our 
own submarines with maximum efficiency, to the 
rehabilitation of our commercial fisheries and u- 
tilization of other present or potential ocean re- 
sources, to facilitating commerce and navigation, 
and to expEind our scientific knowledge of the wa- 
ters covering 71 per centum of the earth's surface, 
life within these waters, and phenomena which af- 
fects climate and weather; and 

Whereas several other nations, particularly the 
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, are presently 
conducting oceanic studies of unprecedented mag- 
nitude on a worldwide basis, utilizing larger, more 
numerous, and more modern ships and more scien- 
tific and supporting personnel than ever before; and 

Whereas a Committee on Oceanography, com- 
prised of eminent scientists from universities and 
nongovernmental institutions, appointed by the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences -National Research 
Council, has prepared a report outlining objectives 
and recommending a comprehensive program of 
oceanographic research to be carried out at nom- 
inal cost over a period of ten years; and 

Whereas the Office of Naval Research of the 
Department of the Navy, observing that there has 
been no effort to improve the Nation's research 
fleet in the past fifteen years, and that there is 
need for more oceanographic scientists, labora- 
tories, specially designed ships and shore facilities, 
has prepared a report recommending a ten-year, 
long-range program for oceanographic research 
which has been approved by the Chief of Naval Op- 
erations; and 

Whereas the Coast and Geodetic Survey of the 
Department of Commerce, directed by statute to 
conduct hydrographic surveys, seismological in- 
vestigations, magnetic and gravimetric observa- 
tions, and other scientific operations, but restrict- 
ed generally to coastal waters and limited in its 
work in these waters by obsolescence of its re- 
search ships, has drawn up plans to rehabilitate its 
scientific vessels and broaden the area in which it 
can operate, subject to departmental and Bureau of 
the Budget approval; and 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



65 



Whereas the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
of the Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department 
of the Interior, faced with a drastic diminution of 
a valuable food supply and resource and an actual 
decline of ships and facilities for fisheries explora- 
tion and research at a time when Soviet Russia, 
Communist China, Japan, and many other nations 
are expanding fisheries research intensively, has 
a plan, which still waits departmental and budget 
approval, to replace its present small and overage 
vessels over a ten-year period: Now, therefore, 
be it 

Resplved, That the Senate- - 

(1) commends the report of the Comnnittee on 
Oceanography to the President, the Bureau of the 
Budget, and to the heads of the five departments 
Eind nine agencies which would participate in the 
ten-year program of oceanographic research rec- 
ommended by the Committee, for their study and 
consideration with a view to overcoming this Na- 
tion's lag in this scientific field, and urges their 
support of a comprehensive plan that will assure 
the United States permanent leadership in oceano- 
graphic research; 

(2) commends the programs of the several a- 
gencies for rehabilitating their research facilities 
and enlarging their oceanographic activities to 
the President and the Bureau of the Budget for 
like study and consideration with the object of de- 
veloping a well-balanced and coordinated expansion 
of scientific effort in this vital field; 

(3) concurs in the recommendations of the Com- 
mittee on Oceanography that-- 

(a) basic oceanographic research be immedi- 
ately expanded and at least doubled within the 
next ten years; 

(b) in the field of applied research fisheries 
exploration be intensified, migratory patterns 
investigated, greater attention given to genetics 
of fish and other marine organisms, biological 
surveys augmented utilizing new devices, a pro- 
gram on diseases and other toxic effects in the 
marine environment established, comprehen- 
sive studies made of the economic and legal as- 
pects of commercial fisheries, especially in 
relation to other industries, and research stim- 
ulated on the nature of organisms in the sea on 
which marine life of commercial or sports 
value feeds; 

(c) training of more oceanographic scientists 
in private educational and research institutions 
be encouraged and facilitated by the National 
Science Foundation and the Office of Education 
with the object of doubling the number of ocean- 
ographers at the doctor of philosopy level dur- 
ing the next ten years; 

(d) systematic ocean-wide and ocean-deep 
surveys be conducted by the Coast and Geodetic 
Survey and Hydrographic Office, Bureau of Nav- 
igation, Department of the Navy, to develop much 
broader knowledge of depths, salinity, tempera- 
ture, current velocity, wave motion, magnetism 
and biological activity; 



(e) research fleets of the various agencies 
and institutions engaged in basic or applied 
oceanographic research, of which most of the 
vessels are old and obsolete, be replaced by 
modern ships adapted to ocean-wide scientific 
studies and furnished with advanced scientific 
equipment, and that the number of ships be in- 
creased 90 per centum within the next ten years; 

(f) shore facilities commensurate with an ex- 
panded program of basic research be construct- 
ed in order to derive maximum knowledge from 
observations and collections made at sea; 

(g) development and utilization of deep-diving 
manned submersibles be expedited to facilitate 
maximum accomplishments in both basic and 
applied oceanographic research at all depths; 

(h) mineral research be undertaken on the 
ocean floor with a view to present or ultimate 
utilization of the untapped resources that lie 
beneath the ocean; and 

(i) extensive scientific investigations be made 
on the effects of radioactivity in the oceans in- 
cluding the genetic effects of radiation upon ma- 
rine organisms, the inorganic transfer of radio- 
active elements from seawater to the sediments, 
and the circulation and mixing processes which 
control the dispersion of introduced contaminants 
in coastal and estuarine environments and in the 
open ocean; 

(4) recommends that in order to coordinate the 
programs of the various agencies some method of 
interagency cooperation should be developed, possi- 
bly through an Oceanographic Research Board or 
Commission; and 

(5) recommends that cooperation between the 
United States and other nations in oceanographic 
research and exchange of data should be considered 
on a carefully supervised and reciprocal basis. 

OYSTER INDUSTRY ASSISTANCE: H. R. 8060 
(Glenn), a bill to authorize the Secretary oFthe In- 
terior to make loans to certain producers of oys- 
ters, and for other purpof^es. Also identical bills 
H. R. 8064 (Johnson of Maryland), H. R. 8065 (Mc- 
Dowell), and H. R. 8079 (Downing); all to the Com- 
mittee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries; all in- 
troduced in House July 1. The bills authorize the 
Secretary of Interior to make loans to oyster pro- 
ducers in any area where excessive mortality of 
oysters has endangered the economic stability of 
the oyster industry, and caused a need for credit 
among producers, which is not readily available 
from private or public sources on reasonable 
terms. It provides for a rate of interest not to 
exceed 3 percent and on such general terms as the 
Secretary shall prescribe for any area. The bills 
also provide that the Secretary may acquire oys- 
ter brood stock, which possesses some resistance 
to causative agent of such mortality, and furnish 
the oyster producers in such area, resultant seed 
oysters for the propagation of new oysters, which 
will not be subject to such excessive mortality. 

PACIFIC MARINE FISHERIES COMMISSION : 
The Chairman of the Pacific Marine Fisheries 



66 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



Coinniission transmitted to the Congress, pursuant 
to law, a report of that Commission for the year 
1958 (with accompanying papers); presented in the 
House June 26, referred to the Committee on Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries; presented in the Sen- 
ate June 29, referred to the Committee on Inter- 
state and Foreign Commerce. 

PRICE DISCRIMINATION ENFORCEMENT OF 
ORDERS : The House Committee on the Judiciary 
on June 25 ordered favorably reported S. 726 , an 
act to amend section 11 of the Clayton Act to pro- 
vide for the more expeditious enforcement of 
cease and desist orders Issued thereunder, and for 
other purposes; with amendment (H. Rept. No. 580 ); 
referred to the Committee of the Whole House on 
the State of the Union. 

House Report No. 580, Finality of Clayton Act 
Orders (June 26, T959, 86th Congress, 1st Session, 
Report of the House Committee on the Judiciary 
together with individual comments to accompany 
S. 726 ), 22 pp., printed. The report presents the 
purpose of the bill as amended, reasons for the 
legislation, sectional analysis, and changes in ex- 
isting law. The appendix contains recommenda- 
tions of several Government departments and in- 
dividual comments. 

The House on July 6 passed S. 726 , to provide 
for the more expeditious enforcement of cease- 
and-desist orders issued under the Clayton Act 
(amended). The legislation implements the en- 
forcement procedures of the Clayton Act by making 
applicable the present Federal Trade Commission 
Act enforcement provisions against price dis- 
crimination, tying arrangements, mergers, and 
interlocking directorates. 

Finality of Clayton Act Orders (Hearings, 
May 27 and "SB, 1959, b"eIore the Antitrust Sub- 
committee No. 5 for use by the Committee on the 
Judiciary, United States House of Representatives, 
86th Congress, 1st Session, on H. R. 432 , H. R. 
297 , H. R. 6049 , and S. 726 , bills to amend section 
11 of The Clayton Act to provide for the more ex- 
peditious enforcement of cease and desist orders 
issued thereunder, and for other purposes), 108 pp., 
printed. Contains text of the several legislative 
bills; testimony presented by Government and pri- 
vate industry representatives; certain Department- 
al, Commission, and Committee reports; and vari- 
ous statements submitted for the record. Also in- 
cluded is the document entitled, "The Merger 
Movement in Retail Food Distribution, 1955-58," 
a four-year study of the trend toward centralized 
power in America's major distributive industry, 
published by the National Association of Retail 
Grocers. 

Senate on July 7 concurred in House amend- 
ments to S. 726 , to amend section 11 of the Clay- 
ton Act so as to provide for the more expeditious 
enforcement of cease-and-desist orders issued 
thereunder, which action would have cleared the 
bill for the President. On July 8 the Senate re- 
considered its action of July 7 in concurring in 
House amendments to S. 726 , agreed to House a- 
mendments to the bill, with amendments, and re- 
turned the bill to the House. The legislation would 
implement the enforcement procedures of the Clay- 
ton Act by making applicable the present Federal 
Trade Commission Act enforcement provisions 



against price discrimination, tying arrangements, 
mergers, and interlocking directorates. 

PRICE DISCRIMINATION FUNCTIONAL DIS- 
COUNTS: The Antitrust Subcommittee of the House 



Committee on the Judiciary conducted hearings 
June 25 and 26 on H. R. 848, H. R. 927 . H. R. 2788 , 
H^ R. 2868. and H. R. 45"507 to amend the Ro&inson- 
Patman Act so as to provide for the mandatory na- 
ture of functional discounts under certain circum- 
stances, and for other purposes. The legislation 
is designed to supplement existing laws relating to 
price discrimination and for other purposes. 

RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY ACTIVITIES : The 
desirability of the acquisition by the Post Office 
Department of equipment, facilities, and operations 
of the Railway Express Agency is under considera- 
tion. The Senate Post Office and Civil Service Com- 
mission announced hearings on the subject under 
S. Res. 8. 

Senator Olin D. Johnston of South Carolina, 
Chairman of the Committee on June 18 sent the 
following telegram to the President of the Railway 
Express Agency: 

"In compliance with your request hearing set 
for June 22nd under Senate Resolution 8_to consider 
advisability of the Post Office Department acquir- 
ing equipment and facilities of Railway Express 
Agency is being postponed to Tuesday, July 7th. 
Committee considers matter of great urgency. 
Cannot postpone beyond this date. Should railroads 
decide to discontinue Railway Express Agency, 
plans must be formulated to provide for adequate 
transportation of small packages by appropriate 
Government agency and to absorb employees of 
Railway Express Agency." 

Senator Johnston also released the telegram re- 
ceived by him on June 12 from the President of the 
Railway Express Agency, requesting deferment of 
the hearings: 

"Have advice of hearing set for June 22 under 
Senate Resolution 8 to consider advisability of 
having Post Office Department acquire equipment 
and facilities of Railway Express Agency. The 
Agency's management has laid a plan of reorgani- 
zation before its Board of Directors. This will 
have intensive study of a special Board Committee 
prior to consideration at the next Board meeting 
on July 2. If approved, it will then be submitted 
to the 178 contract railroads for action. Accord- 
ingly, we urge that the June 22 hearing be defer- 
red until after July 31. Please advise." 

The Senator had previously announced on June 12 
that the Committee would begin hearings on June 22. 

SALMON IMPORT RESTRICTIONS : Joint Mem- 
orial of the State of California Legislative Assem- 
bly presented to the House June 16, and to the Sen- 
ate June 17. The memorial urges the President 
and the Congress of the United States to take nec- 
essary actions to bring about a treaty between the 
United States, Canada, Japan, and Russia to prop- 
erly protect the fish resources of the North Pacific 
Ocean; referred to the respective House and Sen- 
ate Committees on Interstate and Foreign Com- 
merce. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



67 



SHIP MORTGAGE INSURANCE AMENDMENTS 
OF 1959 : The House Committee on Merchant Ma- 
rine and Fisheries on June 30 ordered favorably 
reported S. 1434 , an Act to amend Title XI of the 
Merchant~lMarine Act, 1936, as amended, with re- 
spect to insurance of ship mortgages, and for oth- 
er purposes; without amendment (H. Rept . No. 631 ); 
referred to the Committee of the Whole House on 
the State of the Union. Provides that the prospec- 
tive owner of a vessel be permitted to delay placing 
a mortgage on the vessel until some time after it 
has been delivered by the shipbuilder, without losing 
privilege of having the mortgage insured. Would 
permit the prospective owner to save on interest 
charges, and would reduce the period of time dur- 
ing which the Secretary of Commerce is under 
risk with respect to the mortgage. 

House Report No. 631 , an amendment to the 
Merchant Marine Act with respect to insurance of 
ship mortgages (July 1, 1959, 86th Congress, 1st 
Session, Report of the House Committee on Mer- 
chant Marine and Fisheries, to accompany S. 1434 ), 
8 pp., printed. Contains provisions of the bill, 
legislative background, reports favoring the legis- 
lation, and changes in existing law. 

The Subcommittee on Merchant Marine of the 
House Committee on Merchant Marine and Fish- 
eries on July 9 held hearings on H. R. 2241 and 
related bills, to amend title XI oPthe Merchant Ma- 
rine Act, 1936, in order to provide mortgage and 
loan insurance for the construction, reconstruc- 
tion, or reconditioning of vessels in shipyards in 
the continental United States. 

SMALL BUSINESS AID FOR FIRMS AFFECTED 
BY FOREIGN TRADE 'pULICY: The Subcommittee 
on Small Business of the Senate Committee on 
Banking and Currency conducted hearings June 22, 
29, 30, July 1, 2, 7, and 8, on pending small busi- 
ness legislation including S. 1609 . to provide as- 
sistance to small business concerns adversely af- 
fected by foreign trade policy, and for other pur- 
poses. 

SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT ACT OF 1958 
AMENDMENTS: S. 2139 (Saltonstall), a bilTto a- 
mend the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, 
and for other purposes; to the Committee on Bank- 
ing and Currency; introduced in Senate June 9. 
The bill provides certain amendments for improv- 
ing the small business investment program to 
meet the needs of small business for equity capi- 
tal and long-term loans. Would provide banking 
subsidiaries of bank holding companies with great- 
er latitude in investing in small business invest- 
ment companies. Certain restrictions regarding 
the formation of investment companies would be 
eliminated as would restrictions which require 
equity capital be provided only through the medium 
of convertible debentures. The bill further elimi- 
nates the requirement that a small business con- 
cern must purchase a certain amount of a small 
business Investment company's stock in order to 
obtain equity capital from the investment company. 
Included are a number of amendments and changes 
of clarifying nature, and for other purposes. 

Also H. R. 7691 (Moore) introduced in House 
June 11, H."Tt. 77g"6 (McDowell) introduced in House 
June 12, B. R. 7751 (Bass of New Hampshire) in- 
troduced in House June 16, H. R. 8096 (Evins) 



introduced in House July 6, and H. R. 8114 (Dwyer) 
introduced in House July 7; to the Committee on 
Banking and Currency. Similar to S. 979 and re- 
lated bills previously introduced wfiich provide 
certain amendments for improving the small busi- 
ness investment program to better meet the needs 
of small business, and for other purposes. 

Subcommittee on Small Business of the Senate 
Committee on Banking and Currency conducted 
hearings on June 22, 29, 30, July 1, 2, 7, and 8, 
on small business legislation including S. 2 139 to 
amend the Small Business Investment Act of 1958, 
and for other purposes. 

SMALL BUSINESS TAX RELIEF : H. R. 7704 
(McDowell), a bill to provide a program ol tax ad- 
justment for small business and for persons en- 
gaged in small business; introduced in House June 12; 
also H. R. 7651 (Lafore) introduced in House 
JunelO, H. R. 7959 (Riehlman) introduced in House 
June 24, B. R. 8011 (Multer) introduced in House 
Jime 29, and^H. R. 8090 (Alger) introduced in House 
July 6; all toThe Committee on Ways and Means. 
Similar to H. R. £ and related bills previously in- 
troduced wKicK provide for tax adjustment in the 
interest of small business. 

SOCIAL SECURITY TAX EXEMPTION PROVI- 
SIONS FOR CERTAIN FlgTTlNG ACTIVITIES : 
S. 2126 (Eastland), a bill to exclude from coverage 
under the insurance system established by title II 
of the Social Security Act service performed by 
individuals in connection with certain fishing and 
related activities; to the Committee on Finance; 
introduced in Senate June 5. Also H. R. 8094 (Col- 
mer); to the Committee on Ways and Means; intro- 
duced in House July 6. 

STATE DEPARTMENT APPROPRIATIONS: The 
Subcommittee of the Senate Committee on appro- 
priations on June 19, favorably reported to the full 
committee H. R. 7343 , fiscal 1960 appropriations 
for the Departments of State and Justice, Judici- 
ary, and related agencies. Included under the 
State Department are funds for the international 
fisheries commissions to enable the United States 
to meet its obligations in connection with partici- 
pation in eight such commissions pursuant to 
treaties or conventions, and implementing Acts of 
Congress. 

The Senate Committee on Appropriations on 
June 22 ordered favorably reported to the Senate 
H. R. 7343 , with amendments (S. Rept. 424 ). 

Senate Report No. 424 , Departments of State 
and Justice, the Judiciary, and related agencies, 
appropriation bill 1960 (June 22, 1959, 86th Con- 
gress, 1st Session, Report of the Senate Committee 
on Appropriations to accompany H. K. 7343 ), 20pp., 
printed. Contains amount of bill as passed House, 
Committee recommendations, and comparison with 
amount of 1959 appropriations and 1960 budget es- 
timates. For the international fisheries commis- 
sions, the Senate Committee recommended the 
same amount as provided by the House, $1,725,000-- 
an increase of $61,300 over the 1959 fiscal year 
appropriations to meet increased pay costs, but 
$29,000 below the amount of the budget request. 

The Senate on June 23 passed with amendments 
H. R. 7343. The Senate insisted on its amendments. 



68 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



asked for conference with the House, and appointed 
conferees. 

The House disagreed to Senate Amendments to 
H. R. 7343 , on June 29 agreed to a conference with 
the Senate, and appointed conferees. 

The Senate and House Conferees, on July 30 
filed a conference report on H. R. 7343 , making ap- 
propriations for the Departments of State and Jus- 
tice, the Judiciary, and related agencies for fiscal 
year 1960 (H. Rept. 620 ). 

House Report No. 620 , Departments of State and 
Justice, the Judiciary, and related agencies appro- 
priation bill, 1960 (June 30, 1959, 86th Congress, 
1st Session, Conference Report of the Joint Senate 
and House Committee of Conferees, to accompany 
H. R. 7343 ), 7 pp., printed. Lists the recommenda- 
tions made by the Conference Committee to the 
respective Houses on the disagreeing votes on the 
amendments of the Senate to the bill. The report 
also contains an explanation of the effect of actions 
agreed upon and recommended by the Committee. 
For the International Fisheries Commissions the 
Committee recommended the same amount as pro- 
vided by both the House and Senate--$1,725,000, an 
increase of $61,300 over the 1959 fiscal year ap- 
propria:tion to meet increased pay costs, but $29,000 
below the amount requested in the budget estimate. 

House agreed to conference report on July 1 and 
receded and concurred on certain Senate amend- 
ments. The Senate on the same date agreed to con- 
ference report concurring to certain House amend- 
ments to Senate amendments clearing H. R. 7343 
for the President. ~ ~ 

SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS , 1960 : 
H. R. 7978 (Thomas), a bill making supplemental 
appropriations for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1960, and for other purposes; to the Committee of 
the Whole House on the State of the Union; intro- 
duced in House June 26. 

House Report No . 57-9, Supplemental Appropria- 
tion Bill 1960 (June 26, 1959, 86th Congress, 1st 
Session, Report of the House Committee on Appro- 
priations, to accompany H. R. 7978 ), 13 pp., print- 
ed. Provides supplemental appropriations forcer- 
tain agencies and departments. Includes $10.5 mil- 
lion for the State of Alaska as limited assistance 
during the transitional period from territorial 
status to help finance functions formerly perform- 
ed by the Federal Government; $850,000 for studies 
to be carried out in fiscal year 1959-1960 by the 
National Outdoor Recreation Review Commission in 
conducting its nation-wide Inventory and evaluation 
of outdoor recreation assets; $660,000 for the River 
Basin Study Commission for South Carolina-Georgia- 
Alabama-Florida; and $720,000 for the River Basin 
Study Commission for Texas. 

Supplementa l Appropriation , I960 : Hearings be- 
fore the Subcommittee on Deficiencies, House Com- 
mittee on Appropriations, 86th Congress, 1st Ses- 
sion, on Supplemental Appropriation Bill, 1960 
(providing funds for certain agencies, commis- 
sions^ departments, and other purposes), 317 pp., 
printed. Contains budget estimates and testimony 
presented by agencies and departments of Govern- 
ment. Included are funds pursuant to legislative 
authorization for transitional grants to Alaska; for 



the National Outdoor Recreation Resources Review 
Commission; and for certain River Basin Study 
Commissions. 

House on June 29 passed H. R. 7978 , making 
supplemental appropriations JbrTiscal year 1960 for 
certain departments and agencies of Government; re- 
ferred to the Senate Committee on Appropriations. 

The Senate Committee on Appropriations held hear- 
ings July 13. 14, 16 and 17 on H. R. 7978 , supplemental 
appropriations for fiscal 1960. Included are funds 
pursuant to legislative authorization for transitional 
grants to Alaska ( Public Law 86-70); for the National 
Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission; 
and for certain River Basin Study Commissions. 

TRADE AGREEMENTS PROGRAM: The Presi- 
dent on June 25, pursuant to law, transmitted to the 
Senate the third annual report on the operation of 
the trade agreements program, with accompany- 
ing message (S. Doc . No . 31); referred to the Com- 
mittee on Finance. 

TRADE AGREEMENT ACT AMENDMENTS: 



H. R. 7863 (Dent), a bill to provide that the author- 
ity to enter into foreign trade agreements shall ex- 
pire on June 30, 1960, and to provide that the Con- 
gress may disapprove any foreign trade agree- 
ment proposed to be entered into during the 1-year 
period beginning on July 1, 1959; to the Committee 
on Ways and Means; introduced in House June 19. 
Somewhat similar to H. R. 670 and related bills 
previously introduced wSIch would provide for 
changes in the Trade Agreements Act, and for oth- 
er purposes. 

UNEMPLOYMENT RELIEF IN DEPRESSED 
AREAS : H. J. Res.~i23 (OliverTTa House Joint 
Resolution to provide for a special research in- 
quiry into the causes of chronic unemployment in 
economically depressed areas, and for other pur- 
poses; introduced in House June 10; also H. J. Res. 
434 (Anderson of Montana) introduced in House 
June 23; both to the Committee on Government Op- 
erations. Provides authority for the Council of 
Economic Advisers to the President to conduct an 
official study or investigation to determine what 
remedial measures might be undertaken to counter- 
act the growth of chronic unemployment resulting 
from technological advance in industry, and for 
other purposes. Similar to H. J. Res. 411 previ- 
ously introduced. 

UNEMPLOYMENT TAX EXEMPTION PROVI - 
SIONS FOR CERTAIN FISHING ACTIVITIES : H. R. 
8095 (Colmer), a bill to provide that the tax im- 
posed by the Federal Unemployment Tax shall not 
apply with respect to service performed by indi- 
viduals in connection with certain fishing and re- 
lated activities; to the Committee on Ways and 
Means; introduced in House July 6. Similar to S. 2 125 
previously' introduced. 

WAGES: The Secretary of Labor transmitted to 
the Congress a draft of proposed legislation to a- 
mend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as 
amended, to provide more effective procedures 
for enforcing the provisions of the act (with ac- 
companying papers); presented in the House July 1, 
referred to the Committee on Education and La- 
bor; presented in the Senate July 7, referred to 
the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



69 



The Subcommittee on Labor of the Senate Com- 
mittee on Labor and Public Welfare met in execu- 
tive session July 9 on S. 1046 and other bills to a- 
mend the Fair Labor Standards Act, so as to ex- 
tend coverage under the Act, increase the minimum 
hourly wages, and for other purposes. 

WAGE LAW ENFORCEMENT OF CERTAIN 
PROVISIONS : H. R. 8059 (Frellnghuysen), a bill 
to amend the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, 
as amended, to provide more effective procedures 
for enforcing the provisions of the Act; introduced 



in House July 1; referred to the Committee on Ed- 
ucation and Labor. Provides for amendment of ex- 
isting law to strengthen enforcement provisions in 
regards to payment of minimum wages and over- 
time compensation. 

WATER CONSERVATION ACT OF 1959: The 
House committee on Public Works on July 9-10 
conducted hearings on H. R. 8, to promote and es- 
tablish policy and procedureTor the development 
of water resources of lakes, rivers, and streams. 




DIVERS REPORT REEFS ATTRACT NEW FISH LIFE 

Artificial ocean reefs are beginning to accomplish just what was expected 
of them. They were established in an effort to attract marine life to former 
underwater barren areas, thus providing additional sport to anglers. 

At Paradise Cove, where old car bodies were placed on the bottom, 18 
species of fish were counted during checkup dives by California biologists. 
Most common were kelp bass, sargo, and several kinds of perch, including 
rubberlip, pile, black, barred, shiner, walleye, and rainbow. There now are 
a fair number of sheepshead and one cabezon was seen for the first time. 

At Redondo Beach-Palos Verde s, where junked streetcars were placed, 
11 species of fish were observed, most of them inside the cars. They were: 
kelp and sand bass, halfmoon, blacksmith, two kinds of b 1 e n n y, sand dab, 
sheepshead, angel shark, and an unidentified flatfish. 

Loitering near by was a school of bonito and three lobsters apparently 
were trying to decide whether to settle down in the new "housing tract." 



At Monterey Oil Island-Seal Beach, large numbers of fish- 
all--were counted. Oil crews reported excellent fishing. 



-24 species in 



A dive was made off Corona del Mar to check the need for a possible future 
reef. However, because there were many rocks on the sand bottom and the area 
appeared to be naturally good habitat, no artificial development seems neces- 
sary. 

At the Richfield Oil Island -Rincon, lingcod and sand bass were noted for the 
first time and larger numbers of large rubberlip perch were seen than on prev- 
ious dives. 

The Standard -Humble Oil Platform-Summerland area had lingcod, cabezon, 
and three species of rockfish for the first time. Jack mackerel were numerous. 

The Carlisle report said commercial fishing and cannery interests as well 
as sportsmen have shown considerable interest in the project and have pledged 
their support. (Outdoor California, January 1959.) 



70 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



FISHERY 

INDICATORS 

CHART I - FISHERy LANDINGS for SELECTED STATES 

In Millions of Pounds 





MAINE, MASSACHUSETTS, AND RHODE ISLAND 



CUMULAT I VE DATA 

5 HOS. 1959 - 241 .9 
5 1958 - 244.9 

12 1958 - 946.6 



T- 



1 1 1 r- 



-^v- 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV D£C 



NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA, AND GEORGIA 





CUM 


LAT 1 VE 


DATA 




■i 


MflS 


1959 


- 60 


1 


^ 




1958 


- 51 


1 


12 




1958 


- 326 






-| 1 n 



/ \ 






.-^■^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR HAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT MOV DEC 



34 
30 
26 
22 
18 
14 
10 



FLORIDA 


CUMULATIVE DATA 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


5 MOS. 1959 - 76.2 
5 1958 - 69.2 
12 1958 - 169.1 




/ 






/ 


/ 


/A 


^^-^y \ .^"^ 


y . r . . . ."" < 


JAN FtB MAR APR WAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



140 

120 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 




CALIFORNIA i' 


CUMULATIVE DATA 

5 MOS. 1959 - 146.6 
5 1958 - 135.4 
12 1958 - 593.0 




i -V 




/ \ 




./ 




X^i,.'i:rZ>^~-^ ^ 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



NEW JERSEY ;jJD NEW YORK 



CUHULAT 1 VE DATA 

5 MOS. 1959 - 59.0 
5 , 1958 - 40.6 
12 1958 - 346.4 


I ■■ r ■ ■ 1 — 1 1 1 1 








/ 




\ 




/ 




\ 

\ 




/ 




\ 
\ 


1 1 1 1 


./ 




^^. 

III" 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 





ALABAMA, LOUISIANA, MISSISSIPPI, AND TEXAS 


240 

200 

160 

120 

80 

40 




CUMULATIVE DAT^ 

5 MOS. 1959 - 217.0 
5 1958 - 143.2 
12 1958 - 577.0 












1 


//-^-..-•"x 


/ 


^' ^^— 


JAfJ FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 





OHIO 




CUMULATIVE DJTA 
5 MOS. 1959 - 1 0.3 






5 „ 1958 - 10.4 
12 1958 - 19.1 






A 




/ ^^ 


/ \ 


} . J . . ,^",~-,-:''"^">-\ 


JAN FEB 


MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC | 



CUHULAT 1 VE D^Tj, 

5 MOS. 1959 - 14. B 
5 „ 1958 - 18.0 
12 1958 - 57.6 










A^ 






/ 






// 


\ 
\ 


/^ 




\ 






1 1 1 1 1 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAl. FISHERIES REVIEW 



71 



CHART 2 - LANDINGS for SELECTED FISHERIES 



In Million! of Ponnds 



HADDOCK 
(Maine and Massachusetts) 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


CUMULATIVE 

5 MOS. ig59 - 
5 " 1958 . 
12 1958 - 


OATA 

49.6 

58.3 
105.4 


A 






/ 
/ 






/ 
/ 1 


Ax 




/ 1 
1 1 


\ 




1 J 






»-ii^ 









_l I l_ 



J I , 1 



JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



OCEAN PERCH 
(Maine and Massachusetts) 



CUHULAI i VE DATA 



I I V 





MflS 


1959 


44 


a 


-J 




1958 


?>4 


9 






1958 


148 


A 




f--^ 



v_ 



I:S 



JfiN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULV AUG SEPT OCT NOV D£C 



In Millions of Ponndi 



,1/ 



SHRIMP 



(Gulf States- including Florida West Coast) 



CUMULATIVE D^TA 

5 MOS. 1959 - 33.5 
5 „ 1958-42.6 
12 1958 - 173.2 




,^ 


• 


■^ 


\ 






,y 
















s 


-''? 


/ 






\ 

V 


<::;^ _y 


I 1 1 1 1 t t 1 < ) 1 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



I/L*. a ALA. DATA BASED ON LANDINOS AT PRINCIPAL PORTS AND ARE NOT COM- 







{Maine 


WHITING 
and Massactiusetts) 




CUMULATIVE 

5 MOS. 1959 
5 " 1958 
12 1958 


DATA 

- 11.9 






7.4 
- 102.0 




















A 




/ \ 
/ \ 


8 
n 


X '--— . 




^' 


S 

^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULV AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



In Thoniandi of Tom 



MENHADEN 
(East and Gulf Coasts) 



CUMULATIVE OATA 
6 MOS. 1959 - 335.0 


"~I 1 1 1 1 1 1 


6 „ 1958 - 183.5 
12 1958 - 763.6 








/ 


1 


/ ■'' ^\ 


■'' \ 


1' 


^ 


\- J. ^- 


-»''' 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



PACIFIC AND JACK MACKEREL 
(California) 



CUMU 
5 M([S. 

12 " 


LtliVE QAIi 


1 1 1 1 1 T 1 


1958 - 7.7 
1958 - 2 3.2 


A 






/\ 


4 




\ 


— / ^'\ 


\ \ 


An ?1. V— ' 


Si 


r ^ *---^^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNL JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



In Thoniandi of Tom 



PILCHARD 
(California) 



1 1 T T ■■ r T ' 


CUMULATIVE DATA 




TOTAL - 101.6 
1957/58 SEASON, 

TOTAL - 20.5 . 


--\ 




/ \ 
/ \ 










LEGEND: 

« ^ — 1 956/59 
1957/58 


/ 


. ..• 1 1 1 1 't.J^ 1 1 1 



AUG SEPT OCT NOV OEC | JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY 



TUNA AND TUNALIKE FISH 



CUMULAT 1 VE DATA 

5 MOS. 1959 - 54.7 
5 " 1958 - 52.4 
12 1958 - 156.4 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


f \ 




/ \ 


-7% / V 


^n'^ ' > 


^^ 


1 \ 




_ I 1 1 I , 1 ■ r 1 , . 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



72 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 8 



CHART 3 - COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS and FREEZINGS 
of FISHERY PRODUCTS * 



Ib Milliom of Ponndi 



U. S. & ALASKA HOLDINGS 



I I I 1 1 I I I I I I 



0' .,. ' „„ I .,,„ i 



JAM FEB UAR APR HAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT WOV DEC 



NEW ENGLAND HOLDINGS- 



^-^^zp^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



1/maINE, MASSACHUSETTS, RHODE ISLAND, AND CONNECTICUT 



44 
40 
36 
32 
28 
24 
20 



MmDLE WEST HOLDINGS-' 








\ 


^\ 


N^-^ / 


.• 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



3/OHIO, INC., ILL., MICH., WIS., MINN., IOWA, MO., N. DAK., NEBR. & KANS. 



WASHINGTON, OREGON, AND ALASKA HOLDINGS 



^.^ y ^ 



JAN FEB MAR ftPB MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT MOV DEC 



U. S. & ALASKA FREEZINGS 



CUMUHT 1 VE DATA 

6 HOS. 1959 - 134.0 
6 „ 1958 - 1Z9.5 
12 1958 - 322.2 


- -I — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — -\ 




y 








^ 






// 




\ 
\ 


yj 




\ 
\ 


-.^ ^^^ ^. 


_. I . 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 I 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT WOV DEC 



56 
52 
48 
44 
40 
36 
32 



MIDDLE & SOUTH ATLANTIC HOLDINGS-' 


V 


\ 


^ \ ^ / 




\.. 






JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



2/all east coast states from n. y. south. 



GULF & SOUTH CENTRAL HOLDINGS 



1/ 





~~v y"- 


^ \^ 




/ 

y 






.-"' 


" -^._ 


~^^y 









JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



4/alA., hiss., la., TEX., ARK., 



CALIFORNIA HOLDINGS 




-1 1 r- 



^„'' 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



* Excludes salted, cured, and smoked products . 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



73 



CHART 4 - RECEIPTS and COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS of FISHERY 
PRODUCTS at PRINCIPAL DISTRIBUTION CENTERS 



RECEIPTS-' AT WHOLESALE SALT-WATER MARKET 
(Fresh and^Frozen) 







ATIVE 


Data 




6 


MflS. 


1959 


- ao 


6 


^ 




1958 


- 79 


H 


1^ 




1958 


- 164 






Id Milliom ei Pennds 

NEW YORK 
CITY 




— ^«^ — 



1 



JAW FEB KHR aPR MAV JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT MOV DEC 
1/lNCLUDE TRUCK AND RAIL IMPORTS FROM CANAOA AND DIRECT VESSEL LANDINGS 



2/ 

COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS- 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 r- 



^.^ 



AT NEW rORK CITT 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN£ JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
2/as reported ar plants in metropolitan area. 



RECEIPTS AT WHOLESALE MARKET 
(Fresh and Frozen) 



CUHULAT I VE OATA 



6 


MflS. 


1959 


42 


4 








44 


h 


12 




1958 


92 


3 




^ 



JAM FEB UAB APR MAY JUKE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CHICAGO 







COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS 












V --'■"■ 




\ 


/ 
/ 




\v 


• 


fi 


\^ 


s-.-<X' 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



SEATTLE 



BOSTON 



WHOLESALE MARKET RECEIPTS, LANDINGS, 
& IMPORTS (Fresh and Frozen) 



CUHULAT1VE OALft 

b HOS. 1959 - 49.5 
6 „ 1 958 - 41 .a 
12 1958 - 105.7 


1 1 1 1 1 I T 








_^^_ 


^^^ 


^- \ 




.-'•"^"^ 






1 1 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT fjQV QEC 



-I 1 r 



COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS 

1 1 1 1 1 T" 




L. 



^.^ ... O' 



> ■ U 



A 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CHART 5- FISH MEAL and OIL PRODUCTION -U.S and ALASKA 



56 








FISH MEAL 
(InThousand.s of Tons) 




5 
5 
12 









48 


MJS. 


1959 
1958 

195a 


39.5 


30.2 
247.7 


/■^^ 


40 
32 

24 

1.6 

8 




/ N 


/ / 










/ 


^.^\ 


V 


~. 


:._, 


J 





JAN FES MAP APR ^tCi JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CUMULAT ivE Data 

5 HOS. 1959 - 3.2 
5 1958-2.6 

12 1958 - 22.0 



FISH OIL 
(In Millions of Gallons) 

' I ' T ■ I I ■ I ' — 



-i 1 1 1 r^ — I 1 v~ 



K^ 



^ 



— —^ — 1 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



74 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



CHART 6 - CANNED PACKS of SELECTED FISHERY PRODUCTS 



In Thonsands of Standard Casei 



TUNA AND TUNALIKE FISH - CALIFORNIA 




JAW FEB MAB APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT HOV DEC 



MACKEREL -' - CALIFORNIA 



CUMULAT 1 VE 
5 MOS. 1959 

5 " 195a 
12 1956 


OAIA 

- 78 

- 1 17 

- 404 


6 
3 

4 












A 
/\ 


A 












/ \ 


\ 












/ ^""^ 


\ 


/^ 


s 










Vj/ 


'v 


J 


V- 


"^ 


■^ 


1 I.I 1. . .1. . - 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



2/ INCLUDES PACIFIC MACKEREL AND JACK MACKEREL. 



ANCHOVIES - CALIFORNIA 



1 L 1 1 1 1 1 


CUMULATIVE DATA 

5 KOS. t959 - - 
5 1958 - 29.9 
12 1958 - 53.7 




















l\ 






<A 






\ 

\ 






r'\ 






\ 

\ 






\ 




A 


, A 








m^. t 





JAN FEg MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



1600 
1400 
1200 
1000 
800 
600 
400 


SALMON - ALASKA 


CUMULATIVE DATA 

1 MO, 1959 - 121.3 
1 1958 - 174.3 
12 MOS. 1958 - 2,944.6 




/'^ 






/ \ 


1 \ 

1 \ 


1 \ 

1 \ 


1 \ 

! \ 


s 


.' » ^ 



SARDINES-' (Estimated) - MAINE 



CUMULATIVE DATA 

6 MOS. 1959 - 362.7 
6 „ 1958 - 296.7 
12 1956 - 2,100.0 



n 1 1 r 




T^sr 



^A 



JAN FEB MAIR APR ^ MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

1/ INCLUDING SEA HERRING. 





STANDARD CASES 




Variety 


No. Cans 


Desienatior 


NetWEt. 


SARDINES 


100 


? drawn 


3| oz. 


SHRIMP 


48 


- 


5 oz. 


TUNA 


48 


# i tuna 

# 1 oval 


6 Si7 oz. 
15 oz. 


PILCHARDS. . 


48 


SALMON 


48 


1-lb. tall 


16 oz. 


ANCHOVIES.. 


48 


i-lb. 


8 oz. 



SARDINES - CALIFORNIA 



1400 
1200 
1000 
801 
600 
400 
200 




-T 1 1 r- 



CUMULATIVE DATA 

1958/59 SEASON, 

TOTAL - 2,222.6 

19^/58 SEASON, 

TOTAL - 497.8 



r \ 



'■■■■ -^ 



AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY 



• 1959/60 
" ^ "■ 1 958/59 
1957/58 



SHRIMP - GULF STATi 


:s 






CUMULATIVE DATA 
1958/59 SEASON, 


1 




AUG. -JUNE - 738.5 
1957/58 SEASON, 

AUG. -JUNE - 430.3 
1957/58 SEASON, 

TOTAL - 585.9 


/ 
/ 




/ 








\ f 




1/ '■: 
1: 


\ /\ 




// 
/• 


r 1 1 I **"* v-i.-w.?^- L. 


.^f- 


^1 1 < 



AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



75 



CHART . 7 - U.S. F/SHERY PRODUCTS IMPORTS 



Ib MilliQBf o< Poandi 



GROUNDFISH (including Ocean Perch) FILLETS 
28 



CUMULATIVE DATA 
6 MOS. 1959 - 93.9 


1 1 ■ r ■ ■! T 1 1 


12 1958 - 155.9 












A A ■'' ■'''■ 


l\ A\ 


• \ 1 \ 




y-\^'^ --^ 


V "•' \ 


/ 




"-V— 







JtW FEB MtR APR HAY JUNE JULY tUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 



SHRIMP FROM MEXICO 


CUWHTIVE Dili 

5 MOS. 1959 - 24.6 
5 ,. 1958 - 15.5 
12 1958 - 56.1 




/\ 






. 


\ / 


» / 




JAN FEB MAB APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



28 

24 

20 

16 

12 

8 

4 




TUNA 
(Fresh and Frozen) 


/\ 


-^^ / \ 




/ 


V^X^ 




CUMULATIVE DATA 




5 MOS. 1959 - 101 .8 
5 1958-55.0 
12 " 1958 - 198.0 








JAN FEB WAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC I 



U. S. IMPORTS OF CANNED TUNA AND TUNALIKE FISH 
(in Od and in Brine) 



A. 








y\ 


V 


s 


K 


^^-' 






\ 
\ 


\^ 




■"s 






\ 

\ 


K f 










\ 

\ i 




CUMULATIVE DaT/^ 

5 MOS. 1959 - 24.0 
5 „ 1958 - 21.6 
12 1958 - 58.7 


\ / 

V 


> , . . . 


, . . \ 



JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



FILLETS & STEAKS OTHER THAN GROUNDFISH 
(Fresh and Frozen) 



n 1 1 1 1 1 r- 



5 


HflS 


1959 


- 24 


4 


5 




1958 


- ?fi 


? 


12 




1958 


- 65 


1 




' — ^"si ^^;: 



-^t:^ 



JAN FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 



LOBSTER .WD SPINY LOBSTER 
fFrp-^h anH Frnypnl 








5 MOS. 1959 - 21.4 


5 „ 1958 - 20.4 
12 1958 . 47.4 


lr'\ 




/ '^ 


A 




/\ 
/ 


\^.^^^ \ 


/ 
/ 




J 




, \ 


JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT 


NOV DEC 



SEA HERRING, FRESH. THROUGH MAINE PORTS 



CUMULATIVE QAIt 

1 5 MOS. 1959 - 3.5 
5 " 1958-4.4 
12 1956 - 38.6 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I ■- 








A 




y 


/"-' 





JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CANNED SARDINES 





( 


n 


Oi 


and not in Oil) 


COMULAT 1 VE 

5 MOS. 1959 
5 " 1958 
12 1958 


04 lA 
- 8.3 




- 10.5 

- 26.2 






1 








A 


/\ 








\ 






/ ^.--N^ 


"■^--^^^^ 




-^ ' ^^' 





JAN FEB MAR APf^ MAY JUNE JULY AUG 5EPT OCT NOV DEC 



76 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol 21, No. 8 



i^^3rr^=^- 



V^ 






~*- - 



RECENT 



^^f^ 



FISHERY PUBLICATIONS 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
PUBLICATIONS 



these processed publications are available free from 
the division of information, u. s. fish and wildlife serv- 
ice, washington 25, 0. c. types of publications are desig- 
nated as follows: 

cfs - current fishery statistics of the united states 
and alaska. 

fl - fishery leaflets. 

ssr.- fish. -special scientific reports --f i sherl es 
(limited distribution). 

sl - statistical section lists of dealers in and pro- 
ducers of fishery products and byproducts. 

SEP.- SEPARATES (rEPRINTS) FROM COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 
REVIEW . 

Number Title 

CFS-1990 - Ohio Landings, March 1959, 2 pp. 

CFS-1994 - Fish Meal and OU, 1958 Annual Sum- 
mary, 4 pp. 

CFS-2000 - New York Landings, 1958 Annual 
Summary, 8 pp. 

CFS-2001 - Florida Landings, 1958 Annual Sum- 
mary, 10 pp. 

CFS-2035 - California Landings, December 1958, 
4 pp. 

CFS-2036 - North Carolina Landings. March 1959, 
3 pp. 

CFS-2037 - Georgia Landings, March 1959, 2 pp. 

CFS-2038 - Texas Landings, February 1959, 3 pp. 

CFS-2042 - Rhode Island Landings, 1958 Annual 
Summary, 7 pp. 

CFS-2045 - Maine Landings, March 1959, 3 pp. 

CFS-2046 - Shrimp Landings, December 1958, 
6 pp. 

CFS-2047 - South Carolina Landings, March 1959, 
2 pp. 

CFS-2049 - Frozen Fish Report, April 1959, 8 pp. 

CFS-2057 - Fish Meal and Oil, March 1959, 2 pp. 

CFS-2058 - Fish Sticks and Portions, January- 
March 1959, 3 pp. 

FL-476g - Canned Fish Retail Prices, April 1959, 
27 pp. 

FL-480 - The Bait Shrimp Industry of the Gulf of 
Mexico, by Anthony Inglis and Edward Chin, 15 
pp., illus., revision of FL-337, April 1959. Live 
shrimp is the preferred bait for sea trout, red- 
fish, flounders, and most game fishes of the bays 
and inshore waters of the Gulf of Mexico. The 
use of shrimp for this purpose has given rise to 
a large bait industry in some areas. This study 
describes the kinds of shrimp in the bait fish- 
ery and the general life history of the white 
shrimp. In discussing the bait shrimp industry 
of Galveston area, Texas, and Florida, the fish- 
ing gear and methods of operation, transporting 
and holding methods, and trade practices are 
covered. This report also includes suggestions 



for holding live bait shrimp, scientific names of 
species mentioned in the text and publications 
on the biology of shrimp and the bait shrimp In- 
dustry. 

FL-483 - Instructions for Typing Manuscripts to 
be Printed at the Government Printing Office 
(With Exceptions for Manuscripts to be Proc- 
essed), 7 pp., March 1959. 

FL-485 - Japanese Fisheries Based in Overseas 
Areas, 30 pp., illus., May 1959. Describes the 
expansion of the Japanese high-seas fisheries 
since the end of the Occupation in 1952. Sec- 
tions are included on development and types of 
overseas fisheries. Government control of over- 
seas operation, and overseas operations by 
countries. Japanese overseas enterprises are 
now in operation or planned in more than 35 
countries, in which about 200 fishing vessels are 
based. About 140 of these are tuna vessels, 
mainly long-liners. Tuna processing plants are 
in some stage of development in 15 countries. 
Other plants include sardine canneries, shrimp 
and crab canneries and freezing plants, fish 
meal plants, and freezers for locally-consumed 
fish. 

FL-486 - Recommended Treatment for Fish Par- 
asite Diseases, by Glenn L. Hoffman, 4 pp., 
April 1959. 

Conservation Notes--Fishing for Food, Circular 
55, 6 pp., illus., processed, March 1959. This 
pamphlet describes some fishing terms; the 
need for conservation of the seas' fish re- 
sources; and the dangers of predators, obstruc- 
tions, water fluctuations, storms, human activ- 
ity, domestic and industrial pollution, and care- 
less use of pesticides. It also describes the 
work of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries 
and other fact-finding organizations; the work of 
fishery biologists in studying the life history of 
various species; the problems of fish habitats; 
plankton; tagging; color marking; underwater 
television and SCUBA divers; chemical aids; 
electrical aids; spawning; sounds made by fish; 
sea mammals; the American catch; and vessels 
and gear. 

SSR-Fish. No. 261 - Plastic Standpipe for Sampl- 
ing Streambed Environment of Salmon Spawn, 
by Harold A. Gangmark and Richard G. Bakkala, 
24 pp., illus., November 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 281 - Water Soluble Vitamin Re- 
quirements of Silver Salmon, by John A. Coates 
a.ad John E. Halver, 12 pp., illus., November 
1958. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



77 



SSR-Fish. No. 288 - Intermediary Metabolism of 
Fishes and Other Aquatic Animals, by M.Gumb- 
mann, W. Duane Brown, and A. L. Tappel, 55 
pp., illus., December 1958. 

SSR-Fish. No. 296 - Etiology of Sockeye Salmon 
"Virus" Disease, by Raymond W. Guenther, 
S. W. Watson, and R. R. Rucker, with Addendum 
by A. J. Ross and R. R. Rucker, 14 pp., illus., 
February 1959. 

Firms Canning 1958 (Revised): 
SL-lOl - Salmon. 
SL-102 - Maine Sardines. 
SL-104 - Mackerel. 
SL-111 - Clam Products. 
SL-112 - Shrimp. 

SL-151 - Firms Manufacturing Fish Meal, Scrap, 
and Body Oils, 1958 (Revised). 

Sep. No. 553 - Shrimp Exploration in Central 

Alaskan Waters by M/V J ohn N. Cobb , July-Au- 
gust 1958. 

Sep. No. 554 - Current Status of the Inter-Ameri- 
can Development Bank. 

Sep. No. 555 - Research in Service Laboratories 
(July 1959): Contains these articles--"Proxi- 
mate Composition of Gulf of Mexico Industrial 
Fish Part 3 - Fall Studies (1958);" and "Tech- 
nical Note No. 54 - Dicarbonyl Compounds as 
Components of Fish Odor." 



THE FOLLOWING SERVICE PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE ONLY 
FROM THE SPECIFIC OFFICE MENTIONED. 



California Fishery Products Monthly Summary, 
AprU 1959, 13 pp. (MarketTfews Service, U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service, Post Office Bldg., 
San Pedro, Calif.) California cannery receipts 
of tuna and tunalike fish; pack of canned tuna, 
mackerel, and anchovies; market fish receipts 
at San Pedro, Santa Monica, and Eureka areas; 
California and Arizona imports; canned fish 
and frozen shrimp prices; ex-vessel prices for 
cannery fish; American Tuna Boat Association 
auction sales; for the month indicated. 

(Chicago) Monthly Summary of Chicago's Fresh 
and F rozen Fishery Products Receipts and 
Wholesale Marke t Prices , April 1959, 13 pp. 
(Market News Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, 565 W. Washington St., Chicago 6, 111.) 
Receipts at Chicago by species and by states 
and provinces for fresh- and salt-water fish 
and shellfish; and wholesale prices for fresh 
and frozen fishery products; for the month 
indicated. 

Monthly Summary of Fishery Products Production 
in Selected Areas of Virginia , North Carolina, 
and Maryland , May 1959, 4 pp. (Market News 
Service, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 18 So. 
King St., Hampton, Va.) Fishery landings and 
production for the Virginia areas of Hampton 
Roads, Lower Northern Neck, and Eastern 
Shore; the Maryland areas of Crisfield, Cam- 
bridge, and Ocean City; and the North Carolina 
areas of Atlantic, Beaufort, and MoreheadCity; 
together with cumulative and comparative data; 
for the month indicated. 



New England Fisheries - - Monthly Summary . April 
1959, 21 pp. (Market News Service, U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, 10 Commonwealth Pier, 
Boston 10, Mass.) Reviews the principal New 
England fishery ports, and presents food fish 
landings by ports and species; Industrial fish 
landings and ex-vessel prices; imports; cold- 
storage stocks of fishery products in New Eng- 
land warehouses; fishery landings and ex-ves- 
sel prices for ports in Massachusetts (Boston, 
Gloucester, New Bedford, Provincetown, and 
Woods Hole), Maine (Portland and Rockland), 
Rhode Island (Point Judith), and Connecticut 
(Stonlngton); frozen fishery products prices to 
primary wholesalers at Boston, Gloucester, and 
New Bedford; and landings and ex-vessel prices 
for fares landed at the Boston Fish Pier and 
sold through the New England Fish Exchange; 
for the month indicated. 

New York City's Wh olesale Fishery Trade - - Month- 
ly Summary for January 1959, 21 pp. (Market 
News Service, 155 John St., New York 38, N. Y.) 
Includes summaries and analyses of receipts 
and prices on wholesale Fulton Fish Market, 
imports entered at New York City, primary 
wholesaler prices for frozen products, andniar- 
keting trends; for the month indicated. 

(Seattle) Washington. Oregon, and Alaska Receipts 
and Landings of Fishery Products for Selected 
Areas and Fisheries , Monthly Summary , May 
1959, 9 pp. (Market News Service, U. S. Fish 
and WUdlife Service, Pier 42 South, Seattle 4, 
Wash.) Includes landings and local receipts, 
with ex-vessel and wholesale prices in some in- 
stances, as reported by Seattle and Astoria, 
(Ore.) wholesale dealers; also Northwest Pa- 
cific halibut landings; and Washington shrimp 
landings; for the month indicated. 

Fishery Regulation and the Position of Coastal 
Countries, by Kenzo Kawakami, Pacific Salmon 
Investigations, Translation Series No. 22, 22 
pp., processed. (Translated from Suisan Kaga - 
ku, vol. 6, no. 3-4, December 1957, pp. 13-20.) 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau of Com- 
mercial Fisheries. Pacific Salmon Investiga- 
tions, Seattle, Wash., July 30, 1958. 

Provisional Keys to the Fishes of Alaska, by Nor- 
man J. Wilimovsky, 120 pp., printed. Fisher- 
ies Research Laboratory, U. S. Fish and Wild- 
life Service, P. O. Box 2021, Juneau, Alaska, 
May 1958. 

Studies on Fish Culture in the Aquarium o^ Closed- 
Circulating System . Its Fundamental Theory and 
Standard Plan, by Aritsune Saeki, 14 pp. proc- 
essed, 6 pp. printed tables, English translation. 
(From Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scien - 
tific Fisheries , vol. 23, no. 11, 1958, pp. 684- 
695.) U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries, Box 3830, Honolulu, 
Hawaii. 

Translated Data on the Japanese Tuna Fishery , by 
Wilvan G. Van Campen, 11 pp., illus., processed. 
(Statistical tables on the Japanese tuna fishing 
industry which appeared in the February 1956 
issue of Katsuo to Maguro, organ of the Japan 
Tuna Boat Owners' Association.) Pacific Oce- 
anic Fishery Investigations, U. S. Fish and 



78 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



v/ 



Wildlife Service, Box 3830, Honolulu, Hawaii, 
May 7, 1956. 

Young Tunas Found in Stomach Contents , by Hiro- 
ihi Yabe, Shoji Ueyanagi, Shoji Kikawa, and 
Hisaya Watanabe, 30 pp., illus., processed. 
(Translated from Report of the Nankai Regional 
Fisheries Research Laboratory , no. 8, March 
1958, pp. 31-48 and~3 pages of plates.) U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Hawaii Area 
Office, Box 3830, Honolulu, Hawaii, 1958. 

THE FOLLOWING SERVICE PUBLICATIONS ARE FOR SALE AND ARE 
AVAILABLE ONLY FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS . WASH- 
INGTON 25, D. C. 

Decline of the Yellowtail Flounder ( LIMANDA 

FERRUGINEA) Off New England , by WUliam F. 
Royce, Raymond J. BuUer, and Ernest D. Pre- 
metz. Fishery Bulletin 146 (from Fishery Bul- 
letin of the Fish and Wildlife Service, vol. 59), 
pp. 169-267, illus., printed, 55 cents, 1959. The 
yellowtail flounder fishery off New England, 
which had risen to a place of importance with 
the increased food demands during World War 
II, was studied intensively from 1942 to 1949 to 
determine if changes in the yellowtail population 
were related to fishing pressure and whether 
regulation of the fishery was necessary to con- 
serve the species. Tagging and other evidence 
indicated the existence of 5 stocks, the most 
important of which to United States fishermen 
occurred off southern New England. The land- 
ings from this stock declined from 63 million 
pounds in 1942 to 10 million pounds in 1949, but 
the population did not exhibit the usual symptoms 
of heavy fishing; a declining average size, an 
increasing proportion of young fish, or an in- 
creasing growth rate. Estimates of mortality 
and recruitment indicated that the fishery was 
drawing gradually on a reserve which for un- 
known reasons was not replenished by young. 
There is no clear evidence that greater total 
production could have been achieved by protect- 
ing fish at any size, in an area, or at any time 
of the year. 

Grayling of Grebe Lake , Yellowstone National Park , 
Wyoming , by Thomas E. Kruse, Fishery Bulletin 
149 (from Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wild- 
life Service, vol. 59), pp. 307-351, illus., print- 
ed, 35 cents, 1959. 

Laws and Regulations for Protection of the Com- 
mercial Fisheries of Alaska, 1959, Regulatory 
Announcement 60, 33 pp. with 3 -p. addendum, 
printed, March 1959, 25 cents. This publication 
is divided into two sections. One section con- 
tains laws for the protection of the commercial 
fisheries of Alaska and related information, in- 
cluding the authority for regulation, rules re- 
garding oyster culture, Bristol Bay residence 
requirements, regulation of salmon escapement, 
fishing-gear restrictions, exceptions to weekly 
closed seasons, etc. The second section con- 
tains all the regulations governing the commer- 
cial fisheries in Alaska. These 1959 regulations 
supersede the regulations published in Regula- 
tory Announcement 56 which became effective 
March 30, 1958. They have been revised, and 
as a result they contain many changes as well 
as the usual seasonal changes for 1959. The ad- 
dendum, a reprint from the Federal Register of 



AprU 28, 1959, contains regulations for the re- 
striction of salmon fishing in Bristol Bay. 

Sexual Maturity and Spawning of Albacore in the 
Pacific Ocean, by Tamio Otsu and Richard N. 
Uchida, Fishery Bulletin 148 (from Fishery Bul- 
letin of the Fish and Wildlife Service, vol. 59), 
pp. 287-305, illus., printed, 20 cents, 1959. 

Some Uses of Statistical Analysis in Classifying 
Races of American Shad (ALOSA SAPIDISSIMA ), 
by Donald R. HtLl, Fishery Bulletin 147 (from 
Fishery Bulletin of the Fish and Wildlife Service, 
vol. 59), pp. 269-286, illus., printed, 20 cents, 
1959. 



MISCELLANEOUS 
PUBLICATIONS 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND 
WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE OR- 
GANIZATION ISSUING THEM. CORRESPONDENCE REGARDING PUBLICA- 
TIONS THAT FOLLOW SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE RESPECTIVE OR- 
GANIZATION OR PUBLISHER MENTIONED. DATA ON PRICES, IF 
READILY AVAILABLE, ARE SHOWN. 

ANGOLA: 
Estudos de Biologia Maritima (Marine Biological 
StudiesTT^Anais, vol. XII, tomo II, 1957, 157 pp., 
illus., printed in Portuguese. Junta das Missoes 
Geograficas e de Investigacoes do Ultramar, 
Rua da Junqueira, 86, Lisbon, Portugal. De- 
scribes the work of the Marine Biological Mis- 
sion from Portugal to Angola. 

ANIMAL FEEDING: 
"The Use of Amino Acid Values in Formulation 
of Feeds," by H. S. WUgus, article. Feeds tuffs , 
vol. 30, December 20, 1958. p. 26, printed. 
Feedstuffs, Miller Publishing Co., 118 S. 6th 
St., Minneapolis 2, Minn. 

ANTIBIOTICS: 
"Antibiotic Now OK for Fish," article. Food 
Engineering, vol. 31, no. 5, May 1959, p. 41, 
illus., printed. Food Engineering, McGraw- 
Hill Publishing Co., Inc., 330 W. 42nd St., New 
York 36, N. Y. For more than 3 years antibiot- 
ics have been used as a dip for fish fillets in Can- 
ada. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration 
recently approved a petition by a chemical com- 
pany for use of chlortetracycline at 5 parts per 
million on fresh fish, shucked scallops, and un- 
peeled shrimp. The approved process Involves 
use of a dip or ice containing a solution of the 
antibiotic by commercial fishermen on tresh- 
caught, whole, headed, and gutted fish. 

AUSTRALIA: 
The Barramundi LATES CALCARIFER ( Bloch) 
in Queensland Waters , by D. J. Dunstan, Tech- 
HTcal Paper No. 5, 22 pp., illus., printed. Divi- 
sion of Fisheries and Oceanography, Common- 
wealth Scientific and Industrial Research Or- 
ganization, Melbourne, Australia, 1959. 

Measurements of Light Penetration in the Tas - 
man Sea . 1955 -57. by H. R. Jitts, Technical 
Paper No. 6, 26 pp., illus., printed. Division of 
Fisheries and Oceanography, Commonwealth 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



79 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDL I FE SERVICE , BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



Scientific and Industrial Research Organiza- 
tion, Melbourne, Australia, 1959. 

Statistical Bulletin: Fishing and Whaling, Aus- 
tralia, no. 4, 1957-58, 18 pp., Lilus., processed. 
Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics, 
Canberra, Australia. This is the fourth of a 
series of annual bulletins dealing with the fish- 
ing and whaling industries in Australia. The 
statistics, covering quantity and value of catch 
and related data, pertain to the year 1957/58 
for fisheries and the 1958 season for whaling, 
with comparative data for the previous 4 years. 
The bulletin is divided into two parts--the first 
dealing with fisheries and the second with whal- 
ing. The part on fisheries is subdivided into a 
sectio.T on edible fishery products --finfish, 
crustaceans, and molluscs; and another on pearl 
and trochus shells. 



BRi 



5ROOK TROUT: 
The Eastern Brook Trout ; Its Life History , Ecol - 
ogy , and Management , by John Brasch, James 
McFadden, and Stanley Kmiotek, Publication 
226, 10 pp., illus., printed. Wisconsin Conser- 
vation Dept., Madison, Wis., 1958. 

BYPRODUCTS: 
"Fish Meal and Oil. 4--The Rate of Oxidation of 
Fat in Pilchard Presscake," by G. M. Dreosti 
and G. H. Stander, article. Annual Report , Fish - 
ing Industry Research Institute, April-Decem- 
ber 1956, vol. 10, pp. 18-20, printed. Fishing 
Industry Research Institute, Cape Town, Union 
of South Africa. 

CALIFORNIA: 
The Sea Bottom off Santa Barbara , California : 
Biomass and Community Structure , by J. Laur- 
ens Barnard and Olga Hartman, 16 pp., illus., 
printed. (Reprinted from Pacific Naturalist , vol, 
1, no. 6, June 1, 1959.) Beaudette Foundation 
for Biological Research, Box 482, R. F. D. 1, 
Solvang, Ccdif. 

Statistical Report of Fresh , Canned ,' Cured and 
Manufactured Fishery Products , 1958 , Circular 
No. 33, 16 pp., illus., printed. Department of 
Fish and Game, Biostatistical Section, Marine 
Resources Operations, Sacramento, Calif., 1959. 

CANADA: 
Eleventh Annual Report of the Pacific Marine 
Fisheries Commission for the Year 1958 , 29 
pp., printed. Pacific Marine Fisheries Com- 
mission, 340 State Office Building, 1400 S. W. 
Fifth Ave., Portland, Ore. Reports briefly the 
specific activities of the Pacific Marine Fisher- 
ies Commission during 1958 and presents a re- 
view of long-term developments in the fields of 
research, regulation, and coordination. De- 
scribes recent International developments af- 
fecting jurisdiction over fisheries. Presents 
sections on otter-trawl, California albacore. 
Pacific Coast shrimp, and offshore troll salmon 
fisheries. 

Fisheries Statistics of Canadji , 1957 (Prince Ed- 
ward Island), 30 pp., illus , printed in French 



and English, 50 Canadian cents. Queen's Print- 
er and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, Can- 
ada, May 1959. Contains tables giving the 
quantity and value of fishery products landed 
in Prince Edward Island in 1939-1957, by 
species; quantity and value by species and 
fisheries districts; quantity and value of man- 
ufactured fishery products by species, 1956- 
57; capital equipment in the primary fisher- 
ies operations; and the number of fishermen 
engaged in the primary fisheries operations. 

Results of Special Sport Fishing Surveys , 1957- 
195 8 (Supplementary Report to the 1958 Annual 
Report to the 1958 Annual Report of Statistics 
on Salmon Sport Fishing in the Tidal Waters 
of British Columbia), 23 pp., illus., processed. 
Department of Fisheries, 1110 West GeorgiaSt., 
Vancouver 5, B. C, Canada, May 15, 1959. 

CHILE: 
Cooperatlvas Pesqueras (Fishery Cooperatives), 
Boletin Nos. 1 and 2, January and February 
1959, respectively, 4 pp. ea., illus., processed 
in Spanish. La Seccion Cooperatlvas, Depto. 
Fomento de Pesca y Caza, Valparaiso, Chile. 
The first two issues of a new monthly bulletin 
presenting news on fishery cooperatives spon- 
sored by the Chilean Department of Fish and 
Wildlife. Covers the activities and benefits of 
the fishery cooperatives of Chile. 

CLAMS: 
The Bay Clams of Oregon (Their Identification, 
Relative Abundance, and General Distribution), 
by Lowell D. Marriage, Educational Bulletin No. 
2, 28 pp., illus., printed. Fish Commission of 
Oregon, Portland, Ore., 1958. Presents a de- 
scription of the various species of Oregon's bay 
clams, a guide to the general abundance and 
distribution of the major species, and descrip- 
tion of the various bays where the clams are 
produced. Statistical data are also included 
showing Oregon's commercisLl clam production 
during 1928-56. 

COD: 

"Chemical Indices of Decomposition In Cod," by 
Fred Hillig, L. R. Shelton, Jr., J. H. Loughrey, 
and Jerome Eisner, article. Journal of the As - 
sociation of Official Agricultural Chemis ts, vol. 
41, NovernBer 1958, pp. 763-776, printed. As- 
sociation of Official Agricultural Chemists, 
Inc., Box 540, Benjamin Franklin Station, Wash- 
ington 4, D. C. 

COMMON MARKET: 
"Le March^ Commun, Vu par les Americains" 
(The Common Market, the American Point of 
View), article, France Peche , vol. 40, no. 29, 
May 1959, pp. 15-16, printed in French. France 
Peche, 84, Rue Carnot, Lorient, France. 

CONTAINERS: 
"Containers for Transporting Fresh Fish in Ice," 
by R. J. Nachenius, article. Annual Report, 
Fishing Industry Research I nstitute, 1957, vol. 
11, p. 14, printed. Fishing Industry Research 
Institute, Cape Town, Unionof South Africa, 1958. 



80 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDL I FE SERVICE . BUT USUALLy MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



CROAKER: 

Migration of the Croaker , MICRO POGON UN- 
DULATUg; by Dexter S. Haven, No. 82, 6 pp., 
illus., printed. (Reprinted from Copeia , no. 1, 
April 17, 1959, pp. 25-30.) Virginia Fisheries 
Laboratory, Gloucester Point, Va. 

CUBA: 
Catalogo de Peces Cubanos (Catalogue of Cuban 
Fish), by Pedro Pablo Duarte-Bello, Monografia 
6, March 1959, 204 pp., printed in Spanish with 
common names in English, $3.00. Universidad 
Catolica de Santo Tomas de Villanueva, Labor- 
atorio de Blologia Marina, Apartado No. 6, 
Marianao, Cuba. 

DELAWARE: 
Marine Laboratories (Newark and Lewes, Dela- 
ware). Biennial Report , 1957 - 1958 , no. 4, 16 
pp., illus., printed. University of Delaware, 
Department of Biological Sciences, Newark, 
Del., 1959. 

FISH MEAL: 
"Determination of Fat in Fish Meal by Refracto- 
metry," by H. Treiber, article, Fette, Self en, 
Anstrichmittel , vol. 60, 1958, pp. 488-490, 
printed. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Fettwissen- 
schaft, Industrieverlag von Herhaussen K. G., 
24 Rodingsmarkt, Hamburg 11, Germany. 

"Fish Meal. Investigation of Fat Content," by 
A. F. M. G. Luijpen, D. Hooghiemstra-Brasser, 
and A. C. Hindriks, article, Fette, Seifen, An - 
strichmittel, vol. 60, 1958, p. 951, printed. 
Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Fettwissenschaft, In- 
dustrieverlag von Herhaussen K. G., 24 Rod- 
ingsmarkt, Hamburg 11, Germany. 

FISH OILS: 

"The Role of Free Fatty Acids on Antioxidant 
Effectiveness in Unsaturated Oils," by Harold S. 
Olcott, article. Journal of the American Oil 
Chemists ' Society , vol. 35, November 1958, pp. 
597-599, printed. American Oil Chemists Soci- 
ety, 35 E. Wacker Drive, Chicago 1, CI. 

FISH SOLUBLES: 
"A Comparison of the Nutritive Value of Con- 
densed Herring Solubles Prepared by Acid and 
Enzyme Treatments," by B. E. March, Jacob 
Biely, J. McBride, R. A. MacLeod, and D. R. 
Idler, article. Progress Reports of the Pacific 
Coast Stations , no. Ill, August 1958, pp. 23-28, 
printed. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 
Pacific Fisheries Experimental Station, 898 
Richards St., Vancouver, B. C, Canada. 

FISHERIES DEVELOPMENT: 
Principles of Fisheries Development , by Casper 
Josephus Bottemann, 689 pp., illus., printed, $12 
North-Holland Publishing Co., P. O. Box 103, 
Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1959. The aim of this 
textbook (in five parts) is to trace the principles 
which determine the structure of fisheries and 
to establish, on this basis, the principles gov- 
erning fisheries development; as well as to find 
how the industry might contribute more fully 
to the world's food supply. Part 1 deals with 
the basic facts concerning fish populations. 



Part 2 covers the principles of fishing methods 
and units and use of resource. Part 3 on the 
main features of dynamic fisheries describes 
expansions in fisheries proper, role of com- 
plementary industries, and structural problems 
of fisheries. Part 4 dealing with the general 
principles of development discusses pattern of 
structure, development and leverage, climates 
for development, and development strategy. 
Part 5 on problems of development in fisheries 
discusses conditioning factors in development, 
basic leverage patterns, development of fishing 
units, methods and instrument of leverage, and 
strategy of leverage. The .author points out that 
the book is confined to sea fisheries because 
those produce the most intricate problems. All 
phases of fisheries are covered, from the re- 
source in the sea to the final product and its 
marketing. The book is a general philosophy on 
fisheries. A scholarly work of compelling in- 
terest for all those wishing to increase their 
knowledge of fishery science. 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION: 
The Food and Agriculture Organization has pub- 
lished reports describing that Agency's activi- 
ties under the Expanded Technical Assistance 
Program for developing the fisheries of many 
countries. These reports have not been pub- 
lished on a sales basis, but have been processed 
only for limited distribution to governments, 
libraries, and universities. Food and Agricul- 
ture Organization of the United Nations, Viale 
delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy. 

Info r me al Gobierno de Mexico sobr e el Consumo 
y la Distribucion del Pescado en los Mercados 
(Report to the Government of Mexico on the 
Consumption and Distribution of Fish in the 
Markets), by John Fridthjof, FAO Report No. 
694, 27 pp., processed in Spanish, May 1958. Re- 
ports on fish production in Mexico, dry fish and 
its cheap disposal, problems of distribution, 
necessity for special instruction to the consum- 
er, national and local inquiries, fish work unit, 
application of the activities of the fish work unit, 
the idea of a puppet show, other activities of the 
adult education program, the program on a local 
level in the Federal District, States of Morelos, 
Michoacan, and Veracruz, and an evaluation of 
reported activities. 

Report to the Government of Turkey on Fishery 
Biology , by Hermann Einarsson, FAO Report 
No. 829, 80 pp., illus., processed. May 1958. 
Discusses the background and research facili- 
ties; technical work accomplished--field work 
at sea and work in the laboratory; and conclu- 
sions regarding research services. 

Informe al Gobierno de Mexico sobre Consumo 
y Distribucion del Pescado en los Mercados 
(Report to the Government of Mexico on Con- 
sumption and Distribution of Fish in the Mar- 
kets), by John Fridthjof, FAO Report No. 843, 
23 pp., illus., processed in Spanish, July 1958. 
Reports on a follow-up study to supplement 
FAO Report No. 694. 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



81 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDL I FE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAT BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORSANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



Rapport au Gouvernement de la Tiinisie sur la 
SituatloT Tde Ta Flotte ^!EaIutIere Tunisieifme~ 
(Keport toThe Government of Tunisia on the Sit- 
uation of the Tunisian Trawler Fleet), by Peter 
Gurtner, FAO Report No. 864, 45 pp., illus., 
processed in French, July 1958. Describes the 
survey and evaluation by a Swiss naval architect 
of the Tunisian trawler fleet. Discusses the 
vessels, motors, and gear of the fleet, method 
of fishing applied, personnel, the point of view of 
independent owners, facilities of the shipyards, 
and recommendations for long- and short-term 
programs. 

R eport to the Government of Saudi Arabia on Ex - 
ploration and CommerciaTFishing Operations in 



the Red Sea , by Gonzalo G. Ferrer, FAO Report 
Wo". 877, 30 pp., illus., processed. May 1958. 
Reports on the work done in 1954-56 along the 
Arabian Coast of the Red Sea. Discusses initial 
and later surveys of the fishing grounds, com- 
mercial fishing operations, the gear, and fishing 
methods used. 

Report to the Government of Sudan on Uie Red 
Sea Fisheries (based on the work of~Erling Os- 
wald), FAO Report No. 934, 29 pp., illus.. 
processed, August 1958. Describes the work 
accomplished in operations out of Port Sudan 
with a motor boat fitted for multiple trolling and 
the demonstrations to local fishermen of greatly 
increased earnings with modern fishing gear. 
Subsequently, a Red Sea Fishermen's Coopera- 
tive Society was formed. 

Annotated Bibliography on Fishing Gear and 
Methods, Indo -Pacific Fisheries Council Special 
Publications No. 4, 85 pp., processed. Food and 
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 
Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 
1958. Out of 3,000 bibliographic references on 
fishing gear, 672 titles have been selected and 
are presented with brief annotations giving an 
Indication of the information contained in each 
publication or article. Also contains a list of 
the full names of the periodlccLls In, which the 
references were published and the addresses of 
their publishers, including only those which are 
not already listed in the Handbook for World 
Fisheries Abstracts . The material appears on 
one side only of each page; the paper being of a 
heavy, stiff quality, making the bibliographies 
suitable for cutting out and inclusion in a card 
index. 

Report of the F. A. O. Training Centre in Fishery 
Cfo - Operatives and ~ Admlnistration , vol. I, 46 
pp., printed; vol. II (Fishermen's Co -Operatives 
in the Indo-Pacific Region), by Edward Szcze- 
panik, 128 pp., printed. Food and Agriculture 
Organization of the United Nations, Viale delle 
Terme di Caracalla, Rome, Italy, 1958. (For 
sale by International Documents Service, Co- 
lumbia University Press, 2960 Broadway, New 
York 27, N. Y.) Describes in two volumes the 
work accomplished at the FAO Indo-Pacific 
Training Centre in Fishery Co -Operatives and 
Administration, held in Sydney, Australia, De- 
cember 16, 1957, to January 25, 1958. The first 
volume presents a factual account of the organ- 



ization, conduct, and training program of the 
Centre. Its primary purpose is to inform Gov- 
ernments concerning the work accomplished at 
the Centre. It also provides guidance as to the 
value of this type of regional project and the 
practical measures required in the preparation 
and execution of such a program of training. 
Some observations are offered on the advantages, 
from the standpoint of the participants, of cer- 
tain training activities, especially practical work 
and discussions and on the importance of achiev- 
ing group cohesion while allowing full opportun- 
ity for the study of the problems of individual 
participants. 

The second volume consists of a review of fish- 
ermen's cooperatives in the Indo-Pacific region, 
based on reports and other documents prepared 
and assembled in connection with the Centre, 
and includes an analytical study of the role of 
cooperatives in relation to middlemen problems 
in the region generally. The main feature pre- 
sented in this study is the remarkable postwar 
growth of the cooperative movement in the Indo- 
Pacific fisheries. This is the first comprehen- 
sive account of the cooperative movement in the 
Indo-Pacific fisheries as a whole and therefore 
presents the first opportunity for regionwide 
compaLrisons which can be most valuable in as- 
sessing the results and planning the future of the 
movement in particular countries. It also en- 
ables the reader to appreciate the past develop- 
ment, current problems, and future prospects 
of this important feature of the Indo-Pacific 
fisheries. 

FRANCE: 
Federation Nationale des Syndlcats Francats de 
Conserveurs des Produits de la Mer (National 
Federation of French Syndicates of Canners of 
Marine Products), 8 pp., illus., printed in 
French. Federation Nationale des Syndlcats 
Francais de Conserveurs des Produits de la 
Mer, Paris, France, 1959. Presents statistical 
tables on French production of canned fishery 
products during 1958. 

"Le Pays et la Peche Face au Marche Commun" 
(The Country and the Fishing Industry in the 
Face of the Common Market), by Jules Molard, 
article, France P^che , vol. 4, no. 28, April 1959, 
pp 15-17, printed in French. France Peche, 84, 
Rue Carnot, Lorient, France. Discusses the ob- 
jectives to be achieved in the fishing Industry 
so that full advantage may be taken of the latest 
financial adjustments. Cites examples of equip- 
ment schemes which are not merely projects 
but which, on the contrary, have proven their 
efficiency when applied to operational units of 
diverse types. 

"La P^che a la Lumiere en Medlterranfee" (Fish- 
ing With Lights in the Mediterranean), by Robert 
Lenier, article, France Pfeche, vol. 4, no. 28, 
April 1959, pp. 44-47, illus., printed in French. 
France piche, 84, Rue Carnot, Lorient, France. 

FUR SEALS: 
"Storied Seal-Hunt," article. Trade News, vol. 11, 
no. 10, April 1959, pp. 3-5, illus., processed. 



82 



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Vol. 21, No. 8 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGAN I ZAT I ON ISSUING THEM. 



Trade News, Department of Fisheries, Ottawa, 
Canada. Describes the adventures of the 8 seal- 
ing ships from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia 
operating in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and off the 
east coast of Labrador. This colorful and lucra- 
tive trade has been operating in this area for 
nearly a century. Early reports give accounts 
of good catches. The Canadian ships are aided 
by seal spotting aircraft and by the assistance 
of a representative of the Arctic Unit, Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada. 

GEAR: 
"Fishing with the South African Pursed Lampara," 
by C. G. Du Plessis, article. World Fishing , vol. 
7, March 1958, pp. 57-58, printed. John Trun- 
dell (Publishers), Ltd., St. Richard's House, 
Eversholt St., London, N. W. 1, England. 



v< 



A Method of Determining the Depth of Mid water 
Tr awl Nets, by William Edward Barraclough, 
Circular no. 48, 5 pp., illus., printed. Fisher- 
ies Research Board of Canada, Biological Sta- 
tion, Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1958. 

"On the Relation Between the Length of Ground 
Rope of a Danish Seine and the Variation of its 
Gape," by Otohiko Suzuki, article. Bulletin of_the 
Japanese S ociety of Scientific Fisheries , vol. 23, 
no. 9, 1958, pp. Sl^-Sl?, printed. Japanese Soci- 
ety of Scientific Fisheries, c/o Tokyo University 
of Fisheries, Shiba-kaigandori 6-chome, Tokyo, 
Japan. 

GENERAL: 
"Studies on Fishes of the Family Ophidiidae. 
UI--A New Species of Lepophidium from Barba- 
dos," by C. Richard Robins, article, Breviora , 
no. 104, AprU 13, 1959, 7 pp., illus.. printed. 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Mass. (Also Contribution No. 221 from The 
Marine Laboratory, University of Miami, Miami, 
Fla.) 

GIZZARD SHAD: 
Age and Growth of the Gizzard Shad ( DOROSOMA 
LACEPEDI) (Sesueur), in Lake Newnan, Fla., by 
Frederick H. Berry, 14 pp., illus., printed. (Re- 
printed from Proceedings of tiie Eleventh Annual 
Conference , Southeastern Association of "Game 
and Fish Commissioners , pp. 318-331.) South - 
eastern Association of Game and Fish Commis- 
sioners, P. O. Box 360, Columbia. S. C, 1958. 

HERRING: 
De Haringcampagne 1957 -58 (The Herring Fishery 
1957-58). by Charles GUIs, no. 1, 1958, 31 pp., 
illus., printed in Flemish and French. Zeeweten- 
schappelljk Instituut, Romestraat, 30, Gostende, 
Belgium. 

The Herr ing from the Fuglsetfjord — a Supplement 
to "The "^sterb8l Herring ," by Thorolv Rasmus - 
sen, 8 pp., illus., printed. (Report on Norwegian 
Fishery and Marine Investigations, vol. XII, no. 
2, 1958.) A. S. John Griegs Boktrykkeri, Ber- 
gen, Norway. 

"Herring Migrations in the Passamaquoddy Re- 
gion," by R. A. McKeazie andB. E. Skud, article. 



Journal of the Fisheries Research Board o^ 
Canada , vol. 15, no. 6, 1958, pp. 1329-1343, 
printed. Journal of the Fisheries Research 
Board of Canada, Queen's Printer and Controll- 
er of Stationery, Ottawa, Canada. 

Untersuchungen uber die Deutsche 'Olherings- 
fischerei' in der Nordsee im Jahre 1956" (As- 
sessment of the German Oil Herring Fishery in 
the North Sea in 1956), by Heinrich Kuhl and 
Klaus Tiews, article, Berlchte der Deutsche 
Wis sens chaf tlichen Kommission fur Meeresfor - 
schung , Neue Folge, band XV, heft 1, December 

1957, pp. 58-69, illus., printed in German with 
English summary. E. Schweizerbart'sche Ver- 
lagsbuchhandlung (Nagele u. Obermiller), Stutt- 
gart, Germany. 

HYDROGRAPHY: 
Hydrography of the North - Westem Approaches to 
the British Isles , by D. S. TuUoch and J. B. 
Tait, Scottish Home Department Marine Re- 
search No. 1, 1959, 32 pp., illus., printed. 10s. 
(about US$1.40). Her Majesty's Stationery Of- 
fice, 13a Castle St., Edinburgh 2, Scotland. 

Hydrography of Scottish Coastal Waters, by R. E. 
Craig, Scottlih Home Department Marine Re- 
search No. 2, 1959, 30 pp., ILlus., printed, 10s. 
(about US$1,40). Her Majesty's Stationery Of- 
fice, 13a Castle St.. Edinburgh 2, Scotland. 

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES: 
Participation of the United States Government in 
International Conferences, July 1, 1957-June30, 

1958, Department of State Publication 6772, 286 
pp., printed, 70 cents. Office of International 
Conferences, Department of State, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C, May 1959. (For sale by the Super- 
intendent of Documents, U. S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.) A refer- 
ence guide to the official participation of the 

U. S. Government in multilateral international 
conferences and meetings of international or- 
ganizations during the period July 1, 1957- 
June 30, 1958. For many of the conferences de- 
tailed data are presented on the composition of 
the U. S. delegation, principal officers, partici- 
pation by other countries and organizations, and 
brief statements of the actions taken. Describes 
among others, the following conferences: U- 
nited Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea 
(February 24-April 27, 1958), Geneva; Inter- 
American Tropical Tuna Commission, Tenth An- 
nual Meeting (February 11-12, 1958), Panama; 
International North Pacific Fisheries Commis- 
sion, Fourth Meeting (November 4-8. 1957), Van- 
couver, Committee on Biology and Research 
(October 28-November 4, 1957), Vancouver; In- 
ternational Commission for the Northwest At- 
lantic Fisheries, Eighth Annual Meeting (June 9- 
14, 1958), Halifax; International Fisheries Con- 
vention of 1946, Permanent Commission: Sixth 
Meeting (October 22-25, 1957), London; Inter- 
national AA/haling Commission. Tenth Meeting 
(June 23-28. 1958). The Hague; North Pacific 
Fur Seal Commission, First Meeting (January 13- 
17, 1958), Washington, D. C; General Agree- 
ment on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Contracting 
Parties: Twelfth Session (October 17 -Novem- 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



83 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



ber 30, 1957), Geneva; International Council for 
the Exploration of the Sea, Forty-Fifth Meeting 
(September 30-October 8, 1957), Bergen, Norway. 

IRELAND: 
Foyle Fisheries Commission, Seventh Annual Re - 
port (for the year ended September 30, 1958), 
Pr. 4958, 35 pp., illus., printed, 2s. (about 28 
U. S. cents); Sixth Annual Report (for the year 
ended September 30, 1957), Pr. 4552, 35 pp., 
illus., printed, 2s. (about 28 U. S. cents); Fifth 
Annual Report (for the year ended September 30, 
1956), Pr. 4057, 29 pp., Ulus., printed, 2s. (about 
28 U. S. cents); and Fourth Annual Report (for 
the year ended September 30, 1955), Pr. 3467, 
33 pp., illus., printed. Is. (about 14 U. S. cents). 
The Foyle Fisheries Commission, The Court- 
house, Lifford, Ireland. (For sale at the Gov- 
ernment Publications Sale Office, G. P. O. Ar- 
cade, Dublin, Ireland.) 

ISRAEL: 

Bamidgeh (Bulletin of Fish Culture in Israel), 
vol. 10, no. 4, December 1958, 46 pp., illus., 
printed in English and Hebrew. Joint Agricul- 
tural Extension Centre, Division of Fisheries, 
Ministry of Agriculture, Tel Aviv, Israel. Con- 
tains the following articles: "The Fish Culture 
Research Station--Dor," by A. Yashouv; "Ac- 
climatization of New Species in the Fishponds of 
the Station," by A. Yashouv; "Winter Culture of 
Carps at the Fish Culture Research Station- - 
Dor," by A. Yashouv, and "The Excreta of Carp 
as a Growth Limiting Factor," by A. Yashouv. 

MACKEREL: 
"Changes of Fat in Frozen Mackerel During 
Storage," by O. M. Mel'nikova and N. M. Kha- 
lina, article, Izvestiia Tikhookeanskovo Nauch - 
no-Issledovatelskovo Instituta Rybnovo Kho - 
ziaistva i Okeanografii , vol. 42, 1954, pp. 299- 
302, printed. Izvestiia .Tikhookeanskovo Nauch- 
no-Issledovatelskovo Instituta Rybnovo Kho- 
ziaistva i Okeanografii, Vladivostok, U. S. S. R. 

MENHADEN: 
Length , Weight , and Age Composition of tjie Men - 
haden Catch in Virginia Waters, by J. L. Mc- 
Hugh, R. T. Oglesby, and A. L. Pacheco, No. 
84, 18 pp., illus., printed. (Reprinted from 
Limnology and Oceanography , vol. 4, no. 2, 
April 1959. pp. 145-162.) Virginia Fisheries 
Laboratory, Gloucester Point, Va. 

OYSTERS: 
Cooling Rates of Fresh Oysters , Central Labora- 
tory Report, 11 pp., illus., processed, limited 
distribution. U. S. Department of Health, Edu- 
cation, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 
Bureau of State Services, Division of Sanitary 
Engineering Services, Milk and Food Branch, 
Shellfish Section, Washington 25, D. C. 

"La Peche et I'Ostr^iculture dans le Quartier de 
Bordeaux en 1958" (The Fishery and Oyster 
Culture in the Bordeaux Area in 1958), by M. 
Lucas, article, France Peche, vol. 40, no. 29, 
May 1959, pp. 37-38, printed in French. France 
P^che, 84, Rue Carnot, Lorient, France. 



PARASITES: 
Concerning the Specificity of Fish Parasites, by 
S. S. Shulman, Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada, Translation Series, No. 177, 17 pp., 
processed. (Translated from Zoologicheskii 
Zhurnal , vol. 33, no. 1, 1954, pp. 14-25.) Fish- 
eries Research Board of Canada, Biological 
Station, Nanalmo, B. C, Canada, 1958. 

PILCHARD: 
The Pilchard o^ South Africa and of South West 
Africa ( SARDINOPS OCELLATA F-'The Varia - 
tions of Temperature in the Surface Layer of the 
Sea Near Walvis Bay during 1954-57 , with an 
Analysis of Some Wind Data from Pelican Poin t, 
by G. H. Stander, Investigational Report No. 35, 
40 pp., Illus., printed. South African Depart- 
ment of Commerce and Industries, Division of 
Fisheries, Cape Town, Union of South Africa, 
1958. 

PORTUGAL: 
Gremio dos Armadores Navios da Pesca do Bacal - 
hau . Relator io e Contas do Exercicio de 1958 e 
Orcamento para 1959 (Cod Fishing Vessel Own- 
ers' Guild. Statement of Operations for 1958 and 
Budget for 1959), 38 pp.. illus.. printed in Por- 
tuguese. A Comissao Revisora de Contas. Lis- 
bon, Portugal, February 1959. 

PRECOOKED FOODS: 
A Study of Frozen Precooked Foods: Their Sani - 
tary Quality and Microbiological Standards for 
Control, by A. E. Abrahamson, Leon Buchbinder, 
John Guenkel, and Milton Heller, 10 pp., illus., 
printed. (Reprinted from Association of Food 
& Drug Officials of the United States, vol. 23. 
no. 2, AprU 1959. pp. 63-72.) Department of 
Health. City of New York, Bureau of Food and 
Bureau of Laboratories, New York, N. Y. In the 
City of New York a microbiological study was 
made of 195 samples of frozen precooked foods 
of nationally known brands, obtained at the re- 
tail level. At this level about 76 percent were 
found to meet the Department of Health criteria 
of less than 100,000 colonies per gram and no 
Staphylococcus aureus. This is not a local 
problem but one of national scope. The stand- 
ards used in the recent New York City studyare 
recommended for adoption as a starting point 
for the improvement of the sanitary quality of 
frozen precooked foods of the types encompass- 
ed by the study. Unless Federal microbiological 
standards for frozen precooked foods are soon 
established there is a great likelihood that var- 
ious and varying levels of standards will be a- 
dopted by local and state agencies which may be 
of some help to the consumer but may not make 
it easier for the processor. 

PRESERVATION: 
"Use of Ascorbic Acid for Fish Preservation 
(Analytical Determination)," by Maria Carusi 
Di Fabio, article, Progresso Veterinario , vol. 
11. 1956, pp. 876-880, printed in Italian. Assoc- 
iazione Nazionale Veterinari Italiani, Turin, Italy. 

QUALITY: 
"A Review of the Value of Volatile Reducing Sub- 
stances for the Chemical Assessment of the 



84 



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Vol. 21, No. 8 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH 4.ND Wl LOL I FE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAV BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



Freshness of Fish and Fish Products," by 
Lionel Farber and Peter A. Lerke, article. Food 
Technology, vol. 12, December 1958, pp. 677- 
680, printed. Food Technology, The Garrard 
Press, 510 No. Hickory, Champaign, 111. 

"Studies on Protein Denaturation in Frozen Fish" 
(Parts I, II, and III), by J. I. M. Ironsides and 
R. M. Love, article. Journal of the Science of 
Food and Agriculture, vol. 9, September 1958, 
pp. 597-617, printed. Society of Chemical In- 
dustry, 14 Belgrave Square, London, S. W. 1, 
England. 

RECIPES: 
Fish for Hospital Catering . 30 pp., illus., printed. 
White Fish Authority, Lincoln's Inn Chambers, 
2-3 Cursitor St., London, E. C. 4. England, 
1959. An eye-catching booklet. Illustrated with 
color photos, which contains sections on the 
therapeutic value of fish, a table of food values 
of white fish, choosing fish for normal and 
special diets, buying fish, preparation and stor- 
age of fish, sanitation, cooking, serving and 
garnishing, keeping fish hot, fish recipes for 
normal diets, and fish for special diets. 

Fish for Industrial Catering , 46 pp., illus., print- 
ed. White Fish Authority, Lincoln's Inn Cham- 
bers, 2-3 Cursitor St., London E. C. 4, Eng- 
land, 1959. This useful booklet discusses fish 
and the problems of service, how to choose 
fish, sanitation, basic cooking methods for the 
canteen, and some useful tips when cooking 
fish. It also presents recipes for large quantity 
cookery for the canteen and cafeteria, the snack 
bar, the directors' dining room; ^reparation of 
shellfish; and sauces for fish. 

Fish for School Meals, 24 pp., Ulus., printed. 
The White Fish Authority, Lincoln's Inn Cham- 
bers, 2-3 Cursitor St., London E. C. 4, England, 
1959. Making fish popular with children is 
worthwhile since it can bring welcome variety 
to the school menu. That is the aim of this 
booklet which discusses choosing ahd buying 
fish, controlling delivery, quality and freshness, 
storage, preparation, sanitation, choice of fish, 
cooking fish, frying, other cooking methods, 
serving fish to children, and useful hints. It 
also contains recipes for the preparation of fish 
and sauces, and tips for transporting hot pre- 
pared fish dishes. 

Four Recipe Leaflets, 4 pp. each, Ulus., printed. 
White Fish Authority, Lincoln's Inn Chambers, 
2-3 Cursitor St., London, E. C. 4, England. 
Contain recipes for the preparation of fish 
dishes. Titles of the leaflets are: "Have a 
Proper Meal with Fish;" "Sensible Slimming 
with Fish;" "Fish for Invalids;" and "Party 
Dishes with Fish." 

SALMON: 
Causes of the Fluctuations in Abundance of Sock - 
eye Salmon" in Kamchatka, by F. V. Krogius, 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Transla- 
tion Series, No. 92, 5 pp., illus., processed. 
(Translated from Trudy Problemnikh i Temati - 
cheskikh Soveshchanii Zin, no. 6, 1956, pp. 



144-149.) Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 
Biological Station, Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 
1957. 

Concerning the Causes of a Peculiarity of the 
Pink Salmon of the Sea oF Japan , by I. B. Bir- 
man. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 
Translation Series, No. 142, 6 pp., illus., proc- 
essed. (Translated from Zoologicheskii Zhur - 
nal, vol. 35, no. 11, 1956, pp. 1681-1684.) Fish- 
eries Research Board of Canada, Biological 
Station, Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1958. 

Fisheries (Contributions of Western States, A- 
laska, and British Columbia to Salmon Fisher- 
ies of the North American Pacific Ocean, in- 
cluding Puget Sound, Straits of Juan de Fucaand 
Columbia River), volume 2, 80 pp., illus., print- 
ed. Washington Department of Fisheries, Seat- 
tle, Wash., 1959. Contains chapters on: the 
need for cooperative management and preser- 
vation of historic fishing rights; historical re- 
view of fisheries management; problems in- 
volved in management of Pacific fisheries; Ca- 
nadian proposal for a 12-mile zone of territori- 
al waters; interception of migrating fish; the 
problem of the BoniUa-Tatoosh Line; extension 
of treaty waters to include Johnstone Strait and 
Puget Sound; chinook, sUver, sockeye, pink, and 
chum salmon; objectives of fish farming; fish 
protective investments in Washington, Oregon, 
Idaho, and California; calculated minimum con- 
tributions of hatchery releases to the catch of 
salmon on the Pacific Coast and costs Assess- 
able to Hatchery Operations; and conclusions 
and recommendations. Also presents graphs 
and charts depicting salmon migrations and 
landings, as well as tables showing investments 
In hatcheries and production of salmon from lib- 
erations of hatchery-reared fish, among others. 

Results of a Study of the Biology of Sockeye 
Salmon , the Conditions _of the. Stocks and the 
Fluctuations in Numbers in Kamchatka Waters , 
by F. V. KrogTus and E. M. Krokhin, Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada, Translation Series, 
No. 176, 21 pp., Illus., processed. (Translated 
from Voprosy Ikhtlologii , no. 7, 1956, pp. 3-20.) 
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Biologi- 
cal Station, Nanaimo, B. C, Canada, 1958. 

Statistics on Salmon Sport Fishing in the Tidal 
Waters o FBritish Columbia , 1958, 25 pp., illus., 
processed. Department of Fisheries of Canada, 
Pacific Area, 1110 West Georgia St., Vancou- 
ver 5, B. C, Canada, May 15, 1959. 

"Variations in Composition of Southeastern A- 
laska Pink Salmon," by Claude E. Thurston, 
article, Food Research , vol. 23, November-De- 
cember 1958, pp. 619-625, printed. Depart- 
ment of Food Technology, University of Cali- 
fornia, Davis, Calif. 

SARDINES: 
Behavior and Reactions of the Pacific Sardine. 
SARDlNOPg CAERULE"5 iGirard) , Under the 
Influence of White and Colored Lights and Dark- 
ness , by Anatole S. Loukashkln and Norman 
Grant, 50 pp., Ulus., printed. (Reprinted from 



August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



85 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LDLIFE SERVICE , BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGAN I ZAT ION ISSUING THEM. 



Proceedings of the California Academy of 
Sciences , vol. 29, no. 15, May 29, 1959, pp. 509- 
548.) California Academy of Sciences, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. This investigation was conducted 
in order to study experimentally the effects of 
various types of illumination on the Pacific sar- 
dine from the point of view of the behavior of 
the school as a unit and the ability of the fish to 
discriminate different colors of light. Out of the 
three colored lights--green, blue, and red--of 
both different and uniform light intensities, only 
the red light elicited what are called negative 
reactions. The experiments revealed three im- 
portant factors in sardine reactions to the light 
and darkness; (1) the sardine is a phototactic 
animal; (2) the sardine is incapable of reacting 
differently to different intensities of the white 
light ranging from 0.01 to 38.9 foot-candles; (3) 
and the sardine is capable of discriminating 
qualitatively the colors of light of the three pri- 
mary colors. 

SCOTLAND: 

Ninth Annual Report of the Supervisory Commit- 
tee for Brown Trout~Research , 1956 - 1957 , Scot- 
tish Home Department Freshwater and Salmon 
Fisheries Research, No. 21, 14 pp., illus., 
printed, 4s. 6d. (about 63 U. S. cents). Her Maj- 
esty's Stationery Office, 13a Castle St., Edin- 
burgh 2, Scotland. 

Scc)ttish Fisheries Bulletin. No. 11, May 1959, 
20 pp., illus., printed. Fisheries Division, 
Scottish Home Department, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
Contains, among others, the following articles: 
"Scottish Herring Fishery Forecast for 1959," 
by B. B. Parrish; "A New Fisheries Conven- 
tion," by C. E. Lucas; "The Importance of 
Plankton in Maintaining Fish Stocks," by J. H. 
Fraser; "Deadly Plant Found in the Sea," by 
J. H. Fraser; "The Cod's 'Poor Relations', by 
J. Mason; "Fluctuations in the North Sea Had- 
dock Stocks--II," by R. Jones; and "The Green- 
land Shark," by Bennet B. Rae. 

Tenth Annual Report of tjie Supervisory Commit - 
tee for Brown Trout Research 1957 - 1958 , Scot- 
tish Home Department Freshwater and Salmon 
Fisheries Research No. 23, 15 pp., illus., print- 
ed, 4s. 6d. (about 63 U. S. cents). Her Majesty's 
Stationery Office, 13a Castle St., Edinburgh 2, 
Scotland. 

SPAIN: 
Investigacion Pesquera , vol. XII, October 1958, 
134 pp., illus., printed in Spanish with English 
summaries. Instituto de Investigaciones Pes- 
queras, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, 
Spain. Contains, among others, the following 
articles: "Fluctuaciones en la Pesqueria de 
Sardina de Castellon" (Fluctuations in the Sar- 
dine Fishery of Castellon), by M. G. Larraneta, 
P. Suau, and J. Lopez; "Capturas por Unidad de 
Esfuerzo en la Pesqueria de Sardina de Castel- 
lon" (Landings Per Unit of Effort in the Sardine 
Fishery of Castellon), by M. G. Larraneta, J. 
Lopez, and P. Suau; and "Estudio Biometrico 
Comparado de los Nodulos Insullnicos del Atun 
y la Albacora" (Comparative Biometric Study 
of the Insulin Nodules of Tuna and Albacore), by 
E. Balcells R. and Jose Planas Mestres. 



Investigacion Pesquera , vol. XIII, November 1958, 
133 pp., illus., printed in Spanish with English 
summaries. Instituto de Investigaciones Pes- 
queras, Universidad de Barcelona, Spain. Con- 
tains, among others, the following articles: "Es- 
tudio Comparative del Crecimiento de las Sar- 
dinas, Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, de Barbate 
(Costa Sudatlantica Espanola) y Larache (Costa 
Atlantica de Marruecos)" (Comparative Study of 
Growth of the Sardine, Sardin a pilchardus Wal- 
baum, of Barbate (South Atlantic Spanish Coast) 
and Larache (Atlantic Moroccan Coast), by Julio 
Rodriquez-Roda; "Los Escombriformes Es- 
panoles como Fuente de Ingulina" (Spanish Trash 
Fish as a Source of Insulin), by Jose Planas 
Mestres and E. Balcells R.; and "Sobre elPoder 
de Pesca, Vulnerabilidad y Agregacion en la 
Pesqueria de Sardinas de Castellon" (On Fishing 
Power, Vulnerability and Concentrations in the 
Sardine Fishery of Castellon), by M. G. Larraneta. 

SPONGES: 
Natural History of the Marine Sponges of Southern 
New England , by Willard D. Hartman, Bulletin 
12, 179 pp., illus., printed. Peabody Museum of 
Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn., 1958. 

ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY: 
"Impact of St. Lawrence Seaway on U. S. Foreign 
Trade and Shipping," by Ernst A. Van Es, arti- 
cle. Foreign Commerce Weekly , vol. 61, no. 21, 
May 25, 1959, pp. 24-26, 32, printed, single copy 
15 cents. Bureau of Foreign Commerce, U. S. 
Department of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C. 
(For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington 25, D. C.) With the inauguration of 
the St. Lawrence Seaway System on April 25, 
1959, a new and important trade route has been 
opened to the merchant fleets of the world, 
reaching 2,400 miles inland from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the midcontinental industrial centers 
of the United States. The basic contribution of 
the Seaway to the development of foreign trade 
is the fact that it is now possible for most 
oceangoing vessels with a cargo-carrying ca- 
pacity of 8,500 to 10,000 tons (compared with a 
maximum carrying capacity of less than 3,000 
tons prior to deepening the channel to 27 feet) to 
load and discharge directly at all of the Great 
Lakes ports which provide adequate berthing 
facilities. The increased vessel capacity will be 
an important factor in the expansion of foreign 
trade, as it wUl increase the operating efficien- 
cy of shipping on the Seaway with a consequent 
reduction in ship operating costs. 

TRAWLING: 
Trawlfishing in the South - Eastern Caribbean (a 
report preparedT'or the Government of Trinidad 
and Tobago and the Caribbean Commission), 153 
pp., illus., printed. Central Secretariat, Carib- 
bean Commission, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 1955. 

TRAWLS: 
On the Choice of a Rational Shape for Trawl -Boards, 
by I. R. Matrosov, 9 pp., processed. (Translated 
from Rybnove Khozyaistvo, no. I.January 1958, 
pp. 36-42.) Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries 
and Food, Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft, 
England, 1958. 



86 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 8 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUT USUALLY MAY BE 
OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATION ISSUING THEM . 



TUNA: 
The Albacore Tuna Fishery of Oregon , by Irving 
W. Jones. Educational Bulletin No. 3, 11 pp., 
illus., processed. Fish Commission of Oregon, 
Portland, Ore., 1958. Presents descriptions of 
the history of the albacore tuna fishery off the 
Oregon coast, fishing methods, canning methods, 
and biology and research. Surprisingly, the 
Commercial albacore tuna fishery was not dis- 
covered imtil 1936, when 40,000 pounds were 
landed. "Before 1936," according to the author, 
"albacore had occasionally been taken by troUers 
fishing for Salmon, but the fishermen in some 
cases threw them away as being some sort of 
unknown and probably worthless scrapfish. The 
credit for discovery of the fishery can be given 
in part to pilchard fishermen fishing in waters 
off the Oregon and Washington coast." Oregon 
landings continued to increase until 1944, when 
a peak catch of 22.5 million pounds was landed. 
In the succeeding 10 years, landings declined, 
but later began to show an increase. 

"Elements Nouveaux sur la Migration des Thons" 
(New Ideas on the Migration of Tunas), by 
Robert Lenier, article, France Peche, vol. 40, 
no. 29, May 1959, pp. 26-34, illus., printed in 
French. France Peche, 84, Rue Carnot, Lorient, 
France. 

UNITED KINGDOM: 
Fish from the Sea to the Table , 12 pp., illus., 
printed. White Fish Authority, Lincoln's Inn 
Chambers, 2-3 Cursitor St., London E. C. 4, 
England, 1959. A color-illustrated booklet prin- 
cipally for school children but so attractively 
presented as to be of general interest. De- 
scribes the different kinds of fish; how they are 
caught, landed, unloaded at port, and marketed; 
and how they are processed and quiek-frozen. 
Also contains a map which shows where most of 
the edible fish are caught and how far the trawl- 
ers must go to seek their catches. 

Fisheries of Scotland Report for 1958, 80 pp., 
illus., printed, 4s. 6d. (about 63 U. S. cents). 
Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 13a Castle St., 
Edinburgh 2, Scotland, AprU 1959. This report 
discusses the changes which took place in the 
Scottish fishing fleet during 1958 as well as de- 
tails of the catch. It also Includes in the ap- 
pendices reports on fisheries research and har- 



bors. New fishing vessels of various types are 
making their appearance in the Scottish fleet 
each year and the modernization of their vessels 
by trawler owners continued last year at an even 
pace. A number of tables are included in there- 
port which deal with quantities and values of 
fish landed, number of vessels and fishermen en- 
gaged in the fisheries, and grants and loans for 
the purchase of boats and gear. The Marine 
Laboratory at Aberdeen continued its investiga- 
tions of herring, demersal, and shellfish fisher- 
ies. Research on salmon and brown trout has 
progressed at the Freshwater Fisheries Labora- 
tory at Pitlochry. The program has included 
experiments in the protection of salmon nets 
from attacks by seals. 

List of Recommended Names for the Sale of Fresh 
or Frozen Fish by Retail , 6 pp., printed. White 
Fish Authority, Lincoln's Inn Chambers, 2-3 
Cursitor St., London E. C. 4, England, January 
1959. The White Fish Authority, in consultation 
with the Local Authority Associations and the 
fishing industry, has prepared a Code of Prac- 
tice Indicating prescribed names under which 
fish should be sold in the retail markets. This 
information is presented in the form of a chart 
giving the names by which fish should be sold 
retail, other names by which fish are at present 
known, and scientific names of species. 

U. S. S. R.: 
"New Fishing Areas and New Fishes for the In- 
dustry in Far-Eastern Seas," by Theodor S. 
Rass, article, Vopros i Ikhtiologiim , vol. 4, 1955, 
pp. 71-81, processed. (Institute of Oceanology 
of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R.) A 
translation has been made by the Department of 
the Secretary of State of Canada, Foreign Lan- 
guage Division, Ottawa, Canada, 1957. 

WHALING: 
International Whaling Statistics, no. XXXDC, 72 
pp., Ulus., printed, kr. 2.00 (about 28 U. S. 
cents). The Committee for Whaling Statistics, 
Oslo, Norway, 1958. 

International Whaling Statistics, no. XXXX, 53 
pp., illus., printed, kr. 2.00 (about 28 U. S. cents), 
cents). The Committee for Whaling Statistics, 
Oslo, Norway, 1958. 




August 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



87 



CONTENTS (CONTINUED) 



Page 
FOREIGN (Contd.): 
Auatralta (Contd.): 
Japanese Pearl Shell Fleet Operationa for 1959 Season 40 

Shrimp Landings. 1953-1958 40 

Brazil: 

Recife Tuna Sales Resumed 41 

Shrimp Production and Foreign Trade, 1954-1958 ... 41 

British Guiana: 

Initial Success of Shrimp Fishing Venture 41 

Cuba: 
Cuban Maritime Agency Absorbs Fisheries Organiza- 

Uon 41 

Ecuador; 
FAO Technician Reports on Shrimp Fishing Industry . 42 

Shrimp Fishery Trends 42 

Fiji Islands: 
Negotiations Reported for Japanese Vessels to Fish for 

British Fiji Islands Cannery 42 

Greece: 

Fishing Industry Expanding Steadily 43 

Iceland: 

Fisheries Trends, Januairy-May 1959 44 

Iran: 

Development of Shrimp Fishery In Persian Gulf .... 44 

Japan: 

Albacore Loin Sales Increasing 45 

Atlantic Tuna Fishery Trends 45 

Expanding Exports of Frozen Tuna to Countries Other 

Than the U. S 45 

Export Price Drops for Frozen Yellowfin Tuna .... 46 

Exports of Marine Products to the United States, 1957 

and 1958 46 

Ex -Vessel Albacore Tuna Price at Record High .... 46 

Fisheries Trends In Hokkaido Area 47 

Increase In Rejects in Frozen Atlantic Tuna Deliveries 

to California Canners 47 

Liberal Landings of SmeiU Yellowfin Tuna at Shimizu 

Harbor 47 

Light Landings of Summer Albacore Tuna Cause Price 

Rise 48 

Marine Oils Production, Foreign Trade, Stocks, and 

Consumption, 1 957-' 1959 48 

New Vessels Being Added to Tuna Fleet 48 

North Pacific Factoryship Salmon and King Crab Fish- 
eries Trends 49 

Plan to Export Fish Canned for Pet Food to U. S. Pet 

Food Packers 50 

Plan to Redeploy Salmon Boats to Other Fisheries . . 50 

Sixth Round of Canned Tuna Sales for Export to United 

States 51 

Skipjack Tuna Vessel Price Drops 51 

Summer Albacore Fishing Continues Poor 51 

Tuna Canners Hard Hit by Albacore Scarcity 51 

Tuna Industry Trends and Problems 52 

Ultrasonics Used to Locate Salmon in North Pacific . 52 

Vessel to Fish for Tuna from Argentina 53 



Page 
FOREIGN (Contd.): 
Korea: 

Fisheries Developments, May 1959 53 

Malaya: 
Japanese-Malayan Company to Produce Frozen and 

Canned Tuna 53 

Mexico: 
West Coast Shrimp Fleet Tied Up Over Price Dispute 54 

Shrimp Price Dispute Being Settled 54 

Morocco: 

Problems In Marketing Fishery Products 54 

Netherlands: 

First Factoryship Acquired 55 

Nicaragua: 

Shrimp Industry Growing 55 

Peru: 
Exports of Principal Marine Products, January- 

AprU 1959 and Year 1958 55 

Somalia: 

Development of Tuna Fishery Shows Promise 56 

Union of South Africa; 

Pllchard-Maasbanker Landings, January 1959 56 

Pilchard-Maasbanker Landings, First Quarter 1959 . 56 

Research on Spiny Lobsters Planned 56 

U. S. S. R.: 
Negotiating for Five New Factoryship Trawlers .... 57 

Fishing Fleet Operating in Bering Sea 57 

United Kingdom: 

Canned Tuna Prices, May 1959 57 

Import Controls on Canned Fish 58 

FEDERAL ACTIONS: 59 

Department of the Interior: 
Fish and Wildlife Service: 
Bristol Bay Alaska Salmon Fishing Gear Registrations 

Announced 59 

Fishery Attache Pact Signed 59 

Department of Treasury: 
Bureau of Customs: 
Decisions on Airtight Containers May Increase Im- 
port Duty on Some Packaged Fishery Products . . 59 

Eighty -Sixth Congress (First Session) 60 

FISHERY INDICATORS: 70 

Chart 1 - Fishery Landings for Selected States 70 

Chart 2 - Landings for Selected Fisheries 71 

Chart 3 - Cold-Storage Holdings and Freezings of Fish- 
ery Products 72 

Chart 4 - Receipts and Cold-Storage Holdings of Fish- 
ery Products at Principal Distribution Centers 7 3 

Chart 5 - Fish Meal and Oil Productlon--U. S. and 

Alaska 7 3 

Chart 6 - Canned Packs of Selected Fishery Products . 74 

Chart 7 - U. S. Fishery Products Imports 75 

RECENT FISHERY PUBLICATIONS: 76 

Fish and Wildlife Service PubllcaUons 76 

Miscellaneous Publications 78 




Editorial Assistant--Ruth V. Keefe Illustrator --Gustaf T. Sundstrom 

Coinpositor3--Jean Zalevsky, Alma Greene, Helen Joswick, and Vera Eggleston 

^ :{i: sjc :^ :^ 

Photograph on page 31--R. Silliman. Photographs on pages not mentioned were 
obtained from the Service's file and the photographers are unknown. 



INT.DUP..D.C.59- 5»333 



NATIONAL FISH 'n' SEA FOOD PARADE --OCTOBER 19-25, 1959 



The Fishing Industry and the U. S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries are working together to encourage the increased use of fish and shellfish prod- 
ucts during the "Fish 'n' Sea Food Pa- 
rade" --October 19-25,1959. Agreat 
deal of interest has been generated in this 
fall promotion, according to preliminary- 
reports. 

This is the Fishing Industry's fifth 
annual all-out promotion channeled over 
radio, television, newspaper, magazines, 
and other media. The many advantages 
of serving fish are being stressed. All 
types of fresh, frozen, canned, smoked, 
precooked, and cured fishery products 
and fish dinners are being advertised. 
Many retail stores and restaurants are 
making a concerted effort to display, 
stock, and promote fishery products dur- 
ing this year's "Fish 'n' Sea Food Parade." 

Di sp 1 ay material is 
available for retail food 
stores and restaurants, 
consisting of window post- 
ers, diecut paper posters, 
mobiles, and menu tents. 
Mayors and governors will 
be urged to issue "Fish 'n' 
Seafood Parade" procla- 
mations. 

Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries field men 
are helping to obtain news- 
paper publicity and are 
distributing recordings for 






radio stations, and also television slides and shorts. A special marketing bulletin has been 
distributed to food editors and home economists. Fact sheets with recipes have been released 
to restaurants, institutions, and schools. In addition. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries field 
men and home economists are available for appearances on radio and television. 



/9^4^^3/<' /^^s4^ 



\ mm ij mm j;j 

COMMERCIALDCllirLIJ 
FISHERIESntllLli 





> .^^ 



) 



*^ 




Vol.21, No. 9 





SEPTEMBER 1959 



FISH and WILDLIFE SERVICE 

United States Department of the Interior 
Washington, D.C 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

FRED A. SEATON, SECRETARY 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ABNIE J. SUOMELA, COMMISSIONER 



BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

DONALD L. MCKERNAN, DIRECTOR 

DIVISION OF INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH 

AND SERVICES 

HAROLD E. CROWTHER, CHIEF 





COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



A review of developments and news of the fishery industries 
prepared in the BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES. 

Joseph Pileggi, Editor 
H. M. Bearse, Assistant Editor 

Mailed free to members of the fishery and allied industries. Address correspondence and requests 
to the: Chief. Branch of Market News, Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Department of the Interior, 
Washington 25, D. C. 

Publication of material from sources outside the Bureau is not an endorsement. The Bureau is not 
responsible for the accuracy of facts, views, or opinions contained in material from outside sources. 

Although the contents of the publication have not been copyrighted and may be reprinted freely, 
reference to the source is appreciated. 

The printing of this publication has been approved by the Director of t h e Bureau of t h e Budget, 
May 21, 1957. 5/31/60 



CONTENTS 



COVER: Underwater photograph of a school of skipjack in the Central Pa- 
cific taken from an observation chamber on board the U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries research vessel Charles H. Gilbert. The observa- 
tion chamber is a special blister built into the hull aft, below the water 
line and the fishing racks. The Bureau's Honolulu Biological Laboratory 
biologists are studying the behavior of skipjack tuna in the Central Pacif- 
ic. This photograph was taken on July 13, 1959, 10-12 miles south of Bar- 
ber's Point, Oahu, Hawaii. The fish had a mean length of 22 inches and 
ranged from 19 to 27 inches, or from 5 to 15 pounds. 



Storage Life of Pink Srimp Held in'Commercial and in Jacketed Cold-Storage Rooms, by John A. Peters and Daniel T. Mc Lane 
Surinam Fishery Explorations, May ll-July 31, 1957, by James B. Higman 



RESEARCH IN SERVICE LABORATORIES: 

Development of Standards for Pacific Coast Fishery 

Products 

TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS: 

Alaska: 
Biologists Produce Large Run of Young Red Salmon in 

Research Lake 

King Salmon Sport Fisheries in Southeastern Alaska to 

be Studied 

Record Number of Taku River King Salmon Captured 

by Fish Wheel 

California: 
Aerial Census of Comnaercial and Sport Fishing Con- 
tinued (Airplane Spotting Flights 59-9 and 59-10) . . 
Barracuda and White Sea Bass Survey off Baja Cali- 
fornia and Southern California Continued (M/V N'', B. 

Scofield Cruise 59S3) 

Pelagic Fish Population Survey off Coast of Southern 
and Central California Continued (M/V Alaska 
Cruises 59A4 and 59A5; Airplane Spotting Flights 

59-8 and 59-11) 

Tuna Tagged Between Southern Mexico and Peru (M/V 

Constitution Cruise 59C1) 

Canned Fish: 

Consumer Purchases, May 1959 

Cans --Shipments for Fishery Products, January -May 

1959 

Central Pacific Fisheries Investigations: 
Albacore Tuna Migrations in North Pacific Studied by 
M/V Hugh M. Smith (C-52) 



Behavior Studies of Skipjack Tuna to be Made During 

Hawaiian Summer Fishery 

Tagging Returns Indicate Skipjack Tuna Migrate into 

Hawaiian Waters from the West 

Federal Purchases of Fishery Products: 
Department of Defense Canned Salmon Requirements 

for Fiscal Years 1960 and 1961 

Department of Defense Purchases, January-June 1959 
Fisheries Loan Fund: 

Loans Approved Through June 30, 1959 

Fishing Vessel and Gear Development: 
Equipment Note No. 1--New All-Aluminum Salmon Gill- 
Net Boats Built for Alaska Fishery, by Fred Wathne 
Frozen Foods: 
Proposed Handling Code 



Page 

16 

16 
18 



19 
19 
19 

20 

21 

22 
24 
25 
25 

26 

27 
27 



27 
27 



29 
30 



TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS (Contd.): 
Great Lakes: 

Pickerel Fluctuations Being Studied 

Sea Lamprey Control Studies 

Great Lakes Fisheries Exploration and Gear Research: 
Exploratory Fishing in Lake Erie Continued (M/V 
Active Cruise 2) 



Great Lakes Fishery Investigations: 
Survey of Southeastern Lake Superior by M/V Cisco . 
Western Lake Erie Biological Research Continued 

(M/V George L. Cruises 3 and 4) 

Western Lake Superior Fishery Survey Continued (M/V 

Siscowet Cruise 2) 

Gulf Exploratory Fishery Program: 
Underwater Observation of Shrimp Trawl (M/V Charles 

M. Bowers Cruise 20) 

Gulf of Mexico: 

Industrial Fishery Studies 

Iowa: 
RegulatTons on Commercial Fishing on the Mississippi 

River Enforced 

Maine Sardines: 

Canned Stocks, June 1, 1959 

Massachusetts Schools' Workshop Morning Session De- 
voted to Maine Sardines 

Maryland: 

Oyster Spat Count on Test Shells, 1959 Season 

North Atlantic Fisheries Exploration and Gear Research; 
Promising Catches of the Deep-Water Red Crab Made 

by M/V Delaware (Cruise 59-7) 

North Pacific Exploratory Fishery Program: 
Exploratory Fishing Vessel to Assess Fishery Poten- 
tial and Collect Oceanographic Data in Arctic Ocean's 

Chukchi Sea (M/V John N. Cobb Cruise 43) 

Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission: 

First Advisory Council Meeting Held 

Oysters: 

Long Island Sound Studies 

Raft -Grown Type Grow Fast , 

Setting Under Artificial Conditions 

Salmon: 

Progress Report on North Pacific Research 

Shad: 
Atlantic Coast Studies 



Page 

1 



Page 



30 
31 



31 
32 
33 
34 

35 
35 

36 
36 
36 
37 



38 

39 

40 
40 
41 

41 

42 



Contents Continued Page 121. 






September 1959 Washington 25,D.C. 



Vol.21,No.9 



STORAGE LIFE OF PINK SHRIMP HELD IN 
COMMERCIAL AND JACKETED COLD-STORAGE ROOMS 

By John A. Peters* and Daniel T. McLane*-^ 

ABSTRACT 

Tests were conducted to determine the frozen storage life of pink 
shrimp held at 0° F to -5*^ F. in a commercial-type cold-storage room 
and in a jacketed cold-storage room . Use of the jacketed storage room 
resulted in a significant extension of the storage life. 



INTRODUCTION 



Information on the keeping quality of frozen shrimp is needed by industry for 
the establishment of inventory and marketing practices that will enable it to supply 
the consumer with products of uni- 
formly high quality. This informa 
tion is also required in developing 
standards and specifications for 
government purchases of this prod 
uct. 



One problem in the storage of 
frozen foods, including frozen pink 
shrimp ( Penaeus duorarum ), is that 
of dehydration. During frozen stor- 
age, moisture tends to sublime from 
the food and to condense on the sur- 
face of the evaporator coils in the 
cold-storage room. Over a period 
of time, the product may lose so 
much moisture in this manner as 
to become unpalatable. 

Several approaches have been 
proposed ior the solution of this 



LEGEND : 
-0-peeled, dovelnod, Indlvldually-froEen. 
-o- Peeled, develoed, block-frozen, 
—A-Headleee raw, lodlvldually-frozeD. 
— X-HeftdleB9 raw, block-frozen. 




Fig. 1 - Average percentage weight loss in commercial packages of 
shrimpstored at 0*^ to -5 F. in a commercial-type cold-storage room. 

problem. Among these are (1) to use glazes on unpackaged products, (2) to use 
packaging materials having very low moisture vapor transmission rates, or (3) to 
increase the relative humidity of the air in the storage room. The relative humidi- 
ty can be most easily increased by enlarging the area of the surfaces used to cool 
the room. In a jacketed type of cold-storage room maximum cooling surface area 
is provided by cold air circulating through an enclosed jacket which completely sur- 
rounds the product storage space (Young 1952; Lentz 1955; Butler, Slavin, Patashnik, 
and Sanford 1956; Slavin, Peters, and Pottinger 1958). This provides a high relative 
humidity, and sublimation of moisture from the food thus is minimized. 

The practice of industry now is to hold shrimp at 0° F. to -5° F. The objective 
of the present study therefore was to determine the keeping quality, at these tem- 

* Chemist ( Fishery Technological Laboratory, Division of hidustrial Research and Services, U. S. Bureau of Comi- 
** Fishery Aid J mercial Fisheries, East Boston 28, Mass. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



peratures, of commercial packages of pink shrimp held in a commercial-type 
frozen-storage room and of those held in a jacketed one. 

SAMPLES STORED IN A COMMERCIAL-TYPE STORAGE ROOM 

Frozen pink shrimp are marketed in a number of different styles of packs, the 
principal ones being (1) headless raw shrimp (shells on) and (2) peeled and deveined 




2 3 I* 5 



9 10 11 12 



13 iV 



STORAGE TIME (MONTHS) 




6 - 



- Peeled, devcinftd, 

indi vldiul ly- fiottn . 

- Peeled, <lcveli>ed, 

block -fioien. 



3^567 8 9 10 11 12 13 1.^ 15 
STORAGE TIME (MONTHS) 




lEdlviduallY -froicn . 

Hevllea, r«w, 

blDck-fioica . 



1 2 3 » 5 



-t^-t 



J J I I I I 

9 10 n 12 13 i>i 15 

SIORAOE TIME (MOIWIS) 



Fig. 2 - Average taste -panel scores for commercial packages of shrimp stored in a commercial -type cold-storage room. 

raw shrimp. These shrimp may be frozen and glazed individually or in block form. 
The individually-frozen shrimp appeal to a large portion of the buyers because any 
amount of the shrimp thus frozen can be removed from the package without the ne- 
cessity of thawing the entire contents. In our study of the samples held in the com- 
mercial-type storage room, the effect of these variations in pack were investigated. 

Two measurements were made. One was a determination of the loss in weight 
of the packages in storage, and the other was a determination of the change in palat- 
ability of the shrimp. 

A problem encountered in determining changes in palatability of a food which 
occur during frozen storage is that of providing a reference sample so that the taste 
tester can keep in mind how the product tasted originally. Stansby (1955) has sug- 
gested the packaging of fishery products in hermetically-sealed tins as a method of 
preserving the original palatability. In the preparation and storage of control sam- 
ples for use in the present experiment, advantage was taken of this and of the fact 
that frozen foods change least when held at very low temperatures. 

The details of the experiments and the results are given in the following sub- 
sections. 

PREPARATION OF SAMPLES : The shrimp used in this study were packed using 
typical commercial packaging materials and were frozen in a modern shrimp plant 
in Tampa, Fla., under the supervision of a member of the Laboratory. 

The individually-frozen samples consisted of peeled and deveined or headless 
raw shrimp that were frozen on trays in a blast freezer, glazed by dipping in fresh 
water, and packed in 2|-pound-size one-piece waxed paperboard cartons. These 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



cartons were overwrapped with waxed, opaque, bleached sulfite paper. The block- 
frozen samples consisted of peeled and deveined or headless raw shrimp that were 
packed in 22-pound-size one-piece waxed paperboard cartons. Water was then add- 
ed; the cartons were overwrapped with waxed, opaque, bleached sulfite paper; and 
the packaged shrimp were frozen in a blast freezer. The packages of individually- 
frozen and block-frozen shrimp were stored for several days at F. in the proc- 
essing plant. They were then packed with dry ice in insulated shipping containers 
and sent to the laboratory at East Boston by air freight. The samples were still 
solidly frozen when received at the Laboratory, where they were removed from the 
shipping containers and put in storage at F. to -5 F. 

A control sample was prepared by repacking some of the headless raw individ- 
ually-frozen and glazed shrimp from the original cartons into No. 10 C-enamel cans. 

The cans of shrimp were filled with fresh water (cooled to 35 F.), sealed under 27 

o 
inches of vacuum, and frozen to -25 F. in the Laboratory's blast freezer. 

STORAGE OF THE SAMPLES: The control sample was stored at -25° F. The 
commercial packages of individually-frozen and block-frozen shrimp were stored 
at F. to -5 F. in a com- 
mercial-type cold-storage 
room with overhead evapo- 
rator plates. The relative 
humidity of this storage area, 
as measured with an electric 
hygrometer, varied from 70 
to 80 percent. Sufficient 
samples were put in storage 
to permit monthly tests for 
a period of 15 months. 

WEIGHT - LOSS TESTS : 
The loss in weight of the 
package gives a quantitative 
indication of the amount of 
dehydration that has taken 
place. The test can be made 
with considerable precision. 

PROCEDURE : At the 
beginning of the storage peri- 
od and each month during the 
test, the commercial packages 
of block-frozen and individually-frozen shrimp were weighed in the storage room 
using a beam balance accurate to 1.0 gram. 

RESULTS: The average percentage weight loss of the various samples during 
15 months storage is shown in figure 1. Both of the individually-frozen samples 
showed a weight loss of 4.4-percent; the block-frozen samples showed a 4.0-percent 
weight loss for the headless raw shrimp and 3.5 percent for the peeled and deveined 
shrimp. The slightly greater weight loss of the individually-frozen and glazed sam- 
ples may be due to the larger amount of product surface area that is exposed and 
the larger amount of air space within the package as compared with the block-fro- 
zen samples. 

PALATABILITY TESTS : Although palatability tests cannot be made with pre- 
cision, owing to the human factor, they nevertheless are needed to give a practical 
interpretation of the weight loss tests. Palatability tests indicate the point where 
dehydration results in a noticeable change in palatability. 



■ fCELED «o DE VE 1 NE D 

■ SHRIMP 

■ STORED- COMMERCIAL 
1 TYPE FREEZER 




PFELCD »scDFVElNED H 
SHRIMP ■ 

STORFD ..JACKETED ■ 
FREEZER 1 



Fig. 3 - Appearance of frozen shximp stored for 9 months at 0® to -5^ F. 

a commercial-type freezer and in a jacketed freezer. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



PROCEDURE: Two packages of shrimp from each sample were removed from 
storage at monthly intervals, examined in the frozen state for dehydration, and then 
cooked for evaluation by a taste panel comprised of eight members of the laboratory 
staff. Preliminary taste tests were conducted to acquaint the panel with this product. 

Prior to each taste test, the frozen shrimp were thawed in running cold water. 
The headless raw samples were peeled. Each lot of shrimp then was cooked for 5 
minutes in slightly salted boiling water and was cooled in the chill room (35 F.) for 
serving to the taste panel. At each taste test, four samples were served to the panel. 
The panel was instructed to compare the quality of three unknown samples with a 
known -25 F. control sample (known control). As a check on the accuracy of the 
panel, another of the -25 F. control samples was included as one of the three un- 
known. This sample was referred to as the blind control. Each sample was scored 
by the eight taste panel members for appearance, odor, flavor, texture, and over-all 
quality. The samples were rated by the panel on a scale of excellent, very good, 
good, fair, borderline, slightly poor, poor, very poor and inedible. In calculating the 
results, numerical values from 9 =excellent to 1 = inedible were assigned and the gross 
average score of the five quality factors for each sample was calculated. 



Table 1 - Average Taste-Panel Scores on Commercially -Packaged Samples of Shrimp Stored at 0° to -5° F. in | 


a Commercial-Tvpe Cold-Storaqe Room 




Storage 
Time 


Average Taste -Panel Scoresl/ i 


Known „ 


Blind 


Peeled, Deveined, 


Peeled, Deveined, 


Headless Raw In- 


Headless Raw 


Control^ 


Control ^ 


Individually Fro- 


Block-Frozen, 


dividually -Frozen 


Block-Frozen 








zen, and Glazed 


and Glazed 


and Glazed 


and Glazed 


Months 














1 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


8.9 


2 


^/8-9 


8.6 


8.5 


8.7 


8.6 


8.7 


3 


i/9.0 


8.8 


8.7 


8.7 


8.6 


8.9 


4 


c, 8.7 


8.5 


8.1 


8.6 


8.4 


8.7 


5 


5/9.0 


8.6 


8.3 


8.0 


8.2 


8.5 


6 


8.8 


A, S-6 


8.0 


7.7 


8.1 


8.3 


7 


8.6 


|/8.2 


8.0 


7.8 


8.1 


8.0 


8 


8.8 


5/ 8.5 


8.1 


7.7 


8.3 


8.3 


9 


8.6 


8.4 


7.3 


7.9 


7.9 


7.6 


10 


8.7 


8.7 


7.4 


7.5 


5.8 


5.7 


11 


7.9 


7.8 


6.1 


5.7 


6.0 


6.2 


12 


8.0 


7.9 


5.9 


6.5 


7.0 


6.4 


13 


7.9 


7.7 


6.2 


5.7 


6.2 


5.6 


14 


7.5 


7.4 


5.6 


5.2 


5.5 


5.8 


15 


8.2 


8.1 


5.6 


5.5 


4.9 


5.3 


1/ Scores of 9 = excellent, 8.0 - 8.9 = very good, 7.0 - 7.9 = good, 6.0 - 6.9 = fair, 5.0 - 5.9 = bord 


erline (should 


not be marketed), and 4.0 - 4.9 = slightly poor (vimnarketable). 




2/ Stored in hermetically -sealed cans at -25° F. Taste panel was informed of the identity of this sample. | 


3/ Same as known control but identity was not revealed to taste panel. 




4/ Preference became significant at 5 -percent level of probability. 




5 /Preference became significant at 1 -percent level of probability. 





RESULTS: The average taste-panel scores for the various samples are given 
in table 1. ETfigure 2 these data are plotted to show the trend of the loss in quality 
of the shrimp during frozen storage. The curves show a gradual decrease in quali- 
ty of the commercial samples of shrimp during the first 9 months of frozen storage 
followed by a much faster rate of quality loss after this point. 

Application of the rank test for significance of differences (Kramer 1956) to the 
average scores given by the taste panel to the various samples shows that (1) the 
preference for the known-control samples over the commercial samples became 
significant at the 5-percent level of probability after 3 months of frozen storage and 
at the 1-percent level of probability after 5 months and that (2) the preference for 
the blind control sample over the commercial samples became significant at the 5- 
percent level of probability after 7 months of frozen storage and at the 1 -percent 
level of probability after 8 months. These results indicate that no appreciable dif- 
ference existed between the control samples stored at -25° F. and the commercial 
samples stored at 0° F. to -5° F. until after the seventh or eighth month of frozen 
storage because the taste panel was unable to distinguish, with statistical significance, 
the quality difference between the blind control and the commercial samples until 
after that period of storage had elapsed. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



tvionlfas 



Table 2 - Average Taste -Panel Scores on Commercially -Packaged 

Samples of Shrimp Stored at 0° to -5° F. in a Jacketed Storage 
Roomi or Commercial -Type Still-Air Storage Room 



Storage 
Time 



9 

12 



Known 
Controli/ 



.6 
8.0 



Blind 
Controli/ 



8.4 
7.9 



Average Taste-Panel Scoresi/ on 
Samples of Peeled, Deveined, 
Individually -Frozen and Glazed 
Shrimp Stored at 0° to 5° F. 



Jacketed Storage 
Room 



i/8.1 
5/7.6 



Commercial -Type 
Storage Room 



7.3 
5.9 



The marked change in taste-panel scores after the ninth month of frozen stor- 
age corresponds to the development of excessive dehydration of the shrimp in the 
commercial packages. At this time, the commercial samples of block-frozen and 
individually-frozen shrimp were considered to be of unmarketable quality because 
of their very poor appearance. It was found, however, that the dehydrated shrimp 
rehydrated to such an extent during water thawing and cooking that they were ac- 
ceptable to the taste panel. 

The control samples stored at -25 F. in hermetically-sealed containers show- 
ed an increase in rate of quality loss after 10 months of frozen storage but were 

still of good-to-very-good quality 
at the fifteenth month of frozen 
storage (the end of the test). Pack- 
aging shrimp in a hermetically- 
sealed container and storing them 
at a temperature of -25 F. there- 
fore resulted in at least a 6 months 
increase in keeping quality over 
that of commercially-packaged 
shrimp stored at to -5 F. 

CONCLUSIONS : (1) The aver- 
age weight loss of commercial 
packages of pink shrimp stored in 
a commercial-type cold-storage 
room at to -5 F. was from 1.8 
to 2.5 percent after 9 months and 
from 3.6 to 4.4 percent after 15 
months. Slightly higher losses occurred in the individually-frozen and glazed sam- 
ples. 

(2) Commercial samples of peeled and deveined or headless raw pink shrimp, 
frozen individually or in block form, were of unacceptable quality after 9 months of 
to -5 F. storage in a commercial-type cold-storage room because of excessive 
dehydration. 

(3) No significant differences in storage life were attributed to the style of pack 
employed in the commercial samples of peeled and deveined or headless raw pink 
shrimp that were frozen individually or in block form. 

(4) Pink shrimp packed in hermetically-sealed containers and stored at -25 F. 
were of good quality for at least 6 months longer than were pink shrimp that were 
packed in commercial packages and stored at to -5 F. in a commercial-type 
cold-storage room. 



l/Scores of 9 = excellent, 8.0 - 8.9 = very good, 7.0 -7.9 = good, 
6.0 - 6.9 = fair, 5.0 - 5.9 = borderline (shoiild not be marketed), 
and 4.0 - 4.9 = slightly poor (unmarketable). 

2/Stored in hermetically -sealed cans at -25° F. Taste panel was in- 
formed of the identity of this sample. 

3/Same as known control but identity was not revealed to taste panel 

4/Preference over sample stored in commercial -type storage room is 
not significant. 

5/Preference over sample stored in commercial -type storage room is 
significant at 1 -percent level of probability. 



SAMPLES STORED IN A JACKETED STORAGE ROOM 

Owing to the tendency of taste testers to become fatigued quickly, the number of 
samples in the over-all experiment had to be kept small. It therefore was decided to 
limit the studies concerning the jacketed storage room to the use of peeled, devein- 
ed, individually-frozen pink shrimp--this being the product likely to show the great- 
est change. 

The samples used in this phase of the study were part of the lot of commercial 
packages of peeled and deveined, individually-frozen pink shrimp described previ- 
ously in the section on samples stored in a commercial-type cold-storage room. 
The control sample was also the same as the one described in that phase of the test. 

STORA(gE OF THE SAMPLES: The packages of frozen shrimp were put in 
storage at to -5 F. in a jacketed cold-storage room. The design of this type of 



6 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 9 

room provides high humidity in the storage area, which in this instance was found 
to be between 90 and 95 percent (Slavin, Peters, and Pottinger 1958). 

PALAT ABILITY TEST : Procedures : After 9 and 12 months of frozen storage 
in the jacketed room, samples of the peeled and deveined, individually-frozen shrimp 
were removed from storage, examined for dehydration, and then prepared in the 
manner described in phase 1 of this study for serving to the taste panel. At the 
same time, samples of the known control, blind control, and peeled and deveined, in- 
dividually-frozen shrimp from the commercial-type storage room were served for 
comparison. 

RESULTS : Examination of the samples of shrimp from the jacketed storage 
room after 9 and 12 months of frozen storage showed no significant dehydration 
compared with excessive dehydration of similar samples stored at the same tem- 
perature in the commercial-type cold-storage room (fig. 3). 

The results of taste-panel tests comparing the quality of the shrimp after 9 and 
12 months of storage in the commercial-type storage room and after the same 
length of time in the jacketed storage room are shown in table 2. The scores for 
the shrimp stored in the jacketed storage room are significantly higher than those 
for the shrimp stored for the same period of time and at the same temperature in 
the commercial-type storage room. It is therefore apparent that the packaging 
materials used were inadequate to prevent dehydration and to maintain high quality 
for longer than 9 months under ordinary commercial storage conditions. Even with 
the use of this package, however, high quality was maintained for at least 12 months 
by storing the shrimp in a high-humidity storage room, where dehydration was at a 
minimum. 

CONCLUSION: Commercial samples of pink shrimp stored at to -5 F. in a 
high-humidity jacketed storage room were of good quality for at least 3 months long- 
er than were similar samples stored at the same temperature in the commercial- 
type cold-storage room. 

SUMMARY 

One approach to the solution of the problem of dehydration in frozen foods is 
the use of a jacketed freezer which maintains a high relative humidity in the prod- 
uct storage area. In the present study, both a commercial cold-storage room, with 
a relative humidity of 70 to 80 percent, and a jacketed cold-storage room, with a 
relative humidity of 90 to 95 percent, were used. The effect of dehydration was de- 
termined by measurement of loss of weight and loss of palatability. 

In the use of the commercial storage room, the keeping quality at temperatures 
of 0° to -5° F. of commercial packages of pink shrimp that had been prepared in the 
following manner was studied: (1) peeled and deveined and (a) frozen individually or 
(b) frozen in block form and (2) headless raw and (a) frozen individually or (b) fro- 
zen in block form. For control, samples hermetically sealed in tin cans and held 
at -25 F. were used. It was found that with the commercial pack, the loss in 
weight was 1.8 to 2.5 percent after 9 months and 3.6 to 4.4 percent after 15 months. 
Owing to dehydration, the shrimp stored for 9 months or longer were of unaccept- 
able quality. No differences in storage life were attributed to the style of pack. 
The control samples packed in hermetically-sealed containers and held at -25 F., 
however, were of good quality for 6 months longer than were the commercial sam- 
ples. 

In the use of the jacketed storage room, the keeping quality at temperatures of 
0° to -5° F. of commercial packages of the peeled and deveined, individually-frozen 
pink shrimp were studied. It was found that these shrimp were of good quality for 
at least 3 months longer than were similar samples stored at the same temperature 
in the commercial cold-storage room. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



UTERATURE CITED 



BUTLER, C. ■ SLAVIN, J. W. ; PATASHNIK, M. ; and 
SANFORD, F. B. 

1956. Cold Storage Design and Refrigeration Equip- 
ment- -Refrigeration of Fish- -Part 1. Fishery 
Leaflet 427, U. S. Fish and Wildliie Service, 
Department of the Interior, Washington 25, 
D. C, pp. 28-31. 

KRAMER, A. 

1956. A Quick Rank Test for Significance of Differ- 
ences in Multiple Comparisons. Food Tech - 
nology . vol. 10, no. 8 (August), pp. 391- 
392. 

LENTZ, C. P. 

1955. Himiidification of Cold Storages; The Jacket 
System. Canadian Journal of Technology. 
vol. 33, no. 4 (July), pp. 265-278. 



SLAVIN, J. W.j PETERS, J. A.; and POTTINGER, S. R. 
1958. Studies on a Jacketed Cold -Storage Room. 

Food Technology , vol. 12, no. 11 (November), 
pp. 602-609. 

STANSBY, M. E. 

1955. Packaging Frozen Fish in Tin Results in Superior 
Storage Life. Commercial Fisheries Review , 
vol. 17, no. 7 (July), pp. 17-20. (Also Sep. 
No 407.) 

YOUNG, O. C. 

1952. The Jacket Principle. Canadian Refrigeration 
Journal . vol. 18, no. 11 (November), pp. 
21-22, 52. 




ELECTRICAL FISH DIVERSION SCREEN IN ENGLAND 

To reduce the annual kill of sea trout and salmon, an electric screen has been 
installed about 1 mile above the Low Wood Power Station on the River Leven. 

Designed for use in a normal water depth of 2.5 feet and also when tidal influ- 
ence raised the water level below the turbines to 7 feet, the screen is a steel 
bridge from which are hung sixty 
2-inch steel tubes graded to the 
river banks and bottom and loaded 
with 3 -phase alternating current 
at 25 volts per phase at 50 cycles. 
The current consumption of each 
phase is about 1.5 amperes atlow 
water, 2.3 amperes at high water; 
thus the total consumption is from 
4.5 to 6.9 amperes. 

Intests of the installation, 
salmon kelts in wood boxes 
seemed comfortable 5 feet down- 
stream from the screen but were 
uncomfortable when put within 3 
feet of it. 

Brown trout (0.75-inch), used in tests to study the effect on migrating smolts, 
were uncomfortable within 9 inches of the screen. A 15 -second stay between elec- 
trodes immobilized the fish; they recovered in 15 seconds after removal from the 
field. Held between electrodes for 1 minute, they did not recover. When freed 
upstream of the screen to be taken through it by the flow, many were killed, sink- 
ing quickly beneath the electrodes. 

This first 3-phase alternating-current screen of its type to be s e t on any 
river in the country was installed with the cooperation of Mr. Hartley of the 
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. (L. Steward, Fisheries Officer, 
Lancashire River Board ( The Progressive Fish - Culturist , July 1959), Lancas- 
ter, England.) 




8 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 21, No. 9 

SURINAM FISHERY EXPLORATIONS, MAY ll-JULY 31,1957 

By James B. Higman* 

SUMMARY 

Shrimp explorations in Surinam coastal waters, by the Surinam Fisheries De- 
partment from April to October 1957, resulted in the location of four species of com- 
mercially-desirable shrimp. A Florida-type shrimp trawler was chartered for the 
work. 

Commercial quantities of pink-spotted shrimp ranging from 10 to 25 individuals 
per pound (heads -off) were caught at rates between 195 and 470 pounds per night, in 
depths of about 23 to 40 fathoms, using 68- and 89-foot trawls. In 10 to 18 fathoms, 
brown shrimp and sea bobs were taken in mixed catches. Commercial quantities of 
those two species of shrimp were scattered and were mixed with considerable quan- 
tities of fish. Catches of Penaeus schmitti , a shrimp closely related to the white 
shrimp of the southern United States, were not of commercial quantity. 

BACKGROUND 

The 1957 Surinam exploratory fishing program was carried out as a direct re- 
sult of an encouraging preliminary trawling survey made by the Surinam Fisheries 
Department in 1953 (F&WS 1954a). The 1953 survey demonstrated the presence of 
shrimp and fish potentials in the offshore waters, and it led the Surinam Government 
to contract for further exploratory fishing in 1957. A Florida-built shrimp trawler 
was chartered to carry out trawling operations from April through June 1957. Re- 
sults were highly satisfactory, and the vessel was re-chartered for a period extend- 
ing from mid -July through October. 

This entire program was planned and supervised by the Surinam Fisheries De- 
partment. The primary objective of the portion of the survey extending from April 
through June 1957 was to determine the species of fish and shellfish present in wa- 
ters inside the 40-fathom curve and to survey the distribution and availability of 
these species. Most drags were made with a 10|-foot try net because of the belief 
that use of this gear could most rapidly give a comprehensive knowledge of the fauna. 
A secondary objective, during the same period, was to make production-type drags 
for shrimp and fish with 68- and 89 -foot shrimp trawls. The primary objective of 
the second portion of the survey, from July through October, was to determine the 
availability of commercial quantities of shrimp and fish. This was attempted by 
means of production-type fishing. 

At the invitation of the Surinam Government an observer from the U. S. Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries accompanied the exploratory fishing vessel during all 
cruises carried out from May 11 to July 31, 1957. This report covers activities ob- 
served and results obtained during that period. 

AREA INVESTIGATED 

Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana, is situated on the northeast coast of South A- 
merica (fig. 1). Paramaribo, the capital and base of exploration, is located 18 miles 
upstream from the mouth of the Surinam River. Four other large rivers empty in- 
to the South Atlantic Ocean along the Surinam coast. Of these, the Corentyne on the 
west and the Maroni on the east, form natural boundaries between Surinam and Bri- 
ish and French Guiana. The coastline is flat with unbroken expanses of forest and 
mangrove swamp; and the lack of bays, lagoons, or other distinct features except 
river mouths, causes an appearance of uniformity when the Guianas are approached 
from the sea. This lack of landmarks, and the absence of navigational aids other 

* Formerly Fishery Methods and Equipment Specialist, Branch of Exploratory Fishing and Gear Research, Division of In- 
dustrial Research and Services, U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, Washington, D. C. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 




^ 



< 
LlI 

o 

O 
U 



3 €1 "• 

at " 'o, 

.5 - a 

.S ua JB 

(1^ (A <« 



I 

IS 



l'^^ is 



t/* 



10 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



than the Surinam River light vessel and the radiodirection-finder station at Para- 
maribo, causes difficulties in position finding for fishing vessels. Equipment essen- 
tial to operating in this area, therefore, includes a radiodirection-finder and a depth 
recorder. 

TRAWLING BOTTOM 

For orientation purposes the Surinam coastal waters, to a depth of 40 fathoms, 
have been divided into four zones on the basis of differences in bottom conditions 



Table 1 - Fishing Loq M/V Coquette, Surinam Fisheries Explorations 1957--Production-Tvpe Draqsl/ 


Index 

No, 


Station 
No. 


StartinE Position 


Dale 
1957 


Fishine Time 


Depth 
Fathoms 


Bottom 
Type 


Gear 
Used 


Brown 
Shrimp 2/ 
(He:id3 off) 


Pink- Spotted 

Shrimp 
(Heads off) 


Sea Bobs2/ 
(Heads off) 


Miscellaneous 

Shrimp 

(Heads off) 


No, 
Lat. 


LonE. 


Time 
on Bottom 


Duration of Drag 


1 


140 


06°24' 


54°55' 


5/30 


0830 


90 


14 


M 


68-Foot 
Flat Trawl 








3i)(4O-50) 


. 






2 


145 


06''21' 


54°59' 




1058 


90 


14 


M 




4?,#(3n.351 




ine (i.p 1 




3 


150 


06_20' 


54;: 54' 


'■ 


1543 


120 


13-11 


M 




18*i(30-35) 




25fl (Lfi.) 




- 4 


155 














M 




etf 30-35) 




ii (Lr. ) 




5 


203 


06"22' 


54°56' 


6/11 


uoo 


90 


13-14 


M 








iSoHLg,) 


Uss than !# ' 
P. Bchmittl 
(21-25) 


6 


208 


06"22' 


55''03' 


6/16 


1350 


96 


13 


M 








80*1 (Lg. ) 


Less than !# 
P. schmitli 


" H— 

9 


:i4b 
260 


06°40' 


— 54°T3^ 
55 26' 


6/20 


lUbU 
1830 


180 

' 1^0 


— rrr^ — 

23-24 
23 


Wl 

M, S, Sh 




60-/i26-30f 


163# {No 
■cniinl rpxnrdPd: 


"Few" 




11 


'jva 


uB^lr— 


~5^°4T^ 


b/m 


Ul'JU 


21U 


24 


M.bi.Kh 


'T 




88* 






12 


293 


0G°27l 


55 Ob' 

I— 


S/2B 


1010 


yu 


14 


M, a 




160# Whole 
Mixed Browns 






2* P schmitti 


13 


297 


06"45' 


55-17- 


" 


1900 


180 


24 


M.S, Sh 






18i) (?) 






14 


311 


05^38' 


1 55°53' 


7/lS 


2010 


215 


24 


M.B 


' 




160 15-20) 






16 


322 


06"48' 


55° 3 5' 




0400 


' — -Ml 


•i1-K 


M.'S.'Sl' '' 












17 




06*'52' 


^_55°27' 




1905 


235 


29 


M.S Sh 






no*(i'^-->si 






18 


337 


06"49' 


55^21' 


7/21 


2330 


230 


29-27 


M. S, Sh 






I75fl(15-25) 






19 


341 


06"48' 


55°17' 


" 


0340 


ISO 










175»(15-26) 






20 
21 


347 
254 


^06°44' 


55^16- 
55''l4' 




1915 
2326 


435 
270 


25-24 
24-25 








250flll5-25) 
a?5#(15-25) 


-. 




. 22 

23 


360 
361 


06''19' 

io6°49' - 


55''15' 
55^21- 


7/22 
7/24 


0820 
2210 


150 
190 


14 

24-2S 


M.Sh ' 


89-Ft. West- 
ern Jib 
Trawl 


3/ 


1' 


3/ 




25 


374 


06°45' 


^T5°47'- 


_Ii25_ 


22S0 


225 


2-4-25 


M.Sh 






75tf(15-25i 






26 


381 


06"'46' 


55 59' 


11i& 


0300 


210 


25-26 


M, Sh ' 


68-Foot 




60#(15-25) 






27 


386 


06°37' 


55 55' 




1906 


51(1 






89-Ft, West- 


5#(15-25) 


101/(15-251 






28 


392 


06"33' 


55"54' 


" 


2305 


210 


18.17 


M.Sh : 




5tfnF.-a5) 


5/1115-251 






29 


393 


oe^ig- 


55^48' 


7/27 


0405 


180 


14-12 


M ' 




20«(25-30) 




4iSTails 


\i» p. schmilt) 

(ia-i5r 


30 


394 


06^50- 


55?18' 




2015 


210 

Mo 


25-26 

26-55 


M.S-ii 

M.Sh 1 




- 


150,(15-25) 

Tiir«(i5-2nl 






. 32 
33 


406 
409 


06°50' 
06°50' 


55°lP- 
55°U' 




6445 
1903 


156 

210 


215-25 
26-28 


tf.Sh ' 

mIsh 


68-Foot 
Flat Trawl 


2#(10-15) 


5(HI15-?51 

2101/(15-25) 


= 




34 


416 


06"^ 50' 


55"03' 




2250 


240 


24-29 


M 






1801(15-251 






35 
36 
37 


421 
42fi 

433 


06^50- 
06°51' 


54 33' 


7/2y 


0310 
1900 
2325 


210 
240 
240 


29-27 
30-35 


M 

M - 
M 




■ ■ . 


80//(15-25) 

II"'"I5-251 

55t/(l5-75l 


\ 




. 38 

. 39 
40 


439 
444 

453 


05"57.5' 
i)J°03' 
06 25' 


54''24' 

_51°S3^ 

55°5T 


7|30 
7/31 


0345 
1655 
0530 


180 
240 
180 


4/36-40 
4/37-30 
" 13-8 


M 

M.S 
M 


J^ 


iWiffd^-a.^i 

Mixed Brown 
ii Sea Bobs 
25# whole 
Shrimp 


b/n/15-251 
l(Hll.'i-2SI 






~y Trawling fUtloa were numbered In Hquence, from Sution I thiDugh Station 4S3. Try-net dragi are not included in (be table, caujing a break in the continuity. To preicrve the origloal nation daignatlon and Itill 

provide continuity, irtiitraiy indei numben. itarting with numbcione, have been piDvidcd. 
2/ Numben followed by a 1 ilgn indicate pouodi of ihrimp. Numben In parenlheiei refei m Iht hfadl-off counI per pound. 

4/ The deplh-HJunder uled during the mrvey pooeued a majimuni range of 220 fceHappioximateiy 36.6 flttnou). Deptiu in exceu ol thij are, therefore, ejtlmitrd. 
tl Tiawl badly damaged by lawfiA-.pait of catch loit. 



and faunal groupings. These four somewhat arbitrary zones and their approximate 
depth limits are: the inshore zone from through 4 fathoms, the intermediate zone 
from 5 through 18 fathoms, the shell-ridge zone lying between 19 and 23 fathoms, 
and the offshore zone from 23 through 40 fathoms. 

INSHORE ZONE: The inshore waters, shallower than five fathoms, are irregu- 
larly obstructed by extensive soft "sling" mud banks which extend from 2 to 12 miles 
offshore (Hydrographic Office 1935). These banks are subject to frequent shifting 
by tides and strong westerly currents, and their presence makes trawling inside 5 
fathoms extremely hazardous (Whiteleather and Brown 1945). The shallows and the 
marshy areas adjacent to the river mouths may serve as nursery grounds for some 
species of shrimp found off that coast. The water in the inshore zone is the color of 
creamed coffee due to considerable material in suspension. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



11 



INTERMEDIATE ZONE: Beyond five fathoms, trawlable bottom, largely con- 
sisting of soft, sticky, gray mud, extends out to approximately 18 or 19 fathoms 
where it gives way to rougher, dead shell bottom. With the exception of one try net, 
lost on an obstruction at 06 22' N. latitude and 55 06' W. longitude in 14 fathoms, no 
extensive gear damage was encountered in the zone. Some net damage, however, 
was caused by sharks and sawfish; particularly when large fish catches were made. 
The water color in the intermediate zone changes from brown on the inshore side to 
milky green offshore. 

SHELL RIDGE ZONE : Within the general depth interval, 19 to 2 3 fathoms, a 
zone of rough bottom apparently parallels most of the Surinam Coast. This is un- 
suitable shrimp trawling bottom; responsible for some torn gear but no net losses. 
Although the ridge is narrow along the eastern and central Surinam coast, explora- 
tory operations indicate a widening in the vicinity of the Coppename River and dis- 
ruption of the ridge in the vicinity of the Maroni River. Try-net catches included 
dead encrusted shells, dead coral, gorgonids, and sponge. 

OFFSHORE ZONE : In water deeper than 23 fathoms hard trawlable bottom, con- 
sisting predominately of gray mud and fine shell, extends to at least the 40-fathom 
depth curve--the limit of the trawling gear. Scattered through this zone are exten- 
sive patches of soft blue and black mud. Large expanses of the gray mud bottom 
are covered with a fine moss-like gorgonids growth which clogged the trawl meshes. 
This caused some difficulty in trawling, because the additional drag reduced the fish- 
ing ability of the net. Sun-drying the net, followed by vigorous brushing, was the on- 
ly effective method of removing the material. Five-hour drags in one direction were 
made in the zone without gear damage, but it is not entirely free from snags. At ap- 
proximately 06 50' north latitude and 55 26' west longitude a hang-up on an unidenti- 
fied object stopped the winch while "hauling back." The water color in this zone is 
the deep blue that is characteristic of the open ocean. 

VESSEL AND PERSONNEL 



A typical Florida-type shrimp trawl- 
er, the Coquette , was used in this survey 
(fig. 2). Its registered dimensions are: 
length, 61.4 feet; beam, 18.4 feet; draft, 
8.5 feet; gross tonnage, 64.82; and net 
tonnage, 31.0 tons. The vessel is Diesel- 
driven and delivers 120 shaft hp. at 1,000 
r.p.m. The crew, during the exploratory 
survey, consisted of two United States 
citizens and one Surinam national. 

GEAR 

The 10|-foot trynet usedduringthis 
survey was constructed of 2 -inch meshi_/, 
15-thread-tarred-cotton webbing with the 
exception of the bag or cod end which was 
of 1-inch mesh, 21 -thread-tarred-cotton 
webbing. The headrope and footrope were 
tied directly to 2- by 1-foot try-net doors 
which were rigged from a 15-foot chain 
bridle, secured by shackles and a swivel, 
to the try-net cable. Try-net drags were 
also made with 8-, 13j- and 17|-foot try 
nets constructed and rigged in similar 

fashion. Fig. 2 - Florida-type shrimp trawler Coquette used in 

1957 Surinain explorations. 

A 400-mesh flat trawl, with a hea drope measuring 68-feet 7-inches long 

_l/ All mesh sizes refer to stretched-mesh measure. 




12 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



and a footrope 
drags (fig. 3). 



measuring 78 feet 7 inches long, was used for most production-type 
The body was made of 2-inch mesh, 15-thread-tarred-cotton webbing; 

and the bag was of 1;| -i n c h mesh 42 - 
thread-tarred-cotton webbing. The bag 
was protected by chafing gear. Six-foot 
extensions of the headrope and footrope 
were used in attaching the trawl to the 10- 
foot by 42 -inch trawl doors. A tickler 
chain measuring 6 feet shorter than the 
leadline was used when fishing this net. 

A few offshore drags were made with 
a 450-mesh western jib trawl whichmeas- 
ured 89-|- feet on the headrope. The body 
was made of 2^-inch mesh, 18-thread- 
tarred-cotton webbing and the bag was of 
l|-inch-42 -thread-cotton webbing. This 
net was fished with 7-foot extensions and 
a 101;|-foot tickler chain. 

FISHING RESULTS 

INSHORE ZONE, THROUGH 4 FATH- 
OMS: Trawling in depths shallower than 
five fathoms was risky because of the 
danger of bogging the trawl doors and the 
net in the extremely soft mud bottom. 
Eight 15 -minute try-net drags were at- 
tempted in the zone in a restricted area 
east of the mouth of the Surinam River. 
Shrimp catches consisted entirely of 
small numbers of sea bobs ranging from 
100 to over 300 individuals per pound (heads on). The total weight of individual try- 
net catches ranged from 2 to 20 pounds. Sea catfish, small sea trout, and croakers 
comprised the bulk of the weight of the catches. No production-type fishing was at- 
tempted in this zone. 

INTERMEDIATE ZONE , 5 THROUGH 18 FATHOMS : Shrimp catches : Daytime 
try-net coverage in the intermediate zone from the mouth of the Surinam River west 
to the Coppename River and east to the Maroni River was extensive. The portion of 
the zone lying west of the Coppename was not investigated during the 1957 survey. 
Results of the try-net work indicated a discontinuous distribution of brown shrimp. 
Even with this interrupted distribution pattern, catches of commercially-valuable 
quantities of brown shrimp were made in two instances with the 68-foot trawl. At 
station number 145, in 14 fathoms, 42 pounds of brown shrimp (heads off) resulted 
from a drag of approximately Ij hours, and at station 245, 90 pounds of brown shrimp 
(heads off) were obtained in 65 minutes. The shrimp ranged in size from 26 to 35 
tails per pound. 

Sea bobs were obtained from try-net drags at depths shallower than 16 fathoms. 
Peak abundance occurred between 10 and 15 fathoms. Although large sea bobs were 
occasionally met within a moderate quantity, most catches of this species were small 
and consisted of individuals ranging in size from 100 to 500 shrimp per pound (heads 
on). Commercial quantities of sea bobs resulted from two drags with the 68-foot 
trawl. These two 13-fathom drags (Stations 203 and 208) each lasting approximately 
l\ hours, caught 120 and 80 pounds of heads-off sea bobs, respectively, ranging in 
size from 60 to 65 shrimp (heads off) per pound. 




Fig. 3 - Retrieving the cod-end of the 68-foot stirimp 
trawl aboard the Coquette . 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



13 



Try-net drags were also made off the coast of French Guiana and promising in- 
dications of brown shrimp were found in depths of 16to 18 fathoms. Strong currents 

were encountered in the a- 
rea and, in some instances, 
they caused fouling of the 
try-net gear. Time was not 
available for production 
work with the 68- and 89- 
foot trawls. 




'^<-^ 



- A.., 






Blue-colored shrimp, 
resembling the white shrimp 
( Penaeus setiferus ) of the 
Atlantic and Gulf coasts of 
the United States, were tak- 
en at 4 stations off the Suri- 
nam and Coppename Rivers. 
In all instances the catch of 
that species ( Penaeus 
schmitti) was less than 5 
wj. - — '— s- -.^J^ "^<e f ,'-'''*'^r^~^ J ^ pounds. Penaeus setiferus 

&- ^'^*k^?S?*^- ' -^ - ^aJI 4 J^ ^^ known to appear in a defi- 

-*»' n " - *-^" nite seasonal pattern and to 

migrate in concentrated 
schools. It is possible that 
P. schmitti, its near-relative, may behave similarly, and thus be available in larger 
quantities along the Surinam coast at other times of the year. 




Fig. 4 - Large catch of fish made northeast of the Surinam River by the Co 
quette. 



Table 


2 - Scientific and Common Names of Fish and Shrimp 


Fish 


Shrimp | 


Scientific 
Name 


Common 
Name 


Scientific 
Name 


Common 

Name 


Micropogon sp. 


Croaker 

M 
11 

Sea Cat Fishes 
Surinam Butterfish 
Sea Trout 


Penaeus brasiliensis 

Latreille 
Penaeus aztecus Ives 
Penaeus schmitti 

Burkenroad 
Xiphopeneus kroyeri 

(Heller) 


Pink-spotted 
Brown 

Sea-bob 


Lonchurus sp. 


Paralonchurus sp. 


Family Ariidae 
Nebris sp. 


Cynoscion sp. 


Macrodon sp. 





Fish Catches : Trawling efforts with the 68-foot shrimp trawl, conducted north 
and northeast of the mouth of the Surinam River at depths of 12 to 14 fathoms, show- 
ed that substantial quantities of commercially-desirable species of fish could be 
taken consistently (fig. 4). Except for one instance, all drags in this area and depth 
range, made with the 68-foot shrimp trawl, caught from 330 to 840 pounds of com- 
mercially-desirable fish an hour; mainly sea trout, sea catfish, Surinam -butterfish, 
and croaker-like species (table 1). These catches also contained considerable quan- 
tities of fish which are not utilized commercially at present (fig. 5). 

Although the catches were made in only one area, it has been reported that 
trawlers from other countries have been making good catches of commercial species 
of fish off the Coppename River. In addition, try-net catches of sea trout, croakers, 
and sea catfish indicate wide distribution of the fish throughout the intermediate 
zone. This portion of the work added considerably to the knowledge of the abundance 
and distribution of fish stocks initially gained during preliminary explorations bythe 
Surinam Fisheries Department (F&WS 1954a). 



14 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



SHELL RIDGE ZONE . 20 THROUGH 22 FATHOMS: As previously stated, no 
catches of commercial value resulted from trawl sets made on the shell ridge. 

OFFSHORE ZONE, 23 THROUG H 40 FATHOMS : Excellent catches of especial- 
ly large pink-spotted shrimp (10 to 25 shrimp per pounds, heads-off) were made in 
extensive areas within the offshore zone 
by means of the 68- and 89 -foot shrimp 
trawls. Most extensive coverage was 
obtained in the offshore area between 
the mouth of the Surinam River and the 
mouth of the Coppename River. During 
June, one full night of trawling (9-| hours) 
resulted in a total 366 pounds (heads-off) 
of pink-spotted shrimp averaging 10 to 15 
shrimp per pound (heads-off); and a par- 
tial night of trawling (3 hours) yielded 
180 pounds (heads off) of the same spe- 
cies. Based mainly on these successful 
June fishing efforts, an attempt was made 
to determine the maximum possible pro- 
duction from the same area in July. A 
total of 1,310 pounds of pink spotted 
shrimp (heads-off) averaging 15 to 25 
per pound (heads-off) was taken in three 
successive nights of fishing. The aver- 
age hourly catch rate for this period was 
44 pounds. Two additional nights of 
trawling, which almost completely trav- 
ersed the geographic limits mentioned 
above, yielded atotal of 585 pounds (heads- 
off) of pink-spotted shrimp. 




rfC?^ 



y 



^4 



,^^' 




.j^- 




Fig. 5 - A 65 -minute trawling catch estimated at 5,000 

pounds. Commercially -valuable components Included 150 
pounds of brown shrimp and 910 pounds of fish. 



Trawling efforts in the offshore 
zone between the mouth of the Surinam 
River and the mouth of the Marone River 
were not extensive enough to provide ad- 
equate information regarding the shrimp production potential. Excellent results, 
however, were obtained during one night of trawling. Trawling operations, in this 
instance, commenced off the mouth of the Surinam River and extended eastward. A 
total of 470 pounds of pink-spotted shrimp (heads off) was taken in 11 hours of fish- 
ing. During an additional night of trawling, farther east, a four-hour drag made in 
30 to 35 fathoms caught 110 pounds of heads-off shrimp consisting of equal quantities 
of pink-spotted shrimp and brown shrimp. Both species averaged 15 to 25 shrimp 
per pound (heads-off). Considerable damage to the cod end of the net was caused 
by sawfish during one drag in this area; and the shrimp catch, therefore, was poor. 
These trawling results indicate that commercial quantities of marketable shrimp 
are widespread in the offshore zone. 

WEATHER CONDITIONS 



The Surinam trawling grounds lying beyond the 20-fathom contour are exposed 
to prevailing easterly winds for most of the year. Particularly during the winter 
season, winds of moderate to fresh velocity can be expected along with correspond- 
ingly increased sea conditions. There are no offshore reefs, islands, or shallow 
banks to provide a lee shore, and suitable inshore anchoring grounds are often ten 
hours away on a round-trip basis. There are, thus, problems associated with com- 
mercial-fishing operations that are somewhat different from those of the Gulf of 
Mexico and the South Atlantic coast of the United States. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



15 



During the winter months of January through March, the trade winds blow regu- 
larly and persistently from the northeast. However, the regularity of these trade 
winds provides a partial solution insofar as fishing efforts are concerned. Seas 
generated under these conditions may occasionally cause some crew discomfort, 
but trawling operations are feasible especially if trawling is carried out into the 
wind; i.e. in a northeasterly direction. Although the winter season is the period of 
heaviest weather, there is some compensation for this. Sudden damaging squalls 
(of the type encountered in Southeastern United States) are notably absent, at that 
time, on the Guianan Coast. In addition, the Guianas are singularly free from hurri- 
canes which disrupt shrimping in other areas. 

General consideration of the weather conditions of the area indicates that trawl- 
ing can be carried out over an appreciable portion of the January to March period. 
With minor exceptions, such as summer tropical rain squalls, the remainder of the 
year is favorable for fishing. Because of the distance from the coast of the best 
shrimp grounds, and the absence of shelter, particular attention should be given to 
providing adequate ground tackle. 



LITERATURE CITED 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, U.S. 

1954a. Good Shrimp Fishing Possibilities Reported. 

Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 16, no. 2, 
(February), p. 53. 



1954b. Shrimp Fishery. Commercial Fisheries Review , 
vol. 16, no 6 (June), p. 54. 

HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE, U.S. 

1935. Sailing Directions. South America (East Coast) 
from the Orinoco to and Including Rio de la 
Plata. Hydrographic Office Publication 172, 
pp. 50a -57. 

LEE, HENRY B. , Ul 

1958. Zeevisserij-Onderzoek, Coquette Survey Report. 
Verslagen en rapporten van het Department 
van Landbouw, Veeteelt en Visserii in Suri - 
name , No. 20, 19 pp. 



RICHARDS, A. R. 

1955. Trawl Fishing in the Southeastern Caribbean. 
Published by the Caribbean Commission 
Central Secretariat, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 
pp. 48-59. 

SUNDSTROM, GUSTAF T. 

1957. Commercial Fishing Vessels and Gear. U. S. 
Fish and Wildlife Service Circular 48, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C, p. 17. 

WHITELEATHER, R. T. and BROWN, HERBERT H. 
1945. An Experimental Fishery Survey in Trinidad, 
Tobago, and British Guiana. Anglo- 
American Caribbean Commission, pp. 19-20. 




PRINTERS' INK FROM FISH 

Pakistani fish technologists have produced printers' i n k of good 
quality by mixing Puntis fish oil with linseed oil. Punti, Barbus stigma , 
(Puntius) is a fish which is abundantly available at a low price. Shark-liver oil 
is also used in the manufacture of black printers' ink. ( Australian Fisheries 
Newsletter , February 1959.) 



16 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 




DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARDS FOR PACIFIC COAST FISHERY PRODUCTS 

The development of voluntary standards for grades of fishery products was 
started about five years ago by the U. S. Department of the Interior's Fish and Wild- 
life Service. The first standard was published under an agreement with the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture in 1956. Standards for grades of fishery products were 
promulgated under this arrangement. Inspection and certification services for fish- 
ery products became the responsibility of the U. S. Department of the Interior on 
July 1, 1958. Since then the program has developed at an accelerating rate. Five 
standards have already been developed and put into effect by the Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries: frozen fried fish sticks, frozen raw breaded shrimp, frozen fish 
blocks, frozen haddock fillets, and frozen halibut steaks. It is likely that by the end 
of 1959 this number may be doubled to include frozen raw breaded fish portions, fro- 
zen cod fillets, frozen ocean perch fillets, and frozen salmon steaks. 

Some 28 firms are now under continuous inspection. On the Pacific coast one 
processor has accepted continuous inspection in the Los Angeles area and an in- 
spector has been hired to service a Seattle processor as well as other processors 
in the Pacific Northwest that are interested in lot inspection. 

The U. S. Department of the Interior's voluntary standards program consist of 
two major stages: 

(a) Standards development and promulgation. (The development of the standard 
is carried on by the several technological laboratories, and when a given standard 
is judged to be reasonably satisfactory by industry and laboratory personnel, it is 
turned over to the Bureau's Washington office for review and re -working prior to 
official promulgation.) 

(b) Product inspection and certification. (The inspection and certification is 
carried on by trained government inspectors.) 

NEED AND OBJECTIVES : The need for, and the advantages of, voluntary U. S. 
standards for grades have been recognized by various segments of the fishery in- 
dustry, and they have requested the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries to develop such 
standards. 



The primary objective of this project is to develop and to assist in the promul- 
gation of voluntary U. S. standards for grades which are to serve as a quality grad- 
ing yardstick for buying and selling of fishery products; we thereby seek to create 
a quality-improving incentive, which has for its ultimate purpose a greater consum- 
er acceptance and consumption of fishery products. A parallel objective is to train 
and work with the product inspection and certification groups (field inspectors) in 
developing practical means of evaluating, protecting, and improving the quality of 
fishery products. Active industry support and participation to these ends is essential. 



September 1959 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 17 

The current work of the Bureau's Seattle Technological Laboratory on standards 
is concerned with: 

(a) Completing the standard for frozen salmon steaks. 

(b) Developing a standard for frozen dressed halibut. 

(c) Training and orientation of the newly-employed Government inspector at 
Seattle in the grading of frozen halibut steaks and all other fishery products that he 
may be called upon to inspect. (Inspection of fishery products may be on the basis 
of the published voluntary standards, Federal specifications, or such other applica- 
ble material, such as industry specifications). 

As an example of some of the details involved in the development of a standard, 
the following sequence is given for the halibut steak standard which became official 
on March 15, 1959: 

(1) The responsibility for developing the Frozen Halibut Steak Standards was 
assigned to the Seattle Technological Laboratory. 

(2) The Standards Unit made numerous plant visits and discussed with various 
halibut steak processors the quality-affecting characteristics that should be con- 
sidered. 

(3) Numerous samples from retail and wholesale origin were examined to see 
what other quality factors might be considered. In addition, some samples were al- 
lowed to spoil under accelerated storage conditions (simulating poor storage) to ob- 
serve the development of the various deteriorative type of quality defects. 

(4) Quality factors that affect the desirability and eating quality of halibut steaks 
from the standpoint of the household consumer and fish buyers were investigated and 
considered. 

(5) When sufficient data were accumulated, a rough draft standard was drawn 
up and reviewed by our laboratory personnel from which was prepared a first pro- 
posed draft for industry consideration. 

(6) A public meeting was held with the various local segments of the halibut in- 
dustry to discuss this first proposed draft. Industry comments and suggestions were 
embodied in a revised draft. 

(7) This revised draft was reviewed with the industry's appointed Halibut Steak 
Technical Committee in order to assure that the standards were practical and re- 
flected quality levels that are reasonably attainable by industry. Based upon indus- 
try suggestions and further cross-consultation, the standards may be revised sever- 
al times at this phase of the development, which was the case for the halibut steak 
standards. In addition, during this phase of development, the standards were re- 
viewed by our other Bureau laboratories. 

(8) To test the practicality of the standards, a grading survey was made of 
some 300 randomly-selected retail and institutional size packages of frozen halibut 
steaks. 

(9) When the standards were considered close to what industry and the Tech- 
nological Laboratory personnel considered reasonable, the latest revised draft was 
circulated, on a national basis, to the various segments of industry for comment. 
At this time industry was advised that a series of public hearings would be held in 
various major cities to further review the proposed standards. 



18 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



(10) On the basis of the comments and views expressed at these meetings, a 
final draft was prepared and submitted to the Washington office for approval. After 
minor modification it was submitted as a notice of proposed rule making, published 
in the Federal Register on December 3, 1958. Notice was therein given of the in- 
tention of the Director of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries to recommend to the 
Secretary of the Interior, the adoption of the United States Standards for Grades of 
Frozen Halibut Steaks as set forth. Interested persons were given until January 1, 
1959, to submit views or comments concerning the standard. No comments were re- 
ceived. 

(11) Accordingly, the standards as set forth were adopted, and published in the 
Federal Register of February 25, 1959. They became effective on March 15, 1959. 
(Federal agencies may now, if they wish, purchase frozen halibut steaks on the basis 
of the grades set forth in these standards.) 

Although the standards are designed to reflect high product quality, they should, 
at the same time, be practical, keeping inspection costs to a minimum. For exam- 
ple, one of the quality factors considered in our preliminary drafts was free drip, 
the liquor that exudes from the fish meat on thawing. Based on laboratory tests, it 
was found that the time and cost-consuming procedure of making drip determinations 
was unessential and not too meaningful for halibut steaks. The deletion of drip sim- 
plified the halibut standards from the standpoint of equipment, time, and cost. 




COD-LIVER OIL IS POTENT CHOLESTEROL LOWERER 

In contrast to animal fats which increase the serum cholesterol lev- 
el in the body, oil from marine animals --seals, sardines, whales --seems 
to lower the level. 

Since cholesterol is believed to be associated with atherosclerosis, 
research reported on the potent cholesterol level reducing activity of 
cod-liver oil may be important in human medicine. It is more potent 
than some vegetable fats tested. 

Rats fed a diet of starch to which cholesterol and coconut oil were 
added received both corn oil and cod-liver oil as dietary fats. The fish 
oil, report A. P. de Groot of the Central Institute for Nutrition and Food 
Research, Utrecht, and S. A. Reed of the Marfleet Refining Co., Ltd., 
Hull, had a higher cholesterol-lowering activity. 

The fatty acid fraction accountsfor most if not all of the activity, the 
scientists report in Nature (April 25, 1959). 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



19 




TRENDS 



AND -^ 



DEVELOPMENTS 






Alaska 



BIOLOGISTS PRODUCE LARGE RUN 
OF YOUNG RED SALMON IN RESEARCH 
LAKE : A very high survival of red or 
sockeye salmon fry planted in a study 
lake was achieved by Alaska Department 
of Fish and Game biologists at the Kitoi 
Bay Research Station on Afognak Island, 
the Commissioner of Fish and Game 
stated on July 6, 1959. 

The Commissioner cited two reasons 
for this successful lake stocking. First, 
the lake had previously been cleared of 



Sockeye (red) Salmon 
(Oncoiiivncus nerka) 




scrap fish, eliminating both predation 
and competition; secondly, a falls at the 
lake outlet had barred re-entry of scrap- 
fish into the lake. 

Whereas the usual fingerling survival 
in runs from natural lakes to the ocean 
is only about one percent, the spring mi- 
gration count recorded survival at the 
Kitoi project of over 35 percent. Over 
41,000 fingerling were counted from the 
35-acre lake to the ocean. 

While it is gratifying to obtain these 
excellent results and to establish a new 
run of salmon in a small lake that was 
previously barren, the knowledge gained 
will be of great importance in re-estab- 
lishing some of the runs that have been 
depleted in large Alaskan lakes, the 
Commissioner said. 



,1, *!, %(- O^ 

-f 'l' 1' -v- 



KING SALMON SPORT FISHERIES 
IN SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA TO BE 
STUDIED : A new research study on king 
salmon stocks of the Southeast Alaskan 



sport fisheries has been started, the 
Alaska Commissioner of Fish and Game 
stated on July 15, 1959. 

This highly prized salt-water sport 
fish has shown signs of decline in vari- 
ous areas of the Pacific Coast and as a 
result a coastwise study has been called 
for, under the sponsorship of the Pacific 
Marine Fisheries Commission, which is 
an organization of representatives from 
state fisheries agencies. 

In cooperation with the Commission's 
proposal, the Alaska Fish and Game De- 
partment is seeking to determine how 
many king salmon are being taken in the 
recreational fisheries and the location of 
the home streams of the various races. 

It is known that king salmon taken in 
Alaskan waters come from rivers far to 
the south as well as from local streams, 
the Commissioner stated. It is necessary 
to have information on how many fish from 
each race are being harvested, in order 
to do an effective job of regulation. 

It is expected that the new study will 
be financed in part from Federal Aid 
Dinge 11 -Johnson funds. 

;|< ^ s|; ^e s|! 

RECORD NUMBER OF TAKU RIVER 
KING SALMON CAPTURED BY FISH 
WHEEL : Approximately 1,700 king salm- 
on had been captured by June 16, 1959, 
by means of a fish wheel and 1,600 tagged 
by the Alaska Department of Fish and 
Game biologists at the Department's 
Canyon Island Research Station on the 
Taku River. This is almost three times 
as many as ever taken in a previous sea- 
son. 

In the nine years that the fish wheel 
has been in operation by the Department, 
600 king salmon is the largest number 
ever taken in one season. This indica- 
tion of a good escapement, plus general- 



20 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



ly good fishing by the gillnetters on 
Taku Inlet, is an encouraging step in the 
maintenance of an adequate run of kings 
in the Taku River system. 

Alaska research biologists are un- 
dertaking the tagging operation on the 
king salmon at the station, supplement- 
ed by a spawning ground survey on the 
upper Taku tributaries. This work will 
help determine several phases of the life 
history of the king salmon. An estimate 
of total escapement will be made. Scale 
samples, along with body measurements 
and sex ratios taken from the gill-net 
fishery, the fish wheel, and the spawning 
grounds will enable the biologists to as- 
certain the age and size composition of 
the run. (Alaska Department of Fish and 
Game news release, June 16.) 



California 



AERIAL CENSUS OF COMMERCIAL AND 
SPORT PISHING COiTONTTED : Airpla'ne~"5potting 
Flight 59-9-Crab : Coastal wat ers from Monterey 
to the California-Oregon border were surveyed 
from the air (May 15-16, 1959) by the Departmentb 
Cessna 180 to determine the fishing localities and 
relative fishing intensity of the central and north- 
ern California crab fleet. Excellent visibility and 
flying conditions prevailed and all crab fishing 
areas within the survey area were adequately 
scouted. 

A total of 74 lines of crab gear were counted in 
the area bounded by False Cape and the Oregon 
border. This was a notable increase over the 
March and April counts for the same area. This 
increase is attributed to improved visibility and 
the use by fishermen of fewer units of gear per 
trap line to facilitate fishing operations in shallow 
depths. Concentrations of gear were found in the 
area between the Klamath River and Big Lagoon, 
as well as between the Mad and Eel Rivers. 

Two lines of crab gear were noted between 
False Cape and Pt. Arena. These were set in 
moderate depths off Manchester Beach. 

A total of 26 lines of crab gear was observed 
in the area between the Russian River and Half 
Moon Bay. The majority was set in moderate 
depths between San Francisco and Pt. San Pedro. 

One line of gear was sighted off Moss Landing 
in Monterey Bay. 

Pelagic fish schools varying in size from small 
to large were observed between San Francisco and 
Pt. San Pedro and in Monterey Bay. They were 
identified as anchovies. A partial census in Mon- 
terey Bay revealed 91 schools in the area between 
the Pajaro River and Monterey and 2 to 3 miles 
offshore. 



Legend : 

Line of crab 
traps, 

X - Red tide. 



_OREGON 

.^CALIFORNIA 

ISHITH HIVEB 



L£rescent City 




»/ KLAMATH RIVER 



JR'NIDAD HEAD 



Airplane Spotting Flight 59-9 (May 15-16, 1959). 



Red-tide conditions were present in the limited 
area from Eureka north to the Mad River. 

Salmon trollers were concentrated 5 to 10 miles 
off the Eel River on the north coast and off Dux- 
bury Reef in central California. Respective counts 
were 105 and 92 for the two areas. 

Airplane Spotting Flight 59-10 - Abalone : The 
shore line from Ano Nuevo to Ft. Bragg was sur- 
veyed (May 24, 1959) by the Department's Cessna 
180 to estimate the number of abalone fishermen 
during a very low minus tide falling on a weekend. 

Favorable conditions prevailed both for obser- 
vation and for the abalone fishermen. Because of 
optimum conditions more people were observed 
on the beaches than on any previous aerial count. 
In most areas crowds were too dense for individu- 
als to be counted. Only estimates could be made 
and at some locations only the automobiles could 
be counted with any degree of accuracy. 

It is difficult from the air to determine exactly 
what animals are being taken by people in and a- 
mong the rocks. In some locations, such as Bo- 
linas Lagoon, it was obvious that the people were 
digging for clanas; in others, they were fishing 
from rocks but the majority of fishermen appear- 
ed to be searching for abalone. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



21 




Lege 


jid: 




/ 


Anchovy 
group. 


school 


IIH - 


Line of 


crab 




traps. 




h) - 


Salmon 


troUers. 



onterey 



Airplane Spotting Flight 59-9 (May 15-16, 1959). 
***** 



BARRACUDA AND WHITE SEA BASS SURVEY 

0FTT r?a7r t!xnFPRN Ta rxNtr5mjTH6RN cmt- 

F'URNIA continued (M/ITn. B. Scofieig Cruise 
59S3 -Barracuda- White Sea Bass): The coastal wa- 
ters off Baja California and southern California 
from Pta. Canoas north to Santa Catalina Island 
were surveyed (May 6-24, 1959) by the California 
Department of Fish and Game research vessel 
N. B. Scofield to tag and release barracuda and 
white sea bass, and to make incidental fish collec- 
tions. 

In all, 2,450 barracuda ranging in length from 
450 to 1,003 mm. were tagged with spaghetti loop 
tags and released- -2, 300 in Mexican waters and 
150 off southern California. No white sea bass 
were caught. 

Barracuda were captured, tagged, and released 
on 12 of 17 fishing days in five areas. The largest 
catches were made where surface water tempera- 



tures ranged between 15° C. (59° F.). Thirteen 
fish were released at Pta. Canoas, 591 in the vicin- 
ity of Hondo Canyon, 37 5 off Camalu Point, 1.282 in 
Colnett Bay, and 150 off "The Barn" between Ocean- 
side and San Clemente. 

Fishing at the Coronados Islands, San Carlos 
Bay, Geronimo Island, Point Baja, Todos Santos 
Bay, San Martin Island, San Catalina Island, San 
Mateo Point, and Dana Point failed to produce bar- 
racuda. 

Schools of barracuda were located by trolling 
four lines through areas where the fish were most 
likely to be. The lines, attached to outriggers, 
were set to fish at various depths with several 
types of bone and metal lures. 

After locating barracuda, they were captured 
either by still-fishing or pole-trolling--using 18- 
foot bamboo Jack-poles. For still-fishing, a small 
feather lure was attached to a wire leader and 
moved back and forth at the surface along the side 
of the boat. When pole -trolling, the same pole was 
used but a metal or bone lure was employed in 
place of the feather. The pole was held by hand 
from the stern of the vessel which moved at a 
speed of two to four knots. The means of capture 
depended upon the behavior of the fish. When a 
great number of barracuda could be lured to the 
boat by chumming with live bait, they were still- 
fished. When the fish were scattered, a condition 
apparently associated with the presence of large 




Smn Msnin If 



^^ - Barracuda tagged 
and reieased. 

- No. barracuda 
captured. 



M/V N.B. Scofield Cruise 59S3-BarTacuda-White Sea Bass 
(May 6-24, 1959). 



22 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



amounts of natural food in the water, the pole- 
troUing method was used. 

As the fish were captured, they were placed in 
the vessel's live bait wells and held until fishing 
slowed down or stopped completely or until the 
wells were filled to capacity. The largest of the 
three bait wells has a capacity of 3,000 gallons and 
held almost 300 barracuda. The two smaller wells, 
each with a capacity of about 2,500 gallons, held be- 
tween 200 and 250 barracuda. Morality in the tanks 
was between 1 and 1.5 percent. During the early 
part of the cruise, only the 3,000-gallon tank was 
available, but as the live bait was used up, the two 
smaller wells were freed for use as holding tanks. 

The advantages of holding the fish rather than 
tagging them as they were caught were: (1) no fish- 
ing time was lost while waiting for the fish to be 
tagged; (2) the fish could be handled more care- 
fully at all stages; (3) weak fish died in the tanks; 
and (4) the chance that the tagged fish would pull 
the rest of the school away from the boat was e- 
liminated. Tagging was usually done in a differ- 
ent location from where the fish were caught- - 
either on the way to the night anchorage or at the 
anchorage. 

Two teams were used during the tagging opera- 
tions, including two taggers, two fish holders, one 
recorder, and one man for brailing the fish from 
the tanks. The time required to tag each fish was 
approximately 20 seconds. 

Besides barracuda, 11 other species of fish 
were collected during the cruise. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review . March 1959, p. 29. 



PELAGIC FISH POPULATION SURVEY OFF 

coASt OP SCTTther n and CSNTRAL CAL^- 
TT?RNIA"T:0NTINUBD: ~MrV "Alagka" Crui3e_ 
59A4 -Pelagic Fisfln 'he coastal and island waters 
of southern California from Santa Barbara south- 
ward to the Coronado Islands were surveyed (A- 
pril 28-May 18, 1959) by the California Depart- 
ment of Fish and Game research vessel Alaska . 
The objectives were: (1) to sample the spring 
spawning sardine population off southern Califor- 
nia; (2) to sample sardines. Pacific mackerel, jack 
mackerel, and anchovies for determining distribu- 
tion and relative abundance; and (3) to collect live 
sardines for genetic studies being conducted by 
the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biolog- 
ical Laboratory at La JoUa. 

A total of 88 light stations were occupied. Sar- 
dines were taken at 12, anchovies at 13, jack mack- 
erel at 9, and Pacific mackerel at 6. 

A total of 120 pelagic fish schools were sighted 
in 386 miles of scouting- -33 of these were identi- 
fied as sardines, 13 as anchovy, 46 as Pacific 
mackerel, and 28 were unidentified. Adult sar- 
dines were sampled from San Pedro to Point Mugu 
and in the vicinity of the Channel Islands. These 
fish averaged 197 mm. long and were frequently 
schooled with small jack mackerel and Pacific 
mackerel. Small sardines were sampled from the 
Mexican border northward to La JoUa. These fish 
ranging from 130 to 160 mm., were schooled with 




M/V Alaska Cruise 59A4-Pelagic Fish (April 28-May 18, 
1959). 

anchovies. Sardine and Pacific mackerel schools 
were observed most frequently in the Channel Is- 
land area. 

Almost all of the adult sardines sampled were 
in advanced stages of sexual maturity while only 
a very few of the small individuals showed sexual 
development. The adult sardines were difficult to 
sample due to the great depth at which they re- 
mained when attracted to the light. Lures were 
the only effective means of sampling. 

Live sardines taken at Santa Catalina Island 
were delivered to the Bureau's laboratory at La 
JoUa. 

Sea surface temperatures ranged from 11.6° C, 
(52.9° F.) at Santa Barbara to 19.2° C. (66.6° F.) 
near San Pedro. The low temperature was taken 
following three days of gale-force winds. Red 
crabs ( Pleuroncodes planipes ) were present at 
light stations as far north as the northern Channel 
Islands. 

M/V 'Alaska" Cruise 59A5 - Pelagic Fish: The 
coastal waters off central California, from Pt. 
Reyes southward to Pt. Conception, were survey- 
ed (May 28-June 15, 1959) by the Department's re- 
search vessel Alaska to sample the sardine spawn- 
ing population off central California; to sample 
sardines. Pacific mackerel, jack mackerel, and 
anchovies for determining their distribution and 
relative abundance; and to collect live sardines 
for genetic studies being conducted by the U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries at La JoUa. 

A total of 46 night light stations was occupied. 
Ten of the stations (22 percent) yielded one or 
more of the four pelagic species (sardines. Pa- 
cific mackerel, jack mackerel and anchovies). 
Anchovies were sampled at 9 stations (20 percent), 
jack mackerel at 5 (11 percent), and sardines at 
4 (9 percent). 

Three of the four sardine samples originated in 
San Luis Obispo Bay and one in San Simeon Bay. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



23 



Legend : 

Each mark represents one sample 

• - Sardine, 

■ - Jack mackerel. 

V - Anchovy, 

- Vessel track. 




San Miguel Ii.^ "< >^^ 

SU Cmili. 



hart Aquarium at San Francisco for use in experi- 
mental studies. 

Airplane Spotting Flight 59-8- Pelagic Fish : The 
inshore area of California between La JoUa and 
Ano Nuevo Point was surveyed from the air (May 11- 
13, 1959) by the Department's Cessna 170 (1359 
D) to assess the distribution and abundance of pe- 
lagic fish schools. 

Weather conditions north of Santa Monica Bay 
were unfavorable for the third consecutive month, 
but south of Santa Monica Bay conditions were 
good. 

Pelagic fish were again scarce north of Point 
Conception and only 29 anchovy schools were ob- 
served. Four small schools were present one mile 
off Moss Landing, 20 large dense schools one to 
two miles off Cambria Pines, four small schools 
just north of Point Buchon near the surf line, and 
one small school at Pecho Rock near Avila. 

A total of 11 sardine schools and 250 anchovy 
schools were counted south of Point Conception. 
One sardine school was present two miles south 
of Gaviota, six were one to two miles offshore at 
Point Mugu, and the remaining four were about 
three miles west of Encinitas. 

A large concentration of 'breezing" anchovies 
was seen near Point Dume. A total of 110 schools 
were counted and it was apparent many more were 
in the area. The late hour (1800 P. D. T.) and the 
limited offshore range of the airplane made it im- 
possible to accurately determine the extent and 
magnitude of the group. 

Between Seal Beach and Huntington Beach, 79 
dispersed schools of anchovies were counted. As 
usual, the fish in this area were in a narrow band 
extending from the surf line to about one-quarter 
mile offshore. A small group of 59 schools was 



M/V Alaska Cruise 59A5 (May 28-June 15, 1959). 

The sardines ranged in standard length from 168- 
216 mm., with an average length of 204 mm. Al- 
most all of the female sardines examined were in 
early stages of egg development but none was in a 
spawning condition. 

A total of 252 miles was scouted at night and 
308 fish schools were observed. Of these, 282 
were identified as anchovies, 5 as sardines, and 
the remainder (21) were unidentified. Fish schools 
were concentrated in two general areas --in Mon- 
terey Bay and off Pt. Buchon. Off Pt. Buchon they 
were so numerous that 61 schools of anchovies and 
2 of sardines were counted between 0400 and 0430 
on May 30. A dark night and bright bioluminescence 
made visual scouting conditions excellent at that 
time. 

Live anchovies and jack mackerel obtained in 
Long Beach Harbor were delivered to the Stein- 



4i\ 

/^Monterey 










Legend: 




I 




g( - Anchovy achool group 




N. 




A - No of anchovy .chooli 




\ 




J - No. or aardlne school! 




V^n Simeon 




■ - Areaofredorbrown 
3 water 




!0«V 




Oltj- Oil •pill. 




.>°"°*' 














1 

^\PI Conception 




s'^ir^ 


Sam* B*rb«r« 




\vBntur« 


"0^=' 


i S^^^tf'^^VSftnt* Monica 






7»i^^ 




• '^ \ 




Sfff^^cwwtde 




^ 1 




Vi«[>U». 




\mU3CO 



Airplane Spotting Flight 59-8 (May 11, 12, and 13, 1959). 



24 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



present close to shore between the Santa Margarita 
River and Oceanside. 

Dirty water was prevalent in the southern por- 
tion of the State, with several outbreaks of red tide. 
From Ventura to Santa Monica the inshore water 
was extremely dirty ranging in color from yellow 
to brown to deep red. In the vicinity of Point Mugu 
the organisms responsible for the red water had 
converged into drifts or "windrows" aligned paral- 
lel to the shore. Minor occurrences of red tide 
were also seen off Cambria Pines, in Los Angeles 
Harbor and near Oceanside. 

One large oil spill was seen near Elwood. Al- 
though this is one of the natural oil seepage areas, 
the large slick in question originated at the buoys 
and pipeline off the Elwood pumping station. 

Airplane Spotting Flight 59- 11 - Pelagic Fish : 
The inshore area between tfie" Mexican Border and 
Pigeon Point was surveyed (June 2-4, 1959) by the 
Department's Cessna 170 (1359D) to determine the 
distribution and abundance of pelagic fish schools. 

A heavy overcast hampered observations in the 
Monterey area, but during periods of clearing ad- 
equate coverage was achieved. 

For the first time this year, fish schools were 
seen in Monterey Bay. Most of the schools were 
anchovies, but four sardine schools were also seen. 
All but six of these were between Santa Cruz and 
the Salinas River. They were seen as far offshore 
as three miles and in very shallow water near the 
beach. During two afternoons of scouting, only 141 
schools were counted. This was but a small frac- 




tion of the more than 2,000 present in the Monterey 
area one year ago. The four sardine schools were 
small and tight and were noted about one mile off- 
shore between the Pajaro River and Moss Landing. 

Between Morro Rock and Cayucos three large 
anchovy schools were seen and eight similar 
schools were counted between Pismo Beach and 
Avila. Four large and five small sardine schools 
were found one mile off Point San Luis. 

Although reports from fishermen and others in- 
dicate the presence of large numbers of anchovies 
in Santa Monica Bay, no schools were seen during 
this fUght. 

A total of 24 anchovy schools was present in 
Los Angeles Harbor and as has been the case all 
year, anchovies were plentiful close to shore be- 
tween Seal Beach and Newport Beach. Four sar- 
dine schools were seen two miles off the Hunting- 
ton Beach pier. 

Twenty -eight large anchovy schools were found 
close to shore between San Diego and the interna- 
tional boundary. 

Several spots of red tide were noted in Los 
Angeles -Long Beach Harbor and three days after 
the survey an intense outbreak of red water occur- 
red along the beach at Long Beach and Belmont 
Shore. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheriet Review . July 1959, p. 25, and 
Aug. 1959, p.^F 

* * * * =1- 

TUNA TAGGED BETWEEN SOUTHERN MEXI - 
CO AND PERU (M/ V Constitution Cruise 59C1 - 
Tuna): A total of 1,569 tuna were tagged during a 
March 5-May 23, 1959, cruise to the Central and 
South American tuna fishing grounds by California 
Department of Fish and Game biologists aboard 
the commercial tuna clipper Constitution . The 
tagging operations were part of continuing popula- 
tion, growth, and migration studies. In addition, 
a comparison was made between the type G spa- 
ghetti tag and a new type dart tag (type FT-2) as 
to ease in tagging and eventual recovery efficiency. 
Incidental oceanographic observations were made 



Airplane Spotting Flight 59-H (June 2-4, 1959). 




M/V Constitution Tuna Tagging Cruise 59C1-Tuiia (Mar. 
5, 1959-May 23,1959). 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



25 



Table 1 - Number of Tuna Taesed by Type of Tag and Area of Release I 


Locality 


Type G Spaghetti Tag 

(Yellow) X-270-I 
Secured with a Knot 


Type FT-2 (Yellow) 
Dart Tag 


Yellowfln 
Tuna 


Skipjack 


Total 


Yellowfin 
Tuna 


Skipjack 


Total 


Tehuantepec . . . 
Central America 

Panama 

Ecuador 

Guayaquil Gulf . . 
Peru (north) .... 


11 

22 

11 

1 

3 

1 



4 
2 
2 
7 
695 


11 
26 
13 
3 
10 
696 


U 

24 

12 

2 

3 
5 



1 
1 
2 
7 
742 


11 
25 

13 

4 

10 

747 


Total 


49 


710 


759 


57 


753 


810 



and marine organisms were collected from 34 live- 
bait hauls. 

During the tagging operations, yellowfin tuna 
were measured to the nearest j centimeter, but 
skipjack were not measured. The dart tag was 
found to be much easier and faster to use than the 
type G tag. 

Sea surface temperatures were recorded at all 
fishing and baiting areas. There was no obvious 
relationship between surface temperatures at the 
fishing grounds and the catches of tuna (74.1° F.- 
86.5° F.). Surface temperatures at the badting 
areas ranged between 65.5° F. and 77.3° F. 




Canned Fish 

CONSUMER PURCHASES , MAY 1959 : 
Canne(d tuna purchases by household 
consumers in May 1959 were 919,000 
cases of which 42,000 cases were im- 
ported. By type of pack, domestic -pack- 
ed tuna purchases were 221,000 cases 
solid, 556,000 cases chunk, and 100,000 
cases grated or flakes. The average 




purchase was 1.9 cans at a time, .About 
30,0 percent of the households bought all 
types of canned tuna; only 1.7 percent 
bought the imported product. The aver- 
age retail price paid for a 7-oz. can of 
domestic solid or fancy was 34.2 cents 
and for a 6|-oz. can of chunk 28.0 cents. 
Imported solid or fancy was bought at 
30.3 cents a can. May purchases were 
higher than the 847,000 cases bought in 
April by 8.5 percent; retail prices in 
most cases were slightly lower. 



During May, household consumer pur- 
chases of California sardines were 43,000 
cases; and 32,000 cases imported sardines. 
The average purchase was 1.7 cans at a 
time for California sardines and 1.9 cans 
for imported. Only 1.6 percent of the 
households bought canned California sar- 
dines and 2.1 percent imported. The 
average retail price paid for a 1-lb. can 
of California sardines was 23.9 cents, and 
for a 4-oz. can of imported 26.0 cents. 
Retail prices were slightly higher for 
both California and imported canned sar- 
dines. Because of the liberal stocks of 
canned California sardines, there has 
been a steady i nc r e a s e in purchases 
since October 1958. 

Canned salmon purchases in May 1959 
were 223,000 standard cases, of which 
114,000 cases were pinks and 52,000 
cases reds. The average purchase was 
1.2 cans at a time. About 14.9 percent 
of the households bought all types of can- 
ned salmon; 7.2 percent bought pinks. 
The average retail price paid for a 1-lb. 
can of pink was 56.7 cents and for red 
86.5 cents. May purchases were down 
about 2.2 percent from the 228,000 cases 
bought in April. 




Cans— Shipments for Fishery Products, 
January-May 1959 

Total shipments of 
metal cans for fishery 
products during January - 
May 1959 amounted to 
43,034 short tons of steel 
(based on the amount of 
steel consumed in the 
manufacture of cans) as compared with 
37,809 tons in the same period a year 
ago. Canning of fishery products in Jan- 
uary-May this year was confined largely 
to tuna. Gulf oysters, and shrimp. Ship- 
ments of metal cans for fishery products 
were up by 24.3 percent from April to 
May this year and higher by 65.0 percent 
from May 1958 to this May. 

Note: Statistics cover all commercial and captive plants 
known to be producing metal cans. Reported in base 
boxes of steel consumed in the manufacture of cans, the 
data for fishery products axe converted to tons of steel by 
using the factor: 23.0 base boxes of steel equal one short 
ton of steel. 



26 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



Central Pacific Fisheries 

Investigations- 

ALBACORE TUNA MIGRATIONS IN 
NORTH PACIFIC STUDIED BY M/ V 
"HUGH M. SMITH " (C-52): Tracing the 
movements of albacore tuna in the North 
Pacific between Hawaii and southern 
California before the commercial fish- 
ing season started was the objective of 
the final cruise (April 28 -June 19, 1959) 
of the research vessel Hugh M . Smith of 
the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fish- 
eries. The California Department of 
Fish and Game research vessel N. B. 
Scofield also cooperated in the study. 



















58°F.,i 












J-^^K 


Ji9SM FRANCISCO 






62°F-^ 


2 ACN 


ss-f/^V 




65-F-, 


/. 


J 


*v 1 }san diego- 
62°fV «°F.^ ^ 


70°F-^ 


/ 






6SJ 


4--^ 








lAPRlL 28- «*« 27,19591 




"• D 


r 1 


I 


J" 




M/V Hugh M. Smith Cruise 52 (April 28-Juiie 19, 1959). 

In recent years it has been shown, 
through recovery of tagged fish, that 
the albacore migrate seasonally between 
Japanese and American waters. These 
commercially -important tuna leave A- 
merican waters in the fall and spend the 
winter in Japanese waters, returning to 
Southern California waters during the 
spring months. The location and time 
of entry of the albacore into California 
waters are being sought. 

The results of this joint cruise, with 
the N. B. Scofield indicate: (1) that there 
were no albacore in the primary portion 

_iyThese investigations prior to the August 1959 Commercial 
Investigations. 



of the survey area (east of 125° W.), and 
(2) that the spring migration of albacore 
into the west coast occurred to the north 
of this primary survey area, where the 
N. B. Scofield of California caught a num- 
ber of albacore on trolling gear. 

A total of 26 stations were fished from 
the Hugh M, Smith during the cruise (gill 
net 13, long-line 9, and scouting 4) and re- 
sulted in the capture of 17 tuna. Two al- 
bacore and 3 skipjack were captured by 
trolling (8 lines). All except 1 skipjack 
were tagged with dart tags and released 
in good condition. A total of 6 skipjack 
were netted in the 10 shackles of gill net 
fished at each station. Two big-eyed were 
captured on the 20-basket, 12-hook long- 
line gear especially adapted to fish at 
depths of 2, 4, 8, and 16 fathoms. Four 
bonito were captured in the gill net. In 
addition to tuna, 43 sharks were taken 
on the gill net and long-line gear. A 
school of tuna was sighted during the 
cruise but the species could not be iden- 
tified. 

Photometer stations (37) were occu- 
pied at noon of each day except during 
rough seas. Stations immediately follow- 
ing the gill -net sets were attempted, but 
were abandoned because of an insufficien- 
cy of sunlight. Secchi disc and Forel col- 
or measurements were made simultane- 
ously with photometer readings. Carbon- 
14 samples (43) were usually taken coin- 
cident with the noon photometer readings 
and 8 additional stations were placed in 
the cruise area where conditions changed 
abruptly.. Eighteen tows of C-14 samples 
were made for the University of Hawaii. 

Surface plankton hauls were made 
each night with a 1 -meter net except 
when the gill net (anchored to the vessel) 
was fished or seas were rough. Night- 
light stations of 1 -hour duration were 
made coincident with each gill -net set. 

Bathythermograph (BT) casts were 
made every 6 hours when running and 
on all stations. On station both 900 -ft. 
and 450-ft. or 200-ft. casts were made. 
Surface salinity samples were collected 
with each BT. Phosphate samples were 
collected and frozen on each station and 
every 90 miles along tracks between 
Oahu and 125° W. Eastward of this long- 
itude they were taken every 30 miles; 

Fisheries Review were listed under Pacific Oceanic Fisheries 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



27 



that is, coincident with each BT cast. 
The thermograph was operated continu- 
ously during the cruise. Four weather 
observations were made and transmitted 
each day. 

A number of the albacore caught dur- 
ing the cruises by the two vessels were 
tagged in the hope that their recovery 
would shed light on the development of 
concentrations in commercial quantities. 

The Hugh M. Smith has been based at 
and operated by the Bureau's Biological 
Laboratory at Honolulu. For this cruise 
the vessel left Honolulu on April 28, but 
instead of returning to its home port it 
docked at San Diego, Calif., since it has 
been transferred to the Bureau's Cali- 
fornia area office. The vessel will be 
leased to the Scripps Institution of Oce- 
anography, La Jolla, Calif., for oceano- 
graphic and marine biological research. 



BEHAVIOR STUDIES OF SKIPJACK 
TUNA TO BE MADE DURING HAWAI- 
IAN SUMMER FISHERY : 
1959 



During June 



biologists of the Honolulu Biolog- 
ical Laboratory of the U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries were busy pre- 
paring for the behavior studies to be 
conducted during the period of the Ha- 
waiian summer skipjack fishery. The 
program involves studies both from ves- 
sels at sea and of captive tuna held in 
tanks at the Honolulu Laboratory's dock- 
site facilities. 

The first behavior studies of skipjack 
in their natural environment and under 
actual fishing conditions were made from 
the M/V Charles H, Gilbert in 1956 by 
an observer equipped with an aqualung. 
In 1957, an overside "dry" chamber with 
observing ports was installed. Because 
of cavitation and resulting bubbles ob- 
scuring the underwater view from the 
ports of the "dry" chamber, a chamber 
was installed in the hull of the vessel. 
This installation, completed in late June, 
has been tested and found to be free from 
effects of cavitation. The chamber is 
sufficiently spacious for the observer to 
use various types of movie and still cam- 
eras for photographing the behavior of 
the fish during normal fishing operations 
and under experimental conditions. 



TAGGING RETURNS INDICATE SKIP - 
JACK TUNA MIGRATE INTO HAWAIIAN 
WATERS FROM THE WEST : Skipjack 
tuna tagged in Hawaiian waters by biolo- 
gists of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries Central Pacific Fisheries In- 
vestigation continued to be recovered 
during June. One skipjack, released near 
the Hawaiian island of Kauai in May 1958, 
was recovered to the southeast of the near- 
by island of Lanai. The second recovery 
was a skipjack released in March 1959 south 
of the island of Niihau and was recovered 
to the east near Penguin Banks. These 
two recoveries of fishtagged and released 
from the M/V Hugh M. Smith are among the 
few instances of skipjack that were tagged 
outside of the fishery and later moved in- 
to the fishery. These results tend to sup- 
port the evidence recently accumulated 
that the skipjack each spring move into 
the Hawaiian area from the west. 



ife 



Federal Purchases of Fishery Products 

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CAN- 
NED SALMON REQUIREMENTS FOR 
FISCAL YEARS 1960 AND 1961 : Antici- 
pated requirements of canned salmon by 
the Military Subsistence Market Centers 




of the U. S. Department of Defense for 
the use of the armed forces are as fol- 
lows: fiscal year 1960 (July-June), 
4,578,000 pounds; and fiscal year 1961, 
3,135,000 pounds. All purchases for both 
fiscal years will be made between July 
and December. 

Stocks of canned salmon on hand as 
of June 30, 1959, amounted to 1,338,000 
pounds and estimated stocks on hand as of 
June 30, 1960, will be about 1,942,000 
pounds. 

* * * =1- * 

DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PUR - 
CHASES , JANUARY - JUNE 1959 : Fresh 
and Frozen Fishery Products : For the 
use of the Armed Forces under the De- 



28 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



partment of Defense, 2.2 million pounds 
(value $1.2 million) of fresh and frozen 
fishery products were purchased in June 
1959 by the Military Subsistence Market 
Centers. This exceeded the quantity 
purchased in May by 10.8 percent, but 
was 3,2 percent under the amount pur- 
chased in June 1958. The value of the 
purchases in June 1959 was higher by 
13.0 percent as compared with May, but 
was down 10.4 percent from June 1958. 



Table 1 - Fresh and Frozen Fishery Products Purchased by 

Military Subsistence Market Centers, 

June 1959 with Comparisons 


QUANTITY 


VALUE 1 


June 


Jan. -June 


June 


Jan. -June 


1959 1 1958 


1959 1 1958 


1959 1 1958 


1959 1 1958 


. .( 1 00( 


) Lbs.) . . . . 


.... .($1,000> 1 


2,212 |2, 285 


11,346111,595 


1, 170 11,306 


5,987 16,6001 



Prices paid for fresh and frozen fish- 
ery products by the Department of De- 
fense in June 1959 averaged 52.9 cents 
a pound, 1.1 cents more than the 51.8 
cents paid in May, but 4.3 cents less 
than 57.2 cents paid during June 1959. 

Canned Fishery Products : Sardines 
were the principal canned fishery prod- 
uct purchased for the use of the Armed 
Forces during June. During Januarj^- 



Table 2 - Canned Fishery Products Purchased by Military 
Subsistence Market CenterSj^ June 1959 with Comparisons 


Product 


QUANTITY 


VALUE 1 


Tune 


Ian. -lune 


lune 


ian. -June 


1959 11958 


1959 1 1958 


1959tl958 


195911958 


Tuna 

Salmon 

Sardine 


. . . M . OOf 


Lbs.) . . . - 




J$1,000V . . . 1 


5 
160 


513 

73 

9 


1,832 

12 

669 


1,783 

1,400 

42 


4 
28 


250 

44 
3 


868 

9 

100 


890 

768 

15 



June 1959 purchases of the three prin- 
cipal canned fishery products were low- 
er by 22.1 percent from the purchases 
made from January -June 1958. Pur- 
chases of canned tuna were up by 
2.7 percent and about 15.0 percent for 
sardines, but canned salmon purchases 
were down sharply from the same pe- 
riod in 1958. 

Note: Armed Forces installations generally make some 
local piu^chases not included in the data given, actual 
total purchases are higher than indicated, because it is 
not possible to obtain local purchases. 



Fisheries Loan Fund 

LOANS APPROVED THROUGH 

JUNE 30, 1959 : As of June 30, 1959, a 
total of 587 applications for fisheries 
loans totaling $18,902,173 had been re- 
ceived. Of these, 317 ($7,713,233) have 
been approved, 213 ($5,780,484) have 
been declined or found ineligible, 42 
($1,678,906) have been withdrawn, and 
26 ($3,101,534) are pending. Several of 
the pending cases have been deferred in- 
definitely at the request of the applicants. 
Sufficient funds are available to process 
new applications when received. 

The following loans have been approved i 
between April 1 and June 30, 1959. 

New England Area: Alexis Fagonde, 
Jr., Beats, Me., $3,000; Murray Pinkham, 
Boothbay Harbor, Me., $4,000; Freder- 
ick P. Elwell, St. George, Me., $2,000; 
Elizabeth N. Corporation, Fairhaven, 
Mass., $36,830; Tripolina Bramamte, 
Medford, Mass., $35,000; C & F Fishing 
Corporation, New Bedford, Mass., 
$46,000; George P. Berry, Port Norris, 
N. J. $15,000. 

South Atlantic and Gulf Area : Milton A. 
Danberg, Key West, Fla., $10,000; Sid- 
ney J. Clopton, Pensacola, Fla., $14,800; 
W. D. Coons & A. E. Moorer, Mt. Pleas- 
ant, S. C, $17,000. 

California : Wm. Howard Day, San 
Diego, $19,950; Wm. G. Huston, San Die- 
go, $7,000; Salvatore Tarantino, San 
Francisco, $2,500. 

Pacific Northwest Area: Kenneth E. 
Staffenson, Agate Beach, Oreg., $3,500; 
Clayton C. Howe, Anacortes, Wash., 
$2,000; Ernest R. Soeneke, Neah Bay, 
Wash., $20,000; Alex C. Prankard, 
Olympia, Wash., $6,232; Axel & Perry 
Buholm, Seattle, Wash., $14,000; EarlE. 
McCarthy, Seattle, Wash., $29,600; 
Ora L. Olson, Snohomish, Wash., $29,524. 

Alaska : Douglas R. Freed, Elfin Cove, 
$2,500; Edward K. Haffner, Juneau, 
$5,600; Sig Dale, Ketchikan, $3,305; 
Victor Edenso, Ketchikan, $6,000; Arne 
Iverson, Ketchikan, $10,500. 

Hawaii : Sea Queen Fishing Co., 
Honolulu, $20,000. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



29 



Fishing Vessel and Gear 

1/ 
Developments 

EQUIPMENT NOTE NO. 1-- NEW 
ALL - ALUMINUM " gALMON GILL - NET 
BOATS BUILT FOR ALASKA FISHERY : 
Ten all-aluminum gill-net vessels for 
use in the salmon gill-net fishery of 
Cook Inlet, Alaska, have been designed 
and constructed recently by a Seattle, 
Wash., company. The vessels measure 
32 feet in over -all length, 11 feet 6 inch- 
es in beam, and have a 31 -inch draft. 
They have a displacement of approxi- 
mately 9,200 pounds and a fish-hold ca- 
pacity of approximately 27,000 pounds. 



a throttle and hydraulic clutch control, 
one at the pilothouse and one in the fish- 
ing cockpit. The pilothouse control is 
arranged so that it may be operated from 
inside the house or from the main deck 
immediately abaft the house. 

The galvanized steel fuel tank of 140- 
gallon capacity is installed under the fish- 
ing cockpit, and a 15-gallon fresh-water 
tank and an 8 -gallon aluminum stove -oil 
tank are mounted in the house top. All 
piping consists of nylon tubing. 

The forecastle contains 2 bunks, an 
oil stove for cooking, and a stainless 
steel sink measuring 10 by 12 inches. 




Fig. 1 - Two of the ten all-aluminum gill -net boats recently designed and constructed for the Cook Inlet salmon fishery. 



The hull is an all -welded structure of 
i5-inch aluminum plate with longitudinal 
framing. Use of outside framing on the 
bottom facilitates efficient unloading and 
cleaning of the fish hold. Integral alumi- 
num buoyancy tanks, capable of keeping 
the vessel afloat when swamped, are built 
into the bow and stern sections. The 
house is of combination welded and rivet- 
ed -^- and j|-inch plate. This weather- 
tight construction eliminates the leakage 
problem com.mon to wooden houses. 



Each vessel is powered with a 165 
horsepower gasoline engine used with a 
2:1 hydraulic reduction gear to provide 
a speed of 15 knots--an increase of 7 or 
8 knots over the speed of most conven- 
tional gill -net boats. Two engine control 
sta.tions are provided, each consist ing of 



The increased spaciousness of this area 
affords much better accommodations than 
has been customary on conventional boats 
in the gill-net fishery. 

The 10 vessels are equipped with gill- 
net reels measuring 5 feet in diameter 
and can be adapted readily for methods 
of gill-net hauling involving the following 
equipment: hydraulically -driven stern 
rollers; hydraulically -driven gill-net 
reels; or davit mounted, hydraulically - 
driven, Puretic power blocks. 



Use of lightweight aluminum for small - 
boa-^ construction has many advantages. 
It tends toward low maintenance costs be- 
cause the cabin and hull require no paint 
or caulking and because corrosion and 
^ dry rot are not problems. In addition, 

lyThis article is the first of a series concerned with new developments or improvements in gear, vessels, and related sub- 



jects that will be published under the heading "Fishing Gear and Equipment Developments. 



30 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



aluminum construction permits greater 
freeboard, 50 percent greater fish ca- 
pacity, and higher speeds than conven- 
tional designs of the same size. Bacte- 
ria and odors cannot penetrate the hold, 
and consequently better quality fish are 
assured. 

Construction of the all -aluminum gill - 
net boats follows the successful employ- 
ment of aluminum purse -seine boats in 
the Atlantic Coast menhaden fishery. 

— By Fred Wathne, Fishery Methods G Equipment Specialist 
Branch of Exploratory Fishing G Gear Research 
Division of Industrial Research & Services 
Seattle, Wash. 



Frozen Food 

PROPOSED HANDLING CODE : At 
the annual meeting of the Association of 
Food and Drug Officials of the United 
States (AFDOUS), held in Boston, Mass., 
a proposed handling code for the Frozen 
Food Industry was presented. The code 
involves (1) Retail Refrigeration Equip- 
ment and (2) Refrigeration Equipment 
for Freezing, Storage and Transporta- 
tion of Frozen Foods. Each of these 
sections of the over-all code, as read 
at the meeting, calls for frozen foods to 
be maintained at 0° F. or lower at all 
times. The responsibility for compli- 
ance would rest with the processor of 
the product. Receivers at warehouses, 
for transportation firms, and for retail 
establishments would not be permitted 
to accept shipments if the internal tem- 
perature exceeded 0° F. U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries and industry ad- 
visors serving on the subcommittees 
which wrote the code realize that present 
refrigeration equipment, especially in 
the retail and transportation industries, 
cannot immediately meet the Qo F. re- 
quirement. Therefore, an administrative 
tolerance was established in the tempera- 
ture requirements and also in the time 
needed to fully comply with the code. 

The adoption of this Frozen Food 
Handling Code by AFDOUS, of course, 
does not automatically make it manda- 
tory. However, it is intended as a strong 
recommendation to state and municipal 
legislative bodies and regulatory agen- 



cies in writing their local laws. A prime 
purpose of AFDOUS is to foster uniform- 
ity in food and drug laws in the several 
states. It is predicted that quite a num- 
ber of states will very soon be consider- 
ing laws or administrative regulations 
based on the AFDOUS Code. 



Great Lakes 

PICKEREL FLUCTUATIONS BEING 
STUDIED : The serious problem of dras- 
tic fluctuations in the occurrence of pick- 
erel and other important Great Lakes fish 
is being studied by biologists of the U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries in coop- 
eration with the fish and wildlife agencies 
of the States bordering the Lakes. At the 
present time there is no evidence to sup- 
port the view that commercial fishermen 
have caused the decline of pickerel in 
Lake Erie. The studies thus far show 
that the important species of fish in Lake 
Erie, including the pickerel, fluctuate 
naturally because of uncertainties in the 
Lake itself. 

At times a complete loss of the re- 
production of the important species leaves 
a dearth of the fish in the Lake for a pe- 
riod of years. Sometimes these same 
conditions which cause drastic declines 
in the abundance of one species act favor- 
ably upon the reproductive processes of 
other species and the result is that there 
is a natural waxing and waning of many 
of the fish populations in Lake Erie. 
Studies on Lake Erie over the past 50 
years have shown substantially the same 
picture. These fluctuations in abundance 
appear to be caused by the shallow nature 
of Lake Erie and its position with respect 
to the prevailing winds which affect the 
temperature and lake stratification in 
both summer and winter. 

Even though there is no evidence that 
the commercial fisheries of Canada or 
of the United States have affected these 
valuable sport fisheries, the Internation- 
al Great Lakes Fishery Commission is 
now studying this problem. 

Jfi sic >j< 5jc i[c 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



31 



SEA LAMPREY CONTROL STUD - 
IES : To save lake trout and other fish 
from the predatory sea lamprey and, 
therefore, preserve the livelihood of 
many fishermen, the U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries, the Great Lakes 
States, and Canada conduct research 
and test control measures against sea 
lampreys. Success in developing and 
testing selective toxicants that destroy 
lamprey larvae without significantly 
harming fish and other aquatic organ- 
isms made possible full-scale chemical 
control operations in streams tributary 
to the south shore of Lake Superior 
throughout fiscal 1959. By the end of 
the year the toxicant had been success- 
fully applied to half of the United States 
tributaries that will require treatment. 

Electrical barriers are still operated 
on Lake Superior to prevent lamprey re- 
infestation of treated tributaries and to 
provide a measure of results from chem- 
ical control. The lamprey research and 
control program is carried out under 
contract with the Great Lakes Fisheries 
Commission, established by treaty with 
Canda in 1956. 




Great Lakes Fisheries Exploration 

and Gear Research 

EXPLORATORY FISHING IN LAKE 
ERIE CONTINUED (M/V Active Cruise 
27! To obtain information on the sea- 
sonal distribution and commercial avail- 
ability of smelt and other fish stocks in 
west central Lake Erie between Sandus- 
ky and Cleveland, Ohio, surface-scout- 
ing and echo-sounding operations were 
conducted on a 15-day (June 2-24) ex- 
ploratory cruise by the U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries chartered vessel 
Active . 

Forty -five tows were completed, 
using a standard 50-foot two-seam bal- 
loon trash-fish trawl, with a 1^-inch 
mesh bag. Gear damage to trawls was 
light. Due to the absence of surface 
schools of fish, no seine fishing was 
tried. 

Commercial concentrations of smelt 
were found over the area from Huron to 



Cleveland, at depths greater than 7 fath- 
oms. The best catches were made north- 
east of Lorain, where up to 500 pounds of 
smelt, 12 to 18 to the pound, were taken 
per half-hour tow. Trawl tows near 
Cleveland produced mixed catches up to 
100 pounds of yellow perch, sheepshead, 
white bass, and smaller smelt, averaging 
35 to 40 to the pound. 



ONTARIO 



Legend : 
▲ - Trawl atations. 




OH 10 



82°00* 

I 



M/V Active Cruise 2 (June 2-24, 1959). 

With few exceptions, at depths beyond 
10 fathoms, smelt were found at mid- 
water levels above the reach of bottom - 
trawl gear. With the approach of season- 
al stratification of the lake, smelt have, 
in the past, tended to remain within the 
thermocline or in areas where bottom 
temperatures are considerably below 
surface temperatures. Surface temper- 
atures ranged from 66 F. to 75 F. 
Bottom temperatures ranged from 60 F. 
at 5 fathoms to 44° F. at 13 fathoms. 

The cruise was interrupted June 8 to 
12 to demonstrate trawling operations 
to interested commercial fishermen at 
Sandusky, Huron, Vermilion, and Lorain, 
Ohio. 

The M/V Active was scheduled to 
leave Sandusky, Ohio, about July 6, on 
a third 15 -day exploratory fishing and 
gear research cruise. The area of op- 
erations was to be Cleveland to Con- 
neaut, Ohio. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review , June 1959, 
p. 36. 



32 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



Great Lakes Fishery Investigations 

SURVEY OF SOUTHEASTERN LAKE SUPERIOR 
BY M/V " CISCO ": Studies on the life history of 
fish In southeastern Lake Superior were begun by 
the U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries research 
vessel Cisco . The primary objectives of the work 
by the Cisco during 1959 will be to determine the 
abundance, composition, and distribution of the fish 
stocks, with emphasis on lake trout and chubs. 
Much of the life -history and population studies of 
lake trout in 1953 by the Cisco will be repeated 
this year to determine what changes have taken 
place during the past 6 years of severe sea-lam- 
prey Infestation. 

Cruise 1 (May 19-June 2, 1959): The first cruise 
of the 1959 season covered the southeastern area of 
Lake Superior from Marquette to Whiteflsh Bay. A 
major portion of the cruise was spent fishing gill 
nets. Some trawling and hydrographic work was 
done. 

The gill nets used this year are made to fit, as 
closely as possible, the standards established for 
this type of gear by the several agencies Investi- 
gating the fisheries of the Great Lakes. Ordinar- 
ily, the gangs which the Cisco will set Include a 
"standard gang," also used by the research vessel 
Slscowet In the western end of Lake Superior, plus 
some additional mesh. A standard gang will be as 
follows: 150 feet each of 1 j- and li-lnch mesh; 
200 feet of 2-lnch mesh; and 300 feet each of 2t-. 
2i-, 3-, 3i-, 4-, 4i-, 5, 5i-, and 6-inch mesh. The 
length of each mesh may be varied, however, to 
assure a representative catch of fish vulnerable to 
each mesh size. 

Standard gangs were set at 2i and 36 fathoms 
in Munising Bay, at 25, 50, 75, and 100 fathoms off 
Grand Marals, and at 13, 25, 50, and 70 fathoms in 
Whiteflsh Bay. A smaller gang (100 feet each of 
2- and 2i-lnch mesh and 300 feet of 3i-lnch mesh) 
was also set at 36 fathoms In Munising Bay. The 
greatest numbers of chubs ( Leuctchthys sp.) were 




taken at 50 and 75 fathoms off Grand Marals and at 
50 fathoms in Whiteflsh Bay. L. relghardl , which 
was near the end of its spawning season, predonai- 
nated off Grand Marals (of 152 chubs caught at 75 
fathoms, 95 were L. relghardl ) and together with 
L. hoyi made up the bulk of the chub catches in 
most other sets. Other chubs Included L. klyi (44 
off Grand Marals at 75 fathoms, a few elsewhere) 
and L. zenithicus (very few). 

Lake herring were fairly numerous in the 13- 
fathom set in Whiteflsh Bay, but only a few were 
taken in other sets. A total of 17 lake trout was 
caught in the gill nets- -all but one in 50-fathom 
nets. They ranged In length from 11.5 to 21.8 inch- 
es. One of the trout carried a tag indicating It was 
a hatchery fish. Whiteflsh were taken only in Muni- 



sing Bay, 73 in the 36-fathom sets and 1 In the 2\- 
fathom nets. Twenty menomlnee (round) whiteflsh 
were caught In the 13-fathom set in Whiteflsh Bay 
and in the 2i-fathom gang in Munising Bay, bittthey 
were scarce or lacking In other sets. Other spe- 
cies taken in the gill nets were burbot (a few at all 
depths), longnose suckers (47 in the 2i-fathom set 
In Mimlsing Bay, 2 in the 13-fathom gang in White- 
fish Bay), white suckers (25 at 2i fathoms in Mun- 
ising Bay), smelt (27 at 25 fathoms in Whiteflsh 
Bay, uncommon elsewhere), alewlves (2 In the 50- 
fathom set in Whiteflsh Bay) , and lake northern 
chubs (15 at 2j fathoms in Munising Bay). 



Whitefidi 
( Coreqonus clupeaformis ) 




Trawls were towed at several depths ranging 
from 8 to 36 fathoms off Laughing Fish Point, in 
Munising Bay, and off Grand Marals. Most catch- 
es were extremely light and nothing was taken In 
some tows. Species represented were nlnesplne 
sticklebacks, trout-perch, smelt (mostly yearlings), 
slimy sculpins, deep-water sculpins, L. kiyl. and 
whiteflsh (the latter two species taken at 25 to 34 
fathoms in Munising Bay). 

Hydrographic information (water samples for 
oxygen, pH, alkalinity, and other chemical determ- 
inations, bottom and plankton samples, Secchi-dlsc 
readings, bathythermograph tracings) was collect- 
ed at 45 fathoms off Grand Marals and 70 fathoms 
in Whiteflsh Bay. Similar data were collected from 
the former area In 1953 by the Cisco . 

Lake Superior water was very cold during this 
cruise, averaging about 2° C. (35.6° F.) away from 
shore. Extremes recorded were 1.5° C. (34.7° F.) 
and 9.2° C. (48.6° F.). The water was generally 
homothermous vertically, but at some stations 
slight warming in the upper levels was apparent. 
On a few occasions bathythermograph tracings 
showed colder water In the upper strata than below. 

Cruise 2 (June 9-23): During this cruise, the 
Cisco operated In that portion of southeastern Lake 
Superior between Munising and Keweenaw Bay, 
Mich. 

Standard gangs of gill nets were set at 15 fath- 
oms in Shelter Bay, and at 25, 38, 50 (2 gangs), 75, 
and 100 fathoms off Marquette, and at 25, 38, 50, 
and 80 fathoms In Keweenaw Bay. The 15-fathom 
net In Shelter Bay yielded only 4 fish, all lake her- 
ring. Chub catches off Marquette were light at 25 
fathoms (only 2) and 100 fathoms (43), and moderate 
at 38 fathoms (116), 50 fathoms (average of 105 per 
gang), and 75 fathoms (212). Leucichthys relghardl 
made up 84 percent of the catch at 38 fathoms and 
constituted the bulk of the catch together with L. 
hoyi at 50 fathoms and L. klyi at 75 and 100 fathoms. 
A few each L. zenithicus , L. nigri pinnis , and lake her- 
ring were also taken. Most L. relghardl has spawn- 
ed, but a few ripe and gravi3~ones remained. Four 
lELke trout were caught at 25 fathoms, 6 at 38 fath- 
oms, 7 to 50 fathoms (both gangs), and 4 at 75 fath- 
oms. The latter 4 were slscowets, 5 to 7 pounds 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



33 



each. All lake trout in good condition were mark- 
ed with spaghetti tags and released. Of special 
interest was a brook trout taken in the lOO-fathom 
nets. Other species caught in the gill nets off Mar- 
quette were burbot (all depths--the smaller ones in 
deeper water) and deep-water sculpins (75 and 100 
fathoms only). 

Chub catches in Keweenaw Bay were light at 25 
and 80 fathoms (64 and 47 respectively), and mod- 
erate at 38 and 50 fathoms (236 and 164 respective- 
ly). L. hoyi was the most common species at 38 
and 50 fathoms, especially at the former depth 
where it made up 81 percent of the catch. L. zen - 
tthicus was the most numerous of the chubs at 25 
fathoms and L. reighardi at 80 fathoms. L. reigh- 
ardi appeared at ail depths in fair numbers. Lake 
herring were taken at all depths except 50 fathoms, 
but were not numerous except at 25 fathoms. L. 
kiyi was absent at 38 fathoms and scarce at all oth- 
er depths. Other species were lake trout (1 at 25 
fathoms, 2 at 38 fathoms, one of the latter a fin- 
clipped hatchery trout), smelt (a few in the small 
mesh at 25 fathoms), burbot (1 at 50 fathoms), 
pygmy whltefish (2 at 38 fathoms) and sauger (a 
li-pound specimen at 38 fathonns, a rather unusual 
catch). 

Trawls were towed at several depths from 14 
to 35 fathoms in Shelter Bay, 8 to 20 fathoms near 
Traverse Island in Keweenaw Bay, and 24 to 46 
fathoms near Pequaming Point in Keweenaw Bay. 
The trawling in Shelter Bay yielded a few slimy 
sculpins, ninespine sticklebacks, small smelt, 
small coregonids, trout-perch (rare), and pygmy 
whitefish (17 fathoms and deeper). No baby lake 
trout were caught, although they were fairly num- 
erous in the area at this time of year in 1953. No 
lake trout were taken off Traverse Island either, 
but this area was somewhat more productive than 
Shelter Bay in other species. Slimy sculpins were 
numerous and ninespine sticklebacks fairly com- 
mon from 8 to 15 fathoms, and 2- to 4-inch smelt 
(probably yearlings) were abundant from 8 to 12 
fathoms. Pygmy whitefish were taken at 15 fath- 
oms (8) and 20 fathoms (5). Other species were 
menominee whitefish (a 4i-inch one at 8 fathoms), 
2- to 3-inch coregonids (mostly at 15 fathoms), 
and trout perch (rare 15-20 fathoms). 

In the tows off Pequaming Point catches were 
by far the largest. A total of 19 lake trout were 
caught, of which 15 (about 8 inches in length) were 
recently stocked in Keweenaw Bay. The others 
were natural stock. Twelve of the trout were 
caught in a single 10-minute tow from 40 to 28 
fathoms. On the basis of the rather scanty evi- 
dence at hand, the natural stock of small lake trout 
in Keweenaw Bay seems appreciably smaller than 
at this time in 1953. The trawls in the Pequaming 
Point area brought up large numbers of L. hoyi 
(635 in a 10-minute tow at 35 fathoms). Nearly 
4,000 small (3- to 4-tnch) unidentified coregonids, 
probably mostly hoyi. were caught in a tow at 25 
fathoms. The other species of chubs were present 
in much smaller numbers. As many as 148 pygmy 
whitefish were caught per tow. Adult smelt were 
common at 25 fathoms, and some were caught as 
deep as 40 fathoms. Ninespine sticklebacks and 
slimy sculpins were common at all depths. Trout- 
perch were rare. A few deep-water sculpins were 
caught at depths greater than 40 fathoms. 



Hydrographic data and samples were collected 
in Shelter Bay (15 fathoms), off Big Bay Point (45 
fathoms), and in Keweenaw Bay (30 fathoms). The 
station off Big Bay Point was visited regularly in 
1953. Drift bottles were released at 5 locations 
between Big Bay Point and Keweenaw Bay. 

Surface-water temperature had risen consider- 
ably since Cruise 1, and thermal stratification was 
evident in all but the deepest areas visited. The 
surface temperature range was 2.9° C. to 14.1° C. 
(37.2° F. to 57.3° F.). 
Note: AUo see Commercial Fisheries Review. July 1959, p. 31. 



* >^ * * =1= * 

WESTERN LAKE ERIE BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 
CONTINUED (M/V " GeoFge L." Cruises 3 and 4): 
Cruise 3 TWav 1959): The first of three "Index" 
cruises slated for 1959 was completed by the U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries research vessel 
George L. Seven stations in the western end of 
Lake Erie were visited, and fish were collected by 
trawl, gill net, and small tow nets. Perch and spot- 
tail shiners were the most common fish taken in 
the trawls. Other less abundant species were smelt, 
sheepshead, and emerald shiner. Yellow perch and 
sheepshead were the most common species taken in 
the gill nets. Small gizzard shad and alewives, a- 
bundant in trawl catches late in 1958, have not been 
taken by trawl or gill net this year. Only one yel- 
low pike (walleye) was taken during the cruise. 

Tow nets, used to capture fish fry, caught most- 
ly yellow perch and smelt. Yellow perch fry were 
found in all areas of western Lake Erie but were 
taken in greatest numbers in Sandusky Bay and 
near Middle Bass Island. Smelt were also found 
at nearly all stations. Yellow perch and smelt 
fry were usually found near the bottom and at mid- 
water in the open lake. A few yellow pike fry were 
taken in Sandusky Bay. 





^.dH 


SH^—jtUff 


^ 




^^^^^m 




•-^.-:3,^ 


-^ - Yellow Pike - _ ~ ^ 
tizostedion vitremn vitxeum) 



In late May, Bureau biologists cooperated with 
the Ohio Division of Wildlife in conducting a study 
of the behavior of movement of stocked yellow pike 
fry in the open waters of Lake Erie. Previous to 
the stocking east of Middle Bass Island, tow nets 
were used to determine the abundance and species 
composition of fry already present in the area to 
be stocked. Yellow perch sac fry were found to be 
abundant. No yellow pike fry were taken. Two and 
one-half million yellow pike sac fry were then stock- 
ed in a 1-acre area, marked with buoys, over a 
mud bottom in 22 feet of water. Tows at all depths 
in the marked area and surrounding waters short- 
ly after stocking caught yellow pike fry, but the 
total catch of all fry increased by only 28 percent. 
A large percentage of the fry tEiken was near the 
bottom. Three hours after stocking few yellow pike 



34 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



fry were captured although perch fry were still tak- 
en in large numbers. Tows in the area one week 
later caught no yellow pike, but perch fry were still 
present. 

Limnological and meteorological data collected 
at each index station included bottom organisms, 
plankton, water temperatures, turbidity, water qual- 
ity, oxygen, weather and sea conditions, water cur- 
rents. . .. Water temperatures were much higher 
in 1959 than during the same period in 1958. In 
late May of 1958 and 1959 surface water tempera- 
tures in the western basin averaged about 62° F. 
and 70° F., respectively. 

Diatoms were common in Lake Erie water in 
early May but were much less abundant in late May 
when Entomostracans, principally Daphnia, Lepto- 
dora, and Diaptomus, became concentrated at mid- 
water and bottom depths. 

Cruise 4 (June 1959): Much of the month was 
spent locatTng young fish and measuring their rela- 
tive abundance in the western basin and Sandusky 
Bay. Eighty 10-minute trawl hauls were made by 
the George L. and Madtom in the Sandusky Bay, 
Bass Islands, and Port Clinton areas between 
June 15 and July 1. 

Young yellow perch appeared in large numbers 
in almost all waters west of Huron, Ohio, but were 
most abundant in Sandusky Bay. Young perch were 
about 1 inch long by mid- June and about 1.5 inches 
long by the end of the month. 




Young smelt were common in all catches but 
appeared to be most abundant in water over 20 
feet deep. Young white bass and gizzard shad were 
caught in fairly large numbers by the end of the 
month in Sandusky Bay but only a few had been taken 
from the lake proper. Young spot-tail shiners and 
trout-perch were found at almost all stations- - 
young sheepshead were taken in Sandusky Bay only. 
The first hatches of emerald shiners were observed 
during the last week of June. 

Catches of young yellow pike were made in San- 
dusky Bay, in the immediately adjacent lake area, 
and in the bay between Catawaba Point and Port 
Clinton. Their lengths ranged about mean of 2 j to 
3 inches. In the main lake most young yellow pike 
were taken over both mud and sandy bottoms in 
water between 10 and 20 feet deep. Only one young 
yellow pike was taken in the Island area. 

The food habits of some of the fish were ob- 
served during the period. Yearling white bass 
4-6 inches in length fed almost entirely upon young 
perch. Young spot-tail shiners, white bass, smelt, 
and walleye, and adult spot-tail and emerald shin- 
ers were also found in white bass stomachs. 

Food of the baby yellow pike consisted almost 
entirely of young fish about 1-inch long, most of 
which appeared to be young yellow perch. Large 



sheepshead, yellow perch, and channel catfish oc- 
casionally gorged on young fish, although the bulk 
of their food consisted of non-fish items. 

Note: Also see Commercial FiAeries Review . July li)59, 



p. 32. 



sjc 3[c :^ >Ic 5!c 



WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR FISHERY SURVEY 
CONTINUED (M/ V Siscowet Cruise 2); Environ- 
mental conditions were studied at three index sta- 
tions, two of which were established by the U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries research vessel 
Siscowet during the 1958 season. These index sta- 
tions are located (1) southeast of Stockton Island, 
(2) northeast of Bear Island, and (3) east of Pike's 
Bay. The station east of Pike's Bay replaces a 
previous station located north of Little Girl's 
Point, Mich. 

At each index station standard gill-net gangs 
(l"to 5" by j" intervals) were fished. From one 
to three trawl tows were made at each station with 
a 30-foot semi-balloon trawl. Water temperatures, 
water samples for chemical analyses (dissolved 
oxygen, total alkalinity,. . .), plankton and bottom 
samples, Secchi-disc readings, and observations 
of currents were also recorded. 

In addition, various types of experimental gear 
were fished northwest of Michigan Island, east of 
Oak Island, west of Bear Island, and east of Rasp- 
berry Island. The gear consisted of small-mesh 
trawls and gill nets, j-meter plankton nets (32 grit 
cloth), g- and j-inch mesh minnow traps, and stand- 
ard 300-hook bait lines. 

Gill-net catches southeast of Stockton Island (25 
fathoms) took small numbers of lake trout, white- 
fish, menominee whitefish, longnose suckers, and 
burbot. Trout-perch dominated the catch from 
three trawl tows. Other species taken in the trawl 




Trout-Perch ^nSS^' 

f Percopsis omiscumaycas ) - ' 



were chubs ( Leucichthys hoyi) , pygmy whitefish, 
smelt, ninespine stickleback, slimy muddler, lake 
herring, and lake trout. A 12-inch diameter plank- 
ton net (No. mesh) attached to the trawl took one 
fish larva, tentatively identified as smelt. 

Gill nets set northeast of Bear Island (38 fath- 
oms) took 558 L. hoyi with lesser numbers of L. 
zenithicus , L. kiyi, lake herring, and lake trout. 
One adult alewife, the first encountered by the Sis - 
cowet in Lake Superior, was also taken in this set. 




Ninespine Stickleback 
( Pimgitius pimgitius ) 



L. hoyi dominated the catch from two trawl tows. 
Other species taken were L. zenithicus , smelt, 
ninespine stickleback, slimy muddler, spoonhead 
muddler, and herring. The 12 -inch diameter plank- 
ton net took one unidentified fish larva. 

The gill nets east of Pike's Bay (22 fathoms) 
took 408 smelt, 106 L. hoyi, and 22 lake trout. 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



35 



Lesser numbers of longnose suckers, lake herring, 
and trout-perch were also captured. One trawl tow 
captured 276 smelt, 59 L. hoyi, 7 lake trout, and 1 
whitefish. Large numbers of trout-perch and a few 
slimy muddlers and ninespine sticklebacks were 
also taken. 

One 300-hook line baited with small chubs (L. 
hoyi) was set between Madeline and Stockton Islands 
The line was lifted 3 days later, and the catch con- 
sisted of 3 burbot and one small lake trout. 

Six wire minnow traps were set southeast of 
Stockton Island and northwest of Michigan Island. 
At each location a trap was set at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 
and 30 fathoms. Some of the traps were baited with 
bread, crackers, and cheese. Others were unbait- 
ed. A very few slimy muddlers and sticklebacks 
were the only species taken at both the Stockton and 
Michigan Island sets. 



^ 


<5^ 




^^^2 


^w 


(CottiU coq&otus) 




@^<^^ 



A set of three gill nets (1-, Ij-, and 2 -inch mesh) 
east of Oak Island (15-27 fathoms) took mostly smelt 
and L. hoyi. Lesser catches of L. zenithicus , lake 
herring, and lake trout were taken. 

Trawl tows east of Raspberry Island were made 
at 5 fathoms and 16 fathoms. The tow at 5 fathoms 
took 900 ninespine sticklebacks with lesser catches 
of slimy muddlers, smelt, menominee whitefish, and 
lake herring. The tow at 16 fathoms took 15 smelt 
with lesser catches of trout-perch, sticklebacks, 
slimy muddlers, and lake herring. 

Trawl tows west of Bear Island were made at 6 
fathoms and 13 fathoms over a sandy bottom. The 
catch at 6 fathoms was dominated by ninespine stick- 
lebacks. A few small smelt, and slimy muddlers 
were also taken. At 13 fathoms the slimy muddlers 
dominated the catch. Several fish larvae and 4 
yearling lake herring were taken at this depth. 

Surface temperatures varied from 40.2° F. north- 
east of Bear Island to 56.7° F. west of Bear Island. 
Bottom temperatures varied from 40.5° F. south- 
east of Stockton Island (40 fathoms) to 42.8° F. at 
Pike's Bay (20 fathoms). Slight thermal stratifica- 
tion appeared east of Pike 's Bay. 

Note: Also see Commercial Fidieries Review. July 1959, p. 32. 




Gulf Exploratory Fishery Program 

UNDERWATER OBSERVATION OF 
SHRIMP TRAWL (M/ V Charles M. Bow - 
ers Cruise 20): Underwater observations 
of the operation of a 40 -foot flat shrimp 
trawl were made by the U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries exploratory fish- 
ing vessel George M . Bowers June 2-23. 
The work was carried out in the vicinity 



of Eleuthera Island, Bahama Islands, an 
area characterized by clear water con- 
ditions and smooth white sand bottom, at 
depths of 30 and 40 feet. 

The observations were made from a 
diving sled manned by two SCUBA divers 
while being towed by the vessel. Motion 
pictures of the trawl and trawl boards 
were obtained with underwater cameras 
mounted on the sled. 




U. S. Bureau of Conunercial Fisheries exploratory fishing 
vessel George M . Bowers . 

This is the first of a scheduled series 
of cruises to obtain photographic records 
of the performance of the various designs 
of trawling gear used in the United States' 
shrimp fishery. 



Gulf of Mexico 



INDUSTRIAL FISHERY STUDIES: The 



heaviest industrial fishing in the Gulf of 
Mexico occurs in Mississippi Sound and 
off the Mississippi River Delta in waters 
less than 20 fathoms deep. This was re- 
vealed by studies conducted by the U. S. 
Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Galves- 
ton, Tex., Biological Laboratory. The 
fish caught by the Gulf industrial fishery 
are used for pet food, fish meal for hog 
and poultry feed, frozen mink food, and 
fish oils. There are 104 species, com- 
prising 55 families, represented in the 



36 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



catches. Croakers, spots, white trout, 
and porgies account for about 75 percent 
of the catch. 



Iowa 

REGULATIONS ON COMMERCIAL 



FISHING ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 



ENFORCED: Since June 15, Iowa con- 
servation officers have been making a 
concentrated check of commercial fishing 
equipment on the Mississippi River along 
the southern half of the State . So far they 
have confiscated more than 200 pieces of 
illegal gear (including 200 baskets, 107 
hoop nets, 7 trammel nets, and one gill 
net) valued at $4,000-$5,000. If not 
claimed, the gear will be disposed of 
by the State Conservation Commission. 

The new regulations which went into 
effect July 4 are of importance to per- 
sons now engaged in commercial fishing. 
Owners of fishing equipment must have 
a $15 owner's certificate and anyone 
using such gear must have an operator's 
license costing one dollar, obtainable 
from the State Conservation Commission 
in Des Moines, A pole-and-line fisher- 
man can have one trot line and one fish 
trap without an operator's license, but 
must pay a dollar per trot line and trap. 
Copies of the revised laws are available 
from the Des Moines offices of the Iowa 
Conservation Commission and from con- 
servation officers of the counties border- 
ing the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. 



Maine Sardines 

CANNED STOCKS, JUNE 1^, 1959 : 
Distributors' stocks of Maine sardines 
totaled 197,000 actual cases on June 1, 
1959--down 40,000 cases or 17 percent 
from the 237,000 cases on hand June 1, 
1958. Stocks held by distributors on 
April 1, 1959, amounted to 254,000 cases, 
and on January 1, 1959, totaled 268,000 
cases, according to estimates made by 
the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

Canners' stocks on June 1, 1959, total- 
ed 272,000 cases (100 3|-oz.cans), anin- 



crease of 37,000 cases (16 percent) as 
compared with June 1, 1958, and a de- 
crease of 69.5 percent (619,000 cases) 
from the 891,000 cases on hand January 1, 
1959. 



Table 1 - Canned Maine Sardines — Wholesale Distributors' 
and Canners' Stocks, June 1, 1959, with Comparisonsi/ 


Type 


Unit 


1958/59 Season 1 


6/1/59 


4/1/59 


1/1/59 


11/1/58 


Distributors 


1,000 
Actual 
Cases 


197 


254 


268 


312 


Canneis 


1,000 

Standard 

Cases 


272 


474 


891 


1,037 


Type 


Unit 


1957/58 Season 1 


7/1/58 


6/1/58 


4/1/58 


1/1/58 


Distributors 


1,000 
Actual 
Cases 


237 


293 


230 


184 


Canners 


1,000 

Standard 

Cases 


235 


476 


1, 111 


386 


lyTable represents marketing season from November 1- 

OctoberSl. 
2/100 3f-oz. cans equal one standard case. 



The total supply at the canners' level 
(packing season beginning April 15, 1958, 
and ending December l,1958)as ofJunel, 
1959jamountedto 2,434,000 standard cases, 
about 4,3 percent less than the total sup- 
ply of 2,543,000 cases as of June 1, 1958, 
The carryover on April 15, 1959, was a- 
bout 420,000 cases. No appreciable quan- 
tity of sardines was canned April 15- 
June 1, 1959. 

The packing season opened on April 15, 
1959, but packing did not start until about 
June 1, The early catches were made up 
of fish too large for canning, 

* * * * * 

MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOLS ' WORK - 
SHOP MORNING SESSION DEVOTED TO 
MAINE SARDINES: Maine sardines play- 
ed a major role in the 25th Annual Work- 
shop of the State of Massa- 
chusetts educational sys- 
tem, held at Fitchburg in 
mid-July. One entire morn- 
ing program, attended by 
several hundred school- 
lunch supervisors and home economists, 
was devoted to canned Maine sardines. 

The showing of a film on the Maine 
sardine industry was followed by an hour- 
and-a-half demonstration on the uses and 
preparation of canned Maine sardines in 
school lunches. 




September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



37 



The Maine Sardine Council said that, 
'^his is the kickoff of a major effort to 
promote the use and sale of Maine sar- 
dines in the vast national school-lunch 
program." 

He said that Massachusetts alone 
served more than 45 million school 
lunches a year and participation in the 
Workshop came after the Council had 
held acceptability tests in a number of 
that State's schools. According to the 
Council, school authorities are looking 
for low-cost, nourishing fish products 
for school -lunch programs and it ap- 
pears that sardines have a great oppor- 
tunity to develop a major new market in 
this type of promotion. 



Maryland 

OYSTER SPAT COUNT ON TEST 
SHELLS , 1959 SEASON : Biologists of 
Maryland's Chesapeake Biological Lab- 
oratory are studying the number of oys- 
ter spat found on 20 clean faces of shells 
exposed in small wire bags for approxi- 
mately 1-2 week intervals to determine 
the intensity of the oyster set in Mary- 
land's waters. Most of the spat are of 
microscopic size since new shells are 
used for each exposure. 




Oyster spat (magnified many times) on small pebble. 

Water temperatures high enough to 
initiate spawning were reached in all 
collecting areas during late May and 
early June. A few spat appeared at some 
stations in early June. Mid -June was 



marked by a cool spell that dropped wa- 
ter tennperatures by as much as 10° F. 
During late June water temperatures rose 
into the eighties. An onset of fair setting 
occurred in St. Marys River, Holland 
Straits, and Smith Creek during the first 
week of July. The attachment of fouling 
organisms to the cultch was light up to 
the early part of July. 



North Atlantic Fisheries Exploration 
and Gear Research 

PROMISING CATCHES OF THE DEEP - 
WATER RED CRAB MADE BY'mTv"" '' 'DEL - 
AWARE'TCruise 59-7): Promising quan- 
tities of red crabs ( Geryon quinquedens ) 
were found between Cape Hatteras, N. C, 
and Cape May, N. J., in depths of 200-350 
fathoms during an exploratory fishing 
cruise by the U. S. Bureau of Commer- 
cial Fisheries vessel Delaware. 




Norfolk / ^. 

C.Chulei Cmyon t C' 

bcMESAPEAKE LV. JJ .■ 




irs 



HATTERAS LV. 



Trawl 
(tatloi 

- tOO-fatfaom curve. 

- l,00O-f«dM»ii curve. 



M/V Delaware Cruise 59-7 (June 25 -July 2, 1959). 

The crab exploration began at Norfolk 
on June 25 and ended July 2, when the 
Delaware reached Gloucester, Mass. 



38 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



In the course of the cruise, 30 ex- 
ploratory trawl stations were made to 
investigate the commercial potential of 
red crabs, the presence and abundance 
of which were reported by W. C. Schroe- 
der (1955) following explorations in 1952- 
53. The depths trawled ranged from 60- 
350 fathoms. Red crabs were caught at 
21 stations; the most productive stations 
were in depths of 200 fathoms or more. 
A total of 1,375 crabs were taken (the 
estimated weight was 2,073 pounds). 

The largest single catch of crabs was 
made east of Ocean City, Md. (see chart, 
station 25). The red crab catch at this 
station was 386 crabs in a 70-minute tow; 
the estimated weight of this catch was 558 
pounds. This was the only station from 
which crabs were taken in near commer- 
cial quantities. Further investigations 
may define areas of local concentration 
where commercial exploitation could be 
feasible. 

Several hundred red crabs were steam- 
cooked aboard the vessel so that the crew 
members could taste -test the meat. The 
consensus was that the meat was excel- 
lent. 

A total of 32 lobsters ( Homarus amer - 
icanus ) were taken from 11 stations in 
depths ranging from 60-275 fathoms. The 
largest single catch was 12 lobsters at 
station 23 (see chart). Whiting ( Merluc - 
cius bilinearis ) was found to occur at 
most of the stations in quantities ranging 
from 5-100 pounds per tow. No other 
commercially-valuable species of fish or 
shellfish were caught in appreciable quan- 
tities. 

A standard New England type No. 36 
net (60-foot headrope, 80-foot footrope) 
with chain -weighted footrope and 4 -inch 
liner was used. The net was rigged with 
10 -fathom ground cables. No gear loss 
or significant damage was experienced. 

In cooperation with Woods Hole Ocea- 
nographic Institution, a total of 576 drift 
bottles were released from 96 locations. 
Biological specimens were collected and 
preserved for later study. Bathythermo- 
graph casts were taken along with other 
hydrographic data. 

The M/V Delaware left Gloucester, 
Mass., for cruise 59-8 on July 8, 1959. 



After loading television equipment at 
Woods Hole, Mass., the vessel was ex- 
pected to conduct closed circuit under- 
water television operations off Cape Cod. 

Conditions permitting, kinescope re- 
cordings were to be made showing the 
operation of various portions of the trawl 
net in operation. 



North Pacific Exploratory 

Fishery Program 

EXPLORATORY FISHING VESSEL TO 
ASSESS FISHERY POTENTIAL AND COL- 



LECT OCEANOGRAPHIC DATA IN ARC - 
TIC OCEAN'S CHUKCHI SEA (MTv' John N. 
Cobb Cruise 43): The U. S. Bureau of 



Commercial Fisheries exploratory fish- 
ing vessel John N. Cobb departed from 
Seattle on July 23 for a 60-day cruise 
which will take the vessel 3,300 miles to 




M/VJohnN. Cobb Cruise 43 (July 23-Sept. 15, 1959). 

Chukchi Sea in the Arctic Ocean. The in- 
vestigation in the Chukchi Sea, which will 
be a cooperative study carried out by the 
Bureau and the U. S. Atomic Energy Com- 
mission (AEC), will be the farthest that 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



39 



the vessel has operated from Seattle 
since its launching in 1950. She will re- 
turn to Seattle, Wash., about Septem- 
ber 15. 

The John N. Cobb is scheduled to 
carry out explorations in the area from 
Bering Strait north to the Arctic ice 
field. The vessel will carry out investi- 
gations contiguous to the coast of north- 
west Alaska and westward to the United 
States -Soviet treaty line of 1867, 

The objectives of the cruise are to 
carry out detailed studies of the vari- 
eties, quantities, and distribution of fish, 
shellfish, marine mammals, and birds 
inhabiting the Chukchi Sea region and to 
acquire information on the physical and 
chemical properties of these Arctic wa- 
ters. The information obtained concern- 
ing the concentrations of fish and shell- 
fish will be used to assess the commer- 
cial fishing potential of the region, and 
to provide the AEC with data to evaluate 
the possible biological damage which 
might occur in the event nuclear devices 
are detonated in the area. The Commis- 
sion is studying the possibility of deto- 
nating several atomic devices to deter - 
naine the feasibility of using nuclear 
energy for excavating harbors, canals, 
etc. Oceanographic information will be 
used to supplement data being acquired 
by the University of Washington oceano- 
graphic vessel Brown Bear . 

The Bureau's vessel will be equipped 
with perhaps the widest variety of sam- 
pling devices ever taken on an explora- 
tory fishing expedition. Sampling gear 
which will be aboard will include stand- 
ard mesh otter trawls, small mesh trawls, 
biological dredges, gill nets of various 
mesh sizes, fish traps, long-line gear, 
beach seines, and a midwater trawl. 
Skin divers will also be aboard the ves- 
sel. Evaluation of the marine fauna will 
be approached in a three-phase program. 
The first phase will entail a study of the 
bottom fish fauna which will cover an 
area from Bering Strait to 70° north lati- 
tude. During this phase approximately 
50 stations will be sampled. The second 
phase will constitute an intensive study 
of the fish fauna in the immediate vicini- 
ty of the Cape Thompson or Ogotoruk 
Creek site proposed for the AEC excava- 
tion tests. During the last phase sampl- 



ing of pelagic fish life will be carried out 
throughout most of the Chukchi Sea re- 
gion. It is anticipated that more than 100 
sites will be investigated during the 30 
days in the Arctic, 

Personnel chosen to accompany the 
John N. Cobb will include several Seattle 
scientists from the Bureau and the Uni- 
versity of Washington College of Fisher- 
ies. 

In carrying out the operations in the 
Chukchi Sea, the John N. Cobb's work 
will be closely integrated with studies 
being conducted by the University of 
Washington oceanographic vessel Brown 
Bear. The cruise patterns and objectives 
of both vessels have been designed so that 
maximum benefits can be derived from 
the Arctic studies. Both vessels will be 
in constant radio contact with each other 
and with the shore camp at Ogotoruk 
Creek. 

The major difficulty anticipated in op- 
erating in the Chukchi Sea will be that of 
accurate navigation. Navigation in the 
area is made difficult by large and fluctu- 
ating deviations in the earth's magnetic 
field and by the absence of conventional 
electronic fixing techniques such as loran 
or shoran. The almost continuous sum- 
mer daylight of the area and persistent 
fog will make celestial navigation almost 
impossible. Both vessels anticipate us- 
ing radio direction-finders and radar to 
fix their positions. 



Outdoor Recreation Resources 
Review Commission 

FIRST ADVISORY COUNCIL MEET- 
ING HELD: The Outdoor Recreation Re- 



sources Review Commission met in Wash- 
ington on July 16 and 17 for the purpose 
of consulting with the Advisory Council. 
The Commission consists of 15 members, 
4 each from the Senate and House Com- 
mittees on Interior and Insular Affairs, and 
7 appointed by the President, including 
Chairman Laurance Rockefeller. The Ad- 
visory Council consists of 25 representa- 
tives of various phases of natural re- 
sources, including commercial fisheries. 



40 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 21, No. 9 



The 25 were selected out of a group of 
500 considered by the Commission. 

The commercial fishery representa- 
tive (Charles E. Jackson, General Man- 
ager of the National Fisheries Institute), 
made a brief statement calling the Com- 
mission's attention to the vital import- 
ance of the food fisheries. He noted the 
fact that the United Nations is consider- 
ing the breadth of the territorial-sea is- 
sue which might result in a change of the 
present 3 -mile limit accepted by naany 
of the nations of the world. He pointed 
out that whatever the decision it is high- 
ly important that the United States now 
consider means of improving and in- 
creasing its production of coastal in- 
shore fisheries. He requested the Cona- 
mission to give this matter serious study 
with a view of recommending a research 
program in inshore areas, looking to- 
ward an increased production of fish to 
meet not only domestic food needs but 
the increasing requirements of anglers. 
He said it was necessary to know more 
about the possibilities of fish farming in 
estuaries along the coasts. 



Oysters 

LONG ISLAND SOUND STUDIES : As 
in previous years, the U. S. Bureau of 
Commercial Fisheries Biological Labo- 
ratory at Milford, Conn., is conducting 
systematic observations on spawning and 
setting of oysters and starfish. The same 
locations as in the past will be used for 
the 10 major sampling stations. In ad- 
dition, auxiliary stations, needed for oth- 
er studies, will be established at the 
mouths of several rivers. 

The Milford Laboratory will keep the 
members of the oyster industry and ma- 
rine biologists informed as to the prog- 
ress of the biological events occurring 
in Long Island Sound waters. These will 
deal principally with the intensity of set- 
ting of oysters and starfish in various 
areas and the survival and growth of 
these organisms. Other observations of 
interest will be included. 

The bottom water temperature re- 
corded on July 13 varied from 16.6° C. 



(61.9° F.) at Station No. 3 at a 30-foot 
depth in the Bridgeport area to 21.8° C. 
(71. 20 F.) in the shallow water of New 
Haven Harbor. Examination of gonads 
showed that some of the oysters have 
spawned, but no larvae have yet been 
found in the plankton samples. This, 
however, is not abnormal for Long Is- 
land Sound. For example, last year when 
one of the heaviest oyster sets in the his- 
tory of the Connecticut shellfish industry 
occurred, larvae were not found in any 
of the 200 -gallon plankton samples taken 
regularly at sampling stations until 
July 24, when a few young ones were re- 
corded; yet, a heavy setting began only 
four days later. Thus, because of the 
peculiarities of the occurrence and dis- 
tribution of larvae in Long Island Sound 
waters, many aspects of which are still 
not understood, predictions as to the 
time and intensity of setting cannot be 
made from observations on number and 
age of larvae. 

No setting of oysters had occurred by 
July 13, and it is assumed that it will 
take place somewhat later than usual be- 
cause of the relatively low water temper- 
ature. 

Examination of collectors showed that 
setting of starfish began on July 2, occur- 
ring at most of the stations. The initial 
set was comparatively light, the maxi- 
mum being nine starfish per 40 shells at 
Station 10. The bags collected on July 10 
showed that setting continued, and that 
while no setting had taken place since 
July 6 at Stations 4 and 5, its intensity at 
Station 8 in the Bridgeport area consider- 
ably increased, the count being 28 star- 
fish spat per 40 shells. The collectors 
examined on July 13 showed a general de- 
crease in the intensity of the setting with 
Stations 3, 6, and 7 being free of any set, 
while only 2 spat were found on 40 shells 
brought from Station 10. ( Observations 
on Spawning and Setting of Oysters and 
Starfish in Long Island Sound, Bulletin 1, 
July 17, 19597) 

***** 

RAFT - GROWN TYPE GROW FAST : 
Studies in Oyster River, Chatham, Mass., 
showed oysters grown on rafts grow fast- 
er and are healthier than those grown on 
bottoms. The oysters suspended below a 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



41 



raft are expected to reach marketable size 
by the fall of 1959, when they will be two 
years old. If they had been bottom-grown 
instead of raft-grown, they would have 
required 4 or 5 years to reach that size. 
The mortality of raft-grown oysters was 
17 percent in 1958 and over 90 percent 
in bottom-grown oysters. The studies 
are being conducted by the U. S. Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries. 

SETTING UNDER ARTIFICIAL CON - 
DITIONS : In an artificial pond on Long 
Island, successful sets of American oys- 
ters were obtained by releasing ready- 
to-set larvae in the pond. Light sets of 
European oysters, Qstrea edulis , and 
Japanese clams. Tapes semidecussata , 
also were obtained in that pond. 




Salmon 

PROGRESS REPORT ON NORTH PA- 
CIFIC RESEARCH : Salmon studies in 
the offshore and inshore areas of the 
North Pacific Ocean by the U. S. Bureau 
of Commercial Fisheries Seattle, Wash., 
Biological Laboratory for the Interna- 
tional North Pacific Fisheries Commis- 
sion (formed by Canada, the United States, 
and Japan) have progressed steadily. 
Two chartered vessels completed 78 
gill-net sets in the North Pacific and 
Bering Sea during the spring and the 
summer of 1958. The catch of 5,462 
salmon included 1,190 reds or sockeye, 
3,877 chums, 194 pinks, 175 silvers, and 
26 kings. Compared with the catches in 
1957, catches in 1958 reflect a marked 
decline in the abundance of pink salmon. 
Chum salmon were in comparable num- 
bers both years. 

The widespread salmon sampling 
program throughout the North Pacific 
Ocean and adjoining seas and coastal 
areas featured increased sampling cov- 
erage off the Asian coastline. Red, chum, 
and pink salmon samples collected by the 
United States, Canada, and Japan for ra- 
cial studies totaled 21,632 whole salmon 
and 2,319 salmon blood samples. Ex- 
tensive catches are also being made dur- 
ing the current 1959 season. 



The second season of experimental 
work on guiding seaward migrant finger- 
ling salmon with electricity at the Lake 
Tapps, Green River, Wash., field site is 
in progress. Results show at least 90 
percent of the yearling and two-year-old 
silver salmon moving through the area 
are diverted into bypass traps by the 
electrical barrier which is operating at 
an economic power consumption level. 
These findings also indicate the proba- 
bility of future reductions in electrical 
and mechanical instrumentation and show 
that under certain circumstances elec- 
tricity can be efficiently used to divert 
migrating fingerling salmon. 

Surveys of the Yakima River system 
indicated the Chinook salmon escapement 
in 1958 was slightly less than half that in 
1957. The downstream migrant trapping 
project at Prosser resulted in counts of 
145,000 Chinook and silver salmon from 
April 1 to June 1, 1959. Surveys above 
Rocky Reach Dam indicated fish passed 
that dam through temporary fish passage 
facilities without noticeable bad effects. 

In Alaska efforts are being made to 
predict the number of adult salmon which 
will return from the Pacific Ocean to the 
streams to spawn. Pink salmon fry in 
Southeastern Alaska and in Prince Wil- 
liam Sound were dyed with neutral red 
stain, released, and trapped downstream. 
In the Bristol Bay area, the commercial 
catch was sampled for age composition, 
adult red salmon were enumerated from 
towers, and downstream migrating red 
salmon smolts enumerated with fyke 
nets. 

Studies to determine the fresh-water 
survival of salmon in Alaska continued. At 
Little Port Walter a count was made of 
upstream migrating adult pink salmon 
and downstream migrating fry. Experi- 
ments with young pink salmon in the 
stream gravel were conducted to meas- 
ure their survival rate. Research at 
Brooks Lake concerned the factors af- 
fecting the survival of red salmon in the 
Lake. 




42 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 21, No. 9 



Shad 

ATLANTIC COAST STUDIES : Obser- 
vations on the Hudson River and the Con- 
necticut River shad populations were 
continued in the spring of 1959 by biolo- 
gists of the U. S. Bureau of Commercial 
Fisheries Beaufort, N. C, Biological 
Laboratory. The studies indicate that 
the Connecticut River population is ap- 
proaching its 1941-1946 size when the 
best recorded catches were made. This 
increased population abundance resulted 
from an increased number of shad which 
were allowed to escape the fishery and 
spawn as a result of state regulations 
based on the recommendations of the 
Bureau's biologists. The fishway on the 
Connecticut River at the Hadley Falls 
Dam, Holyoke, Mass., passed some 
15,000 shad during the 1959 shad run. 

Research on managing the Atlantic 
coast shad resources centered on the 
St. Johns River, Fla., during the 1958- 
59 shad run. Through use of catch, ef- 
fort, and tagging data a method was de- 
vised to determine the shad population 
in that river for each year in which such 
data are obtained. 




Shrimp 

STAINS USED TO MARK SHRIMP 



FOR MIGRATION STUDIES : Techniques 
for marking shrimp with vital stains 
which permit them to molt and retain 
the mark have been developed by the 
U. S. Bureau of Commercial Fisheries, 
Galveston, Tex., Biological Laboratory. 
Using this method, the Laboratory scien- 
tists stained juvenile pink shrimp in the 
protected bays of the Everglades Nation- 
al Park and recaptured them four months 
later in the Tortugas shrimp fishery. 
They had tripled their weight and travel- 
ed more than 100 miles. Stained brown 
shrimp recaptured in Galveston Bay had 
traveled up to 2 5 miles a week. 



TEXAS VESSELS DISPUTE OVER 
WAGES SETTLED : A dispute which re- 
portedly tied up approximately 90 per- 
cent of the 500 to 600 shrimp boats op- 



erating between Brownsville and Port 
Isabel, Tex., was settled on July 10. The 
dispute affecting the $15 million a year 
shrimp industry in that area reportedly 
stemmed from a wage cut for shrimp 
crews. The shrimp producers reported- 
ly recently cut the money paid to shrimp 
crews by about 4 cents per pound per 
crew member. 

The Texas producers had contended 
that producers elsewhere on the Gulf 
coast and in the East had been selling 
shrimp cheaper than the local vessels 
can produce them. Negotiations involving 
the fishermen and the producers were in 
progress for about 10 days. 

The Brownsville Shrimp Exchange, 
owners of 20 boats, reported that they 
had worked out a 60-40 arrangement with 
the crews. The boat owners will get 60 
percent of the catch and the shrimp crews 
40 percent. Other shrimp crews sought 
the same sort of agreement. 

Reports indicate that some shrimp 
fishermen are interested in possible af- 
filiation with AFL-CIO. Representatives 
of the AFL-CIO met with the executive 
committee of the Rio Grande Shrimpers 
Assoc, but no decision was reached. 




Striped Bass 

EAST COAST RESEARCH: Roanoke 
River Studies : Dams and pollution in 
the Roanoke River, Albemarle Sound, 
N. C, threaten sustained abundance of 



Striped Bass 
( Roccus saxatilis 




the striped bass population. To resolve 
these problems, a cooperative study for 
developing this river basin by scientific 
means began in 1955. Research on the 
population and spawning status of striped 
bass in Roanoke River in relation to in- 



September 1959 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



43 



dustrial development and water released 
from power dams upon the spawning 
grounds has been completed. 

Potomac River Studies: In the spring 
of 1959, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Serv- 
ice, Maryland, and Virginia concentrated 
research on the striped bass on Chesa- 
peake Bay. They tagged 2,200 striped 
bass in the Potomac River as a part of 
the research planned to determine sea- 
sonal, annual and age -specific migra- 
tions, estimates of population size and 
mortality rates, size and age-class com- 
position, and homogeneity of races. 





Transportation 

NEW RAILWAY EXPRESS AGENCY 
CONTRACT APPROVED BY RAILROADS : 
The 178 railroads participating in the 
present Railway Express Agency con- 
tract have given their unanimous ap- 
proval to a reorganization plan to be 
submitted to the Interstate Commerce 
Commission for approval. The most 
significant change is to give the Express 
Agency complete freedom to route ex- 
press traffic 

fU^.^^^-'^ir-^'^^^.J^'^ without refer- 
7'^ ^\ ,<^ .*:afiPG*'^ ence to a his- 
torical dis- 
tribution pattern 
which has been follow- 
ed since 1920. This change 
is expected to result in improved 
service to shippers and improved fi- 
nancial conditions. Another important 
change is that future payments to the 
railroads will be based upon an average 
rate in each regional group 'Jaer car-foot 
mile of line-haul service rendered by 
each carrier." The present contract 
calls for distribution among the rail- 
roads of their pro rata share of revenue 
remaining after the Agency's expenses 
have been deducted. Future excess funds 
will be divided equally between the Agen- 
cy and the carriers, thus providing the 
Agency with funds to re -invest in the 
business. The Agency's share of gross 
revenue on carload shipments will also 
be increased slightly. 

Application will be made shortly for 
the Commission's approval of the new 
contract, which will be effective the first 



of the month following the Commission's 
approval and will continue in force through 
December 1973. The New York Central 
announced that it will rescind its notice 
to withdraw from the Express Agency and 
will participate in the new plan, but the 
Chicago & Northwestern Railway said 
that it would withdraw from the Agency, 
sell its stock, but continue to make its 
facilities available to handle express 
shipments. 

The Railway Express Agency has once 
more petitioned the Commission for spe- 
cial permission to publish a blanket in- 
crease on less-than-carload express rates 
of 25 cents per 100 lbs,, minimum 25 
cents per shipment, in all territories ex- 
cept within Mountain Pacific and Eastern 
territories, where the increase sought is 
35 cents per 100 lbs., minimum 35 cents 
per shipment. This is equivalent to ap- 
proximately a 6 percent increase and will 
not apply on accessorial charges. It is 
alleged that this increase is necessary to 
offset higher operating costs, including 
railroad retirement and unemployment 
insurance taxes. 



United States Fishery Landings, 

January -May 1959 

Landings of fish and shellfish in the 
United States during the first five months 
of 1959increased 17 percent as compared 
with the same period of the previous year. 

Menhaden landings with a sharp rise 
of 124 million pounds accounted for most 
of the increase. Landings of those fish 
along the Atlantic Coast and in the Gulf 
States rose 70 naillion and 54 million 
pounds, respectively 

On the Pacific Coast, landings of tuna 
were up 5 million pounds, while halibut, 
increased 3 million pounds as compared 
with the 1958 landings. In New England, 
haddock and ocean perch landings de- 
clined 9 naillion pounds each. Landings 
of whiting