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Full text of "Commercial statistics. A digest of the productive resources, commercial legislation, customs tariffs ... of all nations. Including all British commercial treaties with foreign states .."

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WITHDRAWN 



Fkedcric de Peyster 



,uRA 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS. 



A DIGEST JUU , 

OF THE 

PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES, COMMERCIAL LEGISLATION, 

CUSTOMS TARIFFS, 

NAVIGATION, POET, AND QUARANTINE LAWS, AND CHARGES, 

SHIPPING, IMPORTS AND EXPORTS, 

AND 

THE MONIES, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES OF 

ALL NATIONS. 

INCLUDING ALL 

Hxiti&f) ©ommraial ftnatits toitf) foreign Starts* 

COLLECTED FROM AUTHENTIC RECORDS, AND CONSOLIDATED WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO 
BRITISH AND FOREIGN PRODUCTS, TRADE, AND NAVIGATION. 



BY JOHN MACGREGOR, M.P., 

LATE SECRETARY OF THE BOARD OF TRADE. 



IN FIVE VOLUMES. 
VOL. V. 



LOND ON: — WHIT TAKE R AND CO., 

AVE-MARIA LANE. 

1850. 



/ao/ 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS OF THE FIVE VOLUMES. 



Vol. I.— Austrian Empire, Belgium, Denmark and her Colonies, France and her Colonies, 
Holland and her Colonies, Germanic Union of Customs, Italian States, Gibraltar, Malta, Ionian 
Islands. 

Vol. II. — Ottoman Empire, Greece, African States, Countries, and Sea-ports, Russian Empire, 
Sweden and Norway, Spain and her Colonies, Portugal and her Colonies. 

Vol. III. — 1. The United States, including the Agriculture, Productions, Manufactures, 
Trade and Navigation, Canals, Railways, Banks, and all Public Companies, the Resources, 
Revenues, and Debts of each State. The Agricultural Productions, General Trade, Navigation, 
Manufactures, Finances, Treaties, Tariffs, Commercial Regulations, Internal Trade, Fisheries, 
Mines, &c. &c, of the United States. 2. Texas ; 3. Mexico ; 4. Oregon Territory ; 5. Cali- 
fornia ; 6. Central America ; 7. Mosquito Territory ; 8. New Granada ; 9. Venezuela ; 10. 
British, French, and Dutch Guyana; 11. Peru; 12. Bolivia; 13. Equador ; 14. Chili; 15. 
Paraguay; 16. Buenos Ayres ; 17. Montevideo; 18. Patagonia. 

Vol. IV. — 1. Foreign West Indies, viz,, Hayti ; Cuba; Porto Rico ; French West Indies ; 
Dutch and Danish West Indies ; 2. Brazil ; 3. British East Indies and Oriental Commerce ; 
4. Ceylon, Singapore, Malacca, and Prince of Wales's Island. 

Vol. V. — 1. The Chinese Empire ; 2. British Possessions in Africa, in Asia, and Australasia ; 
3. British North American Colonies ; 4. British West Indies ; 5. The Falkland Islands ; Sand- 
wich Islands ; 6. British and Colonial Customs Tariffs and Regulations ; 7. Dues and Charges 
in the Sea-ports of the United Kingdom; 8. Summary of British Navigation and iTrade for 150 
Years ; 9. Supplements, containing Miscellaneous Statements, &c. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. V. AND OF THE SUPPLEMENTS. 



SECTION XXI. 
CHINESE EMPIRE. 



PAGE 

Introduction 1 

General Description of China 5 

Area and Population 6 

Brief Description of the Provinces 7 

British Treaty with China 14 

Tariff of Duties on the Foreign Trade with 

China 17 

General Regulations under which the British 
Trade is to be conducted at the Ports of lVj 
Canton, Amoy, Foochowfoo, Mngpo, and 

Shanghai ^ 3 

Transit Duties ,; ~5 

Consular Fees, &c 26 

British Trade with China 32 

The Tea Trade of China 44 

Tabular View of the Tea Trade between 
England and the East Indies and China 

since the Year 1712 58 

Prices of Tea in China, America, and Europe 

(various Tables) 62 

Consumption of Tea in various Countries .... 66 

Exports of Tea to all Countries 67 

Cost of Tea and Silk (as Returns) from China, 

including Freight and all other Charges ... 73 



PAGE 

Opium Trade - 74 

Chinese Seaports: — 

Trade of Canton 75 

Trade of Shanghai 91 

Trade of Amoy 92 

Trade of Ningpo 94 

S latement of the Total Value of the Imports 
and Exports at each of the Five Ports 
of China, in British and Foreign Vessels 
respectively, in each Year from 1844 to 
1847 inclusive 95 

Statement of the Number and Tonnage of 
Vessels entered and cleared at the Port of 
Canton 96 

ditto at the Ports of Shanghai and 

Amoy 98 

Coasting Trade 99 

Inland Trade, ruid Trade with Asiatic States 
We^t of China ib. 

Russian Trade ib. 

Taxation ib. 

Trade of Ho^ng Kong 101 



SECTION XXII. 
BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA, ASIA, AND AUSTRALASIA. 



British Colonies in Africa and Asia: — 

Cape of Good Hope 102 

Population ib. 

Revenue and Expenditure 103 

Resources, Products, and Navigation .... 107 

Imports and Exports (various Tables)... 109 

. Helena and Ascension '. 127 

^Exports and Imports (various Tables)... ib. 



PAGE 

Sierra Leone and Settlements on the Gambia 1 28 

Mauritius *-;.. 126 

Population 127 

Occupation ; 128 

Live Stock ib. 

Sugar Manufactories 129 

Shipping 130 

Imports and Exports (various Tables)... 131 



IV 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

British Colonies in Africa and Asia — cont. 

Mauritius — cont. 

Bank 136 

Port Charges 137 

Revenue and Expenditure 140 

The Seychelles 141 

New South Wales 142 

Population , ib. 

Live Stock 146 

Navigation and Trade (various Tables) ... ib. 

Revenue... 156 

Victoria or Port Phillip ib. 

South Australia 152 

Crown Lands 153 

Population 155 



page 

South Australia — cont. 

Revenue and Expenditure 158 

Imports and Exports 159 

Western Australia 160 

Population 161 

Trade and Agriculture 162 

Van Diemen's Land 163 

Population 164 

Land under Cultivation 167 

Imports and Exports (various Tables)... 168 

Shipping 169 

New Zealand 176 

Imports and Exports (various Tables)... 177 
Supplementary Returns for New South Wales 

and Victoria (various Tables) , 181 



SECTION XXIII. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN AMERICA, AND THE WEST INDIES. 



PAGE 

British Possessions in America 190 

Canada 191 

Upper Canada 209 

Statistics of Canada (various Tables) .*. 222 
Trade and Navigation (various Tables). . . 249 

Quebec 272 

Nova Scotia and Cape Breton 280 

Statistics of Nova Scotia 295 

Imports and Exports (various Tables)... ib. 

New Brunswick 307 

Population 309 

Imports and Exports 310 

Prince Edward Island 319 

Statistics of the Island 323 

Imports and Exports 326 



PAGE 

Newfoundland, General Description 328 

Seal Catch and Cod Fisheries 333 

Trade and Navigation (various Tables) 334 
British West Indies, General Description... 356 

Jamaica (several Tables) ib. 

West Indies generally (several Tables 

and Tariffs) 367 

Statistics of Trade between the United 
Kingdom and the British West Indies 

(several Tables) 378 

Statistics of the Sugar Trade 382 

Miscellaneous Statistics 393 



CONTENTS OF SUPPLEMENTS. 



SUPPLEMENT I. 



Austria. — Commerce of the Austrian Empire 
for the Years 1831 to 1841 inclusive (Ten 
Tables) 1 

Report on the Maritime Commerce of Aus- 
tria (from Official Report published at Vi- 
ennain 1843) 7 



Austrian Shipping in Foreign Ports (various 
Tables) 11 

Comparative View of the Operations of the 
Merchant Shipping of Austria (various 
Tables).... 17 

Mineral Productions of the Austrian Empire. 22 



SUPPLEMENT II. 



PAGE 

Modifications of Foreign Customs Tariffs, 
from the Date of the Publication of the 
First Volume of this Work, to 1st July,1848 ; 
and the British Tariff of Customs in force 
in July, 1848, compared with Mr. Pitt's 
Tariff of 1787, and the intermediate British 
Tariffs , 25 

Alterations of the General Tariff Duties 

of the Netherlands to 1st July, 1848 ib. 

Navigation of Amsterdam in 1846 27 

NavigationofRotterdamin 1846 28 

Statistics of the Java Trade, 1836 to 1845.... 29 
Alterations in the French Tariff from 1845 

to 1st July, 1848 30 

in the Zoll Verein Tariff from 1843 to 

1st July, 1848 32 

in Customs Tariff of Parma ib. 

ditto of Tuscany. 33 

ditto of the Roman States ib. 

ditto of Sardinia 34 

ditto of the Two Sicilies ib. 

ditto of Belgium 35 

ditto of Russia 39 

ditto of Sweden 40 

Alterations in Customs Tariff of Denmark... 41 

ditto of Norway 42 

ditto of Spain ib. 

ditto of Portugal 43 

Table of the Import Duties as levied by the 

British Customs, under Mr. Pitt's Act of 
1787; under the Consolidated Act of 1808, 



PAGE 

in force to 1815; under the Act of 1819; 
and under the Table of Duties, of the 
modified Acts of 1826 to 1835; and under 
the New Tariff of Duties, as altered in 

1843, 1844, 1845, and 1846-48 44 

New Timber Duties, 1846-48 83 

Observations on the Table of Duties for 1846 84 
New Copper Duties, 1848 85 

Rum Duties, 1848 ib. 

Sugar Duties, 1848 86 

Statistical Tables, exhibiting the Progress of 

British Trade and Navigation, arranged 
and condensed from Official Accounts 87 

A Chronological Account of Commerce 

in Great Britain, from the Restoration to 
the Peace of 1802 91 

Comparative View of the Trade of 

Great Britain with all parts of the world, 
from 1697 to 1820 92 

Official Value of Imports into Great 

Britain from all Countries, from 1821 to 
1827 inclusive 98 

Official Value of Principal Articles of 

Foreign and Colonial Merchandize im- 
ported into and re-exported from Great 
Britain, during the years from 1815 to 
1828 99 

Official Value of Articles the Produce 

and Manufacture of Great Britain and Ire- 
land, exported from Great Britain in each 
Year, from 1815 to 1828 101 






VI 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Declared Value of the Principal Ar- 
ticles, the Produce or Manufacture of the 
United Kingdom, exported from 1815 to 
1828 102 

Declared Value of Exports of British 

and Irish Produce and Manufactures to 
various Countries, in each Year, from 1827 

to 1836 103 

ditto from 1837 to 1846 104 

Quantities and Declared Value of Prin- 
cipal Exports, of British and Irish Produce 
and Manufactures, from the United King- 
dom in each Year, from 1827 to 1848 105 

Quantities of Foreign and Colonial 

Merchandise imported into, exported from, 
and retained for Home Consumption in 
the United Kingdom, with Bates of Duty 
on, and Produce of Revenue therefrom, in 
each Year from 1830 to 1835 108 

Official Account of Principal Imports 

of Foreign and Colonial Merchandise, of 
Consumption of such Articles, and of 
Amount of Duty received thereon, in 1840, 
1841, and 1842 « 113 

Exports of Foreign and Colonial Mer- 
chandise from the United Kingdom, in 1840, 
1841, and 1842 116 

Imports of Principal Articles of Foreign 

and Colonial Merchandise, Quantities en- 
tered for Consumption, and Amount of 
Duty received thereon, in each Year, from 
1842 to 1847. (Several Tables) 118 

Exports of Principal Articles of Foreign 

and Colonial Merchandise in 1843, com- 
pared with previous Years 124 

Total Official Value of all Imports into, 

and Exports from, the United Kingdom 
(exclusive of Trade with Ireland), also the 
Declared Value of the Produce and Ma- 
nufactures of the United Kingdom exported 
in each Year, from 1820 to 1848 inclu- 
sive . 126 

Statement of Declared Value of British 

and Irish Produce, &c, exported from the 
United Kingdom to different Foreign Coun- 
tries and Colonial Possessions — 1805 to 
1811, and 1814 to 1826 ib. 

Import and Export Trade of Great Bri- 
tain with all Countries (except Ireland), 
from 1801 to 1848 inclusive 127 

Rates, by which Official Value of Prin- 
cipal Imports is estimated , 128 

British Shipping, and British and Foreign 
Shipping in British Ports: — 

Number and Tonnage of British Ves- 
sels, Built and Registered in the United 
Kingdom and its Dependencies in various 
Years, since 1801 133 

— — ditto of Steam Vessels— 1814 to 1848... ib. 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels, Bri- 
tish and Foreign, that cleared Outwards, 
and entered the Ports of the United King- 
dom (exclusive of the Irish and the Coast- 
ing Trade) in each Year from 1801 to 1848. 135 

Tonnage of Vessels, distinguishing 

British from Foreign, entered and cleared, 
at Ports in the United Kingdom, in each 
Year from 1820 to 1848 136 

Number and Tonnage of British Ships, 



PAGE 

entered Inwards from, and cleared Out- 
wards to, Ports in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
and America, not being British Posses- 
sions, in each Year from 1821 to 1835 in- 
clusive 137 

ditto entered Inwards at Ports in the 

United Kingdom from British Colonial 
Ports, and cleared Outwards therefrom to 
such Ports— 1821 to 1835 138 

ditto entered Inwards from Ports of 

Foreign Powers, respectively, and cleared 
Outwards to such Ports— 1821 to 1835 ib. 

Casualties given in the Reports of Ship • 

wreck Committees of 1836 and 1843 139 

Annual Waste, from all Causes, and 

Proportion per cent of the same, to Num- 
ber and Tonnage in existence, at the close 

of each Year, from 1815 to 1842 ib. 

Average Number and Tonnage of Ves- 
sels, Built, Registered, and Waste from all 
Causes, in Periods of Five Years 140 

Number of Men and Boys employed in 

navigating Vessels belonging to the Bri- 
tish Empire, in each Year from 1814 to 
1848 ib. 

Statement of the Shipping employed 

in the Trade (Inwards) of the United 
Kingdom, in each Year from 1841 to 1848, 
separating British from Foreign Vessels, 
with number of Crews, and Tonnage, &c. 141 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels, dis- 
tinguishing the Countries to which they 
belonged, entered Inwards and cleared 
Outwards, in 1846 and 1847 148 

Statement of the Tonnage, distinguish- 
ing British from Foreign, entered Inwards 
and cleared Outwards, from Ports in the 
United Kingdom, in 1814, 1824, and 1846 ; 
showing the actual, and the per centage 
Rates of Increase, between those Periods. . . ib. 

Coasting Trade of the United Kingdom: 

Tonnage of Coasting Vessels (including 

repeated Voyages) entered at British Ports, 

in each Year from 1824 to 1848 ib. 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels entered 

and cleared Coastwise, at each Port of 
Great Britain and Ireland (distinguishing 
steamers), between 31st Dec, 1846, and 
31st Dec, 1847 and 1848 149 

Number and Tonnage of Sailing Vessels 

registered at each Port in Great Britain 
and Ireland, including the Isle of Man and 
Channel Islands, on 31st Dec, 1848. (Simi- 
lar Returns for Steam Vessels and their 
Tonnage.) 151 

Return of Shipping employed in United 
Kingdom, separating British from Foreign 
Vessels, and distinguishing Trade with 
each Country in 1848 153 

Quantities of Articles, enumerated in 8th and 
9th Vict., c. 88, imported into the United 
Kingdom in 1845, 1846, and 1847, showing 
Proportion imported in British and in 
Foreign Ships 154 

Direct and Indirect Trade of British Ships 
with Foreign States (Three Tables) ib. 

Annual Average Official Value of Irish Im- 
ports and Exports, during various periods 
(Seven Tables) 156 



CONTENTS. 



Vll 



PAGE 

Annual Average Number and Tonnage of Ves- 
sels entered Inwards at the Ports of Ire- 
land, in various Years from 1790 to 1849... 159 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels, with the 
Number of Men and Boys employed in 
their Navigation, entered Inwards and 
cleared Outwards, at the several Ports of 

: Ireland, from and to all parts of the World, 
in 1846, 1847, and 1848 ; also Number and 
Tonnage of Shipping, entered Inwards, and 
cleared Outwards, during the same period, 
exclusive of the Intercourse with Great 
Britain ib. 

New Vessels built in Ireland— 1787 to 1826... 160 

ditto— 1835 to 1848 162 

Number and Tonnage of Sailing and Steam 

Vessels, registered at Irish Ports in 1845, 
1846, and 1847 , ib. 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels engaged in 
the Trade between Ireland and Foreign 
Countries and British Colonies, during 
1845 163 

Registered Irish Tonnage, at various periods, ib. 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels employed 
in the Trade between Great Britain and 
Ireland, in each Year from 1801 to 1849 ... ib. 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels that entered 
from Irish Ports, to and from all parts 
generally, and to and from all parts, except 
Great Britain, from 1835 to 1849 164 

Number and Tonnage of Sailing and Steam 
Vessels entered and cleared out Coastwise, 
at each Port in Ireland, in 1845 and 1846 ib. 

ditto, in 1847 165 

Number and Tonnage of Vessels entered and 

cleared out, from and to the Colonies and 
Foreign Parts, at each Port of Ireland, 
during 1846 ib. 

Account of the Declared Value of the Pro- 
duce and Manufactures of the United King- 
dom, exported from Ireland to Foreign 
Parts, in each Year, from 1844 to 1849 166 

Extent of Land under Cultivation in each 
County of Ireland in 1847, with Estimate 
of Extent to be cultivated in 1848 in 21 
Counties, from which Eeturns have been 
obtained 167 

Number of Cattle exported from Ireland to 
Great Britain in 1846 169 

Imports into Liverpool from Ireland ib. 

Miscellaneous Commercial Statements : — 

Coal.— Statements relative to the Ship- 
ments and Prices of Coal (10 Tables) 170 

Salt. — Statements relative to the Pro- 
duction and Exportation of Salt (5 Tables) 174 

Statements relative to the Export of 

Iron and other Metals, Hardware, and Cut- 
lery(9 Tables) 176 

An Account of the Official and Declared 

Values of the Imports into, and of the Ex- 
ports from, the United Kingdom of Great 



PACE 

Britain and Ireland, during each of the 

Three Years ending 5th January, 1849 178 

Quantities of Glass Manufactures re- 
tained for Home Consumption in each 
Year, from 1789 to 1844 179 

Dues and Charges upon Shipping in the 
Principal Ports in the United King- 
dom: — 
England : 

1. Port of London 180 

2. Port of Liverpool ib. 

3. Port of Preston 182 

4. Port of Bristol ib. 

5. Port of Newcastle 183 

6. Port of Hull 184 

7. Port of Ipswich 186 

8. Isle of Man ib. 

9. Port of Harwich ib. 

10. Port of Falmouth 187 

11. Port of Milford ib. 

12. Port of Plymouth 188 

13. Port of Poole 189 

14. Port of Portsmouth 190 

15. Port of Southampton ib. 

16. Port of Dover 191 

17. Port of Ramsgate 192 

18. Port of Stockton 220 

19. Seaham Harbour ib. 

20. Hartlepool 194 

21. Port of Sunderland ib. 

Scotland : 

1. Port of Glasgow 196 

2. Port of Grangemouth 197 

3. Port of Greenock ib. 

4. Port of Glasgow (Creek of Dumbarton)... 201 

5. PortofLeith 202 

6. Port of Dundee 203 

7. Port of Perth 206 

8. Port of Aberdeen ib. 

9. Port of Montrose 207 

10. Port of Stranraer 208 

11. Port of Stornoway 209 

12. Port of Kirkwall ib. 

13. Port of Wick 210 

14. Port of Lerwick ib. 

Ireland : 

1. Port of Baltimore 211 

2. Port of Belfast 212 

3. Port of Cork 215 

4. Port of Drogheda 216 

5. Port of Dublin ib. 

6. Port of Dundalk 217 

7. PortofGalway 218 

8. Port of Limerick ib. 

9. Port of Londonderry ib. 

10. PortofNewry 219 

11. Port of Ross 220 

12. PortofSligo ib. 

13. Port of Waterford ib. 

14. Port of Wexford 221 



3obn Watts be fi>e\>ster, %%.W. 

Let. D., Doctor of Letters or Literature (Degree conveying highest Collegiate 
distinction, superior to LL.D.), Franklin and Marshall College, (corner- 
stone laid by Benjamin Franklin, 1787 ; reorganized 1853), Lancaster, 
Pennsylvania, 1892. 

1887. 

Master of Arts, Columbia College of New York, 1872. — Hon. Mem. Clarendon 
Hist. Soc, Edinburgh, Scotland ; of the New Brunswick Hist. Soc, St. John, Can- 
ada ; of the Hist. Soc. of Minnesota, Montana, Newjersey ; of the Military Order 
of the Loyal Legion of the U. S., &c; of the N. Y. Burns Club, &c; Cor. Mem. of 
the Quebec Lit. and Hist. Soc, Canada, &c; Life Mem. Royal Hist. Soc. of Great 
Britain, London, Eng.; Mem. Maatschappij Nederlandsche Letterkunde, Ley- 
den, Holland. — First Hon. Mem. Third Army Corps (A. of the P.) Union ; Hon. 
Mem. Third Army Corps Gettysburg Battlefield Reunion and Mem. of the Hon- 
orary Committee; Mem. Amer. Hist. Association, U. S. A.; of the Holland So- 
ciety, N. Y.; Associate Mem. Military Institution of the U. S., &c, &c; Member, 
Life, Honorary and Corresponding Member of over forty State and Local His- 
torical, Scientific and Literary Societies and Associations, &c, at home and 
abroad. — Colonel N. Y. S. I., 1846, assigned for " meritorious conduct" to com- 
mand of 22d Regimental District, M. F. S. N. Y., 1849; Brig.-General for "im- 
portant service" [first appointment in N. Y. State to that rank, hitherto elec- 
tive], 1851, M. F. S. N. Y.; Military Agent S. N. Y. in Europe, 1851-53, authorized 
and endorsed by U. S. A., 1851-3 ; assisted in organization of present Police, N. 
Y., and first reported in favor of Paid Fire Department with Fire Escapes and 
Steam Engines, 1852-3; Adjutant-General S. N. Y., 1855; Brevet Major-General 
S. N. Y. for " meritorious services," by "Special Act" or " Concurrent Resolu- 
tion," N. Y. State Legislature, April, 1866, [first and only General officer receiv- 
ing such an honor (the highest) from S. N. Y., and the only officer thus brevetted 
(Major-General) in the United States]. 

As long as the Republicans continued in power or exercised executive influ- 
ence, General de Peyster was carried on the State Military Roster as Fifth Major- 
General, N. G. S. N. Y., " without command" designated, i. e., unattached — that 
remark being the only difference between the mention of him and of the other 
four Major-Generals (See Legislative Manual, 1885, and previous years, p. 546). 
St. Nicholas Club (Resigned); Union League Club (Resigned), before 1887. Hon- 
orary Life Member of the Toledo Soldiers' Memorial Association, Toledo, 
Ohio, 1888 ; First Honorary Member of Philosophian Society, Cowan, Pennsylva- 
nia, 1890 ; Honorary Member of West Virginia Historical and Antiquarian So- 
ciety, Charleston, Kanawha Co., W. Va , 1890-1 ; Life Member of the Ohio State 
Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1889; Life Member of 
the Palestine Exploration Fund, 1890. 

Recipient of Legislative and Executive Votes of Thanks from thje States of 
New Jersey and of Pennsylvania, 1891 ; of the Mayor and Corporation of the City 
of Kearney, Nebraska, 1892, and of the N. Y. Historical Society of New York, 1892, 
for a "unique and most valuable Gift of the ancient historical manuscripts, 
documents, maps and deeds so long in the possession of this distinguished 
New York family, of which he is a well-known representative." 



COMMERCIAL STATISTICS; 

OK, 

A DIGEST 



PRODUCTIVE RESOURCES, COMMERCIAL AND FINANCIAL 
LEGISLATION, &c. OF ALL NATIONS. 



SECTION XXL— CHINESE EMPIRE. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 



We cannot give an account of this gigantic empire with statistical accuracy, 
although we have examined with laborious care most of the works that have 
been written since the appearance of the account of the travels of Marco Polo. 
The result of such laborious reading and examination has unfortunately com- 
pelled us to conclude, that in nearly all that has been written, until recently, 
much exaggeration, and great ignorance, abounds ; and, that error has been 
multiplied by one author copying, either verbally, or in substance, the fallacies 
which have been recorded by previous waiters. 

That the nations or people of China have advanced, from the primitive state 
of mankind, to comparative civilisation, no one can deny. But that disgusting 
barbarisms have accompanied, or have been superinduced, on that progress of 
civilisation, all must admit. The great work compiled in France, by Duhalde, 
from the manuscripts, or reports, transmitted to Europe by the Jesuits, may, we 
believe, be even at the present day, considered the most faithful account of China 
and the Chinese people ; and comparing his descriptions with nearly all sub- 
sequently written accounts, we cannot decide otherwise than that if the Chinese 
were, when Duhalde wrote, more advanced than many other nations, certainly 
none, in Europe or Asia, has remained longer in a stationary condition. 

The earliest accounts of China published in Europe, appear to be those of 
two Mahommedans, who are said to have travelled during the ninth century 
eastward to China, and the written narrative of their alleged travels is certainly 
curious, whether true or not. Duhalde says, and we believe him, that these 

vol. v. B 



2 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

accounts are fabulous, and that they never were in China. The Spanish Jew, 
Benjamin of Tudela, has given the account, which purports to be his travels 
in China during the eleventh century. William de Rubriquis, a monk, is said 
to have been sent on his travels by Louis IX., and we have an account, said 
to be his travels in China during the thirteenth century. Marco Polo, of Venice, 
whose travels, and the account of them, were made about the same period, 
affords the first description of China which bears the evidence of authenticity. 
The first great work, however, is that of the French Jesuit Duhalde. In 1518 
Portugal, through an embassy, obtained a place of trade at Sonuam, which 
was afterwards transferred to Macao. 

The Mantchou Tartars are said to have first attacked China with success during 
the latter years of the sixteenth century. About the middle of the seventeenth 
century, the present, or Tartar dynasty, appears to have been established. 

In 1624, the Dutch formed, by permission, a settlement at Formosa, where 
they opened an extensive trade with the Chinese, and in 1656 the Dutch East 
India Company endeavoured to monopolise the trade with China, but their 
mission failed in its object. In 1666-67, a treaty was ratified at Peking between 
Holland and China, which permitted the former to trade without limit to ships 
or goods, at Canton, Singchew, Hoksieu, Ningpo, and Hanksew. 

A treaty between China and Russia was negotiated in 1689, by which the latter 
was granted permission to send a caravan of merchandise every year to Peking, 
and a limited number of Russians were also allowed to reside in that capital. 

The emperor opened, by an edict in 1686, all the ports of the empire to 
foreign trade; but they were all closed in 1709. 

The same emperor, Kanghi, 1692, tolerated the Christian religion. 

Peter the Great sent Ysbrants Ides as an ambassador to China, in 1715. 
The account of this mission is full of interest, and apparently written with great 
regard to accuracy. He found the Jesuits established at Peking. 

In 1720, Peter sent another mission to Peking, and an intercourse between 
both empires appears to have been maintained since that period with but little 
interruption. 

A legation was sent by the Pope in 1721 to the Emperor Kanghi, about some 
difference of opinion between the Christians residing in China, as to the Pope's 
infallibility. 

The treaty of 1728 between Catherine the First of Russia, and China, stipu- 
lated that a Russian mission of six priests and four lay members should reside at 
Peking. This mission has been ever since maintained at that capital ; the priests 
and students are, however, every ten years, relieved by a fresh number of priests 
and students from Russia. 

In 1754 an embassy was sent from Macao by Portugal to Peking. 

In 1792 his Britannic Majesty and the East India government commissioned 
Lord Macartney as ambassador to China. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

In 1816 Lord Amherst was sent as ambassador to China. This embassy 
refusing to knock heads nine times against the ground, was treated with insolence 
and returned unsuccessful, bringing a letter from the emperor to the Prince Regent, 
containing the following act of grace: — il I have sent these ambassadors back to 
their own country without punishing them for the high crime they have committed." 

That the people of China have remained, with regard to arts, sciences, and 
agriculture, for a long period without advancing in civilisation is evident from 
various facts. 

First. — The Chinese junks appear to have been constructed exactly in the 
same form and of the same kind of materials, and rigged and equipped, when the 
known European intercourse with China occurred, as they are at the present 
day ; consequently, either the genius of the people is not favourable to improve- 
ment in naval architecture, or such improvement is prevented by the policy of 
the government. 

Secondly. — The same remark applies to the architecture of Chinese public 
edifices and private dwellings ; to their implements of all kinds ; to their me- 
chanical arts ; to their agriculture ; to their morals and social condition. 

Hence it would appear that the Chinese are either more inveterately bigoted 
to what was known and practised by their ancestors, many centuries ago, or that 
they are so completely awed by the authority of the barbarous policy of their 
Tartar rulers, as to submit tamely to no change, and that they make no effort at 
improvement, or of attaining independent action. 

With regard to navigation, various records describe their maritime inter- 
course with their junks having formerly extended to Ceylon and India. They 
now venture no further than the Straits of Malacca. 

In the scale of social beings, they cannot, whatever may be their arrogance, 
be admired for their dignity or morality of character. Cowardice must form a 
predominant feeling among them ; and unfortunately, cunning among mankind is 
too frequently as closely allied to cowardice and immorality, as it is absent in 
the brave, wise, dignified, and virtuous. 

In the moral code of the Chinese we find abundance of sage and virtuous 
maxims, and consequently wise and good minds have been their teachers, though 
hypocrites may have been abundant in promulgating them. If we can place any 
reliance upon the various accounts which the Jesuits and other travellers have 
written of what they have witnessed, or which they say they have witnessed, 
and which even writers so recent as GutzlafF have beheld, China is an empire 
in which the government is an absolute despotism ; and in which the people, 
except it be in their municipalities, live in servile obedience, not from moral 
principle, but from fear. The people are also characterised by great industry 
and saving habits, except when opium becomes the temptation to extrava- 
gance ; — by an ingenuity or rather cunning, and eagerness to trade with 
foreigners, which is limited only by the policy of the government, and the 

b 2 



H< CHINESE EMPIRE. 

want of courage in the people to resist and overthrow, a policy of humilia- 
tion, by whatever power wielded. They appear to practise many virtues, 
and, without shame, they indulge in the most sensual vices. They are not 
remarkable for cleanliness. The very circumstance of the horrible compression 
of the feet of the female infants, when this unfortunate sex is incapable of 
resisting the cruelty, is alone an hereditary barbarism, which reveals sufficient 
to characterise the people who practise it, as in many respects more brutal 
than some North-western American tribes, who by pressure gradually flatten 
the heads of their children. In all countries there are hereditary vices, but in 
no European state do we observe any so barbarous nor so tenaciously practised 
as in China. Slave-holding exists, though this abomination may not generally 
prevail. Infanticide is declared by some travellers to be common — others deny 
the perpetration, except rarely, of this most unnatural of crimes. 

We, however, believe that the Chinese know and practise much that is 
useful, and socially good. They understood irrigation and rendering the soil 
productive, no doubt as early and as well as the Egyptians. They from an early 
period had their men of letters, their philosophers, their physicians, and their 
pharmacopoeia. It is doubtful whether they were not the first inventors of the 
mariner's compass ; and as manufacturers of woven cloths, and of porcelain, they 
arrived at greater perfection at an early period, than the people, as far as we 
know, of any other country. 

Their history, as written by their own historians, is, with some virtuous and 
just exceptions, generally a record of tyranny, changes of dynasty, and massacres 
and assassinations. At a much earlier period than the era of the present 
dynasty, the Tartar race domineered over and held in terror the people of the 
northern and north-eastern provinces. 

Leaving the dynasties which have been overthrown and which have perished, 
to the province of the historian* we have now to consider the power that is sup- 
posed actually to govern, or at least reigns, and the people who obey or submit; 
and, as far as we can ascertain, the country over which one race claims sovereignty, 
and in which the other constitute the great mass of the inhabitants. 

Were that barbarous nightmare of exclusion, which smothers civilisation, — that 
which prevents an unlimited peaceful intercourse between all the nations of the 
earth, with all but five of every sea-port, province, and inland town of China, but 
once extinguished, a new, and happy, and civilised era would dawn upon this 
utterly miscalled Celestial Empire. According to natural reason, it appears, 
morally and justly, not irrational to conclude that the Almighty Creator never 
bequeathed any portion of this world exclusively to any one branch of the 
human family ; that he created the earth for the universal use and habitation of 
his creatures ; and that when one nation denies the peaceable liberty of inter- 
course to another, the natural law of right, justifies the enforcement of that inter- 
course among the families of mankind. But this policy, on the other hand, can 
only be justified by a necessity, upon the part of those excluded, of a nature 



GENERAL DESCRIPTION OE CHINA. 5 

similar to the condition of a people compelled, in order to escape being drowned 
by a flood, to seek refuge by force on their neighbours' grounds. A much less 
degree of necessity will, however, in all probability force China to open her ports, 
gates, and highways to the rest of mankind. 

It must now be generally admitted, that the well-known ill-conduct of 
European adventurers to each other in Eastern countries, and the servility of 
their demeanour for a long time, in order to trade with China, merited the ex- 
clusiveness, and, to a great degree, justified the contemptuous language of the 
Chinese towards British and other foreign traders. Recent circumstances and 
the late war have, however, clearly demonstrated how easily the arrogance of 
this race may be reduced to the most abject humility ; and, notwithstanding the 
almost unbounded eulogies lavished on the treaty with the Chinese, we are 
compelled to declare that treaty, and its accompanying agreements, as incom- 
plete, and very far from satisfactory with regard to the intercourse and trade 
of civilised nations with China. 



CHAPTER II. 

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF CHIN4. 

The empire of China Proper extends from north to south between its extreme 
latitudes from 20 deg. 15 min. N. to about 42 deg. N. latitude, exclusive of the 
island of Hainan, which lies between 18 deg. and 20 cleg. N. latitude. From east 
to west China embraces the regions situated between 122 deg. E. to about 98 deg. 
E. longitude, exclusive of the usually considered dependent kingdom of Thibet, 
and of the numerous islands: the principal of which latter are Hainan, Formosa, 
Chusan, Hong Ming, and Yan-tay-shan. 

The extent and area of the dependent nations, as well as our information 
respecting them, are altogether uncertain. Since the time when the Jesuit 
writers travelled, whose accounts were compiled by Duhalde, European inter- 
course has been generally so much limited to certain routes, and so strictly 
guarded, that generally the information which they could obtain has been meagre 
and uncertain. The authorities on which we can chiefly rely are the accounts of 
the Jesuit missionaries, and especially those comprised in the great work of 
Duhalde, — the information collected by Mr. GutzlafF, and the Russians and 
Dutch, and such as has been lately obtained by British intercourse with China, 
and the facts collected by the recently appointed consuls, and by the French 
and American missions to China.* 

* The recent work on China by Mr. Montgomery Martin, comprises, in two volumes, the 
most interesting information to the general reader, and although its commercial statistics are not 
so comprehensive as may be deemed necessary, the correctness of his tabular statements are 
corroborated by the best authorities which we have had official recourse to in compiling the 
statistics in this report on China. The reports of the French commission to China, published by 
the Minister of Commerce, abound with useful information. 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



The aspect and configuration of the sea- coast, the harbours, and the mouths 
of the great rivers that flow down from its mountains, are known with tolerable 
accuracy. The vast regions of Mongolia and Korea, north of the great Gulf of 
China Proper, and Thibet, and others north of the Himmalaya Mountains, are, 
however specious the descriptions, but little known to Europeans. The nations 
which inhabit those vast districts of Asia being undoubtedly in at least a semi- 
barbarous state, they are probably but nominally dependent on, and possibly 
more dreaded by than subjected to, the Chinese emperor. 

The supposed dependent provinces occupy a surface estimated at nearly 
treble the area of China Proper, or more than 3,000,000 geographical square miles, 
and China Proper is estimated to comprise about 1,100,000 geographical square 
miles, or in all about 4,200,000 geographical square miles, of 360 miles to the 
square degree. 

Those vast regions include every variety of configuration, soil, climate, and 
production ; but the tropical climate and products are limited to but a small section 
of the southern parts. Chains of mountains, vast plains, hills, sterile deserts, rivers, 
lakes, swamps, and fertile valleys are characteristic features. Some of the largest 
rivers in the world, especially those flowing into Siberia and into the Arctic Sea, 
have their sources in the mountains and lakes of China. {See Russia.) 

The great river Ya-Tse-Kiang not only intersects, with its magnificent 
branches, the whole empire of China Proper from west to east, but communicates 
by canals to most, if not all, of its provinces, from its sources in Tartary to its 
mouth below Nanking; it is estimated to be more than 2000 miles in length — it 
has many navigable branches. The Hoang-Ho, or Yellow river, is also of great 
length and magnitude, and the Se-kiang and numerous other rivers, connected as 
they are by canals, open a most extensive inland navigation throughout China 
Proper. Some of the lakes are described as large. 

Area and Population of the several Provinces of China, taken, according to Mr. GutzlafF 
and others, from the Chinese Official Returns. 



PROVINCES. 



Chih-le 

Shan-tung 

Shan-se 

Honan 

Keang-soo 

Gan-hwuy 

Keang-si 

Foo- Keen , . . 

Che-Keang 

Hoo-Pih 

Hunan 

Shen-se 

Kan-suh 

Sze-Chuen 

Kwang-tuug, or Canton. 

Kwan g-si 

Yun-Nan 

Kwei-Choo 



PROVINCIAL 
CAPITAL. 



Peking 

Tse-nan-foo 

Tae-yuen-foo 

Kae-fung-foo.. .. 

Nanking 

Gan-king-foo.... 
Nan-chang-foo... 
Fuh-choo-foo... . 
Hang-choo-foo .. 
VVoo-chang-foo .. 
Chang-cha foo.. . 

Se-gan-foo 

Lan-choo-foo. .. . 
Clung-too-foo . . . 
Kwang-choo-foo. 

Kwe-lin-foo 

Yun-nan-foo ... . 
Kwei-yang-foo .. 



Geographical 
Position. 



Lat. N. 
d. m. s. 
39.54.13 
36.44.24 
37.53.30 
34.55.00 
32.04.40 
30.37.10 
28.37.12 
20.02.24 
30.20.20 
30.34.50 
28.12.00 
34.16.45 
36.08.21 
30.40.41 
23.0809 
25.13.12 
25.06.00 
26.30.00 



Long. E. 
d. m. s. 

116.28.00 
117.07.30 
112.30.30 
113.20.00 
118.47.00 
117.04.13 
115.48.17 
119.25.00 
120.07.34 
114.13 30 
112.46.57 
108.57.45 
103.55.00 
103.10.30 
111.16.30 
110.13.50 
102.51.40 
106.36.10 



Sea Coast, 

or 

Inland. 



Inland ... 
Sea Coast. 
Inland ... 
Inland ... 
Sea Coast. 
Sea Coast. 
Inland .. . 
Sea Coast. 
Sea Coast. 
Inland ... 
Inland ... 
Inland ... 
Inland .. . 
Inland . .. 
Sea Coast. 
Sea Coast. 
Inland... 
Inland ... 



Distance 

from 
Peking 



leagues. 



800 
1200 
1540 
2400 
2700 
2850 
4845 
3300 
3155 
4550 
2C50 
4040 
5700 
7570 
7460 
8200 
7640 



Total 1,297,999 367,632,907 



Area 

.in English 

Statute 

Miles. 



number. 

58,949 
65,104 
55,268 
65,104 

92,661 ■ 

72,176 
53,480 
39,150 

144,770 j 

154,008 < 

166,800 
79,456 
78,250 

107,969 
64,554 



Population 



number. 

27,990,871 
28,958,764 
14,004,210 
23,037,171 
37,843,501 
34,168,059 
30,426,999 
14,777,410 
26,256,784 
37,370,098 
18,652,507 
10,207,256 
15,193,135 
21,435,678 
19,147,030 
7,313,895 
5,561,320 
5,238,219 



Popu- 
lation on 

each 
Sq. Mile. 



number. 

473 
515 
253 
353 

[ 774 

421 
276 
671 

\ 317 

[• 164 

128 
214 

93 

51 

82 



BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCES OF CHINA. 7 

The above population appears to be excessive ; for in the evidence adduced 
before the Parliamentary Committees, in 1830, 1831, and 1832, the area of 
China was computed at 1,372,452 English statute square miles, and the number 
of inhabitants at 141,470,000, or 103 to the square mile; to which was added 
1,182,000 for the standing army, and 12,000,000 for Tartary. But the informa- 
tion possessed at that period was remarkably obscure with regard to the popu- 
lation. Thibet, Korea, the Mantchoo, and other Tartar and Mongolean states, 
are computed to have a population of more than 30,000,000, which would 
increase the whole population of China and its assumed dependencies to nearly 
400,000,000 of inhabitants. 

With respect to the different provinces, the following sketches are drawn up 
from the reports, accounts, and descriptions upon which we place the most 
reliance, and we have excluded all doubtful statements. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCES OF CHINA. 

The orthography of Chinese names must be considered arbitrary. European 
characters can only be applied so as to impart to the pronunciation of each, the 
sound according to the expressions of the European alphabet. Hence arises not 
only the diversity of spelling, but of the actual pronunciation, when written by 
the natives of different countries. Chinese names are, therefore, spelt differently 
by the English, Dutch, French, German, and especially by the Portuguese. 

1. The province of Pi-chi-le, Pi-Tchyli, Chih-le, Pe-che-le, or Li-Pa-fu, is that 
where Peking is situated. Duhalde describes the climate as temperate, but that the 
rivers are frozen during four months in the year. Timkowski describes the winter 
he passed at Peking as exceedingly cold, and the thermometer in December 
was several degrees below zero. 

The sea coast forms the eastern boundary of Pe-che-le from the province of 
Shan Tung to the Great Wall, which with a part of Tartary bounds it on the north 
in about latitude 42 deg. N. On the west, for a distance of more than 500 miles 
it is bounded by Shan- si, or Shanse and Honan. The western parts of the province 
are low or extend in plains, and slope towards the sea, but the country towards 
Shan-si is hilly. There are lakes in the eastern and southern parts of Pe-che-le, 
and the great canal traverses the eastern district, and falls into the Pi-ho in latitude 
39 deg. 11 min., longitude deg. 48 min, east of Peking. The Pi-ho river, which 
rises a little without the Great Wall, flows into the sea or gulf of Pi-chi-le. The 
entrance to the Pi-ho is shallow on the bar off its mouth. The province is divided 
into fu or foo, ting, chaw, and keen. Foo is a large division of a province ; ting 
is a smaller division; chaw is a similar division to a ting; both are inde- 
pendent of the foo ; heen, or hee 9 is a sub-division of a foo, chaw, or ting. 
Each foo, ting, chaw, and heen has one walled town, or seat of its local 
government. 



8 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

Pi-chi-le contains eleven foos, six chaws, three tings, seventeen chaws, and 124 
heens. Its area, according to M. Gutzlaff, is about 59,400 square miles. 

The sky is generally clear, and unless the wind blows from the north the 
severity of the frost is not felt. Rains occur, chieHy in July and the beginning of 
August. Dews fall at night in dry weather. The roads are dusty in dry weather. 
Thin veils are worn by people with tender eyes. Soil, light and sandy, sometimes 
mixed with clay, but rendered by cultivation fruitful. The rivers abound in fish, 
especially cray-fish. The inhabitants have been described as more robust than 
those of the southern provinces. 

M. Gutzlaff says there are no good harbours on the coast of Pi-chi-le. The 
trade of this province is chiefly an import trade. Cattle are driven in from 
Tartary, and some inferior coal is exported ; salt is also an article of export. 

Timkowski says the plains of this province are well cultivated ; the lands at 
the foot of the north and south- east mountains, are low, and decline downwards 
towards the sea. One sees numerous villages, with houses surrounded by trees, 
such as willows, cypresses, chestnuts, &c. The roads wind through the country, 
and ten versts from Theing-ho commence the country houses and cemeteries of the 
most distinguished Peking families. He met on the road several Mandchou begas 
and Mongolian camels laden with butter for Peking. When made near the sea- 
side it is piled up in numerous mounds, containing from 4000 to 10,000 piculs, 
and then covered with earth until sold. Vessels are said to be constantly em- 
ployed in carrying salt over the province and neighbouring country; about 
1000 in number ply without cessation. Teentsin supplies salt to the province 
and to all the north-western parts of the empire. The salt merchants, who are 
chiefly natives of Shanse, are also bankers, and said to be very wealthy. 

The inland trade of Chili includes about 6000 junks, which arrive from other 
parts of China, with annually, it is stated, above 2,500,000 shih of rice. 

2. Shantung is situated east of Pi-chi-le, and Honan north of Krang- 
nan. One half of its frontier is bounded by the Gulf of Pi-chi-le, and by the 
Yellow Sea. This province is described by Gutzlaff as rocky, and often high 
along the shores, abounding with good harbours, the rendezvous of numerous 
junks, — Teng-choo-fu and Kau-chso-fu being the principal. The area about 
56,800 square miles. Mr. Martin states it at 65,104 square miles. It is de- 
scribed as over-peopled, and a great portion of the people poor, although the 
province abounds in fertile valleys. It is, however, generally a hilly or moun- 
tainous country. 

The inland navigation of this province affords great trading advantages, and 
the transit trade is extensive. It exports drugs and vast quantities of vegetables. 
It has manufactures of felt caps, carpets, and some coarse hempen cloths. The 
province is intersected by rivers. The Tat-sing-ho is the largest river, and the 



BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCES OF CHINA. 9 

Yu-ho is a branch of the Pei-ho. The grand canal, commencing at Lingsing-chau, 
passes north to Tientsin. It is navigated by innumerable craft and gram junks. 

3. Keang-soo and Gan-hwuy, now two, were formerly one province, called 
Keang-nan. On the north they are bounded by Shantung and Honan ; on the 
south by Keang-si and Che-keang ; on the east by the Yellow Sea ; on the west 
by Hoo-pih and Hun-an. The provinces extend from 29 deg. to 35 deg. 8 min. 
north latitude, and from 5 deg. 10 min. east of Peking, to 1 deg. 30 min. west. 
The rivers chiefly flow into the Yangtzee-kang, or into the Hwai. In the 
southern part of this province there are mountain ranges. The sea-coast is 
low. The soil for some miles inland is alluvial. The island Tac-shan, off the 
coast, to the north of the Yellow River, is intersected by two ridges of high 
hills. Area, according to Gutzlaff, 81,500 square miles. Mr. Martin says, 
92,661. The soil is generally fertile. The inhabitants are renowned for their 
skill and industry, and the provinces are described as containing many thousands 
of villages, towns, and cities, but it is said to be over-populated. Nankin, 
the ancient capital of China, and Soo-choo, the greatest manufacturing city, 
are in Keang-soo. With the exception of Shang-hai, and the harbour on the 
Great River of Nankin, it has few good harbours. 

From all we know of these provinces, we are led to regret that no effort was 
made, when the late treaty was negotiated, to establish an entrepot for foreign 
trade, either at Nankin or at some other town on the greatest commercial 
entrance and outlet by water in the empire, both by river and canal navigation. 
Gan-hwuy is the chief green-tea-growing province. 

4. Chekiang, or Chekeang, called the Land of Silks and Green Teas, is 
bounded on the north by Keang-soo, east by the sea, south by Foo-keen, or Fo- 
kien, and by Kiang-si and Gan-hwuy on the west. This province is in general 
hilly, with numerous rivers, the chief of which is the navigable Tchang-keang, 
near the mouth of which stands Hang-choo, the capital, amidst scenery which 
is celebrated for its romantic grandeur. The sea-coast is fringed with Chusan 
and other islands. It has several harbours, the principal of which are Cha-poo, 
Hang-choo, Ning-po, Ting-hae, Shippoo, Wan-choo, and Tae-choo ; besides others 
in Chusan. Area, according to Gutzlaff, 57,200 square miles ; Mr. Martin says, 
39,150. 

The northern part of this province has good inland navigation. The chief 
mart of the internal trade is Hang-choo, a place celebrated for its crapes of beau- 
tiful colour and fineness, its embroidery, various silks, and for its excellent raw 
silks. Cottonwool is also grown and exported. In Tchaou-king a fermented liquor 
is made which is sold in most parts of the empire. Hams are said to be cured at 
Kin-hwa in great quantities. Amongst the imports are sugar, rice (in transit, on 
the great canal), cotton manufactures, felts, &c. 



10 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

5. Foo-Keen, or Fo-Kien, anciently called Ho-Keen, or Min, is bounded on 
the north by Che-Keang, south by Kwang-tung, east by the sea, and on the 
west by Keang-si. It extends from 25 deg. 35 min. to 28 deg. 47 min. north 
lat., and from 22 min. west of Peking to 4 deg. long, east of Peking. This pro- 
vince is mountainous, with but small level parts, and its sea-coast abounds 
with many good harbours, and several inlets and bays. Off the coast there 
are the islands of Namoa, Tungshan, Haytan, and some minor ones. The 
Min, the chief river, has numerous branches, all which join the main river 
before it passes the city of Fou-choo. This province, though not fertile, is said 
to produce the greater part of the best black tea. It is transported over a 
mountainous and difficult road. (See account of Tea and the Tea Trade here- 
after.) Sugar-canes are extensively grown, and sugar exported. Camphor, 
tobacco, and indigo are articles of export growth. Iron abounds- 

6. Kwang-tung (spelt and pronounced by Europeans Canton) extends from 
20 deg. 13 min. to 25 deg. 34 min. north lat., and from 53 min. east of Peking to 
8 deg. 50 min. long, west of Peking. It bounds on the north upon Keang-si and 
Fo-keen ; south on the sea ; east on Foo-keen ; west on Kwang-se, Hu-nan, 
Ton-quin, and the River Gan-nan. 

A chain of mountains extends along the northern boundaries of Kwang- 
tung. The principal islands along the coast are Hai-nan and the Ladrones* 
Hai-nan is mountainous, and about fifty leagues in length, and about 
thirty-five leagues in breadth ; its north-west and west coasts are said to have 
dangerous shoal banks extending six or seven leagues from the coast. There 
are several excellent harbours on the south. This province has extensive river 
navigation; the city of Canton is situated on the Choo-keang, or Si-keang, 
Pearl River. Chaou-choo-foo is situated on the Han-keang. 

Kwang-tung has some manufactures, and grows, with other raw produce, 
sugar and an inferior kind of green tea. The latter is exported chiefly to the 
United States. Among the other products are cassia, betel nut, and iron. 
Among the manufactures are Canton silks, cotton, and grass-cloth, lacquered 
ware, jewellery and stones, mirrors, toilets for ladies, pictures, &c, with which 
it provides the empire. The manufacturing industry is confined nearly altogether, 
it is said, to the City of Canton, to Fuh-chow, and a few other cities. Canton 
provides nearly the whole empire with glass-ware. It is a general mart for all 
China; there are agents from all the other provinces at Canton. 

7. Kwang-se is bounded on the north by Kwei-choo and Hu-nan ; east by 
Kwang-tung ; west by Yun-nan ; and south by Ton-quin, and part of Kwang-tung. 
There are numerous small rivers flowing down from the mountains. 

8. Yun-nan is the most westerly province, and extends from 2 1 deg. 40 min. 
to 28 deg. north lat.; and from 10 deg. 30 min. to 18 deg. 50 min. long, west of 



BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCES OF CHINA. 11 

Peking. It is bounded on the north by Sze-chuen; on the east by Kwei-choo 
and Kwang-se; west by Thibet, and other wild territories ; south by Ava, Laos, 
and Tonquin. The Mei-nan-kong, or Kew-long-keang, and Nan-ting-ho, are 
rivers of considerable breadth, and flow, the first into Cambodia, and the second 
into the Gulf of Siam, below Bangkok. Of four lakes, the largest, Shang-kwan, 
is about thirty miles long. The mountains are bold, and said to be rugged. 

9. Kwei-choo extends from 24 deg. 40 min. to 29 deg. north lat, and from 
7 deg. 17 min. to 12 deg. 36 min. long, west of Peking. It is bounded on the north 
by Sze-chuen ; south by the Kwang-se and Yun-nan ; on the east by Hu-nan ; 
and on the west by Sze-chuen. It is chiefly a mountainous region. Several large 
rivers intersect this province. This province, of which and of all the inland 
provinces of China we know but little with certainty, is described as very fertile. 

10. Hoo-pih and Hu-nan, formerly confined within Hoo-kwang, are bounded 
to the north by the province of Hu-nan ; on the south by Kwang-tung and 
Kwang-se ; on the east by Kiang-nan and Kiang-si ; and on the west by Shen-se, 
Sze- chuen, and Kwei-choo ; and extends from lat. 24 deg. 45 min. to 33 deg. 20 min. 
north, and from long. 20 min. to 8 deg. W. of Peking. The Yang-tze-keang divides 
the northern Hoo-pih from the southern division, the Hu-nan. The Han-keang, 
and several rivers, flow into the Yangtzekeang. There are numerous lakes, 
and these provinces are well watered, and carry on a great trade in raw 
produce. Coals are carried by the inland junks to all places along the great 
canal. Iron, lead, copper, and other minerals abound. Both provinces export 
grain and tobacco. The only manufacture for foreign use is a sort of paper. 
Horses and asses are exported. Voo-chang-foo is a considerable trading town, 
at the confluence of the Han-keang and Yangtsze, and the inhabitants own a 
great number of vessels. Yong-choo-foo is a mart for grain for exportation. 
The mountainous districts produce a variety of drugs. Grain is the staple 
product of Hu-nan. 

11. Sze-chuen is the largest of the Chinese provinces, and extends from 25 
deg. 57 min. to 33 deg. north latitude, and extends from longitude 6 deg. 50 min. 
to 15 deg. 43 min. west of Peking. It is bounded on the north by Shen-se, on the 
south by Yun-nan and Kwei-choo, on the west by the Kokonor Tartars, Thibet, 
and on the east by Hu-nan and Hoo-pih. The Yang-tze-keang river traverses 
this province, of which we know little. 

12. Shen-se and Kansuh were formerly one province. These provinces extend 
from latitude 32 deg. to 40 min. north, and from longitude 5 deg. 25 min. to 17 deg. 
west of Peking. They are bounded on the north by Mongolia, on the south by 
Hoo-pih and Sze-chuen, on the east by Shen-se, and on the west by Mongolia. 
The Great Wall extends along the northern boundaries. There are several 
mountain ridges in Shen-se. The river Hwang-ho flows down near the Great 



12 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

Wall, crossing it twice. The Wei-ho, one of the large rivers in China, flows 
into the Yellow River. The Han-ho and Kin-tsin-ho flow from Shen-se into 
Hoo-pih. 

This province has mines of iron, copper, gold, also jasper, porphyry, &c. 
There are some fertile plains in the north. Millet is extensively grown. There 
are several distilleries. 

13. Kiang-si extends from latitude 24 deg. 30min. to 30 deg. 10 min. north, 
and is bounded on the north-east by Kiang-nan, on the east by Che-kiang and 
Fo-Kien, on the south by Kwang-tung, and on the west by Hunan. 

This province has a very industrious, active population. The country, though 
mountainous, especially in the south, has good water communication by means 
of its rivers. It is said to possess rich mines of gold, iron, tin, and lead, the 
greater part of which are worked. The province produces excellent hemp; its 
grass cloth is fine, in great demand, and not surpassed by the best Canton 
stuffs. There is a great trade in drugs. The Keangsin agriculturists have suc- 
cessfully transplanted the Fokien black tea, and exported a considerable quantity 
of it. The porcelain manufactories at Kin-kin-ching furnish nearly all China ; 
it is made in perfection. The largest entrepots for it are Nan-chang-foo and Kew- 
keang-foo. 

14. Honan, anciently called Yen and Yu, is bounded to^the north by Chih-li* 
Shantung, and Shan-se, south by Hoo-pih, east by Keang-nan (Keangso and 
Anlrwin), and west by Shan-se. It extends from 37 deg. south to 31 deg. 
30 min. north latitude, and from 25 min. east longitude to 6 deg. 21 min. west of 
Peking. The river Hwang-ho flows across the province. The other rivers are 
numerous. 

15. Shan-se, anciently Tsin and Chau,is bounded on the east by Pe Cheh-li 
and Honan, on the south by Honan, on the west by Shen-se, and on the north by 
Mongolia and the Great Wall. The western and southern parts are also bounded 
by the Yellow River. Along the north the province is mountainous, and watered 
by numerous rivers. 

The Island of Formosa is partly under the authority of the Chinese. It is 
about 300 miles long. Mountainous along the whole centre. The plains of the 
southern part, skilfully cultivated by the Chinese, are described as remarkably 
fertile. This district is populous and healthy. The unsubdued tribes are 
said to be in a savage state. Formosa produces grain, and exports rice, 
sugar, camphor, tobacco, and other articles. About 300 junks are said to be em- 
ployed in its exclusive trade, which is confined to China Proper. We know little 
of Formosa. Good coal, gold, silver, copper, and cinnabar are said to abound. 

Dependent States. — The countries and people which are really, nominally, 
or fictitiously dependent on China, comprise those vast regions that extend north 



BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PROVINCES OF CHINA. 13 

and west from China to the frontiers of Asiatic Russia, and west to the countries 
of the Tartar nations of Bockaria, Kokonar, and other ill-defined nations or 
hordes ; the Himalaya Mountains forming the southern boundary of Thibet 
and those Tartar states. Thibet is usually laid down as extending north of the 
Himalaya Mountains, and comprising that side of the chain, and extending east 
from Cashmere and Bockaria to China Proper and Turkestan, and north to the 
Great Desert of Cobi, and the Koulkan Mountains. Its area extends from about 
27 deg. to 35 deg. north latitude, and from 72 deg. to 104 deg. 30 min. east 
longitude. 

The Chinese do not appear to claim any sovereignty over Little, or Western, 
Thibet; and the authority over Great, or Eastern, Thibet can scarcely be said to 
be more, in many parts, than nominal. The elevated table-land of the Himalaya, 
with the sources of many of the great Asiatic rivers, are included within Thibet. 
There are numerous lakes, one 110 miles long, within this region. 

Boot an, immediately on the south, or British India side of the Himalaya, 
and described as a region of mountain slopes and valleys of perpetual verdure, 
of splendid forests, contrasts, according to travellers, with Thibet; by the latter, 
on passing to the north and north-eastern sides, exhibiting rocky hills with little 
apparent vegetation, extensive plateaux with a bleak and cold climate, but afford- 
ing excellent pasturage, on which feed innumerable herds. Thibet derives also 
riches from its mines ; and its lakes and waters are frequented by flocks of innu- 
merable water-fowl. The climate and winds are remarkably dry, but interrupted 
by thunder-storms and showers. Tincal is obtained in inexhaustible quantities; 
gold is found in lumps and in irregular veins. There are also mines of lead, 
copper, and cinnabar ; but little iron. Fuel, from the scarcity of wood, and the 
non-discovery of coal, is insufficient for ordinary cooking purposes. Barley, 
peas, some wheat, chiefly the first, are the ordinary crops ; sheep are the most 
abundant and the most useful animals reared, and are driven to Bootan and 
China for sale. Their wool is extolled, and formerly some plains in Thibet were 
famous for woollen fabrics, and Lassa is still said to produce good woollen cloths. 
The trade of the country is chiefly with China. 

Lassa, in 30 deg. 43 min. north latitude, is the chief city of Upper or Lesser 
Thibet, and situated in an extensive valley. 

The government of Thibet, like Turkestan, is administered by natives, with 
the nominal control of some Chinese residents. 

Chinese Tartary, which includes Eastern Turkestan, was, previous to 
the year 1772, under the Kalmucks, from whom it was conquered that year 
by the Chinese. Wars and rebellions appear to have prevailed ever since. 
A considerable trade is carried on between China and Chinese Tartary. The 
products of the latter are wheat, barley, rice, oil, seeds, vegetables, fruits, 
and silks of good quality. The fine goats' wools are much esteemed for 
making shawls. 



14 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

Mongolia comprises vast regions ; in all, about 1450 miles in length and 
more than 1000 miles in breadth, and its area is estimated at about 1,200,000 
square miles. The people are said to live chiefly in tents. Grain is grown in 
some parts, but the inhabitants, who are stated to be thinly scattered over 
the country, depend chiefly on pasturage for the means of subsistence. 

The Man-tchou Tartar country is mountainous and thinly populated, yet 
in the middle of the seventeenth century they conquered the Chinese, and they 
have ever since, though so few in number, continued to be the governing race. 

Our information respecting the internal affairs of China does not warrant 
our entering, with any confidence, on this interesting inquiry ; we will therefore 
confine our remarks and statements to commercial facts. 



CHAPTER III. 



BRITISH TREATY WITH CHINA — TARIFF OF DUTIES AND COMMERCIAL 

REGULATIONS. 

Treaty between Her Majesty and the Emperor of China, signed in the English and 
Chinese Languages, at Nanking, August 29, 1842. With other Documents relating 
thereto. Ratifications exchanged at Hong Kong, June 26, 1843. 

Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and his Majesty 
the Emperor of China, being desirous of putting an end to the misunderstandings and consequent 
hostilities which have arisen between the two countries, have resolved to conclude a treaty for that 
purpose, and have therefore named as their plenipotentiaries, that is to say : 

Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, Sir Henry Pottinger, Bart.; a Major- 
General in the service of the East India Company, &c. &c. 

And his Imperial Majesty the Emperor of China, the High Commissioners Keying, a Member 
of the Imperial House, a Guardian of the Crown Prince, and General of the Garrison of Canton ; 
and Elepoo, of the Imperial Kindred, graciously permitted to wear the insignia of the first rank, 
and the distinction of a peacock's feather, lately Minister and Governor-General, &c, and now 
Lieutenant-General commanding at Chapoo ; 

Who, after having communicated to each other their respective full powers, and found them to 
be in good and due form, have agreed upon and concluded the following Articles : 

I. There shall henceforward be peace and friendship between Her Majesty the Queen of the 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and His Majesty the Emperor of China, and 
between their respective subjects, who shall enjoy full security and protection for their persons 
and property within the dominions of the other. 

II. His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees, that British subjects, with their families and 
establishments, shall be allowed to reside, for the purpose of carrying on their mercantile pursuits, 
without molestation or restraint, at the cities and towns of Canton, Amoy, Foochowfoo, Ningpo, 
and Shanghai ; and Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, &c, will appoint Superintendents, 
or Consular Officers, to reside at each of the above-named cities or towns, to be the medium of 
communication between the Chinese authorities and the said merchants, and to see that the just 
duties and other dues of the Chinese Government, as hereafter provided for, are duly discharged 
by Her Britannic Majesty's subjects. 

III. It being obviously necessary and desirable that British subjects should have some port 
whereat they may careen and refit their ships when required, and keep stores for that purpose, 
His Majesty the Emperor of China cedes to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, &c, the 
island of Hong-Kong, to be possessed in perpetuity by Her Britannic Majesty, her heirs and 
successors, and to be governed by such laws and regulations as Her Majesty the Queen of Great 
Britain, &c, shall see fit to direct. 



BRITISH TREATY WITH CHINA. 15 

IV. The Emperor of China agrees to pay the sum of six millions of dollars as the value of the 
opium which was delivered up at Canton in the month of March 1839, as a ransom for the lives of 
Her Britannic Majesty's superintendent and subjects who had been imprisoned and threatened 
with death by the Chinese High Officers. 

V. The Government of China having compelled the British merchants trading at Canton to 
deal exclusively with certain Chinese merchants, called Hong Merchants (or Co-Hong), who had 
been licensed by the Chinese Government for that purpose, the Emperor of China agrees to 
abolish that practice in future at all ports where British merchants may reside, and to permit them 
to carry on their mercantile transactions with whatever persons they please ; and his Imperial 
Majesty further agrees to pay to the British Government the sum of three millions of dollars, on 
account of debts'due to British subjects by some of the said Hong merchants, or Co-Hong, 
who have become insolvent, and who owe very large sums of money to subjects of her Britannic 
Majesty. 

VI. The Government of Her Britannic Majesty having been obliged to send out an expe- 
dition to demand and obtain redress for the violent and unjust proceedings of the Chinese High 
Authorities towards Her Britannic Majesty's officer and subjects, the Emperor of China agrees 
to pay the sum of twelve millions of dollars, on account of the expenses incurred ; and Her 
Britannic Majesty's Plenipotentiary voluntarily agrees, on behalf of Her Majesty, to deduct from 
the said amount of twelve millions of dollars, any sums which may have been received by Her Ma- 
jesty's combined forces, as ransom for cities and towns in China, subsequent to the 1st day of 
August, 1841. 

VII. It is agreed that the total amount of twenty-one millions of dollars, described in the three 
preceding Articles, shall be paid as follows : 

Six millions immediately. 

Six millions in 1843 ; that is, three millions on or before the 30th of the month of June, and 

three millions on or before the 31st of December. 
Five millions in 1844; that is, two millions and a half on or before the 30th of June, and two 

millions and a half on or before the 31st of December. 
Four millions in 1845 ; that is, two millions on or before the 30th of June, and two millions 
on or before the 31st of December. 
And it is further stipulated, that interest, at the rate of 5 per cent, per annum, shall be paid by the 
Government of China on any portion of the above sums that are not punctually discharged at the 
periods fixed. 

VIII. The Emperor of China agrees to release unconditionally, all subjects of Her Britannic 
Majesty (whether natives of Europe or India), who may be in confinement at this moment in any 
part of the Chinese empire. 

IX. The Emperor of China agrees to publish and promulgate, under his Imperial Sign Manual 
and Seal, a full and entire amnesty and act of indemnity to all subjects of China, on account of 
their having resided under, or having had dealings and intercourse with, or having entered the 
service of, Her Britannic Majesty, or of Her Majesty's officers ; and His Imperial Majesty further 
engages to release all Chinese subjects who may be at this moment in confinement for similar 
reasons. 

X. His Majesty the Emperor of China agrees to establish at all the ports which are, by the 
Second Article of this Treaty, to be thrown open for the resort of British Merchants, a fair and 
regular tariff of export and import customs and other dues, which Tariff shall be publicly notified 
and promulgated for general information ; and the Emperor further engages, that when British 
Merchandise shall have once paid at any of the said ports the regulated customs and dues, agree- 
able to the Tariff to be hereafter fixed, such merchandise may be conveyed by Chinese merchants 
to any province or city in the interior of the empire of China, on paying a/urther amount as transit 
duties, which shall not exceed* per cent, on the tariff value of such goods. 

XI. It is agreed that Her Britannic Majesty's Chief High Officer in China shall correspond 
with the Chinese High Officers, both at the capital and in the provinces, under the term "com- 
munication ;"f the subordinate British officers and Chinese High Officers in the provinces, under 
the terms "statement,"f on the part of the former, and on the part of the latter, " declaration,"f 
and the subordinates of both countries on a footing of perfect equality : merchants and others not 
holding official situations, and therefore not included in the above, on both sides, to use the 
term " representation"-]- in all papers addressed to, or intended for the notice of, the respective 
Governments. 

XII. On the assent of the Emperor of China to this Treaty being received, and the discharge 
of the first instalment of money, Her Britannic Majesty's forces will retire from Nanking and the 
Grand Canal, and will no longer molest or stop the trade of China. The military post at Chinhae 
will also be withdrawn ; but the islands of Koolangsoo, and that of Chusan, will continue to be 

* See declaration on this subject, which follows the Treaty, 
y In the original, the Chinese characters are also inserted. 



16 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



held by Her Majesty's forces until the money payments, and the arrangements for opening the 
ports to British merchants, be completed. 

XIII. The Ratification of this Treaty by Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, &c, and 
His Majesty the Emperor of China, shall be exchanged as soon as the great distance which sepa- 
rates England from China will admit ; but, in the meantime, counterpart copies of it, signed and 
sealed by the Plenipotentiaries on behalf of their respective Sovereigns, shall be mutually delivered, 
and all its provisions and arrangements shall take effect. 

Done at Nanking, and signed and sealed by the Plenipotentiaries on board her Britannic 
Majesty's ship Cornwallis, this 29th day of August, 1842; corresponding with the 
Chinese date 24th day of the 7th month, in the 22nd year of Taoukwang. 

(L. S.) HENRY POTTINGER. 

Her M.'s Plenipotentiary. 



Seal of 

the Chinese 

High 

Commissioner. 



Signature 

of 3rd 

Chinese 

Plenipotentiary. 



Signature 

of 2nd 

Chinese 

Plenipotentiary. 



Signature 

of 1st 

Chinese 

Plenipotentiary. 



Declaration respecting Transit Duties ; Signed in the English and Chinese 

Languages. 

WHEREAS by the tenth Article of the Treaty between Her Majesty the Queen of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and His Majesty the Emperor of China, concluded and 
signed on board Her Britannic Majesty's ship Cornwallis, at Nanking, on the 29th day of August 
1842, corresponding with the Chinese date 24th day of the 7th month, in the 22nd year of 
Taoukwang, it is stipulated and agreed, that His Majesty the Emperor of China shall establish at 
all the ports which, by the second Article of the said Treat)', are to be thrown open for the resort 
of British Merchants, a fair and regular Tariff of export and import customs and other dues ; 
which Tariff shall be publicly notified and promulgated for general information ; and further, that 
when British merchandise shall have once paid, at any of the said ports, the regulated customs 
and dues, agreeably to the Tariff to be hereafter fixed, such merchandise may be conveyed by 
Chinese merchants to any province or city in the interior of the empire of China on paying 
further amount of duty as transit duty : 

And whereas the rate of transit duty to be so levied was not to be fixed by the said Treaty ; 

Now, therefore, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries of Her Britannic Majesty, and of His Ma- 
jesty the Emperor of China, do hereby, on proceeding to the exchange of the Ratifications of the 
said Treaty, agree and declare, that the further amount of duty to be so levied on British mer- 
chandise, as transit duty, shall not exceed the present rates, which are upon a moderate scale ; and 
the Ratifications of the said Treaty are exchanged, subject to the express declaration and stipula- 
tion herein contained. 

In witness whereof, the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the present Declaration, and 
have affixed thereto their respective seals. 

Done at Hong-Kong, the 26th day of June, 1843 ; corresponding with the Chinese date, 
Taoukwang 23rd year, 5th month, and 29th dav. 

(L. S.) HENRY POTTINGER. 



Seal 

and Signature 

of the 

Chinese 

Plenipotentiary. 



TARIFF REGULATIONS. 



17 



TARIFF OF DUTIES ON THE FOREIGN TRADE WITH CHINA. 



Established in pursuance of Article X. of the Treaty. 



EXPORTS. 

Alum per 100 catties 

Aniseed, star do. 

Do., oil of do. 

Arsenic , .. do. 

Bangles (or glass amulets) do. 

Bamboo screens and bamboo ware of all 
kinds do. 

Brass leaf do. 

Building materials 

Bone and born ware per 100 catties 

Camphor do. 

Canes of all kinds per thousand 

Capoor cutchery per 100 catties 

Cassia do. 

Do., buds do. 

Do., oil do. 

China-root do. 

China-ware, all kinds do. 

Clothes, ready-made do. 

Copper-ware, pewter do., &c do. 

Corals, or false coral do. 

Crackers and fireworks of all kinds do. 

Cubebs do. 

Fans, as feather-fans, &c do. 

Furniture of all kinds do. 

Galingal do. 

Gamboge do. 

Glass, and glass-ware of all kinds do. 

Glass-beads do. 

Glue, as fish-glue, &c do. 

Grass-cloth, all kinds do. 

Hartall do. 

Ivory-ware, all kinds do. 

Kittysols.or paper umbrellas do. 

Lacquered ware, all kinds do. 

Lead (white lead) do. 

Lead (red lead) do. 

Marble slabs do. 

Mats, straw, rattan, bamboo, &c, &c...do. 

Mother-o'-pearl ware do. 

Musk per catty 

Nankeen, and cotton-cloth of all kinds 
per 100 catties 

Pictures, viz., large paintings each 

Rice paper pictures per 100 pictures 

Paper-fans per 100 catties 

Paper of all kinds do. 

Pearls, i.e., false pearls do. 

Preserves and sweetmeats of all kinds. do. 

Rattan-work of all kinds do. 

Rhubarb do. 

Silk, raw, whether from Chekiang, Canton, 
or elsewhere, all kinds do. 

Coarse, or refuse of silk do. 

Organize, all kinds do. 

Ribbons, thread, &c, &c do. 

Silk piece goods, of all kinds, as silks, 
satins, pongees, velvets, crapes, lute- 
strings, &c, &c, &c do. 

N.B. The additional duty of so much per 
piece, hitherto levied, to be henceforth 
abolished. 

Silk and cotton mixtures, silk and woollen 
mixtures, and goods of such classes.. do. 

Shoes and boots, of leather, satin, or other- 
wise do. 

Sandal-wood ware do. 

Soy do. 

Silver and gold ware do. 

Sugar, white and brown do. 

Sugar-candy, all kinds .....do. 

Tinfoil. do. 

Tea do. 

Tobacco of all kinds do. 

Turmeric do. 

Tortoise-shell ware do. 

Trunks, of leather do. 

Treasure, i.e., coin of all kinds 



T. 


ii. 


c. 


c. 





1 











5 








5 














7 


5 








5 











2 








1 


5 








duty free 




1 











1 


5 











5 











3 











7 


5 





1 











5 











n 


2 











'j 











5 











5 











5 











7 


5 





1 


5 








1 














2 











1 








2 














5 











5 











5 








1 














5 








5 














5 








1 














2 


5 








5 











2 











2 








1 














5 








1 














1 











1 











5 











5 











5 











5 











2 








1 











10 











2 


5 








10 











10 











12 












3 














2 








1 














4 








10 














2 


5 








3 


5 








5 








2 


5 











2 











2 








10 














2 









free. 



Articles, unenumerated in this Tariff, to pay a Duty of 
Five per Vent ad valorem. 

VOL. V. i 



IMPORTS. 

1 Assafoetida per 100 catties 

2 Bees'- wax do. 

3 Betel-nut do. 

4 Bicho de mar, first quality, or blk do. 

Ditto, second quality, or wht do. 

5 Birds'-nests, first quality, cleaned do. 

Ditto, second quality, good middling., .do. 
Ditto, third quality, uncleaned. ..do. 

(» Camphor (Malay), first quality, clean 
per catty 

Ditto, second quality, refuse do. 

7 Cloves, first quality, picked. per 100 catties 

Ditto, second quality, mother do. 

S Clocks, watches, spy- glasses, all kinds of 
writing-desks, dressing-boxes, cutlery, 
peifumery, &c, &c , five per cent ad 
valorem. 
9 Canvas, 30 a 40 yards long;, 24 a 31 inches 
wide per piece 

10 Cochineal per 100 catties 

11 Cornelians per 100 stones 

Ditto, beads.. per 100 catties 10 

12 Cotton do. 

13 Cotton manufactures, viz. — 
Long cloths, white, 30 a 40 yards long, 30 

a 36 inches wide per piece 

Cambrics and muslins, 20 a 24 yards long, 
40 a 46 inches wide do. 

Grey or unbleached cottons, viz., long- 
cloths, domestics, &c, &c, 30 a 40 yards 
long, 28 a 40 inches wide do. 

Grey twilled cottons, 30 a 40 yards long, 
28 a 40 inches wide do. 

Chintz and prints of all kinds, 20 a 30 
yards long, 27 a 30 inches wide do. 

Handkerchiefs, under one yard squa)e 

each 
Ditto, above one yard square do. 

Ginghams, pullicates, dyed cottons, vel- 
veteens, silk and cotton mixtures, wool- 
len and cotton mixtures, and all kinds 
of fancy goods, not in current consump- 
tion, five per cent ad valorem. 

14 Cotton yarn & cotton thread.per 100 catties 

1 5 Cow bezoar per catty 

16 Cutch per 100 catties 

17 Elephants' teeth, first quality, whole.. . do. 
Ditto, second quality, broken do. 

1 8 Fish maws do. 

19 Flints do. 

20 Glass, glass-ware, and crystal- ware of all 

kinds, five per cent ad valorem. 

21 Gambier per 100 catties 

22 Ginseng, first quality do. 

Ditto, second quality, or refuse do. 

23 Gold and silver thread, first quality, or 

real per catty 

Ditto, secr,nd quality, or imitation do. 

24 Gums, benjamin per 100 catties 

olibanuin do. 

myrrh do. 

Gums, unenumerated, ten per cent ad 
valorem. 

25 Horns, bullocks' and buffaloes' per 100 

catties 

26 Horns, unicorns' or rhinoceros' do. 

27 Linen, fine, as Irish or Scotch, yards 

long, inches wide per piece 

Coarse linen, as linen and cotton mix- 
tures, silk and linen mixtures, &c. &c. 
5 per cent ad valorem. 

28 Mace, or flower of nutmeg.. per 100 catties 

29 Mother-of-pearl shells do. 

30 Metals, viz.— 
Copper, unmanufactured, as in pigs... do. 
Ditto, manufactured, as in sheets, rods. do. 

Iron, unmanufactured, as in pigs do. 

Ditto, manufactured, as in bars, rods, &c. 

do. 

Lead, in pigs, or manufactured do. 

Q uicksilver , • do. 



T. M. C C. 



1 











1 














1 


5 








8 











2 








5 











2 


5 











5 








I 














5 








1 


5 











5 





(J 




5 





5 

5 

4 




















1 


5 








1 


5 








1 











1 











2 


















1 
1 






1 











1 














3 








4 











2 











1 


5 














5 








1 


5 





8 











3 


5 











1 


3 











3 





1 














5 











5 








2 











3 












1 














2 








1 











1 


5 











1 











I 


5 








4 








3 












18 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



T. M. C. C. 

Steel, unmanufactured per 100 catties 4 

Tin do. 10 

Tin plates do. 4 

Unenumerated metals, 10 per cent ad 
valorem. 

31 Nutmegs, first quality, or cleaned do. 2 

Ditto, second quality, or uncleaned.. ..do. 10 

32 Pepper do. 4 

33 Putchuck do. 7 5 

34 Rattans do. 4 

35 Rice, paddy, and grain of all kinds duty free 

36 Rose raaloes per 100 catties 10 

37 Saltpetre, to be sold to government 

agents only 

38 Sharks' fins, first quality, or white do. 

Ditto, second quality, or black do. 

39 Skins and furs, viz. — 
Cow and ox hides, tanned and untanned 

do. 

Sea otter skin3 each 

Fox skins, large do. 

Ditto, small do. 

Tiger, leopard, and marten skins do. 

Land otter, racoon, and shark skins, 

per 100 2 

Reaver skins do. 5 

Hare, rabbit, and ermine skins do. 5 

40 Smalts per 100 catties 4 

41 Soap do. 5 

42 Stock fish, &c do. 4 



3 

10 
5 



5 

15 

15 

7 5 

15 



T. M. C. C. 

43 Sea horse teeth per 100 catties 2 

44 Treasure, and money of all kinds free. 

45 Wine, beer, spirits, &c. — 

In quart bottles per 100 bottles 10 

In pint ditto do. 5 

In cask , ..per 100 catties 5 

46 Woods, viz. — 

Ebony do. 15 

Sandalwood do. 5 

Sapan wood do. 10 

Unenumerated woods, 10 per cent ad 
valorem. 

47 Woollen manufactures, viz. — 

Broad cloths, Spanish stripes, habit cloth, 
&c, 51 a 64 inches wide, per chang of 

141 inches 15 

Long ells, cassimeres, flannel, and narrow 
cloths of this description, per chang of 

141 inches 7 

Blankets of all kinds each 10 

Dutch camlets.... per chang of 141 inches 15 

Camlets do. 7 

Imitation ditto, bombazettes, &c do. 3 5 

Bunting, narrow do. 15 

Unenumerated woollen goods, or silk and 
woollen, and cotton and woollen mix- 
tures, &c, 5 per cent ad valorem. 

48 Woollen yarn per 100 catties 3 

All Articles unenumerated in this Tariff, 5 per cent 

ad valorem. 



General Regulations, under which the British Trade is to be conducted at the five 
Ports of Canton, Amoy, Foochowfoo, Ningpo, and Shanghai. 

I. Pilots. — Whenever a British merchantman shall arrive off any of the five ports opened to 
trade, viz., Canton, Foochowfoo, Amoy, Ningpo, or Shanghai, pilots shall be allowed to take her 
immediately into port ; and, in like manner, when such British ship shall have settled all legal 
duties and charges, and is about to return home, pilots shall be immediately granted to take her 
out to sea, without any stoppage or delay. 

Regarding the remuneration to be given these pilots, that will be equitably settled by the 
British Consul appointed to each particular port, who will determine it with due reference to the 
distance gone over, the risk run, &c. 

II. Customhouse Guards. — The Chinese Superintendent of Customs at each port will adopt 
the means that he may judge most proper to prevent the revenue suffering by fraud orsmuggling. 
Whenever the pilot shall have brought any British merchantman into port, the superintendent of 
customs will depute one or two trusty custom-house officers, whose duty it will be to watch 
against frauds on the revenue. These will either live in a boat of their own, or stay on board 
the English ship, as may best suit their convenience. Their food and expenses will be supplied 
them from day to day from the custom-house, and they may not exact any fees whatever from 
either the commander or consignee. Should they violate this regulation, they shall be punished 
proportionately to the amount so exacted. 

III. Masters of Ships reporting themselves on arrival. — Whenever a British vessel shall have 
cast anchor at any of the above-mentioned ports, the captain will, within four-and-twenty hours 
after arrival, proceed to the British Consulate, and deposit his ship's papers, bills of lading, 
manifest, &c, in the hands of the consul ; failing to do which, he will subject himself to a penalty 
of 200 dollars. 

For presenting a false manifest, the penalty will be 500 dollars. 

For breaking bulk and commencing to discharge, before due permission shall be obtained, the 
penalty will be 500 dollars, and confiscation of the goods so discharged. 

The consul, having taken possession of the ship's papers, will immediately send a written com- 
munication to the superintendent of customs, specifying the register tonnage of the ship and the 
particulars of the cargo she has on board ; all of which being done in due form, permission will 
then be given to discharge, and the duties levied as provided for in the tariff. 

IV. Commercial Dealings between English and Chinese Merchants. — It having been stipulated 
that English merchants may trade with whatever native merchants they please,— should any 
Chinese merchant fraudulently abscond or incur debts which he is unable to discharge, the Chinese 
authorities, upon complaint being made thereof, will of course do their utmost to bring the 
offender to justice : it must, however, be distinctly understood, that if the defaulter really cannot 
be found, or be dead, or bankrupt, and there be not wherewithal to pay, the English merchants 
may not appeal to the former custom of the Hong merchants paying for one another, and can no 
longer expect to have their losses made good to them. 

V. Tonnage Dues. — Every English merchantman, on entering any one of the above-mentioned 



COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 19 

five ports, shall pay tonnage-dues at the rate of five mace per register-ton, in full of all charges. 
The fees formerly levied on entry and departure, of every description, are henceforth abolished. 

VI. Import and Export Duties. — Goods, whether imported into, or exported from, any one of 
the above-mentioned five ports, are henceforward to be taxed according to the tariff as now fixed 
and agreed upon, and no further sums are to be levied beyond those which are specified in the 
tariff; all duties incurred by an English merchant-vessel, whether on goods imported or exported, 
or in the shape of tonnage-dues, must first be paid up in full ; which done, the superintendent 
of customs will grant a port clearance, and this being shown to the British consul, he will there- 
upon return the ship's papers and permit the vessel to depart. 

VII. Examination of Goods at the Custom-house. — Every English merchant, having cargo to 
load or discharge, must give due intimation thereof, and hand particulars of the same to the 
consul, who will immediately despatch a recognised linguist of his own establishment to commu- 
nicate the particulars to the superintendent of customs, that the goods may be duly examined, and 
neither party subjected to loss. The English merchant must also have a properly-qualified person 
on the spot to attend to his interests when his goods are being examined for duty, otherwise, 
should there be complaints, these cannot be attended to. 

Regarding such goods as are subject by the tariff to an ad valorem duty, if the English mer- 
chant cannot agree with the Chinese officer in fixing a value, then each party shall call two or 
three merchants to look at the goods, and the highest price at which any of these merchants 
would be willing to purchase, shall be assumed as the value of the goods. 

To fix the tare on any article, such as tea, if the English merchant cannot agree with the 
custom-house officer, then each party shall choose so many chests out of every hundred, which 
being first weighed in gross, shall afterwards be tared, and the average tare upon these chests shall 
be assumed as the tare upon the whole ; and upon this principle shall the tare be fixed upon all 
other goods in packages. 

If there should still be any disputed points which cannot be settled, the English merchant 
may appeal to the consul, who will communicate the particulars of the case to the superintendent 
of customs, that it may be equitably arranged. But the appeal must be made on the same day, 
or it will not be regarded. While such points are still open, the superintendent of customs will 
delay to insert the same in his books, thus affording an opportunity that the merits of the case 
may be duly tried and sifted. 

VIII. Manner of Paying the Duties. — It is hereinbefore provided, that every English vessel 
that enters any one of the five ports shall pay all duties and tonnage-dues before she be permitted 
to depart. The Superintendent of Customs will select certain shroffs, or banking establishments 
of known stability, to whom he will give licences, authorising them to receive duties from the 
English merchants on behalf of Government, and the receipt of these shroffs for any moneys 
paid them shall be considered as a Government voucher. In the paying of these duties, different 
kinds of foreign money may be made use of; but as foreign money is not of equal purity with 
sycee silver, the English Consuls appointed to the different ports will, according to time, place, 
and circumstances, arrange with the Superintendents of Customs at each, what coins may be 
taken in payment, and what per centage may be necessary to make them equal to standard or pure 
silver. 

IX. Weights and Measures. — Sets of balance-yards for the weighing of goods, of money- 
weights, and of measures, prepared in exact conformity to those hitherto in use at the Custom- 
house of Canton, and duly stamped and sealed in proof thereof, will be kept in possession of the 
Superintendent of Customs, and also at the British Consulate at each of the five ports, and these 
shall be the standards by which all duties shall be charged, and all sums paid to Government. In 
case of any dispute arising between British merchants and Chinese officers of Customs, regarding 
the weights or measures of goods, reference shall be made to these standards, and disputes decided 
accordingly. 

X. Lighters or Cargo Boats. — Whenever any English merchant, shall have to load or discharge 
cargo, he may hire whatever kind of lighter or cargo-boat he pleases, and the sum to be paid for 
such boat can be settled between the parties themselves without the interference of Government. 
The number of these boats shall not be limited, lor shall a monopoly of them be granted to any 
parties. If any smuggling take place in them, the offenders will of course be punished according 
to law. Should any of these boat-people, while engaged in conveying goods for English merchants, 
fraudulently abscond with the property, the Chinese authorities will do their best to apprehend 
them ; but, at the same time, the English merchants must take every due precaution for the safety 
of their goods. 

XI. Transshipment of Goods, — No English merchant ships may transship goods without special 
permission : should any urgent case happen where transshipment is necessary, the circumstances 
must first be transmitted to the Consul, who will give a certificate to that effect, and the Superin- 
tendent of Customs will then send a special officer to be present at the transshipment. If any 

c 2 



20 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

presumes to transship without such permission being asked for and obtained, the whole of the 
goods so illicitly transshipped will be confiscated. 

XII. Subordinate Consular Officers. — At any place selected for the anchorage of the English 
merchant ships, there may be appointed a subordinate consular officer, of approved good conduct, 
to exercise due control over the seamen and others. He must exert himself to prevent quarrels 
between the English seamen and natives, this being of the utmost importance. Should anything 
of the kind unfortunately take place, he will in like manner do his best to arrange it amicably. 
When sailors go on shore to walk, officers shall be required to accompany them, and, should dis- 
turbances take place, such officers will be held responsible. The Chinese officers may not impede 
natives from coming alongside the ships to sell clothes or other necessaries to the sailors living on 
board. 

XIII. Disputes between British Subjects and Chinese. — Whenever a British subject has reason 
to complain of a Chinese, he must first proceed to the Consulate and state his grievance ; the 
Consul will thereupon inquire into the merits of the case, and do his utmost to arrange it 
amicably. In like manner, if a Chinese have reason to complain of a British subject, he shall no 
less listen to his complaint, and endeavour to settle it in a friendly manner. If an English 
merchant have occasion to address the Chinese authorities, he shall send such address through the 

Consul, who will see that the language is becoming ; and, if otherwise, will direct it to be changed, 
or will refuse to convey the address. If, unfortunately, any disputes take place of such a nature 
that the Consul cannot arrange them amicably, then he shall request the assistance of a Chinese 
officer, that they may together examine into the merits of the case, and decide it equitably. 
Regarding the punishment of English criminals, the English Government will enact the laws 
necessary to attain that end, and the Consul will be empowered to put them in force ; and, 
regarding the punishment of Chinese criminals, these will be tried and punished by their own 
laws, in the way provided for by the correspondence which took place at Nanking after the 
concluding of the peace. 

XIV. British Government Cruisers anchoring within the Ports. — An English Government 
cruiser will anchor within each of the five ports, that the Consul may have the means of better 
restraining sailors and others, and preventing disturbances. But these government cruisers are 
not to be put on the same footing as merchant vessels, for as they bring no merchandise, and do 
not come to trade, they will of course pay neither dues nor charges. The resident Consul will 
keep the Superintendent of Customs duly informed of the arrival and departure of such govern- 
ment cruisers, that he may take his measures accordingly. 

XV. On the Security to be given for Biilish Merchant Vessels. — It has hitherto been the 
custom, when an English vessel entered the port of Canton, that a Chinese Hong merchant stood 
security for her, and all duties and charges were paid through such security-merchant. But these 
security-merchants being now done away with, it is understood that the British Consul will 
henceforth be security for all British merchant ships entering any of the aforesaid five ports. 



TABLE OF CONSULAR FEES. 



On report of ship's arrival at custom- 
house 5 dollars. 

On linguist's attendance at landing and 

shipping of cargo 3 ,, 

On granting port-clearance and signing 

manifest 5 „ 

Valuation of goods (if referred to the 

consul) 1 per cent. 

Bottomry, or arbitration bond 5 dollars. 

Noting a protest. 3 „ 

Order of survey 3 ,, 

Extending a protest or survey 3 „ 

Registrations 3 „ 

Bill of health (when required) 2 „ 

Signature of muster-roll (when required) 2 „ 



Attestation of a signature (when re- 
quired) 2 dollars. 

Administering an oath (when required).. 1 „ 

Seal of office, and signature to any other 
document (when required) 2 „ 

Attending sales l per cent. 

or, if a charge has been previously made 
for valuation Half per cent. 

Attendance out of consular office on ex- 
press business,travelling expenses, and 5 dolls, per diem. 
Ditto, on opening a will 5 ,, 

Recovery of debts 

Two and a half per cent. 

Management of property of British sub- 
jects dying intestate Two and a half per cent. 



CIRCULAR. 

British Consulate, Canton t July 28, 1813. 

As much confusion and many mistakes, tending to the hindrance of public business, are 
likely to occur, from manifests being too vaguely made out, consignees of British vessels are 
hereby required to give their attention to the following rules in drawing up manifests to be 
presented at this consulate. 

1st. Packages, " contents unknown." The consignee of the ship will be required to ascertain 



COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 21 

from the consignees of such packages the nature of their contents generally (in so far as it may 
be practicable), before presenting his manifest at this consulate. 

2nd. Packages, " woollens." These must be specified as "broadcloths," or " longells," or 
" camlets," or "bombazettes," &c, &c., in accordance with the classification of tiie tariff, seeing 
that all these articles are liable to different duties. 

3rd. Packages, " cottons.'' These must in like manner be specified as " white long-cloths," 
or "grey long-cloths," or "cambrics," or "printed goods," or "handkerchiefs," as the case 
may be. 

4th. Packages, " fancy goods." Any manufactured goods not in current consumption may 
be specified as "stuffs of cotton only," or "stuffs of wool only," or "of silk and cotton mixed," 
or " of wool and cotton mixed," &c, &c, as the case may be. 

Lastly. As a general rule, where any doubt exists, let it be borne in mind that the object in 
view is chiefly to ascertain the number of packages of certain goods, which are to pay certain 
specified duties; and that by mixing up two or three kinds of goods which pay different duties 
under one head, this object will be defeated. 

Penalties liable to be incurred by the Masters or Oivners of Vessels. 

For carrying to sea any seaman without first entering into agreement for every such seaman, 
ten pounds. 

Neglecting to cause agreement to be distinctly read over to each seaman, for every such 
neglect, five pounds. 

Neglecting to deposit with collector or comptroller of customs a true copy of agreement, or 
depositing any false copy, fifty pounds. 

Neglect or refusal to pay wages when due, forfeits two days' pay for every day so neglected. 

Refusing to make immediate payment of wages when due without sufficient cause, five 
pounds. 

Refusing to give certificate to seaman, without sufficient cause, five pounds. 

Neglecting to make a return of the crew, extracted from the muster-roll, twenty-five pounds. 

Neglecting to make a return of the crew of vessels lost or sold abroad, made up to the time of 
loss or sale, twenty-five pounds. 

Forcing on shore, and leaving behind, any one of the crew, at home or abroad, punishable by 
fine and imprisonment. 

Discharging seamen abroad without sanction of consul or other functionary, punishable as a 
misdemeanor. 

Neglecting to deposit agreement with British consul or vice-consul, on arrival at foreign 
port, twenty-five pounds. 

Shipping seamen at a foreign port without the privity of consul, twenty-five pounds. 

Neglecting or refusing to produce muster-roll and agreement to any officer of any of Her 
Majesty's ships, or to the registrar, or any of his assistants, or any collector or other officer of 
customs, every offence, fifty pounds. 

Penalties liable to be incurred by Seamen, the amount of which may be stopped out of 

Wages due. 

Refusing to join the ship after signing agreement, or absenting himself without leave, forty 
shillings, or thirty days' imprisonment. 

For temporary absence or neglect of duty, to forfeit two days' pay for every twenty-four 
hours. 

Quitting the ship without legal discharge forfeits one month's pay. 

Absolute desertion forfeits all wages, emoluments, clothes, and effects on board. 

N.B. The master on his arrival at any foreign port, where there shall be a British consul or 
vice-consul, shall deliver the agreement with his ship's crew, to such consul, or vice-consul, which 
shall be returned to him before leaving the port. 

'25th September, 1843. — It is to be observed the sea-coast of Kcangsoo, &c. (that is, the coasts 
situated between the Tahea, or Ningpo, and Yang-tse-kiang rivers), is without any shelter on the 
outside (towards the south and east), and has a number of soft sand-flats, or mud-banks, which 
shift frequently when the south-east wind blows violently, thereby rendering losses by shipwreck 
very easy. This consideration induces me to make this communication (regarding the loss of the 
schooner Levant Packet) to the honourable Plenipotentiary, and to beg him to direct all merchant 
vessels to take exceeding great care, and to engage pilots. This is most important. 

8th October, 1843. — Along the coast of Keangnan and Chekeang are very many quick- 
sands. They are at times visible and at times invisible. Your merchant-ships have not 
much sailed thereabouts, and it is to be feared that many losses may occur. I hope, therefore, 
that you will enjoin great prudence and precaution on your merchants, and will likewise inform 



22 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

the foreign merchants of all nations of this fact, as it concerns much valuable merchandise, and 
many human lives. This is most important ! 

The people living along our coast are prone to insult and abuse the ignorant. Now the 
black sailors on board your ships are generally, by nature, ignorant and fond of liquor. They 
should on no account be permitted to go on shore to drink and get intoxicated, lest they be ill- 
used by our people. 

12th October, 1843. — Your friendly and benevolent hints regarding our black people not being 
allowed to go on shore and get intoxicated, thereby exposing themselves to possible ill-usage 
and insult from the people (of the sea-coast) of China, and your still more important and benign 
suggestions as to the necessity that exists for all foreign navigators on the coast of Keangnan and 
Chekeang proceeding with great care and precaution, claim my grateful acknowledgment, in the 
name not only of England, but of all other civilised nations. I will issue a notification on both 
points, in order that your goodness and forethought may be universally known and acted upon. — 
Keying. 

Looking to the great extent of the sea-coast of China, as well as to the difficulty which attends 
its navigation, in one or other direction, at most seasons of the year, owing to the strength of the 
prevailing winds (the south-west and north-east monsoons), it will not be looked upon or held to 
be in any degree a "breach or violation" of her Majesty's order in council, should British vessels 
approach and anchor for safety or shelter near the coast of China, or in any of its roadsteads or 
inlets lying to the southward of the embouchure of the Yang-tse-kiang river ; but all her 
Britannic Majesty's subjects must henceforward clearly bear in view and understand, the risk they 
will run by attempting, in opposition to the stipulations of the treaty, to trade elsewhere than 
atone of the five ports. 

Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary, &c, further thinks it right to explain and notify by this pro- 
clamation, that as none of the ports to be opened agreeably to treaty, for purposes of trade and 
commerce, lie to the northward of the point indicated above (viz., the embouchure of the Yang- 
tse-kiang river), he has, in virtue of the authority vested in him, and pending the gracious pleasure 
of her Majesty, fixed that point as the limit to which British merchant vessels may proceed without 
being taken to be guilty of a contravention of the treaty ; and accordingly all subjects of the 
crown of England aje hereby warned and given distinctly to understand, that any British 
merchant vessel that may be positively known or discovered to have visited any part of the sea 
coast of China, higher up than the 32nd degree of north latitude (unless she should be forced by 
absolute stress of weather), will be assumed to have gone there in violation of her Majesty's said 
order in council and of this proclamation ; and the necessary measures will be taken for her being 
detained by any of her Majesty's ships that may fall in with her, with a view to her being sent to 
Hong-Kong for inquiry and adjudication. 

Her Majesty's plenipotentiary, &c, most specially and solemnly warns all her Majesty's 
subjects against any act of violence — no matter what the alleged cause or pretence may be — 
towards any of the officers or people of China. If merchant vessels will go to trade at any of the 
ports of China not opened by treaty for purposes of trade or commerce, it is self-evident that they 
voluntarily expose themselves, after the fullest and oft-repeated warnings, to the chances of being 
attacked and driven away, or seized and confiscated ; and in either case, not only will they receive 
no protection or countenance from her Majesty's ships-of-war or other authorities in China, but 
they will, if they attempt to defend themselves, and loss of life or bloodshed should ensue, be 
seized as pirates, and brought to Hong-Kong to await the decision and commands of her Majesty's 
government. 

Government House, at Victoria, Hong-Kong, October 24, 1843. 

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 24th day of February ', 1843. 

Her Majesty in council is pleased by and with the advice of her privy council, to prohibit, and 
doth hereby prohibit her subjects from resorting, for the purposes of trade and commerce, to any 
other ports in the dominions of the Emperor of China than those of Canton, Amoy, Foo-chow- 
foo, Ningpo, and Shanghae, or than may be in the occupation of her Majesty's forces : and her 
Majesty is pleased to order that any of her subjects committing a breach or violation of this 
direction, shall, upon conviction thereof, in any of her Majesty's Courts of Record or Vice- 
A.dmiralty, be for every such offence liable to a penalty not exceeding one hundred pounds, or to 
imprisonment for a term not exceeding three months, at the discretion of the court before which 
the conviction shall take place ; and her majesty is hereby further pleased to order that all pro- 
ceedings which may be had under this order, shall be, as far as circumstances will permit, in con- 
formity with the law of England. 

The correction in the tariff— t. m. t. m. 

22. Ginseng, 1st quality, per 100 catties 38 .. 2-10ths 7 6 

Do. 2nd quality, or refuse, per do 3 5" 8-10ths 2 8 

Ts. 10 4 



COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 23 

Limits of the Port of Amoy, Pilot Regulations, and Currency. 

The inner waters, including " Koolangsoo" Island, to Pagoda Island on the south-west side 
to the six islands on the eastern side. 

Pilot Regulations at Amoy. — 1st. Every Pilot is to have a licence signed by the Hai Kong, 
countersigned by the consul, and stamped with the respective seals of the offices of those func- 
tionaries. 

2nd. To entitle a pilot to his licence, he must produce a certificate of his fitness, signed by at 
least one captain of her Majesty's ships, which certificate will be lodged at the British Consu- 
late. 

3rd. Every pilot boat is to hoist a red and white flag horizontal, with an English number on 
the flag. 

4th. The following are the rates of pilotage : For every foot of water the ship draws, fifty 
cents per foot both inwards and outwards from the Chaw-Chat Rock. And one dollar per 
foot, from a line drawn from Lamtia Island, Chapel Island, Paktia Island, or in the proximities 
of them. 

5th. All British merchant-ships are liable to the pilotage from and to the Chaw-Chat Rock, 
beyond (or outside of) which is optional. 

In order to assimilate the Amoy standard with that already laid down at Canton, the consul 
arranged with the local mandarins for the adoption of the latter at Amoy, on condition that 
one tael five mace (\t. 5m.) should be allowed on every 100 taels of Sycee silver for refining ex- 
penses, under the following heads, viz. : — Charcoal, 6 mace ; wages of two men, 5 mace ; salt- 
petre, &c, 3 mace ; house expenses, 1 mace; total 15 mace. By this arrangement, 

t. m. c. c. 

Rupees weighing * 109 7 9 

Peruvian dollars do Ill 4 5 5 

Mexican do Ill 9 

Bolivian do 112 1 5 

Chilian do 112 5 2 

Chopped do 113 2 7 

are to be considered respectively equal to 100 taels weight of Sycee silver, in all cases where the 
imperial duties may be paid in any of the above-named coins. 

The charge for refining at Canton is one tael two mace (1*. 2m.) on every 100 taels of sycee, 
and the difference is so trifling that I readily sanction your arrangement. 

Regulations to be observed by all British Subjects residing at or resorting to Ningpo. — 1. All 
British subjects must immediately upon arrival at Ningpo report themselves at this consulate, 
stating at the same time their professions, places of residence, &c, &c, and the probable period of 
their stay at this city. 

2. British subjects will not be permitted under any pretence to go into the country a greater 
distance than three miles from the city of Ningpo, without previously reporting their intention 
at this consulate, when the undersigned will reserve to himself the right of judging whether such 
intention be admissible or not. In all cases where it is decided that it is admissible, the under- 
signed will provide the person or party applying with a guide, who will remain with such person 
or party till their return to this city ; and when it shall be decided that the proposal is inadmissible, 
the person or party going into the country, in opposition to the expressed wish of the undersigned, 
will expose himself or themselves to a severe penalty, as the circumstances of the case may appear 
less or more aggravated. 

3. All British subjects going into the country to shoot, no matter what the distance may be, 
must in like manner give due notice at this consulate and obtain permission for that end, other- 
wise they will expose themselves to a like severe penalty. 

4. British subjects while in the country will be required to be exceedingly particular not to 
enter the houses of the people against their will, nor to offer any wanton disrespect to their 
temples or idols, not to desecrate or injure tombs, nor to break down fences or to tread on any- 
thing planted in the ground ; and in short, not only to do no positive injury to the people, but 
also to guard against doing anything that may shock their prejudices. 

5. British subjects will not be permitted to go to any of the cities or towns, or even large 
villages, in the neighbourhood of Ningpo, without special licence from the undersigned and the 
high authorities of the district. 

6. British subjects will not be permitted to enter any of the public offices of this place without 
special licence or express invitation. 

7. British subjects residing at Ningpo will require to give distinct notice at this consulate 
when they change their places of residence. 

8. All British subjects on leaving Ningpo will require to report themselves at this consulate 
as on arrival ; and those who have resided here for any length of time, and had commercial dealings 
with the natives, will be required to give at least forty-eight hours' notice before they can be per- 
mitted to depart. 



24 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

1. All British vessels entering the port of Ningpo must anchor at Chinhai and report them- 
selves to the Mandarin stationed there for that purpose, waiting till they have been duly visited 
by that functionary, and searched, if he shall deem it expedient. 

N.B. The following is the form of report required : — 

1. A. B. master of the ship C. D., of tons burthen, navigated by a crew of 

men, now declare my intention of proceeding to Ningpo, and request that I may be despatched 
without delay. 

(Signed) 
On board ship master-ship 

day of 184 . 

2. British vessels on arriving at Ningpo will anchor as near to the consulate (which will be at 
once known by the red ensign flying) as may be done without incommoding the ships already at 
anchor in the river, or the native junks. When practicable a person will be sent on board, who 
will point out the proper place to bring up, but they must not on any account go higher up the 
river than abeam of the consular flag-staff. 

3. British vessels on arrival at Ningpo will have each a number given them, which must be 
painted in large letters in white, English on both bows, and Chinese on both quarters, for greater 
facility of discrimination. 

4. Masters of British vessels on arrival at Ningpo must give in a list upon oath of all persons 
they may have on board ; none of these may be left behind without exposing the said master to a 
heavy penalty ; neither may the said master take away others than those in the original list, with- 
out duly representing the same. 

5. Masters and supercargoes of British vessels will be required at this consulate to present a 
manifest of all cargo they may have brought within the mouth of this river, and to attest the same 
upon oath ; and should they not discharge all their cargo, they will be required to show the balance 
of such cargo as should remain on board to the Chinese custom-house officer whenever he may 
wish to inspect it. 

6. British vessels will only be permitted to discharge or load at the place appointed by the 
authorities on the northern bank of the river known by the Chinese name of ( ) Lee-kea 
Taon-tou, and between the hours of eight in the morning and four in the afternoon : and any 
goods found landing or shipping, from or on board of any British vessel at any other time or place, 
without special licence having been granted for the same, such goods will be considered contraband, 
and as such will be liable to instant seizure : besides, the vessel landing or shipping off such goods 
in contravention of the regulations of the port, will expose herself to be severely fined for each 
irregularity. 

7. Masters of British vessels will be careful not to let their people land at Chinhai more than 
is absolutely necessary for reporting the ship as she enters and leaves the mouth of the river, and 
on no account must they permit their people to land and ramble into the country while the vessel 
is on her passage between Chinhai and Ningpo, and vice versa. 

8. Masters of British vessels while lying in the Ningpo river, will be required to be exceedingly 
strict and attentive as to the degree of liberty they allow their men while in port. No more 
persons will be allowed to go on shore from each ship than what are absolutely necessary for the 
carrying on of the lawful business of the ship, without being first duly reported at this consulate 
and getting a special licence ; and such special licences can only be granted when the men are 
under the care of an officer, 

Let it be borne in mind, that for any damage done by sailors on shore, the ship will in the first 
instance be held responsible. 

Let masters of vessels also beware of allowing samshoo to be brought alongside. 

9. Masters and supercargoes of British vessels about to leave the port will be required to give 
at least forty-eight hours' notice beforehand, and to keep their blue peter flying for that time, that 
the same may be duly made known. 

10. British vessels leaving the port will be required to exhibit their grand chop or port- 
clearance to the Mandarin stationed at Chinhai for that purpose ; and must again submit to be 
searched should the said Mandarin express a wish to that effect. 

11. Masters of British vessels will be required to pay attention to the conduct and capabilities 
of those Chinese who offer themselves to pilot ships up and down the river, and they will be 
further required to give an honest and true certificate under their hands of such conduct and capa- 
bilities, in order that in the course of time consular licences may be given to the most skilful. These 
certificates should state the name, age, and appearance of the individual. 

12. Lastly, all masters and supercargoes of British vessels will be required to subscribe to these 
regulations before being permitted to discharge ; and the undersigned will, in the event of any 
breach of them, reserve to himself the right of imposing such penalties as the greater or lesser 
aggravations of the case may seem to call for. 



COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 



25 



Hints to British Merchants resorting to Ningpo for purposes of Trade, 

1. It must be borne in mind that weights and measures differ widely in every part of China, 
and that consequently there is a great difference between those employed at Canton and those in 
use at Ningpo. 

Many mistakes have already taken place in consequence ; and to obviate such mistakes in 
future, the Consul strongly recommends all British merchants having commercial dealings at this 
port, whether in buying or selling goods by weight or measure, or paying or receiving money by 
weight, to reduce everything to Custom-house standard ; for which end the standard weights and 
measures of this consulate will always be at the service of any merchant who may wish to adjust 
his own by them, or to have a similar set made. 

2. British merchants are reminded that the Ningpo merchants are not men of the same 
established character and great means as the Hong merchants of Canton. Great care should 
therefore be taken, when goods have been sold, to deliver them as per muster, and in good order 
and condition, before witnesses, lest the market falling, the purchaser should damage them and 
say that he received them in that state, as a pretext to throw up his bargain ; and still more in 
buying goods, every package should be most carefully examined before being removed from the 
seller's premises, in order to guard against false packing and other frauds, which are very common 
in this part of the country. 

3. There being no longer security-merchants to pay the debts and fulfil the engagements of 
those who are unfortunate, or of those who commit acts of fraud, British subjects are hereby 
cautioned against giving credit to any large amount. A barter trade will be found the best and 
safest in the end ; and no matter what the sum may be, whether in making sales or purchases, 
British subjects are strongly recommended to exact a sale or purchase note (vulgarly called a 
Hong-chop), without which document, in the event of fraud or failure, the sufferer would find 
great difficulty to establish his claim in a Chinese court of law. 

Lastly. While the undersigned has every wish to assist such of his countrymen as may be 
unhappily involved in losses from frauds or failures at Ningpo, yet, in justice to himself, he must 
insist on the transactions brought before him being not only in themselves perfectly just and 
straightforward, but moreover of such a tangible and business-like shape that when he takes them 
up he may have some prospect of bringing them, if not always to a satisfactory, at least to an 
intelligible issue. 

Transit Duties paid at the Custom Houses of Kan, Taeping, and Pihsin, on goods that 
are going down to Canton, or from thence transported to the Northern Provinces. 
(Extracted from the " Hoopootsihle," 30th and 31st volumes; a work on the Revenues, 
published by Imperial Authority.) 

Exports. 



ARTICLES. 



Alum 

per 100 catties 

Aniseed star.... do. 

Arsenic do. 

Bamboo screens & 
bamboo ware of 
all kiads do. 

Camphor do. 

Capoor catchery.do. 

Cassia do. 

China root do. 

Copper ware, pew- 
ter do., &c do. 

Cubebs do. 

Galingal do. 

Gamboge do. 

Grass cloth, all 
kinds... per piece 

Hartall 

per 100 catties 

Lead (white lead) 
do. 

Mats (straw, rattan, 
bamboo, &c.)..do. 

Musk per catty 

Nankeen, and cot- 



Kankwan. 



8 3-10 

4 2 

2 6 3-10 



10 5 

3 5£ 
3 5 1-5 

9 1 9-10 
18 7 7-10 
17 6-10 
3 5f 

5 9 1-10 

4 5 9 6-10 



2 6 3-10 
9 19 1-10 



Taeping- 
kwan. 



2 7 6-10 

4 2 

2 7 6-10 



4 
3 6 4 
2 8 1-5 

2 7 6-10 

15 

2*7 6-10 
3 3 8 4-10 

7 8-10 

2 5 6 



117 
3 14 2 



Pih sink wan 



8 
4 
4 



4 
14 



4 

6 
4 
4 
13 6-10 

2£ 

10 
13 6 

13 6 



ARTICLES. 



ton cloth of all 
kinds 

per 100 catties 

Rhubarb do 

Silk, raw, first qua- 
lity do. 

coarse, or re- 
fuse of silk.. ..do. 

piece goods, 

ribbons, thread 
do. 

middling raw 

do. 

— — and cotton 
mixtures, silk and 
woollen mixtures, 
and goods of such 
classes. .per piece 

Soy.. per 100 catties 

Tea, coarse do 

- fine do, 

Vermilion do, 



Kankwan. 



5 2J 
2 U 



10 

4 5 9 6-10 



1 9 1-10 



2 6 2 6-10 

7 8 8-10 

per 10 

baskets. 

3 9 4-10 



5 2 5 2-10 



Taeping- 
kwan. 



4 5 5 

2 7 6-10 

14 3 2 

3 6 4 

3 14 2 

7 2 4 



7 2 4 
2 7 6-10 
4 2 
per 100 
catties. 
7 6 
Cbekeang 
teas. 
14 4 6 



Pihsinkwan 



2 5 6-10 
4 



8 5 7 3-5 
6 4 



14 7 2 

6 8 



12 

4 

4 2 
per 100 
catties. 



13 6 



26 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Imports. 



ARTICLES. 



Assafcetida 

per 100 catties 

Bees'-wax do. 

Betel Nut do. 

Bicho de Mar .. do. 

Birds' nests .. ..do. 

Camphor (Malay) 
per catty 

Cloves 

per 100 catties 

Cornelian Beads do. 

Cotton do. 

Cotton manufac- 
tures, of all kinds, 
whether coarse or 
fine per 10 pieces 



Kankwan. 



Taeping- 
kwan. 



t.m.c. c. 

1 7 5 9£ 

3 9 3 9-10 

17 6-10 4 2 

3 5 2-10,0 1 1 7 

117 2 7-10 1116 

9 2 



t. m. 

1 4 < 




2 3 4 6-10 
5 9 



10 



Cow bezoar 

per catty 
Cutch 

per 100 catties 
Elephants' teeth do. 2 3 4 3-5 
Gold and silver 
thread per catty 
Gum Benjamin 

per 100 catties 



117 2 7-10 



14 4-5 



2 6 2 3-5 



14 8 



1 1 1 



18 3 4- 
14 4 6 



15 
3 6 7 



Pihsin- 
kwan. 



4 
4 



8 



ARTICLES. 



Kankwan. 



it. m. c. c. 
Gum Olibanum 

per 100 catties I 

Myrrh do. 2 3 4 3-5 

Horns, wnicorn's or 
rhinoceros' ...do.[l 

Quicksilver do.|0 

Nutmegs do. 



5 5 1-5 
j per piece. 

2 4 

.0200 
II 

,0 2 4 4-5 



Pepper do. 

jPutchuck do. 

j Rattans do. 

! Rose maloes....do. 

' Sharks' fins do. 

i Smalts do. 

Ebony do. 

Sandal Wood ...do. 

Sapan wood do. 

Woollen manufac- 
tures . ..per piece 

Narrow woollens 
per chang 
of 141 inch 
Dutch camlets ..do.'O 

Camlets do.Io 

Woollen yarn 

per 100 catties! 3 



7 5 

2 3 4 3-5 
10 

3 5 1 9-10 
2 3 4 3-5 
4 6 9-10 
9 3 8 4-10 
5 8 7-10 
6 5 6* 

9 3 4-5 
5 8 6| 
14 2-5 



1 

2 
2 



Taeping- 
kwau. 



Pihsin- 
kwan. 



6 7 

8 4 

4 6 

4 4 

8 3 3-5 

5 9 

6 6 
4 2 

3 4 
1 7 

4 6 



4 2 




2 



13 6 
13 6 
2 3 4 3-5 
2 
2 
16 

4 

2 0*6 
2 
2 

110 2-5 
j per one 
chang. 



110 6-5 
110 2-5 
110 2-5 



3 14 2 



2 4 4-5 



CONSULAR FEES. 



2 dollars. 
2 do. 
2 do. 
2 do, 
2 do. 
1 do. 



A.— Certificate of due landing of goods exported from the United Kingdom 

Signature of ship's manifest .... 

Certificate of origin, when required . 

Bill of health, when required .... 

Signature of muster-roll, when required 

Attestation of a signature, when required 

Administering an oath, when required \ dollar. 

Seal of office, and signature of any other document not specified herein, 

when required . . . . .1 do. 

B.— Bottomry or arbitration bond .... 2 dollars. 

Noting a protest . . . . .1 do. 

Order of survey .... 2 do. 

Extending a protest or survey . . . .1 do. 

Registrations .... .1 do, 

Visa of passport . . . . • £ dollar. 

Valuation of goods ..... 1 per cent. 

Attending sales, J per cent, where there has been a charge for valuing ; otherwise 1 per cent. 
Attendance out of consular office at a shipwreck, five dollars per diem for his personal expenses, 
over and above bis travelling expenses. 

Attendance on opening a will . . . . 5 dollars. 

Management of property of British subjects dying intestate . 2£ per cent. 



Regulations Established at Amoy. — 1st. The consulate will not be opened on Sundays. 

2nd. All British subjects residing at Amoy are required to renew the register of their names 
at this consulate, on or about the 1st of January, describing the houses, hongs, they rent from the 
Chinese, the names and occupation of all Europeans connected with their establishment, as well 
as the natives employed, either as shroffs, servants, &c. 

3rd. The limits of the port extend to the six islands on the east side ; to the Pagoda Island at 
the mouth of the Western River ; the Island of Koolangsoo and the inner waters. 

4th. All British ships are required when discharging or taking in cargo to anchor off the town 
of Amoy. 

5th. British ships driven in by stress of weather, or coming within the meaning of the 5th 
regulation, are to anchor inside the 200-gun battery, or abreast of the north-east point of Koo- 
langsoo. 

6th. All British ships driven in by stress of weather, or calling for letters, treasure, or pro- 
visions, are exempt from port dues. If bulk is broken, the ships are liable to the usual port dues. 
The captain will deliver his papers, according to the 3rd article of the general regulations, within 
twenty-four hours. 

7th. British ships are allowed to call at this port to " try the market." The captain will 
deliver his papers as before, and the consignee is to declare his intention of either taking delivery 
of cargo or otherwise, within forty-eight hours after the ship has anchored. Any ship exceeding 
the time specified (viz., forty-eight hours) will be liable to the usual port dues. 









For refining. 

T. M. 

1 2 


T. 

8 
10 

10 
10 


JU. 

9 
2 
6 

8 


c. c. 

1 5 
7 7 

2 9 

3 3 


For refining 

T. M. 

1 2 
1 2 
1 2 
1 2 



COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 27 

8th. The rates at which payments for duties are to be made, either in Sycee or coined money, 
have been settled on the same footing as at Canton. 

Sycee at par of a 100 touch 
Sycee of inferior touch is to be made equivalent to 100 touch 

Rs. 
Rupees for 100 add . . . 

Peruvian dollars 
Mexican do. . 
Spanish do. 
Cut money to be tested by fire . . . ..12 

Should any dispute arise on the difference of the touch of Sycee, it is to be tested by fire. 

9th. All cargo is to be shipped off between sunrise and sunset, and from the undermentioned 
landing-places — Suy-seen-kung, Loo-tow-taou, Mei-loo-tow, Kiang-tsae-kow, Loo-tow, Sin-loo- 
tow, Ta-sze-kiang-loo-tow. 

10th. Pilotage is charged at the rate of fifty cents per foot, from or to the Chaw-Chat rocks, 
and one dollar from Lamtia or Chapel Island, or in a line from that island to Packtie on the 
north, and Tungting on the south. 

11th. Persons wishing to visit the surrounding country are allowed to go the distance of one 
day's journey : they are to be accompanied by a policeman, and if proceeding in a boat are to 
carry a distinguishing flag. 

Attention is particularly directed to a notification issued at Amoy (see notification at foot), on 
the 2nd of December, 1843, with reference to the before-mentioned regulation. 

12th. Sailors on liberty are to be attended by an officer or responsible person, and if disorderly 
or riotous, the full amount of ten dollars will be awarded for each offence. 

13th. Rice ships are admitted free of port dues ; but if they take away an export cargo,they 
are liable to one-half the present port dues, or 2???. 5c. per register ton. 

14th. Ships laden with rice arriving in port with a considerable portion of general cargo on 
board intended for another port, are exempt from duty. 

15th. Ships partly laden with rice and general cargo, are to be charged full tonnage dues, if any 
of the general cargo is sold and discharged. 

16th. A Custom-house officer will attend at the landing-places, from sunrise to sunset, to 
examine and pass all cargo, and his chop is to be placed on goods either imported or exported. 

17th. Many difficulties having arisen in the difference of weights, it is requested that the 
standard sanctioned by the tariff be adopted ; and should there be any dispute, it must be referred 
to the import department in the consulate. 

18th. The Chinese not being acquainted with the usual terms "demurrage," "laydays," &c, 
it is recommended that all parties should make agreements upon these and similar points. 

19th. Fourteen working days (unless there is a specification on the bill of lading) may be 
considered as an equitable limit in a port offering so many facilities for the discharge of a ship, or 
taking delivery of a portion of the cargo. 

20th. All firing from ships in the harbour is strictly prohibited, without permission from the 
consul. 

21st. All ships are exempt from tonnage dues, provided the consignee can produce the grand 
chop from the Chinese authorities, and port-clearance from any of the consular ports. 

22nd. Ships are allowed to remain in port for warehouse purposes six months before the 
tonnage dues are demanded. 

All cargo transshipped is to be duly noted and entered both at the Consulate and Custom- 
house. When delivery is taken, the mode of proceeding is precisely similar to the general 
regulations of trade. 

Public Notification. — In making public the following clause of " The Supplementary Treaty" 
signed by their Excellencies Sir Henry Pottinger, Bart., G.C.B., her Britannic Majesty's Plenipo- 
tentiary, and the Imperial Commissioner Keying, the officiating consul has to inform her Majesty's 
subjects residing at or visiting the port of Amoy, that the Chinese authorities do not consider 
themselves authorised to grant permission to persons or parties to visit the surrounding country. 
The said authorities, however, have intimated their wishes that no limits should be fixed for 
restraining respectable persons from taking exercise or recreation, trusting to their own discretion 
that no disputes or quarrels should take place between them and the natives. 

The officiating consul therefore urgently enjoins upon all persons desirous of extending their 
excursions into the country, the absolute necessity of compliance with these wishes, and to remark 
the confidence shown by the authorities. 

The things most likely to produce complaint and dispute, are, the indiscreet use of fire-arms, 
visiting the houses of the natives against their will, and passing through their towns and villages. 



28 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

It is requested therefore these acts be abstained from, and all walled towns or fortified places 
be avoided ; and it is advisable that all parties should be accompanied by an intelligent Chinese 
conversant with the English as well as the Chinese languages. 

Should any cause unfortunately occur that may give rise to collision with the natives, the offi- 
ciating consul, in virtue of his instructions and in compliance with the government notification 
issued at Victoria under date the 22nd of July, 1843, will hold the parties implicated amenable to 
the penalties therein mentioned. 

Article 6 provides that English merchants residing at or resorting to the five ports shall not go 
into the surrounding country, beyond certain distances (to be fixed by the local authorities and 
consuls), " and on no pretence for purposes of traffic ;" and that if any person, whatever his rank, 
station, or calling, disobey this article, and wander away into the country, he shall be seized and 
handed over to the British consul for suitable punishment. 

" Supplementary Treaty." 

Persons proceeding into the country are limited in distance to one day's journey from the 
consulate. 

The latter limit has been affixed subsequent to the framing of the regulations above. 

Circular respecting Consular Jurisdiction. 

" The right of British consular officers to exercise any jurisdiction in China, in matters which 
in other countries come exclusively under the control of the local magistrates, depends originally 
on the extent to which that right has been conceded by the Emperor of China to the British 
crown, and therefore the right is strictly limited to the terms in which the concession is made. 

" The right depends, in the next place, on the extent to which the Queen, in the exercise of 
the powers vested in her Majesty by Act of Parliament, may be pleased to grant to her consular 
servants, through her Majesty's superintendent in China, authority to exercise jurisdiction over 
British subjects ; and therefore the ordinances which may from time to time be issued are the 
only warrants for the proceedings of the Consuls, and exhibit the rules to which they must scrupu- 
lously adhere. 

" This state of things in China is an exception to the system universally observed among Chris- 
tian nations, and almost identical with that which prevails at the British consulates in the Levant. 
But the Emperor of China having, like the sultans of Turkey, waived in favour of Christian powers 
rights inherent in territorial sovereignty, such Christian powers, in taking advantage of this 
concession, are bound to provide, as far as possible, against any injurious effects resulting from it 
to the territorial sovereign ; and as the maintenance of order and the repression and punishment 
of crime are objects of the greatest importance in every civilised community, it is obligatory upon 
Christian powers, standing as they do in China, with relation to their own subjects, in the place 
of the territorial sovereign, to provide as far as possible for these great ends. 

" But it is essential that her Majesty's consular officers in China should bear in mind that, in 
conferring upon them powers of jurisdiction of such a comprehensive and unusual character, it is 
the desire of her Majesty's government that those powers should not be needlessly or lightly 
employed ; but that, on the contrary, whenever differences can be adjusted in a conciliatory 
manner, such a termination should be promoted and recommended, and that whenever crimes are 
to be punished, certain and speedy, rather than severe, punishment is to be preferred. 

" You will observe that three courses of proceeding are prescribed — viz., a summary decision ; 
a decision with the assistance of assessors chosen from the British community ; and a recourse to 
the criminal tribunal of Hong-Kong. 

" The object for which the jurisdiction is to be exercised, renders it unnecessary to deal with 
crimes according to the strict definition of English law, even if the means at the disposal of the 
consuls, and the extent of legal knowledge which they can be expected to possess, admitted of such 
a course. 

" The utmost that it appears necessary to attempt in this respect is, that a rule should be laid 
down that an action which would be criminal in the British dominions, should be equally considered 
as criminal in China. But in dealing with such criminal actions, regard must be had to local cir- 
cumstances and necessities. In the British dominions, many crimes unimportant in themselves 
must be dealt with, in consequence of the denomination by which they are distinguished, in the 
fame formal manner as crimes of a more serious description. An insignificant theft, being a 
' felony,' must in most cases be submitted to the decision of a jury, equally with the most extensive 
robbery. But this rule need not be adhered to in the consular courts in China. There all crimes 
of a trifling kind, under whatever legal denomination they may be classed, may safely be disposed 
of summarily by the consul, and sufficiently atoned for by punishment within the limits prescribed 
by the ordinance for the sole jurisdiction of the consul ; while crimes of a more serious kind must 
be reserved for adjudication by the consul in a tribunal more formally constituted by the presence 
of assessors. 



COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 29 

" But, in order to provide the means of dealing with crimes which may be too serious for even 
this more formal tribunal to decide upon, and which in England would be reserved for a judge of 
assize, the Island of Hong-Kong has been appointed as the place of trial for offences committed 
by British subjects in the Chinese dominions. 

" It is intended that in all places where more than one Consular Officer is residing, the Senior 
Consular Officer shall hold the Consular Courts established by the present ordinance, unless he 
should for some reasonable cause be temporarily incapacitated from so doing : and that as little time 
as circumstances will admit should in all cases intervene between the apprehension of a party, and 
the hearing and decision of the charge brought against him. 

" In selecting assessors, you will take them in rotation from the respectable members of the 
British community. It has not been thought necessary to impose a legal obligation to sit as 
assessors when called upon by the Consular Officer, because perfect reliance is placed upon the 
good feeling of the respectable portion of the British community in China prompting them 
zealously to co-operate with her Majesty's officers in carrying out a system, in the success of which 
all are so deeply interested, and which, if it should fail of execution, might be attended with very 
serious consequences. 

" With regard to the question of sending criminals to Hong-Kong for trial, it is intended that, 
in the first instance at least, that course should only be taken with criminals charged with murder ; 
and even in such cases the depositions taken by the Consuls must be first transmitted to myself, 
in order that 1 may ascertain whether, in the opinion of the legal authorities of this colony, 
there is a reasonable probability of obtaining a conviction : and you must further bear in 
mind, that the personal appearance of the witnesses for the prosecution will in all cases be re- 
quired by the Supreme Court of Hong-Kong ; and that, therefore, you must arrange with wit- 
nesses to proceed to Hong-Kong on payment of their expenses. With regard to evidence for 
the defence, the case is different, and you will pay the strictest attention to the provision of the 
fourth section of the Act of the Cth and 7th Victoria, c. 94, on this point. 

" You will keep a police report in the form herewith transmitted; and send to me when re- 
quired a copy of the whole or any portion thereof; and on the 31st of December of each year, a 
copy of the proceedings in the whole year must be sent to Hong-Kong. 

" You will forthwith report upon the means at your disposal for executing sentences of im- 
prisonment, and on the practice which you have hitherto observed in this respect ; and in the 
meanwhile you are enjoined, whenever recourse is had to the prisons of the country, to arrange 
with the local authorities that any British prisoner who may be confined therein, shall be visited 
daily by any person appointed by you, and if necessary by a medical officer deputed for that 
purpose. 

" You will be so good as to communicate to me a copy of the notification to be exhibited in 
your Consular office, as to the period within which British subjects arriving within your port 
shall enrol themselves. The principal object of the register being, however, to facilitate the 
exercise of control over British subjects of bad or doubtful character, you will carefully avoid 
exposing respectable parties to unnecessary vexation in this respect. 

" In addition to the police register, I send you a form of register in which the names of all 
persons considered as British subjects are to be enrolled. It will not be necessary that you 
should send me a copy of the register of British subjects, but on the 31st December of each year 
you will report the number of persons enrolled as British subjects in that register. 

" In conclusion, I have merely to observe that you will bear in mind, that although you are 
empowered under the circumstances stated in the ordinance to send out of the Chinese do- 
minions a British subject who may have been twice convicted, it is not obligatory upon you to do 
so in every case of a second conviction. It is only when the character of the offender is such as 
to render his continuance in China incompatible with the peace and good order of society, that 
you should resort to this extreme measure." 

Notification to her Majesty's Subjects at Shanghae. — " It is hereby notified to all her Britannic 
Majesty's subjects permanently residing at, or occasionally resorting to, Shanghae, that, in com- 
munication with the Chinese authorities, in accordance with the 6th Article of the Supplementary 
Treaty, the boundaries within which all persons are permitted to roam about for pleasure have 
been, by reason of the difficulty arising from the level nature of the country of defining natural 
limits, fixed upon to be the distance to which a person can travel during the day, so as to return 
to Shanghae in time not to be obliged to sleep out of the place. 

" It is to be distinctly understood that all persons may, for pleasure or amusement, freely hire, 
purchase, or make use of boats, horses, and chairs, without any hindrance whatsoever. 

" It is to be hoped that the freedom now existing will not be exceeded ; at all events it will 
be the duty of the Consul strictly to enforce attention to the regulation, so as to prevent that 
the community should, by the acts of any individual, suffer any reduction of the liberty now 
enjoyed. All persons having doubts as to the distance to which they may safely proceed, are 
enjoined to seek for information at the Consulate, to obviate the chance of infringing a regulation 



30 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

which will be construed in its strictest sense. The liberty thus agreed upon does not apply to 
crews of ships anchored within the port." 

Duty on Earthenware and on Piece Goods. — " That the duty on earthenware is reduced to an 
ad valorem rate of five per cent, and the duty on piece goods is provided to be paid at all the 
ports on examination of the articles, according to the practice at Canton. 

" According to the old law, all chinaware exported was divided into four classes, viz. : fine, 
middling, coarse, and ordinary, and the duties levied accordingly. 

" Yet in the recently established tariff no line of demarcation is drawn between coarse and 
fine, the picul paying five mace and the one article coarse chinaware not being specified. All 
items however which might be proved to have been omitted (in the tariff) are to pay on the 
valuation of the market price five per cent duty. 

" Respecting piece-goods and similar articles, we (Keying) may state, that whenever any are 
imported, the Consul gives notice to the custom-house. (The captain) then breaks bulk, and the 
examination commences. (The importers) hire lighters, and proceed with them to the pro- 
vincial city, where our clerks are directed to go to the godowns, to open the bales and distinctly 
fix the amount of duty ; after which (the merchant) repairs to the shroff and pays the customs ; 
but there is never any duty paid before the articles are examined. If any of the goods are found 
injured and damaged by water, a deduction on the amount of duties is, after mature consideration, 
agreed upon. Such have been hitherto our proceedings, which I request you to examine. 

" We the Great Minister and Lieutenant-governor, being aware that coarse chinaware is omitted 
in the tariff, and that the Canton custom-house on this, as well as any other article not specified 
(in the tariff), levies five per cent, on the market price, agree with the views entertained upon 
this subject by you the honourable Envoy. 

" One can however not wait until goods are sold, and then open the bales and examine them, 
and finding that there are stolen and damaged articles, subtract any of the duties already paid; 
the more so as they were not opened and looked at, on the day when notice of their arrival had 
been conveyed. Under such circumstances, we could have no standard for levying duties and for 
ascertaining the truth or falsehood, whether or not some of the goods were originally damaged or 
stolen. Nor would there be any means for investigating the matter, whilst such a proceeding 
would give rise to abuses, and is moreover beset with difficulties. 

" We ought therefore to conform to the mode adopted by the Canton custom-house, and first 
examine the state of the goods, and then fix the duties. When any are found injured and 
damaged, the duties will be reduced according to circumstances, to show our sense of justice, save 
us the trouble of making deductions afterwards, and avoid giving causes for altercation." 

TaouJcwang, 25th year, 3rd month, 15lh day (April 21, 1845.) 

Regulations of Trade for the Port of Foo-chow-foo. 

1. The limits of the port of Foo-chow-foo extend from the bridge to the Woo-foo-mun Pass. 

2. The Chinese officer at the station within the Pass has orders to provide any vessel desiring 
to enter the port with a pilot. 

3. British ships may remain in the port with a view of ascertaining the state of the market 
without restriction as to time ; and should they desire to depart without breaking bulk, no port 
dues will be demanded. The captain will, however, in all cases deliver his ship's papers, bills of 
lading, &c, into the hands of the consul twenty-four hours after arrival. 

4. Payment of duties may be made either in Sycee or coined money at the rates already 
established at Canton. 

5. All cargo is to be taken in or discharged between sunrise and sunset. 

6. Sailors on liberty are to be accompanied by an officer or responsible person, and strictly 
enjoined to abstain from all acts calculated to give offence to the inhabitants ; injunctions to the 
same effect having been issued by the Chinese authorities to the people of Foo-chow-foo. 

Chinese High Officers to Sir Henry Pottinger. 

" Whereas it having hitherto been the practice for merchant ships of all countries on arrival in 
China first to cast anchor in Macao roads, and there to wait until pilots should have been sent off 
by the sub-prefect of Macao to take the ship to Whampoa, it is now established by the new regu- 
lations, that masters of vessels shall be permitted to choose and to hire their pilots, so as to avoid 
all occasion for extortions and irregularities." 

A Luminous Proclamation.— Whereas the various nations of the'universe are all over-shadowed 
by the canopy of heaven, and the earth comprises them with its bounds ; that they be united in 
harmony, and that friendship be preserved among them, is most important. For which reason, 
also, ill-treatment and insult should not obtain. 

This city of Canton constitutes the centre of resort to merchants of every country, and for 
upwards of 200 years their ships have arrived in perpetual succession,— natives and foreigners 
equally obtaining advantage and profit thereby. 



COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS. 31 

We have lately had cause to be grateful to our high Emperor for having, without distinction 
between natives and foreigners, permitted deviations, as expedient, from the ancient laws — and 
still more, set on foot new arrangements. 

Since all subjects of China, then, are allowed to trade at their pleasure with merchants from 
afar, to whose coming and going no hindrance is offered, how desirable is it that all dislikes and 
jealousies be laid aside, and that cordiality and affection should never fail. 

It is natural and proper that the foreign merchants who repair to this port should at their 
convenience roam into the adjoining localities, for the purpose of exercise and the preservation of 
their health. — You, people and military, are instructed to observe decorum in your behaviour 
towards them, and to he duly mindful of friendly relations. 

Should any ignorant vagabonds boldly presume to violate these commands, and offer insult 
tending to the creation of disturbance, we, the magistrates, will assuredly maintain the laws, and 
punish them most severely, nor shall any indulgence be extended to them. Wherefore let 
there be implicit obedience, and let no opposition be offered. — Keying. 

Government Notification respecting the Custom-house Regulations at Shanghae. 

His Excellency her Majesty's plenipotentiary and chief superintendent of British trade in 
China, &c, is pleased to direct that the annexed copy of despatch No. 65, with its inclosures, 
received from her Majesty's consul at Shanghae, concerning the custom-house regulations at that 
port, be published for general information. By order, 

(Signed) Adam W. Elmslie. 

Victoria, Hong-Kong, November 29, 1845. 

Consul Balfour to Sir John Davis. 

Her Majesty s Consulate, Shanghae, November 7, 1845. 
Sir, — I have the honour to transmit copies of notifications issued by me to the British com- 
munity of this port during the past months of the (present year, which have been accidentally 
omitted to be forwarded to your Excellency. — I have, &c, 

(Signed) G. Balfour, 

Her Britannic Majesty's Consul at Shanghae. 

Notification to the British Community at Shanghae. — The Chinese custom-house officers having 
evinced every desire to pass goods according to the entries made by the consignees, and to pass 
personal baggage and stores without examination, it is to be hoped that this confidence will be 
upheld by most scrupulous accuracy in declaring the weight, measure, number, or value of the 
goods, and that all doubts will be adjusted to the satisfaction of the custom-house officers before 
the removal of the goods ; also that personal baggage and stores will be restricted to articles 
strictly belonging thereto ; but it is to be clearly understood, that all such articles must pass 
through the custom-house ; and further, that no transfers of packages or stores of any description, 
from one vessel to another, can be allowed without express permission. 

The liberality of the Chinese authorities in permitting all baggage and personal stores to pass 
free of duty, and the favourable contrast which such liberality bears to the custom-house arrange- 
ments of other countries, demand that no improper advantage be taken of this liberality; it is 
therefore incumbent on every one to limit articles under the designation of personal stores and 
baggage to such quantities as may be essential for the sole use of the individual within a reason- 
able period, manifesting all articles in excess of such quantities among the goods liable for 
duty. 

Personal stores, baggage, or goods of any description landed, shipped off, or transshipped, in 
contravention of established rules, are liable to be seized, detained, and in certain cases con- 
fiscated by the Chinese authorities ; and the slightest force or constraint towards the Chinese 
people attached to the custom-house, however humble their rank, to free -goods, stores, or baggage, 
so detained, will be viewed and treated as a criminal act. 

In notification dated 26th of Januaiy, 1844, it was clearly stated, that on Sundays custom- 
house business could not be transacted ; it is now requisite to define this more explicitly, by 
stating, that this cessation from business has reference to business of every description, excepting 
that which may be unforeseenly urgent, and not capable of being deferred; complaints against 
seamen for refusing to work on Sunday, unless such work be for the usual cleanliness or for the 
immediate safety or security of the vessel, cannot be listened to ; clearing out vessels, giving in 
receipts for duties, applications for port clearances, reporting arrivals, giving in manifests and bills 
of lading, &c, must not be done on Sunday ; and further, to carry out this principle in the fullest 
manner, in order to insure to all persons, whether government servants or others, an entire day 
of rest on Sunday, all applications of every description must be made at the consulate on Satur- 
day, in such proper time as will not only admit of the office being closed at four o'clock on that 
day, but as will also obviate the slightest necessity for, or expectation of business being done 
between four o'clock on Saturday and ten o'clock on Monday. 

On a vessel being about to be^despatched, the consignee of the ship will, on application at the 



32 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

consulate, receive a paper styled in Chinese, " Ship Consignee's General Duty Statement," which 
by being stamped with the consular seal, will entitle the consignee to have entered, on application 
to the Custom-house officers (they being so ordered by the Taoutae), the following particulars : — 

1. Amount of impoit duties on the cargo. 

2. Amount of tonnage dues on the vessel. 

3. Amount of export duties on the cargo. * 

4. Grand total of the above, with the seal of the Custom-house affixed. This paper, along with 
the receipts for duties, will he delivered in at the consulate, the amount of the payments agreeing 
exactly with the grand total inserted in the statement. 

On receiving from the consignees of goods the receipts for the duties paid thereon, the ship's 
consignee should also require the different passes to be given up, to ascertain that the receipts 
agree with the total sums entered in these passes, and to fix responsibility on the party who by the 
non-payment of the correct amounts may occasion the detention of the vessel. 

By the twelfth clause of the supplementary treaty all smuggling is strictly prohibited ; and 
clandestinely to bring goods within the limits of the port, without duly reporting them for Custom- 
house inspection, I need hardly observe, is an act of smuggling. 

By the regulations of trade, no vessel can enter into a legitimate trade at any of the five ports, 
unless duly reported. It suffices, therefore, that the Chinese authorities take cognizance of any 
vessel evading these regulations, to involve the masters and others in the consequences of their 
infringement. 

\ By the regulations of the port, all British subjects are prohibited from discharging or landing 
goods within the limits of the port, except between sunrise and sunset. 

Equal Toleration to Protestants and Papists. — I, the Great Minister, do not understand drawing 
a line of demarcation between the religious ceremonies of the various nations ; but virtuous Chinese 
shall by no means be punished on account of the religion they hold. No matter whether they 
worship images or do not worship images, there are no prohibitions against them, if, when prac- 
tising their creed, they act well. 

You, the honourable Envoy, need, therefore, not to be solicitous about this matter ; for all 
western nations shall, in this respect, certainly be treated upon the same footing, and receive the 
same protection. 

Government Notification respecting Commercial steamers carrying Merchandise as well 

as Passengers and Letters. 
His Excellency Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary, &c, &c, makes known for the general infor- 
mation of the British community, that his correspondence with the Chinese minister in relation to 
commercial steamers, has terminated in his excellency Keying acquiescing in the right of such 
vessels to carry merchandise, as well as passengers and letters. As the reluctance of the Chinese 
government to the increase of this species of traffic has arisen principally from a not unreasonable 
apprehension of danger to its own subjects in the crowded vicinity of trading cities, his excellency 
the plenipotentiary sees the absolute necessity of holding steam-vessels of all descriptions under the 
most effective control, with a view to preserving unimpaired the existing rights under the treaty, 
as well as promoting the establishment of good feeling between the subjects of the two nations. 
He trusts and believes that there will be no occasion whatever for the interference of authority; 
but in case of need, the existing law is sufficient for enforcing either compensations for civil injury, 
or penalties on account of criminal negligence or aggression. 

BRITISH TRADE WITH CHINA. 

British intercourse with China was first attempted in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, 1596-7, but the ship did not reach her destination; and no intercourse 
was established with" China until long after the English had, in 1613, established 
a footing in Japan. An indirect trade appears, however, to have been carried on 
with Chinese merchant vessels frequenting Japan, Amboyna, and some other 
places. 

British trade with China had been, until 1830, so closely involved with the 
general trade of the East India Company, that we included the details of the 
China trade along with those which we have given under the head of Oriental 
Commerce, which see. 

The following summary and tabular statements will therefore be sufficient, as 
far as regards the China trade before the year 1831. 



BRITISH TRADE WITH CHINA. 



33 



An Account of the Annual Value of the Trade between the subjects of Great Britain and 
China, from 1814—15 to 1830—31. 



YEARS 


Value of Exports and Im- 
ports between India 
and China. 


Total. 


Value of Im- 
ports and Ex- 
ports between 
England and 
China on Ac- 
count of the 
Company. 


Total 

Value of 

the British 

Trade with 

China. 


Value 
of Trade of 
Individuals 
with China. 


Value 

of Trade 

of the 




On Account 

of 
Individuals. 


On Account 

of the 
Company. 


Company 
with 
China. 


1814—15 


£ 
2,573,940 
2,379,026 
3,034,031 
3,327,770 
3,516,332 
2,190,137 
3,328,039 
3,011,010 
3,047,792 
2,734,509 
2,832,191 
3,943,729 
3,764,404 
4,951,678 
3,795,966 


£ 
221,589 
356,470 
230,083 
710,100 
364,543 
334,807 
602,994 
469,657 
189,304 
721,425 
326,591 
291,603 
362,405 
376,247 
433,388 
308,767 
363,741 


£ 
2,795,529 
2,735,496 
3,264,114 
4,037,870 
3,880,875 
2,524,944 
3,931,033 
3,480,667 
3,237,096 
3,455,934 
3,158,782 
4,235,332 
4,126,809 
5,327,925 
4,229,354 


£ 

2,955,776 
4,285,799 
2,962,062 
2,183,022 
2,065.389 
3,092,456 
2,935,904 
2,700,425 
2,642,845 
2,815,048 
2,600,060 
2,687,013 
3,176,901 
2,836,397 
2,517,726 
2,490,947 
2,983,487 


£ 
5,751,295 

7,021,295 
6,226,176 
6,220,892 
5,946,264 
5,617,400 
6,866,937 
6,181,092 
5,879,941 
6,270,982 
5,758,842 
6,922,345 
7,303,710 
8,164,322 
6,747,080 


£ 
2,573,940 
2,379,026 
3,034,031 
3,327,770 
3,516,332 
2,190,137 
3,328,039 
3,011,010 
3,047,792 
2,734,509 
2,832,191 
3,943,729 
3,764,404 
4,951,678 
3,795,966 


£ 
3,177,355 
4,642,269 
3,192,145 
2,893,122 
2,429,932 
3,427,263 
3,538,898 
3,170,082 
2,832,149 
3,536,473 
2,926,651 
2,978,616 
3,539,306 
3,212,644 
2,951,114 
2,799,714 
3,347,228 


1815—16 


1816—17 


1817—18 


1818—19 


1819—20 


1820—21 


1821—22 


1822—23 


1823—24 


1824—25 


1825—26 


1826—27 

1827—28 


1828—29 


1829—30 


1830—31 ,. .. 



An Account of the Quantity of each Article, except Tea, of Chinese Produce Imported 
into the United Kingdom, in each Year, from 1791 to 1830. 



YEAR 



1791 
1792 
1793 
1794 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 
1799 
1800 
1801 
1802 
1803 
1804 
1805 
1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 



Silk. 



lbs. 

199,924 

102,279 

171,998 
99,671 

158,225 
12,968 
78,520 

136,196 
63,604 
92,385 

131,335 
75,588 
74,538 
90,362 
76,359 
18,607 
55,277 

117,855 
90,603 
54,376 



Nanquin 

Cloth. 



pieces. 

56,021 

57,385 

77,898 

374,398 

146,365 

48,642 

77,338 

257,373 

184,490 

160,917 

366,851 

274,921 

232,894 

264,407 

252,207 

376,233 

72,135 

484,647 

287,720 

305,009 



Miscellaneous 

Articles of 
Chinese Pro- 
duce. 



Value £ 
23,176 

29,281 
26,692 
19,809 
14,186 
23,062 
23,252 
25,054 
17,131 
25,960 
29,293 
19,054 
23,134 
26,184 
15,198 
10,504 
11,474 
17,617 
14,268 
14,890 



YEARS. 



1811 
1812 
1813 
1814 
1815 
1816 
1817 
1818 
1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 



Silk. 



lbs. 

81,397 
86,197 



Nanquin 
Cloth. 



pieces. 
316,616 
503,276 



Miscellaneous 

Articles of 
Chinese Pro- 
duce. 



The records destroyed 



150,629 
216,129 
88,987 
103,367 
146,878 
141,325 
271,115 
275,110 
222,673 
392,717 
293,014 
142,676 
405,185 
208,287 
288,916 
606,444 
456,991 



783,253 
896,797 
396,453 
564,226 
409,349 
523,852 
969,746 
569,062 
287,431 
412,076 
1,010,494 
392,998 
431,520 
99,698 
529,602 
919,255 
593,339 



Value £ 
9,630 
12,929 
by fire. 
29,054 
19,474 
29,050 
35,703 
19,510 
55,595 
70,827 
39,654 
23,419 
73,935 
69,618 
75,963 

124,569 
97,752 
95,412 

103,077 
94,131 



An Account of all Goods Imported from China into Great Britain during the following 

Years. 



ARTICLE 



Company's Trade. 

Teas lbs. 

China raw silk do. 

Nankeen cloth pieces 

Privilege Trade. 

Teas lbs. 

China raw silk do. 

Nankeen cloth pieces 

Silk piece goods do. 

Aniseed c wts. 

Cambogium do. 

Canes number 



1811 



Quantity. Value 



number. 

19,710,735 
81,822 
121,000 



1,501,543 

190,775 

120 

14 

43 

109,616 



3,263,338 
133,302 
36,300 



303,696 

50,460 

633 

153 

1,037 

1,557 



Quantity, 



number. 

35,671,389 

209,064 
322,700 



1,309,138 

724,792 

21,399 

444 

153 

280,896 



Value. 



5,291,630 

232,584 

91,432 



247,308 

193,053 

74,510 

2,878 

3,291 

4,015 



1825 



Quantity. 



number. 

26,605,685 
90,203 
183,700 



1,590,774 

109,954 

670,783 

31,694 

101 
414,452 



Value. Quantity. Value. 



number. 



3,536,901 ! 28,500,834 

90,203 1 



35,209 



283,144 1,663,152 

104,581 ! 121,217 

124,167 163,619 

48,458 ' 31,221 



1,873 
2,701 



10 
319,622 



£ 

3,704,! 



251,740 

115,245 

25,920 

31,733 

52 

3,626 



(continued.) 



VOL. V. 



34 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

An Account of all Goods Imported from China into Great Britain, &c. — {continued.) 



ARTICLE 


S. 


1811 


1815 


1820 


1825 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 






number. 

1,008 

2,038 
13,500 

9,432 
4,516 


£ 

295 

lV,964 
3,259 

2,058 
3,110 

V,758 


number. 
1,304 

440 

55,341 

3 

2,525 

3,955 

36,969 

23,981 

34,202 

414 

5,461 

7,888 

579 


£ 

25,292 
14,027 

9,315 

50 

1,016 

18,820 

10,967 

3,011 

8,669 

1,215 

33,246 

10,433 

*392 
6,566 


number. 
30 

16 

2,074 

66,802 

3,172 

145,155 
24 


£ 
273 

269 
20,801 

8,699 

4,305 

4,755 

50 

8,771 


number. 

440 
247 

1,052 

5,099 


£ 




do. 






do. 


396 




.. .lbs. 




Dragon's blood 


..cwts. 
....lbs. 


99 


Mother-of-pearl shells. 

Nutmegs 

Oil of cassia 


... cwts. 
....lbs. 

oz. 

lbs. 


5,967 


Sago 

Tin 


...cwts. 
do 






....lbs. 


9,918 




.. . .do. 












3,180 








Total 




3,812,920 




6,283,480 




4,275,220 




4,152,682 



An Account of all Goods Imported from China into Great Britain, &c. — (continued.) 



ARTICLES 


1831 


1832 


1833 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Company's Trade. 
Teas lbs 


number. 

27,854,827 

2,688,875 

3,011 

2,550 

8,750 

570,290 

324 

1,212 

1,137 

465 


£ 

3,127,019 

349,802 
2,264 

298 
9,791 
4,225 

442 

5,267 
3,605 
1,007 

4,502 

3,508,222 


number. 

28,109,669 

1,945,388 

27,881 

7,009 
420,692 
652 
151 
787 
100 
626 

3,744 


£ 

3,064,014 

244,456 
18,902 

4,947 
3,811 

955 

542 
3,188 

200 
1,416 

569 
1,884 


number. 

30,668,024 

1,990,775 

21,941 

9,700 

14,891 

1,055,370 

969 

349 
1,274 
1,192 


£ 
3,235,246 

239,676 
18,780 
2,034 
12,367 


Privilege Trade. 
Teas lbs. 


Nankeen clotli pieces 




8,250 




1,191 






Mother-of-pearl shells do. 

Tin do. 


1,317 
3,913 


Tortoiseshell lbs 


2,702 








998 






Total 






3,344,884 




3,528,635 



An Account of all Goods Exported to China from Great Britain during the following 

Years. 



ARTICLES. 


1811 


1815 


1820 


1825 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Company's Trade. 


6,450 

211,220 

25, 1 1 1 

1,250 

450 

349 

5,510 


£ 

142,293 

516,023 

175,169 

31,057 

6,837 

27,173 

4,774 

2,486 


10,788 

126,040 

21,330 

1,0(10 

664 

349 


£ 

254,047 
35«»,469 
156,962 
17,927 
10,969 
22,691 

1,907 


12,120 

126,000 

20,000 

500 

1,259 

123 

4,960 

5,040 

3,247,285 


£ 

204,699 

312,382 

140,7 a 

11,437 

13,040 

8,342 

4,131 

501 

2,093 

93,402 


19,716 

17 6,400 

24,400 

1,447 

2,419 

6,572 
6,020 


£ 

239,625 
3/4, 151 
102,536 
40,050 
34,443 




Cambists, stuffs, &c do. 


British iron do. 


Tin d<). 




12,162 


Cotton twist lbs. 




4,125 
6,592 


( otton wool, foreign lbs. 

Foreign ckns number 


Total 




905,812 


823,972 




790.74S 


.. 


813,6S4 



BRITISH TRADE WITH CHINA. 



35 



An Account of all Goods Exported to Chi 


na from Great Britain 


, &c. — {continued.) 


ARTICLES. 


1830 


1832 


1833 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Company's Trade. 

Broad cloth pieces 

Long ells do. 

Camblets, stuffs, &c do. 

Lead tons 


16,926 

150,300 

12,450 

1,570 

1,501 

32,500 
516,000 

50 


£ 

149,255 

213,277 

60,681 

21,792 

11,312 

34,385 

34,952 

3,919 

1,238 


16,440 
105,000 

4,460 

1,683 

901 

25,650 
200,160 


£ 

156,124 
159,078 
21,714 
20,863 
| 5,551 

21,925 

11,963 

1,450 


11,136 

88,300 

3,037 

190 

602 

15,500 
120,000 


£ 

104,011 

137,426 

113,827 

2,314 

3,641 


Tin do. 




British calicoes pieces 


13,174 

7,024 




2,598 


Worsted yarn bales 




Total 




530,811 


1 398,668 




3S4.015 



An Account of all Goods Exported to China from Great Britain, &c. — (continued.) 



articles. 



Privilege Trade. 

Apparel 

Apothecary 

Beer 

Blue 



Boots and shoes. 



Books and charts 

Candles , 

Cloth cuttings 

Clocks and clockwork 

Coach furniture 

Confectionery and compounds 
Cordage 

Copper 

Corks 



Cottons 



Cudbear 

Cutlery 

Fire engines 

Fowling pieces 

Glass and earthenware. 



Gold and silver lace and thread 



18)1 



Quautity. 



1 case 

2 do. 

34 tuns 
( 130 cases 
\ 3 casks 
r 11 trunks 
\ 5 cases 
{ 3 trunks 
\ 2 cases 

f 12 bales 
( 25 trunks 
5 cases 

28 cases 

( 24 Gases 
( 2 casks 

{15 cases 
4" " 
45 cases 
20 trunks 

3 bales 



r 45 cases ~j 

<{ 20 trunks > 

I 3 bales J 



Haberdashery 

Hats 

Hosiery 



Ironmongery and iron 

Jewellery 

Lead and lead shot ... 
Leather (wrought) •. 
Linen 



Looking-glasses 

Mathematical and optical in 

struments 

Millinery , 

Musical instruments and music 

Oilman's stores 

Painter's colours 

Perfumery 

Pictures. 

Plate glass 

Plate and plated ware 



23 cases 
6 cases 
2 cases 

284 cases 



4 trunks 



Value. 



35 cases 

( 8 trunks } 

\ 2 cases ) 

(221 tons \ 

\ 107 packages J 

( 14 tons ) 

I 19 casks J 

( 28 bales > 

( 2 cases 5 

12 cases 

10 do. 
2 boxes 

1 case 
6 do. 

2 casks 

29 packages 
2 cases 
5 do. 
1 do. 



10 
29 

688 

5,506 

420 

145 

1,295 
575 

280 

1,447 
200 



406 
225 

68 

3,427 

150 

130 

1,225 

457 

7,580 



2,178 
480 

1,100 

90 

20 

72 

40 

1,120 

20 

220 

223 



1815 



Quantity. 



20 cases 
f 1 do. 
I 80 casks 

87 J tuns 
277 do. 

25 boxes 

8 do. 

8 cases 
f 25 bales 
1 2 trunks 

3 cases 

10 do. 



l case 
3 bags 

32 cases 
49 bales 

20 casks 
5 cases 



161 cases 

2 trunks 
2 cases 

2 do. 

20 do. 
2 do. 
2 trunks 
103 tons 
. 49 packages 

115 tons 
6 boxes 



l case 

1 do. 

2 do. 
1 do. 

4 do. 

142 packages 

12 cases 

1 do. 

4 do. 

1 do. 



Value. 



478 

60 

1,756 

13,563 

704 

498 

80 

1,630 

495 

156 



18,410 



205 
746 



3,268 
800 

476 

203 

200 



2018 



30 
50 

100 
106 
125 

295 
472 
50 
400 
150 



1820' 



Quantity. 



11 cases 
3 do. 
4i tuns. 



2 trunks \ 
6 cases J 

6 do. 

6 do. 

26 bales \ 

2 casks J 

9 cases 



do. 



19 cases 
6 casks 



f544 do. 
.J 144 bales 

L 1 trunk 
8 casks 
2 cases 



f 171 cases 
\ 26 casks 



1 case 

1 trunk 

14 cases 

1 trunk 

164 tons 



Value. 



45 packages 



4 cases 

1 do. 

4 do. 

2 do. 

12 packages 
83 do. 
34 cases 



7 chests 



278 

649 

90 

137 

225 

94 

1,680 

560 

29 
756 

56,141 

530 
93 

5,069 



130 

204 
90 

4,379 



225 

70 

145 

405 

1,143 



D 2 



(continued.) 



36 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



An Account of all Goods Exported to China from Great Britain, &c. — (continued.) 



ARTICLES. 


1811 


1815 


1820 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Privilege Trade— {continued). 


5 packages 
10 cases 

31 casks 
29 cases 

( 20 cases ) 
| 1 trunk J 

1 case 
36 packages 

4 cases 

6 do. 

10 packages 

2 cases 

( 4 bales "1 

I 1 case J 

563 lbs. 

14,032 do. 

121 No. 

600 lbs. 
8,722 do. 

21 tons 

6,824 galls, 
cwts. qrs. lbs, 
52 2 23 


£ 

71 

100 

750 

2,937 

358 
4 

150 

105 
149 
375 

1,980 

185 

*28 

300 

7,016 

2,420 
4,550 

iio 

872 

559 

17 

1,877 

92 


2 cases 

3 do. 

2 casks 

2 cases 

2 do. 
f 7 cases ) 
( 1 trunk J 

2 cases 
62 boxes 

4 cases 
1 do. 

9 packages 
1 case 

597 lbs. 
5,760 do. 

40 tons 

1,200 lbs. 

24,570 lbs. 

1,233 galls. 
54 tons 

3,250 galls. 


£ 

30 
209 

32 
300 

88 
625 

300 

652 

129 

93 

488 

500 

*67 

2,880 

4,770 

935 

603 

240 

2,457 

154 
1,455 

894 


1 case 

2 do. 

1 do. 

2 cases 

( 13 cases > 
( 4 pieces J 
(281 boxes > 
( 2 cases $ 

39 packages 
17 cases 

6 bales 

4,750 lbs. 
2,165 do. 

6,840 lbs. 

672 lbs. 
2,010 de. 
2,400 do. 

96,390 do. 

1,096 galls. 
27 tons 
15 cwts. 

919 galls. 


£ 
32 


Sail dl ery ta 


65 






Skins 


136 






Stationery .... 


60 
285 


Tin ware and tin plates 


600 


Toys 








Upholstery and cabinet ware. . 
Watches (British made) 


2,480 
5,703 

210 




2,018 
244 




Clocks 






3,420 

1,050 

819 




Coral and coral fragments.. .. 

Elephants' teeth 

Furs 




42 




302 




480 


Pearls 


422 




9,639 






137 


Steel 


729 


Stock-fish 


13 


Tar 




Wine 


253 










Total 


1 




1 





An Account of all Goods Exported to China from Great Britain, &c (continued.) 


ARTICLES. 


1825 


1830 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Privilege Trade— (continued). 


{ 
{ 
1 

{ 
\ 


4 cases 

2 ditto 
1\ tuns 

1 case 

3 ditto 
6 ditto 

8 cases 

5 ditto 

6 ditto 

412 ditto ) 
32 bales J 

5 cases ) 

2 casks ) 

182 cases ) 
11 casks i 

9 cases 

3 ditto 

34 tons ) 
27 packages J 

3 cases 
70 tons > 
15 casks ) 


£ 

210 
503 
52 

44 
110 

54 
990 

29 

232 
31,598 

350 

1,289 

159 
145 

1,348 

400 
1,226 


17 cases 

2 hhds. 

5 cases 
9 ditto 
1 ditto 

5 ditto 

f 85 cases "J 
< 85 bales V 
(. 37 packages J 
124 ditto 

( 2 casks ) 
( 17 cases J 

1 ditto 
7 ditto 

2 ditto 
1 ditto 


£ 
397 








9 


Blue 






32 




237 




5 








28 












7,957 
2,869 












145 




15 


Hats 


34 








34 








j 







{continued.) 



BRITISH TEADE WITH CHINA. 



37 



An Account of all Goods exported to China from Great Britain, &c. — (continued.) 



ARTICLES. 



Privilege Trade— {continued.) 

Leather (wrought) 

Linen 

Looking-glasses 

Mathematical and optical instruments. 

Millinery 

Musical instruments and music 

Oilman's stores 

Perfumery 

Pewter 

Pictures 

Plate-glass • 

Plate and plated ware 

Playing cards 

Stationery.... .... = 

Tin wares and tin plates 

Turnery 

Upholstery and cabinet ware 

Watches (British made) 

(Foreign made) 

Woollens 



Amber 

Busrles 

Cochineal 

Coral beads 

Coral and coral fragments. 
Musical boxes and cages... 

Orsidue 

Pearls 

Quicksilver 

Steel 

Stock Fish 

Wine 



Total. 



Quantity. 



l case 

7 bales 



2 cases 



7 ditto 
5 packages 
10 casks 

5 cases 

7 ditto 



4 cases 

549 bales 
12 packages 
1,390 lbs. 
225 do. 

,782 do. 



1,500 lbs. 

84,960 do. 
2 tons 
4 do. 
963 gallons 



'alue. 



£ 
29 

329 



270 

21 

337 

280 

360 



1,000 



26,895 

1,017 
25 

3,890 

2,740 

4,876 

2,460 

300 

100 

7,788 

54 

68 

312 



Quantity. 



1 ditto 
1 ditto 

1 ditto 

2 ditto 
2 ditto 

5 ditto 

4 ditto 

1 ditto 
1 ditto 

1 case 

1 do. 

2 do. 
2 do. 

5 do. 
2 do. 

31 bales 

18 cases 



Value. 



10 
10 
13 

50 

16 

74 

18 
20 

5 

7 

20 

2 

95 

120 

1,250 

5,635 



4,894 



An Account of all Goods Exported to China from Great Britain, &c. — (continued). 



ARTICLES. 



Privilege Trade — {continued). 

Apparel 

Beer 

Boots and shoes 

Books and charts 

Canvas 

Clocks and clockwork 

Confectionery and compounds. 

Cordage 

Copper 

Cottons 

Cotton twist 

Cutlery 

Fire-engines 

Glass and earthenware 

Haberdashery 

Hats 

Hosiery 

Ironmongery and iron 

Lead and lead shot 

Leather (wrought) 

Linen 

Looking-glasses 

Mathematical and optical in- 
struments 

Millinery 

Musical instruments and music 

Oilman's stores 

Perfumery 

Plate and plated ware 

Provisions 

Scales and weights 

Smalts 

Steel and spring steel 

Tin ware and tin plates 

Upholstery and cabinet ware 
Watches, &c 

Woollens , 

Total Valuk 



1831 



Quantity. 



24 packages 



5 ditto 
3 ditto 



270 packages 



172 ditto 

1 case 

3 ditto 

1 ditto 
19 packages 
25 tons 



1 case 

1 ditto 

3 ditto 
3 ditto 

2 ditto 

8 packages 

3 cases 



2 cases 

12 ditto 

( 252 bales 

\ 1 case 



Value. 



424 



290 
15 



,689 
75 
13 
10 

291 



30 
1,359 

9,470 



26,008 



1832 



Quantity. 



18 packages 

4 cases 
6 ditto 



136 cases 
72 bales 



173 packages 
1 case 
1 ditto 

14 packages 
25 tons 



1 case 

1 ditto 

3 ditto 

6 packages 

1 case 

2 ditto 

4 packages 

1 ditto 

2 ditto 

203 bales 



Value. 



£ 

392 



9,942 



75 



150 



10 
50 

9 
13 

13 

26 

"lO 
"l9 

6,778 



1833 



Quantity. 



27 packages 

4 ditto 
2 cases 

13 ditto 

7 bales 
15 ditto 

6 ditto 

105 ditto 

35 ditto 

209 cases 

128 bales 

65 packages 

2 cases 

2 ditto 

76 packages 

2 cases 

6 packages 
[ 85 tons 
35 ditto 

1 ditto 

2 cases 

6 ditto 

5 ditto 

1 ditto 

12 packages 

8 cases 

3 ditto 

2 ditto 

3 packages 
12 casks 

1 ditto 

5 cases 

1 flittu 
,' 1,243 bales 
' 6 cases 



Value. 



542 

8 

18 

205 

240 

441 

33 

460 

1,150 

13,067 

1,490 

26 

120 

652 



45 
510 



70 

194 
77 
10 
44 

150 

220 

9 

28 

400 



73 

43,498 



38 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



An Account of all Goods exported to China, &c. — {continued.') 



ARTICLES. 


1831 


1832 


1833 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Foreign Articles. 


84 galls. 
727 galls. 


£ 

7,379 
"ll 

*200 


168 galls. 
741 galls. 


£ 

' 20 

3,895 

25 

'*21 

1,280 

204 

1,000 


926 lbs. 

15,829* lbs. 
32 tons. 
28o'galls. 


£ 

200 


Clocks 






2,576 

390 

1,400 


Musical boxes and cages 

Smalts 






856 




1,000 
78 






250 




50 










7,590 


-. 


6,445 




6,800 




Total British Articles in Privi- 




26,008 
7,590 




19,730 
6,445 




64,324 
6,800 


Total Foreign Articles in Pri- 
vilege Trade 


Total Privilege Trade. 




33,598 




26,175 


.. 


71,124 



Totals. 





1831 


1832 


1833 




Total 

E. I. Co.'s 

Trade. 


Total 

Privilege ■ 

Trade. 


Total 
China 
Trade. 


Total 

E. I. Co.'s 

Trade. 


Total 

Privilege 

Trade. 


Total 
China 
Trade. 


Total 

E. I. Co.'s 

Trade. 


Total 

Privilege 

Trade. 


Total 
China 
Trade. 


Consignments of 
this Year deferred 
beyond the period 
of Shipment 


£ 
352,983 

166,460 


£ 
33,598 


£ 

386,581 

166,460 


£ 

398,668 


£ 
26,175 


£ 
424,843 


£ 
284,015 


£ 
71,124 


£ 
355,139 


Total Value... 


| 519,443 


33,598 


553,041 


398,668 


17,526 


1 424,843 


284,015 


71,124 


355,139 



Foreign and Colonial Merchandise imported into the United Kingdom from China. 



ARTICLES. 



Cassia Lignea..lbs. 

Cinnamon do. 

Cloves do. 

Cochineal do. 

Coffee do. 

Copper, un- 

wrought. ..cwts. 
Cotton piece goods 
of India... pieces 
Cotton manufac- 
tures, entered at 

value £ 

Furs, otter.. ..No 

Hemp, undressed 

cwts 

Indigo lbs 

Rhubarb do 

Silk, raw and 

waste do, 

thrown. • • .do. 

Silk manufactures 
of India, viz. — 
Bandannoes, 
and handker- 
chiefs.... piece 
Crape, in pieces 
Crape shawls, 
scarfs, & hand- 
kerchiefs... No 
Taffeties. da- 
masks, & other 
silks, in pieces 

Tea lb?. 

Tin cwts. 

Tobacco, manufac- 
tured, and snuff 
lbs 
Wine of all sorts.. | 



number, number. 



2,500 
sq. yds. 



19 



3,374 
44 



6,533 



2,074 

31,648,922 

1,137 



63 

4,801 



150 



£57 



,755 



126 

31,708,956 
100 



62 
1,799 



9,701 



75 



22,181 
5 



1,873 
75 



number. 
110,697 



24,000 



56,717 



582,834 



2,347 
32,057,747 
1,274 



62 

4,535 



153,637 

1 
1 



11,236 



4,276 
72 



973 



461 

32,029,052 



3,755; 



737,489 
313 



4,153 
37 



number. 

74,883 



11,900 
121 



44,028 

1,277,251 

4,588 



6,595 
41 



1837 



number. 
8,252 

2 
918 
274 



129,467 
53 



19 
7,147 

85,238 

1,760,212 

47,4/8 



number. 
44,142 
5,852 
216 

234 



59,038 



),081 
5 



,986 10,618 



1,919 2,589| 7,303 

,609,921 48,520,508 36,502,345 
60 



40 

10,484 



130 
8,233 



121 
3,952 



1838 



number. 

54,206 



270 



85 
2,710 



55,811 



702,677 
18,840 



21,870 
114 



3,599 

,998,572 

165 



1839 



number. 



37 

290 



36,759 

360,500 
382 



21,327 
67 



2171 
2,754l 



7,206 



13,496 
37,191,762 

1 



2,700 

90 

2,202 
15,986 
$47,755 



2,256 

1 



1,604 



3,439 

22,576,405 

306 



310 
2,470 



BRITISH TRADE WITH CHINA. 



39 



Foreign and Colonial Merchandise 


Exported from the United Kingdom to China. 


ARTICLES. 


1834 


1835 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1S40 




number. 

6184 

40 

595 

963 

2681 

2651 

687 

2427 


number. 
23,284 
32 
5,423 

520 

665 

10 

38,430 

3,836 

1,147 

851 

5,662 

276 

281 


number. 

45,851 

3 

2,676 

5,256 

7,972 

72 

54',069 

328,048 

732 

301 

3,494 

667 

2,176 


number. 
4,447 

1,329 

3,541 

485 

9 

58,874 

300 

1,504 

157 

4,115 


number. 
11,632 

1,266 
4,500 
4,914 

766 

167,764 

1,011 
1,513 
1,779 


number. 
3,670 
3 
161 

1,671 
315 

11,490 

288 
1,106 
1,734 

710 


number. 




3 


Cotton manufactures, entered at value.. £ 

Furs, musquash number 

other do. 


65 
94 


Linens, plain and diaper, value £ 

Opium lbs. 










111 


brandy do. 


2663 
1813 


Tea lbs. 


381 


Wine ; viz. — 

Cape gals. 




497 
716 
4047 
12 
137 
107 


44 

1,987 

3,261 

10,158 

3,439 

363 

72 


1,045 

1.5S4 

12,825 

612 

1,089 
178 
235 


1,863 
2,427 
7,343 

845 

132 
52 


2,166 
879 

3,231 
860 

65 
140 


1,535 

993 

1,461 

88 

331 

53 


]5H'i 




1012 


Spanish do. 


62 2 2 
1031 








102 




24 






Wine of all sorts. . . do. 


5516 


19,324 


17,768 


12,662 


7,841 


4,461 


9973 


Wool, cotton lbs. 






139,273 


620,307 









In the tabular statements contained in the section upon Oriental Commerce, we have givpi) 
detached statements of the British trade with China during the period when the monopoly of 
that trade was held by the East India Company. The following tabular statements will mote 
fully, and since that period, exhibit the British and other foreign trade with China. 

Statement of the Number of Ships, and Amount of Tonnage, that Entered Inwards in 
the United Kingdom from China, in each Year, from 1793—1794 to 1821— 1822, 
both inclusive. 



YEAR S. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


YEARS. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


YEARS. 


Ships. 


Tonnage. 


1793 4 


number. 

18 

21 

5 

17 
32 
13 
10 
22 
21 
24 


tons. 
17,436 
20,234 
4,856 
14,354 
37,682 
12,731 
12,8i0 
27,407 
24,531 
25,994 


1803 4 


number. 
17 
18 
15 
9 
24 
15 
13 
15 
19 
21 


tons. 
22,279 
24,191 
19,100 
11,0S3 
31,797 
19,2P0 
17,272 
18,984 
25,324 
27,227 


1813—14.. .. 

1814 — 15 

1815—16 

1816—17 

1817—18 

1818— 19. ....... 

1819-20 

1820—21 

1821—22 


number. 
19 
21 
26 
27 
15 
16 
24 
23 
19 


tons. 

24,466 
24,890 
33,075 
28,032 
20,000 
21,210 
28,451 
28,692 
24,975 


I794 5 


1804 5 






1796—7 


1806—7 

1807—8 

1808—9 

1809-10 

1810—11 

1811—12 : .. 

1812—13 


1797—8 


1798—9 


1799—1800 

1800 1 


1801—2 

1802—3 



Statement of the Navigation by British and Foreign Shipping between the United 
Kingdom and China, for the following Years. 



YEARS. 



1821. 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1S25. 
1826. 
1827, 
1828. 
1829 
1830. 
1831. 
1832. 
1833. 
1834. 
1835 
1836. 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842, 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846, 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 



N W A R D S. 



British. 



ships. 

24 

20 

20 

21 

20 

23 

29 

25 

20 

22 

21 

20 

21 

30 

67 

80 

62 

58 

47 

34 

52 

73 

84 
104 
121 
123 
125 



tons. 
29,059 
25,959 
27,319 
28,270 
26,986 
27,824 
35,977 
29,845 
27,915 
27,782 
27,889 
25,237 
27,985 
29,308 
35,427 
40,686 
32,212 
32,333 
26,261 
20,056 
23,444 
32,818 
39,712 
45,605 
51,802 
53,593 
51,948 



Foreign. 



ships, 



Total. 



ships. 

24 
20 
20 
21 
20 
23 
29 
25 
20 
22 
21 
20 
21 
30 
67 
80 
62 
58 
47 



tons. 
29,059 
25,959 
27,319 
28,270 
26,986 
27,824 
35,977 
29,845 
27,915 
27,782 
27,889 
25,237 
27,985 
29,308 
35,427 
40,686 
32,212 
32,333 
26,261 
20,056 



OUTWARDS. 



British. 



Foreign. 



ships. 
20 
20 
15 
23 
21 
29 
22 
23 
22 
16 
22 
19 
25 
16 



tons. 
27,174 
27,009 
20,128 
30,002 
26,013 
35,087 
26,026 
30,385 
28,557 
21,033 
28,081 
24,648 
29,627 

8,887 
21,218 
24,099 
17,694 
16,175 
10,404 

2,942 
13,738 
28,297 
32,298 
32,534 
34,391 
31,620 
29,605 



ships, 

1 

1 
1 



tons. 
340 

260 
642 

340 
326 
645 

789 
1128 

794 
1087 
1476 
3803 
4885 

872 
1510 
1113 
1082 
1381 
1067 
1696 
2110 
1396 
2404 
3095 



Total. 



ships. 


tons. 


21 


27,514 


20 


27,009 


16 


20,388 


24 


30,644 


21 


26,018 


30 


35,427 


23 


26,352 


25 


31,030 


22 


28,557 


18 


21,822 


25 


29,207 


21 


25,442 


28 


30,714 


20 


10,363 


42 


25,021 


50 


28,984 


28 


18,566 


34 


17,685 


21 


11,517 


13 


4,024 


34 


15,119 


65 


29,364 


76 


33,994 


83 


34,644 


92 


35,787 


82 


34,024 


79 


76,700 



40 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 







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En 



BRITISH TRADE WITH CHINA. 



41 



British and Irish Produce and Manufactures Exported from the United Kingdom to 
China during the following Years : — 



ARTICLES. 


Years. 


Declared 
Value. 


ARTICLES. 


Years. 


Declared 
Value. 






£ 






£ 




[-1840 


1,382 




[-1840 


767 




1841 


2,721 




1 1841 


934 




1842 


6,288 




1842 


931 




1843 


7,288 




I 1843 


1,254 




1844 


10,064 




1844 


847 


Apparel, slops, and haberdashery 


< 1845 


7,103 


Earthenware of all sorts 


<j 1845 


2,072 




1846 


6,844 




1846 


3,228 




1847 


5,092 




1847 


1,703 




1848 






1848 






1849 






1849 






1850 






11850 






rl840 


293 




r-1840 


806 




1841 


1,092 




1841 


2,903 




1842 


561 




1842 


4,248 




1843 


3,999 




1 1843 


8,516 




1844 


3,349 




1844 


13,535 


Arms and ammunition 


<^ 1845 


2,319 


Glass 


<j 1845 


8,606 




1846 


1,371 




1846 


7,171 




1847 


1,823 




1847 


7,494 




1848 






1848 






1849 






1849 






_1850 






1.1850 






rl840 


1,583 




rl840 


217 




1841 


5,647 


V 


1841 


1,963 




1842 


5,427 




1842 


4,461 




1843 


11,037 




1843 


10,022 




1844 


19,348 




1844 


16,281 


Beer and ale 


< 1845 
1846 


6,195 
7,218 


Hardwares and Cutlery 


J 3845 
1846 


20,668 






13,793 




1847 


9,786 




1.847 


5,294 




1848 






1848 






1849 






1849 






1850 






1850 






rl840 


155 




: 1840 


11,771 




1841 


389 




1841 


17,488 




1842 


567 




1842 


18,327 




1843 


2,084 




1843 


36,337 




1844 


3,755 




1844 


29,104 


Books, printed 


, 1845 


1,004 


Iron and Steel, wrought and un wrought 


<■ 1845 


18,662 




1846 


1,110 




1846 


9,227 




1847 


1,819 




1847 


15,768 




1848 






1848 






1849 






1849 






1850 






1850 






r-1840 


1,800 




-1840 


925 




1841 


2,530 




1841 


10,483 




1842 


3,983 




1842 


6,362 




1843 


11,206 




1843 


7,799 




1844 


3,109 




1844 


2,696 


Brass and copper manufactures 


J 1845 


1,380 Lead and shot 


<! 1845 


474 




1846 


7,855 




1846 


1,121 




1847 


2,903 




1847 


569 




1848 






1848 






1849 






1849 






.1850 






1850 






r-1840 


238,389 




rl840 


2,539 




1841 


422,657 




1841 


9,116 




1842 


470,349 




1842 


33,089 




1843 


655,276 




1843 


14,377 




1844 


1,457,794 




1844 


7,882 


Cotton manufactures 


<< 1845 
1846 


1,635,183 
1,024,662 


Linen manufactures, , 


< 1845 
I 1846 


12,227 






10,873 




1847 


848,814 


1847 


9,321 




1848 






1 1848 






1849 






1 1849 






,1850 






L1850 






[-1840 


88,748 




rl840 


513 




1841 


156,580 




1841 


1,787 




1842 


245,905 




1842 


1,889 




1843 


216,663 




1 1843 


1,608 




1844 


117,853 




1844 


1,342 


Cotton yarn ■ ■ 


<J 1845 
1 1846 


99.958 


Pickles and sauces 


<| 1845 
1846 


1,667 




221,856 




1,099 




1847 


104,264 




1847 


2,072 




1 1848 






1848 






| 1849 






1849 










.1850 





(continued.) 



42 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



British and Irish Produce and Manufactures Exported from the United Kingdom, &c- 

(continued.) 



ARTICLES. 


Years. 


Declared 
Value. 


ARTICLES. 


Years. 


Declared 

Value. 






£ 






£ 




fl840 


202 




(-1840 


164,142 




1841 


525 




1841 


212,565 




1842 


2,406 




1842 


146,680 




1843 


8,174 




1843 


417,949 


Plate, Plated Ware," Jewellery, and 


1844 

< 1845 

1846 


8,244 
3,228 
1,940 


Woollen manufactures 


1844 

< 1845 

1846 


565,428 
539,218 






439,669 




1847 


1,955 




1847 


390,437 




1848 






1818 






1849 






1849 






L1850 






U850 






T1840 


457 




fl840 


9,421 




1841 


1,024 




1841 


11,810 




1842 


1,601 




1842 


16,155 




1843 


2,520 




1843 


33,451 




1844 


4,020 




1844 


35,440 




\ 1845 


2,712 
3,529 




< 1845 


28,481 




1846 




1846 


28,763 




1847 


2,230 




1847 


30,437 




1848 






1848 






1849 






1849 






.1850 






.1850 






T1840 


88 




[-1840 


524,198 




1841 


56 




1841 


862,570 




| 1842 


1,092 




1 1842 


969,381 




1 1843 


6,620 




1 1843 


1,456.180 


Tin and Pewter Wares, and Tin Plates 


1 1844 
1845 
1846 


5,436 

3,670 

110 


Aggregate value of British and Irish 


1 1844 
< J 845 
1 1846 


2,305,617 
2,394,827 






1,791,439 




1847 


1,774 


• 


1847 


1,503,969 




1848 






1848 






1849 






| 1849 






11850 






L1850 





Quantities of the principal Articles Imported into the United Kingdom from China, and 
Quantities so imported entered for Home Consumption, during the following Years : — 









Entered for 








Entered for 


ARTICLES. 


Years. 


Imported. 


Home Con- 
sumption. 


ARTICLES. 


Years. 


Imported. 


Home Con- 
sumption. 






number. 


number. 






pieces. 


pieces. 




f-1840 


301,948 


208,502 




[-1840 


2,700 


7,048 




1841 


730,989 


329,821 




1841 


5,599 


2,670 




1842 


587,746 


353,583 




1842 


3,300 


1,310 




1843 


342,168 


303,899 


Cotton Manufactures ; 


1843 


7,851 


373 




1844 


742,572 


316,869 


viz.: — 


| 1844 


56,293 


2,419 


Canes , 


( 1845 


759,337 


[ free. 


Nankeen Cloths . . . 


<1 1845 


31,084 


4,102 




1846 


112,637 




1846 


34,384 


free. 




1847 








1 1847 


67,110 


do. 




1848 








1 1848 








1849 








I 1849 








_1850 








11850 


lbs. 


lbs. 




fl840 


lbs. 


lbs. 




T1840 


15,986 


16,054 




1841 


38,766 


92 




1 1841 


43,640 


18,879 




1842 


276,117 


4,179 




1 1842 


72,518 


25,282 




1843 


647,390 


15,113 




1843 


172,882 


34,634 




1844 


650,942 


37,353 




j 1844 


141,255 


34,681 


Cassia lignea 


< 1845 
1846 


782,176 
865,285 


58,036 
95,440 


Rhubarb 


<\ 1845 
1846 


221,030 


V free. 






350,188 




1847 


304,197 


99,465 




| 1847 


148,936 




1843 








1 1848 








1849 








| 1849 








1850 








11850 








rl840 




3 




r-1840 


247,755 


345,548 




1841 


9,124 






1841 


277,093 


262,914 




1842 


19,716 


97 




1842 


180,124 


256,236 




1843 


94,272 


950 




1843 


264,301 


288,211 




1844 


196,934 


252 




1844 


339,793 


287,666 


China Root 


«[ 1845 
1846 


354,221. 
77,357 


> free. 


Silk, Raw , f 


<i 1845 
1846 


1,169,643 
1,834,310 


■) 






> free. 




1 1847 


nil. 






1847 


2,015,288 


3 




1848 








1848 








1849 








1849 








L1850 








11850 







(continued.) 



BRITISH TRADE WITH CHINA, 



43 



Quantities of the principal Articles Imported into the United Kingdom from China, &c. — 

(continued.) 









Entered for 








Entered for 


ARTICLES. 


Years. 


Imported. 


Home Con- 
sumption. 

lbs. 


ARTICLES. 


^Years. 


Imported. 


Home Con- 
sumption. 






lbs. 






lbs. 


lbs. 




(-1840 


7 


4,802 




[-1840 


22,576,405 


31,009,966 




1841 


4 


2,365 




1841 


27,639,817 


33,588,122 




1842 


24 


9 




1842 


37,409,544 


36,003,467 




1843 


11,007 


7,297 




1843 


42,779,265 


38,685,262 




1844 


13,023 


1,410 




1844 


51,754,485 


40,118,782 


Silk, Thrown 


<| 1845 
1846 


6,222 
2,662 


> free. 


Tea 


<j 1845 
1846 


50,714,657 
54,534,208 


43,299,561 






46,245,482 




1847 


5,167 


i 




1847 


55,355,590 


44,045,520 




1848 








1848 








1849 








I 1849 








U850 








11850 










pieces. 


pieces. 






cwts. 


cwts. 




T1840 


2,256 


2,113 




T1840 


306 


1 




1841 


13,5/8 


2,520 




1841 








1842 


9,332 


1,933 




1842 


183 




1 1843 


12,253 


2,130 




1843 


6 


6 


Silk Manufactures; viz. 


| 1844 


7,510 


2,149 




1844 






Handkerchiefs .... 


4. 1845 


13,250 


2,218 


Tin 


4 1845 








1846 


23,886 


4,893 




1846 


1,753 


171 




1847 


19,005 


7,037 




1847 


6,896 


153 




1848 








1848 








1849 








1849 








11850 








,1850 










number. 


number. 






lbs. 


lbs. 




rl 840 


1,604 


421 




[-1840 


2,184 


129 




1841 


8,288 


115 




1841 


665 


218 




1842 


2,433 


95 




1842 








1843 


8,247 


174 




1843 


399 


12 


Crape Shawls, 


1844 


12,748 


272 




1844 


17,400 


3,166 


Scarfs, and Hand- 


i 1845 
1846 


6,266 
14,805 


1,001 
578 


Vermilion 


<{ 1845 
1846 


14,774 
129 




kerchiefs 








| 1847 


16,191 


545 




1847 


nil. 


nil. 




1848 








1848 








1 1849 








1849 








11850 


pieces. 


pieces. 




11850 








f-1840 


3,440 


287 












1841 


12,106 


573 












1842 


20,769 


1,057 












1843 


16,620 


1,592 










Silks and crapes in 
pieces >*•• 


1844 

<! 1845 

1846 


1,961 
9,834 
7,924 


1,052 
2,852 
2,123 
















1847 


4,435 


2,001 












1848 
















1849 
















11850 















44 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE TEA TRADE OF CHINA. 

The first accounts we have of the use of tea are from a journey attributed to 
two Arabian travellers who are said to have visited China about 850. They 
mention a drink called " Chah," and that an excise tax was levied on its con- 
sumption. It was then probably in general use among the Chinese, otherwise it 
is not likely that an excise tax should have been levied on it as an article of 
consumption. 

Botero, an Italian, published a treatise in 1590, in which he says, " the 
Chinese have a herb, out of which they press a delicate juice, which serves them 
for drink instead of wine; it also preserves their health, and frees them from 
those evils that the immoderate use of wine doth breed unto us." In 1600 
Teixera, a Spaniard, describes the dried leaves in Malacca, and was informed the 
Chinese prepared a drink from it. 

Olearius found the custom of drinking tea prevalent among the Persians in 
1633. He says, " They drink a kind of black water, prepared from a decoction 
of a certain shrub, called Cha, or Chia, which the Usbeck Tartars import from 
China; the leaves are long and taper, measuring nearly an inch, of a black 
colour when dried and welked, and shrivelled like worms." Starkaw, the Russian 
ambassador at the court of the Mogul in 1639, partook of this beverage. " I 
know not," says he, " whether they are the leaves of a tree or a herb; they are 
boiled in water, with the addition of some milk." At his departure he was 
offered a quantity of tea as a present for the Czar ; but the ambassador declined 
the compliment, as it would only encumber him with a commodity for which he 
had no use. Dufour in 1693 remarks, " that tea is in great repute in China, 
Japan, Tonquin, and Tartary; that., after making its way into India, it passed to 
Persia, and from thence to Turkey, in which latter place the use of it was not very 
general, as the Turks gave a decided preference to coffee/' 

In the " Encyclopaedia Britannica" it is stated, that tea was first imported 
into Europe by the Dutch in 1610. In 1611 the agents of the Dutch East India 
Company obtained a grant from the Emperor of Japan, allowing them to trade 
in his territories. An interchange of presents took place, agreeable to the in- 
variable usage among eastern nations on all diplomatic occasions ; and in that 



THE TEA TRADE. 45 

made by the emperor, tea is supposed to have been included, as " one of the 
natural productions of his country." This accounts in a satisfactory manner for 
the introduction of tea into Holland ; but when it is considered that the Portu- 
guese, immediately after the discovery of a passage to India by the way of the 
Cape of Good Hope, in 1497, formed extensive establishments in almost every 
part of that country — that they resided in great numbers at Japan, long before 
the Dutch made their appearance at that place — that they had a trading inter- 
course with China direct, and had sent an ambassador to Pekin as early as 1517 
— and, above all, that they obtained a settlement upon Macao in 1586, it is a fair 
presumption that the inhabitants of Portugal could not for more than an entire 
century have remained strangers to a commodity that was so familiar to their 
countrymen in every part of Asia. 

" The Dutch East India Company were unquestionably the first who engaged 
in tea as an article of commerce ; and from the beginning until near the close of 
the'seventeenth century, the whole of the European demand was supplied through 
the medium of their sales." 

In 1635 Simon Pauli, in a treatise entitled " Comment, de Abusu Tabacca? et 
These," declared against the use of teas, as being attended with injurious effects 
upon health. Its advocates highly extolled its virtues. Valentyn relates, that 
in 1670 the use of it was unknown in his native town of Dort. About this 
time, he says, " Vanden Brouke and De Leonardis attempted to introduce the 
practice of drinking the infusion as a beverage, but with so little success that it 
was publicly ridiculed, under the name of c heu wasser/ or hay water." 

About 1673, Dr. Cornelius Bontekoe, first physician to the Elector of 
Brandenburg, entertained the highest opinion of the salutary qualities of tea, 
and "deemed it impossible to injure the stomach, even if as much as two or 
three hundred cups were taken in the day." The Dutch East India Company 
voted him a handsome pecuniary gratification. 

Mr. Milburn says, in 1811, " In fact, tea has never been in very extensive 
use upon the Continent ; nor would it probably have attracted the attention of 
foreigners, as a distinct object of commerce, had they not in more recent periods 
availed themselves of the opportunities that offered, of participating in the 
supply of this country through the medium of a contraband trade." 

The use of tea in England was known long before the East India Company 
imported it. Jonas Hanway asserts that a quantity of it was first brought from 
Holland, in the baggage of the Lords Arlington and Ossory, in the year 1666, 
by whom it was introduced among the nobility as a novelty. Sir John Hawkins, 
in his Life of Dr. Johnson, disputes Mr. Hanway's assertion, and cites an ode 
of Waller to the queen, to prove that in 1683 it was considered as a new article; 
it is probable that both were in error. In 1660, neither tea, coffee, nor choco- 
late is among the articles of import in the Schedule or Book of Rates referred 



46 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

to in the Act of 12 Charles II., chap. 4, called the " Tonnage and Poundage 
Act." So that they could not have been of sufficient importance to merit a 
place among the articles of trade ; but they were known, and in use ; for, by 
the excise laws, or inland duties, 12 Charles II., chap. 23 and 24, it is enacted that 
there shall be paid by the maker thereof, " for every gallon of coffee made and 
sold, 4d. ; for every gallon of chocolate, sherbet, and tea made and sold, 8d. 

In 1670, by the Act of 22 and 23 Charles II., chap. 5, a further addition 
of the duty on tea increased it to 2s. per gallon. 

The introduction and use of coffee in England was earlier than those of 
chocolate or tea. Coffee is supposed to have been first brought to England in 
1652, by Mr. Edwards, a member of the Turkey Company ; but it is stated in the 
Life of Wood, the antiquarian, that " In 1651, one Jacob, a Jew, opened a coffee- 
house at the Angel, in the parish of St. Peter, in the East Oxon ; and there it 
was, by some who delighted in noveltie, drunk. When he left Oxon, he sold it 
in Old Southampton Buildings, in Holborne, neare London, and was living 
there in 1671." 

Coffee-houses were soon after opened in various parts of the metropolis, as 
also in other parts of the kingdom, for vending it. The use of chocolate, 
sherbet, and tea, followed. Pepys says, te September 25, 1661, I sent for a cup 
of tea (a China drink), of which I had never drunk before, and went away." 

The excise officers visited the coffee-houses at fixed periods, and " took an 
account of the number of gallons of eaoh liquid that were made, upon which the 
duties were charged," until 1689, when, "it being found by experience that 
collecting the excise duty upon the liquors of coffee, tea, and chocolate, was 
troublesome, and unequal upon the retailers, and required such an attendance of 
officers as rendered the receipt thereof very inconsiderable," (see Preamble to 
the Act, William & Mary, session 2, chap. 6), " it was resolved to discontinue 
it, and in lieu thereof, to establish an additional custom duty of five shillings 
per pound." 

We believe there are no records in existence that will show the quantities of 
tea imported previous to the year 1678, (see Tables which follow), or the number 
of gallons of tea on which the excise duty was paid : it must have been unim- 
portant, from its high price — 405. to 50.9. per pound at the first cost. 
The following are entries in the East India Company's records : — 
" 1664, July 1. — Ordered, that the master-attendant do go on board the 
ships, now arrived, and inquire what rarities of birds, beasts, or other curiosities 
there are on board, fit to present to his majesty; and to desire that they may not 
be disposed of till the Company are supplied with such as they may wish, on 
paying for the same." And on " the 22nd of August, the governor acquainting 
the court that the factors have in every instance failed the Company of such 
things as they writ for, to have presented his majesty with, and that his majesty 



THE TEA TRADE. 47 

may not find himself wholly neglected by the Company, he was of opinion, 
if the Court think fit, that a silver case of oil of cinnamon, which is to be 
had of Mr. Thomas Winter for 75/., and some good thea, be provided for 
that end, which he hopes may be acceptable. The Court approved very well 
thereof." 

In 1664, September 30, " Sundry accounts oweth to John Stannion, Secre- 
tary: — Presents, for a case containing six China bottles, headed with silver, 
13/.; more for 2 lbs. 2 oz. of thea, for his majesty, 41. 5s." 

In 1666, June 30, are among the raretyes, 22 jibs, of thea at 505. per lb., 
561. 17s. 6d. ; for the two cheefe persons that attended his majesty, thea, 61. 15s. 

About the same period, various small purchases are entered of from 6 to 8lbs. 
of tea at a time, "for the use of the Court of Committees, bought of the coffee- 
house keepers." This occurred before the Company opened a trading inter- 
course with China. In 1635 some persons, under the authority of a grant from 
King Charles I. (which was an infringement of the Company's charter), reached 
by sea Canton ; but, owing to the intrigues of the Portuguese, they were ruined. 
At subsequent periods the Company established factories on several of the 
islands, Tywan, Tonquin, Amoy, &c, which border on China, but they were 
withdrawn on account of the expense. 

In 1667, the Company's first order for importing tea was directed to their 
agent at Bantam, " to send home by these ships 100 lbs. waight of the best tey 
that you can get." In 1669, two canisters were received from Bantam, weighing 
143 lbs. 8 oz. In 1670, four pots were imported, weighing 79 lbs. 6 oz. : of this 
quantity 132ilbs. being damaged, were sold at their sales for 3s. 2d. per ib.; the 
remainder was used by the Court of Committees. In 1671, there was received 
from Bantam as part of the Tywan present, 266 lbs. 10 oz.; in 1672, no imports 
or purchases. In 1673-74, the Company bought of several persons 55 lbs. 
10 oz. ; one of whom was Thomas Garraway (then master of the coffee-house 
in Change Alley that still retains his name), some of which tea appears to have 
been distributed as presents; the rest was used by the Court of Committees. 

The following are the quantities of tea imported or purchased in the years 
1675 to 1686 inclusive :— in 1675 to 1677, there were no imports or purchases; 
in 1678, imported from Ganjam and Bantam, 4717 lbs.; in 1679, imported from 
Bantam, 197 lbs.; in 1680, imported from Surat, 143 lbs.; in 1681, there were no 
imports or purchases; in 1682, imported from India, 70 lbs.; in 1683 to 1684, 
there were no imports or purchases; in 1685, imported from Madras and Surat, 
12,070 lbs.; in 1686, the imports were 65 lbs.: most of which appears to have 
been sold at from lis. 6d. to 12s. Ad. per lb. 

In 1686, the Company ordered their agent at Surat that teas should in future 
form a part of the Company's imports, and not of private trade; and a that very 
good thea might be putt up in tutinague potts, and well and closely packed in 



48 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

chests or boxes, as it will always turn to accompt here, now it is made the Com- 
pany's commodity ; whereas before there were so many sellers of that commodity, 
that it would hardly yield half its cost, and some trash thea from Bantam was 
forct to be thrown away, or sold for 4d. or 6d. per lb. 55 . 

In 1687, there were imported from Surat 4995 lbs. ; in 1688, there were im- 
ported from the same place 1666 lbs.; in 1689, there were imported from Amoy 
and Madras 25,300 lbs.; in 1690, there were imported from Surat, and by indi- 
viduals, 41,471 lbs. 

In 1690, by the Act 2 William & Mary, session 2, chap. 4, called the 
" Impost of 1690/' Parliament granted his majesty additional duties on various 
specific articles, among which was an impost of twenty per cent generally on all 
manufactures of India and China, except indigo and raw silk. From this heavy 
duty, which was generally in force until a late period, tea was exempted, as not 
strictly falling under the description of a manufactured commodity; but so heavy 
a duty was imposed by the pound on tea, that the Company in the same year 
prohibited any to be sent home but of the finest kinds on their account. Tea 
was brought home in great quantities at this time by the Dutch for the Europe 
market, and smuggled extensively into England, according to the records of 
the old English East India Company, from which the foregoing statements are 
extracted. 

In 1690, teas and spices were imported from Holland under licence. The 
annual imports from this period to 17 10 inclusive are taken from the custom- 
house books, and are as follow : — In 1691, there were imported in the " licence 
trade" 13,750 lbs. ; in 1692, from Madras and in the " licence trade, 55 18,379 lbs. 

In 1692, by an Act of 4 William & Mary, chap. 5, further additional 
duties were imposed on various specified articles, including tea, and upon such 
as were not enumerated in the " Schedule of Rates," or that were not rated in 
the " Impost of 1690," an additional five percent ad valorem. These duties 
were named " The additional Impost, 1692," to be paid within twelve months, 
by four equal quarterly payments, with an allowance of discount after the rate 
of ten per cent; which being equated, gave at the rate of 6* per cent per annum 
for prompt payment. The duties imposed by this Act were to be drawn back 
upon exportation. 

The duty of 5s. on every pound weight of tea, laid by William and Mary, 
session 2, chap. 6, was found so excessive, that little of it was imported legally; 
it was reduced to Is. 

In 1693, the imports from Madras and in the licence trade were 711 lbs. 5 
in 1694, 352 lbs.; in 1695, 132 lbs.; in 1696, 70 lbs. 

In 1696, by Act 6 & 7 William & Mary, chap. 7, section 2, tea and spices 
were allowed to be imported from Holland, under a licence from the Commis- 
sioners of Customs ; it also imposed fresh duties upon tea, of Is. per pound 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 49 

weight, if imported direct from the place of its growth, and 2s. 6d. per pound 
weight if imported through Holland ; two-thirds of these duties were to be 
drawn back on exportation. 

In 1697, there were imported from Holland, 126 lbs., and from India, 22,290 
lbs.; total, 22,416 lbs. In 1698, there were imported from India, 21,302 lbs. 
In 1698, by 9 and 10 William III., chap. 23, called the "New Subsidy/ 5 a 
further 5 per cent was laid upon all imports, the whole of which to be drawn 
back on re-exportation. In 1699, there were imported from Holland, 20 lbs., 
and from India, 13,201 lbs.; in all, 13,221 lbs., and the Company ordered home 
"300 tubs of fine green teas, and 80 tubs of Bohea, having both become in 
great request at the home sales." The orders for packing it directed " the pre- 
venting it from acquiring any smell from the tutenague pots in which it was 
enclosed." In 1700, there were imported from Holland, 236 lbs., and from India, 
90,947 lbs.; in all, 91,183 lbs. In 1701, there were imported from India, 
66,738 lbs. 

The Company's instructions to the supracargoes of their ships state that— 
" Tea is a commodity of that general use, and so nicely to be managed in its 
package, to preserve its flavour and virtue, that you cannot be too careful in 
putting it up. Take special care, therefore, it be well closed in tutenague, then 
wrapped up in leaves, and so put into good tubs of dry, well-seasoned wood, 
made tight and close enough to preserve it from all manner of scent, which it is 
very subject to imbibe, and thereby become of no value here. But you must be 
sure that the wood of your tubs has no scent, whether sweet or unsavory, that 
will spoil the tea ; so will camphire, musk, and ail other strong-scented commo- 
dities ; wherefore no such smell must come into the ship, at least near the tea. 
For the like reason, take care the tutenague be well cured of the smell of the 
soldering oil before using. Bring no tea in small pots ; it will not keep. Be 
sure the tea you bring be very new, and the best of its sort, remembering that, in 
this and every other commodity, the worst pays as much freight as the best, and 
many times the same custom. Keep the tea in the coolest part of the ship ; 
what is put in the hold, open the hatches in fair weather to give it air as often as 
you have opportunity. But you will see by the captain's instructions, we have 
required that our tea be stowed between decks, abaft the after-hatchway, with a 
bulk-head, and a little gangway made for passage; which do you see done 
accordingly. It being now peace, we are resolved to dispense with our old 
order of stowing no goods between decks, when so great an advantage will 
accrue as the preserving the tea, a very considerable article in the profit and loss 
of that commodity." 

In 1702, there were imported from Holland, 91bs., and from the East Indies, 
37,0521bs. ; and the Company ordered " a ship's cargo of tea, exclusive of 
40 tons of copper and 24 tons of cofTee, and to be two-thirds Single tea, one- 
vol. v. E 



50 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

sixth Imperial tea, and one-sixth Bohea tea." In 1703, by 2 and 3 Anne, chap. 9, 
a further duty, called the " One-third Subsidy," was levied on all imports, equal 
to one-third of the new subsidy imposed in 1698, the whole of which to be drawn 
back on exportation. By 3 and 4 Anne, chap. 4, an additional duty was imposed 
of Is. per lb. oh tea, imported from the place of its growth, and 2s. 6d. if from 
Holland; the whole to be drawn back on exportation. In the same session, 
chap. 5, an additional grant — the " Two-thirds Subsidy' 5 — was made of double 
the amount of the One-third Subsidy, with the like drawback. 

There is no denying that the people of this kingdom, during the greater part 
of the time that the tea trade was monopolised by the East India Company, 
paid more than double the price at which teas could have been sold by fair 
competition. The sale price was double, and the duty being 100 per cent, dou- 
bled that price. It is true that the present duty of 2s. Id. and 5 per cent the 
lb., is more than 300 per cent on the value of very good tea. Mr. Milburn, 
in his valuable work on Oriental trade, observes — 

" In the more early periods, as has been already stated, tea being considered 
as a fashionable luxury, the use of which was confined to the superior classes of 
the community, it was deemed a fair object of taxation. It was at first placed 
under the excise laws, and paid the duty when retailed in the liquid; but this 
being found both inconvenient and unproductive, it was in 1689 removed under 
the department of the Customs, and subjected to a duty of 5s. per lb. to be paid 
upon its import, in addition to the old subsidy of 5 per cent, of which two- 
thirds of the duty, or 3s. 4d. per lb. and half the subsidy, were allowed to be 
drawn back upon exportation. The severity of this duty led the way to fraudu- 
lent importations, by which the duties were either in the first instance altogether 
evaded, or if the teas were regularly entered, and the duties paid thereon, they 
were afterwards exported for the sake of the drawback, and landed again for 
home consumption. The natural remedy for this evil was to reduce the duty, 
which in 1692 was lowered from 5s. to Is. per lb. ; the ground of this reduction 
is clearly stated in the preamble to the Act 1 William and Mary, sess. 2, chap. 6, 
as follows — ' that the duty was found to be so excessive, that but little of it was 
brought to a public entry/ Had the policy that dictated this reduction been 
pursued, the happiest consequences would have resulted to the Company, the 
revenue, and the fair trader; but unfortunately, as often as resources were 
required for the exigences of the state, tea seems to have attracted the special 
notice of every Minister of Finance. It has not only been included in the 
various subsidies levied on commercial articles in general, but it has been 
specifically selected to bear a distinct share of the national burthens. In 1695, 
for what reason does not appear, tea was allowed to be imported from Holland, 
on paying a duty of 2s. 6d. per lb. and the usual subsidy. In 1698 an additional 
5 per cent was laid on all imports, by which tea then paid 10 per cent ad valorem, 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. • 51 

and Is. per lb. In 1702 and 1703, a further duty of one-third and two-thirds of 
a subsidy was imposed, making in the whole a nominal 15 per cent, or, with 
certain allowances and discounts, an actual amount of 13/. 18s. 7^d. per cent, 
together with Is. per lb. if imported from the place of its growth, and 2s. 6d. if 
imported from Holland : an additional Is. was also laid on tea imported from the 
place of its growth, and a further 2s. 6d. if imported from Holland, making it 
2s. and 5s. The quantities sold from 1708 to 1712 were, on the average, 
136,088 lbs. per annum; the average price was 16s. 2d. per lb., and the total 
amount of the duties bore a proportion of 36 per cent on the net cost, free of 
duties. 

e( In 1711 the duties of 2s. per lb. on the imports of tea from the place of its 
growth, and 5s. if from Holland, were doubled, or made 4s. and 10s. The quan- 
tities sold from 1713 to 1721 were, on the average, 290,2?6 lbs.; the sale price 
was, on the average, 12s. lid., and the proportion which the duties bore to the 
net price, was 82 per cent. 

"Although it was well known that the use of tea was gaining ground con- 
siderably, the legal imports were not found to bear a proportionate increase. 
The heavy duties, amounting to not less than 82 per cent on the net cost, 
afforded an ample field for the exertions of foreigners and illicit traders, of which 
some did not omit to avail themselves; and there is good reason to conclude 
that the quantities of tea smuggled into this country very far'exceeded the extent 
of the legal importation. This illicit trade was carried on with so much success, 
that it led the Emperor of Germany to establish an East India Company at 
Ostend, whose views were principally directed to the supply of the British 
smuggler. Various measures were devised to counteract this evil. The per 
mission to import by licence from Holland was withdrawn; the company made a 
considerable increase to their imports, and they reduced the putting up price at 
their sales to full one-half. The immediate operation was, that the quantity of 
tea disposed of at their sales, which, in the years 1713 to 1721, averaged but 
290,276 lbs. per annum, were in the two ensuing years, 1722 and 1723, increased 
to 919,628 lbs. The sale price also fell from 12s. lid. to 7s. 6d. per lb.; but as 
no correspondent reduction was made in the amount of the duties, the incitement 
to evade their payment became considerably increased, the amount being equal to 
200 per cent, on the net cost." 

Valentyn observes, " that the whole quantity of tea imported in 1721 by 
England, Holland, France, and Ostend, amounted to 4,100,000 lbs.; of this, in 
1721, only 282,861 lbs. appear to have been sold by the Company in London, 
which left 3,817,139 lbs. for the Continental markets, but the greatest part of 
which found its way into this country." 

In the ten years, from 1709 to 1718 inclusive, the quantities of tea exported 
were 473,357 lbs., or on an average 47,336 lbs. per annum. In the four suc- 

e2 



52 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



ceeding years, from 1719 to 1722, it amounted to 1,301,178 lbs., or 325,294 lbs. 
per annum; and in 1723 it was extended to 608,192 lbs., which left the quantity 
in that year for the home consumption only 447,098 lbs. As these large exports 
were evidently for the fraudulent purpose of procuring the drawback, and after- 
wards relanding the commodity, it was in 1723 once more determined to put the 
tea under the excise. The custom duty of 4s. per lb. was in consequence converted 
into an inland duty, to be paid by the purchasers, upon clearing the tea for home 
consumption ; and of the customs, which were 13Z 18s. J^d. per cent ad valorem, 
12/. 3s. 8d. were allowed to be drawn back on exportation. 

This regulation in some degree answered the purpose of checking the frau- 
dulent exportations, as it appears that in the ensuing ten years, from 1724 
to 1733, the exports were only 1,207,529 lbs., or per annum 120,753 lbs.; but 
it failed of giving any assistance to the Company's sales, which in the same 
period amounted on an average to only 724,276 lbs. per annum, or less by 
195,352 lbs. than those of the years 1722 and 1723. The sale price was reduced 
from 7s. 6d. to 6s. 9d. per lb., by which the duties bore to the net cost 84 per cent. 

In 1731 a law was passed with a view to prevent the adulteration of teas. 
The preamble, states, 

" Whereas several ill-disposed persons do dye, fabricate, or manufacture very 
great quantities of sloe leaves, liquorice leaves, and the leaves of tea that have 
been before used, or the leaves of other trees, shrubs, or plants in imitation of 
tea, and do likewise mix, colour, stain, and dye such leaves with terra japonica, 
sugar, molasses, clay, logwood, and with other ingredients, and do sell and vend 
the same as true and real tea, to the prejudice of the health of his majesty's 
subjects, the diminution of the revenue, and to the ruin of the fair trader, be it 
enacted, he." 

In consequence of this law several convictions took place. In 1736, a Jew 
dealer in the Minories was convicted for selling 173 lbs. of dyed tea at 3s. 9d. 
per lb., for which he forfeited 10/. per pound weight. 

The following prices of the various species of tea per pound, imported at 
this period, are extracted from the prices current in the years 1731 to 1734 in- 
clusive. 



DESCRIPTION. 


1731 


1732 


1733 


1734 




£ s. £ s. 
12 to 14 
9 to 10 
12 to 16 
16 to 18 
12 to 15 

13 to 14 

1 10 to 1 15 


£ s. £ s. 
10 to 12 
9 to 10 
10 to 14 
13 to 14 
10 to 13 

11 to 12 

1 10 to 1 15 


£ s. £ s. 
9 to 11 
7 to 8 
10 to 14 
9 to 14 
8 to 12 

10 to 16 

1 4 to 18 


£ s. £ s. 
10 lo 12 


Ditto, ordinary 


9 to 10 




10 to 14 


Pekoe 


14 to 16 


Green, fine 


9 to 12 




9 to 12 




1 5 to 1 10 







From 1734 to 1744 the Company sold on an average 1,519,291 lbs. per 
annum. The price got down to 4s. 2d. per lb., by which the duties bore to the 
cost at the rate of 128 per cent. The exports from 1734 to 1743 were on an 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 53 

average 364,196 lbs. per annum. The quantity exported in 1744 was 893,121 
lbs. 

The increase at the sales, however, by no means kept pace with the increased 
demand, and smuggling, through the Swedish and Danish Company's imports, 
the chief part of which was directed to the supply of this country, was carried to 
so alarming a length, that a Committee of the House of Commons was appointed, 
in 1745, to inquire into the cause of smuggling, &c. This committee reported, 

u That it is the opinion of this Committee, the high duties charged upon teas 
and other commodities have been one cause of the infamous practice of smug- 
gling. 

66 That it is the opinion of this Committee, that lowering the duties on teas 
and other commodities would be one means to prevent the said pernicious 
practice." 

A bill was passed, by which the excise duty of 4s. per lb. was reduced to Is. 
and 25 per cent ad valorem on the gross amount at the sales ; and "with a 
view to nrevent frauds, it was resolved that all the drawbacks on tea should be 
abolished. 

Under the operations of this Act, the sales from 1745 to 1747 increased to 
an average of 1,756,593 lbs. per annum; but the price rose to 45. lOd. per lb., 
by which the duty still proved equal to 69 per cent. 

In 1747 a war duty, or additional subsidy of five per cent was laid on all 
imports. The quantity of tea sold from 1748 to 1759, was, on the average, 
2,558,081 lbs. The average sale price increased to 5s. 5d. per lb., the duty 
amounted to 75 per cent on the net cost. 

In 1759 a further subsidy of five per cent was imposed on all imports. The 
quantity of tea sold from 1760 to 1767 was, on the average, 4,333,276 lbs. 
The average price was 45. 8d. per lb., and the duties were upon the net cost 90 
per cent. 

In 1767 the Company having a large stock of tea, upwards of 15,000,000 
lbs, in their warehouses, it was agreed " that the excise duty of Is. per lb. should 
be abolished for the five ensuing years on all black and Singlo teas, and that the 
whole of the customs should be drawn back on all the teas exported to Ireland 
or America during the like period, on the Company engaging to indemnify the 
Government in case the duties should fall short of the amount of the sum paid 
on this account in the preceding five years." The sales increased, from 1768 to 
1772, to an average of 8,075,794 lbs., but the price being reduced to 35. od. in- 
stead of 45. 8c?. per lb., the ad valorem duties fell short by 483,049/., which sum 
the Company had to reimburse to the Government. The quantity of tea ex- 
ported during this period, according to the allowance of drawback, was 6,552,285 
lbs., oi*j on an average, 1,310,457 lbs. per annum. In the five preceding years 
it was only 2,802,476 lbs., or 560,495 lbs. per annum. The duty during these 



54 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



five years, notwithstanding the reduction in the excise, was equal to 64 per cent 
on the net cost. 

In 1772, the Indemnity Act having expired, the excise duty of 1.9. per lb. 
was re-imposed, and the drawbacks to Ireland and America were reduced to 
three-fifths of the amount of the custom duties. 

By a comparison mad^by Mr. Milburn, between the prices of teas sold in 
Loudon in the September sale, 1772, with those sold at L'Orient, Gottenburgh, 
and Amsterdam, it appears that the prices of Boheas, Congous, and Singlos, 
were on an average, 

46J per cent under the prices at Gottenburgh. 
34 jf . . ditto . . Holland. 
15§ . . ditto . . L'Orient. 

being 32 per cent under the prices at all the different places, taken on an average. 
The following is a comparative view of the prices of the different kinds of tea 
sold at those places: 

"L'Orient. — The prices of tea sold at Port L'Orient, Octobers, 1772, 
converted into English money, exchange 31 T 7 g> being the course fixed at the sale, 
were as follow: 

Boliea .... 

Verd superior, or Singlo 

Hyson 

Congou .... 



from 2 12 to 2 96 average 2 109 equal to £ sterling 2s. 2d. per lb. 
6 to 5 12 „ 5 16 . . . .4 11| „ 

.9 to 8 16 „ 8 18 . . . . . 7 6| „ 
4 14 to 2 16 „ 3 15 . . . . 3 3£ „ 



" N.B. The French pound is nine per cent heavier than the English, and the 
discounts and allowances made by the English East India Company are six per 
cent more than the French." 

"Gottenburgh.— The prices of teas at the sales at Gottenburgh, August 
20, 1772, converted into English money, at 70 dalers per pound sterling, were 
as follow : 



Bohea 
Congou 
Hyson 
Singlo 



from 68 to 80 dalers, average 74 dalers, equal to £ sterling 2s. 3d. per lb. 
. 97 to 138 „ 118 ditto . . . . 3 7| „ 
234 to 313 „ 274 ditto ... 8 4| „ 

. 252 to 267 „ 260 ditto 7 11^ 



" N.B. The Swedish pound is eight per cent lighter than the English, and 
the discount and allowances made by the English East India Company are six 
per cent more than at Gottenburgh." 

"Amsterdam. — The prices of teas at Amsterdam in October and Novem- 
ber, 1772, converted into English money, at 35s. 4d per pound sterling, were as 
follow: 



Bohea 
Congou 
Hyson 
Singlo 



from 26 to 23 stivers, average 24J stivers, equal to £ sterling 2s. 2d. 15-lCths. 

. 60 to 40 „ 50 4 61 

85 to 76 „ 83J 7 4| 

. 60 to 55 „ 57J 5 3§ 



" N.B. The Dutch pound is nine per cent heavier than the English, and the 
discount and allowances made by the English East India Company, are six per 
cent more than the Dutch." 

Recapitulation of the Comparative Prices at the last Sales at the different Places. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Bohea . 
Congou 
Singlo . 
Hyson.. 



In London. 


At L'Orient. 


s. d. 

i 104 

3 0£ 

4 

7 4 


s. d. 
2 2 

3 n 

4 in 

7 6| 



At Gottenburgh.' At Amsterdam. 



d. 


s. 


d. 


3 

Hi 

4f 


2 
4 
5 

7 


2 15-16 

61 

3| 

4f 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 55 

There being still a large dead stock of tea upon hand, the legislature passed 
an Act by which the Company were permitted to send teas to America, and parts 
beyond the seas, free of duty ; and the whole of the custom duties that had 
been paid upon tea were allowed to be drawn back on the exports to America. 
In consequence of this Act, the Company made some consignments of tea to 
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and South Carolina, which in part gave rise 
to the unfortunate contest that ended in the final separation of America from 
the mother-country. 

From 1773 to 1777 the sales diminished from the average of the five pre- 
ceding years, 8,075,794 lbs. per annum, to 5,559,007 lbs. per annum. The 
price continued nearly the same, viz., 35. 4c?. per lb., and the duty, in proportion 
to the net cost, 106 per cent. 

In 1777 teas exported to Ireland were allowed a drawback the whole duty 
of customs. 

In 1779 a duty of five per cent was imposed on the net amount of the cus- 
toms and excise. The quantities of tea sold by the Company in 1778 and 1779, 
were, on the average, 5,751,861 lbs. The average price was 35. 7d. s and the 
duties bore a proportion of exactly 100 per cent on the net cost. 

In 1781 the discounts and allowances on the customs were abolished, and an 
additional five per cent was imposed on the excise duties. The sales in 1780 and 
1781 averaged 6,291,348 lbs.; the price was 3s. 8c?., and the duty bore a propor- 
tion to the prime cost of 106 per cent. 

In 1782 a further five per cent was laid on the net produce of the customs 
and excise. The sales in this year were 6,283,614 lbs., the price was 35. lie?., 
and the duty 105 per cent. 

In 1783 there were sold 5,857,883 lbs. at 35. 10c?. per lb., the duty on which 
was equal to 114 per cent; and in the beginning of 1784 the duties were, cus- 
toms, 27/. 05. 10c?. per cent, and the excise, 28/. 155. on the gross amount of the 
sales, and 15. lc?. 8 dec. on every pound weight, which will be found equal to 1 19 
per cent on the average sale price. 

In 1784 Mr. Milburn says — " The injury sustained by the fair dealer from 
smuggling was now grown to such a height, more particularly in the importation 
of tea, that it was computed that scarcely one-third of the quantity of that article 
consumed in Great Britain was fairly imported. Tea, from the universal use of 
it in this country, the high premium for smuggling it (high duties being the 
true premiums to smuggling), and the convenient removal of it in small handy 
parcels, was perhaps, of all others, the most valuable article to the smuggler. 
The defalcation of the revenue from smuggling was estimated at not less than 
2,000,000/. a year ; it was therefore thought advisable to lower the duties on 
some of the articles which composed the smugglers' cargoes, and especially on 
tea, which was justly considered the basis of their whole trade; but as it was 



56 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

uncertain how far the increased consumption of tea, legally imported, would 
make up for the diminution of the rate of duty, it was proposed to raise at least 
600,000/., the estimated amount of the intended reduction from the former duties, 
by a duty upon windows, or as it is in general termed, the * Commutation Tax.' " 

Such is the origin of one of our most pernicious taxes. The war, however, 
and not the tea, was the true cause of the odious window-tax. 

It was consequently enacted, that the existing duties upon tea should be 
repealed; and that all teas to be delivered from the warehouses of the East India 
Company, after the 15th of September, 1784, should be charged with a duty of 
12J- per cent computed upon the sale price. Teas exported to any place to 
which a drawback is allowed, might be shipped from the warehouses free of 
duty, or drawback the whole duty, if paid. And that " the Company should, in 
consideration of the great benefit which may result to their commerce from the 
reduction of duties hereby made, contribute their utmost endeavours for securing 
to the public the full benefit which will arise from an immediate and permanent 
reduction of prices," they were directed to make four sales of tea every year, 
and to put up at least 5,000,000 lbs. at the first sale ; 2,500,000 lbs. at the 
second; and thereafter such quantities as might be judged sufficient for the 
demand. And that the Company might take no advantage of the real monopoly 
of tea, which this Act would throw into their hands, they were obliged to put 
up the teas at the first four sales, to be made after passing this act, at the follow- 
ing prices, viz: 

g. d. s. d. 

Bohea 17 per lb. I Souchong and Singlo . . 3 3 per lb. 

Congou 2 5 „ | Hyson . . . . . 4 11 „ 

and to sell them without reserve, if but one penny per pound above these prices 
were offered. They were besides at all times to keep on hand a sufficient stock 
for at least one year's consumption, and to put them up to auction at a price not 
exceeding the prime cost and charges, whereby their profit was made to consist 
in the advance given to them by the buyers above the upset price. 

The success of this measure was complete in destroying the illicit trade. 

The Company, with a view of removing the temptation to smuggling, sent 
orders to the Continent to purchase whatever tea the various East India Com- 
panies had on hand ; and in the years 1784, 1785, and 1786, they imported from 
thence 17,312,484 lbs. of tea, for which there was but a small demand on the 
Continent: a full proof that it was imported there to be smuggled into Eng- 
land. 

In the year 1783 the quantity of tea sold at the Company's sales amounted 
to only 5,857,883 lbs.; in 1785 it increased to 15,081,737 lbs. 

From 1786 to 1794, to an average of 16,964,957 lbs. per annum. 

In 1795 the duty upon tea was raised from 12 \ to 20 per cent; yet the 
sales in 1795 and 1796 were, on an average, 19,929,258 lbs. per annum. 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 57 

In 1797 the duty of 20 per cent was raised to 30 on all tens that sold at 
and above 2s. 6d. per lb. The quantity sold in this year was 14,937,404 lbs. at 
and above 2s. 6d., and 3,138,702 lbs. under 2s. 6d. per lb.; in the whole, 
18,076,106 lbs. : higher prices and smuggling came again into operation. 

In 1798 the duty was farther raised, as above, to 30 per cent, and the 
quantities of teas sold in 1798 and 1799 were, on the average, 19,541,537 lbs. 
at and above 2.9. 6d. per lb., and 3,921,899 lbs. under 2s. 6d.; in the whole, 
23,463,436 lbs. 

In 1800 the duty was increased to 40 per cent on all teas at and above 
2s. 6d. per lb., and 20 per cent on all under 2s. 6d. per lb. In this vear the 
quantity sold at and above 2s. 6d. per lb. was 20,970,860 lbs., and 2,422,785 lb? 
under 2s. 6d„ making in the whole, 23,393,645 lbs. of the following sorts:—- 



Bohea 2,426,340 lbs. 

Congou 13,754,203 

Souchong 2,107,481 



Singlo 2,454,693 lb? 

Kjson 1,802,101 

Private trade .... 848,827 



In 1801 the duty of 40 per cent was increased to 50, as above, and the 
quantity sold was 20,672,215 lbs. at and above 2s. 6d. per lb., and 3,865,398 lbs. 
under 25. 6d., making in the whole, 24,537,613 lbs. 

In June, 1803, the duty w T as increased to 65 per cent on all teas under 
25. 6d., and 95 per cent on all teas at or above 2s. 6d. per lb., to continue until 
12 months after signing a definitive treaty of peace. 

In May, 1806, the duties on tea were equalised; and in lieu of other duties, 
there was laid 6 per cent customs, a permanent excise duty of 45 per cent, 
and a war duty of 45 per cent ; making in the whole, 96 per cent on the 
sale value. 

The extent to which the illicit trade was carried before the Commutation 
Act, may be gathered from the following statement : — 

In the ten years previous to the passing of the Commutation Act, the 
quantities of teas exported from Canton to Europe appear to have been — 

By the Dutch, Danes, Swedes, French, &c. . . . . 134,698,900 lbs. 

By the English East India Company . . . . . 54,506,144 

and in the ten years, 1790 to 1800, there were exported — 

By the Dutch, Danes, Swedes, French, &c. .... 38,506,646 lbs. 

By the Americans .... . 27,350,900 

By the English East India Company ..... 2 , 28,8 , 26,616 

The war from 1800 to 1814 may be said to have thoroughly destroyed the 
tea trade of continental nations. 



58 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Tabular 


View of the Tea Trade between 


England and the East Indies and China 


, viz. : — 




Tea Trade between 










Tea Trade between 








CO 


England and all Parts 
of the World. 


Value of 

the East 

India 

Com- 


Duty. 


Revenue. 


m 


England and all Parts 
of the World. 


Value of 

the East 

India 

Com- 


Duty. 




<j 










Revenue. 




Quantity- 
Imported. 


Quantity 

Re-exported 

from 


pany's 

Sale' of 

Tea. 






w 


Quantity 
Imported. 


Quantity 

Re-exported 

from 


pany's 

Sale of 

Tea. 










England. 










England. 










lbs. 


lbs. 


£ 


£ S. d. 


£ 




lbs. 


lbs. 


£ 


£ s. d. 


£ 


1712 
1713 
1714 


156,236 
159,478 
163,268 


14,241 

9,014 
72,121 


114,631 
117,377 
120,392 


■ 




1782 
1783 


5,023,419 
6,283,664 


1,444,920 
2,116,810 


1,007,457 
1,242,766 


) Is. lid., and 
• 55 15 10 
\ percent. ad val. 


a 


1715 


297,566 189,154 


172,801 






1784 


5,857,883 


2,770,267 


1,131,342 


~t 





1716 


155,834 35,175 


105,866 






1785 


10,148,257 


1,539,784 


1,774,503 




M 


1717 


210,578 26,445 


163,444 






1786 


15,081,737 


1,916,022 


2,301,165 




O 


1718 


233,208 


26,070 


187,562 


Various 




1787 


15,931,192 


1,945,686,2,422,929 




fe 


1719 


399,872 


117,081 


251,515 


> rates of 

duty. 




1788 


16,221,906 


2,176,197 2,434,255 


12| per cent 
ad valorem. 


; 


1720 


072,669 


325,558 


406,663 




1789 


15,225,359 


1,795,951 2,363,465 


562,038 


1721 


196,625 


58,721 


129,398 




1790 


16,713,312 


2,175,345 2,513,751 


547,230 


1722 


282,861 


354,146 


158,875 






1791 


16,684,467 


2,001,499 2,616,563 




607,430 


1723 


783,967 


562,753 


297,897 






1792 


17,262,258 


2,171,477 


2,645,069 




616,775 


1724 


1,055,2901 608,192 


395,110 






1793 


18,133,999 


2,312,898 


2,705,128 




609,846 


1725 


1,185,920 126,906 


433,298 






1794 


17,367,937 


2,034,277 


2,573,465 


. 


628,081 


1726 


349,966 63,672 


103,905 






1795 


19,144,190 


2,501,742 


2,932,112 


> 20 per cent. 


695,108 


1727 


436,550| 62,183 


149,658 


. 




1796 


20,750,994 


2,956,097 


3,135,981 


877,042 


1728 


589,8401 48,753 


244,128 






1797 


19,107,523 


2,557,960 


2,757,289 


30 and 20 p. ct. 


1,028,060 


1729 


1,320,660 186,346 


476,947 






1798 


18,730,436 


2,411,182 


2,703,492 


1 35 and 20 p. ct. 


1,111,898 


J 730 


1,416,028' 185,685 


446,836 






1799 


22,063,969 


3,255,352 


3,672,732 


1,176,861 


1731 


46,786| 203,097 
971,128 154,355 


24,427 






1800 


24,077,090 


4,166,798 


3,830,369 


40 and 20 p. ct. 


1,152,262 


1732 


302,579 






1801 


23,378,816 


3,019,989 


3,662,144 


I 50 and 20 p. ct. 


1,287,808 


1733 


620,496 82,284 


180,626 


45. per lb., 

and 
_ 13 18 0i 
per cent 
ad va- 
lorem. 




1802 


24,315,217 


4,292,956 


3,570,149 


1,450,252 


1734 


305,373 


94,248 


80,917 




1803 


25,288,210 


3,450,512 


3,952,158 


1 95 and 65 p. ct. 


1,757,257 


1735 


1,349,744 


422,370 


201,876 




1804 


25,401,728 


3,753,806 


3,685,649 


2,348,004 


1736 


1,632,484 


252,285 


302,615 




1805 


22,140,524 


3,638,620 


3,361,287 


95£aBd65|p. ct. 


2,925,298 


1737 


1,128,679 


241,809 


225,001 




1806 


24,927,576 


3,902,196 


3,860,119 


"] 


3,098,428 


1738 


2,895,529 


437,716 


592,504 




1807 


22,895,615 


3,239,643 


3,728,958 




3,043,224 


1739 


1,761,958 


464,789 


331,002 




1808 


23,903,345 


3,316,827 


3,981,823 




3,370,610 


1740 


944,682 


286,826 


286,154 




• 


1809 


25,397,395 


3,462,186 


4,243,843 




3,130,616 


174! 


1,653,081 


350,532 


398,050 




& 


1&10 
lfll 


21,617,741 


3,117,510 


3,725.453 




3,212,430 


1742 


1,379,294 


347,754 


304,232 







24,550,923 


3,346,542 


4,162,904 




3,249,294 


1743 


690,807 


409,849 


172,792 




# 


1812 


21,527,217 


4,093,560 


3,534,274 




3,258,793 


1744 


911,001 


428,037 


251,064 . 


1 













96 per cent on 


^ « r.'P. 


1715 

1746 


2,364,945 
2,463,343 


893,121 
254,160 


403,918 
592,092 


\ Is. per lb., 

and 39 per 

cent. 


a 

CO 

0) 


1813 


23,068,033 


4,204,143 


3,793,383 


j all teas. 


Custom 

record: 

iestroye 


1747 


2,524,165 


75,665 


573,028 " 




a 










j 


1748 


282,273 


180,707 


102,163 




> t 


1814 


30,383,504 


3,977,713 


3,896,81/ 


1 


3,428,236 


1749 


2,838,006 


345,524 


768,556 




p 


1815 


26,110,550 


8,576,508 


4,79J,359 


1 


3,526,590 


1750 


2,299,860 


321,165 


667,342 


Is. per lb., 


3 


1816 


25,602,214 


5,303,078 


4,102,658 


1 


3,956,719 


1751 


2,324,912 


209,990 


544,379 


and 


> 



1817 


30,234,380 


3,634,596 


3,114,479 


J 


3,003,650 


1752 


2,710,819 


216,265 


656,699 


, 43 18 7| 


Fh 


1818 


31,467,073 


3,924,980 


3,502,388 


1 


3,362,588 


1753 


1,708,749 


324,000 


483,799 


per cent 


"o 


1819 


20,065,728 


4,378,607 


3,987,007 




3,256,433 


1754 


2,824,604 


363,205 


637,367 


ad va- 


+3 


1820 


23,750,413 


4,201,870 


3,849,385 




3,128,449 


1755 


2,502,019 


346,795 


601,042 


lorem. 


3 


1821 


30,147,994 


3,504,677 


4,145,348 




3,275,642 


1756 


3,034,547 


296,411 


688,993 






a 
< 


1822 


30,731,105 


4,342,396 


4,353,572 




3,434,292 


1757 


3,300,264 


191,170 


836,057 




1823 


27,362,766 


4,093,450 


3,876,391 




3,407,983 


1758 


2,697,305 


253,883 


770,116 . 






1824 


29,046,887 


3,993,306 


3,410,407 


At or under 2s. 


3,4-20,205 


1759 


1,870,945 


294,202 


813,576 ■ 


1 




1825 


31,682,007 


4,037,395 


3,419 803 


per lb., 94 per 


3,527,944 


1760 


2,593,440 


393,262 


916,878 


! 1*. per lb., 




1826 


29,345,717 


4,124,304 


3,527,364 


cent ; above 


3,291,813 


1761 


2,626,552 


332,939 


831,894 


and 




1827 


29,840,401 


794,670 


3,291,817 


2.v., 100 per cent. 


3,263,206 


1762 


2,862,733 


243,496 


960,017 


! 48 18 7£ 




1828 


30,746,147 


3,955,666 


3,535,001 




3,177,179 


1763 


2,703,563 


410,651 


922,844 


" per cent 




1829 


32,678,546 


2,172,947 


3,394,066 




3,321,722 


1764 


4,425,731 


333,170 


1 '068,760 


ad va- 




1830 


30,5 14,382 


497,303 


3,595,082 




3,387,097 


1765 


5,684,707 


698,681 


1-219,696 


lorem,* 




1831 


31,897,544 


234,359 


3,531,236 




3,344,918 


1766 


5,473,186 


566,640 


1>137,238 . 






1832 


31,648,922 


266,399 


3,434,859 




3,509,834 


1767 


5,586,356 


582,502 


995,858 






1833 


32.057,832 


254,460 


3,346,609 


I 


3,344,101 


1768 


5,303,474 


621,583 


911,423 






1834 


33,643,980 


1,181,005 


> 


) Is. 6d., 2s. 2d., 
J and 3s. per lb. 


3,589,361 


1769 


8,525,883 1,857,166 


1,321,973 






1835 


44,360,550 


2,158,029 




3,832,427 


1770 


9,447,522 1,462,838 


1,425,708 






1836 


49,307,701 


4,269,863 


£ 




4,674,535 


1771 


8,574,421 850,888 


1,555,968 






1837 


36,973,981 


4,716,248 


1 


( 2s. Id. per lb. 


3,223,840 


1772 


6,799,010 1,232,217 


1.316,568 






1838 


40,413,714 


2,577,877 


M 


f all sorts. 


3,362,035 


1773 
1774 


7,032,134 
4,577,477 


1,149,181 
2,005,575 


1,238,434 
830,902 






1839 
1840 


38,158,008 
28,021,882 


3,318.912 
2,383,384 


CO 
*4 


^ 


3,658,803 
3,472,864 


1775 


6,831,534 


1,144,150 


1,041,841 






184! 


30,787,790 


4,490,363 


* "£ 


1 


3,973,668 


1776 


6,225,343 


749,845 


1>031,216 






1842 


40,742,128 


5,710,127 


1 ft 




4,088,957 


1777 


4,577,923 


814,393 


777,011 






1843 


46,012,737 


4,584,141 


1 .2 


2s. Id., and 
5 per cent. 


4,407,642 


1778 


5,588,752 


1,272,475 


930,280 






1844 


53,147,078 


4,828,985 


1 ® 


4,524,193 


1779 


4,770,520 


1,368,249 


809,583 


Is. Ofrf. p. lb. 




1845 


51,056,479 


4,055,589 


"S 


4,833,353 










(51 7 6 




1846 


54,767,142 


3,533,668 


1 * 




5,112,009 


1780 


6,733/202 


1,272,064 


1,263,162 


< per cent 




1847 


55,624,946 


4,718,138 




5,067,043 










( ad val. 




1848 


47,775,936 


3,551,528 


J 




5,330,515 










(53 6 3 




1849 










1781 


7,559,273 


1,970,963 


1,309,305 


< per cent. 




1850 


















(. ad val. 




1851 











* The duty from 1767 to 1771, inclusive of the duty on black and single teas, was reduced below the rate on other 
teas, but raised again to the same rate in 1772. 

r The years in the above Account end in April until 1814, after which the years ending the 5th of January. 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 



59 



Teas imported into Ireland from 1789 to 1827, when the Customs were united. 



«» Quantity 








M 


Quantity 








pS charged 


Nett Amount 




p3 


charged 


Nett Amount 






. with 
^ Duty for 


of Duty 
(British 




Rates of Duty. 


<! 


with 
Duty for 


of Duty. 
(British 


Rates of Duty. 




W 


Consump- 


Currency.) 




H 


Consump- 


Currency.) 






|H 


tion. 








^ 


tion . 










lbs. 


£ s. 


d. 


Black. 


Green. ~ 






lbs. 


£ s. d. 


All Sorts : 




1789 


1,970,898 


38,038 14 


3 


Ad. per lb. 


6d. per lb. 




1805 


3,267,712 


411,225 1 4 


84/.14s.p'ct. 


51/.14s.p'ct 




1790 


1,736,790 


33,132 12 


2 


ditto 


ditto 




1806 


2,611,458 


348,242 7 2 


ditto 


71/. 14s.— 




1791 


1,994,787 


43,295 12 


1 


4kd. per lb. 


6id. per lb. 




1807 


3,555,129 


476,949 4 3 


ditto 


ditto 




1792 


1,844,598 


35,110 


8 


ditto 


ditto 




1808 


3,706,771 


534,685 1 7 


ditto 


ditto 




1793 


2,148,755 


39,274 9 


6 


ditto 


ditto 




1809 


3,391,663 


462.0S8 12 3 


ditto 


ditto 




1794 


2,041,290 


43,892 6 


2 


ditto 


ditto 










On all Teas : 




1795 


2,970,701 


64,093 16 


10 


ditto 


ditto 




1810 


2,922,568 


435,307 10 2 


93/. per cent ad val. 




1796 


2,326,306 


48,633 14 


9 


ditto 


ditto 




1811 


3,517,384 


502,816 16 11 


ditto 


.; 


1797 


2,492,254 


60,817 6 


5 


ditto 


ditto 




1812 


3,758,499 


567,186 11 6 


ditto 


CJ 


1798 


2,953,240 


103,016 5 


5 


ditto 


ditto 


a 


1813 


2,352,294 


521,299 12 3 


ditto 


V 


1799 


2,873,717 


101,727 11 





5£rf. per lb. 


Id. per lb. 


u 


1814 


3,387,012 


529,818 7 11 


96/. per cent ad va- 


£ 


1800 


2,926,166 


69,824 17 


7 


ditto 


ditto 


rV* 181! 


3,462,776 


531,500 15 2 


lorem, and 
















1816 
1817 


2,990,580 
3,141,035 


405,777 16 3 
427,713 7 3 


the same as in 
Great Britain. 












All Sorts : 


m 












Sold at or 


Sold under 


J* 


1818 


3,569,431 


510,105 6 6 






3 










above 2s.6tf. 


25. 6'/. 




1819 


3,238,498 


433,371 11 6 






sq 










per lb. 


per lb. 




1820 


3,150,344 


398,742 5 4 








1801 


3,499,801 


135,852 3 


4 


35/. per ct. 
ad val. 


20/. per ct. 
ad val. 




1821 
1822 


3,493,960 
3,816,966 


462,819 16 3 
511,299 5 2 








1802 


3,576,775 


182,214 17 


7 


38^. 10s. — 


23/. 10s. — 


1823 

1824 


3,367,710 
3,387,510 


440,139 4 11 
445,271 15 11 








1803 


3,239,937 


172,355 15 


6 


ditto 


ditto 


1825 

1826 


3,889,658 
3,807,785 


503,074 13 4 
446,229 5 1 








1804 


3,337,122 


251,734 8 


'J 


84/. 1 4s. — 


51/. 14s. — J 




1827 


3,887,955 


442,332 14 10 




. 







Prices of Tea (exclusive 


of Duties) re 


iuced to specific Rates, and the Duties 




w 


Bohea. 
Per lb. 


Duty. 
Per lb. 


Congou. 


Duty. 


Hyson. 


Duty. 


< 
>* 


Bohea. 


Duty. 


Congou. 


Duty. 


Hyson. 


Duty. 




Per lb. 


Per lb. 
s. d. 


Per lb. 
s. d. 


Per lb. 


Per lb. 


Per lb. 


Per lb. 


Per lb. 


Per lb. 


Per lb. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. <f. 


s. d. 


1784 


2 11| 


2 94 


5 2 


4 Ui 


13 


7 3 


1818 


2 7 


2 Sf 


3 7 


3 54 


6 




1785 


1 7 


2f 


4 8 


7 


9 


1 I* 


1819 


2 84 


2 7 


3 6 


3 4| 


6 


s" 94 


1786 


1 8 


2 


5 


7£ 


8 


1 


1820 


1 10* 


1 9ft 


3 7 


3 7 


5 10 


5 10 


1787 


1 7 


2| 


5 3 


7| 


8 6 


1 Of 


1821 


2 3 


2 3 


3 6| 


3 6 


6 2 


6 2 


1788 


1 7 




4 8 


7 


8 


1 


1822 


2 7% 


2 7| 


3 7 


3 7 


6 


6 


1789 


i n 


.. 


5 


7| 


9 


i H 


1823 


2 5i 


2 5i 


3 9 


3 9 


5 10 


5 10 


1790 


1 8 


2| 


4 10 


74 


9 




1824 


2 54 




3 9 


3 9 


6 


6 


1791 


1 8 


24 


4 4 


6k 


9 


i"ii 


1825 


2 54 




3 8 


3 8 


5 10 


5 10 


1792 


1 9 


2f 


4 9 


7| 


9 6 


l 24 


1826 


2 1 


2 "l 


3 7 


3 7 


6 


6 


1793 


1 8 


2| 


4 9 




8 6 


1 of 


1827 


1 9 


1 8| 


3 5 


3 5 


5 9 


5 9 


1794 


1 8 




4 6 


o'*6f 


9 6 


1 2| 


1828 


1 74 


1 6f 


3 3 


3 3 


6 


6 


1795 


1 10 


0*'2| 


4 6 




8 


1 


1829 


2 04 


2 0i 


3 5 


3 5 


5 11 


5 11 


1796 


2 2 


5| 


4 


9f 


8 


1 7| 


1830 


1 9 


1 84 


3 3 


3 3 


5 11 


5 11 


1797 


2 


4f 


4 


1 2f 


8 


2 4| 


1831 


2 


1 11 


3 6 


3 6 


5 


5 


179S 


2 2 


54 


3 9 


1 H 


8 


2 4f 


1832 


2 




2 lOf 


2 lOf 


5 6 


5 6 


1799 


2 6 


10.1 


3 9 


1 3| 


8 2 


2 10J 11833 


2 


i'ii 


3 1 


3 1 


4 8 


4 8 


1800 


2 


4| 


3 4 


1 2 


7 


2 5f J 1834 


2 1 


2 1 


3 


3 


5 3 


5 3 


1801 


2 2 


5^ 


3 7 


1 54 


6 6 


2 74 


1835 


2 14 


1 6 


3 7 


2 2 


7 5 


3 3 


1802 


1 9 


4i 


3 S 


1 10 


6 6 


3 3 


1836 


1 6 


.0 


2 8 




5 4 




1803 


1 8 


4 


3 8 




6 


3 


1837 


7f 


2 1 


2 9| 


2*1 


5 3 


2"l 


1804 


1 10 


1 2i 


3 3 


3*1 


4 10 


4 7 


183S 


1 104 


2 I 


1 104 


2 1 


4 1 


2 1 


1805 


2 2 


1 41 


3 6 


3 31 


5 4 


5 Of 


1839 


1 2± 




1 94 




4 2 


2 1 


1806 


1 10 


1 2± 


3 8 


3 5f 


5 9 


5 54 


1S40 


2 Of 


T 


2 7 


"1 


5 4 


2 2£ 


1807 


1 10 


1 91 


3 9 


3 7f 


5 S 


5 5| 


1S41 


1 5 




1 10 


1 


5 3 


- 


1808 


2 5 


2 3| 


3 8 


3 Ci 


6 


5 9| 


1842 


1 




1 6 to 2 3 


1 






1809 


2 


1 11 


3 7 


3 5| 


5 8 


5 5| 


1843 


Duty 




11—2 


1 






1810 


2 




3 10 


3 8£ 


6 


5 94 


1844 


1 nearly 




10—2 4 


1 






1811 


1 9 


i"si 


3 6 


3 4f 


5 6 


5 3f 


1845! 


> P r °- 


► 2 24 


84-2 2 


f 2 24 




\ 2 24 


1812 


1 11 


I 10| 


3 8 


3 6| 


6 


5 9| 


1840 ! 


hibi- 




8—2 1 






1813 


2 8 


2 61 


3 8 




6 




1847 


1 tory. 




9—2 4 








1814 


2 11 


2 9| 


4 2 


4"0 


7 6 


7 "2f 


1848 ' 


J 










1 


1815 


3 2 


3 0J 


3 9 


3 n 


6 10 


6 6| 


1849 1 














1816 


2 1 


2 


3 11 


3 9* 


6 3 


6 


1850 




J 


J 




J 


1817 


2 8 


2 6f 


3 5 


3 34 1 


6 


5 9| 


1 




1 




i 





60 



CHINESE EMP1EE. 



The Quantities and Prices of the several Sorts of Tea sold by the East India Company in 

London. 





Bohea. 


Congou. 


Campoi. 


Souchong. 


Pekoe. 


YE4RS 




Average 




Av 


erage 




Average 




Average 




Average 




Quantity. 


Sale 

Price per 

Pound. 


Quantity. 


Sale 

Price per 

Pound. 


Quantity. 


Sale 

Price per 

Pound. 


Quantity. 


Sale 

Price per 

Pound . 


Quantity. 


Sale 

Price per 

Pound. 




lbs. 


s. d. 


lbs. 


.v. 


d. 


lbs. 


.<. d. 


lbs. 


s. 


d. 


lbs. 


s. d. 


1814-15.. 


397,909 


2 10-20 


21,283,549 


3 


2-55 


1,002,000 


3 4-67 


1,520,035 


3 


7-51 


22,625 


6 10-62 


1815-16.. 


839,198 


2 1-57 


17,908,827 


2 


11-02 


823,507 


3 4*94 


982.816 


3 


6-55 


30,700 


5 8-95 


1816-17.. 


1,597,276 


2 5-56 


14,895,631 


2 


10-39 


925,550 


3 1-73 


1,862,135 


3 


0-47 


98,562 


4 2-53 


1917-18.. 


1,972,730 


2 5-73 


15,736,003 


2 


11-82 


866,304 


3 3-12 


2,018,058 


3 


2-88 


76,302 


4 4-36 


1818-19.. 


1,441,636 


2 4-78 


18,441,066 


2 


11-22 


533,821 


3 4-49 


1.183,051 


3 


5-11 


69,760 


4 4-37 


1819-20.. 


1.497,592 


1 9-25 


17,664,433 


2 


7-94 


479,081 


3 4-64 


1,168,605 


3 


2-01 


27,802 


4 2-41 


1820-21.. 


2,522,927 


2 1-88 


1 5,939,795 


2 


7-31 


319,775 


3 6-04 


1,285,496 


3 


2-96 


133,964 


4 2-53 


1821-22.. 


3,583,486 


2 5-28 


17,249,982 


2 


8-59 


121,293 


3 7-00 


1,397,931 


3 


1-25 


92,957 


3 10-69 


1822-23 . . 


1,873,881 


2 5-43 


18,822,848 


2 


7-82 


323,063 


3 6-30 


1,391,668 


2 


10-62 


44,757 


4 4-73 


1823-21.. 


1,853,394 


2 4-92 


19,006,594 


2 


8-06 


242,562 


3 6-36 


1,322,326 


•I 


11-82 


46,005 


5 0-74 


1824-25.. 


2,093,276 


2 4-59 


20,598,958 


2 


7*90 


227,722 


3 0-88 


473,476 


3 


4-74 


86,051 


4 3-26 


1825-26.. 


2,713,011 


2 0*50 


21,034,635 


2 


6-75 


207,971 


3 1-77 


547,128 


3 


1-28 


148,038 


4 0-84 


1826-27.. 


2,583,124 


1 7-02 


20,472,625 


2 


4-73 


166,701 


2 9-04 


475,796 


3 


2-17 


165,842 


3 6-01 


1827-28.. 


3,759,199 


1 7-44 


19,389,392 


2 


3-95 


297,346 


2 9-31 


448,163 


3 


0-53 


280,308 


3 6-61 


1828-29-. 


3,778,012 


I 6-65 


20.142,073 


2 


3-88 


284,187 


2 9-14 


601,739 


2 


10-38 


131,281 


3 9-23 


1829-30.. 


4,845,826 


1 6-3J 


18,402,118 


2 


3-26 


474,735 


2 2*24 


298,819 


3 


3«60 


129,554 


3 9-23 


1830-31.. 


0,096,153 


1 10-03 


17,857,208 


2 


3-15 


431,455 


2 3-17 


277,067 


3 


0-76 


253,101 


3 9-92 


1831-32.. 


6,474,833 


1 10-65 


17,734,257 


2 


2-77 


273,289 


2 1-92 


447,799 


3 


10-68 


545,775 


2 10-23 




Twankay. 


Hyson 


Skin. 


Young 


i"yson. 


Hyson. 


Gunpowder. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


Average 

Sale 
Price per 


Quantity. 


Average 

Sale 
Price per 


Quantity. 


Average 

Sale 
Price per 


Quantity. 


Average 

Sale 
Price per 


Quantity. 


Average 

Sale 
Price per 






Pound. 




Pound. 




Pound. 




P. 


und. 




Pound. 




lbs. 


s. d. 


lbs. 


s. 


d. 


lbs. 


s. d. 


lbs. 


s. 


d. 


lbs. 


s. d. 


1814-15.. 


3,646,048 


3 6-11 


795,907 


3 


9-57 


.. 




1,008,948 


5 


9-15 


9,189 


7 6-50 


1815-16-. 


3,784,868 


3 3-06 


708,280 


3 


5-26 






1,059,225 


5 


5'75 






1816-17-. 


3,239,210 


2 11-92 


554,270 


3 


0-76 






882,820 


4 


11-61 


15,425 


5 0-93 


1817-18.. 


3,763,123 


3 0-69 


451,904 


3 


1-97 






992,439 


4 


10-34 






1818-19.. 


4,730,297 


2 11-87 


193,852 


3 


2-78 






909,637 


4 


11-83 






1819-20.. 


4,288,345 


2 10-83 


161,919 


3 


4-38 






700,312 


5 


3-66 






1820-21.. 


4,900,764 


3 0-33 


343,995 


3 


0-84 






782,482 


5 


6-04 






1821-22.. 


4,401,778 


3 1-48 


225,636 


3 


1-89 






1,044,256 


4 


8-53 






1822-23.. 


4,165,896 


3 4-77 


205,658 


3 


3-99 






816,872 


4 


3*24 






1823-24.. 


3,967,206 


3 5-71 


259,209 


3 


4-72 






980,753 


4 


3 23 






1824-25.. 


3,754,120 


3 5-17 


324,987 


3 


3-29 


9,055 


4 3-68 


985,566 


4 


2-71 






1825-26.. 


3,768,406 


3 4-88 


229,961 


3 


4-57 






932,099 


4 


5-38 






1826-27-. 


4,424,262 


3 1-94 


298,900 


3 


2-26 


51,421 


4 0-75 


801,724 


4 


8-72 






1827-28.. 


4,537,672 


2 7-04 


242,313 


2 


7-19 






1,013,771 


4 


5-58 






1828-29.. 


4,101,845 


2 5-72 


213,993 


2 


3-84 






1,014,923 


4 


1-75 


645 


6 6-51 


1829-30.. 


3,852,443 


2 4-04 


228,016 


2 


4*60 






1,071,278 


4 


1-40 






1830-31.. 


4,560,562 


2 3-72 


196,791 


2 


6-39 






1,047,748 


4 


1-56 






1831-32.. 


4,463,352 


2 3-02 


169,909 


2 


6-78 


1,065 


2 6-87 


1,223,758 


3 


10-31 







An Account of the Quantities and Prices of the several Sorts of Tea sold in England 
by the East India Company in the Years 1831 — 32 to 1833—34 (from 1st of May 
to 1st of May), including the Private Trade of the Commanders and Officers of the 
Company's Ships. 



NAMES OF TEAS. 



Bohea 

Congou 

Campoi 

Souchong 

Pekoe 

Twankay , 

Hyson Skin 

Young Hyson 

Hyson , 

Total Quantity sold 



Quantity. 



lbs. 

6,474,833 

17,734,257 

273,289 

447,799 

545,775 

4,463,352 

169,909 

1,065 

1,223,258 



41,333,537 



Average Sale 

Price per 

Pound. 



s. d. 

1 10 .65 



2 2 
2 1 



2 10 .68 
2 11 .23 



2 3 

2 6 
2 6 



.02 

.78 

.87 



1832-33 



Quaniity. 



lbs. 

7,451,396 

16,984,458 

402,904 

306,448 

724,312 

4,330,286 

154,30^ 

289 

1,081,264 



31,435,665 



Average Sale 

Price per 

Pound. 



.30 
.17 
.37 
.06 
.94 
.06 
.94 



1833-34 



Quantity. 




987,052 



Average Sal 

Price per 

Pound. 



10 .62 

1 .55 

4 .37 

9 .44 

10 .39 

1 .42 

2 .85 



3 6 .37 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 



61 



An Account of the Quantity and Sale Amount of Tea sold by the East India Company 
in England and in the North American Colonies, in the Years 1831 — 32 to 1833 — 34 
(from 1st of March to 1st of March). 



WHERE SOLD 


1831-32 


1832-33 


1833-34 




Quantity. 


Sale Amount. 


Quantity. 


Sale Amount. 


Quantity. 


Sale Amount. 




lbs. 

28,286,987 

934,854 
074,292 


£ 

3,140,500 

113,814 ) 
53,771 \ 


lbs. 
29,107,597 

1,635,842 


£ 
3,187,119 

171,475 


lbs 
30,926,432 

/ Statements 


£ 
3,315,754 

uot yet re- 


North American Colonies, 
viz. — 

Quebec and Montreal.. . 






Total 


29,896,133 


3,308,145 


30,793,439 


3,358,594 


1 









Rates of duty in Canada. — Bohea .... 

Hyson .... 

Other sorts 
Rates of duty in Nova Scotia 3$ per cent on invoice cost. 



2d. currency ~| 

6d. „ > Per Pound. 

4d. „ J 



Stock of Tea in the East India Company's Warehouses on the 1st of March, 1834. 



TEA. 



Bohea, quarter chests. 
„ or. con. ditto .. 
„ half chests.... 
„ large ditto 



Congou, boxes 

„ ditto cap 

„ eighth chests. 

„ quarter ditto.. 

„ chests cap. .. . 

Campoi, boxes 

„ eighth chests.. 

„ quarter ditto.. 



Souchong, boxes 

„ ditto cap 

„ eighth chests. 

„ quarter ditto . 

„ chests cap. . . . 



Unsold. 



packages, 
3,353 

19,642 
3,039 
5,030 



371,639 



Sold. 



Delivered 
in the 

preceding 
xMonth 



Carried forward. 



3,877 



1,818 



packages 
| 2,327 

150 

547 

I 2,935 

853 

I 20,260 

13 

01 

\ 576 

314 

[ 1,470 



lbs. 
323,114 



T E A. 



I 

!> 1,113,585 



408,3 



Brought forward.. .. 

Pekoe, boxes 

„ eighth chests 

,, quarter ditto 

Twankay, eighth ditto . . . . 
„ quarter ditto.... 

Hyson, boxes 

„ ditto, Young Hyson 

„ ditto, gun 

„ eighth chests 

,, quarter ditto 

„ ditto, Young Hyson 

„ gun 

„ tea of sorts 

. Hyson Skin, boxes 

„ „ quarter chests 

Black* lbs. 

Greent do. 



Unsold. 



packages. 



73,738 



Sold. 



Delivered 
in the 

preceding 
Month. 



29,512 1,471,403 



34,441,585 
7,064,789 



Total lbs. 42,106,374 2,763,956 



packages 

29,512 

580 

922 

1,592 

26 

4,900 

[ 145 



1,560 



lbs. 
1,471,463 



269,100 



j> 53,915 



2,234,107 
529,849 



8,034 



1,494,183 
331,049 



1,825,232 



* Congou greatest proportion. t About one-sixth of the whole. 

Stock of Tea in the United Kingdom, with Cargoes Afloat, 20th Feb., 1849. 



DATE OF STOCK. 



Stock in Great Britain and Ireland, February 28, 1849 

Arrived between February 13 and March 22, in 22 vessels 
Afloat— sailed in October 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



November 
December. 
January... . 
Febrn ary . . 

March 

April 



Total Black. 



Total Green. 



lbs. 

9,415,400 

629,800 

2,919,400 

3,960,700 

4,872,600 

983,600 

3,300,100 

741,900 



lbs. 

1,816,600 
39,600 

510,900 
1,271,100 
1,094,600 

329,600 
1,146,100 

144,600 



Total Pounds. 



lbs. 

46,544,800 
11,232,000 
669,400 
3,430,300 
5,231,800 
5,967,200 
1,313,200 
4,446,200 
886,500 



Total . 



26,823,500 



6,353,100 



79,721,400 



On the 19th August, 1834, the first public sale of teas, imported by private 
merchants, since trie abolition of the exclusive privileges of the East India 
Company for the importation of teas, took place at the Commercial Sale Rooms, 
Mincing Lane. As the period had not yet arrived for the importation of teas 
for home consumption, direct from China or elsewhere, sufficient time not having 
elapsed to allow the arrivals of teas from China, shipped after 22nd April last, 



62 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



these teas already imported were only allowed entry, on condition that they 
should be bonded for exportation. The sale went off languidly, a great portion 
of the teas offered being bought in. The prices realised were : — Good Gun- 
powder, from 5s. to 5s. 6d. per lb.; good Hyson, 4s. to 4s. 4d.; young Hyson, 
2s. 0%d. to 3s. 2\d.\ Hyson skin, middling quality, Is. Id. to Is. Sd.; common 
Souchong, at Is. 8d.; good common Congous, at Is. 5d. to Is. *Jd. ; and ordinary 
to good Boheas, from Is. O^d. to Is. 2^d.; some inferior qualities were sold on 
lower terms. — Sun, August 20, 1834. 

5th September, 1834. — Tea sale : — Boheas, quarter chests, Is. 10 \ d. to Is. 1 1 \d. ; 
half ditto, Is. \0\d. to Is. 10fd.; large ditto, Is. 9Jdf. to Is. \0d.; Congou, 
Is. lOfdf. to 2s. 0J^.; common, Is. 8d. to Is. 9Jri. ; good, 2s. to 2s. 3d.; fine, 
2s. 5 d. to 2s. 7 id. Boheas sold 2d. per lb. lower than last sale. The advances on 
common Congous, from 2d. to 2\d. per lb.; on the better ones nearly as much, 
but the fine ones not materially dearer than in Jung. Boheas already, in con- 
sequence of the high prices of Congous, bear a profit of Id. to 1 %d. 

9th October, 1834. — The sales of the first Free-trade Teas (brought by the 
Columbia from Singapore) took place this day, and created a very unusual interest 
and attendance; and considering their qualities (at least very indifferent and 
greatly inferior to the Company's teas), fetched enormous prices. Twenty-four 
chests, called Bohea, were at the unanimous opinion of the trade withdrawn, not 
being tea. First sale: — Congou, Is. Id, to Is. 7 id. ; Orange Pekoe, 2s. 8Jd. 
to 3s. 4«f. Second sale: — Hyson (for exportation), 2s. 7j<f. to 3s.; Gunpowder 
ditto, 3s. S^d. to 3s. A\d. Third sale: — Congou, 2s. 2d. to 2s. 5d.; Padre (in 
paper), 2s. 8d. to 5s. 6hd. Fourth sale :— Congou, Is. ll|d. to 2s. 8|d.; young 
Hyson (for exportation only) withdrawn. Twenty-six chests Bohea withdrawn 
in consequence of buyers declaring it too bad for sale; in all, 1043 packages. 

Table of Prices of Tea in China, and Comparison of the cost of Tea per Pecul, with the 

Rate per Pound. 



PER PECUL. 


At 4s. per 
Dollar. 


At 4s. 7d. per 
Dollar. 


At 4s. 8d. per 
Dollar. 


At 4s. 9d. per 
Dollar. 


At 4s. lOd. per 
Dollar. 


At 4s. 11(^. per 
Dollar. 


At 5s. per 
Dollar. 




per lb. 


per lb. 


per lb. 


per lb. 


per lb. 


per lb. 


per lb. 


taels. 

20 equal 

21 „ 

22 „ 

23 „ 

24 „ 

25 , 

26 „ 

27 „ 

28 „ 

29 „ 

30 „ 

31 , 

32 „ 

33 „ 

34 „ 

35 „ 

36 „ 

37 „ 

38 „ 

39 , 

40 „ 


pence. 
10 
10| 
11 
Hi 
12 
12| 
13 
13| 
14 
14| 
15 
15£ 
16 
16£ 
17 
17£ 
18 
18£ 
19 
19| 
20 


pence. 
11.458 
12.031 
12.604 
13.177 
13.749 
14.322 
14.895 
15.468 
16.041 
16.614 
17.187 
17.760 
18.333 
18.906 
19.479 
20.052 
20.624 
21.197 
21.770 
22.343 
22.916 


pence. 
11.666 
12.250 
12.833 

-13.416 
14. 

14.583 
15.166 
15.750 
16.333 
16.916 
17.500 
18.083 
18.666 
19.250 
19.833 
20.416 
21. 

21.583 
22.166 
22.750 
23.333 


pence. 

11.875 

12.478 

13.072 

13.666 

14.250 

14.843 

15.437 

16.031 

16.625 

17.218 

17.812 

18.406 

19. 

19.593 

20.187 

20.781 

21.375 

21.96S 

22.562 

23.156 

23.750 


peDcc. 
12.083 
12.687 
13.291 
13.895 
14.499 
15.104 
15.708 
16.312 
16.916 
17.520 
18.125 
18.729 
19.333 
19.937 
20.541 
21.145 
21.750 
22.354 
22.958 
23.562 
24.166 


pence. 
12.291 
12.906 
13.520 
14.135 
14.749 
15.364 
15.979 
16.593 
17,208 
17.822 
18.437 
19.052 
19.666 
20.281 
20.895 
21.510 
22.124 
22.739 
23.354 
23.968 
. 24.583 


pence. 
12.5 
13.125 
13.750 
14 375 
15. 

15.625 
16/250 
10.875 
17.500 
18.125 
18.750 
19.375 
20. 

20.625 
21. '250 
21.875 
22.500 
23.125 
23.750 
24.375 
25. 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 



63 



A Table showing the laying down Prices in London of 1 lb. of Tea, costing in China from 
10 Taels to 85 Taels per Pecul of 133 -id lbs. to the Pecul, including Merchant's 
Commission in China, &c, 1 per cent Broker's Commission in London, Management 
Rates and Warehousing Charges, Insurance 2\ per cent, and Freight at SI. per ton. 



TAELS. 


s. d. 
4 1 


s. d. 
4 2 


s. d. 
4 3 


S. d. 
4 4 


s. d. 
4 5 


s. d. 
4 6 


s. d. 

4 7 


4 8 


10 


8f 


8f 


81 


8| 


8f 


81 


9 


9 


11 


8| 


9 


9 


91 


91 


91 


91 


9| 


12 


9| 


9k 


9* 


9f 


91 


10" 


Ioi 


101 


13 


10 


10 


ioi 


101 


lOf 


lOf 


ioi 


101 


14 


10i 


o ioi 


105 


o 101 


11 


111 


111 


114 


15 


11 


111 


llf 


111 


H| 


n| 


1 # 


1 01 


16 


o Hi 


llf 


1 


1 oi 


1 oi 


1 01 


1 0| 


1 Of 


17 


1 


1 01 


1 01 


1 0| 


1 01 


1 U 


1 ll 


1 If 


18 


1 0| 


1 oi 


1 1 


1 11 


1 il 


1 if 


1 ll 


1 2 


19 


! !l 


1 11 


1 If 


1 If 


1 2| 


1 21 


1 21 

* 4 


1 2| 


20 


1 2 


1 21 


1 2| 


1 2| 


1 21 


1 31 


21 


1 2| 


1 21 


1 2| 


1 3 


1 31 


1 31 


1 3! 


1 31 


22 


1 2| 


1 31 


1 3f 


1 3f 


1 31 


1 41 


1 45 


1 44 


23 


1 3| 


1 3| 


1 31 


1 41 


1 41 


1 4f 


1 5 s 


1 51 


24 


1 4 


1 41 


1 41 


1 4| 


1 5 


1 5| 


1 5, 


1 51 


25 


1 41 


1 41 


1 51 


1 5a 


1 5f 


1 6 


1 6| 


1 64 


26 


1 5 


1 5f 


1 5| 


1 51 


1 61 


1 6| 


1 6? 


1 71 


27 


1 H 


1 6 


1 61 


1 61 

1 n 


1 6f 


1 71 


1 7! 


1 7f 


28 


1 6| 


1 61 


1 61 


1 7| 


1 7f 


1 81 


1 8f 


29 


1 6| 


1 7 


1 71 


1 7f 


1 8 


1 8f 


1 8i 

1 9| 

1 I0 f 


1 9 


30 


i n 


1 7| 


1 8 


1 81 


1 8f 


1 9 


1 9| 


31 


1 7| 


1 81 


1 81 


1 81 


1 91 


1 l9f 


1 101 


32 


1 8f 


1 8| 
1 91 


1 9 


1 91 


1 91 


1 ioi 


1 10i 


2 101 


33 


1 8| 


1 91 


1 10 


1 101 


1 lot 


1 111 


1 HI 


34 


1 9f 


1 91 


1 ioi 


1 io| 


1 H 


1 Uf 


1 111 


2 01 


35 


1 91 


i ioi 


1 10f 


1 111 


1 Uf 


2 


2 Oi 


2 Of 


36 


1 10£ 


1 11 


1 llf 


1 111 


2 01 


2 of 


2 I s 


2 If 


37 


1 HI 


i 114 


2 


2 Of 


2 


2 ll 


2 I| 

2 2i 
2 2! 


2 2 


38 


1 Uf 


2 


2 01 


2 1 


2 If 


2 If 


2 2| 


39 


2 01 


2 Of 


2 U 


2 11 
2 11 


2 2 


2 2 


2 3f 


40 


2 Of 
2 1J 
2 1J 


2 U 


2 If 


2 2| 


2 2§ 
2 2l 


2 3f 


2 4 


41 


2 1| 


2 21 


2 2f 
2 31 


2 31 


2 4? 


2 4f 


42 


2 2f 


2 21 


2 3f 


2 3f 


2 4? 


2 51 


43 


2 2£ 


2 21 


2 3f 


2 1 


2 4f 


2 4f 


2 5| 


2 51 


44 


2 3 


2 3 


2 4 


2 4f 


2 5 


2 5 


2 6* 


2 61 


45 


2 31 


2 4 


2 41 

2 51 


2 51 


2 51 


2 5i 


2 6| 

2 7 ! 

2 7 1 


2 7| 


46 


2 4 


2 4f 


2 5f 


2 61 


2 61 


2 7f 


47 


2 4f 


2 51 


2 5| 


2 6| 


2 6f 


2 6| 


2 8| 


48 


2 5 


2 5| 


2 61 


2 61 


2 7| 


2 71 


2 8| 
2 9| 


2 9 


49 


2 5| 


2 61 


2 61 


2 71 


2 8 


2 8i 


2 9| 


50 


2 61 


2 61 


2 7| 


2 81 


2 8* 


2 91 


2 9| 


2 101 


51 


2 61 


2 71 


2 8 


2 8f 


2 91 


2 9| 


2 10a 


2 101 


52 


2 7 


2 8 


2 81 


2 9f 


2 9| 


2 lot 


2 11 


2 111 


53 


2 71 


2 8| 


2 9| 


2 91 


2 lOg 


2 11 


2 11| 


3 0| 


54 


2 81 


2 91 


2 19| 


2 lOf 


2 11 


2 H| 


3 04 


3 Of 


55 


2 9 


2 9| 


2 101 


2 11 


2 HI 


3 01 


3 Of 


3 If 


56 


2 9| 
2 101 


2 101 


2 101 


2 111 


3 01 


3 Oi 


3 If 


3 2 


57 


2 101 


2 If 


3 01 
3 Of 


3 Of 


3 U 


3 2 


3 2f 


58 


2 lOf 


2 Uf 


3 


3 If 


3 2| 


3 2| 


3 31 


59 


2 11| 


3 


3 0.1 


3 11 


3 2 


3 2f 


3 31 


3 31 


60 


2 111 


3 01 


3 If 


3 If 


3 21 


3 31 


3 31 


3 4 


61 


3 Of 


3 1 


3 If 


3 2| 


3 31 


3 31 


3 4i 


3 5| 


62 


3 1 


3 n 


3 21 


3 3 


3 3f 


3 41 


3 51 


3 5f 


63 


3 If 


3 21 


3 21 


3 3f 


3 4f 


3 5l 


3 5A 


3 6f 


64 


3 2 


3 2| 


3 3f 


3 41 


3 41 


3 5f 


3 61 


3 7 


65 


3 21 


3 31 


3 4 


3 4| 
3 5| 


3 51 


3 61 


3 7f 


3 7| 


66 


3 31 


3 31 


3 4| 
3 51 


3 6 


3 61 


3 7| 


3 8| 


67 


3 3f 


3 4| 


3 6 


3 Of 


3 74 


3 81 


3 8£ 


68 


3 41 


3 5 


3 5f 


3 61 


3 71 


3 8l 


3 8| 


3 91 


69 


3 4f 


3 5! 


3 61 


3 71 


3 71 


3 8f 


3 94 


3 101 


70 


3 51 


3 61 


3 61 


3 7f 


3 81 


3 9l 


3 101 


3 lOf 


71 


3 51 


3 6f 


3 7f 


3 81 


3 9 


3 10 


3 lOf 
3 Uf 


3 HI 


72 


3 61 


3 71 


3 8 


3 81 


3 9| 


3 101 


4 01 


73 


3 7 


3 7f 


3 81 


3 91 


3 102 


3 111 


4 


4 Of 


74 


3 71 


3 8f 


3 91 


3 10 


3 101 


3 llf 


4 Of 


4 If 


75 


3 81 


3 81 


3 9f 


3 10| 


3 111 


4 Of 


4 11 


4 2 


76 


3 8f 


3 91 


3 lOg 


3 111 


4 


4 01 


4 11 


4 2| 


77 


3 91 


3 101 


3 101 


3 llf 


4 0| 


4 1* 


4 21 


4 31 


78 


3 9g 


3 10| 
3 111 


3 111 


4 01 


4 11 


4 2ft 


4 31 


4 31 


79 


3 101 


4 


4 01 


4 If 


4 2| 


4 3| 
4 4| 


4 41 


80 


3 lOf 


3 llf 


4 0| 


4 11 


4 21 


4 3| 


4 51 



64 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Estimate of the Cost, Freight, and Charges of each Species of Tea per Pound, Imported 

in the Year 1829. 



ESTIMATE OF THE COST, &c. 



Bobea. 



Congo, winter 
purchased, 
and below 
contract. 



Congo 
Contract. 



Campoi. 



Souchong. 



Twankay 



H s > t r «>-»• 



Cost in China, calculating- the value 
at 6.9. id. 624, the actual cost of a 
tale in China, season 1828-29, as per 
Account No. 1. (calculating the sup- 
plies from India to China according 
to the intrinsic value of the coins, 
at the Mint-price of silver) 

Insurance, three per cent on cost, 
premium covered 

Interest from the provision of funds 
in China to the arrival of the in- 
vestment in England (six months 
on cost and insurance), at five per 
cent per annum 

Freight and demurrage 

Expense of lauding, housing, ware- 
house room, carting, preparing for 
sale, and all charges of merchandise 

Interest, from the arrival of the teas 
in England to the estimated reali 
sation of the sale amount, eighteen 
months on cost and insurance, 
twelve months on freight and 
charges, at five percent per annum 

Supercargoes' commissions, two per 
cent on net sale amount, deduct 
ing charges 



9-666 
-299 



*249 
4-200 



1-038 
-261 



11-679 
-361 



•301 

•200 



1-193 

'394 



1 4-150 
-499 



-416 
4-200 



1-600 



1°539 
-437 



1 7-738 
-610 



•509 
•200 



1-600 



1-816 
-479 



I'otal 1 5-313 1 1 7-728 



2 0-841 | 2 4-952 



1 11-022 
-712 



'593 

4-200 



1.600 



2.070 

-598 



s. d. 



1 4-000 
-495 



•412 
5-250 



4-466 
•509 



•424 
5-250 



1-600 



1-616 
-422 -437 



s. d. 



2 2-720 
-826 



-689 
5-250 



1-600 



2-408 
-826 



795 2 1-759 2 1-302 3 2*319 



Prices paid for Tea at Canton by 


the Americans at the following Periods. 


TEA. 


1818-19 


1827-28 


1831-32 


1833-34 




taels per pecul. 
11 
23 

24 

25 
65 
24 
46 
62 

38 
20 
22 
20 


taels per pecul. 
12 

18 
60 

45 
} 50 

35 

23 
25 


taels per pecul. 
11 
16 

18 

50 

46 
54 
58 
44 
24 

24 

20 


taels per pecul. 
10 




21 








18J 




40 








45 




49 




52 




42 




23£ 




25£ 






Pouchoug 


22| 



East India Company's prime cost of Tea in China, per 
lb., 1821-22. 



Bohea . 
Congou 
Souchong 
Sonchi 
Twankay 
Hyson Skin 
Hysou . 
Young Hysou 






943 


Bohea . 


1 


5-34 


Ccngou 


2 


2-44 


Souchong 


1 


9-14 


Sonchi 


1 


5-20 


Twankay 


1 


6-11 


Hyson Skin 


2 


9-25 


Hyson . 


2 


1-32 


Young Hyson 



American cost of Tea in China, per lb., 1821-22 

s. 

. 

. . 1 



d. 

5-94 
2-58 
. 1 0-95 
. 1 0-95 
. 11-8S 
. 10-8 
. 1 9-6 
. 1 4-74 



6s. nearly, 
half-pence per lb. 



thus 14 



The tael in the American account is reckoned at the rate of 72 taels for 100 dollars, or 

The Chinese price of tea, in taels per pecul, is tantamount to the English price of 
tales per pecul maybe expressed 14 half-pence (or Id.) per lb. A quarter chest contains about 67 lbs. A chop is 
quantity of tea grown on one piece of ground by one man: of black teas, it generally consists of, but sometimes 
exceeds, 600 chests ; and of green, about 400 chests. 



Canton Price Current. 



Bohea 

Congo 
Campoi . 
Souchong 
Pekoe . 
Twankay 
Hyson Skin 
Hyson 
Gunpowder 



1832. 
East India Company's Purchases. 

taels per picul 13 
do. 24 



do. 00 
do. 19 
do. 52 
do. 22 
do. 13 
do. 42 
do. 51 



to 15 

28 
00 
34 

GO 
28 
28 
58 
61 





1844. 








Public Merchants 


Purchases. 




Bohea 




taels per 


picul 10 to 


17 


Congo, old . 






do. 10 „ 


15 


Ditto, new- 






do. 30 , 


44 


Caper 






do. 16 „ 


21 


Souchong 






do. 13 , 


54 


Pekoe 


. 




do, 26 , 


90 


Twankay 






do. 30 , 


38 


Hyson Skin . 


, 




do. 22 , 


36 


Hyson 






do. 20 , 


80 


Gunposvder, 


imperial 




do. 20 , 


70 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 



65 



Congou 
Ditto . 
Ditto 
Ditto . 
Ditto , 

Ditto . 
Souchong 
Ditto . 
Pekoe 
Ditto . 
Twankay . 
Ditto . 
Hyson Skin 
Hyson 
Gunpowder 
Ditto . 



Estimating the cost price in China 
The charges there, freight, &c. 
Profit to merchants exporting . 
Charges in London 



Prices at the Public Tea Sale, London, 27th of July, 1844. 

s. d. 
. per lb. I0f-| 
. do. 1G£ | 

' • ; jj°; J u * [ Average price per lb. . 

'.'.'. do.' 1 8f i 

. do. 1 10AJ 

. . do. 2 H) ~.^ JJiA _ 



. do. 2 


2H 


UlttO 


GltlO 


. do. 3 
. do. 3 


M 


Ditto 


ditto 


. do. 1 
. do. 1 


%\ 


Ditto 


ditto 


. do. 1 


6 


Ditto 


ditto 


. do. 2 


10 


Ditto 


ditto 


. do. 3 
. do. 3 


ii 


Ditto 


ditto 



?. d. 



1 3* 



2 2 

3 n 

i n 

1 

2 10 

3 li 



Average price per lb. 



. 1 


3 


. 


5 


. 


3 


. 


1 


2 





. 


2 



There remains charges and profit for salesmen, &c. ... . 

2 

Average Prices of Teas in the following Places, during the Years 1831, 1832, and 1833. 



COUNTRIES. 


Pekoe 
per lb. 


Souchong 
per lb. 


Campoi 
per lb. 


Congou 
per lb. 


Bohea 
per lb. 




s. d. 

3 

21 4 to 29 2 

none used. 

7 l'V.'io 5 

5 10 „ 6 

4 7 „ 7 
3 4 „ 8 4 

3 4| „ 10 11 
7 8 „ 13 6 

5 „ 10 
none used. 

6 4 

4 10 „ 10 6 


s. d. 

2 7| 

14 7 to 17 6 

1 8 „ 2 2 

2 4 
3 11 ,, 4 8 
3 4 „ 3 6 

2 G „ 3 5 

1 4^',',* 2 

none. 

3 4 „ 4 8 

2 6 „ 2 8 

4 
1 1 „ 3 


s. d. 
2 3& 

11 8 to 12 7 
none. 

2 6 V, 2 S 

1 11 „ 2 6 

1 5",',' 1 li 

none. 

2 6 „ 3 4 
2 5 „ 2 9 

none. 
1 6 „ 2 1 


s. d. 

2 

8 9 to 9 8 
none. 

3 2 

2 1 „ 2 3 

2 „ 2 3 
1 4 „ 1 8 

1 4i„ 1 74 

2 6 „ 3 4 
2 1 „ 3 
2 4 „ 2 6 

4 

1 2 „ 1 10 


s. d. 
1 6 




5 10 to G 9 




1 5 „ 1 6 


New Orleans d 


1 8 „ 1 11 




1 8 „ 2 




1 6 


Bremen h ... 


1 „ 1 1 
1 1\ „ 1 3 






1 1 „ 1 3 




1 8 


Roman States m 


3 4 






COUNTRIES. 


Gunpowder 
per lb. 


Hyson 
per lb. 


Young Hyson 
per lb. 


Hyson Skin 
per lb. 


Twankay 
per lb. 




s. d. 

5 6 

14 7 to 38 10 

3 6 „ 4 2 

5 2 
5 6 „ 5 10 

4 0* „ 5 10 
4 5 „ 5 

none. 
7 8 „ 9 8 
13 4 ,, 15 

none. 

8 7 
3 7,60 


s. d. 
3 6 
11 8 

2 7 to 3 8 

3 10 

5 „ 5 1 
5 5 „ 5 7 
2 8 „ 3 6 
2 10 „ 3 

2 11 „ 4 2 

3 10 „ 4 10 
8 4 „ 9 2 

4 „ 4 1 

4 9 

3 „ 5 3 


s. d. 

2 3 
9 8 

2 5 to 3 5 

3 8 

3 4 ,, 3 G 


s. d. 
2 1 
7 9 

1 10 to 2 8 

2 7 „ 2 10 

2 10 

9. 11 2 4 


s. d. 
2 2 




6 9 






New Orleans d 


none. 
2 10 to 2 11 




2 G „ 2 8 




2 G „ 2 8 

1 5 „ 2 6 | 1 2 „ 1 5 
none. 1 2J „ 1 10 


2 „ 2 2 








1 5 „ 1 10 








G 8 „ 7 G 

none. 
1 10 3 


3 9 „ 6 8 
none. 

14 2 5 


2 1 „ 4 2 






Roman States m 


1 8*"„ 2 1 















a Average prices at which 30,483,552 lbs. of tea were offered for, and sold, at the India House in all 1831 ; of 
which 1,883,000 lbs. were putup without any fixed price ; and besides which 1,646,980 lbs. were refused by the brokers, 
as too large a supply for the market. 

b Consular return. The duty on black tea, from Is. 9d. to Is. \]d. per lb. ; and on green, from Is. 5d. to Is. %\d. is 
included. I have taken the descending scale of prices. 

c Exclusive of the duty. New York Price Current, January, 1832. The souchong so called is mere congou. Por- 
tions of some cargoes unsaleable, by reason of their being " several years imported." 

d Exclusive of the duty. New Orleans Price Current for February, 1832 ; in which it is a constant remark, " sales 
small and scarce." 

e From Prix Courant sur la Place de Paris, 8th April, 1832. The retail price of tea throughout France is from 5s. 
to 25.?. per lb. 

/ From Folha Mercantil de Porto Lisbon, 7th April, 1S32. The duty on tea is 15 per cent ad valorem. 

g These are the high and low Amsterdam and Rotterdam prices for May, 1823, by the 100 chests or cargo ; the duty 
is only 7 florins per 100 kilogrammes for bohea, and 12 florins per 100 kilogrammes for all other descriptions. 

h Bremen, May 1st, 1832. Furnished me from Messrs. Reid, Irving, and Co. 

i Duty almost nominal. Borson Halle Hamburgsch Abend Zeitung, 20th April, 1S32. No wholesale trade. Duty, 
Z\d. per lb. 

J The government duty is only lQd. per cwt. I have given a descending proportional scale of prices from the con- 
sular returns to Parliament. 

k Duty 2 per cent ad valorem. These prices were given when there was five years' stock on hand ; the consul re- 
marks that " other teas are proportionally higher." 

I Duty per lb., 11^., of which one-third is allowed as drawback on exporting articles in lieu of tea, the produce of 
the states. Consular returns. 

m Duty one-half per cent, ad valorem. Consular returns. 
VOL. V. F 



66 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Average Sale Price of Tea in England and on the Continents of Europe and America, 
according to Consular Returns, and the Continental Price Currents. 

Black Teas. 



COUNTRIES. 


Pekoe per lb. 


Souchong per lb. 


Compoi per lb. 


Congou per lb. 


Bohea per lb. 




s. d. 

3 

21 4 to 29 2 

none used. 

7 1 ,', 10 5 
5 10 „ 6 

4 7 „ 7 
3 4 „ 8 4 

3 4i „ 10 11 
7 8 „ 13 6 

5 „ 10 
none used. 

6 4 

4 10 „ 10 6 

none, 
do. 

2 2 "„" 392 


s. d. 

2 7| 
14 7 to 17 6 

1 8 „ 2 2 

2 „ 4 

3 11 „ 4 8 
3 4 „ 3 6 

2 6 „ 3 5 

1 4',',° 2 

none. 

3 4 „ 4 8 

2 6 „ 2 8 

4 
1 1 „ 3 

2 9 
1 9 „ 2 2 

1 ll",',' 922 


s. d. 

2 3§ 

11 8 to 12 7 

none. 

2 6",',' 2 8 

1 11 „ 2 6 

i 5",',' 1 n\ 

none, 

2 6 „ 3 4 
2 5 „ 2 8 

none. 
1 6 „ 2 1 • 
none. 

1 7*7, 738 


8 

2 
2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 

1 
1 


*. cf. 
2 0J 
9 to 9 8 
none. 

3**2 
1 „ 2 3 

„ 2 3 
4 „ 1 8 
4| „ 1 7| 
6 „ 3 4 

1 „ 3 
4 „ 2 6 

4 

2 „ 1 10 
none. 

6**8 
4 „ 150 


s. d. 
1 6 




5 10 to 6 9 




1 5 „ 1 6 




1 8 „ 1 11 




none. 




1 8 „ 2 


Holland 


1 6 




1 ., 1 1 


Hamburgh 


1 2|„ 1 3 




1 1 „ 1 3 




1 8 


Roman States 


3 4 


Trieste 


none. 


Sicily 


4 






Canton 


9 „ 666 



Green Teas. 



countries. 


Gunpowder per lb. 


Hyson 


per lb. 


Young Hyson 
per lb. 


Hyson Skin 
per lb. 


Twankay per lb. 




14 
3 
5 
5 

4 

4 

7 
13 

3 

3 


s. d. 

5 6 

7 to 38 10 
6 „ 4 2 
„ 2 

6 „ 5 10 

„ 5 10 
5 „ 5 

none. 

8 „ 9 8 
4 „ 15 

none. 
8 7 

7 „ 6 
5 

1 „ 3 7 

2 8 


s. 
3 
11 

2 7 

3 
5 
5 5 
2 8 
2 10 

2 11 

3 10 
8 4 

4 

4 
3 

3 
2 2 

6 

7 
2 2 


d. 

6 
to 8 
,,3 8 
„ 10 
„ 5 1 
,,5 7 
.,3 6 
„ 3 
„ 4 2 
„ 4 10 
„ 9 2 
,, 4 1 

9 
,,5 3 

4 
„ 2 8 



4 
„ -720 


9 
2 

3 

1 

6 
1 


s. d. 

2 3| 

to 8 
5 „ 3 5 

3 8 

4 "„ 3 6 

5*'„ 2 6 

none. 

ditto. 
8 „ 7 6 

none. 

ditto. 
10 „ 3 

none. 

1 10 


s. d. 
2 If 
7 9 

1 10 to 2 

2 7 „ 2 

2 10 
2 11 „ 3 

2 6 „ 2 
1 2 „ 1 

1 2£„ 1 
none. 

3 9 „ 6 

none, 
ditto. 
1 4 „ 2 
none. 

1 4 „ 


8 
10 

4 

8 

5 

10 

8 
5 

•466 


s. d. 
2 2 




6 9 












2 10 to 2 11 


Portugal 

Holland 


2 6 „ 2 8 
2 „ 2 2 








1 5 „ 1 10 






Frankfort 


2 1 „ 4 2 






Roman States 


ditto. 
1 8 „ 2 1 










Sicily 










1 4 „ *000 







Estimated General Consumption of Tea at the following Places :- 



United Kingdom (1833) .*.','.. 
America (1831-32) ..... 

France (1832-33) ...... 

Holland (1834-44) ..... 

Denmark (1828) ...... 

Russia (1832) . ..... 

Other parts of Continental Europe, latterly very inconsiderable 
Cape of Good Hope (1831) .... 

P>ritish Colonies, North America (1831) 

New South Wales (1830) .... 

Indian Presidencies ..... 



lbs. 


. 33,000,000 


. 8,000,000 


230,000 


. 2,800,000 


130,000 


. 6,500,000 


100,000 


. 1,200,000 


350,000 


. 51,310,000 



The average annual consumption of tea in different countries may be estimated for the 
five years ending 1848 as follows : — 



Great Britain and Ireland 
British America and West Indies 
Australasia, Cape of Good Hope, &c. 
British India, &c. 

Total 



lbs. 

. 8,000,000 
. 2,600,000 
. 2,700,000 
. 2,200,000 

. 55,500,000 



PROGRESS OE THE TEA TRADE. 



67 





lbs. 


United States of North America . . . . . . 


13,000,000 


Russia ........ 


9,000,000 


France ........ 


550,000 


Hanse towns, &c. ........ 


150,000 


Holland and its colonies . . . . . . 


1,200,000 


Belgium ........ 


200,000 


Denmaik, Sweden, and Norway ...... 


250,000 


Germany ........ 


500,000 


Spain and Portugal ....... 


100,000 


Italy ........ 


50,000 


South America ........ 


500,000 


Other places, &c. ...... 


550,000 


Total all countries .... 


26,000,000 



Population ; and Consumption of Tea. 



YEARS. 



1801 

1811 

1821 { 

1831 | 

1841 | 

Average five years 
ending 1849 



Great Britain.... 

Ditto 

Ditto 

Ireland 

Great Britain .. , 

Ireland 

Great Britain .. 
Ireland 

United Kingdom 



Population. 



number. 

10,942,646 
12,596,803 
14,391,631 

6,801,827 
16,539,318 

7,767,401 
18,720,394 

8,196,597 

29,100,000 



Consumption. 



lbs. 
23,271,790 
22,454,532 

26,754,537 

29,997,055 
36,675,677 
48,000,000 



Rate per Head. 



\ Uncertain what proportion of 
/ consumption was in Ireland. 

l\ lb. per annum. 
About 1A lb. per annum. 
If lb. per annum. 

If lb. per annum. 



Varying Consumption of Tea according to Duty and Price. 



YEARS. 


Duty. 


Con- 
sumption. 


Increase. 


Id 1782 


551. 15s. lOd. per cent and Is. lfd. ... 
Ditto 


lbs. 
6,202,257 
4,741,522 
10,150,700 
14,800,932 
15,851,747 
21,342,845 
23,730,150 
24,877,450 
26,754,537 
31,829,620 

34,969,631 

41,363,770 

47,534,977 








17S4 

„ 1785 

1786 




Increase 113| per cent. 

„ 46 per cent. 

„ 7 per cent. 
Total increase in 12 years, 350 p. cent. 

Increase in 8 years, 16£ per cent. 
„ 18 years, 7£ per cent. 
„ 12 years, 19 per cent. 

In 1834 began free trade. No arti- 
ficial profits, and reduction in price 
of tea of fully is. 6d. to 2s. per lb. 
consequent. 

Increase in 12 years, 35 per cent. 


Ditto 


Ditto 


1795 

„ 1801 

Large profit of East In- f 1803 

dia Company, and high' 1521 

ad valorem duty (.1833 

In 1834 

1844 
1846 




50 per cent 2s. (id. ; 20 per cent under 
95 per cent 2s. 6d. ; 65 per cent under 
100 per cent 2s. 6d. ; 96 per cent under 


2s. 2d. per lb. Congou, Is. 6d. per lb. 
Bobea ; in 1836, all sorts 2s. 2\d., . . 



EXPORTS OF TEA FROM CHINA TO ALL COUNTRIES AT DIFFERENT PERIODS. 

The exports of teas from China will appear, from the following statements, 
to be chiefly to Great Britain, the United States, and to the British possessions. 
The continental states of Europe, with the exception of Holland, and the colonies 
of France, Holland, Spain, Portugal, and Denmark, consume but trifling 
quantities. 

F 2 



68 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



CONSUMPTION OF TEA. — TEA TRADE OF CONTINENTAL EUROPE. 

An Account of the number of pounds of Tea shipped at Canton, on board Foreign Euro- 
pean Ships, viz. Swedish, Danish, Dutch, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Prussian, 
Austrian, Russian, Hamburgh, Genoese, Tuscan, &c, for Continental Europe. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


1782 


lbs. 
14,630,200 
19,072,300 
16,651,000 
15,715,900 
10,165,160 
13,578,000 
10,675,900 
7,174,200 
2,291,560 
4,431,730 
7,864,800 
3,462,800 
4,138,930 


1795 


lbs. 
2,759,800 
2,515,460 
2,714,000 
4,319,300 
1,577,066 


1783 


1796 


1784 


1 797 


1785 


1798 


1786 


1799 . 


1787 


1800 


3,968,267 
185,533 
5,812,266 
1,074,266 
3,318,799 
1,809,466 
1,534,267 
1,144,266 


1788 


1801 


1789 


1802 


1790 


1803 


1791 


1804 


1792 




1793 


1806 


1794 


1807 






Total 


129,852,480 


; 32,732,756 








Foreign export 
Ditto 




129,852,480 






32,732,756 




Decrease 




97,119,724 



* In 1833 Great Britain alone consumed 33,000,000 lbs. of tea. 
Europe was sent to Ireland to be smuggled into England. 



The great importation formerly to Continental 



The following is an Account of the Number of Ships which have laden at Canton for 
England and the East Indies, with the Quantities of Teas exported in them in the 
Years 1767-8 to 1810-11 inclusive; also the Number of Foreign and American Ships 
laden at Canton, with the Quantities of Teas exported in them during the same 
period. The Quantities shipped for the various foreign European Nations are stated 
under the heads of the respective Companies. 



YEARS, 


England. 


Foreign Europe. 


America. 


Europe 


& America. 


Total. 


Ships. 


Quantity. 


Ships. 


Quantity. 


Ships. 


Quantity. 


Ships. 


Quantity. 


Ships. 


Quantity. 




No. 


lbs. 


No. 


lbs. 


No. 


lbs. 


No. 


bs. 


No. 


lbs. 


1767-8 


8 


4,580,867 


11 


12,767,605 






11 


12,767,605 


19 


17,348,472 


1768-9 


12 


7,249,208 


10 


12,167,788 






10 


12,167,788 


22 


19,416,996 


1769-70 


17 


11,294,117 


9 


10,592,671 






9 


10,592,671 


26 


21,886,788 


1770-1 


13 


9,198,059 


10 


12,891,710 






10 


12,891,710 


23 


22,089,769 


1771-2 


20 


13,118,293 




no account. 








no account. 


20 


13,118,293 


1772-3 


13 


8,869,099 


11 


13,652,800 






11 


13,652,800 


24 


22,521,899 


1773-4 


8 


3,885,651 


12 


13,838,200 






12 


13,838,200 


20 


17,723,851 


1774-5 .... 


4 


2,159,881 


15 


15,652,800 






15 


13,652,800 


19 


17,812,861 


1775-6 


5 


3,402,415 


12 


12,841,500 






12 


12,841,500 


17 


16,243,915 


1776-7 


8 


5,673,434 


13 


16,112,000 






13 


16,112,000 


21 


21,785,434 


1777-8 


9 


6,292,788 


15 


13,302,700 






15 


13,302,700 


24 


19,695,488 


1778-9 


7 


4,372,021 


11 


11,302,300 






11 


11,302,300 


18 


15,674,321 


1779-80 


7 


4,746,206 


10 


12,673,700 






10 


12,673,700 


17 


17,419,906 


1780-1 


10 


6,846,603 


10 


11,725,600 






10 


11,725,600 


20 


18,572,203 


1781-2 


9 


6,857,731 


5 


7,385,800 






5 


7,385,800 


14 


14,243,531 


1782-3 


G 


4,138,295 


16 


14,630,200 






16 


14,630,200 


22 


18,768,495 


1783-4 


13 


9,916,760 


21 


19,072,300 




.. 


21 


19,072,300 


34 


28,989,060 


1734-5 


14 


10,583,628 


16 


16,551,000 


2 


880,100 


IS 


17,531,100 


32 


28,114,728 


1785-6 


18 


13,480,691 


12 


15,715,900 




695,000 


13 


16,410,900 


31 


29,891,591 


1786-7 


27 


20,610,919 


9 


10,165,160 


5 


1,181,860 


14 


11,347,020 


41 


31,957,939 


1787-8 , 


29 


22,096,703 


13 


13,578,000 


2 


750,900 


15 


14,328,900 


44 


36,425,603 


1788-9 


27 


20,141,745 


11 


9,875,900 


4 


1,188,800 


15 


11,064,700 


42 


31,206,445 


1789-90 


21 


17,991,032 


7 


7,174,200 


14 


3,093,200 


21 


10,267,400 


42 


28,258,432 


1790-1 .... 


25 


22,369,620 


7 


2,291,560 


3 


743,100 


10 


3,034,660 


35 


25,404,280 


1791-2 .. 


11 


13,185,467 


9 


4,431,730 


3 


1,863,200 


12 


6,294,930 


23 


19,480,397 


1792-3 .. . 


16 


16,005,414 


13 


7,864,800 


6 


1,538,400 


19 


9,403,200 


35 


25,408,614 


1793-4 .. 


18 


20,728,705 


5 


3,462,800 


7 


1,974,130 


12 


5,436,930 


30 


26,165,653 


1794-5 


21 


23,733,810 


7 


4,138,930 


7 


1,438,270 


14 


5,577,200 


35 


29,311,010 


1795-6 


15 


19,370,900 


4 


2,759,800 


10 


2,819,600 


14 


5,579,400 


29 


24,950,300 


1796-7 


23 


36,904,200 


3 


2,515.460 


13 


3,450,400 


16 


5,965,860 


39 


42,870,060 


1797-8 


17 


29,934,100 


5 


2,714,000 


10 


3,100,400 


15 


5,814,400 


32 


35,748,500 


1798-9 


16 


16,795,400 


6 


4,319,300 


13 


5,674,000 


19 


9,993,300 


35 


26,788,700 


1799-0 


14 


26,585,337 


4 


1,577,066 


18 


5,665,067 


22 


7,242,133 


36 


33,827,470 


1800-1 


19 


29,772,400 


7 


3,968,207 


23 


4,762,866 


30 


8,731,133 


49 


38,503,533 


1801-2 


25 


38,479,733 


1 


185,533 


31 


5,740,734 


22 


5,926,267 


57 


44,406,000 


1802-3 


38 


35,058,400 


12 


5,812,266 


20 


2,612,436 


32 


8,424,702 


70 


43,483,102 


1803-4 .. 


44 


31,801,333 


2 


2,132,666 


13 


2,371,600 


15 


4,504,266 


59 


36,305,599 


1801-5 


38 


28,506,667 


3 


3,318,799 


31 


8,546,800 


34 


11,865,599 


72 


40,372,266 


1805-6 


49 


22,810,533 


4 


1,809,466 


37 


11,702,800 


41 


13,512,266 


90 


36,322,799 


1806-7 


58 


32,683,066 


2 


1,534,267 


27 


8,464,133 


29 


9,998,400 


87 


42,681,466 


1807-8 


51 


25,347,733 


2 


1,144,266 


31 


6,408,266 


33 


7,552,532 


84 


32,900,265 


1808-9 


54 


26,335,446 




none. 


6 


1,082,400 


6 


1,082,400 


60 


27,417,846 


1809-10 


40 


26,301,066 




none. 


29 


9,737,066 


29 


9,737,066 


69 


36,038,132 


1810-11 


34 


27,103,066 




none = 


12 


2,884,400 


12 


2,884,400 


46 


30,047,466 



PROGRESS OP THE TEA TRADE. 



69 



In the foregoing account the teas exported for the use of the British settle- 
ments, about 4000 chests per annum, are included. Of the quantities exported 
in ships under American colours, a great portion has been landed in various parts 
of Foreign Europe, more particularly in the years 1804-5 to 1810-10. 
Export of Tea to the Continent of Europe. 



Date. 


Ships. 


Young 
Hyson. 


Hyson. 


Hyson 
Skin. 


Twankay. 


Imperial. 


Gun- 
powder. 


Congou. 


Souchong. 


Year 1846-7, in 15 vessels.. 
Year 1847-8, in 7 vessels.. 


lbs. 

202,422 
27,200 


lbs. 
291,268 
117,300 


lbs. 

149,219 
43,300 


lbs. 
190,773 
124,100 


lbs. 

108,044 
62,000 


lbs. 
63,219 
59,500 


lbs. 

1,905,942 
1,007,300 


lbs. 
641,046 

372,300 


Aug. 
Nov. 
Dec. 14 
Jan. 15 
Feb. 14 


In 1 vessel 

In 2 vessels 

Anne Jane 


6,600 
9*300 


13,700 
10,400 
13,800 
25,600 


7*,400 


5,300 
5*200 


3*000 
5,700 
5,600 


2,600 
11*, 800 


411,600 

126,500 
512,100 


43,900 

38,400 

6,700 

12,300 


V. Johanna 


1,300 


Mar. 13 Isabella 
„ 16 PreussischerAdler 
1 


8*,900 


4,200 
21,200 


32,700 


82,000 


7,300 


6,800 


36,700 
144,700 


17,000 


1 


8,900 


25,400 


32,700 


82,200 


7,300 


6,800 


181,400 1 17,000 


Date. 


Ships. 


Pou- 
ch on g. 


Ouloong. 


Flowery 
Pekoe. 


Scented 
and Plain 
O. Pekoe. 


Caper. 


Total 
Green. 


Total 
Black. 


Total. 


Year 1846-7, in 15 vessels. . 
Year 1847-8, in 7 vessels. . 


lbs. 

23,000 


lbs. 
21,600 
10,300 


lbs. 
677,633 
150,600 


lbs. 

58,300 
25,700 


lbs. 

2,100 

32,100 


lbs. 

1,004,945 

433,400 


lbs. 
3,329,921 

1,618,300 


lbs. 
4,334,866 
2,051,700 


Aug. 
Nov. 
Dec. 14 


In 1 vessel 

In 2 vessels 

Anne Jane 






2,300 
12,500 
55,400 

6,800 






21,600 
20,300 
32,100 
52,300 


43,900 
452,300 

19,200 
194,200 
520,200 


65,500 
472,600 

51,300 
246,500 
520,200 


Feb. 14 


V. Johanna 


Mar. 13 






19,300 
50,000 




13,900 


4,200 
158,900 


56,000 
225,600 


60,200 
384,500 


„ 16 


Preussischer Alder 






1 69,300 




13,900 


163,100 


281,600 


444,700 





Quantity 


of Tea exported from Canton by the Dutch, from 1783 to 1808. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


i Quantity. 


1783 


lbs. 

5,334,000 
4,458,800 
5,943,200 
5,794,900 
4,179,600 
5,106,900 
1,328,500 
2,051,330 
2,938,530 
2,417,200 
4,096,800 


1796 


lbs. 


1784 


1797 




1785 • .. 


1798 




1786 


1799 




1787 


1800 




1788 


1801 




1789 . 


1802 -. 


305,333 


1790 


1803 


1791 


1804 




1792 


1805 




1793 


1806 




1794 


1807 


1,144,266 


1795.. 


1808 






Total,. 




TOTA L 






43,649,760 


1,449,599 
















Exr 




43,649,760 




I 




1,449,599 




Decreased exportation 










42,200,161 



Export of Tea from China to the Netherlands. 



YEARS. 


Quantity 
by Americans. 


Quantity 
by the Dutch. 


YEARS. 


Quantity 
by Americans. 


Quantity 
by the Dutch. 


1818 


lbs. 
3,508,164 
3,496,746 
3,322,638 
721,644 
1,256,442 
1,730,872 


qr. chests. 

90,535 
59,929 
73,372 
17,213 
28,024 
26,192 


1824 


lbs. 

1,409,992 

2,036,760 

528,264 

294,030 

1,111,308 

353,628 


qr. chests. 
13,023 
37,224 

45,768 
28,038 
46,672 
26,392 


1819 


1825 


1820 


1826 


1821 




1822 


1828 


1823 


1829 




Total 


Total 


14,036,506 


295,265 


4,733,982 


197,117 



70 



CHINESE EMPIKE; 



Quantity of Tea Exported from Canton by the Swedes. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


1767.. . , 


lbs. 
3,066,143 
3,186,220 
1,494,509 
3,076,642 
2,984,361 
2,746,800 
1,489,700 
4,088,100 
2,562,500 
3,049,100 
2,851,200 
3,258,000 
2,626,400 
4,108,900 
3,267,300 
4,265,600 
4,878,900 

6,212,400 

1,747,700 


1787 


lbs. 
2,890,900 
2,589,000 

1,591,330 

1,559,730 

756,130 

2,759,800 

1,406,200 

1,408,400 

444,800 

2,022,400 

1,427,067 

2,852,666 




1768 


1788 




1769 


1789 




1770, 


1790 . 




1771 


1791 






1792 






1793 






1794 




1775 


1795 






1796 






1797 






1798 , 






1799 




1780 


1800 




1781 


1S01 




1782 


1802 












1 804 




1785 


1805 




1786 


1806 












60,960,475 




21,208,423 












Exportati 
Dittc 


60,960,475 
21,208,423 


















39,752,052 











During the latter part of the last century there was comparatively a large 
importation of tea into Trieste from Canton, as follows : — 



In 1779 
1780 

1782 
1783 
1792 



lbs. 

1,375,900 
317,700 
933,300 

3,428,400 
393,870 



Quantity of Tea shipped at Canton by the Danes. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


1767 


lbs. 
3,010,286 
1,430,874 
1,449,306 
2.800,482 
2,750,164 
2,999,600 
8,867,300 
3,237,300 
2,833,700 
2,487,300 
2,098,300 
1,388,400 
3,983,600 
2,341,400 
4,118,500 
5,477,200 
3,204,000 
3,158,000 
4,578,100 
2,092,000 


1787...., , 


lbs. 
2,664,000 
2,496,800 
1,773,000 

520,000 


1 768 


1788 


1769 


1789 


1770 


1790 


1771 , 


1791... 


1772 


1792 


852,000 


1773 


1793 „ 


1774 


1794 


24,670 


1775 , 


1795 


1776 


1796 


2,504,400 
1,307,800 
2,910,900 
1,132,266 
963,467 


1777 


1797 


1778 


1798 ... 


1779 


1799 


1780 


1800 


1781 


1801 .; 


185,533 




1802 


1,380,266 


1783 


1803 


1784 „ 


1804 


966,133 


1785 l 


1805 


1,739,S66 


1786 '' 


1806 






Total 




Total ' 


64,305,812 


21,421,101 










Exportati 
Ditt( 


64,305,812 






21,421,101 










42,884,711 







In April 1825 the stock of teas of different kinds on hand in Denmark was 
In 1827 there was a direct supply of 



Total 



484,000 
717,000 



1,201,000 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 



71 



Return of the Quantity of Tea Exported from Canton by the Prussians, at the End of 
the last, and Beginning of the Present, Century. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


Y EARS. 


Quantity. 


1783 


lbs. 
3,329,800 
499,300 
5,070 


1800 


lbs. 

802,400 

1,756,000 

1,073,733 


1787 


1802 


1791 


1803 







In 1829, the Consul-general at Dantzic regrets it is not in his power to get any 
information of the tea trade there, or in Berlin ; that " in fact there is no wholesale 
trade in teas." 

Russian Importation of Tea. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1824 


poods. 
154,197 
133,514 
130,562 

161,958 


roobles. 

6,260,429 
4,807,049 
5,675,992 
6,719,166 




1826 




Total 


580,231 
3,843 


23,462,636 
775,730 


Of which exported during four years 


576,388 


22,686,906 




144,097 

lbs. 

5,187,496 


5,671,726 

£ 

248,346 







In 1832, the imports of tea into Russia amounted to 179,474 poods, or 
6,461,064 lbs., almost entirely black tea. 



Exportation of Tea by the French, from Canton, from 1782 to 1807. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


1783 


lbs. 

4,231,200 

4,960,000 

466,600 

382,260 

1,728,900 


Brought forward.. 
1788 


lbs. 

11,768,690 
292,100 
294,300 
442,100 
784,000 


Brought forward . . 
1792 


lbs. 
13,681,460 




1,540,670 




1789 






1790 


15,122,130 




1791 






Carried forward.. 


353,333 


Carried forward. . 


11,768,960 


13,681,460 





Exports, first period, 1783 to 1792 

„ last period, none except in 1842 



Decrease 



lbs. 
15,122,130 
353,333 

14,768,797 



Tea Imported into France. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 




kilogrammes. 
83,366 
79,144 
83,597 
70,057 
89,030 
146,714 
72,801 




kilogrammes. 
167,714 


1845 


kilogrammes. 






1846 








1847 








1848 








1849 






843...... 

1844 


1850 




1826 







72 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Statement of the Quantities of each Kind of Tea Exported from China to Great Britain, 
in each Year, ending 30th June, from 1841 to 184o. 



KINDS OF TEA. 



IJohea 

Congou 

Caper 

Souchong 

Hung Muez... 

Sorts 

Flowery Pekoe 

Orange 

Twankay 

Hyson Skin.. . 

Hyson 

Young Hyson. 

Imperial 

G'impowder. . . . 

Total.. 



1841 



lbs. 

982,876 
23,666,404 
255,795 
713,834 
232,936 
17,751 
517,813 
741,737 

3,237,045 
294,445 

1,823,697 

1,138,014 
690,609 

1,138,775 



35,451,731 



1842 



lbs. 

250,322 

36,591,470 

285,011 

950,495 

255,850 

85,493 

588,722 

983,943 

3,839,469 

90,580 

1,669,210 

854,854 

385,364 

752,847 



47,583,630 



1S43 



lbs. 
11,193 
38,587,756 

498,065 
1,562,603 

273,827 
56,728 

453,277 
1,104,070 
4,079,147 

575,891 
1,274,123 
1,465,177 

597,678 
1,304,532 



51,844,067 



1S44 



lbs. 

34,242,231 

1,334,326 

1,337,197 

140,565 

392,439 

536,047 

1,792,352 

2,903,804 

274,152 

2,085,706 

2,951,032 

1,203,444 

2,314,771 



51,508,066 



lbs. 

37,460,591 

1,038,321 

1,950,982 

12,923 

912,362 

679,951 

2,587,457 

3,776,290 

229,747 

1,770,216 

3,482,117 

1,123,125 

2.092,446 



58,216,534 



Export of Tea from Canton to Great Britain. 



Date. 


Ships. 


Congou. 


1 
~ ,„, „„ j Scented 
Souchong.! Capen 


Pekoe. 


Scented 
O. Pekoe. 


Sorts. 


Hyson 

Skin. 


Young 
Hysou. 


Year 1843-4, in 97 vessels.. 
Year 1844-5, in 105 vessels.. 
Year 1845-6, in 117 vessels.. 
Year 1846-7, in 106 vessels.. 
Year 1847-8, in 92 vessels*. 


lbs. 
37,735,900 
35,740,400 
37,173,500 
40,176,000 
36,603,200 


lbs. lbs. 
1,315,800 ; 519,900 
1,341,800 i 1,367,300 
1,966,100 i 1,637,800 
1,445,000 | 663,000 
767,600 i 1,027,800 


lbs. 
526,800 
627,900 
681,000 
717,000 
166,400 


lbs. 
2,056,800 
2,832,300 
2,592,700 
1,558,000 
1,408,500 


lbs. 

484,200 
463,600 
924,400 
942,000 
757,100 


lbs. 
549,000 
319,300 
207,000 

48,000 
5,100 


lbs. 
1 ,405,200 
2,969,100 
3,395,600 
2,259,000 
2,164,300 


Tota l from 
to 30th A 
83 vessels!" 

Same period 
83 vessels 

Increase in ] 
Decrease iu 


st July, 1848,") 
pril, 1849, in V 


33,570,500 
35,162,200 


1 : 003,800 1,111,700 

620,300 907,800 


403,500 
137,800 


1,523,700 
1,226,300 


302,500 
754,500 


49,200 
5,100 


2,849,500 


last year, in ) 


1,740,600 


848-9 

1848-9 




1,591,700 


383,500 203,909 


265,700 


297,400 


452,000 


44,100 


1,108,900 



Date. 


Ships. 


Twankay. 


Hyson, 


Imperial. 


Gun- 
powder. 


Total 
Black. 


Total 
Green. 


Total. 


Year 1843-4, 
Year 1844-5, 
Year 1845-6, 
Year 1846-7, 
Year 1847-8, 


in 97 vessels. . 
in 105 vessels.. 
in 117 vessels., 
in 106 vessels. . 
in 92 vessels*. 


lbs. 
3,828,600 
3,200,300 
3,680,300 
1,340,000 
813,200 


lbs. 
1,276,300 
2,112,100 
1,685,100 
1,496,000 
1,088,300 


lbs. 

581,700 

1,229,900 

1,104,000 

670,000 

554,300 


lbs. 
1,273,400 
2,366,200 
2,537,100 
2,051,000 
2,338,500 


lbs. 
41,639,400 
41,373,300 
44,975,500 
45,501,000 
40,730,600 


lbs. 
8,974,200 
12,196,900 
12,609,100 
7,864,000 
6,963,700 


lbs. 
50,613,600 
53,570,200 
57,584,600 
53,365,000 
47,694,300 


Total from 1st July, 1848,") 
to 30th April, 1849, in \ 
83 vessels* J 

Same period last year, in > 
83 vessels J 


118,100 
512,000 


754,600 
761,100 


592,000 
420,600 


3,393^300 

1,745,900 


37,915,700 
38,808,900 


7,756,700 
5,185,400 


45,672,400 
43,994,300 


Increase in 1 
Decrease in 


848-9 

1848-9 


393,900 


6*600 


171,400 


1,647,400 


893,200 


2,571,300 


1,678,100 







* Including 2 vessels lost— Romeo, total pounds, 806,200; Siam, total pounds, 590,100. 

+ Including vessels from Shanghae : — In August, Larpent, Hack 184,200, green 71,600, total 255, SOOlbs. ; England's 
Queen, black 476,500, green 20,500, total 497,000lbs.— In September, Sea Witch, total black 210,0001bs.— In October. 
W. Jardine, black 689,900, green 106,300, total 796,200lbs.— Iu November, Magellan, total black 420,000lbs. ; Bleng 
total black, 272,900lbs. ; Dumfries, black 542,000, green 75,600, total 617,6001bs. ; Queen, black 391,000, green 71,500 
total 462,5001bs. ; Juliet, black 398,900, green 96,700, total 495,600lbs. ; John Dugdale, black 225 600, green 217,100. 
total 442,7001bs. : Nautilus, black 250,400, green 17,000, total 207,4001bs. ; Emily, black 232,400, green 56,600, total 
289,000lbs. ; James Scott, total black 382,200lbs.— In December, Eliza, black 137,300, green 46,000, total 183,3001b; 
Lady Sale, black 314,100, green 74.S00, total 3S8,9001bs. ; Ellen, black 370,900, green, 110,300, total 481,2001bs. ; San- 
dersons, black 425,700, green 46,700, total 472,4001bs. ; Eliza Killick, black 104,500, green 125,700, total 230,200lbs 
Lima, black 359,100, green 30,400, total 389,5001b*.; Chieftain, black 336,900, green 87,600, total 444,5001bs.— In Janu- 
ary, Gitana, total black 246,700lbs. ; John Bunyan, black 339,300, green 167,600, total 506,9001b*.; Confucius, black 
356,500, green 69,200, total 425,700lbs. ; Victory, black. 633.400, green 16,100, total 049,5001bs. ; Constance, black 
226,100, green 230,700, total 456,800lbs.— In March, Jeremiah Garnett, black 443,100, green 71,400, total 514,5001bs. : 
Kecord, total black 501,900lbs.; Duilius, black 213,000, green 73,400, total 316,400lbs. ; Faithful, black 293,100, greew 
32,600, total 235,700lbs. 



PROGRESS OF THE TEA TRADE. 



73 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

We have, under the head of the United States, given full details of the Tea 
Trade of that country down to the end of the year 1844. The following 
statement will bring down the trade to the latest accounts. 

Export of Tea from China to the United States. 



Date. Ships. 


Young 
Hyson. 


Hyson. 


Hyson L, , 
Skin. T ™nkay. 


Imperial. 


Gun- 
powder. 


Souchong & 
Congou. 




lbs. 

9,182,281 
8,633,931 
8,306,985 
8,628,425 


lbs. 
358,915 
905,466 
751,762 
881,362 




lbs. 

674,979 

54,063 

924,414 

973,061 


lbs. 

941,065 

1,253,686 

1,324,380 

1,102,330 


lbs. 
5,264,090 
3,092,122 
3,049,036 
3,035,593 


Year ending June 30, 1845 ,.. 

„ June 30, 1846, in 40 vessels 
„ June 30, 1847, in 37 vessels 
„ June 30, 1848, in 38 vessels 


2,65 
2.58 
1,501,015 
2,856,162 


4,859 
3,936 
1,044,576 
903,690 


Date. Ships. 


Pouchong. 


Pecco. 


Orange 
Pecco. 


Ooloong - . 


Total 
Green. 


Total 
Black, 


Total 
Pounds. 


Year ending June 30, 1845 

„ June 30, 1846, in 40 vessels 
„ June 30, 1847, in 37 vessels 
„ June 30, 1848, in 38 vessels 


lbs. 

1,318,731 

918,315 

436,130 

348,221 


lbs. 
51,906 
22,147 
77,480 

4,200 


lbs. 

19,701 

13,288 

173,350 

85,900 


lbs. 
296,031 
220,294 
5S2,500 
519,703 


lbs. 

13,812,099 
14.236,082 
13,853,132 
15,345,030 


lbs. 
6,950,459 
4,266,166 

4,318,496 
3,993,617 


lbs. 
20,762,558 
18,502,284 
18,171,628 
19,338,640 



Export of Tea to Australia. 



Date. Ships. 


Congou. 


Souchong. 


Scented 
Orange 
Pekoe. 


Scented 
Caper. 


Plain 
Orange 
Pekoe. 


Plain 
Caper. 


Flowery 
Pekoe. 


Sorts. 


Year 1846-7, in 27 vessels 

Year 1847-8, in 17 vessels 


lbs. 

784,000 
472,100 


lbs. 
93,000 
19,200 


lbs. 
2600 


lbs. 

7600 


lbs. 
2000 


lbs. 

1,000 

19,200 


lbs. 
200 


lbs. 

5100 


Date. Ships. 


Hyson 
Skin. 


Twan- 

kay. 


Hyson. 


Young 
Hyson. 


Imperial. 


Gun- 
powder. 


Total 
P-lack. 


Total 
Gz-een. 


Total 
Pounds. 


Year 1846-7, in 27 vessels 

Year 1847-8, in 17 vessels 


lbs. 

2,803,000 
1,592,400 


lbs. 

59,300 
29,400 


lbs. 
30,500 
11,500 


lbs. 
7,600 
2,000 


lbs. 
5,700 
1,300 


lbs. 

17,700 
15,400 


lbs. 
895,500 
510,500 


lbs. I lbs. 
2,923,800 3,819,300 
1,652,000 2,162,500 



Cost of Tea and Silk as Returns from China, including Commission, Shipping Expenses, 
Freight (Tea at 4Z., and Silk at 51. per Ton of 50 Feet), Insurance, Landing 
Charges, Brokerage and Commission on Sale, and allowing for an Average Loss in 
Weight. 









TEA. 














S 


I ] 


L K. 






First Cost 
in Taels 














First Cost 
in Dollars 
per Pecul. 


















Sterling per 


1). at Exchange per 


Dollar. 




Sterling per 


lb. 


it Exchange per Dollar. 


per Pecul. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. 


d. 


s. d. 


s. 


d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 




4 2 




4 4 


4 5 


4 6 


4 9 




4 


2 


4 3 


4 


4 


4 5 


4 6 


4 9 


14 


10 


10* 


10| 


lOf 


10| 


11 


300 


10 


8f 


10 114 


11 


1* 


11 4J 


11 b| 


12 2 


16 


HI 


m 


HI 


llf 


12 


12* 


320 


11 


5* 


11 7| 


11 


10 


12 Of 


12 3£ 


12 11| 


18 


12| 


12f 


12f 


121 


13i 


13! 


340 


12 


1 


12 4± 


12 


7 


12 10 


13 0£ 


13 9* 


19 


12f 


13* 


13f 


134 


13| 


14ft 

15i 


350 


12 


5f 


12 8| 


12 


m 


13 2 


13 5f 


14 2 


20 


13f 


13| 


14 


14| 
15| 


I4| 


360 


12 


9$ 


13 1| 


13 


4 


13 Of 


13 9| 


14 6f 


22 


14f 


15 


15§ 


15f 


lGf 


370 


13 


2 


13 5 


13 


8* 


13 iii 


14 2| 


14 114 


23 


15f 


15# 


16 


16f 


17* 


380 


13 


6 


13 9£ 


14 


0* 


14 4 


14 6| 


15 4 


24 


16 


16* 


ie| 


16| 


17 


18 


390 


13 


10 


14 2 


14 


5 


14 8 


14 11| 


15 8| 


26 


17 


17f 


in 


18s 


16# 


19* 


400 


14 


2* 


14 6 


14 


9* 


15 0i 


15 3f 


16 1| 


28 


18* 


18* 


18| 


19* 


19$ 


20| 


410 


14 


6* 


14 9| 


15 


1* 


15 4± 


15 8 


16 6* 


30 


19* 


19£ 


20| 


20| 


20! 


22 


420 


14 


10± 


15 2f 


15 


H 


15 9i 


16 Of 


16 11 


31 


20 


20| 


20| 


21 


21* 


22i 


430 


15 


3 


15 6| 


15 


10 


16 1| 


16 5| 


17 4 


32 


20| 


21 


21| 


21| 


22£ 


23f 


440 


15 


7 


15 104 


16 


H 


16 6 


16 9| 


17 8£ 


34 


22 


22+ 


22f 


23 


23| 


24£ 


450 


15 


Hf 


16 3 


16 


n 


16 10 


17 2| 


18 1$ 


36 


23 


23| 


23| 


24f 


24f 


26 


460 


16 


U 


16 7| 


16 


11 


17 H 


17 6f 


18 6* 


38 


24| 


24f 


25 


25| 


26 


27| 


470 


16 


8 


17 


17 


3| 


17 7| 


17 Hf 


18 lit 


40 


25jf 


26 


26| 


26| 


27| 


28| 


480 


17 


H 


17 4| 


17 


8 


18 


18 4 


19 3| 



N.B.— The pecul is equal to 133J lbs. English. 720 taels are equal to 1000 dollars. 



74 CHINESE EMPIRE. 



THE OPIUM TRADE. 

Opium is chiefly grown in British India (Benares and Maliva), where it is a 
strict monopoly of the government, and in Persia and Turkey. It is in Europe 
chiefly used as a medicine, and it is said not to have been used in China except 
medicinally. It is said a small quantity was grown in the country, but that 
none was imported. It was imported afterwards by the Portuguese; but the 
whole importation up to 1767-8 did not exceed 100 to at most 200 chests 
annually. It was not imported by the East India Company until 1773-4. In 
1780, small depots for its sale were established a little south of Macao. The 
trade continued to increase from India; and in 1794 large English ships were 
stationed at anchor near Whampoa, for fifteen months, selling opium. The 
importation was prohibited in 1800, when its sale had increased to nearly, if not 
above, 2000 chests. The smuggler then succeeded the legal trader: the former 
soon employed fast sailing armed vessels. It has ever since continued an illicit 
trade, and has not been carried on by the East India Company's vessels since 
its prohibition. The Company have cultivated it as a monopoly, and sold it to 
private traders, knowing well that it was grown and sold for the prohibited China 
market. 

" The trade has long been denounced as a poison, and in many instances where 
the boats have been seized, the crews have had their heads cut off; but the utmost 
severity would appear to have no effect in putting down this trade, in a country 
where there prevail probably the most relaxed private and political morals of any 
country in the world. It is also well known that the revenue-house officers, by 
whom the opium is seized, light a fire upon the top of a hill, declaring the con- 
traband opium to be burnt, while none of it has been put into the fire; so that, 
although the interposition of the revenue officers may be connected with the loss 
of life, it does not lead to the cessation of the trade in opium; for the opium finds 
its way to all parts of the empire, and within the walls of the Imperial Palace at 
Pekin, although the smoking of opium is found to have upon the persons who 
practise it the most demoralising effects; to a certain extent it destroys their 
reason and faculties, and shortens life. A confirmed opium smoker is never fit 
to conduct business, and is generally unfit for the social intercourse of his friends 
or family; he may be known by his inflamed eyes and haggard countenance. 
Formerly the opium trade was carried on at Macoa and Whampoa, but in 1820 
the Chinese authorities commenced vigorous measures against the smugglers at 
Whampoa, and even threatened to search foreign vessels for opium; which, was 
the means of driving the trade outside the port to Lin tin, where the opium ships 
lie at anchor, the commanding officers of those vessels receiving orders from the 
agents of Canton for every chest of opium that is sold." — Report. 



THE OPIUM TRADE. 



75 



Opium exported from Calcutta to China, &c. 



YEARS. 



1795—96 . 

1796—97 • 

1797—98 . 

1798—99 • 
1799— 1800. 

1800—1 . 

1801—2 . 

1802—3 . 

1803—4 . 



Total chests. 



number. 
5183 
5644 
3503 
3342 
3926 
4788 
3467 
3068 
3053 



YEARS. Total Chests. 



1804—5 

1805—6 

1806—7 

1807-8 

1808—9 

!809— 10, 

1810—11 

1811—12 

1812—13 



number. 
3358 
3657 
4384 
4255 
4639 
4246 
4909 
4713 
4832 



YEARS. Total chests. 



1813—14. 
1814—15. 
1815—16. 
1816—17. 
18)7—18. 
1818—19. 
1819—20. 
1820-21. 
1821—22. 



number. 
4272 
3872 
3848 
4325 
3708 
4299 
3091 
5147 
2591 



YEARS. 



1822—23. 
1823—24. 
1824-25. 
1825-26. 
1826—27. 
1827—28. 
1828—29. 
1829—30. 
1830—31. 
1831—32. 



Total chests. 



number. 
4100 
5209 
7076 
5165 
6568 
7903 
6554 
9678 
7069 
7427 



S YEARS 

1832—33........ 

1833—34 

1834-35 

1835—36 

1836—37 

1837—38 

1S38-39 

1839—40 

1840—41 

1841—42........ 



Chests. 



number. 

9,485 
11,930 
11,050 
14,807 
12,734 
19,317 
18,221 
18,510 
17,410 
19,739 



Value. 



rupees. 
11,931,375 
12,300,141 
10,855,669 
18,834,822 
18,346,114 
140,257 
14,600,398 
7,794.282 
11,364,959 
14,598,621 



YEARS. 



1842—43. 
1843—44. 
1844-45. 
1845—46. 
1846—47. 
1847-48. 
1848—49. 
1849-50. 
1850—51. 



Chests. 

number. 
16,670 
17,774 
18,792 



Value. 

number. 

16,705,367 
23,363,437 

24,097,027 







Opium Exported from Bombay to China. 






YEARS. 


Total chests. 


YEARS. 


Total chests. 


YEARS. 


Total chests. 


YEARS. 


Total chests. 


1821 


number. 

2278 
3855 
5535 
6063 
5563 
5565 
4504 
7709 


1829 


number. 

8,099 
12,856 

9,333 
14,007 
11,715 
11,678 
12,933 
11,724 


1837 


number. 

21,073 
10,627 
17,515 
5,292 
15,762 
16,356 
18,321 




number. 


1822 


1830 


1838 






1S23 


1831 


1839 






1824 


1832 


1840 






1825...., 


1833 


1841 


1849 




1826 -. 


1834 


1842 






1827. ...••••.. 


1835 


1843.... 






1828 


1836 


1844 





CHAPTER V. 



CHINESE SEAPORTS — TRADE OF CANTON. 



The trade of Canton with foreign countries consists chiefly of — 

I. That carried on with Great Britain. 

II. That carried on with the British settlements in India. 

III. That with other European powers. The following,, previous to the war 
of 1793, had factories at Canton, but they are at present abandoned; viz., 
France> Holland, Denmark, Ostend, Portugal, Sweden, Spain, and Leghorn. 

IV. The trade with the United States of America. 

V. That carried on in their junks or vessels to the coasts of Siam, Cochin- 
China, Tonquin, Japan, the numerous islands to the eastward, and to Singapore, 
Batavia, &c. 



76 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



STATEMENT OF FORMER IMPORTS INTO CANTON. 

Statement of the Prime Cost of the Merchandise and Treasure in the Years 1781-2 to 
1809-10 inclusive, imported by the East India Company into Canton, specifying the 
Amount of Woollens in each Year ; likewise that of other Merchandise and Bullion, 
together with the Profit or Loss arising from the Sale thereof in each Year. 



YEARS. 


Woollens. 


Other Goods 
and Stores. 


Bullion. 


Total. 


Profit. 


Loss. 


1781-2 ., 

1782-3 

1783-4 

1784-5 

1785-6 

1786-7 

1787-8 

1788-9 

1789-90 

1790-1 

1791-2 

1792-3 

1793-4 

1794-5 

1795-6 

1796-7 

1797-8 

1798-9 

1799-0 

1800-1 

1801-2 

1802-3 

1803-4 

1804-5 

1805-6 

1806-7 

1807-8 

1808-9 


129,179 
94,992 
113,763 
146,741 
224,612 
202,023 
323,107 
335,392 
354,717 
431,385 
484,705 
587,421 
628,582 
642,405 
527,020 
402,827 
402,376 
709,650 
746,130 
801,536 
930,913 
1,027,061 
1,047,753 
915,984 
1,042,795 
1,032,099 
977,796 
877,569 


12,555 

11,133 

6,322 

30,739 

45,492 

43,507 

45,335 

65,806 

115,764 

109,788 

144,464 

160,485 

206,572 

178,192 

167,580 

141,668 

147,785 

158,370 

165,903 

221,738 

225,563 

178,441 

274,060 

235,319 

181,765 

217,245 

223,987 

217,748 


704,259 
694,960 
626,896 
469,409 
714,233 

378.507 

38,494 
201,530 
414,280 
505,076 
141,437 

573,814 
188,782 
202,281 
201,270 


141,734 

106,125 

120,085 

177,480 

974,363 

940,490 

995,338 

870,607 

1,184,714 

541.173 

1,007,676 

747,906 

835,154 

820,597 

733,094 

746,025 

964,441 

1,373,096 

1,053,470 

J, 023,274 

1,156,470 

1,779,316 

1,510,595 

1,353,584 

1,425,830 

1,249,344 

1,201,783 

1,095,317 


14,045 

8,354 

27,854 


3,830 
273 

15,813 
11,928 
1 5,303 
31,407 

22,074 
36,867 
39,913 
13,509 

1,323 

107,425 
62,395 
47,373 
38,421 
44,624 
71,954 
51,715 
87,656 

130,654 
91,722 

158,015 

101,538 

12,233 


Total 


16,140,633 


3,933,226 


6,055,228 


26,129,087 


50,253 1 1,197,965 



Account of the Quantities of Long Ells, Cloths, Camblets, Lead, and Tin imported by 
the East India Company to Canton in the Years 1785 to 1810 inclusive. 



YEARS. 



1785. 
1786. 
1787. 
1788. 
1789. 
1790- 
1791. 
1792. 
1793. 
1794. 
1795. 
1796. 
1797. 



Long Ells. 


Cloths. 


pieces. 


pieces. 


60,000 


4534 


60,738 


3491 


107,000 


3879 


107,050 


4122 


1 12,520 


4608 


127,860 


6393 


150,000 


6456 


161,724 


6542 


177,500 


7088 


200,000 


7193 


174,000 


4462 


124,000 


3196 


143,980 


3144 



Camblets. 


Lead. 


pieces. 


tons. 


332 


2040 


200 


1830 


none 


1720 


740 


1590 


1200 


1610 


1797 


700 


2340 


710 


3760 


925 


5120 


1600 


5000 


400 


4480 


785 


6640 


685 


2086 


200 



Tin. 



tons, 
none 
none 
none 
55 

783 
1200 
1200 
1200 
1230 

580 
1001 
1 025 
1202 



YEARS. 



1798.. 

1799.. 

1800.. 

1801.. 

1802.. 

1803.. 

1804.. 
!1805. 
!l806.. 
[1807. • 

1808.. 
11809.. 
! 1810.. 



Long Ells. 



pieces. 
216,070 
213,060 
240,340 
261,422 
270,620 
279,040 
266,780 
268,240 
272,200 
269,520 
238,840 
208,760 
210,900 



Cloths. Camblets 



pieces. 
7119 

7174 
7130 
7244 
9835 
9822 
9667 
9567 
9954 
9081 
8S27 
5918 
6466 



pieces. 

6,020 
11,300 
11,600 
23,400 
23,230 
20,270 
21,800 
24,010 
22,150 
21,394 
22,570 
20,160 
22,320 



Lead. 



tons. 

900 
1100 
2364 
3150 

999 
1888 

860 

800 
1200 
1683 
1800 
2215 
1200 



Tin. 



tons. 
788 
646 
615 
251 
367 
594 
837 
299 
444 
671 
800 
378 
30 



TRADE OF CANTON. 



77 



Statement of the Prime Cost of Goods shipped from Canton on Account of the East 
India Company, in the Years 1793-4 to 1809-10 inclusive ; the Customs payable 
thereon in England ; the Freight and Demurrage ; the Charges of Merchandise, cal- 
culated at the Rate of Five per Cent on the Sale Amount ; the Total of Prime Cost 
and Charges ; the Sale Amount of Goods ; and the Profit arising from the Trade in 
each Year during the above Period. 



YEARS. 


Prime Cost 
and Charges. 


Customs. 


Freight and 
Demurrage. 


Charges of 
Merchandise. 


Total Cost and 
Charges. 


Amount Sales. 


Profit on the 
Trade. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1793-4 .. 


1,336,739 


41,284 


418,028 


125,723 


1,921,780 


2,514,594 


592,814 


1794-5 •• 


1,595,493 


27,322 


372,346 


143,072 


2,138,233 


2,861,424 


723,189 


1795-G .. 


1,408,087 


25,802 


472,487 


148,636 


2,055,012 


2,972,664 


917,652 


1796-7 .. 


1,285,765 


20,341 


521,074 


133,417 


1,960,597 


2,668,346 


707,749 


1797-8 .. 


1,292,803 


18,589 


601,413 


128,895 


2,041,700 


2,577,890 


536,190 


1798-9 .. 


1,601,606 


43,727 


763,404 


182,614 


2,591,351 


3,652,283 


1,060,932 


1799-0 .. 


1,830,569 


7,439 


786,507 


189,749 


2,814,264 


3,794,982 


980,713 


1800-1 .. 


1,783,254 


7,334 


697,474 


180,819 


2,668,881 


3,616,381 


947,500 


1802-2 .. 


1,669,103 


9,963 


723,510 


176,970 


2,579,546 


3,539,404 


959,858 


1802-3 .. 


1,741,007 


6,822 


719,660 


187,663 


2,655,152 


3,753,252 


1,098,100 


1803-4 .. 


1,771,947 


5,985 


732,112 


181,483 


2,691,527 


3,629,677 


938,150 


ISO 1-5 .. 


1,559,286 


7,962 


618,720 


165,375 


2,351,343 


3,307,495 


956,152 


1805-6 .. 


1,706,225 


7,629 


644,558 


187,035 


2,545,447 


3,740,699 


1,195,252 


1806-7 .. 


1,677,652 


7,484 


659,497 


185,452 


2,530,085 


3,709,046 


1,178,961 


1807-8 .. 


1,688,470 


1,389 


721,437 


192,338 


2,603,634 


3,846,756 


1,243,122 


1808-9 .. 


1,722,000 


7,951 


746,622 


199,414 


2,675,987 


3,988,267 


1,312,280 


1809-10.. 


1,487,060 


18,501 


687,158 


186,154 


2,378,883 


3,723,116 


1,344,233 


Total. 


27,157,066 


265,524 


10,886,017 


2,894,815 


41,203,422 


57,896,274 


16,692,852 



The commercial charges included in the above account of prime costs, 
amounted, during that period, to 719,209/.; these charges include the salaries 
and accommodation of the supercargoes and others employed in the business, 
and the expenses attending the receipt and delivery of the goods imported and 
exported; but they do not include the whole of the emoluments of the super- 
cargoes, they being in part only, and the remainder is made up in England, in 
full of the commission allowed to them on the sale of the goods. The expenses 
during the above period were as follow : — 



YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


1793-3 


£ 
37,813 
41,271 
42,687 
27,434 
46,755 
40,666 


1798-9 


£ 

35,550 
37,886 
43,384 
45,191 
47,628 
45,062 


1804-5 


£ 

49,065 
42,599 
49,236 
41,672 
45,310 


1793-4 


1799-1800 


1805-6 


1794 5 .. .. , 


1800-1 


1806-7 


1795-6 


1801-2 


1807-8 




1802-3 


1808-9 


1797-8!!.! 


1803-4 





amounting to about 1-J- per cent on the amount of the Company's imports and 
exports from Canton. 

The freight and demurrage charged upon the sales comprehend the whole 
amount paid both for the outward and homeward cargoes. The charges are by 
estimate five per cent on the gross amount of the sales, and may be considered 
as a set-off against the Company's general expenses. 

From the foregoing statements it appears that 

The invoice amount of goods imported by the Company into Canton £ 

from England in seventeen years, 1792-3 to 1808-9 inclusive, was.... 16,602,338 

The prime cost of goods exported from Canton to England during the 
same period was , 27,157,066 



The exports from Canton exceeded the imports 10,554,728 

Treasure imported into Canton from England during the same period was 2,466,964 



Balance in favour of Canton in seventeen years. 
being on an average 765,892/. per annum. 



13,021,692 



78 CHINESE EMPIRE. 

It also appears that 

£ 
The prime cost of goods imported into England from Canton on 
account of the East India Company, including commercial charges, 

in seventeen years, 1793-4 to 1809-10 inclusive, was 27,157,066 

That the above goods sold at the Company's sales in London for 57,896,274 



The sale amount exceeded the prime cost during that period 30,739,208 

which may be considered clear gain to the nation, and thus appropriated : — 

£ 

Customs paid from the Company's treasury on the goods 265,524 

Freight and demurrage estimated to have been paid on them 10,886,017 

Charges of merchandise, estimated at five per cent on the sale amount 2,894,815 
Balance remaining to the Company, after paying all costs and charges 16,692,852 

exclusive of several losses which occurred in the Company's shipping on the 
homeward bound voyage, the prime cost of which, including commercial charges, 
amounted to 344,579/. 

The above amount of duties is not the entire revenue derived from the trade 
with China, the greatest part being paid by the purchasers on clearing the goods 
for home consumption. The customs and excise duties received during the same 
period were as follow : — 

£ 
Net duties, after payment of drawbacks, &c, and deducting the above 

265,524/ 2,980,956 

Excise duties on teas, which include the duty on private trade .,... 29,309,643 

forming a total of 32,290,599/., which, added to the above 30,739,208/., forms a 
beneficial total to the nation, of 63,029,807/., on an average of seventeen years, 
3,707,636/. per annum. 

The articles which composed the foregoing amount of sales, 57,896,274/., 
were as follow : — ■ 

£ 
China wrought silks 16,498 



£ 

Teas 55,160,230 

Nankeens 848,425 



China-ware 82,001 

The principal part of the remaining 1,788,863/. consisted of China raw silk ; 

but the exact amount cannot be ascertained, the sales being blended with the 

Bengal raw silk. 

In the four years, 1776 to 1779, the state of the Company's trade with China 

was on an average : — 

£ 

Prime cost, including commercial charges 429,366 per annum. 

Customs paid from the Compaay's treasury on the goods .... 241,937 „ 

Freight and demurrage, estimated to have been paid on them 163,679 „ 

Charges of merchandise, estimated at five per cent on the 

sale amount 59,518 „ 



Forming a total of cost and charges 894,500 „ 

The amount of the sales were 1,113,024 „ 

Leaving a balance to the Company, after paying all charges, of 218,524 „ 

which, compared with the account of the four years, 1806 to 1809, will show the 

vast increase in this trade. 



TRADE OF CANTON. 79 

The following articles formed the investments of the Commanders and Officers 
of the Honourable Company's ships from England : — 

Lead. — Considerable quantities of this article used to be imported in private 
trade, and sold at 5 J to 6 Spanish dollars per pecul; but some lead mines have 
been recently discovered in the province of Houquang, which have proved 
extremely productive, and from whence the tea country has been partly supplied, 
on more moderate terms than the English lead can be effected at from Canton. 

Skins. — Large quantities were formerly brought out ; but of late years the 
demand has much abated. 

Sea-otter skins should be large and good, and when perfect, sell at 4 to 6 
dollars each. 

Beaver skins from 36 to 40 inches by 24 to 30 inches, when perfect, from 
4 to 5 dollars each. 

Rabbit skins, of large sizes, and in good order, from 25 to 30 Spanish dollars 
per 100. 

Seal skins, when large and good, from 100 to 120 Spanish dollars per 100. 

Ginseng. — Previous to the independence of America, large quantities used to 
be carried to China by the commanders and officers, and generally sold well ; 
since that period, the market has been mostly supplied by the American ships : 
the price fluctuates much, from 40 to 80 Spanish dollars per pecul. 

Smalts. — This article forms a part of almost every commander's investment; 
the best quality FFC, sells at 60 to 90 dollars a pecul ; EC, or 2nd sort, from 25 
to 40 dollars per pecul. 

Prussian Blue. — This should not cost more than 5s. 6d. per lb., nor less than 
35. The price varies; taking one kind with the other, from 100 to 150 Spanish 
dollars per pecul. 

Scarlet Cuttings.—- -These are generally in demand, more particularly the finer 
sorts, and are from 100 to 120 Spanish dollars per pecul. The Chinese have a 
mode of extracting the colour from them. 

Cochineal.-— ~Fov this market the grey sort is equally esteemed as the large 
black grain. A small quantity will overstock the market. The price fluctuates 
from4 00 to 1200 dollars per pecul. 

Window Glass. — This article sometimes sold to advantage ; but the Company 
having recently imported it, the price has fallen considerably. The Company's 
cost, including the package, 34J tales per chest of 200 square feet, and they 
could not obtain more than 21 J tales per chest. 

Camblets. — This article the Company reserve to themselves, and a heavy 
penalty is attached to any individual who may bring them out : notwithstanding 
which, they are sometimes illicitly imported; but the price obtained has seldom 
left a profit, more particularly when they have been brought in foreign vessels, 



80 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



which they sometimes are to the extent of 6000 or 7000 pieces; they have then 
fallen to 20 dollars per piece. 

Clocks. — Some years ago immense quantities of clocks, and other valuable 
pieces of mechanism, were annually imported into Canton; and when they 
pleased the fancy of the hoppo, or officer who measured the ship on her arrival, 
sold at a great profit, and the security merchants were under the necessity of 
making him a present of them. This exaction became so great an evil, that 
representations were sent to Europe, requesting that no more such valuable com- 
modities should be sent; in consequence of which, the Court of Directors have 
prohibited any commander or officer from carrying out any clock, or other piece 
of mechanism, the value of which shall exceed 100/. 

Watches. — The quantity which were formerly sent to China was very great, 
varying in price from 40s. a pair, to the most costly that were made. They 
must be in pairs, to suit the taste of the Chinese. 

A few other articles are sometimes brought, viz., cutlery, hardware, looking- 
glasses, coral, &c; but the demand is very limited, as the Chinese manufacture 
the inferior kinds nearly equal to the English. 

The amount of the above enumerated goods it is difficult to ascertain ; it is 
presumed not more than from 5000 to 7000/. in each ship. The remainder of 
the imports consists of Spanish dollars, and may probably be to a similar extent; 
which, allowing sixteen ships on an average in a season 14,000/. each, makes an 
aggregate of imports of 224,000/. per annum. 

The commanders and officers were allowed to ship goods, under certain re- 
strictions, in the tonnage allowed them by the Company, which is, according to 
their respective ranks, as follow: — 



Officers. 


Tons. 


Officers. 


Tons. 


Officers. 


Tons. 




number. 
38 

8 
G 
3 




number. 
3 
6 
3 
2 


Fifth officer 


number. 
1 








1 










Third officer 


Fourth officer 


Carpenter 


1 



Besides which, it is customary to allow the commanders and officers an addi- 
tional quantity of thirty tons as extra indulgence, to be stowed in parts of the 
ship wherein the Company's cargo is not permitted to be stowed, and provided 
the commander has not refused any part of the goods intended to be shipped on 
the Company's account. 

Teas form the principal part of the private trade ; the remainder consists of 
nankeens, China-ware, drugs of various kinds, &c. The following are the quan- 
tities of tea allowed to be imported on each ship from China, and on them a pay- 
ment of 7 per cent on the sale value of a small portion, and 17 per cent on the 
remainder of the stipulated allowance. 



TRADE OF CANTON. 



81 



Officers. 



Coiainauder .. 
Chief officer . . 
Second officer, 
Third officer.. 

Purser 

Surgeon 



7 percent. 



lbs. 

688 
90 
72 
54 
54 
90 



17 per cent. 



lbs. 

8048 

1138 
912 
682 
682 

1138 



Total. 



lbs. 

9330 
1228 
984 
736 
736 
1228 



Officers. 



Surgeon's mate. 
Fourth officer... 

Fifth officer 

Boatswain 

Gunner 

Carpenter 



7 per cent. 


17 per cent. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


54 


682 


36 


456 


18 


228 


18 


228 


18 


228 


18 


228 



Tot a L. 



lbs. 
736 
492 
240 
240 
240 
240 



On every excess of the before-mentioned quantities of tea, a mulct of 20 per 
cent on the sale value was charged, over and above the 17 per cent duty. No 
mitigation of the mulct was ever made. The Company's charge on all goods im- 
ported from China in private trade, except tea, China-ware, and lackered ware, 
was 7 per cent. China-ware and lackered ware pay 9 per cent. The charges made 
on tea imported in private trade are estimated to amount to near 6000/. per annum. 

The amount of private trade from China sold at the India Company's sales 
in England, in the years 1793-4 to 1809-10 inclusive, was as follows: 



YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


1793 — 4 


258,981 
209,715 
321,107 
220,594 
264,994 
300,236 


1799—1800 


219,033 
268,701 
312,081 
469,731 
366,208 
352,778 


1805—6 


£ 
331 070 


1794 5 


J 800 1 


1806- 7 


267,507 

238,122 
476,021 
353,418 


1795 6 


1801—2 


1807—8 


1796 7 


1802—3 

1803—4 


1808 9 


1797_8 


1809—10 


1798 9 


1804—5 











forming a total in seventeen years of 5,230,897/., of which 4,216,773/. consisted 

of teas; 309,7 30/. of nankeens, 28,711/- of China-ware, and the remainder 

675,683/. of various kinds of drugs, &c. Musk, camphire, and arrack are not 

permitted to be brought to England in ships from China. 

The East India Company received into their treasuries at Canton, and the 

different presidencies in India, any part of the produce of the outward adventure 

of their commanders and officers, not exceeding 5000/., for which certificates 

were granted them on the Court of Directors at the usual rates of exchange, 

divided in certain proportions, according to their rank, payable a moiety in ninety 

days, and a moiety in three hundred and sixty-five days after sight. 

Statement of the different Articles imported into and exported from Canton in the 
Year 1810-11, in the Ships belonging to the East India Company, including those 
which arrived from India, as well as those direct from England. 







IMPORTS. 






ARTICLES. 




Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 






number. 

1,907 

10,254 

173 

12 

1,796 

119 

23 

116,580 

3 

36,523 

10,588 

107,039 

11,346 

36,671 

14,259 

1,899 

215 

310 

70 

46,850 

6,911 


Sandal wood 


....peculs 
do. 


number. 

4,691 




do. 


1,249 
238 




do. 




do. 




do. 


Wax 


do. 


422 




do. 


Clocks 




30 


Worleys 


do. 






480 




do. 


900 






Cutbear 


....peculs 
do. 


98 




...peculs 
do. 


352 




Coral 


do. 


8 


Tin 


do. 

do. 

do. 




do. 


1,354 

2,220 

2,270 

44 












do. 




do. 




do. 




do. 






228 




do. 


Birds' nests — 


--..peculs 
do. 


14 




do. 


36 


Window glass 

Cuttings 


do. 

do. 

. . ..pieces 
...peculs 




do. 


1,781 


Flannel duroys 

White lead 


bales 


3,612 

438 


Putchock 


Red lead 


do. 


69 



VOL. V. 



82 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



EXPORTS. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 






number. 

160,165 

43,558 

2,692 

715 

46 

125 

121 

1,224 

8 

33 






number. 
35 




do. 




do. 


88 


Nankeens 


do. 

do. 


Gamboge 


do. 

do. 


41 
3 




do. 




do. 


6 




do. 




do. 


40 




., do. 


Nutmegs 


do. 

do. 


27 




do. 


16 




do. 

do. 




do. 


33 


Silk piece-goods 


Aniseeds 


do. 


14 



It appears from papers laid upon the table of the House of Commons, that 
the amount of monies received into the treasury at Canton from the British 
settlements in India, on account of the Company, in the years 1792-3 to 
1808-9 inclusive, amounted in cash to 700,440/. ; the produce of cotton, sandal- 
wood, &c, 1,000,166/. ; and of freight, 107,470/. ; forming a total during that 
period of 1,808,076/. ; about 100,000/. per annum. 

Statement of the Merchandise and Treasure imported into Canton from the British 
Settlements in India, in the Years 1802 to 1806 inclusive ; likewise of the Mer- 
chandise and Treasure exported from Canton to the British Settlements during the 
same Period 3 together with a List of Articles of which the Imports and Exports con- 
sisted in 1805. 



YEARS. 


IMPORTS INTO CANTON. 


YEARS. 


EXPORTS FROM CANTON. 


Merchandise. 


Treasure. 


Total. 


Merchandise. 


Treasure. 


Total. 


1802 


sicca rupees. 

106,84,864 
104,82,726 
166,13,575 
150,60,577 
128,94,989 


sicca rupees. 
70,093 
99,378 
10,497 

6l',503 


sicca rupees. 

107,54,957 
105,82,104 
166,24,072 
150,60,577 
129,56,492 


1802.. 


sicca rupees. 

59,26,809 
29,02,592 
75,13,858 
44,94,674 
58,13,961 


sicca rupees. 
32,88,435 
17,52,566 
84,73,577 
81,81,845 
52,98,580 


sicca rupees. 
92,15,244 
46,55,158 


1803 


1803 


1804 


1804 


159,87,435 


1805 .... 


1805 


126,76,519 


1806. „, 


1806 


111,12,541 




Total 




Total.... 


657,36,731 


2,41,471 


659,78,202 


266,51,894 


269,95,003 


536,46,897 



ARTICLES OF IMPORT IN 1805. 


Amount. 


ARTICLES OF EXPORT IN 1805. 


Amount. 




sicca rupees. 

94,52,619 

32,94,570 

4,70,561 

4,22,987 

2,87,144 

2,74,674 

2,51,223 

1,55,500 

6,896 

23,370 

9,000 

22,707 

73,321 

26,743 

5,283 

54,313 

61,321 

29,400 

63,495 
7,800 

40,218 
9,049 
4,594 
9,092 

13,162 




sicca rupees. 
5,99,142 






9,57,048 
5,92,431 






Pearls 




3,61,703 






3,01,398 


Sandalwood 




2,07,743 






2,00,295 


Grain 




1,10,637 


Canvas and gunnies 




87,099 


Myrrh 


Beads . 


18,150 






49,313 




Pepper 

Tin 


65,839 




34,434 




1 12,724 
11,758 


Cutch 








11,865 

8,303 

65,502 














72,670 


Rice 




21,780 


Coral 




45,256 


Saltpetre 




1,17,721 


Wine and liquors 




36,606 


Glass-ware , 




37,374 


Broadcloth , 




25,423 






16,100 






13,670 






14,866 
26,244 


Imports in 1805 


150,60,577 






24,015 






1,46,337 






81,81,845 




Exports in 1845 






126,76,519 



TRADE OF CANTON. 



83 



From the foregoing statement it appears that 

The value of the merchandise imported into Canton from the British settlements. 

in the years 1802 to 1806 inclusive, was 

Ditto exported from ditto to ditto ,.., 



Sicca Rupees. 
657,36,371 
266,51,894 

390,84,837 



Imports exceed the exports , 

Treasure imported into Canton during the same period. ..sicca rupees 2,41,471 

Ditto exported from ditto 269,95,003 

267,53,582 



Balance against Canton in five years 658,38,369 

which at the then value of 2s. 6d. sterling per rupee, is 8,229,796/. 2s. 6d. on an 
average 1,645,959/. 4s. 6d. per annum, being in favour of the British settlements 
in the following proportions : — 

Sicca Rupees. £ s. d. 

Bengal 308,76,490 or 3,859,561 5 

Fort St. George and its dependencies 29,84,458 „ 373,057 5 

Bombay and Surat 319,77,421 „ 3,997,177 12 6 

The principal articles of import from the British settlements were then, as 
now, cotton and opium. The cotton required for the Canton market was, pre- 
vious to 1802, entirely in the hands of the Bombay merchants; in that year 
about 8000 bales were sent from Bengal, and obtained a preference over that of 
Bombay, being superior both in quality and cleanliness. In the year 1804 the 
quantity was increased to upwards of 46,000 bales; it has since experienced some 
diminution, but this interference threatens ultimately to affect the trade of 
Bombay with China in a very material degree. 

Statement of the different Articles imported into Canton from the British Settlements 
in Country Ships, in the Year 1810-1 1, likewise of the different Articles exported from 
Canton to the British Settlements, taken from the Linguist's accounts. 







IMPORTS. 






ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 






number. 

103,527 

3,944 

2,099 

933 

372 

106 

420,810 

8 

3,225 

3 

2,127 

4 

1,047 

15 1 


Pepper 

Rattans 

Snuff 


peculs 

do. 

do. 


number. 
3,917 
116 
10 


Sandal-wood 


do. 

do. 




do. 


Wax 


do. 


311 




do 




do. 


17 

45 




do. 




.do. 






Coral 


do. 

Jo. 


3 






476 


Tin 


do 






34 




do. 

do 




do. 


80 






,do 






do. 


R attan mats 

Pearl shells 


do. 

peculs 

in number 


920 




do. 


1,686 

11,500 




f\n 









EXPORTS. 



ARTICLES. 



Soft sugar 

Sugar-candy. . . 

Rhubarb 

Tutenague 

Cassia 

China-ware ... 

Carnphire 

Alum 

Glass beads . . . 

Green tea 

Black tea 

Writing paper. 



.peculs 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 
....do. 



Quantity. 



number. 

17,327 

14,496 

38 

6,898 

3,019 

5,217 

1,686 

8,789 

2,134 

4,419 

1,206 

55 



ARTICLES. 



Vermillion peculs 

Raw silk do. 

Silk piece-goods do. 

Copper leaf do. 

Nankeen clotb. do. 

Sweetmeats do. 

Hats • • pieces 

Hams peculs 

Nutmegs, do. 

Lackered ware do. 

Grass cloth do. 

Looking-glasses do. 



Quantity. 



number. 

9 

548 

255 

258 

1144 

786 

3663 

139 

8 

166 

10 



G 2 



84 



CHINESE EMPIRE, 



Return of the Value of the Foreign Export and Import Trade of the Port of Canton, in 
each Year, from 1813-14 to 1830-31, distinguishing the Trade carried on by each of 
the different Nations, from that under the British Flag ; distinguishing also the Trade 
carried on by the East India Company, from that carried on by Private India Ships ; 
also the Tonnage employed by each Nation, in each Year, for the same Period, as far as 
the same can be ascertained. 





AMERICAN TRADE. 


NETHERLANDS TRADE. 


SPANISH 
TRADE. 


YEARS. 


Tonnage. 


Val 


ue. 


Total 
Value. 


Tonnage. 


Value. 


Total 
Value. 


Total 




Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


stated. 




tons. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


tons. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


1813-14.. 
1814-15.. 


i 2,854 


451,500 


572,000 


1,023,500 












1815-16.. 


10,208 


2,527,500 


4,220,000 


6,747,500 


Two ships, neither tonnage nor value stated. 




1816-17.. 


13,096 


5,609,600 


5,703,000 


11,312,600 










1,500,000 


1817-18.. 


14,324 


7,076,828 


6,777,000 


13,853,228 












1,500,000 


1818-19.. 


16,022 


10,017,151 


9,041,755 


19,058,906 






.. 






1,500,000 


1819-20.. 


13,641 


8,158,961 


8,182,016 


16,340,977 






.. 






1,500,000 


1820-21.. 


8,663 


4,035,000 


4,088,000 


8,123,000 












1,500,000 


1821-22.. 


14,703 


8,199,741 


7,058,741 


15,258,482 












1,500,000 


1822-23 . 


11,297 


8.339,398 


7,523,492 


15,862,890 












700,000 


1823-24.. 


13,635 


6,313,126 


5,677,149 


11,990,275 












700,000 


1824-25.. 


14,452 


8,962,045 


8,501,121 


17,463,166 


Articles stated, but neither tonnage 


nor value. 


700,000 


1825-26.. 


16,431 


7,756,031 


8,752,562 


16,508,593 


ditto ditto ditto 


ditto 


600,000 


1826-27.. 


7,034 


3,843,717 


4,363,788 


8,207,505 


2,948 | Articles stated, but n 


ot value. 


670,000 


1827-28.. 


8,597 


6,238,788 


6,559,925 


12,798,713 


Articles stated, but neither tonnage 


nor value. 


500,000 


1828-29.. 


8,613 


3,373,565 


4,552,200 


7,925,765 


ditto ditto ditto 


ditto 


500,000 


1829-30.. 


Not stated. 


3,917,632 


4,108,611 


8,026,243 


.. 1 .. 1 




500,000 


1830-31.. 










Not stated.! 350,406 I 392,287 


742,693 











B R I T I 


S H 


r r a 


D E. 










Tra.de of the East India Company. 


Trade by Private India Ship. 


Total 
Tonnage. 




YEARS. 


Tonnage. 


Value. 


Total 

Value. 


Tonnage. 


Value. 


Total 
Value. 


Total 
Value. 




Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


^Exports. 






tons. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


tons. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


dollars. 


tons. 


dollars. 


1813-14.. 


21,470 


5,646,000 


7,904,700 


13,550,700 


10,668 


6,035,128 


3,861,916 


9,897,044 


32,138 


23,447,744 


1814-15.. 


23,338 


5,039,070 


8,199,908 


13,238,978 


14,659 


7,302,754 


4,954,112 


12,256,857 


37,997 


25,495,835 


1815-16.. 


28,658 


10,045,429 


9,297,358 


19,342,787 


11,906 


6,991,681 


4,337,016 


11,328,697 


40,564 


30,671,484 


1816-17.. 


26,874 


4,465,012 


8,835,592 


13,300,604 


20,172 


7,682,500 


6,765,269 


14,447,769 


47,046 


27,748,373 


1817-18.. 


18,251 


0,177,404 


5,877,270 


12,054,674 


27,008 


11,081,600 


5,562,100 


16,643,700 


45,259 


28,698,374 


1818-19.. 


19,770 


4,262,421 


5,862,295 


10,124,716 


21,511 


11,999,272 


6,814,874 


18,814,146 


41,281 


28,938,862 


1819-20.. 


26,296 


6,332,808 


7,947,454 


14,280,262 


13,873 


9,459,932 


6,134,692 


15,594,624 


40,169 


29,874,886 


1820-21.. 


27,068 


6,242,329 


8,503,079 


14,745,408 


14,987 


10,127,718 


5,576,494 


15,704,212 


42,055 


30,449,620 


1821-22.. 


23,665 


5,771,200 


7,854,142 


13,625,342 


21,872 


9,170,294 


6,170,033 


15,340,327 


45,537 


28.965,669 


1822-23.. 


24,791 


3,978,938 


8,121,683 


11,800,621 


18,011 


13,268,249 


4,397,701 


17,665,950 


42,802 


29,466,571 


1823-24.. 


26,979 


6,072,600 


7,662,704 


14,735,304 


13,439 


11,073,010 


6,633,599 


17,706,609 


40,418 


32,441,913 


1824-25.. 


26,169 


4,227,708 


7,966,671 


12,194,379 


20,074 


11,024,559 


5,799,009 


16,823,568 


46,243 


29,017,947 


1825-26.. 


26,264 


5,018,925 


7,391,975 


12,410,900 


21,748 


15,700,878 


9,605,089 


25,305,967 


48,012 


37,716,867 


1826-27-. 


37,256 


4,695,100 


10,052,012 


14,747,112 


26,424 


15,709,232 


8,326,252 


24,035,484 


63,680 


38,782,596 


1827-28 . . 


30,718 


4,522,950 


8,863,066 


13,386,016 


28,249 


15,845,643 


9,656,767 


25,502,410 


58,967 


38,888,426 


1828-29.. 


27,676 


4,316,250 


7,980,171 


12,296,421 


28,282 


16,373,228 


10,957,814 


27,331,042 


55,958 


39,627,463 


1829-30. . 


28,363 


3,754,671 


7,910,804 


11,665,475 




18,447,147 


12,921,153 


31,368,300 




43,033,775 


1830-31.. 


27,502 


4,007,046 


7,994,842 


12,001,888 








1 







Note.— There are no further particulars given of the Spanish trade than what are stated above. 
The statements made up in China of the trade of individuals commence with the year 1817-18, the preceding four 
years are made up from the Indian statements of external commerce. 

The amount of the trade of individuals with China, above stated, includes the trade carried on by the commauders 
and officers of the Company's ships. 

The tonnage employed in the trade of individuals with China is taken from the Indian statements of external 
commerce, which at present have not been received later than the year 1828-29. 

The diaries of the East India Company's factory at Canton contain the following particulars respecting the foreign 
European trade with China, in addition to what is stated above : — 
In 1815-16 two Swedish ships are stated to have been in China, the articles of import and export are given, but 

neither the tonnage nor value. 
In 1826-27 one Danish and two French ships are stated to have been in China, but no particulars whatever are given 

respecting these ships. 
In 1828-29 one Prussian, one Danish, three French, twenty-three 

Spanish, and eighteen Portuguese ships 
In 1829-30 four French, eleven Dutch, seven Danish, one Prus- 
sian, thirty-one Spanish, and twenty-two Portuguese ships 
In 1830-31 one Danish, one Sardinian, twenty-six Spanish, and 

fifteen Portuguese ships 

And also five French ships, the tonnage of which is stated at 2014 tons, and one of which exported a cargo to the 
value of 20,000 dollar-, but no further particulars are given. 



Do. Do. Do. 

Do. The value of the Spanish trade is stated above. 
Do. 



Do 



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TKADE OE CANTON. 



89 



Statement of the Quantities and Value of Articles Imported in British Vessels into the 
Port of Canton, in each of the Years 1846 and 1847. 



ARTICLES. 



1846. 



British Manufactures and Staple Articles 

Manufactures of Wool. 
Broadcloth, Spanish stripes, habit and medium 

cloth chang; 

Narrow woollens, not described do 

Long ells do. 

Camlets do 

Bombazettes , do 

Buntings do 

Blankets pairs 

Woollens not enumerated changs 

Manufactures of Cotton. 

Long cloth, white pieces 

,, grey aud twilled do. 

Cambrics and muslins do. 

Chintzes and Prints do. 

Handkerchiefs dozen 

Gingham pulicates, dyed cotton, velvets, velve- 
teens, silk and cotton mixtures, woollen and cot- 
ton mixtures, and all kinds of fancy goods pieces 

Cotton yarn and thread piculs 

Miscellaneous Articles, Raw and Manufactured. 
Clocks aud watches, telescopes, writing-desks and 
dressing-cases, hardware, ironmongery and cut- 
lery, perfumery, &c piculs 

Earthenware of all kinds do. 

Flints do. 

Glass and glass ware do. 

Iron in bars, rods, hoops, &c do. 

Steel , ra w do. 

Lead, pig do. 

Tin plates boxes 

Smalts o piculs 

Wine, beer, spirits, &c do. 

Products of India and other Countries. 

Betel nuts piculs 

Bicuo de mer do. 

Birds' nests catties 

Cioves piculs 

Cotton, Bombay 425,496 do. ") 

., Bengal 43,642 do. ( 

,, Madras 70,915 do. C 

Miscellaneous 5,385 do. J 

Cochineal catties 

Cow bezoar » do. 

Elephants' teeth do. 

Fish-maws piculs 

Ginseng do. 

Gum, olibanum do. 

,, other kinds do. 

Horns, buffalo and bullock do. 

,, unicorn and rhinoceros do 

Mother-of-pearl shells do. 

Tin in blocks do 

Pepper do. 

Putchuck do. 

Rattans do 



Rice. 



.do 



Rose malloes catties 

Saltpetre do 

Sharks' fins > piculs 

Skins and furs ; viz., ox hides, land otter, hare 

rabbit, beaver, aud racoon skins number 

Soap, common piculs 

Seahorse teeth catties 

Wood, sandal picul; 

,, sapan do. 

Miscellaneous Imports. 
And articles not enumerated in the tariff, including 
— ajar-agar, alum, agates, amber, assafcetida, black 
lead, blue stone, books, canes, carpets, cloves, 
coals, cochineal, coral (rough), and coral beads, 
corks, cudbear, cornelian stones and beads, 
cutch, furniture, gambier, glass (broken), goat 
skins, gold and silver thread, guano, nutmegs, 
paint, paper and stationery, pearls and precious 
stones, provisions and stores, raisins, rosewood, 
snuff, timber, tobacco, wearing apparel, and a 
number of small articles belonging to the trade 

of India 

Total of merchandise 

Specie 



Total J d ° n ^ 



Quantities 



113,936 
305,603 
81,978 
71,013 
20,910 
5,723 
5,297 



102,631 

588,735 

550 

14,219 

8,672 



16,911 
23,941 



6,690 

10,898 

299 

730 

2,240 

115 



13,911 
165 

89 



545,438 



52 

13,194 

1,3C5 

2,529 
5,178 

113 
10 

156 

959 

7,415 

7,352 

28,015 

5,297 

6,893 

12,998 
51 

1,353 
15,637 

1,565 



Estimated 
Value. 



684,661 

406723 

109,567 

122,452 

31,560 

8,025 

15,960 

7,586 

280,243 

1,554,285 

1,580 

42,750 

17,549 



65,940 
792,876 



20,786 
1,256 
2,425 
5,965 

39,156 
1,382 
3,572 

13,212 
5,171 
8,300 

42,124 
5,815 
2,253 



4,925,018 



482 
12,965 
58,425 

14,212 
20,745 

2,640 
484 

1,280 

4,852 
65,435 
25,648 
49,228 

2,480 

126,236 

25,837 

442 

482 

157,831 

2,937 



9,997,583 
216,800 



Quantities. 



140,323 

40,782 

369,166 

135,524 

19,348 

3,614 

1,084 

22,066 

125,477 

440,871 

124 

9,414 

14,248 



27,745 



3,992 
6,005 



780 
601 
111 



2,174 
667 



470,578 



12,810 



12,786 
1,239 



240 

144 
39 
5,265 
1,520 
7,423 
5,910 
4,249 

4,998 

14,673 

155 

19,197 
680 



Estimated 
Value. 



dollars. 



774,468 

54,742 

491,225 

236,176 

30,254 

4,605 

3,316 

32,560 

375,467 

1,210,250 

382 

23,853 

35,226 



25,118 
830,756 



10,256 

1,622 

5,580 

25,624 

4,657 

4,582 
4,546 
12,824 

8,164 
23,964 

7,408 



15,681 
56,475 

3,022 
3,970 
5,228 

738 
692 
32,664 
9,632 
25,718 
11,672 
3,067 

119,245 

28,952 
1,492 

193,426 
2,675 



165,260 



10,214,383 
2,213,116 



9,625,760 
2,085,581 



90 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Statement of the Quantities and Value of the various Articles Exported in British 
Vessels from the Port of Canton, in each of the Years 1846 and 1847. 



ARTICLES. 



Raw Produce. 

Alum -.. piculs 

Anise seed do. 

Arsenic do. 

Canes mille 

Capoor cutchery piculs 

Cassia lignea do. 

„ Buds do. 

China root do. 

Hartell or orpiment do. 

Quicksilver do. 

Rhubarb do. 

Silk ;- 

Raw Nankin 1,548 do. 

„ Canton 1,022 do. 

Organzine do. 

Coarse or refuse do. 



Sugar, raw 

Tea, viz. : — 

Congou 

Souchong- 

Flowery pekoe 

Orange 

Caper 

Miscellaneous.. 

Hyson 

Skin .. 

Young hyson .. 

Imperial 

Gunpowder.. .. 

Twankay 

Tobacco 



247,176 
7,032 
4,092 

11,157 

2,047 

1,8'20 

3,042 

102 

12,141 
3,162 
9,087 
6,122 



1846. 



Quantities. 



Manufactured Articles. 

Bangles or glass armlets boxes 

Bamboo ware I piculs 

Brass leaf boxes 

Bone and horn ware catties 

China ware „. = ... .picula 

Crockery, common « . \ do. 

Copper, tin, and pewter Avare. do. 

Crackers and fireworks i do. 

Fans of all sorts catties 

Furniture and wood ware .piculs 

Glass and glass ware » .... do. 

Glass beads box es 

Grass cloth catties 

Ivory, mother-of-pearl, sandal- wood, and tnrtoisi>- 

shell ware do 

Kittysols boxes 

Lacquered ware piculs 

Mats and matting do. 

Nankeens and cotton cloth do. 

Oil, anise-seed do. 

„ Cassia do. 

Paper of all sorts do. 

Preserves boxes 

Rattan work piculs 

Silk, thread and ribands catties 

Silk manufactures do. 

Silk and cotton mixtures do. 

Soy piculs 

Sugar candy V do. 

Trunks of leather and wood neots 

Vermillion boxes 

Miscellaneous Exports. 
And articles not enumerated in the tariff, including 
arsenic, bees'-wax, camphor, capoor cutchery. 
curiosities and faucy articles, drums, ready-made 
clothes, dragon's blood, artificial flowers, hats 
and caps, glue, galangal root, incense, sticks. 
China indigo, galls, gamboge, hemp, China ink, 
lanterns, lamps, lamp oil, lead, white and red, 
mace, marble slabs, mirrors, musk, oil paintings 
pictures on rice paper, imitation pearls, women's 
shoes, silversmith's works, smalts, tinfoil, tu 
meric, silk umbrellas, &c, &c. 

Total (dollars 



number. 

2,334 

96 

*"*35 

1*2,461 
259 
165 
482 
306 
850 

2,570 

4,084 
277,814 



306, 



75 



69 

79 

22?. 

309 

2,511 

" *312 

632 

5,326 

397 

365 

1,548 

2,873 

937 

1,246 

279 

3,652 

214 

120 

110 

2,452 

6,824 

249 

7,922 

54,727 

37,382 

408 

38,584 

356 

792 



Value. 



dollars. 

4,486 
1,006 

* 1,590 

125,682 

4,612 

465 

5,812 

37,244 

36,208 

956,726 

387,560 
1,416,237 



11,112,627 



4,497 

1,208 

6,743 

382 

49,743 
1,260 

12,160 
4,752 
5,562 
7,940 
7,308 

30,967 



4,724 
14,308 
11,653 
25,632 
10,956 
16,542 
26,460 
32,762 
27,926 

5,930 

39,736 

292,653 

93,112 

4,120 
306,742 

7,830 
40,822 



186,760 



Quantities. 



15,378,560 
3,332,021 



number. 

10,390 
336 
459 
225 
315 
5,920 

32S 

787 

399 

1,261 

4,022 

489 

3,876 

90,428 



336,496 



198 

62 

590 

576 

1,362 

430 

1,290 

4,662 

12 

359 
1,754 
2,769 

1,588 

2,116 

383 

3,271 

337 

12 

13 

3,926 

6,065 

288 

46 

51,053 

36,019 

180 

26,408 

358 

1,566 



Value. 



dollars. 

19,768 
3,574 
5,426 
2,645 
2,506 

65,432 

964 
9,652 
48,226 
49,654 

1,405,712 

234,206 
367,752 
452,140 



11,844,232 



11,782 

1,010 

28,560 

650 

34,050 

21,506 

6,454 

6,982 

321 

7,082 

35,436 
8,507 

2,405 
23,522 
19,736 
26,260 
16,732 

1,710 

3,127 
54,860 
25,371 

6,925 

250 

305,854 

79,462 

1,860 
210,967 

7,896 
80,725 



175,786 



15,721,940 
3,406,420 



Note.— Discrepancies : The items of the articles in 1846 add to 27 more than the total. Ditto in 1847 add 4263 less. 



TRADE OF CANTON. 



91 



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92 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Statement of the Quantities and Value of the Principal and other Articles Exported 
from the Ports of Shanghae, distinguishing the Quantities carried in British and 
American Vessels, in each Year from 1844 to 1847. 



ARTICLES. 



Alum piculs 

Camphor boxes 

Copper cash bags 

Cotton, raw bales 

Crockery 

Gypsum piculs 

Hemp 

Kittysols pieces 

M usk catties 

Nankeen cloth piculs 

Silk, raw bales 

„ and cotton mixed 

„ piece goods piculs 

Tea, black lbs. 

„ green do. 

Rhubarb piculs 

Other articles 

Total £ 



ARTICLES. 



Alum piculs 

Camphor boxes 

Copper cash bags 

Cotton, raw bales 

Crockery 

Gy psum piculs 

Hemp 

Kittysols pieces 

Musk catties 

Nankeen cloth piculs 

Silk, raw bales 

,, and cotton mixed 

,, piece goods piculs 

Tea, black..., lbs. 

,, green do. 

Rhubarb piculs 

Other articles 

Total £ 



1844 




Total. 




In Vessels. 






British. American. 


Quantities. 


Estimated 
Value. 


Quantities. 


Estimated 
Value. 


Quantities. 


number. 

2,486 


£ 

673 


number. 
3,352 


£ 
641 


number. 
2,701 


number. 
150 


4,850 


- 
525 


6,582 


999 
685 


5,480 


1,202 


76 

68 

4,814 


576 

1,107 

417,213 


15,400 

67 

227 

Piculs 10,027 


310 
837 

2,406 
836,082 

2,058 


67 

56 

9,505 


507 


621,587 
612,133 


30,303 > 

36,812 } 

*319 


10,006,800 

86 


499,242 

410 
3,382 


9,318,533 
73 


300,666 
13 




487,528* i 


l,347,052t 








1816 


1847 


Total. 


In Vessels. 


Total. 


In Vessels. 


British. | American 


British. | American 


Quantities. 




Quan- 
tities. 


Estimated 

Value. 


Value. 


Quantities. 


Quantities. 


number. 
204 
400 
12,781 


£ 
55 

1,000 
21,260 

V,311 


number. 

204 


number. 

"400 
12,781 


number. 

408 

1,380 
2,828 


£ 

85 

2,874 
2,734 

588 
1,373 

423 


number. 

930 

1,828 


number 

450 
1,000 


118 
Bales 16,356 


1,960 
945,915 


118 
15,926 


**301 


467 
18,032 


4,862 
1,026,885 


293 

17,680 


115 
344 


32 


3,333 


32 


.. 




20,144 






1 12,798,433 


550,296 


10,073,758 


2,510,944 


15,863,482 


449,919 


13,313,599 


2,549,883 




1,830 






601 


3,706 
3,706 




601 




l,526,960t 










l,517,299t 









* Exchange at 4*. 4d. 



Exchange at 4s. 2d. 



Statement of the Total Value of the Imports and Exports at the Port of Amoy, in 
British and Foreign Vessels respectively, in each of the Years 1845, 1846, and 1847. 



YEARS. 


In British Vessels. 


In Foreign Vessels. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 1 Exports. 


1845 


£ 
147,494 
167,935 
179,758 


£ 
15,479 

8,437 
7,139 


£ 
47,829 
78,432 
75,976 


£ 

14,739 

6,437 

8,568 


1846.... 


1847 



TRADE OF CANTON. 



93 



Statement of the Quantities and Value of the Principal and other Articles, Imported at 
the Port of Amoy, in British and Foreign Vessels respectively, in each of the Years 
1845, 1846, and 1847. 



ARTICLES. 



Betel nuts bags 

Bicho de mer catties 

Birds' nests do. 

Cotton, raw bales 

,, yarn do. 

Cotton goods : — 

Longcloths, wbite. . . .pieces 

,, grey do. 

,, coloured do. 

„ native,coarse.do. 

Chintzes do. 

Drills do. 

Handkerchiefs do. 

Velvets do. 

Woollen goods ; — 

Broadcloths do. 

Long ells do. 

Camlets do. 

Lead, pig number 

Tin plates piculs 

Pepper do. 

Putchuck baskets 

Rattans piculs 

Rice do. 

Sharks' fins do. 

Mangrove bark bundles 

Wood :— 

Sapan pieces 

Sandal piculs 

Other articles 



[n British Vessels. 



Quantities. 



number. 

100 

119,376 



1,676 



2?8 
482 



Total. 



dollars 
£ 



324 
920 
950 

259 
352 



10,021 



50 



Value. 



dollars. 
415 

7,954 



194,894 
114,516 



117,946 
131,883 



17,806 

2,035 
5,593 

7,080 
8,958 
24,157 

3,595 
1,763 

2,367 
10,057 



863 
10,513 



680,741 
147,494 



[n British Vessels. 



Quantities. 



number. 
Piculs 35 

1,386' 
Packages 14 

31 

15,517 
1,318 

24,974 
21,160 



Bag£ 



600 
5,040 



120 



320 
2 

93 J 
77 j 
801 
533 
18,398 



Packages 10 
300 



Value. 



dollars. 

185 

12,660 

6,940 

416,767 
126,602 

62,494 
53,510 



1,800 
14,500 



1,200 

9,460 

36 

841 

1,493 

1,700 

32,676 

280 



200 
30,941 



775,085 
167,935 



[n Foreign Vessels. 



Quantities. 



number. 
991 

2,253 

{Packages 18") 
Piculs 71 V 
Catties 58 ) 
f 24) 

( Piculs 6,929 J 
1,362 

563 

710 

38 

150 

240 



210 
250 



695 
76,079 

<| Catties 20 
L Packages 



3 



Piculs 1,283 



Value. 



dollars. 
1,982 

17,550 
14,684 

81,213 

40,860 

1,178 

1,432 

147 

150 



6,300 
2,000 



2,117 

152,158 



580 



2,229 
764 

36,169 



361,993 
78,432 



ARTICLES. 



In British Vessels. 



Quantities. 



Value. 



In Foreign Vessels. 



Quantities. 



Value. 



Betel nuts bags 

Bicho de mer catties 

Birds' nests do. 

Cotton, raw bales 

Yarn do. 

Cotton goods : — 

Longcloths, white pieces 

„ grey do. 

„ coloured do. 

„ native, coarse do. 

Chintzes do. 

Drills do. 

Handkerchiefs do. 

Velvets do. 

Woollen goods : — 

Broadcloths do. 

Long ells do. 

Camlets do. 

Lead, pig number 

Tin plates „.. piculs 

Pepper ..do. 

Putchuck baskets 

Rattans piculs 

Rice do. 

Sharks' fins do. 

Mangrove bark bundles 

Wood :— 

Sapan piece 

Sandal piculs 

Other Articles 

Total { dollar J 



number. 

Bags 625 

Packages 351 

18 

Bales 9,266 

1,547 

29,768 

33 720 

2,250 

550 

10,648 



dollars. 

1,299 

5,550 

1,260 

276,314 

140,955 

96,364 

109,904 

6,400 

1,725 

32,350 



number. 



Piculs 



2,030 


54,375 


1,625 


13,240 


870 


19.500 


Piculs 125 


1,470 


Bags 1,417 


7,405 


327 


2,616 


Bundles 4,439 


1,288 


Bags 5,429 


7,097 


Packages 5 


175 


Piculs 9,908 


10,850 



Piculs 



135 

1,970 

40 

642 

526 

2,850 

1,799 

575 



200 



24 
200 

60 
141 



1,557 

78,489 

97 



1,407 
548 



dollars. 

628 

21,529 

10,458 

7,687 
50,664 

8,550 
3,665 
2,575 



615 
1,800 
1,240 

768 

4,748 

4,427 

156,978 

615 



1,413 
3,927 

67,874 



829,652 
179,758 



3 50,661 
75,976 



94 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Statement of the Quantities and Value of the Principal and other Articles Ex- 
ported from the Port of Amoy, in British and Foreign Vessels respectively, in each 
of the Years 1845, 1846, and 1847. 





1845 


1846 


ARTICLES. 


In British Vessel. 


In British Vessels. 


In Foreign Vessels. 




Quantities. 


Value. 


Quantities. 


Value. 


Quantities. 


Value. 


Crockery ware pieces 

Umbrellas packages 

Sugar piculs 

„ Candy do. 


number. 

522,040 

32,300 

1,300 

5,052 

129 

402 

240 

574 
35 


dollars. 

5,054 

2,393 

6,438 

31,509 

863 

2,511 

2,645 

5,040 

415 

14,573 


number. 
5 4,233 ) 
I Packages 106 J 

348 
322 

503 

293 

f 61,500-1 
( Packages 25 J 
820 
43 


dollars. 
1,315 

2,836 

3,070 

2,496 
5,020 

4,990 

5,591 

846 

12,775 


number. 
Piculs 209 

155 
381 
153 
5 105 1 
I Piculs 5 J 
20 
113 
47 
46 

21,601 

Piculs 1,547 
14 


dollars. 
514 

"620 

2,667 

885 




1,478 

196 
1,356 
1,240 
1 ,026 

6,578 

6,371 


Tobacco packages 

Camphor piculs 


Thread packages 


Paper of all kinds ..packages 




6,532 




Total { dom £| 




71,141 
15,479 




38,939 
8,437 




29,708 
6,437 






* Exch 


inge at 4s. Ad. 









ART 



C L E S. 



Crockery ware 

Umbrellas 

Sugar 

„ Candy... 
Preserves .... 



...pieces 

.packages 
. . . . piculs 



Tea 

Tobacco , 

Camphor 

Grass cloth 

Thread 

Kittysols 

Paper of all kinds. 

Shoes 

Other articles 



. boxes 
• chests 



.packages 

.. ..piculs 

do. 

.packages 
. . . . pieces 

•packages 
.. ..boxes 



Total 



( dollars 

1 £* 



1847 



In British Vessels. 



Quantities. 



number. 
Packages 3,130 

Baskets 1,180 
179 
254 
320 



53,100 
Packages 712 



Value. 



dollars. 
2,226 

6,100 

1,295 

790 

3,200 



5,837 
3,352 

604 

9,544 



32,948 
7,139 



In Foreign Vessels. 



Quantities. 



number. 
Pieces 21,450 ~) 
Packages 20 > 
Catties 60 J 

Number 60,850 
279 
Piculs 
Catties 
Piculs 
Catties 
Piculs 
Catties 
Piculs 
Catties 



50 | 

247 \ 
736/ 
157) 

90 | 
134\ 

42/ 



Catties 



r Piculs 976 ' 

1 Catties 32 

6 

Piculs 3 



Value. 



dollars. 

133 

18,770 
1,632 

40 

850 

3,476 

1,114 

740 



360 
6,451 



},546 
*,568 



* Exchange at 4*. \d. 

Statement of the Quantities and Value of the several Articles imported at the Port of 
Ningpo, in each of the Years 1846 and 1847. 



ARTICLES. 


1846 


1847 


Quantities. 


Value. 


Quantities. 


Value. 




number. 

7851 

44 
48 
37 

"70 


dollars. 
24 

24,338 j 

176 
138 

925 

840 
326 


number. 

7071 
4000 
2034 

2187 
240 

1058 
300 


dollars. 
96 

20,253 
12,000 

4,068 

3,657 

3,600 

300 

6,855 
2,400 

1,167 




Cotton manufactures ; — 

t i ., ( White 






Long cloths } Twmed _;_ 
Dyed 


do. 

do. 






do. 




Cotton yarn 

Woollen manufactures : — 


.. ..piculs 










do. 




Rattans » 


piculs 

do. 




Saltpetre 


do 






( dollars 

'i £* 




Total 


26,767 
5,576 




54,396 
11,332 






.. 



* te change at 4s. 



TRADE OF CANTON. 



95 



Statement of the Total Value of the Imports and Exports at each of the Five Ports of 
China, in British and Foreign Vessels respectively, in each Year from 1844 to 1847. 



PORTS. 



Canton .... 

Amoy 

Foochowfoo 
Ningpo .... 
Shanghae .. 

Total 



In British Vessels. 



Imports. 



3,359,685 



501,335 



Exports. 



3,883,828 



487,528 



In Foreign Vessels. 



Imports. 



£ 
506,351 



Exports. 



£ 
1,644,194 



In British Vessels. 



Imports. 



£ 

2,251,802 

147,494 

43,981 

10,398 

1,082,207 



3,535, 



Exports. 



4,492,370 
15,478 
40,293 
17,495 

l;259,091 



[n Foreign Vessels. 



[mports. 



£ 
795,140 



5,824,727 



Exports. 



£ 
2,130,355 



87,961 



PORTS. 



1846 



1847 



In British Vessels. 



Imports. 



Canton 

Amoy 

Foochowfoo 
Ningpo 

Shanghae ... 

Total 



£ 
2,213.116 

167,935 

5,382 
810,200 



Exports. 



£ 
3,332,021 
8,437 

5,787 
1,352,530 



In Foreign Vessels. 



In British Vessels. 



Imports. 



£ 
78,432 



194 

255,972 



Exports. 



Imports. 



£ 
6,437 

174,430 



3,196,633 4,698,775 I 



£ 

2,085,581 

179,758 

11,786 

898,228 

3,175,353 



Exports. 



£ 

3,406,420 
7,138 

623 
1,401,194 



1,815,375 



In Foreign Vessels. 



Imports. Expoits. 



75,976 



8,568 
116,105 



Statement of the Quantities of the Principal Articles of Cotton and Woollen Manu- 
factures imported in British Vessels, at each of the Ports of Canton, Shanghae, and 
Amoy, in each Year from 1844 to 1847. 



MANUFACTURES 


CANTON. 


SHANGHAE. 




1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1844 


1845 


Cotton. 
Longcloths :— - 


number. 

802,300 

455,778 

122,051 

47,886 
53,573 

6,521 

30,684 

264,319 
302,717 
330,190 
322,838 
39,062 
3,670 


number. 

1 1,255,506 j 

137,677 

2*7,283 
Doz. 15,680 

' 2,427 
23,331 

161,236 
784,637 

' 7,028 


number. 

588,735 
102,631 

lV,219 

8,672 

550 
23,941 

113,936 
305,603 

81,978 
71,013 
20,910 
5,297 


number. 

440,871 
125,477 

9,414 

14,248 

124 

27,745 

140,323 

40,782 

369,166 

135,524 

19,348 

1,084 


number. 

240,539 

152,300 

3,756 

4,607 

1,900 

18,961 

6,470 

1,547 

1,350 

73 

51,433 

75,567 
49,885 

665 


number. 

911,911 


White do. 


341,581 


Twills do 




Drills and domestics do. 

Chintzes do. 


3,327 

26,816 

8,369 

6,169 


Velvets do. 






Yarn piculs 

Woollen. 
Broad cloth changs 


770 
71,494 




48,904 


Camlets 5 do. 

Bombazettes do. 

Blankets pairs 


59,520 

747 1 


MANUFACTURES 


SHANGHAE. 


AMOY. 




1846 


1847 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


Cotton. 
Longcloths :— 

Grey pieces 

White do. 


number. 

968,143 
235,067 

2,880 

15,374 

20,722 

400 

77,023 

59,407 
55,912 

513 


number. 

940,848 

225,122 

3,123 

32,575 
23,395 
17,203 

V,472 

149,477 

81,410 
65,581 


number. 


number. 

-13,482 

37,278 

4,517 

1,438 

592 

Bales 1,138 

324 

920 
950 


number. 

21,160 

24,974 

38 

5,040 

600 

120 
1,318 

" 60 


number. 

33,710 

29,768 
2,250 


Twills do 


Drills and domestics .. ..do. 


10,648 






Velvets do. 






1,547 
2,030 


WOOI-LEN. 

Broad cloths changs 




1,625 

870 




Bombazettes do. 

Blankets do 



The picul equal to 1331bs ; the chang equal to 4 yards 



96 



CHINESE EMPIBE. 



Statement of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels, belonging to various Nations, 
Entered and Cleared at the Port of Canton, in each Year from 1844 to 1847. 











E N T E 


RED. 






NATION S. 


1844 


184 


5 


1846 


1847 




Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


, Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


British 

„ possessions in India and 


number. 

i- 228 
J 

57 
2 

11 
2 
2 
2 

2 


number. 

111,350 < 

23,273 
751 

3,878 
591 
581 
524 

1,151 


number. 

118 
64 

83 
3 
2 

11 
3 
6 
7 

5 


number. 

50,199 

35,388 

38,658 

799 

1,406 

2,972 

948 

2,066 

2,044 

1,910 


number. 
137 

77 

64 

4 

8 
1 
6 
5 

1 

1 


number. 

56,566 
36,330 

29,049 
1,283 

2,747 

305 

1,791 

1,249 

550 

300 


number. 

136 

85 

60 

7 
2 
7 

1 

5 
2 

7 


number. 

54,071 
34,805 




27,621 

2,018 

580 






Dutch 


2,548 
302 










1,339 
405 






2,237 




Total 


3o6 


142,099 


302 


136,850 


304 1 130,170 


312 


125,926 






CLEARED. 


NATIONS. 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 




Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


British 


number. 

1 228 

49 
2 

9 

1 
2 
2 
1 
2 


number. 

112,142<j 

21,600 
632 

3*013 
219 
581 
524 
320 

1,151 


number. 

137 

67 

85 
4 
2 

11 
4 
5 
7 

5 


number. 

59,124 
39,153 

37,959 
1,176 
1,406 
3,342 
1,320 
1,674 
2,004 

1,115 


number. 

128 
79 

65 
4 

S 
1 
6 
4 
1 
1 


number. 

52,240 
36,640 

29,788 
1,283 

2,574 
305 

1,978 

1,097 

550 

300 


number. 

131 

82 

66 
7 
2 
7 
1 

5 
1 
7 


nxmiber. 


„ possessions in India and 


51,283 
33,469 


American (U. S.) 


28,990 

2,018 

580 






2,404 
302 
206 


Danish 




1,251 
230 






2,237 




Total 


296 


140,182 


1 327 


148,273 


297 


126,755 


1 310 


122,975 



Statement of the Number and Tonnage of British and Colonial Vessels, Entered and 
Cleared at the Port of Canton, from and to various Places, in each of the Years 1845, 
1846, and 1847. 





1815 


PLACES. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


Briti 


*• 1 


Colo 


iial. 


British. 


Colonial. 




Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 




number. 

15 

30 

1 

26 
5 
2 

7 
2 
16 
8 

1 

1 
1 


tons. 

6,761 

12,933 

574 

11,180 
2,572 
1,012 

2,277 

513 

5,928 

3,752 

316 

629 

388 
215 
541 

608 


number. 

37 

2 

1 
7 

2 

9 

1 

a 

2 

1 


ton?. 

30,039 
893 

147 
1,361 

209 
2,022 

123 

586 
306 

202 


number. 
79 
20 

2 
7 

2 

1 

9 
9 

5 

2 
1 


tons. 

37,662 

8,243 

734 

2,995 

509 

424 

2,372 
3,078 

2,053 

512 
542 


number. 

1 

27 
2 
10 

5 

5 
6 

1 
5 

2 

2 


tons. 














Halifax and Montreal 


147 
106 




22,639 




854 




5,932 












1.054 




1,039 




1,811 










Siatn 


826 
3,376 












465 








904 










Total 


118 


50,199 


64 


35,888 


137 


| 59,124 


1 67 


39,153 



TRADE OF CANTON, 



97 



Statement of the Number and Tonnage of British and Colonial Vessels, Entered and 
Cleared at the Port of Canton, &c. — {continued). 





1846 


PLACES. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


British. 


Colonial. 


British. 


Colonial. 




Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 


Vessels. 


Tonnage. 




number. 
12 

28 

44 

2 

4 

8 

2 

1 
10 
11 

1 

2 

3 

1 
1 
6 
1 


tons. 
5,417 
10,633 

20,834 

751 

1,958 

2,961 

785 

325 

3,418 

5,205 

320 

688 

1,116 

176 
293 

1,047 
539 


number. 

28 

13 
4 

4 

18 
2 

2 

3 
3 


tons. 

24,014 

5,176 
945 
518 

3,02S 

878 

436 

406 
929 


number. 

57 
19 

1 

3 
2 

6 

"7 
5 

7 

1 

1 
1 

1 

7 
5 


tons. 

27,247 

6,902 

421 

2,264 

1,064 

337 

2,340 

2,146 
1,621 

3,042 
400 
315 

150 

315 

1,889 
2,102 


number. 
4 

33 

7 
3 
9 

16 
1 

2 

4 


tons. 
3,055 
























21,125 






3,202 




432 




1,732 








5,376 








Manilla 


530 


Bali 




















Sbanghae . . 


338 

850 






Total 


137 


56,5G6 


77 


36,330 


128 


52,240 


79 


36,640 




1847 






E N T E 


RED. 




CLEARED. 


Bri 


ish. 


Colo 


nial. 


Biitish. 


Colonial. 




Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 




number. 
14 

25 

1 
1 

1 

30 

3 
2 
1 
5 

9 

*21 
4 

1 

1 

1 
1 
1 

"l2 

"l 


number. 
(5,356 

8,786 
353 
347 
149 

15,818 
1,560 
1,199 
248 
1,747 
2,679 

8,552 

1,867 

334 

220 
297 
601 
197 
315 

2,192 

*204 


number. 

35 

14 

3 
3 

1 
11 

1 

2 

'io 

"1 

2 


number. 

22,068 

465 

5,559 

696 
366 
118 
2,050 
797 

223 

2,033 

186 

244 


number. 
52 
21 

4 
1 
2 

6 

1 
2 

"l2 
11 

"l 

2 

1 

11 

1 

2 

1 


number. 

26,021 

7,356 

1,295 
567 
606 

2,69 4 
465 
333 

3,434 
3,075 

575 

287 

177 
3,264 
448 
589 
102 


number. 

36 
14 

1 

9 

9 

1 

1 

1 
1 

4 
3 

1 


number. 






Hull ... 
















Halifax and Montreal 


18,719 




348 




6,020 








126 




1,557 








2,943 












826 




755 








139 








120 












1,077 
695 






144 






Total 


136 


54,071 


85 


1 34,805 


131 


1 51,288 


82 


33,46!) 







VOL. V. 



H 



98 



CHINESE EMPIRE. 



Statement of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels,belonging to various Nations, Entered 
and Cleared at the Port of Shanghae, in each of the Years 1845, 1846, and 1847. 





1845 


1846 


1847 


NATIONS. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 




Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 




No. 

62 

19 

2 

2 

2 


No. 

15,971 

6,531 

600 

650 
644 


No. 
66 
17 
2 

2 

2 


No. 

16,760 

5,931 

600 

650 
644 


No. 
54 
17 
2 

1 
2 


No. 
15,069 
5,322 

750 

206 

412 


No. 
50 
17 
2 

1 

2 


No. 
14,159 
5,322 

750 

206 
412 


No. 
76 
20 

2 

1 

1 
2 


No. 

19,361 

5,454 

671 

330 

350 
569 


No. 
75 

20 
2 

1 . 

2 


No. 

18,914 

5,454 

671 


American (U. S.) 


Prussian 

Swedish 

Hanseatic 

Dutch 


330 

350 
569 






Tota L 


87 ! 24,396 


89 


24,585 


76 


21,759 I 72 


20,849 | 102 ! 26,735 j 101 


26,288 



Statement of the Number and Tonnage of British Vessels, Entered and Cleared at the 
Port of Shanghae, from and to various Places, in each of the Years 1845, 1846, and 

1847. 





1845 


1846 


1847 


NATIONS. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 




Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons.?) 


Great Britain.... 

Hong Kong and 

Four Ports.... 

Manilla 


No. 
10 

49 
3 


No. 


No. 
23 

41 
2 


No. 


No. 
22 

26 

3 

3 


No. 


No. 
26 

22 

i 


No. 


No. 
14 

49 

7 
3 
3 


No. 
4,777 

11,039 

2,430 

588 
527 


No. 
32 

41 

2 


No. 
11,202 

7,263 


Straits (Singa- 




Australia 

British India.. .. 


449 


Total 


62 


1597 


66 


16,760 


54 1 15,069 


50 


14,159 


76 


19,361 


75 1 18,914 



Statement of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels, belonging to various Nations, 
Entered and Cleared at the Port of Amoy, in each of the Years 1845, 1846, and 1847. 





1845 


1846 


1847 


N A T I O N S. 


ENTERED . 


CLEARED. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 




Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 

No. 
9,378 
852 
3,457 
1,657 
1,563 

488 


Vessels. 

No. 

45 

5 

14 

47 

4 
1 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 




No. 
33 


No. 
6655 


No. 
33 


No. 
6655 


No. 

45 

2 

16 

16 

5 

2 


No. 

9,378 
852 
3,457 
1,657 
1,563 

488 


No. 
45 

2 
16 
16 

5 

2 


No. 
8,311 
1,586 
2,641 

2,824 

823 

103 
206 


No. 

45 

5 

14 

47 

4 
1 

1 


No. 
8,311 


American (U.S.). 


1,586 
2,641 


Portuguese 


2,824 




823 




103 


Malay 


206 


TorAL 






.. 1 .. 


86 


17,395 


86 


17,395 1 


117 


16,494 I 


117 


16,494 



MISCELLANEOUS STATEMENTS. 99 



MISCELLANEOUS STATEMENTS. 



Coasting Trade. — We have no means of presenting an account of the coast- 
ing trade of China. According to all statements, the coasting trade, carried on 
by junks is, like the internal commerce by canals and rivers, of enormous mag- 
nitude. In the coasting trade of Fovv Choo we have a return for two quarters of 
1845 and two quarters of 1846, during which 1678 junks arrived, with cargoes 
valued at 3,177*145 dollars; and 1281 junks departed, with cargoes valued at 
11,654,653 dollars. Among the principal articles of import were found promis- 
cuously, — wheat, flour, black sugar, drugs, tea, oil, China root, oxen's bones and 
horns, salt, peas, pea oil, hams, vegetables, salt fish, sugar black and white and 
candy, prepared peas and eggs, rattans, mats, cloth, basket ware, false birds' 
nests, potatoes, walnuts, betel nuts, cotton, cotton cloth, blankets, rice, vermi- 
celli, dates, sharks' fins, oranges, preserves, bamboos, wine, hemp, hides, pears, 
bark, flints, melon-seeds, indigo, potash. Among the articles of export are — 
timber, orange-peel, preserved fruit, paper, oil cakes, potash, indigo, lungons, 
sugar, sugar candy, salt fish, tobacco, tinfoil, ground nuts, cassia, paper, drugs, 
lamp black, alum, tea, oil, indigo, planks, resins. Timber exceeds in value all 
other articles exported ; paper is next in value ; sugar, salt fish, and peas, ap- 
peared to be the three largest importations. 

Inland Trade, and Trade with Asiatic States West of China. — We 
have no statistical account of this commerce, which, according to all reports, is 
like the coasting trade, of great value and amount. 

Russian Trade. — Under the head of Russia we have given an account of 
the trade between Russia and China. We have not been able to procure any 
further particulars of that trade. It is reported that since the treaty between 
England and China, great relaxations have been conceded to Russian trade. 

The trade between China and Japan is considered to be valuable. We have 
details of it. 

Taxation. — Gutzlaff calculates the whole net revenue, after deducting the 
expense of collection, according to official returns, as below : — - 

Taels. 

Land tax, in money 53,730,218 

Ditto in kind, valued at , 113,398,057 

Salt tax 7,486,380 

Tea duties 204,530 

Duties on merchandise 4,335,459 

Ditto on foreign ditto, at Canton 3,000,000 

Sundries 1,052,706 

Duties on marketable articles 1,174,932 

Ditto on shops and pawnbrokers 5,000,000 

Ginseng 1,000,000 

Coinage 1,000,000 

Total Taels 191,804,139 

Sterling £63,934,713 

H 2 



100 



CHINESE EMPIKE. 



Budget of 1843. Extracted from the Chinese Statistical Tables. 



PROVINCES. 



Sent to the Capital. 



Money Taels. 



Shih Rice. 



Provincial Treasury. 



Money Taels. 



Chihle.... 
Keangsoo . 
Ganhway . 
Keangse. . 
Chekeang . 
Fuhkien... 
Hoopih... . 
Hoonan.. . 
Honan.... 
Shantung . 
Shanse ... 
Shense ... 



939,941 
564,728 
194,914 
602,431 
287,346 
055,290 
776,173 
944,432 
441,110 
730,736 
702,285 
344,548 



Kansuh 

Szechuen... 

Kwangtuug. 

Kwangse... 

Yunnan 

Kweichow... 



182,644 
306,366 
719,370 
278,559 
188,927 
53,346 



1,431,273 

795,063 
678,320 

96,934 

96,314 

221,342 

353,963 



For the Turkestan 

Garrisons. 

218,550 



227,626 



1,180,514 
1,471,543 
3,274,683 
795,224 
907,905 
309,380 
365,741 
280,192 
658,923 
743,532 
898,081 
306,121 



133,061 

24,271 

542,601 

113,725 

87,852 
27,056 



Totals 23,313,146 4,119,385 

Total in money 35,430,552 taels. 



12,120,407 



* The shih of rice is about 2£ bushels. 

REMARKS ON THE FOREGOING TABLE. 

1. The tax on salt (in Kwantung) amounts to 602,977 taels ; transit and maritime custom- 
house duties, 1,490,981 taels; for sundries, 995,412 taels. The remainder is derived from the 
land tax. 

2. The Kwantung receipts do not include 864,232 taels, which, since the new arrangement, 
the hoppo at Canton is responsible for levying upon the foreign trade. The rice, also, which is 
issued to the troops and petty officers of the various provinces, fully equal in amount to that 
sent to the capital, is not contained in the statement. 

3. The above is the net revenue of the country ; but the expenditure of collection, and the 
extortion and fees, make the taxes that are actually levied at least three times as heavy. 

4. No statement of the expenditure is given ; but, from the repeated reports, as well as the 
accounts published in the Peking Gazette, it would appear that there has been a deficiency in 
many provinces, which the governors and high officers must make good by a loan or some other 
expedient. At Peking the public money was recently so scarce, that the necessary repairs of the 
imperial gardens could not be made. 

5. This year's expenditure is more heavy than that of any previous one, for various reasons. 
1st. Because the millions of dollars furnished by various provincial treasuries had to be paid to 
Great Britain. 2nd. Nine million of taels were wanted for the repairs of the dykes of the 
Yellow River, the largest amount ever required for this purpose. This sum is to be raised by 
temporary loans, a paper currency, and patriotic contributions, which give the donor a claim for 
office : part of this money has been already collected. 3rd. Government wanted 2,500,000 taels 
to reconstruct the marine defences and navy, which item has been obtained by the sale of offices. 

6. Nine million of taels were stolen from the Imperial Treasury. The very circumstance 
that such an enormous sum of money could be abstracted without discovery, shows at once that 
there must be immense hoards, which are scarcely ever touched. To reimburse the emperor for 
his personal loss, all the officers that have held a situation for more than thirty years at the 
treasury, if still alive, or if not, their posterity and families, must pay their respective shares 
until the whole is made good. Amongst the defaulters are several princes of the blood, whose 
property has been confiscated. 

7. All the colonial possessions and dependencies of China require considerable sums for the 
payment of troops, and the subsidy of the Mongol chiefs, as well as the Mantchoo vassals in 
their own country ; all this is paid by the Peking treasury, and proves a considerable drain, 
without the most distant hope of recovering the money in any way. 

8. Various proposals for raising the revenue to a level with the expenditure have been made, 
but none has yet been finally adopted, nor has the ministry published the result of long and 
frequent deliberations. 

(Signed) Charles Gutzlaff, Chinese Secretary. 

[Three taels are = 1/. sterling; one shih = 160 pounds; one king = mow; one mow 
= 6000 square covids.] 

HONG KONG. 

The following are the condensed official statistics of this new colony : — 
The population, exclusive of Hong Kong troops, has gradually increased from less than 5000 



MISCELLANEOUS STATEMENTS. 



101 



on its first occupation in 1842, to 23,872, the amount for the past year 1847. This population, 
instead of consisting of mere vagabonds, comprises in its number contractors for expensive works, 
executed (by the testimony of the engineer officers) as well as they could be in England, and of 
numerous owners of respectable shops, where almost any of the productions of China can be 
obtained. Life and property are now acknowledged to be secure. 

The revenue, without a single tax upon commerce, has progressively increased from 9534/. 
to 31,078/. in 1847 ; and the civil expenditure diminished from 66,000/. to 50,959/. in the same 
year; of this 15,169/. has been for public works incidental to a new colony, which being deducted 
from the total charge for the year, leaves 35,790/. for the tixed expenditure, being only 4712/. be- 
yond the revenue. 

The shipping return for 1847 amounts to 229,465 tons for European vessels, and for Chinese 
junks 840,990 piculs. 

The jurisdiction of the consuls over civil suits is extended beyond 500 dollars, by Consular 
Ordinance No. 3 of 1847, which enacts that the consuls, with certain assessors, shall have juris- 
diction over all civil suits whatever, subject to an appeal to the Supreme Court of Hong Kong, 
with the further appeal to the Privy Council in all cases above 500/. 

The efficacy of the criminal jurisdiction of the consuls is strengthened by Consular Ordi- 
nance No. 2 of 1847, containing the provisions of an order by her Majesty in Council for the 
government of British subjects in the Levant. 

TRADE OF HONG KONG. 
Return of Ships arrived in Hong Kong during 1847. 



DESCRIPTION. 



With merchandise and general cargoes 

With coals 

From Sydney, Hobart Town, and Swan River, 
with coals, sandal wood, flour, timber, gene- 
ral cargoes, and in ballast 

From India, with cotton, opium, general car- 
goes, troops and government stores, and 
thirteen steamers 

From Boston and New York, with general 
cargoes, spars, and ice 

From South America, Manilla, Batavia, Bally, 
and South Sea Islands, with copper ore, 
rice, rattans, sandal-wood, sundries, and in 
ballast 

From East Coast of China, with teas, silks, 
specie, salt, alum, sundries, and return 
opium vessels in ballast 

From Canton River, C. Moon, with silks, teas, 
sugar, opium, sundries, and in ballast 

Total 



Great 
Britain. 



No. 
42 
11 



tons. 
16,283 
4,890 



British 
Colonies. 



No. tons. 



33 
114 



10,364 
66,329 



United 
States. 



No. tons. 



8,175 



Foreign 

States. 



No. tons. 



56 
139 



15,800 
24,337 



Total. 



No. 
53 



147 



•195 



tons. 
21,173 



76,693 
8,175 

40,137 
83,287 



229,465 



Imports into Hong Kong in Chinese Vessels 





1846 


1847 


DESCRIPTION. 


Number 
of Piculs. 


Value 
perPicul. 


Total 
Sterling. 


Number 
of Piculs. 


Value 
per picul. 


Total 
Sterling. 




26,000 

3,000 

500 

214,200 

90,000 

309,000 


£ s. d. 
17 
6 
8 

13 

1 2 
4 2 


£ 
22,100 
900 
200 
139,230 
99,000 
64,350 


231,000 
7,000 
800 
235,000 
110,000 
257,190 


£ s. d. 
.0 17 
6 
8 

13 

1 2 
2 


£ 

196,350 

2,100 

320 






Rice 


152,750 
121,000 
20,719 


Nut oil ...., 


Salt 






642,700 


325,780 


840,990 


493,239 



Export of Sugar from Hong Kong during 1847. 



To Great Britain Piculs, 25,325 ; at 16s. 6d. per picul. 

T« India 5 Piculs, 44,946 ; at 16*. 6d. per picul . 
a (Tubs, 20,626; at 20s. per tub 

To Shanghae Piculs, 16,446; at 16s. 6c?. per picul. 




144,827 



SECTION XXII— BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



CHAPTER I. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND NATAL, 



The Cape of Good Hope was first settled by the Dutch in 1652. It was 
captured (for the Prince of Orange) by the British forces in 1795, and ceded 
by the Netherlands to England in 1814. In 1666, the Dutch cultivated vines 
and olives there with success, and they had a garrison of 500 soldiers there for 
its defence. They reported that there was great difficulty in obtaining slaves. 
We have no account of the Dutch trade at the Cape. It seems to have been 
chiefly of importance as a place of rendezvous and refreshments for their East 
Indian fleets. 

The population of this colony is given as follows at different periods : — 
1798, total 62,000. 1807, whites and free coloured, 25,614 ; free blacks, 1234 ; 
Hottentots, 17,435 ; slaves, 29,303 ; total, 73,482. In 1820, white and free 
coloured, 43,097 ; free blacks, 1932 ; Hottentots, 26,975 ; negro apprentices, 
1553 ; slaves, 32,049 ; total 105,336. 

By the census of 1842, the population amounted to, whites, males, 35,155 ; 
females, 33,145 ; total whites, 68,300 ; coloured and negroes, males, 39,655 ; 
females, 35,910; total coloured, 75,565 ; Cape Town, males, 11,074 ; females, 
11,469; total coloured, 22,543. Total males, 85,884; females, 80,524. Total 
population, 166,408. 

1* Population of Cape Town, from a census taken by the Cape Town Mu- 
nicipality in September and October 1842 : — 

Total population, 21,840. Males 10,612 ; females, 11,228 ;=100 males to 105 13-16 females ; 
white, 9359 ; coloured, 12,481 ;=133^ coloured to 100 whites ; engaged in various occupations, 
7319. 

Religion.— Returned as Christians, 14,767; Mahomedans, 6435 ; Jews, 170; uncertain and 
Heathen, 621 ;=47| Mahomedans and others to 100 Christians. 

Number of buildings, 3112; occupied, 2528 ; unoccupied, 207 ; stores, 377 ;=8f persons in 
each occupied dwelling. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND NATAL. 



103 



2. Population of the whole colony, from the latest returns 







WESTERN 
PROVINCE. 


Extent. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Population to a 
Square Mile. 


EASTERN 
PROVINCE. 


Extent. 


Popu- 
lation. 


Population to a 
Square Mile. 




sq. miles. 
91 
3,584 
2,280 
20,000 
22,111 
7,616 
4,032 
13,050 


number. 
22,543 
12,875 
17,130 

8,866 
9,416 
19,847 
11,628 
6,638 


number. 

2365 
31 
71 

3-7 
3-7 
3f 

2 9-10 
0| 




sq. miles. 
8,900 
1,792 
4,000 
3,168 
8,000 
11,654 


number. 
11,019 
15,422 
5,200 
8,118 
8,878 
8,828 


number. 


Cape Division 




124 

2| 

2g 

ii 
l 






Cradock 

Graaff-Reinet. 

Colesberg 


Clan william 

Swellendam 


Beaufort 


Total Eastern Prov. 37,574 


57,465 
166,408 


About 2 


Total Western Prov. 


72,682^ 


108,943 


About 1£ 


Extent & Popu- 1 
lation of the co- r 
lony. J 


110,2564 


About 1 7-11 



In 1847, the governor in his report estimates the total population at 
185,000, of which 80,580 were white, and 104,420 coloured of all races. Of 
the latter, 41,748 were members of various Christian congregations; and of the 
former, 70,310 were in connexion. 

Returns have been received for 1846 from 115 religious congregations belonging to the two 
provinces ; of these, 82 belong to the Dutch Reformed Church, 13 to the English Episcopalian, 
8 to various Presbyterian denominations, 4 to the Roman Catholic Church, 21 to the Wesleyan 
Church, 23 Independents, 5 Moravian, and 9 Lutheran. In connexion with the above con- 
gregations there were, in the aggregate, 70,310 white persons, and 41,748 coloured, being a 
total of 112,058, which constitutes, on a rough estimate, three-fifths of the population of the 
colony. 

The extent of church accommodation furnished by all Christian denominations was capable 
of providing for 54,160 persons; the average attendance was reckoned at 32,206, or about five- 
ninths of the whole accommodation. 

Every denomination, to a greater or less extent, provided, by Sunday and evening schools, 
for the religious instruction of the young and of such as have grown up in Heathenism or in 
ignorance of Christianity. The number taught in these schools amounted to 14,134 ; two-thirds 
of the whole number were estimated to be coloured persons. 

The proportion per cent, of the white and coloured population of the colony, in connexion 
with the 

White. Coloured. 

English Church, is . . . *. . 9'36 '55 

Dutch Reformed .... 63*12 6-45 

Presbyterians . . . . -92 3*58 

Roman Catholic ...» 4-34 '14 

Wesleyan ...... 5-31 6-46 

Independent ..... 1'49 11-30 

Moravian ...... '04 5-93 

Lutheran ..... 1*45 5*56 

From the unsettled state of a large portion of the Eastern province, and from the extensive 
movements that have taken place in consequence of the war, among all classes of the people, the 
results of the return are only to be regarded as a rough approximation to the truth. 

The crown lands were held in this colony up to the year 1813 on the system of loan leases, 
which was equal to permanent tenure, provided the annual rent was punctually paid. The lands 
thus occupied generally averaged 6000 acres to each farm, for which an average rent was paid 
of 30 rds., of value Is. 6d., or 2/. 5s. In 1813 this description of tenure was discontinued. The 
greater part of the lands then held on loan leases have been since granted on perpetual quit-rent, 
some of which have latterly been redeemed at fifteen years' purchase. At present no grants are 
made, except of lands long previously surveyed, but to which titles have not yet been issued. 

During the years 1844, 1845, and 1846, crown lands, to the extent of 2,443,990 acres, have 
been alienated, partly on perpetual quit-rent, and partly as freeholds, which, on an average of 
the three years, amounted to 814,663 acres annually. The following return shows the number of 
acres granted annually in each of the provinces, distinguishing the grants on perpetual quit-rent 
from those sold on freehold tenure. It also shows the average annual quit-rent per 100 acres, 
charged on such grants, with its present value at 16frds years' purchase, which is the equivalent 
on the principle of perpetuities, reckoning interest at six per cent. 



104 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Return of Crown Lands Granted on Perpetual Quit-Rent, and Sold on Freehold 
Tenure, in 1844, 45, and 46. 





• I 


1 s 


o 

T ^ 


Lands Sold on Freehold Tenure. 




in 


is • 








0J 1) 






?Sg 




5 *• to 








Number 










1=2 
c 




Number 
of Acres 
Sold in 
Town Al- 
lotments. 


Average 


of Acres 
sold for 


Average 


jo ss 

£ a » 
j cs a 

J 5 '" 


► '3 !fc 6 




0> O ■" 

-S-a 3 

s «o> 

bo 


oj a 

IS = 


if* 
S3 


Price 

per 100 

Acres. 


Farming 
Purposes 

on 

Country 

Lots. 


Price 
per 100 
Acres. 


Aggrega 

estimating 

at 16jf Y 

ch 


Total of 

Value in 

in 

Two Pi 


















purchased 


purchased 




1844. 


acres. 


;?. d. 


^ s. d. 


A. R. 


£ s. 


A. R. 


£ s. d. 


acres. 


£ s. 


acres. 


Western province 


1,622,871 


5 


6 11| 


None. 


None. 


12,416 131 


14 12 


29,402 
granted. 


3895 14 


1,715,363 
value. 


Eastern province 


63,090 


1 9£ 


1 9 lOf 


26 120 


15,492 12 16,960 

i 


12 5 6 


1,685,961 


6709 3 


10,604 17 


1845. 










1 




purchased 




acres. 


Western province 


226,030 


11 


15 3| 


165 25 


175 15 4,035 


42 14 6 


27,324 
granted. 


4314 


359,971 
value. 


Eastern province 


10,617 


9£ 


13 2 


236 


130,855 23,123 

1 


11 4 


332,647 


2462 10 


6,776 10 


1S46. 










1 




purchased 




acres. 


Western province 


155,693 


1 1| 


18 9 


107 103 


3,693 10 9,035 


27 10 7 


10,418 


6C03 17 


368,656 


















granted. 




value. 


Eastern province 


202,5 5 


5 


7 


None. 


None. 


1,276 


10 


258,238 


2177 10 


8,781 7 


















Total acres 


2,443,990 
















Do. 


value.. .. 


26,162 14 



The quantity of land granted in the colony, up to the 31st December, 1846, is 41,391,377 
acres, being about one-half of its estimated area. Of the lands not yet granted, there are several 
loan places hitherto converted according to the system adopted in 1813 ; besides the lands of the 
Kat River Settlement, those appropriated are outspan places and town commons, and lands long 
since surveyed, of which no grants have as yet been issued. It is generally considered that about 
two-fifths of the area of the colony is wholly unfit either for agricultural or pastoral purposes, 
being composed of karoo, or desert tracts, barren wastes, and mountain ranges. 

The public works executed in this colony in 1844-5-6, of any magnitude or importance, are 
the new lines of road now being constructed throughout the different divisions of the colony. 
Towards the close of 1843, an ordinance passed the legislative council, empowering the governor 
to constitute a central board of commissioners of public roads, for the construction of lines of main 
road throughout the colony, and authorising the landowners in the several divisions to elect, from 
among themselves, divisional boards for the maintenance and construction of the branch roads of 
each division. To the central board was committed the power of levying three rates on the fixed 
property of each of the divisions of the colony ; and to the divisional boards a similar power, and 
to the same extent ; each in its own division ; under this limitation : that no rate shall be levied 
exceeding Id. in the pound, nor shall any rate be levied within one year from the date at which 
any previous road-rate had become due. 

Besides the resources thus provided by assessing the fixed property of the colony, votes of 
money have been placed by the legislative council at the disposal of the central board, each year, 
since the commencement of its operations in 1844 ; and all convicts, whose sentences exceeded 
three months' imprisonment with hard labour, have also been placed at the disposal and under 
the management of the central board, who have employed them chiefly in the opening up of 
mountain passes. 

When the members of this board entered on their duties, their attention was at once drawn 
to the formation of a continuous line of road between Cape Town, the metropolis of the colony, 
and its eastern frontier, which, in extent, exceeds 500 miles. Apart from the consequence which 
must attach to the maintenance of an uninterrupted line of open intercourse between the seats of 
the supreme and provincial governments, the line of main road, with a few branches of trifling 
extent, will, when completed , connect with the seats of government, and with one another, three- 
fifths of the chief towns of divisions, seats of magistracy, and villages in the colony. 

The ordinary fixed revenue of this colony consists of, — 

1st. A direct tax in the shape of transfer dues, at the rate of 4 per cent, on the purchase- 
monies of all fixed property sold either by public auction or otherwise. 

2nd. Indirect taxes, consisting of customs (see tariff), stamp, and auction duties. 

3rd. Post-office revenue, fees charged on public offices, fines, penalties, &c. 

4th. Proceeds of the sale of crown lands, revenue from land granted on perpetual quit-rent, 
redemption of land-rents, licenses to graze, cut timber, &c. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE AND NATAL. 105 

Of the several sources of fixed revenue above enumerated, that derived from customs' dues on 
imports is by far the most extensive and important; being, at the same time, the surest index of 
the growing prosperity of the colony, and of the gradual development of its resources. 

On an average of the fixed revenue for the three years, the customs' dues amounted to 48 per 
cent of the whole ; and of the fixed revenue for each of the three years, taken separately, they 
amounted to 43, 46, and 54 per cent respectively ; while the whole fixed revenue itself was steadily 
increasing, at an annual average of 4 per cent ; the increase during the last year having exceeded 
5 per cent. 

Next in importance are the transfer, stamp, and auction dues. These, in centesimal parts of 
the above-mentioned average, amount collectively to 2875 per cent; but of the fixed revenue for 
1846, to 26 per cent only ; thus exhibiting a decrease in the triennial average; which is readily 
accounted for by the check that has been given during the Kafir war, especially in the eastern 
province, to that class of transactions from which those branches of revenue are derived. 

By an ordinance passed on the 7th of January, 1846, a uniform rate of postage was established 
throughout the colony on the following scale : — for every letter prepaid, and not exceeding half- 
an-ounce, 4d. ; above half-an-ounce, and not exceeding one ounce, 8d. ; and at a proportionate rate 
for all weights exceeding one ounce. For all letters not prepaid, the scale of charges to be in- 
creased one-half. During the years 1844 and 1845, when the rate of postage was proportioned 
to the weight and distance, the post-office receipts, on the average, amounted to 8865/., exclusive 
of letters on the public service, and those franked by the members of the Legislative Council, on 
which there was no charge. In 1846, the post-office receipts, on a reduced scale of uniform 
postage, including the postage of letters on the public service, amounted to 8429/., which, though 
not equal to the revenue previously derived from this source, yet u exceeded by 1200/. all expen- 
diture incurred in this department, and has more than realised the expectations formed as to the 
result of this important measure. 

In respect to the aggregate fixed revenue during the three years under review, it amounts to 
174,180/., 178,554/., and 187,547/. respectively. This, when compared with the financial average 
for 1841, 1842, and 1843, exhibits an increase amounting to 29,000/., and to 24,000/. when com- 
pared with that of 1838, 1839, and 1840. This, as already mentioned, is to be ascribed to the 
steady and marked increase of the imports of the colony, on which duties are leviable. The in- 
crease in 1846, when compared with the imports of 1845, amounts, in round numbers, to 125,000/. ; 
attributable in a great measure, no doubt, to the heavy expenditure incurred by the Kafir war. 
The total declared value of imports for 1845 was 1,123,061/. 

Under the head of incidental revenue, are included sums refunded, advances and surcharges 
recovered, interest on sums due to the government, surveying and inspection monies, guano 
licenses, &c. Under this head, the average amount of revenue for 1844, 1845, and 1846, is 
36,933/., of which nearly one-half was the proceeds of fees charged on licenses to load guano, 
amounting in 1845 to 45,000/., and upwards. The incidental revenue of 1846, compared with that 
of 1845, exhibits a decrease of 24,164/., which is accounted for by the large amount received in that 
year for guano licenses, and by the transfer to the public treasury, by the guardians' fund, of 10,000/. 
Another head of revenue appears in the blue book of each of these years, and consists of the 
repayment of loans formerly received from the " Long Loan," " Storm," and " Agricultural Fund." 
In 1844, the repayments amounted to 10,751/. ; in 1845, to 1289/.; and in 1846, to 548/. As 
all that is likely to be available from this source is nearly paid up, it will soon disappear from the 
blue book as an item of revenue. 

The gross revenue for 1844, 1845, and 1846, amounted respectively to 216,487/., 247,317/., and 
201,624/., exclusive of any monies raised on debentures, and of the public tolls, which, during the 
last two years, have been transferred to the central road board. In comparing these amounts, 
the gross revenue for 1846 shows a decrease of 14,863/. on that of 1844, and of 45,693/. on that 
of 1845. It has, however, already been shown, and is now only referred to in explanation of the 
apparent decline, that, instead of any such decline having been experienced in the ordinary or 
fixed revenue of the colony during these years, there has been, on the contrary, a steady and marked 
increase, especially in the customs' dues, which is the chief source of revenue. The decrease in 
both cases is due to the large sums received, under the head of incidental revenue, in 1844 and 
1845, in the shape of fees for guano licenses, transfer of monies hitherto administered by the 
orphan chamber, and loans repaid. The average gross revenue for the three years in review 
amounted to 221,809/. 

The expenditure of the colonial government, as detailed in the blue books for 1844, 1845, 
and 1846, will be found in abstract, under distinct heads, in the following table, which also 
exhibits the average for that period, and the corresponding revenue. 



106 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA, 



HEADS OF EXPENDITURE, INCLUDING SALARIES, 
ALL CONTINGENCIES. 



The civil department of government, exclusive of those 
of the revenue 

The customs, stamps, post-office, and other revenue 
departments 

Judicial department, comprising the establishment of 
the supreme and circuit courts ... 

Resident magistrates, stipendiary justices, clerks of 
the peace, and field cornets 

Police, gaol, and convict establishments, criminal pro- 
secutions, &c 

Church and school establishments, gratuities in aid of 
mission schools, &c 

Harbour establishments, erection and repair of 
wharfs, &c . , 

Medical officers, hospitals, infirmaries, and leper in- 
stitutions 

Pensions, gratuities to civil and military servants, 
widows of clergymen, field cornets, &c 

Expense of Kafir police, resident agents among the 
border tribes, &c 

Repayment of loans, redemption of government paper, 
interest on debentures, &c 

Roads, bridges, surveys, and public works not pre- 
viously included 

Expended on account of the Natal government 

Expended on immigration 

Advances for the public service, including remittances 
to England < 

Miscellaneous disbursements 



Total expenditure 
Total revenue 



Excess of revenue over expenditure. 



1844 



£ 

20,042 

13,671 

11,158 

19,573 

30,847 

14,743 

3,841 

7,261 

11,753 

4,690 

60,851 

17,020 

1,212 

500 

4,918 
1,381 



223,461 

229,603 



1845 

£ 

21,108 

14,117 

12,579 

18,535 

27,611 

17,276 

2,176 

5,843 

13,614 

5,087 

49,453 

23,920 
1,293 

285 

6,739 
4,037 



223,673 
247,370 



23,697 



1846 



£ 

20,140 

16,852 

11,643 

19,553 

28,579 

17,560 

3,814 

4,756 

11,626 

2,318 

7,280 

27,096 
1,414 

5,885 

7,488 
3,490 



189,494 
201,625 



12,131 



Average on 
the Three 

Years. 



£ 
20,430 
14,880 
11,793 
19,220 
29,012 
16,526 
3,277 
5,953 

4,032 

39,195 

22,679 
1,307 
2,223 

6,382 
2,969 



212,209 
226,199 



13,990 



The colony of the Cape of Good Hope has been attended by an enormous 
expense to Great Britain. The above table of expenditure is altogether ex- 
clusive of that occasioned by the war with the Kafirs and the maintenance of 
British troops. Notwithstanding the climate and soil of this colony, including 
Natal, it may be questioned if the extension of the British settlements to any 
great distance from Cape Town should be encouraged. As affording shelter 
and refreshments to ships bound to and from India, Cape Town, its harbour, 
and its immediate vicinity, might be protected at comparative moderate ex- 
pense ; and peace, it is believed, might have been always maintained, if the 
grounds of the natives had not been so recklessly taken possession of by the 
Dutch and British settlers. It appears to us unjust to attack her Majesty's 
home government for the Kafir war disasters at the Cape of Good Hope. The 
original and continued causes seem to be entirely attributable to the colonists. 
It may be asked, in reply to their complaints, " What would now become of 
them, if all beyond the immediate vicinity of Cape Town were abandoned to 
their own resources ?" 

The whale fishery is carried on to a small extent by means of boats. In 
the years, from 1836 to 1839, the result was — 



YEARS. 


Number 
of Boats. 


Number 

of Wbales 

taken. 


N umber 
ol Seals 
taken. 


Value of 
Oil, &c. 


IS36 


47 

98 
77 
118 


18 
9 

10 
9 


681 
105 
345 


£ 

3349 
2355 
2348 
1550 


1S37 




1839 


1840.. ., 


1845 











CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



107 



The number of stock existing in the different districts in the three years, 
1837 to 1839, and in 1844, was as follows: — 



STOCK. 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1844 




number. 

79,881 

279,818 

1,923,082 

579,480 


number. 

71,793 

266,255 

2,030,145 

370,510 


number. 

56,703 

306,809 

2,339,191 

393,601 


number. 

93,881 

471,635 

4,513,534 

831,223 


Horned cattle 

Sheep 

Goats 



The acres of land under cultivation in the colony during 1839, and the 
quantities of the several products, were — 



PRODUCTS. 


Acres. 


Quantities. 


PRODUCTS. 


Acres. 


Quantities. 


Wheat 


number. 

74,838 

21,499 

5,536 

33,487 


bushels. 

395,329 

203,323 

32,010 

185,759 


Maize and millet 

Peas, beans, and lentils 


number. 

2939 
1026 
768 


bushels. 
32,068 

8,781 
31,131 




Rye 


Oats 















RESOURCES, PRODUCTS, TRADE, AND NAVIGATION, OF THE CAPE OF 

GOOD HOPE COLONIES. 

The climate, soil, and pastures of the, Cape of Good Hope extend to this 
extensive colony nearly all natural advantages ; bat it has neither increased in 
population, nor prospered in wealth or trade, in the same progressive rate as the 
distant colonies of Australia, or even that of Port Phillip. 

The following tables will exhibit the progress of the colony. 





1798 


1839 




62,000 

1,400,000 

500 

500 

1,000 

103 

15,000 


160,000 

4,500,000 

250,000 

520 

26,000 

660 

260,000 


Common sheep. do. 

Fine wool sheep do. 

Wool exported lbs. 




Value of produce exported £ 



candles, 25,286 lbs., 784/. 
bran, 155,199 lbs., 602/. 7s 



Account of the staple articles, the produce of the Cape of Good Hope, in 
the year ending the 5th of January, 1839 : — 

From the Port of Cape Town.— Aloes, 75,963 lbs., value 851/. 10s.; argols, 8128 lbs./ 164/. j 
beef and pork, 846 casks, 3123/.; whalebone, 4311 lbs., 164/.; butter, 47,054 lbs., 1425/.; 
barley, 1913 muids, 1238/.; beans and peas, 379 muids, 527/. 4s. ; 
flour, 799,534 lbs , 9616/. ; oats, 3443 muids, 2179/. 10s. ; wheat, 
fish (dried), 848,653 lbs., 5497/. ; fruits, 
(dried), 274,195 lbs., 3621/.; fruits (green), 11/.; hides (horse and ox), 11,187 in number, 
8178/. ; horns, 49,422 in number, 1298/. 10s. ; horses, 317 in number, 9437/. ; ivory, 700 lbs., 
92/.; mules, 65 in number, 683/. ; whale oil, 4589 gals., 419/.; calfskins, 92 in number, 19/. ; 
goat ditto, 126,887 in number, 11,084/.; kip ditto, 23 in number, 1/. ; seal ditto, 3386 in num- 
ber, 1518/.; sheep ditto, 81,626 in number, 4017/.; brandy, 686 gals., 60/. ; tallow, 91,938 lbs., 
1605/. ; wax, 112 lbs., 5/. ; wine (Constantia), 5610 gals., 3392/. 10s.— ordinary, 1,081,710 gals., 
98,550/. ; wool, 286,246 lbs., 16,555/. ; other articles, 8597/. 5s. —Total, 206,991/. 16s. 

Port of Simon's Town — Fruits (dried), 800 lbs., 11. 10s.; horses, two in number, 80/. ; wine 
(Constantia), 124 gals., 98/.— ordinary, 1155 gals., 241/. 15s. Qd. ; other articles, 38/.— Total, 
465/. 

Port of Elizabeth.— Aloes, 28,867 lbs., 306/. ; beef and pork, 445 casks, 1745/. ; whalebone, 
2540 lbs., 150/,; butter, 67,299 lbs., 4380/.; candles, 220 lbs., 8/.; beans and peas, 12 muids, 



108 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



12/. ; flour, 1820 lbs., 45/. 10s, ; oats, 29 muids, 29/. ; wheat, 22 muids, 23/. ; feathers (ostrich), 
63 lbs., 252/. ; fruits (dried), 3480 lbs., 50/. ; ditto (green), 1800 lbs., 60/. ; hides (horse and ox), 
24,866 in number, 13,001/.; horns, 85,361 in number, 1401/.; horses, 11 in number, 285/.; 
ivory, 17,101 lbs., 2610/. ; mules, 5 in number, 30/. ; whale oil, 5544 gals., 540/. ; skins (calf), 
997 in number, 124/.; goat, 86,641 in number, 6642/.; kip, 1313 in number, 275/.; seal, 44 
in number, 44/.; sheep, 7220 in number, 167/.; spirits (brandy), 1211 gals., 90/.; tallow, 
38,360 lbs., 1829/. ; wax, 1298 lbs., 69/. ; wine (ordinary), 1929 gals., 151/. ; wool, 204,508 lbs., 
10,072/.; other articles, 8046/.— Total, 52,410/. 

The principal exports from the Cape consist of hides, salted meat, butter, 
grain, and flour, horns, ivory, goat, seal, and sheep skins, tallow, wool, and 
wine. 

Of the last-named article of produce the quantity exported in each of the 
five years. 1835 to 1839, and in 1844, was — 



YEARS. 


Gallons. 


Valued at 


Y EARS. 


Gallons. 


Valued at 




number. 

1,247,819 

926,639 

1,122,906 


£ 

107,546 

84,220 

99,851 


1838 


number. 

1,090,079 

1,157,061 

607,602 


£ 
102,408 




1839 


99,798 


1837 


1844 


55,424 



The shipping that entered and cleared from the several ports of Cape Colony, 
viz., Cape Town, Simon's Town, and Port Elizabeth, in the four years, 1836 to 
1839, and in 1844, was as follows: — 



Y EARS. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


1836 


number. 
381 

400 
472 
524 
533 


number. 
124,952 
139,103 
170,329 

168,729 
177,804 


number. 
352 

378 
356 
510 
503 


number. 
118,042 
134,207 
165,977 
166,021 
171,073 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1844 









Summary of the Commerce and Navigation of the Eastern Province of the Colony of the 
Cape of Good Hope for the following Years. — From Port Elizabeth, Algoa Bay. 



YEARS. 



1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 



Ships Inwards. 



number. 
73 
64 
67 
79 
85 
75 
83 
99 



Tonnage. 



number. 
10,938 
8,810 
9,133 
12,607 
13,077 
10,046 
11,975 
15,636 



Imports. 



£ 
39,817 
87,245 
103,077 
131,162 
144,015 
88,665 
90,387 
160,588 



Exports. 



£ 

33,298 
47,307 
39,768 
52,412 
42,495 
61,105 
66,050 
121,547 



Duties and Fees 
collected. 



2,894 
3,489 
5,450 
5,599 
4,025 
4,771 
10,846 



The navigation and trade between the United Kingdom and this colony, as 
also that with all the other British possessions, will be found detailed hereafter 
in the supplements to this work. 

The following statements are taken from the official returns of the Cape 
Colony. 



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



109 



Shipping Inwards. 



YEARS. 


United Kingdom. 


British Colonies. 


Foreign States. 


Total. 


1824 


number. 

29 

66 

79 

87 
114 
102 


tons. 
8,313 
23,595 
20,737 
26,841 
33,700 
30,959 


number. 
24 

80 
114 

98 

88 
115 


tons. 
5,460 
25,920 
32,752 
34,654 
20,829 
40,340 


number. 

13 

41 

38 

38 
151 
141 


tons. 
7,052 
14,821 
14,769 
12,373 
54,702 
36,356 


number. 
66 
187 
231 
223 
353 
358 


tons. 
20,825 
63,706 
68,258 
73,868 
109,231 
107,655 


1828 


1831 


1832 


1833 


1834 











Shipping Outwards. 



YEARS. 


United Kingdom. 


British Colonies. 


Foreign States. 


Total. 


1824 


number. 

24 

89 
104 

95 
136 
135 


tons. 
7,918 
32,282 
33,393 
37,237 
51,552 
50,447 


number. 
18 
70 
99 
92 
83 
120 


tons. 

3,319 
21,385 
21,272 
27,953 

4,863 
36,716 


number. 
6 
28 
52 
26 
104 
95 


tons. 
1,395 
8,015 
9,915 
7,369 
9,866 

49,890 


number. 
48 
187 
255 
213 
323 
350 


tons. 
12,632 
61,682 
64,580 


1828 

1831 


1832 


1833 


100,111 
115,155 


1834 



Official View of the Trade and Navigation of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope in 
the Years ending 1835 and 1841-2. 





1835 


1841-2 


PORT S. 


Vessels Entered 
Inwards. 


Vessels Cleared 
Outwards. 


Vessels Entered 
Inwards. 


Vessels Cleared 
Outwards. 




number. 

287 
80 
28 
45 
30 


tons. 

98,996 
7,620 
5,275 
5,663 

10,435 


number. 
292 

79 
21 

47 
28 

1 


tons. 

99,495 
7,400 
4,093 
6,082 
9,764 
305 


number. 
368 
107 

52 

43 

34 


tons. 
131,750 
8,064 
9,869 
4,626 
12,311 


number. 
345 
106 
36 
56 
31 
1 


tons. 
125,806 
8,742 
7,090 
6,162 










11,281 
255 










345 
125 


114,706 
13,283 


341 
127 


113,352 
13,787 


454 
150 


153,930 
12,690 


412 
163 


144,177 




15,159 




Total 


470 


127,989 


468 


127,139 


604 


166,620 


575 


159,336 







Principal Articles exported from the Cape Colony during the following Years. 



YEARS. 


Aloe.«. 


Ivory. 


Whale Oil. 


Wine. 


Hides & Skins. 


Tallow. 


Wool. 


1820 


lbs. 
348,000 
344,861 
355,241 

52,743 
244,420 


lbs. 

9,510 
24,420 
20,661 

6,639 

6,042 


gallons. 

24,539 
38,139 
39,164 


gallons. 

1,172,733 

1,219,551 

676,711 

1,216,811 


pieces. 

63,644 
193,451 
301,374 


lbs. 

'2*800 
373,385 
319,432 


lbs. 


1822 


20,200 

23,049 

36,585 

215,868 


1824 


1831 


1835 



Abstract of the Annual Report of the Commercial Exchange. — April 23, 1845. 

Your committee, in presenting their annual report, are enabled to afford a more detailed 
statement of the trade and navigation of the colony than could be framed from the returns 
furnished quarterly by the Customs' department to the Exchange. 

The government very readily permitted copies of the tables of Customs, which are annually 
prepared for the Blue Book, to be taken for the use of the Exchange, from which source the 
committee have been enabled to extract much very interesting detail, which otherwise would not 
become generally accessible to the public. 

The total amount of imports for the year 1844 amounted to 775,377/. 12s. 10d., which is a 
decrease on the amount of the preceding year of 31,877/. 15s. lOd. ; while the Customs' duties 
fell short of those for 1843 by 6961/. Is. 5d. ; the comparative amount of duties for the two years 
being, for 1843, 69,539/. lis. 5d.; and for 1844, 62,578/. 4s. Od. 



110 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AERICA AND ASIA. 



The exports for the last exceed those of the former year by 96,307/. 19s. 2d., including 62,818/. 
for specie, and thus figure in the returns — 

1843. 1844. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Colonial .... 264,211 9 11 305,374 19 6 

Not colonial, and specie . 72,835 16 1 127,980 5 8 



Total 



433,355 5 2 



. 337,047 6 

The exports are classed in the returns under the three ports of Table Bay, Simon's Bay, and 
Port Elizabeth, and amount respectively to, viz. : — 

£ s. d. £ 

Table Bay .... 289,086 7 2 including specie 32,318 

Simon's Bay . . . 33,158 18 „ „ 30,500 

Port Elizabeth . . . 111,116 „ „ 



Total . . . 433,355 5 2 62,818 

But the table of exports from Table Bay includes the exports from Port Beaufort; and as 
that port is rapidly advancing in importance, a separate table has been framed and annexed to 
the returns, to distinguish the exports from that place, which shows the quantities of the different 
articles shipped from Port Beaufort, the declared value of which is 34,934/. 2s. 6d. 

The leading articles in this table are — 



Aloes 
Wool 
Skins 



. 304,874 lbs. 

467,694 „ 
. 52,475 in No. 



The increase in the quantities of some articles of export from Port Beaufort during the last 
year, as compared with 1843, is — 



Wool 
Skins . 
Horns 
Hides . 



286,084 lbs. 
28,940 in No. 
6,948 „ 
1,386 „ 



The following are the quantities of wool shipped from all ports in the colony for the year 
1844 :— 

From Table Bay . . . 468,575 

From Port Beaufort . . . 467,694 

From Port Elizabeth .... 1,297,677 



Total .... 2,233,946 

The trade of Port Natal figures in the Customs' returns as follows : — 



Exports from Natal 
Imports at ditto 



£ 

7,729 
32,286 



In comparing the arrivals of shipping in the colony for the years 1843 and 1844, exclusive of 
the coasting trade, there appears an increase in favour of the last year of 102 vessels ; the number 
entered inwards for 1844 being 533 vessels, 177,804 tons ; and for 1843 only 392 vessels, 131,068 
tons. Of the number for 1844, 53 vessels, 11,967 tons, arrived at Port Elizabeth, or two vessels 
more than in the preceding year. The coasting trade exhibits a decrease in the number of 
vessels cleared inwards for 1844 : — 

Vessels. Tons. 

For 1843 . . .242 . . 31,784 

For 1844 . 203 . 29,517 

Decrease . . .39 . . 2,267 

An Account of the Staple Articles, the Produce of this Colony, Exported in the Year 

ended 5th January, 1845 : — 

Port of Cape Town. 



ARTICLES 



Aloes lbs. 

Argol , do. 

Beef and pork. casks 

Bone (whale) lbs. 

Butter do. 

Candles do. 

Barley muids 

Beans and peas do. 

Bran lbs. 

Flour do. 

Oats .... muids 

Wheat do. 

Fe athers (ostrich) lbs. 

Fish (cured) do. 

Fruits (dried) do. 

Fruits ( green) do. 

Hides (horse and ox) . . . .no. 



Quantities. 



number. 

506,796 

112,440 

1,378 

2,695 

84,635 

26,845 

3,309 

1,211 

191,580 

778,650 

1,623 

592 

842 

3,484 ; 133 

161,815 

880 

12,484 



Value. 



£ 
6,586 
1,486 
3,053 

150 
3,512 

855 
1,614 
1,643 

626 
7,582 

720 

565 
5,005 
14,228 
2,138 
11 
7,560 



ARTICLES. 



Horns no 

Horses do 

Ivory lbs 

Mules no, 

Oil, viz., seal galls, 

whale do, 

Skins, goat no 

seal .....do 

sheep do 

Spirits, viz., brandy .... galls 

Tallow lbs 

Wax do 

Wine, viz., Constantia. . galls 

ordinary do 

Wool lbs 

Other articles 

Total , 



Quantities. 



number. 

56,030 

192 

3,973 

433 

668 

2,906 

95,285 

2,108 

116,627 

1,892 

158,964 

336 

1,680 

605,912 

936,269 



Value. 



£ 

990 

6,463 

606 

5,188 

80 

320 

7,557 

690 

3,213 

218 

2,935 

20 

1,585 

53,839 

45,872 

9,320 

196,233 



NAVIGATION AND TRADE. 



Ill 



Port of Simon's Town. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantities. 


Value. 


Fruits (dried) ibs. 


n umber. 

100 
13 
117 
100 
197 
500 


£ s. 
2 

400 
1800 

5 
200 10 
110 8 

6 


Mules and asses do. 

Oil, viz. seal gallons 

Wine, viz. Constantia.. ..do. 
,, ordinary. .• .pipes 






2523 18 





Port of Port Elizabeth. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantities. 


Value. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantities. 


Value. 




number. 

318,035 

605 

54,743 

5,262 

14 

189 

14,581 

62 

49 

74,989 

24 

31,723 

43,114 


£ 

3,225 

1,684 

1,843 

155 

4 

288 

143 

19 

180 

390 

46 

19,998 

583 




number. 

2 

11,000 

1,250 

57,930 

94 

8,599 

57 

102,581 

723 

1,532 

1,297,677 


£ 

75 

1,808 

45 


Beef and pork casks 










4,626 


Barley muids 

Beans and peas do. 




sheep do. 

Spirits, viz. brandy ..gallons 

Tallow lbs. 

Wax , do. 


177 

7 




1,532 


Feathers (ostrich) lbs. 

Fish (dried) do. 

Fruit (green) packages 

Hides (horse and ox) . . . .no. 


Wine, ordinary pipes 


136 

67,635 
1,932 




Total 










106,618 



An Account of the Declared Value of the Staple Articles, the Produce of the Colony of 
the Cape of Good Hope, Exported in the Years 1843 and 1844. 



ARTICLES. 


Value. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


1843 


1844 


Value. 


Value. 




£ 
42,620 
2,214 
1,522 


£ 

54,085 

1,785 

1,486 


£ 

11,000 

3,730 

6,066 

29,216 

.... 


£ 
















46,356 
16,085 
35,492 
7,862 
105,380 
55,716 


57,356 
11,276 
39,223 
13,926 
134,596 
48,997 


4,809 


Cattle, including horns, skins, &c 




Produce of sheep and goats, including wool 


6,718 








266,890 
Inci 


1 


305,374 


50,012 
11,527 


11,527 






ease 




38,484 













Statement of Exports of Staple Articles, distinguishing Coasting Transactions, for the 

Year ended January 5, 1846. 



ARTICLES. 


Direct. 


Coastwise. 


Total. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




number. 

266,025 

1,414 

100,230 

15,442 

496,896 

42,671 

39,023 

7,475 

67,911 

154,489 

2,055,048 


£ 

3,009 

3,128 

3,955 

407 

10,583 

21,092 

538 

1,440 

6,323 

2,819 
114,153 
11,807 


number. 

700 

293 

185,600 

6,900 

47,800 

2,072 

36,517 

1,800 

1,058. 

61,050 

299,700 

253,410 


£ 

9 

605 

7,182 

200 

5S6 

1,040 

474 

330 

1,05S 

4,084 

4,785 

12,857 

3,992 


number. 
266,725 

1,707 

285,830 

22,342 

544,696 

44,743 

75,540 

9,275 

1,058 

128,961 

454,189 

2,308,458 


£ 

3,018 




3,733 


Butter lbs. 


11,137 
607 




11,169 




22,132 


Horns do. 


1,012 
1,770 


Leather half hides 

Skins (goat and sheep).. no. 

Tallow lbs. 

Wool do. 

Other colonial articles 


1,058 

10,407 

6,604 

127,004 

15,799 


Not colonial. > 




179,254 
2,440 


.. 


37,196 
4,141 




216,450 
6,581 


Total exports 




181,694 




41,337 




223,031 



112 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Statement of the Quantity and Value of the Produce of the Colony of the Cape of Good 
Hope, Exported in the Years ending the 5th of January, 1841 and 1842. 



ARTICLES. 



Aloes lbs. 

Argol do. 

Salted provisions casks 

Butter lbs. 

Grain muids 

Bran lbs. 

Flour do. 

Ostrich feathers. do. 

Fish, cured do. 

Fruits, dried do. 

Hides pieces 

Horns do 

Horses and mules number 

Ivory lbs 

Oil, whale gallons 

Whalebone 1 

Skins pieces 

Tallow lbs. 

Tallow candles do 

Wool do. 

Leather £ hides 

Wine pipes 

Sundry articles, colonial 



Total colonial produce exported.. 



Quantity. 



number. 

485,574 

1,058 

331,398 

12,416 

860,587 



26,654 
91,955 



12,359 
11,954 



311,491 
434,433 



1,016,807 
7,816 



Value. 



£ 

8,821 

3,653 
12,623 
5,819 

5,891 



15,214 
1,970 



,937 
700 



20,265 
7,811 



48,839 



67,832 
43,981 



245,356 



Quantity. 



Increase in 1842. 



Value. 



number. 


£ 


662,620 


11,877 


88,366 


1,453 


1,485 


4,789 


174,027 


8,380 


8,267 


4,705 


1,133,834 


11,039 


975 


4,649 


1,696,064 


7,424 


172,735 


2,173 


36,861 


25,224 


93,287 


2,005 


536 


14,880 


11,749 


2,297 


9,387 


1,485 


9,547 


465 


367,625 


29,664 


234,633 


5,907 


42,561 


1,287 


1,428,793 


77,179 


2,825 


2,834 


5,200 


38,608 




10,927 




269,331 




245,356 



J.975 



Imports, Exports, 


&c., for the Year ended January 5, 1846. 




ARTICLES EXPORTED. 


Cape Town (including Port 
Beaufort and Mossel Bay). 


Simon's 


Town. 




Quantities. Value. 


Quantities. 


Value. 




number. 

162,209 

62,608 

1,878 

50,835 

43,085 

954 

1,809,527 

839,153 

340,038 

11,873 

18,021 

51,019 

252 

7,883 

89,904 

139,802 

3,600 

73,240 

545,284 

1,109,554 


£ 

1,712 

970 

4,993 

1,781 

1,255 

5,563 

8,094 

6,708 

4,453 

6,502 

11,8S0 

723 

8,655 

1,451 

7,673 

5,348 

477 

1,190 

51,738 

59,688 

57,157 


number. 

215 
5,197 

491 
5,000 

837 
25,167 


£ 


Argol do. 




Butter lbs. 


























162 




140 












30 




250 


Spirits; viz. — Brandy gallons 

Tallow lbs. 






284 


Wool, sheep lbs. 


2900 
1473 








248,011 
83,131 


5239 




1161 






Grand Total, Cape Town 


331,142 


6400 







TOTAL VALUE OF IMPORTS. 


TOTAL VALUE OF EXPORTS. 




£ s. d. 

783,052 14 8 

201,485 

13,657 5 




£ s. d. 
331,142 
181,694 

6,400 


Port Elizabetb 


Port Elizabeth 




Total colony 


Total colony 


998,201 15 1 


519,236 



WINE AND SPIRIT TRADE OE THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



113 



VESSELS I 


NWARDS. 




VESSELS OUTWARDS. 




number. 

69 
72 

34 
22 


tons. 

11,324 
12,630 


number. 
549 

208 


tons. 
182,280 
25,525 




number. 

75 
58 


tons. 

14,205 

8,727 


number. 
539 

210 

749 
133 
52 


tons. 

181,528 


Coastwise 




28,132 


Total Cape Town... 


Total Cape Town.. 
Port Elizabeth 


757 

141 

56 


207,805 

23,954 

14,902 
246,661 


209,660 










22,932 


Simon's Town 


11,675 
3,227 


41 
11 


12,776 
880 








Total colony 


13,656 












Total colony 


954 


934 


246,248 



Port Natal. 
Year ended January 5, 1846. 



Total value of imports. 



.£31,700 18 5 



VESSELS INWARDS. 
Number. Tons 



Total value of exports : — 

Colonial produce £10,161 12 

Notcolonial 238 13 



Total £10,400 5 9 



VESSELS OUTWARDS. 
Number. I Tons. 

23 2441 



WJNE AND SPIRIT TRADE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 
An Account of Spirits imported into the Ports of Cape Town in the following Years, viz. : 





French Brandy. 


All other Foreign Spirits. 


YEARS. 


Duty Paid. 


Warehoused. 


Delivered 
from Ware- 
house for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Duty Paid. 


Warehoused. 


Delivered 
from Ware- 
house for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Year to 5th of July, 1843.. 
Do. do. do. 1844.. 
Do. do. do. 1845.. 


gallons. 

74,284 
39,546 
78,593 


gallons. 

29,434 

5,788 

14,294 


gallons. 
20,643 
15,668 
17,497 


gallons. 
17,474 
14,405 
7,806 


gallons. 
7,348 
25,648 
14,942 


gallons. 

5,601 

10,280 

13,201 


Total imperial gallons .... 


193,423 




53,799 


I 






British Spirits. 


British Possessions Spirits. 


YEARS. 


Duty Paid. 


Warehoused. 


Delivered 
from Ware- 
house for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Duty Paid. 


Warehoused. 


Delivered 
from Ware- 
house for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Year to 5th of July, 1843.. 
Do. do. do. 1844.. 
Do. do. do. 1845.. 


gallons. 
313 

62 

1 264 


gallons, 
nil. 
nil. 

nil. 


gallons. 
nil. 
nil. 
nil. 


gallons. 
2818 
1127 
1080 


gallons. 
29,418 
3,150 
nil. 


gallons. 
3796 
2938 

797 



Imperial gallons. 

Memorandum.— French brandy, i. e. duty paid 193,423 

Delivered from warehouse 53,799 



Tota L 247,222 



Being equal to 82,407 imperial gallons for one year, which, at 15 gallons per pipe, gives 5493 
pipes, whereby, on reference to the number of pipes annually exported, it will be seen that all the 
French brandy imported is used in the preparation of wine for exportation. 



VOL. V. 



114 



BKITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Quantity of Spirits (made from Cape Wine) produced in this Colony, as passed the 
Barrier and the Cape Town Market, in the following Years. 



YEARS. 


Leaguers. 


Quantity. 




98| 
177f 
76 


Imperial gallons. 
12,506 
22,549 

9,661 








351f 


44,716 





Memorandum.— There are only two licensed distilleries for the manufacture of Cape spirits in the colony; the 
one situate at the Paarl, and the other at Stellenbosch, at a distance of about thirty miles from Cape Town. 

Return showing the amount of Duty paid on all spirits imported into the port of Cape Town 
between the 15th of August, 1843, and the 15th of August, 1845, distinguishing the respective 
quantities and amount of duties paid on "spirits the produce of the United Kingdom or any 
British possessions," and " spirits not the produce of the United Kingdom or of any British 
possessions." 

Spirits the Produce of the United Kingdom or any British Possession. 



SORT OF SPIRIT. 


Duty paid on 
Importation. 


Delivered ex 
Warehouse for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Amount of Duty. 




gallons. 
311 
15 
1153 


gallons, 
nil. 
nil. 

3670 


£ s. d. 
5 3 8 
5 

77 2 8 






Total 


.. 


88 11 A 









Spirits not the Produce of the United Kingdom or any British Possession. 



SORT OF SPIRIT. 


Duty paid on 
Importation. 


Delivered ex 
Warehouse for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Amount of Duty. 




gallons. 

120,053 

3,083 

15,711 

397 

2,268 


gallons. 

36,266 
3,557 

17,756 

92 

202 


dB s. d. 

2412 14 5 

318 5 8 

1636 19 6 

22 13 4 

123 7 10 








Gin . 










Total 


• • 


• • 


4514 9 


Grand Total 


.. 


1 4596 12 1 



Return showing the amount of Duty paid on all spirits imported into the port of Cape Town 
between the 15th of August, 1845, and the 15th of August, 1847 :— 

Spirits the Produce of the United Kingdom or any British Possession. 



SORT OF SPIRIT. 


Duty paid on 
Importation. 


Delivered ex 
Warehouse for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Amount of Duty. 




gallons. 

491 

8,744 

16,956 

3,359 


gallons. 




22,379 




£ s. d. 

8 4 4 
145 14 8 
647 10 1 

55 19 8 




Rum 


Arrack 


Total 






857 8 9 



WINE AND SPIRIT TRADE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE. 



115 



Spirits not the Produce of the United Kingdom or any British Possession. 



SORT OF SPIRIT. 


Duty paid on 
Importation. 


Delivered ex 
Warehouse for 
Home Con- 
sumption. 


Amount of Duty. 




gallons. 

72,639 

4,894 

13,390 

2,929 

1,466 



5,368 


gallons. 

99,845 
2,574 

19,875 
2,384 
2,071 
1,512 
3,175 


£ s. d. 
7,894 2 2 

370 12 8 
1,581 17 8 

265 13 

171 2 8 
75 12 

384 8 9 




Gin 


Arrack 






Total 






10,743 8 11 


Grand Total 




11,600 17 8 



Statement of the Quantities of Wine and Brandy (made from the Husks of the Grape) 
brought into Cape Town during the following Years : — 



YEARS. 


Leaguers 
of Wine. 


Leaguers 
of Brandy. 


YEARS. 


Leaguers 
of Wine. 


Leaguers 
of Brandy. 


YEARS. 


Leaguers 
of Wine. 


Leaguers 
of Brandy. 


1806 

1807 

1808 

1809 

1810 

1811 


number. 
4,733 
4,983 
5,266 
5,004 
4,898 
6,948 
5,363 
6,074 
5,065 
9,950 
8,758 
12,379 


number. 
449 
318 

306 
299 
374 
309 
440 
316 
301 
560 
703 
488 


1818 

1819 

1820 

1821 

1822 

1823 

1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

1829 


number. 

7,701 
8,888 
11,269 
11,865 
10,500 
15,612 
] 4,548 
11,239 
8,545 
14,478 
16,931 
13,25G 


number. 
385 
449 

519 
582 
523 
692 
841 
626 
630 
754 
824 
661 


1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 


number. 

13,027 
10,221 
11,072 

10,476 
9,366 
12,072 
12,914 
11,499 
12,996 
11,983 
11,789 


number. 
627 
923 
809 
1033 
628 
675 


1812 

1813 

1814.., 

1815 

1816 

1817 


1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 


595 

717 
716 
590 
543 



Return of the several kinds of Wines as passed the Cape Town Market, viz. 





DATES. 






W I 


N E S. 






Common White. 


Common Red. 


Sweet. 


Constantia. 




Leaguers. 


Leaguers. 


Leaguers. 


Leaguers. 


From A 


ugust 15, 1840 to August 15, 

1841 „ 
, 1842 

1843 
, 1844 
, 1845 

1846 


1841.... 

1842.... 
1843.... 
1844.... 

1845 

1846 

1847.... 


number. 
11,726 5-16 

10,324| 

9,5364 

7,497| 

7,927 13-16 

9,226 3-16 
12,243f 


number. 
f Red Wine ) 
| included. } 

ditto. 

ditto. 

ditto. 

324± 

129| 

310^ 


number. 

52f 

58| 
63| 
39f 
51| 
38| 
69i 


number. 

10 5-16 
13f 

13 15-16 

14 15-32 
16 21-32 
24 3-32 



A statement of the actual cost of a pipe of Cape wine, laid down in London, with an accurate 
synopsis of the several items and ingredients of expense entering into the cost thereof, viz. — The 
separate cost and expense of the wine, brandy, duty and imposts, casks, store-rent, labour, 
wastage, interest, wharfage, market dues, shipping expenses, freight, insurance, orphan dues, and 
dock charges, comprising in the aggregate the sum of 10/. lis. 

£ s. d. £ s. 

To wit :— Cost of the wine 2 6 10 

Duty and imposts 14 

All other ingredients 7 10 2 

10 11 

whereby it will appear that the first cost of the wine, which has to be brought from the wine 
districts at a heavy expense of transport, forms but a very insignificant portion of the outlay of 
capital and actual cost of the wine exported ; and that the duty paid to government on the 
foreign spirit mixed with the wine is equivalent to an export duty of full 25 per cent on the value 
of the wine exported, viz. — 

I 2 



116 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



£ s. d. 

Wine, i. e. 95 gallons wine a 50 per leaguer 2610 

Brandy, 15 ditto, exclusive of duty, a 3 250 

110 gallons old measure. 

Duty and imposts, viz. : — 

£ s. d. 

Customs import duty 12 6 

Wharfage dues 009 

Market dues 009 

14 

Cask, seasoned pipe 1 10 

Store-rent, and labour 12 4 

Wastage, &c. 054 

Interest on capital 12 6 

Shipping expenses ....• .020 

Freight and insurance 1 10 

Orphan dues, dock charges on landing 13 

Total £ 10 11 

Say 10/. 11*. the cost of a pipe of wine laid down in London, exclusive of agency, brokerage, 
and a variety of other charges attending the sales. At a moderate computation these charges 
may be estimated, including leakage, difference of gauge, &c, at 2/. per pipe, and, taking the 
average price of Cape wine in the home market during the last two years at 10/. per pipe, the loss 
on all the wines shipped during that period may be estimated at 21. 10s. per pipe ; an amount 
exceeding first cost of the wine itself ! 

Quantities of Foreign and British Spirits entered for Consumption at Cape Town during 
the Period commencing the 15th of August, 1843, and ending 15th of August, 1845, 
and between the 15th of August, 1845, and 15th of August, 1847, and the Amount of 
Duties respectively paid thereon. 





Foreign. 


British. 




PERIOD. 


Spirits. 


Amount of 
Duty. 


Spirits. 


Amount of 
Duty. 


Duty Paid. 


Between the,,' 15th of August, 
1843, and 15th of August, 1845 

Between the 15th of August, 
1845, and 15th of August, 1847 


imp. gallons. 
119,385 
232,122 


£ s. d. 
4,514 9 
10,743 8 11 


imp. gallons. 
5,149 
51,929 


£ s. d. 
82 11 4 

857 8 9 


£ s. d. 
4,596 12 1 
11,600 17 8 


Total 


351,507 


15,257 9 8 


57,078 


940 1 


16,197 9 9 





A Return showing the Quantities of Cape Wines that passed the Cape Town Market in 

the following periods : — 

pipes. 

From 15th August 1843, to 15th August 1845 21,927 

1845, „ 1847 30,574 

Increase, equal to forty per cent 8,647 

A Return of Cape Wines Exported in the under-mentioned Years. 



YEARS. 


To United 
Kingdom. 


To all other 
Places. 


Total. 


YEARS. 


To United 
Kingdom. 


To all other 
Places. 


Total. 


1833 


pipes. 

5932 
5448 
6095 
3978 
6885 


pipes. 

4629 
2849 
4093 
5911 
3234 


pipes. 
11,343 

9,404 
10,561 

8,297 
10,188 

9,889 
10,119 


1840 

1841 

1842 


pipes. 
3646 

2841 
2429 


pipes . 
5171 

4957 
2310 
4188 
1788 
2373 
2727 


pipes. 

8817 
7798 
4739 


1834 


1835 


1836 


5700 


1837 


1844.'!!!!!!. 4186 
1845 3554 


6604 


1838 


5927 


1839 


5551 











Statement of Cape Spirits distilled at the Paarl Distillery, from the 1st of April, 1842, 

to the 1st of April, 1847. 



PERIOD. 



From 1st April 1842, to 1st April 1843, 

„ 1843 „ 1844, 

1844 „ 1845 

„ 1845 „ 1846 

„ 1846 „ 1847 



Average Price of 

Wine per Leaguer 

in Cape Town. 



rds. sk. st. 
33 
53 2 4 



Quantity of Spirits 
Distilled. 



gallons. 
30,956 
4,201 
14,960 
11,409 
24,017 



Quantity Sold to 

Wine 

Merchants. 



gallons. 

1,520 
16,300 

8,615 
10,577 
14,606 



Average Price per 

Gallon in Cape 

Town. 



rds. sk. st. 

1 5 2 

1 6 4 

1 7 

2 4 
2 13 



ST. HELENA AND ASCENSION. 



117 



St. Helena. — This small island is situated in 15 deg. 15 min. south latitude, 
and 5 deg. 50 min. west longitude. It is about ten miles long, nearly seven 
miles wide; area about 30,000 acres. 

It was the prison — not creditable to George IV. — of Napoleon, when he 
threw himself upon the hospitality of England. This island has a plentiful 
supply of good water, and of fresh vegetables, for homeward ships bound from 
India. 

It was colonized by the Dutch, and abandoned for the Cape of Good Hope 
in 1651. In that year the East India Company took possession of it, and 
obtained a grant of the island from Charles II.; they retained it until 1815, 
when, to secure Napoleon, it was placed directly under the crown. 

In 1836 it contained 2113 whites, and 2864 coloured persons — together, 4997- 
In July, 1839, the numbers were reduced, by emigration to the Cape of Good 
Hope, to 2527 males and 2209 females — together, 4736 souls. The climate is 
healthy, and the increase of the population through excess of births over deaths 
is proportionally great. The lessened number of inhabitants in 1839, compared 
with 1836, was occasioned by the emigration of many of the poorer persons to 
the Cape of Good Hope. 



The exports of British manufactures to St. Helena aud Ascension in each year were as 

follows: — 


YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


1827 


£ 
41,430 
31,362 
45,531 
38,915 
39,431 
21,236 
30,041 
31,615 


1835 


31,187 
11,041 
9,645 
15,065 
13,011 
9,884 
8,462 
18,675 


1843 


£ 
30,815 
23,210 
29,124 
28 309 


1828 


1836 


1844.... 


1829 


1837 


1845 


1830 


1838 


1846 


1831 


1839 


1847 




1832 


1840 


1848 




1833 


1841 


1849 




1834 


1842 


1850 











The number and tonnage of vessels that sailed from the United Kingdom to St. Helena 
and Ascension Island in each year were as follows :- 



YEARS. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


YEARS. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


1831 


number. 

6 

2 

3 
12 

9 

5 

7 
12 

7 

7 


number. 
1164 

283 

622 
2158 
1399 

967 
1631 
2366 
1717 
1009 




number. 

7 

15 

22 

26 

23 


number. 
1732 


1832 , 


1842 


3977 


1833 




4995 


1834 


1844 


6318 


1835 






1836 


1846 


5877 


1837 


1847 




1838 


1848 




1839 


1849 




1840 


1850 













In the same interval there entered British ports from these islands- 




Y 


E A R S. 


Ships. 


Tens. 


YEARS. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


1834 


number. 
2 
3 
2 
1 
1 
12 
1 


number. 
362 
396 
452 
350 
350 
2658 
196 


1845.. 


number. 
9 
4 


number. 
2101 


1838 


1846 


709 


1839 


1847 




1841 


1848 




1842 






1843 


1850 




1844 



















118 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



The Island of Ascension, 685 miles north-west of St. Helena, lies in 7 deg. 
56 min. south latitude, and 14 deg. 24 min, west longitude. It is seven miles 
and a half long, and six miles wide, a mere volcanic rock. It was taken pos- 
session of by England in 1815, to prevent vessels approaching it while Napoleon 
was at St. Helena. It has by labour been made to afford food for a few sheep 
and cattle, and to yield various fruits and green vegetables. It supplies poultry, 
turtle, and fish, which abound off its shores. A small spring supplies water, which 
is collected in tanks to supply ships calling for refreshments. 

Sierra Leone on the west coast of Africa, in 8 deg. 30 min. north latitude, 
and 13 deg. 15 min. west longitude. The river Sierra Leone is seven miles wide 
opposite Freetown. 

The population of Sierra Leone consists of Africans captured on board slave- 
ships and liberated by authority of a court of mixed commission. The popula- 
tion in 1844 consisted of — 



DESCRIPTION. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Whites 


number. 

136 

22,127 

2,298 


number. 
39 
18,931 
1,404 


number. 
175 

41,058 
3,702 


Black and coloured people. . . . 
Aliens and resident strangers. 






44,935 





Of these about 14,000, including nearly all the whites, inhabited Freetown. 
Among the blacks about 2000 Kroomen are said to be industrious, intelligent, 
and well-conducted. 

The trade of the United Kingdom with Sierra Leone is not kept in our 
custom-house distinctly, but is included with that to the African coast from, the 
river Gambia inclusive to the river Mesurada. — See general tables of the trade of 
the United Kingdom with Western Africa. 

There belonged to the colony in the year 1841, — 





Ships. 


Tons. 


Under 50 tons 

Above 50 tons 

Total 


number. 

7 
8 


number. 
245 

566 


15 1 811 



The settlements on the river Gambia form a dependency on the government 
of Sierra Leone. The town, Bathurst, is on the left bank of the river Gambia, 
at its entrance from the ocean, in 13 deg. 30 min. north latitude, and 16 deg. 37 
min. west longitude. 

The remaining British settlements on the continent of Africa are situated on 
what in called "The Gold Coast." They comprise Cape Coast Castle, Accra, 
Dix Cove, and Annamaboe. 

Cape Coast Castle, in 5 deg. 6 min. north latitude, and 1. deg. 10 min. west 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AT SIERRA LEONE. 



119 



longitude, is the seat of government for these settlements. Accra lies in 5 cleg. 
33 min. north latitude, and deg. 5 min. west longitude ; Dix Cove, in 4 deg. 
46 min. north latitude, and 1 deg. 55 min. west longitude; and Annamaboe, in 
5 deg. 12 min. north latitude, and 1 deg. 7 niin. west longitude. — See trade of the 
United Kingdom with Western Africa. 

Cape Coast Castle was first settled by the Portuguese, who were dispossessed 
by the Dutch. It was captured by the English in 1661, and has since remained 
in British possession. 

Fernando Po is an island in the Bight of Benin, in 3 deg. 25 min. north lati- 
tude, and 8 deg. 50 min. east longitude ; it is about twenty-four miles long 
and sixteen miles broad, and about twice the size of the Isle of Wight. Its sur- 
face is uneven, and in one part rises to a height of 3500 feet above the sea, to 
which circumstance is attributed its comparative healthiness. 

The trade of these settlements on the west coast of Africa is of valuable im- 
portance. For the trade and navigation between them and the United Kingdom 
for a series of years, see the details hereafter in the tables of the trade of the 
United Kingdom with all the countries of the world. 



Summary of the Value of Imports and Exports at Sierra Leone and the Settlements on 
the Gambia during the Years 1835 and 1845. 



COUNTRIES. 


18 


55 


1845 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Europe. 


£ 

115,935 

2,674 

453 

8,727 

17,844 

83 

2,813 

887 
6,820 


£ 
84,281 
3,484 

2,300 
13,355 
15,470 

3,921 

1,829 
7,142 

8,224 


£ 

147,146 
f 15,430 
{ 297 
I 1,523 

566 

14,694 

38,570 

5,443 

38,570 

642 

19,231 


£ 

120,828 

16,905 

3,914 

36,542 








Africa. 
Cape Verd Islands 


776 




17,347 




24,219 
8,203 






1,582 


America. 




254 


United States i . . 


31,983 




Total 


156,236 


140,006 


245,899 


262,543 



During the year 1835 there sailed from the United Kingdom 130 vessels, 
30,858 tons, for the west coast of Africa, and 131 vessels, 32,285 tons, arrived in 
British ports from that coast. In 1846 there sailed from the United Kingdom 
for these settlements, including the west coast south of Rio Walla, 185 vessels; 
42,200 tons; and there arrived 151 vessels, 36,845 tons, with cargoes, from the 
west coast of Africa, in the ports of the United Kingdom. 

The following is an abstract of official accounts for Sierra Leone for the year 
1847:— 



120 



BKITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



The whole of the taxes levied in the colony are imposed by various ordi- 
nances. 

Taxes. — These consist of — 1st. Customs duties ; which are— 

A. An ad valorem duty of 4 per cent upon all British and foreign goods imported into the 
colony. African produce pays no duty. 

B. An additional duty of Id. per pound upon all tobacco imported. 

C. An additional duty of 2*. per gallon on all spirituous liquors imported, with the exception 
of rum, which pays an additional duty of 1*. only. 

2nd. Other local taxes; the principal of which are — 

A. Market dues, including a tax on cattle slaughtered. 

B. A tax on horses and carriages ; every horse being taxed 1/., every carriage 2Z., per annum. 

C. Auctioneers' licences, 251. per annum each. 

D. Spirit licences. 

Net Revenue of the Colony for the Years 1837 to 1847, both inclusive. 



YEARS. 


Amount of Customs 
Duties on Imports, 

&c. 


Amount of Revenue from 

other Sources, deducting 

Repayment of Advances and 

Loans, Receipts in aid of 

Revenue, Deposits, and the 

Liberated African Department. 


Net Amount of 
Revenue. 


1837 


£ s. d. 
7,726 18 3 
7,232 12 3| 
11,005 11 5| 
12,609 13 6 
9,071 19 0£ 
7,584 13 3J 
10,226 18 l| 
11,032 11 10§ 
16,119 10 9 
13,726 10 7i 
16,371 16 104 


£ s. d. 
2225 12 6| 
2303 13 0£ 
4527 17 11| 
3992 15 5£ 
2065 14 0A 
2189 19 3J 
2337 12 6i 
2809 19 6| 
4676 3 1 
2935 13 7| 
4281 7 10| 


£ s. d. 
9,946 10 9f 
9,536 5 3§ 
15,533 9 5 
16,602 8 ll| 
11,137 13 Of 
9,774 12 7 
12,564 10 7f 
13,842 11 5£ 
20,795 13 10 
16,662 4 2| 
20 653 4 9 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 







Expenditure for the Years 1837 to 1847, hoth inclusive. 


YEARS. 
1837 


Remittances to 
Agent-General to 
Pay Pensions and 

Miscellaneous 

Expenses incurred 

in England. 


Amount of General Disburse- 
ments, exclusive of that Paid 

from Parliamentary Grant, 

Liberated African Department, 

on account of Loans and 

Deposits, 


Net Amount 
of Disbursements. 


£ s. d. 

416 13 4 

710 10 

3186 2 Hi 

710 
1015 
1000 

500 
1000 
5000 


£ s. d. 

7,689 8 10| 
12,036 13 9| 
10,785 6 44 

8,697 13 0± 
12,663 3 8 
11,075 17 If 
10,862 12 7f 
15,534 19 5 
21,812 13 
15,759 18 44 
20,405 7 3f 


£ s. d. 

8,106 2 2£ 
12,747 3 9| 
13,971 9 3| 

8,697 13 Of 
12,663 3 8 
11,785 17 lj 
11,877 12 7f 
16,534 19 5 
22,312 13 
16,759 18 4| 
25,405 7 3| 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


1S44 


1845 


18^6 


1847 





Imports and Exports. — The value of the imports in 1847 was 116,689/.; that in 1846, 
105,368/. 

This increase is chiefly owing to the increase in the importation of spirits. The imports con- 
sist of goods imported in British vessels from Great Britain and from foreign states, and in goods 
imported in foreign vessels from foreign states : — 

£ 

. 89,236 
. 4,087 
. 14,963 



Imported in British vessels from Great Britain 
„ „ „ foreign states . 

Imported in foreign vessels from the United States 



other foreign states 



8,481 



The imports from Great Britain consist of India goods, cotton manufactured goods, hardware 
spirits, ale, wine. &c. 

The commerce between the colony and the United States has greatly increased of late years, 



IMPORTS AND EXPORTS AT SIERRA LEONE. 121 

owing partly to the increased demand for American goods, partly for consumption in the colony 
itself, and partly to carry on the extensive commerce which lias lately sprung up between the 
colony and the neighbouring countries, in consequence of the increased demand in Europe for 
ground-nuts and oil-seeds. 

In former years the imports from the United States consisted almost entirely of tobacco and 
lumber ; but of late a considerable quantity of American cotton goods has been imported, those 
articles being in much request among the natives on account of their thickness and similitude to 
their own rude fabrics. None of the finer kinds of cotton goods are imported from the United 
States. 

The foreign imports are principally from the Hanse Towns. There have lately also been 
several importations from Portugal of the common kinds of earthenware of that country, which 
seem to be prized by the people of the colony. 

The number of vessels which arrived during 1847 was 185 ; 32 being from Great Britain, 10 
from the United States, and 143 from other places ; among the last are included, of course, prizes 
and coasting vessels. 

The value of the exports in 1847, as shown by the customs returns, was 100,878/. ; and in 1846 
it was 125,818/. 

The exports consist of teak timber, ground-nuts, camwood, ginger, pepper, ivory, gold, &c. ; 
of these, the two first are the most important. 

The timber is felled in the countries in the vicinity of the colony ; the little that remains in 
the colony grows in situations too far removed from the waterside to bear the expense of 
shipping. 

The ground-nut has of late years become an important article of commerce ; from this nut 
an oil is expressed which is used in manufactures and machinery, and also, to a limited extent, 
for burning. Owing to the number of railroads which within the last few years have been 
opened throughout Europe, and to the admirable adaptation of this oil for lubricating and clean- 
ing heavy machinery, it has been brought into extensive demand. The plant is grown in 
abundance in the neighbourhood of the colony, and its production is daily increasing to meet the 
increasing demand. 

The value of the ground-nuts exported in 1847, as shown by the customs records, was 
21,336/. ; but a large quantity of this article has been shipped direct from the rivers in the neigh- 
bourhood, and of course does not appear in the customs returns. Benni-seed or sesame, which 
produces a very fine oil, is also beginning to be grown. 

The customs return does not include the gold exported, which, not being subject to duty in 
England, does not in general appear in the manifest of the vessel in which it is shipped. The 
amount exported in 1847 may be estimated at from 16,000/. to 20,000/. A small proportion only 
of the exports is the produce of the colony itself; by far the greater part being the growth of the 
neighbouring countries. The ginger, pepper, and arrowroot, however, which are exported, are 
raised in the colony, and their production is rapidly increasing. 

The import trade used formerly to be in the hands of a few European merchants, but of late 
years it has been largely shared by native merchants ; many of them liberated Africans. 

The state of the revenue and navigation laws has tended to check the expansion of the com- 
merce of the colony. Its principal value, in a commercial point of view, is merely as a secure 
depot for the deposit of goods with which the trade with the surrounding country is to be carried 
on, and its situation would undoubtedly render it the emporium of the commerce of a great part 
of the western coast of Africa. This opinion is borne out by the circumstance that the gold trade 
is fast leaving its ancient channels, the Gambia, Nunez, and other places, and flowing into Sierra 
Leone ; and that the countries contiguous to the colony are capable of producing large quantities 
of articles of great commercial value. Any prohibitions or high duties must necessarily impede 
such a commerce as this. 

The operation of the navigation laws is also injurious to the commerce of the colony. Several 
examples of their effect readily present themselves. French and Belgian vessels coming to the 
colony for ground-nuts cannot bring blue bafts and other articles much in demand ; they are 
therefore obliged to come out in ballast, or land their cargoes in the neighbouring rivers, at con- 
siderable risk. African produce also is prevented by these laws from being imported into the 
colony in foreign ships, to the great detriment of its trade ; indeed, if these laws were enforced 
to the letter, the colony could not receive its necessary supplies of provisions, the greater part of 
which are brought from the neighbouring countries in canoes not belonging to the colony ; but 
the inconvenience — I had almost said the absurdity — of such a prohibition has prevented any 
attempts to enforce it. 

Public Works. — The amount expended on public works during the year 1847 is 6075/. 8s. 6§r/., 
whilst that expended for the same purpose during 1846 was 3295/. Ms. l\d. There has thus 
been an excess of 'expenditure under this head in 1847, as compared with the preceding year, of 
2779/. 16*. lOftf. :— 



122 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



WORKS. 


EXPENDITURE. 


1846 


1847 


Old Market 


£ s. d. 
610 9 9| 

96 17 7 
273 3 9i 

628 15 

298 8 8f 


£ *„ d. 

1582 3 7 
469 5 9± 
553 1 7 
225 16 6 

1651 18 11| 

















The edifice erected upon the foundations of the old market-place has been completed. It is 
a capacious building. The under part of it is used as a bonding store, and the upper portions of 
it are divided into three large compartments, two of which were used as offices for the collector 
of customs and the clerks, and the other was to be used as a public room. One only of the 
compartments is now used as a custom-house, and another is set apart as a police-office, in lieu 
of the miserable and leaky building formerly devoted to that purpose. 

Under the item of " Estimates generally," a large quantity of American timber was purchased 
towards the close of last year. 

The roads in the neighbourhood of Freetown, to the extent of two or three miles, are excellent ; 
but there is a want of good roads in other parts of the colony. 

The nature of the country presents difficulties to the formation of carriage-roads. 

Boat-building is carried on to a considerable extent ; the whole of the fishing boats in the 
colony are constructed by natives. They are carvel built, and excellent sea-boats. Several small 
decked vessels have lately also been built in the colony. 

The art of carpentering is practised with some degree of success in the construction of the 
wood-work of buildings, and of common pieces of furniture. 

Masonry and building have made some progress ; good and substantial houses and warehouses 
are scattered over the town, and some of the public buildings, and especially the churches, are 
very well built edifices. 

Leather-dressing is exercised, to a small extent, by one or two persons in Freetown ; shoes are 
made with the leather. 

The manufacture of oil is carried on in the colony. The oil from the ground-nut is expressed 
in considerable quantities by means of an oil-press, worked by hand. This oil meets with good 
sale in the colony, and is also used by nearly all the men-of-war upon the coast, especially by the 
steamers, as it appears to be well adapted for heavy machinery. 

In the western district of the colony an oil is expressed from a nut called the Coundee-nut ; 
it is used for burning as a light, for lubricating and cleaning iron tools and utensils, and also as a 
purgative medicine. It is much cheaper than ground-nut oil. 

The currency of the colony consists of British coins, which pass at their full value. 

Of threepenny and three-halfpenny pieces, which have been sent from England as colonial 
coins. 

Of Spanish, Mexican, and South American doubloons and dollars, and French twenty-franc 
gold and five-franc silver pieces, all of which are in circulation in the colony at a valuation fixed 
by her Majesty's proclamation. The doubloon is valued at 3/. 4s. ; the dollar at 4s, 2d. ; the 
twenty-franc piece at 15*. 10d., and the five-franc piece at 3s. lO^d. 

Within the last few years the Spanish, Mexican, and South American coins have been 
gradually disappearing from circulation, and they are scarcely to be met with in 'any quantities. 
The Americans, who have lately imported largely into the colony the produce and manufactures 
of their own country, prefer receiving doubloons and dollars in exchange, rather than run the risk 
of the uncertain market which the United States afford for African produce. 

Fish is plentiful in the neighbourhood of the colony. 

Although there are no public fisheries in the colony, a large number of its people are engaged 
in fishing, both with the seine and the circular casting net. In the neighbourhood of Freetown 
there are 30 boats and 50 canoes employed, and about 40 more boats and canoes are similarly 
employed at Kent and York, making an aggregate of about 120 fishing boats and canoes in the 
whole colony ; each of these vessels generally carries seven hands, or about 840 persons engaged 
in the fishing trade. The people of the colony consume a considerable quantity of fish with their 
rice and foofoo ; but very large quantities of it, after being smoked or partially cooked and slightly 
salted, are packed and sent into the interior of the country, between which and the colony it 
forms a somewhat important article of commerce. 

Agriculture. — The peninsula of Sierra Leone is separated from the main land by a narrow 
isthmus of about a mile and a half in breadth. 

The estuary of the Sierra Leone River and the Bunce River form its northern and eastern 
boundaries, whilst the waters of the Atlantic wash its southern and western shores. 



SIERRA LEONE. 123 

It is traversed in almost every direction by ranges of rocky and precipitous hills, varying in 
height from 500 to 2600 feet above the level of the sea. The ravines which intersect the hills, as 
they approach the sea and the estuary, expand into valleys of inconsiderable extent. Between 
Freetown and Waterloo, on the eastern side of the colony, the mountains recede from the estuary 
for distances varying from half a mile to three miles, and leave a belt of level ground of about 
twenty-four miles in length. Between Waterloo and Hastings, and especially in the neighbour- 
hood, of the former place, the country presents a plain surface of some extent : with these 
exceptions there is little level ground in the colony. 

In the last-mentioned districts the soil is good, but in the other level ground the ferruginous 
rock of the peninsula is found but a few inches below the surface. In some places it constitutes 
its surface. 

The colony is net very favourable to agriculture ; but still, under the influence of a tropical 
sun and abundance of rain, it would not, under proper cultivation, be unproductive. 

The hills, sterile as they appear, are capable of growing an excellent species of coffee, and the 
level ground will yield ginger, pepper, arrow-root, Indian corn, cassada, and other ordinary tropical 
productions ; but the successful cultivation of the sugar-cane, even in the most favourable parts 
of the colony, is considered chimerical ; although there are regions in the neighbourhood in which 
it might be raised in abundance. The soil of the colony presents obstacles calculated to dishearten 
the inexperienced African agriculturist ; and the more so as from his rocky hills he descries with 
envy the rich level land of the countries surrounding the colony stretched out before him. 

The principal, almost the only implement employed, is the hoe ; the use of the spade, except 
in the gardens of a few Europeans, is unknown. 

Under hoe cultivation, ginger, pepper, arrow-root, Indian corn, cassada,, and yams, are pro- 
duced in considerable quantities. 

There are two or three small coffee plantations in the colony belonging to European residents : 
their culture is, however, greatly neglected, and they consequently produce little ; but what they 
do yield is of a very excellent quality. 

The proportion of land under cultivation in 1847 was about 32,000 acres. 

Wages of the different kinds of labour in 1847 : — 

Domestic servants 17s. id. per mensem, 

Predial „ 10s, 6d. „ 

Mechanics and headsmen Is. 6d. to Is. 9d. per diem. 

Labourers others thaa shown 6d. to Qd. „ 

The price of labour has for some years past been rising. 

The indigenous fruits are — banana, cocoa-nut, orange, pine-apple, guava, pomegranate, lime, 
papau, African plum. 

The following fruits have been introduced — mango, shaddock, avocado pear, custard apple, sour 
sop, granadilla, tamarind, mammee apple, water melon, rose apple, bread-fruit, almond, date, 
bread-nut, Barbadoes cherry, grapes. 

The indigenous esculents, &c, are chiefly yam, plantain, Indian corn, sweet potato, okro, 
pumpkin, cassada, spinach. 

The esculents, &c, which have been introduced are French beans, cucumbers, peas, lettuce, 
radishes, cabbage, &c. 

The form of government, as settled by the charter, is vested in the governor, and the board of 
the governor and council. 

The executive portion of the government is vested in the governor, whose powers are defined 
and regulated by the charter and the royal instructions under the sign manual. 

The legislative part of the government resides in the board of the governor and council. It is 
composed of seven or more members. The chief justice, the queen's advocate, and the colonial 
secretary are ex-officio members of the council ; the other members are appointed by the crown, 
generally on the recommendation of the governor, from among the most influential and respectable 
persons in the colony. 

The powers of the council are, to make laws and ordinances for the regulation of the affairs of 
the colony, and incidentally to control, in some degree, the expenditure of the colony. 

The council sits with closed doors, and its members are sworn to secrecy. 

The courts of law in the colony for the administration of justice are, — 

1. The Court of Oyer and Terminer and General Gaol Delivery. This tribunal is constituted 
by the charter of the colony; its judges are the chief justice and the members of council, who are in 
this capacity styled commissioners. The court is, however, constituted by the presence of ono 
member of council with the chief justice. 

The court possesses in the colony the same jurisdiction as a criminal court of assize in England. 
The proceedings are conducted as nearly as possible after the English practice, except that the 
queen's advocate conducts the prosecutions as public prosecutor. 

The indictments are presented by a grand jury, as in England. 



124 BEITISH COLONIES IN AFKICA AND ASIA. 

2. The court constituted under the royal commission for the trial of offences committed upon 
the high seas and other places out of the queen's dominions. Its judges are the governor, the 
chief justice, the members of council, and the senior naval officer present in the colony. 

3. The Court of the Recorder of Freetown. The judges of the court are the chief justice 
and two such members of the council as the governor may from time to time appoint ; they usually 
hold office for about a year, when they are relieved by the appointment of two other members of 
council. They are called assistant judges, and receive no salary. The jurisdiction of the court 
extends to all common-law civil actions which are beyond the jurisdiction of the Small Debt Court 
mentioned below. Whether this court has the jurisdiction possessed by the Queen's Bench in 
England, as to criminal matters, and issues writs of mandamus and quo warranto, may be doubted, 
notwithstanding the opinion in the affirmative of the late able Chief Justice Rankin. The 
charter would appear to give it nearly the same jurisdiction as that of the Common Pleas in 
England. 

4. The Court of Chancery. This tribunal is presided over by the governor, who is chancellor 
ex-officio. It has the same jurisdiction within the colony which the Court of Chancery possesses 
in England. 

The Court of the Ordinary has jurisdiction as to probate of wills, letters of administration, 
marriage licences, and has also the superintendence of the collecting and winding up of the estates 
of intestate persons and others, by virtue of the ordinance passed last year " for the protection of 
unrepresented estates." The governor is ordinary ex-officio. By an ordinance passed in 184-7, 
the chief justice for the time being is judge of this court. 

The Court of Vice-Admiralty has similar jurisdiction to that possessed by such courts in the 
West Indies. A large portion of its business consists in adjudicating upon certain vessels engaged 
in the slave-trade. 

The Police Court is presided over by a stipendiary magistrate appointed from England, with 
a fixed salary of 500/. 

The Small Debt Court. This court is presided over by the stipendiary magistrate, assisted by 
unpaid commissioners, appointed for a limited period by the governor. It possesses jurisdiction 
to decide upon pleas of debt when the amount sought to be recovered does not exceed 10/. 

Population. — The total population of this colony, according to the census for 1847, is 45,006, 
which is an increase of about 2000 as compared with 1846. The population is composed of — 
Europeans, 95 ; Maroons, 460 ; Nova Scotia settlers, 568 ; American black people from Liberia, 
90 ; West Indies, 104; liberated Africans, 40,026 ; Mandingo Sousoos and Foulahs, 1074 ; Sher- 
boros and others, 1530 ; Kroomen, 730 ; aliens and transient strangers, about 1000. 

Education. — The total number of children who attended school in 1847 was 603. 

Religion. — The religious denominations existing in the colony are the Church of England, 
Wesleyan Methodists, Huntingtonian, Baptist, and one or two other sects which have seceded 
from the Wesleyans. 

The proportion of the population adhering to these several persuasions, as stated in the Blue 
Book, are as follows: — Church of England, 6547; Wesleyan, 4730; Huntingtonian, 1178; 
Baptists, probably about 200; other sects, 2191. 

Ciime. — Number of persons convicted during 1846 and 1847 respectively are — 

1846. 1847. 

For murder .... 2 

For other felonies 49 84 

For misdemeanors ... 4 2 



GOLD COAST. 

Population. — During the space of the last sixteen years — 1831 to 1847 — a most extraordinary 
change has taken place in the aspect of the population of the various districts which have enjoyed 
the advantages of being within the range of British jurisdiction. Its numerical increase has been 
very great, as may be daily proved by the numerous new villages which are rising on every hand. 
It may not be saying too much to state that, during the time above-mentioned, the villages in the 
Fantee country, and among the Assins, have increased on an average about fifteen per cent. 
The character of the native dwellings is also greatly improved ; and, consequently, many of the 
towns and villages wear an aspect of permanency and durability which seems altogether new. 
Associated with this interesting advancement in civilisation is another gratifying feature ; 
namely, a taste for articles of furniture of European manufacture and European clothing. The 
change which has taken place in this respect during the last eleven years is almost incredible. 
It is to be hoped that the advantages of the fostering care of the British Government, and the 
onward progress of the Christian religion, for a few years to come, will give to the native popu- 
lation of the Gold Coast, &c, an aspect somewhat similar to that which is now exhibited in the 
West India islands. 



GOLD COAST. 125 

No census of the native population of this colony has ever been attempted to be taken from 
certain data. It is estimated that there are amenable to the jurisdiction of this government 
not less than 275,000, scattered over a territory of about 6000 square miles. This population 
have no manufactures (worthy of name) existing amongst them ; but may be divided into three 
classes ; viz. — agriculturists, traders, and fishermen. 

The number of whites at present in the colony is forty, of whom there are seven females. 

Agriculture. — During the course of the last nine years the cultivation of coffee has been 
introduced into the colony ; and the results prove that, by a careful selection of soils and situa- 
tions, and proper attention to the best modes of culture, this article of commerce may be grown 
to almost any extent; and the flavour of the coffee grown in this colony seems to be quite equal 
to that which is grown in the islands of Princes and St. Thomas. The general system of agri- 
culture now existing among the natives of this colony seems to be the same as that which has 
existed for ages past ; but the increase of population in the Fantee country seems to have led to 
the cultivation of much larger tracts of land than those which were formerly occupied for agri- 
cultural purposes. The soils of the Gold Coast seem to be much more adapted for the cultivation 
of the coffee-plant and other small shrubs, such as spices, &c, than for the sugar-cane or rice; 
for those latter tropical plants the land seems to be too dry, and of too great an altitude. The 
sugar-cane is cultivated by the natives for private use, but it does not seem likely that the soils 
would be fit for its successful cultivation on an extensive scale. 

The palm-tree {dais guineenaio) grows spontaneously throughout the whole of this part of 
Western Africa ; and is, to the natives, a fruitful source of wealth. 

From the method of cropping adopted by the natives in this colony, it is difficult to form 
even an approximate estimate of the average quantity of land under cultivation. There are few 
or no regularly cleared farms or plantations (save for plantains), the ground being never effectively 
cleared of the roots of the trees or brushwood ; but, after one crop, the bush is again allowed to 
grow for several years. 

The quantity of land generally under cultivation in any one year may be stated as follows: 
— 28,000 acres producing 1,100,000 bushels of maize ; 24,000 acres producing yams; 20,000 
acres producing cassava; and 15,000 acres producing plantains. These products are of excellent 
quality. The number of horned cattle in the colony is about 800 ; of sheep, 2000 ; and of goats, 
1200. The roads are execrable. 

Course of Exchange. — Gold-dust being the commercial currency of the colony (gold being 
valued at 41. currency per ounce), and the net value of an ounce of gold-dust remitted to 
England being on an average 3/. 12s. sterling per ounce, after deducting the charges for freight, 
insurance, commission, &c v the course of exchange is generally quoted at II" 1 premium for bills 
on England at three days' sight ; that is to say, a bill upon England for 90/. sterling will purchase 
here twenty-five ounces of gold, equal to 100/. currency. There being but few British coins in 
circulation, bills granted in exchange for them are negotiated at par. 

The few coins in circulation are British gold, silver, and copper coins, Spanish and South 
American doubloons, dollars, and half-dollars, and some French five-franc pieces. The average 
amount in circulation during the year 1847 may be stated as follows : — British coins, 1500/. ; 
Spanish and South American coins, 2000/. ; coins of other nations, 200/. 

Accounts kept in. — Merchants' accounts are kept in pounds, shillings, and pence. Accounts 
between merchants and native traders are kept in ounces, ackies, and takus. The commercial cur- 
rency of the colony is gold-dust, gold being valued at 41. per ounce. 

Weights. — The weights in use for every article, save gold and silver, are the avoirdupois weights 
of England. For gold and silver, troy weights are used. 

Measures. — The measures of length, surface, and volume in use, are the imperial standard 
measures of length, surface, and volume of England. The measures of capacity used are the old 
English wine gallon of 231 cubic inchse, with its respective subdivisions. 

The gaols at Cape Coast are situated within the walls of the castle, and are sufficiently large 
to contain three times the number of prisoners that are generally confined in them. 

The gaols at Dix Cove, Annamboe, and Accra are also situated within the walls of the fort, 
and the same attention paid to their comforts as at Cape Coast. In visiting those places I always 
question the prisoners as to their comforts, and if they have any complaints to make, and I have 
not in any one instance found occasion to alter the arrangements of the officers in charge of the 
establishment. 

Permanent revenue for the Gold Coast is derived from a duty of half per cent ad valorem on 
all imports, and a government grant of 4000/. a-year. 

The income for the year 1847 amounted to 5603/. ; the disbursements, 4617/. ; being an 
increase of 727/. over the previous year's receipts. 



126 BEITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 

Mauritius, or the Isle of France, is situated in the Indian Ocean, between 
the latitudes of 19 deg. 58 min. and 20 deg. 32 min. south; and longitudes, 57 
deg. 17 min. and 57 deg. 46 min. east from Greenwich. Its length is computed 
at about 37 miles; its breadth about 28 miles; area, about 708 English square 
miles. Its aspect is rocky, abrupt, and mountainous. There are numerous 
small rivers and rivulets streaming down from the mountains and through the 
valleys and ravines. The plains are fertile; the mountains in most parts too 
difficult, or unfit, to cultivate. There are still many wooded districts. Port 
Louis, except during the hurricane months, has good anchorage. This is chiefly 
to be regarded as a sugar-producing colony. Coffee, indigo, and other articles, 
used to be grown extensively, but the British differential duties to stimulate the 
growth of sugar by fallacious protection has been ruinous to most of the sugar- 
planters. The stimulus was artificial; it could not be maintained, and the 
natural reaction was fatal. 

This island was discovered in 1505 by the Portuguese. The Dutch took pos- 
session of it in 1598, named it after Prince Maurice, Mauritius. They formed a 
settlement at Port Louis in 1644, which they abandoned at the beginning of the 
last century. The French sent a colony to it in 1715, possessed it in 1722, and 
sent a governor to it in 1732. It was cultivated and improved to an astonishing 
degree by M. de la Bourdonnaye. On his return to France, his reward was three 
years' imprisonment in the Bastile. In 1810 it was captured by a formidable 
British squadron, but not before British ships, to the value of two-and-a-half 
millions sterling, had been captured by the armed cruisers fitted out at Port 
Louis. Besides Port Louis, there are several inlets — Grand Port, or Mahe- 
bourg, on the south-east, is the principal — coral reefs, through which there 
are channels, surround the island. 

We have no authentic account of the trade of Mauritius under the French. 
Mr. Milburn, in his excellent work on "Oriental Commerce," was unable to 



THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 



127 



furnish anything more than the cargo of a single ship, which succeeded in 

reaching France in January, 1810. 

" Bourbon coffee, 307,150 lbs. ; mocha coffee, 54,804 lbs. ; Isle of France indigo, 23,765 lbs. ; 
Bengal indigo, 100,611 lbs.; Island cotton, 61,054 lbs. ; Bengal cotton, 95,235 lbs.; elephants' 
teeth, 13,916 lbs.; pepper, 50,197 lbs.; nankeens, 9750 pieces; brown sugar, 102,180 lbs.; 
cloves, 6978 lbs. ; tortoise-shell, 2507 lbs. ; nutmegs and mace, 536 lbs. ; ebony wood, 29,992 lbs. ; 
rhubarb, 1197 lbs.; nutgalls, 4050 lbs.; rhinoceros' horns, 762 lbs.; tea, 360 lbs.; ostrich 
feathers, 75 lbs. ; camphire, 1115 lbs. ; vermilion, 748 lbs. ; raw silk, 1801 lbs.; hippopotamus 
teeth, 237; gums, 500 lbs. Exclusive of pearls, gold-dust, and other valuables ; the whole esti- 
mated at the Isle of France, at a low computation, at 1,444,010 Spanish dollars." 

France still continues to trade extensively with this island. 

Population. — In 1807, three years before the capture of the Mauritius, the 
number of the population has been registered as follows, viz., whites, 6489 ; 
free coloured, 5919; slaves, 65,367; total, 77>768. In 1827, twenty years after- 
wards, the whole population amounted to 97,847 ; and the year before the eman- 
cipation of slavery, the population is stated at no more than about 90,000. 



Population, 1842. 



COUNTY 

or 


i 

-a 

< 


Whites, 

and former Slave 

Population. 


■ 
a) 
> 

Hi'- 1 

3 O 

o 
.a 




■» a «j 


Aliens and Resi- 
dent Strangers not 

included in the 
preceding Columns. 




■a . 

*-" CD 

OS 

«i§ 

P-c 


Persons Employed in 


DISTRICT. 


Males. 


Females. 


Agri- 
culture. 


Manu- 
factures. 


Com- 
merce. 




10 
57 
58 
113 
112 
92 
94 
71 
68 
80 


20,288 
17,000 
7,941 
8,940 
6,649 
3,429 
2,769 
3,265 
1,550 
3,243 


18,210 
8,000 
5,489 
4,795 
4,312 
2,027 
1,403 
2,446 
1,214 
2,210 


M. &F. 

332 
3,500 
5,043 
2,269 
2,283 
1,461 

423 
1,488 

370 


Males. 
585 
100 
322 
203 

*49 

104 
3 


Males. 
1299 
224 
385 
437 
122 
78 

*64 


317 

75 

31 

34 

48 

34 

8 

2 

9 

133 


2264 

280 
232 
70 
98 
62 
44 
80 
41 


None. 

1,100 

10,419 

3,934 

2,860 

2,723 

126 

444 

650 


716 
6500 
815 

541 
314 

15 
638 

31 


1073 


Pamplemousses .... 
Riviere du Rempart 
Flacq 


313 

96 
61 


Grand Port 


127 




85 


Black. River 

Plaines Wilhems.... 


66 
47 
33 










Total 


788 


75,074 


50,106 


17,169 


1366 


2609 


691 


3171 


22,256 


9570 


1901 



Abstract of the Population of Mauritius on the 1st of August, 1846. 



DISTRICTS. 



Port Louis, including 
Grand River and V allee 
des Pretres 

Pamplemousses, South 
North 

Riviere du Rempart ... 

Flacq 

Grand Port 

Savanne 

Blark River 

Plaines Wilhems 

Moka 

Total of Resident 
Population 

Military in Port Louis, 

„ elsewhere .... 

Crew of her Majesty's 

ship Conway 

Crews of mercantile 
shipping 

Total of Population 



General Population. 



Males Females Total 



No. 



13,863 
3,105 

860 
1,084 
2,415 
2,861 

616 

781 
1,211 

725 



27,521 



1,230 
571 



176 

650 



30,148 



No. 



12,684 
2,887 

782 
1,062 
2,228 
2,570 

563 

782 
1,119 

654 



No. 



26.547 
5,992 
1,642 
2,146 
4,643 
5,431 
1,179 
1,563 
2,330 
1,379 



52,852 



1,230 
571 



176 
650 



25,331 I 55,479 



Ex-Apprentices and 
their Children. 



Males Females Total 



No. 



6,935 
3,875 
1,547 
1,970 
3,250 
2,776 
1,722 
1,751 
2,957 
1,359 



23,142 



No. 



5,599 
2,810 
1,042 
1,442 
2,297 
2,105 
1,356 
1,242 
2,190 
1,140 



21,223 



12,534 
6,685 
2,589 
3,412 
5,547 
4,881 
3,078 
2,993 
5,147 
2,499 



49,365 



28,1421 21,223 I 49,365 



Indians and their 
Children. 



Males Females Total 



5,664 
4,615 
5,528 
8,055 
7,791 
5,559 
4,297 
2,014 
4,697 
715 



48,935 



No. 



467 
746 

1018 
1448 
1201 
885 
606 
261 
610 



7310 



,935 7310 



No. 



6,131 
5,361 
0,546 
9,503 
8,992 
6,444 
4,903 
2,275 
5,307 
783 



TOTAL. 



Males Females Total 



56,245 



56,245 



No. 



26,462 
11,595 
7,935 
11,109 
13,456 
11,196 
6,635 
4,546 
8,865 
2,799 



No. 



18,750 
6,443 
2,842 
3,952 
5,726 
5,560 
2,525 
2,285 
3,919 
1,862 



104,598 53,864 



1,2301 

571 i 



176, 



107,225 53,864 



No, 



45,212 
18,038 
10,777 
15,061 
19,182 
16,756 
9,160 
6,831 
12,774 
4,661 



158,462 



1,230 
571 



176 
650 



161,089 



128 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Abstract exhibiting the Occupations 


of the Population. 






OCCUPATIONS. 


General Population. 


Ex-Apprentices. 


Indians. 


TOTAL. 


Males 


Females 


Total 


Males 


Females 


Total 


Males 


Females 


fOTAL 


Males 


Females Total 


Commerce, Trade, and 


No. 

5,937 

942 

1,073 


No. 
2,379 


No. 

8,316 

942 

1,073 


No. 

5,923 

465 

4,340 


No. 

2,486 
21 


No. 

8,409 

486 

4,340 


No. 

999 
34,352 

3,087 


No. 

13 

657 


No. 

1,012 

35,009 

3,087 


No. 

12,859 

35,759 

8,500 


No. 

4,878 
678 


No. 
17,737 


Agriculture ; viz. Sugar 
„ Other 


36,437 
8,500 




2,015 

561 

1,801 

841 

176 

1,353 

530 
1,133 
1,407 


92 

5 
7 

100 
321 


2,015 

653 

1,801 

841 

181 

1,360 

530 
1,233 
1,728 


4,805 
3,491 

796 

46 

148 
3,083 
1,508 


21 
1,350 

*6 

1,700 
880 


4,826 

4,841 

*796 

6 

46 

148 
4,783 
2,388 


37,439 

2,631 

*234 
3 

16 

52 

2,335 
5 


657 
17 

1160 


38,096 

2,648 

2S4 
3 
16 

52 

3,495 

5 


44,259 

6,683 
1,801 
1,871 
179 
1,415 

730 
6,551 
2,920 


678 
1,459 

"ll 

7 

2,960 
1,201 


44,937 




8,142 




1,801 




* 1,871 




190 


Other educated persons 
Government civil ser- 


1,422 

730 


Domestic service ....... 


9,511 
4,121 






Total above euume- 


15,754 
13,568 


2,904 
22,427 


18,658 
35,995 


19,800 
8,342 


6,443 
14,780 


26,243 
23,122 


43,714 

5,120 
101 


1847 

1542 
3921 


45,561 

6,662 
4,022 


79,268 

5.12C 
22,011 


11,194 

1,542 

41,128 


90,462 


Residue of population ; 
viz. : — 

On sugar estates... 
On others 


6,662 
63,139 


Total of population 


29,322 


25,331 


54,653 


28,142 


21,223 


49,365 


48,935 


7310 


56,245 


106,399 


53,864 


160,263 



* Of these 717 are seamen and boatmen, 1154 are fishermen. 

Abstract of the Population employed on Sugar Estates in Mauritius, and of the Families 
of Indians employed thereon, on 1st August, 1846. 



EMPLOYED. 


General 
Population. 


Ex-Apprentices. 


Indians. 


Total. 


Clerks 


number. 

664 
227 

51 


number. 

296 
168 
21 

1 


number. 
91 
33,744 

678 
349 
168 


number. 
1,051 
31,139 
699 








401 




168 








942 


486 


35,030 
6,662 


36,458 
6,662 


Unemployed (chiefly women and children) 


Total 


942 


486 41 M9. 


43,120 









The progressive Increase of Cultivation and Stock in the 


Colony 


is thus shown : 


— 


YEARS. 


Acres 
of Wood. 


Acres of 

Grazing 

Land. 


Acres 
of Grain. 


Acres of 
Manioc. 


Acres of 
Cane. 


Acres of 
Cotton. 


Acres of 
Indigo. 


Acres of 
Cloves. 


Acres of 
Coffee. 


Decrease 
Culture. 


Total. 


1806.... 

1810 

1825 

1831 


number. 

108,418 
120,805 
103,2363 
103,246 


number. 
45,617 
56,141 
93,220* 

89,780 


number. 
20,564 
24,233 
13,773^ 
6,191 


number. 

10,917 


number. 
10,221 
9,116 
27,639 
52,253 


number. 
9185 
6037 
1061 


number. 

2474 

2024 

255 


number. 
744 
204 
1507 
519 


number. 
2161 
2673 
1239| 

477 


number. 
25,444 

29,961 
3l,©78| 

477 


number. 

224,828 

251,202 

278,0IO| 

75,727 





Live Stock of the Ma 


uritius, 1827 and 1832 


. 




DISTRICT. 


Horses and 
Mares. 


Mules. 


As.-es. 


Bulls aDd 
Cows. 


Goats and 
Sheep. 


Pigs. 




number. 
322 

70 
53 
62 

87 
38 
37 
44 
50 


number. 

27 
247 
435 

66 
130 

44 
7 

88 

11 


number. 

86 
225 
143 
241 
187 

65 
129 
107 

58 


number. 
1,311 

3,759 
2,227 
3,514 
2,324 
1,001 
4,036 
2,013 
1,728 


number. 
129 
236 
232 
237 
225 
96 
308 
167 
167 


number. 
1,679 
1,761 




Riviere du Rempart 

Flacq 


1,508 

1,765 

1,540 

776 








1,393 




1,083 
411 


Moka 






Total 


763 


1055 


1285 


21,913 


1797 


11,916 



THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 



129 



YEARS. 


Horse*. 


Mules and 
Assts. 


Bulls and 
Cows. 


Goats and 
Sheep. 


Pigs. 


1788 

1806 

1810 

1817 

1832 


number. 
182 
388 
445 

803 
748 


number. 
730 

8692 
1667 
2692 
2695 


number. 
9,671 

6,828 
11,167 
18,974 
21,309 


number. 
2,910 
4,153 
3,958 
13,025 
1,938 


number. 
11,166 

43,548 





Comparative State of the Culture (in arpens). 






Name of the County o 


r 


1827 


District. 


Sugar 
Canes. 


Meadows. 


Various 
Culture. 


Grain. 


Potatoes, j Coffee. 


Spice. 


Total. 




number. 
4,586 
7,054 
6,894 
2,883 
3,156 
870 
4,420 
398 


number. 

18,247 
5,084 

16,333 

13,379 
8,837 

22,262 
9,649 

10,128 


number. 
1,385 
2,785 
1,280 
2,008 
1,903 
874 
2,759 
1,031 


number. 
2,314 
1,832 
2,140 
3,712 
1,620 
1,563 
1,179 
518 


number. 

4,194 
3,333 
3,228 
1,754 
1,228 
1,631 
1,127 
180 


number. 

26 

7 

105 

209 

479 

52 

187 

3 


number. 
237 

85 
341 

83 
325 

67 
110 


number. 

30,989 
20,180 
30,321 
24,028 
17,548 
27,319 
19,431 


Riviere du Rempart 

Flacq 








Plaines Wilhems 


Moka 


12,258 








Total 


30,261 


103,919 


14,025 


14,878 


16,675 


1068 


1248 


182,074 



Comparative State of the Sup;ar Manufactories and Distilleries in 1827. 



DISTRICTS. 


Water Mills. 


Hand Mills. 


Steam Mills. 


Total. 


Stills. 




number. 
11 
15 
25 
12 
13 

6 
14 

3 


number. 

10 

21 

14 

2 

"l 

2 


number. 
8 
6 
3 
1 

4 


number. 
29 
42 
42 
15 
13 

7 
20 

3 


number. 
14 
15 




Flatq 




Grand Port 


14 




13 
6 

20 
5 






Moka 






Total 


99 


50 


22 


171 


105 











Lands 


under 


Crop, 


1840-42. 










YEARS. 


Sugar- 
cane. 


Maize. 


Manioc. 


Pota- 
toes. 


Coffee. 


Cloves. 


Nut- 
megs. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


Forest. 


Pasture. 


Total 

in 
Crop. 


Total 

unculti- 
vated. 


Total, 1840. 


acres. 

69,438 


acres. 

2968 


acres. 

6384 


acres. 
1372 


acres. 
358 


acres. 
76 


acres. 
5 


acres. 

5602 


acres. 


acres. 


acres. 
92,348 


acres. 
157,444 


Total, 1841. 


58,548 


2178 


5285 


834 


396i 


90 


12 


2944 


75,780 


38,744 


110,546| 


106,977 


Total, 1842. 


53,993 


1932 


4896 


740 


362 12 


10 


3028 


104,117 


44,415 


101,932 


110,815 





Sugar Produced. 


Average Price of 
good Sugar. 


Amount of Notes in Circulation. 


YEARS. 


Mauritius Bank in 

July of each 

Year. 


Commercial Bank 

in October iu each 

Year. 


1832 


lbs. French. 

72,946,627 

67,565,569 

71,028,577 

64,480,199 

63,088,178 

67,838,107 

71,551,412 

67,214,093 

81,523,399 

79,556,256 

70,769,311 

56,674,394 

71,986,044 

114,353,807 

112,494,822 

114,525,743 

121,261,300 


drs. 

2 75 to 3 75 

3 50 „ 4 50 

4 „ 4 50 

5 „ 6 

6 „ 9 
6 „ 8 

6 „ 7 

5 50 „ 7 50 

7 50 „ 9 50 

6 „ 9 

7 „ 7 50 
6 50 „ 7 50 
6 „ 6 50 
6 „ 7 
5 „ 6 
4 „ 5 


drs. 

278,555 
503,320 
486,225 
498,980 
584,120 
653,070 
1,326,670 
615,405 
574,490 
843,400 
58S420 
548,990 
394,015 
486,150 
179,730 
23.5C0 


drs. 


1833 




1834 




1835 




1836 




1837 




1838 




1839 


426,366 
427,096 
679,482 
753,009 
421,337 
176,585 
368,466 
108,830 
12,815 


1840 


1841 


1842 

1843 

1844 ,.. 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 

1850 





VOL. V. 



130 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Stock, 1840-42. 



DISTRICTS. 


Horses, Mules, an 


J Asses. 


Horned Cattle. 


S 


wine. 




Goats 
1840 


and Sheep. 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1841 


1842 




No. 
945 
500 

7,000 
500 

1,853 
261 
162 
400 
149 


No. 

1,962 
6,380 
576 
651 
336 
299 

175 


No. 

1,850 
6,380 
640 
872 
273 
371 
596 
195 


No. 

166 
3,200 
8,600 
2,500 
2,177 

658 
7,360 

844 
1,355 


No. 

4,540 
7,500 
3,000 
2,470 
782 
6,436 

1,037 


No. 

5,000 
7,500 
3,000 
2,539 

916 
4,540 
1,369 

937 


No. 

3,000 
1,700 
2,000 
1,000 

676 
1,800 
1,800 

150 


No. 

26,369 
1,800 
3,000 
2,360 
1,125 
1,500 

"*65 


No. 

25,000 

19,000 

2,fi00 

3,000 

265 

1,500 

566 

55 


No. 

700 
2700 
600 
400 
83 
500 

12 


No. 

1514 
3<)0o 
GOO 
359 
54 
109 

*19 


No. 


Pamplem. nisses 
Riviere du Rempart 


1200 

3000 

700 


Grand Port 


435 




85 


Black River 

Piaiues Wilhems... 


320 
120 

8 






Totat 


11,770 


10,379 


11,177 


26,860 


25,765 


25,801 


12,126 ' 36,219 


51,986 


4995 


5655 


5868 



Manufactories, Mills, Works, 1842. 



ARTICLES. 


Number of Establishments. 


ARTI C L ES. 


Number of Establishments. 




1840 1841 | 1842 


1840 


1841 


1S42 


Water-mills for corn .... 

Steam ,, ,, .... 

„ „ sugar .... 


number. 
7 
2 
141 
1 
3 
9 

42 

77 


number. 
9 
2 
137 
2 
3 
35 

38 
114 


number. 
10 
2 

158 

1 
47 

2 
177 
90 


Stone quarries 

Mechanical works 

Water-mils for sugar .. 
Horse ,, „ 
Wind „ „ .. 


number. 
3 

2 
68 

8 

2 

1 
13 

> 


number. 
4 
2 
67 
1 
2 

13 


number. 
7 

65 


Salt-pans 


2 


Brick „ 


Marine establishments. . 


1 




3 

















Number of Ships Entered at Port Louis from 1812 to 1844. 






YEARS. 


English. 


French. 


American. All others. 


Total 


YEARS. 


English. 


French. 


American. 


All others.' Total. 


1812 

1813 

1814 

1815 

1816 

1817 

1818 

1819 

1820 

1821 

1822 

1823 


number. 
292 
263 
269 
258 
237 
272 
214 
234 
232 
238 
267 
274 


number. 

2*5 

84 
101 
105 
105 

56 

50 
112 

86 


number. 
13 

6 
24 
25 
21 
17 

4 

2 

8 

6 


number. 

4 

I 

8 
13 

1 
22 
13 

6 

5 
11 

9 

5 


number. 
309 
264 
277 
302 
346 
420 
353 
362 
297 
301 
396 
371 


1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834. 

1835 


number. 
244 
282 
306 
341 
394 
457 
327 
315 
319 
366 
359 
329 


number. 

75 
108 
113 

48 

51 

91 
117 

81 

96 
107 
110 
114 


number. 
10 
17 

6 

6 

3 

4 

2 

6 

4 

8 
11 
10 


number. 
11 
11 
13 

8 
6 
8 
8 
5 

*2 
3 
4 


numbr. 
340 
4 IS 
438 
403 
454 
560 
454 
407 
419 
483 
483 
457 





1840 


1841 


COUNTRIES. 


INWARDS. 


OUTWARDS. 


INWARDS. 


OUTWARDS. 




Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Great Britain.... 
British colonies.. 
United States.... 
Foreign „ .... 


No. 

62 

143 

1 

204 

410 


No. 
18,340 
41,334 
414 

38,830 

98,918 


No. 


No. 
105 
118 

171 


No. 

29,932 
35,970 

25,992 


No. 


No. 

79 

175 

1 

226 


No. 
22,827 
50,997 
414 
43,096 


No. 


No. 
104 
155 

183 


No. 

30,117 

47,579 

285 

28,323 

106,304 


No. 


Total 


6856 


394 


91,894 


6426 


481 


117,334 


8105 


443 


7559 




1842 


1844 


COUNTRIES. 


INWARDS. 


OUTWARDS. 


INWARDS. 


OUTWARDS. 




Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Great Britain 

British colonies.. 
United States.... 
Foreign „ .... 


No. 

66 
165 

252 


No. 
18,594 
47,197 

47,815 


No. 


No. 
115 
148 

185 


No. 

31,893 

44,884 

422 

31,624 


No. 


No. 

58 

192 

8 

159 


No. 
15,606 
65,401 

2,977 
30,539 


No. 


No. 
102 
172 

129 


No. 
30,179 

58,829 

23,133 
112,141 


N®. 


Total 


483 


113,606 


7558 


449 


108,823 


7216 


417 


114,523 




403 





Note.- 124 vessels, of 12,079 tons, with crews of 1413 men, besides boats, belonged to the island in 1842. 



THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 



131 



Summary of the Collective Imports from and 
Exports to each Country during the Year 
1835. 



COUNTRIES. 



Great Britain 

France 

Holland 

Portugal 

British North American Colonies 

U u ited States 

J!io de la Plata 

Cape of Good Hope 

Isle of Bourbon 

Madagascar 

Zanzibar -- ..... 

British Possessions in India 

Foreign Possessions in India.... 
New South Wales and Van Die- 
men's Land 

The Fisheries 

Total... 



Imports. 



£ 
221,382 
100,038 



6,013 

862 

1,47 5 

51,459 

27,568 

33,360 

1,796 

108,690 

42,844 



4,014 

1,08/ 



Exports. 



£ 
552,721 
30,032 



nil. 
ni'. 
nil. 

24,862 

10,172 

10,429 

233 

7,538 
11,269 

51,723 
34 



699,013 



Summary of the Collective Exports to and 
Imports from each Country during the Year 
1840. 



countries. 



Exports. 



Great Britain , 

France . 

Holland 

Portugul 

Sweden.. 

St, Helena 

Modena 

Cape of Good Hope 

Isle of Bourbon 

Seychelles 

i Madagascar 

I Arabia 

j British Possessions in India.. 

French ditto 

! Palermo 

J ava 

Other Islands in the Indian Seas 

British North American Colonies 

,, Settlements in Australia. 

I United States of America 

China 

Fisheries 



Total. 



£ 
806,593 
1,340 

"no 
"301 

41*627 
5,406 

2*5',988 
3,591 
3,859 
4,442 

3,700 

357 

165 

25,210 

"977 



923,666 



Imports. 



£ 

344,862 

163,058 

392 

nil. 

2,328 

nil. 

416 

55,671 

34,'204 

410 

58,488 

2,557 

250,653 

55,655 

2,100 

2,736 

2,036 

4,575 

2,404 

4,800 

4,608 



994,213 



The following Statement shows the Exports of Sugar from Mauritius in each Year 

since 1812. 



YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


YEARS. 


Quantity. 


1812 


lbs. 
969,264 
549,465 
1,034,294 
2,504,957 
8,296,352 
6,583,457 


1818 


lbs. 
7,908,380 
5,678,888 
15,524,755 
20,410,053 
23,404,644 
27,400,887 


1824 


lbs. 
24,334, r )53 




1819 


1825 , 


21,793,766 
42,489,416 


1814 


1820 


1826 


1815 


1821 


1827 


40,619,254 


1816 


1822 




1817 


1823 







Quantities of Sugar, Rum, and Molasses 


exported, 


1828-50. 




YEARS. 


Sugar. 


Rum. 


Molasses. 


YEARS. 


Sugar. 


Rum. 


Molasses. 


1828 


cwts. 
466,233 
563,447 
655,007 
676,964 
709,665 
650,727 
686,030 
625,598 
610,716 
653,039 
694,307 
661,239 


gallons. 

1,530 
451 

4,393 

5,961 
65,272 
99,393 
32,357 
20,692 
15,831 

7,793 
27,692 
60,328 


gallons. 

1,260 

960 

2,815 

2,166 

4,080 

540 

19,550 

29,470 

22,069 

68,722 

105,076 

212,639 


1840 


cwts. 
797,616 
772,377 
690,957 
533,988 
642,731 
824,716 


gallons. 

78,032 

96,28 1 

52,318 

9,328 

14,407 


gallons. 

40,293 

36,135 

52,303 

nil. 


1829 


1841 


1830 


1842 


1831 


1843 

1844 


1832 




1833 


1845 


29,343 


1834 


1846 


1835 


1847 




1836 


1848 




1837 


1849 

1850 




1838 




1839 









132 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Amount 


of Rice, Wheat, and Flour Imported into the Mauritius. 






1835 


1845 


countries. 


Rice. j Wheat. 


Flour. 


R ice. 


Wheat and 1 ui„„-„ 
other Grain. | FIour " 


Imported from — 


lbs. 1 lbs. 


lbs. 
422,370 
575,162 
128,029 

241,603 

431,340 

975 

18J720 


ito. 

5&,784,2G5 

172,816 
304,336 

579,864 

10 976 
11,200 


bushels. 

31,621 
20.931 
187,155 

43,783 
406 
521 

9,169 

12,283 

10,275 


barrels. 
10,031 

1.77& 

3,799- 
60 
104 1 


Cape of Good Hope 

Kritish India 

New South Wales and Va» 

Diemen's Land 

British North America 


31,322,098 
127,500 

577,620 
417,550 


1,778,280 
4,178,145 

ISA 








Madagascar 


34 
1, 909 s 


Batavia and Malay Islands 
United States.... 


73,'000 


Manilla 










Total imported 


54,016,067 | 6,442,965 


1,818,201 


1,563,856 








2,152,840 | 836,766 


97,685 








Remained forConsump- 


31,863,237 5-fi0fi_2ns 


1,720,516 

















Statement of the Imports into the Mauritius from all Parts of the World, specifying 
the Principal Articles, and distinguishing the Proportions Imported from each Country, 
in the Year 1845. 



COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 



Great Britain 

Guernsey and Jersey 

France 

Cape of Good Hope 

1 sle of Bourbon 

Madagascar 

Biitisli possessions in India 

French ditto 

New South W ales 

British North American Colonies 
United States 



Apparel 
and Slops. 



Value. 

~£ 

10,227 

5 

1,191 

205 

145 

1,3 I 

610 



Total. 



13,710 



Ba-on 
and Hams. 



Quantity. 



Beef 
and Pork. 



Quantity. 



lbs. 
108,043 



10,101 



27,944 
56,876 



barrels. 
4,793 



3,503 

851 
337 

277 



305 

931 

1,227 



201,032 



12,222 



Beer 
and Ale. 



Quantity. 



gallons. 
140,896 



142,042 



Books. 



Value. 



£ 
1382 



1398 
123 



160 



3161 



COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 



Great Britain 

France 

Cape of Good Hope 

East Coast of Africa, 

Isle of Bourbon 

Madagascar 

Arabia 

British possessions in India 

French ditto 

Java 

New South Wales 

British North American Colonies 
United States 



Total. 



Butter 
and Ghee. 



Quantity. 



Cabinet and 

Upholstery 

Ware. 



Value. 



lbs. 
1,972 

106,438 
500 

* 112 

4,032 
565,971 
51,390 

2,725 
3,074 
14,021 



750,235 



£ 

2387 

934 



158 



541 
26 



18 
418 



Candles. 



Quantity. 



lbs. 
18,091 
9,955 
2,912 

*468 



20,336 
13,052 



1,792 

392 

30,657 



97,655 



Cheese. 



Quantity. 



lbs. 
54,355 
14,610 
147 



1,400 

224 

196 
1,204 



72,136 



Chocolate. 



Quantity. 



lbs. 
50,457 
341 



105 



52,283 



Coffee. 



Quantity. 



lbs. 
39,542 



112 



653,704 
28,517 



721,959 



The other articles imported were — Bags, value 46417., from Isle Bourbon and British India. 
Bran, 6608 cwts., chiefly from New South Wales and Cape of Good Hope. Brass and copper 
wares, 2256Z. ; all British manufactures. Bread, in various small quantities from all places, 484 
barrels. Carriages, all (except 2) British, 52317. Coals, all British, 5462 tons. Copper, old 



THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 133 

and sheet, 325,725 lbs.— of which 271,345 lbs. from United Kingdom ; France, 14,106 lbs. ; Isle 
of Bourbon, old, 25,152 lbs. ; the rest from New South Wales and British India. Cordage, all 
British, 3555 cwts. Sugar, 178,936 lbs.— of which from England, 174,472 lbs. ; India, 44,640 lbs. 
Tallow, 94,643 lbs. —of which from Cape of Good Hope and New South Wales, 66,719 lbs.; France 
and Isle Bourbon, 10,628lbs. ; and the remainder from British India and England. Tea 24,126 
lbs. ; chiefly from British India. Tin plates, all British, 240 17. Tobacco leaf, 900,46«> lbs. — 
from British India, 498,830 lbs. ; Great Britain, 142,862 lbs. ; United States, 201,586 lbs. ; the 
rest chiefly from British colonies : besides 55877. in value of manufactured tobacco — two-thirds of 
which from British India, and the remainder from United States and British colonies. Toys, 
from England, 7397. Umbrellas, from England, 3195/.; France, 647/. Vegetables, nearly all 
preserved from British India, 6081/. Vinegar, nearly all from Isle of Bourbon and France, 
15,398 gallons. Wine, of all sorts, 752,626 gallons— of which 738,785 gallons French, imported 
direct. Wood and woodwork, 12,1762. ; nearly all from Great Britain and British India. 
Woollen manufactures, 16,312/.— of which British, 11,9257. ; French, 43807 Miscellaneous 
articles, 18,012/.— of which French, 65367. ; United States, 14097. ; the remainder from Great 
Britain and British colonies. Wheat and other grain, see separate statement. Cotton manu- 
factures, 117,590/. — of which French, 1447/. -, British India, 27357. ; French possessions in India, 
10,569/.; United States, 1618/.; landed from Africa, 354/.; British, 100,867/. Earthenware, 
3858/.— of which British, 3366/. ; French, 4927. Cod and oilier dried fish, 23,896 cwts.— of 
which Cape of Good Hope, 16,216 cwts. ; British America, 6787 cwts. Herrings, from Great 
Britain, 1606 barrels ; various kinds, to the value of 965/., chiefly from British America. 
Fruit of all kinds, 1669/. ; chiefly from British India and Cape of Good Hope. Glass manu- 
factures — British, 4389/. ; French, 1999/. Guano, 494 tons. Gum, African and Madagascar, 
64,680 lbs. Guns, from England, 456. Gunpowder, from England, 44,756 lbs. Haberdashery 
and millinery — British, 51397 ; French, 51567. Hardware and cutlery, all British, 93947. 
Hats, British, 2117. Hides, from India chiefly, 2075. Iron, wrought and unwrought, 
all British, 15,5227. Jewellery, 7757.— of which 2757. French, 400/. British. Lard, 935,833 lbs. 
— of which from Great Britain, 416,710 lbs.; British India, 361,060 lbs.; United States, 
109,793 lbs. ; France, 36,186 lbs. ; the remainder from British colonies. Lead, 287,605 lbs. 
—all from England. Leather, 46,716 lbs. — of which from French India, 22,218 lbs.; Isle 
of Bourbon, 9772 lbs. ; France, 2222 lbs. ; England only 140 lbs. ; British American colo- 
nies, 2968 lbs. ; Africa, 128 lbs. Leather manufactures, 10,000/. — of which 7685/. French ; 
1919/. British. Linen manufactures, 6174/.— of which 5822/. British; 352/. French. Horses, 
330 — of which 6 from England; Fr.ince, 34; Cape of Good Hope, 180; Seychelles, 1, 
from Arabia, 1; India, 19; Australasia, 87; River Plate, 2. Mules and asses, 2771 — of 
which 1062 from France ; Cape of Good Hope, 45 ; other parts of Africa, chiefly Red Sea 
ports, 279; Cape Verd Islands, 45; Isle of Bourbon, 126; Arabia, 723; India, 158; Brazil, 
63 ; Rio de la Plata, 269. Neat cattle, 4647— of which 3471 from Madagascar ; Cape of Good 
Hope, 795 ; Cape Verd Islands, 35 ; Se)chelles, 87 ; Arabia, 23 ; India, 4 ; New South Wales. 
64. Swine, sheep, and goats, 4805 — of which 3597 from Cape of Good Hope ; India, 570 ; New 
South Wales, etc., 495 ; Arabia, 65 ; Seychelles, 37 ; Madagascar, 33. — Total value of all live 
stock imported, 76,025/. Millwork, 37,333/.— of which 35,880/. from Great Britain; France, 
1453/. Medicines, 2916/.— of which 1963/. French ; British, 953/. Musical instruments, 22057. 
—of which 16867. from France ; British, 519/. Castor oil, 10,093 gallons— of which 9651 gallons 
from British India; France, 378 gallons ; New South Wales, 64 gallons. Cocoa-nut oil, 108,583 
gallons— of which 104,583 gallons from British India ; France, 3600 gallons. Olive oil, 8146 
gallons from Cape of Good Hope ; Isle Kourbon, 1759 gallons. Train oil, 995 gallons from Sey- 
chelles; British North America, 227 gallons ; fisheries, 2670 gallons. Painters' colours, 4833/. — 
of which 3971/. from Great Britain, the rest chiefly from France. Paper-hangings, 384/.— all 
French. Pepper, 179,182 lbs.— Java and India. Perfumery, English and French, 2027/. Pitch 
and tar, 2541 barrels — of which 614 barrels from United States, the rest nearly all from Great 
Britain. Plated ware — British, 921/.; French, 168/. Rice, see separate table. Saddlery, 
1291/.— of which 1188/. British; French, 103/. Salt, 20,828 bushels— of which 10,665 bushels 
from Great Britain; British possessions, 386 bushels ; Arabia, 8263 bushels ; Isle Bourbon, 1514 
bushels. Silk manufactures, 3143/.— of which 2006/. from Great Britain: Indian, 101/.; French, 
1237/. Soap, British India, 1,212,842 lbs. ; Great Britain, 10,810 lbs. ; New South Wales, 1325 
lbs. ; France, 267,686 lbs. ; United States, 4700 lbs.— total, 1,592,663 lbs. Brandy, geneva, and 
cordials, 23,501 gallons, more than two-thirds of which French, the rest chiefly from England and 
United States. Stationery, 3651/.— of which 2286/. British, the rest French. * 



134 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Statement of the principal Articles the Produce of the Mauritius, or Oriental Produce in 
Transit, Exported from the Mauritius to all Parts of the World in the Year 1845. 





Coffee. 


Dye and 

Hard Woods, 
Ebony. 


Hay. 


Molasses. 


Oil. 


Orchelia. 


COUNTRIES TO WHICH 
EXPORTED. 


Train. 


Cocoa Nut. 
Quantity. 




Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 




lbs. 
50,606 

4*627 
**15 

4,453 

84 


tons. 
57 


bales. 

130 
550 
150 

3177 
40 
100 


gallons. 
13,042 

2,696 

13,580 

25 


gallons. 
6070 


gallons. 
3,540 

8,981 

46,442 

115 

1,136 


lbs. 

67,648 


Zanzibar and East Coast of 


















British possessions in India.. 
British settlements in Australia 
United States 








Total 


59,785 


57£ 


4147 


29,343 


6070 


60,214 


67,643 




Pepper. 


Riee. 


Spirits. 


Sugar, Raw, 
Colonial. 


Tortoise- 
shell. 




COUNTRIES TO WHICH 
EXPORTED. 


Rum. 


Brandy, 

Geneva, and 

Cordials. 


Specie. 




Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




lbs. 
112,993 


lbs. 

19*0,288 
1,369,124 

4,144 


gallons. 
2,977 

1,4S3 

5,752 

1,951 

1*37 
49 

2,058 


gallons. 
363 

419 
145 

1835 
318 

4237 
622 

1488 


lbs. 
83,653,770 

1,939,780 

17,054 

131 

3,773,462 


lbs. 
253 
130 

8804 


£ 

42,583 




Zanzibar and East Coast of 


1,333 

1,638 
21,538 










5,767 

17,243 

6,330 

1,000 


British possessions in India.. 


Britishsettletnents in Australia 




1 12,993 


1 ,563,856 


14,407 


9457 


94,384,197 1 9187 


98,057 











Summary Value of the Exports from 
the Mauritius in 1845. 


Summary Value of the Imports into 
the Mauritius in 1845. 


COUNTRIES. 


Value. 


COUNTRIES. 


Value. 




£ 
1,113,289 
104 

2,185 

23,926 

33,246 

7,774 

6,065 

26,021 

8,197 

778 

558 

253 

37,221 

63 




£ 

353,202 






1,301 
615 










134,206 






49,629 






600 






2,154 

2,794 
669 














25,805 

22,498 

621 














6,599 






537,773 






19,220 
1,159 




1,259,680 






Other islands in the Indian Seas 


1,189 
16,813 




British North American colonies 


7,443 

l7,*»33 






1,146 






3,082 






467 




Total. .7...... 






1,206,918 



THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 



135 





Total Value of 


Imports and Exports. 






YEARS. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


YEARS. 


Imports. 


Exports. 




£ 
660,518 
923,666 

1,132,731 


£ 
699,013 
994,213 

853,772 

808,377 

1,021,694 


1845 


1,206,918 


£ 
1,259,680 




1846 




1847 






1848 






1849 




1844 


1850 





Comparative Statement of Shipment of Sugar to different Places. 



COUNTRIES. 


Crop 1847-48. 


Crop 1846-47. 


To United Kingdom : — 


lbs. 

61,193,849 
3,244,001 

3,510,350 

15,725,151 


lbs. 

83,674,051 
5,198,553 

4,883,329 

132,297 
600 


lbs. 

76,640,601 
9.616,320 

911,466 
11,616,071 

598,928 
13,961,912 

449,476 


lbs. 










Clyde 








Cork 




Belfast 






113,801,974 

2,745,584 




972,573 

3,193,277 

117,724 

208,189 
162,099 
229,467 


313.958 

1,035,086 
309,480 
995,148 


Australian Colonies : — 




Hobart Town 












Port Phillip 














2,653,672 




'•'• 










6,282 




1,476 




328,332 






Total to 31st of March, 1848 


1 93,888,830 




119,537,820 



Quantity in the harbour .... 
Quantity in the principal stores, 83,388 bags, and 929 casks 
Shipped as above ..... 



Total arrived in town 
Against 127,245,134 lbs. last year. 



lbs. 
2,604,743 
10,500,000 

93,888,830 

106,993,573 



The Value of British Produce and Manufactures exported to Mauritius in each Year from 

1827 to 1850 was— 



YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


YEARS. 


Value. 


1827 


£ 
195,713 
185,972 
205,558 
161,029 
148,475 
163,191 
83,424 
149,319 


1835 


£ 

196,559 
260,855 
349,488 
467,342 
211,731 
325,812 
340,140 
244.920 


1843 


£ 

258,016 
285,650 


1828 


1836 




1829 


1837 


1845 


345,059 


1830 


1838 


1846 


310,231 


1831 


1839 




223.563 


] 832 


1840 






1833 


1841 


1849 




1834 


1842 


1850.. 





For the details of the various articles — the produce of the Mauritius — 
imported into the United Kingdom, see Tables of the Commerce of the United 
Kingdom generally, in the Supplements hereafter, under the heads of Coffee, 
Sugar, Spirits, Pepper, &c. 



136 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



British and Irish Produce and Manufactures Exported from the United Kingdom to 

Mauritius in the Year 1847. 



ARTICLES. 


Declared 
Value. 


ARTICLES. 


Declared 

Value. 


Apparel, slops, and haberdashery 


9,239 

890 

1,893 

2,737 

14,246 

659 

5,112 

1,562 

4,121 

339 

70,905 
1,750 
2,783 
7,491 
8,438 
1,645 

20,242 

4,909 

2,588 

635 




2,718 






8 333 






9,186 






130 






2,483 

1,414 

1,684 

790 








Plate, plated ware, jewellery, and watches 

Preserved provisions, not otherwise described.. 






1,63* 






531 


Cotton manufactures, including cotton yarn 




2,122 
3,253 
3,557 
1,038 

7,085 












Hardwares and cutlery 








15,417 


Iron and steel, wrought and unwrought 

Lard 


Aggregate value of British and Irish produce 






223,563 


Leather, wrought and unwrought 







BANKS. 
It is stated in one of the Blue Books, for 1847-48, that every system of 
banking but a sound one has been attempted in the Mauritius. 

State of the Commercial Bank on the 1st of August, 1848. 



active. 



Shares 

dlrs. cts. dlrs. cts. 
Cash on the 1st of July .. 286,745 92 

Payments during July 479,687 20 
Receipts „ 456,148 7 

Balance against the bank 23,539 13 

Bills 

Debtors' accounts current 

Credits, in liq nidation 

,, doubtful 

Balance of account in London 

Buildings 

Furniture 

Judicial expenses 

General expenses 

Totai 



dlr-. cts. 

200,000 00 



263,206 

115,571 

179,170 

31,615 

82,689 

3,723 

30,752 

1,651 

3,194 

2,100 



919,675 



PASSIVE. 



Capital 

Reserve 

Profits and loss 

Bank-notes in circulation...., 

Creditors' accounts 

Dividends 

Discounts 

Interest 

Charges on transfer of shares 

Total 



Amount. 


dlrs. 


cts. 


500,000 


00 


70,328 


54 


6.300 


83 


8,505 


00 


331,786 


13 


1,062 


00 


1,607 


86 


29 


93 


55 


00 


919,675 


29 



Mauritius Bank. 



YEAR 

:n. ling on the 17th of 



July, 



Jan. 
July, 
Jan. 



1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
ls45 
1846 
1847 
1847 
1848 



Notes 
in Circula- 
tion. 



dollars. 

278,555 

503,320 

486,225 

498,980 

584,120 

653,070 

1,326,670 

615,405 

574,490 

813,400 

5S8.420 

548,990 

394,015 

442,910 

506,760 

50,115 

23,560 

17,505 



Cash 
Accounts. 



dollars, cts. 



2,733 77 

188,181 11 

238,144 44 

106,268 69 

191,357 21 

197,696 37 

188,081 34 

176,856 31 

130,846 66 

237,936 87 

204,818 81 

7,564 10 

94,607 1 5 

114,320 65 



Deposits. 



dollars, cts. 



3,287 27 

3,837 27 

38,076 57 

46,767 76 

54,601 23 

38,516 02 

55,998 90 

25,074 36 

6,565 20 



1,060 00 
825 00 



Specie 
in Chest. 



dollars. 
313,418 
500,182 
495,943 
379,991 
311,432 
672,070 
829 924 
405,646 
345,034 
274,155 
164,363 
152,290 
226,657 
387,617 
393,664 
5,803 
118,940 
129,971 



Bills 
in Portfolio. 



dollars, cts. 

255,432 71 

279,796 71 

214,245 09 

207,489 94 

257,500 15 

lh9,395 71 

457,850 01 

300,866 00 

272,372 98 

367,790 54 

323,292 36 

237,016 13 

133,001 86 

121,440 06 

192,435 09 

75,844 97 

40,474 45 

32,279 60 



Amount 

of Accounts 

Current. 



dollars, cts. 



9,294 49 

34,734 45 

176,321 00 

274,421 29 

262,936 55 

648,032 07 

369,656 56 

502,726 44 

497,536 13 

641,381 28 

452,843 87 

415,802 64 

369,699 32 

316,794 93 

235,029 47 

240,096 06 

187,683 36 



Net Profit 
on Capital 
paid up. 



per cent. 
4i 
3§ 

4| 

5| 

H 

H 

8 I -10th 

7 ? 
15^ 

11| 

5 

°s 
13 

? 



n 



Dividend. 



per cent. 
3 
3 
3 
4§ 
4* 
5 
5 
5 
5 
7 
7 
4 
4 
6 
4 






THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 



137 



Commercial Bank. 



HALF-YEAR 

ending on the I Oth of 



Sept. 
Oct. 
April, 



Oct. 
April, 



1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1847 
1848 



Notea 
in Circula- 
tion. 



dollars. 

573,625 

754,820 

707,360 

821,800 

872,465 

648,550 

281,020 

77,205 

19,710 

12,815 

8,505 



Cash 
Accounts. 



dollars, cts. 

162,779 36 

371,657 88 

339,772 87 

236,098 78 

208,014 29 

371,073 32 

245,533 40 

320,023 81 

435,388 62 

881,960 16 

412,132 68 



Deposits. 



dollars, cts. 

30,809 37 

1,500 00 

1,500 00 

13,631 10 

18,448 30 

20.90S 84 

16,921 34 

1G,221 34 

7,971 34 



Specie 
in Chest. 



dollars, cts. 

291,496 00 

372,093 58 

388,682 11 

210,509 11 

215,773 19 

425,333 92 

348,047 12 

261,385 38 

321,551 51 

725,392 51 



377,156 35 



Bills 
n Poitfolio. 



dollars, cts. 

363,573 68 

525,593 62 

450,111 10 

528,420 18 

337,395 74 

527,363 60 

305,935 53 

236,820 49 

109,577 42 

194,259 61 

75,679 80 



Amount 

of Accounts 

Current. 



dollars, cts. 

426,366 IS 

427,096 16 

486,763 77 

695,280 95 

632,586 21 

222,792 44 

176,910 10 

170,282 68 

105,463 39 

97,032 99 

97,858 67 



Net Profit 
on Capital 
paid up. 



per cent. 
5 



4 

6-25 

4-43 
4-56 
2-38 
2-15 



Dividend. 



per cent. 
5 



The several Charges leviable upon Vessels entering or clearing from the Harbour or 
Roadstead of Port Louis, under former Ordinances, shall cease after 7th February, 1848, 
and in lieu thereof there shall be levied the several following Charges ; that is to say : 



SCHEDULE OP CHARGES. 



For pilotage : 

Inwards per foot 

Outwards do. 

For tugging vessels by the Port Office steamer, 
inwards or outwards, viz. : 

For vessels under 200 tons each 

For ditto of 200 tons or upwards.. per ton 
For the use of warps and boats, viz. : 

Inwards ,.;for each vessel above 100 tons 

burthen 

The same if the Port Office steamer be 

employed 

Outwards 

For anchorage dues : 

Teasels trading with Madagascar or De- 
pendencies per ton of register 

All other vessels breaking bulk, or re- 
ceiving cargo do. 

Vessels in distress, provided their stay in 

port does not exceed fifteen days ..do. 

For moving from one berth in harbour to 

another, or to hulks each time 

For swinging alongside hulks 

For remooring 

For the use of the mooring chains, or the 
anchors, which are placed round the " Trou 
Fanfaron, ' viz. : 

For each vessel under 100 tons .. .per day 
„ of 100 tons, not above 200.. do 



SCHEDULE OF CHARGES. 



Value. 
£ s. d. 



4 



For the use of the mooring chains, or the 
anchors, which are placed round the "Trou 
Fanfaron," viz. : 

For each vessel above 200 tons ...per day 
Fur ihe use of an anchor : 

From 4500 lbs. to 3500 lbs per day 

„ 3500 „ 2500 , do. 

„ 2500 „ 2000 „ do. 

„ 2000 „ 1500 „ do. 

For the use of a cable : 

From 14 to 16 inches per day 

„ 11 to 13 „ dt 

„ 8 to 10 „ do. 

„ 6 to 7 „ do.j 

„ 4 to 5 „ do.j 

For vessels remaining swung on the warpsj 
above twenty-four hour?, viz. : 

Under 100 tons 

Of 100 tons or upwards 

For port and police clr arance, viz. : 

On vessels trading with Madagascar and 

Dependencies each 

On all other vessels do. 

For the dredging service ; an additional pro- 
portional amount on all other charges, viz. : 

On vessels under 350 tons per register 10 per cent. 

„ of 350 tons or upwards 15 do. 



16 





12 





8 





4 





1 12 





1 4 





1 





12 





8 





1 





4 





10 





1 10 






Customs Duties. — The duty of 4s. per gallon imposed on spirits imported, by Ordinance No. 7 
of 1S12, shall be levied on each gallon of spirits of or under the strength of proof by Sykes's hydro- 
meter, and the like sum shall be levied for every gallon which may result from such spirits exceed- 
ing the strength of proof. 

On rum or arrack, being the production or manufacture of the United Kingdom, or of 
any of the British possessions in America, or of any British possessions within the limits of 
the East India Company's charter, into which the importation of rum or arrack, the produce of 
any foreign country, or of any British possession into which foreign sugar or rum may be legally 
imported, is prohibited, 4s. per gallon, of any strength not exceeding the strength of proof by 
Sykes's hydrometer, and the like sum for every gallon which may result from such spirits exceed- 
ing the strength of proof. 

On spirits, not being rum or arrack, the production or manufacture of the United Kingdom, 
or of any of the British possessions in America, or of any of the British possessions within the 
limits of the East India Company's charter, 6d. per gallon, of any strength not exceeding the 
strength of proof by Sykes's hydrometer, and the like sum for every gallon which may result from 
such spirits exceeding the strength of proof. 

On spirits, not being the production or manufacture of the United Kingdom, or of any British 
possession in America, or of any of the British possessions within the limits of the East India 
Company's charter, Is. per gallon, of any strength not exceeding the strength of proof by Sykes's 
hydrometer, and the like sum for every gallon which may result from such spirits exceeding the 
strength of proof. 

On cordials or spirits sweetened or mixed with any article so that the degree of strength thereof 
cannot be exactly ascertained by Sykes's hydrometer, Ss. per gallon in volume. 

On all tobacco imported, viz., leaf or unmanufactured tobacco, Id. per lb.; manufactured to- 
bacco, Sd. per lb.; segarsand snuff, 8d. per lb. 



138 BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 

If any goodsj^et being the growth, production, or manufacture of the United Kingdom, or of 
any of the British possessions in America, or of any of the British possessions within the limits of 
the East India Company's charter, or the produce of any of the British fisheries, be imported from 
the United Kingdom, being there free of duty on importation, or, after having there paid the 
duties of consumption, be imported into Mauritius from thence without drawback of such 
duties, such goods shall be charged with the same duties only as are leviable on the like British 
goods when imported from the United Kingdom. 

The following articles shall be exempted from the payment of duty on their importation into 
Mauritius, in the same manner as if such goods had been enumerated in the " Table of Exemp- 
tions" subjoined to the Ordinance No. 56 of 1844, viz.: 

Bricks, tiles, lime, slates, coals, books and maps, articles of naval uniform, the produce or ma- 
nufacture of the United Kingdom. 

Fire-wood, bran, wheat-meal, pollard, lentils, seeds intended for agricultural or horticultural 
purposes, whether British or foreign. 

Sal ammoniac, saltpetre, and phosphate of soda, the produce of British possessions within the 
limits of the East India Company's charter, to be used for agricultural purposes solely. 

Vacoa leaves and vacoa bags, the produce or manufacture of places within the limits of the East 
India Company's charter. 

In lieu of the duties of Customs now (14th of February, 1848) chargeable under the Act last 
recited on the foreign articles hereinafter next mentioned, imported into the island of Mauritius, 
the following duties shall be charged, levied, and recovered, in the same manner as if they had 
been imposed by the last-recited Act ; that is to say : 

*. d. 
Hams, sausages and puddings, tongues salted or cured, the cwt. . . . .23 

Butter . . . . . „ . . ..60 

Cheese . . . . . „ . . . .39 

No abatement of such duties shall be made if any of the articles hereinbefore mentioned shall 
be imported through the United Kingdom, having been warehoused therein, and being exported 
from the warehouse, or the duties thereon, if there paid, having been drawn back. 

The duties of Customs now payable under the Act last recited upon the foreign articles here- 
inafter next mentioned, imported into the island of Mauritius, shall cease and determine ; that is 
to say : 

Bacon; beef, salted; lard; pork, salted; bran ; wheat-meal ; pollard; dholl; lentils; leeches; 
vacoa leaves, or vacoa bags ; government stores and articles for the public service. 

Fish (dried, salted, or pickled), recommended to be admitted free. 

There shall be raised, levied, collected, and paid upon goods, wares, and merchandise imported 
into and exported from the island of Mauritius, the quay dues set forth in the table, which vary 
from \d. per package, or small cask, to 3d. per cwt. 

The duties imposed by former Ordinances on boats and vessels employed in the coasting trade 
round the island of Mauritius, and the regulations enacted by the said Ordinances, are hereby re- 
pealed. 

All vessels under 15 tons burthen, and which are not required to be registered under the Act 
of Parliament 8 & 9 Vict. c. 89, shall, when employed in the coasting trade round the island of 
Mauritius, have a licence from the Collector of her Majesty's Customs ; and if any such vessel 
be so employed without such licence, the owner or owners shall be liable to a penalty not exceed- 
ing 10/. sterling. 

The duty imposed by the 13th article of the Proclamation, dated the 16th day of December, 
1823, on goods landed from or shipped on board vessels in the harbour of Port Louis, and com- 
monly termed tonnage duty, and the regulations enacted by the said article, are hereby repealed. 

In lieu of the duties imposed by the 5th Article of the Proclamation, dated the 16th day of 
December, 1823, on the licences of boats, lighters, barges, and other craft employed in loading or 
unloading vessels, or in supplying and discharging ballast, there shall be levied from and after the 
1st day of March, 1848, on the licences of boats, lighters, barges, and other craft employed for each, 
any, or all of the purposes aforesaid, a duty of 4s. per ton per annum. 

This Ordinance shall take effect from the day of its publication, with the exception of the duties 
imposed by the 4th Article, which shall come into operation from and after the 31st of March 
next. 

Passed in council at Port Louis, island of Mauritius, this 14th day of February, 1848. 

The tax upon houses, lands, and other buildings and tenements situate in the town of Port 
Louis and its suburbs and precincts, shall be levied for the year 1848, at the rate of 10s. for each 
100/. of the estimated value of such real property, as borne upon the Cadastre. 

The annual tax on carriages, carts, waggons, horses, mules, and asses, for the year 1848, 
throughout the colony, excepting carts, waggons, horses, and mules employed only on the pro- 
prietor's own estate, or by a sugar-planter in the cultivation or conveyance of sugar, is fixed and 
shall be levied at the following rates ; that is to say : 



THE ISLAND OF MAURITIUS. 



139 



£ s. d. 
For each carriage on four wheels, except stage-coaches . . . . .'200 

For the same on two wheels . . . , . ..140 

For each cart or waggon on four wheels . . • . . . 10 

For the same on two wheels . . . . . ..140 

F>>r ea<h small carton springs, or covered in any manner, or used with seats or chairs .10 

For each small market-dart . . . . . . . . 16 

For each horse or mule used wholly or occasionally for the saddle or in a carriage . . 12 

For the same, used only in a cart or waggon . . . . ..080 

For each ass . . . . . . . . .040 

The tax on notices and advertisements in newspapers, established by Ordinance No. 1 of 
1833, shall cease ; and in lien thereof there shall be levied a tax of \d. for each line or incomplete 
line, not exceeding 3£ inches in width, and so in proportion for any greater width. 

The exemption from the obligation of taking out a licence, established by Art. 2 of Ordinance 
No. 27 of 1845, is hereby extended to dentists. 

The stamp duty upon the following documents shall be levied at the following rates ; that is 
to say : 



On each certificate of a vessel and master ...... 

On each certificate or passport for the departure of an individual . . . . 

On each passport of a vessel ........ 

fit shall be optional to parties to take a passport of this description.) 
On each oath of allegiance . . . . . . . 

Except in any case in which the signature of the Governor is required, in which case the 
duty shall be . . . . . . 

On each legalisation of signatures . . . . . . 

On eaih dispensation of age or residence ...... 

On each commission of appointment by the Governor ..... 



t. d. 

4 

2 







2 







An Account of the Amount paid by her Majesty's Government annually, from the 1st of 
December, 1811, the earliest Account in the Audit Office, until the Island of Mauritius 
defrayed its own Civil Expenditure. The Mauritius Government ceased to draw on the 
Imperial Government for a portion of its Civil Expenses from the 31st of December, 
1830. 



YEARS. 


Amount. 


Aid from her 
Majesty's Trea- 
sury, Bills drawn, 
Consignments of 

Specie, and 
Cash advanced. 


Repayments 

to her Majesty's 

Treasury. 


Amount paid 

Annually 

by her Majesty's 

Treasury. 








£. s. d. 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


From 1st Dec. 1811 to 31st 


Dec. 1812 


{ 


62,495 7 
8,000 


\ 70,495 7 


67,629 14 


2,865 13 


>j >» 


1813.... 


1 


11,892 17 
50,805 3 


X 62,698 


12,000 


50,698 


5» »> 


1814 




7,000 


7,000 


447 11 


6,552 9 


»» 5» 


1815.... 
1816.... 


f 

{ 


86,660 19 

11,502 2 

66,536 7 

3,500 


I 8,163 1 
I 70,036 7 


" 


98,163 1 
70,036 7 


» » 


1817 ... 


\ 


41,640 2 
7,000 


[ 48,640 2 


18,276 2 


30,364 


N 


1818.... 


! 


5,857 2 
5,000 


I 10,857 2 


146 16 


10,710 6 


„ 


1819.... 
1820.... 


! 

I 


25,011 16 
3,000 
14,742 4 
10,000 


{ 28,011 16 
I 24,742 4 


5,148 1 


28,011 16 
19,594 3 


.. 


1821... 


{ 


40,884 18 
12,835 10 


I 53,720 8 


13,755 


39,965 8 


M » 


1822 


{ 


424 19 

2,000 


\ 2,424 19 


124 19 


2,300 


,» » 


1823.... 


! 


15,552 17 
3,000 


I 18,552 17 


48 


18,504 17 


>> 19 


1824 


i 


151,643 9 
8,000 


X 159,643 9 




159,643 9 


>♦ >» 


1825.... 


i 


48,689 2 
10,000 


X 58,689 2 


299 5 


53,389 17 


»» 


1S26.... 


1 


51,637 2 
7,000 


} 58,637 2 


500 


58,137 2 


» »1 


1827.... 


{ 


4,528 2 6J 
8,000 


X 12,528 2 6| 


.. 


12,528 2 6| 


. » 


1828.... 


1 


464 15 5 
8,000 


I 8,464 15 5 


464 15 5 


8,000 


» 


1829 


{ 


6,284 19 1 
5,000 


X 11,284 19 1 


2,271 11 10 


9,013 7 3 


" 


1830.... 
1831 


{ 


1,545 16 8 
11,905 19 U 


I 13,451 16 7 


2,412 10 
5,838 16 6 


11,039 6 7 






Repayment in 


1831 » 


694,517 4 4£ 
5,838 16 6 




jvernment 






Total paid 


by her Majesty's g 


688,678 7 10| 



In addition to the amount advanced by her Majesty's Treasury, a sum of 507,456/. was received in aid by the 
Mauritius government, between the 1st of December, 1811, and 3lst of December, 1831, from the East India Company 



140 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



The expenditure exceeded the revenue of the colony in 1831 rather more 
than 37,106/.; in 1832, 42,298/.; in 1833, 13,785/. In 1834 and 1835 there was 
a surplus amounting altogether to 6853/. From 1839 the following tables 
show the revenue and expenditure exclusive of the army. 

Account in Detail of the Revenue and Expenditure of the Colony of Mauritius for the 

Year 1846. 



FIXED REVENUE. 

Customs: 

Imports 

Exports • 

Port collections • 

Wharfage dues 

Tonnage dues 

Coasting dues 

Boat licences 

Rents of customs — Warehouse and bonded 

stores 

Seychelles— Imports and port collections... 

Internal Revenue : 

Direct taxes 

Shop patents, and licences for coffee-houses, 
auctioneers, hawkers, and game 

Bazaar 

Canteens 

Distillery duties 

Stamps, includ ing fees 

Registration fees 

Mortgages, including fees received by the 
conservator 

Post-office 

Seychelles— Direct taxes, stamps, and regis- 
tration fees 

Corvee tax, Port Louis, applicable to cleans- 
ing the streets 

Church tax 

Port Louis cemetery 

Nouvelle Decouverte road tax 



1846 



£ s. d. 

48,261 9 4 

61,779 13 5 

15,995 12 1 

10,762 10 11 



7,436 12 

819 14 

608 18 

347 16 

12 2 



11,739 11 3 



33,415 14 1 

3,173 3 6 

16,105 9 

502 12 1 

5,279 19 9 

27,057 9 6 



2,655 8 
1,110 15 



191 9 9 

1,791 16 

307 13 

546 4 



FIXED REVENUE. 



Incidental Revenue: 

Crown lands and rent of government pro- 
perty 

Fees on marine registry 

Permts of residence 

Press 

Piises d'eau 

Theatre 

Premium on bills, interest on loans, and 
profit on sale of doubloons and Spanish 
dollars 

Law charges recovered, and fines 

Colonial archivist fees 

Naturalisation fees 

Registration fees— Court of first instance... 

Miscellaneous Receipts; 

Sale of provisions and stores 

Committee of prisons — Proceeds of labour.. 
Recovered for hospital stoppages and for 

overpayments 

Fines and fees under Merchant Seamen'* 

Act 

Droits of the crown, — Share of customs 

seizures 

Receipts by the agent in London 

Total 



£ 


5. 


d. 


850 


13 


7 


235 


16 





263 


15 





1,977 


2 


3 


442 








85 


2 





1.771 


17 


6 


2,889 


13 





11 


18 





344 








3,756 


16 


4 


1,315 


8 


2 


999 


19 





677 


11 


1 


51 


8 


10 


14 


16 





144 


13 


3 


265,641 


16 


2 



CIVIL DISBURSEMENTS. 



Established Salaries: 

Civil 

Revenue 

Judicial 

Medical 

Ecclesiastical 

Supplementary Salaries: 

Civil 

Revenue 

Judicial 

Medical 

Ecclesiastical 

Fixed Allowances : 
Civil, including Royal College and schools.. 

Revenue 

Judicial 

M edical 

Ecclesiastical 

Provisional Allowances: 

Civil, including schools 

Revenue 

Judicial 

Pensions 

Ordinary Contingencies: 

Civil 

Revenue 

Judicial 

Ecclesiastical and schools 

Buildings and repairs > 

Roads and bridges ] 

Provisions and stores. 

Law expenses 



28,460 5 

10,331 4 

31,353 12 

3,352 10 

3,633 2 


7 
1 
2 
6 
10 


1,132 18 

1,309 14 

6,222 6 

208 

200 


8 
5 
5 




5,819 12 

2,997 4 

1,368 1 

443 18 

50 


5 

7 





1,863 19 
468 9 
431 16 

1,180 15 



7 

10 


2,973 5 

4,851 3 

8,459 12 

80 


3 

6 



24,711 2 10 


9,970 19 
9,327 19 


9 
11 



CIVIL DISBURSEMENTS. 



Civil hospitals 

Quarantine 

M iscellaneous 

Imprested to the customs department on ac- 
count of salaries and incidental expenses. 

Military Disbursements: 
Colonial allowances to staff and regimental 
officers serving at Mauritius, paid over to 

the assistant commissary-general , 

Contribution from colonial revenue for keep 
ing in repair the barracks and othe 
military buildings transferred to the ord 
nance department 



Cleansing the Streets of Port Louis 
Payments made to contractors under agree- 
ment with the notables 



Refunded from Colonial Revenue: 
Duties erroneously levied or remitted .. 

Special imposts refunded 

Portions of fines paid to police, guards, and 

informers, and to the Cais-e de Bien 

faisance 

Interest paid to depositors in the savings 

bank 

Premium on bills and difference of exchange 
Mud-boat and steaiu-tug ; repairs and sup 

plies 

Land ceded to government 

Census 

Surcharges removed 

Expenditure by the agent in London 



Total 229,129 15 9 



1846 



£ .v. d. 
4,675 12 6 
2,912 13 10 

396 12 10 

6,782 10 10 



16,351 4 4 



10,000 



5,371 15 5 



295 
4,242 15 4 



,213 16 7 



1,602 17 9 
420 



3,252 16 3 
40 



31 10 
9,502 7 2 



THE SEYCHELLES. 



141 



General Statement of the Revenue and Expenditure of Mauritius from 1839 to 1850. 







R 


E V E N U E. 






YEARS. 


Customs, 
including Port, 
Wharfage, Ton- 
nage, aDd 
Coasting Dues, 
&c. 


Internal Reve- 
nues, comprising 
Licences, Can- 
teens, Regis- 
tration and 
Mortgage Dues, 
&c. 


Immigration. 


Sundries. 


Arrears 

of 

former Years. 


Total. 


1839 


£ s. d. 
112 034 5 6 
127,437 7 Hi 
145,777 5 8f 
121,119 17 1| 
108,358 17 Ok 
114,487 7 9i 
128,972 6 li 
145,676 11 Hi 
141,037 4 l| 


£ s. d. 

70,238 3 10 
85,630 8 10 
92,356 3 91 
99,256 5 6f 
89,675 13 9 
93,458 18 6£ 
94,689 3 4 
95,778 2 4f 
94,849 11 0* 


£ s. d. 

157*10 
10,903 16 1 
29.511 18 Of 
38,583 8 5£ 
62,390 9 2£ 
98,194 5 5i 


£ s. d. 
16,102 11 2 
17,504 3 6 
20,942 3 2| 
27,176 11 7 
25,081 8 I0J 
19,549 1 7i 
24,094 9 llf 
17,513 11 10 
20,044 3| 


£ s. d. 
15,693 4 1 
12,581 12 lOf 
8,705 7 8| 
6,332 12 9f 
11,315 6 llf 
11,049 4 9| 


£ s. d. 

214,068 4 7 




243,153 13 2£ 
267,781 5 


1841 


1842 


254,042 17 Of 
245,335 2 8$ 
268.056 10 P* 


1843 


1844 .... 


1845 


10,413 1 5 206.752 Q 3i 


1846 


7,115 17 3f 
7,167 17 9 


328,474 12 7f 
361,292 18 7| 


1847 


1848 


1819 




1850 





EXPEND 



T U R E. 



Pay and 
YEARS.' Salaries, in 
.eluding Extra. 



1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848. 
1849 
1850, 



£ 

92,725 

90,223 

93,722 

92,160 

95,488 

96,923 

100,229 

103,502 

107,988 



18 71 

11 4 

4 

13 

11 4 



Roads and 
Bridges, Build- 
ings and Re 
pairs. 



£ 

26,437 
14,755 
23,540 
21,720 
29,605 
37,819 
27,769 
24,283 
37,090 



s. d, 

9 5 

3 31 
16 11 

8 9i 

8 2 

6 6^ 

16 1 

4 n 



Immigration. 



Sundry Civil 
Disburse- 







£ a. 


d. 


1,480* 





196,827 11 


6* 


123,814 17 





61,839 18 


6 


41,098 11 


If 


50,278 


8 



£ s. 

42,247 9 

48,496 6 
66,750 13 
61,508 18 
75,882 13 
59,633 8 
57,097 10 
73,840 3 



),658 2 6J 



Colonial Mili- 
tary Ex- 
penses. 



£ s. 
23,236 7 
22,304 10 
22,341 4 

8,874 18 
18,259 
16,970 6 
17,042 19 
22,419 5 



Arrears of 
former Years. 



21,172 16 11 



£ 

4,988 
5,015 
11,807 
3,076 
20,312 
16,192 
15,994 
12,926 
12,014 



5. d. 
4 2 
12 1 

7 8| 

3 li 
16 9 

4 10| 
11 0| 
14 4f 

4 10 



Total. 



£ 

189,635 
180,794 
218,162 
188,821 
436,422 
351,354 
279,973 
278,070 
289,193 



s. d. 

2 5f 

13 Ui 
12 Si 

Ollf 
8 4J 

14 2£ 
19 3f 
11 lit 
17 9f 



YEARS. 


Surplus 
Bevenue. 


Surplus 
Expenditure. 


YEARS. 


Surplus 
Revenue. 


Surplus 
Expenditure. 


1 R39 


£ s. d. 
24,433 2 If 
62,358 19 2| 
49,618 7 8| 
65,221 16 1 

.... 


£ a. d. 

191,087 5 8| 
83,298 3 5 


1845 


£ s. d. 

16,778 9 11| 
50,404 8i 
72,099 10 


£ a. d. 


1840 


1846 




1841 


1847 




1842 


1848 




1843 


1849 




1844 


1850 





THE SEYCHELLES. 

The Seychelles are a group of islands dependent on the government of 
Mauritius. In a colonial and trading point of view those islets have hitherto 
been of little importance. They have, however, imposed a considerable ex- 
pense upon the treasury of Mauritius. They are of coral, sandy, and granitic 
formation, with a granitic ridge rising amidst them. They exceed thirty in 
number. 

The following are the names and area of the principal islets of the Sey- 
chelles : — 



142 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



ISLETS. 


Acres. 


ISLETS. 


Acres. 


ISLETS. 


Acres. 


Matte... 


number. 

30,000 
8,000 
5,700 
2,000 
1,000 


St. Anne 


number. 
500 
400 
300 
250 
120 




number. 
800 
600 
200 
200 
150 


Cerf 


North Island 


Silhouette 

La Digue 


Frigate 




Conception ....... 









Marie is sixteen miles long, and from three to five broad, with a granitic ridge 
in the centre. The town is situated in a small vale. The population in 1825 
was — whites, 582; free coloured, 323; and slaves, 6058; total, 6963. The 
beauty and tranquillity of the climate, and the absence of storms, are remark- 
able. They have numerous excellent harbours, which are visited by whalers. 
The inhabitants cultivate some cotton, spices, cofTee, tobacco, rice, maize, cocoa- 
nuts, &c, and carry on a trade in small vessels with India, Mauritius, and 
Bourbon. There is a whale-fishery on the banks. The vegetation is luxuriant. 
The cinnamon-plant, cloves, nutmeg, and pepper thrive, and were first planted 
by direction of M. de Poivre, governor of Mauritius. There is a British resi- 
dent, with officers, and a civil and criminal court. The distances are — from 
Mahe to Madagascar, 576 miles; Comoros, 828; Mauritius, 928; Mombas, 930; 
Delagoa Bay, 1800; Bombay, 1680; Arabia, 1230 ; Cape of Good Hope, 
2640. 



CHAPTER III. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 

This magnificent colony was first colonised by convicts in 1788. In May, 
1787, six transports and three store-ships, convoyed by a frigate and an armed 
tender, sailed from England with 565 male and 192 female convicts, under the 
command of Captain Phillip. He arrived at Botany Bay on the 20th of 
January, 1788, but, discovering Port Jackson by accident, he removed his fleet 
to it. In 1789 a harvest was first reaped at Paramatta. In 1790 the first 
grant of land was made to a convict. In 1793 there were 1200 bushels of 
surplus wheat grown in the colony, and purchased by Government. In 1788 
the whole population, including the Government establishment and convicts, 
amounted to 1030. In 1803 the first newspaper was printed. In 1810 the 
population, free and felon, amounted to 8293. There were at the same period 
97,637 acres of land granted, and there were in the colony 1114 horses, 11,276 
horned cattle, 34,550 sheep. In 1821 the population increased to 29,783. In 
1828 to 27,611 males and 8978 females; total 36,598: of which 14,156 were 
male, and 1513 female convicts; 5302 males, and 1342 females, free by servitude. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



143 



Thus the great disparity between the males and females was a great cause of 
immorality. 

By the census of 1841 and of 1846 the population was as follows : — 



population. 



Arrived free 

Sorn in the colony 

Free by servitude and pardon 
Bond, viz : — 

Holding tickets of leave 

In government employment. 
In private assignment 



Total. 



Males. 



number. 

30,745 
1-1,819 
15,760 

5,843 
6,658 
11,343 



Females. 



lumber. 

22,158 
14,6-22 
3,637 

316 
979 



Total. 

number. 
52,903 
20,441 
19,397 

5,159 
7,637 
13,181 



85,168 



43,550 I 128,718 



1845—6 



Males. 

number. 

44,899 
31,216 
22,537 

7,116 

2,074 
131 



112,573 



Females. 

number. 
38,216 
31,220 

4,487 

462 
238 
217 



Total. 

number. 

87,115 
62 436 
27,024 

7,578 

2,31*2 

948 



74,840 I 187,413 



The disparity between the sexes has been caused, from the first settlement of 
the colony, by its having been made a penal settlement. This disparity does 
not apply to persons under twenty-one years of age. The numbers under that 
age in 1841 were. — males 22,691, females 21,294. According to the census of 
March, 1846, the population for 1845-6 amounted to 187,413 souls, exclusive 
of military and crews of colonial vessels, or 2196. Total population, 189,609; 
being an increase of 58,753 during the preceding five years. The population of 
the district of Port Phillip, 32,872, is included in the above. In 1840-1 the 
population of Port Phillip was 11,738 ; in 1836, only 224. Allowing nearly the 
same proportionate increase, the population will probably exceed 250,000 in the 
year 1850. In 1845-6 there were 129,425 Protestants, and 56,262 Catholics. 

The number of emigrants which arrived in the colony in the twelve years 
1829 to 1840 amounted to 41,794. There arrived during the years 1841 and 
1842 no less than 30,224. Population of Sydney, in 1833, 16,233; in 1836, 
19,729; in 1840-1, 29,973; in 1845-6, 38,358. In Port Phillip district, popu- 
lation of Melborne, in 1840-1, 4479 ; in 1845-6, 10,954. The colony was 
relieved from the transportation of criminals in 1840, In 1846 there were, 
above twenty-one years of age, 24,190 who could not read; 16,117 who could 
r ead only ; and 67,256 who could read and write. There were, under twenty- 
one years, 44,471 who could not read. This number included no doubt the 
greater proportion of 15,774 infants who were under two years, leaving 28,697, 
above two and under twenty-one, who could not read or write, out of a total 
number, above two and under twenty-one, of 64,176. 

The number of qualified electors in the whole colony in 1845-6 was 18,512 ; 
of which there were 2948 in Sydney. 



144 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Number of Persons in the Population of the whole Colony who in the Year 1 846 fol- 
lowed the Occupations comprised under the following Heads. 



OCCUPATIONS. 


Persons. 


In each 1000 

of Total 
Occupations. 


OCCUPATIONS. 


Persons. 


In each 1000 

of Total 
Occupations. 


Commerce, trade, and manu- 
facture 

Agriculture 

Shepherds and persons in ma- 
nagement of sheep i 

Stockmen and persons in ma- 
nagement of horses and 


number. 

9,264 
13,952 

13,565 

5,532 

943 

12,104 

10,769 

4,188 


number. 

49-4 
74-4 

723 

295 

5-0 

645 

58-0 
22-4 


Brought forward 

Domestic servants, female 


number. 

70.317 

6,455 

185 

271 

343 

1,737 

1,687 
7,816 


number. 

34-4 
0"9 




1-4 




1-8 


Other educated persons 

Almspeople, pensioners, pau- 


9-2 
90 






41*7 




Total persons occupied... 
Residue of population .... 

Tota l population 




Mechanics and artificers 

Domestic servants, male 


88,811 
98,602 


526-1 


Carried forward 


70,317 


187,413 


1000 



Comparative View of Occupations in the whole Colony in the Years 1841 and 1846. 



occu PATIO N 



1841 



Persons. 



Per cent 
of Population. 



1846 



Persons. 



Per cent 
of Population. 



Commerce, trade, &c 

Agriculture. . 

Shepherds 

Mechanics and artificers 

Domestic servants 

Total occupations admitting of com 

parisons 

Residue of population 

Total of population 



number. 

6,251 
16,670 
12,948 
10,715 

9,820 



56,404 
70,135 



number. 
4-9 
13*2 

10 2 
8'5 

7*8 



55-4 



126,539 



100-0 



number. 
11,800 
20,427 
13,565 
10,769 
10,643 



67,204 
120,209 



187,413 



number. 
6-3 
10-9 
7-2 
5-8 
5*7 



64*1 



100-0 



Number of Persons in the City and Suburbs of Sydney who in the Year 1846 followed 

the undermentioned Occupations. 



OCCUPATIONS. 



Commerce, trade, &c 

Agriculture 

Shepherds, &c 

Stockmen, &c 

Horticulture 

Other labourers 

Mechanics •■•• 

Domestic servants j f ema i e 

Clerical profession 

Legal profession 

Medical profession 

Other educated persons, &c 

Almspeople 

All other occupations 

Total of persons occupied 

Residue of population 

Total of population 



The Suburbs. 



Persons. 



number. 

444 

14 

3 

54 

111 

343 

554 

148 

291 

6 

43 

5 

92 

1 

259 



2368 
4464 



In each 1000 
of Total Popula- 
tion. 



number. 

65-0 

2*1 

0-4 

7-9 

16 2 

50*2 

81*1 

21-7 

42-6 

0-9 

6-3 

0-7 

13*5 

0-1 

37*9 



City and Suburbs. 



Persons. 



number. 

4,655 

76 

19 

121 

193 

2,079 

3,672 

1,107 

2,009 

62 

141 

107 

43 

981 

3,250 



19,115 
26,075 



45,190 



In each 1000 
of Total Popula- 



tion. 



number. 

103-0 

1-7 

0*4 

2*7 

4*3 

460 

81-3 

24*5 

44*5 

1*4 

3*1 

2*4 

14-2 

21-7 

71-9 



577-0 



1000-0 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



Number of Houses in the whole Colon) 



145 





1841 


1846 


C LASSES. 


Houses. 


Proportions 
per Cent. 


Houses. 


Proportions 
per Cent. 


Increase. 




Numerical. 


Centesimal. 




number. 

15,301 
1,446 


number. 
91-4 

8-6 


number. 

29,381 
2,380 


number. 
92-5 
7-5 


number. 

14,080 

934 


number. 
92-0 




64-6 












16,747 


1000 


31,761 


100-0 | 15,014 


89-5 








16,416 
331 


98-0 
20 


29,918 
1,843 


94-2 
5-8 


13,502 
1,512 


82-2 




456-8 






Total 


16,747 


ioo-o 


31,761 


lOO'O | 15,014 


89-5 






Inhabitants to a house* 


7' 


71 




6-26 





* The average number of inhabitants to a house is not computed upon the total number of houses, but upon the 
number returned as inhabited. 



Number of Houses in the C 


ity of Sydney and its Suburbs. 






1841 


1S46 


CLASSES. 


Houses. 


Proportion 
Per Cent. 


Houses. 


Proportion 
Per Cent. 


Numerical. 


Centesimal. 




number. 
4516 

77 


number. 

98-3 

1-7 


number. 

6916 

193 


number. 
97-3 

2-7 


number. 

2400 
116 


number. 
53-1 




150-6 






Total 


4593 


100-0 


7109 


100-0 


2516 


54-8 








4491 
102 


97 8 
2-2 


6432 
677 


90-5 
9-5 


1941 
575 


43-2 




563-7 






Total 


4593 


100-0 


7109 


100-0 


2516 


54-8 


Inhabitants to a house 


6-67 




5-96 



Return showing the Quantity of Land in Cultivation (exclusive of Gardens and Orchards) 
in the Colony of New South Wales (including the District of Port Phillip) from the 
Year 1835 to 1844, inclusive. 











C R 


O P 


S. 










YEARS. 


Wheat. 


Maize. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Rye. 


Millet. 


Pota- 
toes. 


To- 
bacco. 


Sown 

Grasses, 

Oats, and 

Barley for 

Hay. 


Total 

Number of 

Acres in 

Crop. 


1835 


acres. 

47,051 
74,133 
81,903 


acres. 
20,831 
24,966 
20,798 


acres. 
2903 
5144 
7236 


acres. 
2278 
5453 
4336 


acres. 
599 
609 
359 


acres. 
59 
115 
43 


acres. 

1081 
2594 
6783 


acres. 
321 
381 

871 


acres. 

4,133 

12,721 

21,766 


acres. 

79,256 
126,116 
144,095 


1840 

1844 


1845 


1S46 




1847 




1848 




1849 




1850. 



















P R 


O D U 


C E. 










YEARS. 


Wheat. 


Maize. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


Rye. 


Millet. 


Potatoes. 


Tobacco. 


Hay. 


1835 


bushels. 

526,266 

1,116,814 

1,308,949 


bushels. 
503,314 

777,947 
575,857 


bushels. 
47,249 
105,399 
132,575 


bushels. 
13,155 
66,020 
70,620 


bushel.". 
7461 
8863 
4475 


bushels. 

727 

3338 

511 


tons. 

1,336 

11,050 

22,716 


cwt. 

2146 
4300 
6382 


tons. 

2,315 

21,329 

31,788 


1840 

1844 

1845 


1846 




1847 




1848 




1849 




1850 









VOL. V. 



146 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Vineyards. — Return of the number of acres of land planted with the grape-vine, and of the 
quantity of wine and brandy made from the produce thereof, in the year 1845. — Sydney or Middle 
District: — Argyle, nil. Bathurst, nil. Bligh, 2 acres ; wine, 120 gallons ; brandy, nil. Brisbane, 
33 acres; wine, 2750 gallons; brandy, nil. Camden, 40 acres; wine, 13,800 gallons; brandy, 
330 gallons (brandy is distilled under the authority of the 39th section of the Act of the Colonial 
Legislature, 3 Victoria, No. 9, by the proprietors of vineyards). Cook, 34 acres ; wine, 2120 
gallons ; brandy, 60 gallons. Cumberland, 146 acres ; wine, 11,385 gallons ; brandy, 427 gallons. 
Durham, 77 acres ; wine, 9629 gallons ; brandy, 75 gallons. Georgiana, nil. Gloucester, 96 
acres; wine, 3240 gallons; brandy, 36 gallons. Hunter, 35 acres ; wine, 480 gallons ; brandy, 
nil. King, 5 acres ; wine, nil ; brandy, nil. Macquarie, 10 acres ; wine 1648 gallons ; brandy, 
nil. Murray, 2 acres ; wine, nil; brandy, nil. Northumberland, 69 acres; wine, 5382 gallons ; 
brandy, 90 gallons. Phillip, 1 acre ; wine, nil ; brandy, nil. Roxburgh, 3 acres ; wine, 12 gal- 
lons ; brandy, nil. St. Vincent, nil. Stanley, 3 acres ; wine, nil ; brandy, nil. Wellington, nil. 
Westmoreland, nil. — Port Phillip, or Southern District : — Port Phillip, 10 acres ; wine, 100 gal- 
lons; brandy, nil. Total, 566 acres ; wine, 50,566 gallons ; brandy, 1018 gallons. 



Live Stock of the Colony of New South Wales on the 1st of January, 1849. 



DISTRICTS. 


Horses. 


Homed Cattle. 


Pigs. 


Sheep. 


Sydney, or middle district within the 


number. 
64,817 
32,583 


number. 

387,283 
978,881 


number. 
59,537 
5,679 


number. 
2,139,243 
4,391,299 


Commissioners' districts beyondthe settled 




Total in the Sydney, or middle district 


97,400 


1,366,164 


65,216 


6,530,542 


Port Phillip, or southern districts within 


4,192 
12,303 


71,100 
315,588 


3,759 
1,900 


610,963 
4,519,314 


Commissioners' districts beyondthe settled 




Total in Port Phillip, or southern dis- 


16,495 


336,688 


5,659 


5,130,277 






General Total. 
1848 


113,895 
71,169 


1,752,852 
1,059,432 


70,875 
56,242 


1,166,081 


1 845 


5,604,644 



NAVIGATION AND TRADE. 



Return of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels entered Inwards in the Colony of New 
South Wales (including the District of Port Phillip) from the Year 1826 to 1850, 
inclusive. 









From British Colonies. 






































1 VIU 






YEAR. 


B 


itain. 


New 
Zealand. 


Elsewhere. 


Sea Islands. 


Fisheries. 


States. 


Foreign 
States. 


lOTAL. 




no. 


tons. 


no. 


tons. 


no. 


tons. 


no. 


tons. 


no. 


tons. 


no. 


tons. 


no. 


tons. 


no. 


tons. 


1826... 


33 


11,848 






23 


3,969 














6 


1,361 


62 


17,178 


1827.. . 


50 


19,097 






42 


5,376 














11 


2,035 


103 


26 508 


1828... 


59 


20,585 




.. 


65 


8,789 














13 


3,185 


137 


32,559 


1829... 


62 


21,963 


.. 




46 


7,078 














50 


8,301 


158 


37,342 


1830... 


41 


14,400 






45 


7,221 












,. 


71 


9,604 


157 


31,225 


1831... 


39 


13,778 






49 


10,043 














67 


10,179 


155 


34,000 


1832.. . 


56 


18,588 






76 


13,122 














57 


9,640 


189 


41,350 


1833.. . 


53 


19,352 






99 


19,149 














58 


11,663 


210 


50,164 


1834... 


58 


20,906 


.. 




112 


23,730 














75 


13,896 


245 


58,532 


1835... 


47 


17,530 






132 


28,507 


12 


2822 


23 


5,899 


6 


1400 


40 


7,401 


260 


63,019 


1836... 


60 


23,610 


41 


5,430 


124 


25,861 


4 


546 


25 


6,031 


3 


975 


12 


2,962 


269 


65,415 


1837... 


56 


21,816 


36 


5,480 


233 


33,751 


5 


581 


48 


13,004 


5 


1220 


17 


4,262 


400 


80,114 


1838... 


102 


41,848 


38 


4,291 


241 


34,469 


6 


616 


31 


7,928 


1 


274 


9 


2,351 


428 


91,777 


1839... 


137 


58,123 


51 


8,368 


290 


45,928 


7 


836 


36 


9,321 


4 


1177 


38 


1 1,721 


563 


135,474 


1840... 


190 


80,806 


68 


13,123 


347 


53,625 


6 


750 


27 


8,087 


8 


2520 


63 


20,047 


709 


178,958 


1841... 


251 


106,332 


48 


7,601 


322 


43,992 


3 


358 


23 


6,163 


13 


4754 


54 


14,648 


714 


183,778 


1842... 


137 


55,144 


81 


14,085 


282 


42,365 


19 


2902 


20 


5,806 


7 


2762 


82 


20,857 


628 


143,921 


1843... 


87 


35,914 


43 


6,229 


325 


43,934 


25 


4194 


30 


7,967 


5 


1116 


43 


11,510 


558 


110,864 


1844... 


78 


34,765 


54 


7,189 


226 


31,195 


13 


1831 


27 


7,888 


3 


1005 


16 


3,666 


417 


87,539 


1845... 


80 


29,954 


62 


6,237 


364 


47,532 


24 


2612 


37 


11,900 


1 


243 


29 


6,874 


597 


105,352 


1846... 


84 


36,761 


65 


10,865 


475 


57.4S5 


V 


3005 


79 


24,375 


1 


370 


36 


8,606 


767 


141,467 


00 O0 00 
to 00 -J 


88 


37,941 


75 


10,516 


565 


69,614 


25 


2443 


78 


22,558 


1 


160 


46 


11,672 


878 


154,904 


































1850... 






























1 





NEW SOUTH WALES. 



147 



YEARS. 


Vessels Built. 


Vessels Registered. 


YEARS. 


Vessel 


s Built. 


Vessels Registered. 


1822 


number. 
3 
3 
5 
2 
12 
9 
6 
7 
3 
5 
5 
6 
9 
7 
9 


tons. 
163 
182 
157 
119 
654 
434 
162 
462 
78 
112 
220 
393 
376 
303 
301 


number. 

3 

3 

6 

2 
19 
19 
13 

5 
25 
38 
21 
29 
19 
21 
39 


tons. 

163 

182 

157 

119 

1634 

1732 

478 

428 

1777 

3224 

2143 

2655 

1852 

2267 

4560 


1837 


number. 
17 
20 
12 
18 
35 
26 
47 
18 


tons. 
760 
808 
773 
1207 
2074 
1357 
1433 
519 


number. 
36 
41 
79 
98 
110 
89 
92 
87 


tons. 

3,602 

6,229 
10,862 
12,426 
11,250 

9,948 




1838 


1824 


1839 




1840 


1826 


1841 




1842 




1843 


7,022 
6,087 




1844 




1845 


1831 


1846 






1847 






1848 




1834 


1849 

1850 








1836 





Return of the Value of Exports from the Colony of New South Wales. 



YEARS. 


To Great 
Britain. 


To British 
Colonies . 


To South 
Sea Islands. 


To|Fisheries. 


To United 
States. 


To Foreign 
States. 


Total. 


New 
Zealand. 


Elsewhere. 


1826 


£ 
101,314 

70,507 
84,008 
146,283 
120,559 
211,138 
252,106 
269,508 
400,738 
496,345 
513,976 
518,951 
583,154 
597,100 
792,494 
706,336 
685,705 
825,885 
854,903 
1,254,881 
1,130,179 
1,503,091 


£ 

39^984 

36,184 

39,528 

46,924 

95,173 

215,486 

114,980 

131,784 

79,764 

70,799 

77,017 

106,277 

122,205 


£ 

1,735 

4,926 

4,845 

12,692 

15,597 

60,354 

63,934 

67,344 

128,211 

83,108 

136,596 

118,447 

113,716 

194,684 

304,724 

123,968 

166,239 

205,992 

165,553 

199,771 

222,645 

212,932 


£ 

2,696 

9,628 

485 

7,137 

1,347 

6,621 

13,144 

3,005 

17,934 

14,106 

17,656 

13,441 

14,231 


£ 

38,445 
35,918 
54,434 
33,988 
34,729 
27,864 
18,417 
22,862 
18,827 
11,623 
1,595 
590 


£ 

18*594 
13,697 
10,617 
11,324 

18,568 
27,885 
4,837 
17,101 


3,551 

881 

1,197 

2,741 

23,503 

52,676 

68,304 

57,949 

58,691 

3,011 

2,625 

17,592 

6,525 

7,175 

24,618 

41,715 

40,715 

23,918 

11,131 

5,068 

8,407 

17,587 


106,600 


1827 


76,314 


1828 


90,050 


1829 


161,716 
159,659 
324,168 
384,144 
394,801 
587,640 
682,193 


1830 


1831 


1832 


1833 


1834 


1835 


1836 


748,624 


1837 


760,054 
802,768 


1838 


1839 


948,776 


1840 


1,399,692 


1841 


1,023,397 


1842 


1,067,411 


1843 


1,172,320 
1,128,115 


1844 


1845 


1,555,986 
1,481,539 
1,870,046 


1846 


1847 

1848 


1849 




1850 





Return of the Value of Imports into the 


Colony of New South Wales 




YEARS 


From Great 
Britain. 


From British 
Colonies. 


From 

South Sea 

Islands. 


From 
Fisheries. 


From 
United 
States. 


From 
Foreign 
States. 


Total. 




New Zea- 
land. 


Elsewhere. 


1826 


£ 

280,000 

253,975 

399,892 

423,463 

268,935 

241,989 

409,344 

434,220 

669,663 

707,133 

794,422 

807,264 

1,102,127 

1,251,969 

2,200,305 

1,837,369 

854,774 

1,034,942 

643,419 

777,112 

1,119,301 

1,347,341 


35^542 
32,155 

42,886 
53,943 
71,709 
54,192 
45,659 
37,246 
15,738 
20,795 
34,470 
23,367 
27,159 


30,000 

63,220 

125,862 

135,486 

60,356 

68,804 

47,895 

61,662 

124,570 

144,824 

220,254 

257,427 

255,975 

504,828 

376,954 

286,637 

260,955 

211,291 

133,128 

203,289 

239,576 

361,565 


£ 

]',420 

1,972 

1,764 

5,548 

3,863 

1,348 

24,361 

10,020 

22,387 

10,624 

40,048 

21,799 

6,919 


£ 

141,823 
103,575 

80,441 
71,506 
186,212 
104,895 
87,809 
64,999 
42,579 
32,507 
43,503 
56,461 
41,557 


£ 

13,902 

22,739 

9,777 

8,066 

23,093 

24,164 

35,282 

20,117 

12,041 

17,187 

7,416 

4,459 

1,550 


£ 

50,000 

45,129 

44,246 

42,055 

91,189 

179,359 

147,381 

218,090 

197,757 

70,161 

62,289 

97,932 

82,112 

194,697 

252,331 

200,871 

206,948 

211,566 

73,600 

128,016 

165,559 

196,032 


£ 

360,000 

362,324 

570,000 

601,004 

420,480 

490,152 

604,620 

713,972 

991,990 

1'114,805 

1 '237,406 

1>297,491 

1 '579,277 

2,236,371 

3,014,189 

2,527,988 

1,455,059 

1,550,544 

931,260 

1,233,854 

1,630,522 

1,982,022 


1827 


1828 


1829 


1830 


1831 


1832 


1833.... 


1834 


1835 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 




1850 





L 2 



148 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Imports. 



YEARS. 


Value of Articles the 
produce or manufac- 
ture of the United 
Kingdom. 


Value of Articles the 
produce or manufac- 
ture of other 
British dominions. 


Value of Articles the 
produce or manufac- 
ture of Foreign 
States. 


Total. 


1844 


629,510 

786,514 

1,111,238 

1,269,183 


154,752 
156,491 

88,638 
95,118 


£ 
147,178 

290,849 
430,646 
617,722 


£ 

931,260 

1,233,854 

1,630,522 

1,982,023 


1845 , 




1847 




1849 




1850 





Exports. 



YEARS. 


Value of Articles the 
produce or manufac- 
ture of New South 
Wales. 


Value of Articles the 
produce or manufac- 
ture of the United 
Kingdom. 


Value of Articles the 
produce or manufac- 
ture of other British 
dominions. 


Value of Articles the 
produce or manufac- 
ture of Foreign 
States. 


Total. 


1844 


£ 

864,709 

1,269,062 

1,201,433 

1,649,031 


£ 
119,197 
100,901 
120,424 
136,385 


£ 

64,266 
110,160 

80,499 
15,865 


£ 

79,943 

75,863 
79,183 
68,765 


£ 

1,128,115 
1,555,986 
1,281,539 
1,870,046 


1845 


1846 


1847... 


1848.... 

1849 


1850 





Return of the Quantity and Value of Oil, &c, Exported from the Colony of New South 

Wales. 



YEARS. 




Sperm Whale. 


Black Whale. 


Whalebone. 


Seal Skins. 


Value, as entered 

in the Returns of 

Exports. 


1828 




tuns. 
311 

871 
983 
1571 
2491 
3048 
2760 


tuns. 

28 
45 
98 
505 
695 
418 
975 


tons. 

9 
28 
43 

43 


cwt. 
17 

16 
5 
6 

15 


number. 

8,723 
11,362 
9,720 
4,424 
1 415 
1,890 
890 


26,431 
54,975 
59,471 
95,969 
147,409 
146,855 
157,334 
180,349 




1830 


1831 


1832 


1833 


1834 



Note. — See total exports of oil in general tables of trade from each of the Australian colonies, hereafter. See 
also, " Wool Trade," under general head of " Trading Imports and Exports," hereafter. 

Return of the Quantity and Value of Timber Exported from the Colony of New South 

Wales. 



YEARS. 


Cedar. 


Blue Gum, Tine, 
and other Timber. 


Trenails. 


Value as entered 
in the Return of 

Exports. 


1828 


superficial feet. 

847,805 
940,486 
368,830 
580,393 
418,930 
1,086,437 
899,492 
907,921 

1,409,467 

116,828 
699,066 
729,001 

1,250,786 
513,139 
522.S82 


superficial fee^. 

285,541 
608,647 
179,403 
416,857 
233,653 
147,170 
30,065 
145,628 
( 3778 feet \ 
( and 106 logs / 
18,828 
9,000 
/ 823 deals \ 
I 15 logs / 
151/.00 
1,000 
27,404 


number. 

65,837 
181,817 

23,959 

24,316 
186,831 
328,503 
212,467 
1 78,969 

35,094 

62,989 
73,450 

40,588 

4,350 
26,890 
55,644 


£ 

11,428 

16,293 
5,218 
8,401 
6,132 

13,153 
7,941 

10,489 

14,611 
14,463 

6,382 

8,815 

20,971 
7,004 
5,800 








1832 


1833 


1834 v. 














1841 


1842 


1843 




1844 




1845 




1846 




1847 




1848 




1849 






1850 




1 





NEW SOUTH WALES. 



149 



Return of the Annual Quantity and Value of Grain, &c, Imported into the Colony. 



YEARS. 


Wheat. 


Maize. 


Barley, Oats, 
and Feas. 


Flour and 
Bread. 


Rice. 


Potatoes. 


Total Value 
as entered 
in Returns 
of Imports. 


1828 


bushels 

85,716 

107,929 

70,904 

71,892 

44,(108 

19.507 

15,568 

122,908 

263,956 

114,464 

79,328 

171,207 

290,843 

239,2-24 

103,224 


bushels. 

895 

8,180 

3,395 

6,040 

30.S62 

19,185 

12,773 

1,120 


bushels. 

8,689 

2,575 

183 

758 

977 

7,081 

6,818 

12,031 

27,567 

7,034 

58,927 

64,093 

63,363 

41,610 

37,798 


lbs. 

320,640 

42,076 

2,226 

358,154 

30,072 

14,269 

345,896 

1,377,018 

4,385,550 

1,522,658 

2,478,712 

3,579,076 

7,108,663 

14,029,503 

7,247.016 


lbs. 

401,578 

183,703 

29,898 

54,161 

88,052 

39,200 

407,680 

1,139,551 

474,358 

176,030 

728,346 

1,414,747 

7,849,896 

3,603,076 

2,260,046 


tons. 
369 
548 
190 
142 
92 
422 
408 
520 
1304 
545 
1167 
1189 
1723 
480 
1401 


£ 

54,823 


1829 


42,640 


1830 


23,344 


!831 


27,691 


1832 


13,365 




14,211 




15,850 




72,920 




146,149 


1837 


61,006 


1838 


64,313 


1839 


285,110 


1840 


21 7,0^3 


1841 


201,632 


1842 


113,070 


1843 




1844 








1846 








1818 








1850 





Quantity and Value of Articles the Produce or Manufacture of New South Wales, 
including the Fisheries, Exported from the Sydney District in the Years 1846 and 
1847. 



ARTICLES. 


1846 


1847 


ARTICLES. 


1846 


1847 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 




£ 

7,460 
4,620 
2,260 
10,640 
23,942 
26,492 


£ 

7,158 
7,272 
11,768 
13,350 
15,701 
35,276 


Brought forward 

Oil 


£ 
75,414 
66,420 
25,058 
668,544 
25,259 


£ 
90,525 




78,088 

92,384 

706,313 

29,599 




Tallow 




Wool 










860,697 


996,909 


Carried forward 


75,414 


90,525 





Exports of Food from 


Sydney and Newcastle in 1846 an 


d 1847. 




ARTICLES. 


1846 


1847 


ARTICLES. 


1846 


1847 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 




£ 

1,345 

228 

10,177 

276 

483 

96 

2,957 

2,692 


£ 

2,803 
324 

7,771 
1,785 
5,579 
32 
4,138 
5,282 


Brought forward 


£ 
18,254 

182 
256 

"41 

2,260 
4,620 


£ 

27,714 


Confection and preserves 


159 


Oatmeal, &c 

Potatoes 


441 




69 




521 




Provisions, salted 


1 1 ,768 




7,272 










25,612 


47,944 


Carried forward 


18,254 


27,714 





Imports of Food to the Port of Sydney in 1846 and 1847. 




ARTICLES 


1846 


1847 


ARTICLES. 


1846 


1847 




Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 




£ 

202 

970 

4,028 

55S 

2,061 

11,176 

7,759 

38,271 

1.2S0 

375 

509 


£ 

524 

130 

9,965 

902 

4,476 

8,5G3 

6,584 

30,433 

1,595 

213 

104 

63,489 


B rougbt forward 

Peas, split — 


£ 

67,139 

371 

4,333 

2 

6,9«2 

83,513 

3,741 

97,478 


£ 
63,489 
129 




Coffee 


2,038 
763 


C infections an.l preserves 








2,650 
115,196 

94,716 
200,659 


Flour and bread 






,, refined 








Oatmeal and pearl barley 


263,539 
27 


389,640 




TOTA L 




Carried forward 


67,139 


263,566 | 390,144 



Note.— These large importations of food were very slightly met by exports of the like class. 



150 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Summary of Imports into, and Exports of Grain and Flour from, New South Wales, 

during the following Years. 



YEARS. 


IMPORTS. 


EXPORTS. 


YEARS. 


IMPORTS. 


EXPORTS. 


Grain. 


Flour 
and Meal. 


Grain. 


Flour. 


Grain. 


Flour 
and Meal. 


Grain. 


Flour. 


1835 


bushels. 
122,444 
229,114 
114,248 
123,507 
189,484 
300,297 
301,382 
234,991 


barrels. 

3,824 

12,617 

6,271 

9,226 

9,943 

23,610 

76,675 

31,801 


bushels. 

4,020 
22,443 
11,130 
24,841 

6,682 
22,996 
31,053 

6,196 


barrels. 

2,487 

5,200 
11,219 

5,337 

' 4,647 

16,990 

3,460 
16,172 


1843 


bushels. 
310,128 
253,537 


barrels. 
39,157 
22,079 


bushels. 
23,930 
45,684 


barrels. 
5,138 
3,383. 


1836 


1844 


1845 




1846 




1839 


1847 






1848 






1849 






1850 















Four banks have been established in New South Wales since 1827. We 
have no recent data, on which we can rely, to enable us to say anything relative 
to their credit and condition. 

Manufactories of woollen cloth appear to be thriving in this colony. 

Revenue of New South Wales, including Port Phillip, in the Years 1826 to 1850. 





General Revenue. 


Land Revenue. 


Total Revenue. 


YEARS. 


Amount. 


Per Head 

of 

Population. 


Sales of Land. 


Total 

Land 

Revenues. 


Amount. 


Per Head 

of 
Population. 


Amount. 


Per Head 

of 
Population. 


1826 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 


£ 

197,679 
225,799 
208,350 
240,429 
312,469 
373,655 
367,214 
301,010 
273,100 
294,114 


£ s. d. 

2 ii 3 
2 13 
2 2 7 
2 2 
2 8 3 
2 9 11 
2 5 11 
1 16 4 
1 11 6 
1 12 4 


£ 

126*459 

120,427 

116,325 

152,963 

316,626 

90,388 

14,574 

10,757 

7,403 

16,668 


£ s. d. 

1 12 10 
1 8 3 
1 3 9 

1 6 9 

2 8 11 
12 1 
1 10 
1 4 
10 
1 10 


£ 

2,762 

132,607 

128,944 

125,730 

172,274 

340,658 

120,325 

61,517 

49,881 

37,853 

72,573 


£ 
72,230 
330,286 
354,743 
334,080 
412,703 
653,127 
493,980 
428,731 
350,891 
310,953 
366,687 


£ s. d. 

4 5 8 

4 3 2 
3 8 3 
3 12 2 

5 11 
3 6 
2 13 8 
2 2 5 

1 5 10 

2 5 



The revenue is derived from sale of crown lands, quit-rents, duties on 
spirits, home-made and imported, tobacco, ad valorem duty of per cent on 
goods imported, licences, tolls, assessments, auction duties, &c. 



VICTORIA, OR PORT PHILLIP. 

The district of Port Phillip, which it is intended to constitute a separate legis- 
lative colony, to be called Victoria, is bounded on the north and north-east by a 
direct line from Cape Howe to the nearest source of the Murray, and thence by 
the Murray River; on the west by the eastern boundary of South Australia, or the 
141st deg. of east longitude from the River Murray to the sea-coast, and on the 
south by the sea-coast to Cape Howe, including the islands along the coast. Area, 
98.000 square miles, or 62,720,000 acres of land, with a population in 1846 of 
32,879 souls; viz., 20,184 males, and 12,695 females; of whom 3855 males and 



VICTORIA, OR PORT PHILLIP. 



151 



3728 females were born in the district. Their social condition being 5564 married 
men, 5656 married women, 14,620 single men, 7039 single women: their civil 
condition being 19,916 free males, 12,690 free females ; 268 male prisoners, 5 
female prisoners : religious condition, Protestants, 23,523 ; Roman Catholics, 9075 ; 
Jews, 117; Mabommedans and Pagans, 27; other persuasions, 117. The number 
of persons that cannot read being, males, 5802; females, 4851 : who can read 
only, males, 2536; females, 2412; and who can both read and write, make, 
males, 11,846; females, 5432. There has been a great increase in the popula- 
tion since this census was taken, but it cannot be sufficiently ascertained to 
what extent. The estimated number of aborigines is 5000. There are about 
5300 houses in the Port Phillip district. Value of imports, 1847, 437,696/., of 
which 318,424/. were from Great Britain ; exports, 668,511/., of which 565,805/. 
were in wool, 18,964/. in horses, 22,595/. in horned cattle, 11,974/. in beef and 
pork, and 15,802/. in tallow: 423 vessels, 47,885 tons, entered inwards: revenue 
138,219/.; expenditure, 63,882/. Melbourne is the capital and seat of govern- 
ment. 

Immigration to Port Phillip in 1849. — The following return, just received, shows the 
numbers of adult males and adult females who arrived in the colony as assisted immigrants during 
the year 1848, viz., 1782 agricultural labourers, 65 gardeners, 11 farm bailiffs, 171 shepherds, 3 
herdsmen, 41 male domestic servants, 1542 female domestic servants, 163 carpenters, 23 masons, 
7 quarrymen, 54 bricklayers, 25 brickmakers, 21 sawyers, 4 farriers, 1 plasterer, 22 butchers, 20 
bakers, 2 grocers, 3 millers, 3 brewers, 1 confectioner, 1 maltster, 1 poulterer, 11 tailors, 9 shoe- 
makers, 55 dressmakers, 4 bonnet makers, 2 straw plaiters, 2 tailoresses, 1 embroideress, 11 needle- 
women, 148 smiths, 32 wheelwrights, 15 cabinet-makers, 1 porter, 3 painters, 2 shipwrights, 2 flax- 
spinners, 8 wool sorters, 5 millwrights, 7 engineers, 4 veterinary surgeons, 34 miners, 2 sailors, 8 
clerks, 3 iron-founders, 1 patten-maker, 2 barbers, 5 schoolmasters, 7 printers, 1 pawnbroker, 2 
glass-cutters, 2 turners, 8 machine-makers, 3 saddlers, 4 coopers, 4 weavers, I surgeon's assistant, 
1 druggist, 1 tanner, 1 ship-chandler, [1 horse-breaker, I locksmith, 1 nailor, 1 basket-maker, 2 
sheep doctors, 2 wool-combers, 1 plumber, I clockmaker, 1 coachmaker, 11 governesses, 1 school- 
mistress, 1 female weaver, 1 female paper maker, and 1 upholstress. Out of the above number 
there were 1287 married couples. It appears from the above list of trades and occupations that 
only eleven needlewomen are amongst the number. The owner of a small allotment of ground 
in Elizabeth-street, Melbourne, Port Phillip, recently (July last) whipped up a wooden tenement, 
with a shop front, at an expense not exceeding 50/., and let the same at an annual rent of 80/., for 
a term of three years, six months' rent being paid in advance. 



DESCRIPTION. 



Population number 

Ordinary revenue value £ 

Expenditure do. 

Imports ' do. 

Exports do. 

Number of vessels inwards 

Tonnage of ditto „ number 



PORT PHILLIP. 


1843 


1850 


30,000 

71,831 10 8 

54,352 

245,968 

307,968 

208 

34,420 





DESCRIPTION. 



Number of vessels outwards . 
Tonnage of ditto „ number 

Export of pound s of wool do, 

Horses do 

Sheep d» 

Cattle do 



P ORT PHILLIP. 



1843 



208 

32,900 

4,896,560 

5,000 

2,000,000 

140,000 



Particulars of Exports in Seasons of 1842-1850. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




number. 
15,512 
903 
4* 

57,880 
1,295 
1,294 
1,017 


£ 

197,588 

3,612 

104 

20,258 
8,160 
1,509 
1,423 


Hides, sent to England .. ..cwt. 
Horns „ „ do. 
Sheep skins ,, „ do. 


number. 

793 

3 '80 

3526 


£ 

357 
8 

146 
1,026 

3,000 




Oil do 




number 
Cattle „ „ ....do. 


Potatoes to Sydney and Launces- 


Salted beef, sent to England cwt. 
Tallow „ „ do. 


Total value.... 




237,192 



a_ 



152 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Condensed Report of Imports and Exports from the District of Port Phillip, the Quantity of* 
Wool Exported, with the Number of Ships and their Tonnage, during the following Years. 





1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


VALUE OF IMPORTS. 

Fiom the United Kingdom. 
„ British Possessions . . 
„ Foreign Possessions. 


£ 
108,939 


£ 
171,061 


£ 

12,369 

192,353 


£ 
169,3^0 
219,417 
3,219 


£ 
172,092 
162,792 
368 


£ 

140,210 
136,997 


£ 

109,^86 

119,355 

17,227 


TALUE OF EXPORTS. 

To the United Kingdom ... 

„ British Possessions 

„ Foreign Possessions. . . . 


108,939 


171,061 


204,722 


392,026 


335,252 


277,207 


245,968 


12,180 


20,589 


26,654 
51,030 


60,155 

63,808 

687 


94,431 
81,704 


200,332 
36,790 


266,650 
41,316 


QUANTITY OF WOOL, EX- 
PORTED. 

To the United Kingdom.... 
„ B ritish Possessions 


12,180 


20,589 


77,684 


124,640 


176,335 


337,192 


307,966 


lbs. 

175,081 


lbs. 
320,392 


lbs. 
358,140 
257,465 


lbs. 

850,090 

79,235 


lbs. 
1,528,211 
50,140 


lbs. 
3,352,320 

57,860 


lbs. 
4,866,240 
40,320 




175,080 


320,392 


615,605 


929,325 


1,578,351 


3,410,180 


4,896,560 


NAGK. 

From the United Kingdom. 
„ British Possessions . . 
„ Foreign Possessions . 


ships, tons. 
140 12,754 


ships, tons. 
137 '11,717 


ships, tons. 

9 3,925 

186 21,682 


ships, tons. 

38 15,873 

223 27,277 

1 266 


ships, tons. 

67 29,652 

200 21,442 

5 1,406 


ships, tons. 

13 3,175 

220 40,204 


ships, tons. 

18 4,560 
190 28,860 


SHIPS OUTWARDS, AND TON- 
NAGE. 

To the United Kingdom.... 

„ British Possessions 

„ Foreign Possessions 


140 12,754 


137 11,717 


195 25,607 


262 43,416 


272 52,500 


233 43,379 


20$ 34,420 


140 ' 13,424 


136 ' 11,679 


3 818 
186 19,534 


5 1,572 

218 29,789 

7 3,166 


6 1,826 

219 30,866 

3 1,464 


13 3,927 
213 30,288 


18 5,730 
190 26,170 




140 13,424 


136 11,679 


189 20,352 


230 34,477 


228 34,146 


226 34,215 


208 32.900 



Condensed Report of Imports and Exports, &c., — continued. 






1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 


VALUE OF IMPORTS. 
From the United Kingdom. 
„ British Possessions . . 
„ Foreign Possessions . 
















VALUE OF EXPORTS. 

To the United Kingdom.... 

„ British Possessions 

„ Foreign Possessions.... 
















QUANTITY OF WOOL EX- 
PORTED. 

To the United Kingdom.. .. 

„ British Possessions 

„ Foreign Possessions.... 
















SHIPS INWARDS, AND TON- 
NAGE. 

From the United Kingdom. 
,, British Possessions.. 
„ Foreign Possessions . 
















SHIPS OUTWARDS, AND TON- 
NAGE. 

To the United Kingdom ... 

„ British Pos essions 

„ Foreign Possessions.... 































SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

South Australia was erected into a British province by the Act of Parlia- 
ment 4 and 5 Will. IV., c. 96, amended by Act 1 and 2 Vict., c. 60, and was 
proclaimed as such by the first governor (Hindmarsh) at Holdfast Bay, Decern- 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 155 

ber 28, 1836. This province extends along the continent of Australia, from 
132 to 141 degrees of east longitude, and from 26 deg. south latitude to the 
Southern Ocean, including Kangaroo and the adjacent islands. It is bounded 
on the north by Central North Australia, and on the south by the ocean. It is 
834 miles in length along the eastern boundary, and about 417 along the 
western boundary, and 539 in breadth ; its area is about 300,000 square miles, 
or 60,000 more than double the area of the United Kingdom, or 192,000,000 
acres. Its population on January 1, 1848, was stated to be 31,153, namely, 
17,531 males, and 13,622 females; aborigines in settled districts estimated at 
3680. The mines discovered were twenty-seven copper (of which twenty were 
in active working). These mines are situated at distances varying from 3J to 
150 miles from Adelaide. 

The present settlements occupy only a very small portion of its vast area, 
and are bounded (with the exception of a few settlements) by Gulf St. Vincent 
on the west — the stream of the Murray on the east — the sea-coast on the 
south — and extending northward about 150 miles towards the bend of the 
Murray, in the direction of the back settlements of the colony of New South 
Wales. 

Adelaide is the capital of South Australia. The principal harbouris about 
seven miles from the capital, situate on a large creek, described by Captain Stokes, 
R.N., of H.M. surveying-ship, the Beagle, as A really natural dock. 

The distance, by sea, from Port Adelaide to Port Phillip, is between 500 and 
600 miles; to Launceston, about 700; to Hobart Town, about 800 ; to Sydney, 
between 1100 and 1200 ; about the same to Swan River, or Western Australia; 
and to New Zealand, upwards of 2000 miles. 

The Sales of Waste Lands are regulated by an Act of the Imperial Parlia- 
ment, 5 and 6 Vict., cap. 36, passed June 22, 1842, of which the following are 
the principal enactments. All waste lands shall be offered for sale by public 
auction, — that these sales shall take place at the least in each of the four usual 
quarters of the year, or more frequently, if the governor shall see meet, the 
lands having been previously surveyed, and the intended sale advertised, at least 
three months before — that the sum of 1/. per acre shall be the lowest upset price 
of any of these waste lands — that a payment shall be made at the time of the 
sale, in ready money, of not less than one-tenth of the whole price, and the 
residue within one calendar month — and that all waste lands which have been 
put up to public auction and not sold, may be purchased by private contract at- 
the upset price, the purchase-money being paid at the signing of such con- 
tract. 

Persons may pay for colonial lands to the Colonial Land and Emigration 
Commissioners, Park-street, Westminster, for which payment they will receive 
an order for credit to the same amount in any purchase of land they may effect 



154 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



in the colony, and will have the privilege of naming four properly qualified 
emigrants for a free passage for every 100/. so paid, but neither the purchaser 
nor his family can receive a free passage under this privilege. 

The Official Returns of the Crown Lands sold in South Australia are as follows : — 



YEARS. 


Acres sold. 


Money received 
in England. 


Money received 
in South Australia. 


Total. 


1835 


number. 

58,995 
1,920 
3,711 

48,040 
170,841 

15,5fi5f 
7,651| 

17,08 1^ 

598 

3,428 

69,658 

31,301 

17,079 


£ s. d. 

35,397 

1,248 

3,120 

37,960 

48,336 

7,040 

320 

80 

100 
Not known. 
j> » 
i> » 


£ s. d. 

3,594 

10,080 9 

122,505 

8,525 15 

7,331 2 

17,001 10 

613 13 9 

5,566 13 

Not known. 


£ s. d. 

35,397 

1,248 

6,714 9 

48,040 

170,841 

15,565 15 

7,651 2 

17,081 10 

613 13 9 

5,666 13 

72,902 

75,715 

19,379 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


445,869| 


476,815 2 9 


1849 


1850 



The following Official Returns show the number of Acres enclosed, and under Cultivation, 

during the following Years. 



YEARS. 


Proprietors or 
Tenants. 


Acres under 
cultivation. 


Acres enclosed. 


1845 


number. 
1209 
1714 
1837 


number. 
26,318| 
33,292^ 
36,440! 


number. 
62,2 18± 
89,5fi5| 
94,684 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 





Of 36,440^ acres under cultivation in 1847, there were very nearly 26,000 
in wheat, the quality of which was admitted in England to be the finest in the 
world; and the price in London exceeds the average price of English wheat from 
8s. to lis. per quarter. 

An Agricultural and Horticultural Society has been established at Adelaide, 
and an annual exhibition of grain, fruit, flowers, and manufactures takes place. 

Prizes were awarded for the best specimens of wheat, barley, oats, potatoes, onions, grapes, 
oranges, citrons, lemons, nectarines, apricots, peaches, apples, pears, plums, green figs, melons, 
raisins, dried figs, Jordan almonds, and other dried fruits ; vegetables, vegetable seeds, bouquets, 
wine, butter, cheese, honey, silk, and various other articles. 

Woollen cloths were exhibited of excellent quality, manufactured from the wools of the 
colony, and dyed with indigenous dyes. There were exhibited some specimens of copper ore 
from the Burra Burra Mine, an ingot of copper, and some copper manufactured in Sydney into 
ribbons. The beneficial influence of the mineral discoveries and mineral operations on the 
agricultural interests of the colony is duly appreciated by the farmers. At the show, one farmer 
justly remarked, that " the money we get from the mines not only enables us to cultivate the 
lands we have, but to buy more, and depend upon it," he added, " we do not buy lands to let them 
continue in an unproductive state." 

Flocks and Herds. — Accurate returns of live stock have not been lately received from the 
colony, but the following moderate estimate of the numbers, at the end of the year 1847, has 
been made : — 

In 1817 it was estimated that there were in the colonies one million of sheep, and fifty 
thousand horned cattle. These chiefly pastured on " common lands," that is, lands near purchased 
lands, and open in common, by the proprietors of the purchased lands ; or on " waste lands," 
which are occupied, without charge, except for stock, and for licenses, viz., Id. for each sheep, and 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 



155 



6c/. for every head of cattle per annum. For a pasturing license, 10s. 6d. a-year is paid; and for 
an occupation license, which gives permission to build on Crown Lands, 51. 

Census Returns of South Australia, April, 1846. 



DISTRICT. 



Milner Special Survey, &c 
North of GawlerTown.... 
Wakefield and Hutt Rivers 

Moorunde 

Wellington 

Mount Crawford 

Little Para River 

Fort Adelaide 

North Adelaide 

South Adelaide 

South-west of Adelaide ... 

South-east of Adelaide 

East and north-east of Ade 

laide 

Sturt and Onkaparinga 

Rivers 



POPULAT 


I ON. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


706 


493 


1194 


348 


110 


458 


631 


131 


762 


58 


8 


66 


93 


12 


105 


320 


210 


530 


462 


369 


831 


816 


713 


1529 


929 


914 


1843 


2902 


2668 


5570 


965 


892 


1857 


688 


584 


1272 


526 


443 


969 


212 


176 


388 



DISTRICT. 



O'HalloranHill, &c 

South of Onkaparinga .... 

Sources of Onkaparinga .. 

Meadows of Special Sur- 
vey 

Finniss and Angas Special 
Survey 

Encounter Bay, &c 

Port Lincoln 

Kangaroo Inland 

North of Rivoli Bay ..., 

South of Rivoli Bay.... 

Yankalilla, &c 

Cape Jervis 



Total 12,670 



POPULATION. 



Males. Females. Total 



No. 
392 
334 

780 

301 



158 
85 

230 

248 

91 

92 



No. 
320 
248 
672 

243 

167 
107 
47 

21 
15 
47 

40 



No. 
712 
582 

1452 

544 

475 
265 
132 
70 
251 



22,390 



NUMBER OF EACH AGE. 

Males. — Under two years of age, 1019 ; two and under seven, 2143 ; seven and under four- 
teen, 1606 ; fourteen and under twenty-one, 1088; twenty-one and under forty-five, 6111; forty- 
five and under sixty, 629; sixty and upwards, 74. 

Females. — Under two years of age, 953 ; two and under seven, 2101 ; seven and under four- 
teen, 1460; fourteen and under twenty-one, 981 ; twenty-one and under forty-five, 3696; forty- 
five and under sixty, 410; sixty and upwards, 49. 

MARRIED OR SINGLE. 

Males.— Married, 3847 ; single, 8823. 
Females.— Married, 3811; single, 5839. 

No census has been taken since March, 1846, since which time the number 

of inhabitants has increased more than one-half. 



The total number of Europeans then in the colony was . 

The official returns state the increase, by sea, in 1846, to have been 

Ditto, in 1847 ..... 

The increase in 1846 and 1847, overland, is supposed to have been 

And the births during these two years, supposed 



Deduct deaths, supposed 



22,390 souls. 

3,561 „ 

4,766 „ 

500 „ 

3,200 „ 



34,417 
830 



33,587 



Above thirty-five vessels, carrying on an average 250 free emigrants, sailed 
from England in 1848; also several merchant vessels, each of which took some 
passengers. Six to eight emigrant ships sailed from Hamburg and Bremen in 
1849; so that in December, 1849, the population of South Australia will amount 
to, at least, 50,000 Europeans. 

RELIGION. 

Church of England, 11,945; Church of Scotland, 1958; Lutheran Church, 1524; Wes- 
leyan Methodists, 2246 ; other Protestant Dissenters, 2888; Roman Catholics, 1649; Jews, 58; 
Mahometans or Pagans, 52. 

OCCUPATION. 

Land proprietors, merchants, bankers, and stockholders, 1152; clerks and overseers to the 
above, 162 ; professional persons, 109 ; clerks and assistants to the above, 35 ; manufacturers, 
brewers, millers, 82 ; clerks and assistants to the above, 46 ; shopkeepers and other retail dealers, 
338; clerks and assistants to the above, 160; brickmakers, 77; bricklayers, 83 ; smiths, 152; 
carpenters and joiners, 362 ; masons, 92 ; shoemakers, 225 ; cabinet-makers, 24 ; plasterers, 38; 
harness-makers, 19 ; tailors, 62 ; tanners, 19 ; miners, 269 ; sawyers and splitters, 240 ; shepherds 
and others in charge of sheep, 1120 ; stockmen and others in charge of cattle, 215 ; carriers and 
their assistants, 134; gardeners, farm-servants, and persons employed in agriculture, 1492; 



156 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



mariners and fishermen, 85 ; domestic servants, 818 ; labourers not included in the above defini- 
tions, 726 ; all other persons not included in the above, 13,993. 

On the 1st of January, 1847, there were in all no less than fifty-three places of worship, 
adapted to contain 9700 persons, and eighty-six schools, of which thirty-two were Sunday schools, 
with an average attendance of 1926 scholars ; and the remaining fifty-four were ordinary schools, 
at which classical and the usual branches of education were taught to an average number of 2127 
pupils. 

PUBLIC-HOUSES. 

The number of public-houses in the province in 1847 was in all 132; of which sixty-one were 
in Adelaide, five at the Port and Albert Town, and sixty-six distributed throughout the country. 

POST-OFFICE. 

The comparative number of letters and newspapers passing through the post-office in 1844 and 
in 1847, shows the striking advancement of the colony : — 

1844 1847 

Number of Offices 11 25 

Letters 36,325 79,950 

Newspapers 61,015 123,912 

The soil and climate of Australia are considered excellent. Mr. Hewett, 
an intelligent farmer, who emigrated from Devonshire, and occupies a farm of 
160 acres, belonging to the South Australian Company, reports — 

With regard to the productiveness of the soil, I have seen three harvests : the one at my 
arrival was gathering in. I have ploughed and reaped two years, and am now ploughing the 
third. There are three distinct soils — black, red, and white ; the black and red are preferred. 
Many of the flats are from a quarter to three-quarters of a mile broad, and many miles long, 
with no timber ; at other places, more or less, large gum-trees. With a moderate quantity of 
rain, they are full of beautiful grass and flowers. Some of the slopes and hills contain a deep 
and rich soil of black and red loam, with more or less timber. Lucerne grows natural, and in the 
broken-up land many of the English weeds are making their appearance. Swedish turnips and 
mangel-wurzel grow well. 

Corn, the great staff of life, grows well. Where the land is ploughed deep, and sown in season, 
the corn grows long and strong, both in stalk and ear; yet it doth not corn as well as I have seen 
from some of the best land in England ; but, on the average, much better and more quantity 
than the general crops in Devon. No doubt remains, with the experienced men here, of the 
capabilities of this colony for grain, With regard to cattle and sheep, no country can be better ; 
we scarcely hear of a disorder in cattle. 

I hesitate not to say that I fully believe that this will, in a few years, be one of the best agricul- 
tural countries in the world. 

All accounts concur in giving the most decidedly favourable representations 
on this subject. 

The extreme heat has been seldom above 100 deg. Fahrenheit in the shade; and 
in no instance has it exceeded 106 deg. The lowest temperature in Adelaide has 
been 43 deg., but in some districts of the hill-country it has at times been rather 
under 32 deg., as ice has been seen, although very rarely. The usual mean tem- 
perature is 67 deg. 

Agriculture and Horticulture. 





Acres under Cultivation, and Crop«. 


1844 


1847 


1850 


Wheat 


number. 
18,980 
4,264£ 
1,045 
241| 
397 k 
761 

888| 

170 

160 


number. 

25,920 

5,840 

2,946| 

164 

381 

1,191$ 

1 None 
( returned. 


number. 










Gardens, orchards, and vineyards 

SELF-SOWN. 

Wheat 




Oats 


Total 


26,907£ 


36,440| 




Number of proprietors.. 


1,357 


J,S37 





SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



157 



Manufactures. 



Barilla manufactory 

Boat-builder 

Boiling-down establishments-. 

Breweries 

Candle-maker 

Cloth and woollen manufactory 

Coach manufactories 

Flour-mills —Steam 

Wind 

Water 

Cattle 

Foundries — brass and iron.. .. 



1844 


1847 


1850 


No. 


No. 

1 
1 
2 


No. 


9 


15 

1 
1 




2 


4 




3 


15 




7 


8 




2 


2 




4 






3 


2 





Machine manufactories 

Maltsters 

Organ builder 

Pottery 

Salt manufactory 

Ship-builders •. 

Snuff and tobacco manufactories 
Soap and candle manufactories. 

Soap-makers 

Starch manufactory 

Tanneries 

Water- works 



No. 
4 



1847 

No. 
4 
2 
1 

1 
2 
1 
3 
2 

7 
I 



1850 



Pastures. — The numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep actually paying assessment for depastur- 
ing on the public lands, is given below. It is, however, no evidence of the actual number of these 
descriptions of stock in the province, as the returns in this respect are notoriously defective, and 
none depasturing on purchased lands are included. From the best information we can obtain, 
the number of horses and cattle may be doubled, and about 300,000 added to the last year's 
return of sheep. 



HORSES, CATTLE, AND SHEEP. 



Horses above the age of six mouths 

Horned cattle above the age of six months. 
Sheep, including weaned lambs 



1844 



number. 
902 
22,7 1 1 
355,689 



1847 



number. 

1,705 
56,375 

784,811 



The prices of agricultural produce during 1844 and 1847 will be shown by the following 

return : — 



ARTICLES. 


1844 


1847 


ARTICLES. 


1844 


1847 




s. d. 
3 
3 
3 4 


s. d. 
4 
3 9 




s. d. 

48 
10 
7| 


s. d.\ 

60 






1 3 


Oats „ 


4 




9 









Commissariat return of prices actually paid : — 

1844— Bread, Id. per lb. ; fresh meat, lfd. per lb. 

1845— Bread, 13-16d. and 1 3-16d. per lb. ; fresh meat, l|d. and 2 3-16d. per lb. 

1846— Bread, lfd. and l£d. per lb.; fresh meat, 2$d. per lb. 

1847— Bread, l£d. per lb. ; fresh meat, 2£d. per lb. 

Official, Return of the Mines in South Australia at the close of the Year 1847. 



NAME OF MINE OR LOCALITY. 



COPPER MINES. 

Second Creek, District A.* 

Montacute* 

Adelaide Company's* 

Ditto 

Kanmantoo Creek, Torren's River . . 

Sections 570 and 571 District B* 

Horse Shoe, Onkaparinga 

Section 361, District C 

Sections 1504 and 1024, Little Para* f. 

Kanmantoo, Mount Barker* 

Paringa* 

Greenock Creek* t 

Australian Company* 

Ditto* 

Flagman's Valley 

Poonawurtaf 

Kapunda* 



Distance from 

Adelaide in 

Miles. 



number. 

4| 
10 
11 
46 
12 
12 
17 
20 
22 
25 
25 
34 
35 
45 
38 
40 
44 



NAME OF MINE OR LOCALITY. 



Copper Mines (continued) 

Grand Junction 

North Kapunda* t 

Royal Mining Company *t •• 

Yorke's Peninsula! 

Wakefield 

Dutton'st 

Princess Royal* 

Burra B urra* 

Bon Accord* t 

Mount Remarkablet 



COPPER AND GOLD. 

Victoria Company 



COPPER AND LEAD. 

Section 5536, Torrens' Rivert... 

Rapid Bay 

Glen Osmond* 



Distance from 
Adelaide in 

Miles. 



number. 
45 
45 
45 

55 
69 
91 
83 
86 
88 
150 



10 
67 
H 



These mines are now in active working. 



t A royalty of 1-15 is reserved on these mines. 



158 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Mine Share-list, 1847. 



NAME OF MINE OR COMPANY. 



Burra Burra 

Princess Royal 

Mount Remarkable 

Adelaide 

North Kapunda 

Royal Mining Company 

Enterprise 

Greenock Creek 

Montacute 

Pariuga property per acre 

Port Lincoln at 200 per cent premium. 



Shares. 


Capital. 


Paid up. 


Present Price. 


number. 


£ 


£ s. 


£ s. 


2,464 


12,320 


12,320 


145 


400 


20,000 


14,800 


42 


1,000 


25,000 


22,500 


17 


2,000 


10,000 


10,000 


2 2 


436 


21,800 


21,800 


14 


10,000 


100,000 


10 


13 


1,000 


3,000 


2,000 


2 


300 


1,000 


1,000 


6 


100 


5,500 


5,500 


55 


• • 






3 10 



Ordinary Revenue for the Years 1844, 1847, and 1850. 



REVENUE. 



1844 



1847 



1850 



Customs (including pilotage and tonnage 

duty) 

Postage 

Fees— Public offices 

Fines — Law courts 

License 

Auction duty ■ 

Assessment on live stock , 

Permits 

Storage of gunpowder 

Tolls 

City rates • 

Total fixed revenue , 

Incidental 

Tota l revenue 



20,124 17 

752 10 8 

1,689 9 4 

274 13 10 

2,156 15 2 

563 13 4 



3 11 

4 
6 11 





24,116 14 2 
761 18 8 



27,878 12 10 



* s. 

18,742 13 

1,504 9 

3,533 2 

237 19 

3,733 

1,458 7 

4,860 8 



174 6 

254 

1,181 



65,679 
1,348 



67,027 16 2 



* The circumstance of a large proportion of the assessments due for 1846 not having been collected until 1847, 
accounts for the apparent decrease in this branch of the revenue in the former year, and its increase in the latter. 



Expenditure. 





1844 


1847 


1850 


Civil establishment 

Contingent expenditure... 
Judicial establishment .... 
Contingent expenditure . . 
Ecclesiastical establish- 


£ s. d. 

17,293 10 5 

2,017 19 7 

3,636 2 10 

258 8 8 

214 11 

509*19 7 
5,523 8 8 


£ s. d. 

22,262 14 1 

6,722 7 

4,126 11 4 

1,087 1 2 

350 

1,892 2 
15,646 12 8 * 
6,891 16 1 


£ $. d. 


Contingent expenditure. . . 
Public buildings and works 


Total 


29,453 10 8 


58,979 12 4 





* The great increase of expenditure during the year 1847 was occasioned by the number of public works- 
bridges, buildings, &c, completed, or which were in course of completion during that year. 

Note.— In addition to the above annual expenditure, the following payments have been made from the Colonial 
Revenue on account of debts incurred by the Local Government prior to the year 1844, namely, to her Majesty's 
Treasury, the sum of 1274/. 15s. 4rf., paid in 1834 in liquidation of claims incurred in the year 1841 ; to the 
Land Fund, 984/. lis. 2d. in the year 1844; 1800/. in the year 1845 ; 9000/. in the year 1846 ; and 7820/. 2s. 9rf. in the 
year 1847. 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



159 



Estimate of the Receipts and Expenditure of the Colonial Government of South Aus- 
tralia, for the Year ending 31st March, 1850. 



SOURCE OF REVENUE. 

Receipts.— Fixed. 
Customs . . . 

Postage 

Fines arid fees of courts of justice and public offices 
Assessment on stock 
Licenses .... 
Auction duty . 
Storage or gunpowder 
City rates 
Pilotage, harbour dues, and towing 

Total fixed revenue 
Ren ts of government property 
Miscellaneous . 

Total incidental . 



Amount. 



£ 


■J, 


d. 


70,000 








2,000 








4,500 








4,000 








5,420 








2,000 








200 








700 








3,900 









,300 
180 



Total. 



92,720 



Total estimated receipts 



£94,200 



Supplementary Estimates added to Fixed Expenditure for 1848-9. 



Councils . 
Colonial Secretary's 
Crown lands 
Survey . 

Public works 
Post-office 
Harbour . 
Out-stations 
Police 
Aborigines 
Medical 
Supreme Court 
Coroner . 



Public works and improvements (additional) and £400 miscellaneous 



Total supplementary provision 



£ s. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


50 







150 







322 19 


6 




30 8 







717 19 







620 







65 







225 







338 







38 







83 12 







200 







50 





2,890 18 6 
18,334 7 5 


•• 


£i 


.. 


1,225 5 11 



Summary of Estimates of Expenditure for the Year 1849-50. 



SERVICES. 



The governor 

Civil Establishments. 

Governor's . 

Councils , 

Colonial secretary's department 

Treasury 

Registry 

Audit. 

Customs 

Crown lands 

Survey 

Colonial engineer's 

Royal Sappers and Miners 

Post-office 

Harbour 

Colonial storekeeper 

Superintendent of cemetery. . . . 

Out-stations 

Police 

Aborigines 



Amount. 



£ s. d. 

1,500 



424 





480 





1,844 





1,060 





430 





830 





2,749 12 





1,326 17 


6 


3,309 18 





1,845 1 





923 7 


5 


3,342 16 





4,327 





200 





50 





1,445 





11,756 17 


4 


1,991 19 


2 



Total. 



SERVICES. 



£ 
1,500 



dJ 

Medical 

Lunatic asylum. 



Judicial and Law Establish- 
ments. 

Supreme court 

Insolvent court 

Resident magistrate's court 

Bench of magistrates 

Sheriff's 

Advocate-general's 

Coroner's 



Clergy — Colonial chaplain. 
Miscellaneous 



Amount. 



£ s. d. 

1,082 10 

579 



1,992 

300 

780 

150 

1,565 

700 

220 



Total salaries and contingencies. 

Public works and improvements 

Supplementary estimates 



Total estimates for the year 1849-50- 



Total. 



£ s. d. 
),997 18 5 



5,707 

350 

10,933 



58,487 18 5 

12,100 

21,225 5 11 

91,813 4 4 



Trade and Commerce. — The Imports for the following years were as under: — 

£ s. d. 

1844 118,915 6 11 

1847 410,825 9 6 

1850 . 



160 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Return of 


Exports of South Australia for 1847 and 1850. 




ARTICLES. 


Year ending the 4th of April, 1848. 


1850 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




104 
1 
450 
17 c. 1 q. 12 lbs. 

130 c. 
4 tons 
31 tons 

12 c. 

50 c. 2 q. 

309 q. 

2016 q. 

6 bushels 

24 qrs. 

5| qrs. 

11 tons 

10,005f qrs. 

1003 t. 10 c. 

40 t. 9 c. 
2 t. 11 c. 

1 ton 

4234 

10 1. 9 c. 24 lbs. 

121 c. 2 q. 

20 tons 

10,631 t. 19 c. 3 q. 

68 tons 

•270t.l7c.3q.l8lbs. 

3 tons. 
1 

1922 c. 

139 c. 2 q. 15 lbs. 
25 galls. 

2,329,134 lbs. 


£ s. d. 

10 

50 

400 

58 

133 

10 

326 

70 

136 

615 

1,146 1 

2 

30 

16 

78 

19,095 

11,905 10 

5 

831 

15 

332 

4 
26 

203 
528 
360 

199,134 

700 

3,954 

32 

20 

75 

141 
3,422 

942 

5 

110,047 13 




£ s. d. 


Goats 
















Bark 








































Peas 




Pollard 




Wheat 




Flour 




Galls 
















Hay 




























Oil— black 




































Salt 










































TOTA L 


354,907 4 













Note. — See general trade of Australian colonies hereafter. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

The territory of Western Australia, founded June 1, 1829, includes all that 
portion of New Holland which is situated to the westward of 129 deg. of east 
longitude, extending from Cape Londonderry, in latitude 13 deg. 44 min. south, 
to West Cape Home, in latitude 35 deg. 8 min. south; and from Hartog's 
Island, in longitude 112 deg. 52 min. east, to 129 deg. east, reckoning from the 
meridian of Greenwich. Its greatest length is 1280 miles from north to south, 
and 800 miles from east to west. The name of Zwaanen Riviere was given 
to it by Veaming, a Dutch navigator, January 5, 1697. Perth is the capital 
and seat of government. 

KING GEORGE'S SOUND. 

King George's Sound was discovered by Captain Vancouver in 1791. It 
is situated on the south-west coast of Western Australia. It was occupied by 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 



1G1 



a detachment of troops and convicts from Sydney in 1826, but it has been 
attached to Western Australia. It possesses locally all the advantages of a good 
harbour; its position being, however, to the eastward and to leeward of Cape 
Leeuwin, in the vicinity of which strong westerly gales prevail, this circumstance 
detracts from its usefulness as a port. The colony of Western Australia has not 
made a rapid progress, as will appear from the following statements; but its soil 
and climate would justify us in concluding, that it must eventually become a 
valuable settlement. 



Comparative View of the State and Condition of the Colony from 1832 to 1850. 



Population. 



Stock of all kinds <! 



YEARS, 


Quantity. 




number. 


1832 


1,540 


1836 


2,032 


1843 


3,853 


1845 


4,108 


1846 


4,290 


IS47 


4,530 


1848 


4,622 


1849 




1850 




1843 


87,938 


1844 


98,01S 


1846 


116,570 


1847 


129,142 


1848 


157,618 


1849 




1850 





YEARS. 



Acres under cultivation..... 



Value of exports. 



1S43. 
1844. 
1846. 
1847. 
1848 
1849. 
1850. 

1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1S46. 
1847. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 



Quantity. 

number. 

3,858 
4,S67 
5,767 
7,033 



£ s. 
7,088 15 
13,343 15 
13,353 12 
20,222 15 
24,535 
29,598 



Under other heads there has been a falling off: 

The tonnage of ships entered inwards in 1843 

in 1844 



. 17,130 

. 10,002 



Decrease . . . . .7,128 

This return, with some very trifling exceptions, answers for the amount of 
tonnage of the ships for the same period entered outwards : — 





YEARS. 


Value. 




YEARS. 


Value. 




■ 1843 

1844 

1 845 


£ 

37,486 
36,440 
20,350 
25,594 
25,463 
45,411 


The amount of the revenue. < 


' 1843 

1844 

1845 

1S46 

1847 

1848 

1849 

.:i850 


£ s. d. 

10,311 18 6 
7,740 19 5 
7,479 6 10 
8,179 10 2 
8,728 

10,353 


The value of the imports. . . . <^ 

1 


1846 

1847 

;1848 

1849 

.1850 



With respect to the population, the governor reports, in 1847, "that its in- 
crease arises almost entirely from the excess of births over deaths. On this 
subject it may be well to remark, that there are numbers of the aborigines more 
or less regularly in the employ of the settlers. In the towns they are chiefly 
useful in hewing wood and drawing water, and other domestic services; by 
which they are enabled, by the labour of an hour or two, to procure sufficient 
food for the day. In the country, their intimate knowledge of the bush, and 
their sagacity in tracking animals which may have strayed, render them value 
able as herdsmen. They are also, in the absence of other labour, occasionally 
very useful in reaping. In one district of the colony, during last harvest, a 
vol. v. m 



162 BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 

band went from farm to farm, assisting the settlers in reaping and housing the 
crops.' 5 

The intercourse between Western Australia and New South Wales is stated 
to be as unfrequent as with England. 

There are places of worship and schools at the towns or settlements of 
Perth, Fremantle, Middle Swan, Guildford, Upper Swan, York, Busselton, 
Bunbury, Picton, and Albany. 

Trade. — The principal increase of exports has arisen under the head of wool. 

A new article of export has been found in the sandal-wood of this colony, which grows in the 
country beyond the Darling range, at a distance of about sixty miles from the coast, and though 
somewhat thinly scattered, nevertheless extends over a large tract of country, and may be pro- 
cured in considerable quantities. The settlers bring it to the seaport, at a cost of from 61. to 
81. per ton weight, to the merchants, who, in their turn, have disposed of it to masters of vessels 
at 12Z. per ton. It is, however, understood to sell at Hong Kong and in the Chinese markets 
for 30Z. per ton. Since its value has been ascertained, the settlers have reaped considerable 
benefit from this article, as it is now readily purchased by the merchants, or taken in exchange 
for stores. In the list of exports 32 tons only appear, but a considerable quantity has been col- 
lecting, and the importance which, in the present state of the colony's affairs, the commerce in 
this article has assumed, will be readily perceived from the fact that in another week about 250 
tons will have been shipped since the beginning of 1847, and it is expected that 500 tons will 
be exported before the conclusion of the year. 

During the past year, also, a part of the timber contracts to be supplied for Her Majesty's 
dockyard at Chatham was prepared, but could not be shipped until the commencement of the 
present year (1847). The quality of this shipment was said to be excellent. 

The want of a convenient and safe harbour for the shipment of naval timber, led to the ex- 
amination of a portion of Mangle's Bay, in front of the reserved town site of Rockingham. This 
anchorage, which is distant about twelve miles from the port of Fremantle, is sheltered from 
every wind, and vessels of the largest burthen may be loaded with naval timber with facility from 
a short jetty, which is intended to be run out into deep water. The town site of Rockingham 
has since been surveyed and laid out, and a portion of it thrown open for location to the public. 
Allotments of five acres each, on the beach, in front of the town site, have been reserved, but 
are intended to be leased to the public at 51. per annum. With the view of encouraging the 
immediate commencement of so desirable a location, I have for the present year considerably 
reduced the price of town allotments, directing them to be offered at 51. and 10Z. each. In 
order to improve the town, and to facilitate the shipment of the timber which abounds in the 
neighbourhood, I have directed half of the proceeds of the sale of town lots to be expended in 
the erection of a jetty, and in the construction of a road leading thence into the interior. 

Agriculture. — Sheep and cattle are steadily increasing. 

There is also an increase in the number of acres under cultivation, although 
the settlers in some of the districts are suffering severely from the want of 
labour. The total number of acres cultivated in 1846, 5767 j; 299J were 
devoted to the vine and olive, which are everywhere found to grow with 
great luxuriance, and from the former of which the settlers have manufactured 
a very agreeable wine, which, on some farms, to a great degree, has superseded 
the use of ardent spirits. The settlers in the York district have paid increased 
attention to the breed of horses and cattle ; and the improvement of the district 
and the prospects of the settlers are reported to be steadily progressing. 

Mines and Fisheries. — The whale fishery has been successfully prosecuted during the year 
1846 in the bays of the colony, and oil and bone have been taken to the amount of 4795/. In 
1848, oil and bone to the value of 4000/. were exported. 

As yet no mines containing metalliferous ores have been ascertained to exist of any value. 
Indications have been discovered of lead, copper, and zinc, on the lands in the neighbourhood of 



VAN DIEMEN S LAND. 163 

the Canning River. Specimens of copper have also been forwarded to England, to ascertain the 
value of the ore, before any steps are taken to work it. 

A considerable bed of coal was discovered cropping out from the banks of the river Irwin, in 
seams of from four to six feet in thickness, of excellent quality. The Irwin is nearly 200 miles 
north of Perth, and the distance of the bed of coal from the sea-coast is about thirty-nine miles. 
With the exception of the distance, there is no material obstacle to the shipment of the coal ; 
but from the dip of the seam, however, and the existence in some parts of the adjacent coast of 
the same sort of red sandstone that is found above the coal, it is confidently hoped that it may be 
found re-appearing at a more convenient distance. Champion Bay, in that neighbourhood, affords 
shelter for vessels during greater part of the year ; and south of the point which forms that bay, 
there is a small harbour protected by a natural jetty, completely sheltered at all seasons, having 
twelve feet water on the bar. This harbour has been identified with Port Grey. Within ten to 
fifteen miles to the north of Champion Bay, lies the commencement of a fine tract of grassy 
land, of not less than 100,000 acres. This portion of the colony was traversed by Captain Grey, 
and was by him named the province of Victoria ; and is described, in his journal, as the most 
fertile district of North- Western Australia. 

The introduction of labour is totally inadequate to the wants of the settlers. I have directed 
the colonial schooner to proceed to Singapore, to procure thence a supply of Chinese labourers. 

EXTRACTED FROM A REPORT OF THE YORK AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

"We have much pleasure in stating that the crops of last harvest were not so short as had 
been expected, in consequence of the great scarcity of rain ; and where they had been sown in 
time, say April or May, were as productive as those of any former year. We trust that this 
most satisfactory proof of the great advantage of early sowing will induce our brother settlers to 
get in their corn much earlier than is the general custom of this district. The sample has in general 
been good, and in consequence of using blue-stone as a pickle, little or no smut has been seen. 

" Sheep, we regret to say, are not in such good condition as they have been in former years, 
in consequence of the long-continued dry weather, but still keep on steadily increasing. Our 
exports of fat sheep have been small, through the great absence of shipping to carry them away, 
though profitable markets have been within a few weeks' sail of us. In no way does the settler 
suffer more than from the great want of shipping enterprise among the merchants or traders here. 
Our last clip has been rather light in comparison with former years, but well got up, and we trust 
that our wool-growers will still continue to improve in this most essential point. 

" The numerous dogs of European breed in possession of the natives, are now become a 
source of great annoyance and apprehension to the flock-owners, and if something is not done to 
check this evil in time, it will get beyond control. 

" We suggested in our last year's report, that something ought to be done on the part of the 
government to prevent persons from setting fire to the bush or grass, as such serious losses had 
occurred to several persons at harvest time ; but we regret to find that as yet no efficient steps 
have been taken to prevent the recurrence of such a serious evil. Very great difficulty is expe- 
rienced by the flock-owners in procuring shepherds, and we earnestly hope something will be done 
to procure an importation of labour as speedily as possible. 

" Horned cattle, we are happy to say, are daily improving; the breeders now finding it their 
advantage to purchase or hire well-bred bulls, high-bred cattle being the best for the dairy, and 
being fit for the butcher at an early age." 

VAN DIEMEN 's LAND, OR TASMANIA. 
Van Diemen's Land was discovered by Tasman in 1642, but it has received 
its name from Van Diemen, a Dutch governor at Batavia. It is separated from 
Australia by Bass's Strait; and is situated between latitudes 41 deg. 20 min. 
south, and longitudes 144 deg. 40 min. and 148 deg. 20 min. east; length, about 
220 miles; breadth, 150 miles; area, about 24,000 square miles := 15,000,000 
acres, or a little more than the area of Scotland. In 1803 it was taken pos- 
session of by England. A great part of the soil is fertile, but there are many 
districts which are sterile, and occupied by high mountains. There are numerous 
bays and excellent harbours. Hobart Town and Lawrence Town are the principal 
towns, between which are excellent roads; and stage-coaches run as fast and as 
regularly as they did in England before the construction of railways. 

M 2 



164 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Returns of the Population from the First Settlement of the Colony. 



YEARS., 


FREE. 


CONVICTS. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


Males. 


Females. 


Tot a l. 


1804 

1816 

1822 

1824 

1825 

1830 

1835 

1840 

1842 

1848, Jan. 1. 
1850 


number. 

68 

2,209 
3,781 
4,297 
8,351 
12,940 
14,647 
21,972 
25,376 


number. 
10 

Y,407 

2,248 
2,462 
4,623 
9,051 
11,517 
15,116 
18,354 


number. 

78 
1,269 
3,616 
6,029 
6,759 
12,974 
21,991 
27,327 
43,730 


number. 
3S0 

4,548 
5,467 
6,244 
8,877 
14,914 
15,524 
17,632 
16,948 


number. 

40 

'*348 
471 
601 
1318 
2054 
2239 
2700 
3501 


number. 

400 
629 
4,996 
5,938 
6,845 
10,195 
16,968 
17,763 
20,332 
20,449 


number. 

47$ 
1,898 
8,612 
11,957 
13,604 
23,179 
48,959 
45,090 
57,420 
64,279 



Population, Births, Marriages, 


Deaths, &c, in 1835. 






DISTRICTS. 


Free Whites. 


Military and 
their Families. 


Convicts. 


T 


O T A L. 




Males. 


Females. 


Males. Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


TOTAL. 




number. 

5,545 

2,216 

1,235 

517 

373 

682 

508 

664 

260 

313 

176 

98 

113 

68 

164 

8 


number. 

4446 

1448 

853 

338 

225 

400 

322 

407 

145 

180 

52 

59 

73 

49 

46 

8 


number, nuu 

5 

779 1 
111 1 


aber. 

7 

81 
30 


number. 

2,952 

1,736 

1,364 

875 

665 

1,152 

596 

960 

288 

338 

307 

157 

98 

103 

1,209 

11 

2,103 


number. 

883 

335 

114 

92 

30 

86 

38 

51 

17 

29 

10 

10 

4 

2 

3 

2 

348 


number. 

8,497 

3,952 

2,599 

1,392 

1,038 

1,834 

1,104 

1,624 

548 

651 

483 

255 

211 

171 

1,373 

24 

52 

779 

111 

2,103 


number. 
5,329 

1,783 

967 

430 

255 

436 

360 

458 

162 

209 

62 

69 

77 

51 

49 

17 

59 

181 

130 

348 


number. 
13,826 
5,735 
3,566 
1,822 
1,293 
2,320 
1,464 












Norfolk Plains 




2,082 
710 


Botiiwell 




860 


Westbury 


545 




324 


George Town 


88 




222 




1,422 
41 


Flinder's Island 


„ „ Aborigines 

Military in the Island 


111 

960 


» „ „ Children of. 
Convicts employed in Road Par- 
ties, Cbain Gangs, and Houses 
of Correction 


241 
2,451 




Total 


12,940 


9051 


895 3 


18 


14,914 


2054 


28,801 


11,482 


40,283 



The following are the results of the population returns for the years 1841 and 1842. 



S T R I C T S. 



MALES. 



1841 



1842 



FEMALES. 



1841 



1842 



Hobart Town , 

Launcestou , 

South Port 

Morven 

George Town 

Richmond 

Brighton 

New Norfolk 

Oatlands 

Bothwell 

Norfolk Plains 

Westbury 

Campbelton 

Fingal 

Great Swan Port 

Prosser's Plains 

Circular Head 

In Government Vessels 

Prisoners on Public Works 

„ Tasman's Peninsula. 

„ Houses of Correction. 



number. 
7817 
4522 

168 
1454 

399 
1476 
1476 
1199 
1021 

672 
1864 

936 
1390 

350 

800 

308 

230 

64 

5030 



number. 
8407 
4930 

205 
1403 

418 
2992 
1330 
1312 
1173 

673 
2229 
1390 
1588 

400 

925 

341 

400 

83 

6960 

1891 



number. 
6705 
2810 

168 

407 

145 
1282 

653 

560 

372 

286 

763 

282 

442 
86 

142 

114 

100 



No return. 



number. 
6654 
3241 

105 

565 

167 
1420 

662 

657 

450 

274 

921 

378 

578 

107 

166 

14 

178 



The discrepancies in the above returns are not easily to be accounted for. 



VAN DTEMEN S LAND. 



165 



RELIGIONS. 


1841 


1842 


1847 




number. 

32,650 

3,019 

1,944 

1,050 

3,931 

259 

60 


number. 

34,861 

3,707 

2,263 

1,920 

4,492 

297 

31 


number. 

44,490 

4,522 

2,500 

2,18tf 

9,904 

452 

29 














TOTA L 


44,119 


47,001 


04,179 





PROFESSIONS, TRADES, &c. 



Landed Proprietors, Bankers, Merchants. 

and Professional persons 

Shopkeepers 

Mechanics 

Shepherds, &c 

A griculturists 

Domestic Servants 

Nondescripts 



Totai 



number. 

1,755 
819 

3,584 
848 

8,522 

3,476 
24,687 



43,091 



1,846 
802 

3,720 
879 

9,870 

3,477 
27,067 



47,071 



1,502 
1,172 
5,584 
1,098 

11,093 
4,839 

38,291 



94,179 



A large number of the male prisoners, on the expiration of their sentences, leave the island to 
seek their fortunes in the neighbouring settlements, where they hope their former state of bondage 
may be unknown. 

The following enumeration of houses shows a progressive increase : — 



HOUSES. 


1841 


1842 


1847 




number. 
3459 
31S9 


number. 
3730 
3899 


number. 
4963 

5224 


Wood 





Comparing the free and convict population at the periods of 1842 and 1847, 
the account stands thus : — 



FREE CLASS. 



1842. 



Males 
Females 



19,298 
13,517 



Males 
Females . 



Total .... 32,815 | Total . 

or difference of 10,195, being an increase of 33 per cent. 

CONVICT CLASS. 



1842. 



Males 
Females 



15,115 
2,275 



17,390 



Males 
Females 



1847. 



25,376 
18,354 



43,730 



20,687 
3,501 



Total 



. 24,188 



or difference of 6798, being an increase of 39 per cent. 

The military and aborigines are excluded in this calculation. Deducting 
from the above totals of the " free " those who have emerged from the convict 



class, it stands thus : — 



1842. 



Males . 

Have been convicts 



Females 

Have been convicts 



Total 



19,298 
6,786 



13,517 
1,660 



11,837 
24,349 



Males . 

Have been convicts 



Females . 

Have been convicts 



Total 



25,376 

8,832 



18,354 
2,687 



16,544 



15,667 
32,211 



166 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Summary of Convicts which have Arrived since 1817. 

Male convicts under the old class, which arrived in Van Diemen's Land from August 1817 
to March 1840 ......... 

Ditto probation class, from June 1840 to March 1847 . . . 

Ditto ticket of leave class, from September 1847 to July 1848 .... 



Female convicts 



Grand Total 



28,258 

18,6)5 

901 

47,814 
9,045 



. 56,81£ 



Account of the Population of Van Diemen's Land, according to the Census taken on 

31st December, 1847. 

F ree . — Born in the colony — Males, 9138; females, 9217: total, 18,355. Increase since last 
census (1842), 5631. — Free emigrants— Males, 7391 ; females, 6427 : total, 13,818. Decrease 
since last census (1842), 674. — Prisoners who have become free— Males, 8832; females, 2687 : 
total, 1 1,519. Increase since last census (1842), 1647. 

Convicts. — Holding tickets of leave — Males, 4749 ; females, 965 : total, 5714. Increase since 
last census (1842), 2246. In government employment— Males, 8660 ; females, 1098 : total, 9758. 
Decrease since last census (1842), 2158. In private assignment— Males, 7278 ; females, 1438 : 
total 8716. Increase since last census (1842), 3768. 

Military. — Males, 1765; females, 481 : total, 2246. Increase since last census (1842), 815. 

Aborigines. — Males, 15; females, 23 : total, 38. Decrease since last census (1842), 13. 

Total— Males, 47,828 ; females, 22,336—70,164. Increase since last census (1842), 14,107 ; 
decrease, 2845; total increase, 11,262. 

Return of the Ages of 64,179 Persons, as ascertained by the Census taken on 31st 

December, 1847. 



Under two years of age 

Two and under seven 

Seven and under fourteen 

Fourteen and under twenty-one . 
Twenty-one and under forty-five. 

Forty-five and under sixty 

Sixty and upwards 

Total 



Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


1,790 


1,788 


3,578 


3,389 


3,443 


6,832 


3,134 


3,001 


6,135 


2,804 


2,272 


5,076 


26,205 


9,493 


35,698 


4,078 


1,532 


5,610 


924 


326 


1,250 
64,179 


42,324 


21,855 



Average Rate of Wages to the following classes of Mechanics throughout the Colony 
during the Year 1847 ; as ascertained from Returns furnished by the several Police 
Magistrates. 

Per Diem, without Board and Lodging. — Bricklayers, 4s. lie?.; joiners, As. lief.; carpenters, 
4s. \Qd. ; masons, 4s. 1 Od. ; plasterers, 4s, Id. ; painters, 4s. 8d. ; plumbers, 4s. 8d. ; quarrymen, 3s. 



Return of Manufactories and Trades in operation in Van Diemen's Land on the 31st 
December, 1847 ; as ascertained from Returns furnished by the several Police Magis- 
trates. 

Agricultural implement makers, 76 ; breweries, 46 ; candle manufactories, 15 ; cooperages, 18 
coach manufactories, 7; dyers, 4; engineers, 10; fellmongers, 29; foundries, 7; furriers, 6 
mast and block makers, 2; mills, 80; potteries, 3 ; printing offices, 10; rope manufactories, 6 
sail makers, 4 ; saw mills, 3 ; shipwrights, 16 ; tanners, 44 ; wool-staplers, 3. 



VAN DIEMEN S LAND. 



167 



Number of Acres in Crop, nature of each Crop, Amount of the Return of Produce, and 
the Average Price, in Van Diemen's Land, from 1828 to 1850. 



YEARS 


Wheat. 


Bushels. 


Average 
Price. 


Barley. 


Bushe 


6_ 


Average 
Price. 


Oata. 


Bushels. 


Average 
Price. 


Peas. 


Bushels. 


Average 
Price. 




No. 


No. 


£ s. d. 


No. 


No. 


s. d. 


No. 


No. 


s. d. 


No. 


No. 


s. d. 


1828.... 


20,357 


314,260 


10 


3,804 


70,500 





1,573 


34,166 


7 6 


646 


8,930 


10 


1829.... 


24,423 


318,641 


7 6 


2,886 


60,664 


5 


2,231 


70,000 


5 6 


600 


8,776 


10 o 


1830 


30,155 


511,000 


7 


2,749 


57,000 


6 


2,395 


68,000 


5 


611 


10,000 


7 


1831.... 


31,007 


350,000 


6 


4,010 


79,945 


5 6 


4,166 


75,000 


6 


877 


9,000 


7 


1832.... 


26,346 


390,000 


5 


5,741 


74,000 


5 


5,690 


79,000 


5 


1152 


10,000 


5 6 


1833.... 


26,268 


232,543 


5 


5,464 


65,031 


4 


8,002 


87,106 


3 3 


1167 


10,002 


4 3 


1834.... 


29,973 


218,348 


11 6 


5,413 


89,487 


6 6 


7,348 


120,247 


4 3 


1025 


11,483 


6 


1835.... 


33,931 


508,965 


6 6 


7,697 


153,940 


7 


7,410 


160,000 


4 9 


1259 


13,000 


4 6 


183G 


40,389 


485,969 


6 


7,i99 


89,429 


6 6 


9,178 


121,526 


5 6 


1037 


9,819 


8 


1837.... 


32,012 


309,569 


7 3 


6,898 


73,566 


6 6 


9,380 


128,209 


6 9 


876 


9,035 


7 6 


1838 


41,749 


550,189 


8 9 


13,495 


182,140 


6 


21,575 


236,758 


5 6 


868 


12,220 


7 


1839.... 


40,350 


571,703 


1 6 


8,3 i9 


149,506 


8 


15,881 


312,438 


7 6 


944 


9,506 


10 


1840.... 


60,813 


839,985 


9 


8,895 


171,071 


6 


18,605 


351,236 


5 6 


935 


15,155 


8 


1841 


63,734 


881,318 


7 


9,010 


167,548 


5 


16,471 


230,786 


5 6 


738 


10,670 


9 


1842 


78,180 


531,480 


6 6 


13,870 


138,480 


6 


23,469 


242,089 


4 6 


641 


7,255 


8 


1843 


78,932 


795,363 


3 6 


1 2,466 


190,037 


2 6 


22,510 


352,024 


2 9 


835 


11,643 


8 6 


1844.... 


57,297 


80,924 


3 3 


12,219 


174,405 


3 6 


13,864 


221,105 


2 6 


580 


8,658 


3 


1845 


65,078 




3 3 


10,947 




3 6 


16,620 




3 6 


522 




4 6 


1846 


72,353 




5 


11,754 




4 6 


16,575 




4 


556 




5 


1847 


63,867 




4 10 






5 6 


18,755 




3 8 


705 




2 10 


1848.... 


























1849.... 


























1850.... 


























YEARS 


Beans 


Bshls. 


Aver 
Piic 


ige 

e. 


Pota- 
toes. 


Tods. 


Average 
Price. 


Turnips. 


Tons. 


Average 
Price. 


Hay, 
&c. 


Tons. 


Average 
Price. 


Total 
Bushels 


TOTA L 

Tons. 




No. 


No. 


£ s. 


d. 


No. 


No. 


£ s. 


No. 


No. 


£ 


s. 


No. 


No. 


£ s. 


No. 


No. 


1828.... 


35 


235 


10 





1,295 


4,328 


7 10 


1,296 


9,265 


4 





4,970 


2,500 


8 


428,091 


16,093 


1829 


20 


200 


10 





1,751 


5,192 


6 


1.667 


11,055 


2 





5,221 


2,098 


6 


458,281 


18,345 


1830 


31 


500 


8 





1,73£ 


5,900 


4 


1,920 


10,000 


3 





14,373 


5,500 


5 


646,500 


21,400 


1831.... 


53 


600 


8 





1,845 


5,500 


5 10 


4,589 


8,000 


4 





9,713 


5,000 


9 


514,545 


18,500 


1832 


68 


600 


7 


6 


1,854 


6,000 


5 1 


6,224 


9,500 


2 





10,816 


6,000 


7 5 


553,600 


21,500 


1833.... 


103 


980 


13 





2,624 


7,070 


6 10 


6,559 


10,485 


1 


15 


11,209 


6,604 


4 


395,722 


24,159 


1834.... 


53 


545 


10 


6 


2,56G 


7,114 


6 


8,604 


16,301 


1 


15 


13,753 


7,823 


5 


440,110 


31,238 


1835.... 


93 


870 


10 


6 


4,585 


12,000 


8 


20,018 


35,000 


1 


10 


12,290 


7,000 


6 6 


836,775 


54,000 


1836.... 


127 


1480 


o 7 


6 


4,088 '11,936 


3 


9,378 


69,009 


2 


2 


17,832 


8,560 


5 10 


708,223 


89,505 


1837.... 


57 


237 


1 1 





2,C77 4,015 


10 


10,787 


22,547 


2 





16,742 


10,790 


5 15 


520,616 


37,332 


1838 


J 27 


1031 


10 


3,532 1 11,501 


6 


9,054 


28,996 


2 


10 


17,587 


15,915 


5 10 


982,238 


56,412 


1839.... 


105 


1704 


12 





3,039 11,373 


10 


12,827 


44,880 


2 


5 


18,843 


23,952 


6 


944,957 


80,205 


1840-... 


98 


1818 


5 





3,971 14,934 


10 


11,125 


50,854 


2 


10 


19,661 


36,815 


8 


1,379,265 


102,603 


1841.... 


102 


1477 


6 





4,185 14,138 


10 


15,943 


42,677 


2 





22,431 


15,096 


5 


1,291,799 


71,911 


1842 


243 


1104 


10 


5,080 16,901 


7 


15,584 


23,066 


a 





19,246 




4 






1843 


105 


1607 


12 


16,637 


13,872 


5 6 


10,637 


56,736 


\ 


10 


18,810 




2 






1844.... 


94 


1072 


10 


12,582 


13,349 


4 


12,581 


29,880 


2 





19,487 




2 5 






1845.... 


118 




7 


14,940 




4 10 


14,940 




1 


6 


26,864 




4 






1846.... 


94 




7 





10,852 




2 


10,852 




1 


10 


35,335 




3 10 






1847 


126 




8 





7,68 1 


.. 


5 17 


7,681 




2 


7 


38,890 




3 13 






1848.... 


































1849.... 


































1850 



































Total Number of Acres under Cultivation in each Year, 1836 to 1850, were as follows 



1836 89,528 

1837 79,249 

1838 108,000 

1839 119,038 

1840 117,251 



1841 132,014 

1842 155,525 

1843 157,340 

1844 121,938 

1845 140,953 



1846. 
1847. 
184?. 
1849. 
1850. 



152,343 

146,004 





RETURN OF LIVE STOCK. 


WOOL. 


YEARS. 


Horses. 


Horned Cattle. 


Sheep. 


Quantity of 
Wool Exported. 


Value of Wool 
Exported. 


1828 


number. 

2,034 

2,514 

3,387 

4,217 

5,<i20 

5,483 

7,115 

6,449 

8,243 

8,010 

9,656 

9,868 

11,850 

12,000 

12,414 

13,360 

15,355 

14,824 

15,323 

16,212 


number. 

84,476 
109,101 
85,942 
97,088 
80,939 
79,517 1 
74,075 
82,217 
74,500 
73,212 
75,087 
75,915 
92,101 
90,498 
91,614 
83,195 
85,302 
76,417 
72,454 
89,194 


number. 

553,698 

637,141 

680,740 

682,128 

750,202 

719,729 

765,552 

744,625 

906,813 

911,357 

1,214,485 

868,590 

1,089,987 

1,167,737 

1,227,058 

1,449,504 

1,145,089 

1,253,481 

1,313,622 

1,833,866 


bales. 

9,735 
10,553 
10,873 
12,175 
12,123 
13,227 
13,390 
13,992 
15,575 


£ 


1829 




1830 




1831 




1832 




1833 




1834 




1835 




1836 


171,009 
220,739 
171,599 
194,647 
223 667 
254,853 
236,078 
193,746 
176.-269 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 




1847 




1818 




1849 




1850 





168 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



An Account of the Value of the Imports, in Pounds Sterling, of Van Diemen's Land, 

from 1824 to 1851. 



COUNTRIES. 


1824 


1825 


1826 1827 


1828 


1829 


1830 


1831 


1832 


Great Britain 

British Possessions.. 

United States 

Foreign States 


£ 
50,000 
10,000 

2,000 


£ 

59,935 
18,416 

9,810 


£ 

72,759 
24,719 

2,269 


£ 
111,469 
36,481 

4,667 


£ 

157,008 
76,652 

7,722 


£ 
176,366 
77,529 

18,294 


£ 

153,478 
93,251 

8,569 


£ 

211,612 

75,442 

11,720 


£ 

293,885 
91,119 

7,662 


Totai 


02,000 1 88,161 


99,747 152,627 


241,382 ' 272,189 1 255,298 


298,774 ! 392,666 


COUNTRIES. 


1833 1834 


835 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


Great Britain 

British Possessions . 

United States 

Foreign States 


£ 
258,904 
80,860 

13,130 


£ 

316,559 

145,445 

1,424 

13,189 


£ 

403,879 

149,664 

3,368 

26,735 


£ 

386,142 

163,471 

2,002 

6,625 


£ 

391,804 

158,074 

889 

12,377 


£ 

556,746 

129,602 

2,661 

13,947 


£ 

573,491 

150,061 

6,013 

17,322 


£ 

737,251 

217,033 

6,896 

27,176 


£ 

685,875 

135,148 

6,277 

24,681 




352 894 1 476 617 


srs gar 1 ruro.m I sfisiaa %a9. qsr 


74R 887 i G.88 3!V7 


851,981 






COUNTRIES. 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 


1851 


Great Britain 

British Possessions. . 

United States. 

Foreign States 


£ 

401,738 

145,181 

5,287 

35,247 


£ 

471,026 

192,896 

1,635 

39,703 


£ 

303,097 

124,675 

8,812 

6,404 


£ 

339,119 

153,281 

5,567 

22,595 


£ 

372,020 

159,977 

6, 646 

22,595 


£ 

517,786 

162,376 

5,840 

38,591 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




587,453 705.2G0 


449QSS 


520 5fi'2 


561,238 


724,593 ! 



































Exports. 



COUNTRIES. 


1824 


1825 1826 


1827 


1828 


1829 


1830 


1831 


1832 


Great Britain 

British Possessions. 

United States 

Foreign States 


£ 

10,000 

4,500 


£ 

9,224 
14,613 


£ 
24,815 
19,683 


£ 

21,056 
38,459 

387 


£ 
31,915 
59,266 

280 


£ 
55,535 
71,115 

534 


£ 
52,031 
93,742 

207 


£ 
87,893 
53,852 


£ 

110,883 
40,787 

236 




14,500 


23,837 1 44,498 


59,902 I 91,461 


127,184 


145,980 


141,745 ! 157,906 




COUNTRIES. 


1833 


1834 


1835 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


Great Britain 

British Possessions . 

United S'att-s 

Foreign States ..... 


£ 

105,126 
47,567 

"274 


£ 

167,815 

35,399 

290 

18 


£ 

218,754 

101,716 

61 

148 


£ 
232,720 
186,193 

1,210 


£ 

314,224 
225,907 

90 


£ 
321,871 
251,604 

8,000 


£ 

326,369 

545,196 

3,f)00 


£ 

334,156 

531,321 

1,530 


£ 

357,862 
271,899 

740 


Total 152,967 


203,522 


320,679 


420,133 540,221 


581,475 


875,165 ! 867,007 1 630,501 


COUNTRIES. 


1842 


1843 1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1S50 


1851 


Creat Britain 

British Possessions.. 

United S r «tes 

Foreign States 


£ 

299,198 

270,478 
4,158 
2,675 


£ £ 

252,102 ' 252,980 
185,174 1 151,406 
75 ! 
2,539 ! 4,413 


£ 
242,561 
175,313 

4,284 


£ 
298,534 
283,790 

261 


£ 
338,609 
257,625 

5,142 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


TOTAf. 


1 582,509 


439,890 4 


08,799 


42S 


,218 


582,: 


85 


600,876 


1 


I 







The official returns do not enable us to fill up the blanks in the preceding 
tables. 



VAN DIEMEN S LAND. 



169 



Number of Ships arrived and departed at the Ports of Van Diemen's 


Land :- 








A R 


RIVED. 








YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


British Colonies. L 


nite.l States. 


Foreign States. 


Total. 




Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. Sh 


ps. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 




number. 


number. 


number. 


number, nun 


lbtr. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


1824 


20 


7,246 


12 


3,637 






1 


235 


33 


11,116 


1825 


22 


8,286 


25 


3 999 


. 




. 


5 


1,170 


52 


13,455 


1826 


19 


6,844 


33 


4,973 








2 


367 


54 


12,184 


1827 


27 


9,805 


65 


8,308 








5 


780 


97 


18,893 


1828 


34 


11,505 


94 


11,500 






. 


3 


736 


131 


23,741 


1829 


41 


13,165 


65 


10,713 








4 


839 


110 


24,717 


1830 


33 


11,325 


52 


11,202 








16 


4,055 


101 


26,582 


J 83 1 


36 


12,401 


56 


10,213 


. 






2 


570 


94 


23,184 


1832 


50 


16,482 


90 


14,979 








2 


263 


142 


31,724 


1833 


66 


21,597 


94 


14,307 


1 


269 


6 


1,269 


167 


37,442 


1834 


48 


16,527 


94 


15,064 


2 


733 


6 


1,117 


150 


33,141 


1835 


59 


21,013 


154 


30,031 


5 


1217 


12 


3,572 


234 


55,833 


1836 


60 


19,700 


222 


35,712 


3 


684 


7 


2,046 


292 


58,142 


1837 


















344 


60,960 


1838 


.. 
















370 


64,454 


1839 


















452 


79,283 


1840 




.. 














492 


85,081 


1841 


88 


26,326 


35' 


46,052 


7 


2117 


32 


9,716 


484 


89,214 


1842 


69 


24,455 


34) 


40,603 


9 


3047 


50 


14,874 


468 


82 983 


1843 


64 


24,320 


42B 


53,202 


15 


5030 


34 


9,949 


541 


92,501 


1844 


44 


18,151 


3t>4 


45,240 


2 


729 


15 


4,324 


425 


68 462 


1845 


46 


19,976 


301 


45,269 


1 


371 


25 


7,678 


463 


73,291 


1846 


35 


13,657 


437 


50,215 


3 


1203 


40 


9,720 


515 


74,795 


1847 


41 


16,129 


504 


53,665 


3 


891 


71 


14,085 


619 


86,940 


1848 






















1849 






















1850 





























D 


EPA 


R T E 


D. 








YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


British Colonies. 


United States. 


Foreign States. 


Total. 




Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


1824 

1825 

1826 

1827 

1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1S36 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1810 

1841 

1842 

1813 

1844 

1845 

1816 

1S47 

1848 

1849 

1850 


number. 
3 

8 

3 
11 
16 
15 
18 
21 
17 
11 
25 
23 

31 

20 

22 
30 
20 
28 
27 


number. 
933 
271 

2,532 
996 
3,326 
4,513 
4,884 
5,709 
6,187 
8 978 
3,082 
7,331 
6,880 

8*754 
6,114 
6,584 
8,256 
7,061 
10,122 
11,150 


number. 

30 

52 

48 

84 
115 

92 

66 

83 
103 
133 
119 
189 
244 

41*3 
380 

462 
382 
416 
466 
515 


number. 

10,195 
11,697 
9,991 
14,087 
18,066 
19,981 
15,554 
19,504 
20,277 
27,377 
21,885 
42,735 
43,676 

61,393 
55,961 
65,839 
55,193 

57,588 
58,368 
58,457 


number. 


number. 

257 
224 

300 
124 
371 


number. 
2 
1 

*4 

7 

3 
11 

1 

4 

9 

4 
10 

46 
63 
49 
33 
25 
47 
69 


number. 
476 
467 

*921 
2,724 
1,248 
4,607 
238 
1,555 
3,895 
1,621 
3,237 

14,754 
20,067 
16,190 
10,307 
6,773 
10,940 
16,254 


num ber. 

35 

54 

56 

91 
133 
HI 

92 
102 
128 
159 
134 
125 
277 
363 
369 
453 
505 
491 
466 
534 
445 
461 
541 
611 


number. 

11,604 
12,435 
12,523 
16,004 
24,116 
25,742 
25,045 
25,451 
28,01,9 
36,250 
29,588 
53,560 
52,780 
57,945 
63,393 
77,556 
86,701 
85,201 
82,866 
88.984 
73,756 
71,422 

7M30 

85,861 



A Return of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels belonging to the Ports of Van Diemen's 

Land, from 1824 to 1850. 



YEARS. 


Hobart Town. 


Launceston. 


ToTA L. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


1824 


number. 

1 
10 
27 
15 
56 
96 
101 
104 
108 
140 
110 
120 


number. 
42 

284 
1,625 
1,285 
3,416 
7,329 
7,193 
7,270 
7,365 
11,521 
7,418 
8,160 


number. 

i 

15 
48 
44 
45 
44 
44 
42 
39 


number. 

101 

951 
4672 
3845 
3499 
3362 
3372 
3043 
2837 


number. 

10 

27 

16 

71 
144 
155 
J 54 
152 
184 
153 
159 


number. 
42 


1825 


284 


1829 


1,625 
1,386 
4,397 
1 1 ,956 
11,038 
10,727 
14,893 
10,461 
11,297 


]830.. 


1835 


1841 


1 842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 




1S49 




1850 





170 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



A Return of the Shipping and Fisheries, and their Value, belonging to Van Diemen's 
Land, from 1828 to 1835, inclusively. 



YEARS. 


Vessels 
built. 


Tons 
burthen. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


1828 


number. 
5 
14 
11 
12 
5 
14 
11 
12 


number. 
243 
284 

498 
437 
382 
612 
477 
1631 


number. 

3 

7 

9 
15 
35 
22 
24 
27 


number. 

3170 

4264 
4729 


£ 

11,268 
12,313 
33,549 
30,620 
64,858 
71,600 
49,840 
70,000 


1829 


1831 


1 833 


1835 


1 84 1 


18-16 


1847 











Number of Vessels employed in Coasting Trade between Hobart Town and Launceston. 



YEARS. 


INWARDS. 


OUTWARDS. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


1841 


number. 
12 
17 
IS 


number. 

726 

650 

2276 


number. 
16 
23 

23 


number. 
1410 
2350 
3120 




1847 


1850 









Notb. — The number of vessels employed in the whale fisheries are exclusive of boats. 

Principal Articles of Export from 1835 to 1840, inclusive. 



ARTICLES. 


1835 


1836 


1837 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




number. 

8095 

2154 

132 

2813 


£ 

142,921 
51,398 
10,698 
11,862 


number. 

9735 

2146 

137 

1597 


£ 

171,009 

52,960 

14,409 

6,949 


number. 

10,553 

2,520 

172 

1,165 


£ 

220,739 

68,757 

20,048 

4,273 






Bark do. 


ARTICLES. 


1838* 


1839 


1840 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Wool bales 


number. 

10,873 

4,801 

187 

748 


171,599 
121,270 

15,807 
3,538 


number. 

12,175 

3,963 

210 

962 


£ 

194,647 

97,542 

21,570 

4,526 


number. 
12,123 
3,507 
172 

791 


£ 
223,667 




75,728 




18,094 


Bark do. 


5,381 



* In 1838, 999 bales of wool, value £16,455 were exported, the produce of New South Wales, not included in the 
above. 

In 1841 there were 13,227 bales of wool, 6124 tuns of oil, 152 tons of whalebone, and 644 
tons of bark, exported, of the value of 356,810/. ; in 1844, the quantity was 15,575 bales of 
wool, 1963 tuns of oil, 64| tons of whalebone, and 930 tons of bark, of the value of 234,242/. 

A Return showing the Thirteen chief Articles Imported and Exported from Van Diem en's 

Land in 1841 and 1844. 



ARTICLES. 



Apparel 

Butter and cheese.. 
Cauvas and bagging 
Cottons and linens.. 

Haberdashery 

Hardware 

Live stock 

Malt liquors 

Sugar 

Spiritu 

Tea 

Woollen cloths ..... 
Wiue 



IMPORTS. 



1841 



£ 
65,768 
18,097 
18,527 
38,359 
60,739 
83,896 
44,952 
37,309 
17,019 
48,477 
10,882 
44,084 
31,015 



1844 



£ 

43,876 

6,162 

11,701 

52,404 

33,115 

37,167 

42,876 

13,572 

10,714 

8,607 

7,717 

20,823 

6,646 



ARTICLES. 



Apparel and slops 

Flour 

Grain 

Ironmongery 

Live stock. 

Oil. 

Potatoes 

Tobacco 

Whalebone 

Wool 

Timber 

Hay 

Bark 



EXPORTS. 



14. 

54. 

40. 

10. 

24. 

83. 

9 

3, 

3. 

254. 

18. 
9> 
3, 



850 
030 
553 
537 
843 
605 
006 
703 
763 
853 
5/5 
083 
057 



1844 



£ 

8,773 

28,439 

53,347 

6,785 

2,921 

48,712 

2,870 

5,118 

5,118 

176,269 

3,557 

549 

3,759 



VAN DIEMEN S LAND. 



171 



Imports of Van Diemen's Land during the Year ending 5th January, 1848. 



ARTICLES. 



Apparel and slops 

Apothecary ;•.•••• 

Arms and ammunition. 

Beef and pork 

Boots and shoes....*.. . 

Brandy 

Butter and cheese 

Candles and tallow .... 
Canvas and bagging.... 
Carriages and carts. . . . 

Casks 

Cattle 

Cedar 

Coals 

Coffee 

Copper and lead 

Cottons and linens..... 
Currants and raisins... 
Deals, oars, and staves. 

Flour and grain 

Geneva 

Glass and earthenware. 

Haberdashery 

Hats and caps 

Hardware 

Hides.skins, and leather 

Hops 

Horses 

Iron 

Jewellery and plate 



From 
Great 
Britain, 



;£ 

44,858 
2,962 
1,558 
2,133 
8,072 

14,797 

1,294 

635 

17,582 
450 



174 

389 

8,305 

34,928 

1,804 

600 

59 

4,765 

19,405 

33,197 

7,004 

39,846 

150 

5,799 

1,000 

6,092 

67,55 



British 
Colonies 



£ 

3,530 
117 

84 
6,413 

68 

3,949 

2,640 

491 

6,360 

75 

15,929 

1,676 
826 

2,260 

210 

715 

593 

20 

2,546 
483 
790 
403 
532 
965 

2,365 
614 

789 



Foreign 
States. 



20 
72 

54 

167 

130 

10 



1237 
36 



10 
547 
127 
219 

732 



Total. 



3,079 
1,662 
8,618 
8,194 

18,746 
4,101 
1,256 

23,952 
525 
620 

15,929 
1,676 
1,000 
3,886 
8,515 

35,679 

2,397 

620 

2,605 

5,248 

20,205 

34,147 
7,663 

41,030 
2,515 
7,145 
1,000 
6,881 
6,755 



ARTICLES. 



Liqueurs 

Malt liquor 

Millinery 

Musical instruments.. . 

Oilman's stores 

Oil, black 

Ditto, sperm 

Faint, oil, tar, and turps 

Perfumery 

Rope , 

Rice 

Rum 

Saddlery 

Salt 

Sheep 

Silks 

Soap 

Stationery and books . . 

Sugar 

Tea 

Timber 

Tobacco 

Whalebone 

Whisky 

Wine 

Woollens 

Wool 

Unenumerated 



Total imports... 517,786 



From 
Great 
Britain. 



British 
Colonies 



£ 

29 

21,668 

9,966 

2,016 

22,169 



3,802 

1,559 

8,958 

26 

15,553 

3,841 

1,900 

40 

10,661 

2,021 

13,752 

10,190 

272 

268 

4,935 

86 

12,449 

102,400 

3,992 



£ 
1,191 

3 

4,938 



40 

1,778 

524 

7,904 

62 

176 

11,713 

333 

3,134 

2,453 

27,981 

11,604 

2,328 

7,004 

100 

190 

4,072 

5,775 

4,794 

7,951 



1 62,376 



Foreign 

States. 



Total. 



526 
382 



822 
151 
100 



13,444 

12,083 



5,556 
940 



£ 
29 

22,859 
9,966 
2,019 

27,633 
1,267 
5,950 
4,000 
1,559 

11,558 
701 

23,557 
3,903 
2,076 

11,753 

10,994 
5,155 

16,205 

51,615 

23,959 
2,596 

17,495 

1,040 

276 

16,581 

108,175 

4,794 

12,841 



44,431 '724,593 



Exports of Van Diemen's Land during the Year ending 5th January, 1848. 



ARTICLES. 



A pothecary 

Apparel and slops 

Arms and ammunition. 

Bags and canvas 

Bark 

Barley 

Brandy 

Beef and pork 

Books and stationery . . 

Boots and shoes 

Butter and cheese 

Bran 

Carriages and carts. . . . 

Coffee 

Cottons and linens .... 

Curiosities 

Earthenware and glass 

Flour 

Furniture 

Fruit and preserves .. , 

Geneva 

Haberdashery 

Hay 

Hides, skins, & leather 

Hops 

Horses 

Ironmongery 



To 
Great 
Britain. 


British 
Colonies 


Foreign L 

States. lorAL - 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




279 


. . 


279 


5 


6,623 


.. 


6,628 


.. 


73 




73 


4 


2,086 




2,090 


935 


278 


.. 


1,213 




4,270 


.. 


4,270 




8,019 


.. 


8,019 




717 


268 


985 


10 


697 




707 


60 


1,681 




1,741 




1,066 


17 


1,083 


. , 


484 


126 


610 


.. 


1,883 


.. 


1,883 




204 




204 




12,709 


35 


12,744 


184 






184 




1,070 


10 


1,080 


121 1 


38,124 

2,865 


1,260 


40,595 




2,865 




5,576 


81 


5,G57 


15 


800 
4,780 




800 

4,795 
465 




465 




2766 


5,584 


195 


8,545 




1,497 


15 


1,512 




7,511 




7,511 


220 


9,404 


67 


9,691 



ARTICLES. 



iron and lead 

Malt 

Malt liquor 

Oats 

Oil, black 

Ditto, sperm 

Oilman's stores 

Potatoes 

Rope and twine 

Rum 

Salt 

Sheep 

Soap 

Staves 

Sugar 

Tea 

Tallow and Candles.. 

Timber 

Tobacco 

Whalebone 

Wheat 

Wine 

Wool 

Woollens 

Unenumerated 



Total exports. . . 338,609 



To 

Great 

Britain, 



£ 
183 



21,150 
41,467 



16 



3,042 

226 



4,135 

14,824 



247,240 
916 



British 

Colonies 



£ 

584 

516 
3,478 
5,592 

478 

70 

5,149 

3,891 

441 
7,033 

259 
1,808 

356 

146 
4,343 
1,603 

478 
15,170 
7,460 

68,419 
1,760 

1,439 

7,857 



Foreign 
States. 



Total. 



10 
148 



18 
330 



£ 

767 

516 

3,490 

5,648 

21,628 

41,537 

5,159 

4,055 

441 

7,083 

259 

1,808 

356 

146 

4,343 

1,60S 

3,551 

15,414 

7,460 

4,135 

85,683 

1.760 

247,240 

1,457 

9,103 



257,125 1 5142 I 600,876 



172 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Value of Imports into, and Exports from, Van Diemen's Land, at the Ports of Hobart 

Town and Launceston, in 1847. 



COUNTRIES. 


HOBART TOWN. 


LAUNCESTON. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 




£ 
400,307 
98,959 

5,840 
29,956 


£ 
200,234 
102,886 

4,562 


£ 

117,479 
63,417 

8,635 


138,375 
154,239 








580 








535,062 


307,682 


189,531 


293,194 





Account of the Staple, Articles the Produce of Van Diemen's Land, exported in the 
Years ending January 5, 1847, 1848. 



ARTICLE 



HOBART TOWN. 



1846 



1847 



LAUNCESTON. 



1846 



1847 



Bark tons 

Barley and oats bushels 

.8 ran do. 

Wheat do. 

Flour tons 

Hay do. 

Potatoes do. 

Wool bales 

Cattle 

Horses 

Sheep 

Hides, skins, and leather hales 

Horns 

Timber- 
Laths and shingles 

Palings 

Pieces 

Sawn feet 

Staves 

Trenails 

Oil, black tuns 

Ditto, sperm do. 

Whalebone tons 

Curiosities packages 

Fruit and preserves do. 

Hops do. 

M alt liquor dr.. 

Tallow do. 



number. 
31 

20,319 

500 

62,123 

1,686 

438 

89,628 

6,768 

*22l 

145 

1,125 

10,073 

2,410,000 
1 33,270 

1,12*7,587 

124,179 

1,970 

1,193 

388 

54i 

27 

1,997 

208 

35 

28 



number. 

71 

19,145 

2,000 

33,242 

1,066 

110 

219,193 

9,658 

107 
437 

945 
8,089 

5,117,000 

519,000 

43,316 

2,577,000 

153,000 

5,644 

1,141 

619 

32 

8 

1,618 

76 

33 

193 



number. 

362 

38,604 

18,374 

367,421 

1,981 

219 

1,529 

6,841 

77 

1,073 

568 

320 

8,000 

268,891 

406,193 

2,517 

134,437 

800 

67,945 

62 

4 

12 

2,745 
8 

1,616 
6 



number. 
297 

34,278 

3,670 

394,520 

2,611 

23 

1,157 

6,9/1 

8 

489 

1,711 

175 

9,325 

430,370 

791,637 

11,222 

95,150 

500 

22,483 

38| 



13 

3,610 



95 
163 



Wharfage Dues received at the Ports of Hobart Town and Launceston, and Amount 
expended on the Wharves respectively. 



YEARS. 


WHARFAGE DUES. 


AMOUNT EXPENDED. 


Hobart Town. 


Launceston. 


Hobart Town. 


Launceston. 




£ s. d. 
2046 1 1 
2502 19 3 
13V5 1 6 
1686 1 10 
2020 5 1 
3069 18 8 


£ s. d. 

981 11 6 
1377 
1069 8 4 
106* 12 2 
1209 18 6 
1384 9 


£ s. d 
243 11 2 

1368 1 
29> 1 6 

1153 3 6 
691 13 6 
373 14 6 


£ s. d. 
1172 4 7 




550 14 6 


1844 


88 15 2 


1845 


138 15 


1846 




1847 


136 4 6 


1848 




1849 




1850 









VAN DIEMEN S LAND* 



TRADE OF HO BART TOWN. 

The whaling ships belonging to Hobart Town in 1848, were — 3 from 70 to 
100 tons; 8 from 110 to 162 tons; 2 of 187 and 189 tons; 8 from 205 to 
251 tons ; 8 from 257 to above 300 tons ; and 5 from 306 to 360 tons: total, 
34 ships, 7951 tons, 961 men. There are three other whalers out of Hobart 
Town. Other ships and traders — 135 ships, 8531 tons, 833 men. Hobart 
Town, 135; traders, 85. 



The number of Vessels belonging to the Port of Hobart Town on the 5th of January, 

1849. 





Vessels. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Traders and coasters 


number. 
131 

37 


number. 
8,531 
8,616 


number. 
833 
1046 




172 1 17 147 


1879 











During the year 1848 there were landed in Hobart Town from the whalers of the port 643 
tuns of sperm oil, 435 tuns of black oil, and 21 tons 15 cwt. of whalebone, the export value of 
which amounted to 51,601/. 10s. Sixteen out of the whalers named had not landed any oil at 
Hobart Town during 1848, many of whom were known to have a considerable quantity on board; 
and it may therefore be assumed that the value of these exports for the year 1849 will more than 
double that of 1848. 

During 1848 there were exported 654 tuns oFsp-erm oil, 316 ditto black oil, 16 tons of whale- 
bone, 6898 bales of wool. These are the absolute exports to 31sp of December last ; but they 
do not at all form a criterion of the exports of the wool and oil of the season, as it was an un- 
usually late one, and few vessels sailed before, the 1st of January., 1849. 

The Imports during the Year ending the oth of January, 1849, were — 



From Britain . 
„ British Colonies 
„ United States 
„ Foreign States 

Total 



The exports during the same year were- 



To Great Britain 
To British Colonies 
To Foreign States 



Apparent difference against the colony 



. 460,24* 

. 109,!> e j0 

£.545 

„ 20,377 

. 594,156 



£ 

. 255,027 

. 232,718 

2,536 

490,281 

. 193,875 



The number of Vessels arrived at Hobart Town during 1848 was — - 





Vessels. 


Tons. 




number. 
41 

544 

62 

1 


number. 

17,329 

57,220 

15.828 

506 








Total 


648 


90,883 


Number of men employed 


7287 



174 



BKITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



The number of Vessels sailed from Hobart Town during 1848 — 



Vessels, 


Tons. 




number. 
17 

584 
76 


number. 

6,634 

70,158 

19,196 






Total « .. 


677 


95,988 


Number of men employed* 


7901 



Return of the Number and Tonnage of Vessels belonging to the Port of Launceston 



during the Year 1845* 

Number 42 ; Tonnage 3043. 



Return of the Shipping and Fisheries, with their Value, and of the Number of Vessels 
built in Launceston, during the Year 1845. 

Vessels built, 3 ; tonnage, 146 ; ships employed, 2 ; tons, 307 ; value of fisheries, 4600*. 

Return of the Value and Quantity of Grain, Flour, Malt, and Bran, Exported from Laun- 
ceston during the Year ending January 6, 1846. 



To Great Britain. 


To British 
Wheat 


Poss 


ESSIONS. 






do. 


Oats 




do. 






do. 


Malt 




do 


Flour 




. tons 



Quantity. 



number. 


£ 


48,126 


9,330 


119,946 


20,814 


14,250 


2,704 


27,101 


3,«0? 


10,054 


298 


4,011 


'1,^85 


1,335 


13,788- 



Value. 



Foreign States, 

Wheat; bushels 

Bran. do. 

Flour tons 



Total. 



Quantity. 



number. 

16,652 

1,050 

79 



Value. 



3,600 

10 

540 



46,521 



Statement of the Net Colonial Revenue 


and Expenditure of Van Diemen's Land. 


YEARS. 


Receipts. 


Expenditure. 


YEARS. 


Receipts. 


Expenditure. 


1826 ....... ..... 


£ k. d. 
53,39' 10 1 
53,3 1C 2 
68,673 11 11 
60,427 12 4 
67,926 7 5 
72,119 2 6 
91,976 3 11 
86,005 17 9 
101,016 2 9 
113,525 16 
128,137 7 
137,354 6 1 
127,709 3 3 


£ s. d. 

50,806 13 
55,057 1 
66,041 a." 9 
44,146 I'8 1 
61,513 3 * 
71,460 10 9 
80,542 19 2 
83,727 9 8 
115,057 1 1 
116,822 10 1 
138,380 8 5 
141,442 10 6 
133,680 13 1 




£ s. d. 
154,789 3 7 
183,171 16 6 
185,803 19 10 
143,712 1 10 
135,257 12 
164,341 16 5 
136,983 5 5 
123,199 9 10 
150,474 1 9 


£ s. d. 
142,524 17 7 
154,501 9 8 
160,974 5 8 
184,885 10 2 
166,600 2 7 
160,585 5 3 
138,753 7 8 
122,776 11 7 
142,497 19 3 






1828.... 


1841.... 


1829 




1830 


1843 .. 


1831 


1844 


1832 


1845 


1833 


1846 


1834 


1847 


1835 


1848 


1836 


1849 




1837 


1850 




1838 











Customs Revenue for the Years ending January 5, 1848, to 1850. 





1848. 


1850. 




Hobart Town. 


Launceston. 


Hobart Town. 


Launceston. 


DUTIES. 


£ s. d. 

25,341 7 2 
11,163 3 9 
14,264 4 10 


£ s. d. 

14,221 2 9 

6,477 17 10 

5,725 4 


£ s. ft. 


£ e. d. 
















50,768 15 9 


26,424 11 








CHARGES. 


1,133 2 6 

730 16 2 

3,139 9 5 


657 3 

509 6 5 

1,395 I 
















Total 


5,033 8 1 


2,561 10 5 










55,772 3 10 


28,985 11 4 











VAN DIEMEN S LAND. 



175 





REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE OF VAN DIEMEN'S 
LAND. 


BANKS. 


CONVICTS. 


YEARS. 


CROWN LANDS. 


Total 

Land 

Re* 

venue. 


Total 
Colonial 

Re- 
venue. 


Total 
Colonial 
Expen- 
diture. 


Coin or 
Bullion 
in the 
Banks, 
exclu- 
sive of 
Bills of 
Exch. 


Liabi- 
lities. 


Amount 
Paid by 
the Home 
Government 
towards the 
Mainte- 
nance of 
Convicts. 


Amount 
Paid by 
Colonial 
Government 
for Police 
and Gaols. 


Land 
Sold. 


Average Price 

per Acre of 

Land Sold in 

Town and 

Country. 


Total 
Pro- 
ceeds of 
Land 
Sold. 


Amount 

Re- 
ceived. 


1836 


acres. 
25,917 


£ s. d 
(T. 12 13 8i 

1C. 9 91 


£ 
\ 19,458 


£ 

867 


£ 
33,916 


£ 

127,961 


£ 
137,533 


£ 


£ 
No re- 
turn. 


£ 
\ 113,082 


£ 


1837.... 


•w- {; 


589 


36,592 


136,446 


150,220 


105,067 


ditto. 


101,922 


24,048 


1838.... 


19,970 


( T. 23 18 10 | ) r „. 
\ C. 5 10* } 6 ' 664 


1179 


13,609 


117,538 


142,966 


104,718 


ditto. 


92,271 


23,469 


1839.... 


42,453 


\rui a}«M» 


3301 


35,775 


153,010 


144,326 


175,196 


ditto. 


118,520 


26,108 


1840.... 


88,788 


(S'SR'tlJ-M- 


1986 


58,439 


182,834 


147,832 


131,610 


ditto. 


131,041 


27,888 


1841 


79,140 


n\ io u of > 20 

\C. 11 8i \ 48,2 ° 3 


2018 


63,733 


185,099 159,520 


94,272 


ditto. 


140,154 


26,126 


1842 


25,770 


(T. 10 9 5 

(C. 8 8 


j 11,591 


3423 


24,672 


143,938 185,984 


113,597 


459,309 


194,362 


27,871 


1343.... 


49,904 


(T. 13 7 4 
fC. 8 2| 


I 22,593 


1586 


26,107 


135,061 159,943 


112,753 


404,967 


182,424 


30,786 


1844.... 


4,694 


(T. 18 7 11 
\C. 7 1\ 


I 3,139 


629 


14,408 


164,332 


160,629 


136,364 


448,820 


166,690 


32,954 


1845 


1,748 


(T. 9 10 8 
\C. 15 4f 


| 3,962 




8,102 


136,983 


138,153 


287,125 


426,983 




33,582 


1846.... 


1,806 


(T. 6 17 9 
\C. 2 2f 


i 5,110 




15,267 


122,199 


122,776 


286,542 


462,219 




30,011 


1847...- 


1,898 


(T. 5 10 4 
X C. 16 8£ 


I 2,806 






149,304 


142,497 


225,086 


498,448 




35,728 


1848.... 
























1849.... 
1850... 























Beturn of the Assets and Liabilities of the several Banks in Van Diemen's Land, 

1842 and 1847. 





1842 


BANKS. 


ASSETS. 


LIABILITIES. 




Bullion. 


Sills of 
Exchange, &c. 


Notes in 
Circulation. 


Deposits. 




£ s. d. 

25,590 11 
148 14 9 
13,395 12 4 
39,531 19 8 
28,306 6 4 
6,624 8 


£ s. d. 

196,897 17 
173,572 13 8 
108,345 12 7 
342,035 8 6 
329,809 10 4 
141,128 17 10 
65,367 4 10 


£ s. d. 

9,659 
1,156 
6,045 
18,391 
14,142 17 8 
9,763 


£ s. d. 

82,742 9 6 
53,510 9 3 
37 099 17 11 








85,031 9 1 
71,050 2 4 
36 735 12 10 








33 983 2 8 






Total 


113,597 12 1 


1,357,157 4 9 


59,156 17 8 


400,153 3 7 




1847 


banks. 


ASS 


E T S. 


L I A B I J 


LITIES. 




Bullion. 


Bills of 
Exchange, &c. 


Notes in 
Circulation. 


Deposits. 




£ s. d. 

35,454 12 1 

9,698 15 8 
126,012 13 10 
53,920 6 4 


£ s. d. 

190,403 17 I 

160,900 11 1 
281,364 1 9 
382,960 11 


£ s. d. 

15,458 

11,919 
19,823 14 2 
19,097 3 3 


£ s. d. 
93,546 19 I 






67,547 10 
153,860 2 10 
117,195 6 6 
















Total 


225,086 7 11 


1 1,015,629 11 


66,297 17 5 


432,150 7 





* The Derwent Bank refuses to allow any return of its assets and liabilities to be published. 
t The returns from this bank are made up to the 13th October in each year, 
t The Colonial Bank was discontinued in 1844, and Archers in 1843. 






176 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Return of the Amount of Deposits in the several Savings Banks, during the Year 1847. 



DISTRICT. 


TOTA L 

Number of 
Depositors. 


Total 

Amount 

Deposited. 


Amount 
ot Last 
Dividend. 


Hobart Town Derwent Savings' Bank .. 


232 
1634 

746 


^ s. d. 
7,975 18 5 

17,702 8 1 
13,118 8 7 


4 per cent. 

4 

3 






2612 


38,796 15 1 




, , . 







NEW ZEALAND. 

The islands constituting New Zealand are situated in the Pacific Ocean, be- 
tween latitude 34 deg. 25 min. and 47 deg. 17 min. south, and longitude 166 deg. 
5 min. and 178 deg. 35 min. east. They were discovered by Tasman in 1642, 
a short lime after that navigator discovered Tasmania. The northern island, or 
New Ulster, is about 520 miles long, and 140 in its greatest breadth. It is 
indented by bays and harbours, and very unequal in its configuration. The 
middle island, or New Munster, is about 580 miles long, and from 100 to 160 
miles broad. Its area comprises about 23,000,000 of acres. The southern, 
named New Leinster, is about thirty-eight miles broad by forty long. 

The islands of New Zealand possess great natural advantages of soil, climate, 
harbours, and good timber. The masts supplied are of the most durable quality; 
but the coniferous trees for large masts an^l spars are said to be limited to a few 
spots of these islands. 

The natives are a spirited, intelligent race ; cultivate the ground, rear hogs, 
and are expert as fishermen on board the English or American whale ships. 
New Zealand produces, as yet, few articles which can bear the expense of being 
transported to England. 

The settlements of New Zealand have not certainly prospered in the same 
degree as those of Australia. They were first attempted by private individuals, 
then by government and by the New Zealand Company. 

Population in 1846. — Europeans, 10,072, of whom 6222 are males, and 
3850 females ; natives, 12,337, or 7401 males, and 4934 females. This official 
statement, if correct, exhibits a remarkable disparity between the sexes ; and 
the whole number bears so small a proportion to the area, that the greater 
part of those islands may be considered desolate. 



NAVIGATION AND TRADE. 



In the general tables of the trade of Australasia, annexed, a summary of the 
trade of each year will be found. 

In the year 1836 the following number of vessels visited the Bay of Islands, 
then the principal place: — 



NAVIGATION AND TRADE. 



177 



Number. 

British ships of war 2 

„ whaling .ships 25 

„ trading vessel* 2 

New South Wales whaling ships 35 

„ trading vessels 26 

Van Diemen's Land whaling ships 4 



N umber. 

American whaling ships 49 

„ trading vessels 5 

French whaling ships 3 

Tahitan trading vessel l 

Total 152 



Total British and Colonial.... 94 

These vessels were exclusive of small craft engaged in the coasting trade. 

In the trade between the United Kingdom and New Zealand in 1841, there 
were employed thirty-eight vessels of 15,556 tons, which sailed for New 
Zealand, and four of 1584 tons, that entered the ports of the United Kingdom. 

In 1838, the exports from the United Kingdom to New Zealand only 
amounted to 10957. Goods were before supplied from Sydney, New South Wales. 
In 1839, 23,459/., in declared value of British manufactures, were shipped from 
the United Kingdom direct to New Zealand. In 1843, no less than the value 
of 95,247/. was exported — it it believed at a loss — for the exports fell the follow- 
ing year to one-half; and in 1846 the declared value was only 53,724/. See 
General Tables of Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom with all Parts 
of the World, and General Tables of the Trade of Australasia, hereafter. 



Statement of the 


Imports 


into New Zealand in the Year 1846. 




J Agri- 


Apparel 
and 

Slops. 


Beer 
and 
Ale. 


Bread 

and 
Biscuit. 


Candles. 


Coffee. 


Corn, 
Wheat 
Flour. 


Cotton Manufactures. 


COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 


cultural 
Imple- 
ments. 


Entered 
bv the 
Yard. 


At Value. 




Value. 


Value. 


Quan. 


Quantity. 


Quan. 


Quan. 


Quan. 


Quantity. 


Value. 




£ 
293 

340 

30 


£ 

4,789 
4 

6,063 

25 


gallons. 
16,138 

17,246 


barrels. 

739 
64 


lbs. 
1,586 

93,649 
798 


lbs. 

3,360 

64,571 


barrels. 
"l4 
16,527 
174 


yards. 
60,815 

54,665 
7,605 


£ 










British Settlements in Australia 

Islands in the South Seas 

United States of America 

Chili 


199 










Tot at (Quantities. 
Total.... | V alue...d6 


663 


10,881 


33,384 

2,786 


803 
920 


96,033 
1,938 


67,931 
1,391 


16,715 
16,544 


123,085 
1,910 


563 


COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 


Earth- 
en ware. 


Fruit 

of 

all Sorts. 


Glass 
Manufac- 
tures of 
all Sorts. 


Haber- Ir , 
dashery Hardware 

Millinery. 1 Cutlery. 


Iron T 
and Steel, Jeatner, 
Wroughr., lan ued - 


Leather 
Manu- 
factures. 




Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 1 Value. 


Value. Quantity. 


Value. 




£ 
473 

99 

736 


£ 
358 

91 

853 

6 

52 


£ 

407 

46 

170 


£ 
1050 

3789 


£ 

486 

4 

1598 

'70 


£ 

2047 

174i 

50 
279 


lbs. 
336 

37,440 


£ 










British Settlements in Australia 

Islands in the South Seas 

United States of America 

Chili 


801 
IS 










Tnx a i 1 Quantities. 
Total.... } V alue... .£ 


1308 


1360 


1163 


4839 2158 


4117 37,776 1 1306 
1 1,416 1 



VOL. V. 



N 



178 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Linen 

Manu- 



Lire Stock. 



COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 



fac- 
tures. 



I Horses. 



Neat 
Cattle. 



Value. | Quantity. Quantity. 



Sheep. 



Train Oil 

and Painters' 

Sperrua- , Colours. 

ceti. 



Quantity. . Quantity. I Value. 




Salt. 



Quantity. Quantity. 



Great Britain 

Germany 

Cape of Good Hope 

British Settlements in Australia 

Islands in the South Seas 

United States of America 

Chili 

Tbe Fisheries 



£ 

185 
37 



number. 



number. 
6 



1,651 



number. 
3 



gallons. 

321 
6,081 
6,157 



Tot* i /Quantities. 

roTAL --'-\\alue....£ 



2434 



1,657 
12,225 



6228 



12,559 
1,164 



£ 
374 
6 

753 



lbs. 



101,115 



101,115 
679 



bushels. 
7,554 



9,186 
740 



,580 
995 



I 




Spirits. 




Sugar. 

Total | Sta- 

of Spirits, tionery. Raw, 
Colonial. 


COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 


Soap. 


Rum. 


Brandy, j Geneva, j °*£ 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. Quantity. Quantity. Value. Quantity. 




lbs. 
15,028 
275 

150,246 

558 


gallons. 

1,834 

109 

25,691 

# 880 


gallons. 

2,680 

4 

200 

18,659 

48 

50 


gallons. 
1366 
1178 
209 
3713 

181 


gallons. 
301 

713 


gallons. 

6,181 

1,291 

409 

48,776 

48 

1,111 


£ 
516 

708 

1 


lbs. 










British Settlements in Australia 

Islands in the South Seas 

United States of America 

Chili 


150,362 










Tot*l I Quantities. 
Iotal.... j Va l, t e... .^ 


166,107 
1,769 


28,514 
7,187 


21,641 
5.857 


6647 
1559 


1014 
200 


57,816 | .. 150,362 
14,803 ' 1225 I 1,213 




Sugar. 


Tea. 


Tobacco, 
Manu- 
factured. 


Wine. 


Woollen 
Manu- 
fac- 
tures. 


Miscel- 
laneous 
Articles. 


Total 

Value 

of 

Imports. 


COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 


Raw, 
Foreign. 


Refined, 
British. 




Quantity. Quantity. Quantity. 


Value. | Quantity. Value. | Value. 


Value. 




lbs. 
16,800 

607,102 


lbs. 1 lbs. 
2,016 I 5,498 


£ 

818 
65 

6571 

2009 


gallons. 

2,858 

34 

1,065 

25,083 


£ 
4,801 
149 

12,120 

1,070 


£ 
3,749 
75 

7,858 
36 

1,185 
28 
174 


£ 
25,944 
835 






241 


British Settlements in Australia 

Islands in the South Seas 

United States of America 

Chili 


72,562 


56,109 


121,941 

122 

6,056 

28 




738 






«»*..*• {9a£!3 


623,902 
5,269 


74,578 
1,446 


61,607 
4,097 


9483 


29,040 i 
4,395 18,140 13,105 


155,905 



EXPORTS. 


Apparel. 


Beef and 
Pork. 


Copper 
Ore. 


Wheat. 


Other | Wheat J PI 
Grain, j Flour, j r iax " 


Gum, 
Kauri. 




Value. 


Quantity. 


Quantity. Quantity. Quantity. Quantity. Quantity. 


Quantity, 


To Great Britain, 


£ 


barrels. 

407 
1 


tons. 
332 
870 


bushels. 
1302 


bushels. 
8425 


barrels. 1 tens. 
122 
285 53 
66 

:: 1 "io 


tons. 
59£ 
134 

294 


British Settlements in Australia 

Islands in the South Seas 

Chili 


302 
74-2 




Total. I Quantities 
10TAL {Value ..£ 




1044 


408 
977 


1,202 j 1302 
22,180 ! 233 


8425 I 351 185 
707 ! 2S0 3257 


223 

1787 


EXPORTS. 


Iron 

Wares. 


Train 
Oil. 


Sperma- 
ceti. 


To- |Whale- 
bacco, | bone. 


Wood. 


Wool, 
Sheep's 


Other 

Ar- 
ticles. 


Total 
Value. 




Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Quantity. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Value. 


To Great Britain 


£ 

1097 
786 


gallons. 

74,204 

86,706 

2,816 

1,890 


gal'ons. 
9,202 
19,240 


£ 

752 

495 

40 

8 


cwts. 

1095 

36 

"8 
4 A 


loads. feet. 
240 47,800 
960,265 
17,000 


lbs. 

55,853 

19,991 

1,601 


£ 
1111 

3557 
1609 
230 

70 


£ 

36,663 

41,645 

3,941 

725 


Brisish Settlements in Australia 

1*1 a nds in the South Sea 

Chili 




308 








Total \ Quantities 
JOTAL - ) Value ..£ 


18S3 


165,616 
, 16,020 


28,502 
6,379 


| 11431 240 1,025,065 77.445 j 
1295 ' 7127 °,545 3,999 1 6569 83,282 



CUSTOMS DUTIES. 



179 



Summary Statement of the Trade and Navigation of the British Australasian Colonies, 
condensed from the Colonial Office Returns, from 1827 to 1850. 

NAVIGATION. 







I N W A R 


D S. 






O U T W A R 


D S. 




YEARS 


New 




South 


Van 


New 


New 
South 
Wales. 


Western 


South 


Van 

Diemen's 

Land. 


New 




South 
Wales. 


Australia. 


Australia. 


Land. 


Zealand. 


Australia. 


Australia. 


Zealand. 




tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


tons. 


1810.... 






















1820... 






















1825.... 






















1827-... 








18,893 




.. 


.. 




1 6,004 




1828 


32,559 






23,741 




20,186 






24,116 




1829 


37,342 






24,717 




37,586 


.. 




25,742 




1830 


31,235 






26,582 




28,882 






25,045 




1831.... 


34,000 






23,184 




35,252 






25,451 




1832 


36,020 






31,724 


., 


42,857 


.. 




28,019 




1833 


50,144 






37,442 




48,335 






36,250 




1834.... 


57,442 






33,441 


.. 


53,373 






29,588 




1835.... 


63,019 






35,833 




66,964 






53,566 




1836.... 


65,414 






58,142 




62,834 


.. 




52,780 




1837-.-. 


80,114 






60,960 




74,020 






47,945 




1838 


91,777 


5,516 




64,454 




93,004 


4,857 




63,392 




1839.... 


135,474 


16,805 




79,283 




124,776 






77,556 




1840.... 


178,958 


39,661 




85,081 




163,704 






86,701 




1841.... 


183,778 


26,781 


17,799 


84,214 


19,746 


172,118 


35,162 


19,237 


85,201 


14,170 


1842 


143,921 


32,496 


12,499 




54,967 


134,970 




12,835 




4 6,516 


1843.... 


110,864 


17,430 


7,532 


92,501 


39,898 


110,026 




8,001 


88,984 


86,752 


1844.... 


87,539 


10,002 


9,540 


68,462 


39,841 


109,242 


9,652 


9,212 


71,756 


10,217 


1845 


105,352 


7,855 


13,793 


70,396 


.. 


103,961 




12,763 


71,422 




1846 


141,467 


6,365 


25,478 


74,795 




134,998 


6,451 


24,031 


79,430 




1R47-... 


154,904 




31,761 


.. 


.. 


168,664 




30,800 






1848.... 


199,304 










187,322 










1849.... 






















1850.... 























COMMERCE. 







I M 


P O R 


T S. 






E X 


P O R 


T S. 




YEARS. 


New 


Western 


Southern 


Van 

Diemen's 

Land. 


New 


New 


Western 




Van 


New 




Wales. 


Australia. 


Australia 


Zealand. 


South 
Wales. 


Australia. 


Australia. 


Diemen's 
Land. 


Zealand. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£, 


1810.... 






















1820 






















1825 






















1826.... 






















1827.... 


.. 






152,627 










59,902 




1828 


570,000 






241,382 




90,051 






.. 


91,461 




1829.... 


601,006 






272,189 




161,716 








126,981 




1830 


420,486 






255,300 




141,461 








165,981 




1831 


490,152 






298,775 




324,168 








141,745 




1832 


604,620 






392,666 




384,344 








157,987 




1833.... 


713,972 






352,894 




39-1,800 








152,967 




1834.... 


991,990 






476,617 




587,640 








203,523 




1835 


976,091 






439,084 




675,226 








321,38 




1836.... 


1,101,845 






432,184 




699,396 








368,508 




1837.... 


1,055,125 






509,681 




867,031 








558,662 




1838 


1,459,022 


46.7G6 




583,907 




821,417 


6,840 




587,078 




1839 


2,130,147 




346,649 


668,782 




994,097 


5,448 


16,019 


785,076 




1840.... 


2,548,775 




303,320 


851,616 




1,289,036 




32,079 


769,068 




1841 


1,870,129 




288,348 


591,928 


132,320 


1,019,891 




104,650 


602.799 


17,765 


1842.... 


1,308,766 




169,412 


490,036 


248,620 


1,076,288 




75,248 


535,481 


24,982 


1043 


1,477,530 


37,486 


109,098 


629,331 


191,385 


1,200,169 


7,084 


80,855 


436,660 


53,940 


1844.... 


694,353 


36,440 


118,830 


449,724 


94,845 


189,952 


13,663 


92,258 


386,300 


46,205 


1845 


1,233,854 


20,356 


184,819 


520,562 




1,555,986 


13,353 


148,459 


422,218 




1846.... 


1,630,522 


25,989 


330,099 


561,238 




1,481,539 


20,222 


312,838 


528,585 




1847 


1,982,023 


25,4G3 


410,825 


724,593 




1,870,046 


24,535 


350,348 


600,876 




1848 


1,556,550 










1,830,368 










1850.... 


* 












1 


1 







* Port Phillip, now the Prov-nc<* of Victoria, included with New South Wales until 1850. 



N 2 



180 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



EXPORTS OF WOOL FROM THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES AND THE CAPE OF 

GOOD HOPE. 



YEARS. 



1819 
1820 
1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1828 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843. 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
i860 



New South 
Wales. 



172,880 

198,240 

275,560 

411,600 

552,960 

407,116 

834,343 

1,005,333 

899,750 

1,410,284 

1,515,156 

1,734,203 

2,246,933 

3,893,927 

3,693,241 

4,448,796 

5,749,376 

7,213,584 

8,610,775 

8,589,368 

9,428,036 

12,704,899 

13,541,173 

11,364,734 

16,479,523 

22,379,722 

22,969,711 



South 
Australia. 



lbs. 



Van Diemen's 
Land. 



1,333,061 
1.454,719 
1,372,668 
1,833,6)3 
1,727,258 
2,638,250 
2,839,512 
3,080,920 
3,019,340 
3,408,360 
3,297,360 
3,376,080 
3,740,400 
3,820,320 



Total 
Australian 
Colonies. 



lbs. 



3,558,091 
4,210.301 
4,996,645 
7,060,525 
7,837,423 
10,128,774 
9,721,243 
12,399,090 
12,959,671 
17,433,780 
17,589,712 
24,150,687 



Cape of Good 
Hope. 



lbs. 



141,707 

191,624 

331,972 

468,011 

422,506 

626,241 

751,741 

1,079,910 

1,265,768 

1,728,453 

2,197,031 

3,512,924 



Estimated value, 1,240,144*. In 1838, value 405,977/. 



CUSTOMS DUTIES LEVIED IN THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES. 

Under a new colonial system, it is hoped that no hostile tariffs will be en- 
forced between one Australian colony and another; but that their interchanges 
may be as unrestricted as between the counties in England. 

The following is a condensed statement of the customs duties levied up to 
the beginning of the present year in each Australian colony. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 
Whisky, at hydrometer proof . ..... per gallon 

All other spirits, at ditto ...... ditto 

Tobacco, manufactured, and snuff . . . . . per lb. 

Sugar, refiued, bread, flour, meal, grain, and pulse '. for every 100/. of the value 

All other British goods free. 



£ s. d. 
3 6 

2 




6 



5 



VAN DIEMEN'S LAND. 
On all spirits, at hydrometer proof .... 
On tobacco, manufactured . . . . . 

All other British goods free. 



per gallon 9 
per lb. 1 6 



South Australia. — This colony has adopted the system of an odious 
tariff, although the duties are not generally high. It is too long to detail; and 
it will no doubt soon be abolished. On manufactured articles the duty is 
generally 10 per cent ad valorem ; but almost every article of food and drink has 
a duty in this agricultural colony. Bread and biscuit, butter and cheese, 3s. 
per cwt. 



POPULATION. 



181 



SIPPLEMtNTAKV RETURNS FOR NEW SOUTH WALES AND PROVINCE VICTORIA 

POPULATION. 



YEARS. 


POPULATION. 


Adults. 


Children. 


Total. 

1 


Male. 


Female. 


1788 


number. 

57,485 
63,784 
70,021 
75,474 
76,528 
76,147 
74,912 
74,951 
82,«47 
83,572 
86,302 


number. 

18 000 
21,998 
25,4? 6 
33,546 
35,762 
35,474 
30,170 
30,223 
42,287 
41,809 
41,562 


number. 

22*427 
28,604 
33,966 
40,649 
47,599 
53,920 
62,295 
70,382 
71,570 
79,628 
89,410 


liumbtr. 
1,030 
8,293 
29,783 
36,598 
97,912 
] 14,386 
1 29,403 
149,009 
159,889 
ltir>,541 
173,377 
181,556 
190,704 
205,009 
220,170 


! 1 H 1 


11821 


1828 


'l838 


Is39 


j 1840 


,1841 


1842 




18J4 


1845 




1847 

1848 


1849 


1 1850 



Return of the Increase and Decrease of the Population of New South Wales (including 
the District of Port Philip), from 1st January to 31st December, 1848, and of the 
Total Number on the latter date. 





Male. 


Female. 


Total. 


General Total* 




number. 

8,452 

4,527 


number. 

5,525 
4,299 


number. 
13,977 

8,820 


number. 


Births. 










12,979 
1,593 
3,534 

5,127 

7,852 
123,890 


9,824 
994 
1,217 


2,587 
4,751 


22,803 


Decrease by deaths 






Total Decrease 


2,211 

7,613 
81,119 


7,338 
15,405 








Population on 31st Dec, 1848 


131,742 


88,732 




220,474 



Return of Assisted and Unassisted Immigration, during the several Years since the 

1st January, 1838. 







Assisted Immigrants. 




Unassisted 
Immigrants. 

Number 
Landed. 






Number 
Landed. 


Cost of their Conveyance. 


Total Number 

of Assisted 

and Unas.-ited 

Immigrants. 


YEARS. 


Amount of 
Passage Money 

paid out of 
Colonial Funds. 


Gratuities to 
Surgeons, 
Superintendent, 
Masters, and 
Officers, Over- 
seers, and others. 


Total. 


1838 


number. 

6,102 

8,416 

6,637 

20,103 

6,823 

11 

4,139 

498 

7,885 


£ s. d. 

124,512 10 4 

133,847 16 9 

100,641 15 9 

313,490 8 11 

97,568 17 7 

18 10 

60.812 17 6 

6,897 3 9 

8i,248 8 1 


£ s. d. 

6,756 11 
10,541 10 

6,il7 3 
17,477 14 10 

5,612 2 

2,986*12 6 
502 14 

6,232 10 

56,386 3 7 


£ s. d. 

131,269 I 4 

144.388 17 7 

100,858 16 

330,908 3 9 

103,180 17 9 

18 10 

63,808 10 

7,459 17 9 

87,481) 18 1 


number, 

1 ,328 

2,133 

1,849 

2,380 

2,164 

1.131 

548 

5!)8 

472 

816 

1,219 


number. 

7 430 


1839 


10.M9 
8 486 


1840 


1841 


22 483 


J842 


8 987 


1813 : .. 

1844 


1,142 

4,687 
1,096 


1845 


1846 


1847 

1848 

1849 


810 
9,104 


1 850 • . . . 








Total 


60,014 


919,017 8 8 


975,133 12 3 


14,038 


75,252 



Note. — In the amount of passage-money here shown to have been paid out of colonial funds in the years 1841, 
1842, 1844, and 1845, is included the cost of the emigrant's .'election, which formed part of the contract. Of the 
immigrants who arrived in the years 1838, 1839, and 1840, the following numbers Were similarly admitted : — 1838 ; 
emigrants, 1022; passage-money, 22,398/.; 1839: emigrants, 2814; passage-money, 43,010/.) 1840; emigiauis, 3882: 
passage-money, 63,773/. 155. Grf. 



182 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Return showing the Quantity of Land in Cultivation (exclusive of Gardens and Orchards), 
in New South Wales (including the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1838. 



YEARS. 



1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1812 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 



A G R 



CULTURE. 



Crops. 



Wheat. 



actes. 

48,060 
48,401 
74,133 
58,605 
65.188 
78,083 
81,903 
87,894 
88,910 
81,044 
87,219 



acres. 

25,043 
22,026 
24,966 
25,004 
27,324 
29,061 
20,798 
25,372 
31,773 
27,240 
20,375 



Barley. 



2.922 
3,190 
5,144 
5,423 
5,320 
5,727 
7,236 
10,455 
9,215 
7.178 



Oats. 



acres. 

3,767 
6,793 
5,453 
5,892 
4,467 
4,537 
4,336 
6,109 
9,390 
10,201 
13,527 



Rye. 



acres. 
429 
483 
609 
495 
486 
514 
359 
330 
177 
310 
167 



Millet. 



acres. 
39 
4i 
115 
47 
99 
42 
43 



Potatoes. 



acres. 

1788 
1115 
2594 
4027 
5174 
5872 
6783 
5t0l 
5537 
5550 
5774 



Tobacco. 



acres. 
925 
424 
381 
3-0 
224 
655 
871 
483 
228 
67 
201 



Sown 

Gras.es, 

Oats, and 

Barley for 

Hay. 



Total 

Number of 

Acres in 

Crop. 



acres. 
9,939 
12,534 
12,721 
15,257 
18,592 
21,162 
21,766 
27,551 
37,221 
33,111 
27,558 



acres. 
92,912 
95,312 
126,116 
115,130 
126,874 
145,653 
144,095 
163,331 
182,533 
164,784 
163,669 



YEARS. 



1838, 
1839, 
1840, 
1841. 
1842 
1843 
1844. 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 



Produce of Agriculture. 



Wheat. 



bushels. 

469,140 

805,140 

1,116,814 

832,776 

854,432 

1,000,225 

1,312,652 

1,211,099 

1,421,750 

1,027,802 

1,528,874 



Maize. 


Barley. 


Oats. 


bushels. 


bushels. 


bushels. 


556,2^8 


32, 103 


13,416 


525,507 


66,033 


27,788 


777,947 


105,389 


66,020 


503,803 


90,172 


62,704 


590,134 


88,767 


84,321 


719,358 


95,658 


92,268 


575,913 


132,612 


70,620 


499,122 


175,407 


88,193 


870,400 


193,835 


216,783 


725,704 


87,636 


221,731 


262,340 


145,219 


116,643 



Rye. 



bushels. 

4878 
7008 



6507 
4451 
5145 
4475 
4101 
2250 
1120 
2386 



Millet. 



Potatoes. Tobacco. | Hay. 



bushels. 
353 

283 

3338 

1072 

1201 

410 

511 

775 

1929 

798 

158 



tons. 
3,496 
2,601 
11,050 
11,141 
12.561 
16,392 
22,748 
19,906 
18,329 
14,240 
14,954 



cwt. 

4952 
2509 
4300 
2642 
2014 
6098 
6382 
3985 
2087 
725 
30 u5 



tons. 
6,960 
25,923 
21,329 
17,175 
18,622 
27,774 
31,848 
28,614 
42,754 
33,111 
37,795 



YEARS. 


VINEYARDS. 


Acres. 


Wine. 


Brandy. 


1845 


number. 

566 

1000 

995 


gallons. 
50,566 
55,353 
103,606 


gallons. 
1018 
1432 
1263 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 









Number and Tonnage of Vessels entered Inwards and eleared Outwards in the Colony of 
New South Wales (including the District of Port Phillip), for the Year 1848. 





From Great 
Britain. 


British Colonies. 




















YEAR. 


New 
Zealand. 


Elsewhere. 


Islands. 


Fisheries. 


States. 


Foreign 
States. 


Total. 


Vessels entered in- 
wards, in 1848.. .. 


No. 1 tons. 
119 57,604 


No. 

116 


tons. 
24,833 


No. 
639 


tons. 

87,522 


No. 
23 


tons. 
2695 


No. 

63 


tons. 
17,473 


No. 


tons. 
406 


No. 
35 


tons. 

8,771 


No.' tons. 

i 
996 199,304 


Vessels cleared out- 
wards, in 1848.... 


75 '31,722 


154 


35,400 


590 


83,557 


31 


5316 


57 


16,039 






38 


15,288 


945 ' 187,322 



SUPPLEMENTARY RETURNS. 



183 



Value of Articles Imported into the Sydney District, in the Colony of New South Wales, 

during the Year 1848. 





Estimated Value in Pounds Sterling. 


\ALUE OF IMPORTS. 


From 
Great 
Britaiu. 


British Colonies. 


South Sea 
Islands. 


Fisheries. 


United 
States of 
America. 


Foreign 
States. 






New 
Zealand. 


Else- 
where. 


Total. 


Total val lecf imports for the 


£ 
840,743 


£ 

8,982 


£ 

139.988 


£ 
2642 


£ 
73,715 


£ 
2065 


£ 
114,739 


£ 

1,182,874 








Total value of imports in the 
year 1847 


1,028,817 


26,971 259 K7S 1 6919 


41,557 


1550 


178,835 


1,544,327 

















Value of Articles Imported into the Port Phillip District, in the Colony of New South 

Wales, during the Year 1848. 





Estimated Value in Pounds Sterling. 


VALUE OF IMPORTS. 


From 
Great 
Britain. 


British Colonies. 


South Sea 
Islands. 


Fisheries. 


United 
States of 
America. 


Foreign 
States. 






New 
Zealand. 


Else- 
where. 


Total. 


Total value of imports for the 


£ 
243,311 


£ 

566 


£ 
114,251 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 
15,548 


£ 
373,676 






Total value of imports in the 


318,424 


188 


101,887 








1.7,197 


437,696 





Live Stock Slaughtered, and the Quantity of Tallow and Lard produced. 



DISTRICTS. 



Sydney or Middle District — 

Within the Boundaries of Location 
Beyond the Boundaries of Location 

Port Phillip or Southern District. . . 



Total, 1847 



1849 
1850 



Boiling-down 
Establish- 
ments. 



number. 



Sheep 
Slaughtered, 



number. 

84,921 
43,820 
52,437 



181,178 
286,392 



Horned 

Cattle 
Slaughtered. 



number. 

26,760 
5,252 
2,647 



34,659 
38,642 



Tallow 
Produced. 



45,400 
13,563 
13,205 



72,168 
88,567 



Hogs 
Slaughtered 



number. 

54 

6 



Lard 
Produced. 



lbs. 

1680 



Value of Articles Exported from the Sydney District, in the Colony of New South Wales 

during the Year 1848. 





Estimated Value in Pounds Sterling. 


VALUE OF EXPORTS. 


To Great 
Britain. 


British Colonies. 


South Sea 
Islands. 


Fisheries. 


United 
States of 
America. 


Foreign 
States. 






New 
Zealand. 


Else- 
where. 


Total. 


Total value of articles the pr <- 
duce or manufacture <>f New 
South Wales, including the 


£ 

875,780 
3,348 
14,825 
7,916 


£ 

49,414 

81,255 

1,860 

31,409 


£ 

36,772 

26,590 

113 

14,735 


£ 

644 
2,553 
2,553 
1,194 
6,944 


£ 


£ 


£ 

980 

412 

703 

1,953 


£ 

963,590 
114,158 
20,054 
57,207 


Total value of articles the pro 
duce or manufacture of the 


Total value of articles the pro- 
duce or manufacture of other 


Total value of articles the pro- 
duce or manufacture of fo- 




Total exports for the 
year 1848 


901,869 


163,938 


78,210 






4,048 


1,155,009 




Total exports in the 
year 1847 


926,625 


117,489 


112,239 


14,231 




16,839 


1,187,423 



184 



BRITISH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Value of Articles Exported from the District of Port Phillip, in the Colony of New- 
South Wales, during the Year 1848. 





Estimated Value in Pounds Sterling. 


VALUE OF EXPORTS. 


To Great 
Britain. 


Brit >h Colonies. 


South Sea 
Islands. 


Fisheries. 


United 
States of 
Anieiica. 


Foreign 

States. 






New- 
Zealand. 


Else- 
where. 


Total. 


Total value of articles the pro- 
duce or manufacture of New 
South Wales 


£ 
578,435 
1.100 
1,816 

4 


£ 

20G1 
136 

120 


£ 
77,158 
11,971 
350 

1,940 


£ 


£ 


'£ 


£ 
265 


£ 

657,919 

13.210 


Total value of articles the pro- 
duce or manufacture of the 


Total value of articles the pro- 
duce or manufacture of other 


2,166 
2,064 


Total value of articles the pro- 
«luce or manufacture of fo- 




Total exports for the 


581,355 


2317 


91,422 


.. | .. 




265 


675,359 






Total exports in the 


566,417 


1010 


100,484 




600 


668,511 













Vessels engaged in the Fisheries that have visited Port Jackson, distinguishing those 

that are Colonial. 



YEARS 


Description of Vessels. 


Description and Value of Cargo disposed of 
by Foreign Ships. 


Colonial. 


British. 


Fore 


"gn. 


Sperm Oil 


Black Oil. 


Whalebone. 


Value. 




number. 


tons. 


number. 


tons. 


number. 


tons 


tuns. 


tuns. 


cwt. 


£ 


1844 


13 


3052 


3 


1219 


12 


3,617 


122 


152 


33 


4,993 


1845.... 


15 


3444 


7 


2685 


15 


5,345 


37 


122 


147 


4,269 


1846-... 


16 


3894 


9 


2287 


55 


18,147 


203 


30 


129 


6,981 


1847.... 


23 


5345 


4 


1137 


43 


13,866 


368 


192 


673 


15,804 


1848.... 


26 


6103 


1 


267 


37 


11,203 


158 


8 


5 


4,340 


1849.. . 






















1850 





















Whalers exempted from Port Charges, February 25, 1845. 

Establishments of Woollen, Soap, and Tobacco Manufactures of New South Wales 

during the following Years. 





WOOLLEN. 


SOAP. 


TOBACCO. 


YEARS. 


E-tablish- 
ments. 


Cloth. 


Tweeds. 


Blankets. 


Establish- 
ments. 


Quantity. 


Establish- 
ments. 


Quantity. 


1847 


number. 

8 
6 


yards. 
18,484 


yards. 
156.604 
164,749 


numb r. 
424 

248 


number. 
16 
13 


cwt. 
25,725 
24, 1 80 


nu tuber. 
4 

1 


cwt. 
1321 


1848 


714 


1849 




1850 















In 1847, there were two sugar refineries— produce, 39,600 cwt. In 1848, only one was worked; produce, 
26,000 cwt. 

Quantity and Value of Grain, &c, Imported into the Colony of New South Whales (in- 
cluding the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1838. 



YEARS. 


Wheat. 


Maize. 


Barley, Oats, 
and Peas. 


Flour and 
Bread. 


Rice. 


Potatoes. 


Value. 




bushels. 


bushels. 


bnsbels. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


tons. 


£ 


1843 


395,374 


583 


61,361 


6,941,760 


1,678,208 


547 


112,387 


1844 


265,704 


17 


35,194 


r 4,370,240 ""I 
< and 250 casks ?> 
L of hi-cuit. J 


260,288 


1085 


65.442 


1845 


109,355 




46,399 


3,327,632 


450,010 


430 


39,»55 


1846 


237,717 


536 


46 454 


5,367,936 


1,2*3,968 


2663 


63,764 


1817 


224,720 




37,469 


5,335,680 


1,044,288 


1227 


52,740 


1848 


143,235 




40,163 


3,131,744 


932.5S2 


1617 


41,489 


1849 
















1850 

















SUPPLEMENTARY RETURNS. 



185 



Quantity and Value of Grain, Arc, Exported from the Colony of New South Wales 
(including the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1843. 



YEARS. 


Wheat. 


Maize. 


Barley, Oats, 
ami I'eas. 


Flour and 
Bread. 


Potatoes. 


Value. 


1843 

1844. 


biishels. 
273 
825 
1362 
625 1 
8820 
4485 


bush. Is. 

4,687 

2(i,l84 

5,334 

1,867 

62,262 

27,058 


bushels. 
1870 
1798 
292 
545 
42 6 
1300 


lbs. 
3,146,192 
2,028,344 
2,837,632 
3,491,744 
1,786,400 
650,832 


tons. 
47 
60 
50 

3 
84 

5 


£ 
13,486 
12,232 


1845 


13,031 
12,258 


1846 


1847 

1S48 


16,944 
6,639 


1S49 

1830 



Quantity and Value of Butter and Cheese Imported into, and Exported from, the 
Colony of New South Wales (including the District of Port Phillip) from the Year 
1843. 



YEARS. 


I M POUT S. 


EXPO 


R T S. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1 843 


lbs. 
248,170 
60,704 
22,216 
45,4 56 
10,164 
15,456 


£ 

9497 
1184 
579 
1062 
413 
417 


lhs. 
81,173 
188,174 
172,368 
100,287 
253,880 
216,130 


£ 

3488 




3717 




4313 




3665 


1847 


5977 


1818 


4116 


1849 




1850 





Live Stock imported into the Colony of New South Wales (including the District of 
Port Phillip), from the Year 1838; and exported from the same place from 1843. 



YEARS. 


IMPORTED. 


EXPORTED. 


Value 


Horses. 


iHorned Cattle. 


Sheep. 


Horses. 


Horned Cattle. Sheep. 


of Exports. 


1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 


number. 
185 

652 

1008 

875 

113 

31 

52 
b'93 
655 
591 
255 


number. 

74 
135 
244 
156 

89 

28 

21 

48 

29 

22 

26 


niiirber. 

9,822 

17,567 

19,958 

530 

638 

609 

307 

811 

1,228 

2,285 

1,363 


number. 

248 
489 

1159 

1021 
466 

1182 


number. 

1,852 
3,329 
3,9/2 
6,052 
8,034 
16,904 


number. 

77,116 
53,318 
33,651 
37,848 
71,440 
89,522 


£ 

41,915 
40,394 
53,438 
52,942 
57,355 



N.B.— The sheep have principally been imported from Van Dieruen's Land to the district of Port Phillip. The 
horses have chiefly come from South America. A few hogs have been imported and exported. 



Value of Salt Meat, Hides, and Leather, imported into the Colony of New South Wales 
(including the District of Port Phillip) from the Year 1843. 



YEARS. 


Value of Salt Meat 
Imported. 


Value of Hides and Value of Hides and 
Leather Imported. | Leather Exported. 




£ 
19,286 

3,355 
5.200 
7,197 
3,917 
3,229 


£ 

36,185 
19,884 
14,124 
15,230 
21,283 
24,358 


£ 
10,305 
22,285 
40,«<)6 

28,999 
39,001 
25,939 




1845 


1846 

1S47 


1848 


1849 







186 



BEITiSH COLONIES IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Quantity and Value of Salt Meat exported from the Colony of New South Wales 
(including the District of Port Phillip) from the Year 1843. 



YEAR. 



1843 
1844 

1845 
1846 

1847 
1848 

1849 
1850, 



Beef, Pork, and Mutton. 



Quantity. 
( 2867 casks 7 

I 856| tons 5 

r 4292 casks \ 

\ 294f tons i 

f 1142 casks "1 

| 425i tons 

•< 345 packages, and )■ 
4400 lbs. of preserved | 
V. meatsj 

f 721 casks 
) 1126 



meats J 



\ 12 packages 
I preserved 

f4335 casks 
J 866| tons I 

i 224 packages of f 
V. preserved meatsj 

f 2308 tons, and ) 

< 90 casks of pre- > 
L served meats J 



Mutton, Bacon, and 
Hams. 



Number. 



94cwr. and 11,422 i 
in number. t 



r 39 cwt. and 300 in ' 
1 number. 



f224 cwt. and 32 in 
X number. 



145 cwt. and 18 

casks. 



Tongues. 



Quantity. 

224 lbs. 

110 cwt. and 150 in 
number. 

63 casks and 2450 \ 
in number. 



12 casks and 300 
in number. 



127 casks. 



228 casks. 



Total Value, 

as entered in the 

Returns of Export*. 



£ 
13,924 

18,730 
12,163 

15,664 

24,278 
19,477 



Quantity and Value of Tallow and Bark Exported from the Colony of New South Wales 
(including the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1843. 



YEARS. 


Quantity of Tallow. 


Value. 


Quantity of Bark. 

1199 tons, and 6 casks.. 

2926| tons, and 20 casks. 

591| „ 


Value. 


1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 


cwts. qrs. lbs. 

5,680 2 36 
56,609 2 7 
71,995 
20,357 1 7 
99,847 
98,213 


£ 

9,639 
83,511 
102,746 
28,107 
108,186 
140,579 


£ 
5179 
9114 

2256 

1585 

75 

28 


595 , 

lgi „ 


25| „ 





Quantity and Value of Timber Imported into the Colony of New South Wales (including 
the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1843. 



YEARS. 


Deals. 


Other Timber. 


Sandal 
Wood. 


Total 


Saws, &c. 


Wrought. 


Shingles. 


Laths. 


Paling. 


Value. 


1843 


quantity. 
12^27 

2,951 

C 10,457 ; 
I and \ 
(.25Bloads) 

31,256 

22,418 
17,952 


quantity. 
J 212,890 ft.) 
( 509 loads J 
( 101,228 ftl 
< and > 
( 108 loads j 

r 604,524 ft. ) 
X 541 loads | 

1,255,569 ft. 

2,483,431 ft. 
2,652,970 ft. 


quantity. 
82 pack. 

54 do. 
5 prs. sashes 


quantity. 
3,000 

( 414,000 1 

< and > 
I 3 loads. J 

2,118,685 

f 1,485,000 -) 

< and > 
L 15| loads J 

2,633,600 
4,199,000 


number. 
115,000 

254,500 

461,750 

1,424,800 
1,320,906 


number. 

172,000 

500,000 
128,630 

392,570 

675,742 
767,915 


tons. 
107 

90 
415 

44 

351 

60 


10,156 
4,195 

10,541 

10,278 

14,951 
16,347 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 















SUPPLEMENTABY EETURNS. 



187 



Quantity and V r alue of Timber Exported from the Colony of New South Wales (including 
the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1838. 



YEARS. 


Cedar. 


Blue Gum, Pine, and other Timber. 


Treenails. 


Total Value. 


1 838 


quantity. 
699,0661 

729,001 

1,250,786 1 

g.^'gl^ Superficial feet. 

944,121 

f 1,2*2,333-1 

\ 238 pieces 

781,415 y 

956,515 /Superficial feet. 

953,995 ) 

863,507 


quantity. 

9,000 superficial feet, 
f 823 Deals. ) 
\ 15 Loss, j 

151,500 "j 

^[Superficial feet. 

( 10,020 J 
( 30 Logs. 

/ 99,500 Superficial feet, and 33 \ 
I logs.* J 
( 73,300 feet. > 
( 241 logs, &c J 

39,006 feet. 

46,850 feet. 
22,150 feet, and 7,600 shingles, &c. 


number. 
73,450 

40.53S 

4,350 

26,890 
55,644 

155,294 

105,428 
105,908 

1 13,972 
165,648 
76,201 


£ 

6,382 

8,815 


1839 


18-10 


20 971 


1841 


7,004 


1842 

1843 


5,800 
9,813 

8,825 
8,074 

7,851 
7,333 
5,675 


1844 




1846 


1«47 

1848 


1849 

1850 











* Also, a large quantity of timber, the measurement of which was not stated when entered at the Custom House. 



Quantity and Value of Oil, &c, Exported from the Colony of New South Wales (includ- 
ing the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1838. 



YEAKS. 


Sperm Whale. 


Black Whale. 


Whalebone. 


Seal Skins. 


Total Value. 




tuns. 


tuns. 


tons. 


cwt. 


quantity. 


£ 


1838 


1891 


3055 


174 




3 cases. 


197,644 


1839 


1578 


1229 


134 


14 


7 cases. 


172,315 


1840 


1S54 


4297 


250 




474 in No. 


224,144 


1841 


1545 


1018 


84 


13 


-41 „ 


127,470 


1842 


957 


1171 


60 


5 


162 „ 


77,012 


18:3 


1115 


190 


22 


8 


155 „ 


72,989 


1844 


810 


526 


15 


18 


3 bales. 


57,493 


1845 


1352 


571 


21 


13 


' 2 casks and ) 
1 10 skins. J 


96,804 


1846 


1064 


344 


17 


9 




70,126 


1847 


1214 


331 


8 


31 


.. 


80,528 


1848 


1186 


196 


11 


2 


4 cases. 


68,969 


1849 














1850 















Number of Vessels Built and Registered in the Colony of New South Wales (including 
the District of Port Phillip), from the Year 1838. 



YEARS. 


Vessels Built. 


Vessels Registered. 


1838 


number. 
20 
12 

18 
35 
26 

47 
18 
18 
28 
36 
28 


tons. 

808 
773 
1207 
2074 
1357 
1433 
519 
1042 
1032 
2284 
1561 


number. 
41 

79 

98 
110 

89 

92 

87 

98 

83 
104 
103 


tons. 

6,229 
10,862 
12,426 
11,250 
9,948 
7,022 
8,087 
9,376 
4,895 
9,428 
7,584 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 

1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 





188 



BRITISH COLONICS IN AFRICA AND ASIA. 



Return of the Amounts received from the Sale of Crown Lands and Auction Duty in 
the Colony of New South Wales (including the District of Port Phillip\ from the 
Year 1838. 



YEARS. 


Sales of Land. 


AU' tion Du y. 


Amount of Sales 
by Auction. 




£ 

116,324 

152,962 

316.626 

90,387 

14,574 

11,297 

7,402 

18,451 

27,060 

62,801 

4/, 262 


£ 

6,137 

7,700 
18,701 
14,455 
10,291 
6,818 
4,662 
6,068 
6,217 
7,061 
4,551 


£ 
409,166 
513,388 
1,246,742 
963,696 
686,088 
454,565 
310,831 
404,542 
414,490 
470,781 
787,800 


1839* 


1840.. 


|«4lt 


1842t 

1843$ 

1844 

1845 










1850 





* In fhis year the minimum price was raised from 5s. to 12s. an acre, but did not extend to lands prewously adver- 
tised at the tormer rate, of which there was a very large quantity at the time. 

t In this y^ar the system of sale at a fixed price of 1/. per acre was iutm iuced into the district of Port Phillip. 

X In this year the system of sale by auction was resumed throughout the colony, at a minimum upset price of 12s. 
per acre for country lands, with liberty to select portions not bid for at the upset price. 

$ In this 5 ear the minimum price was raised to l/. per acre by the act of the imperial parliament, 5 and 6 Vict., 
cap. 36, with liberty to select, at the upset price, country portions put up to auction and not bid for, or on which the 
deposit hid been forfeited. 

Note. In the year 1831, Lord Ripon's regulations for the abolition of free grants, and the sale by auction of all 

crown lands, were first promulgated in the colony. Auction duty reduced in 1848 from 30s. to 10s. on all sales by 
auction. 

Number and Amount of Mortgages on Land in the Colony of New South Wales, regis- 
tered at Sydney, from the Year 1838. 









Lent on Country 
Lands. 


Lent on Town and 


fe 




YEARS. 


Lent on 1 


own Lands. 


Country Lauds. 


TALS. 




Mortgages. 


Amount. 


Mortgages. Amount. 


Mortgages. 


Amount. 


Mortgages. 


Amount. 




number. 


£ 


number. 


£ 


number. 


£ 


number. 


£ 


1833 


139 


59,702 


207 


174,388 


10 


14,801 


356 


248,891 


1839 


159 


112,835 


213 


189,447 


11 


46,534 


383 


348,818 


1840 


155 


112,158 


231 


355,224 


23 


47,353 


459 


514,741 


1841 


241 


266,944 


417 


643,11 1 


51 


188,685 


709 


1,098,741 


1842 


238 


282,659 


333 


384,566 


54 


157,186 


t-25 


824,412 


1843 


246 


275.386 


285 


333,487 


51 


446,707 


582 


1,055,580 


1844 


192 


94,400 


252 


144,352 


50 


61,065 


494 


299,818 


1845...... 


|35 


111,659 


152 


107,585 


31 


53,577 


318 


272,822 


1846 


146 


64,856 


143 


86,726 


14 


18,792 


308 


170,374 


1847 


156 


81,516 


149 


82,605 


15 


16,432 


320 


180,554 


1S48 


196 


110,501 


103 


70,572 


8 


21,572 


307 


202,646 


1849. 


















1850 



















Number and Amount of Mortgages on Land in the Colony of New South Wales, regis- 
tered at Port Phillip, valued from the Year 1838. 



YEARS. 



1838. 

1839. 
1840. 
1841. 
1842- 
1843. 
1844. 
1845. 
1846. 
1847- 
1818. 
1849. 
1850. 



Lent on Town Lands. 



Number of j «_ . 

Mortgages. | Amount. 



17,260 
44,868 
73,176 
42,858 
50,090 
27,238 
17831 
12,202 
14,702 
19,544 
33,433 



Lent on Country Lands. 



Number of 
Mortgages. 



Amount. 



32,595 
53,768 
39,765 
40,301 
43,322 
29,317 
24,461 
21,-034 
23.J87 
36,395 



Lent on Town and 
Country Lands. 



Number of 
Mortgages. 



Amount. 



7,500 

25,850 

16,870 

194,853 

1,510 

10,000 



1,900 



TOTA 



Number of 
Mortgages. 



16 
110 



162 
134 
68 
63 
70 
97 
141 



Amount. 



£ 

17,260 

77,463 

134,445 

108,474 

1 13,261 

270,413 

48,658 

46,723 

35,736 

43,032 

71,7*8 



SUPPLEMENTARY RETURNS. 



189 



Ni mber and Amount of Preferable Liens on Wool, and of Mortgages on Live Stock, in 
the Colony of New South Wales, registered at Sydney, since the passing of the Act 
of Council, 7 Vict., No. 3, September 15, 1843. 





Preferable Liens on Wool. 


Mortgages on Live Stock. 


YEARS. 


Number of 
Liens. 


Number of 
Sheep. 


Amount of 
Liens. 


Number of 
Mortgages. 


Number of 
Sheep. 


Number of 
Cattle. 


Number of 
Hoises. 


Amount 
Lent. 


J843 


54 
139 
125 
149 
199 
240 


318,739 
837,997 
657,989 
813,951 
1,095,402 
1,378,180 


£ 
30,664 
57,733 
55,865 
71,351 
107,447 
108,892 


96 
226 
152 
146 
168 
205 


397,995 
694,381 
464,713 
491,518 
623,'257 
1,118,762 


44,430 
81,679 
49,131 
42,870 
45,578 
84,411 


903 

2158 
1568 
1070 
1110 
2056 


£ 
178,567 


1844 


241,727 


)845 


132,355 


1846 


150,733 


1 847 


137,856 




219,756 


1849 




1850 





When any sum has been secured both by a lien on the wool and by a mortgage of the sheep, the amount has been 
included under the head of mortgages only. 



Number and Amount of Preferable Liens on Wool, and of Mortgages on Live Stock, in 
the Colony of New South Wales, registered at Port Phillip, since the passing of the Act 
of Council, 7 Vict., No. 3, September 15, 1843. 





Preferable Liens on Wool. 


Mortgages on Live Stock. 


YEARS. 


Number of 
Liens. 


Number of 
Sheep. 


Amount of 
Liens. 


Number of 
Mortgages. 


Number of 
Sheep. 


Number of 
Cattle. 


Number of 
Horses. 


Amount 
Lent. 


1843 


9 
66 
37 
22 
43 
102 


37,910 
275,168 
168,793 
133 375 
284,202 
819,823 


£ 

4,959 
23,022 
11,784 
11,159 
33,790 
62,532 


28 
117 
71 
85 
125 
146 


57,338 
345,159 
149,536 
251,402 
539,924 
600,517 


4,240 
19,655 

8,175 
12,506 
22,252 
34,469 


310 
629 
136 
227 
480 
510 


£ 

24,113 
129,008 

44,383 
100,071 
135,907 
129,808 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 

















190 BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



SECTION XXIIL— BEITISH POSSESSIONS IN AMERICA. 



CHAPTER I. 

NORTH AMERICA. 

The British possessions in North America are, the islands of Newfoundland, 
Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, and Anticosti; the provinces of Nova 
Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Canadas; the region of Labrador; and the ter- 
ritory west of Hudson's Bay, extending to the Pacific, north of a parallel settled 
by recent treaty with the United States, of 49 deg. north latitude, and including 
Vancouver's Island. The Bermuda Islands are also frequently included with 
North America, instead of the West India Islands. 

The natural aspect of British America presents, along the Atlantic coasts, with 
but few exceptions, a broken, rugged configuration; in some parts thickly wooded 
to the water's edge, or to the utmost verge of the most perpendicular cliffs ; in 
others, as along the greater part of Newfoundland, the south-eastern shores of 
Nova Scotia, and the whole of Labrador, rocks, with dwarfish trees growing 
thinly among them, predominate. Within the Bay of Fundy, the coast, that of 
Nova Scotia in particular, is fertile and beautiful ; and the features of Prince 
Edward Island, and the greater part of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 
situated within the Gulf of St. Lawrence, are soft, luxuriant, and picturesque, 
with trees growing, almost uninterrupted, along the coasts and over the country. 

Along the river St. Lawrence, from the Bay de Chaleur to several miles 
above Quebec, the lands rise into hills and mountains. On passing the high 
lands of Lower Canada the country to the heights of Queenston, on each side of 
the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario, is low and fertile, with some scattered 
exceptions of poor soils. 

The great chain of mountains, known by the general name of the Alleghanies, 
rises abruptly out of the^Gulf of St. Lawrence, at Perce, between Bay de Chaleur 
and Gaspe, and, following nearly the course of the river St. Lawrence until 
opposite Quebec, bends to the southward, and, entering the United States, 
divides the Atlantic coast from the basin of the Ohio. The mountains of North 
America are generally covered to their summits with trees, and magnificent 
forests still cover the greater part of the inhabited districts of the British pro- 
vinces. 

As this work is more devoted to the statistics than to the geography of the 
colonies, we shall confine ourselves to their area, resources, and population. 

A brief description, however, of the different colonies will not appear 
superfluous. 



CANADA. 191 

CHAPTER II. 

CANADA. 

Canada may be said to present the most extraordinary and grand con- 
figuration of any country in the world. From the eastern extremity of this 
vast region, rising abruptly out of the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Rocky 
Mountains, the natural features of its lands and waters exhibit romantic subli- 
mities and picturesque beauties, amidst the variety and grandeur of which the 
imagination wanders, and loses itself, luxuriating among boundless forests, mag- 
nificent rivers, vast chains of mountains, immense lakes, extensive prairies, and 
roaring cataracts. 

The mind, on sailing up the St. Lawrence, is occupied under impressions, 
and with ideas, as varied as they are great and interesting. The ocean-like 
width of this mighty river where it joins the gulf, — the great distance (about 
2500 miles) between its vast deboucht and the source of the most westerly of 
ts streams, — the numerous lakes, cataracts, and rivers, which form its ap- 
pendages, — the wide and important regions, exhibiting mountains, valleys, 
forests, plains, and savannahs, which border on these innumerable lakes and 
rivers, — their natural resources, — their discovery and settlement, and the vast 
field thrown open in consequence for the enterprise, industry, and capital of 
mankind, are subjects so great, and so fertile in materials for speculative theories, 
as well as practical undertakings and gainful pursuits, that the imagination 
strives in vain to create an empire so grand and powerful as that to which the 
energy of succeeding generations will likely raise a country possessed of such 
vast and splendid capabilities as those of the Canadas. The St. Lawrence may 
certainly, including its lakes, tributaries, vast breadth, and the quantity of fresh 
water it discharges, be considered the largest river in the world. From Cape 
Chat, 100 miles above Cape Rosier, where its mouth may be deemed to com- 
mence, to the head of Lake Superior, the distance is 2120 miles. At Cape 
Rosier its breadth is eighty miles, and at Cape Chat forty miles; at Kamouraska, 
where its waters are brackish, its breadth is twenty miles, and its average depth 
twelve fathoms. It discharges annually to the sea about 4,277,880,000,000 
tons of fresh water, of which one half may be considered melted snow. 

The natural aspect, configuration, and geological structure of Canada, exhibit 
the greatest diversity of appearance. 

On the south side of the St. Lawrence, from Gaspe to some miles above 
Point Levi, opposite Quebec, the whole country presents high mountains, 
valleys, and forests. These mountains appear as high as any of the Alleghany 
chain, of which range they form a part. 

The prevailing rocks are granite, in vast strata, but sometimes in boulders 



192 BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 

on the surface. Other rocks also occur, chiefly detached. Numerous streams 
and rivers roll from the northern mountains over rugged channels, or foam over 
precipices, into the St. Lawrence. They are plentifully frequented by the finest 
salmon. 

To the east of the river Saghuny, except in the bogs or marshes, rocks 
obtrude between the trees over all parts of the surface. Although the country 
is generally covered with wood, yet the trees are far from attaining the size of 
those on the south coast. 

As we approach Quebec, a reddish or dark clay slate appears as the prevail- 
ing rock, and it forms the bed of the St. Lawrence to Kingston and Niagara. 
Boulders of granite, limestone, sandstone, syenite, trap, and marble, occur as 
detached rocks in the same extensive region. 

Above the Rapids of Richelieu, the mountains commence retreating to the 
south and north, and a flat country prevails, until we reach Queenston Heights. 
The greater part of the soil of the low lands is apparently of alluvial formation ; 
and twenty to fifty-five feet rise of the waters would nearly cover the whole 
country between the Alleghanies and the high lands of the north. The Belcoil 
mountain is an abrupt termination of a branch of the Green Mountains, and 
divides the waters of Lake Champlain from the sources of the rivers St. Francis 
and Yamaska. The mountain to which Montreal owes its name, the rocks of 
which appear to be principally of the trap family, accompanied by limestone, 
is another exception. Whenever rapids occur, we find the elevation of the 
country increasing, and limestone generally accompanying the prevailing rocks. 
The step of country formed by the calcareous ridge, which commences at 
Queenston Height, and which rests on a bluish clay slate, is elevated about 
350 feet above the shores of Lake Ontario; and the upper country, the base of 
which is limestone, is generally level, until we approach the high lands between 
Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. This calcareous region abounds in organic 
remains, some of which, particularly the serpents in nests, are very rare and 
beautiful; and in many places petrified horns and bones of wild animals, shells, 
trees, &c, have been frequently dug up. The limestone rocks of the Manitoulin 
Islands, in Lake Huron, contain similar organic remains to those that occur 
abundantly in the limestone rocks which prevail also, as the principal stratum 
of the Island of Anticosti. Along the north coasts of Lake Huron and Lake 
Superior granite predominates. Some distance back from the lakes and rivers, 
steps, or ramps, which are abruptly elevated plateaus, occur. The sides of these 
ramps seem to have formed, at some period, the banks or beaches along which 
the waters flowed. Behind the first of these, table land generally extends for 
some distance, or until a second step and flat land occur, sometimes followed by 
a third and fourth ramp. These appear at Malbay, Lake St. Peter, Lake Huron, 
and at many other places. Indications of volcanic eruptions appear at St. Paul's 
Bay, and on the mountains north of Quebec. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 193 

Canada is considered rich in minerals. Iron of the best quality has been 
found in great abundance; silver has been collected in small quantities ; lead, 
tin, and copper have been discovered in several places, especially on the north 
coast of Lake Superior. Coal has not yet been discovered, although it abounds 
in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Cape Breton, and on the western part of New- 
foundland. We are, however, still ignorant of the mineral riches, and even of 
the geology, of these regions. 

The region between Lakes Michigan and Superior and the Rocky Mountains 
is generally flat. The lands separating the rivers which fall into the lakes of 
Canada, and those of the Mississippi and Missouri, are generally low, and suffi- 
ciently overflowed in spring to allow a communication with canoes. 

The Rocky Mountains are Vast chains, extending north and south from 
Mexico to the arctic regions, and dividing the waters that fall into the Atlantic 
rivers from those of the Pacific. These mountains are from 9000 to 11,000 feet 
high} and, where crossed between the latitudes of 44 deg. and 48 deg. north, 
covered for from forty to sixty miles over with eternal snow. They ma y be con- 
sidered a continuation of the Andes. 

The western regions have been long explored by the fur traders. It would 
appear, from the outlines of some of the old French maps, and the journals of the 
Jesuits, that the most remote parts of Canada were penetrated to a remarkable 
extent before the conquest of Quebec. 

The temperature of the climate of Canada is much colder at Quebec, and 
along the River St. Lawrence to the eastward, than at Montreal or Upper Canada. 
The duration of winter is frequently two months longer. Severe frosts commence 
in November* and ice seldom disappears until the last week of April. In summer 
the heat is as intensely oppressive as in the southern states; but when the wind 
shifts to the north, the temperature, particularly below Quebec, changes some- 
times from 120 deg. Fahr. to 60 deg. or under. The average summer heat in the 
shade is about 82 deg.; it is sometimes 120 deg. Snow falls in great quantities 
at one time, but long periods of clear frosty weather intervene between snow- 
storms. In 1790, mercury froze at Quebec. It is often 60 deg. Fahr. below the 
freezing point ; 20 deg. is about the average. 

The temperature of the region south and west of the bend of the Ottawa at 
Bytown, lying between Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Erie, are milder in winter, 
but in some parts less salubrious in summer than in Lower Canada. Fogs are 
unknown. A light mist, occasioned by the condensation at night and evapora- 
tion in the morning, appears occasionally about sunrise, but soon dissipates. 

Canada is eminently blessed with a remarkably clear atmosphere. The sky 
at Montreal, both in summer and winter, is as beautifully bright as that of the 
Mediterranean, with no wind like the oppressive sirocco. Rains in summer 
and autumn are far from being frequent, but they fall in great quantities at one 

VOL. V. O 



194 CANADA. 

time. Waterspouts are sometimes formed on the^reat lakes. Thunder-storms, 
although of short duration, are remarkably violent, particularly at and near 
Quebec. Squalls of wind are frequent on the lakes and rivers in the vicinity 
of high lands. Strong gales of wind occur in Canada about the 20th of 
October. They sometimes, particularly on the great lakes, resemble perfect 
hurricanes. 

The coast and interior country of Lower Canada, from Cape Gaspe to the 
Paps of Matane, a distance of about 200 miles, still exhibit the same primeval 
wildness which this portion of the western world presented to Carrier 316 years 
ago. The northern shores, from Labrador to Tadousac, are equally desolate; 
and, if we except the king's posts at Seven Islands 5 Bay and Port Neuf, we 
discover no signs of art or civilisation, no traces of the industry or enterprise of 
man. A few miserable wandering Montagnez Indians, and a few transient 
fishermen and furriers, are the only human beings that frequent this cold and 
barren region. The vast country which lies between the lower shores of the 
St. Lawrence and Hudson Bay, seems, indeed, unfit for any other inhabitants, 
save the shaggy bear, prowling wolf, miserable Esquimaux, and hardy moun- 
taineer Indian, who wander along its waters, or traverse its wastes ; yet the 
vast swarms of salmon that frequent its rivers, and the remarkably fine fur of 
its w r ild animals, offer sufficient temptations to the adventurous, and sources of 
profit to the industrious. Minerals, especially iron, are believed to abound; but, 
from the geological formation of the country, I think that few, unless it be 
copper, will ever be found east or north of the Saghuny. 

The Bay of Seven Islands lies on the north coast of the St. Lawrence, which 
at this point is seventy miles broad. It derives its name from seven high 
rugged islands which lie at its entrance. There is deep water close to these 
islands, which rise abruptly out of the sea, and from ten to fifty fathoms' depth 
of water in the bay. It forms, within, a large round basin; and the lands at 
its head appear sinking low in the horizon, while those on each side are high 
and rugged. Here there is a fur-trading post, rented formerly by government 
to the North-West Company, and lately to the Hudson Bay Company. Hump- 
back whales enter this bay, in w T hich they are sometimes pursued, both by the 
American and Gaspe whalers. 

The best track, sailing up the St. Lawrence, nearly as far as Tadousac, 
especially with contrary winds, is along the north coast. The current always 
runs^so strongly down along the south shore, that it can only be stemmed with 
a fair wind. The shores of Anticosti are flat, but the soundings are regular; 
and there are lighthouses on the east and west points of this dangerous island. 
The Labrador coast may be safely approached. It affords harbours and excel- 
lent anchorage, and the tides are nearly regular. Trinity, a little below Point 
des Monts Pelees, on which stands a lighthouse, is a place where ships anchor 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 195 

in proceeding up the St. Lawrence with a head wind. Pilots usually meet 
vessels between Point des Monts and Cape Chat, which is nearly opposite, on 
the south side. There are two formidable dangers off the north shore, between 
Point des Monts and Tadousac. The first is a rocky shoal, extending several 
miles off and along the coast at Manicougan. Several ships have been stranded 
on it. The other is a lesser danger, lying off Point de Mille Vaches, a little 
above the king's post at Port Neuf. There is no further danger until we pass 
the mouth of the river Saguenay; from which to Quebec a pilot is absolutely 
necessary. On the south coast of the St. Lawrence, the counties of Gaspe, 
Rimouski, and Kamouraska, comprehending a valuable territory, extending about 
300 miles along the River St. Lawrence, are scarcely better known in England 
than Kamtschatka. 

Cape Gaspe is rather high, and its rocky cliffs are perpendicular. Cape 
Rosier is low, but the land behind rises into high round hills; and the whole is 
covered with trees of various kinds, except a few small spots near the Cape, 
cleared by some fishermen settled there. The coast preserves this character as 
we proceed up the St. Lawrence, and generally slopes, covered with trees, to 
the water's edge. At Great Fox River there are also a few fishermen; and at 
Anse de l'Etang, twelve leagues above Cape Gaspe, there is a small harbour for 
shallops. It may be known by a remarkably high wooded conical hill on the 
east side, and by a beach with a few huts and stages on the west. Some of the 
Canadian habitant of the parish of St. Thomas, on the Riviere du Sud, thirty 
miles below Quebec, have for a long period frequented this place during the 
cod-fishing season. The river issues from several lakes, one of which is only 
half a mile through the woods from the fish stages. Fishermen also frequent 
Grand Vallee des Monts, Magdalene, Mount Louis, St. Anne's, and Cape Chat, 
during summer. There are, however, but few permanent settlements between 
Gaspe and Matane. It appears to possess sufficient advantages for settle- 
ments.* The shortness of the summer, and the intense cold of winter, may 
form strong objections to agriculture ; but the severity of its climate differs little 
from that of the thickly-settled agricultural parishes about 200 miles farther up 
than Gape Gaspe, nor is it so cold as many parts of the corn countries of 
Russia. The soil in the valleys is fertile, arid the uplands appear also to be fit 
for cultivation. The trees, growing on the hills, and on the sloping high lands 
facing the coast, if used in ship-building, — and there are abundant convenient 
situations for building vessels, — would be found far more durable than those 
which grow in the valleys or along the rivers and lakes of the upper country. 

* I visited many parts of this wild and extensive country, and that on the north shores of 
the St Lawrence, many years ago ; and drew up a report on the resources, which 1 condensed 
afterwards, in my work on British America. 

02 



196 CANADA. 

The " scrubby oak" of the hills, as it is called, is considered as durable as the 
best English oak. It is admirably adapted for the timbers of a ship, and of 
sufficient size for the construction of large vessels. 

The country in the rear of the Canadian seigniories, east of the River 
Chaudiere to Lake Tamiscouta, and to the south as far as the American boun- 
dary, including the ungranted lands on the two rivers St. Francis, and the 
valleys of the district of Gaspe, afford excellent lands, and seem the natural 
ground of settlement for the redundant population of the already crowded 
seigniories in front. Grand roads to connect the River St. John, and its branch 
the St. Francis, and Lake Tamiscouta, with the St. Lawrence, would be of great 
consequence in facilitating the settlement of this district. 

Settlements were formed about twenty-five years ago at Matane, Grand and 
Petit Mitis, and Rimouski ; they were then the lowest down of the established 
settlements on the St. Lawrence. At Mitis and Rimouski, large saw-mills, 
which proved ruinous to the speculators, were erected. 

From Rimouski we may ride, or drive in a wheeled carriage, through all the 
Canadian parishes and settlements. At Bique there is good anchorage; but the 
coast, nearly as far up as Trois Pistoles, is steep and iron-bound. Small rocky 
islets rise along the river from two to three miles off the shore, from which mud 
flats, nearly dry at low water, and producing a long marine weed {eel grass), 
extend- about the same distance from the coast as the islets. These mud flats 
occur along the St. Lawrence wherever there are eddies, and within the islands 
that lie between the channel and the shore, particularly at Trois Pistoles, 
Green Island, the Pilgrims and Kamouraska. They are formed of deposits 
carried down by the river, and generally repose on flat rocks. The islets are all 
rocky. 

The River St. Lawrence, and the whole country, from the lowest parishes 
to Quebec, unfold scenery, the magnificence of which, in combination with the 
most delightful picturesque beauty, is as varied and attractive as any of the grandest 
prospects in the world. Niagara comprehends only a few miles of sublimity. 
The great lakes resemble seas ; and the prospects which their shores, like those 
of the coasts of the ocean, afford to our limited visual powers, although on a 
grand scale, fall infinitely short of the sublime views on the St. Lawrence, 
below Quebec. 

Here we have frequently, as we ascend the eminences over which the post- 
road passes, or as we sail up or down the St. Lawrence, prospects which open a 
view of fifty to one hundred miles of a river from ten to twenty miles in 
breadth. The imposing features of these vast landscapes exhibit lofty moun- 
tains, wide valleys, bold headlands, luxuriant forests, cultivated fields, pretty 
villages and settlements, some of them stretching up along the mountains; 



BRITISH TOSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 197 

fertile islands with neat white cottages; rich pastures and well-fed flocks; rocky 
islets; tributary rivers, some of them rolling over precipices, and one, the 
Saghuny, bursting through an apparently perpendicular chasm of the northern 
mountains; and, on the surface of the St. Lawrence, majestic ships, brigs, and 
schooners, either under sail or at anchor, with pilot boats and river craft in 
active motion. 

This beautiful appearance, however, changes to a very different character 
in winter; and, late in the fall of the year, a dark stormy night in the River 
and Gulf of St. Lawrence presents the most terrific, wild, and formidable 
dangers. 

In winter the river and gulf are choked up with broken fields of ice, ex- 
hibiting the most varied and fantastic appearances; and the whole country on 
each side is covered with snow; with all the trees, except the stern fir tribes, 
denuded of their foliage. 

The south shores of the St. Lawrence are thickly settled by the descendants 
of the French, who at different times emigrated to Canada ; and the manners 
and customs of their ancestors are tenaciously and religiously preserved by the 
Canadians, or habitants, more particularly in this part of Canada, where they 
have held little intercourse with the English. The houses, villages, and 
parishes, have a general similarity of appearance. 

In travelling through the seigniories of Lower Canada, we pass along 
through a beautiful rural country, with clumps of wood interspersed amidst 
cultivated farms, pastures, and herds, decent parish churches, and neat white 
houses or cottages. The inhabitants are always not only civil, but polite and 
hospitable ; and the absence of beggary, and of the squalid beings whose misery 
harrows our feelings in the United Kingdom, is the best proof that they are in 
comfortable circumstances. 

The house of a captain of militia is distinguished by a tall flag-staff near it, 
painted red, or with circles of white, red, blue, or black. 

The priest's house is always close to the church ; and you never see him 
except in his sacerdotal robe. 

The parish church, with a pretty, bright, tinned spire, and sometimes with 
two, is a striking characteristic feature, which occurs at intervals of from four to 
eight miles, along the banks of the St. Lawrence. 

The houses of the habitans are sometimes built of stone, but generally of 
wood, and only one story high. 

The walls outside are whitewashed, which imparts to them, particularly in 
summer, when almost every thing else is green, a most lively and clean-looking 
appearance. Each contains a large kitchen, one good sitting-room, and as many 
sleeping or bed-rooms as may be judged requisite. The garret is generally used 



198 CANADA. 

for lumber, and seldom for bed-places. Some of the houses have verandas, and 
a small orchard and garden are often attached ; near the house there is usually a 
clay-built bake-oven, and a well; from the latter the water is drawn by means of 
a lever. The elevation and ground-plan of a family house of a young married 
couple generally want the sleeping apartments at the end farthest from the 
chimney. 

The sitting-room or parlour, and bed-rooms, are lined with smoothly planed 
boards, and painted with blue, red, green, yellow, &c. Wax and brass images 
of the virgin and child, or of the crucifixion; and pictures of grim saints, the 
madonna and child, &c, all of the cheapest and most common kind, are hung 
round the room ; and one middle-sized and several common looking-glasses, 
and a common clock, are seldom wanting. Sometimes we observe a looking- 
glass and picture, which, from their curious wrought frames, must be from one 
to two hundred years old. There is also one or more cupboards, or buffets, in 
the room, which exhibit common glasses, decanters, cups and saucers, &c, and 
generally a large punch-bowl, for the purpose usually of making egg nog, or milk 
punch. 

The geese raised on their farms afford sufficient feathers for beds ; and the 
habitans are never without them. Their sheets and blankets are rather coarse, 
but manufactured by themselves of the fleeces of their sheep, and of the flax 
they cultivate. 

The barns and cattle-houses are plain oblong buildings. The farms run 
parallel with each other : pole fences occasionally separate them, and from ten to 
seventy arpents of each are cleared and cultivated. The post-road runs across 
them all, and each habitan keeps his own portion in repair. 

The most populous or important parishes or fiefs below Quebec, are Riviere 
de Loup, Kamouraska, St. Anne's, and St. Thomas's. 

Kamouraska, during summer and autumn, is a very delightful spot. It is the 
watering-place of Canada, and is frequented during the bathing-season by 
families from Quebec and Montreal, who here enjoy a salubrious atmosphere, 
tempered by the sea air. Steam-boats occasionally ply between it and Quebec- 
There are several inns here. The St. Lawrence is twenty miles broad here ; 
but above this its waters are no longer salt. Salmon and herring are caught at 
the mouth of the river, and near the islands opposite. It is a small mountain 
stream with a fall, some distance, of thirty feet. 

The scenery is very picturesque on approaching the parish of Ouelle; the 
parish or village of St. Anne is also populous, and prettily situated on the 
western side of the River Ouelle. In front there is a wide shoal bay ; and 
opposite, the high lands of Eboulemens frown in the distance over the 
St. Lawrence. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 199 

The village church and the seminary, a handsome large stone edifice, three 
stories high, stand in a beautiful situation on the brow of Mont St. Anne. 
There is a good seminary. In the bay a porpoise fishery has been followed, at 
little more expense than by driving a line of stakes placed close together in an 
oblique direction, so as to lead the porpoises over the shoals lying between the 
mouth of the Ouelle and a rocky ledge which juts into the St. Lawrence four 
miles below. When the tide ebbs, the porpoises were left dry, and were from 
nine to sixteen feet long, and yield about a ton of oil each. 

The parish of St. Thomas, on the Riviere de Sud, is one of the most 
populous below Quebec. This river flows from the south, through a beautiful, 
extensive, fertile, and rather thickly-settled country, and rolls over a ledge of 
rocks, twenty feet high, into the St. Lawrence. It has several bridges 
over it; and along its banks are many of the best cultivated farms in Lower 
Canada. 

In the village there is a handsome, though plain, stone church, said to con- 
tain near 3000 persons.* 

The vast region extending from the seigniory of Les Eboulemens, about 400 

* I had the opportunity of being at this church on a Sunday, in the month of July. Nothing 
could be more pleasing than the scene which presented itself. It was on a delightful calm 
summer morning ; the meadows, corn-fields, and woods were as richly decked as imagination 
could well fancy, and the surrounding scenery as interesting as a picturesque tourist could even 
wish. The whole creation was wrapped up in peaceful, but not solemn, stillness; for the lively 
verdure of the country, thickly decked with neat white cottages, and the smooth flowing beauty 
of the St. Lawrence, with several tall ships carried along by the tide, banished every impression 
except those of the most happy admiration, while the spirits were just raised to that pitch of 
cheerfulness, in which neither volatility nor gloom has any share. 

About ten o'clock, the roads leading through this extensive parish exhibited a decently 
dressed peasantry, clad chiefly in fabrics manufactured by themselves, of the wool, and flax, and 
leather, and straw, produced on their farms. A great number moved on with a sober trot, in 
caleches or cabriolets ; several on horseback, and others on foot ; but no one disturbed the calm 
tenor of the day farther than casual converse between two or three. 

In church, if the most close and devout attention during the whole service of mass, and the 
delivery of a short practical, but not argumentative sermon, which dwelt altogether on their 
moral conduct, without alluding to points of faith, be considered as general proofs of sincerity 
and piety, the habitans of this parish have undeniable claims to these virtues. I believe there is 
little difference to be found, in this respect, among the other parishes. If there be, I have failed 
to discover it ; and admitting, as I have frequently heard, that they are religious by habit and 
imitation, rather than by conviction, no one who has travelled among them can deny that they 
are sincere, amiable, charitable, honest, and chaste. Let us leave abstract points of Christian 
doctrine to theological disputants ; but if we look for a more correct or moral people than the 
Canadian habitans, we may search in vain. A Sabbath morning in the Scotch parishes most 
remote from the towns, bears the nearest resemblance to a Sunday, before mass, in Canada. 

The interval between morning and evening service differs, but not widely ; for, in both 
countries, those who do not return to their houses, spend the time in conversing on local inci- 
dents, or in communicating what news is gathered during the week. But the evenings of Sunday 
are far more cheerfully spent than in Scotland. The people of the parish often meet in small 
groups, or at each other's houses, for the sake of talking ; and on these occasions they sometimes 
indulge in dancing. 

A low belt of thickly-peopled country, lying between the St. Lawrence and the high lands, 
extends from the Riviere du Sud until we arrive within a few miles of Point Levi, where the 
post-road ascends over a high eminence, the heights of Lauzon ; from which we have a rich 
prospect of the Isle of Orleans ; and, soon after, the city of Quebec, and the heights and citadel 
of Cape Diamond, burst suddenly into the view, and draw our attention from all other objects. 



200 CANADA. 

miles along the north shores of the St. Lawrence, to Cape Cormorant on the La- 
brador coast, including the River Saghuny and its lake, was formerly, under the 
French government, granted to an association called the " King's Post" It is 
still named the " King's Domain." That company had the exclusive right of 
fishing, hunting, and bartering within the said territory, usually styled in the 
king's ordonnances, La Traite de Tadousac. 

The principal posts or forts are at Tadousac, at Isles Jeremie, at Seven Islands, 
at Labrador, and on the River Saghuny. At the post of Chicoutimi, on the 
Saghuny, fifty-eight miles up, the small chapel, built 105 years ago by the 
Jesuit, Labrosse, with its altar and pictures, are still in tolerable preservation ; 
and the tomb of Father Cocar, who died in the last century, with a Latin inscrip- 
tion, is pointed out to us by the voyageurs. A Catholic missionary visits the 
post twice each year. 

The trade at the various posts is now conducted by the agents of the Hudson's 
Bay Company, who may be said to engross the whole fur trade of Canada and 
the north-west frontiers to the Pacific and the Arctic regions. 

Tadousac harbour lies at the mouth of the Saghuny or Saguenay. It is well 
sheltered, sufficiently deep, and affords excellent anchorage. To it the first 
French adventurers who visited Canada resorted, and it continued for a long time 
to be one of the principal fur-trading posts. The old French post is still main- 
tained, and rented with the other posts on the King's Domain ; but the place is 
at present of little importance, in consequence of there being no settlements on 
the great river that flows past it into the St. Lawrence. 

Of this mighty river we know but little. Some of the accounts of the fur 
traders trace it to the foot of the mountains between the Ottawa and Hudson 
Bay mountains ; and it is deep and navigable for about ninety miles, when it is 
interrupted by a cataract of about fifty feet perpendicular. The banks are occa- 
sionally low, but generally high, until within a few miles of Post Chicoutimi. 
Magnetic ore is abundant, and renders the compass uncertain. The vast body 
of water which it discharges is of sufficient force to influence the stream of the 
St. Lawrence obliquely to the south. It flows through excellent lands, and a 
great timber country may be opened on this river. Several mills and timber 
establishments have been erected near the pine forests. 

The astonishing depth of the Saghuny renders it one of the most extraordi- 
nary rivers in the world. It is the grand outlet of the waters from the Saghuny 
country into the St. Lawrence, which it joins on its southern shore, at above a 
hundred miles below Quebec; and although only a tributary stream, has the 
appearance of a long mountain lake, for an extent of fifty miles, rather than that 
of a river. The scenery is of the most wild and magnificent description. The 
river varies from about a mile to two miles in breadth, and follows its impetuous 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 20 1 

course in a south-east direction, through a deep valley, formed by mountains of 
gneiss and sienitic granite, which in some places rise vertically from the water- 
side to an elevation of 2000 feet. 

There is a feature attending this river which renders it a natural curiosity, 
and is probably the only instance of the kind. The St. Lawrence is about 
eighteen miles wide at their confluence, and has a depth of about 240 feet. 
A ridge of rocks below the surface of the water, through which there is a 
channel about 120 feet deep, lies across the mouth of the Saghuny, within 
which the depth increases to 840 feet ; so that the bed of the Saghuny is abso- 
lutely 600 feet below that of the St. Lawrence, into which it falls — a depth which 
is preserved many miles up the river. So extraordinary a feature could only 
occur in a rocky country, such as is found in some parts of Canada, where the 
beauties of nature are displayed in their wildest form. 

Following the course of the river upwards, it preserves a westerly direction 
to the distance of about sixty miles, in some parts about half a mile broad, in 
others expanding into small lakes, about two miles across, their borders being 
interspersed with a few low islands. In the narrow parts of the river, the depth, 
at the distance of a few yards from the precipice forming the bank, is 600 feet, 
and in the middle of the river it increases to nearly 900. 

The country from the trading port of La Tuque, one hundred miles up the 
St. Maurice, to the Oniatshouan, which discharges Lake St. John, from which 
the Saghuny issues, and extends from the St. Maurice to Lake St. John, is 
generally covered with lakes and extensive swamps, occasionally traversed by 
chains of hills of no remarkable height or continuity, composed chiefly of primi- 
tive granite. The prevailing trees are spruce, tamarack, white birch, and pine. 
Around some of the larger lakes occasional tracts of cultivable land may be found. 
From the King's Post establishment at the mouth of the Metabetshuan, the 
land that borders the southern shore of Lake St. John, to the foot of the hills 
that form a chain with the Oniatshouan range, is generally of good quality, the 
soil of which is variously composed of an argillaceous and sandy loam, on which 
a rich vegetable mould has been deposited. The timber thereon consists of ash, 
black and yellow birch, basswood, elm, fir, balsam, cedar, and spruce, intermixed 
with some red and white pine and maple. 

The valley of the Assuahmoussoin, which falls into the Lake St. John, is 
described as generally alluvial, or of rich argillaceous loam, from the grand 
rapids downwards to the lake. Several other tracts, through which rivers run, 
are fit for cultivation. From the Petite Nation to the port of Metabetshuan 
the land is generally fit for culture; forming altogether about 240,000 acres of 
good land. 

The trading port of Chicoutimi is nearly equidistant from Tadousac and the 



202 CANADA. 

port of Metabetshuan on Lake St. John. It has a harbour for small vessels 
But the Bay des Has, sixty miles above the mouth of the Saghuny, and four 
or five below Chicoutimi, affords shelter for the largest ships of the line, and 
the navigation to it is uninterrupted from the ocean. 

From the mouth of the Saghuny, along the St. Lawrence to Mai Bay, the 
country is chiefly in its primitive wild state. A row of sandhills, from twenty 
to forty feet high, stretches along near the river. The mountainous seigniory of 
Mai Bay was formerly called the King's Farm ; and here were thirty buildings 
■when the English conquered Canada, but it afterwards dwindled into obscurity. 

A road leads from Mai Bay to St. Paul's Bay, over the bleak heights and 
through the village of Eboulemens. The seigniory of the Cote de Beaupre ex- 
tends from Riviere du Gouffre to Beauport, near Quebec. At St. Paul's Bay, 
into which a mountain torrent (the River Gouffre) falls, there is rather a crowded 
settlement, sheltered by the northern mountains ; and at La Petite Riviere, near 
it, the cultivated low land is so well protected from cold winds, that apples, 
equal to those of Montreal or Niagara, as well as pears, cherries, and damsons, 
grow in abundance. The road from here passes over the mountain ridge of 
Cape Tourment (about 1800 feet high, and the first of the granitic heights 
called " Les Caps") to the interesting retired parish of St. Joachim, where there 
are lands and houses belonging to the Catholic seminary at Quebec, and a rather 
closely settled parish. We then pass through the villages of St. Anne and 
Chateau Richer to the River Montmorency, across which, a little above the 
falls, there is a bridge, over which the main road leads, and winds through the 
beautiful and populous seigniory of Beauport, then, by a bridge over the River 
St. Charles, to Quebec. 

The beautiful islands of the St. Lawrence, which lie below Quebec, deserve 
attention. 

Isle Verte, Green Island, which is well cultivated, and from which excellent 
butter is sent to Quebec, is six or seven miles long, and lies near the south 
shore, from which it is separated by shoal water and mud flats. Its east end, 
on which there is a lighthouse, lies about south-east from the mouth of the 
Saghuny; in a line with which stands Red Island (a small islet), from which a 
dangerous shoal extends; and here the navigation of the river becomes very 
intricate. 

Hare Island, which is about eight miles long, and from which also dangerous 
ledges extend, lies in the middle of the river, about fifteen miles further up 
than Green Island. It has some excellent salt marshes, cultivable land, and 
herds of cattle. Passing by the Pilgrims and the Kamouraska Islets, we come 
to Isle aux Coudres, which lies close to the north coast and in front of St. 
Paul's Bay. It is a seigniory about five miles long, three broad, the soil fertile, 
and is one of the oldest settlements in Canada. The inhabitants live chiefly by 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 203 

agriculture, and raise excellent crops of wheat, oats, barley, peas, and potatoes. 
They have good stocks of horses, horned cattle, sheep, and hogs. Nearly oppo- 
site to it are the intricate shoals, among which the traverse, or south, channel 
winds. Between these shoals and Orleans are the Goose and Crane Islands — 
low, flat, in some places rocky, in others marshy, but inhabited, cultivated, and 
pretty. Near these, at the eastern end, the Pillars (rocks) rise abruptly out of 
the St. Lawrence. 

The Island of Orleans is about twenty miles long, and from four to five 
broad. Its upper end is five miles below Quebec, and on each there is a deep 
channel. Its soil is fertile; a belt of original wood extends from its eastern to 
its western extremities, between which and its shores are corn-fields, orchards, 
pastures, and meadows, thickly speckled with the white cottages of the inha- 
bitants, pretty clumps of wood, and here and there a parish church. Near the 
west point, in a small vale close to the shore, were built those mammoth ships, 
the Columbus and Baron of Renfrew ; the largest masses in one body that human 
ingenuity or daring enterprise ever contrived to float on the ocean. The 
Columbus crossed the Atlantic and arrived safely, after a quick voyage, in the 
Thames, but on returning next year towards America was lost some few hun- 
dred miles west of Ireland. The Baron of Renfrew, after being safely navi- 
gated by the captain from Quebec to the mouth of the Thames, was wrecked on 
the coast of France. 

We have thus briefly described those parts of Lower Canada which are the 
least known. There are abundant accounts of the countries above Quebec; 
and we will give a brief sketch of this city and of Montreal, with the statistics 
of their trade. 

Four miles from the southern shore of the St. Lawrence, and twice that 
distance from Quebec, the Chaudiere, 240 yards in breadth, with its banks 
decorated with woods and glades, and broken into romantic grandeur by vast 
masses of rocks, roars and foams, in wild sublimity, over immense ledges of 
more than 100 feet in height ; and then rushes, and boils, and thunders, over 
and among rocks and ledges, until within a short distance of the St. Law- 
rence. The Chaudiere is a large river, or rather unnavigable torrent. A road, 
leading from opposite Quebec along its eastern bank, has been extended across 
the province to the River Kennebec in the district of Maine, and completed 
in 1830. 

The country on each side of the St. Lawrence, from Quebec to Montreal, 
exhibits a succession of parishes, mostly consecrated by names of places in 
France, and the whole so thickly settled as to assume the appearance of one 
continued village. The post-road leads through those on the north shore ; and 
on the south there are also good roads between the Concessions. This part of 
Canada is beautiful and populous, yet very little known. The country on the 



204 CANADA. 

south side of the St. Lawrence, from the River Chaudiere to St. Regis, and back 
to the boundary of the United States, forms seventeen counties, containing a 
population of 188,000 persons; and, according to Colonel Bouchette, the sur- 
veyor-general's account, occupying a surface of 13,864 square miles. 

The lands fronting on the St. Lawrence, the borders of the Chaudiere, 
Yamaska, and Richelieu, were all held by seigniorial tenures. The territory 
between these and the American line is principally laid out in townships, and 
partially settled upon. The surface of this region, which includes the whole 
district of St. Francis and portions of the districts of Montreal and Three 
Rivers, is diversified with rivers and lakes, alluvions, uplands, high hills ap- 
proaching to the character of mountains, dense forests, cultivated districts in 
the townships, and populous villages in the seigniories and new settlements. 
At Nicolet, a seminary or college was established many years ago by the good 
Plessis, the late Bishop of Quebec. A new edifice, of great beauty and mag- 
nitude, has been lately built to replace it. 

The banks of the tributary rivers, flowing from each side into the St. Law- 
rence, are closely settled on; and some of these, particularly the Chaudiere. 
Be9ancour, Nicolet, St. Francis, Yamaska, and Richelieu, on the south; and 
the Jacques Cartier, St. Anne, St. Maurice, and Masquinonge, on the north, 
would be considered rivers of great magnitude in England. 

In winter, travelling between Quebec and Montreal is either by a public 
carriolle, or sledge, or by the post carriages. The winter road is generally on 
the ice, near the edge of the river ; or, when this route is considered either diffi- 
cult or dangerous, through the parishes. 

In summer, the post roads, excepting the intercourse between respective 
parishes, have been nearly abandoned since steam navigation has afforded such 
great facilities to those who wish to move easily, cheaply, and rapidly, between 
Quebec and Montreal. Formerly the river was navigated by schooners of thirty 
to a hundred tons; their passage upwards was usually very tedious, and but few 
square-rigged vessels proceeded to Montreal. The latter are now laden with full 
cargoes in London, Liverpool, the Clyde, and various distant ports; and those 
of moderate size, without stopping longer at Quebec than may be necessary to 
procure a steamer, are towed direct to Montreal. 

The large and excellent steam-boats that navigate the St. Lawrence, offer every 
temptation of comfort and refreshment to those who choose to be carried along 
by locomotive power. 

On leaving Quebec, we soon pass Cape Diamond, Wolfe's Cove, the shipping, 
small craft, timber booms, and lumberer's huts. A little farther on, we have a 
glimpse of the dingle of Sillery; and on the south side New Liverpool, opposite 
which there are usually some ships loading, rises from the margin of the river 
At this place a deep-water wharf, and three dolphins, or mooring stages, for the 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 205 

convenience of shipping, have been constructed. Here there is also a good hotel) 
in the most charming situation imaginable. 

As we proceed up the St. Lawrence, various objects incessantly unfold 
themselves. We meet, or are accompanied by, river craft, or steam-boats; some 
of the latter, probably, towing up brigs and schooners ; and not unfrequently we 
also observe one or more of those immense large floats, the timber rafts, covered 
with men, women, and small shanties. 

The banks on each side continue high, but sloping, and beautifully decked 
with woods, churches, white cottages, orchards, and corn-fields, until we pass the 
mountain torrent of the river Jacques Cartier, and reach the rapids of Richelieu, 
forty-five miles above Quebec. 

These rapids are occasioned by a visible descent of the river running over an 
unequal bed ; but sailing vessels can, with a fair breeze, stem and surmount them. 
The banks now gradually diminish; the highlands recede to the north and to the 
south; a low country, of evidently secondary formation, and in a natural state 
less interesting, commences and prevails ; but populous villages and cultivated 
lands lend beauty and animation to the scenery, and we soon after pass the 
mouths of the St. Maurice, or Trois Rivieres. The greater part of the country 
between Quebec and the St. Maurice is settled back three or four ranges, 
or concessions of farms, from the river. Roads divide these ranges, but 
are in many places inconveniently steep, until we pass west of the Jacques 
Cartier. 

Trois Rivieres, or Three Rivers, is the third town in Canada. It faces the 
St. Lawrence, on the west side of the St. Maurice. Its situation is very agree- 
able ; but the soil near it is light and sandy. The river is deep near the town, 
and here the steamers stop to take on board passengers and fuel. It owes the 
name of Trois Rivieres to two small islands at the embouchure of the St. Maurice, 
which give it the appearance of three distinct rivers. This pretty town is one of 
the oldest places in Canada. A convent of Ursulines was founded in 1677 5 
by St. Valiere, second Bishop of Canada, for the education of female children 
and for the poor sick, as well as those who were tired of the world. 

At one period a great share of the fur trade centred at these rivers. 

On the right bank of the St. Maurice, seven or eight miles from the town 
of Three Rivers, are the iron forges which were established in 1737. 

The River St. Maurice is a large deep river, winding over an extensive terri- 
tory, only known to the Indian fur traders, and broken by rapids and cataracts. 
The soil in many places is fertile; but the country is generally rugged. This 
river, which is one of three great outlets from the northern region of Canada, has 
several branches flowing from large lakes. At La Tuque, about 120 miles up, 
there is a king's trading post. Near it the Hudson's Bay Company have also a 
trading post. 

About eight miles above Three Rivers, we enter Lake St. Peter, which is an 



206 CANADA. 

expansion of the St. Larence over flats for about twenty-five miles in length* and 
five to tenth in breadth. Passing over this lake, particularly on a hot, calm day 
is exceedingly tame and uninteresting. The water is shallow, and the channel, 
which is very intricate, requires to be marked with beacons, usually small fir- 
poles stuck in the mud, with part of the green tuft left on their tops. As we 
approach the head of the lake, innumerable green islands and villages, rising on 
each side of the river, reanimate our progress. These islands are formed of 
alluvial deposits, as are also most of the low lands we pass until we reach 
Montreal. 

The country along the north bank of the St. Lawrence, from the St. Maurice 
to Repentigny, at one of the mouths of the Ottawa, unfolds thickly-settled 
parishes; the principal road resembling one continued village, and the parish 
churches, houses, and the inhabitants, nearly in every respect similar to those I 
have already described below Quebec; but the features of the scenery are different * 
is the country between Three Rivers and Montreal is low, and a great portion of 
at alluvial. There are many parishes in the interior, in the back concessions. 

Berthier, half-way between Three Rivers and Montreal, is the principal 
village. Its situation on the banks of the St. Lawrence* in front of a rich, flat 
agricultural country, although somewhat tame, is very advantageous. 

On the south, at the head of the delta of Lake St Pete^ the St. Lawrence 
receives the River Richelieu, or Sorell, or Chambly ; for by all these names is it 
known. On the east bank, and on the site of the fortress erected by M. de 
Tracy, stands the town of Sorell, or* as it is now called, Fort William Henry. 

The Richelieu issues from Lake Champlain, and flows, for about seventy 
miles, through a fertile and well-selected country, and passes close by several 
villages, or small towns, the principal of which are Champlain and Lacolle, in 
the United States; and in Canada, Isle aux Noix, St. Jean* Chambly* St. Joseph, 
Beloeil or Rouville, St. Charles, St. Denis, and St. Ours, before it mixes with 
the St. Lawrence at Fort William Henry. It differs from most rivers in its being 
only 250 yards wide at its embouchure, while it increases gradually upwards to 
more than four times that breadth. The scenery of the Richelieu, in some parts, 
is not surpassed for picturesque beauty in Canada. 

The village of Chambly, about forty miles up the Richelieu, faces a beautiful 
basin formed by an expansion of the river; between it and the village of the 
Canton stands Fort Chambly, one of the old French garrisons, formerly erected 
to prevent the incursions of the Iroquois. Eight miles above Fort Chambly 
stands the town of St. John, where there is a custom-house. St. John lies in the 
route by the way of Lake Champlain to the United States; steam-boats in 
summer arrive and depart regularly ; and thousands of sledges, principally 
American, pass through it in winter. 

About twelve miles farther on, we come to the naval station and garrison on 
Isle aux Noix, which completely commands the river. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 207 

At Rouse's Point, where Lake Champlain, one of the most picturesque of the 
inland waters of America, opens, are the deserted huge stone fortress and out- 
works, erected by the Americans during the late war. 

The country, nearly in the shape of a triangle, bounded by the Richelieu, the 
St. Lawrence, and the United States, is generally fertile, and populously inhabited. 
Many of the farms which are now the most productive, were reclaimed with 
great labour by an extensive course of draining. 

Returning from this diversion up the Richelieu, and leaving Fort William 
Henry for Montreal, we pass numerous islands, all evidently of alluvial forma- 
tion; the lands on each side are also alluvial, and the country flat, but, being 
well-drained, produce luxuriant crops. This part of Canada is populous ; and 
he parishes exhibit the pretty features of a continued village, with the spires of 
decent churches arising now and then on each side. 

At length Montreal, with its glittering tin roofs and spires, the magnificent 
wooded mountain from which it takes its name, together with the broad sheet 
of water between it and La Prairie, the fortified island of St. Helena, and the 
ships, steamers, and small craft, 270 miles above salt water, and more than 500 
from the sea, all open into view, and exhibit a grand, varied, and most interesting 
picture. 

Close to the Island of Montreal, to the north, lies the beautiful and fertile 
Isle Jesus, which contains three large populous parishes, viz., St. Vincent de 
Paul, Ste. Rose, and St. Martin, and belongs to the ecclesiastics of the Seminary of 
Quebec, to whom it was granted, together with Isles aux Vaches, contiguous to 
it, in 1699. It is separated from the main land by the River John. Opposite, 
at the upper end of the stream, is the beautiful village of St. Eustache. 

Lachine, to which, to avoid the rapids, there is a ship canal from Montreal, 
has long been a great point of departure for Upper Canada. From it the 
North-west Company despatched their large bark canoes for the Uttawa and 
western regions, laden with various and necessary articles. From this place, 
also, the great steam-boats start for Upper Canada; and we may either take a 
passage by one of them, or we may drive through a beautiful rural country, to 
St. Anne's, from whence we may cross the ferry to Isle Perrault, and from 
thence proceed to Upper Canada; or, by the lake of the two mountains, con- 
tinue our voyage or journey up the Uttawa. 

Steam-boats, bateaux, and other river craft, proceed from the Island of 
Montreal up the Ottawa, or Uttawa, and pass through the lock lately cut at 
Vaudreuil to the Long Saut rapids, near Grenville; to obviate which, a canal is 
now cutting, about forty miles above Lachine, by government, that will cost 
about 180,000/. 

The Ottawa rises in the north-west regions, beyond Lake Huron. This 
great river was at an early period explored by the fur traders. It was their 



208 CANADA. 

grand route to the north-west territories. Forty to fifty canoes formerly pro- 
ceeded from Lachine with articles of traffic, and ascended the Ottawa for about 
300 miles; from whence they were carried over portages and decharges, or 
paddled along lakes, and then across by French River to Lake Huroru The 
coasts of this lake, and those of Lake Superior* were afterwards traversed, until 
the voyagers reached the Grand Portage, where they received the furs pur- 
chased by the Company's agents from the Indians. The voyagers then re- 
turned with these furs to Montreal; and in light bark canoes^ voyages of several 
thousands of miles were performed by those adventurous men. 

The navigation of the Ottawa is frequently interrupted by cataracts and 
rapids; and the scenery exhibits picturesque beauty and fertility. In some 
parts it expands over the country, and forms what are termed the lesser, or 
thirty mile lakes of Canada. It receives several rivers between its embouchure 
and its upper settlements, most of which issue from or run through lakes. The 
largest of these rivers are the Petite Nation, the Rideau, the Canadian Missis- 
sippi, La Riviere aux Lievres, the Madawask, &c. 

It divides Lower from Upper Canada ; and townships have been laid out, 
and settlements have for some time been rapidly forming, along its banks. Its 
periodical rising, which enriches the alluvions, owing to the rapid melting of 
the snows in the extensive northern region through which it and its numerous 
tributaries flow, is much higher in the spring than in the fall of the year. 

After leaving St. Anne's on the western part of the Island of Montreal, we 
soon after enter the Ottawa, and its expansion, the Lake of the Two Mountains. 
On the left rise the eminences which give a name to the lake. One of these is 
called after the mount of the same name near Paris, Mont Calvaire. On the 
summit were built seven chapels, constructed of stone ; and here a mission has 
long been established. 

On this seigniory are two Indian villages : that of the Algonquins appears 
first ; a little above, that of the Iroquois. Both contain 880 inhabitants ; and 
the whole population of the seigniory amounts to about 8500. The ecclesiastics 
and the sisters of the congregation provide for the instruction of the young 
Indians of both sexes. 

On the opposite or west shores of the Ottawa are the seigniories of Sou- 
langes and Vaudreuil, and Regaud, within the line of Lower Canada; but they 
are not quite so well settled or cultivated as the seigniories of the Lake of the 
Two Mountains. 

We then pass the seigniory of Argenteuil, populously settled, and now be- 
longing to Major Johnston. The township of Chatham, settled some years 
ago, and that of Grenville, through which there is a canal to avoid the tur- 
bulent Long Saut rapids, lie between Argenteuil and the seigniory of La 
Petite Nation. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 209 

An American, Philemon Wright, having left the United States in 1800, 
travelled in quest of lands to Canada, and proceeded up the Ottawa. He ex- 
amined the country about Hull, and quickly discovered its favourable advan- 
tages. Here, in the heart of the wilderness, eighty-five miles above Montreal, 
was a magnificent river, flowing from afar through excellent lands, with abun- 
dance of timber, and mountains of iron ore. He knew well how to bring those 
resources into profitable operation, and became the leader in forming a settle- 
ment. He drew hundreds to the place: forests rapidly disappeared, which were 
soon succeeded by houses, inhabitants, yellow corn-fields, meadows, and flocks 
and herds. Hull, eighty-five miles above Montreal, was settled in 1801. Set- 
tlements have extended, since that time, far above Hull. Bytown and the 
Upper Canada shores of the Ottawa will be noticed hereafter. 

Vast quantities of pine and oak timber are floated down the Ottawa. It is 
said that some gangs of lumberers have brought rafts down 600 miles. The 
dexterity with which they manage these rafts, or masses of timber, is astonish- 
ing; particularly when directing a raft down the falls of Chaudiere. 

This cataract is grandly picturesque, about a mile wide, and broken and 
separated by numerous islands, where it comes thundering down eighty feet 
over precipices. 

Here, however, the two provinces were connected, by the execution of a 
most daring plan, the " Union Bridge," over the Grande Chaudiere, where 
no soundings have been found at a depth of 300 feet. 

There are various fur trading-posts held on the Ottawa by the Hudson Bay 
Company. A solitary family is to be found settled in some places for nearly 
eighty miles above Hull. 

The country of the Ottawa affords great advantages for agricultural settle- 
ments. 



CHAPTER III. 



Upper Canada may be considered, with few exceptions, as sufficiently 
level in all parts for agriculture. Its soil generally fertile, and, exclusive of the 
large lakes and rivers, abundantly watered with small lakes and streams. 

The principal height of land rises between the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence. 
Its elevation, however, is neither abrupt nor great. 

This height, or rather table land, extends westerly between the streams de- 
scending into Lakes Ontario and Erie, and those falling into Lake Huron. 

There is no other remarkable elevation, except its principal ramification, 
which commences above Kingston, and sweeps round Lake Ontario. To 

VOL. V. p 



210 CANADA. 

the north-west of Bathurst, and north of Lake Huron, a mountainous country 
prevails. 

In the districts east of Lake Ontario, the exceptions to rich soil are some 
portions of heavy clay land, and marshy or swampy tracts. None of these are 
extensive. 

The country between Lake Ontario and Lake Simcoe is in some places less 
fertile, in others more loamy, and generally less obstructed by rocks or stones. 

The prevailing character of the territory lying between Lakes Ontario, Erie, 
Huron, and the River Detroit, is luxuriant fertility. 

Limestone, gypsum, iron ore of the best quality, salt springs, clay for brick 
and potters' use ; marble, free-stone, granite, timber of great dimensions, and 
adapted for all purposes, are abundant ; which, with a soil and climate that will 
produce wheat, maize, and all other grains and vegetables grown in Europe, 
delicious fruits, even vines, nectarines, and peaches ; grazing lands, plenty of 
wild fowl, and fish in the numerous rivers and lakes ; fresh water and mill 
streams, and a climate generally salubrious, are the prominent natural ad- 
vantages. 

Its natural inconveniences are, chiefly, its being more difficult of access from 
the ocean, and somewhat farther from markets, than the other colonies. It is, 
however, doubtful if these be real disadvantages ; for the industry of the in- 
habitants is consequently more closely applied to agriculture, the only substantial 
and lasting source of individual prosperity and independence, than the population 
of a maritime colony. 

There are springs of petroleum near the Moravian village, and springs near 
the head of Lake Ontario impregnated with sulphur, thrown out sometimes in 
small lumps. 

With the exception of the alluvions, the lighter soils prevail near the lakes: 
the richer and heavier some distance back in the country. 

In summer, Fahrenheit ranges from 72 deg. to 100 deg., while it blows in 
the prevailing directions from south to west; but on shifting to the north, the 
mercury soon after sinks to 50 deg., and sometimes lower. The climate is re- 
markably dry. 

In winter a day scarcely occurs, except when it rains, and that seldom, in 
which people do not work in the woods. A very mild winter is always con- 
sidered a disadvantage in Upper Canada. 

The climate is milder in summer, and its severity of much shorter duration 
in winter than that of Lower Canada. It is, generally speaking, healthy; and 
the exceptions are, like the fens of Lincolnshire, in England, low wet tracts, 
and still water, in which vegetable substances in progress of decomposition are 
deposited. These are found in low lands and marshes, where agues and lake 
fevers are common in summer and autumn. As the country is opened, and 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 21 1 

these places drained, periodical diseases disappear, and they seldom prevail on 
the dry lands. 

The wild animals are, wolves, bears, and loup-cerviers, which annoy the inha- 
bitants of new settlements by destroying sheep and pigs. Common deer abound ; 
they are gentle, and easily domesticated. Otters are in many parts numerous. 
Beavers are scarce. Foxes, martens, porcupines, racoons, weasel, wood-chuck, 
are also met with. Hares are plentiful. Wild beasts, however, diminish 
rapidly in a country which has been intersected in every direction by roads. 

Wild turkeys, which do not differ in appearance from domestic turkeys, 
except being larger, frequent the western parts ; and wild geese, ducks, pigeons, 
and most of the other birds already mentioned as common to America, are 
plentiful in the course of their migrations. Snipes, wood-larks, and partridges 
are also abundant. 

Among the lake fishes, the sturgeon is good eating, weighs from 70 lbs. to 
100 lbs., affords isinglass, and differs from the sturgeon of the sea by wanting 
the shelly scales on the back. The masquenonge is delicious, and sometimes 
weighs 50 lbs. The white fish, caught in abundance, resembling the shad of 
the Atlantic coast, or very large ale wives. It is excellent eating, but inferior to 
the masquenonge. The lake herrings are plentiful, but flabby and indifferent. 

Trout are of all sizes, weighing from half a pound to sometimes 50 lbs. to 
70 lbs. The large kind, called lake salmon, resemble those of the sea, but the 
flesh much paler, and not so richly flavoured. 

Pike and pickerel are much the same in flavour as in England. 

There are two or three varieties of bass ; the black is the best. The other 
fishes which are found in the lakes and rivers of Upper Canada, are principally 
perch, eel-pout, cat-fish, mullet, dace, chub, carp, sucker, dog-fish (small), bill- 
fish (the tyrant of the lakes, with a bill about a foot long), lamprey, silver-eel, 
sun-fish. 

Fish are caught with seines, hooks, and by spearing. Forest sports are 
much neglected : even men who were poachers in the United Kingdom will 
scarcely move off their farms to shoot deer or other wild animals. There is 
excellent shooting, and some people indulge in deer -stalking ^ or watching for 
deer, waiting for the return of bears to shoot them, and occasionally killing 
water-fowl and forest birds. 

The forest trees are of great magnitude and variety, and afford timber for all 
purposes, and abundant fuel; great advantages to the inhabitants. Wild fruits 
are very plentiful. Medicinal plants abound; and gay and beautiful indigenous 
flowers adorn those places which are not densely covered with large trees. 

The usual route from Montreal to Upper Canada is by the River St. Law- 
rence ; if in summer, by steamers, or by land in stages, or other modes of 
travelling. 

P2 



212 CANADA. 

Another route is by the Ottawa and the Rideau Canal, or by roads, and leads 
to the townships lying in the rear of those along the banks of the St. Lawrence. 

Twelve miles above Point Fortune, we arrive at the flourishing village of 
Hawkesbury, in the first township of Upper Canada. In this township are 
several sawmills, timber-establishments, gristmills, distilleries, and many excellent 
farms. 

The country along the Ottawa, from the seigniory of Longueil, in Lower 
Canada, to Bytown, at the entrance of the Rideau Canal, comprehends the 
district of Ottawa, divided into the counties of Prescott and Russell, and sub- 
divided into twelve townships. Between these and the St. Lawrence lies the 
eastern district; and north-west of the Rideau, and in the rear of the district of 
Johnston, the district of Bathurst, containing the counties of Carleton and 
Lanark, divided into nineteen townships, extends along the Ottawa to Lake 
Allumet, in about latitude 45 deg. 50 min. N. 

The front of this district exhibits some of the most sublime views in Canada. 
Mountains, woods, cataracts, valleys, lakes, and magnificent river. 

Bytown, founded in 1826, is advantageously situated on elevated ground, 
around a bend and extension of the Ottawa, called Entrance Bay, from which, 
through the town, Rideau Canal enters the province. 

The view from the heights of Bytown comprehends scenery of the greatest 
picturesque variety and grandeur. A splendid river, rolling impetuously over 
the falls of the Great Chaudier; islands, woods, mountains, precipices, and 
rocks, with the Union Bridge extending over a tremendous cataract ; the culti- 
vated farms; the settlement, and the church of Hull opposite; rafts of timber 
floating along the rapid stream of the Ottawa ; batteaux, Indian canoes on the 
water, and the progress of agriculture and clearing and burning of the forest on 
the land, impart additional and peculiar animation to the wild sublimities of the 
scenery. 

The extensive territory lying between the River Ottawa from Longueil to 
Kingston, and from Kingston to Detroit, has been divided into townships ; the 
position of which, and their respective distances from seaports and from navi- 
gable lakes and rivers, will appear more distinctly by reference to a map. 

At the conclusion of the last war nearly all the thriving townships in the 
rear of those fronting the St. Lawreace and Lakes Ontario and Erie, exhibited 
the almost impenetrable wildness of primeval forests. To obviate partially the 
obstructions in the St. Lawrence, and the facilities afforded an enemy to inter- 
cept the communication between Montreal and upper country, a military road 
was opened from the point of Nepean, on the Ottawa, to Kingston. Numerous 
other roads were also opened, and the lands through which they passed becom- 
ing accessible, were settled upon by emigrants and disbanded soldiers. 

The settlements of Lanark, Perth, and Richmond then appeared; and others 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 213 

in every part of the province sprung rapidly into existence, as the resources of 
the country developed the certain fruitful means of subsistence and indepen- 
dence, to those who should inhabit its wilds and subdue its forests. 

On leaving Lachine by the St. Lawrence route, we pass the Indian hamlet 
of Cagnawagha and the cascade of St. Louis. The lake of the same name im- 
mediately after expands to a width of several miles. The scenery, which un- 
folds its picturesque features as we pass along, is exceedingly interesting. The 
swelling high outline of Montreal receding behind us; the romantic embouchure 
of the Ottawa; the pretty village and decent church of St. Anne, and the richly 
wooded island Perault, rising on the north ; a low but rich country, through 
which the Chateauqui flows, extending along the south ; and the head of the 
lake near the Cascades, rising before us in the distance, form an extensive 
and beautiful panorama. Lake St. Louis is about twelve miles long by about 
six broad. 

At the turbulent rapids of the Cascades there is a short canal, about 500 
feet long, from which it is sixteen miles to the village of Coteau du Lac. The 
post-road leads along the north banks of the river ; and a succession of dangerous 
rapids occur in this distance, known by the name of the Cascades and Les 
Cedres. 

Coteau du Lac, above the split rock, or Du Buisson rapid, is at the lower 
end of Lake St. Francis. The river is clear to Cornwall, where dangerous 
rapids, called the Long Saut, interrupted the navigation, which has since been 
opened by a canal. 

Lake St. Francis is about twenty-five miles long, and about five and a half 
broad. It is sufficiently deep, and its waters remarkably clear. 

The first settlements in Upper Canada were at Glengarry; the inhabitants of 
which are principally Scotch Highlanders, or their descendants. 

A little below Cornwall the boundary of the United States meets, and fol- 
lows the St. Lawrence. Close to this place is the Indian village of St. Regis, 
the last point on the south shore in Lower Canada. On the opposite side of 
the river, lands are reserved for them by the British government. 

From Cornwall, the distance is forty-eight miles to Prescot. Both sides 
of the river are equally fertile. 

From Prescot, nearly opposite to which stands the American town of Og- 
densburg, steamboats run to Kingston, passing between the thriving British 
town of Brockville and the American town of Morristown, and then through 
the channels of the part called " the Thousand Islands," the charming pic- 
turesque scenery of which has been so frequently admired. 

The country and the river from Montreal to Kingston is richly picturesque 
The soils vary from heavy clay to lighter loam, and produce luxuriant crops of 
wheat and other kinds of grain. Many of the houses are well built, and the 



214 CANADA. 

cultivation of the farms extensive, and much improved during late years. The 
roads are much better than formerly, although exceedingly heavy during spring 
and rainy weather. 

As we pass along from the Cascades to Kingston, a distance of about 175 
miles, picturesque islands, some beautifully wooded, others cleared and tilled ; 
villages; an almost uninterrupted succession of farms, the clearings inclosed 
by rail-fences, and tolerably well cultivated ; farmhouses, barns, orchards; here 
and there a church; horses, horned cattle, and sheep constantly unfold them- 
selves, in front of magnificent forests ; wild fowl, occasionally deer ; large rafts 
of timber, sometimes broken up by the violence of the current or sudden 
squalls of wind, floating violently down the rapids, or scattered over the lakes. 

Kingston, built in 1783, is very conveniently situated, in latitude 44 deg. 
8 min. north, longitude 76 deg. 40 min., near the spot where old fort Frontenac 
formerly stood, and at the mouth of the Cataraqui, which joins the St. Law- 
rence at the bottom of Lake Ontario. 

Lake Ontario opens into full view immediately above Kingston, and unfolds* 
not the appearance we associate with a freshwater lake, out of which a great 
stream issues, but a vast rolling ocean, receiving the waters of many rivers. 
It is about 180 miles long, forty to fifty broad, fifty to nearly 500 feet deep, and 
222 feet above the tide level of the ocean. It is navigated by sloops, 
schooners, and steamboats ; and the sea is frequently so rough that steamboats 
of common size were at first not considered fit to traverse its waters with com- 
fort or safety. 

A little above Kingston, a long inlet with excellent harbours, called the Bay 
of Quinte, winds beautifully for forty or fifty miles through the country, and 
receives the waters of several rivers; some of which, particularly the Trent, issue 
from chains of numerous lakes. There is a beautiful peninsula called Prince 
Edward, lying between it and Lake Ontario. 

Toronto, formerly called York, the capital of Upper Canada, is conveniently 
situated on the west side of Lake Ontario, in latitude 43 deg. 32 min. N., and 
longitude *J9 deg. 20 min. W. The harbour, nearly circular, is formed by a 
narrow peninsula, or sandbank. Its extremity, called Gibraltar Point, has a 
lighthouse and fort on the opposite shore. In 1793, there was not a habitation 
where York now stands. A good military road, called Yonge-street, thirty-seven 
miles, through Gwillimbury to Cook's Bay, Lake Simcoe, along which the lands 
are fertile and well-settled. 

The lands round Lake Simcoe are also excellent. 

Lake Simcoe is forty miles long, twelve broad, and throws off its surplus 
waters by the River Severn, into Gloucester Bay, Lake Huron. Roads also 
lead from York to the River Nottawasaga, which falls into Lake Huron; to 
Burlington Bay, and to all parts of the province. Settlements are formed along 
all these roads. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 215 

Burlington Bay is considered one of the most beautiful places in Upper 
Canada — a fine sheet of water, with a natural breakwater to shelter it in front, 
and a richly-wooded range of high lands form an amphitheatre in the rear. 

At the head of this bay stand the beautiful thriving villages of Ancaster and 
Dundas. 

Good roads have been opened from Dundas to Amherstburg, at the head of 
Lake Erie. Others have been opened to the Canada Company's town of 
Guelph, which, with two others from Dundas, are continued to and through 
their Huron tract to Goderich. Roads lead over a fine fertile country from 
Ancaster to Niagara; from Ancaster over the Ouse, joins the main road leading 
from Niagara along Lake Erie to Detroit. The whole of the country lying west of 
Niagara is uncommonly fertile, and the climate will ripen in perfection apples, pears, 
prunes, nectarines, melons, and various other fruits. Grapes may also be raised in 
great abundance. Near the village of St. Catherine's there are salt springs. 

As the Falls of Niagara interrupt the inland navigation of Canada, which 
otherwise might be continued without obstruction from Ontario to the Falls or 
Rapids of St. Mary's, between Lakes Huron and Superior (which might also be 
obviated at little expense, and throw open an inland ocean extending 500 miles 
farther west), the bold project of ascending by a canal from Lake Ontario to 
Lake Erie was executed. 

Lake Erie is 270 miles long, and from thirty to fifty miles broad. It is 
shallow when compared to the other great lakes, being only from sixty to seventy 
feet average depth ; and its waters, from this circumstance, are frequently rough 
and dangerous. Schooners, sloops, a few steamers, bateaux, and Durham boats, 
navigate this lake. The Americans have the finest vessels; some of their 
schooners resemble the Baltimore clippers. Chippawa, on the British side, at 
the mouth of the Welland, is the entrepot for goods sent to, or received from, 
the upper country. The goods discharged or laded at this place will be much 
diminished in quantity in consequence of the Welland Canal now obviating the 
necessity of land carriage, as formerly, between Queenston and Chippawa. 

Through the River Detroit, it receives apparently the surplus waters of 
Lakes St. Clare, Huron, Michigan, and Superior. 

The American shores are thickly inhabited, and the townships along the 
British coast, from Niagara to Detroit, are rapidly filling up with settlers. 
Opposite to Fort Erie, where the Niagara issues from the lake, stands the 
thriving American town of Buffalo. Here the Grand Canal commences which 
connects Lake Erie with the Hudson, and consequently with the Atlantic. 

At Fort Erie, seventeen miles by a good road from Niagara, the lake opens, 
and we soon come to the old Dutch settlement, called "Sugar Loaves," which 
takes its name from six conical hills, rising from the low grounds near the lake. 
Along the Canadian shores of Lake Erie, the lands are flat, but in some places 
the banks, formed chiefly of clay and sand, are 100 feet perpendicular. 



216 CANADA. 

A branch of the Welland Canal is to join the Ouse, three or four miles from 
its mouth. This river is, following its windings, about 150 miles long, 1000 feet 
wide, and navigable for thirty miles. Lands for the Indians, who have hamlets 
on its banks, have, in several places, been reserved. 

On one of its branches, called the Speed, about 100 miles from its mouth, 
lies the young thriving town of Guelph, founded by the Canada Company on one 
of their blocks of land. Between the Ouse and Port Talbot lies the well-settled 
tract of country called Long Point. 

Port Talbot is nearly equidistant between Niagara and Detroit. Here, in 1802, 
the settlement of the country to the westward, then an uninhabited wilderness, 
commenced under the superintendence of Colonel Talbot. He encountered great 
difficulties before he succeeded in laying out and opening roads, extending about 
eighty miles parallel to the lake. Along these, farms of 200 acres were granted 
to emigrants, subject to certain stipulations, such as clearing ten acres of land, 
building a house, and opening a road in front of the farm. Settlers, principally 
poor people, soon flocked to it, and the whole is now densely filled with in- 
habitants. 

Settlements were soon after extended along the roads, opened through the 
wilderness of the Long Woods ; and the town of Amherstburg, 783 miles above 
Quebec, and 1100 from the mouth of the St. Lawrence, arose on the banks of the 
Detroit. Amherstburg is delightfully situated. It is fast increasing in buildings 
and in population. It was a naval depot during war. 

Fourteen miles further up stands Sandwich, a very flourishing place. Oppo- 
site to it, in the Michigan territory, lies the old village of Detroit. The river is 
here frozen over in winter, and then the ice forms an immense smooth bridge con- 
necting the United States with Canada. 

The River Detroit runs from Lake St. Clair into Lake Erie. Its navigation 
is not interrupted, and its fertile banks are thickly peopled. 

This is a rich, beautiful country. All kinds of grain, and the finest apples, 
pears, nectarines, peaches, and grapes, grow in perfection. 

Lake St. Clair is about thirty miles long, and nearly the same in breadth. 
It receives several rivers ; the principal of which, named the Thames, 
winds for more than a hundred miles from the north-east; and on its 
banks settlements and embryo towns are growing. It has its Chatham, 
London, and Oxford. General Simcoe, the first governor of Upper Canada, was 
exceedingly anxious that the seat of government should be established some- 
where nearly equidistant to Lakes Ontario, Erie, and Huron, and considered the 
spot named London the most appropriate. 

There is a large delta at the upper end of Lake St. Clair; and through which, 
by several channels, the river issues. Near this the late Lord Selkirk began his 
settlement named Baldoon. The situation is low and marshy, and great numbers 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 217 

of the first settlers were carried off. On the east or American bank stands old 
Fort St. Clair; and a few miles farther up, where Lake Huron opens, Fort 
Gratiat was erected to command the river. 

On the eastern shores of Lake Huron the Canada Company's principal tract 
of land lies nearly in a triangular form, commencing in latitude 43 deg., and ex- 
tending about sixty miles along the coast. 

The Canada Company have opened roads in various directions through their 
lands; and at the mouth of the Maitland, where it joins Lake Huron, the town of 
Goderich has been founded. 

Beyond Goderich, if we except the military stations, the posts of the Hudson 
Bay Company, and the small settlements which have arisen from Lord Selkirk's 
foundation at Red River, the vast regions from Lake Huron to the Pacific are all 
still in primeval wilderness, and still to be inhabited and cultivated by Europeans. 
That emigration from the east will subdue, inhabit, and cultivate the far western 
wilderness is not to be doubted. 

Lake Huron is 250 miles long, 120 broad, and 860 feet deep, without com- 
prehending a branch of it called Georgia Bay, which is 120 miles long, and fifty 
miles broad. Near the head of the latter, at Pentagushine, there is a small naval 
depot. It receives several rivers. The Severn, flowing over a rocky bed from 
Lake Simcoe; the Maitland, at the mouth of which is the town and harbour of 
Goderich, and which flows through the Huron tract; the river Moon, flowing 
from lakes lying between the Georgian Bay and the Ottawa; and the French 
river, a large stream flowing from Lake Nippissing, which a very narrow portage 
divides from a rapid river falling into the Ottawa. This was formerly the grand 
route of the north-west voyageurs. 

The lands on the east and west coasts are generally fit for cultivation, and 
covered with heavy timber, presenting clay cliffs, rocks, and woody slopes along 
the shore. The north coast exhibits a rugged, formidable, and barren aspect. 
The Cloche mountains are behind this shore, and very little is known of the 
interior. 

A multitude of islands, called the Manitoulins, or Islands of Spirits, extend 
from the northern extremity of Georgian Bay, to the detour between the con- 
tinent and Drumrnond's Island. The largest of these is eighty miles long. The 
Indians attach a religious veneration to them, as being consecrated by the great 
spirit Maniiou. 

Through the Strait of Makillimakinak, the fort of which the Americans claim, 
the navigation to Lake Michigan is deep and safe. This lake is within the United 
States' boundary. It is, without including Green Bay, a branch of it, 400 miles 
long, and fifty broad; and Green Bay is 105 miles long, and twenty miles broad; 
both are on a level with Lake Huron. 



218 CANADA. 

The passage to Lake Superior, by the strait of St. Mary, forty miles long, is 
rendered difficult by the rapids or falls of St. Mary, which occur about mid-dis- 
tance between both lakes. The appellation oifall is, however, improper. About 
midway between both lakes, the banks of the strait contracts the channel, which 
also descends, altogether, in the course of the rapid, about twenty-three feet, and 
the vast discharge of Lake Superior rolling along impetuously over and against 
natural irregularities, renders the navigation upwards altogether impracticable. 
Canoes have descended, but the exploit is hazardous. A canal two miles long 
would avoid this rapid, and connect the ship navigation of Lake Superior with 
that of Lakes Huron, Michigan, Erie, and the ocean. 

Lake Superior, the great source of the St. Lawrence, is about 360 geographi- 
cal or 417 statute miles long, and 140 geographical or 162 statute miles broad; 
its circumference round its shores about 1600 miles, and its depth about 900 
feet. Its waters are pure and astonishingly transparent, and this inland ocean is 
not surpassed in turbulent commotion, during tempests, by the most violent 
agitation of the Atlantic. 

It receives numerous rivers, but none of them are remarkably large. Low- 
lands, lying between the lake and the ramps and mountains, are considered to 
have been formerly covered by the waters of the lake. The elevations rise, in 
some parts, to 1500 feet above the level of the lake. In other places a flat 
country extends back from fifty to seventy miles. The largest of its islands, near 
the British side, Isle Boyale, is about 100 miles long by forty in breadth. 

The lands fit for settlement and agriculture may be considered to be nearly 
altogether within the boundaries of the United States. Tracts of good land may 
occasionally occur, or be found, on the British side ; but, as far as we know, 
chiefly from the fur traders, the northern shores are forbidding and sterile, and 
the whole country between this lake and Hudson Bay is of little value, except for 
the furs of the wild animals, or the fish that may be caught in its rivers. 

Salmon of great size, herring, black bass, sturgeon, and all the lake fish, are 
abundant. It is said that neither salmon nor herring are caught in any of the 
lakes, except those communicating with the St. Lawrence. How either herring or 
salmon got into those lakes is a question to puzzle the naturalist. 

The comparative depths of the lakes form another extraordinary subject of 
inquiry. The bottom of Lake Ontario, which is 452 feet deep, is as low as most 
parts of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, while Lake Erie is only sixty or seventy feet 
deep; but the bottoms of Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are all, from 
their vast depths, although their surface is so much higher, on a level with the 
bottoms of Lake Ontario and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Can there be a subter- 
ranean river running from Lake Superior to Huron, and from Huron to Lake 
Ontario? This is certainly not impossible; nor does the discharge through the 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 219 

River Detroit, after allowing for the full probable portion carried off by evapora- 
tion, appear by any means equal to the quantity of water which the three upper 
great lakes may be considered to receive. All the lakes of Canada are estimated 
to cover 43,040,000 acres. The great lakes occasionally rise above their usual 
level sometimes from three to five feet. These overflowings are not annual or 
regular. 

North-West and Hudson Bay Territories. — The region lying north of the 
boundary of the United States, and south of the lakes discharging into 
Hudson Bay, and west of Lake Superior to the Pacific Ocean, has long been 
called the north-west, or Indian territory. 

These boundaries on the north and south are not easily defined; and their 
adjustment is likely to be attended with great doubt and difficulty. 

This vast region possesses almost every variety of soil and climate. Its 
configuration and aspect unfolds innumerable lakes, rivers, mountains, savan- 
nahs, magnificent forests, immense tracks of fertile lands, and barren, rocky, 
frozen countries. 

A greater portion of the region lying south of Lake Athabasca, and west of 
the Stoney Mountains, is eminently adapted for agriculture; and its splendid 
forests and broad savannahs abound with buffalo, moose, carraboo, common 
deer, and most, if not all, the wild animals and birds; in the lakes and rivers, 
great varieties of fish are plentiful. 

This remote territory possesses resources capable of yielding sustenance and 
independence to many millions of inhabitants; but hitherto the soil has in no 
part been subjected to cultivation, except in small spots, where the fur traders 
have established posts; and on the banks of the Red River Lord Selkirk 
established a settlement. 

The principal lakes are, 

The Lake of the Woods, equidistant between Lake Superior and Lake 
Winnipeg. It receives the River La Pluie, rising in the heights west of Lake 
Superior, and discharges its waters by a rapid river into Lake Winnipeg. 

Lake Winnipeg is about 240 miles long, and in its irregular width from five 
to fifty-five miles broad. It lies between latitudes 50 deg. and 54 deg. N., 
and longitudes 96 deg. to 108 deg. W. It receives the waters of several rivers, 
the largest of which is the Saskatchawan, which flows from the Rocky Moun- 
tains. It receives also the Assiniboin and Red Rivers, and its surplus waters 
are carried off by two or more rivers to Hudson Bay. 

Lake Athabasca, lying west of these, is about 200 miles long, and from 
fourteen to sixteen broad. It receives several rivers ; some of which, the 
Unjigah, or Peace River, and others, rise in the Rocky Mountains. Its waters 
are carried off by the rapid Stoney River along a rocky channel into Slave Lake; 



220 CANADA. 

on the north its shores are rugged and barren; on the south alluvial, and on the 
west sandy and naked. 

Lake Athabasca is larger than either Lake Ontario or Lake Erie, being 250 
miles long, by about fifty in breadth. It is from sixty to seventy-five fathoms 
in depth. Its shores are generally wooded, and it has several small islands, 
many of them high, abrupt elevations of rock, principally gneiss and granite. 
It receives several rivers, and discharges its waters by the River Mackenzie, by 
which Sir Alexander Mackenzie first, and afterward Sir John Franklin, de- 
scended to the Arctic Ocean, in latitude 67 deg. 48 min. N., and longitude 115 
deg. 37 min. W. 

The Rocky Mountains are vast granitic chains, which may be considered a 
continuation of the Andes, north, to the polar regions; they are from fifty to 
more than 100 miles in breadth, and separate the rivers falling into the Pacific 
from those flowing into the Mississippi, and into the great lakes of British 
America, and into Hudson Bay. Their summits are about 11,300 feet above 
the sea. 

The country belonging to Great Britain, west of these mountains, is of 
immense extent and vast consequence. It extends from the southern point of 
Vancouver's Island north, along the Pacific, to Russian America. It abounds 
with innumerable bays, islands, rivers, harbours, splendid forests, wild animals, 
and plentiful fisheries. The climate also, like the western shores of the old 
continent, is much milder than countries under the same latitude on the eastern 
coasts. 

The Oregon, or Columbia, and the Frazer are the principal rivers. 

Cook and Vancouver first discovered this country by sea, and Mackenzie was 
the first traveller who succeeded in the arduous attempt to cross the Rocky 
Mountains to the Pacific. 

The Russians on the north, where they have fortresses of great strength, 
and several trading establishments, have encroached on a great portion of this 
country. There may be also much difficulty in adjusting the American boundary 
on the south. 

The territory of the Hudson's Bay Company, held by virtue of the charter 
granted by Charles II., is now understood to include all the countries from 
52 deg. N. on the coast of Labrador, to the extremity of all the rivers falling 
into Hudson Bay. This portion of Labrador is of little importance, excepting 
for furs and fisheries ; and the coast and bay of Hudson, and the inhospitable 
regions of the Esquimaux, are of as little consequence ; but the rivers which 
flow into the bay, rising in the south and west, actually include a portion of the 
United States, and nearly the whole of the Indian territory, in which the old 
French fur traders and the Montreal Company had forts or trading posts. The 
latter are now occupied by the servants of the Hudson Bay Company. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 221 

The territory called Ossiniboia, purchased in 181 1, by the late Earl of Sel- 
kirk, from the Hudson Bay Company, is understood to commence "at a point 
in 52 deg. 30 min. N., on the western shore of Lake Winnipeg, the line running 
also west to Lake Winnipegoas, or little Winnipeg; then south to latitude 
52 deg. on the western shore of this lake; thence south to the highlands, dividing 
the waters of the Missouri and Mississippi from those falling into Lake Winni- 
peg ; thence by those highlands to the source of River La Pluie, and down that 
river through the Lake of the Woods and River Winnipeg, to the place of 
beginning." Half of this territory at least, and certainly the better half, is 
within the boundary of the United States. The whole comprises about 116,000 
square miles, or 73,240,000 acres. 

At the conquest of Canada, and for a long previous period, the French had 
posts established in this tract of country, and as far west as the River Saskatcha- 
wan; and the North- West Company, who succeeded the French, not only 
occupied these posts, but established others far beyond them. 

The lands on the banks of the Red River are not covered with trees. The 
rivers abound with fish ; the plains with buffaloes; the neighbouring forests with 
elk, deer, and various kinds of game. The settlement is still in being, but we 
have no late accounts of its condition. 

By the treaty of 1842, between England and the United States, the bounda- 
ries of the north-west territories were adjusted west of the Rocky Mountains, 
leaving the country south of 49 deg. to the United States. 

Internal Navigation of Canada. — The navigation of the gulf from the 
Atlantic to the River St. Lawrence is deep and safe; except during the breaking 
up of the ice, and the misty weather which attends the chilly north-east winds 
that prevail for some days about the same period; and during the commence- 
ment of winter, when the nights are dark, and the weather generally uncertain 
and tempestuous. The navigation of the River St. Lawrence below the traverse, 
and of the whole gulf, at this season, is difficult, and often dangerously terrific. 
But from the 1st of May to the middle of November, the weather is not only 
mild, but heavy gales are much less frequent than on the Atlantic, or in the 
British and Irish Channels. 

The interruption at Montreal has been obviated by the Lachine Canal. 

The next interruption in the navigation of the St. Lawrence is at the Cascades, 
which is also partially obviated by a canal for large steam ships and other 
craft, and at Debuisson another interruption is surmounted by locks. At the 
lower end of Lake St. Louis it was found necessary to construct locks to avoid 
the rapid ; and, from this place, the navigation is uninterrupted to Cornwall, 
where the dangerous succession of rapids, called the Long Sault, disturb the St. 



222 



CANADA. 



Lawrence, and rendered the passage dangerous. A deep canal avoids this ob- 
struction; bateaux, scows, and timber rafts have been long directed down these 
violent currents. At Barnard's Island, the south channel, w T hich is navigable, 
belongs to the Americans, and the north, or British, is almost impassable. 

The execution of locks and canals to obviate the rapids of the Ottawa, by the 
Rideau river and lakes to Kingston, have been executed at great expense. 

These canals and the Welland Canal open the whole river and lake naviga- 
tion of Canada ; and the lakes communicate by canals with the Hudson, the 
Ohio, the Mississippi, and the Atlantic. 



STATISTICS OF CANADA. 

Population at Different Periods. — The first general census of Canada was 
taken by the French government in 1676; since which period the increase is 
given by estimate, and by official returns, as follows :■ — 



YEARS. 



1676 

1688 
1700 
1706 
1714 
1759 
1784 
1800 
1808 



Lower Canada. Upper Canada. 



number. 
8,415 

11,249 

15,000 
20,000 
26,904 
65,000 
113,000 
220,000 



number. 




124 


1811 




1824. 


200 


1825. 




1827. 




1831 




1836. 


1,000 


1842 




1844. 


10,000 


1848. 


70,000 


I860. 



YEAR 



Lower Canada. 


Upper Canada. 


number. 


number. 


., 


76,084 




151,007 


423,630 




4? 1,876 




511,922 


234,865 


572,827 


322,693 




486,055 


690,782 




768,334 


723,087 


800,000* 


921,000 



* Estimated. 



On the 7th of May, 1792, Sir Alured Clarke, then Lieutenant-Governor, 
divided Lower Canada into counties ; and the census division in 1825 is as 
follows :-— 

Population of Lower Canada — Census of 1825. 



COUNTIES. 


Population. 


Male 
Adults. 


Per 

Ceutage. 


C O U N T I E S 


Population. 


Male 
Adulta. 


Per 

Centage. 


Bedford ,.. 


number. 
23,654 
33,522 
20,012 
11,934 
19,707 
14,921 
6,425 
13,312 
14,044 
39,586 
10,890 
19 757 


number. 

5524 
8140 
4475 
2872 
4817 
3560 
1740 
3346 
3574 
9666 
2986 
4585 


23-35 
24-28 
22-63 
24-06 
24-44 
23-85 
27-08 
25 13 
25-46 
24-41 
27-42 
23-20 




number. 
37,085 
11,210 
4,022 
28,623 
36,256 
21,066 
11,573 
15,935 
30,096 


number. 
10,692 
2,690 
1,039 
7,709 
8,644 
5,114 
2,899 
3,693 
7,806 


28*83 


Buckingham 


Northumberland .., , 


24 00 
25-83 






26-93 






23-84 




St. Maurice 


24-27 




25-05 


Hampshire 

Hertford .. 




23-17 
25*93 


York 


Huntingdon 

Kent 


Totals 


423,630 


105,571 


24*90 


Leinater 





BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



223 



Tabular Statement of the Increase of Population based on the various Calculations, 

for 1844 and 1848. 



COUNTIES. 


Popula- 
tion by 
Census 
of 1844. 


Based on an Increase of 
77,552 in 4 Years. 


COUNTIES. 


Popula- 
tion by 
Census 
of 1844. 


Based on an Increase of 
77,552 in 4 Years. 


Proportionate 
Increase. 


Population, 

1848. 


Proportionate 
Increase. 


Population, 

1848. 


5_ 12 $ Saguanay 

° l£ ) Ottawa 


number. 
13,475 
12,434 

26,835 
20,646 
25,533 
26,859 

9,374 
12,690 
795 
10,105 
28,746 
49,391 
35,673 

6,749 
17,630 
34,817 
13,697 
15,922 

17,063 
16,536 
4,2<J7 


number. 

5,889 
6,436 

3,127 
2,406 
2,974 
3,129 
1,093 
1,478 
92 
1,177 
3,349 
5,755 
4,157 
786 
2 053 
4,060 
1,595 
1,855 

1,491 
1,445 

376 


number. 
19,364 
17,870 

29,952 
2*,052 
28,507 
29,988 
10,467 
14,168 
887 
11,282 
32,095 
55,146 
39,830 
7,535 
19,683 
38,877 
15,292 
17,777 

18,554 
17,981 
4,673 


1-12- 


'Champlain 

Nicolet 


number. 
10,404 
16,310 
11,956 
10,865 
22,898 
17,115 
21,973 
7,146 
14,549 
17,003 
17,465 
11,964 
36,204 

14,915 

10,003 

8,434 

20,888 

13,167 

8,24G 


number. 

908 
1,425 
1,044 

950 
2,002 
1,495 
1,921 

625 
1,274 
1,489 
1,527 
1,045 
3,167 

978 

656 

554 

1,367 

802 
540 


number. 
11,312 
17,735 




"Two Mountains... 
Terrebonne 


Yamaska 

Missisquoi 


13,000 
11,815 
24,900 




Chambly 

St. Hyacinthe ... 


18,610 






23,894 




Druiumond 

Sberbrouke County 

„ Town . 

Shefford 


7,771 




Bel lee basse 

L'Islet 


15,823 
18,502 
18,992 




Kamouraska 

Stanstead. 

.Huntingdon 

rMomreal Countv. 


1-9 < 


Beauhamois 

Montreal, City 

Quebec, City 


13,009 
39,371 

15,893 






j Quebec County.'. 
. .-J Montmoreuci.... 

1 * 10 1 Richelieu 

Vercheres 

LBonaventure 


10,659 




Dorchester 

Lotbiniere 


8,988 
22,255 
14,029 


1-12 ■ 


"Vaudreuil 

St. Maurice 

^ Three- Ki vers 


8,786 




Totals 


690,782 


77,552 


768,334 



Census of Upper Canada for 1836, according to the then Electoral Divisions. 



DISTRICTS. 



Eas'ern 



Ottawa 

Bathurst 

Johnstown ..< 



Midland. 



Prince Edward. 
Newcastle 



Home .. 

Gore • • • 
Niagara 

London . 

Western 



COUNTIES. 



Glengarry . 

Dundas 

stoimont (1) 

Prescott ..„ 
Russell 



Leeds .... 
Grenville 



Frontenac 

Lennox & Addington. 
Hastings 



A. County 



Northumberland (2) 
Durham (3) 



York 

Simcoe , 

Toronto, City 



Wentworth 
Halton .... 



Lincoln 
Haldimand 



Middlesex. 
Norfolk... 
Oxford ... 
H uron . . . 



Essex 
Kent . 



Town- 
ships in 

each 
County. 



Not distinguished .... 



number. 

4 

4 

4 






Total 

Add for townships omitted 



Total 



Inha- 
bitants. 



number, 
12,250 
5,739 
4,922 

5,228 
2,259 

24,127 

18,141 
12,444 

12,144 
12,674 
10,578 

12,343 



18,760 
14,1/6 



10,215 
9,654 

12,965 
30,955 

26,336 
4,111 

23,790 
7,742 

12,067 
2,956 

7,749 
9,316 



Totals. 



22,911 

7,487 
24,127 

30,585 

35,396 
12,343 

32,936 

63,529 
43,920 
30,447 

47,095 
17,065 



367,841 
4,661 



372,502 



RELIGIOUS CENSUS. 



Church of England .. 
Church of Scotland .. 
Presbyterian Church of ) 

Canada $ 

Church of Rome ..•• 
B. W. Methodists .... 
C.W.Methodists .... 
Episcopal Methodists.. 
Other Methodists .... 

Presbj terians 

Independents 

Baptists 

Lutherans 

Quakers 

Moravians 

Dutch Church 

Jews 

Other Creeds 

Total 

No known creed 

Total 



1842 



number. 

107,791 
77,868 



65,203 

23,342 ; 

32,313 

20,125 
7,141 

18,220 
4,253 

16,411 
4,524 
5,200 
1,778 
946 
1,105 

19,470 



405,691 
80,364 



486,055 



1843 



number. 
166,340 
65,762 

62,690 
119,810 

87,516 

35,371 
14,505 
19,730 
5,933 
28,503 
7,186 
5,951 



130 
13,161 



632,588 
90,499 



723,087 



* Cornwall omitted 



f Three townships omitted. 



X One township omitted. 



224 



CANADA. 



Census of Upper Canada in 1848, according to the Electoral Divisions. 



DISTRICTS. 


COUNTIES. 


Townships 
in each 
County. 


Population. 
Counties. 


Total 
Districts. 


County Towns 
Unrepresented. 




{ 




number. 
13 
11 

12 

19 
10 

4 
4 
4 

8 

8 

11 

4 
4 
5 

21 

5 
11 

17 

15 
3 
6 

6 
8 

6 
4 

7 
8 


6 
23 

7 

12 

27 

8 
21 


number. 

1 •• 


number, 

29,448 

29,219 
21,379 

25,520 

38,653 
59,015 

.106,352 
20,450 

43,444 
46,547 

45,249 
47,433 
10,364 

5J,125 
18,061 
23,060 
15,716 
23,133 
41,439 

27,440 




Bathurst . 


united . } RenfrewV.'.'.'/.v.'.'.:::::::: 


Perth. 




Oxford 






29,219 










Woodstock, 




21,379 




\ 

f 

1 

., r 




Peterborough 1906. 




19,245 
6,275 


Dalhousie 














11,471 
10,723 
15,005 
1,454 










Eastern . . . 




















19,546 

29,580 

9,889 


Brantford 2250 










I 








f North Riding 






17,050 
21,033 
24,530 
20,236 
23,503 












lorKL "] East Riding 






I 


















20,450 






1 

{ 

I 




Goderich, 1030. 




17,160 

23,835 

2,449 










Brockville, Town . 












41,963 

4,584 

17,311 
6,484 
13,135 

8,369 




London ... 


















Midland . . 


United.] ArtdinVton''" 






i 

{ 

\ 














23,346 

24,087 


Port Hope, 2021. 
Cobourg, 3153. 


Newcastle . 










8,663 
1,701 




Ottawa ... 








( 

1 

L 

ard 








17,774 
17,532 
12,719 
3,100 






Welland 




Niagara.... 


















Prince Edw 


18,061 






Picton, 1599. 


c- 


23,060 | 
15,716 | 




Norfolk 








Hastings 






23,133 




Wellington 




Waterloo 


41,439 


Belleville, 2939. 


{ 








12,630 
14,816 




Western . . . 


K^ent 












.... 


.. 




Total 


723,087 





BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



225 



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VOL. V. 



226 



CANADA, 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE CENSUS OF 1848. 

Of the heads of families in round numbers at 120,000, we find that one- 
half are returned as proprietors of real estate, while 50,000 are returned as 
non-proprietors; this leaves 10,000 about the number of those returned under 
the head of Labourers. 

The census of occupations was imperfectly taken; taking, however, the loca- 
lities where the returns were perfect, we have the following results: — 



The gross population is 

Heads of families 

Employed iii profession 

„ trade and commerce 

„ agriculture . 

„ labourers 

„ in factories . 



616,514 

100,405 

1,877 

19,713 including handicraft. 

68,417 

11,135 



And taking the same proportions for the unreturned districts, we have as a 
conclusion that about 80 per cent of the whole population derive their subsistence 
directly from agriculture. The non-producing population of the province do not 
amount to 8000 souls in all. 

EDUCATION. 

In 1842, the number of colleges and high schools was 44, and elementary schools 927. 

In 1848, the number of colleges and high schools was 39, a»id elementary schools 2464. 

In 1842, the number of boys ucder 14 years of age was 115,389, of whom 16,485, or 14-28 per cent, attended schools. 

In 1842, the number of girls under 14 years of age was 108, 634, of whom 13,476, or 11*67 per cent, attended schools. 

In 1848, the number of boys under 14 years of age was 167,270, of whom 46,371, or 27'07 per cent, attended schools. 

In 1848, the number of girls under 14 years of age was 158,780, of whom 34,090, or 21-47 per cent, attended schools. 

The attendance at school is generally limited to children between the ages of 
5 and 15; now the proportions so attending in 1842 did not exceed 22 per cent, 
while in 1848 we find it to be over 42 per cent. 

Proportion, National Origin of Inhabitants. — Taking the two enumerations, 
we find the whole to be as follows : — 



COUNTRIES. 


1842 


1848 




per cent. 
8-85 

17*02 
8-65 
3-05 

53-86 
1-43 
7-14 


per cent. 
8-99 

19-60 
8 03 
2-85 

53-36 
2-63 
4-54 








British 


Continent of Europe 


Total 


100-00 


100-00 



We find the greatest increase to have been amongst the Irish and German in- 
habitants, while the great decrease has been in those from the United States : — 

The increase per cent of English during seven years was 50-10 

„ Irish „ 70-04 

„ Scotch „ 37 04 

„ Canadians, French „ 38-75 

„ „ British „ 4631 

„ Other Countries „ 170-90 

The decrease per cent of United States „ 6-63 

Increase on the whole population, according to origin... 47*68 

While taking the census by ages of 1848, it will be 51*40 

Religious Census. — It is impossible to get anything like a correct religious 
census of Upper Canada, because the numbers of various denominations are so 
many, and such sectional jealousies exist, that the exclusion of any class from 
the census rolls causes dissatisfaction, and to include all would have the effect of 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 227 

swelling the rolls to an enormous extent; consequently, in this census, a large 
deficiency must occur. In 1842, the deficiency amounted to 80,000, or one- 
sixth of the whole population, while in 1848 it is 25,000, or about one-twenty- 
ninth of the whole. In addition to the actual deficiency in 1848, we find no less 
than 60,000 classed under the head of K No Creed or Denomination ;" a circum- 
stance which of itself is sufficient to render this branch of the census perfectly 
useless for any practical purpose, nor would it be attended with any beneficial 
result to institute a comparison between the denominations given in both 
years. 

CENSUS BY AGES. 

In 1842, the males under 14 were 23*74 per cent of the population. 
In 1842, the females under 14 were 2234 per cent of the population. 
In 1848, the males under 14 were 23-04 per cent of the population. 
In 1848, the females under 14 were 21-87 per cent of the population. 
The total number of males in 1842 was 259,914 
„ „ 1848 was 387,631 

Increase 127,717 or 49*14 percent. 

The females in 1842 were 226, 141 

1848 were 338,248 

Increase 112,107, or 49*57 per cent. 

Of the males, in 1842, 144,525 were adults above the age of 14, and of these, 
79,539 were married, being about 55 per cent; in 1848 the former were 220,361, 
of whom 120,523, or about 54*68 were married. The decrease has arisen from a 
falling off in the number of persons in proportion above the age of 60, and a very 
trifling decrease is observable in those married between the ages of 14 and 18. 

Of the females, in 1842, 117,507 were above the age of 14, of whom 74,767 
or 63*62 per cent, were married; wdiile in 1848 the total female adults were 
179,468, of whom 111,034, or 62*04 per cent were married. 

In 1842, the males were to the females as 100 to 88 nearly. 
In 1848 „ „ 100 to 88 „ 

Nearly six-sevenths of the male population between the ages of 30 and 60 
are married. 

Births and Deaths. — The census of 1848 was the first in which any attempt 
was made to collect information under these heads regarding the Upper Province. 

The total number of births we find to be 27,688, or one to every 26 
„ deaths „ 11,518 „ 63 

Difference „ 16,170 „ 37 

The general average of births and deaths in England is, of the former 1 in 
33, and of the latter 1 in 54. 

By the United States census taken in 1840, the children under five years of 
age were about 15 per cent of the population, while in Canada they are very 
nearly 20 ; in England, the proportion is much less. Now, if we assume the 
number of births and deaths to be correct, we find that for every 100 males born, 
42 die, and for every 100 females, 41. 

The marriages in Upper Canada, during the year previous to the census, 
were 5367, or about 1 to 12 of the adult single population. 

Males. Females. 

Lunatics and idiots . . . 457 or 1 in 848 311 or 1 in 1088 

Deaf and dumb . . . 234 „ 1656 194 „ 1743 

Blind . . . . . 152 „ 1550 200 „ 1691 

Q 2 



228 



CANADA. 



The United States census does not class the above as males and females ; the 
proportions, however, were of — 



Blind 

Deaf and dumb . 

Lunatics and idiots 



6,916, or I in every 2482 
7,659 „ 2228 

17,431 „ 979 



The total number afflicted as above were- 



In Canada . 
In the States 



1,548, or 1 in every 472 inhabitants. 
32,009 „ 533 „ 



Servants. — In a country, a great, proportion of whose population accrues by 
immigration, the number of persons usually classed as servants must naturally 
be small, particularly of male farm servants ; and any increase at all approaching 
to a similar ratio to that of the population argues one of two positions. First, 
that there must have been a great increase in the number of those able to employ 
assistance; or, secondly, a great increase in the wealth of our farmers and the 
extension of their labours. Now, in 1842, the male farm servants were 3184, 
and, in 1848, 7514 — far more than double. This shows a rapid increase, and 
affords direct evidence of the increasing prosperity of the agricultural body of 
Western Canada. 

Domestic Male Servants. — No great increase can be expected for years among 
the rural inhabitants; male servants being chiefly confined to towns and cities. 
Domestic female servants have increased very much, and is one of the items 
affording the best proof of prosperity. In 1842, the unmarried females between 
the ages of 14 and 45, to which class female servants may be said entirely to 
belong, were 36,882, of whom 5181, or nearly one-seventh, were servants. In 
1848, the former amount to 60,664, and the latter to 10,781, about one-sixth in 
the first period, being 1 to every 7'12, and in the latter 1 to every 663. 

Coloured Persons. — No means of knowing what portion of the increase of 
coloured persons was by immigration, and what by births, as the ages are 
classed separately of the males; taking one- fourth to be adults, the increase 
would be about 20 per cent by immigration, and of females above 30 per cent. 

AGRICULTURAL AND LAND RETURNS FOR LOWER CANADA. 

Contents of the several Counties of Lower Canada, in Square Miles, from Surveyor- 
General's Return. 



counties. 



Montreal: — 

Berthier 

Leinster 

Terrebonne 

Two-Mountains. 

Ottawa 

Montreal 

Vaudreuil , 

Beauharnois.... 

Huntingdon 

Chambly 

Vercheres 

Richelieu 

St. Hyacinthe... 

Rouville 

Shefford 

Missisquoi 



Quebec : — 

Saghuny 

Montmorenci. 

Quebec 

Portneuf 

Rimouski .... 



Square 
Miles. 



number. 

9,590 

5,090 

545 

1,404 

35,100 

197 

330 

717 

488 

211 

198 

373 

477 

429 

749 



75,700 

7,465 

16,040 

10,440 



Acres. 



number. 

6,137,600 
3,257,600 
348,800 
898,560 
22,464,000 
126,080 
211,200 
458,880 
312,320 
135,040 
126,720 
238,720 
305,280 
274,560 
479,360 
230,400 



48,448,000 
4,777,600 

10,265,600 
6,681,600 
5,248,000 



Laid out 

in Square 

Miles. 



COUNTIES. 



700 
590 
491 
790 
1710 
197 
330 
717 
488 
211 
198 
373 
477 
429 
749 
360 



1258 
729 
476 
1050 
2240 



Quebec — continued. 

Kamouraska 

L'lslet 

Bellecha^se 

Lotbiuiere 

Dorchester 

Megantic 



Three-Rivers :- 
Cbamplain.. 
St. Maurice.. 
Drummond.. 
Yam a ska . ... 
Nicolet 



St. Francis : — 
Sherbrooke.. 
Stanstead... 



Gaspe :— 

Gaspe 

Bonaventure. 



Total. 



Square 
Miles. 



1,090 
1,220 
1,083 
735 
2,050 
1,465 



6,200 

7,300 

1,644 

283 

487 



2,785 
632 



4,053 
4,560 



209,290 



Acres. 



number. 

697,600 
730,800 
693,020 
470,400 
1,312,000 
937,600 



3,968,000 

4,672,000 

1,052,160 

181,120 

311,680 



Laid out 
in Square 

Miles. 



,782,400 
404,480 



2,593,920 
2,918,400 



133,945,600 



number. 

568 
560 
726 
735 
1,890 
1,400 



1,040 

575 

1,644 

283 

478 



2,006 
632 



29,436+040 „ 18,«71,040 English acres. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



229 



According to the Returns laid before a Committee of the House of Assembly, by the Com- 
missioner of Crown Lands and the Surveyor-General, on the 28th of February, 1845, we have the 
following abstract of the disposal of the lands in this Province : — 



Lands surveyed in seigniories 

„ Crown and clergy in townships 

Lands unsurveyed . 
Surveyed lands there remained on hand 

The original survey was 
Clergy reserve set apart 
Educational purposes 

„ Quebec 

Jesuits' estates, Montreal 

„ Three-Rivers 

,, Quebec 

Charitable purposes 



Disposable as above 



Disposed of as follows : — 

Lands belonging to Jesuits' estates, not included in the statement, and ap- 
propriated for educational purposes, forming part of the 9,027,880 acres en 
seigneur ie . . . . . . . 

Granted in fief and en seigneurie to individuals by the Crown of France 

Granted in free and common soccage to leaders of townships and associated 

emigrant settlers, officers, non-commissioned officers of the army and militia, 

officers of the navy, pensioners, purchasers of Crown lands, adjudications and 

claims in the district of Gaspe ...... 



903,433 
307,000 
426,000 
48,000 
439,000 
129,500 
124,800 

2,377,733 
3,907,000 



57,580 
7,496,000 



3,847,629 



acres. 

9,027,880 

8,745,889 

107,866,000 

3,907,000 

17,685,942 



6,284,733 
11,401,209 



11,401,209 



Lands Granted and Sold in Lower Canada in the Years from 1836 to 1847 inclusive, 
taken from Returns furnished to Blue Book by the Crown Land Commissioner. 



HEADS. 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 


Grants under 100 acres j ac ^" s# 

Grants to 500 acres j acres 


30 

1,898 

227 

31,932 

60,654 

291 

94,484 

55,275 

39,209 

3,129,547* 

4,074,862 


379 

36,566 

99 

20,074 

37,548 

525 

94,108 

25,959 

68,149 

3,459,318 

4,031,143 


104 

9,233 

42 

8,681 

19,414 

158 

37,358 

30,947 

6,411 

3,628,369 

3.993.785 


389 

35,519 

96 

20,690 

75,482 

520 

131,693 

94,442 

37,251 

3,681,219 

3869.991 


158 

15,012 

55 

10,865 

26,973 

237 

52,850 

19,581 

33,269 

3,724,570 

3.R09.241 


69 

6,112 

47 

11,602 

25,537 

189 




Total number of acres granted 


43,351 

34,928 

8,423 

3,724,570 

3.943.901 




Number of acres granted in colony .... 






HEADS. 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


Grants under 100 acres { a n ° eg 

Grants to 500 acres {acres. 


52 

4,539 

45 

10,182 

33,087 

113 

47,808 

44,703 

3,105 

3,772,378 

3,896,093 


24 

2,297 

31 

6,160 

23,116 

69 

31,573 

28,283 

3,290 

3,803,951 

3,864,520 


88 

6,024 

33 

7,368 

27,864 

128 

41,526 

19,291 

22,235 

3,845,477 

3,604,300 


138 

11,192 

94 

16,757 

123,588 

252 

151,573 

100,942 

50,595 

3,997,014 

2,927,763 


152 
11,148 

84 

15,445 

140,882 

260 

167,485 

36,885 

130,900* 

4,164,499 

2,802,557$ 


182 

13,770 

83 

15,359 

13,197 

280 




Total number of acres granted 


42,317 

36,948 

5,369 




Number of acres granted in colony.... 


4,206,816 
2,799,040 









* There were also two grants in Murray Bay, and one in Bay Chaleur ; extent not known. 

t This line fluctuates by new surveys. 

I Include 124,834 acres granted to British American Land Company. 

$ Also, 676 town, and 76 park lots. 

Since 1st January, 1841, there were granted in Lower Canada : — 
By purchase .... 527,844^ 
By free grant . . . . 408,206£ 

936,090 5-6 

PRODUCE OF AGRICULTURE. 

The returns of 1831 were compiled with great care, but no account was after- 
wards taken until 1844. 

The returns of 1831 gave only 2,065,913 acres 

1844 „ 2,802,317 „ 

The increase was 35*6 per cent, while the increase in population was nearly 
similar, being 35 per cent. The number of landed proprietors in 1831 was 
57,891, being on the average about 36 acres to each, while in 1844 the pro- 



230 



CANADA. 



prietors amounted to 76,440, or about 36^ acres each ; which shows us that agri- 
culture in Lower Canada is only followed for the sustenance of the cultivators. 
The produce of Lower Canada is thus stated by the foregoing returns : — 



PRODUCE. 



Wheat 

Peas 

Oats 

Barley 

Rye 

Indian corn 
Potatoes ... 
Buckwheat 



1831 



bushels. 

3,404,756 
948,758 

3,142,274 
394,795 
234,529 
339,633 

7,357,416 
106,050 



1844 



bushels. 

942,835 
1,219,420 
7,238,753 
1,195,456 

333,446 

141,008 
9,918,869 

374,809 



This shows an astonishing falling off in the production of wheat. 

The whole produce in 1844, exclusive of potatoes, was 11,445,727 bushels, 
and allowing that two-thirds of the cultivated lands were under potatoes and 
fallow, it would give an average crop of 12 l-5th bushels per acre of all grain 
for the remainder. 

1844. — Of the 76,440 proprietors of real estate, 15,188 held their lands in 
" free and common soccage," and the land so held amounted to 1,706,993 acres, 
of which 540,256 were cultivated. 

These held under Indian and other leases, 169 persons occupying 25,598 
acres, of which only 5918 acres were under cultivation. 





1831 


1844 


Increase. 


Decrease. 




number. 

82,437 

1,458 

1,542 

No return. 

1,035 
857 
395 
Not given. 

14 

97 
90 
Not given. 

"l03 
18 
Not given. 

70 
Not given. 

*489 
64 


number. 

108,794 

1,652 

4,115 

7,898 

2,272,457* 

1,052 

808 

422 

844 

108 

45 

911 

14 

153 

169 

469 

8 

69 

18 

6 

33 

30 

335 

540 

86 


number. 

26,357 

194 

2,573 

17 

27 

56 

79 

51 
22 


number. 
























49 






















Oil-mills 






















A 












34 










Pot and pearl ash factories 




Other factories 





* Bouchette in 1827 estimated 2,714,848. 





Cattle, &c. 








1831 


1844 






number. 
389,706 
116,686 
543,313 
293,137 


number. 
469.851 
146,726 
602,821 
197,935 










T 




1,344,872 


1,417,333 









BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



231 



RETURNS OF AGRICULTURE AND PRODUCE OF UPPER CANADA. 

Statement of the Surveyed Lands in the Province of Upper Canada, of the Clergy 
Reserves granted or appropriated, and vacant Lots. 



DISTRICTS. 


Area. 


Clergy Re- 
serves. 


Granted or 
Appropriated. 


Vacant. 


REMARKS. 




acres. 

779,480 
709,720 
1,021,000 
1,165,900 
213,800 
1,841,002 
1,970,600 
2,879,900 

1,180,400 
564,100 

383,200 

1,655,400 
1,617,500 


acres. 
104,791 

97,327 
141,646 
157,283 

26,200 
248,856 
273,660 
413,333 

146,940 
25,450 
62,400 

238,019 
211,240 


acres. 

673,315 

623,069 

846,964 

696,995 

187,600 

1,232,126 

1,320,740 

2,105,677 

1,030,781 

537,580 

330,700 

1,349,731 
1,389,560 


acres. 

1,374 

89,329 

14,390 

311,622 

360,020 
376,200 
355,890 

2,679 

1,070 

100 

67,650 
16,700 


30,280 acres belong to the Indiaus. 














Prince Edward 

Midland 


2,600 acres belong to the Indiaus. 






Gore 


r 257,000 acres belong to the Indians 




"S the Canada Company in Gore 






(. District. 




87,500 acres are Indian lauds. 






Deduct for roads.... 


15,982,006 
450,000 


2,142,145 
96,400 


12,242,838 
318,000 


1,597,019 




Indian lands south > 
of Dundas-street j 


15,532,002 
31,800 

1,100,000 


( Crown reserves for six nations in 
I Gore Districts. 
5 Crown reserves taken in Huron 
I Tract. 


Totai 


16,950,002 


2,395,687 


13,660,838 







U. E. Loyalist, 321,950; unlocated, 150,800; located, 2,734,239; described total, 3,206,987. 
Militia, 204,332 ; unlocated, 124,376; located, 402,001 ; described total, 730,709. 

From July, 1804, to January, 1819, under regulation of 6th July, 1804 

Granted under regulations, 1st January, 1820 

Described in patent from 14th November, 1818, to 1st July, 1835 

Described in patent since 1835 .... 

Granted under regulation of 1825, without purchase 

Granted to discharged soldiers and seamen 

Granted to magi.-trates and barristers 

Granted to clergy Church of England, 29,200; Presbyterians, 3000 

Roman Catholics ..... 

Granted to Executive Councillors and their families 
Granted to Legislative Councillors and their families 
Granted to surveyors per centage 
Patented to Canada Company .... 



Unappropriated— 
In block 
Scattered Crown reserves 



1,100,000 
1,384,413 



Remaining 



acres. 

388,263 

72,228 

2,078,487 

1,062,300 

15,100 

449,400 

255,500 

4,700 

142,960 
49,475 
264,150 



2,484,413 
1,091,025 



Crown lands disposed of by sale, of which description have issued 
Clergy reserves disposed of by sale, of which description have issued 
School lands under patent ..... 

Granted to officers of army and navy in lieu of remission money 
Crown lands located but not described .... 
Orders in Council filed, but unlocated, viz. : — 

Emigrants subject to fees .... 86,050 

Reduced officers, soldiers, and seamen . . . 106,300 

Provincial militiamen .... 85,200 

U. E. Loyalists . . . . . 295,200 



acres. 

55,084 
73,806 
20,677 
92,526 
795,400 



572,750 



Lands sold in Ten Years, from 1829 to 30th June, 1838. 



YEARS. 


Crown Lands. 


Clergy Reserves.* 


1 829 


acres. 
3,838 
6,1473 
4,365 

10,352 

26,4174 
8,891 

22,707 
7,923| 
7,003| 
2,627 


acres. 

18,041 

34,705| 

28,563| 

48,484f 

62,282i 

59,526 

59,0031 

63,440^ 

81,549 

11,173| 


1830 


1831 


1832 


1833 


1834 


1835 , 


1836 


1837 


1838 


Total 


100,317f 


466,74 2£ 



232 



CANADA. 



Lands Granted and Sold in Upper Canada in the Years from 1836 to 1847 inclusive, 
taken from the Returns furnished to the Blue Book by the Crown Land Commissioners. 



HEADS. 


1836 


1837 


1838 


1839 


1840 


1841 




1,662 

134,603 

1,951 

382,858 

47,981 

3,672 

565,442 

29,102 

536,340 

1,069,262 

1,576,326 


1,211 

103,483 

699 

147,006 

28,602 

1,943 

279,091 

28,083 

257,008 

1,174,449 

1,453,831 


606 

52,119 

383 

84,625 

24,545 

1,016 

161,289 

20,508 

140,781 

1,401,946 

1,486,235 


941 

74,774 

436 

87,524 

14,219 

1,391 

176,518 

50,312 

126,206 

1,592,631 

1,475,835 


1,182 

92,443 

526 

103,440 

10,547 

1,723 

206,430 

51,346 

155,084 

1,623,964 

1,333,243 


352 


Grants from 1 to 500 acres j a "°g S 


31,057 

224 

31,436 

20,412 




585 




82,905 




26,610 

56,295 

1,628,948 

1,326,343 




Number of acres granted in colony 

„ ungranted 


HEADS. 


1842 


1843 1844 


1845 


1846 1847 


Grants under 1110 acres \ a n ° eg 

Grants from 1 to 500 acres j ft n ^ g 


419 
29,001 

181 
36,552 
10,124 

612 
75,677 
23,651 
52,056 

1,250,666 


856 
38,473 
465 
34,109 
12,390 
1,034 
84,952 
40,952 
44,000 

1,165,714 


866 

34,856 

147 

29,878 

9,116 

1,026 

73,850 

38,436 

35,414 

1,243,586 


173 

9,269 

S72 

181,876 

30,264 

1,063 

158,409 

126,400 

32,009 

2,927,763 


1,070 
69,433 
212 
42 r 40(> 
76,035 
1,303 
128,568 
83,535 
45,033 

1,178,758 


1,490 

110,007 

194 

39,944 

12,360 




17,111 
162,371 

64,743 
97,628 

l r l 04,904 








Number of acres granted in colony 

„ ungranted 



Notes. 

1816.— In this year 118 clergy reserve leases for 21,097 acres, and 3 crown leases for I266| acres passed the Great 

Seal. «. d. 

The average price of crown lands during the year was . .90 per acre. 

„ clergy „ „ . . 13 „ 

„ school „ „ . . . 12 6 „ 
The 3672 grants are exclusive of 2 for 287,974 to Canada Company. 



3378 were free grants 
191 crown sales 
92 clergy „ 
11 school „ 
The total number of acres from 1792 were 
Exclusive of sales to Canada Company 



acres. 

536,340 

15,872 

11,446 

1,784 
8,986,423^ 
1.096,262 



The total number of acres sold np to 31st December, 1886, and for which the purchasers have received their patenti 
under the Great Seal, is as follows, exclusive of the grants to the Canada Company ; — 

acres. 
Crown sales . . . . . . 37,735 

Clergy ........ 50,399 

School „ ....... 11,142 



99,276 



The total quantity of surveyed lands remaining ungranted amounts to 1,576,326 acres, exclusive of 302,423 given 
over to Colonel Talbot for settlement. 

1837.— 52 clergy reserve leases for 5850 acres passed the Great Seal during the year. 

jr. d. 
The average price of crown lands during the year was . .90 per acre, 

clergy „ „ . . 13 

„ school „ „ from 12». 6/t. to 15 

area. 
1660 were free grants ...... 251,008 acres. 

157 crown sales ..... 

105 clergy „ .... 

21 school „ 
The total number of acres granted since 1792 was 
Exclusive of sales to the Canada Company for 



Crown lands sold 
Clergy „ 

School „ 



. 11,044 
. 14.254 
2,785 
. 9,265,504| 
. 1,174,449 
acres. 
. 48,779 
. 64,653 
. 13,927 



1838.— 7 clergy reserve leases for 1300 acres passed the Great Seal, 
the Canada Company for 227,497 acres. 

826 were free grants - 
91 crown sales ...... 

95 clergy sales ..... 

4 school sales ...... 

1839. — The leasing of clergy lands was discontinued. 1391 grants were exclusive of 
pany for 190,685 acres. The average prices of the land had increased. 



127,359 
The 1016 grants this year are exclusive of 4 to 



area. 
140,781 acres. 
8,115 „ 
11,906 „ 

487 „ 



grants to the Canada Com- 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



233 



Crown lands 

Clergy lands .... 

School lands 

The quantity of land granted since 1792 was 

Exclusive of grants to Canada Company of 

Crown lands, sold 
Clergy lands ,, . 
School lauds „ . . . 



979 were free grants 
208 crown sales 
200 clergy sales . 
4 school sales 



sold from 9s. to 12*. per acre 
15*. „ 

12s. dd. „ 

. 9,603,31 If acres. 
1,592,631 „ 
acres. 
. 71,603i 
. 111,799* 
. 14,776£ 

198,179 
area. 
. 126,206? acres. 
. 14,709| „ 
. 35,240* „ 
362£ „ 



1840.— There were four grants to the Canada Company of 31,333 acres. The average prices of lands sold this year 
were— s. d. 

Crown lands . . . . . ..112 per acre. 

Clergy lands . . . . . . 12 8 „ 

School lands . . . . . 12 6 „ 

Grants to Canada Company amounted up to this year to 1,623,964 acres. 

acres. 
Crown lands, sold ...... 97,875^ 

Clergy lands „ ...... 136,729* 

School lauds ....... 14.920A 



1 172 were free grants 
347 crown sales 
201 clergy sales 
3 school sales 



249,525 
area. 
155,084 acres. 
26,272 „ 
24,930 „ 
144 „ 



206,430 



YEARS. 


Total Grants. 


Amount. 


Sold. 


1792 to 1842 


acres. 

ll,604,099f 

10,700,798| 

16,660,000 

16,818,409 

16,946,977 

17,109,348 


acres. 
299,756 
340,708 
379,144 

505,544* 
589,079;| 
653,822 




1844 


„ 1845 


1846 


1847 





Tabular Statement showing the Annual Amount and Value of all Articles Assessed for 
Local Taxation in Upper Canada, under the several Assessment Laws of that portion of 
the Province, compiled from the Returns of the Clerks of the Peace, with the Popula- 
tion at various periods. 





Population. 


Lands. 


Houses 
of all kinds 

Assessed. 


Grist-mills. 


Mer- 
chants' 
Shops. 




YEARS. 


Uncultivated 

Assessed 

Value 4s. per 

Acre. 


Cultivated 

Assessed 

Value 1/. per 

Acre. 


Mills. 


Additional 
run of 
Stones. 


Store- 
houses. 


1825 


number. 

158,027 
164,703 
175,128 
186,345 
196,704 
211,567 
234,681 
260,992 
296,870 
320,735 
346,165 
372,502 
396,721 
*385,824 
407,515 
427,441 
465,357 
486,055 

? No \ 
C census. } 

723,332 


number. 
2,500,304 
2,641.725 
2,826,070 
2,977,807 
3,008,777 
3,244,410 
3,570,389 
3,799,014 
4,115,253 
4,171,995 
4,476,368 
4,807,406 
4,736,268 
4,353,890 
5,113,423 
5,290,014 
5,310,103 
5,548,357 
5,783,197 
5,845,935 
6,072,076 
6,182,419 
6,477,338 


number. 

535,212 

614,254 

632,607 

678,618 

717,552 

775,014 

818,432 

916,173 

981,955 

1,034,816 

1,208.508 

1,283,133 

1,453,556 

1,206,493 

1,587,676 

1,710,000 

1,740,664 

1,016,319 

1,993,659 

2,1C6,101 

2,311,238 

2,464,704 

2,673,820 


number. 

8,876 
9,732 
9,889 
10,183 
11,291 
12,082 
13,605 
14,550 
16,446 
16,771 
18,488 
20,951 
22,057 
19,513 
25,049 
25,857 
27,960 
31,638 
33,190 
35,631 
37,214 
39,625 
42,937 


number. 
232 
250 
262 
274 
296 
273 
291 
320 
307 
328 
352 
356 
366 
359 
420 
420 
443 
455 
451 
465 
478 
492 
527 


number. 

71 

80 

94 

98 
102 
121 
135 
152 
173 
192 
199 
227 
233 
251 
298 
294 
334 
359 
375 
369 
417 
426 
475 


number. 
456 

487 

496 

548 

604 

748 

757 

854 
1025 

957 

982 
1043 
1198 

917 
1036 
1123 
1211 
1299 
1330 
1431 
1636 
1868 
1945 


number. 
54 


1826 


57 


1827 


51 


1828 

1829 


68 
72 


1830 


91 


1831 


95 


1832 


96 


1833 


105 


1834 


123 


1835 


117 


1836 


133 


1837 


117 


1838 


99 


1839 


113 


1840 


130 


1841 


145 


1842 


164 


1843 


154 


1844 


155 


1845 


174 


1846 


180 


1847 


179 


1848 


J849 




1850 





* For the year 1838 the assessment rolls were imperfectly taken, owing to the disturbed state of the country, con- 
sequent on the outbreak. 



234 



CANADA. 





Live Stock. 


Saw- 
mills. 


Carriages 
kept for 
Pleasure. 


Amount of 

Assessed Value 

of Property. 


Gross Amount 


YEARS. 


Horses. 


Oxen. 


Milch 
Cows. 


Young 
Cattle. 


of all 
Local Taxes. 


1825 


number. 

22,589 
24,095 
25,520 
27,303 
28,388 
30,777 
33,197 
36,601 
40,249 
41,866 
47,724 
54,616 
57,170 
52,732 
66,220 
72,734 
76,747 
83,755 
88,062 
94,168 
98,598 
105,517 
113,812 


number. 
23.S00 

26,580 
29,128 
30,879 
33,451 
33,771 
36,057 
38,941 
41,870 
42,445 
46,060 
48,929 
49,347 
38,577 
47,569 
49,317 
50,271 
55,137 
58,531 
62,306 
65,127 
68,963 
72,017 


number. 
51,216 
61,954 
67,349 
67,945 
75,091 
80,909 
83,5 i 9 
91,676 
95,042 
99,474 
109,605 
120,584 
123,028 
109,991 
136,^51 
144,900 
163,663 
173,394 
184,186 
187,298 
199,537 
211,565 
218,653 


number. 
23,501 

24,806 
27,918 
29,527 
34,844 
33,396 
35,194 
35,250 
36,089 
36,769 
39,329 
44,698 
48,598 
42,514 
47,624 
48,625 
59,955 
76,648 
84,326 
79,050 
78,665 
74,370 
76,935 


number. 
394 
422 
460 
515 
535 
555 
533 
671 
723 
788 
753 
902 
860 
774 
953 
963 
980 
982 
1169 
1246 
1272 
1401 
1489 


number. 

587 

582 

750 

968 

982 

986 
1111 
1203 
1421 
1409 
1495 
1720 
1627 
1467 
1769 
1863 
1936 
2188 
2648 
3042 
3810 
4510 
4685 


£ s. d. 

2,256,874 7 8 
2,409,064 17 9 
2,442,847 11 
2,579,083 3 4 
2,735,783 10 10 
2,929,269 9 2 
3,143,484 10 
3,415,822 1 
3,796,040 4 2 
3,918,712 14 2 
3,880,994 13 6 
4,605,103 1 9 
4,431,098 8 9 
4,282,544 3 9 
5,345,372 11 6 
5,607,426 7 8 
6,269,398 12 6 
6,913,341 9 3 
7,155,324 18 G 
7,556,514 12 5 
7,778,917 9 6 
8,236,677 18 
8,567,001 1 


£ s. d. 
10,235 8 2 
9,940 4 11 
11,509 10 5 
12,533 12 3 
12,732 17 5 
13,355 10 6 
15,320 10 11 
16,503 6 10 
18,397 5 7 
19,806 1 5 
22,464 8 4 
23,169 8 
24,337 14 8 


1826 


1827 


1828.... 

1829 


1830 


1831 


1832 


1833 


1834 


1835 


1836 


1837 


1838 


24,077 12 3 
33,210 16 7 
37,465 14 4 
43,908 16 8 
58,354 12 11 
64,849 9 3 
74,736 5 
76,291 10 6 
84,137 5 9 


1839 


1840 


1841 


1842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1646 


1847 


86,058 16 


1848 


1849 




1850 





Shanties, or round log huts, are not liable to any taxes, and no account 
has been kept thereof. The houses which are taxed are as follows : — 



1st Class— Squared logs, 2 sides, 1 story, 2 fire-places, rated at 20 each. 

„ Additional fire-places 

2nd Class — Squared logs, 2 sides, 2 stories, 2 fire-places 

„ Additional fire-places 

3rd Class — Framed houses under 2 stories, 2 fire-places 

,, Additional fire-places 

4th Class — Brick or stone, 1 story, 2 fire-places . . 

„ Additional tire-places 

5th Class — Framed brick or stone, 2 stories, 2 fire- 
places 

„ Additional fire-places 



30 „ 

8 „ 

35 „ 

5 „ 

40 „ 

10 „ 

60 „ 

10 „ 



CLASSES. 


1827 


1832 


1837 


1842 


1847 




number. 

2,714 

145 

221 

33 

5,224 

510 

380 

84 

1,348 

820 


number. 

3,861 

148 

302 
40 

8,029 
844 
486 
184 

1,872 
864 


number. 

4,641 

146 

386 

48 

12,840 

1,207 

610 

286 

2,580 

902 


number. 

4,572 

215 

423 

73 

20,092 

2,095 

2,141 

600 

4,410 

3,840 


number. 
5,162 


„ Additional fire-places... 


321 

486 


„ Additional fire-places. . . 


94 

27,167 


„ Additional fire-places.. . 
4th Class 


3,059 
3,172 


,, Additional fire-places... 
5th Class 


760 
6,820 


„ Additional fire-places . . . 


4,987 




9,889 
1,592 


14,550 

2,080 


22,057 
2,591 


31,638 
6,823 


42,737 


„ Additional fire-places 


9,218 


Value for assessment £ 


352,304 


514,667 


751,883 


1,235,189 


1,679,496 



Horses. — The return includes only horses three years old and upwards, 
and are valued by the assessment laws at 8/. each. The average was at least 
12/. 10s. One-half of the horses in Upper Canada are valued above 15/., 
and one-fourth above 20/., and about one-half above 30/., and a like number 
at 35Z. 

Oxen four years old and upwards are valued at 4Z. each. 

Milch Cows are valued at 3/. each. 

Young Cattle are valued at 1/. each. 



BEITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



235 



No farming carriages are liable to assessment, and consequently many which 
are used for both purposes are not returned. 

Abstract of Returns of 1848. 



DISTRICTS. 



Bathurat 

Biock 

Colborne 

Dalhousie 

Eastern 

Gore 

H ome 

Huron 

Johnstown 

London 

Midland 

Newcastle .... 

Niagara 

Ottawa 

Prince Edward 

Simcoe 

Talbot 

Victoria 

Wellington 

Western 

Total 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 



n 2 



No. No. 



28 2 

23 1 

42 .. 

64 1 

172 12 

15 .. 
54 1 
56 4 
44 7 
70 •• 
90 2 
13 .. 
26' .. 
34 .. 
30l .. 

16 .. 
31 1 1 
22 .. 



LANDS. 1 " 



No.|No.< 
48 64 



72 105 

257 186 
368 508 



52 
189 
113 



198 113 

104 139 



18 
20 
55 
53. 
63 
107 1 
100 



895' 39 2464 2157 1940 18,358,800 



acres. 

1,260,800 

584,320 

647,010 

448,000 

779,520 

741,760 

1,361,600 

1,104,000 

1,021,000 

999,040 

1,198,720 

1,344,640 

703,360 

532,960 

220,000 

1,468,800 

384,000 

842,000 

1,097,600 

1,616,640 



acres. 

487,434 
380,403 
320,497 
297,404 
523,134 
368,805 
920,224 
367,975 
549,578 
624,657 
434,456 
519,769 
381,160 
138,083 
217,216 
355,169 
238,859 
287,776 
532,210 
468,782 



acres. 
53,314 

85,706 

46,331 

36,447 

81,181 

146,931 

271,488 

56,005 

93,135 

127,725 

94,573 

147,950 

109,677 

16,100 

76,100 

54,711 

70,708 

62,824 

96,389 

62,862 



acres. 
53,753 
19,676 
35,029 
23,185 
30,481 
82,324 
93,326 
15,889 
45,813 
50,844 
50,781 
55,952 
52,427 
10,107 
28,442 
21,158 
22,135 
19,536 
34,956 
20,954 



acres. 

380,366 
252,108 
196,846 
213,940 
405,458 
382,912 
495,989 
294,541 
364,368 
440,020 
289,002 
319,255 
204,044 
111,876 
111,434 
260,883 
169,772 
187,403 
400,865 
368,224 



acres. 

121,922 

13,446 

4,291 
38,644 
51,680 
55,554 
28,890 
11,541 
91,261 
16,467 
47,521 
17,734 

9,822 
15,958 

5,643 
19,704 
11,753 
16,994 
25,572 
16,742 



Average Value per 

Acre. 



Cleared. Wild 



£ s.d. 



2 

3 15 
2 12 

2 10 

3 



£ s.d. 

6 8 

1 
18 9 
17 6 
5 



No return given. 
5 15 5 13 3 3 
3 I 15 
Vary very much. 



3 10 

4 10 

3 
6 6 

1 13 

4 12 
4 11 
4 

2 7 

3 




4 

4 
9 
6 
7 


14 
17 6 



1 18 
1 



Not given. 



,613,591 1,780,152 766,768 5,849,406 571,139 



In 1842, there were returned 44 colleges and 1441 inns, and 927 schools. 
* No Return for 1848: 1842 with 10-7 is taken. 





LIVE STOCK. 


DOMESTIC MANUFACTURES. 


YEARS. 


Horned 
Cattle. 


Horses. ' Sheep. 

1 


Hogs. 


Fulled 
Cloth. 


Linen. 


Flannel. 


Produce of Market. 




Butter. 


Cheese. 


Beef or 
Pork. 


1848 


number. 
565,845 
504,963 


number, number 
151,389 833,807 
113,657 575,730 


number. 

484,241 
394.3fifi 


pieces. 
624,971 
433,537 


pieces. 
71,715 
166,882 


pieces. 

1,295,172 

727,288 


lbs. 

3,380,406 

Not include< 


lbs. 

668,357 
in census. 


barrels. 
99,231 


1842 








Increase 

Decrease 


60,882 


37,732 258,077 1 89,875 


191,434 


95,167 


567,884 









Various Manufactures, with the Amount of the Produce, as per Returns.* 



Grist Mills. 


Oat and Barley Mills. 


Saw Mills. 


Fuiling Mills. 


Distilleries. 


No. 


Run of Produce, 
Stones. Barrels. 


No. 


Produce, 
Cwts. 


No. 


Feet. 


No. 


Lbs. of 
Wool. 


No. Gallons. 


553 


1141 1 1,612,066 


96 


109,042 


1584 


203,898,220' 239 


2,044,879 


138 | 2,832,012 


Breweries. 


Tanneries. 


Asheries. 


Woollen Factories. 


■esftjU**-- 


No. 


Gallons. 


No. Produce. 


XT Produce, 
No - Cwts. 


No. 


Produce, 
Yards. 


100 1 1,329,090 


354 673,514 


1200 1 151,081 


67 584,008 


10 | 105 



* 1 rope-walk; 1 candle factory; 1 cement mill; 1 salaratus factory; 8 soap factories; 3 nail factories; 11 pail 
factories; 1 last factory; 4 oil mills; 3 tobacco factories; 2 steam-engine factories; 1 ship yard; 1 trip hammer; 
paper mills -jinTT) R. ; potteries ^. 3.^._ P.; vinegar factory ^j ; 5 chair factories; brick-yards t87M)o"7J' axe 
factory -jaVa ; 6 plaster mills -ojj-k, tons xTTTT' con1 ^ factories -g4^ dozen. Where the returns are given as 
fractions, the upper figures designate the number of factories, and the lower the quantities produced. 



236 CANADA. 

Lands, — The number of proprietors of real estate liable to assessment in 
Upper Canada was about 66,000, say 65,000, and the number of acres occupied 
8,613,591, or about 133 acres each; allowing the return of lands under cultiva- 
tion to be near the truth, viz., 1,780,152 of the former, and 766,768 of the latter, 
or 2,546,920 in a 1, and as the great body of the people are supported by agricul- 
ture, we find every three-and-a-half cultivated acres maintaining a person. In 
1842, the population was 486,055, and the cultivated acres 1,916,319 ; the increase 
in the former has been about 47 per cent, while in cultivated lands it was only 33 
per cent; and further, that every 100 increase in population added 265 acres to 
the cultivated lands. 

Of the number of acres returned under tillage, 1,780,152, under the desig- 
nated crops we have — 

acres. 

Wheat 593,695 

Bailey 29,324 

Rye ........ 38,452 

Oats ......... 285,571 

Peas . . . . . . . . 82,516 

Maize 51,997 

Buckwheat. ....... 26,653 

Potatoes ........ 56,796 

1,165,004 
Add for omissions 10 per cent ..... 116,500 

1,281,504 

This leaves a deficiency of 498,638 acres, under various crops not specified, 
gardens, and town-plots. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

Value of cultivated lands 2,546,920 at 3 10 10 peracre 9,020,341 13 4 

Uncultivated „ .... 5,849,406 at 1 9 2 „ 8,530,383 15 

17,550,725 8 4 

If we take the annual rental to establish a value, we find that in Upper Canada 
farms of average value generally rent at 15s. per acre, where about 75 per cent 
are cleared. Yet, taking a lower average of 10s. per acre, the rental of cultivated 
lands in that portion of the province, with a corresponding quantity of unculti- 
vated, would be about 1,697,946/. This approximation is as nearly correct as 
possible. 

In 1840 the population of the United States was 17,063,353, and in 1847 20,746,400 

In 1842 „ of Canada (, West) was 486,055 „ 1848 723,332 

Comparative Produce of United States and Canada. 



CROPS. 



Wheat.... 

Barley 

Oats 

Rye 

Buckwheat 

Maize , 

Potatoes .. 
Pea* 



UNITED STATES. 



1840 



bushels. 

84,823,272 

4,161,504 

123,071,341 

18,645,567 

7,291,703 

377,531,875 

108,295,108 



1847 



bushels. 

114,245,500 
5,649,950 

167,867,000 
20,222,700 
11,673,508 

539,350,000 

100,965,000 



Quantity to each In- 
habitant. 



1840 



4-96 
•25 

7-21 

1-09 

•43 

22-12 

6-35 



No returns. 



5-50 
•28 

8-09 

1*42 

•56 

26-01 

4-86 



1842 



bushels. 

3,221,991 

1.031,335 

4,788,167 

292,970 

352,786 

691,359 

8,080,397 

1,193,551 



CANADA. 



1847 



bushels. 

7,558,773 

515,727 

7,055,730 

446,293 

432,573 

1,137,555 

4,751,331 

1,753,846 



Quantity to each In- 
habitant. 



6-62 

2-12 

9-85 

•60 

•72 

1-42 

16-62 

2-45 



1847 



10-45 

•71 

9-75 

•62 

•60 

1-57 

6-57 

2-42 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



237 



In 1848, the quantity of tobacco produced was 1865 lbs.; flax, 41,590 lbs. 
In 1847, maple sugar, 3,764,243 lbs. ; in 1848, about 4,140,000 lbs. 

From the above table it will be seen that, in proportion to the extent and 
population, Canada is a more agricultural country than the United States, and 
the surplus of wheat is very great. The usual quantity allowed for the consump- 
tion of each inhabitant is generally five bushels, which would leave for export one- 
half the produce of the country. The large quantity of Indian corn grown in the 
states enables them, by making it a staple of consumption, to export a large 
stock of flour. In Canada, on the contrary, little Indian corn is grown, and 
wheat is the great article of food. 

Value of the produce for 1847, at the lowest average prices in Canada: — 



CROPS. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Value. 


Wheat 


bushels. 

7,558,773 
515,727 

7,055,730 
446,293 

1,137,555 
432,573 

1,753,846 

4,751,331 


s. d. 

3 6 
2 3 

1 3 

2 3 
2 6 

4 
2 6 
1 6 


£ s. d. 

1,32-2,785 5 6 
58,019 5 9 

440,983 2 6 
50,208 1 9 

142,194 7 6 
86,514 12 

219.230 15 

356,349 16 6 




Oats 


Rye 








Total 


.. 




2,676,285 6 6_ 



In making the foregoing comparison between the crops of the United States 
and Canada, it must be remarked that it would be unjust to take the whole of 
the former country, as some portions of Louisiana and Florida, and other 
parts, do not yield wheat; we may take, therefore, those states which produce the 
greatest quantity, viz. : — 

New York, with a population of 2,880,000 produced 15,500,000 bushels, or little more than 5 to each inhabitant. 
Pennsylvania „ 2,220,000 ,, 15,200,000 „ very nearly 7 „ 

Virginia „ 1,295,000 „ 1-2,250,000 „ not quite 10 „ 

Ohio „ 1,980,000 „ 20,000,000 „ little more than 10 „ 

Indiana „ 1,000,000 „ 8,500,000 „ about 8 „ 

With respect to Michigan, in 1840 the population of that state was 212,287, 
and its produce in wheat was 2,157,108 bushels. In 1848 the population is 
rated at 420,000, and the wheat crop at 10,000,000 bushels, and other crops at 
22,110,000, making together 32,000,000. How does that stand with regard to 
the available labour of the state ? According to the ratio of 1841, the whole 
male population between the ages of 15 and 70 would be about 127,000 ; of whom, 
allowing 75 per cent to be engaged in agriculture, we have 92,000 to collect the 
enormous harvest of grain stated above, of 350 bushels to each man. The wheat 
crop being about 24 bushels to each inhabitant. 

Maple Sugar. — The manufacture of this article is carried to a great extent 
throughout Canada. 1847 was decidedly one of the worst years, while 1848 was 
good beyond the average; the number of lbs. given for 1847 was 3,764,243, to 
which we may add 10 per cent to bring it to the average yield of 4,140,667 ; and 
as no portion of this is exported, we have very nearly 6 lbs. to each inhabitant. 

Hemp, Flax, and Tobacco. — These articles are very little cultivated. 



238 



CANADA. 





Cattle. 






1842 


1848 


Increase. 


Neat Cattle 


number. 
504,963 
113,675 
394,366 
575,730 


number. 

565,845 
151,389 
484,241 
833,807 


number, 

60,882 or 12 per cent. 
37,714 ,, 33 „ 
89,875 „ 23 „ 
258,077 „ 45 „ 




Sheep 



In 1842 there were produced 1,302,510 lbs. of wool, while in 1848 it 
amounted to 2,339,756; or an increase of very nearly 80 per cent, the average 
fleece being 2 six-eighths lbs. In the States in 1840 the number of sheep was 
19,311,374, and the wool 35,802,114 lbs. 

FINANCES OF CANADA. 

During the possession of the Canadas by France, the finances, as managed 
by the Inten dan t- General, were in a disordered condition ; and the fraudulency 
of M. Bignon, the last Intendant- General, caused great loss to the inhabitants 
of French race. He defrauded the treasury, or rather the inhabitants, to the 
amount of about 400,000/. The Canadas always caused great expense to France. 
In 1729 the expenditure amounted to 16,666/.; in 1?59, before the conquest, to 
1,083,333/. sterling. 

During the present century the following tables exhibit the revenue and 
expenditure of the Canadas :— 



Statement of the Revenue and Expenditure of Upper and Lower Canada, from 1806 

until the Union of the Provinces. 



99 


REVENUE. 


EXPENDITURE. 


< 


REVENUE. 


EXPENDITURE. 


<! 


Lower 


Upper 


Lower 


Upper 


Lower 


Upper 


Lower 


Upper 


>< 


Canada.* 


Cauada-t 


Canada.* 


Canada. t 


J* 


Canada.* 


Canada.t 


Canada.* 


Canada.t 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


1806.. 


29,116 


^ 


35,134 




1824.. 


83,309 


61,566 


83,763 


43,553 


1807.. 


28,248 




42,379 




1825.. 


110,334 


31,513 


80,350 


35,116 


1808-. 


30,264 




43,109 




1826.. 


89,382 


61,667 


80,140 


71,885 


1809.. 


54,827 




39,173 




18'27.. 


110,776 


94,819 


100,514 


90,214 


1810.. 


56,706 




46,967 




1828.. 


108,703 


48,989 


62,219 


41,763 


1811.. 


60,964 




46,813 




1829.. 


117,614 


40,291 


169,533 


49,498 


1812.. 


49,729 




98,351 


t no re- 


1830.. 


143,540 


75,679 


160,992 


97,547 


1813.. 


81,858 




180,833 


1831.. 


130,032 


101,809 


163,738 


100,156 


1814.. 


144,961 




160,854 




1832. . 


163,330 


92,194 


165,970 


80,113 


1815.. 


104,047 




91,354 




1833.. 


162,698 


121,092 


126,079 


125,350 


1816-. 


93,544 




50,133 




1834 .. 


82,133 


329,483 


124,237 


310,182 


1817.. 


79,864 




109,204 




1835 . 


163,249 


189,369 


70,718 


221,035 


1818.. 

1819.. 


56,332 
93,791 




120,580 
72,355 




1836.. 
1837.. 


2,257 } 
2,321 J 


648,102 


( 2,332 > 
\ 334 J 


636,236 


1820.. 


98,840 


J 


53,675 




1838.. 


125,517 


259,292 


222,558 


260,205 


1821.. 


72,760 


t 4,252 


78,708 


t 2,577 


1839.. 


147,254 


157,627 


165,991 


196,310 


1822.. 


39,763 


t 2,801 


73,929 


% 2,795 


1840.. 


165,719/ 
$ 30,291 $ 


|| 221,862 


( 151,362 > 
I 45,984 S 




1823 . 


90,415 


t 11,242 


106,498 


t 19,403 


1841.. 





* Sterling dollars at 4*. Gd. t Halifax currency. % Amount of revenue not included for 1821, 1822, or previous 
half of 1825. § 1841 is to 9th February. 6 Both periods, viz., 1840, and to the 10th February, 1841, included. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



239 



ABSTRACT OF ACCOUNTS LAID BEFORE THE PROVINCIAL PARLIAMENT OP 
UNITED CANADA, AT ITS 1ST SESSION, 1841. 



Statement of Debt of Upper and Lower Canada, June, 1841. 



Total outstanding Lower Canada 

„ Upper Canada . 

Total of United Canada 



Of which .. 



Equal to . 



5,500 currency is at 8 per cent. 

228,206 „ (5 „ 

5,000 „ 5f „ 

4,700 „ 6§ „ 

7,800 „ 5| „ 

2,500 ,, 5£ „ 

73,940 „ 5 



Currency. Sterling. 

£ £ 

. 113,975 

. 213,671 and 869,650 



327,646 ICr. 869,650 



327,646 payable in Canada, and 
869,650 sterling at 6 per cent, payable in England. 
1,385,720 the sterling being at 1/. 4*. Ad. currency per £ sterling. 



Revenue of Upper Canada for 1838, 1839, and 1840 — Gross. 



HEADS OP REVENUE. 


1838 


1839 


1840 




£ 

80,966 
151,253 


105,525 

12,005 


£ 
108,015 
59,456 
694 








232,219 117 san 


168,165 






' 



Expenditure of Upper Canada for 1838, 1839, and 1840. 



HEADS OF EXPENDITURE. 


1838 


1839 


1840 


Expenses of collecting ordinary re- 


3,819 
63,965 
48,373 
147,572 


£ 

4,643 
68,602 
71,312 

25,248 


£ 

5,672 

67,488 

57,724 

33,179 

51 


















' 


' 



Upper Canada, Proportion of Duties on Importations by Sea — 1838, 1839, and 1840 



YEARS. 


Gross. 


R eceiver-G ener al's 
per Centage. 


Net. 


1838 


£ 

44,134 
63,390 
58,653 


£ 

220 
316 
293 


£ 
43,913 

62,082 
58,360 


1839 


1840 







Upper Canada Customs Duties— 1838, 1839, and 1840. 



YEARS. 


Gross. 


Collector's 
Allowance. 


Net. 


1838 


16,293 
20,755 
20,854 


£ 

2792 
3181 
3218 


£ 
13,501 
17,574 
17,635 


1839 


1840 „ 



240 CANADA. 

Upper Canada Tonnage and Duties— 1838, 1839, and 1840. 



YEARS. 


Steamers. 


Schooners. 


Total Tons. 


Duty. 


number. 


tons. 


number. 


tons. 


1 838 


Not given separately. 
11 ) 2614 | 46 


3173 

5606£ 


4505 

5787 
8629| 


£ 

225 

289 


1839 


1840 


431 











UrPER Canada Auction Licences and Duties on Auction Sales. 



YEARS. 


Licences. 


Sales. 


Total. 


Per Centage. 


Net. 


1838 


£ 

95 
120 
155 


£ 
306 
473 
1243 


£ 
401 
593 

1398 


£ s. d. 
20 1 8 
29 13 8 
69 18 5 


381 


1839 


564 


1840 


1328 







Revenue Derived from Licences. 



YEARS. 


Gross. 


Deductions. 


Net. 


1838 


£ 
7,738 
11,247 
15,030 


£ 

691 
1017 
1918 


£ 

7,046 
10,230 
13,112 


1839 


1840 





Revenue from Public Works— 1838, 1839, and 1840. 



YEARS. 


Nature of Work. 


Gross. 


Deductions. 


Net. 


1838 


f Government Works 


£ 

1,534 
8,288 


£ 
95 


£ 
1,439 




1 Other Works 

Total 


8,288 




9,822 


95 


9,727 




( Government Works 


1839 


1,584 
5,564 


98 


1,485 




\ Other Works 

Tota l 


5,564 




7,148 


98 


7,049 




< Government Works 


1840 


2,203 
8,599 


171 


2,032 




( Other Works 

Total 


8,599 




10,803 "' 


10,631 











Recapitulation of Expenditure of Upper 
Canada, 1839. 



HEADS OF EXPENDITURE. 



Civil government 

Administration of justice .. 

Legislature 

Lighthouses 

Schools 

Agricultural societies 

Militia tourts-martial 

Pensions 

Special grants and services 
Interest on public debt 



Currency, 



£ 

15,232 

27,368 

9,551 

2,272 

8,847 

1,080 

24 

3,306 

920 

23,274 



Public works 



Total paid by Receiver-General 

Interest and charges on debt paid by and due 

land agents 

Charge of collecting the revenue 



Total 



Currency. 



91,874 
25,248 



117,122 

48,037 
4,644 



169,803 



Statements, Receipts, and Expenditure, 
1840. 



HEADS OF EXPENDITURE. Currency. 



Balance 31st December, 1839. 

Proportion of duties 

Various ordinary sources 

Militia 

Bank dividends 

Public works 

Sale of stock 

Loans 

Moneys refunded 

Lunatic asylum 

Total receipts 

Warrants 

Receiver-General's allowance 
Balance 31st December, 1840. 



2,000 

10,258 

33.309 

26,000 

150 



158,442 

294 

14,477 



Currency. 



£ 
11,926 

58,881 
29,192 



73,214 



173,213 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



241 



Upper Canada Public Debt and Charges— February, 1841 

f Upper Canada 



Funded 



Unfunded 



| London 



Total funded 



r Glynn 
I Baring 



I 



Loans to U. C. Banks 



Total unfunded 




1,031,154 



7,807 
23,788 
25,400 

54,995 



New Debt, 1841 



Welland Canal 
Insurrection losses 



Total debt, 10th February, 1841 
Add l-9th 



Funded 



Unfunded 



New debt, 1841 

Total charge on debt 
Premium, 10 per cent 



Charges. 



S Upper Canada 
I London 

Total on funded debt . 

f Due London agent 
\ Upper Canada 

Total unfunded 



Currency 

£ 
. 117,800 
. 40,000 


142,020 




1,228,170 
1,364,633 




Currency, 

£ 

12,199 

47,069 






. 59,268 


• 


1,755 
1,560 




3,315 




1,589 


• 


64,172 

4,982 



69,145 



Upper Canada Payments for the Year 1841. — Clergy. 



Church of England ..... 

„ Scotland ..... 

Presbyterian synod ..... 
Roman Catholic bishop ..... 

„ „ priests .... 

Wesleyan Methodists ..... 

Total for the year 1841 

Proportion from the 10th of February to the 31st of December 

Equal to currency . 



Sterling. 

£ 
2500 
1540 

700 

500 
1000 

700 



6179 
6247 



Various Revenues for 1841, 



HEADS. 



C ustoms 

Excise , 

Auction licences 

Tonnage duties 

Territorial 

Payments by American Land Com 

pany 

Public works , 

Fines and forfeitures , 

Rents of Seigniory of Lauzon , 

Militia fines , 

Bank imposts ,-, 

Total 

VOL. V. 



Gross. 



£ 

225,837 

24,904 

1,947 

543 

32,329 

22,222 

18,236 

2,762 

1,657 

508 

568 



331,513 



Net. 



£ 

214,438 

22,572 

1,850 

543 

18,556 

22,222 

12,761 

2,580 

1,392 

508 

568 



297,990 



Warrants issued on Receiver-General for 
expenditure in Lower Canada under or- 
dinance IV. Vict., cap. 9 

Payments underjAct IV. and V. Vict., cap. 
50, Lower Canada 

Payments underlet IV. and V. Vict., cap. 
50, Upper Canada 

Warrants under provincial enactment, 
Upper Canada 

Warrants under Acts of 1st session 

„ Civil List, Schedule A 

B 



Sterling. 



60,425 4 3 

;8,251 17 8 

20,055 13 

29,084 15 10 

11,234 15 1 

40,839 13 3 

25,252 16 11 



195,144 16 



242 



CANADA. 



Financial Affairs of the Province of Canada, 31st December, 1841. 



Loans to Incorporated Companies and Com- 
missioners of Roads 

Provincial works 

Thomas Wilson and Co., for this sum owing the 
province 

Debts due by public accountants 

Receiver-General Dunn, balance due him for 
special funds 

Civil List, Schedule A, advance for 1842 . . 

1841 .. 

Territorial Revenue Special Account, being 
debt due to the Clergy Fund 

Board of Works to be accounted for 



Tota L 



Currency. 



283,524 
1,159,308 

66,040 
103,204 

40,019 
192 

857 

15,661 
11,337 



Sterling debentures, interest payable at Lon- 
don £838,850 

Due balances to London agents 

Sank of Upper Canada and Gore Bank 

Provincial debentures 

Profit on exchange 

I merest account 

Balance due to public accountants 

Special funds 

Consolidated revenue fund for balance account 

Civil List, Schedule B, for balance 

Heceiver-General Dunn 



Total. 



Currency. 



£ 

932,056 
39,965 
26,000 

413,219 
45,844 
13,068 
242 
61,513 
73.280 
1,622 
63,332 



1,670,142 



Consolidated Revenue Fund Account, 31st December, 1841. 





Currency. 




Currency. 


To sundry balances due to collectors of customs 


£ 
73 
779 

647 

36,821 
1,206 
16,094 


By balance on hand 10th of February, 1841.. . 

Balance due by collectors of customs 

„ „ tolls 


17,273 

621 

464 

36 

5,362 




Per centage on wharfage dues £ 119 

Payments to collectors prior to 


Cash from Receiver-General, Lower Canada 
„ treasurers for common schools, 


On account of services, 1840 23,683 

On at count of services, IV. and V. 

Vict., c. 50, and V. Vict., c. 22 8,745 


698 
26,244 


Balance due by collectors of Quebec and 


Balance due by collectors of St. John's, Co- 


£13,139 


1,501 
550 
231 

2,640 


BalancedueforadvanceQuebecTrinity House 










55,620 


Tota l 




55,620 




Currency. 




Currency. 


To proportion Civil List, Schedule A, from 
10th February to 3 1st December, 1841.... 


£ 

44,520 
29,680 

18,830 

100,466 
47,306 
73,280 




£ 
16,092 
22,572 
540 






Payment for services not pro- £ s. d. 
vided for, sterling 16,947 11 1 

Payment on ac- 
count civil ser- £ s. d. 
vice, sterling . . 129,052 5 10 

Less amount 
charged special 
account 38,632 13 4 




1,850 
12,764 








508 


Cash from receiver for Seigniory of Lauzon 


1,392 

2,577 

214,438 

40,778 






Total 




314,082 










Total 


314,082 





Table showing the Net Amount of Revenue for the Years 1842, 1847, and 1850. 



HEADS OF REVENUE. 



Balance from previous year 

Customs — cash... 

„ bonds 

Excise 

Territorial 

Lighthouse and tonnage duties, Canada West..., 

Hank imposts 

Rents and profits of the Seigniory of Lauzon . . . 

Revenue from Public Works 

Militia commissions, fines, and exemptions 

Fines and torfeitur* s, including seizures 

Casual revenues 

Incidental statement 

Saving on Schedule A, 1841 

1842 

Cancelled warrant? 

Interest on public d posits 



Totals. 



1842 



£ s. d. 

73,280 16 2| 

265,386 11 10| 



31,925 

24,572 15 
560 15 

10,277 3 
1,222 8 

16,369 15 
309 8 
2,938 6 
2,454 11 
5,820 11 
2,077 12 
1,690 5 



438,886 1 2i 



1847 



£ s. 

52,006 3 

276,546 

104,517 11 

28,820 14 

25,757 15 

865 19 

16,006 7 



42,557 8 5f 

43 8 3 

2,247 4 6 

8,455 10 2 



1,008 14 10 



558,: 



18 3 



1850 



* This sum includes both cash and bonds separate from 1844. 

t Gross receipts, 83,335*. 15s. Od. 
In the above table it is necessary to subtract from the gross amount the balances from previous years. Thus the 
actual revenue for 1812 was 365,505*. 45. ll£d. ; for 1843, 320,987*. 14s. Sd. ; for 1844, 515,783*. 9s. 6d. ; for 1845, 524,366*. 
16*. 9Jd. ; for 184G, 512 993*. 18s. Sd. ; and for 1847, 506,826*. 14s. Sd. 



BKITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



243 



Gross Amount of Expenditure in each of the Years 1842, 1847, and 1850. 



HEADS OF EXPENDITURE. 


1842 


1847 


1850 




£ s. d. 

75,833 1 
50,000 
33,333 6 8 

18,807 7 6 

11,231 19 4 
31,345 9 4 
21,430 14 10 
47,299 9 1 
70,257 4 6 


£ s. (L 
148,264 7 3 
46,380 2 1* 
30,587 13 6f 

6,347 19 5 

8,746 15 3 
82,648 8 5 

26,231 17 10 
12,687 9 4± 
96,127 4 


£ s. d. 


Amount of Schedule A 

n B.» ». ..... . ...... 




Permanent charges provided by Legislative Acts, 
C. E. ., 




Permanent charges provided by Legislative Acts, 
C. W 




■Charges under Acts of the United Legislature... 












„ 1843 




„ 1845 




, 1846 




w , 1847 .... ., 












Sinking Fund New Account Guaranteed Loan .. 

Amount expended on Public Works in 1843, 

and covered by Act VIII. Vict., c. 71 








Totals of Expenditure..^. ..... .. 


359,538 12 3 
79,347 8 llf 


458,021 17 I 
100,811 1 2 




Totals .,..,,-.,,.... 


438,886 1 2} 


558,832 18 3 





* Amount under Schedule A, Union Act, 37,818/. 15s. id. ; ditto, Provincial Act, 8,561/. 6s. 9d. ; total, 46,380/. 2s. Id 
-t Amount under Schedule B, Union Act, 20,589/. 14s. 9d.; ditto. Provincial Act, 9,997/. 18s. 8rf. ; total, 30,587/. 1 3s. 6d. 
-J The estimatefor 1846 was 173,063/. 18s. Ad. ; less, public works charged to loan, 160,376/. 9s. Orf. ; totai, 12,687/. 9s. Ad' 



Abstracts of the Gross Amount of Revenue of Customs, Deductions, and Net Revenue, 
in the Years 1842, 1847, and 1850. 



ports. 



^Quebec: — 

Gross 

Deductions 

Net 

Montreal: — 

Gross 

Deductions 

Net 

St. John's :— 

Gross 

Deductions 

Net 

Hamilton : — 

Cross 

Deductions 

Net 

Toronto :— 

Gross... 

Deductions 

Net 

Kingston : — 

Gross 

Deductions 

Net 

Lower Canada Inland Ports : — 

Gross 

Deductions , 

Net 

Upper Canada Inland Ports : — 

Gross 

Deductions 

Net 

Total Gross Revenue 

Total Reductions of all kinds 
Total Net Customs Revenue 



1842 



72,923 

4,836 

68,087 

152,403 

2,912 

149,491 

17,759 

898 
16,861 

7,604 

340 

7,263 

8,390 

336 

8,053 

6,826 

316 

6,510 

2,278 
1,077 
1,221 

10,723 
2,824 
7,898 



13 10 
2 8 

11 2 

14 10| 
8 4} 



16 2 
9 10 
6 4 



3 3 

19 2| 

4 0} 

10 4 

3 1| 

7 2J 

12 11 

2 2f 

10 8£ 

9 6 

12 5| 

17 0| 



278,930 7 3§ 

13,543 15 4f 

265,386 11 10| 



1847 



73,831 17 2 

7,283 10 5 

63,548 6 9 

171,285 7 7 

5,528 12 1 

165,756 15 6 

45,411 11 6 

1,273 9 6 

44,138 2 



26,768 3 

1,080 6 

25,687 17 



32,678 10 2 

1,412 2 9 

31,266 7 5 

17,584 19 6 

1,145 16 5 

16,439 3 1 

9,765 9 6 
3,077 19 11| 
6,687 9 6| 

40,309 6 7i 
7,274 7 7| 
33,034 18 11| 



414,633 5 6i 
28,074 5 2| 
386,559 3| 



£ s. d. 



r2 



244 



CANADA, 



Abstracts of the Gross Amount of Revenue, &c— continued. 



From this Net 

Deduct expenses at certain Ports 

Deduct Management Branch 



785 19 7 
3,325 2 10 



£ s. d. 

6,559 3^ 



Difference, Balance on outstanding . 



382,447 17 10^ 
1,384 6 01 



381,063 11 10 



Return of Excise Revenue from the following Sources ; viz., Shops, Inns, Stills, Billiard 
Tables, Hawkers and Pedlars, Steam-boats, Ale and Beer Houses, Auction Licences, 
and Auction Duties on Sales, for 1842, 1847, and 1850. 



HEADS OF REVENUE. 



Shops : — 

Lower Canada.. ..;. . 

Upper Canada 

Gross and Duties : — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Inns: — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Revenue : — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Stills :— 

Lower Can ada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Revenue : — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Billiard Tables :— 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Revenue : — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Hawkers and Pedlars: — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Revenue : — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Steam- boats: — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Revenue: — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Ale and Beer Houses: — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Revenue :— 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Auction Licenses: — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Revenue : — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 

Amount of Duty on Auction 
Sales: — 

Lower Canada 

Upper Canada 



To-al Amount of Duties from 
the above 

Deductions 

Net Revenue 

Amounts brought from fol- 
lowing years 

Total Net Revenues 
turned 



number. 
780) lolil 



!*£}«»{ 



116 



} »*{ 



163 



38; 



89. 



£ s. d. 



3,120 
3,225 



4,980 
6,576 5 0* 



4,341 17 2 
2,472 6 5| 



12 10 
120 



374 
681 5 



165 



327 5 



190 
255 



6,572 11 1 
578 7 Of 



33,991 6 9 

2,066 6 3: 

31,925 5| 



31,925 5£ 



1847 



548 | 



156 



} m { 



25 



S> «*{ 



s. d. 



2,780 
4.U0 



5*528 4 4 
13,971 2 7 



120 



220 
600 



187 10 



123 10 



215 
405 



3,800 4 8} 
996 3 I 



33,056 14 1| 

3,307 5 10 

29,749 8 3| 

928 13 7| 

28,820 14 8 



1850 



number. 



£ s. 



* By Acts passed in 8 Vict., these duties in Lower Canada are applied to local purposes; and in Upper Canada to 
payment of rebellion losses, 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



245 



Receipts constituting the Territorial Revenue. 




HEADS OF RECEIPTS. 


1842 


1847 


1850 




£ s. d. 

1,200 
238 14 5 

206 
25 10 
32 10 

59 

2,000 17 2 

21,740 16 

15,090 7 6 

70 10 11 
11,111 2 S 


£ s. d. 

600 
157 9 7 

874 17 
943 19 5 

1,377 19 
22,330 9 


£ a. d. 


Rent of Beach and Water Lots, Q uebec 




























Receipts from Commissioner of Woods and Forests.... 








Fees on grants of lands and leases 
















1'otal receipts 

Deductions: — 


51,775 8 3 


26,284 14 




25,332 10 

1,596 10 

274 11 


526 18 6 


















27,202 12 8 
24,572 15 7 


526 18 6 | 




25 757 15 6 









Revenues from Public Works. 



WORKS. 


1842 


1847 


1850 


Canals : — 
Welland 


£ s. d. 

16,322 3 9 
2,142 2 10 

71*10 4 


£ s. 

30,549 17 
7,122 1 
3,729 5 
3,959 2 

476 18 
3,336 8 

958 2 


d. 

H 

3 
3 


8 
11 

4 


£ s. d. 






























Total gross revenue from canals 


18,535 16 


11 


50,131 16 


U 




Harbours : — 


120 

624* 11 
291 5 

629* 2 




7 

6 


719 6 

57 1 

1104 13 
556 13 

44 4 
261 5 
600 

25 8 
802 13 
472 3 


5 

9f 

7 
4 
3 

4| 


7 
7 
5 












Kettle Creek 
















Port B>pe 




















Total gross revenue from harbours. . . . 


1664 19 


'4 


4643 10 


44 




Bridges: — 


67* 6 
143 6 


10 
5 


20 
127 18 

12 3 
89 11 
65 
67 15 
22 15 

40 
114 6 

20 16 
524 5 




4 

1 

7 
1 




6 
6 
3 












































Trent 












Total gross revenue from bridges 


210 13 


3 


1094 11 


4 




Lock: — 




956 12 

3,583 4 
1,162 18 


9* 

3 





Slides:— 




Trent 








Total gross revenue from locks and slides. . 






5,702 15 


Of 





246 



CANADA. 



Revenues from Public Works— continued. 



WORKS. 



Roads ;— 

Cascades 

Hamilton and Port Dover 

London and Brantford 

Hamilton and Brantford. 

London and Port Stanley 

Port Hope and Rice Lake 

Kingston and Nepanee » , 

Queenston and Grimsby. . . , 

West Gwilliamsbury , 

Brockville and St. Francis 

Gore District Turnpike Trusts 

Young Street 

East York 

West York 

Lake Shore 

North Toronto 

Toronto Roads, comprehending the five fore- 
going 



d. 



1847 



1850 



,230 



188 10 
305 







700 
,000 
397 14 







Total gross revenue from roads 

Total gross revenue from public works . . 



Deductions : — 
Ordinary expenses of management 
Repairs and other expenses 



Total deductions ... ., 

Total net revenue from public works. 



£,821 4 5| 



24,232 13 9 



1,282 15 2 
6,580 3 5 



18 7 



496 16 1 

2,405 10 6 

2,085 16 8 

6,401 13 10 

2,139 3 2 

315 

1,325 4 1 

61 2 11 

67 



6,465 14 1 J 



21,763 2 



83,335 15 



9,470 13 llf 
31,307 12 7£ 



16,369 15 2 



40,778 6 7 



42,557 8- 5 



Abstract of Payments under the Civil List attached to Union Act. — Schedule A. 



HEADS. 



Governor-General , 

Judges, Canada West , 

Judges, Canada East , 

Pensions to judges , 

Salaries of attorneys and solicitors-general...... 

Circuits, East . . 

Circuits, West 

Criminal prosecutions, East 

Criminal prosecutions, West 

Vice-Admiralty, East - 

Sheriffs, East 

Coroners, East 

Clerks of the Crown, East 

Court of appeals, East 

Interpreters, East 

High constables, East 

Crier and tipstaffs, East 

Court housekeepers, East 

Keepers of gaols, East 

Physicians to gaols, East 

Prothonotaries, East 

Clerks of the peace, East 

Clerks of assize, West 

M iscellaneous items 

Circuit courts, East 

Certain items of expense for the administration 
of justice, formerly provided for in civil list, 
schedule A 



Total. 



£ 


s. 


d. 


7,708 


10 


3 


6,916 


13 


4 


10,490 


2 


6 


1,855 


18 


5 


4,457 


9 


1 


473 


4 


5- 


825 








1,091 


17 


7 


1,253 








472 


4 


5 


8-,448 


10 


5 


1,246 


14 


U 


414 


3 


7 


170 








116 


13 


4 


650 


IS 


10 


112 


4 


4 


280 








648 


17 


9 


499 


10 


11 


1,237 


14 


4 


1,443 


16 


3 


412 


13 


8 


980 


12 


6 



1847 



52,205 3 7 



£ 


S. 


d. 


7,777 


15 


4 


6,839 


14 


10 


10,908 


10 


3 


2,222 


4 





3,573 


3 


8 


175 








650 








199 








342 


10 





472 


4 


4 


5,377 


18 


3 


1,249 


I 


10 


346 


10 


10 


129 


3 


4 


87 


9 


6 


1,064 


17 


4 


84 


3 





256 


6 


7 


494 


2 


9 


404 


19 


9 


1,015 


6 


! 


815 


5 


6 


482 


19 


7 


810 


5 


9 


526 


6 


11 


9,474 


7 


9 


55,854 


9 


10 



1850 



Abstracts of Payments under the Civil List attached to Union Act. — Schedule B. 



HEADS. 



Cbief secretary's office 

Private secretary's office 

Civil secretary's office 

Governor's secretary's office 

Provincial secretary and office, West 

Provincial secretary and office, East 

Registrar and office 

Contingency of secretary's office 

Receiver-general's department 

Inspector-general's department 

Executive council and office 

Board of works department 

Emigrant agent 

Pensions 

Contin gencies 

Items heretofore chargeable to schedule B 



Total. 



1842 



£ 


s. 


d. 


3163 


4 





2585* 


13 


■> 


2429 


17 


2 


1129 


1 


6 


5016 


1 


3 


2152 


15 


6 


2571 


4 


3 


3093 


19 


8 


2094 


8 


10 


444 


8 


10 


5407 


14 


10 


2662 


2 


9 



29,565 15 



1847 



1176 


17 


5 


481 


7 


1 


1518 


8 


2 


2946 


8 


3 


1123 


5 


4 


2437 


4 


6 


3625 


7 


7 


2495 


11 


4 


2024 


7 


1 


909 


8 


7 


4484 


6 


4 


7809 


10 


6 


85 


18 


11 



1850 



Tbe Items in 1842 are given in currency to facilitate comparison. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NOKTH AMEBIC A. 



247 



Abstrac r of Receipts as prepared for the Blue Book in each Year, the Amount being 

in Sterling. 



HEADS. 



Customs 

Excise duties 

Tonnage and lighthouse duties 

Territorial 

Payment by land company , 

From public works 

Fines and forfeitures 

Rents and profits of seigniory of Lauzoii 

Militia fees, fines, and exemptions ..... 

Bank imposts 

Casual revenue 

Jesuits' estates 

Immigrant tax 

Receipts from imperial treasury in aid of immi 

gration 

Tonnage duty 

Duties on shipping 

School land fund 

Produce of bills of exchange on London 

Tavern licences, Canada West 

Tavern licences, Canada East 

Interest on public deposits 

Lunatic asylum fund, Canada West 

Marriage licences, Canada East 

Marriage licences, Canada West 



Total sterling. 



Currency 516,823 11 



1842 

£ s. d. 

238,784 11 11 J 

27,617 2 1} 

492 3 
31,645 15 



10,000 
11,160 
2,027 
1,100 

2 

9,249 
'2,006 
2,775 



11* 


0i 



8 9 6J 



7,739 16 



1,488 6 5 

1,131 15 8 

863 1 4 

1,122 13 10 

115,658 17 5 



465,141 4 2£ 



1845 



£ s. d. 

377,101 4 11| 

18,249 16 5 

620 7 

20,584 3 3 

24,751 1 10£ 

3,051 4 4 

48 7 6 

11,718 15 4i 

10,332 9 11 

10,738 6 7 

4,558 18 3 

2,737 10 

2,082 18 10 

1,728 9 

1,400 6 11 

337,280 3 11 

6,317 2 5 

4,628 

5,472 12 6 

2,464 19 7 



845,894 18 7| 



939,883 5 1| 



1847 



£ s. d 

342,957 4 8 

25,938 13 3 

779 7 2 

23,182 

38,301 13 6 

2,022 10 3 

39 1 5 

14,405 14 5 

7,609 19 2 

6,925 5 1 

17,100 8 3 

52,560 

1,742 12 2 

2,189 9 11 

1,501 17 

158,740 16 3 

8,398 9 5 

9,914 8 

907 17 4 

2,343 2 10 

357 3 3 

1,978 3 7 



719,895 16 11 



799,884 5 5 



£ s. d. 



Abstract of Payments as per Blue Book in Sterling, for 1842, 1845, 1847, and 1850. 



H E A D S. 



Payments under Schedule A, Union Act. . 

Payments under Schedule B, Union Act . 

Expenses of legislature 

Indemnity to members of assembly 

Returning allowances to officers of late 
legislature 

Militia staff. 

Printing the laws 

Various other printing 

Support of hospitals and charities 

Encouragement of education 

Encouragement of agriculture 

Expenses of quarantine 

Pensions to wounded militia-men 

Roads and bridges 

Expenses of rural police 

Expenses of city police 

Expenses of elections 

Expenses of provincial penitentiary 

Improving the navigation 

Interest on loans 

Inquiry seignioral tenure 

Repairs to public buildings 

To make up deficiency of fee fund 

School land fund 

Expense of Trinity board, Montreal .... 

Jesuits' estates 

Medical treatment to sick mariners 

Expenses of emigration 

Expenditure of board of works 

Repayment of loan, 1840, public works. . . . 

Erection of lunatic asylum, Toronto 

Expenses of taking the census, Canada 
East 

Removal of seat of government 

Expenses of geological survey 

Expenses of registration 

Salaries to circuit judges 

Authorised payments on sale of the seign- 
iory of Lanzon 

Relief to sufferers by fires 

Payments from Jesuits' estates to educa- 
tion, Canada East 

Administration of justice 

Tavern licences, Canada West, rebellion 
claims 

Tavern licences, Canada East, for muni- 
cipal purposes ! 

Marriage licences, fee fund, Canada West 

Marriage licences, fee fund, Canada East 

Miscellaneous v 



1842 



£ s. 

45,320 11 
29,246 7 
14,423 19 
2,884 9 



1,172 2 

1,803 1 3 

5.870 18 5 

3,717 8 11 

11,064 18 6 

20,478 9 6 

2,251 7 

2,054 6 4 

3,702 3 

10,999 18 4 

4,917 6 8 

858 6 8 

317 9 5 

3,150 

11,029 15 10 

68,554 18 7 

1,042 2 9 

1,967 17 8 

6,339 13 8 

228 13 4 

1,507 10 



1,485 

12,388 2 9 

179,291 7 2 

23,400 



Total expenditure sterling 
Currency . •• P ..« 



4,836 10 10 



476,304 11 11 



529,227 6 7 



1S45 



£ s. d. 

48,230 10 9£ 
27,106 19 7 
36,001 11 



1,112 2 

1,890 11 7 

4,034 11 3 

4,924 17 10 

1,316 3 4 

71,515 4 

6,779 9 4 

1,665 13 4 

3,684 14 9 

46,964 19 3 



794 12 
1,040 15 



11,700 

149,383 

129,360 

1,321 

2,525 

3,486 

862 



7 
2 

5 
3 

10 
10 
7 
7 
1,867 10 

2,160 2 6 

6,223 4 11 

294,465 3 3 

2,700 



666 9 4 

1,715 5 4 

597 10 11 

3,493 12 3 

6,782 13 1 
6,300 



11,094 10 11 



905,607 18 U 



1,006,231 1J 



1847 



JB s. d. 

41,742 I 11 
27,528 18 2 
33,198 11 3 



798. 

2,694 7 

7,569 11 

2,963 11 
14,766 
55,661 6 

7,602 
see emigration. 

2,980 8 1 
23,439 8 2 



1,004 2 
1 ,620 8 
11,485 17 

18,445 9 
136,030 17 



4,813 14 4 

2,331 19 

867 12 

1,867 10 

2,153 6 10 

114,087 15 

140,747 9 9 

2,596 9 



1,718 14 1 
1.002 19 8 
3,001 12 10 



3,764 6 11 
17,097 9 6 



,182 2 



6,197 

2,006 

393 

12,697 



716,052 19 



1850 



s. d. 



795,614 7 9 



248 



CANADA. 



Statement of the Financial Affairs of the Province of Canada on the 31st December, 

1842. 



HEADS. 


Amount. 


HEADS. 


Amount. 


Total Amount. 


Thomas Wilson & Co., agents, 


£ s. d. 

66,010 1 

354,692 8 9 

1,141,685 14 

186,137 11 8 

14,943 17 3 
261,774 3 11? 

14,594 9 1\ 

136,973 13 11| 
2,176,842 2| 


Sterling debentures and ba- 


£ s. d. 

5,299* J 11*1 

53,277 7 3) 

1,299 8 0£i 

51,465 6 11 j 


£ s. d. 

970,204 14 5f 
499,069 1 2 
45,844 19 1 
47,299 9 0J 
118,939 3 4 
9,570 13 9 
1,555 11 


Loans to incorporated corn- 


Provincial debentures 












New exchange account 

Wesleyan method ists' fund ... 






Balances due by public ac- 


Clergy, revenue reserve, Ca- 


58,576 9 2J 




C lergy revenue, West 

Clergy revenue reserve, Ca~ 


52,764 14 11 J 




Jesuits' estates and school 


48,877 8 9 
223,563 14 0} 
576 1 4J 








Due to public accountants .... 
Total... 


Total 


2,176,842 <2| 



Statement of the Financial Affairs of the Province of Canada for the Year ending 
31st January, 1848— 1847 included. 



HEADS. 


Amount. 


HEADS. 


Amount. 


Thomas Wilson & Co., agents, London 
Loans to incorporated companies 


£ s. d. 

66,040 1 

366,942 8 9 

1,182,753 1 7 

1,816,227 5 11J 

346,557 1 11 

49,429 8 4 

3,286 17 6 

28,438 12 4 

52,935 

22,750 

600 

167,217 2 

31,614 11 \\ 
73,100 

58,301 6 3 

1,900 

2,300 

3,880 

29,752 6 8 

41,915 

4,750 

8,035 10 7 

53,533 6 8 

104,517 11 2 

126,694 16 Z\ 




£ s. d. 

9,662,277 15 6 
457,820 11 2 






51,226 8 
94,565 17 7 
45,844 19 1 


New works under 4 & 5 Vict., c. 28 . . . . 


Sterling debentures, Welland Canal .... 


Works commenced under 8 Vict., c. 69 


English loan, 4 & 5 Vict., c. 28 


1,824,730 1 9 
17671 9 04 
168,638 6 
227 13 11 












Provincial debentures „ England 

,, „ provinces 

Provincial debentures : — 

Under Act, 8 Vict., c. 92 

,, 9 Vict., c. 65 

„ 9 & 10 Vict., c. 62 and 35... 
61 


86,086 1 11 
153,700 

20,000 
8,438 12 4 
52,935 
22,750 
6,000 

202 665 I 8 




Special funds for investments : — 

Clergy reserve fund, West, 5 per cent, 

provincial debentures, England . . . 

Ditto, provincial debentures within 




„ 33 


Ditto, East, 5 per cent, provincial 


Special funds:— 

Clergy reserve funds, Canada West. •• 

Ditto ditto new sales 

Ditto Canada East.... 

Ditto ditto new sales 


Ditto, provincial debentures within 


83,390 18 10 

53,392 12 1 

65,016 3 

15,103 16 4 \ 

3,440 8 

2,778 6 9| 

120 13 8 






Grammar school fund with interest. . . . 


Ditto ditto new sales... 
Ditto East 




Ditto ditto new sales... 




4,666 13 4 


Hank of England investment account.. 




28,844 5 




4,959 17 3 






47,454 2 4 






4,972 16 8 






5,823 12 9£ 

6,278 

1,453 17 10 

207 5 








Marriage licences, Canada West 






1,812 2 5| 
1,325 10 9 










198,282 11 7£ 




Total 


Total 


4,648,901 6 2f 


4,648,901 6 2f 



BKITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 249 



TRADE OF THE CANADAS. 

The commerce of Canada, since the time it became possessed by England, 
has advanced in importance nearly in the same ratio as its population has in- 
creased ; accompanying in its natural course the settlement and improvement of 
the country, when not paralysed or impelled by war or casual circumstances. 

While the country was possessed by France, trade, except the commerce in 
peltries, was nearly altogether neglected. A few ships, it is true, were built in 
Canada, and sent with wood to France. Seal oil, flour, and peas, in trifling 
quantities, were also exported; and for some time ginseng, which grows wild in 
abundance, was sent, first to France, and then to China, the only country which 
at that time afforded a market for it, to the value, one year, of 500,000 livres 
(about 20,000/.). This trade the French lost, from not having patience to cure 
the ginseng, and thus imposing a bad article on the Chinese. 

The value of imports greatly exceeded the value of exports of the colony, 
and the difference was remitted to France in bills of exchange, drawn by the 
intendant-general, for the expenses of the civil and military government, and 
for the cost of public works. The greatest exports of Canada, previous to 1759, 
appear, by existing statements, to have amounted only to the value of — 

£ s. d. 

Furs ....... 88,333 6 8 

Seal oil . . . . . 10,416 13 4 

Flour and peas ...... 10,416 13 4 

Timber . . . . . . . 6,250 



115,416 13 4 

The annual expenses of the government, in salaries to public officers, in 
presents to the Indians, and in money expended in the erection of fortifications 
at Quebec, Montreal, and upwards, along the St. Lawrence, in order to form a 
line of forts from Quebec to New Orleans, so as to prevent the English from 
penetrating the regions west of the Ohio, or the Great Lakes, increased from 
16,663/. 13s. 4d., the expenditure in 1729, to more than a million sterling before 
1759. 

This immense expenditure did not, however, augment or encourage the trade 
of the country; but, as Raynal observes, "military glory, and its dazzling gran- 
deur, maintained the ascendant, and every other employment was considered 
mean, unless it were the fur trade. This pursuit was always connected with 
arms, and accompanied by the military, who not only guarded the posts, but 
enjoyed the benefits of the trade." 

The fur trade, after marts were established, first by Pontgrave, at Tadousac, 
and, about the middle of the seventeenth century, at Trois Rivieres and 
Montreal, for the purpose of bartering fire-arms, gunpowder, shot, brandy, red 
cloths, knives, hatchets, trinkets, and a few other articles of European manu- 
facture, for furs, with the Indians, was afterwards conducted by coureurs du bois, 



250 CANADA. 

who penetrated the remote upper wilds of Canada, and accompanied the savages 
with their furs, down to Montreal. 

Many of the coureurs du bois settled among the Indians, and defrauded those 
who entrusted them with goods ; while the rivalry of the English traders began, 
also, at the same time, to divert to New York the furs that would otherwise 
have found their way to Montreal. The French government, then, to change 
and regulate this commerce, undertook its management, and granted a limited 
number of licenses to poor gentlemen and old officers, who were burdened with 
families, to enable them exclusively to carry merchandise to the fur countries, 
It was expressly prohibited, on pain of death, to all persons, of whatever rank, 
to go themselves, or employ others to go, to the Great Lakes, or to any part of 
the fur countries. 

Each license allowed two canoes, loaded with merchandise, to proceed to 
the lakes. Those authorised were privileged either to act themselves, or to dis- 
pose of their licenses to others. These licenses were usually estimated at 600 
crowns each, and generally purchased by the merchants, who employed coureurs 
du hois to carry on a trade that was attended with extraordinary hardships and 
dangers. To traverse the lakes, and penetrate the forests of the western region, 
were, particularly at that period, undertakings attended with great peril and 
fatigue. Savage nations, wild inland seas, thick and seemingly interminable 
woods, cataracts, rapids, musquitoes in summer, and snow and ice in winter, 
were all to be encountered. 

Twenty or thirty canoes, in each of which were six or seven men, and about 
1000 crowns' worth of goods, proceeded to the lakes, as far as, and afterwards 
beyond, Makillimakinak. These goods were charged to the coureurs du bois at 
fifteen per cent more than the cash price of such goods in the colony, and 
the cargo of each canoe purchased four return cargoes of furs, say — 

crowns 
160 packages of beaver, at fifty crowns each, (which were distributed as follows) :— 8000 

The merchant received for the license ..... 600 

„ for the merchandise . . . . 1000 

And 40 per cent on the balance of 6400 crowns as profit . . . 2560 

Leaving for the coureur du bois each 600 crowns for six . . 3840 

8000 

The furs were afterwards sold to the farmer-general, who usually paid 
twenty-five per cent additional for them to the merchant. 

The coureurs du bois were annually accompanied by fifty or more canoes of 
Hurons and Ottawas, who descended to Montreal, in order to traffic more 
advantageously than at Makillimakinak. On arriving at Montreal they en- 
camped near the town, and spent the first day in erecting wigwams, landing 
their furs, and arranging their canoes. On the following day they demanded 
an audience of the governor, which was granted without delay, and held in the 
market-place. Each tribe formed its own circle, and the governor was seated 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 251 

on a chair in the centre ; each Indian, in the mean time, sitting on the ground 
smoking his pipe, while the orator of one of the tribes stated that he and his 
brother were come to visit Ononthio, as they termed the Governor of Canada, 
and to renew peace with him. The orator seldom failed to remark, that their 
principal object was to render themselves useful to the French, who were not 
able to hunt for furs; that they knew the French were delighted at their arrival, 
on account of the great profit of the trade; that they wanted, in return for their 
furs, guns and ammunition, to enable them to hunt for furs another year, and to 
chastise the Iroquois, if that nation should be disposed to attack the French. 
The orator then made a present of shells and furs to the governor, demanded 
his protection against the people of the town, and then the tribes arose and re- 
tired to their tents. The bartering of furs for other articles took place next 
day. Brandy and wine, in the mean time, were prohibited ; but afterwards the 
Indians, who usually had some furs left, after paying for their stores, indulged 
in drinking to excess ; and in their quarrels beat and mutilated each other, killed 
their slaves, and went about from shop to shop with their bows and arrows, in a 
state of nature. 

The fur trade, after the conquest of Canada, was carried on by private ad- 
venturers, aided by the coureurs du bois. For a long time jealousies and 
animosities created quarrels and losses among those who were engaged in this 
perilous trade. At length the traders associated themselves, principally through 
the exertions of the late Sir Alexander Mackenzie, and formed the famous 
North-west Company of Montreal. The details of the trade carried on by this 
company are given in a former section. 

The stationary habitans of Lower Canada, having long fixed their attention 
to agriculture, the overplus produce of the soil they have sold for articles of 
convenience or luxury ; and although the quantity of wheat and peas each had 
to sell has been small, yet, when collected, it has formed a prominent article of 
export. Barley and oats they had long neglected. As Upper Canada became 
settled, two commodities of important value were obtained, in the progress of 
subjecting the lands to cultivation. These were timber and ashes. How the 
first is obtained and prepared will be described hereafter. 

The pot and pearl ashes of commerce require little art in their preparation. 

As the soil and climate are eminently adapted for the cultivation of hemp 
and flax, both might become staple articles of great importance. Linseed, rape, 
and sunflower oil might also be prepared in large quantities. Salted provisions, 
butter, flour, wheat, peas, pot and pearl ashes, pork, beef, butter, and the 
produce of the forests and fisheries, &c, are all regularly inspected before ex- 
portation. 

Excellent cider and ale are made in both provinces ; and whisky is distilled 
in great quantities in Upper Canada. Maple sugar is another article of manu- 
facture for domestic consumption. 



252 



CANADA. 



Commerce of Quebec. 



















Canadian Ex- 






Ships Arrived. 








Articles Exported. 


ports from 


YEARS. 
















New York. 




Vessels. 


Tons. 


Men. 


Emi- 
grants. 


Flour. 


Wheat. 


Ashes. 


Pearls. 


Pork. 


Pork. 


Beef. 


Ashes. 


Pearls, 




No. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


brls. 


qrs. 


pots. 


brls. 


brls. 


i brls. 


brls. 


pots. 


brls. 


1793 .... 






.. 




10,916 


60,887 
















1897 .... 










4,352 


396 
















1800 


64 


14,293 


781 




20,271 


27,141 
















1802 .... 


101 


21,264 


1,151 




28,301 


126,254 
















1805 


69 


15,076 


731 




18,590 


2,752 
















1810 


661 


143,893 


6,578 




12,519 


21,363 
















1815 .... 


194 


37,382 


1,847 




1,920 


















1820 .... 


596 


149,661 


6,746 




45,369 


39,881 
















1823 


569 


132,634 


5,130 




46,346 


588 


38,341 


16,729 


3,290 


,. 


983 






1827 .... 




.. 




•• 








.. 


7,588 


837 


.. 


12,746 


57I» 


1828 .... 




183,481 


8,222 


12,000 










12,155 


1392 




17,407 


5798 


1829 .... 


900 


236,565 


10,665 


15,945 


25,692 


5,058 


23,492 


9,547 


10,941 


1361 


7194 


21,242 


6959 


1830 .... 


896 


227,275 


10,327 


18.075 


71,822 


73,762 


29,183 


15,034 


11,197 


1174 




19,613 


4152 





Value of Articles Imported into Lower Canada. 




PORTS. 


1828 


1829 


1830 


1831 


1832 




£ 
855,023 

152,590 

676,971 

1,285 

I 300 


£ 
312,002 

277,064 

625,764 

2,090 

1,432 


£ 
347,672 

335,539 

818,053 
3,648 


£ 
392,136 

347,298 

947,853 

7,146 

9,191 


£ 
283,117 




969,405 




225,917 
741,360 






7,146 








7,480 








Total 


1,686,166 


1,233,907 


1,604,914 


1,703,626 


2,234,428 





Value of Exports from Lower Canada. 






PORTS. 


1828 


1829 


1830 


1831 


1832 




£ 

60,781 
} Nil. 
450,190 


£ 

870,708 

210,694 

4,751 

Nil. 

361,331 


£ 
957,303 
149,530 

48,570 


£ 
1,118,621 

75,332 
1,562 


£ 
691,599 




369,363 




104,991 


















Total 


1 1,447,485 


1,155,404 


1,195,516 


1,170,522 



Value of Goods Imported, and Shipping and Tonnage arrived at Quebec. 



YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


West 
Indies. 

Value. 


North America. 


United States. 




Value. 


Ships. ! Tons. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Va'ue. 


Ships 




Tons. 


1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 


£ 

80,240 
90.396 
96,893 
41,449 
63,987 
46,921 


number. 

554 
704 
664 
802 
755 
695 
858 


number. 

161,009 

207,865 

19,270 

234,908 
229,818 
206,482 
256,942 


£ 

131, 730 
154,309 
116,688 
120,539 
86,767 
97,651 


£ 

71*139 
77,086 
110,240 
55,497 
68,376 
62,527 


number. 
142 
167 

203 
207 
158 
206 
196 


number. 
17,378 
22,087 
25,943 
24,115 
21,829 
26,027 
27,974 


£ 

111,082 
4,633 
3,914 
8,122 
14,212 
13,843 


number. 
11 
9 
12 
4 
16 
29 
20 


number. 
3045 
2271 
3234 
822 
5323 
9913 
6760 




Foreign States. 


Total. 






YEARS. 


Value. 


1 Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 




Men. 


1828 


£ 

14,039 
16,774 
52,514 
48,743 

84 ^fifi 




number. 
11 
20 
17 
14 
18 
11 


number 

2049 
4342 
3558 
3678 
4945 
3649 
4874 




£ 

312,002 
347,672 
392 136 
283,117 
327,982 


number. 

718 
900 
896 
1027 
947 
941 


numbe 

183,48 
236,56 
223,00 
203,52 
261,91 
246,07 


r. 

1 

3 
5 
1 




number. 
132 


1829 


10,567 


1830 


10,327 


1831 


11,988 


1832 


11,414 


1333 


10,876 


1834 


81,( 


141 




17 




310 


,475 




1091 


296,55 







1 


2,828 



From other places, in 1829, 4768/.; 1830,14,471/.; 1831,11,886/.; 1832,8765/.; 1833,10,174/.; 1834,8488/. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



253 













Exports and Sh 


ipping of Quebec. 










YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


West 
Indies. 


North America. 


United States. 




Value. | Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


1828 

1829 

1830 

1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 


£ 

724,821 
793,744 
793,268 
587,524 
592,730 
786,063 


number. 
616 
761 
707 

808 
862 
779 
949 


number. 
176,484 
224,024 
207,412 
237,986 
248,569 
232,273 
283,124 


£ 

78',195 
72,224 
65,478 
43,824 
32,150 
38,854 


£ 

64,025 
89,299 
60,800 
57,301 
92,890 
79,839 


number. 
143 
154 
187 
179 
103 
185 
135 


number. 

14,001 
15,292 
17,420 
17,283 

7,980 
14,917 

8,935 


£ 

506 
455 
1232 
1711 
149 
369 


number. 
3 
5 
4 
2 
3 
1 
1 


number. 
609 
769 
432 
158 
331 
130 
56 


YEARS. 


Foreign States. 


Va 




Total. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


lue. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


1828 


£ 

l',668 

747 

1,166 

1,236 


number. 
1 
2 
2 
3 
1 
4 


number. 
105 
314 
251 
431 
372 


£ 

870*708 
957,303 
922,889 
651,599 
720,880 


number. 

763 
922 
900 
992 
1006 
Q69 


number. 
191,199 
240,399 
225,515 

255,858 

262,847 

248,933 

2,998,860 


number. 

8,544 


1829 


10,719 
10,050 
11,501 
11,832 


1830 


1831 


1832 


1833 


in.qin 


1834 


12, 


297 




9 


2837 




917,764 




1124 




2,907 



To other parts, in 1829, 1491/.; 1830,8347.; 1831,942/.; 1833, 2959/.; 1834,339/. 



Value of Imports and Shipping arrived at Montreal. 



YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


West 
Indies. 


North America. 


United States. 




Value. 


Ships. | Tons. 


Value. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tone. 


1832 

1833 

1834 


£ 

1,060,193 
625,945 


number. 
105 
117 
73 


number. 
25,709 
28,362 
18,576 


£ 

3907 
9527 


£ 

43,548 
18,289 


number. 
5 

10 
13 


number. 
751 
1173 
1298 


£ 

1380 
1122 


number. 


number 


YEARS. 


Foreign States. 


Total. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


1832 


£ 

86,731 


number. 

7 
8 


number. 
993 
12J9 


£ 
969,405 
291.433 


number. 
117 
135 


number. 
27,453 
30,754 


number. 

1384 


1833 


J 510 


1834 








3 


385 




661 


,703 




89 


20,259 






1018 



From other parts, in 1833, 11,848/.; 1834,6818/. 



Value of Exports and Shipping departed from Montreal. 



YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


West 
Indies. 


North America. United States. 




Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


1831 

1832 

1833 

1834 


£ 
194,426 

331,519 
176,354 


number. 
49 
100 
120 
74 


number. 
10,750 
23,899 
28,694 
18,996 


£ 
4623 


£ 
1,306 

14,404 
10,014 


number. 
3 
16 
15 
16 


number. 

150 

3844 

2060 

1561 


£ 


number. 


number. 


YEARS 


Foreign States. 


Total. 




Value. 


Ships. Tons. 


Value. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Men. 


1831 


£ 


number. 

i 


number. 
121 


£ 
195,732 
369,363 
345,923 


number. 
52 
117 
135 


number. 
10,906 
27,864 
30,754 


number. 

557 

1524 

152 


1832 


1833 


1834 


















, 















254 



CANADA. 



Principal Imports at Quebec from 1827 to 1832. 



ARTICLES. 



Wine, Madeira 

Port 

Teneriffe 

Fayal 

Sicilian and Spanish. 

• Other kinds 

Brandy 

Gin 

Rum 

Molasses 



Refined sugar 

Muscovado sugar 

Coffee 

Leaf tobacco 

Manufactured tobacco. 

Tea 

Salt 



1827 



gallons. 
10,854 

54,887 
35,926 
16,292 
84,755 
31,759 
69,026 
60,204 
953,163 
48,779 

lbs. 

455,655 
2,891,748 
159,111 
88,289 
26,118 
1,054,559 
190,824 



1828 



gallons. 
19,817 
55,236 

106,453 
21,270 
31,804 
26,215 

129,395 
90,541 

835,527 
73,279 

lbs. 

641,359 
2,187,617 

214,596 
62,006 
29,324 

660,145 

181,160 



1829 



gallons. 
15,553 
39,394 
24,590 
1,971 
17,991 
55,122 
86,607 
13,872 

1,133,158 
90,159 

lbs. 

629,313 
4,739,004 
70,467 
85,545 
16,819 
12,314 

433,607 



1830 



gallons. 
16,160 
44,809 
66,781 
2,092 
152,049 
58,366 
81,629 
67,124 

1,449,768 
86,957 



561,969 

4,404,190 

211,128 

55,187 

73,053 
245,866 



1831 



gallons. 

32,699 

55,619 

29,049 

532 

165,172 

66,011 

64,215 

73,414 

1,428,283 

192,lfi6 

lbs. 

1,084,889 

5,936,196 

119,464 

119,622 

587,174 
284,040 



1832 



gallons. 

22,327 

79,592 

94,227 

110 

131,718 

62,376 

183,613 

60,52(1 

1,099,578 

127,143 

lbs. 
1,655,348 
5,777,961 
174,901 
125,774 
147,109 
983,256 
287,436 



Merchandise paying 2| per cent duty (1827), 724,302/. 
1,317,950*.; (1832), 1,327,369/. currency. 



(1828), 933,021/. j (1829), 841,403/.; (1830), 1,183,985/.; (1831), 



Principal. Exports from Quebec. 



ARTICLE 



1827 



1828 



1829 



1830 



Ashes, Pearl barrels 

Pot do. 

Flour do. 

Biscuit ...cwt. 

Wheat mats 

Indian corn and meal barrels 

Peas mats 

Flax seed do. 

Beef barrels 

Pork do. 

Butter lbs. 

Cod Fish cwt. 

Salmon barrels 

Staves, standard hogsheads and barrels 
pieces 

Oak tons 

Pine do. 

Deals, boards, and planks pieces 

Elm, ash, and maple, &c tons) 



number. 

9,409 

17,894 

54,003 

3,726 

391,420 

2,345 

31,830 

1,421 

5,003 

7,007 

74,835 

10,241 

642 

5,376,548 
21,736 
86,090 

1,621,648 
10,601 



number. 

10,455 

22,399 

35,713 

2,054 

120,112 

1,144 

21,164 

1,454 

5,793 

12,850 

74,211 

11,333 

487 

4,111,786 

24,695 

110,779 

1,518,106 

10,265 



number. 

9,548 
23,993 
25,689 

1,830 
40,462 

4,315 
12,971 

4,183 

7,208 

11,622 

142,688 

61,684 

1,092 

7,680,442 
26,460 

183,942 
1,365,529 

182,196 



number. 

50,917 

134,506 

71,976 

7,445 

590,101 

2,422 

17,769 

895 

4,393 

11,800 

152,269 

77,441 

360 

4,550,942 

13,213 

160,919 

1,816,714 

12,145 



number. 

19,747 

30,512 

84,057 

7,210 

1,329,269 

728 

7,124 

70 

5,415 

8,461 

35,026 

45,367 



5,551,907 

18,654 

194,408 

3,862,238 
13,980 



The duties collected at the Port of Quebec were, in 1833, 10C,118/.; in 1834, 98,203/. 
in 1833, 52,680/.; in 1834, 81,681/. 



in 1835, 68,C26/. At Montreal 



Stock of Lumber at Quebec at the close of the Shipping Season. 





SQUARE TIMBER. 


DEALS.— ST AN D A RD 
PIECES. 


STAVES. — MILLE. 


YEARS. 


Oak. 


White 
Pine. 


Red 

Pine. 


Elm. 


Ash. 


Birch 

and 

Maple. 


Spruce. 


Pine. 


Standard. 


W. 0. 1 R. 0. 


Bar. 




Puncheons. 


rels. 


1828.... 
1829-... 
1830.... 

1831 

1832..-. 


feet. 

602,000 
317,012 
484,536 
375,197 
559,100 


feet. 
822,361 
240,806 
895,182 
1,959,615 
1,792,700 


feet. 

360,628 

319,066 

1,701,977 

1,764,975 

1,201,776 


feet. 
31,661 

32,877 
73,934 
46,963 
262,140 


feet. 
11,261 
23,095 

91,708 

36,384 

7,876 


feet. 

4,000 

6,596 
45,633 
14,990 

6,898 


pieces. 
> all ( 
S kinds. 1 

86,464 

218,255 

43,540 


pieces. 
72,342 
11,410 
113,987 
372,728 
314,228 


pieces. 

448 
711 
1617 

1054 
444 


No. 
433 
347 
717 
797 
550 


No. 

121 
253 
38 

25 


No. 

37 
225 
837 
643 



General View of the Imports and Exports of Canada from 1754 to 1808, in Sterling 
Money, according to official Returns. 



YEARS 


Vessels. 


Impovts or 
Exports. 


Where from, and to. 


ARTICLES. 


Separate 
Amount. 


General 
Amount. 


1754.... 


No. 
53 

52 


Imports . . 
Exports... 






£ s. d. 
157,646 5 
59,123 7 


£ s. d. 




From West Indies 


Wine, rum, brandy, &c 


216,769 12 




64,570 2 6 

7,083 6 
3,906 19 2 






Oil, ginseng, capillaire timber, 
&c i 












Fish, oil, iron, vegetables, &c... 
Balance against colony 








75,560 7 8 








141,249 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



255 



Imports and Exports of Canada — continued. 



YEARS 



1769. 



1786 . . 



1808. 



Vessels 



No. 
34 



334 



Imports or 
Exports. 



Exports. 
Imports , 

Exports 
Imports... 

Exports.. 



Ditto, 
Ditto. 



Imports 
Ditto . . . 



Where from, and to. 



ARTICLES. 



From Quebec . 
From England. 



1769 

Furs and sundries 

Oil, fish, &c. from Labrador. 



Manufactured good.- - , and West 
India produce 



From Quebec. 
From England, 



Balance in favour of colony .. . 

1786 

Furs and other colonial produce 

Fish, lumber, &c. from Labrador 

and Gaspe 



From Quebec. 



Manufactured goods and West 
India produce 



From Labrador and Gappe 

To United States by way 

of Lake Champlain 



From England 

From United States. 



Balance in favour of colony .... 

1808 
Furs and other colonial produce 

Wheat, biscuit, and flour 

Oak and pine timber, staves, 

masts, &c. 

Pot and pearl ashes 

New ships, 3/50 tons, £10 per ton 
Fish, lumber, and oil, &c 



Sundries, about 

Manufactured goods... .£200,000 
West India produce. . . . 130,000 



Separate 
Amount. 



Merchandise, tea, provi- 
sion, tobacco, &c 100,000 

Oak, pine, timber, masts, 
&c 70,000 

Pot and pearl ashes .... 110,000 



Balance in favour of colony .. 



8. d. 



345,000 
10,000 



445,116 
45,000 



350,000 

171,200 

157,360 

290,000 

37,500 

120,000 

30,000 



330,000 



),000 



General 
Amount. 



*. d. 



355,000 
273,400 



490,116 
343,263 



146,853 



1,156,060 



610,000 



546,060 



The great profits on Biitish goods, after the general war, diminished sud- 
denly. 



Shipping Imports for the Year ending 5th January, 1832. 
Port of Quebec. 



FROM GREAT BR 


[ T A] 


N. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Men. 




number. 

278 
305 


number. 

80,333 
97,598 


number. 
3755 
4146 
















Total. 


583 


177,931 


7901 









ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


Wines:— 

Madeira 

Port 


..gallons 


number. 

31,056 

49,190 

59,400 

28,974 

7,438 

8,599 

532 

406 

13,095 

10,194 

6,011 

5,379 

45 

58 


Jamaica rum 


..gallons 
do. 


n timber. 

18,159 
13,695 




do. 




do. 


o'jfi'.ln 




.. ....do. 




do. 


71,777 




do. 


Whisky 


do. 


1,223 


Sherry 

Fayal 


do. 

do. 




do. 


111 




do. 


218 




do. 




do. 


2,476 




...do. 




lbs. 


1,074,571 


Cape 


do. 

do 




do. 


486,356 
32,534 


Coffee 


do. 


Pico 


.... do. 






34,440 




. do 


Salt 




228,079 


Malta 


do. 


Manufactured tobacco 


lbs. 


51 



Value of merchandise paying 1\ per cent ad valorem duty 
Value of goods duty free ..... 



£ 
1,255,371 
1,706 



s. d. 

15 2 
6 11 



Total 



1,257,078 2 1 



256 CANADA. 

Imports for the Year ending 5th January, 1832 — continued. 



FROM 


IRELAND. 


Vessels. 


Tons. 


Men. 






number. 
73 
146 


number. 
21,454 
35,523 


number. 
974 
1609 










Total 






219 


56,977 


2583 











ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 




ART] 


t C L E S. 




Quantity. 


Wines :— 

p or t 


..gallons 


number. 

234 

15,425 

75 

1,107 

123 


Braudy.. 
Gin 






..gallons 
do. 


number,. 
50 




do. 


1809 




do. 








do. 


68 




do. 


Whisky . 
Salt.... 






do. 


284 


French 


do. 






..minots 


9947 



Value of merchandise paying 2f per cent 
Value of free goods . 



Total 



£ s. d. 

36,020 7 

797 9 7 

36,817 16 7 



JERSEY.— Vessels, 1 : tons, 111; men, 8. 



ART] 


[ C L E S. 


Gallons. 


ART 


[ C L E S. 


Gallons. 


Wines : — 


number. 
210 
35 

302 




number. 

18 


Hock 




72 


French 







Value of merchandise paying 2| per cent, £2375 16 10 
GIBRALTAR.— Vessels, 3 ; tons, 431 ; men, 22. 



ARTICLES. 


Gallons. 


ARTICLES. 


Gallons. 


Wines : — 


number. 
74,441 

8,041 




number. 
1332 


Sherry 







Value of merchandise paying 2| per cent, £2384 5 
NETHERLANDS.— Vessels in ballast, 3; tons, 974; men, 43. 
SWEDEN.— Vessel, 1; tons, 158; men, 9. Merchandise paying 2£ per cent, 

SPAIN.— Vessel, 2; tons, 358 j men, 19. 



4 2 



ARTICLES. 



Gallons. 



ARTICLES. 



Gallons. 



Wines: — 
Madeira 
Sherry .. 
Spanish 



number. 

334 

5246 

3835 



Brandy gallons 

Liqueurs do. 

Salt minots 



number. 

2564 

230 

9973 



Wine 



Merchandise paying 2£ per cent, £1968 16 8 

PORTUGAL.— Vessels, 4 : tons, 879 j men, 37. 

gallons 448 I Salt minots 26,561 

Merchandise paying 2| per cent, £628 8 2 



SICILY.— Wine gallons 7051 

AZORES.— Merchandise paying 2| per cent, £932 13 % 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



257 



British North American Colonies. 





Vessels. 


Tons. 


Men. 




number. 
117 
29 


number. number. 

10,316 56^ 




5,317 254 






Total 


146 


15,633 


816 



ARTICLES. 



Rum : — 

Jamaica gallons 

Leeward Inland do. 

Molasses do. 

Wines : — 

Madeira do. 

Port do. 

Spanish do. 

French do. 



Quantity. 



number. 

43,315 
461,333 

24,257 



558 
5,989 
3,526 



ARTICLES. 



Quantity. 



Gin gallons 

Sugar (refined) lbs. 

Ditto (musco) do. 

Coffee do. 

Tea do. 

Tobacco (leaf ) do. 

Ditto, manufactured do. 

Salt mihots 



number. 

30 

10,318 

1,530,817 

39,447 

120,458 

4,832 

8,762 

•2,560 



Merchandise paying 2§ per cent - £2,377 10 

Free goods 23,200 12 5 

£25,578 2 5 





British 


West Indies. 








Vessels. 


Tons. 


Me». 




number. 

56 
1 


number. 

7515 
425 


number. 
425 




18 








Total 


57 


7940 


443 



ART! 


C 


L E S. 




Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


Rum : — 








number. 

202,312 

679,501 

71,080 

751 


Cordials 

Coffee 


..gallons 

lbs. 

do. 


number. 








do. 


46,156 

18,956 

3,606,267 








do. 


Wine, Madeira ... 






do. 


Susjar (onisco.) 


do. 



Merchandise paying 2£ per cent 
Free goods 



£1245 5 
72 16 



£1318 I 8 







Unit ed 


States. 












Vessels. 


Tons. 


Men. 




number. 
3 
1 


number. 
449 
373 


number. 
20 
17 










Total 


4 


822 






37 






ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


A R 


r I C L E S. 




Quantity. 


Tobacco (leaf ) 


lbs. 

do. 

. . . .boxes 
lbs. 


number. 

114,790 

50,796 

24 

5,216 


Pork 






rels 
.do. 
.do. 
• do. 
.do. 


number. 


Ditto (manufactured) 


Pitch 






125 


Cigars 


Tar 






90 


Rice 








50 
380 


Beef 


..barrels 


25 




Rosin 







Merchandise paying 2| per cent, £598 1 9 

Colombia. 



Vessels with cargoes, Briiish. 
Ditto „ f. reign 



number. 
1 
1 



Tons. 



number. 
130 
136 



Men. 



number. 



Sugar, muscovado lbs. 300,469 | Coffee lbs. 372 

Merchandise paying 2| per cent, £81 15 10 

Brazil. 

Vessels in ballast, British, 1 ; tons, 457 ; men, 17. 

China. 

Vessels with cargoes, t ; tons, 586 ; men, 45. 

Tea lbs. 4(55,797 

Merchandise paying 2J per cent, £93 17 9 
VOL. V. S 



258 



CANADA. 



Vessels', 41 



Gaspe. 

i ton*, 6670 



men, 379. 



ARTICLES. 



Rum gallons 

Molasses , . do 

Gin do 

Coffee lbs, 

Flour barrels 

Ditto cwts 

Oatmeal barre 

Oats bushels 

Potatoes do 

Apples • -barrels 



Quantity. 



number. 

2902 

3111 

49 

333 

434 

15 

1 

33 

2400 

10 



ARTICLES. 



Muscovado sugar lbs 

Tea do 

Rice do 

Tobacco do 

Pork. barrels 

Baiter kegs 

Tar : . . . . barrels 

Sal t tons 

Ditto minots 



Quantity. 



number. 

4S44 

644 

5057 

905 

11 

2 

6 

53 

6920 



Merchandise paying 2£ per cent, £3753 19 11 

New Carlisle. 







Vessels, 43 ; tons 


7651; men, 395. 






ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 




. .gallons 
. ..,..do. 


number. 

3998 

574 

189 

151 
1242 

622 
7393 

275 
1225 

177 


Flour 




number. 

57 




Pork 


do 


7 
1,000 


Gin 


do. 


Pota toes 

Co'-fi.-b. 


do. 

do 


Wine 


do. 




do. 






1,256 




.lbs 








do. 




do. 


265 


Tea 


do 


Oil 


do 


4 




do 


Salt 




40,000 




rln 









Merchandise paying 2^ per cent, £7328 15 1 

Exports for the Year ending 5th January, 1832. 
To Great Britain. 



Vessels cleared - 

Nine of which were built this year 
One foreign vessel in ballast , 

Total 



Vessels. 



number. 
656 



Tons. 



number. 

195,573 

3/250 

136 



195,709 



Men. 



number. 

8663 



8670 



ARTICLES. 



Masts and bowspi its. .pieces 

Spars do. 

Oak timber tons 

Pine ditto do. 

Ash ditto do. 

Elm timber do. 

Birch, maple, &c do. 

Standard staves and head- 
ing pieces 

Pipe and puncheon ditto. -do. 

Barrel staves do. 

Stave ends do. 

Deals (3 inch) do. 

Boards and plauks ,..do. 

Deal end* do. 

Battens do. 

Oars do. 

Handspikes do. 

Lathwood .... cords 

Firewood do. 

Oak billets do. 

Boat hook poles pieces 

Ladder ditto.... do. 

Treenails do. 

Spruce knees do. 

Shooks pun do. 

pipe do. 

hogsheads do. 

quarter cask do. 

Pot ashes (weighing 117,600 
cwts. 13lbs.) barrel." 

Pearl ashes(weighing67,019 
cwts. 2 quarters) do 

Flour do 



Quantity, 



number. 

881 

1,250 

16,776 

146,913 

1,325 

10,250 

901 

965,113 

1,419,640 

202,706 

24,560 

985,018 

77,150 

78,562 

25,314 

13,508 

13,f>32 

1,371 

5 

20 

396 

72 

4,872 

42 

110 

30 

30 

30 

26,970 

19,372 

55,372 



ARTICLES. 



Quantity 



Flour half barrels 

Indian meal barrel 

Oatmeal .barrels 

Wheat minots 

Peas do. 

Oats do. 

Barley do. 

Flaxseed do 

Apples barrels 

Potatoes minots 

Oni >ns barrels 

Seeds minots 

Honey barrel 

Ditto k egs 

Ditto jar: 

Maple sugar boxe: 

Preserves do. 

Cranberries casks 

Essence spruce boxes 

Ditto bottle 

Butternuts ci 

Hickory nuts barrels 

Bacon and hams box 

Crack ers barrels 

Bees' wax lbs 

Esquimaux boots box 

Curriers' dubbin cask 

Stuffed birds cases 

Oil cake tons 

Bark work boxes 

Bark canoe 

Indian curiosities boxes 

Tobacco, leaf (weighing 
31,301 lbs ) hogsheads 



number. 

348 

1 

95 

1,329,209 

3,842 

29,6.16 

1,756 

70 

470 

120 

30 

56 

1 

19 

2 

2 

2 

22 

5 

1 

2 

1 
3 
4,467 
1 
1 
9 
82 
2 
1 
4 

46 



ARTICLES. 



Quantity. 



Trees and plants., .packages 

Goose wings half barrel 

H orns hogshead 

Pictures case 

Minerals box 

Moose deer 

Iron castings packages 

Sugar kettles 

Cooking stoves 

Salmon tierces 

Ditto barrels 

Pish oil gallons 

Seal skins 

Hides 

Furs and Peltries. 

Bear and cub skins 

Martin do. 

Minx do. 

Beaver do. 

Buffalo do. 

Fox do. 

Otter do. 

M usk-rat do. 

Lynx do. 

Fisher do. 

Racoon do. 

Wolf do. 

Wolverine do. 

Deer do. 

Rat do. 

Martin tails 

Fisher do. 

Oistorum Jbs. 



number. 
24 



12 

79 

33,039 

4,777 

271 



361 
,739 
612 
,592 

38 
408 
670 
,377 
393 
214 

89 
5 

26 
645 
370 
,140 
151 
328 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



259 



Ireland. 

Vessels, 201 ; tons, 53,163 ; men, 2360. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 






number. 

2 

399 

1,862 

39,583 

690 

407 

251 

306,995 

502,175 

360,552 

4,899 

623,170 

724 

11,272 

4,424 

290 

930 




number. 

1384 




do. 




349 








3 




do. 




72 


Ash ditto 


do. 

do. 


Pot ashes (weighing 14,275 cwts. 3 qrs.) 

barrels 
Pearl ashes (weighing 1396 cwts.) do. 


3182 


Kirch ditto 


do. 


375 


Standard stave and heading 


.. .pieces 
do. 


3 


Apples do. 


18 




do. 


1 




do. 






Deals (3 inch) 


do. 

do. 




G 




8 




do. 




2 5 SO 




do. 




57 




Returned goods packages 


a 







Jersey. 

Vessels, 3 ; tons, 352 ; men, 22. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 






number. 

14 
17,176 






number. 
4732 


Standard staves and heading ... 


. . . pieces 






228 





Spain. 

Vessel, 1 ; tons, 53; men, 5. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


Staves and heading pieces 


number. 

2000 


Pipe and puncheon heading' pieces 


number. 

4000 



Portugal. 

Vessels, 2 ; tons, 378 ; men, 17. 
Staves and heading pieces 38,137. 

British North American Colonies. 

Vessels, 125 ; tons, 9828 ; men, 566. 



ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


A R T I 


C L E S. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 




number, 
2 
12 
15} 

10 1 £ 

2 

21,331 

45,076 

315,858 

250 

2,545 

136 

60 

304 

100 

3,321 

200 

28,000 

1,200 

16 

17,119 

115 

14 

270 
2,318 


Beef 




number. 

465 

6,327 

279 

123 

47 

85 

6,963 

12,466 

332 

1,975 

6 

1,867 

501 

84 

280 

40 

2,411 

167 

212,746 

7,211 

9,169 

6,450 

2,779 

178 

4 

361 




lbs. 


number. 

4306 






do 


Snuff 


do. 


446 




half do. 


Cigars 

Peppermint 

Confectionery .... 


.. ..boxes 
...gallons 
....boxes 
.packages 

do. 

..package 


12 






do. 


115 




Tongues and 
Sausages .... 

Biscuit 

Crackers . . . 


rounds... kegs 
lbs. 

cwts. 

lbs. 


1 




26 




Boots and shoes . 
Moccasins 


16 


Puncheon ditto do. 


1 
120 


Deals (3-inch) do. 


Teas 

Beans 

Oats 


minots 

do. 

do 


Fur caps & gloves 


.packages 


23 
38 




Hair 




1 




Barley 


do. 


Feathers 


casks 


2 


Shooks puncheons 


Indian corn . 
Potatoes . . . 


do. 

do. 


2 


Oakum 

Fruit trees 


cwts. 

.packages 


H 

4 






Ale and Leer 


gallons 

do. 




Wood hoops pieces 

Shingles do. 

Pearl ashes (weighing 58 
cwt. 3 qrs.) barrels 




2 




lb s 




21 




d.) 




16 




do. 






2 




do. 




10 




Lard . . 


do. 


Cut nails 

Stoves and pipes 


....casks 
.. ..cases 


12 




Linseed oil . 

Oil cake 

Honey 


gallons 

. . .puncheons 
lbs. 


27 




116 


Beef do. 







S 2 



260 



CANADA. 



British West Indies. 

Vessels, 54; tons, 7259; men, 417. 



ARTICLES. 



Spars piece? 

Oak timber tons 

Stave* and heading.. pieces 
Boards and planks ....do 

Oars do. 

Stave packs do 

Wood hoops do. 

Shingles do. 

Potashes barrel 

Flour barrel- 
Indian meal do. 

Oatmeal do. 

Pork barrels 

half no. 

kitts 

Reef barrels 

half do. 

kitts 

Ribs & briskets., hf. barrels 

kegs 

Hams and rounds. ..tierces 

hogsheads 



Quantity. 



number. 

40 

5 

1,333,970 

26,689 

305 

3,154 

160,000 

50,000 

1 

8,392 

227 

6 

4,565 

823 

10 

2,033 

1,294 

111 

34 

5 



ARTICLES. 



Hams and rounds ..barrels 

tubs and kitts 

Tongues half barrels 

kpgs 

Sausages kejs 

lbs. 

Apples .i barrels 

Peas minots 

Beans. do. 

Barley do. 

Potatoes do. 

Onions barrels 

Vegetables do. 

Biscuit cwts. 

Crackers casks 

Butter lbs. 

Cheese do. 

Lard do. 

Ale aud beer gallons 

Cider do. 

Linseed oil do. 

Oil cake puncheons 



Quantity. 



number. 
2 
15 
2 

309 

40 

1,009 

32 

1,307 

3,743 

263 

639 

99 

76 

247 

10 

11,512 

1,679 

4,386 

16,206 

578 

1,928 

73 



ARTICLES. 



Oilcake cwts. 

Soap lbs. 

Candles do. 

Leather sides 

Cranberries kegs 

Brooms 

Chairs dozens 

Bucket* do. 

Indian baskets do. 

Hogs 

H OTses 

Cod-fish cwts. 

Salmon tierces 

barrels 

half do. 

Mackerel barrels 

Herrings ., do. 

boxes 

jAlewives barrels 

Fish oil gallons 



Quantity. 

number. 

1,066 

5,050 

2,160 

20 

2 

500 

2 

10 

4 

4 

12 

14,624 

189 

216 

16 

420 

298 

4& 

626 

3,171 



United States. 

Vessels, 2 ; tons, 158 ; men, 



ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 




number. 

1000 

41 

862 

li 


Old iron hogsheads 


number. 

2 

Q 




Old sails yards 




14 













From Gaspe. 

Vessels, 21 ; tons, 1848 ; men, 159. 



ARTICLES. 



Pine timber pieces 

Deals do. 

Deal ends do. 

Staves do. 

Lathwood , cords 

Cod-fish cwts 



Quantity. 



number. 
643 

38,136 
3,897 
19,928 

25i 
14,296 



ART 



CLE 



Salmon , barrels 

half barrel 

Fish oil gallons 

Iron tons 

P*g» 



Quantity. 




From New Carlisle. 

Vessel?, 36: tons, 6926; men, 362. 



A R T I C 


L E S. 


Quantity. 


A R T I C L E S. 


Quantity. 






number. 

7,168 

156 

57 

221 

10,180 

1,968 

172 

11,500 

24 

12 

16,447 


Cod-fish 




number. 
65 




do. 


Cod-sounds 


kegs 


30 






21 




,. ,...do. 




do. 


6 




<Wt 




do. 


53 








2 






Fish oil 




5711 


Treenails 


. .pieces 






4 


Salt 




80 




do 






36 


Cod-fish 


cwts. 


'.'.'.'.VS.'.'.'.'.'.'." li, 


minots 


2395 



Total, inwards :— Ships, 1111 ; tons, 267,641 ; men, 13,776. 
Total, outwards :— Ships, 1101 j tons, 275,775 ; men, 12,586. 
Of the latter, were built this year, registering 3386 tons, and 20 of the vessels entered, chiefly schooners belonging 
to the Province in Canada, 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



261 



During the Year ending 5th January, 1833. 



Ships entered iD wards 

Ships entered outwards 

Ships built 

IMPORTS 



Vessels. 



number, 

1084 

1098 

10 



Tons. 



number. 

287,727 

•292,086 

2,800 



M*n. 



number. 
12,716 
12,800 
235 



EXPORT 



ARTICLES. 



Wine gallons 

Ram do. 

Brandy do. 

Gin aud whisky.. do. 

Sugar, refined. ..lbs. 

Muscovado do. 

Coffee do. 

Tea, Hyson lbs. 

Bohea do. 

Green do. 

Salt do. 

Playing cards packs. 
Tobacco (leaf)... lbs. 

(manufactured) 

do. 
Cigars do. 

Merchandise, British 
manufactures, pay- 
ing 2£ per cent ad 
valorem duty 



Total. 



Quantity. 



number. 5. d. s. d. 

411,201 at 2 6 to 7 

1,089,565 „ 2 9 „ 3 6 

183,277 „ 6 

61,954 „ 5 

1,051,872 „ 6 

5,755,172 „ 4 

174,899 „ 1 

63,000 „ 3 6 

91,092 „ 2 

627,031 „ 2 6 

260,227 

33,900 „ 1 3 

124,213 „ 4 

147,109,, 8 

535 „ 5 



Value. Total. 



ARTICLES. 



£ 

87,059 

166,594 

54,983 

15,489 



26,296 
95,918 
8,745 

11,182 

9,109 

103,379 



13,017 
2,431 
2,070 

4,903 
134 



236,967 



120,959 



123,660 



New ships number 

Masts and spars do. 

Oak tons 

Red pine do. 

Yellow pine do. 

Ash do. 

Elm do. 

Birch, &c do. 

Staves, heading, &c do. 

Deals pieces 

Boards and planks.... pieces 

Deal ends, oars, battens, 
handspikes, lath wood, pun- 
cheon shooks, treenails, 
shingles, ship-ring poles.. 

Potash cwts. 

Pearlash do, 



Quantity.; Value. | Total. 



number. 
10 

3,125 

20,804 

38,723 

135,628 

1,432 

18,658 

936 

4,910,249 

1,031,404 

584,176 



113,116 
49,146 



22,555 



Total produce of the forest 

Fish, oil, seal skins , 

Pork, beef, butter, lard, live stock 
hides castorum, capillaire, natural 

curiosities, &c - 

1,338,874, Wheat, Indian corn, barley, &c. .. . 

Furs, &c *« 

1,846,015 Experts from New Carlisle 

Exports from Gaspe 



Tot»l exports, the produce of the 
Canadas ....... 



£ 

28,000 

8,810 

41,608 

51,631 

135,628 

1,611 

24,870 

599 

68,735 

86,512 

23,641 



704,834 
8,521 



37,893 
205,241 
30,900 
16,558 
23,616 



1,027,563 



The remaining exports consist of British fabrics and West India produce, 

and teas, &c, re-exported. 

The customs returns give the following, for 1832, as the principal imports 

from the United States : — 

Montreal. 



ARTICLES. 



Pork barrels 

Butter kegs and firkins 

Pot and pearl ashes barrels 

Flour do. 

Corn meal do. 

Puncheons do 

Wheat do 

bushels in bulk 

Corn » bushels 

Rye do. 



Quantity. 



number. 
3,220 

317 

6,455 

10,633 

1,080 

335 

103 
4,133 
1,633 

826 



ARTICLES. 



Rye bags 

Peas bushels 

Apples barrels 

Beef do. 

Lard do. 

Ditto kegs 

Live hogs , 

Dead ditto 

Pig-iron pieces 

Deer skins 



Quantity. 



number, 
133 
101 

70 

55 

79 

548 

2987 

390 

203 

64 



St. John. 



ARTICLES. 



Ashes barrels 

Pork do. 

Indian meal do. 

Butter lbs. 

Cheese do. 

Fresh cod-fish 

Mutton ll 3. 

Tallow do. 

Lard do. 

Hams do. 

Rice do. 

Tobacco (leaf) do. 

(manufactured) do. 



Quantity. 



number. 

1,267 

325 

1,239 

147,000 

163,930 

78,700 

5,100 

72,173 

4,825 

7,018 

57,961 

139,109 

356,339 



ARTICLES. 



Cigars 

Hops lbs. 

Sole leather do. 

Apples.... bushels 

Cattle 

Living hogs 

Sheep 

Sperm oil gallons 

Buffalo skins 

Raw hides 

Dressed peltries . 

Lumber pieces 



Quantity. 



number. 

245,659 
24,707 
121,600 
13,167 
4,528 
6,582 
6,762 
2,395 
8,018 
2,632 
7,031 
8,000 



262 



CANADA. 



Coteau du Lac. 





ART 


F C L E S. 




Quantity. 


ARTICLES. 


Quantity. 


Flour... 








number. 

10,494 
6,043 


Pork.... 






number. 


Ashes.. . 






do. 


Wheat.. 




..bushels 


6809 



Imports (by Sea) into Canada during the following Years. 



ARTICLES. 


Countries from which 
imported. 


1835 


1840 


1841 


1818 


1850 


Beef and pork, British and 
colonial. 




barrels. 

2744 

193 


barrels. 

86 

178 


barrels. 
214 


barrels. 


barrels. 


British North American 












2937 


264 


214 








792 


8032 

100 

1604 


750 

28,463 




















United Kingdom 

British North American 






792 


9736 


29,213 






Bread and biscuit, British 
and colonial. 


6 

76 


3 

122 


57 














82 


125 


5.8 










422 
90 


421 














United States, 






United Kingdom 








512 


421 








firkins. 
6 


firkins. 
67 


firkins. 
142 


firkins. 


firkins. 








lbs. 
11,483 

2,494 
2,890 

817 


lbs. 
19,014 
40,334 

18,574 
11,656 

80,807 


lbs. 

14,377 
43,916 

46,478 

26,821 


lbs. 


lbs. 




United States 






British West Indies 

Foreign West Indies 

British North American 












17,684 


170,385 


131,592 








cwt. 

3978 
15 


cwt. 

11,940 
521 


cwt. 

8547 


cwt. 


cwt. 




British colonies, &c 






3993 


12,461 


8547 






Corn • Wheat, British & 


bushels. 

8 


bushels. 
29 


bushels. 


bushels. 


bushels. 


colonial. 






57,912 




38,214 








United States 












57,912 




38,214 






Corn :— Other grain 


13 

160 


20 
324 


138 


















173 


344 


138 








11,464 












British American colonies 




Corn:— Wheat flour, Bri- 
tish and colonial. 


barrels. 

793 


barrels. 
2054 


barrels. 

997 


barrels. 


barrels. 


3 


1074 


89,771 














14 

170 


2 

210 


5 

195 






tish and colonial. 


tiritish American colonies 
United States 






184 


212 


200 






Ditto, foreisrn... 






130 1 





{continued.) 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



263 



Imports (by Sea) into Canada during the following Years — {continued.) 



'ARTICLES. 


Countries from which 
imported. 


1835 


1840 


1844 


1848 


1850 


Cotton manufactures, Bri 
tish. 




£ 

349,644 
GOO 


£ 
423,024 
650 


£ 

520,578 
4,500 


£ 


£ 


British American colonies 






350,244 


423,674 


525,078 








157 
30 




317 




















187 




317 








11,382 


27,134 


32,532 














469 

4897 
179 
90 
1985 
19S 
35 


121 


389 








United Kingdom 




Fruit of all Sorts 


3106 

530 

8 

548 
39 


7,594 
334 

419 

490 

1,239 




















United States 












United Kingdom 






7384 


4231 


10,076 






Glass Manufactures 


79,929 


26,343 


47,280 








261 

378 


269 
163 


1343 

884 












United Kingdom 






639 


432 


2227 






Haberdashery, British .. 


53,615 


78,938 


113,398 






Hats and Apparel not 


35,083 


61,440" 
25 


74,619 












United Kingdom 

United Kingdom 






35,083 
85,139 


61,471 


74,619 






Hardware, British 


143,220 


213,928 








60 


100 
298 


373 
131 


















60 


398 


504 






Hides 


number. 
nil. 
nil. 


number. 

3G-,3 


number, j number, 
nil. 

nu. 


number. 










United Kingdom ........ 








3098 








Iron, Unwrought, British . 


lbs. 

7,499,455 
13,900 


lbs. 

18,060,114 


lbs 
23,522,980 


lbs. 


lbs. 










7,513,355 


18,060,114 


23,522,980 








400,960 
400,960 


1,026,000 


2,817,800 








Other places ,. 












1,026,000 


2,817,800 








41,721 


103,296 


62,213 








United States 






4000 




900 








United Kingdom 

United Kingdom 




Leather Manufactures, 


£ 

9111 


£ 
14,351 


£ 
11,258 


£ 


£ 




50 

27 


440 
250 


733 
32 












United Kingdom 






77 


690 


765 






Linen Manufactures, Bri- 
tish. 


60,003 


90,649 


72,803 








United Kingdom 

Other places 






60,003 


90,649 


78,203 








36 


48 


107 












36 


48 


107 
















{con 


Untied?) 



264 



CANADA. 



Imports (by Sea) into Canada during the following 


Years — {continued.) 


ARTICLES. 


Countries from which 
imported. 


1835 


1840 


1844 


1848 


1850 




United Kingdom 

United States 

British West Indies 

Foreign West Indies 

British North America 


gallons. 
24,023 

25,110 

63,998 


gallons. 
38,449 

72,317 

38,779 


gallons. 
11,629 
21,493 

58,042 
76,168 


gallons. 


gallons. 








113,131 


149,555 


167,332 






Painters' Colours 


£ 
9356 


£ 

15,100 


£ 

20,939 


£ 


£ 








United Kingdom 






S356 


15,100 


20,939 






Salt, Brit'sh and foreign. 


bushels. 
311,734 

10.S02 

4,290 
2,695 


bushels. 

497,632 

5,775 

2,112 

23,364 

2^975 


bushels. 

890,701 
11,900 

7,000 
20,965 

2,940 
11,270 


bushels. 


bushels. 






















British North America.. .. 






329,521 


531,858 


944,776 






Silk manufactures, Bri- 
tish. 


£ 

57 694 


set 

«7 8.V5! 


£ 


£ 


£ 










1294 


7731 


3035 














United Kingdom , .. 

Other places, . ........'' -'. . 






1294 | 7731 


3035 






Soap and candles, Bri- 
tish. 


boxes. boxes. 

12,649 35,279 

22 13 


boxes. 

30,382 
109 


boxes. 


boxes. 




12,671 | 35,292 


30,491 






Ditto, foreign , 


f;n 


10 
565 








104 


75 










>ite 


104 


135 


575 






Spirits, B ritish 


gallons. 

8811 


gallons. 

20,232 


gallons. 
13,690 


gallons. 


gallons. 


L A Kingdom. 

Bncis West 1 1 ;uV 

British North America.... 

United Kingdom 




Rum 


65,371 
422,171 
327,007 


13,132 
12,723 
11,179 


47,224 

7,787 

43,522 












814,549 


37,034 


98,533 










43,461 
26,515 


9,911 




















69,976 


9,9H 






Brandy, Geneva, and 
other foreign spirits. 


266,311 
7,432 
14,569 


295,759 
23,939 
9,907 


224,495 
28,340 
3,362 
















United Kingdom 






288,312 


329,605 


256,197 






Stationery and books 


£ 

27,340 
143 


38,853 
443 


£ 

41,283 
100 


£ 


£ 








United Kingdom 

British West Indies 

Foreign West Indies 

British North America.... 






27,483 


39,296 


41,383 








lbs. 

477,154 

2,090,646 

1,997,568 


lbs. 
782,053 
448 
1,375,175 

4,975,178 
4,550 


lbs. 

1,203,229 

97 

3,271,672 

4,327,061 

19,600 


lbs. 


lbs. 








United Kingdom 

Uuited Kingdom 






4,565,368 


7,137,404 


8,821,659 






Ditto, refined, British.... 


1,525,128 


2,598,664 


4,928,306 








57,259 

































{continued.) 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



265 



Imports (by Sea) into Canada during the following" Years — (continued). 



ARTICLES. 


Countries from which 
imported. 


1835 


1S40 


1844 


1848 


1850 


Tea 


United Kingdom 


lbs. 
474,245 

114,273 


lbs. 
733,122 

1,864 


lbs. 

844,341 

78,000 
13,911 


lbs. 


lbs. 














Other places 






588,518 


734,986 


936,252 








519 

3428 
122 


£ 
818 

3515 

724 


£ 
111 

2709 
241 


£ 


£ 




























4009 


5057 


3061 


1 


IV 


gallons. 

156,424 

324 

3,907 

35,179 
1,417 

197,251 


gallons. 

215,878 
3,205 
15,500 
17,496 

15,381 


gallons. 

175,292 

114,056 

31,941 

28,659 

31 

20,275 


gallons. 


gallons. 










Portugal, &c 
























267,460 


370,254 


1 




Woollen manufacture?, 


£ 
237,961 


£ 


£ 

354,084 
3,980 


£ 


£ 




540 1 550 








2^8,501 








| 262,133 


358,064 


I 




380 1 19- 


>' 434 
















~b 








r 




1 


1 



Summary o? mports. 



COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 



United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Portugal 

Spain 

Gibraltar 

Italy 

China 

United States 

British West Indies 

Foreign West Indies 

British North America 

Other places 

Total from all parts 

COUNTRIES FROM WHICH 
IMPORTED. 

United Kingdom 

Germany 

France 

Por t u gal 

Spain 

Gibraltar 

Italy 

China. . . . , 

United States 

British West Indies 

Foreign West Indies 

British North America 

Other places 

Total from all parts 



£ 
1,374,304 

2,574 
2,430 
1,722 

5,802 



15,876 
93,036 



105,125 
634 



1840 



£ 

1,832,545 
2,121 
9,179 
3,925 
301 
1,404 
6,494 

19,403 
4,371 

23,300 
91,874 



1,994,917 



1841 



1,864,. 65 

2,327 

8,033 

233 

343 

1,205 

37,569 
306 

20,683 

86,833 

224 



2,022,521 



1,843,336 
3,260 
9,598 

829 
1,805 
1,276 

752 

17,261 

2,088 

36,314 

61,323 

6,703 



£ 

988,240 

12,016 

170 

3,411 

1,221 

2,225 

19,386 

83,696 

2,304 

13,701 

116,575 

166 



1,984,545 



1,243,111 



£ 

2,134,038 

1,482 

15,819 

6,832 

3,436 

123 



185,217 

1,362 

35,862 

109,267 

20 



2,493,458 



1847 
£ 



1849 
£ 



1850 



266 



CANADA. 



The Imports by Inland Navigation from the United States subsequently to the 10th of 
October, 1844 (under the operation of the Imperial Act, 5 & 6 Vict., c. 49, and the 
Provincial Act, 6 Vict., col, severally imposing Duties on such Importations). 



ARTICLES. 



Butter cwt: 

Chet se do. 

Coma do. 

C •ffVe do. 

Fisii, dried or salted do. 

pickled barrels 

Meat, salted or cured c%vts. 

Molasses do. 

Sugar, unrefiued do. 

refiued per value 

S pirits, mm gallon s 

of other sorts do. 

Tea lbs. 

Various merchandise subject to an uni- 
form duty of 15 per cent ad valorem 
(comprising manufactures of glass and 



Imported into 

Canada from the 

United States 

by Inland 

Navigatior 
iu 1844 



number. 

84 

2,818 

25 

5,291 

1,127 

171 

25,-191 

1,635 

10,894 

£277 

15,937 

10,086 

1,088,199 



ARTICLE 



silk, spermaceti oil, blubber, fins, and 
skins of marine animals) ..per value 

Various merchandise subject to a duty of 
seven per cent ad valorem (comprising 
wine, manufactures of cotton, linen, 
woollen, leather and paper, hardware, 
clocks and watches, manufactured 
tobacco, soap, caudles (other than 
spermaceti, corks, cordage, and oakum) 

do. 

Other merchandise, subject to the ge- 
neral duty of tour per cent ad va- 
lorem do. 

W heat quarters 

Wheat flour barrels 



Imported into 

Canada from the 

United States 

by Inland 

Navigation 

in 1844. 

number. 

£21,294 



£145,670 



£118,049 
38,968 
53,335 





Exports from Canada by 


Sea. 






ARTICLES. 


Countries to which 
exported. 


1835 


1840 


1844 


1848 


1850 


Ashes, pearl and pot 


United Evtfgdom 

British North Ameiica 

Other places 

1 

Uttfe d Kingdom 

British West Indies... 
British North America 
Other places 

• r r 

United Kingdom 


cwts. 

12(1 J OS 

'2f 


cwts. 

99,807 
92 


cwts. 

156,654 

94 


cwts. 


cwts. 




i 120,226 

barrels 

4,148 
6,944 


99,899 


156,748 






Beef and pork 


barrels. 
2,483 
1,834 

14,522 


barrels. 

4,123 
1,764 
5,937 


barrels. 


barrels. 




11,092 


18,839 


11,830 






Butter 


•' k«.gs. firkins. 
20 739 


kegs, firkins. 
3,093 765 
545 3,187 


kegs, firkins. 
21 2,543 
71 935 


kegs, firkins. 


kegs, firkius. 








United Kingdom 

British North America 






20 739 


4,538 3,952 


92 3,478 






Wheat 


bushels. 

61,727 


bushels. 

157,260 

3,602 


bushels. 

299,388 
9,266 


bushels. 


bushels. 








United Kingdom 

United States 






61,727 


160,862 


308,654 






Other Grain 


4,514 

180 
1,779 
5,364 


61,752 

401 
6,775 


238,987 

264 
6,512 








British West Indies... 
British North America 
Other places 

United Kingdom 

British West Indies... 
British North America 






11,837 


68,928 


245,763 






Wheat flour 


barrels. 

4,165 

10,638 

72,029 

4,231 


barrels. 

301.713 

1,425 

26,832 
40 


barrels. 

368,590 

350 

20,162 


barrels. 


barrels. 




Jnited Kingdom 

British West Indies. .. 
3ritish North America 






91,063 


330,010 


389,102 






Other meal 


129 


6002 

6 

376 


1468 

40 

3410 














12!) 


6384 | 


4918 







(continued.) 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



267 



Exports (by Sea) into Canada during the following Years — (continued). 



ARTICLES. 


Countries to which 
imported. 


1835 


1840 


1844 


1848 


1850 


Cod-fish, dry 


United Kingdom 

British West Indies... 
British North America 


qntls. 

7*,155 

9,338 


qntls. 

*298 
13,378 


qntls. 
20 

16,262 


qntls. 


qntls. 




United Kingdom 

British West Indies... 






16,493 


13,676 


16,282 






Cod-fiMi, wet, mack- 
erel, and salmon. 


barrels. 

14 

754 

338 


barrels. 

*270 
760 


barrels. 

28 
456 
158 


barrels. 


barrels. 




United Kingdom 

British West Indies... 






1106 


1030 


642 








barrels, boxes. 

400 50 
48 


barrels, boxes. 
31 


barrels, boxes. 
80 


barrels, boxes. 


barrels, boxes. 








United Kingdom 






400 98 


31 


80 








19,222 
837 


£ 
20,149 
349 


£ 

8825 
182 


£ 


£ 








United Kingdom 






20,059 


20,498 


9007 








number. 


number. 


number. 
1108 
750 


number. 


number. 








United Kingdom , 

Other places 

United Kin gdom 










1858 








1000 


3600 














1000 


3600 








Oil, train and sperm 


gallons. 
1843 
2907 


gallons. 
2209 
1782 


gallons. 
3184 


gallons. 


.. gallons. 




United Kiugdom 






4750 


3991 


3184 






Wood 5 viz. : — 


number, feet. 

2,261,505 

350 

5,168 
1,298 300 
3,230 


number, feet. 
2,483,876 

750 
7,114 5,000 


number, feet. 
3,362,479 

3,336 96,000 
8,773 


number, feet. 


number, feet. 


boards, and 
planks. 


British West Indies . . . 
British North America 






United Kingdom .... 

United States 

British West Indies .. 
British North America 
Other places 

United Kingdom .... 






2,271,551 300 


2,491,740 5,000 


3,374,588 96,000 






Masts and Spars.. . 


number. 
3106 

6 

46 


number. 
5347 

*6 


number. 
4189 

6 
30 

48 


number. 


number. 




3158 


5353 


4273 








5,503,619 

115,242 

1,130 

¥,565 

543,183 

12,654 

219,S97 


7,566,362 

20,160 

575,290 
7,455 


5,662,800 
57,433 

2,872 

98,430 
73,605 

469,615 
3,413 






























United States 

British West Indies . . 
Foreign West Indies.. 






British North America 
Other places 

British West Indies .. 
British North America 
Other places 






6,398,290 


8,169,767 


6,368,168 


1 




25,500 
9,500 


249,000 


645,500 












35,000 


249,000 | 645,500 


1 



(continued.) 



268 



CANADA. 



Exports (by Sea) into Canada during the following Years— {continued.) 



ARTICLES. 


Countries to which 
exported. 


1835 


1840 


1844 


1848 


1850 


Timber, bewn .... 


United Kingdom .... 


tons. 

343,853 

2 

478 


tons. 
469,177 

12 


tons. 
444,850 
54 

10 

979 


tons. 


tons. 




Kiiti.-h West ladies .. 
Rio dela l J L.ta ...... 

British North America 
Other places 

United Kingdom .... 
British West Indies.. 
British North America 
Other places 






344,333 


409,189 


445,893 






Other Wood 


£ 

6221 
85 
131 
47 


£ 

9085 
5 


£ 

8703 
68 

67 


£ 


£ 




6484 ! 9090 


8838 1 





Aggregate of Exports. 



COUNTRIES TO WHICH 
EXPORTED. 



United Kingdom 

France 

Portugal 

New South Wales 

United States 

British West Indies .. 

Brazil 

Rio de la Plata 

British North America 
O ther places 

Total to all parts 



840,435 



3,680 

42,550 

5,645 

126,747 
1,153 



1,023,609 



£ 
1,616,125 



9,354 



113,370 
206 



1,739,055 



1842 



£ 

,823. 
11. 



015 
.700 

,320 
417 

i,115 



1, 

114, 



£ 
1,183,526 
8,572 



29,324 
1,525 
1,331 

84,716 
139 



1843 



£ 
1,353,387 
9,317 
1,217 



16,838 
61,177 



1,998,818 I 1, 



1,441,936 



1844 



£ 

1,746,488 
1 ,523 
1,908 

468 
6,825 

329 

51,645 
212 



1,809,398 



COUNTRIES TO WHICH 
EXPORTED. 



United Kingdom 

France 

Portugal 

New South Wales .... 

United States 

British West Indies .. 

Brazil 

Rio de la Plata 

British North America 
O ther places 

T>)tal to all parts 



1845 
£ 



1848 



1819 



1850 



Principal Articles imported into Canada by Sea, from 1838 to 1850 inclusive. 





Vessels with 
Cargo and 
in Ballast. 


Wines. 


East India 

and British 

Possessions, 

Rum. 


Foreign 
Spirits. 


Whisky. 


Molasses. 


SUGARS. 


YEARS. 


Refined 


Muscovado 
and Bastard. 


1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

18-18 

1849 

1850 


number. 

1091 
1147 
1432 
1458 
1081 
1419 
1420 
1699 
1699 
1434 


gallons. 
268,419 
392,994 
310,956 
214,721 
300,462 
266,213 
333,271 
204,116 
313,076 
229,595 


gallons. 
682,736 
159,628 

59,021 
106,487 

52,346 

31,712 
123,687 
137,879 

63,389 
102,767 


gallons. 
362,735 
601,729 
535,174 

282,889 
221,873 
149,215 
312,794 
242,175 
159,547 
185,367 


gallons. 

15,371 

16,193 

23,783 

167 

9,066 

572 

6,423 

828 

4,058 

683 


gallons. 
69,257 
82,920 
146,379 
78,691 
117,966 
137,540 
222,836 
352,970 
151,675 
365,450 


lbs. 

1,769,247 

1,675,697 

1,745,822 

2,878,717 

1,911,670 

273,131 

1,610,659 

1,448,840 

895,046 

880,305 


lbs. 
4,772,863 
5,340,301 
7,471,317 
9,548,119 
6,657,940 
7,927,535 
11,513,684 
5,025,748 
8,546,982 
8,719,099 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



269 



Principal Articles imported into Canada by Sea — (continued). 





Coffee. 


Teas. 


TO R A C C O. 


Salt. 


Value of 

Goods pa j in g 

ad va'orem 

duty. 


Value of 

Goods 

admitted 

free. 


YEYRS. 


Leaf. 


Manufac- 
tured. 


1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 


lbs. 

43,139 

24,723 
171,741 
218,933 

60,806 
152,060 
432,105 

45,148 
105,282 
2ol,444 


lbs. 

1,041,915 

971,797 

736,550 

1,057,455 

1,475,306 

778,367 

937,774 

725,072 

603,038 

816,866 


lbs. 

8,791 

5,180 

175,392 

41,446 
147,718 

72,890 
304,022 
164,218 
230,197 
128,284 


lbs. 

96,931 

25,490 

68.199 

145,997 

118,405 

98,472 

83:3,512 

182,113 

83,059 

68,591 


bushels. 
308,1*3 
484,662 
445,025 
3 49,728 
4W,060 
641,100 
835,560 
373,«30 
345,396 
87,880 


£ 
1,152,183 
1,7*8,311 
1,876,360 
1,963,493 
1,761,732 
1,270,294 
2,042,469 
2,185,344 
2,241,154 
1,783,682 


£ 
178,934 
139,112 
120,542 
120,221 
70,63!) 
11,118 
68,767 
48,544 
50,384 



Imports Inland,, from 1847 to 1850, inclusive, in addition to those by Sea. 





Wines. 


Spirits. 


Molasses. 


SUGARS. 


Coffee. 


Teas. 


TOBACCO. 




Goods 
paying 


YEARS 


Refined. 


Musco- 
vado. 


Manufac- 
tured. 


Unmanu- 
factured. 


Sa1t - IvZuDa- 
ties. 


1 847 ... . 

1848.... 
1849.... 

1850.... 


gallons. 
6136 


gallons. 
67,769 


gallons. 
121,805 


lbs. 
107,730 


lbs. 
5,426,914 


lbs. | li.s. 
829,369 2,556,719 


lbs. 
2,230,335 


lbs. 

189,715 


bushels. 
139,110 


£ 

383,781 



Exports of Timber from Canada by Sea. 



DESCRIPTION. 



White pine feet 

Red pine do. 

Oak do. 

Elm do. 

Ash do. 

Birch do. 

Staves Standard, M 

puncheon, M 

barrel 

Deals, pine pieces 

spruce rfo. 

Tamarac feet 

Lathwood cords 

Total 



1845 



number. 

15,828,880 

5,182,320 

1,397,440 

1,423,920 

207,080 

183,360 

1,407 

3,122 

652 

■d 3,002,015 

£ 527,259 



1846 



number. 

14,392,320 

5,206,040 

1,742,680 

1,793,320 

188,960 

147,»80 

970 

2,203 

273 

2,081,26'» 

386,807 

771,489 

5,007 



number. 

14,093,520 

1,806,080 

1,591,520 

91,040 

108,0 60 

990 

1,740 

100 

3,399,529 

1,372,520 

4,218 



27,757,455 I 26,719,209 



1848 



1850 



Exports from Canada by Sea (exclusive of Timber) during the following Years. 



YEARS. 



1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 



Asl:es. 



Butter. 



barrels. 
29,454 I 
25,4S0 I 
24,408 
22,012 
27,641 
34,916 
35.743 
30^16 
26,011 
19,243 



lbs. 

80,536 
72,248 
403,730 
211,497 
542,511 
374,207 
460,800 
812,475 
786,701 
1,036,555 



Beef. 


Barley. 


Flour. 


barrels. 


bushels. 


barrels. 


439 


146 


59,204 


2310 


130 


48,427 


3685 


60 


315,612 


2968 


4,504 


356,210 


9608 


867 


294,799 


7195 


6,910 


209,957 


5568 


63,755 


415,467 


2140 


27,626 


442,228 


2826 


6,287 


555,602 


1890 


23,012 


651,030 



Oatmeal. 


Peas. 


Pork. 


Wheat. 


barrels. 


bushels. 


barrels. 


bushels. 


522 


1,415 


8.868 




50 


2,855 


6,479 


3,336 


6,008 


59,878 


11,230 


1 42,059 


4,567 


123,574 


14,795 


562,862 


6,754 


78,985 


40,288 


204,107 


5,327 


88,318 


10,684 


144,233 


6,725 


130,355 


11,164 


282,183 


1,570 


220,912 


3,493 


396,252 


5,930 


216,339 


5,598 


534,747 


21,999 


119,252 


4,674 


628,001 



Oats, 
bushels. 



5,666 
3.651 
24,574 
53,530 
46,060 
165,805 







270 



CANADA 



The value of ashes, grain, and timber, the most important articles of Cana- 
dian produce that were exported, was as follows : — 



YEARS. 


Ashes. 


Grain, &c. 


Timber. 


Total. 


YEARS. 


Ashes. 


Grain, &c. 


Timber. 


Total. 


1832.. 

1833 

1834 

1835 

1836 

1837 

1838 

1839 

1840 

1841 


£ 
204,667 
174,281 
108,287 
176,231 
238,951 
180.571 
168,980 
142,457 
126,148 
121,733 


£ 

221,552 

241,720 

139,742 

39,590 

28,804 

15,331 

46,034 

32,052 

494,507 

660,908 


£ 

471,837 
489,367 
683,208 
620, 1S2 
703,165 
651,786 
706,185 
880,403 
952,826 
1,019,745 


£ 

898 056 

905,368 

931,237 

83U,003 

970,920 

847,688 

921,199 

1,054,912 

1,573,481 

1,802,336 


1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1819 

1S50.. .. .. 


£ 
157,906 


£ 
512,324 


£ 

522,203 


£ 
1,192,433 



Summary of Imports into, and Exports from, Canada during the following Years. 



YEARS. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


YEARS. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1829 


£ 
1,233,907 
1,504,914 
1,703,626 
1,567,719 
1,665,144 
1,063,643 
1,601,503 
2,031,769 
1,660,253 
1,534,276 
2,229,927 


£ 
1,447,485 
1,155,404 
1,195,516 
952,463 
965,026 
1,018,922 
1,023,609 
1,212,980 
1,012,843 
1,091,345 
1,217,554 


1840 


£ 

1,994,917 
2,022,521 
1,984,545 
1,243,111 

2,493,458 
2,639,678 
2,510,869 
2,350,998 
1,721,997 


£ 
1,739,055 
1,998,818 
1,412,022 
1,441,936 
1,809,844 
2,282,998 
2,151,679 
2,203,056 
1,437,679 


1830 


1841 

1 842 


1831 , 


1832 


1843 


1833 


1844 

1845 


1834 


1835 


1846 


1836 


1847 


1837 


1848.... 


1838 


1849 


J839 


1850 











The value of British cotton, linen, silk, woollen, and iron manufactures that 



found a market in Canada in each of the following Years, 


was — 




YEARS. 


Manufactures of 


Total. 


Cotton. 


Linen. 


Silk. 


Woollen. 


Iron. 


1832 


£ 

309,170 
247,616 
173,347 
349,831 
473,160 
283,858 
249,872 
544,110 
423,024 
419,170 
388,622 


£ 

54,320 
50,576 
26,733 
60,039 
61,235 
52,847 
43,936 
67,468 
90,697 
83,413 
70,633 


£ 

62,389 
50,191 
40,909 
i 8,988 
63,143 
50,222 
43,S89 
95,772 
95,5S3 
64,857 
68,323 


£ 
229,631 
257,652 
133,490 
237,961 
303,166 
224,671 
193,859 
329,598 
261,583 
290,632 
305,846 


£ 

68,246 

83,373 

56,663 

56,884 

91,643 

64,839 

54,871 

111,604 

119,500 

137,859 

99,266 


£ 
723,756 


1833 

1834 


689,408 
431,142 


1835 


763,703 


1836 


992,347 


1837 


676,437 


1838 


586,427 


1839 


1,148,552 


1840 


990,387 


1841 


995,931 


1842 


932,690 


1843 




1844 




1845 




1846 




1847 




1848 




1849 




1850 









NAVIGATION. 











SHIPS I 


N W A 


R D S 








YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


British Colonies. 


United States. 


Foreign States. 


Total. 




Ships. 


Tons. 


Ship?. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tous. 


I Ships. 


Tous. 




number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


1832-... 


860 


255,527 


1162 


142,280 


780 


101,497 


25 


5,938 


2827 


505,242 


1833 


812 


234,844 


1155 


162,320 


994 


179,266 


19 


4,868 


2980 


581,298 


1834.... 


931 


275,518 


1157 


127,034 


771 


159,133 


20 


5,259 


2s 79 


506,944 


1835.... 


947 


297,109 


217 


24,022 


1349 


75,748 


28 


<S910 


2541 


403,789 


1836.... 


953 


310,645 


1093 


202,715 


910 


91,753 


44 


11,446 


3000 


616,559 


1837.... 


854 


218,481 


827 


189,862 


874 


90,847 


40 


10,496 


2595 


579,686 


1838.... 


863 


306,241 


896 


152,443 


1113 


89,225 


46 


1 2,376 


2918 


560,285 


1845 


1350 


553,353 


184 


21,855 


30* 


17,421 


135 


35,760 


1699 


628,389 


1846.... 






















1847.... 






















1848.... 






















1849 






















1850.... 























* Lake navigation not included 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



271 



Navigation — {continued). 









S 


H I P 


S O U T W 


A R D 


S. 






YEARS. 


Great Britain. 


British Colonies. 


Unit* d States. 


Foreign 


States. 


Tot 


AL. 




Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


Ships. 


Tons. 




number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


number. 


1832 


962 


272,468 


157 


7,418 


883 


46,176 


2 


493 


2004 


326,555 


1833 


899 


260,967 


200 


16,977 


327 


68,623 


4 


1613 


1430 


348,180 


1834 


1024 


302,308 


180 


14,216 


399 


69,776 


9 


2837 


1612 


389,137 


183^.... 


1015 


317,990 


218 


17,090 


832 


70,682 


9 


1740 


2074 


407,502 


1S36 


1092 


350,741 


230 


18,175 


419 


59,697 


1 


199 


1742 


428,812 


1837 


980 


331,883 


164 


13,875 


432 


49,301 


1 


353 


1577 


395,412 


1838.... 


955 


344,153 


143 


11,939 


445 


67,816 


1 


343 


1544 


424,251 


1845 


1564 


625,716 


134 


9,254 


1 


76 


3 


1361 


1702 


636,407 


1846 






















1847 






















1818 






















1849.... 






















1S50.... 























Ship-building forms an important and increasing branch of industry in the 
province. There were built and registered in the different ports of Canada in 
each of the following years, from 1832 to 1850: — 



YEARS. 


Ships. 


Tons. 


YEARS. 


Ships. 


Tons. 




number. 

25 
29 
32 
26 
32 
32 
33 
42 
54 
64 


number. 
4,411 

5,154 
6,176 
5,465 
7,704 
6,356 
6,916 
10,857 
19,768 
20,707 


1842 


number. 
44 


number. 




1 843 






1844 






1845 


25,536 




1846 






1847 






1848 






1849 




1S40 


1850 




1841 







The greater part of the above were built for sale in England, where they 
have been registered. 



In 1841 there belonged to Canada- 

225 sailing vessels under 50 tons 
236 sailing vessels above 50 tons 

461 sailing vessels, of 
and 9 steam vessels, of 



6,134 tons. 
42,767 „ 



48,901 
1,030 



Canals. — The principal canals are — 

1st. The Rideau Canal, which opens a water-communication between Kingston and the 
Ottawa, a distance of 132 miles, by connecting several pieces of water together, lying in that 
direction— the length of the cuts not exceeding twenty miles. The difference of level is 445 feet ; 
about twenty miles are excavated — some through rocks. There are forty-seven locks, which are 
142 feet long, and thirty-three feet broad, and with a water-depth of five feet, which admits 
vessels under 125 tons. The cost of this canal will not be less than 1,000,000/. sterling. 

2nd. The Welland Canal, which connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. The length of 
this canal is forty-one miles, its width fifty-six feet, and its depth eight feet and a half; the sum- 
mit level is 330 feet. The ascending locks are thirty-seven in number (made of wood), twenty- 
two feet wide, and 100 feet long. The cost of this canal has been upwards of 500,000/. 

3rd. TheGrenville Canal, consisting of three sections : one at the Long Sault, on the Ottawa ; 
another at the fall, called the Chute a Blondeau, sixty miles from Montreal, and 218 from 
Kingston; and a third at the Carillon Rapids, fifty-six miles from Montreal, and 222 from King- 
ston, opening into the lake of the Two Mountains, through which an uninterrupted navigation 
is practicable, by steam-bjats, to La Chine — nine miles above the city of Montreal. This canal 
renders the navigation of the Ottawa, between the Rideau and Montreal, complete. 

4th. The Chine Canal is twenty-eight feet wide at bottom, forty-eight feet at the water-line ; 
has five feet depth of water, and a towing-path. The whole fall is forty-two feet, with the locks; 
the length is about seven miles. The expense of construction was 137,000/. 

There is continuous steam-boat communication in Upper Canada of about 460 miles ; namely, 
from the Grenville Canal, on the Ottawa, to Niagara. 



272 QUEBEC. 



TRADE OF QUEBEC. 

The city of Quebec, the capital, before the union of the two provinces, of 
Canada, and the Gibraltar of America, stands on the extremity of a precipitous 
cape, in latitude 46 deg. 54 min. north, longitude 71 deg. 5 min. west. 

The island of Orleans, five miles below, divides the St. Lawrence into two 
channels, each about a mile broad. Immediately opposite Quebec, where the 
river makes a sudden bend, it is little more than half a mile broad, but the depth 
of water is about twenty-five fathoms. Between this and the island of Orleans 
is formed the splendid Basin of Quebec — somewhat more than five miles 
long, and about four broad in the widest part. On sailing up the river, we 
see nothing of the city until we are nearly in a line between the west point of 
Orleans and Point Levi. Quebec and its surrounding sublimities then burst 
suddenly into the vast landscape ; and the grandeur of the first view of this 
city is so irresistibly striking, that few who have beheld it can ever forget 
the magically impressive picture it presents. The Bay of Naples is not more 
enchanting. 

An abrupt promontory, 350 feet high, crowned with an impregnable citadel, 
and surrounded by strong battlements, on which the British banners daily wave 
— the bright steeples of the cathedral and churches — the once vice-regal chateau, 
hanging over the precipice — the house-tops of the upper town — the houses, 
wharfs, hangards, or warehouses, &c, of the lower — a fleet of ships at Wolfe's 
Cove, and others at the wharfs — steamers — multitudes of boats — several ships 
on the stocks — the white sheet of the cataract of Montmorency tumbling into 
the St. Lawrence over a ledge 220 feet high — the churches, houses, fields, and 
woods of Beauport and Charlebourg — mountains in the distance — the high 
grounds, church, and houses of St. Joseph — some Indian wigwams near Point 
Levi, with some of their bark canoes on the water, and vast masses of timber 
descending on the river from the upper country — may impart to the fancy some 
idea of the view unfolded to the spectator who sails up the St. Lawrence, when 
he first beholds the metropolis of the British empire in America. 

On landing at Quebec, and ascending from the lower to the upper town, we 
pass through narrow streets, lined with old-looking houses, with small windows 
and iron shutters, built apparently in all the confusion of antiquity. The ascent, 
which is commanded by well-planted cannon, is either by a winding of Mountain- 
street through the city walls near the Parliament House, or by a flight of steps 
called " Break-neck Stairs." The land descends about 100 feet in its level across 
the heights from Cape Diamond to Cote Ste. Genevieve. 

The lower town is the seat of activity and commerce, and stretches below the 
walls, from Anse des Meres, or Diamond Harbour, along the foot of Cape 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 273 

Diamond, to the Cul de Sac, and Saut au Matelot, round by the St. Charles to 
the suburb of St. Roch. Most of the ships anchor above the townae flo Wt's 
Cove, where there is less rapidity of current, and where the timber rafts are 
landed for inspection. Here are timber yards and booms. In this place are also 
the huts of the lumberers, and a few houses. The customs house, government 
warehouses, &c, are in the lower town; the streets in which are exceedingly 
steep and dirty; in one place there is' a descent by stairs from the head of 
Champlain-street to the Cul de Sac, of most fatiguing length. Parts of Quebec 
resemble Paris, or rather those of Rouen. Between the lower town and the River 
St. Charles there are extensive flats, dry at low water. The great rise of tide 
adapts these for the site of docks. The French contemplated building wet and 
graving docks in this place; and would, it is thought, have done so had they 
remained masters of the country. 

A pier carried across from the Exchange to Reauport might be constructed so 
as to dam in the St. Charles, and form either wet or dry docks. The ship yards 
are principally on the side next the River St. Charles. In the Cul de Sac, 
vessels lie aground to be repaired ; and here small vessels are laid up during 
winter. 

On arriving in the upper town from the lower, we find ourselves in a very 
different place ; the streets are rather narrow, but in general they are clean, and 
tolerably well paved. The houses are chiefly covered with glittering tin. 

The public buildings are substantial rather than elegant. The Chateau 
St. Louis, which has been destroyed by fire, and was the residence of the governor- 
general, was a huge plain-looking building, projecting so far over the precipice 
of Cape Diamond, here 260 feet high, that the outer walls were supported by 
piers or buttresses, much in the same manner as viaducts are. 

The Catholic cathedral of Notre Dame de Victoire is a rude, large edifice, 
with rather a heavy spire. Its interior will accommodate 4000 persons: it ex- 
hibits the imposing grandeur of the Romish churches. The altar is magnificent. 
Images and paintings line the walls; and lamps, showing glimmering lights, and 
attended by old women, are or were kept perpetually burning. 

There are several other Catholic churches in Quebec and the suburbs. 

The strong quadrangular building which was formerly the College of the 
Jesuits, was, when occupied by them, the most spacious building in North 
America. 

In this building there were also several public halls and rooms, a library, 
laboratory, refectory, &c. ; and an extensive orchard and kitchen garden were 
attached. The British government converted this magnificent edifice into bar- 
racks, for which purpose it has long been used. 

The population of Quebec, including the suburbs, was about 700, it is now 
about 40,000; more than half of the number are Canadian French. 
VOL. V. T 



274 QUEBEC. 

The ice is seldom firm between Quebec and Point Levi ; and, notwithstanding 
the intense frost, the habitans cross in wooden canoes, hauling or pushing them 
forward among the cakes of ice. "When the ice does form, it is called a pont 9 and 
a kind of jubilee takes place on the occasion ; but this does not happen once in 
ten years. In the spring, when winter breaks up, and the snow and ice melt, 
the streets are horribly dirty; almost impassable even with large boots. 

There are banks, distilleries, breweries, tobacco, soap, and candle manu- 
factories. Several substantial flag-ships have been for many years built here ; 
and we find among the population such tradesmen as are usual in a city, but not 
all those of a manufacturing town. 

A great proportion of the British and other goods imported have usually been 
sold by auction ; the Canadian shopkeepers, who seldom import goods from other 
countries, prefer buying their goods at public sales than by private bargains. 

What will ever render Quebec a position of the first consideration is its 
particular situation, and the extraordinary natural features of the spot on which 
it is founded. It is now absolutely impossible for a ship of any size to pass 
either up or down contrary to the permission of those who possess its garrison. 

The citadel of Quebec, on the highest part of Cape Diamond, is a fortification 
not perhaps inferior to any in Europe, and commands every surrounding position. 
The old French walls were remarkably strong, but they have been nearly all 
destroyed on the land side, and replaced with others still stronger, and con- 
structed according to the more modern rules of defence. Forty acres are occu- 
pied by the fortifications ; and across the plain (1S37 yards), on the only 
assailable ground which rises at some distance from the walls, Martello towers, 
strongly constructed, to baffle the first attacks of an enemy, are so disposed as to 
sweep every possible line of advance. There is a steep inclined plain and slope 
of 500 feet to ascend Cape Diamond, at a height of 950 from the river* 
There are five gates in the walls which surround the city, viz., St. Louis' Gate, 
St. John's Gate, Palace Gate, Hope Gate, and Prescott Gate, through which we 
ascend from the lower to the upper town. 

On the west, and in front of the citadel, are the celebrated plains of Abraham, 
where Wolfe fought, conquered, and died. 

The grandeur of the view from the citadel of Cape Diamond has been 
extolled by all that ever beheld it. The prospects from the castles of Edinburgh 
or Stirling have the greatest claims of any that I have seen to a comparison 
with it ; but both fall far short of the magnificent views enjoyed from the 
summit of Cape Diamond. When we look down the St. Lawrence, we have 
before us a sublime landscape, exhibiting from fortv to fifty miles of one of the 
greatest rivers in the world, with tall ships, small vessels, and boats on its 
surface, and divided for twenty miles by the Island of Orleans ; of which also, 
with all its interesting beauties, we have a bird's-eye view. At the same time 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



275 



the southern coast presents villages, churches, cottages, farms, forests, and 
mountains in the distant outline. If we turn to the north and east, we have a 
vast amphitheatre, embosomed within lofty mountains, and enriched and animated 
by the villages and churches of Beauport, Charleburgh, and Lorrette, with the 
vale of the River St. Charles, and a country decked with clumps of wood and 
richly-cultivated farms. If we look below, we behold, some hundreds of feet 
underneath us, the lower town, with all its active accompaniments, and with 
crowds of ships at anchor in the cove, alongside the wharfs, and under sail. 
Opposite stands Point Levi and a populous country. Upwards, the view, 
although not extensive, is still grand. The country is bold and romantic, yet 
cultivated and populous ; and the river exhibits the unceasing movements of 
steam-boats, sailing-vessels, small boats, Indian canoes, and rafts of timber 
floating down the stream, and covered with men, women, children, and huts. 

Description, however, can never do justice to this vast picture ; nothing but 
a 'panorama painting can give those who have not beheld it a full idea of its 
splendid magnificence. 



Value of Imports at the Port of Quebec in each Year, from 1841 to 1850 inclusive, 

Sterling. 





Great 
Britain. 


Bitish Colonies. 


United 
States, 


Other 
Foreign 

States. 


Totals. 


YEARS. 


West 
Indies. 


North 
America. 


Elsewhere. 


Sterling. 


Currency at 
1/. 4s. id. 


1841 


£ 
74,457 
75,701 
234,449 
396,196 
486,047 
496,099 
473,417 
381,625 


£ 

775 
1016 
1039 

994 
5321 

624 
1585 


£ 
57,922 
28,745 
42,390 
48,310 
26,982 
38,361 
42,078 
54,056 


£ 

72 

123 

64 

1481 

813 

3020 


£ £ 

282,610 17,343 

16,275 5KS63 


£ 
179,109 
178,084 
330,597 
539,070 
585,533 
617,245 
655,000 
514,393 

- 


£ 
217,916 
216,669 
402,227 
655,868 
712,398 
750,982 
796,917 
625,845 


1842 


1843 


27,997 
59,t;46 
52,970 
52,448 
109,082 
50,803 


24,647 
33,798 
16,145 
28,854 
28,985 
23,302 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1847 


1848 


1849 


1850 











Value of Exports from the Port of Quebec in each Year, from 1841 to 1848 inclusive, 



Sterling. 





Great 
Britain. 


Ireland. 


British Colonies. 


United 

States. 


Other 


Totals. 


YEARS. 


West 
Indies. 


North 
America. 


Elsewhere. 


Foreign 

States. 


Sterling. 


Currency at 
It. 4.9. 4rf. 


1841 

1S42 

1843 

1844. 

1845 

1846 

1847 

18-18 

1849 

1850 


£ 

1,102,542 
592,107 
1,068,288 
1,178.326 
1,649,702 
1,478,573 
1,413,599 
1,034,121 


The Exports to Irish 
ports are included 
in the previous co-** 
lumn. 


£ 

31,337 

24,187 

11.133 

3,381 

1,450 

989 


£ 

78,946 
56,578 
33,706 
34,899 
33,788 
54,394 
88,551 
79,456 


£ 
191,952 
127,593 

1,025 
1,859 


£ 

417 

467 
750 

921 
1618 


£ 

14,853 

14,456 

10,968 

3,968 

4,871 

116 

329 

415 


£ 

1,420,049 
814,922 
1,124,097 
1,222,007 
1,690,562 
1,534,074 
1,505,259 
1,115,610 


£ 

1,727,726 
991,489 
1,367,651 
1 ,486,848 
2,056,851 
1,866,456 
1,831,399 
1,357,326 



TRADE OF MONTREAL. 
The island, on the south side of which the city of Montreal stands, is about 
thirty-two miles long, and from five to ten broad. On the north, the Riviere de 

T 2 



'276 MONTREAL. 

Prairie separates it from Isle Jesus, which is also a seigniory, and about twenty- 
one miles long, and from Isle Bizarre, which is four miles long. Some miles 
above, the Utawa divides into two branches; the lesser, winding betwixt these 
islands and the main continent, joins the St. Lawrence on the east at Repen- 
tigny: and the greater, rushing among a cluster of islets and rocks, lying in the 
channel between the pretty wooded island of Penault, and a sweet little village, 
Moore's " St. Anne," mingles its waters on the west w r ith those of Lake St. 
Louis. At the lower end of this lake the St. Lawrence contracts, and boils, and 
foams, and whirls, and dashes along, among and against small islands, and over 
rocks, for nine miles, forming the rapids of La Chine and Sault St. Louis. A 
little below Montreal there are unbroken rapids, too powerful, however, for sailing 
vessels to surmount, except with a strong fair wind. Steam-vessels not only 
easily ascend them, but also tow brigs and ships up to Montreal. 

The city of Montreal is in latitude 45 deg. 30 min., longitude 73 deg. 25 min. 
west. Betwixt the royal mountain and the river there is a belt of low land, nearly 
two miles in breadth; on a more elevated part of this, close to the river, does the 
town stand. Including the suburbs, it is more extensive and populous than 
Quebec. Both cities differ very greatly in appearance; the low banks of the St. 
Lawrence at Montreal want the tremendous precipices frowning over them, and 
all the grand sublimity w'hich characterise Quebec. Until 1829 there were no 
wharfs or quays at Montreal; and the ships and steamers were ranged in pretty 
deep water close to the clayey and generally filthy bank in front of the city. 
Several quays and wharfs have been, since 1829, constructed, by virtue of legisla- 
tive enactments, along the banks in front of the upper part of the city, and Mon- 
treal now presents a most convenient port. St. Paul's, the principal street for 
shops and trade, is the longest, widest, and best in the lower town. Parallel with 
it, dividing the old town from the more modern, extends Rue de Notre Dame. 

The new or upper part of Montreal contains many handsome houses, built of 
fine light bluish stone, and some of the neighbouring villas are commodious 
residences. 

The Champ de Mars is a pretty, but not a very exclusive esplanade. 

To the north-east extends the Quebec suburb ; to the north the suburbs St. 
Lawrence, St. Peter, and St. Louis; to the west those of St. Antoine, Recollet, 
and Ste. Anne. 

Most of the public buildings are more imposing in their appearance than those 
of Quebec. Among these, the new Catholic cathedral, although the most 
modern, demands the first attention. It is unquestionably the largest temple in 
North America, except the cathedral of Mexico. Its foundation stone was laid in 
September, 1824, and it was opened for the celebration of high mass in the 
autumn of 1829. It is dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Its length is 255 feet, 
breadth 234, and the height of the walls 112 feet. The style of architecture is the 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 277 

Gothic of tlie thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. It has two massive high 
towers, and four lesser towers. It has one superior altar, and six of less gran- 
deur. It has five public, and three private entrances ; and from 10,000 to 
12,000 people, which it will accommodate, may disperse in five or six minutes. 
The eastern window behind the altar is thirty-three feet broad, and seventy high ; 
the other windows are ten feet by thirty-six feet. From 7000 to 8000 persons 
frequently congregate within this edifice. It will, when finished, probably cost 
about 100,000/. 

Besides the cathedral, there are several Catholic churches, 

The principal English church is a handsome, capacious edifice, surmounted by 
a high and beautiful spire. The interior, in which there is an excellent organ, 
displays arrangements in which elegance and good order have been studied. The 
church of Scotland, and the several Dissenters, have places of worship; and there 
are numerous other public buildings. The parliament house, with its large 
library, was recently burned by a band of European savages. In 1808, there 
were only two newspapers printed in Canada ; they are now published in every 
little town in the province. 

There is a greater spirit of improvement in this city than at Quebec. There 
is much activity observable among all classes connected with trade. The posi- 
tion of Montreal, at the head of the ship navigation, and near the confluence of 
the St. Lawrence with the Utawa, and its communication with Upper Canada, 
the Gennessee country, and other parts of the United States, will always render 
it a great commercial emporium. 

In winter, the trade of Montreal is not suspended, like that of Quebec. Thou- 
sands of sledges may be seen coming in from all directions with agricultural 
produce and frozen carcases of beef and pork, firewood, and other articles. The 
New Englander, who finds out whatever will enable him to obtain a dollar, also 
directs his way with a horse and sledge, carrying the fish he caught in Massachu- 
setts Bay over snow and ice, to supply the tables of Montreal. 

Manufactured goods of all kinds are continually selling off in packages by the 
merchants or the auctioneers to the shopkeepers and country dealers, who again 
retail them to the citizens, or country people ; and flour, wheat, potatoes, &c, 
are continually coming in and filling the stores or warehouses. The markets at 
Montreal are abundantly supplied at all seasons of the year. Beef, veal, mutton, 
lamb, pork, poultry, vegetables, and fruit, are excellent and cheap. Bass, pike, 
pickerel, eels, masquenonge, and poisson d'oree, are the best kinds of fish ; 
salmon, and other varieties, occasionally. An American traveller, comparing the 
River St. Lawrence with the Mississippi, observes, " Great was our surprise, on 
arriving within view of Montreal, at the magnitude and importance of the place, 
and the grandeur of the vast river, and the shipping, 500 miles from the ocean. 
It may well compare with our own Mississippi; and, though winter fast locks it 
in ice, summer, on the other hand, brings no yellow fever." 



278 



MONTREAL* 



In summer, vasts rafts of timber come down and pass the town for Quebec; 
and scows, bateaux, or Durham boats, bring down the produce of the upper 
country. 

Before the North- West and Hudson Bay Companies joined their interests, 
Montreal was the head-quarters, the grand depot of the fur trade. The com- 
pany have still a dep6t at Lachine ; and we may occasionally observe canoes, laden 
with various articles to barter for furs with the Indians, depart for the ports on 
the River St. Maurice. But this animated trade has in an important degree fled 
from Montreal for ever, or as long as the company of Hudson Bay hold the north- 
west trading ports. There are cast-iron founderies ; and machinery for steam- 
engines, stoves, kettles, common nails, linseed oil, floor-cloths, &c, are manu- 
factured in the town. There are also distilleries; breweries; soap, candle, and 
tobacco manufactories; and several ship-building establishments, where many 
substantial and handsome vessels have been constructed. 

The population of Montreal resembles that of Quebec. About two-thirds are 
French ; the rest English, Scotch, Irish, and Americans. The appearance of 
the population in the streets is also much the same as at Quebec, with a great 
number of Americans and athletic Highlanders of Scottish origin from Glengarry; 
with groups of Iroquois Indians, in tawdry costume, and equally as degraded as 
the Hurons of Lorrette. It has a more ecclesiastical and classical character than 
Quebec ; a great number of priests in their black robes, and students in their 
academicals, are seen walking about. 

Montreal ought to have continued the seat of government, if the good beha- 
viour of the inhabitants would have tolerated decency and tranquillity. We 
must now consider it, probably, as a great trading emporium. 



Value of Imports at the Port of Montreal in each Year, from 1841 to 1848 inclusive, 

Sterling. 





Great 
Britain. 


British Possessions. 


United 
States. 


Other 
Foreign 
States. 


Totals. 


YEARS. 


West 
Indies. 


North 
America. 


Elsewhere. 


Sterling. 


Currency at 
11. As. Ad. 




£ 
1,632,480 
1,614,981 
911,828 
1,803,226 
1,990,864 
1,734,760 
1,491,877 
1,062,948 


£ 

1072 
1255 

367 

8329 

31 

270 


£ 

38,615 
32,686 
54,576 
55,578 
33,876 
37,111 
49,487 
29,522 


£ 
122 


£ 

10,763 
558 

58,509 
143,219 
100,114 

90,513 
126,557 
107,873 


£ 

17,978 
12,570 
33,751 
30,922 
20,446 
31,205 
27,785 
17,138 


£ 
1,699,837 
1,661,868 
1,059,921 
2,034,315 
2,153,631 
1,893,623 
1,695,978 
1,217,604 


£ 
2,068,135 
2,021,106 
1,289,571 
2,475,084 
2,620,252 
2,303,908 
2,063,440 
1,481,418 








1845 ...••.. 


1846 


1847 




1849 

1850 







BKITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 



279 



Value of Exports from the Port of Montreal in each Year, from 1841 to 1848 inclusive, 

Sterling. 





Great 
Britain. 


Ireland. 


British Colonies. 


United 

States. 


Other 
Foreign 
States. 


Totals. 


YEARS. 


West 
Indies. 


North 
America. 


Elsewhere. 


Sterling. 


Currency at 
11. 4s. Ad. 


1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 


£ 

526,064 
565,681 
285,876 
597,276 
571,096 
506,697 
616,563 
283,104 


£ 

10,324 
25,364 


£ 

11,782 
5,137 
5,720 
3,444 


£ 
35,543 
28,137 
27,470 

16,766 
21,339 

18,784 
32,878 
27,474 


£ 
2028 


£ 

5,293 
22,587 
11,124 


£ 

450 

400 
358 


£ 
575,400 
598,955 
319,067 
617,916 
592,436 
541,100 
697,794 
322,061 


£ 
700,070 
728,729 
388,199 
754,231 
720,797 
658,338 
848,982 
391,841 



For Lake Trade and Navigation, see section on United States Inland Navi- 
gation. 



Totax Value of Exports from Quebec and 
Montreal. 


Total Value of Imports at 
Montreal. 


Quebec and 


YEARS. 


Quebec. 


Montreal. 


Total Currency. 


YEARS. 


Q uebec. 


Montreal. 


Total Currency. 


1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 


£ s. d. 

1,727,726 15 1 
991,489 8 9 
1,367,651 17 5 
1,486,848 17 9 
2,056,851 1 1 
1,866,456 18 5 
1,831,399 13 
1,357,326 6 1 


£ s. d. 

700,070 2 9 
728,729 14 9 
388,199 1 
754,231 2 8 
720,797 7 8 
658,338 6 8 
848,982 18 10 
391,841 5 


£ .i. d. 
2,427,796 17 10 
1,720,219 3 6 
1,755,850 18 5 
2,241,080 5 
2,777,648 8 9 
2,524,795 5 1 
2,680,382 11 10 
1,749,167 11 1 


1841 

1842 

1843 

1844 

1845 

1846 

1847 

1848 

1849 

1850 


£ s. d- 

217.916 14 3 
216,669 13 11 
402,227 5 
655,868 15 8 
712,398 10 10 
750,982 11 5 

796.917 9 2 
625,845 2 11 


£ s. d. 

2,068,135 17 10 
2,021,106 12 1 
1,239,571 1 5 
2,475,084 5 8 
2,620,252 3 2 
2,303,908 12 11 
2,063,440 11 11 
1,481,418 17 9 


£ s. d. 

2,286,052 12 1 
2,237,776 6 
1,691,798 6 5 
3,130,953 1 4 
3,332,650 14 
3,054,891 4 4 
2,860,357 1 1 
2,107,264 8 



The above tables apparently show that Canada had been overtrading to a large amount; but 
it must be kept in mind that the values given are those declared at the various custom-houses, 
and a very large export has taken place to the States, which trade is steadily increasing; but 
from the fact of no clearances being required, and the tables being drawn up from vague reports, 
it is difficult to arrive at any real fact, except in regard to the two ports, Quebec and Montreal. 

The minutest calculations show that the value of goods imported by the inland ports (which 
are generally from the United States) give 9| per cent on the values in the gross ; thus we may 
arrive very nearly at the values at the inland ports for the following years : — 

£ s. d. 

1841 ........ 606,441 9 

1842 ........ 544,241 8 1 

1843 ........ 876,285 10 6 

1844 ........ 1,471,177 9 1 

1845 ........ 1,608,089 1 11 

1846 ........ 1,725,966 1 1 



1,688,583 



This indicates the value of imports into Canada for the year 1847 to have been 3, 795,847/. 5s. 1 Id., 
and with the addition of free goods, about 4,000,000/!., or very nearly 31. to each inhabitant, or 15J. 
for each family of five persons contributing towards the revenue of the country 1/. Is. Id. Of the 
large amount of imports in 1847, we find that Great Britain and her colonies furnish 2,677,260/., 
exclusive of the imports by sea into the ports of Western Canada, and goods passing through the 
States under the Drawback Act. 

The real wealth of the country is but little known, and till within a few years, when the 
regular towns of the customs were rendered more stringent and efficient, there was no information 
whatever in the hands of the government as to the trade carried on by the inland ports. To the 
introduction of the present system we owe much, and if the same check could be placed on the 
export trade, we would soon be able to arrive at a definite knowledge of our trade, which 
knowledge would cause a greater energy in all our efforts to bring forward the resources of the 
colony. 

Let us turn our attention to the export trade, and endeavour to make available the scattered 
information we possess on the subject. With regard to the ports of Montreal and Quebec, 



280 NOVA SCOTIA. 

no difficulty arises : we find the exports from these ports to have amounted, in 1848, to 
1,749,1611. \0s. lid., to which, adding for the fisheries not included 91,252Z. 15s. 8c?., we have for 
the exports by sea 1,840,4202. 6s. Id., the great portion of which was to England and her colonies. 
As to the exports by the United States, we have only partial returns from some ports, and at 
evidently under-rated values, viz. : — 

£ a. d. 

Produce of the forest . . • . • 159,551 6 5 

Agricultural production . • . . . 454,350 9 

Live stock ....... 54,243 7 6 

Other articles ....... 104,287 10 8 

Total ..... 772,432 5 4 

And to this we might add a very liberal per centage ; for, on the most minute inquiry among 
persons capable of forming an estimate on such matters, it has been universally asserted that many 
of the articles, particularly lumber, is far under-rated, pine lumber especially. We have certain 
returns from several saw-mills in Upper Canada, by which it appears that even in those which 
have given in the quantity manufactured, the produce was upwards of 200,000,000 of feet, and as 
the consumption does not equal one-half of that amount, we have nearly double the quantity 
stated for export, that is, allowing the produce of the Lower Canada saw-mills to balance the 
quantities exported by sea. 

As the official returns from the United States on goods imported from Canada merely gave the 
declared values without the quantities, we can only institute a comparison, so far, between that 
year and 1848. The following are the leading articles :— 

in 1848 





£ s. d 


Flour in 1S47 


24,722 9 3 


Butter 


1,016 16 6 


Ashes „ 


6,052 


Wool 


5,654 


Horses „ 


15,723 15 


Wheat „ 


9,421 15 



£ s. 


d 


. 310,965 9 


3 


8,722 6 





. 43,000 





5,324 16 


I 


. 33,451 15 





. 63,127 5 


6 



Consumption. — To any one at all conversant with the Canadian people, it must be evident that 
the general comfort is far more extensive than in most other countries : abject poverty is com- 
paratively little known, and the class constituting what were in a former census designated as 
" persons living upon alms," consisted chiefly of the old and infirm, who could not labour for 
their sustenance ; and even in that class in the western section of the province were very many 
who were far removed from the corresponding class in other countries. Taken as a whole, it may 
be safely asserted, that in no country do the agricultural classes enjoy a greater degree of comfort* 
or are liable to fewer deprivations. 



CHAPTER IV. 

NOVA SCOTIA. 

The Province of Nova Scotia, exclusive of the Island of Cape Breton, lies 
within the latitudes of 43 deg. and 46 deg. north, and longitudes 61 deg. and 
67 deg. west. Its length is about 320 miles, and its average breadth about 70 
miles; its computed area 15,500 square miles, from which nearly one-third may 
be deducted for lakes, arms of the sea, and rivers; leaving about 7,000,000 acres 
of land, of which 2,000,000 are -unfit for cultivation, though affording tolerable 
pasturage, except in the swamps and where bare granite rocks cover the surface. 
The aspect of Nova Scotia, on the whole, is forbidding and rocky, and its charac- 
ter sterile. The harbours are numerous and safe, and the mines of this colony 
are alone sources of great wealth; it produces, especially in the interior, great 
plenty of wood for ship-building, coopers, joiners, &c. The soil is capable of 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 281 



■ ^ 



yielding more than a sufficient quantity of white and green crops for the support 
of the inhabitants; and although the climate in winter is colder than in England, 
yet when the weather is cold, it is usually dry. 

The Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia, from Cape Canseau to Cape Sable, is 
pierced with innumerable small bays, harbours, and rivers. The shores are 
lined with rocks and thousands of islands; and although no part of the country 
can properly be considered mountainous, and there are but few high steep cliffs, 
yet the aspect of the whole, if not romantically sublime, is exceedingly pic- 
turesque; and the scenery, in many places, richly beautiful. The landscape 
which the head of Mahon Bay, in particular, presents, can scarcely be sur- 
passed. 

There is deep water, almost without exception, close to the rocks and islands, 
and into the harbours. The coasting vessels sail among and within the myriads 
of islands that line the coast during the most blustering weather, and have thus 
the advantage of passing along in smooth water while there is a heavy sea run- 
ning in the main ocean. Within the Bay of Fundy the shores have a more 
continuous outline; and, after passing St. Mary's Bay, the rugged appearance of 
the coast diminishes, but it still presents a bold and generally high character as 
far as the Basin of Minas. 

The interior of Nova Scotia is intersected and watered by numberless 
streams, rivers, and lakes; none of the last are large, or at least not considered 
so in America. 

Lake Rossignol, out of which a river, named the Mersey, runs to the har- 
bour now called Liverpool, but formerly Rossignol, is said to be thirty miles 
long ; and Lake George approaches to the same extent. 

The mountains, so called, scarcely warrant the appellation; the highest 
elevation in the province not being more than 700 feet above the level of the 
ocean. A high hill, called Ardoise Mountain, lying between Halifax and 
Windsor, is considered the most elevated land in Nova Scotia, and commands an 
extensively beautiful and picturesque prospect of land and water. There is also 
a range of high hills between Annapolis Basin and Argyll ; and a mountainous 
or hilly ridge extends on each side of Annapolis River, running parallel with the 
Bay of Fundy to Cape Blomidon. These eminences, with Horton Mountain, 
Aspotogan, Cape Porcupine, Mount Tom, and Cobequid Mountains, may be con- 
sidered the only high lands of consequence in Nova Scotia. 

The geological features of this province are prominent; and a greater variety 
of rocks present themselves, particularly along the Atlantic shores, than I have 
observed in any other part of North America. Granite, trap, and clay-slate pre- 
dominate, not only as primitive, but as prevailing rocks along the whole of the 
coast of Nova Scotia, and several miles into the country, extending from the 
Gut of Canseau to Cape Sable, and from thence to Brier Island. Quartz, usually 



282 NOYA SCOTIA. 

in veins with clay-slate ; mica-slate, sienite, and gneiss, but always detached, 
occur also in this extensive district. Greywacke is the most prevailing kind of 
transition reck. Whether all the gypsum strata and calcareous rocks belong to 
the floetz class, I have not been able to ascertain. The vast gypsum strata 
within the Bay of Fundy, at the Gut of Canseau, and at Antigonish, evidently 
belong to the latter. Granite and trap rocks appear at Cobequid Mountains, 
and occur probably in all the hilly parts of Nova Scotia; but so small a portion 
of the interior has been examined, and so little is known respecting its geology, 
except where roads cross the country, that it would be presumptuous to state 
even what appearances indicate. 

Granite and calcareous rocks, with grey and red sandstone, prevail in the 
northern parts of Nova Scotia, from the Gut of Canseau to the Bay de Vert ; 
and extend across the province to the Basin of Minas, if not interrupted by a 
granite ridge, which may very probably occur in the Mount Tom range of high 
lands. The hard grey, or bluish sandstone, which occurs in various parts of 
the province, makes excellent grindstones. The light grey granite quarried at 
Whitehead, near Cape Canseau, makes remarkably good millstones; and a 
beautiful freestone, most admirably adapted for building, is abundant in several 
places, particularly at Port Wallace. 

Among the minerals of this province, coal and iron certainly claim the first 
attention. As to the extent of the coal-fields, or what may be considered inde- 
pendent coal-fields, any opinion on the subject would be incorrect; and it may 
be sufficient to observe, that enough has been discovered for the consumption 
of America for centuries. Iron of excellent quality abounds in great plenty, in 
different parts of the province, generally accompanying vast strata of coal and 
chains of carboniferous limestone. A most extensive coal-field has been opened 
at Pictou. It is accompanied with vast strata of iron-stone. Coal abounds also 
at Chignecto, and many other parts of the province. Different varieties of 
copper ore, but not in great plenty, is met with at Carriboo, Tatmagouche, and 
some other places. Lead ores, chiefly sulphuret of lead and carbonate of lead, 
are also found in small quantities. Salt springs are met with near Picton, at 
River Philip, and in some other parts ; one of which is saturated with salt in 
the proportion of 12 to 88 water. Beautiful specimens of agate, jasper, chal- 
cedony, amethyst, &c, are found along the coast of the Bay of Fundy. 

The gradual improvements and opening of the country, and the enterprise 
of companies and individuals, will likely be the means of discovering many other 
minerals ; and the mines in Nova Scotia will, in all probability, become sources 
of immense wealth. 

The soil of Nova Scotia is of many different qualities, and of various degrees 
of fertility. The alluvial or intervale lands, of which there are extensive tracts, 
are rich, and produce plentiful returns of wheat, barley, oats, Indian corn, 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 283 

potatoes, turnips, and all vegetables and fruits common in England. Apples, 
equal to any grown in the United States, are produced in many parts of the 
province; and vines, covering several acres, have been lately discovered growing 
wild, or indigenous, near Digby. Some of the uplands, lying between the hilly 
ground and the intervales, or rivers, are light and poor, while the high, or what 
the inhabitants call the mountain lands, are rich, and very productive. This 
circumstance appears somewhat unaccountable; and the cause assigned is, that 
the light sand, or other substances, which naturally impart little nutrition to 
vegetables, having been carried, at various periods, by the rains down from the 
hills, have left behind a rich loamy earth; and that the poor uplands, or rather 
midlands, which prevail below the hills, and which have been formed of those 
sandy and light deposits, being very deep and loose, therefore retain neither 
rich earth or manures near the surface, and are consequently sterile and un- 
productive. 

The lands on the southern coast are generally so rocky, as to admit of culti- 
vation only at much expense and labour. After the rocks and stones are re- 
moved, the soil is by no means barren; and some remarkably fine tracts are met 
with at the heads of the bays and up the rivers. The lands, however, within the 
Bay of Fundy, and those lying between the Gut of Canseau and Bay de Vert, 
form fertile agricultural districts. 

The wild animals are the moose, carriboo, bear, loup-cervier, tiger-cat, fox, 
marten, otter, mink, beaver, musk-rat, porcupine, racoon, wood- chuck, fisher, 
weasel, squirrel, hare, &c, all of which, excepting the two last, have decreased 
very rapidly in numbers. 

Nearly all the birds common to North America frequent Nova Scotia; and 
there are but very few kinds of fish which are found in the American seas that 
do not swarm round the shores of this colony. 

Cape Breton. — The aspect of Cape Breton, which is now included in the 
Province of Nova Scotia, is romantic and mountainous. The coast, washed by 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, is of dangerous access, without any harbour, except 
Port Hood, near the Strait of Canseau; and its high iron-faced cliffs are in many 
places perpendicular. On the Atlantic, the shores are broken and rugged, but 
indented with numerous harbours and bays. A vast inlet, named the Bras d'Or, 
entering by two narrow passages, and afterwards spreading into numerous bays 
and arms, nearly divides the island into two. 

Woods, with the exception of small patches cleared for cultivation, and such 
spots as are thrown open where rocks occupy the surface, cover the whole island. 
The trees are of much the same kind and description as those hereafter described, 
unless it be on the sea-coast and mountains ; in which situations they are of a 
dwarfish character. 



284 NOVA SCOTIA. 

It is usually conjectured that the island has been detached from the continent 
of America by some violent convulsion. This, like most speculative opinions 
for which we have no historical data, must ever remain uncertain. The Strait 
of Canseau is not, for a distance of five leagues, more than a mile and a half 
wide, and in some places, not one mile. The highlands, also, rising on each side 
rather abruptly, make the width of the strait to seem much less, and impart to 
it, at the same time, the appearance of an immense fissure, laid open by the 
explosion of some tremendous agency. 

There is not, however, a striking resemblance in the geological structure of 
the opposite shores of Cape Breton and Nova Scotia; but this is no uncom- 
mon circumstance in nature; and we often, in America, meet with a chain of 
granite predominating on one side of a river, and a calcareous region prevailing 
on the other. 

The geology and mineralogy of Cape Breton can only be said to be known in 
outline. From all that we have observed, however, and from all the information 
we have been able to obtain, it maybe remarked, that almost all the rocks named 
in the discordant nomenclature of Werner are found in this island. Among the 
primitive rocks, granite prevails in the peninsular country south-east of the 
Bras d'Or ; and it possibly forms the nucleus of the highlands between this inlet 
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Sienite, trap, mica, clay-slate, and occasionally 
quartz, also appear on the gulf coast. Primitive trap, sienite, mica-slate, and 
clay-slate, show themselves, together with transition limestone grey wacke, 
gypsum, and coal, generally in all parts of the island. 

The class of flcetz rocks appears, however, to be the most numerous; and 
coal exists in such abundance, that persons unacquainted with geology have 
stated seriously to us that they considered this mineral formed the base of the 
whole island. Coal, in a field, or fields, of vast extent, abounds in the south- 
eastern division of the island, surrounded by carboniferous limestone, excellently 
adapted for common fireplaces. 

The extent or quality of the coal-fields, north of the Bras d'Or, have not been 
ascertained. Gypsum occurs in great plenty along the shores of the Bras d'Or, 
at the Strait of Canseau, on the gulf coast, and in some other parts of the 
island. 

We may conclude, from the strongly saturated salt-springs which are found 
in different places, that the rock-salt formation is extensive. Iron ore, in various 
forms, iron pyrites, red ochre, &c, exist in great abundance. Pieces of copper 
ore, lead, &c, have also been found, and various other minerals will probably be 
discovered. 

The varieties of fish which abound in the seas surrounding Cape Breton are 
of the same kind as those already described, as are also the birds and wild 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 285 

animals. The latter are the moose-deer, carriboo, bear, beaver, loup-cervier, 
fox, hare, marten, otter, musquash, mink, squirrel, racoon, porcupine, and 
weasel. 

Various kinds of wild fowl, foxes, and hares, are numerous. 

Salmon, and remarkably large trout, are plentiful in the rivers ; and there 
are few countries that offer greater temptations to the followers of honest Izaak 
Walton. 

The soil in many places is thin, rocky, and unfit for cultivation ; in others 
wet, and inclining to the character of mossy bogs. In the interior, on the 
borders of the Bras d'Or Lake and its inlets, and along the numerous streams 
that rise in the mountains, and which wind through the country to the sea, 
there are extensive tracts of excellent land; and, on the north-west coast, 
also in the valleys, and along the small rivers, low lands, with deep and rich soils, 
prevail. 

The land fit for profitable cultivation on the island may be considered about 
500,000 acres, a great part of which is alluvial. The whole of the lands afford 
good pasturage, and great numbers of black cattle and sheep might be reared. 
From the humidity of the climate, especially on the Atlantic coast, wheat is 
liable, in ripening, to casual failures, which would not likely occur if the country 
were extensively opened, by clearing away the woods, as cultivation and expo- 
sure to the sun would dry up the ground more readily, and early frosts would 
not be so frequent. Barley, buckwheat, potatoes, and all culinary vegetables 
may be raised in abundance : and I believe hemp and flax would succeed here 
as well as in Russia or Canada. 

The climate of Cape Breton is subject, particularly on the Atlantic coast, to 
fogs, and, in the inland parts, to a humid atmosphere, which may be accounted 
for by its geographical position, and the interior abounding with lakes and arms 
of the sea; while the soil, owing to its stiffness, does not so readily absorb the 
rain, nor the water which remains on the ground after the snow melts. Fogs 
are not, however, frequent in the interior, or within the Bras d'Or, and a clear 
sky is generally visible even when fogs prevail, which seldom rise high from the 
surface of the land or sea. 

The bays and rivers which open to the Atlantic are not so long frozen over 
as those within the gulf: the difference at the beginning and termination of 
winter may be considered at each period from fifteen to twenty days. On the 
Atlantic coast of Cape Breton wet weather prevails much more during the year 
than in the Gulf or Canada. The climate, however, is salubrious; and, while 
unhealthy subjects are exceedingly rare, instances of longevity from ninety to 
one hundred years are common. 



286 NOVA SCOTIA. 



SEAPORTS OF NOVA SCOTIA AND CAPE BRETON. 

On the south-east coast of Nova Scotia, in lat. 44 deg. 40 min. north, anc 
long. 63 deg. 40 min. west, and nearly equidistant from its extreme points, 
Halifax Harbour enters the province. It is at all seasons accessible, and its 
navigation scarcely ever interrupted by ice. On a small island off Sambro Head, 
on the west side of the entrance, stands a lighthouse ; and another light has 
lately been established on Sherbrooke Tower, which stands on Magher's Beach, 
a spit extending from Mac Nab's Island : when this light ca be seen, ships are 
at a safe distance from a dangerous shoal called Thrum Cap, and may run into 
the harbour without fear. The bay, from which the entrance of the harbour 
leads, is formed between Sambro Head and Devil's Island. There are four 
islands still farther in; on the smallest of these, which is nearly opposite the 
town, there are batteries strongly mounted, and several other fortifications com- 
mand the harbour. The passage to the harbour on the west side of Mac Nab's 
Island, is that for large ships; the other, on the east, has only water for schooners. 
There is sufficient water for ships of war between Mac Nab's Island and George's 
Island. The main channel is guarded by York Redoubt, Sherbrooke Tower, and 
several other batteries. The eastern passage is defended by a strongly built stone 
fort, called East Battery. Carrol's or Macnamara's Island is fertile, with pic- 
turesque clumps of wood growing on it. Mac Nab's Island, containing about 
1000 acres of good land, is under partial cultivation, and prettily wooded. 

The town of Halifax is built on the east side of a peninsula, on the declivity 
of a hill, which' rises gradually from the water on the west side of the harbour. 
In length it is rather more than two-and-a-half miles, and in breadth it is rather 
more than half a mile. The streets are wide, and cross each other, generally at 
right angles. 

The appearance of Halifax from the water, or from the opposite shore, is 
prepossessing and animated. The front of the town is lined with wharfs, along- 
side of which vessels of all sizes, and variously rigged, are incessantly discharging 
or loading their cargoes. Warehouses rise over the wharfs, as well as in dif- 
ferent parts of the town ; and dwelling-houses and public buildings rear their 
heads over each other as they stretch along and up the sides of the hill. The 
spires of the different churches; the signal-posts on Citadel Hill; the different 
batteries ; the variety of style in which the houses are built, some of which 
nre painted white, some blue, some red, and some built of brick and stone, inter- 
mixed with those built of wood; rows of trees showing themselves in different 
parts of the town; ships of war moored opposite the dockyard; the establish- 
ments and tall sheers of the latter ; the merchant ships under sail, at anchor, or 
alongside the wharfs ; the arrival and departure of splendid steam ships ; the 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 287 

wooded and rocky scenery of the background ; with the islands, and the pretty 
town of Dartmouth on the eastern shore, are all objects which strike most for- 
cibly on the view of a stranger when sailing up the harbour. 

The houses are very irregularly built, some being one, some two, some three, 
and a few four stories high. Handsome stone and brick buildings are built and 
furnished in the English style ; and many of the houses built of wood are im- 
posing in appearance, being large, neatly finished, and painted white. The 
wooden houses are lathed, plastered, papered and finished within, in the same 
manner as stone or brick houses. Fires have at different times destroyed very 
many of the old wooden buildings; and although individuals were, in conse- 
quence, subjected to great loss and inconvenience, yet the town, from having 
stone or brick houses built on the site of the former wooden ones, has greatly 
improved. 

About a mile above the upper end of the town the harbour becomes very 
narrow, but again widens into a splendid sheet of water, called Bedford Basin; 
the surrounding scenery of which, although not highly romantic, is agreeably 
varied and beautifully picturesque. This basin forms a harbour, in which a 
thousand ships can anchor with shelter and safety. On the west side, the late 
Duke of Kent, when commanding in North America, erected a handsome resi- 
dence, with corresponding outhouses, offices, &c; and the grounds, naturally 
beautiful, he laid out with much taste. The road to Windsor, from which the 
great western road branches, leads past this villa. 

The north-west arm, which branches off from the main entrance of the 
harbour, is about four miles long, something less than half a mile in width, with 
ten to twenty fathoms depth of water, and with safe anchorage. It winds in the 
rear of the town, until within half a mile of Bedford Basin, forming the land 
between it and the harbour into the peninsula of Halifax. A small island lies 
near the mouth of the north-west arm, within which a chain was stretched across, 
during the war, to prevent the entrance of hostile vessels. Near the head lies 
Melville Island, connected to the peninsula by a bridge. On this islet are 
buildings, now decaying fast, in which prisoners of war were lodged. 

Several streams issue into the north-west arm, on one of which there are 
mills built. The formation of the peninsula of Halifax is little more than a vast 
rock of hard bluish clay-slate, impregnated with iron, which imparts to nearly 
all the water a hard metallic taste. There are, however, a few wells of good 
water. Great labour and expense have at length succeeded in converting most 
of the peninsula from naked rocks to fertile fields; but the greatest part of the 
soil has been formed by artificial means. 

At the south end of the town is the " Government House," so named from 
being the residence of the governor of the province. The appearance of this 



288 NOVA SCOTIA. 

structure is baronial rather than elegant; the stone of which it is built is of 
a sombre colour, which imparts a gloomy and rather antique character to the 
building. 

" Province Building, 5 ' Nova Scotia, is a splendid edifice. It stands nearly 
in the centre of Halifax, in the middle of an open space, enclosed with neat iron 
railings. This superb building is in length 140 feet, breadth 70 feet, and the 
height of the walls 45 feet. Its plan combines elegance with strength and utility. 
The columns are of the Ionic order; and the beautiful freestone, quarried in the 
province, of which it is built, is finely polished. It contains chambers for the 
council and legislative assembly ; the supreme court, with its appendant offices ; 
and also all the provincial offices, as the treasurer's, surveyor-general's, colonial 
secretary's, &c. &c. ; the Halifax public library, &c. 

His Majesty's Dockyard in Halifax was the most respectable establishment of 
the kind out of England. Its plan is extensive, and embraced within the stone wall, 
which surrounds it on the land side, all that was useful and convenient for repair- 
ing and refitting the largest ships. 

Sailing vessels have run regularly between Halifax and Boston; and every 
week to New York and the West Indies. The government packets go to and 
return from Bermuda ; and during summer, vessels sail regularly to Cape Breton, 
Prince Edward Island, Pictou, Miramichi, Bay de Chaleur, and Quebec, and 
nearly all the year round to Newfoundland and New Brunswick. But the 
splendid steam-ships built on the banks of the Clyde have eclipsed all other 
navigation. 

The climate of Halifax is perhaps more foggy, but not so rainy, as that of 
England, and much hotter in summer and colder in winter. The fogs, which are 
disagreeable, but not unwholesome, are occasioned by its proximity to the At- 
lantic Ocean, and only occur when the winds blow from the sea. 

Halifax has, since its first settlement in 1749, continued to be a place of con- 
siderable importance, not only as a rendezvous for her Majesty's ships, and as the 
head-quarters of the troops on the establishment of the lower American provinces, 
but also as the centre of a profitable fishery and trade. 

There are certain points on the face of the globe, which, by their position, seem 
intended by nature for the site of great storehouses, or places wherein to deposit 
the productions of one country for the purpose of distributing them again to 
others. In respect to British America, Halifax ought doubtless to be considered 
the great and most fit depot for all general purposes, especially during the winter 
months. 

By an order in council it was, in 1817, declared, to a certain extent, a free 
port; afterwards the privilege of being a free warehousing port was extended 
to it. The recent changes in the navigation laws renders it in every respect a free 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 289 

port for the trade of all the world. There is great activity observed, particularly 
about the wharfs, among all classes connected with, or employed in, trade. The 
principal commerce of Halifax is with the West Indies. Next to this trade, is 
that with Great Britain, which, in respect to the importations of British manu- 
factures, has increased, and will still increase prodigiously. Its commerce ex- 
tends also to the continent of Europe. 

Halifax enjoys an important inter-colonial trade, as well as its trade with all 
the outports of the province. 

The exports from Halifax consist chiefly of dried codfish, pickled herrings, 
mackerel, and salmon ; red herrings, coal, lumber, staves, cattle, butter, cheese, 
flour, oats, potatoes, &c, to the West Indies and the southern parts of America ; 
and of timber, staves, deals, fish, oils, furs, 8cc, to Great Britain. The imports 
from the West Indies, &c, are rum, sugar, molasses, tobacco, &c, and all sorts of 
manufactured goods. 

Some years ago, when the business was not so well understood in Halifax, 
the enterprising house of Messrs. Cunard made several spirited trials in the 
whale-fishery, which, however, did not succeed so well as might have been ex- 
pected, or as their attempts deserved. But neither they themselves nor others 
were to be discouraged by failures, caused more probably by accidental circum* 
stances, than by more substantial causes, while the Americans were pursuing the 
whale-fishery with success and profit. 

The ships owned by the inhabitants of Halifax are large, square-rigged vessels, 
and schooners, with several smaller craft. The wharfs are generally lined with coast- 
ing vessels and English and foreign ships, as well as those belonging to the port. 

The articles manufactured at Halifax are as yet but few in number, and none 
to any great extent. 

The merchants of Halifax, generally speaking, connect prudence and per- 
severance with enterprise. They are by no means backward in undertaking 
whatever affords a fair prospect of gain. 

Opposite to Halifax stands the pretty little town of Dartmouth. This place 
Was first laid out and settled the year after Lord Cornwallis founded Halifax; 
but in 1756 it was destroyed, and most of the inhabitants massacred by the 
Indians. Twenty-eight years after, a colony of loyalists from Nantucket, who were 
brought up principally to the South Sea whale-fishery, were induced to settle 
here by government, and 1500/. given to establish them. These people followed 
the whale-fishery for eight years with great success; but the failure of an 
extensive and speculative mercantile house at Halifax arrested their enterprise, and 
reduced them to poverty. Liberal offers were then made them, through an agent, 
by the merchants of Milford in Wales, which induced them to leave the province; 
and Halifax, consequently, lost the benefit that would have been derived from a 
probably very extensive and profitable whale-fishing. 

vol. v. u 



290 NOVA SCOTIA. 

Dartmouth has since that time, however, increased, slowly indeed, in popu- 
lation and in buildings. 

The lands on the Dartmouth side of the harbour are much less stubborn, and 
more of a sandy loam character, than those on the opposite side ; and the 
industrious Germans, who are settled along the eastern passage, have long 
subjected them to fair and profitable cultivation. 

Yarmouth, or Cape Fourche Harbour, is the principal and most thriving 
place after Halifax in the province. There are numerous harbours, and small 
towns and settlements. Its harbour is safe, and the channel deep, up to the 
town or village of Yarmouth; but when it ebbs, there remain extensive mud flats 
between the channel and the shore, which render it disagreeable, and even 
difficult, to land until the tide covers them. This is, indeed, common to some 
of the finest harbours, in other respects, in America. Some miles up the river, 
near the falls or rapids, is a very pretty village called Milburn. Yarmouth and 
its neighbourhood contain an industrious population, who possess several vessels, 
and large stocks of cattle. This part of the country is remarkably beautiful; 
and the scenery, marked with hills, woods, rivers, and a vast number of lakes, is 
exceedingly picturesque. The climate is also more temperate than in the other 
parts of the province. 

St. Mary's Bay is a spacious inlet, about thirty-five miles deep, and from four 
to ten miles broad. Cape St. Mary's, on the south, and Brier Island, on the 
north, are the points that form its entrance. Brier Island, on which there is a 
lighthouse, Long Island, in the same range, and a peninsula called Digby Neck, 
separate it from the Bay of Fundy. These places are all rocky, and their soil 
appears forbidding ; but they were settled many years ago by industrious 
loyalists, who follow fishing and farming. There is a safe channel between Brier 
Island and Long Island, and another between the latter and the land. These 
islands lie in a range with the peninsula; and the channels, or guts, passing 
obliquely between them, occasion the whole to appear, w T hen sailing up the Bay 
of Fundy, as a connected country from Annapolis Gut, or rather Patrick's Hole 
near it, to Brier Island. The lands of the peninsula, on being subjected to. 
cultivation, are much more fertile than they appear to be. 

Annapolis Basin is the next inlet after leaving St. Mary's Bay. Its commu- 
nication with the Bay of Fundy is by a strait, which is formed by a precipitous 
chasm, the appearance of which impresses the idea of a tremendous explosion 
having blown away the rocks and other materials which previously occupied the 
space now open, and which formerly maintained an unbroken coast from 
St. Mary's Bay to the Basin of Minas. It lies nearly south from St. John River; 
and on entering through this strait from the Bay of Fundy, one of the most 
beautiful havens in America opens to view. Besides the waters of several small 
rivers, it receives also those of the largest in Nova Scotia, and of one of the 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 291 

most beautiful rivers in America, which flows and fertilises the country for about 
sixty miles, in a direction nearly parallel to the Bay of Fundy. 

Three miles above the lighthouse, at the entrance of the strait, on the west 
side, and in a most charming situation on the declivity of a hill, stands the town 
of Digby. It contains a court-house, church, chapels, pretty houses, and shops. 
The inhabitants, who are industrious American loyalists, or their offspring, 
employ themselves in building vessels in the mackerel and herring fishery, and 
trading in the produce of the country and imported goods. The fame of the 
small fat smoked or red Digby herrings has spread over the continent of 
America. 

The town of Annapolis, once the Port Royal and metropolis of the province, 
and the oldest European settlement in North America, is situated on a point 
formed by the Annapolis and the little river Le Quille. 

De Monts and his associates, delighted with its situation, chose it for a place 
of residence in 1604 ; and, unlike nearly all those of the other early settlements 
attempted in America by Europeans, its first inhabitants succeeded, at the same 
time, in establishing themselves, and in securing the regards of the Indians, who 
continued ever friendly to the French in Acadia. 

The natural beauty of the situation of Port Royal, which exhibited the 
primeval wildness of America in all its sylvan luxuriance and solitude, was fully 
equal to all the brilliant colouring of Lescarbot's description. Various circum- 
stances, however, prevented its rising to the same importance as the other towns 
planted by France. Halifax is, and will ever continue to be, the metropolis of 
Nova Scotia. The multiplicity of small towns in this, as well as in all parts of 
America, will ever prevent any of them attaining great prosperity or magnitude, 
unless it be those, like Halifax, New York, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Quebec, 
Montreal, and St. John's, which inherit from nature extraordinary and com- 
manding advantages. 

The River Annapolis, up to its source, presents as beautiful a country as any 
part of America. The Acadians, attracted by its rich alluvial lands, had exten- 
sive farms on its banks. After their removal, these places, as well as all the 
best lands, were rapidly settled ; and rich meadows, well-cultivated fields, 
orchards, substantial dwelling-houses, and large barns, grist and saw-mills, are 
the leading characteristics with which industry has embellished this extensive 
district of Nova Scotia. 

The lands lying between Annapolis River and the Bay of Fundy form a high 
ridge from Digby Gut to Minas Basin. This tract is settled by industrious 
families, who have in general excellent farms under fair cultivation. This district 
of country, about seventy miles in extent, and occupying the fronts of the town- 
ships of Grenville, Wilmot, and Aylesford, and part of Cornwallis, has no 

U 2 



292 NOVA SCOTIA. 

harbour on the Bay of Fundy. A pier was built at Wilmot to remedy this 
inconvenience, which appears to answer the purpose. The River Annapolis has 
been cleared of such obstructions as impeded the rafting of timber down to 
Bridgetown. 

The Basin of Minas is one of the two great branches of the Bay of Fundy. 
It is one of the most beautiful inlets at full tide, and one of the most remarkable 
at low water, in North America. Its entrance is through a strait about three 
miles wide, with bold, abrupt shores ; within which it widens to from eight to 
sixteen miles ; and, receiving the waters of upwards of twenty rivers and streams, 
extends about fifty miles to the head of Cobequid Bay. 

The tides, at full and change, rise from fifty to sixty feet, and recede so far 
as to leave the beds of the rivers, with the exception of the channels that carry 
down the fresh water, and many miles of the shores of the basin, dry, The 
flood-tide rushes in with inconceivable celerity, particularly when under the 
influence of the winds. The phenomenon called the " Bore" is the attendant^ 
or rather the precursor, of the flood-tide, which approaches in a line of foam, 
extending across the bay, about four or five feet high. 

Pictou Harbour is one of the best harbours of Nova Scotia within the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence. 

It is narrow at the entrance, well sheltered, with seventeen feet depth of 
water at the lowest ebb ; deep and safe within, and sufficiently capacious for 
more than a thousand ships. Three fine rivers, which wind through a fertile 
country, branch from the basin, a little above the town. The harbour is, 
however, frozen over from the last week or end of December, to the beginning 
or end of April : this is its only disadvantage. 

The town of Pictou stands on the declivity of a hill, on the north side of the 
harbour, and about three miles from its entrance. It is irregularly built, without 
any plan. Every one who erected a house, since the year 1765, when the first 
hut inhabited by an European raised its head, planted it where he could, and of 
dimensions and plan according to his fancy. Its situation is convenient and 
beautiful ; the embouchures of three rivers and the hilly wooded background of 
Mount Tom, are interesting and picturesque features in the surrounding scenery. 
The hill above the town commands a very extensive view of farms, houses, the 
harbour, Gulf of St. Lawrence, and forest country. 

The town contains at the present time an Episcopal church, two Presbyterian 
kirks, a Catholic chapel, and a court-house ; about 200 dwelling-houses, stores, 
and other buildings, and about 1600 inhabitants. Pictou has also an excellent 
grammar school, and an academy called u Pictou College," where the highest 
branches of education are taught, and to which students of any Christian deno- 
mination are admitted. This institution owes its existence to the Rev. Dr. 



BRITISH POSSESSIONS IN NORTH AMERICA. 293 

M'Culloch, a gentleman of superior acquirements, learning, and abilities. It 
contains a commodious class-room, a library of good standard works, a laboratory, 
with philosophical apparatus, printing-press, &c. ; and a museum, in which is to 
be found the only zoological collection worth mentioning of the natural history 
of the province. 

The settlement of the district of Pictou commenced by the arrival of a few 
families from Maryland in 1765, which were sent by a company who received a 
very extensive grant of land known in the province by the name of the "Phila- 
delphia Grant." At the head of this company was Dr. Weatherspoon, a man 
celebrated at the time in colonial story. These people, although they received 
some assistance in the way of provisions, endured great misery for some years ; 
and thirty families of Highlanders who joined them afterwards, underwent 
almost incredible difficulties, in consequence of arriving late in the season, having 
no houses to shelter them, wanting provisions, the general wilderness state at 
that time of this part of the province, and its great distance from the nearest 
settlement. 

In the course of a few years, however, great perseverance enabled them to 
secure the means of living comfortably ; and, from that period, this part of the 
country has continued to improve regularly in its settlement and agriculture ; and 
the port has also continued to be a great point d'appui for emigrant ships leaving 
the Highlands and Isles of Scotland. Settlements con