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/v.: ^ H 




SOUTHEY'S 
COMMON-PLACE BOOK. 

jtouuIl Seties. 

ORIGINAL MEMORANDA, ETC. 



EDITED 
BV Hie SON-IK-LAW, 

JOHN WOOD WARTER, B. D. 



LONDON; 

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS, 



(I 



JUOtGH THOU MADST MADK A Gl.NEUAL 




OF ALL THE BEST OF MEN S BEST KNOWLEDOF-'^^ 

AND KNEW SO MUCH AS EVER LEARNING KNEW; 

YET DID IT MAKE THEE TRUST THYSELF THE LF^S, 

AND LESS PRESUME.— AND YET WHEN BEING MOV'o 

IN PRIVATE TALK TO SPEAK; THOU DIDST BEWRAY 

HOW FULLY FRAUGHT THOU VVEUT WITHIN; AND PROTu 

THAT THOU DIDST KNOW WHATEVER WIT COUI.D SAY. 

WHICH SHOw'd THOU HADST NOT BOOKS AS MANY HAVf, 

FOR OSTENTATION, BUT FOR USE; AND THAT 

IIIV BOUNTEOUS MEMORY WAS SUCH AS GAVk 

A LARGE REVENUE OF THE GOOD IT GAT. 

\V1TNESS 80 MANY VOLUMES, WHERETO THOU 

HAST SET THY NOTF.S UNDER THY LEARNED HAND, 

AND MARKED THEM WITH THAT PRINT, AS WILL SHOW HOW 

THE POINT OF THY CONCEIVING THOUGHTS DID STAND ; 

IIIAT NONE WOULD THINK, IF ALL THY LIFE HAD BEEN 

TURn'd INTO LEISURE, THOI' COULDST HAVE AITAIn'd 

SO MUCH OP TIME, TO HAVE PERUs'd AND SFKN 

SO MANY VOLUMES THAT SO MUCH CONTAIn'd." 

Damei,. Funeral Poem upon the Death of the late WohU Earl of 

Devo7ishire, — " Well- la ngu aged Daniel," as Browne calls 

him in his " Britannia's Pastorals," was one of Sotttf^Cirft 

favoiiritp Poeti. 

JOHN WOOD U MMKH. 




Iprefare. 

T is little that the Editor has to s&y on the appearance of the 
Fourth, and concluding, Series of the lamented &0Uttc?*II 
Common Place Book. Fossihly to some, it may cont^n 
the most interesting portion of the whole, — as Daniel says, 
" the tongue of" his " best thoughts," — to others, deeper thought, and 
original ideas, may be less interesdog, and they may long for the olla 
podrida of the earlier portions. But, to all, even to general readers, 
there is no doubt but that the Series now presented to the PubUc is in 
every way most interesting, and there is, in his Manna, to adopt a say- 
ing of the Rsbhi'B, something to suit the taste of all. 

In a letter written July 11, 1822, there occurs the passage follow- 
ing, and in it is shewn that " besetting sin — a sort of miser-like love of 
accumulation" — to which the Reader owes the volumes now brought, 
with no little labour, to completion. " Like those persons who frequent 
sales, and fill their houses with useless purchases, because they may 
want them some time or other; so am I forever making collections and 
storing up materials which may not come into use till the Greek 
Calends. And this I have been doing for five and twenty years t It is 
true that I draw daily upon my hoards, and should he poor without 
them ; but in prudence I ought now to be working up those materials 
rather than adding to so much dead stock." Life and Correspondence, 
vol. V. p. 135. 

From these stores, as hinted, these Common Place Books are de- 
rived, — but much, very much, is left behind, — besides that contained 
in the wondrous collection for the HisTonY of Portugal, — not to be 
understood except by those who know the private marks of the Author. 
Enough, however, has been given to shew the vast collections of this 
unrivalled scholar, and the comprehensive grasp of that gigantic intellect. 



VI 



PREFACE. 



which, with uDtold mines of power, was meek and lowly and of childlike 
simplicity, as shewn, more or less, in every letter in the Life and Corre- 
spondence, That ^DUtflC^ was a great man and a great scholar, is 
comparatively, a little thing, — that he was a good man and a Christian 
every whit, and a righteous example and a pattern for ages yet to come, 
that is a great matter ! His praise is this, that he was a humble minded 
man, a good son, a good father, a good Christian ! 

It is scarcely necessary to add, in the words of his prime favourite 
author, that '^ he had a rare felicity in speedy reading of books, and as 
it were but turning them over would give an exact account of all con- 
siderable therein." The words occur in the Holy State, in the Life of 
Mr. Perkins, who preached to the prisoners in the castle of Cambridge, 
" bound in their bodies, but too loose in their lives." 



JOHN WOOD WARTER. 



Vicarage House, West Taerikg, Sussex, 
December 2A^ 1850. 




CONTENTS. 

P»ge 

TDEAS and Studies for Literary Composition 1 

Collections for History of English Literature and Poetry 279 

Characteristic English Anecdotes, and Fragments for Espriella 352 

Collections for the Doctor, &c 427 

Personal Obsenrations and Beoollections with Fragments of Journals 514 

Miscellaneous Anecdotes and Gleanings 540 

Extracts, Facts, and Opinions, relating to Political and Social Society .... 662 

Texts for Sermons 721 

Texts for Enforcement 722 

L'Envoy • 724 




dout|)ep'0 Common-pUte }&ooft. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



EngUth SeaoBuUn.' 
HE frequent 
monoi^Uablei ii unfavour- 
mble to hexuneten in our 
language. The omiesion of 
tlie e in tlie imperfect and 
parUciple, the contractioD of the genitive, 
these ilao b; thortening words increase the 
difficult. 

The Saxoil geniUve, then, muat be re- 
•tored; the pronoun genitive also, "his," 
and eren " her." The latter innovation or 
renovatioD will remove one hiwing sound, 
lb English hexameter will be much 
longer to the eje than either the Greek or 
Latin, but so many of our letters are use- 
lest, tliat I do not think it can be longer to 
the ear. We often express a single sound 
bj two characters, as in all letters with the 
h coBipoanded. 

A trochee ma; be used for a spondee, per* 
hapa an iambic, but the iambic must never 
Mow a trochee. 

Like blank verse, hexameter* may run 
into each other, but the sentence must not, 
I think, close with a hemistich. 



iU find the question of English 
hcunetan foDr examined in (he PreGuw to the 
n». ^Ji.dgm«n.-3. W. W. 



Perh^ the Saxon plural in en may be 
advantageously restored. 

The fewest possible syllables in a line are 
thirteen, the most seventeen. The fir^t four 
feet vary from eight to twelve. I conceive 
that any arrangement between these will be 
sufficient if they satisfy the ear. 

We have in our language twelve feet; the 
Greeks and Romans had twenty-eight. 



Iambic . . 
Trochee . . 
Dactyl . . 
Amphibrachys 
Amphimaeer 
Antibacchiui 






Peon Secondua > 

[ajor J 



Egypt 

D^ffirt 

Lingiiid 

L5vemf 

BetavSd 

undertake 

Hoiisebi'eakfe 

Extinguisher, occord- 
' g as it stands in 

AfqilibibsiSr 



Irr^vliB- Blank Vtrte. 

Of metres that must be the best which 
being harmonious enough to the reader, fet< 
ters least the poet's thoughls. 

Those lines are adoisuble in irregular 
blank verse of which none make the half of 
anyother; fbrtheAlexandrineis two tacked 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Anapaestic. 
12. 
9. 



together, and they never fit well unless you 
see the seam in the middle. So Wamer*s 
long line is splittable into the common bal- 
lad metre. 

Iambic. Trochaic. 
10. 8. 

8. 6. 

6. 7. 

5. 
The Adonic line, the Dactylic, the Ana- 
creontic, the Sapphic. 

The sentence must not too often close on 
a long syllable. The trochaic line of eight 
is the only double ending. This may be 
palliated by running the lines into the de- 
cimal one. And the anapeestic of nine will 
bear a redundant syllable at the end. There 
may also be occasionally introduced the tro- 
chaic of six, and the Adonic, perhaps the 
Sapphic or Phaleucian line. 

Thus are there thirteen usable lines. The 
more complicate ones can, however, only be 
inserted in polishing ; composition will not 
pause for them. 



Metrical Memoranda. 

How would the galloping dactylic metre 
suit to be written rhymelessly ? rhyme is 
even less essential to harmony here than in 
the iambic cadence, for the lyric there would 
be the four-lined stanza of two twelve, two 
nine, with all its changes. 

♦12 12 9 9 

9 9 12 12 

12 9 9 12 

♦ 9 12 12 9 

In these long lines there ts danger lest the 

epithets should be too frequent. 

Of these duodecimo lines there is no frac- 
tion but the 9, for 8 and 9 are convertible, 
like 11 and 12, and 6 woiild be halving the 
long line only. The 7 makes a good line, 
the last half of a pentameter. 

With rhyme a correspondent metre to 
that of the ebb tide would have a good ef- 
fect, rhyming alternately thus, 
9 12 12 9 



Could trochaic lines be introduced into 
the rhymeless four-lined stanza ? or would 
the change of cadence be too harsh ? 



Noah. 

Of all subjects this is the most magni- 
ficent. 

This is the work with which I would at- 
tempt to introduce hexameters into oiir lan- 
guage. A scattered party of fifty or a hun- 
dred do nothing ; but if I march a regular 
array of some thousands into the country, 
well disciplined, and on a good plan, they 
will effect their establishment. 

My plan should be sketched before I have 
read Bodmer*s poem ; then, if his work be 
not above mediocrity, it may be melted at 
my convenience into mine. 

For the philosophy, Burnett's Theory is 
the finest possible ; for machinery the Rab- 
bis must give it me, and the Talmuds are in 
requisition. 

The feelings must be interested for some 
of those who perished in the waters, A 
maiden withheld from the ark by maternal 
love, and her betrothed self-sacrificed with 
her. Their deaths and consequent beati- 
tude may be deeply affecting. In the des- 
potism that has degraded the world, and 
made it fit only for destruction, there is room 
for strong painting. The Anakim have once 
already destroyed mankind ! 

March 26, 1800. 

I HAVE read the Noachid of Bodmer; it 
is a bad poem. In one point only does it 
deserve to be followed, in adopting the sys- 
tem of Whiston, and destroying the world 
by the approximation of a comet. This 
may be ingrafted upon Burnett's Theory. 

June 29, 1801. 

It is unfortunate thatShem and Ham can- 
not be christened. 

Japhet, the European inheritor, must be 
the prominent personage, and brimful of 
patriotism he should be. Some visit, per- 
haps, to Enoch in paradise. The death of 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



one of the just may tell well. A father of 
one of the wives ; his son should be the love 
Tictim. A martyrdom also; — some hero, 
bmut offering to the god-tyrant, — a rank 
Romish priesthood. Why not an Atheist 
firiend of Noah ? one who reasons from the 
wickedness of the world, a good man, but 
not stiff-necked, who has never swallowed 
the poker of principle, nor laced on the 
strait waistcoat of conscience, an incense- 
burner to the idols whom he derides. 

Anguish of Noah when the sentence of 
the world is past. The spirit of Adam 
might announce it, on his own grave. 

The chief tyrant? some beef-headed boo- 
by brute. 

The universal iniquity will be difficultly 
made conceivable. There must be an uni- 
rersal monarchy to account for it, and focus 
it 

How to heighten the crimes? to bring 
about the crisis of guilt ? all must be bad, 
even those who see the evil must seek to 
remedy it by evil means ; some United Irish 
violence. 

The burnt offering the outstanding ^- 
gnre ; a young man full of all good hopes 
and arrogance, who would revolutionize the 
world ; his error, the working with evil 
means, and his ruin. The final wickedness ; 
his death, after an Abbe Barruel-Bartholo- 
mew-massacre. 

Is language equal to describe the great 
crash ? one line of comfort must be the ter- 
minating one — lo, yonder the ark on the 
waters. 

The great temple-palace should be some 
Tower of Babel building, made in despite 
of prophecy, and mockery of God*s venge- 
ance. It should resist the water weight, and 
overlive all things, till the vault of the earth 
bursts. 

Arbathan the self-confident hero. Some 
act of solitary goodness seen by Japhet 
should win his affections, which the darkness 
of conspiracy had shocked. Arbathan would 
act like Omniscience. He would dare do ill 
for the good event. Thus, too, he should 
argue, and assume to himself the praise of 



humanity in only destroying half, — when 
Noah threatens all with extermination. 

At length — the doom voice was uttered, — 
and the Lord Grod Almighty turned from 
mankind the eyes of his mercy. 

The statue omen. They should fear Noah, 
and attempt to destroy him so ; but the blow 
harms not the statue^s head, it shivers the 
mallet, and palsies the arm that struck. 

The peace-virtues of the holy family, vi- 
olet virtues more sweet than showy. The 
young hopes and heat of Japhet may force 
him into a livelier interest ; he should be for 
isocratizing. 

The general embarkation must be kept 
out of sight ; it savours too much of the 
ridiculous. 



«WV%/\^VW%/S^^h^S^^^^fWVN^ 



AfANGO CaPAC.^ 



I HAVE completely failed in attempting to 
identify Madocwith Mango Capac. He goes 
indeed to Peru, but this is all — The histo- 
rical circumstances totally differ, but he has 
a fleet of companions, and assumes no divine 
Authority; — therefore will I remove the 
Welsh adventurers to Florida, and cele- 
brate the Peruvian legislation in another 
poem. 

From whence was IVIango Capac? he 
could not have grown up in Peru, nor in- 
deed in any part of America. There is no 
instance, no possibility of any such character 
growing up among savages ; it is a miracle 
more unbelievable than his inspiration ; but 
whence or how came he to Peru. Europe 
was too barbarous to furnish a civilizer for 
America ; and from Europe he must have 
taken the impossible way up the Maragnon, 
where I had led Madoc. But a European 
would have been a Christian. From the 
East his opinions might have proceeded ; biit 
the voyage from Persia! its impassable 



1 The reader is referred to the Commentarios 
ReaUs, etcritos por el Ynca GarcUasso de la Vega, 
The copy before me was Southet'b. Lisboa, 
Ano de M.DCIX.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



length — and New Holland and all those 
islands just in the course I This could not 
have been ; the waj from China is more 
practicable — ^but how could Mango Capac 
conceive such designs in that country? in- 
spiration seems the solution most easy to 
credit as well as to adopt. 

Reasoning as a necessarian, and so I 
must reason, all effects proceed from the 
first cause. The belief of inspiration is as 
much produced bj that first cause, as what 
is acknowledged to be real ; where then is 
the difference ; or does it result that he who 
believes himself inspired, is so? Crede quod 
habeas et habes ? this rather puzzles than 
satisfies me. 

But in another light why should inspira- 
tion be confined to Judea? Mohammed has 
produced evil assuredly; but Zoroaster, 
but Confucius, above all Mango Capac? he 
at least produced extensive good ; there is 
therefore a cause for divine revelation ; or 
if it be deemed undeserving of such agency, 
intermediate beings may have produced 
the same effect. Their existence is every 
way probable, perhaps even their interpo- 
sition. 

About A.D. 1 150 Mango Capac and Mama 
Oella, his sister-wife, appeared by the Lake 
Titiaca.^ At that time the Mohammedan su- 
perstition had triumphed in the East ; and 
the few followers of Zoroaster were perse- 
cuted, or safe only in obscurity. Here then 
the poem roots itself well. The father of 
these children is a Guebre, rather a Sabean, 
one driven into mountain seclusion; the 
children necessarily become enthusiasts ; if 
they see other human beings they at least 
find none who can feel as they feel or com- 
prehend them — hence they love each other. 
The spirit of the sun, whom they adore, 
may drop them where he pleases. The rest 
is I doubt more philosophical than poetical 
— the influence of intellect over docile and 
awed ignorance. — Anno^ 1799. 



* See libro iii. de loi Commentarios EeaUt, c. 
XXV. torn. L f. 80.— J. W. W. 



Images. 

Atteb a battle — ^the bank weeds of the 
stream bloody. 

Tameness of the birds where gunpowder 
is unknown. 

The sound of a running brook like dis- 
tant voices. 

There is a sort of vegetable that grows 
in the water like a green mist or fog. 

Christ Church, Oct. 8, 1799. I crossed the 
bridge at night ; the church and the ruins 
were before me, the marshes flooded, the 
sky was stormy and wild, the moon rolling 
among clouds, and the rush of the waters 
now mingling with the wind, now heard 
alone, in the pauses of the storm. 

Perfect calmness — a spot so sheltered 
that the broad banana-lei^ was not broken 
by the wind. 

Bubbles in rain — a watry dome. 

Gilt weathercock — ^bright in the twilight. 

Holly — its white bark. 

Beech in autumn — ^its upmost branches 
stript first and all pointed upwards. 

Moss on the cot thatch the greenest ob- 
ject. 

Redness of the hawthorn with its berries. 

Water, like polished steel, dark, or splen- 
did. 

Ice-sheets hanging from the banks above 
the level of the water, which had been 
fi*ozen at flood. 

Willows early leaved, and their young 
leaves green. 

The distant hill always appears steep. 

As we were sailing out of Falmouth the 
ships and the shore seemed to dance — like 
a dream. 

At sea I saw a hen eating the egg slie 
had just laid I 

An old sailor described a marvellously 
fine snow-storm to Tom.^ The sun risin<; 
remarkably red, a heavy gale from the op- 

* This is the late Captain Thomas Soutuey. 
R.N. He was an acute obsenrer of nature, and 
many references are made to his letters. 

J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



posite point of the horizon driving the large 
flakes, which, tinged bj the sun, looked like 
falling fire — so strikingly so Uiat the men 
remarked it, and thought it ominous. 

May 14, 1800. A singular and striking 
evening skj. The horizon is perfectly clear 
and blue ; just in the west runs a ridge of 
black clouds, heavy, and their outline as 
strongly defined as a line of rock — a low 
ridge---the sky behind has the green tinge, 
the last green light. I well remember 
when a six years* boy drawing such un- 
cooth shapes, making blotches of ink in the 
same jagged formlessness, and fancying 
them into the precipices and desert rocks 
of faery romance. 

The trunk of the palm seems made by the 
ruins of the leaves. 

The inside of the banana leaf feels like 
satten. 

A gentle wind waving only the stunmit 
of the cypress. 

At the bull fight I saw the sweat of 
death darken the dun hide of the animal ! 

The cypress trunk is usually fluted. 

July 1. The chesnut tree, now beginning 
to push out its catkin, and in full leaf; has 
a radiant foliage. Whiter than other trees 
from its young catkin, and perfectly starry 
in shape. 

The Indian com flowers only at the top; 
the seed is in a sheath below, near the root ; 
from the point of the shea^ hangs out a 
lock of brown filaments, like hair, green in 
its earlier stage. The flower is of light 
brown, somewhat inclined to purple. 

A thunder-storm burst over Cintra. 
Roster saw the eagles flying about their 
nest, scared by the lightning from entering 
to their young, and screaming with terror. 

From the Fenina I saw the sea so dap- 
pled with clouds and slips of intermediate 
light, as not to be distinguishable from the 
Ay. 

View from above of a wooded glen, afler 
describing the visible objects — ^the billowy 
wood that hides all — ^below is the sound 
that tells of water, &c. 

Water, only varied by the air bubble 



rising to the surface. Trees, like men, grow 
stifl'with age; their brittle boughs break 
in the storm — a light breeze moves only 
their leaves. 

Glitter of water at the bottom of reeds. 

Storm from the south-east at the Cape. 
The appearance of the heavenly bodies, as 
observed by the Abb^ de la Caille,is strange 
and terrible, " The stars look larger and 
seem to dance ; the moon has an undulating 
tremor; and the planets have a sort of 
beard like comets." — Babrow. 

Where the ship breaks ito way, the white 
dust of the water sinks at first, with a his- 
sing noise, and mingles with the dark blue; 
soon they rise again in ur-sparkles. 

Sound of a river — a blind man would 
have loved the lovely spot.^ 

Waterfall, its wmd and its shower, and 
its rainbow, where the shade and the sun- 
shine met, and its echo from the rock, in- 
creasing the inseparable sound. 

Insects moving upon smooth water like 
rain. 

The wind sweeping the stream showers 
up sparkles of light. 

The mountains and the mountain-stream 
had a grey tinge, somewhat blue, like the 
last evening light. 

At Mafra, the sound of the organ when 
it ceased — ^like thunder; the rise of the 
congregation — ^like the sea. 

Finland. **The only noise the traveller 
hears in this forest is the bursting of the 
bark of the trees, from the effect of the 
frost, which has a loud but dull sound.** — 
Acerbi, 

Trees seen from an eminence lie grouped 
below in masses, like the swell of heavy 
clouds. 

Flags. I saw the colours in a bright 
sky flowing like streams of colour with daz- 
zling vividness. 

* The reader of Soutbxt's works will find 
many of these ideas worked up. These words 
occur in Madoc without alteration, part il. xxiii. 
and were auoted to me by Southet, 1829, in 
one of the loveliest spots of all Cumberland. 

J. W. W. 



6 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



When the Marlbro* was wrecked, the 
goats ran wildly about, and the cats came 
screaming upon deck, evidently aware of 
danger. Wind, not in gusts, but one con- 
tinuous roar, like the perpetual bound of a 
cataract. 

The hut enough upon the rising to be 
above all winter floods, trees enough about 
it ; the alder and the willow by the brook ; 
orchards, and the yew among the stones, 
and the ash, and the mountain ash, and the 
birch ; but a little beyond and all was 
dreary — the nakedness of nature, the 
mountain side all ruined, loose stones and 
crags that waited but the next frost to 
thunder down ; in the bottom, a few lines 
of those low stone walls, that you hardly 
suspect to be the works of man. 



From ToM*8 Letter, 

" There were yesterday two fine water- 
spouts close to us. They appeared to de- 
scend from a heavy black cloud, not in a 
straight column, but with a round. When 
they reached the water they blew it about 
with great violence. One of them looked 
like the smoking of a vessel burnt to the 
water 8-edge. The other seemed not to 
raise the water so high, but formed it very 
like the capital of a Corinthian pillar ; the 
column was more transparent in the middle 
than at the sides. When it ceased to act 
upon the water, it reascended to the cloud, 
forming a circle with a still increasing ra- 
dius as it drew directly up. The lower 
point at last formed the centre, it then was 
so wide. It was then interrupted by other 
clouds passing over.** 

*^ A PUBSTA del Sol parescio la Luna, e 
comio poco a poco todas las nubes.** — Cron. 
del Conde D. Pero Nino.^ 

Tom. 
** You should have been with us last cruise 
(Lat. 60 H .) to have seen the Aurora Bore- 



» See Second Series, p. 615.— J. W. W. 



alis flashing in bright columns behind large 
masses of black cloud. I look upon it the 
clouds we have here are only detached 
pieces, driven fh>m the large mass that 
constantly floats near the Arctic circle this 
time of the year.** 

The Boiling Well, near Bristol Grbt- 
gebenish bubbles rise sometimes by dozens, 
a whole shower of them. Sometimes one 
huge one ; the large ones always bring up 
a trail of gravel soil. 

Little volcanos of gravel, where the soil 
is finer it rises like smoke. 

The Hawk, Abound that echoed from the 
rock aright, alefl, around — and from the 
vault of rock, you felt the shaking war, and 
it made the senses shake. 

Grass under a gale, as if you saw the 
stream of wind flowing over it. 

I have seen the yellow leaves of the ash 
and birch in Autunm give a sunshiny ap- 
pearance to the trees — a hectic beauty. 

Twinkling of the water-lilly leaves in a 
breeze. 

Sept. 28. Crackling of the furze pods in 
a hot day. 

A steady rain, so slow and in so still a 
day, that the leafless twigs of the birch 
were covered with rain-drops — no rain- 
drop falling till with its own weight. 

An Autumn day, when at noon the morn- 
ing dew lies still upon the grass undried, 
yet the weather delicious. 

" We were most dreadfully annoyed by 
flies which swarm about the heaps of old 
forage and filth scattered over the camp.** 
This was near the camp in India which had 
been abandoned the day before. 



SimUiee. 

An uncharitable man to the desert — ^which 
receives the sunbeams and the rain, and re- 
turns no increase. 

" As the moon doth show her light in the 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



world which she receiveth from the sun, so 
we ought to bestow the benefits received of 
God to the profit and commodity of our 
neighbour." — Wit's CommomoeaWi. 

Meet adversity — like the cedar in the 
snow. 

The enchanted fountains to the sources 
of Whang-ho. 

Convulsions in eastern kingdoms — to a 
stone cast into a green-mantled pool; for 
a moment it is disturbed, but the green 
stagnation covers it again. 

Sound of a trumpet — tc YirgiPs statue by 
Naples. 

Bitter resentment, revenge that requires 
blood — ^the sting of a scorpion, only to be 
healed by crushing it and binding it on the 
wound. 

White heat, tremulous, intense — ^like the 
sun if steadily beheld. 

Look of love — to the intense affection in 
the eye of the ostrich when fixed on its egg. 

Sorrow, misfortunes. — I have seen a dark 
cloud that threatened to hide the moon, 
grow bright as it passed over her, and only 
make her more beautiful. August 7, Cin- 
tra, eleven at night. 

Violet virtues— discovered by their sweet- 
ness, not their show. 

^ Upon the lake lie the long shadows of thy 
towers.** — Shadows seem to sink deep in 
dark water. 

Desertion — ^weeds seeding in the garden 
or court-yard, or on the altar. 



PiNB and fir groves said to form fine 
echoes. 

M. de la Hire after Leonardo da Vinci 
observes that any black body viewed through 
a thin white one gives the sensation of blue; 
and this he assigns as the reason of the blue- 
ness of the sky, the immense depth of which 
being wholly devoid of light, is viewed 
through the air illuminated and whitened by 
the sun. 

Chama Gigas — the name of those huge 
scallop shells which are placed about foun- 
tains. 



The skylark, — ^rising as if he would soar 
to heaven, and singing as sweetly and as 
happily as if he were there. 

The wind hath a human voice. 

July 1822. I WAS on the lake with 
Lightfoot,^ between the General*s Island and 
St. Herbert*s, and nearly midway between 
the east and west sides. The water was per- 
fectly still, and not a breath of air to be 
felt. We were in fine weather, but on the 
eastern side a heavy shower was falling, 
within a quarter of a mile of us, and the 
sound which it made was louder than the 
loudest roaring of Lodore, so as to astonish 
us both. I thought that a burst had hap- 
pened upon Walla crag, and that the sound 
proceeded from the ravines bringing down 
their sudden torrents. But it was merely 
the rain falling on the lake when every thing 
was still. 

Bell - RINGING, a music which nature 
adopts and makes her own, as the winds 
play with it. 

" The olive will hardly admit of any graft, 
by reason of its fatness, nor will the grafts 
of it easily thrive in any other stock." — ^Db. 
Jackson, vol. 2, p. 639. 

It is remarkable that Reginald Heber 
shoiild never have noticed the * pale trans- 
lucent green* of an evening sky, till he saw 
it on his voyage to India. — Journal, vol. 1, 
p. Ivii. 

TuRNER*s Tour in the Levant, vol. 3, p. 
175. " From the tomb of Orchan I vainly 
looked for the miraculous drum which was 
said to sound of itself every night, and on 
enquiry was informed that it was burnt in 
the last great fire — at Brusa.** 

Sunshine in sheets and fuUs of light 
through the ref>s in a cloud. 

' His old friend, the Rev. Nicholas Lightfoot. 
See Life and Correspondence, vol. v. 118. 

J. W. W. 



8 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



At the edge of the frozen lake, opposite 
to Lord*8 Island, the frost had formcMl little 
crystalline blossoms on the ice whereyer 
there was the point of a rush to form a nu- 
cleus. These frost flowers were about the 
size of the little blue flower with the orange 
eje, (O) and exceedingly beautiful, bright 
as silyer. 

3 March, 1829. Thb lake perfectly still 
in a mild clear day ; but at once a motion 
began upon it between the Crag and Stable 
hill, as if an infinite number of the smallest 
conceivable fish were lashing it with their 
tails. What could possibly occasion this, 
neither I, nor Bertha and Kate, who were 
with me, coiild discoyer or imagine. It 
abated gradually. 

** Where the rainbow toucheth the tree, 
no caterpillar will hang on the leaves.** — 

LlIXT. 

In the Secchia Rapita the hammer of the 
bell is spoken of 

^ n martello de la maggior campana.** 

Canto 1. X. 

and the fire-flies — but in a way worthy of 
such a writer. 

** E le lucciole uscian con cul de foco, 
Stelle di questa nostra ultima sfera.** 

8.1. 

I NOTICED a very pretty image by the side 
of a little and clear runlet, the large butter- 
cups on its margin moved when there was 
no wind, rocked by the rapid motion of its 
stream. 

The horse-chestnut in the way in which 
its boughs incline to rest upon the ground, 
resembles the fig-tree. 

** Achilles* shield being lost on the seas 
by Ulysses, was tossed by the sea to the 
tomb of Ajax, as a manifest token of his 
right.** — EuPHVEs. 



Flies in a bed room when the window 
curtain is drawn appear in a glance of lighty 
like fire-flies, where they flit across the sun- 
beam, that beam not being otherwise visible 
except where it falls upon the wall. 

First Rochelle expedition. ** Men fell 
a-rubbing of armour which a great while 
had lain oyled.**— Sib H. Wottoh, p. 222. 

^ Sol la cicala col nojoso metro 
Fra i densi rami del fronzuto stelo 
Le valli e i monti assorda, e*l mare, e*l cielo.** 

Ariosto, c. 8. St. 20. 

Grabs tiomkiimg with the morning dew. 



«^^/WW\^/^N»W%/V»/WV>/»»« 



Ferran Oonzalez, Count of Castille, 

Ferran Gohzalbz had slain in battle 
Sancho Abarea, King of Navarre, with his 
own hand. He had not provoked the war : 
Sancho had often infested Castille, and an- 
swered the Count's remonstrances and de- 
mands of restitution by defying him. He 
sent home the body honourably. 

Teresa, Queen dowager of Leon, was 
daughter of Sancho and sbter to Garcia 
Abarea, then reigning in Navarre. There 
exists a jealousy between Sancho of Leon 
and the Count, whom his victories and re- 
nown made too formidable for a vassal. At 
a Cortes which he attended, Sancho had 
asked of him his horse and his hawk. These 
the Count would have given, but the Kirg 
would only receive them as a purchase— and 
contracted for 1000 marks, to be paid on a 
certain day, if not, the debt was daily to 
double ; it was his own contract. The writ- 
ings were drawn out " partidas por A. B. C.** 
and sealed and witnessed in all form. At 
this same Cortes, Teresa proposed to the 
Count, her niece Sancha of Navarre for wife. 
This was concerted with Garcia, that so he 
might entrap Ferran, and imprison or slay 
him in revenge of his father's death. 

A meeting was appointed to conclude the 
marriage, each party to be accompanied by 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



9 



onlj fiye knights. The Count kept his pro- 
mise; Garcia brought thirtj-fiye, and seized 
him, but n^t till after a hard resistance, for 
the CastQians refuged in an Ermida, and de- 
fended it till thej had secured their Uves bj 
a capitulation. The five knights were re- 
leased, the Count fettered and imprisoned. 

A Lombard Count on pilgrimage to San- 
tiago, yisits Ferran in prison, and upbraids 
Sancfaa for her part in the wrong. She sent 
her damsel to see him, and then woit her- 
self; the marriage promise passed between 
them, and they fled togeUier; his chains were 
heayj, and she at times sustidned them. A 
priest who was riding with hawk and hound, 
disoorers them, and onlj consents to let the 
Count escape on condition that Sancha 
abandons her person to him, she retires with 
him, contrives to throw him down, and Fer- 
ran kills him widi a knife. They proceed, 
and meet the Castilians coming to his res- 
cue, with a stone image of the Count before 
them, which they had sworn never to for- 
sake. 

Garcia infests Castille till the patience of 
the Count fails, and he meets him in a 
pitched battle, defeats and takes him — ^he 
refuses to liberate him at Sancha*s request, 
but she appeals to his knights, and pleads 
so well that they obtain his deliverance for 
her sake. 

The King of Leon summons him now to 
a Cortes, and inunediately seizes him. San- 
cha sets out with her knights, leaves them 
concealed, and proceeds as on pilgrimage. 
The ELing of Leon allows her to see her hus- 
band and pass the night with him. In her 
pilgrim dress Ferran e8Ciq[>es and joins his 
troops ; but their aid is made needless by 
an interview between Sancha and the Ring 
of Leon, the Able mind of the Countess over- 
powers him, and all is settled. 



^»>W»/>»»^/^»^<»»M>/^W^i'^ 



Catholic Mythology. 

Adam in Limbo beholding the light of the 
Annunciation. Simile, — suggested by Bet- 
tinelli*8 Sonnet, Pern. Mod. 19, p. 169. 



Sabbath of Hell. See the liegend of Ju- 
das and St. Brandon. How much more hu- 
manly is this conceived than Monti*8 Son- 
net, vol. 17, p. 77, who describes Justice as 
writing upon the traitor's forehead as soon 
as he has expired, sentence of eternal dam- 
nation, with the blood of Christ I dipping 
her finger in the blood. This is hideous ! 
The angels, says the second sonnet, made 
fans of their wings to shut out the sight. 

** Per spavento 
Si fer de Tale a gli occhi una visiera.** 

I thought I had done when at the end of 
the first sonnet, but it seems there is yet a 
third, to tell us that as the soul had re- 
sumed flesh and bone, the sentence appear- 
ed in red letters, — ^it frightened the damned 
— ^he tried to tear it out, but Grod had fixed 
it there. 

^ Ne sillaba di Dio mai si cancella !** 

Perkopi this horrible absurdity suggested 
to Lewis his fine picture of the Wandering 
Jew. 

A GOOD paper in the manner of Addison, 
might be made upon the motion of a Board 
of Suicide, instituted to grant licenses for 
that act, upon sufficient cause being shown. 



^^^^i^^^^/^^Ai^^^v^^/^^^^^ 



WoM this story mature into a useful 
volume f 

Oltvbb Elton is the second son of wealthy 
parents, who live up to the extent of their 
income ; he is not their favourite ; his mo- 
ther had not nursed him. She would not 
perform maternal duty, and was therefore 
deprived of maternal affection. Oliver's 
provision was a good living ; he has scru- 
ples, and cannot accept it. 

Hie date must be 1793. During a vaca- 
tion Oliver sets out for a long walk — to bo- 
tanize, and to be from home. At a country 
inn, he is requested by the landlady to sit 
in her room, the house being full. The land- 
lord had been a respectable tradesman, by 
misfortunes bankrupt, and reduced to this 



10 



IDEAS AKD STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



employment. Dorothy, the daughter, had 
therefore been decently educated. Oliver 
soon afler he leayes the inn sprains his foot 
violently, and returns, preferring it to home, 
and a practical comment follows upon the 
text from S. Augustin. 

Mr. Elton refuses to support his son while 
he graduates in physic — the living, or no- 
thing. Oliver who has lived parsimoniously 
at Oxford, sets off for London, his way lies 
by the inn, and he finds Palmer dying of 
a broken heart; in Dorothy^s distress he 
becomes her comforter. 

In London Oliver looks about for literary 
employment, he is unknown, his last ten 
pounds are stolen, and he must have walked 
the streets for want of a lodging, had not a 
prostitute invited him in. This woman who 
would have infected him, hearing his dis- 
tress, offers him money. 

A letter from Dorothy finds him; her 
mother is in danger of an arrest, could he 
send twenty pounds? He enlists as a soldier, 
and sells liis watch to make up the sum. 

On a review day he sees Dorothy, it dis- 
orders him, and she faints, he runs to her, 
and the Major strikes him, they had been 
schoolfellows and enemies, he knocks him 
down, and writes from his confinement to 
the Colonel, who interferes and dismisses 
him from the regiment. 

One friend only knows Oliver's fate, he 
procures for him the place of gardener to 
Lord L. with a decent salary. Dorothy had 
been apprenticed to a milliner, he marries 
her, and lives in happy obscurity. 

The story should be related in a nar- 
rative to his sister, who with her husband 
visiting Lord L. recognized Oliver. 

Parkgate, Saturday Oct. 10, 1801.' 
The soldier part should be omitted. So 
will the history become that of a man who, 
by practical wisdom and useful knowledge, 
preserves himself from misery in diCQcult 
circumstances, and makes and deserves his 
own happiness. 



* These are hvrtQai t^povrldt^ — the former 
part dates from 1798, or 1799.— J. W. W. 



Ground (hat may he built on, 

Giovanni, the Judas Iscariot of S. 1 
Cisco's disciples, a man of blasted hopei 
slave of his own feelings, — sense enou 
smell the saint for a fool and his disc 
as rogues. 

Some nun of St. Clara's school. 

Frequent Portugueze shipwrecks oi 
coast of Africa. Some girl on her wi 
a nunnery — a Caffir — the good Negi 
the dfjLVfioyti dvdpwy. Here would be 
scenery. 

A COURT fool at some tyrant's court 

A DRAMATIC romance with the good 
of Merlm or the Round Table, magic 
the sublime of pantomime. 

A Jew family in Portugal, love and 
inquisition. 

Beast Poenu. Thet would be difliculi 
of good purport, some tales of the affec 
between the bear and her cub, or the 
or walrus. 



Pelato the restorer would form a ( 
hero for a poem which should take up 
tholicbm for it* machinery. 

Count Julian, Florinda, Egilona, Rod 
in his state of penitence, Oppas, yc 
Alonso, fine characters all. llie cav 
Toledo for a scene of enchantment, O 
donga for the battle. 

Biscay seems to have been disputed 
tween Pelayo, Eudon, and Pedro. Al< 
was Pedro's son and married Ormisi 
Pelayo's daughter. 

This is a grand subject for narrative^ 
for dramatic poetry, but as one bad ] 
would be seven times as productive i 
good poem six times its length, let us 
what can dramatically be done with Pel 

End with the surprizal of Gigon, the d 
of Munuza, and the acclamation of Pel 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



11 



Ormisinda a noble Virago, she refuses to 
marry anless her children can be free, the 
end then is her giving her hand to Alonso. 

There may be a scene at her mother*8 
grave. 

Munuza wants her in marriage, this the 
necessary deviation from historical legend. 
The demand a little rouses Pelayo, for Mu- 
nuza was becoming powerful by early sub- 
mission.^ 



««A^M^^^%A^^«^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Epic writers have usually been deficient 
in learning. Homer indeed is all miracle, 
he knew every thing, and Milton has orna- 
mented with the whole range of knowledge 
a story which admitted the immediate dis- 
play of none. But the manners in Tasso are 
mixed, in Virgil they are of no time and no 
country ; another deadly sin ! I know no 
poet so accurate as Glover. 

The following nations offer a rich field of 
civil and religious costume : 

The Jews. 

The Scandinavians. 

The Persians. 

Celtic superstition is too little understood, 
ud the documents of Celtic manners are 
scanty. Still there is an outline. The Bri- 
tish Brutus has been too oflen thought upon, 
to remain for ever without his fame. 

The Hindoo is a vile mythology, a tangle 
of thread fragments which require the touch 
of a faery*s distaff to unravel and unite 
them, lliere is no mapping out the coun- 
try, no reducing to shape the chaotic mass. 
It is fitter for the dotage dreams of Sir 
William Jones, than the visions of the poet. 
Let the wax-nose be tweaked by Volney 
on one side and Maurice on the other ! 

The Greenlanders are stupid savages, or 
tbere is a favourable wildness in their belief 
»nd in their country. 

The Amortam might be the groundwork 
of a Hindoo poem, but the draught of im- 

' It is hardly necessary to say that here are 
the first ideas for Roderick, the Last of the 
Goths.— J. W. W. 



mortality ought only to be sought by a bad 
man, and then Vathek would stand in the 
way of invention. 

Jewish Stories, 

Thb deluge. Joshua. The first destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem. The second. TheMacca- 
Dees. 

Judith is too short an action. Moses does 
too little himself; — ^besides, the end of this 
action is under Joshua. 

Savage superstitions will balladize well. 



^r>^>^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^k^^^^^ 



Grecian. 



Whobvsb reads Pausanias or the Mytho- 
logists will find that much of the best clas- 
sical groimd is yet unbroken. A hero is 
indeed wanting. Aristomenes? a hero in 
misfortune offers the best lesson; but a long 
and disjointed story, and Sparta in the 
wrong, that must not be ! Lycurgus ? the 
conqueror of human nature, perhaps the 
amender. The great Alexander f alas all 
perished with the mighty Macedonian. 

Better some lesser story, imaginary, or of 
obscure record. The Pythoness, Endymion, 
not ill handled by Gombauld, but of much 
promise. 



^'W«M/%^/%^M>\^/\/V/SAOAA^ 



stories connected with the Manners of 
Chivalry, 

FevdaUsm, Robin Hood.^ The establish- 
ment of the Inquisition, St. Domingo*s the 
prominent personage. 

The superstitions of the dark ages would 
body well. Saints and angels through the 
whole hierarchy, and every order of de- 
monology . They have rarely been used well, 
or never, the cursed itch of imitation has 
made them parodies of the Greek gods. 



Rwnic, 
The conquests of Odin were suggested by 

' Since published— a Fragment — by Mrs. 
Southey, who took a part in it. — J. W. W. 



12 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Gibbon; but Odin must be the god, not 
the hero. The storj must be whojlj imagi- 
nary. The history of savages is never im- 
portant enough to furnish an action for 
poetry. 

Persian, 

Zoroaster was a bad and bloody priest. 
Other personage their history offers not, for 
Cyrus is anterior to the system of the Zen- 
davesta. 

Thus then : — A Persian Satn^), persecu- 
ted by the powers of darkness. Every ca- 
lamity that they inflict developes in him 
some virtue which prosperity had smothered, 
and they end in driving him to emigrate with 
a Greek slave, and becoming a citizen of 
Athens. Here then the whole mythology, 
and the whole hatefulness of oriental ty- 
ranny come into the foreground. The Athe- 
nian slave, who chuses his master, for his 
pupil and son-in-law, may be as Jacobinical 
08 heart could wish. 



VW>MAA«W^«/\AA^^MMM^ 



Hindoo. 

There is a singular absurdity in this sys- 
tem, prayers and penance have an actual, 
not a relative value; they are a sterling 
coin for which the gods must sell their fa- 
vours, as the shopkeeper supplies the thief 
for ready money, Some of the most famous 
penitents have been actuated by ambition 
and cruelty. 

By penance and prayer any gift may be 
compelled from the gods ; add immortality, 
and there may exist an enemy formidable 
even to heaven. 

The search of the Amortam by such a 
man, call him for the present Keradon^ — ^he 
is a Bromin. An inj ured Paria — Cartamen — 
follows him, finds him in the very presence 
of Yamen, who alone dispenses the draught 

* Here again we have the first germ of the 
Curse of Kehama. Writing to his early and 
valued friend, Charles Danvers, May 6, 
1801, Sou they says, " I have just and barely 
begun the Curu nf Kiradon»^*—J. W, W. 



of immortality, and immortalizes him in a 
more natural way. 

On the coast of Malealon, Cartamen may 
meet Parassourama, who still exists there. 
The God for the sake of his mother Maria- 
tale, may befriend the Paria. 

Stung by some violent provocation, Car- 
tamen kills the brother of Keradon. Maria- 
tale, the despised goddess, protects the de- 
spised Paria, and preserves him from death. 
He is condenmed to bear about the Bra- 
min*s skull, and eat and drink out of it ; 
but his punishment is his glory. 

The Hindoos admit the truth of all reli^ 
gions, — ^Turk, Christian, Jew, or Gentile 
may therefore be introduced. 

A daughter of the Paria shall be a pro- 
minent character, — ^a Grindouver descends 
for her love. Seevajee claims her for the 
wife of the god, that is, a temple-prostitute. 
Cartamen in vain alleges that their god is 
not the god of the Parias, hence the murder. 
She has nurst a young crocodile, to save 
herself she lei^M into the river, the beast 
receives her. 

Funeral of Seevajee. His ghost i4>pears 
to Keradon, and tells him he cannot destroy 
LfCdalma till the Amordam has made him 
equal with the gods. Keradon then curses 
the murderer, commands all the evil powers 
to persecute him, and forbids any good one 
to assist him. 

When he is on the rocks near Mount Me- 
rou, — the fine incident of the bitch that lefl 
her whelps for want. 

It is Kalya who saves herself and her fa- 
ther, when they are about to be executed, 
by calling on Mariatale^ the mixed power. 
She with her father is cast out, but he leaves 
her when she is asleep, that she may not 
partake his sufferings. The Mouni — ^Will- 
o-the wisps — ^misleads her. She sinks un- 
der a manchineel ; then Eelia, the Grindou- 
ver, sees and saves her. 

Parassourama advises Ledalma to appeal 
to Bely, the just governor of Padalon. See- 
vajee cannot be judged till the term ap- 
pointed for his natural life had elapsed. 
His spirit therefore is at leisure to be mis- 



r 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



13 



chierons. Ledidma maj Bee Belj on the 
night when he visits earth, or attempt to 
descend bj Yamen*8 throne. 

The Sorgon might be conquered bj Ke- 
radon and Padalon. Yamen calmlj awaits 
him nnmoved at his post, and gives him the 
cup, the consummation of his conquests. 

Eenia, afler seeking other aid in vain, 
dares to appeal to Eswara, and complain 
that there is injustice in the world. Eswara 
tells him Death alone can aid Laderlad. 

Eenia takes Kaljal^ to the Sorgon, and 
shows her all its joys ; but she asks to be 
restored to her father. He knows not where 
he is, but asks Arounin, the charioteer of 
the sun. Thus Arounin*s answer brings up 
the lee-way, and the clumsiness of a revert' 
ing story is avoided. 

£enia asks Manmadin to wound Kalyal 
&I90. The Love Grod cannot, her heart is 
fall of stronger feelings. 

Kalyal is exposed to violation in a temple. 
Eeniaguards her, and kills whoever attempts 
her. He daily tells her of her father. 

Keradon takes Laderlad and leads him 
through Padalon to see with living eyes his 
after pain. Sure that Yamen must give the 
draught, he drags his conquered enemies to 
the spot of triumph, drinks, and dies. The 
wrath-eye of Eswara is on him. 

When the father and daughter are about 
to be executed at Naropi*s grave, Laderlad 
despairs, and therefore is abandoned. Ka- 
lysl is for piety exempted from the curse. 

Karopi^s spirit, animating his corpse, per- 
secutes Laderlad and his daughter. When 
alone, she is led into a house where the 
spectre awaits her, and escaping from his 
Incubus attempt sinks at the foot of the 
numchineel tree. 

Keradon*s curse. — May he be shunned by 
all his own cast, and be in the same abomi- 
nation to them that they are to the rest of the 
world ; the tun shine to scorch him ; no wind 
cool him ; no water wet his lips. He shall 

* The reader will observe that in this early 
Ms. the characters are yarionsly spelt. In the 
poem ita^ we have Kalyal and Olendoveer — 
notKalya and Grindouver.— J. W. W. 



thirst, and the cool element fly from his 
touch ; he shall hunger, and all earthly food 
refuse its aid. He shall never sleep, and 
never die^ till the full age of man be accom- 
plished. 

When the dead Naropi attempts Kalyal, 
the eye of Eswara falls upon him and con- 
sumes him. 

Keradon has obtained that none can de- 
stroy him but himself. 

After Kalyal has fed her father with the 
Sorgon fruits, Keradon strikes her with le- 
prosy, that the Grindouver may loath her. 
Then it is that Eenia flies to the throne of 
the Destroyer- God. 

The Cintra cistern might be well painted. 
Laderlad lying by the water. 

Kalyal is taken to the Sorgon to be re- 
covered. 

The giants join Keradon to get the Amor- 
tam. 

The frozen bay by Parassourama*s cave 
of sleep. Thence he may embark for the 
end of the world, to Yamen. 

Thus then the arrangement. Funeral and 
curse. Its gradual effects till Laderlad 
leaves Kalyal asleep Her adventure with 
the dead Naropi. Eenia bears her to the 
Sorgon. Search of her father. Arounin*s 
account. The meeting. Keradon smites her 
with leprosy. First he exposes her in the 
temple. Eenia defends her. His request 
to Manmadin. Keradon then taints her 
with the leprosy. He attempts to destroy 
her. Mariatale saves her. Afler the dis- 
ease Eenia goes to Eswara, as he is leading 
both to Yamen. The giants seize them. 
Parassourama wakes to their rescue. Their 
voyage. On the shore Keradon captures 
them. His triumph in Padalon, and the end. 
1. The curse. 2. The manchineel. 3. 
The Sorgon. 4. The meeting. 5. The 
prostitution. 6. The leprosy. 7. The ap- 
peal to Eswara. 8. Parassourama. 9. The 
captivity. 10. The catastrophe. 

Eenia*s appeal to Eswara. An allusion to 
the fruitless attempt of Brahma and Viche- 
non to measure the greater god. The Grin- 
douver finds him soon. Allegory, whom 



14 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



curious presumption cannot discover, af- 
flicted earnestness instantly finds. 

The meeting with Belj might be in his 
ruined city Mavalipuram. Its sea scenery 
would be impressive. 

Kalyal comes to the Lake Asru-tirt*ha, 
bj bathing there she would lose all worldly 
affections and go to Yishu's paradise ; for 
her father's sake she refuses, and thus is re- 
served for a higher bliss. 

I shall write this romance in rhyme, thus 
to avoid any sameness of style or syntax or 
expression with my blank verse poems, and 
to increase my range and power of lan- 
guage.^ 

But the chain must be as loose as possible, 
an unrhymed line may often pass without 
off*ending the ear. Like the Emperor of 
China's lying fiddler, he may be silent in the 
nobe of his companions. A middle rhyme 
may be used, not merely to its own termi- 
nation but to that of another verse. The 
octave line is of more hurrying rapidity than 
the decimal, and may be varied at pleasure 
with that of six, and with the fuller close 
often or twelve. In short lines a repetition 
of rhymes is pleasant ; even in long ones, as 
Warner proves to my ear, and the Spanish 

* '* It is begun in rhymes, as irregular in 
length, cadence, and disposition as the lines of 
Thalaba, I write them with equal rapidity, so 
that on the score of time and trouble tliat is 
neither loss nor gain. But it is so abominable 
a sin a^inst what I know to be right, that my 
stomach turns at it. It is to the utmost of my 
power vitiatine, or rather continuing the cor- 
ruption of public taste — it is feeding people on 
French cookery, which pleases their diseased 
and pampered palates, when they are not healthy 
enouc;h to relish the flavour of beef & mutton. 
My mducements are— to avoid any possible 
sameness of expression, any mannerism, and 
to make as huge an innovation in rhymes as 
Thalaba will do m blank verse. But I am almost 
induced to translate what is already done into 
the Thalaban metre."— MS. Letter to C. Dari- 
vers, Lisbon, May 6, 1801. 

" If, after all, you like better to write in 
rhyme, what is done may be easily translated. 
In proof of the practicability, the first seventy 
pages of Kehama underwent this metamorpho- 
sis." MS, Letter to Caroline Bowles, 10th May, 
1824.— J. W. W. 



ballads, double rhymes the more the better. 

Anaranya, like Crispin the Conjurer, fol- 
lows them on the water. 

The Wrath Eye is reserved for the catas- 
trophe. As Keradon drinks, it falls upon 
him, and fills him with fire, red hot. 

Eenia will be better winged, like the 
Glums, than with feathers. His application 
to Cama must be in the Sorgon. 

Living Careatades might support the 
throne of Yamen. 

After Auaranya*8 body is by Mariatale 
destroyed, he might still persecute a shadow 
dark in the evening light ; but his eyes were 
bright, like stars in the haze of mist. The 
moon waJ9 gone; the clouds moved on. Then 
the shadow he grew light in the darkness of 
the Jiight, and his eyes like flame were red.^ 

Indra will not allow Eenia to bYing La- 
derlad to the Sorgon, fearing sooner to ex- 
asperate Keradon. But Kalyal builds her 
father a cane hut, and Eenia daily brings 
him the fruits of the Sorgon. At last he 
comes not, and a hurricane tears up the hut. 

Kehama orders her to be thrown into the 
river at once. May not the very curse save 
her, by enabling Laderlad to get her out of 
the river ? This idea strikes him, and he 
runs instantly as he is freed. 

Derla and Vedilya, wives of Arvelan, 
burnt ; one patiently, and with no love of 
life, which never had been happiness ; the 
other younger, and with strugglings. They 
also wander in spirit, being untimely slain ; 
and in the Jaggemat temple save Kalyal 
from the force of their tyrant, for Arvelan 
there appears in body. 

Kohalma discovers that of Kalyal an im- 
mortal babe shall be bom ; hence he may 
save her at last, deeming that by him it 
must be begotten. 

Lake of Crocodiles. She is throned on 
one ; before the espousals with the idol, the 
angelic increase of beauty given by the Sor- 
gon fruits occasion her election. 

An hour passes in the Sorgon, but it is 

' As it is so written in the original MS. I 
have not thought it necessary to divide the 
lines.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



15 



an hoar of the blessed ; and Laderlad has 
had a yearns wandering. 

Only into Laderlad's hand may the cup 
of Amreeta be given. Thus hath it been 
decreed, and that not for himself is he to 
receive it. A reason for his presence. La- 
derlad*8 must pass through the dark portal. 
Crocodiles are kept in a moat or tank that 
surrounded a town in the East Indies, as 
guards. So I heard from a man who had 
been an officer in that service ; and so it was 
at Goa. — Alboq. Barros. 

Laderlad might at last rise in open hos- 
tility to Kehama. 

Among the ornaments of Major Cart- 
right*8 magnificent temple is the self moved 
vessel of the Phoeacians. The body of the 
living bark is like a scollop shell ; instead of 
a helm, it grows into a human head, to see 
and direct the way. 

She is thrown under the wheels of Jagre- 
nat's car to be destroyed ; but he who lies 
next her is Laderlad, and Death knew Ke- 
hama*8 Curse. 



N^N^W\^*WVW^VN/%/VW\*i 



Notes for Modoc} 

SiLEKT, apart from all and musing much. 
■^ViBiRA LusrrANO, canto 8, p. 278. 
BbdOmcn. — CarlosMaqno, p.2d. But 

not understandable, like the Mexican pro- 

digy.^ 

Priests running into the battle. — Corte 
^ieal, Seg. Cerco de Diu. canto 11, p. 143. 
Canto 18, p. 289. 

Sunless world, a phrase correspondent to 
mine, p. 2. 

Endymion de Gombauld. 

Early navigator. Capt. James*s poem in 
danger.— 2 c. 98. 

Death of Coatel. Water of Jealousy. 
Tale in Niebuhr. Pierre Faifen, cap. 22, 
p. 58. John Henderson at Downend. 

' By referring to the notes on Madoc, the 
i^er will see how small a portion of his great 
coUections Southey was in the habit of using 
op. See Life and Corretvondencef vol. v. 172. — 

J. W. W. 



OronocoIndian*s trial. — TAariqvy RevoL 
vol. 1, p. 52. Also the case of Judkin Fitz- 
gerald, Esq. 

Ashes of the kings. — Ibid. p. 99. So the 
flight from Almanzor. 

** L. Martio et Sex. Julio consulibus in 
agro Mutinensi duo montes inter se concur- 
serunt, crepitu maximo assultantes et rece- 
dentes, et inter eos flamma fumoque ex- 
eunte. Quo concursu villse omnes elis«e sunt, 
animalia permultss qu89 intra fuerant, exa- 
nimata 8unt."-~rT£XTOR*8 Officina^ 210 fi*. 

"For my harp is made of a good mares skyn, 
The strynges be of horse heare, it maketh a 
good dyn." 

Borders Introduction to Knowledge^ 
quoted in Walker*8 Bards. 

"Cortes made the Zempoallans pull downe 
their idolls, and sepulchres of their Cassikz, 
which they did reverence as Gods." — Con^ 
qitest of the Weast Indies, 

Apple blossoms in Hoel's poetry — so an 
Irish sonnet, of which Walker has foolishly 
given only a rhyme version. 

"Blest were the days when in the lonely shade 
Joined hand in hand my love and I have 

stray'd. 
Where apple blossoms scent the fragrant air 
Fve snatched sofl kisses from the wanton fair. 
" Once more, sweet maid, together let us 

stray, 
And in soft dalliance waste the fleeting day. 
Through hazel groves, where clustering nuts 

invite. 
And blushing apples charm the tempted 

sight." 



The Irish horsemen were attended by 
servants on foot, commonly called Daltini,' 
armed only with darts or javelins, to which 
thongs of leather were fastned, wherewith 
to draw them back after they were cast. — 
Sir James Ware's Antiquities of Ireland, 



* Du Cange quotes Ware and Stonihurst in 
V. Spelma}! in bis Glou, gives the explanation 
at length.— J. W. W. 



16 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Ezra, cb. iii. y. 11-13. Recovery of the 
land from Aztlan. 

** To the temple tasks devote." — Virgini' 
dasy c. 5. St. 34. 

Extinguishing all the fires to relight them 
from the sacred flame seems to have been an 
universal superstition. The Druids. The 
MagL Custom in Monomotapa. 

After Lautaro had cut off Yaldivia. 

** For el las fiestas fieron alargadas, 
exercitando siempre nuevos juegos 

de saltos, luchas, pruebas nunca usadas, 
danzas de noche entomo de los fu^os.** 

Arauaauij 3. 

" Con flautas, cuemos, roncos instrumentos 
alto estruendo, alaridos desdenosos, 

salen los fieros barbaros sangrientos 
contra los Espanoles valerosos.** 

Ibid. 4. 

The AfXiucan Army, 

** Alii las limpias arroas relucian 

mas que el claro cristal del Sol tocado, 
cubiertas de altas plumas las celadas^ 
verdes, azules, blancas, encamadas.** 

Ibid. 9. 

** Quando el Sol en el medio cielo estaba 
no declinando a parte un solo punto, 

y la aguda chicharra se entonaba 
con un desapacible contrapunto.** 

Ibid. 

Throwing the lance was one of the Aran- 
can games. — Canto 10. 

The Araucan learnt much from the Spa- 
niards. — P. 6, vol. 1. 

Horsemen of Lautaro. — F. 228. 

Bebs seem to have been destroyed by water 
formerly. Lord Sterline in his Doomsday, 

^ Winged alchymisto that quintessence the 

flowers, 
As ofl- times (iroW^before, now burn*d shall 

be." Third Haure,^ st 40. 

^ '* This Foem of * Doomes-day,' is written 
in the octave stann^and divided intofour books, 
called Hours."— Bi6. AngL Poetic, ji, 809. 

J. W. YT. 



** E iioH nos devemos espantar porque 
ellos son muchos, ea mas puede un L^n qae 
diez ovejas, ematarien treynta lobes a treyn- 
ta mil corderos." — Speech of Febnan Goh- 
9ALBZ. Coromca de Eepana^ del Rey D* 
Alonso. 

** Eux doncques navigans la mer de Font 
descouvrirent d*assez loing la flote du Sou- 
dain Zaire, qui (revestu de sa proye) ne 
pensoit qu*a entretenir Onolorie, quand ceux 
qui estoient aux eages et hunee^ pour faire 
guet, luy vindrent raporter qu*ilz avoient 
descouvert gens en mer et grosse flote de 
vaisseaux.** — AmadiSy 8me. livre, ch. 28. 

** Ob seen low lying through the haze of 
mom.** This is what sailors call Cape Fly- 
away. 

On the coast of Campeche the priests 
wore long cotton garments, whUe^ and their 
hair in great quantities, completely clotted 
and matted with blood. — Bemal Diaz. 3. 

Snake idols at Campeche. — ^Ibid. 3. 7. At 
Tenayuca. 125. 

Some Indians whom Grijalva saw had 
shields of tortoise shell, and they shone so 
in the sun that many of the Spaniards in- 
sisted they were of gold. For ** all seemed 
yellow to the jaundiced eye !*' — Ibid. 8. 

** Many Indians came on, and each had 
a white streamer on his lance, which he 
waved, wherefore we called the place the 
Rio de Venderas.** — ^Ibid. 8. 

Montezuma*s men also. — Ibid. 9. 

They spread mats under the trees and 
invited us to sit, and then incensed us. — 
Ibid. 

When Aguilar first rejoined his country- 
men ** el Espanol mal mascado y peor pro- 
nunciado, dixo, Dios y Santa Maria, y Se- 
villa !** and ran to embrace them. — Ibid. p. 
12. 

The houses atCampoala were so dazzling- 

ly white, that one of the Spaniards galloped 

— - . ■ -. 

* HuvB de navire. C'est le panier ou la 
cage qui est au haat du mat, qui sert k porter 
un matelot, pour d^oonvrir la terre, et les Cor- 
saires." Menage in v.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



17 



back to Cortes to tell him the walls were of 
silver. — Ibid. p. 30. 

The prisoners designed for sacrifice were 
f&tted in wooden cages. — Ibid, passim. 

The Tlascalan embassadors made three 
reverences, and burnt copal, and touched 
the ground with their hands, and kissed the 
earth. — Ibid. p. 52. 

Kill all you can, said the TIasCalans to 
Cortes, the young that they may not bear 
arms, the old that they may not give coun- 
sel.— Ibid, p. 56. 

The sprinkled maize — so ashes in Bel and 
the Dragon. 

*^Unos como paveses, que son de arte, que 
los pueden arroUar arriba quando no pe- 
lean, porque no les estorve, y al tiempo del 
pelear quando son menester los dexan caer, 
^ quedan cubiertas sus cuerpos de arriba 
abaxo."— Ibid. p. 67. 

Beasts were kept by the temples, and 



The walls of Mexitlis* temple, and the 
ground, were black, and flaked with blood, 
and stenching. — Ibid. p. 71. 

Tezcalipoca*s eyes of the same substance 
te their mirrors. — Ibid. 

Nanraez thought the number of glow- 
worms were the matches of Cortes* soldiers. 
—Ibid, p. 99. 

They gave command by whistling. — ^Ibid. 
pp. 144, 165. ** Resuena y retumba la voz 
por un buen rato." 

The first thing an Indian does when 
woiinded with a lance, is to seize it. The 
orders always were to drive at their heads, 
and trust to their horses. — Ibid. p. 172. 

** The sky and the sea were in appearance 
so blended and confounded, that it was only 
close to the ship that we could distinguish 
what was really sea." — Stayobinus. 

*^ Tanian instrumentos de diversas mane- 
ras de la musica de pulso, e flato, e tato, e 
Toz.** — Cb. db Pbbo Nino. 

Fltiho fish. — GoMBs Eankbs. Pbbo 

NlKO. 



Joan of Arc. 

Mystic meaning of the Fleurs de Lys. — 
RiCHBOSMB, Plainte Apologetique^ p. 343. 

Ehglabd should be the scene of an Eng- 
lishman's poem. No foreign scene can 
be sufficiently familiar to him. Books and 
prints may give the outlines, as description 
will give you the size and colour of a man's 
eyes and the shape of his nose, but the cha- 
racter that individualizes must be seen to 
be understood. 

Is there an historic point on which to 
build ? Alfred — the thrice murdered Al- 
fred ! — a glorious tale, but that is forbidden 
groimd. 

Brutus has been knocked on the head by 
Ogilvie. The name too is unfavourable; 
such nobler thoughts will cling to it. A de- 
cent story might be made by supposing the 
original race oppressed by Sarmatic inva- 
ders — and uniting Bardic wisdom with Tro- 
jan arms. 

The Roman period, Cassibelan, Bondu- 
ca, the war of savages against civilization; 
such it must be, though you call it the strug- 
gle of liberty against oppression. 

Arthur — but what is great is fable : he 
must be elsewhere considered. 

Egbert — it is a confused action ; little 
means making a great end, — as the little 
kingdoms made a great one. 

From the Norman conquest downwards, 
but one event occurs whose after effects 
were equal to its immediate splendour ; the 
Armada defeat, and our escape from the 
double tyranny it was to have established. 
Yet we should, like Holland, have defeated 
the Spaniards, had they even obtained a 
temporary dominion. 

Of Charles I. nothing can be said — be- 
cause of Charles II. 



Robin Hood, 

A pastobal epic, with rhyme and with- 
out rhyme, — long lines and short line, now 






18 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Darrative, now dramatic, — lawless as the 
good old outlaw himself. 

Maid Marian, a Neif. 

Ayeline, the ward of a bad gnardian, her 
foster brother a viUatn. The funeral of her 
father should be the opening. 

Robert, Earl ofHuntingdon, a minor. The 
next heir wants to persuade him to go cru- 
sading. This he will not do because he loves 
Marian the daughter of his father*8 old ser- 
vant, and because of Mothanna, an Arab, 
whom his father had brought from the Ho- 
ly Land, who for the boy*s sake has forgiven 
the father, and taught young Robert to like 
Moslem, and long for the liberties of a Be- 
douin. 

Reginald wants to make Robert marry 
his daughter Annabel. He consoles himself 
by taking the value of the marriage. But he 
hopes more than this. Richard Lion-heart 
is abroad. Reginald is the favourite of John. 
He wants to get Robert outlawed, that he 
may have a grant of the estate. He pro- 
vokes him to some violence, and the young 
vassals follow him to the forest 

A church scene. The mass for his mother*s 
soiil. Robin shall rob K. Richard. 



*^^^^\^K^^^^\A^^V^\^^/N/%^ 



Mohammed.^ 

^ MoHAMXED was ou his celebrated ex- 
pedition of Bedr-Oeuzma against the peo- 
ple of Mecca, when he heard of the death 
of his daughter Roukiy6, who was married 
to Osman. He received this news with as- 
tonishing coolness, and with dry eyes he ut- 
tered these remarkable words, *• Let us give 
thanks to God^ and accept as a favour even 
the death and interment of our daughters.*** 

D*Oh880N. 

" Post hoc introduxit me in Paradisum, 
et inveni ibi pucllam fcHrmosam, quae mul- 
tum placuit oculis meis, et interrogavi eam, 
cuja esset ; quas respondit, hie servor Zayth 

^ The reader may see the ** Fragment of Mo- 
hammed/* at the end of Unfinish^ Tale of Oli- 
ver Newman, p. 113.— J. W. W. 



filio Hyarith. Et cum descendissem 
radiso nuntiavi hsec Zayth filio Hyar 
de meis consortibus unus erat.** — I 

XlMENBS. 

Before the battle at Beder, Moh 
exhausted all the wells, except one 
troops. 

" Cum Otaiba repudiasset filiam 
meti, gravissimeque eum Isesisset, i 
imprecatus est ei a Deo. Cumque 
constitisset noctu cum sociis in quodf 
SyrisB, venit leo, aliisque relictis, 
eum, comminuitque caput ejus.** 

" Obavit quondam pro Saado, u 
jaceret sagittas ; et obtineret quicqui< 
petisset. Nunquam vero Saadus ja^ 
est quin scopum attingeret; nee u 
precatus est quin exaudiretur.** 

" .^GBOTABAT Aly, gravlquc doloi 
ciabatur. Invisit eumMahumetus,jui 
surgere. Surrexit ille, nee amplius 
eum dolorem.** 

" Obavit pro Aly, ut Deus imr 
redderet eum a calore, et frigore ; el 
exaudivit eum. Fortasse hoc evenit 
quam Aly mortuus est ; tunc enim n< 
plius calorem aut frigus corpus ejus s 

** CoNFBACTus fucrat ensis cujusda 
litis Mahumetani in prselio Bedrensi. 
illi Mahumetus baculum ligneum, 
piens ut agitaret eum ; quod cum ille 
set, baculus conversus est in gladiun 

D*Ohs8on says from an Arabian a 
that when Mohammed prayed over th< 
of his mother, she rose from the dea 
knowledged her belief in his missioi 
then returned into the grave. 

" Habebat autem Omar sororem 
potem, qui Mahumetum sequebantur. 
cum Omar invenisset legentes in qi 
codice Suram vigesimam Alcorani, cu 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



19 



log est Tah, voluit per vim codicem a so- 
rore arripere, tandemque minis et yerberi- 
bus illam obtinuit, sed non sine promissione 
restituendi. Cum autem coepisset codicem 
legere, lectionis pulchritudine allectus, ad 
Mahumetum se contulit, atque in illius ver- 
ba juravit." — Mabacci. 

Whek the decree for prohibiting all com- 
merce with the Hashemites was suspended 
in the temple, Abu-laheb of that family and 
Ommogemila his wife went over to the Eo- 
reish. " Ommogemila autem virgas spino- 
sas in vift, per quem transiturus erat Mahu- 
metus, ponebat, ut in eas pedibus impingens, 
sauciaretur." 

At the war of the ditch, afler thirty days 
it was agreed that a single combat should 
decide it between Amru, son of Abdud, and 
All. AH killed him. Whilst they fought 
the storm arose which tore up the tents of 
the besiegers. 

When Mahomet attacked his enemies in 
the valley of Houein, " inter captivos fuit 
Scebama, filia Halims, soror coUactanea 
Mahumeti, quae cognovit eum, seque illi 
cognoscendam dedit, ex vestigio mors^, 
qnem ipse puer dentibus impresserat dorso 
ejus Cognosce Mahumeti adhuc ab ivcunabu- 
^ latcimam,) Concessit igitur illi M. li- 
bertatem, cum aliis foeminis quas ilia postu- 
larit, cum parte prsede suae et cseterorum 
Moslemorum." — Mabacci. 

Who but a monk would have found lewd- 
ness in this story P 



[Sketch of the Poem.'] 

P.l. Thb death-bed of Abu Taleb. Ele- 
vation of Abu Sophian . Tumult of the Ko- 
reish. Danger of Mohammed, and his escape 
bj the heroism of All. He looks back upon 
the crescent moon. 

2. The Koreish pursue ; they reach the 
cavern; at whose entrance the pigeon has 
hiid her eggs and the spider drawn his web ; 
^d turn away, satisfied that no one can have 



entered. Fatima and Ali bring them food 
and tidings. 

3. Journey through the desert. Tlie pur- 
suers overtake them, and Mohammed is at 
the mercy of an Arab. They find an ex- 
posed infant. 

4. They halt at an islanded convent. Ma- 
ry the Egyptian is among the nuns. Her 
love and devotional passion transferred to 
the prophet. 

5. Arrival at Medina. Intrigues to expel 
him — chiefly among the Jews. This danger 
averted by a son accusing his father. 

6. Battle of Beder. Attempt to assassi- 
nate him afterwards when sleeping. What 
hinders me from killing thee? This was 
Daathur, leader of the foes. 

7. Defeat at Mount Ohud. Death of 
Eamza. Conversion of Caled in the very 
heat of victory. 

8. Siege of Medina by the nations. The 
winds and the rain and the hail compel them 
to retire. 

9. The Nadhirites defeated, and the Jews 
of Kainoka, Eoraidha, and Chaibar. 

10. The prophet lays siege to Mecca. 
Truce on permission to visit the Caaba. Am- 
ron lays in wait for him there, and is over- 
awed and converted. He tells them that the 
worm has eaten the words of their treaty, 
leaving only the name of God. Astonished 
by this, terrified by the irresistible number 
of his swelling army, the Koreish yield the 
city. He bums the idols, and Henda clings 
to her Grod, and is consumed with him. 



Abu Sophian, Henda 

his wife. 
Moawiyah, their son, 

of the race of Om- 

miyah. 
Caled and Amrou 

The early 
Othman. 
Zobair. 
Saad. 



Ali and Fatima. 
Omar and Abubeker. 
Zeed and Zeineb. 
Hamza. 

Lebid the poet. 
Mary the Egyptian. 

believers. 
Abdarrahman. 
Abu Obeidah. 



Islam — " the saving religion." 

Al- Abbas, — uncle of M. taken at Bedcr. 



20 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Mary must be captured afler the vic- 
tory at Beder. 

On Mount Ohud Mary saves him. 

Caled must not be in the fight of Beder. 

The contest with the Jews must be con- 
nected with the intrigues of the Koreish, 
and take place during the si^e of Medina. 

2. Ali on the Prophet*s bed. The Ko- 
reish waiting his forthcoming. Their pur- 
suit. When they leave the cavern, the 
poem remains there. Death of Cadijah re- 
lated to him. 

Mohammed visits his mother*s sepulchre. 
Sale, V. 1, p. 263. 

The famous miracle of the mountain. 
The people before one of the battles de- 
mand of him angelic aid ; then he calls the 
mountain, and applies the fact by showing 
that the miracle is not wanted — " Are ye 
not men and valiant ? ** 

Zeinab, the Jewess, who attempted to 
poison Mohammed at Kaibar, may be made 
a striking personage. 

Okail, the brother of Ali, deserted him 
in his latter difficulties. 

Ziad, the brother of Moawiyah, from his 
bastard birth called Ben Abihi — Son of the 
Unknown, continued attached to Ali*8 
cause, even afler his death. Obeidallah, 
[Uosein was his son] the destroyer of Ab- 
darrahman, son of Caled, and inheritor of 
his zeal and courage, was poisoned by com- 
mand of Moawiyah. 

The Beder Books. Mohammed in the 
valley awaiting his scouts. Thus the thread 
, is unbroken, and the boasts of Abu Sophian 
explain the Koreish transactions. The 
mountain miracle. Al- Abbas leading the 
pursuit when the Moslem gives way, is first 
struck by the action of his nephew, half 
doubtful before. Pursuit of the caravan. 
Sebana and Miriam, of Egypt, among the 
captives. Miriam must feel respect and ad- 
miration for the enthusiast ; but it is after 
the defeat and danger of Ohud, that his 
fearless yet wise fanaticism infects her, and 
makes her at once believe and love. 

The death of Otaiba may be connected 
with the ambush and conversion of Amru. 



The bodies of the noblest slun conveyed 
to Mecca — for the dirge of Ommia to be in- 
troduced. 

The factions at Medina reconciled on 
his flight there. 



Subjects /or Poendings* 

A SENTIMENTAL sonnet to eggs and bacon ; 
thinking what the bacon was, and what the 
eggs might have been ; or there is enough 
for an elegy. Alas! that men who eat 
should feel — alas ! that men who feel should 
eat. Why not have an air-diet infused! 
Pig — ^his happiness. The stye, his home, and 
its domestic joys. The cock, his plumage, 
and — " sweet at early morn, his cockadoo- 
dledoo." Ghosts. Rise neither in my con- 
science, O bacon, nor in my stomach. 

The emigrant. Description of a priest 
walking alone, a good and pious roan. The 
rabble of ex-nobles. Charity of England ; 
in the day of her visitation may that he 
remembered. 

Meditations on an empty purse. 

Iroquois. Their complaint in captivity. 

Their address to the dead.^ 

The praise of a savage life. 

Ballad of the man at Stroud who was 
almost killed by his ass. 

Euthymus and the demon Lybas. 

Winter. How we will welcome him. 

Consecration of our new house. 

Winter walk. Companion to the Mid- 
summer meditations. 

To an old pair of shoes, showing the 
possible inconvenience but absolute neces- 
sity of having a new pair. 

To health. 

The defeat of Attila. 

The spider, a metaphysician. The silk- 
worm feeds first and spins afterwards. 

The cold in my head. French black- 
smith. Ode. 



I Some of these the reader will find worked 
up in his Poems, e. g. " The Fig," p. 162. " Hu- 
ron's Address to the Dead,^* p. 132. Ed. in one 
volume. — J. W. W. 



r 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMl»OSITION. 



21 



A poem is possible upon a candle with 
unhackneyed thoughts. Its wasting by 
agitation. Its danger out of doors. And, 
politically considered, not forgetting the 
snuffers. As the flame to the candle, so 
perception to the body. The student. Thy 
fate is to give light and waste away. 

H yentoso. 

Monodrama. Cranmer recanting his re- 
cantation in St. Mary*s, Oxford. 

The Shangalla woman wooing another 
wife for her husband. — Bbuce, vol. 2. This 
is an interesting subject, and the circum- 
stances of these poor savages are very 
striking for poetry. 

Monodrama. Florinda addressing her 
father. Count Julian, before she threw her- 
self from the tower at Malaga. 

Love verses. Advice to a poet. 

My considering cap. All possible head- 
coverings. The powdered head — the mitre 
—the three-tailed wig — the judges' — the 
helmet. 

Laudanum visions. I saw last night 
one figure whose eyes were in his specta- 
cles; another, whose brains were in his 
wig. A third devil whose nose was a trum- 
pet. 

Laver; how it was ambrosia, which 
when Jupiter came for Europa was evolved 
throogh all the intestinal government. 

Pharmaceutic ode— over-reaching, mov- 
ing the bowels, getting at the bottom of a 
subject 

The bird over the gate screams, for a 
year of famine is at hand. A witch is 
gone to the Well of Rogoes, and caught 
the dew that was to make the Nile rise. 



v^^'V^'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M^ 



lettres envoyees de par le Roy d^Angleterre 
ttu Due de Burgor^ne, — MoNSTSEiJiET, 
fueillet, 70. 

TaBscHiEBettresaymeoncle. Lafervente 
Section que scavons vous avoir, comme 
vray catholique, a nostre mere saincte eglise 
ct lexaltation de nostre saincte foy, raison- 
nablement nous exhorte et admoneste de 



vous signifier et escrire ce que al honneur 
de nostre dicte mere saincte eglise, fortiffi- 
cacion de nostre foy, et extirpacions der- 
reurs pestilencieuses a este en ceste nostre 
ville de Rouen fait ja na gueres solennelle- 
ment. U est assez commune renommee ja 
comme par tout divulguee comment celle 
femme qui se faisoit nommer Jehanne la 
pucelle erronnee sestoit deux ans et plus, 
contre la loy divine et lestat de son sexe 
femenin, vcstue en habit dhomme, chose a 
dieu abhominable. Et en tel estat trans- 
portee devers nostre ennemy capital et le 
vostre ; auquel et a ceulx de son party, 
gens deglise, nobles, et populaires donna 
souvent a entendre quelle estoit envoyee 
de par Dieu en soy presumptueusement 
vantant quelle avoit communicaciou perso- 
nelle et visible avecques Saint Michel et 
grande multitude danges et de sainctz de 
Padis comme Saincte Katherine et Saincte 
Marguerite. Par lesquelz faulx donne a 
entendre et lesperance quelle promectoit 
de victoires futures divertit plusieurs erreurs 
dhommes et de femmes de la verite et les 
convertist a fables et mensonges. Se ves- 
tist aussi darmes applicquees pour cheval- 
iers et escuieres, leva lestandart. Et en 
trop grant oultrage, orgueil et presumpcion 
demanda avoir et porter les tresnobles et 
excellentes armes de France, ce que en 
partie elle obtint. Et les porta en plusieurs 
courses et assaulx, et ses freres, comme on 
dit Lestass avoir ung escu a deux fleurs de 
lys dor a champ dazur, et une espee la 
poincte en haulteferve en une couronne. En 
cest estat sest mise aux champs, a conduit 
gens darmes et de traict en exercite et 
grans compaignies pour faireet exercer cru- 
aultez inhumaines, en espandant le sang 
humain, en faisant sedicions et commocions 
de peuple, le induisant a pariuremens, re- 
bellions supersticions et faiilses creances, 
en perturbant toute vray paix et renouvel- 
lant guerre mortelle, en se souflrant hon- 
norer et reverer de plusieurs comme femme 
sainctifiee, et autrement damnablement 
oeuvrant en divers cas longs a exprimer,qui 
toutesvoies ont este en plusieurs lieux assez 



22 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



cogneues, dont presquetoute la chrestiente 
a este toute scandalisee. Mais la diyine 
puissance, ayant pitie de son peuple loyal qui 
ne la longuement voulu laisser en peril, ne 
souffert demourer esvaines perilleuses et 
nouvelles crudelitez ou ja legierement se 
mectoit a vouloir permectre sa grant mise- 
ricorde et clemence que ladicte femme ajt 
este prinse en vostre host et siege que teniez 
lors de par nous devant Compiegne, et 
mise par vostre bon raoyen en nostre obeys- 
sance and dominacion. Et pour ce que 
deslors fusmes requis par levesque au dio- 
• cese duquel elle avoit este prinse, que icelle 
Jehanne nottee et difiamee de crimes de 
leze majeste divine luy fissions delivrer 
comme a son juge ordinaire ecclesiastique. 
Notant pour la reverence de nostre mere 
saincte eglise,de laquelle voulons les ordon- 
nances preferer a noz propres faitz et vou- 
lentez comme raison est, comme aussi pour 
Ihonneur et exaltacion de nostre dicte 
saincte foy, luy fismes bailler ladicte 
Jehanne affin de luy faire son proces, sans 
en vouloir estre prinse par les gens et offi* 
ciers de nostre justice seculiere aucune 
vengeance ou punicion ainsi que faire 
nous estoit raisonnablement licite, attendu 
les grans dommages et inconveniens, les 
horribles homicides et detestables cruaultez 
et autres maulx innumerables qui elle avoit 
commis a lencontre de nostre seigneurie et 
loyal peuple obeyssant. Lequel evesque 
adioint avecques luy le vicaire etde linquisi- 
teur des erreurs et heresies, et appelle avec- 
ques eulx grant et notable nombre de so- 
lennelz maistres et docteurs en theologie et 
droit canon, commenga par grande solenni- 
te et deux gravite le proces dicelle Jehanne. 
Et apres oe que luy et le dit inquisiteur 
juges en certe partie, eurent par plusieurs 
et diverses joumees interrogue ladicte Je- 
hanne, firent les confessions et assercions 
dicelle meurement examiner par lesditz 
maistres docteurs. Et generalement par 
toutes les facultez de nostre treschiere et 
tresaymee fille luniversite de Paris, devers 
laquelle lesdictes confessions et assercions 
ont este envoyez par loppinion et delibera- 



cion, desquelz trouverent lesditz juges icelle 
Jehanne supersticieuse, devineresse de dia- 
bles, blasphemeresse en Dieu et en ses 
saintz ^t sainctes, scismastique et errant 
par moult de sors en la foy de Jesu Christ. 
Et pour la reduire et ramener a la unite 
et communion de nostre dicte mere saincte 
eglise, la purger de ses horribles et pemi- 
cieulx crimes et pechez, et guerir et pre- 
server son ame de perpetuelle paine et dam- 
nacion, fut souvent et par bien long temps 
trescharitablement et doulcement admo' 
nestee a ce que toutes erreurs fussent par 
elle regectees et mises arriere, voulsist hum- 
blement retoumer a la voye et droit sender 
de verite ou autrement elle se mectoit en 
grant peril de ame et de corps. Mais le 
tresperilleux et deuise esperit dorgueil et 
de oultrageuse presumpcion qui tousjours 
sefforce de vouloir empescher la unite et 
seurte des loyaulx chrestiens occuppa et 
detint tellement en ses liens le courage di- 
celle Jehanne que, pour quelconque saincte 
doctrine ou conseil ne autre doulce exhor- 
tacion que on luy eust administree, son 
cueur endurcy et obstine ne se voulut hu- 
milier ne amolir. Mais se vantoit souvent 
que toutes choses quelle avoit fuctes estoi- 
ent bienfaictees, et les avoit faictes du com- 
mandement de Dieu et desdictes sainctes 
Vierges qui visiblement sestoient a elle ap- 
paruz. Et que pis est ne recognoissoit 
ne vouloit recognoistre en terre fors Dieu 
seulement et les saintz de Paradis en refu- 
sant et deboutant le jugement de nostre 
saint pere le Pape, du concille general, et la 
universelle eglise militant. £t voyans les 
juges ecclesiastiques sesditz courage et pro- 
pos par tant et si longue espace de temps 
enduraj et obstine la firent mener devant 
le clergib et le peuple iUec assemble en tres- 
grant multitude, en la presence desquelz 
furent preschez exposez et declairez solen- 
nellement et publicquement par ung nota- 
ble maistre en theologie alexaltacion de 
nostre foy, extirpacion des erreurs, et edif- 
fication et amendement du peuple chrestien. 
Et de rechief fut charitAblement admones- 
tce de retoumer a lunion de saincte eglise 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



23 



et de corriger ses faultes et erreurs en quoy 
pertmace et obstinee. Et en ce considere 
les juges dessosditz procederent a prononcer 
la sentence contre elle en tel cas de droit 
introdoite et ordonnee. Mais avant que 
la sentence fut parluctee elle commencaj 
semblant amuer son courage disant quelle 
Tooloit retoumer a saincte eglise, ce que 
Toulentiers et joyeusement ojrent les juges 
et le clerge dessusditz, qui a cela receu- 
rent benignement, esperant per ce mojen 
SOD ame et son corps estre racbaptez de 
perdicion et torment. Adonc se submist 
a lordonnance de saincte ^lise et ses er- 
reurs et ^etestables crimes revocqua de la 
boQche. Et objura publicquement signant 
de sa propre main la cedulle de la dicte re- 
vocquacion et objuracion. Et par ain si 
nostre piteuse mere saincte ^lise soy esi- 
ojBsant BUT la pecberesse faisant penitence 
Tueillant la brebris retourner et recouvrer 
qui par le desert sestoit esgaree et for- 
vojee ramener avecques les autres icelle 
Jehanne pour faire penitence condanma en 
chartre. Mais gueres ne fut illec que le 
feu de son orgueil qui sembloit estre es- 
taint en icelle rembrasa en flambes pesti- 
lencieuses par les soufflemens de lennemy. 
Et tantost ladicte femme maleuree re- 
cheut es erreurs et es rageries que par 
avant avoit proferees et de puis revocquees 
et objurees comme dit est. Pour lesquelles 
causes selon ce que les jugemens et insti- 
tucions de saincte eglise lordonnerent affin 
que doresenarant elle ne contaminast les 
autres membres de Jesu Christ, elle fut de 
rechef foreschee publiquement. Et comme 
elle fut renchue es crimes et faultes vil- 
laines par elle acoustumees fut delaissee a 
la justice seculiere, laquelle incontinent la 
condanma a estre bruslee. Et voyant son 
finement approucher elle congneut plaine- 
ment et confessa que les esperitz quelle 
disoit estre apparans a elle souventeffois es- 
toient maulvais et mensongiers, et que les 
promeases que iceulx espuitz luy avoient 
plusieurffois faictes de la delivrer estoient 
faulses. £t ainsi se confessa plesditz espe- 
ritz avoir este deceve et democquee. Si 



fut menee par ladicte justice lyee auvieil il 
marche dedans Rouen et la publicquement 
fut arse a la veue de tout le peuple. La- 
quelle chose ainsi faicte le dessusdit Roy 
dangleterre signifia p. ses lecttes comme 
dit est au dessusdit Due de Bourgogne affin 
que icelle execution de justice tant par luy 
comme les autres princes fut publiee en 
plusieurs lieux et que leur gens et subgectz 
doresenavant fussent plus seurs et mieux 
advertis de non avoir creance en telles ou 
semblables erreurs qui avoient regnes pour 
a loccasion de ladicte Pucelle. 



%MAAA^^l^^^S^^I^^^^^^>^%^i^ 



Hor9e of the Idql Perenuth. 

In the temple of the Idol Pe^enuth a 
horse was kept on which the god rode to 
assist his votaries in the battle, frequently 
afler a fight he was found covered with foam, 
none but the priests dared approach the 
place where he was kept. 

When the Saxons designed to declare war 
against tbeir enemies, they set their spears 
before the temple, and the sacred horse was 
led out, if he put his right foot forward, the 
omen was held good, if he stepped with his 
left foot first, the omen was esteemed unfor- 
tunate, and they desisted from the intended 
business. — Strut's compleat view of the 
Manners, Sfc, of the ancient Inhabitants of 
England. See p. 12. 

The White horse? — Yebsteoan to be 
consiilted, and Saxo Gbammaticus. 



<^«A/WkAAtfN^>VMM/V^/VV/WW 



Mercy Knives, 

Mbbct knives used to kill knights in com- 
pleat armour when overthrown, by stabbing 
them in the eye. Afler the battle of Pavia 
some of the French were killed with pick- 
axes by the peasantry hewing on their ar- 
mour. 



%^iA/\^^^^S^i^^i^^^^^^^^^ 



Capture of the Maid, 

As before ye have heard somewhat of this 
damsels strange beginning and proceedings, 



24 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



so, sith the ending of all such miracle-mon- 
gers dooth (for the most part) plainlie deci- 
pher the vertue and power that they worke, 
by hir shall ye be advertised what at last 
became of hir : cast your opinions as ye 
have cause. Of hir lovers (the Frenchmen) 
reporteth one, how in Campeigne thus be- 
sieged, Guillaume de Flavie the capteine 
having sold hir aforehand to the Lord of 
Lutzenburgh, under colour of hasting hir 
with a band out of the town towards their 
king, for him with speed to come and leavie 
the siege there, so gotten hir forth he shut 
the gates afler hir ; when anon by the Bur- 
gognians set upon and overmatcht in the 
conflict^ she was taken : marie yet (all things 
accounted) to no small marvell how it could 
come so to passe, had she beene of any de- 
votion or of true beleefe, and no false mis- 
creant, but all holie as she made it. For 
earlie that morning she gat hir to St. Jameses 
church, confessed hir, and received her 
maker (as the booke terms it) and after set- 
ting hirself to a piller, manic of the towns- 
men that with a five or six score of their 
children stood about there to see hir, unto 
them quod she * Good children and my dear 
friends, I tell you plaine one hath sold me. 
I am betraied and shortlie shall be deli- 
vered to death ; I beseech you praie to God 
for me, for I shall never have more power 
to doo service either to the king or to the 
realm of France again.'" — Chroniques de 
Bretagncy p. 130. 

*♦ Saith another booke, Le Rosier, she was 
intrapt by a Ficard capteine of Soissons, who 
sold that citie to the Duke of Burgognie,and 
he then put it over into the hands of the 
Lord of Lutzenburgh, so by that means the 
Burgognians approached and besieged Cam- 
peigne ; for succor whereof as damsell Jone 
with hir capteins from Laignie was thither 
come, and dailie to the English gave manie 
a hot skirmish, so happened it one a dale 
in an outsallie that she made by a Picard of 
the Lord of Lutzenburghs band, in the 
fiercest of hir fight she was taken, and by 
him by and by to his Lord presented, who 



sold hir over again to the English, who for 
witchcraft and sorcerie burnt hir at Rone. 
Tillet telleth it thus, that she was caught 
at Campeigne by one of the Earl of Lignei's 
soldiers, firom him had to Beaurevoir Cas- 
tle, where kept a three months, she was after 
for 10,000 pounds in monie and 300 pounds 
in rent (all Turnois) sold into the English 
hands."— /« La Vie du CharUe VIL 



Sentence of the Maid, 

In which for hir pranks so uncouth and 
suspicious, the Lord Regent by Peier Chau- 
chon Bishop of Beauvois (in whose diocesse 
she was taken) caused her life and beleefe, 
after order of law, to be inquired upon and 
examined. Wherein found though a virgm, 
yet first shamefuUie rejecting hir sex abo- 
minablie in acts and apparell to have coun- 
terfeited mankind, and then all damnablie 
faithlesse, to be a pernicious instrument to 
hostilitie and bloudshed in divelish witch- 
craft and sorcerie, sentence accordingliewas 
pronounced against hir. Howbeit upon 
humble confession of hir iniquities, with a 
counterfeit contrition pretending a careful 
sorrowe for the same, execution spared and 
all mollified into this, that firom thenceforth 
she should cast off hir unnatural wearing of 
man's abilliments, and keepe hir to garments 
of hir owne kind, abjure her pernicious 
practises of sorcerie and witcherie, and have 
life and leasure in perpetuall prison to be- 
waile hir misdeeds, which to performe (ac- 
cording to the manner of abjuration) a 
solemne oath verie gladlie she took. 

"But herein (God helpe us) she fullie 
afore possest of the feend, not able to hold 
hir in anie towardness of grace, falling 
streightwaie into hir former abominations, 
(and yet seeking to catch out life as long as 
she might) stake not (tho the shift were 
shamefull), to confesse hirself a strumpet, 
and (unmarried as she was) to be with child. 
For triall, the Lord Regent's lenitie gave 
her nine months stale, at the end whereof, 
she, found herein as false as wicked in the 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



25 



D eight daies afler, upon a fiirther de- 
3 sentence declared against hir to be 
3 and a renouncer of hir oath and re- 
ice, was she thereupon delivered over 
liar power, and so executed bj con- 
ion of fire in the old market place of 
in the selfe same steede where noW 
chaePs Church stands ; hir ashes af- 
d without tlie towne wals shaken into 
ad." — HoLiNSHBD, p. 604. 



Perfumed Room in Alhambra, 

he cabinet (of the Alhambra) where 
leen used to dress and saj her pray- 
d which is still an enchanting sight, 
9 a slab of marble full of small holes, 
h which perfumes exhaled, that were 
»DStantlj burning beneath. The doors 
adows are disposed so as to afford the 
greeable prospects, and to throw a 
t lively light upon the eyes. Fresh 
ts of air, too, are admitted, so as to 
every instant the delicious coolness 
\ apartment. — From the Sketch of 
\h History prefixed to Florian's Oon- 
f Cordova, Consult Swinburne and 
;rron. 



^A^^'W^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^h/S^N^ 



*. of Flavy who betrayed the Maid, 

HEW Compeigne was besieged by the 
1 and Burgiindians, the maid with 
ailles threw herself into it. A party 
sallied out were driven back by the 
b. Joan secured their retreat, but 
the governor shut the gates upon her, 
3 was pulled oflf her horse and taken 
bastard of Vendome. 
anche the wife of Flavy suspected 
K)n afler, of an intention to murder 
e resolved to be beforehand with him, 
1 the assistance of his barber and 
ed her husband. Charles probably 
t her motives such as justified the 
T he granted her a free pardon." — 
ws. See Brantome. 
les might have saved the maid by 



threatening reprisal on Talbot, Suffolk, and 
his other prisoners. The Cardinal of Win- 
ton was the only Englishman among her 
judges. 



^^/^N/^>^^^^^^^^^^^^W^^^ 



Insults offered to the Maid in Prison, 

Hist, de France par Vijllaret, 4to. Paris, 
1770, tome 8, p. 27, referring to 1431. 

" Depos. du Seigneur de Macy present 
k cette entrevue. 
"Dans le temps que les commissaries 
travailloient k Tinstruction du proc^ avec 
le plus actif acharnement, le Comte de Ligne- 
Luxembourg eut Tinhumaine curiositi de 
voir cette genereuse prisonniere, lui qui 
Tavoit si lachement vendue. Les Comtes 
de Warwick et de Strafford Taccompag- 
noient. D voulut lui persuader qu'il venoit 
pour traiter de sa ran9on. Elle dedaigna de 
lui faire des reproches, et se contenta de lui 
dire, * Vous n*en avez ni la volonte, ni la 
pouvoir. Je S9ais bien que ces Anglois me 
feront mourir, croyant qu'apr^ ma mort 
ils gagneront la royaume de France ; mais 
seroient ils cent mUle Goddons ^ plus qu'ils 
ne sont k present, ils n*auront pas ce roy- 
aume.* Strafford tira son ep6e et Tauroit 
per^ee, si le Comte de Warwick ne Tavoit 
retenu." 

"Jeanne se plaignit qu'un tres grand 
seigneur d'Angleterre Tavoit voulu violer 
dans sa prison. L*autorit^ du coupable n*a 
pas permis qu'il nous parvint d'cclaircisse- 
ment sur cette infamre particularite : voici 
un fait atteste ; la Duchesse de Bedford, 
princesse vertueuse obtint qu*on respecte- 
roit du moins la virginity de la pucelle. 
Elle Tavoit fait visiter; Topinion de ce 
temps etant qu'une sorci^re ne pouvoit etre 
vi^rge. II n'est p(^ du report de Thistoire 
de prononcer sur Fiufallibilit^ des signes : 
equivoques ou certains ils ne prouveroient 
point rinnocence de Taccusce ; la purit^ de 



' ** Godam Jurement Anglois qui si^ifie Dieu 
me damne," — the common term for the English 
in France at that time. 



26 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



ses mceurs etoit un temoignage irreproch- 
able dc son integrity. Cea monumens ajou- 
tent que le Due de Bedford yit cet examen 
d*une chambre voisine, par le moyen d*une 
ouverture pratiquee dans le mur de sepa- 
ration/* 



^/WN^^/V^^^WWW^%/VS/V 



Sword at Fez. 



A. D. 1457. Alphokso V. of Portugal as- 
sails the Moors of Africa with a powerfiil 
^army and navy. He aims at the possession 
of a fancied sword which he supposed to 
hang on the summit of a tower at Fez. — 
Andbbws. 

Death of Agnes and Charles. 

A. D. 1449. Aqnes SoBBii poisoned by the 
Dauphin (Louis XL) who was known to 
hate her, and had once publicly given her 
a box on the ear. Jacques Coeur the king*8 
mint-master bore the blame ; he was for- 
saken by the rascally Charles whom he had 
assisted with his private fortune in his 
greatest need. He went to Cyprus. His 
friends raised him a large sum, and by com- 
merce he became richer than ever. 

A. D. 1461 . Charles VII. died, destroyed 
by abstinence lest his son should poison 
him. 



^^/^^A^^^^V^^^^^f^^^^^^N» 



Anglo-Norman Shipping. 

" The Anglo-Normans were very expert 
in the management of their shipping, and 
fought with great courage. Their chief aim 
was to grapple with the galleys of their ene- 
mies, and come to a close engagement, hand 
to hand, and board them if possible ; though 
they always began the fight at a distance, 
with their arrows from their cross-bows, as- 
sisted by the archers and' slingers. Upon a 
nearer approach, the close heavy-armed 
soldier (men of arms) with their spears, axes, 
swords, and other offensive weapons, sup- 
ported the engagement They provided 
Chemselves with quick lime finely powdered, 
and at all times carefully strove to be to 



windward of their adversaries, and then 
threw plentifully of this lime into their 
faces." — Steutt. 

They had trumpets, horns, and other mar- 
tial music on board. In one of Strutt*s 
prints a man is represented standing in a 
kind of battlement or box upon the mast' 
and hurling down darts and stones upon his 
enemies. It is one of the series of the life 
of Beauchamp, Earl Warwick, by John 
Rous. 

From the notes of Stephan us Stephanius 
to Saxo Orammat. Quoted from TuBpnr. 

Image of Mahomed. 

** Tbadunt Sarraceni, quod Idolum istud 
Mahumet, quern ipsi colunt, dum adhuc vi- 
veret, in nomine suo proprio fabricavit, et 
Dsemoniacam legionem quandam euk arte 
magic& in ek sigillavit; quae etiam tanti 
fortitudine illud Idolum obtinet, quod a 
nullo unquam frangi potuit. Cum enim 
aliquis Christianus ad illud appropinquat, 
statim periclitatur ; sed cum aliquis Sarra- 
cenus causa adorandi vel deprecandi Ma- 
humet accedit, ille incolumis recedit. Si 
forte super illud avis quselibet se deposuerit, 
illico moritur. Est igitur in maris margine 
lapis antiquus, opere Sarracenico optim^ 
sculptus, supra terram deorsum latus et 
quadratus, desursum strictus, altissimus sci- 
licet, quantum solet volare in sublime cor- 
Yus; super quem elevatur imago ilia de 
auro Optimo, in efiSgie hominis fusa, super 
pedes 8U08 erecta, faciem suam tenens ver- 
sus Meridiem, et manu dcxtr& tenens quan- 
dam clavam ingentem; quae scilicet clava, 
ut ipsi Sarraceni aiunt, a manu ejus cadet, 
quando Rex futurus in Gallic natus fuerit, 
qui totam terram Hispanicam Christianis 
legibus, in novissimis temporibus, subju- 
gabit."— Cap. 4.* 

' This does not refer to Saxo Grammaticus 
but to Turpln's c. iv. ** My thologue suse potius, 
quam Historise de Vita Caroli Mac^l et Bo- 
Inndi," as Stephanus Stephanius cam it. Sea 
Notet on Suio GrammaticuSf p. 51. Ed. SonB| 
1644, folio— J. W.W. 



IDEAS AKD STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



27 



WkUe Horse of Swantowiih. 

"Inoens in fede (urbis Arkon) simula- 
crum omnem humani corporis habitum gran- 
ditate transcendeng, quatuor capitibus, to- 
tidemque cerricibus mirandum perstabat, e 
quibus duo pectus, totidemq; tergum respi- 
cere videbantur. CsBterum tarn ante quam 
retro collocatorum unum dextrorsum, alte- 
nim IsYorsum contemplationem dirigere 
videbatur. Corrasse barbe, crines attonsi 
figurabantur, ut artificiis industriam Rugi- 
anorum. ritum in cultu capitum aemulatam 
putares. In dextr& comu yario metalli ge- 
nere excuUum gestabat, quod sacerdos sa- 
crorum ejus peritus, annuatim mero per- 
fundere consueverat, ex ipso liquoris habitu 
sequentis anni copias prospecturus. Lsevft 
arcam reflexo in latus brachio figurabat. 
Tunica ad tibias prominens fingebatur, qusB 
ex diyersa ligni materia create, tarn arcano 
nexu genibus jungebantur, ut compaginis 
locus non nisi curiosiori contemplatione de- 
prehendi potuerit, pedes bumo contigui cer- 
nebantur, eorum basi intra solum latente. 
Haad procul frenum ac sella simulacri, com- 
pluraq; di vinitatis insignia visebantur. Quo- 
rum admirationem conspicus granditatis 
ensis augebat, cujus vaginam ac capiilum 
prseter excellentem ccelaturse decorem, ex- 
terior argenti species commendabat. — Huj us 
sacerdos, prseter communem patriae ritum, 
barbae conucq; prolixitate spectandus, pri- 
die quam rem divinam facere debuisset, 
sacellum (quod ei soli intrandi fas erat) 
adhibito scoparum usu, diligentissime pur- 
gare solebat, observato ne intra sedem ha- 
litum funderet, quo quoties capessendo vel 
emittendo opus habebat, toties ad januam 
procurrebat, ne videlicet dei presentia mor- 
talis spiritus contagio pollueretur. — Alia 
quoque fana compluribus in locis hoc nu- 
Dien habebat, quae per supparis dignitatis, 
M minoris potentias flamines regebantur. 
IVaHerea peculiarem albi colons equum ti- 
tolo possidebat, cujus jubae aut caudae pilos 
convellere nefarium ducebatur, hunc soli 
siu^rdoti pascendi, insidendiq; jus erat, ne 
divini animalis usus, quo frequentior, hoc 



vilior, haberetur. In hoc equo, opinione 
Rugiae, (Swantowith) Suantovitus, (idsimu- 
lacro vocabiilum erat) adversum sacrorum 
suorum hostes belJa gerere credebatur. 
Cujus rei pnecipuum argumentum extabat, 
quod is noctumo tempore stabulo insistens, 
adeo plenmique man^ sudore ac luto res- 
persus videbatur, tanquam ab exercitatione 
veniendo magnorum itinerum spatia percur- 
risset." — Saxo OtxanmaHcua, lib. 14. 



<^^AA^^^^^WV^V^^^W\^ 



Orave of Balder, 

"Cujus (Balderi) corpus exercitus regio 
funere elatum, facto coUe condendum cu- 
ravit. Hunc quidam nostri temporis viri, 
quorum praecipuus Haraldus erat, vigente 
veteris sepulturae fam&, spe reperiendae pe- 
cuniae noctu adorti, repentino coeptum hor- 
rore liquerunt,ex ipso namqueperrupti mon- 
tis cacumine subita torrentis vis, magno 
aquanim strepito prorumpere videbatur, 
cujus rapidior moles incitatissimolapsu sub- 
jectis infusa campis quicquid offendebat 
involveret. Ad cujus impetum deturbati 
fossores, abjectis ligonibus, variam carpsere 
fugam, irruentis aquae vorticibus implican- 
dos se rati, si cceptum diutius exequi nite- 
rentur. Ita a diis loci illius pr^sidibus 
incussus subito metus, juvenum animos ava- 
ritid abstractos, ad salutis curam convertit, 
neglectoque cupiditatis proposito, vitae stu- 
diosos esse docuit, hujus autem scaturiginis* 
speciem adumbratam,non veram fuisse con- 
stat ; nee ab imis terrae visceribus genitam, 
sed praestigiosft quadam administratione 
productam, cum in arido liquidos manare 
fontes natura non sinat. Omnes hunc posteri 
collem, ad quos fractionis ejus fama tran- 
sierat, intentatum liquere." — Saxo Gram- 
matictiiy 1. 3. 

Not w^ian Brothers in the torrent'CircUd 

Island. 

" Fratbss, (duodecim) deficientibus a 
se sociis, intra insulam rapidissimo ambitam 
fluvio praealtam moliti vallum, terrestrem in 
piano munitionem extenderant ; cujus re- 



28 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



1 



ceptaculo freti, crebr& yicinos irruptione la- 
cesserant. Excedentes enim insal&, conti- 
nentem extructo ponte petere consueverant. 
Quern port89 munitionU annexum ita quo- 
dam funiculorum regimine moderari sole- 
bant, ut quasi volubili aliquo cardine cir- 
cumvectus, modo trans flumen it«r sterneret, 
modo occulto restium ductu supern^ retrac- 
tus januae deserviret. Fuere autem juvenes 
hi acres animis, robusti juvent^ prsestabiles 
habitu corporis, gigantaeis clari triumphis, 
trophsis gentium celebres, spoliis locupletes, 
quonindam yero ex ipsis nomina (nam cse- 
tera vetustas abstulit) subnotavi. Gerbi^n, 
Gunbi0rn, Armbi^rn, Stenbi^rn, Esbi0rn, 
Thorbi^m ct Bi^rn. Hie equum habuisse 
traditur pnestantem corpore, prsepetem ve- 
locitate, adeo, ut cseteris amnem trajicere 
nequeuntibus, hie solus obstrepentem inde- 
fessus vorticem superaret. Cujus aquae lap- 
sus tam in cito ac praecipiti volumine defer- 
tur, ut animalia nandi vigore defecta ple- 
rumque pessundare soleat. Ex summis enim 
montium cacuminibus manans, dum per cli- 
vorum praerupta sax is exceptus eliditur, in 
profunda vallium multiplicato aquarum stre- 
pitu cadit : verum continuo saxorum obsta- 
culo repercussus, celeritatem impetus e4dem 
semper aequabilitate conservat. Itaque to- 
ta alvei tractu, undis uniformiter turbida- 
dis,* spumeus ubique candor exuberat. At 
ubi scopulorum angustiis evolutus laxius 
> stagnanda effunditur, ex object^ rupe insu- 
1am fingit. Pracruptum hinc inde jugum 
eminet variis arborum generibus frequens, 
quarum objectus amnem eminus pervideri 
non sinat." 

These Norwegian brothers were killed by 
the Dane Fridlevus, except Bi^rn. — Saxo 
OrammaJticus^ 1. 6. 



Arnold of Brescia, 

Arnold of Brescia, a famous heretic of 
the twelfth century, born at Brescia in Italy, 

^ It is so in the original to which I have re- 
ferred, p. 97, ut supra. Perhaps it should be 
turbidatisy which is used by Martianus Capella, 
elsewhere followed by Saxo.— J. W. W. 



from whence he went to France, where he 
studied under the celebrated Peter Abelard. 
Upon his return to Italy, he put on the ha- 
bit of a monk, and began to preach several 
new and uncommon doctrines, particularly 
that the pope- and all the rest of the clergy 
ought not to enjoy any temporal estate. He 
maintained in his sermons, that those eccle- 
siastics who had any estates of their own, or 
held any lands, were entirely cut off from 
the least hopes of salvation ; that the clergy 
ought to subsist upon the alms and volun- 
tary contributions of Christians ; ^nd that 
all other revenues belonged to princes and 
states, in order to be disposed of amongst 
the laity as they thought proper. He main- 
tained also several heresies with regard to 
baptism and the Lord*8 supper. Otto Fri- 
singensis and St. Bernard have drawn his cha- 
racter in very strong colours. The former 
tells us that he had wit, address and elo- 
quence; but that his eloquence consisted 
rather of a torrent of words, than in solid and 
just sentiments. The same author observes 
that he was extremely fond of peculiar and 
new opinions ; that he assumed a religious 
habit on purpose to impose upon mankind 
more effectually, and under pretence of piety; 
and, as the Gospel expresses it, in sheep*s 
cloathing carried the disposition of a wolf, 
tearing every one as he pleased with the 
utmost fiiry, without the least regard to 
any person, and having a particular enmity 
against the clergy, bishops, and monks. 
" Would to God (says St. Bernard) that his 
doctrine was as holy as his life is strict I 
would you know what sort of man this is ? 
Arnold of Brescia is a man that neither eats 
nor drinks ; who, like the devil, is hungry 
and thirsty after the blood of souls : who 
goes to and fro upon the earth, and is always 
doing among strangers what he cannot do 
amongst his own countrymen ; who ranges 
like a roaring lion, always seeking whom he 
may devour ; an enemy to the cross of Christ; 
an author of discords and inventor of schisms, 
a disturber of the public peace : he is a man 
whose conversation has nothing but sweet- 
ness, and his doctrine nothing but poison in 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



29 



it ; a man who has the head of a dove, and 
the tail of a scorpion.** He engaged a great 
number of persons in his party, who were 
distinguished by his name, and proved very 
formidable to the popes. His doctrines ren- 
dered him so obnoxious, that he was con- 
demned in the year 1139, in a council of 
Dear a thousand prelates held in the church 
of St. John Lateran at Rome, under Pope 
Innocent II. Upon this, he left Italy and 
retired to Switzerland. After the death of 
that Pope he returned to Italy, and went to 
Home, where he raised a sedition against 
Pope Eugenius UI., and afterwards against 
Hadrian IV., who laid the people of Rome 
under an interdict, till they had banished 
Arnold and his followers. This had its de- 
sired effect. The Romans seized upon the 
hoQiKs which the Amoldists had fortified, 
and obliged them to retire toOtricoli in Tus- 
cany, where they were received with the ut- 
most affection by the people, who considered 
Arnold as a prophet. However, he was 
seized some time aft^r by Cardinal Gerard, 
and notwithstanding the efforts of the Vis- 
counts of Campania, who had rescued him, 
he was carried to Rome, and condemned by 
Peter, the prefect of that city, to be hanged, 
and was accordingly executed in the year 
1155. Thirty of his followers went from 
Prance to England about the year 1160, in 
order to propagate their doctrines there, but 
they were immediately seized and destroyed. 
From the Biographical Dictionary. — The 
roarginal references are Du Pin, torn. 9, p. 
105. Otto Frisingensis de Reb. gest. Frid. 
Hb. 2, cap. 20. Ligenious thoughts of the 
fathers, collected by Bouhours in French, 
P> ld5, English translation (this must be a 
curious work). Maimbourg, Hist, de la de- 
cadence de TEmp. apr^ Charlemagne, 1. 4, 
p.418.— OiMnn Gwynez^ died 1169. 



Cowardice, 

**A8oiJ)iEii without courage is like a dead 
corpse ; sorrow hangs on the countenances 
of its late best friends till it is buried out of 



(( 



their sight." — Mem, of Peter Henry Bruce^ 
by himself. 



Old Scotch Cookery, 

Nob yet had they (the Scots) any pans 
or cauldrons to dress their meat in, for what 
beasts they found (as they always did good 
store in those northern parts), they would 
seeth them in their own skins, stretched out 
bellying on stakes, in the manner of caul- 
drons: and having thus sod their meat, they 
would take out a little plate of metal, which 
they used to truss somewhere in or under 
their saddles, and laying it on the fire, take 
forth some oatmeal (which they carried in 
little bags behind them for that purpose), 
and having kneaded and tempered it with 
water, spread that thereon ; this being thus 
baked, they used for bread, to comfort and 
strengthen their stomachs a little when they 
eat flesh." — Joshua Barnes^ Hist, of Ed- 
ward III, 



Images for Poetry. 

A CBOw flew over my head in the sun- 
shine, and I caught the gleam of his wings. 

Brown ivy leaf, with the light veins dis- 
tinctly seen. 

Leaves of the bramble still green, Jan. 25. 

The adder's-tongue grew luxuriantly on 
the steep bank of a hill where a stream arose. 
Its leaves hung down to the water. This 
plant loves shade. Does it love watery si- 
tuations ? What is its botanic name ? ^ its 
medical properties ? 

The withered leaves are still on the oaks, 
Feb. 3rd. 

The currant and gooseberry trees put out 
their leaves much earlier than other trees, 
April 11th. 

The buds of the poplar .assume a bright 
rich yellow hue in the sun, April 22nd. They 

• Ophioglussum. See John80N*s Gerarde*s 
Herhaly p. 404. The adder's (or, as it should 
be called, the hart's) tongue fern, is quite a dif* 
ferent plant.— J. W. W. 



30 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



are brown-bright, and close to the fibres 
green, when closely inspected. 

Very green appearance of the poplar when 
the evening sun shines upon it, and a black 
cloud hangs behind. 

The rain drops shining as the willow waves. 

The distant hills form a line of darker blue 
against the clear sky, May 25th, on the road 
from London to Southampton. 

The trunk of the fir tree coloured more 
than any other by a rust-coloured kind of 
moss. 

The quick stream, after passing under the 
bridge, forms numberless little whirlpools in 
consequence of being broken by the arches. 

I always observe fish stemming the cur- 
rent near a bridge. 

The shadow made by the insects that sport 
on the water has a light edge round it. 



^S/%/W\/\/\A/V\A/^^^^'\^^/S^ 



Similiei. 



Thb notes of the harp die away like the 
moanings of the distant wind. 

The song of birds to the trees alive with 
music in Flath-innis. 

Perfumes to the Alhambra apartment. 

A torrent to that which burst from the 
grave of Balder. 

Gloominess caused by a torrent to the 
Taghairm.^ 

A sword to that of Fez. 11.; or that stolen 
from Amadis by the injurious damsel, or 
Balisarda. 

Armour, to that of Hector won by Man- 
dricardo. 

Perpetual clouds of Peru, to those that 
hover on the hills ofFlath-innis,each involv- 
ing the source of a stream. 

A horse to the white horse of Swantowith. 

Local beauty, to the isle where Arthur 
lives; or where Enoch, Elijah, and St. John, 
await the coming of Christ ; or the fountain 
where Brammon met Sanatree. 

Dreariness, — to the place where Sepul- 
veda and Leonor perished. 

* See Scott's Note on the I^dy of the Lake, 
Canto rv. Appendix, note i. — J. W. W. 



When a palm branch grows old, it shrinks 
and becomes crooked and yellow, not ill re- 
presenting the appearance of the new moon. 
Thus the Koran: "And for the moon Lave 
we appointed certain mansions, until she 
change and return to be like the old branch 
of a palm tree.** Ch. y. s. 36. 

The boundary of air inclosing Othatha in 
Irem, strong as the wall built by Dhu*lkar- 
nein. Sale, 246. D'Herbelot,Art.Jagiouge; 
or Hanyson, 184 ; Purchas. 



Club of Haldanus, 

Sttaij>u8 quidam claro admodum loco 
natus, apud Sueonum concionem Frothonis 
ac conjugis ejus exitio flebiliter memorato, 
tantum Haldani odium pen^ omnibus gene- 
ravit, ut plurimorum sufiragiis novarum re- 
rum licentiam assequeretur. Nee solo vo- 
cum favore contentus, adeo plebis animum 
ambitionis artibus occupavit, ut omnium 
fere manus ad regium insigne capiti suo im* 
primendum adduceret. Hie septum filios 
habebat tanto veneficiorum usu callentes, 
ut ssepe subitis furoris viribus instincti so- 
lerent ore torviUm infremere, scuta morsibus 
attrectare, torridas fauce prunas absumere, 
extructa qusvis incendia penetrare; nee 
posset conceptus dementise motus alio re- 
medii genere quam aut vinculorum injuriis, 
aut caedis humanse piaculo temperari. Tan- 
tam illis rabiem sive ssevitia ingenii, sive 
furiarum ferocitas inspirabat. Quibus audi- 
tis Haldanus, ut erat circa piraticam occu- 
patus, expedire militibus dixit, ut qui in 
exteros hactenus dessevierint, nunc civimn 
visceribus ferrum adigant, ereptiq; regni 
injuriam propulsent, qui dilatandi curam 
genere consueverunt. Quo imminente Sy- 
valdus missis ad eum legatis jubet, si famam 
factis sequaret, et taiitus re esset quantus 
opinione censeretur, se suamq; sobolem 
pugna solus excipiat, privatoq; periculo pub- 
licum redimat. Eo deinde respondente, le- 
gitime dimicationis formam duorum nume- 
rum excedere non debere ; nil mirandum, 
inquit Syvaldus, hominem coelibem proleq; 
vacuum oblatos detrectare congressus, cui 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



31 



loops caloris natura deforme corporis ani- 
mique frigus incusserit. Nee liberos ab eo 
diversos existere, quern siue generationis 
auctorem habuerint, quod ab ipso commune 
nascendi principium traxerint. Ita se ac 
fillos unius homiDis loco censendos ecse, 
quibus yeluti unum corpus a natur& tribu- 
tum videatur. Cujus convicii rubore per- 
motus Haldanus, provocation! parere coepit, 
tarn contumcliosum ccelibatus exprobratio- 
nem egregiis virtutis operibus pensaturus. 
Cumque per opacam forte nemoris indagi- 
nem graderetur, hserentem obiter quercum 
humo radicitus emit, solisq; spoliatam ramis 
in Bolidam clavae speciem transformavit. 
Que gestamine fretus, tali carmen brevitate 
compegit : 

En rude quod gerimus obnixo vertice pon- 
dus, 

Vulnera verticibus exitiumq; feret. 
Sed neque frondosi gestamen roboris ullum 

Omine G^tenses horridiore premet. 
Ardua comminuet nodosi robora colli, 

£t cava sylyestri tempora mole teret. 
Clava quidem sseyum patrie domitura fiiro- 
rem, 

Nulla magis Suetis exitialis erit. 
Ossa domans, lacerosq; vir^ libranda per 
artus 

Impia prffimpto stipite terga premet ; 
Cognatos pressura lares, fusura cruorem 

Civis, et in patriam pcmiciosa lues. 

His dictis Syvaldum cum septem fiiiis at- 
tentatum acerrimas eorum vires eximi& cla- 
^ mole frustratus, exitio tradidit. — Saxo 
0. lib. 7. 



Voyage of ThorktU, 

Htnc (Snioni) succedit Bi^m; itemq; 
post ipsum Haraldus rerum assequitur sum- 
mam. Cujus filio Crormoui inter priscos 
Danorum duces non infime laudis locum 
f^enim strenu^ gestarum titulus tribuit. Hie 
enim novum audaeise genus complexus, hse- 
feditarium fortitudinis spiritum scrutandse 
fcnun naturae vestigiis quam armis exco- 
lere maluit : utq; alios Regum ardor belli- 



cus, ita ipsum cognoscendorum mirabiliuui, 
qusecunque vel experimento deprehensa, 
vel rumore vulgata fuerant, prscordialis 
stimulabat aviditas. Cumq; esset externa 
atq; inusitata viscndi cupidus, experiendam 
prse caeteris duxit Greruthi cujusdam sedium 
acceptam a Thylensibus famam. Incredi- 
bilia enim ab eis super opum inibi conges- 
tarum magnitudine jactabantur, sed iter 
omni refertum periculo ac pen^ mortalibus 
invium ferebatur. Ambitorem* namqueter- 
rarum oceanum navigandum, solem postpo- 
nendum ac sidera, sub Chao peregrinandum, 
ac demum in loca lucis expertia, jugibusq; 
tenebris obnoxia transeundum, expertorum 
assertione eonstabat. Sed in juvenili ani- 
mo circumstantis periculi metum non tarn 
pnedse quam glorie cupido calcabat, mul- 
tum sibi claritatis accessurum sperant^, si 
rem admodum intentatam auderet. Tre- 
centis idem cum Rege votum nuncupanti- 
bus, auctorem fames Thorkillum itineris 
ducem assumi placuit, utpote locorum gna- 
rum, peritumq; adeundie regionis ejus. Is 
officio non recusato, adversum inusitatam 
navigandi maris ssevitiam firmiore struc- 
tursB genere, nodisq; erebrioribus, ac con- 
sertioribus clavis pneparanda jubet navigia 
solidari ; eademq; magnis repleri conimea- 
tibus, ac bovinis supeme tergoribus claudi, 
qusB intrinseca navium spatia ab incursen- 
tium undarum aspergine tuerentur. Inde 
tribus duntaxat libumis navigatio tenditur, 
unaqu&que centenos capiente delectos. 

At ubi in Halogiam ventum, secundis 
flatibus destituti, vari& pelagi jactatione, 
dubiis navigationis casibus agebantur. Tan- 
dem per summam alimentorum inopiam 
etiam pane defecti, exigusB pultis usu trax- 
ere famem. Inter) ectis diebus eminus per- 
strepentem procellse fragorem, perinde ac 
scopulos inundantis exaudiunt. Igitur in- 
tellectd telluris vicini^ agilitatis eximiie 
juvenis, speculandie rei gratia caeumen mali 
conscendere jussus, prerupti sitiis insulam 

' After quoting Diunysius Afer, Steph. Ste- 
ruAKius adds, '' Hinc etiam Ocfan us Eddied di* 
citnr AnnuhiSt vel Zona regioDum et insulanim.*' 
Not. in loc. p. 183.— J. W. W. 



82 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COIMPOSITION. 



in oonspectu esse denunciat. Lseti omnes 
regionem, quae ab eo significabator, avidis 
insequuntur luminibus, attent^ promissi lit- 
toris prsesidium exspectantes. Cujus tan- 
dem aditum nacti, in editiorem soli partem, 
per obstantes clivos, prelatis callibus eni- 
tuntur. Tunc Thorkillus ex armentis, qus 
in maritimis frequentia discurrebant, supra 
quod semel leniendae fami sufficeret, negat 
esse tollendum: futunun enim, si secus 
agerent, ut a dib loci prsesidibus discedendi 
potentii privarentur. At nautse magis pro- 
rogandse satietatis, quam senrandi imperii 
cupidiores, incitamento guise salutis consi- 
lium subjecerunt, exhausta navium gremia 
cssorum gregum corporibus onerantes. Qui 
ideo captu perfaciles extitere, quod ad in- 
usitatos virorum aspectus firmato pavore 
mirabundi conyenerant. Nocte insequenti 
monstra littori involantia, ac toto concre- 
pantia nemore, conclusas obsedere puppes. 
Quorum unum cfeteris grandius, ingenti 
fuste armatum, profundum passibus eme- 
tiebatur. Idem proprius admotum yocife- 
rari coepit, non ante enavigaturos, quam 
fusi gregis injuriam expiando, viris pro na- 
vium numero traditis, divini pecoris damna 
pensassent. Cujus minis obsecutus Thor- 
killus, ut universorum incolumitatem pau- 
corum discrimine tueretur, tres sorte deno- 
tatos exhibuit. 

Quo facto, optato vento excepti in ul- 
teriorem Biarmiam navigant. Regio est 
perpetui frigoris capax, preealtisque offusa 
nivibus, ne vim quidem fervoris persentiscat 
sestivi, inviorum abundans nemonmi, fru- 
gum baud ferax, inusitatisq; alibi bestiis 
frequens. Crebri in ea fluvii ob insitas 
alveis cautes stridulo spumantiq; volumine 
perferuntur. Illic Thorkillus subductis na- 
vibus tendi in littore jubet ; eo loci pervcn- 
tum astrucns, unde brevis ad Geruthum 
transitus foret. Prohibuit etiam uUum cum 
supervenientibus miscere sermonem, affir- 
mans monstra nullo magis nocendi vim, 
quam advenarum verbis parum comiter edi- 
tis sumere. Ideoq; socios silentio tutiores 
esistere, se vero solum tuto profari posse, 
qui prius gentis ejus mores habitumque per- 



viderit. Crepusculo appetente, innsitate 
magnitudinis vir nominatim salutads nau- 
ticis intervenit. Stupentibus cunctis, Thor- 
killus adventum ejus alacriter excipiendom 
admonuit, Guthmimdum hunc esse docens 
Geruthi fratrem, cunctorum illic applican- 
tium piissimum inter pericula protectorem. 
Percontantiq; quid ita cseteri silentium co- 
lerent, refert rudes admodum linguss ejus 
ignoti pudere sermonis. Tum Guthmundos 
hospitio invitatos curriculis excipit. Pro- 
cedentibus amnis aureo ponte permeabilis 
cemitur. Cujus transeundi cupidos a pro- 
posito revocavit, docens eo alveo humana 
k monstrosis rerum secrevisse naturam, nee 
mortalibus ultra fas esse vestigiis. Subinde 
ad ipsa ductoris penetralia pcrvenitur. Ulic 
Thorkillus seductis sociis hortari coepit, ut 
inter tentamentorum genera, quae varius ob- 
tulisset eventus, industries viros agerent, 
atq; a peregrinis sibi dapibus temperantes, 
propriis corpora sustentanda curarent, dis- 
cretasq; ab indigenis sedes peterent, eorum 
neminem discubitu contingendo. Fore enim 
illius escee participibus inter horridos mon- 
strorum greges, amiss& cunctorum memori&, 
sordid^ semper communione degendum. Nee 
minus ministris eorum ac poculis abstinen- 
dum edocuit. Duodecim filii Guthmundi 
egregi& indole. Totidemq; filias proRclui* 
form& circumsteterant mensas. Qui cum 
Regem a suis duntaxat illata delibare con- 
spiceret, beneficii repulsam objiciens, inju- 
riosam hospiti querebatur. Nee Thorkillo 
competens facti excusatio defuit. Quippe 
insolito cjbo utentes plerumq; graviter af- 
fici solere commemorat, regemq; non tarn 
alieni obsequii ingratum, quam propriae sos- 
pitatis studiosum, consueto more corpus 
curantem domesticis coenam obsoniis in- 
struxisse. Igitur haudquaquam contemptui 
imputari debere, quod fugiendse pestis salu- 
tari gereretur afiectu. Videns antem Guth- 
mundus apparatus sui fraudem hospitum 
frugalitate delusam, cum abstinentiam he- 
betare non posset, pudicitiam labefactarc 

' Martulnus Cafella, lib. i. do Nupt. Phil, 
is quoted by Stephanas Stephanius for the word. 
Cf. Not. p. 184, ut supra— J. W. W. 



:i,saluti ubidinem prtetuierunt. i^uod 
ium Ijmphatos inopesq; mentis ef- 
pri8tiii& rerom memori& spoliavit. 
i post id factum parum animo con- 
^tiduntur. Qui si mores suos intra 
I temperantiBB fines continuissent, 
eos asquassent titulos, giganteam ani- 
titudinem superassent^ perenniterq; 
mirificarum rerum insignes extitis- 
LCtores. Adhuc Guthmundus propo- 
tinaci& dolum intendere perseverans, 
iatis horti sui deliciis, eo R^em per- 
brum fructuum gratis perducere la- 
t, blandimentis nisus, illecebrisq; 
iautelse constantiam elidere cupiens. 
lum quas insidiaa Rex Thorkillo, ut 
uctore firmatus, simulate humanita- 
iquium sprevit, utendi excusationem 
randi itineris negotio mutuatus. Cu- 
identifle Guthmundus suam in omni- 
sssisse considerans, spe peragendae 
abject& cunctos in ulteriorem flumi- 
im transvectos iter exequi passus est. 
;ressi atrum incultumq; oppidum ya- 
i maxime nubi simile, baud procul 
prospectant Pali propugnaculis in- 
desecta virorum capita pneferebant. 
e ferocitatis canes tuentes aditum pne 
excubare conspecti. Quibus Thor- 
Dornu abdomine illitum collamben- 
[)iir.if»njL incitatifMiniajn rftbipin niur- 



mosq; tam ab omni avaritia adversos, quam 
a metu remotos haberent ; neque vel captu 
suavia concupiscerent, vel spectatu horrida 
formidarent, quanquam in summ& utriusq; 
rei forent copi& Tersaturi. Fore enim ut 
aTidsB capiendi manus subit& nexus perti- 
naci& k re tact& divelli nequirent, et quasi 
inextricabili cum illft vinculo nodarentur. 
Casterum composite quatemos ingredi ju- 
bet. Quorum Broderus et Buchi primi 
aditum tantant. Hos cum rege Thorkillus 
insequitur. Ceteri deinde compositis gra- 
diuntur ordinibus. .^kles deintus obsoleta 
per totum, ac vi teterrimi Taporis ofiusa, 
cunctorum, quibus oculus aut mens ofiendi 
poterat, uberrima cemebatur. Postes lon- 
g8eY& fuligine illiti, obductus illuvie paries, 
compactum h spiculis tectum, instratum co- 
lubris payimentum atq; omni sordium ge* 
nere respersum, inusitato adyenas spectaculo 
terruerunt. Super omnia perpetui foetoris 
asperitas tristes lacessebat olfieictus. Exan- 
guia quoque monstrorum simulacra ferreas 
onerayerant sedes ; denique consessuum loca 
plumbesB crates secreyerant ; uminibus hor- 
rendsB janitorum excubi» prs^rant. Quo- 
rum alii consertis fiistibus obstrepentes', alii 
mutuft caprigeni tergoris agitatione defor- 
mem edidere lusum. Hie secundo Thorkil- 
lus ayaras temer^ manus ad illicita tendi 
nrohibenfl. iterare monitum coeoit. Proce- 



i 



i 



»^ 



'!^ 






34 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



docet Thor divum gigante& quondam inso- 
lenti4 lacessitum per obluctantis Geruthi 
prsecordia torridam egisse chalybem, e&- 
demq; ulterius \apsk, convulsi montis lat^ra 
pertudisse ; foeminas vero vi fulminum tac- 
tas infracti corporis damno ejusdem numinis 
attentat! pcenas pependisse firmabat. Inde 
digress! dolia septem zonis aureis circumli- 
gat« panduntur, quibus pensiles ex argento 
circuU crel»ro8 inseruerant nexus. Juxta 
quae inusitatsB belluedens extremitates auro 
prseditus reperitur. Huic adjacebat ingens 
bubal! comu, exquisito gemmarum fulgore 
operosius cultum, nee cselaturs artificio va- 
cuum. Juxta quod eximii ponderis armilla 
patebat. Cujus immod!c& quidem cupiditate 
succensus avaras auro manus applicuit, ig- 
narus excellentis metall! splendore extre- 
mam occultar! pemiciem, nitentiq; prasdie 
fatalem subesse pestem. Alter quoq; parum 
cohibendflB avaritisB potens, instabiles ad cor- 
nu manus porrexit. Tertius priorum fidu- 
ciam aemulatus, nee satis digitis temperans, 
osse ^ humeros onerare sustinuit. Quse qui- 
dem pneda uti visu jucunda, ita usu proba- 
bilis extitit. Illices enim formas subjecta 
oculis species exhibebat. Armilla si quidem 
anguem induens yenenato dentium acumine 
eum a quo gerebatur, appetiit. Cornu in 
draconem extractum, sui spiritum latoris 
eripuit. Os ensem fabricans, aciem prsecor- 
diis gestantis immersit. Caeteri sociss cladis 
fortunam veriti, insontes nocentium exem- 
plo perituros putabant, ne innocentise qui- 
dem incolumitatem tribuendam sperantes. 
Alterius deinde tabemacul! postic& angus- 
tiorem indicante secessum, quoddam uberi- 
oris thesauri secretarium aperitur : in quo 
arma humanorum corporum habitu grandi- 
ora. panduntur. Inter quae regium paluda- 
mentum cultior! conjunctum pileo, ac miri- 
fici operis cingulum visebantur. Quorum 
Thorkillus admiratione captus, cupiditate 
frenos excussit, propositam animo tcmpe- 
rantiam exuens; totiesq; alios informare 



' " Otse i. e. dente, en jus mox montio focta, 
Synfiodoche generis pro specie.'* Steph. Ste- 
PHANius in loc. p. 184.— J. W. W. 



solitus, ne proprios quidem appetitus cohi- 
bere sustinuit. Amiculo enim manum inse- 
reus, caeteris consentaneum rapinse ausum 
temerario porrexit exemplo. Quo facto, 
penetralia ab imis concussa sedibus, inopi- 
natae fluctuationis modo trepidare ccepenint 
Subinde a fceminis conclamatum, aequo diu- 
tins infandos tolerari prasdones. Igitur qui 
prius semineces, expertiaq; vitae simulacra 
putabantur, perinde ac foeminarum vocibus 
obsecuti, e suis repente sedibus dissultan- 
tes, vehement! incursu advenas appetebant. 
Caetera raucos extulere mug!tus. Tum Bro- 
derus et Buchi ad olim nota sib! studia re- 
currentes, incursantes se Lamias adactis 
undiq; spiculis incessebant, arcuumq; ac 
fundarum tormentis agmen obtrivere mon- 
stronmi. Nee alia vis repellendis efficacior 
fuit. Yiginti solos ex omni comitatu regio 
sagittaria: artis interventus servavit. Caeteri 
laniatui fu^e monstris. Regressos ad am- 
nem superstites Guthmundus navigio tra- 
jicit^ exceptosq; domi cum diu ac multum 
exoratos retentare non posset, ad ultimum 
donatos abire permisit. Ilic Buchi panun 
diligens sui custos, laxatis continentiae ner- 
vis, virtute qu4 hactenus fruebatur abjecti, 
unam e filiabus ejus irrevocabil! amore com- 
plexus, exit!! su! connubium impetravit, 
moxq;repentino verticis circuitu actus, pris- 
tin um memoriae habitum perdidit. Ita egre- 
gius ille tot monstrorum domitor, tot peri- 
culorum subactor, imius virginis facibus 
superatus, peregrinatum k continentia ani- 
mum miserabili jugo voluptatis inseruit. 
Qui cum abiturum regem honestatis causi 
prosequeretur, vadum curriculo transiturus, 
altius desidentibus rotis, vi vorticum impli- 
catus, absumitur. Rex amic! casum gemitu 
prosecutus, maturata navigatione discessit. 
Qu& primum prosper^ usus, deinde advers^ 
quassatus, periclitatis inedi& sociis, paucisq; 
adhuc superstitibus religionem animo intu- 
lit, atq; ad vota superis nuncupanda confu- 
git, extremae necessitatis praesidium in deo- 
rimi ope consistere judicans.. Deniq; aliis 
varias deorum potentias exorantibus, ac di- 
verssB numinum majestati rem divinam fieri 
oportere censentibus, ipse Ugarthilocun 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



35 



votifl pariter ac propitiamentis aggressus, 
prosperam exoptati sideris temperiem asse- 
cutus est. 

** Domum yeniens cum tot maria se tot- 
que labores emensum animadyerteret, fes- 
8am aBrumnis spiritum k negotiia procul 
habendum ratus, petito ex Suetio matrimo- 
nio, superiorb studii habitum otii medita- 
tione mutayit. Yit^ quoque per summum 
secmitatis usum ezact& ad ultimum poene 
etatis 8uaB finem proyectus, quum proba- 
bilibiiB qaorundam argumentb animos im- 
mortales ease compertum liaberet, quasnam 
sedes esset ezuto membris spiritu petiturus, 
aat quid pnemii propensa numinum yene- 
ratio mereretur, cogitatione secum yarU 
disquirebat. 

** HiBC yolyentem subeunt quidam parum 
benigni in Thorkillum animi, docentes di- 
?ioo opus esse consultu, tantaeq; rei certi- 
tadinem humano altiorem ingenio, nee mor- 
talibus cognito facilem, coelestibus expeten- 
dam oraculis. Quamobrem propitiandum 
esse Ugarthilocum, neminemq; id Thorkillo 
tptius executurum. FuSre quoque qui eun- 
dem insidiarum reum, ac regii capitis hostem 
deferrent, qui cum ultimo se pericuio des- 
tinari yideret, criminationis auctores pro- 
fectionis oomites expetiyit. Tum qui in- 
lontem notayerant, periculum alieno capiti 
preparatum in seipsos recidisse cementes, 
consultum reyocare tentabant, sed frustra 
regias aures implentes, etiam payoris incre- 
piti, Thorkillo duce nayigare coguntur. Ita 
excogitatia in alterum malis auctorem pie- 
ramq; adigi necesse est. Qui cum se in- 
eyitabili discriminis necessitate districtos 
animadyerterent^ nayigium taurinis obstruc- 
tum coriis, proyisis abunde commeatibus 
impleyerunt. 

** Quo eyecti eo penrenere loci, ubi regio 
Soils inops, ignara siderum, nee diumi lu- 
minis capax, perpetusB noctis specie cali- 
gabat. Cumq; diu sub inusitata c<eli facie 
Btyigassent, tandem incidente lignorum in- 
opia, foculi nutrimentis defecti, nee suppe- 
tentc decoctionis officini, crudis Aunem ob- 
Kmiis propulerunt. Verum oomplures yes- 
centium ultimam pestem ab indigestse dapis 



satietate traxerunt. Primum enim paula* 
tim stomachis inusitato partus edulio lan- 
guor irrepsit, deinde latius manante con- 
tagio, yitalia morbus appetiit Sicq; anceps 
utriusq; intemperantis nudum ut mediam 
gray em, ita gulam quoq; suspectam cfk- 
cerat, cum nee yesci tutum, nee abstinere 
commodum nosceretur. Igitur omnem sa- 
lutis spem abjicientibus (ut neryum tunc 
facilius rumpi solitum est, cum arctius ten- 
ditur) patrocinium inopinatsB conmioditates 
affulsit. Subito enim ignis baud procul 
emicare conspectus, exhaustis trahendse yitse 
fiduciam ingenerayit. Quem Thorkillus tan- 
quam diyiuitus datum remedium coUigere 
statuens, quo aibi certiorem ad socios redi- 
tum strueret, cacumen mali infixae genmiaB 
fulgore signayit. Littore deinde potitus 
subjicit oculis angusti aditus, arctarumq; 
faucium specum. Quem, comitibus foris pne- 
stolari jussis, ingressus, duos eximise gran- 
ditatis aquilos ' conspicatur comeis naribus 
contracta, quae fors obtulerat, igni nutri- 
menta pnestantes. CflDterum deformis in- 
troitus, obsoleti postes, ater situ paries, 
sordidum tectum, frequens anguibus payi- 
mentum, non oculum magis quam animum 
ofiendebant. Tum gigantum alter saluta- 
tum eum rem conatu prssarduam orsum esse 
dicebat, inusitati nimiinis adeundi cupiditate 
flagrantem, atq; extramundani climatis cog- 
nitionem inyestigabili scrutatione complex- 
um. A se autem propositi itineris semitas 
cognitunmi, si tres yeridicas sententias to- 
tidem proyerbiis eomprehensas expromeret. 
Tum Thorkillus: non mehercule incomp- 
tiorem naribus familiam peryidisse comme- 
mini. Sed neque locum, quo minus libenter 
degerem, attigi. Item ; ilium mihi pedem 
potiorem statuo, qui prior exitum capessere 
quiyerit. Gigaa Thorkilli prudentid delec- 
tatus, proyerbiorum yeritate laudat&, docet, 
ad inops graminis solum, altisq; obfusum 



* U 9. dark, swarthy. AquUum, ;il>av. Glou. 
ex Lucil. MABTimj Lex. in v. Flautus also 
uses the word, 

" StaturA haud magnA, corpore aquilo." 
Pan, V. ii. 152. J. W. W. 






36 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



tenebris, imprimis esse migrandum. Ante 
autem quam destinatus possit locus accipi, 
navigationem quatriduo pertinaci remigio 
pertrahendam. lUic yisendum fore Ugar- 
thilocum tetros horrendosq; specus sordidi 
mansione complezum. Thorkillus magno- 
pere stupens, quod et longa et periculosa 
navigatio iraperabatur, spe tmnen dubifl 
prsesentem metum vincente, foculum expe- 
tivit. Et gigas, si ignem, inquit, desideras, 
necesse est alias tres sententias similibus 
proverbiis edas. Tum Thorkillus, consilio 
tametsi exilis id auctor ediderit, obsequen- 
dum est. Item, eo temeritatis processi, ut 
si regredi quivero, salutem meam null! magis 
quam pedibus debeara. Rursum, si impne- 
sentiarimi recessu liber^ fruerer, ulterius a 
reditu temperandum curarem. 

^' Indc perlato ad socios igne, aursB in- 
dulgentiamnactus, quarto die ad propositum 
portum appulit, aggressusq; cum sociis ter- 
ram, apud quam continuse noctis facies al- 
terni luminis vicissitudinem frustrabatur, 
segr^ prospectum capientibus oculis, inusi- 
tatas molis scopulum conspicit. Cujus per- 
lustrandi cupidus, a comitibus foris statio- 
nem peragentibus, extusum silicibus ignem, 
opportunum contra dsemones tutamentum, 
in aditu jussit accendi. Post hsec prselato 
per alios lurainc, arctis cavemfle faucibus 
corpus subjiciens inter crebros serpen tum 
allapsus ferreorum undiq; sedilium frequen- 
tiam conteraplatur. Inde placidior aquae 
moles, subjectoq; sabulo moUiter influens, 
conspectui obsenrata est. Qui transit^ 
paulo devexiorem situ speluncam aggredi- 
tur. Ex qu& item atrum obsccenumque con- 
clave visentibus aperitur. Intra quod Ugar- 
thilocus manus pedesq; immensis catenarum 
molibus oneratus aspicitur; cujus olentes 
pili tarn magnitudine quam rigore corneas 
cequaverant hastas. Quorum unum Thor* 
killus adnitentibus sociis mento patientis 
excussum, quo promptior fides suis habere- 
tur operibus asservavit ; statimq; tanta foe- 
toris vis ad circumstantes manavit, ut, nisi 
repressis amiculo naribus, respirare nequi- 
rent. Yixq; egressu potiti, ab involantibus 
undiq; colubrisconspuuntur. Quinque dun- 



taxatThorkilli comitum, ceteris vene 
sumptis, navigium cum ductore coi 
unt. Imminent efferi dsemones, et 
jectos venenata passim sputa con 
At naute prsetentis coriorum uml 
illapsum respuere virus. His cu 
forte prospicere cupientis tactum 
caput, perinde ac ferro recisum cen 
emptum est. Alius ocellos umbraci 
erens, sub e&dem vacuos luminun 
retulit. Alius exerti manu tegim 
plicans, ejusdem tabis vi truncum 
brachium revocavit. Igitur caeteris f 
siora sibi numina nequicquam depi 
bus. Thorkillus Universitatis Deui 
aggressiis eiq; cum precibus libamei 
fundens, mox prions cceli usum ac pe 
rerum elementa prosper^ navigatio 
legit. 

" Jamq; alium sibi orbem, atq; 
rerum humanarum aditum perspicei 
bantur. Tandem ad Grermaniam < 
anis tunc sacris initiatam appulsus 
ejus populum divini cultiis rudimen 
cepit. Ubi sociorum manu ob inu 
aeris haustum propemodum consumj 
obus tantum, quos sors ultima prsBt 
comitatus, reditum ad patriam habu 
rum illitus ore marcor ita habitum c< 
ac pristina formae lineamenta confi 
ne ab amicis quidem potuisset agnos 
ubi detersd illuvic, notitiam sui vis* 
reddidit, eximiAm Regi cognoscends 
tionis aviditatem ingessit. Sed i 
asmulorum obtrectatione supit4, fu< 
Regem, cognitis, quas Thorkillus a 
subito decessurum astruerent. Au 
firmationis fidem, ejusdem rei fals& 
praedictione suggesta credulitas. Jgi 
noctu Thorkillum opprimerent, Re| 
perio subomantur. Cujus ille rei i 
indicium nactus, clam cunctis relictc 
magni ponderis lignum subjecit ; ec 
to, subornatis truncum caedentibus, 
fraudis commentum elusit. Die ] 
Regem corpus curantem aggressus, 1/ 
inquit, saevitiae tuae, erroriq; veniam 
qui prosperum legationis nuncium aJ 
poenam pro gratia decrevisti. Itaq; te 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



37 



pro quo caput tot lerumnis devovi, tot peri- 
colis contudi, quemq; operum meorum gra- 
tlssimum pensatorem speravi, acerrimum 
virtutis punitorem inyeni, verum ultionis 
partibus pnetermisais, intemo animi tui 
rabore (si tamen ullus ingratos pudor 
afficit) Isesionis mes yindice sum contentus. 
Nee immeritb te omnem dseinonum rabiem, 
&at belluarum sffiTitiam superare conjecto, 
quod tot monstrorum insidiis erutus k tuis 
immunis esse non potui. Rex cuncta ex 
ipso cognoscere cupiens, fatisq; arduum 
obstare judicans, eventuum ordinem ex- 
ponere jubet. Cumq; per csetera avidis 
referentem auribus excepisset, postremo re- 
censitam numinis sui mentionem sinistra 
opinlone colligi passus non est. Exprobra- 
tam enim Ugarthiloci fceditatem exaudlre 
non sustinens, ade6 indignitatis ejus vicem 
doluit, ut impatientem dictorum spiritum 
inter ipsa narrantis recitamenta deponeret. 
Itaq; dum vani numinis cultum cupid^fovit, 
abbam yerus esset miseriarum career ag- 
novit. Crinis quoq; oliditas, quern Thor- 
killus perinde atque operum suorum mag- 
nitudinem testaturum capillitio gigantis 
ezcerpserat, in circumstantes effusa com- 
pluribus exitio fuit." — Saxo Grammatictts^ 
lib. 8. 



N^^^»^^^^VS^^^^WWV^\^» 



InusiiakB beUtUB dens. 



**FoKTB yel ille dens elepbanti fuit — 
Tel etiam Amphibii illius quod Rosmar 
vulgo cUcunt. Ejus etenim dentes in maximo 
foine pretio, apud antiques Septentrionis 
incolas, ostendit Olaus Magnus, lib. 21, c. 
28, et Yir CI. Johannes Isaciis Pontamis 
in urbis Amstelodamensis Historic.** — 
-*Stxph. Stbphanius. 



W^^^^S^\^^^^^>^iA^\^^/%/%^\AA 



Of the Carhunde, See ^lian. de Animal. 

8. 21. 

'* DuM Rex Bononise esset, allatus est ad 
etun ex Indi& Orientali, abbomine incognito, 
ied, ut apparebat, moribus barbaro, lapis 
>tapend& specie et natur& ; yidelicet lumine 



et fulgore mirabiliter coruscantibus, quiq; 
totus yeluti ardens incredibili splendore 
micabat, et jactis quoquo yersus radiis, am- 
bientem aerem, luce nullis fere oculis tole- 
rabili, latissim^ complebat. Erat et in eo 
mirabile, quod terrse impatientissimus, si 
cooperiretur, su& sponte, et yi facto impetu, 
confestim eyolabat in sublime ; contineri 
yerb includiye ullo loco angusto nuIU ho- 
minum arte poterat, sed ampla liberaq; loca 
duntaxat amare yidebatur. Summa in eo 
puritas, eximius nitor, nulla sorde aut labe 
coinquinatus ; figure species nulla ei certa, 
sed inconstans et momento commutabilis ; 
cumq; esset aspectu longe pulcherrimus, 
contrectari tamen sese impune non patieba- 
tur, et diutius contra adnitentibus, aut ob- 
stinatius cum eo agentibus, incommodum 
afiercbat, quod multi, multis spectantibus, 
sunt experti. Si quid fortassis ex eo enixius 
conando detrahebatur (nam durus admo- 
dum non erat) nihilo minor fiebat.** — Jaco* 
BUS Augustus Thuanus, 1. 6. apud Stefh. 
Stefhan. in loc. 



Ugarthilocus. 

** Ugabthiloci hujus mentionem quoque 
facit Edda, qua et omnia fere attribuit cui- 
dam Achuthoro, seu Asatboro, quae Saxo 
noster de Torkillo hie commemorat. Sunt 
autem nonnulli qui narrationem banc, fa- 
bulse tantum non affinem, exponimt de 
itinere k Torkillo, jussu Gormonis regis, 
suscepto yel in extremam Bjarmiam, cujus 
incohe olim non idololatrse solum erant per- 
tinacissimi, sed et magi ac yenefici nudis 
artibus ad fascinandos homines instructis* 
simi ; unde etiam ab lis tot pnestigise, qua- 
rum meminit Saxo, Torkillo sociisq; objectas 
fuerunt : yel etiam in aliam quandam in- 
sulam longe dissitam, forte I^andiam yel 
Gronlandium, ubi tale Ugarthiloci Idolum 
colebatur. Alii existimant latere sub hfic 
Mythologift veram historiam religionis pri- 
mum in has terras per Torkillum intro- 
ductas; quippe qui per y arias regiones, 
Ethnicismi tenebris dens&q; caligine adhuc 
oppressas, longinquft peregrinatione suscep- 



88 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



tA, tandem in Germaniam, Christianis tunc 
sacrifl initiatam, ut ait Sazo, appulit, et 
apud ejus populum divini caltiu radimenta 
percepit. Quam mox domum revermis, in 
patri& propagavit.** — Stbpu. Stsphanius. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



i 



Descent of HieUngtis. 

** SiQUiDEM coenante eo (Hadingo) foe- 
mina cicutarum gerula, propter foculum 
humo caput extulbse conspecta, porrecto- 
que sinu percunctari visa, qu& mundi parte 
tarn recentia gramina brumali tempore fu- 
issent exorta. Cujus cognoscendi cupidum 
Regcm proprio obvolutum amiculo, refuga 
secum sub terras abduxit, credo Diis infer- 
nalibus ita destinantibus, ut in ea loca vivus 
adduceretur, quae morienti petenda fuerant. 
Primum igitur vapidse cujusdam caliginis 
nubilum penetrantes, perq; callem diutumis 
adcsum meatibus incedentes, quosdam prse- 
textatos, amictosq; ostro proceres conspi- 
oantur ; quibus prssteritis loca demum 
aprica subeunt, quse delata k foeminft gra- 
mina protulerunt. Progressiq; pnecipitis 
lapsus ac liventis aquae fluvium diversi ge- 
neris tela rapido volumine detorquentem, 
eundemq; ponte meabilem factum offendunt. 
Quo pertransito, binas acies mutuis viribus 
concurrere contemplantur ; quarum condi- 
tionem k foemind percunctate Hadingo ; ii 
sunt, inquit, qui ferro in necem acti dadis 
suae speciem continuo protcstantur exemplo, 
praesentique spectaculo praeteritae yitae fa- 
cinus aemulantur. Prodeuntibus mums adi- 
tu transcensuq; difficilis obsutebat; quern 
foemina nequicquam transilire conata, cum 
ne corrugati quidem corporis exilitate pro- 
ficeret, galli caput, quem secum forte defe- 
rebat, abruptum, ultra mcenium supra jac- 
tavit^ statimq; redivivus ales resumpti (idem 
spiraculi claro testabatur accentu." — Saxo 
OrammaticuSy I. 1. 



Carving the Eagle, 

*' Apud Anglos, Danos, aliasq; nationes 
Boreales, victor ignomini& 8umm& debella- 



tum adversarium affecturus, gladium circa 
scapulas ad spinam dorsi adigebat, costasq; 
amplissimo per corporis longitudinem facto 
vulnere, utrinque a spinft separabat ; quie 
ad latera deductae alas repraesentabant 
Aquilinas. Hoc genus mortis vocabant 

* Aquilam in dorso alicujus delineare.* 
Glossarium Islandicum MSS. ejusmodi vul- 
nus sive plagam testatur. In ^^tl^fa^U 

* tunc Comes Einarus in dorso Halfdani 
Aquilinam excitavit plagam, ita ut gladium 
dorso adigeret, omnesq; costas a spinA se- 
pararet, usq; ad lumbos, indeque pulmones 
extraxit.* In ®mtfagU * Ormerus evagi- 
nato gladio in dorso Brusi Aquilinam in- 
flixit plagam, separatis a dorso costis, et 
pulmonibus exemptis.** — Step. Stepha- 



NIUS. 



1 



Thus Halla was executed in revenge for 
the death of Regner Lothbrog. 



Sat. Feb. 4, 1797. Thefiret day of my 
residence in London, 

Bkistol I I did not on thy well-known 

towers 
Turn my last look without one natural pang : 
My heart remembered all the peaceful yean 
Of childhood, and was sad. Me many cares 
Have changed I I may revisit thee agab, 
But never with that eager glow of joy, 
As when from Corston to my mother^s arms 
I hastened with unmingled happiness. 
Returning from first absence. Thy old 

towers 
Again may from the hill-top meet mine eye, 
But I shall see them dimly through the tear. 
There is a stranger in my father's house : 
And where my evil fortunes found a home 
From the hard world, the gate has closed 

upon me ; 
And the poor spaniel, that did love me, lies 
Deep in the whelming waters. — Fare thee 

well 



* The passage of SaxoOrammaticus, on which 
this is a note, occurs in lib. ix. p. 177. Ed. Sort 
** Dorsum plagi aquilam fisnirante affici jo* 
bent, &c.» — J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



39 



leasant place ! ^ I had been well con- 
tent 
>ek no other earthly home beside V* 



^^^lA^^^^^N/^^N^t^^^^^^^^^ki^^^ 



ination by a Torrent, or Taghairm. 

L wiij> species of magic was practised 
5 district of Trotterness (Skie), that 
ttended with a horrible solemnity. A 
f who pretended to oracular know- 
, practised these ceremonies. In this 
ry is a vast cataract, whose waters, fall- 
-om a high rock, jet so far as to form a 
oUow beneath, between them and the 
)ice. One of these impostors was sewed 

the hide of an ox, and to add terror 
i ceremony, was placed in this conca- 

the trembling enquirer was brought 
; place, where the shade and the roar- 
' the waters increased the dread of the 
ion. The question is put, and the per- 
1 the hide delivers his answer ; and so 
this species of divination styled Tag- 
." — Penmaht^s Hebrides, 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Oid Age of an American Savage, 

the Chapter Coffee House Club, to 
I accompanied Carr and Barbauld, 
iday, February 9, 1797, Morgan (a man 
sy and boisterous abilities) related the 
ing story, to prove that the age of the 
ican savage is not destitute and mise- 

European met with an aged Indian 
i banks of a lake. He had lived more 
'^y^tjjeBn. The European asked him 
ras not weary of life. ** No, stranger I" 
)lied, ** our Grod comes over the great 
once in every year ; and I hope he 
ome and return many times before he 
me with him. In summer I can yet 
le for myself by fishing. In winter the 
; men give me share of their provisions, 
sit with them around the fire, and hear 
tell the stories of the chase, and I love 
\r them." 



Doltryddelan Castle, 

*^ Seated in a rocky valley, sprinkled 
over with stunted trees, and watered by the 
Lleder. The boundaries are rude and bar- 
ren mountains ; and among others, the great 
bending mountain Scabod, often conspicu- 
ous from most distant places. The castle 
is placed on a high rock, precipitous on 
one side, and insulated : it consists of two 
square towers, one forty feet by twenty- 
five, the other thirty-two by twenty. Each 
had formerly three floors. The materials 
of this fortress are the shattery stone of 
the country; yet well squared, the ma- 
sonry good, and the mortar hard. The castle 
yard lay between the towers." ^ 

" Llewelyn the Great ap Jorwerth Drwn- 
dwn was born here." — J^EmvAJHT^sSnotvdoti, 
with a print. 



WAi<\A<'«^V/V^Ays/\/\/%/N/S/\/\^^ 



Llys Bradwen, 

" At some distance beyond these (the two 
pools called Llynian Cregenan, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Cader Idris), near the river 
Kr^ennan, I saw the remains of Llys Brad- 
wen, the court or palace of Ednowain, chief 
of one of the fifteen tribes of North Wales, 
either in the reign of GryfTydd ap Cynan, 
or soon after. The reliques are about thirty 
yards squai*e : the entrance about seven feet 
wide, with a large upright stone on each side, 
by way of door case : the walls with large 
stones, uncemented by any mortar. In short, 
the structure of this palace shows the very 
low st«te of architecture in these times ; it 
may be paralleled only by the artless fabric 
of a catUe house. ^ — Ibid. 



*^^^N/N/\A^^h^^WS/\A^^h/\/%A 



Welsh Manners. 



" I MUST not lead the reader into a belief 
that every habitation of those early times 

* This and the next extract are used up in the 
notes to Madoc. For " Dolwydellan's Tower/' 
and Elregennan, see pt. 1st x. and the engrav- 
ing in vol V. of Southey's Poetical Workt, 

J. W. W. 



40 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



was equal in magnificence to that of Edno- 
wain ap Bradwen. Those of inferior gentry 
were formed of wattles, like Indian wig- 
wams, or Highland hovels; without gardens 
or orchard, and formed for removal from 
place to place, for the sake of new pasture, 
or a greater plent j of game. The furniture 
was correspondent ; there were neither ta- 
bles, nor cloths, nor napkins ; but this is less 
wonderful, since we find, that even so late 
as the time of Edward II. straw was used 
in the royal apartment. Notwithstanding 
this, the utmost hospitality was preserved. 
Every house was open, even to the poorest 
person. When a stranger entered, his arms 
were taken from him and laid by ; and, after 
the scriptural custom, water was brought 
to wash his feet. The fare was simple : the 
meal did not consist of an elegant variety, 
but of numbers of things put together in a 
large dish : the bread was thin oat cakes, 
such as are common in our mountainous 
parts at this time. The family waited on 
the guests, and never touched anything till 
they had done, when it took up with what was 
left. Music, and the free conversation of 
the yoimg women, formed the amusements 
of the time,for jealousy was unknown among 
us. Bands of young men, who knew no pro- 
fession but that of arms, often entered the 
houses, and were welcome guests ; for they 
were considered as the voluntary defenders 
of the liberties of their country. They mix- 
ed with the female part of the family, joined 
their voices to the melody of the harp, and 
consumed the day with the most animated 
festivity. At length, sunk into repose, not 
under rich testers, or on downy beds, but 
along the sides of the room, on a thin cover- 
ing of dried reeds, placed round the great 
fire, which was placed in the centre, they 
lay down promiscuously, covered only by a 
coarse home-made cloth, called Brychan or 
plaid, the same with the more ancient Bra- 
cha ;^ and kept one another warm by lying 



I See Celtic Diet, in t. ' Breacan,* Hence 
Gallia Braccata, Spelmjln in v. ^^Bracha." 

J. W. W. 



close together, or should one side lose iti 
genial heat, they turn about and give the 
chilly side to the fire. (See Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, Descr. Walliae, p. 888.) 

*^ Some vein of the antient minstrelsie b 
still to be met with in these mountainous 
countries. Numbers of persons of both sexes 
assemble, and sit around the harp, singing 
alternately Pennylls,' or stanzas of ancient 
or modem poetry. The young people usual- 
ly begin the night with dancing, and when 
Uiey are tired, sit down, and assmne this 
species of relaxation. Oftentimes, like the 
modern improvisatore of Italy, they will sing 
extempore verses. A person conversant in 
this art, will produce a Pennyll apposite to 
the last which was sung ; the subjects pro- 
duce a great deal of mirth ; for they are 
sometimes jocular, at others satyrical, and 
many amorous. They will continue sing- 
ing without intermission, and never repeat 
the same stanza ; for that would occasion 
the loss of the honour of being held first of 
the song. The audience usuaUy call for the 
tune : sometimes only a few can sing to it; 
and in many cases the whole company : but 
when a party of capital singers assemblei 
they rarely call for a tune, for it is indifie- 
rent to them what tune the harper plays. 
Parishes often contend against parishes, and 
every hill is vocal with the chorus.** — ^PsH- 
HAHT*s Snowdon, 



Birth of Sommona Codom. 

'^SoBUfOHA-CoDOM, the Siamese dcitj, 
was bom of a virgin, who conceived by the 
prolific influence of the sun. The innocent 
virgin, ashamed to find herself with child, 
flew to a solitary desert, in order to conceal 
herself from the eyes of mankind. She was 



* " Pennilly*' an epigram, a staiF of a poem 
or of a song, consisting of two, three, four, or 
more lines. Richabds in t. In 1823 I spent 
a night in a small cottage at the fuoi of Uar* 
nedd Llewelin, and in the heart of Snowdonia, 
with an old and valued friend,— and there we 
heard the Welsh iniproYisatore*4 verse in per- 
fection.- J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



41 



minciilcmsl J deliyered upon the banks of a 
lake of the most beautiful babe that ever 
wt8 created, without anj assistance or sense 
of pain, (Spemer) but having no milk 
wlierewith to suckle him, and being unable 
to bear the thoughts of seeing him die, she 
jamped into the lake, where she set him 
upon the bud of a flower, which blowed of 
itself for his more commodious reception, 
and afterwards inclosed the infant as it were 
in A cradle.** — (Father Tachabd. Second 
Voyage to Siam, Book 5.) 

** As he was sitting under a tree, he was 
glorified in a yerj signal manner, and adored 
bj angels, who came down from heaven for 
no other purpose. His brother Thevatat, 
jealous of his glory, conspired his downfall, 
and declared open war against him, with all 
tbe brute creation. Sommona-Codom de- 
fended himself manfully by virtue of hb 
good works ; but nothing was so great a sup- 
port and protection to him as his strict prac- 
tise of the tenth commandment, which com- 
prehends the exercise of charity, without 
which he must have inevitably been van- 
quished, notwithstanding he was endowed 
with all the good works contained in the nine 
other injunctions. The guardian angel of 
the earUi, used her utmost endeavours to 
prevail on the enemies of Sommona-Ck>dom 
to adore him as a god ; but at last finding 
them obstinate and perverse, and inatten- 
tive to her repeated remonstrances, she 
compressed her watery locks, and poured 
forUi such a deluge as totally destroyed 

them." — ^PlCAKT. 



^^f^^^^^^^^v^^^^i^^^v^^^^ 



PeopUng of the World in the Belief of Laos. 

** The people of Laos(Laies or Langiens) 
believe that the heavens existed from all 
eternity ; that they are situate above sixteen 
terrestrial worlds, the pleasures whereof are 
justly proportioned to their respective ele- 
vation. The earth, about 18,000 years be- 
fore Xacca or Xequin, was dissolved and 
i^uced to water. A mandarin of divine 



extraction, or at least something more than 
human, descended from the highest of the 
sixteen worlds, and with a stroke of his scy- 
metar cut asunder a certain flower which 
swam on the surface of the water, from which 
sprang up a beauteous young damsel, with 
whom the pious mandarin was so passionate- 
ly enamoured that he determined to marry 
her : but her inflexible modesty rendered 
his most endearing addresses firuitless and 
ineffectual. The mandarin was more gene- 
rous and just than to force her to com- 
pliance; and notwithstanding it was the 
most disagreeable thing in nature to him to 
live alone, without any relations and with- 
out issue, he checked the violence of his in- 
clination, and behaved with the utmost de- 
cency and respect. Unsuccessful as he was, 
however, he planted himself at an awfiil dis- 
tance directly opposite to this inexorable 
beauty. He gazed upon her with all the 
tenderness of the most affectionate lover. 
By the miraculous influence of his amorous 
glances, she conceived, and became the joy- 
ful mother of a numerous ofispring, and yet 
still remained a pure and spotless virgin. 
In process of time the virtuous mandarin 
thought himself in duty bound to furnish his 
numerous family with all the conveniences 
of life, and for that purpose created that 
beautiful variety of beings which now re- 
plenish the earth. Afterwards he returned 
to heaven, but could not however gain ad- 
mittance therein till he had first done pe- 
nance, and duly qualified himself for that 
happy state. 

^^ Before this restoration of the earth to 
its primitive state, four deities condescended 
to govern and preside over it Three of 
them, weary at last of the important charge, 
resigned their guardianship, and went higher 
towards the north, to taste the uninterrupted 
joys of solitude and retirement. Xaca, the 
sole remaining god, after instructing man- 
kind in the duties of religion, fully deter- 
mined to attain to the highest pitch of perfec* 
tion, sunk at last into Nireupan, or the ever* 
blessed state of annihilation.** — Picakt. 



J 



42 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Siamese Heaven and Hell. 

^ SoMMOHA-CoDOM IB likewise in Nireu- 
pan. According to the Siamese (M. de la 
Loub^e and Pere Tachard), there are nine 
abodes of bliss, and nine of sorrow. The 
former are over our heads, and the latter 
under our feet. The higher each mansion 
the more delightful and joyous ; the lower, 
the more dismal and tremendous : insomuch 
that the happj are exalted far above the 
stars, as the unhappy are sunk 10,000 fa- 
thoms deep below the earth. Those who in- 
habit the higher realms are called Thenada, 
the dwellers below, Pii, the men of earth, 
Manout. 

^^ When a soul has once attained to so high 
a pitch of perfection, as that no new enjoy- 
ments here on earth, how refined soever, are 
suitable to the dignity of its nature, the 
Siamese think that it is then freed from all 
future transmigrations. From that happy 
moment it appears no more in this world, 
but rests for ever in Nireupan ; that is to 
say, in a state of perfect inactivity and im- 
passibility. In short, according to their no- 
tion, consummate happiness and the ineffable 
joys of Paradise entirely consist in this sort 
of annihilation. The remarkable passage 
ascribed to Mus»us by the ancients, ^^ that 
virtue will hereafter be rewarded with an 
eternal ebriety," so nearly resembles that of 
the impassibility of the soul, that these two 
opinions may be resolved into one, without 
the least difficulty or forced construction.** 

— PiCABT. 



<^^%^^^^H^f^^A^^^^^^^^^ 



Siamese Hermits, 



^* Thb Siamese say that there are certain 
anchorets who live retired in the most soli- 
tary deserts, and are perfect masters of all 
the secrets of human nature. They perfectly 
understand the art of making gold, silver, 
and the most precious metals : there is no- 
thing so wonderful and surprising but what 
they can effect with the utmost ease. They 
assume what forms they please, and make 
themselves immortal; for they are well 



skilled in all the arts which are necessarj 
for the prolongation of life. They cheer- 
fully however resign it to Grod £rom one 
thousand years to another, by voluntarilj 
sacrificing themselves on a funeral pile, re- 
serving only one of their tribe to raise up 
those that are dead, by virtue of his magi- 
cal incantations. It is as dangerous as it 
is difficult to meet with these marvellous 
hermits ; and the lives of such as do, are in 
apparent danger of being lost.** — Picabt. 



Descent of fallen Souls compared to the 
FaU of the Ganges, 

An Indian poet, endeavouring to illustrate 
the manner in which souls always descend 
into bodies, one more imperfect than an- 
other, in proportion to their deviating from 
the dictates of reason, compares them to the 
descent of the river Ganges, ** which,** says 
he, ** fell first from the highest heavens into 
Chorkam ; from thence on the top of Issour- 
en; after that, on the celebrated Mount Ima; 
from thence on the earth ; from that into 
the sea, and from thence at last into Pada- 
1am, that is, into hell.** — Pere Bottchet. Pi- 
cabt. 



'^^^^^»WWVW»^^»S/»»»l'W« 



Japanese Penitents, 

^* Cbbtatm Jvpaneae penitents make it their 
duty to pass over several high and almost 
inaccessible mountains into some of the most 
solitary deserts, inhabited by an order of an- 
chorites, who, though almost void of huma- 
nity, commit them to the care and conduct 
of such as are more savage than themselves. 
These latter lead them to the brinks of the 
most tremendous precipices, habituate them 
to the practice of abstinence, and the most 
shocking austerities, which they are obliged 
to undergo with patience, at any rate, since 
their lives lie at stake ; for if the pilgrim 
deviates one step from the directions of his 
spiritual guides, they &x him by both his 
hands to the branch of a tree, which stands 
on the brink of a precipice, and there leave 
him hanging till, through faintness, he quits 






roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



43 



lold of tiie bough and drops. This is, 
srer, the introduction only to the disci- 
i they are to undergo; for in the sequel, 
incredible fatigue and a thousand dan- 
undergone, they arriye at a plain sur- 
ded with lofty mountains, where they 
d a whole day and night with their arms 
», and their face declined upon their 
8. Tiiis is another act of penance, un- 
f hich, if they show the least symptoms 
lin, or endeavour to shift their uneasy 
ire, the unmerciful hermits whose pro- 
Mt is to overlook them, never fail with 
I hearty bastinadoes to reduce them to 
appointed situation. In this attitude 
pilgrims are to examine their consci- 
s, and recollect the whole catalogue of 
sins committed the year past, in order 
infess them. After this strict exami- 
m, they march again till they come to a 
» rock, which b the place set apart by 
i savage monks to take the general con- 
m of their penitents; on the summit of 
ock there is a thick iron bar, about three 
n length, which projects over the belly 
e rock, but is so contrived, as to be 
n back again, whenever it is thought 
enient. At the end of this bar hangs 
i;e pair of scales, into one of which these 
cs put the pilgrim, and in the other a 
terpoise, which keeps him in equilibrio ; 
thLs, by the help of a spring, they push 
cales off the rock, quite over the pre- 
e. Thus hanging in the air, the pilgrim 
liged to make a full and ample confes- 
of all his sins, which must be spoken so 
ictly, as to be heard by all the assist- 
at this ceremony ; and he must take 
cular care not to omit or conceal one 
e sin, to be stedfast in his confession, 
lot to make the least variation in his 
mt: for the least diminution or conceal- 
, though the misfortune should prove 
the r^ult of fear than any evil inten- 
is sufficient to ruin the penitent to all 
ts and purposes ; for if these inezor* 
lermits discern the least prevarication, 
10 holds the scales gives the bar a sud- 
erk,by which percussion the scale gives 



way, and the poor penitent is dashed to 
pieces at the bottom of the precipice. Such 
as escape through a sincere confession, pro- 
ceed farther to pay their tribute of divine 
adoration to the deity of the place. After 
they have gratified their father confessor's 
trouble, they resort to another pagod, where 
they complete their devotions, and spend se- 
veral days in public shows and other amuse- 
ments.** — PicAXT. Acasta, DeBry, Purchoi, 

Priest of Manipa. 

**Manipa, the goddess of the people (Tar- 
tars) of Tanchuth (called Lassa, or Boratai, 
or Barantola), has nine heads, which form 
a kind of pyramid. A bold resolute young 
fellow, prompted by an enthusiastic rage, 
like him who cries Amoc amongst the In- 
dians, and drest in armour, flies round about 
the city, upon some certain days in the year, 
like a madman, and kills every one he meets 
in honour of the goddess. This young en- 
thusiast b called Phut or Buth.** — Picabt. 



^^S^^^^^^^^^^AAA^^A^A^A 



Fountain of the Fairies, 

^^Im the journal of Paris in the reigns of 
Charles Yl. and VII., it b asserted that the 
Maid of Orleans, in answer to an interro- 
gatory of the doctors whether she had ever 
assbted at the assemblies held at the foun- 
tain of the fairies near Domprein, round 
which the evil spirits dance? confessed that 
she had, at the age of twenty-seven, often 
ropaired to a beautiful fountain in the coun- 
try of Lorraine, which she named the good 
fountain of the fairies of our Lord.** — Fa' 
bliaux, by Eixis and Wat. Le Orand, 



^A/>/S/WS«W%MA/VS/VWWN^ 



Identity. 

"Chaqub individu,consid^r^ separ^ent, 
differo encore de lui-mSme par Teffet du 
tems; il devient un autre, en quelque mani- 
ac, aux diverses ^poques de sa vie. L*en- 
fant, rhomme fait, la vieillard sont comme 
autant d*etrangers unb dans une seule per- 



44 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Sonne par le lien mjBterieux du souvenir.** 
—Necker. Sur VJSgaUU. 

Awkwardness at Court. 

** A MAN unaccustomed to converse with 
the masters of the world, entors their mag- 
nificent palaces with slow and distrustful 
steps. Wisdom and virtue are unequal to 
the task of walking with elegance and ease 
through the unstudied road of imperial eti- 
quette. Want of familiaritj with surround- 
ing objects forbids ease ; while prejudices, 
like nurses* midnight tales, are at the same 
time recollected, despised, and jet feared.** 
— RobinsotCs Ecclesiastical Researches. 



^^F^^^>^^S^S0^>^'^^S^i^^^*i^^^%0' 



Images for Poetry. 

Whkn we were within half a mile of the 
sea in a very clear day, it appeared as if the 
water was flowing rapidly along the shore 
in the same direction as the wind ; a kind 
of quick dizzy motion, which I should have 
thought the effect of having dazzled my eyes 
by looking at the sun, if we had not both 
observed it at once. 

The river in a very hot day has the same 
appearance. 

The sudden wrinkling of the water when 
the wind sweeps it, as it were sparkling up 
a shower. 

Where the river is visible at its windings, 
it forms little islands of light. 

In a day half clear half cloudy, I observe 
streaks of a rainbow green upon the sea. 

The cormorant is a large black bird, and 
flies with his long neck protruded ; when 
full, he stands upon the beach or some sand 
bank, spreading his wings to dry them, very 
quaintly.^ 

It is pleasant to see the white-breasted 
swallows dart under a bridge. 

The bark of the birch is much striped 
across with a grey-white moss. 

' " The cormorant stands upon its shoals, 
His black and dripping wings 
Half opened to the wind." Thalaha^ xi. 

J. W. W. 



Trees are grey by torch light. 

A sea-mew sailed slowly by me; the sun 
edged his wings with silver. 

The richest peacock green-blue is under 
the bend of the difil 



yVWNA/WVWVW\/WV» 



Sentences. 



I INTEND to be a hedge-hog and roll my- 
self up in my own prickles : all I regret is 
that I am not a porcupine, and endowed with 
the property of shooting them to annoy the 
beasts who come near enough to annoy me. 



^>'WN^s^^/V>AXW%^^W^^r%^ 



The French legislators have done as much 
as the nature of the people would permit 
Who can carve a Venus de Medicis in free- 
stone? 

When the cable of happiness is cut,surel7 
it is better that the vessel should sink at once, 
than be tost about on the dreary ocean of 
existence, hopeless of a haven. 



^^/W»/H^^^/VW>^/V/V\/>^>*»<»<» 



If Momus had made a window in my 
breast, I would have made a shutter to itk' 



^A^kM^^^^^^^^^^i^^^V^^#W^« 



The loss of a friend is like that of a limb. 
Time may heal the anguish of the wound, 
but the loss cannot be repaired. 



^^^^V^'^^^^^^'^^^V^'VN/^'V^ 



Mtstebies. He who dives into thick 
water will find mud at the bottom ; no stream 
is clearer than that which rolls over golden 
sands. 

A MAN is a fool if he be enraged with an 
ill that he cannot remedy, or if he endures 
one that he can. He must bear the gout, 
but there is no occasion to let a fly tickle 
his nose. 



* The reader is referred to Tristram Shandy's 
remarks on this head. Vol. i. p. 129, c. xxiii 

J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



45 



** To best and dearest parents filial grief 
Hallows this stone : the last of duties this ; 
But memory dies not, but the love, that now 
Sleeps in the grave, shall wake again in hea- 
ven."— Jan. 18, 1798. 



^^^w^^^^^/<^/^s^»>^^^^ 



* Madoc, 

Wbdhbsdat Feb. 22, 1797. Prospect 
Place, Newington Butts. This morning I 
began the study of the law : this evening I 
b^an Madoc.^ 

These lines must conclude the poem. I 
wrote them for the commencement. 

"" SpimiT of SoKO ! it is no worthless breast 
That thou hast filled, with husht and holy 
awe 

' It may bo as well to give her««, at length, 
such information as is in my hands relative to 
Madoc. On the fly-leaf to the First Fragment 
of Madoe (in my possession), Southey has writ- 
ten, " This portion of Madoc was written in the 
summer of 1794, after Joan of Arc had been 
transcribed, and some months before this poem 
was sent to press and recompoeed." At the 
end of the precious little volume he has added, 
^"Ilins Car in 1794. I began to revise Feb. 22, 
1797, and finished the revisal March 9." 

The extract next following is from a MS. 
letter of Southey *b to his fnend C. Danvers. 
It is wiUiout date, but the post-mark is Oct. 24, 
1803. 

" The poem has hung lone upon my hands, 
tnd daring so many ups and downs of life, that 
I had almost become superstitious about it, and 
could hurry through it with a sort of fear. 
Projected in 1789, and begun in prose at that 
time^then it slept till 1794, when I wrote a 
book and a half — another interval till 1797, 
when it was corrected and carried on to the be- 
ginning of the fourth book, — and then a &;ap 
l^gaintill the autumn of 1798, from which tune 
it went (airly on, till it was finished in your poor 
ntother's parlour on her little table. B4X>k by 
book I had read it to her, and passage by pas- 
nge as ih.ew were written to my moSier and to 
Peggy. ITiis was done in July 1799— four 
years! I will not trust it longer, lest more 
chanees befiUI, and I should learn to dislike it as 
s meUncholy memento I " 

The above, with the preface to the last edi- 
tion of Madoc, contains the whole history of that 
poem's composition. The lines here referred to 
werenot maerted.— J. W. W. 



I felt thy visitation. Blessed power, 
I have obeyed, and from the many cares 
That chain me to this sordid selfish world 
Winning brief respites, hallowed tha re- 
pose 
To thee, and pour*d the song of bet tert things. 
Nor vainly may the song of better things 
Live to the unborn days ; so shall my soul 
In the hour of death feel comfort, and re- 



joice 



tt 



^^V>/S/W^W^W^WS^*^M 



Images for Poetry, 

Ths white foam left by the wave on the 
shore trembles in the wind with rainbow 
hues. 

The clouds spot the sea with purple. 

The white road trembling on the aching 
eye. 

The water spider forms a shadow of six 
spots at the bottom of the stream, edged 
with light brown yellow ; the legs four, and 
two from the head. The reflection of the 
body is a thin line only, uniting the rest. 

In a hot cloudy day the sea was pale grey, 
greener at a distance, and bounded by a 
darker line. 

Half shadowed by a cloud, beyond the 
line of shadow light grey, like another sky. 

The ripe redness of the grass. 

Sunday, July 16, 1797. I saw the light- 
ning hang in visible duration over the road. 

Shadows of light roll over the shallow 
sands of a stream wrinkled by the wind. 
An overhanging bough reflects this prettily. 

The flags sword leaves. 

Up the Stour, the swallows cavern their 
nests in the sand clifl*. 

I saw a dick-duck-drake leaping fish. 

The reed-rustling breeze. 

The sea like burnished silver. Morning. 



Triad, 

*^Thebb things restored will prolong aman*s 

life: 
The country where in childhood he was 

brought up ; 
The food that in childhood nourished him ; 



46 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



And the train of thoughts that in childhood 
amused him.** 

G. WuxiAMS, note, y. 2, p. 36. 



^A/WWWW^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



7^ three Names of this Island. 

** Thb first — ^Before it was inhabited it 
was called the water-guarded green spot ; 
after it was inhabited, it was called the 
honey-island; and after its subjection to 
Prjdain, the son of Aedd Mawr, he gave it 
the name of the Isle of Prydain.** — Cam, 
Register,^ y. 1. p. 22. 



^h/^^/V%/>^M^^^^'W^^^^^^^^^^ 



Sonnet by B. W, H. 

** Why tell ye me of heaven, and of that bliss 
Which much-enduring saints will some- 
time know I 
ril own no heaven beyond my Harriet*s kiss, 
No joys but what from her sweet converse 
flow. 
Ye talk to those whom poverty*s stem power 
Loads with the weight of soul-subduing 
care. 
Bid them expect that lingering distant hour 
When the bright flash of hope shall blind 
despair. 
For me, if youth eternal crown my joys ; 
If love attend me through the paths of life, 
And affluence guarding well from worldly 
strife, 
ril quafi* the cup of pleasure till it cloys ; 
Blessing the auspicious hour that gave me 

birth. 
Then sink to nothing in my native earth.** 

B. W. H.1 



^V^^^^^^^^^N^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Virtues of Gems, 

From the Mirror of Stones, by Camxixus 
Lbohasdus, Physician at Pisaro. Dedi- 
cated to Cesar Borgia, Eng. Trans. Lon- 
don, 1750. 

*^ Thb Diamond helps those who are trou- 
bled with phantasms or the Night Mair. 

* I can assien no reason why such a sonnet 
was transcribed by Southey, neither do I know 
whom the initials represent. — J. W. W. 



^ The Amethyst drives away drunkenness ; 
for being bound on the navel it restrains 
the vapour of the wine, and so dissolves the 
ebriety. 

^* Alectoria is a stone of a christalline co- 
lour, a little darkish, somewhat resembling 
limpid water ; and sometimes it has veins 
of die colour of flesh. Some call it Galli- 
naceus, from the place of its generation, the 
intestines of capons, which were castrated 
at three years* old and had lived seven ; be- 
fore which time the stone ought not to be 
taken out ; for the older it is so much the 
better. When the stone is become perfect 
in the capon, he do*nt drink. However, *tis 
never found bigger than a large bean. .The 
virtue of this stone is to render him that 
carries it invisible ; being held in the mouth 
it allays thirst, and therefore is proper for 
wrestlers; (so will any stone by stimolat- 
ing the glands, but what if the wrestler 
should swallow it ?) makes a woman agree- 
able to her husband ; bestows honours, and 
preserves those already acquired ; it frees 
such as are bewitched ; it renders a man 
eloquent, constant, agreeable, and amiable ; 
it helps to regain a lost kingdom, and ac« 
quire a foreign one. 

*^ Borax, Nosa, Crapondinus, are names 
of the same stone, which is extracted from 
a toad. There are two species, the which is 
the best is rarely found ; the other is black 
or dun with a cerulean glow, having in the 
middle the sunilitude of an eye, and must 
be taken out while the dead toad is yet pant* 
ing, and these are better than those which 
are extracted from it after a long continu- 
ance in the ground. They have a wonderful 
efficacy in poisons. For whoever has taken 
poison let him swallow this ; which being 
down, rolls about the bowels, and drives out 
every poisonous quality that is lodged in 
the intestines, and then passes through the 
fundament and is preserved. It is an ex** 
cellent remedy for the bites of reptiles, and 
takes away fevers. K it be made into a lo- 
tion and taken, it is a great help in disor- 
ders of the stomach and reins, and some say 
it has the same efi*ect if carried about one. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



47 



1 



** The carbuncle is male and female. The 
females throw out their brightness, the stars 
appear burning within the males. 

" Some imagine that the crystal is snow 
turned to ice which has been hardening 
thirty years, and is turned to a rock by age. 
(Affonso Apbicamo, c. 2, p. 43). 

** Chemites is a stone that has the appear- 
ance of iyory ; not heavy, and in hardness 
like marble. It is said to preserve the bodies 
of the dead a long time from being hurt by 
the worms and from putrefaction. 

" Conria or Gorvina is a stone of a red- 
dish colour, and accounted artificial. On the 
calends of April boil the eggs taken out of a 
crowds nest till ihej are hard ; and being 
cold, let them be placed in the nest as they 
were before. When the crow knows this, 
she flies a long way to find this stone ; and 
having found it returns to the nest, and the 
eggs being touched with it, they become 
ff&k and prolific. The stone must imme- 
diately be snatched out of the nest. Its vir- 
tue is to increase riches, to bestow honours, 
and to foretell many future events. 

" Draconites, — ^Dentrites, — ^Draconius, is 
a stone lucid and transparent of a cristalline 
colour. Albertus Magnus says it is of a 
bUck colour, and that its figure is pyrami- 
dal and not lucid. Some say it shines like a 
looking glass, with a blackness ; that many 
seek after but never find it. It is brought 
from the east, where there are great dra- 
gons ; for it is taken out of the head of dra- 
gons, cut off while the beast is yet panting. 
It loses its virtue if it remains in the head 
anj time after the death of the dragon. 
Some bold fellows in those eastern parts 
search out the dens of the dragons, and in 
these they strew grass mixed with sopori- 
ferous'medicaments, which the dragons when 
they return to their dens eat, and are thrown 
into a sleep ; and in that condition they cut 
off their heads and extract the stone. It 
has a rare virtue in subduing all sorts of 
poison, especially that of serpents. It also 
renders the possessor of it bold and invin- 
cible; for which reason the kings of the 
cast boast they have such a stone. 



** Fingites is of a white colour, hard as 
marble, and transparent like alabaster ; it 
is brought from Cappadocia. Some report 
that a certain king built a temple of this 
stone without windows ; and from its trans- 
parency the day was admitted into it in so 
clear a manner as if it had been all open. 

** Galatides or Galactica is a whit« lucid 
stone, in form of an acorn, hard as the ada- 
mant, and so cold that it can hardly be 
warmed by fire ; which proceeds from the 
exceeding closeness of its pores which will 
not sufi*er the heat of the fire to penetrate. 

^ Kinocetus is a stone not wholly useless, 
since it will cast out devils. 

'* Sarcophagus, the stone of which the an- 
cients built their monuments, so called from 
its effects, for it consumes a human body 
that is placed in it, insomuch that in forty 
days the very teeth are gone, so that no- 
thing appears ; nay, farther, if this stone be 
bound to a man while he is alive, it has the 
force of eating away his flesh. 

^* The asbestas is a stone of an iron colour, 
produced in Arcadia and Arabia ; being set 
on fire it retains a perpetual flame, strong 
and unquenchable, not to be extinguished 
by showers or storms. It is of a woolly tex- 
ture, and many call it the salamander's fea- 
ther. Its fire is nourished by an insepara- 
ble unctuous humid flowing from its sub- 
stance.** 

Turkish Idea of Thunder, 

" When the Turkish ambassador, Esseid 
AH Effendi, saw some electrical experiments 
at Lyons (Messidor 14th) (July 2, 1797) and 
heard the analogy between electricity and 
lightning explained, he seemed astonished 
at the ignorance of the Europeans, who did 
not attribute lightning to the breath of an 
angel, and the noise of thunder to the clap- 
ping of his wings.** — Star, Thurs, July 20. 



Novqgorod Ood of Thunder. 

" Whbw Wolodemir introduced Christian- 
ity into Russia (a. d. 990) to prove the sin- 



48 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



ceritj of his conversion, he caused the 
brazen image of Perun, long worshipped at 
Novogorod as the God of Thunder, to be 
thrown into the river after being bruised 
with clubs. It is not long since (as Olearius 
writes) that the inhabitants believed that 
Perun from the deep still exerted his loud 
and dissonant voice once every year ; and 
excit«d all that heard it to broils and bat- 
tery." — ^Ambas. Travels, Andrews, vol. 1, 
p. 42. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^*^^^^% 



** NoYOQOBOD is situated in a very fair 
spacious plain upon the Wologda. This river 
derives its source from the lake Ilmen, 
about three miles above the city, from whence 
it falls into lake Ladoga. There are falls or 
rapids in the Ladoga lake with dangerous 
rocks." — ^Pbtsb Hsnbt Bbucb. 



V«M«W\/W^/VWWWW^W>M 



£!pitap?u, 
*' As careful nurses to the bed do lay 
Their children which too long would wan- 
ton play. 
So to prevent all my ensuing crimes 
Nature my nurse lidd me to bed betimes." 
In some part of Yorkshire. 



*'*HBBB lize Sarre FFlougger who dyde 
by the krewill youzitch ov hur usbun." 
In Upham Church yard, Hants. 



^AAAA^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W 



'* As I lay sleeping here alone 
With my grandfather to him Fm come ; 
With heavenly charms so blest am I, 
With joy and pleasure here I lie." 

Blonham, Wilts. 

^ Ah I she bids her friends adieu I 
Some angel calls her to the spheres; 

Our eyes the radiant sun pursue 
Thro* liquid telescopes of t«ars." 

Portsmouth. 



^A/W>MA^/^^V\A/VN/W\/X 



'* LiFB is a city full of crooked streets. 
And Death the market place where all men 
meets. 



If Life were a merchandize which men could 

buy 
The rich would purchase it, and only the 

poor would die." Worpleton. 



^^t'^^^^^^^^^^v^^^^^^^^^^ 



Sopra le due Citta svbissate dal Tretna*oto, 

'* Qui pur foste o Cittk ; ne in voi qui resta 

Testimon di voi stesse, un sasso solo ; 

In cui si scriva, qui s*aprerse il suolo 
Qui fu Catania, e Siracusa h questa. 
lo su Tarcna solitaria e mesta 

Voi sovent« in voi cerco, e trovo'wlo 

Un silenzio, un orror, che d*alto duolo 
M* empie, e gli occhi mi bagna, e il pi^ 

m*arresta, 
£ dico, o formidabile t oh tremendo 

Divin giudizio ! pur ti veggio, e sento, 
E non ti temo ancor, n^ ancor t* intendo ! 

Deh sorgeste a mostrar* V alto portento 
Subissate Cittadi, e sia Torrendo 

Scheletro vostro ai secoli spavento." 

YmCEliZO DA FlULCAJA. 

*' Here, cities, ye once stood ; but there does 
not remain in you a testimony of your ex- 
istence, not a stone on which might be writ- 
ten, 'Here the ground opened, there was 
Catania, and this is Syracuse.* Oflen, as I 
wander over the silent and deserted strand, 
do I look about for you in yourselves ; but 
all I find is a silence, a horror, which fills me 
with deep grief, bathes mine eyes and stops 
my foot, and I exclaim, O formidable, 
tremendous judgments ! I see you, I feel 
you all around, and still do not fear, still 
cannot fully understand you. Rise then once 
more, ye engulphed cities, show the porten- 
tous desolation, and let your horrible ske- 
leton be the terror and lesson of ages to 
come." — In Matt*s Review^ from a^coOeC' 
Hon of Italian Sonnets translated into Latin 
hexameters by Jassbus.^ 

' These sonnets were intended to be cast into 
English ones. The translation implies the time 
when Southey was nut the able Italian scholar 
he was in his latter days. His own version of 
some of them may be seen in subsequent pages, 
®' S' PP' 81, 82. They were composed mostly 
in 1799.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



49 



NascUa de PHmogenito de Piemonte, 

r Italia col crin sparse e incolto, 
dove la Dora in Po declina, 
ea mcsta, e avea negli occhi accolto 
un *orror di servitu yicina : 
tera piangea ; serbava un volto 
•lente bensi, ma di Reina ; 
e appanre allor, che il pie discolto 
ipi ofiri la liberta Latina. 
;er lieta in un balen la vidi, 
'a ricomporsi al fasto usato, 
i, e quindi minacciar pui Lidl ; 
lia TAppennin per ogni lato 
*applausi, e di festosi gridi, 
, Italia il tuo soccorso e nato I ** 
rsTACHio Maufhedi. Bolognese. 

^he spot where the Douro falls into 

I saw the dishevelled and unkempt 
tting in deep son'ow ; she had in her 
borror of impending slavery, — ^not 

proud one shed a tear. Sorrow in- 
a in her countenance, but it was the 
3f a Queen ; such perhaps she ap- 
n ancient Latium, when, bare of foot, 
e forward to have her fetters put 

I I saw her in an instant rise joyful 
r seat, resume her ancient state and 
I the nations on one side of her and 
)ther, and the Apennines shouted 

their thousand echoes, Italy, Italy I 
iour is born." 

' says, *' the author of thb, Eusta- 
ufredi, seems to show even here 
is of a family of mathematicians, for 
not a proposition of Euclid in which 
lows st-ep more methodically than 
in this sonnet.** He adds, ** I did 
3 to render the *pie disciolto,* be- 
owever classical the idea to express 
the naked foot would have present- 
gusting picture to the English rea- 

might have sent the dirty wench 
n her stockings.** 

1 Mbnaiziane di una sua Nipote, 

secol fuggii la perfid* onda, 

> del sangue nostro, e la procella, 



Dolce Nipote, ne tomarmi a quella 
Poter lusinghe mai d* aura seconda. 
Eppur si ficro turbo anco alia sponda 

II legno, che m*accolse, urta, e flagella, 

Ne a placar 1* atro nembo io veggio Stella, 
Che in tanta notte un raggio almen difibnda. 
Occupa pur tu fortementc il porto ; 

Innocenza e Virtu trarranne in parte, 
Ove avrem d*ogni mal fine, e conforto ; 
E im di schernendo i furor vani, ho speme, 

Che salve aU*ara appese antenne e sarte, 
SuUe tempeste rideremo insieme.** 

P. Savebio Bettineuj. 

*' I, sweet niece, was the first of our blood 
who fled from the treacherous waves and 
tempest of life ; nor could the flattering 
appearance of favourable gales ever tempt 
me to try them again ; and yet though I 
have escaped, still does the storm, beating 
on the beach, dash daily against the sides of 
the vessel in which I was ; nor amidst so 
deep a night do I discover a single star 
whose benign ray may assist to weather the 
fierce storm. Make you then strongly for 
the shore. Innocence and Virtue will help 
draw to land, where we shall find comfort 
and the end of every ill. There, our sails 
and cables safe at length, and appended to 
the altar, I have hope that we may one day 
laugh together at the impotence of the tem- 
pest.*' 



^/^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



*' Italia, Italia, o tu, cui feo la sorte 

Dono infelice di bellezza, onde hai 

Funesta dote d'infiniti guai, 
Che in fronte scritti per gran doglia porte. 
Deli fossi tu men bella, o almen piu forte, 

Onde assai piu ti paventassi, o assai 

T*amasse men chi del tuo bello a i rai 
Par che si strugga, e pur ti sfida a morte 
Che or giu d*air Alpi no vedrei torrent! 

Scender d*armati, ne di sangue tiiita 
Sever Fonda del Po Gallici armenti ; 

Ne te vedrei del non tuo ferro cinta 
Pugnar col braccio di straniere genti 

Per servir sempre o vincitrice, o vinta." 

FlLICAIA. 



50 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



**0 Italy, Italy, gifled by fate with ttn un- 
happy gifl of beauty, from whence thou hast 
a deadly dower of miseries, whose marks 
thou still bearest on thy forehead; oh, that 
thou wert less beautiful or more strong, that 
they might love thee less, or fear thee more, 
who pretend to be dying for thee at the time 
they are attempting thy life. Then should 
we not behold torrents of hostile squadrons 
roll down thy Alps, nor Gallic herds drink- 
ing by thy ensanguined Po. Then should 
we not see thee girt with a sword not thine 
own, and shooting thine arrows from a fo- 
reign bow, to be still a slave at the end of 
the day, whether victor or vanquished/' 

" Dov* ^ Italia, il tuo braccio ? e a chi ti servi 

Tu deir altrui ? non ^s* io scorgo il vero, 

Di chi t*ofiende il difiensor men fero ; 
Ambo nemici sono, ambo fur servi : — 
Ck>si dunque Tonor, cosi conservi 

Gli avanzi tu del glorioso impero ? 

Cosi al valor, cosi al valor primiero, 
Che a t« fede giuro, la fede asservi ? 
Or va t repudia il valor prisco, e sposa 

L*Ozio,e fra il sangue,i gemiti, e le strida 
Nel periglio maggior dormi, e riposa : 

Dormi adultera vil, fin che omicida 
Spada ultrice ti svegli, e sonnachiosa 

E nuda in braccio al tuo fedel t*uccida.** 

FlUCAIA. 

*^ Italy, where is thine own right arm, and 
wherefore dost thou use a stranger's ? If I 
remember me right, he who defends thee is 
not less a barbarian than he who attacks 
thee. Both are thine enemies, both have 
been thy slaves. Thus then it is that thou 
bethinkest thee of thy past illustrious story I 
thus thou maintainest thine honour, and 
this is the remembrance thou hast of thy 
pledged faith to the valiant genius of old 
Latium t Gro then, divorce thee from that 
honored husband — marry sloth; and amidst 
blood, groans, and the nobe of arrows hiss- 
ing round thee, sleep on and repose in 
greater danger than before : —vile adulte- 
ress, sleep on, tin the avenging sword awake 
and slay thee, naked and drowsy, in the 
arms of thy new beloved.'* 



Epitaphs. 

** Dbae near my friends and have 
As you be now so once was i 
And as I am so you shall be 
The glass is nmning now for thee.' 

Up] 



^^^^N/N/\^v%/%AA/\^^^AA^^b^ 



(( 



We were not slayne, but rayj 

Raysd not to life. 
But to be buried twice 

By men of strife. 
What rest could living have 

When dead had none ? 
Agree amongst you. 

Here we ten are one." 

Henry Rogers died Aprill 17, 1641. 

Christchu 

Of this I heard two traditionary 
nations, neither of them satisfactor 
each destroying all the authority 
other. That the ten men were killed 
falling in of the earth in a gravel p 
dug out to be buried. This the firi 
contradicts ; and, if true, what mea 
fourth ? That they were ten ro; 
whose bones were dug up by Cro 
The single name then at the end is st 
" One " must mean unanimous. TI 
solution is possible ; but I believe tl 
nour of digging up his dead enemi* 
reserved for the worthy Charles IL 



i»A^^^^^»^^^^^^^A^^^^^^^ 



** Heus I lie all putrefaction 
Waiting for the resurrection.' 



^^N''^ww^w^%^^\/v^^rv^ 



Petition of the London Wives, 

'* In this parliament (1428) there w 
Mistris Stokes, with divers others 
women of London, of good reckoning 
apparrelled, came openly to the uppe 
liament and delivered letters to the 
of Glocester, and to the archbishop 
to the other lords there present, cont 
matter of rebuke and sharpc reprehen 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



51 



ke of Glocester, because he would 
iver his wife, Jacqueline, out of her 
a imprisonment, being then helde 
T by the Duke of Burgondj, suffer- 
there to remain so unkindly, and for 
>like keeping by him another adul- 
sontrary to the law of Grod, and the 
ible estate of matrimony.** — Edmund 

» 

e are many curious particulars in 
11*8^ history. I have never (that I 
)er) seen him quoted, or heard his 
He wrote under Elizabeth, James 
tries ; and acknowledges obligations 
itance in his work, among other men 
ninent in their own day, to Sir Ed- 
oke and Master Camden. 



^^^^^A^^M«^^^^f^«W^^tf^^^^ 



IhUtf of exposing Crimes. 

DX tel forfaits celui qui d^toume 
irda est un l&che, un d^erteur de 
ce ; la v^itable humanity les envi- 
our les connoitre, pour lea juger, 
id^tester.** — Ls Lxyttb d*Ephbaim. 
the motto for my war poems. 

£pitap?is, 

■B year rolls on and steals away 
te breath that first it gave, 
te*er we do, where*er we be, 
e*re travelling to the grave.** 
Winnessley, Monmouthshire. 



JM^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W 



It the ester end of this free 
me here doeth ly the letle 
ne of Water Spurrer 
at fine boy that was his 
lends only joy he was 
ownd at Milham*s bridge.** 

Ch. Ch. 1691. 

nd by Hearme that he published it 
>wb's papers, and that it b^rsSTOwa's 
Sept. 2, 1798— R. S. The work is 
ited in Watt's Biblwth, Britan, " An- 
r a Genera] Chronicle of England, be- 
Fohn Stow, continued to the end of the 
M. Lond. 1631, foL"— J. W. W. 



** Ws lived together as you did see to die 
Together that will be never yet in and 
Thro* Christ we hope to live for ever 
From sudden death Good Lord deliver me 
Yet sudden death we hope did set our sister 
free.**— Ch. Church. 



^t^k^S/^^r^r^r^rvN^^^^W^^^^'WW 



Lf a church yard, about five miles from 
Monmouth, on the Chepstow road : — 

** On Somb Children. 

*' Sleep sofl in dust, wait the AImighty*s 

will 
Then rise agiun and be as angels still.** 

" A LOVING wife, a tender mother, 
AVhich hard it were to find such another. 
If Angels were on earth sure this was one* 
Whose limbs lie here, her soul to God is 
flown.** 

^* I LABOUB*D hard in this world 
But *twas no gain to me, 
I hope my child and I will gain eternity.** 

** A TENDEB father, a mother dear, 
Two bosom friends lie buried here. 
It was pale-faced death that brought us 

hither. 
We lived in love — ^let us lie together. 

So here we lie by our dear babes 

All covered with cold clay. 
Hoping with joy to meet our Lord 

At the eternal day.** 



Yabhouth. 

'* The best of wives was calFd from me 
She was both meek and mild ; 

Twas God*s decree, let his will be, 
He took both wife and child.** 

'* Hebe lies a woman 
By all the good esteemed 

Because they proved her 
Really what she seem*d.** 

** Sleep lovely babes, and be at rest, 
God calls them first, whom he loves best.** 



52 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



** For Jesus* sake in his most blessed name 

I crave, 
Do not remove this stone, nor yet disturb 

this grave." 

** Fabbwsll dear babes ; to dust we you 

resign, 
And at your lot we will no more repine ; 
Being assured that at the Resurrection, 
Tour bodies through Christ will rise into 

perfection." 



Similes, 

'* Un ruisseaux tire des eaux pures de sa 
source; mais il est trouble d^abord qu*il 
passe par dessus les bords de son canal." — 
Oriental Maxim. 

A good simile applied to economy. 



^r^^r^^^^A/V^^^^\/W%/N/Ni#N/V^' 



" In winter the trees remind us of skele- 
tons." — W. Smblub. 



^<\^^^^/V»/N/W^^^^^i^^^ 



Unbblibvbbs — to a man who stops his 
ears in a thunder-storm for fear. — Koran^ 
V. 1. p. 4. 

Cool sound of wind — to the rain falling 
on the tree that shelters the summer tra- 
veller. 

Clinging to religion — ^to the volutella. 

**0h I woe to thee when doubt comes on I 
it blows over thee like a wind from the 
north, and makes all thy joints to quake." 

From a quaint piece, in the Selections 
from Foreign Journals, taken from the 
TeiUscIie Museum, entitled—" That a man 
can do whatever he will, is something more 
than a mere matter of speculation ; " by John 
Fetbb Cbaft. 



VWWWW^SA^WWWW 



Lines to S. P} 

BuBTON, September 1st. 1797. 

*^ A WBABTiKG thing it is to waste the day 
Among the biped herd ; to walk alone 

' Sophia Pemborton, afterwards married to 
his friend Charles Lloyd.—J. W. W. 



Amid the irksome solitude of crowds, 
And with the unmeaning look of gaiety 
Hide the heart*s fullness. It is very hard 
When Memory's eye turns inward on the 

form 
Of one she loves, to waken from the dream, 
As all unpitying on the suffering ear 
Some fashion-monger with her face of fool 
Voids all her gather*d nonsense. - When I 

think 
That thy meek spirit must endure all this 
Sophia I I esteem the truant hour 
Most profitably past whose song may bring 
Brief solace. Thou would*st know what 

cares employ 
The mom, and whither is the noon-tide walk 
And what the evening sports of him, who 

mom 
And noon and night fills up Affection's 

thoughts. 
I know these longings well ; and I would 

fain 
Sketch the rude outline that Afiection's hand 
Will love to perfect, as her magic gives 
Soul to the picture. When at mom he seeks 
The echoing ocean's verge, she best can feel 
What feelings swell within the enthusiast's 

breast. 
As o'er the grey infinity of waves 
His eye reposes, as the gathered surge 
Bursts hollow on his ear, then rolling back 
Yields to a moment's silence, while the foam 
Lefl by the billow, as it melts away. 
Shakes in the wind trembling with rainbow 

hues. 
She best can tell, when at the noon-tide hour 
Beside the brook he bends, the wrinkled 

brook 
Rolling light shadows o'er its bedded sand, 
What thoughts of quietness arise, what scenes 
Of future peace float o'er the tranquil mind, 
As the low murmuring of the pleasant stream 
Makes sweetest music, such as in the heart 
Of one made hard by suffering till he hates 
Mankind with deadliest loathing, might 

awake 
Feelings that fill the eye. She reads his soul 
When from the high hill top, the dark high 

hill 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



53 



the watered Yole abrupt and bare 
beholds the goodly plain below ; 
us and tufted cottages, the clifiGs 
island whose white majesty 
g sun empurples, and the sea 
den greyness to the baffled sight 
igling with the sky. Affection 

1 her own identity with his 
n his sensations. 

I would tell 
damp eve retiring how we draw 
e cheerful light, but that the group 
rers, and Sophia scarce has heard 
in whom my heart has centred all 
t feelings, idl its earthly hopes, 
:. I am little prone to trust 
e now, for many wrongs have 
rht 

om in me which in earlier youth 
i I made my mock : and now I bear 
rom whose impervious adamant 
i*d darts of disappointment fall 
ler weakness. Yet that heart ad- 

" a rebel to its own resolves." 
I full and perfect happiness 
om yours addition ; when the song 
of home and all its nameless joys 

the most intense delight pervade 
eart, and fill her eye with tears, 

round she feels those joys her 

R. S. 

Hannah} 

m as I crossed the conmion lane 
ien on my view. It was not here 
* every day, as in the streets 
tat city, and we paused and asked 
le grave was going. It was one, 
girl ; they told us she had borne 
en months* strange illness ; pined 



t)een thought right to insert this here. 
>riginal £aft of the Hannah in the 
^logues, from which it difTers consi- 
See Poenu in one volume, p. 152. 

J. W. W. 



With such slow wasting as had made the 

hour 
Of death most welcome. To the house of 

mirth 
We held our way, and with that idle talk 
That passes o*er the mind and is forgot 
We wore away the time. But it was eve 
When homewardly I went, and in the air 
Was that cool freshness, that discolouring 

shade 
That makes the eye turn inward ; then I 

heard 
Over the vale the heavy toll of death 
Sound slow, and questioned of the dead 

again. 
It was a very plain and simple tale I 
She bore, unhusbanded, a mother's name. 
And he who should have cherished her, far 

off 
Sailed on the seas, self-exiled from his home, 
For he was poor. Left thus, a wretched one, 
Scorn made a mock of her, and evil tongues 
Were busy with her name. 

She had yet one ill 
Heavier, neglect, — forgetfidness from him 
Whom she had loved so dearly. Once he 

wrote. 
But only once that drop of comfort came 
To mingle with her cup of wretchedness. 
And when his parents had some tidings from 

him. 
There was no mention of poor Hanitah there. 
Or 'twas the cold enquiry, bitterer 
Than silence : so she pined and pined away. 
And for herself and baby toiled and toiled 
Till she sunk with very weakness. Her old 

mother 
Omitted no kind office, and she worked 
Most hard, and with hard working barely 

earned 
Enough to make life struggle. Thus she lay 
On the sick bed of poverty, so worn 
That she could make no effort to express 
Affection for her infant, and the child 
Whose lisping love perhaps had solaced her. 
With strangest infantine ingratitude 
Shunned her as one indifferent. She was 

post 
That anguish, for she felt hei Viout dxvw oiv^ 



li 



And *twas her only comfort now to think 
Upon the grave. " Poor girl I " her mother 

said, 
" Thou hast suffered much I" " Ay, mo- 
ther I there is none 
Can tell what I have suffered ! ** she replied, 
" But I shall soon be where the weary rest^** 
And she did rest her soon, for it pleased God 
To take her to his mercy. R. S. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^«^^^^^^^k^^* 



Tenderness. 

Tendbbness with golden locks, and the 
grey eye that, in the twilight hour, a darker 
lustre beams. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^s/^%^AA^« 



Priestesses in the Seam. 

** In the Seam, an isle by the coast of the 
French Bretagne, nine virgins consecrate to 
perpetual chastity, were priests of a famous 
oracle, remembered by Mela. His printed 
books have '* OaUicenas vacant ;** where that 
great critic Turneb reads, ** Oalli zenas^^ or 
** Unas vocani,^* But White of Basingstoke 
will have it " cenas^ as interpreting their 
profession and religion, which was in an ar- 
bitrary metamorphosing themselves, charm- 
ing the winds (as of later times the witches 
of Lapland and Finland) skill in predictions, 
more than natural medicine and such like ; 
their kindness being in all chiefly to sailors.** 

SBU>£lf*8i2/tl«/ra/lOIUO/*DBATTON*8 PoU/' 

Olbion, Sang the First, 



W^'WS^^^^^^^^^^k^^A^tfi 



St. David 



St. Dewt, as the Welsh call him, was 
prognosticated above thirty years before his 
birth. '* The translation of the archbishopric 
was also foretold in that of Merlin, * Mene- 
via shall put on the pall of Caerleon ; and 
the preacher of Ireland shall wax dumb by 
an infant growing in the womb.' That was 
performed when St. Patrick, at presence of 
Melaria, then with child, suddenly lost use 
of his speech ; but recovering it after some 
time, made prediction of Dewy's holiness.** 

♦* Reports of hira affirm that he was uncle 



to King Arthur (Bale and others say, got- 
ten upon Melaria, a nun, by Xantus, prince 
of Cardigan), and successor to Dubrice, 
archbishop of Caerleon, upon Usk.** — Ibid. 
Songs the Fourth and Fifth. 



^^^^^^^^A/N/N'VN/S^N/WS^^^ 



Merlin. 

** Of Merlin and his skill what region doth 
not hear ? 

The world shall still be full of Merlin every- 
where. 

A thousand lingering years his prophecies 
have run, 

And scarcely shall have end till time itself 
be done. 

Who of a British nymph was gotten, whilst 
she played 

With a seducing spirit, which won the good- 
ly maid : 

As all Demetia through there was not found 
her peer. 

Who being so much renowned for beauty 
far and near. 

Great lords her liking sought, but still in 
vain they prov'd. 

That spirit (to her unknown) this virgin 
only loved ; 

Which taking human shape, of such perfec- 
tion seem*d. 

As, all her suitors 8com*d, she only him es- 
teem*d. 

Who feigning for her sake that be was come 
from far. 

And richly could endow, a lusty batchelor, 

On her that prophet got, which from his mo- 
ther*s womb 

Of things to come foretold until the gene- 
ral doom.** 

His mother was a nun, daughter to Fu- 
bidius, king of Mathraval, and called Ma- 
tilda.— Ibid, Song the Fifth, 

Mathraval. 

'*Mathbaval is five miles west of the Se- 
vern, it shows at present no remains of its 
ancient splendour, there being only a small 
farm house where the castle stood, whose 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



55 



ipied about two acres, guarded on 
I by the steep over the river, on the 
r a vast rampart of stone and earth 
^ep fosse. A high keep at one cor- 
k Gwern Ddu, a wood over against 
i opposite side of the river, is a cir- 
itrenchment, and in a field beyond 
mount.** — 6ouGH*8 Camden. 



^^^w^^^^^^^^^AMMM^^^^ 



Itnages. 
NCT shadows on the water in cloudy 

y smell of moss. 

of the autumnal leaves, 
misty, unreal appearance of the hills 
I October morning. 
;rass in an orchard gaily chequered 
e sunshine falling between and 

the trees. 

ntry house. No sound but the click 
Dck. The hollyhock still in blossom. 

ing. A grey cloud rising like a hill 
le horizon. 

s Inn Hall in a November afternoon, 
light through the unpainted part of 
lows. The fire in the middle, equally 
irts affected by the air, flaming up 

a point, and often showering up 
ost in the gloom above. Objects 
us seen across the charcoal fire, 
ind of the roof beams strongly light- 
•ove, all gloom. Add to this the tro- 
mour damp gleaming to the central 

1 it is the hall of chivalry, 
marked by their ramification in 
Minute and many branchings of 

What tree is it that hangs down 
liar seeds by a long thin stem ? 
nist by its light tinge as it passes 
* sun, marks its place, 
lolesome green in trees, &c. in damp 

x>sed epistolizing my attempt to visit 
istle, and would preserve the images 
eisure may occur to use them, 
rising. Ileford — Evilford-bridge. 
tath — ^no grass there. The little cot- 



tage with a fidd like an island of fertility ; 
looking from thence down a little glen, in 
whose bottom flows a brook ; the sea appears 
about 100 yards distant, breaking on a rough 
shore. The stones in this brook were some 
green, some of the brown yellow iron hue. 
The single rock in sight. Sand bank at 
Poole harbour mouth. Our separation. 
Breakfastless walk. View of Ck>rfe. Brank- 
sey. Sturt*s hideous house. Entry of the 
vessel from Newfoundland. Sand shower. 
Eficect of wind in confusing the head. Rick- 
man's bush shelter from a storm at the ha- 
ven mouth. 

Tom — I pray thee cherish it. 
For it must never meet the common eye. 

Were I a single being I would be a wan- 
derer. Why ? 



^h#^^^^^^^^^%^^^kA^^^^^ 



Si^e of Orleans, 

MoNSTRELLBT wHtcs ItClaccdaSyandCla- 
sendas at his death. 

'* A une dicclles escarmouches fut occis 
ung tresvaillant Chevalier Anglois et re- 
nomme en armes nomme Messire Lancelot 
de Lisle. 

** AUerent avecques elle assaillir labataille 
de Saint Loup qui estoit moult fort, et avoit 
dedans de troys a quatre cens Angloys ou 
environ, lesquelz assez tost furent conquis 
et mors et prins et mis a grant mischief. Et 
ladicte fortificacion fut toute demoile et mise 
en feu et en flambe.** 

" Le Seigneur De Moulins et Le Bailly 
Deureux" — skilled. 

The forts were burnt as soon as taken, 
and when the English had fled *' lesdictes 
bastilles et forteresses furent prestement 
arses et demolies jusques en terre, afllin que 
nulles gens de guerre de quelconque pays 
quilz soient ne si peussent plus loger.** — ff, 
43. 



«<^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^/VM^^ 



Battle of PaJtay, 

At Patay, ** les Francois moult de pres 
mirent pied a terre, et descendirent la plus 
grant partie de leur chevaulz.** 



56 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



" The Duke of Bedford, recovered a little 
from the astonishment into which the late 
singular events had thrown him, collected 
about 4000 men, and sent them to join the 
remains of the English army, now command- 
ed bj the brave Lord Talbot. When this 
reinforcement, conducted by Sir J. Fastolf, 
joined Lord Talbot, they formed an army 
which the French a few months before 
would not have dared to approach. The 
French commanders held a council of war, 
in which they consulted their oracle the M. 
of O., who cried out " In the name of God, 
let us fight the English, though they were 
suspended in the clouds." "But where," said 
they, " shall we find them." " March I march !" 
cried she, ** and God will be your guide." 
She stood by the King^s side, with her ban- 
ner displayed, during the whole ceremony; 
and as soon as it was ended, she fell pros- 
trate at his feet, embraced his knees, and 
with a flood of tears entreated his permission 
to return to her former station." — Henbt. 



^«/N/>^^^«^^^VW^WWW« 



French Wars ruinous to the English, 

** Iw the last year of the victorious Henry 
y. there was not a sufficient number of gen- 
tlemen left in England to carry on the busi- 
ness of civil government. 

" But if the victories of Henry V. were so 
fatal to the population of his country, the 
defeats and disasters of the succeeding reign 
were still more destructive. In the twenty- 
fifth year of this war, the instructions given 
to the Cardinal of Winchester, and other 
plenipotentiaries appointed to treat about a 
peace, authorize them to represent to those 
of France, " That there haan been moo men 
slayne in these wars for the title and claime 
of the coroune of France, of oon nacion and 
other, than ben at thb daye in bodi landys, 
and so much Christiene blode shede, that it 
is to grete a sorow and an orrour to think 
or here it." — Rtmsb*s FcuUra^ vol, 10, p. 
724. Hjsnbt. 



Johamte la PuceUe. 

" £t fut demande a Johanne la P. par 
aucuns des princes la estans quelle chose il 
estoit de faire et que bon luy sembloit t 
ordonner. LaqueUc P. respondit quelle 
scavoit bien pour vray que leurs anciens 
ennemis les Anglois venoient pour eulx com- 
battre. Disoit oultre que au nom de Dieu 
on allast hardiment contre eulx et que sans 
faille ilz seroient vaincus. Et ancuns luj 
demanderent ou on les trouveroit, et elle 
dist chevauchez hardiement on aura bon 
conduyt. Adonc tous gens darmes se mi- 
rent en battaille et en bonne ordonnance 
tirerent leur chemin ayans des plus ezpen 
hommes de guerre montez sur fleur de cour- 
siers allant devant pour descouvrir leurs en- 
nemys jusques au nombre de soixante ou 
quati*e vingtz hommes darmes, et ainsi par 
certaine longue espace chevaucherent, et 
vindrent par ung jour de Samedy a une 
grant demye lieue pres dung gros villaige 
nomme Patay en laquelle marche les des- 
susditz coureurs Francois veirent de devant 
eulx partir ung cerf, lequel adressoit son 
chemin droit pour aller a la battaille des 
Anglois qui ja sestoient mis tous ensemble, 
cestass avoir iceulx venans de Paris dont 
dessus est faicte mencion, et les autres qui 
estoient partis de Boysiency, ct des marches 
dorleans. Pour la venue duquel cerf qui 
se ferit comme dit est parmy icelle bataille 
fut desditz Anglois esleve ung tres grant 
cry et ne scavoyent pas encores que leun 
ennemys fiis6ent si pres deulx, pour lequel 
cry les dessusditz coureurs Francois furent 
acertainez que cestoient les Anglois." ^ 
MoNST. 44. 

Decrees against the Fugitives from the Maid, 

In RTifEB*8 Fcedera are two proclama* 
tions, one ** Contra Capitaneos et Soldarioi 
tergiversantes, incantationibus Puellie ter 
rificatos ;" the other, *' De fugitivis ab eX' 
ercitu, quos terriculamenta PuellsB exani« 
maverant, arestandis." 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



67 



Chinon. 

iNON is situated near where the Yienne 
tself in the Loire. Rabelais was born 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1^^^% 



Song on the Battte of Azincour. 

*' Deo gratias Anglia. 
Redde pro victorid. 

*€ Kynge went forth to Normandy, 
grace and mjtz of chjiralry ; 
rod for hym wrouzt manrlusly, 
efore Englonde may calle and cry, 

Deo, &c. 

sette a sege, the sothe to say, 
irflue town, with royal array, 
^une he wan, and made a fray 
Praunce shall rywe tyl domes day. 

Deo, &c. 

Q for sothe that Enyzt comely, 
incourt feld fauzt manly, 
w grace of (rod most myzty 
d bothe felde and victory. 

Deo, &c. 

Q went owre Kynge, with all his oste, 
weFraunce for all theFrensche boste, 
ured for drede of leste ne moste 
; come to Agincourt coste. 

Deo, &c. 

'e Dukys and Early s,lorde and barone 
take, and slayne, and that wel sone, 
[>me were ledde into Lundone, 
joye and merth, and grete renone. 

Deo, &c. 

r gracious God he save owre Kynge, 
fple, and all his well wyllinge ; 
m gode lyfe, and gode endynge, 
ire with merth may safely synge, 

Deo, &c. 

BuBlffBT. 



^^^'^^M^^^^/'^^^^^^^^^^v^^^ 



Corwen. 

OBWEN is a small town on a vast rock 
foot of the Berwyn hills, and famous 

ing the rendezvous of the Welsh forces 
Owen Glendwr, who from hence 

d the invasion of Henry II. 1166. 



The place of encampment is distinguished 
by a mound of earth, and the sites of tents 
from the church southward to the village of 
Cynwyd. On the south side of the church 
wall is cut a very rude cross, which is shown 
to strangers as the sword of Owen Glyndwr. 
Near the porch stands a pointed rude stone, 
called Carreg y big yn y fach newlyd, which 
it is pretended directed the founder to place 
the church there. The river Trystion burst- 
ing through the hills forms Rhaider Cynwyd, 
or the fall of Cynwyd. The Berwyn moun- 
tains are the east boundary of Corwen vale. 
Their highest tops are Cader Bronwen, or 
the White Breast, on which is a heap of 
stones surrounded by a pillar ; and Cader 
Forwyn. Under their sunmiits is said to 
run Fford Helen, or Helen*s Way ; and 
about them grows the Rubus Chamcemorus, 
cloud berry, or knot berry, used in tarts.** 
— GrouGH*s Camden. 



PlinUmon and Severn : — Mathraval^ Pennant 
MelangU^ and St MonaceUa, 

** PuNLiMON, where it bounds Montgo- 
meryshire, on that side pours forth the Se- 
vern. Immediately after its rise it forms 
so many meanders, that one would often 
think it was running back, though it is all 
the while advancing, or rather slowly wan- 
dering through this country.** 

Mathraval is upon the Warnway. 

** In Pennant Melangle church was the 
tomb of St. Monacella who protecting a hare 
from the pursuit of Brocwell Yscythbrog, 
Prince of Powis, he gave her land to found 
a religious house, of which she became first 
Abbess. Her hard bed is shewn in the cleft 
of a neighbouring rock. Her tomb was in 
a little chapel, now the vestry, and her image 
is still to be seen in the churchyard ; where 
is also that of Edward, eldest son of Owen 
Gwynedh, who was set aside from the suc- 
cession on account of a broken nose, and 
flying here for safety, was slain not far off, 
at a place called Bwlch Croes Jorwerth. On 
his shield is inscribed * Hie jacet Etward.* 
— Gouoh's Camden, 



»♦ 



5b 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Victim to Apollo. 

" At Terracina, in Italy, it was an im- 
pious and barbarous custom, on certain very 
solemn occasions, for a young man to make 
himself a voluntary sacrifice to Apollo, the 
tutelar deity of the city. After having been 
long caressed and pampered by the citizens, 
apparelled in rich gaudy ornaments, he of- 
fered sacrifice to Apollo, and running full 
speed from this ceremony, threw himself 
headlong from a precipice into the sea, and 
was swallowed up by the waves. Csesarius, 
a holy deacon from Africa, happened once 
to be present at thb tragical scene, and not 
being able to contain his zeal, spoke openly 
against so abominable a superstition. The 
priest of the idol caused him to be I4>pre- 
hended, and accused him before the gover- 
nor, by whose sentence the holy deacon, 
together with a Christian priest named Lu- 
cian, was put into a sack and cast into the 
sea, the persecution of Dioclesian then rag- 
ing, in 300." — Lioes of the Fathers^ &c. by 
AXBAN BUTLEB. Dub. 1780. 

JSJaculation, 

" St. Malacht used in his walks to send 
up short inflamed ejaculations from the bow 
of his heart," says S. Bebmabd, " which was 
always bent." — Ibid. 

St. Wene/ride 

^'This name, in the Anglo-Saxon tongue, 
signifies winner or procurer of peace ; but 
in the British, fair countenance. Thus St. 
VV'infrid called himself Boniface in foreign 
countries.^ Her father, whose name was 
Thevith, was very rich, and one of the prime 
nobility in the country, being son toEluith, 

' " Winfrid, an ubtaincr of concord, or a win- 
pence. Winifrid an Englishman was by means 
of Charles the Great unto Pope Gregory the 
Second, made Archbishop of Mayence, and of 
the SHid Pone named Boniface. 

" Winuefrede: the name of a woman all one 
in signification.'' Ybrsteoan. 

J. W. W. 



the chief magistrate, and second man in the 
kingdom of North Wales, next to the King. 
Her virtuous parents desired above all things 
to breed her up in the fear of Grod, and to 
preserve her soul untainted amidst the cor- 
rupt air of the world. About that time St. 
Beuno, a holy priest and monk, who is said 
to have been uncle to our saint by the mo- 
ther, having founded certain religious housei 
in other places, came and settled in that 
neighbourhood. Thevith rejoiced at his ar- 
rival, gave him a spot of ground free from 
all burden or tribute, to build a church on, 
and recommended his daughter to be in- 
structed by him in Christian piety. When 
the holy priest preached to the people, 
Wenefride was placed at his feet, and her 
tender soul eagerly imbibed his heavenly 
doctrine, and was wonderfully aflfected with 
the great truths which he delivered, or ra- 
ther which God addressed to her by his 
mouth. The love of the sovereign and in- 
finite good growing daily in her heart, her 
affections were quite weaned from all the 
things of this world ; and it was her earnest 
desire to consecrate her virginity by vow to 
Grod, and instead of an earthly bridegroom, 
to choose Jesus Christ for her spouse. Her 
parents readily gave their consent, shedding 
tears of joy and thanking God forherholj 
resolution. She first made a private vow 
of virginity in the hands of S. Beuno, and 
some time after received the religious veil 
from him, with certain other pious virgins, 
in whose company she served God in a small 
nunnery which her father had built for her, 
under the direction of S. Beuno, near Holy 
Well. Afler this, S. Beuno returned to 
the first monastery which he had built at 
Clynog Vaur, about forty miles distant, and 
there soon after slept in our Lord. Afler 
the death of S. Beuno, S. Wenefrede left 
Holy Well, and afler putting herself for a 
short time under the direction St. Daifer, 
entered the nunnery of Gutherin in Den- 
bighshire, under the direction of a very holy 
abbot, called Elerius, who governed there a 
double monastery. After the death of the 
Abbess Theonia, S. Wenefrede was chosen 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



419 



to Bocoeed her. Caradoc, son of Alain, 
prince of that country, being yiolently fallen 
in love with her, gave so far way to his 
brutish passion for her, that finding it im- 
possible to extort her consent to marrj him, 
or gratify his desires, in his rage he one 
dtj pursued her, and cut off her head, at 
the was flying from him to take refuge in 
the church which St. Beuno had built at 
Holy Well. Robert of Shrewsbury and 
some others add, that Caradoc was swal- 
lowed up by the earth upon the spot ; that 
in the place where the head fell, the won- 
derful well which is seen there sprang up, 
with pebble stones and large parts of the 
rock in the bottom stained with red streaks, 
and with moss growing on the sides under 
the water, which renders a sweet, fragrant 
smell ; and that the mart3rr was raised to 
life by the prayers of St. Beuno, and bore 
ever after the mark of her martyrdom by a 
red circle on the skin of her neck." — Ibid, 
p. 112. 



^^^N^^'^^^^^^>^>^^^S^^^^^^» 



Saint Aignan, 

^ Saikct Aigman nasquit a Yienne en 
Dauphine, de parens riches, nobles, et 
Chretiens, et fiit frere de S. Leonian, pere 
(l*un grand nombre de Moynes. La chair, 
le monde, et le diable luy livrerent en la 
fleur de son age de furieux assauts, pour 
lesquels repousser, il delibera de quitter le 
monde, et s*enrooler sous les enseignes de la 
Croix, bastissant luy-mesme un petit Her- 
mitage hors la ville ; ou il vescut quelque 
temps, chery et caress^ de Dieu, mais mes- 
priae et mocquc dc ses concitoyens, qui ne 
poavoient gouter une maniere de vie si 
lustere : car il prioit sans cesse, jeusnoit 
estroittement, portoit sur son corps une 
tres-rude cilice. 

** Ayant ainsi passe quelques annees, il 
fut inspire de Dieu d*aller a Orleans. Ses 
i^res et singulieres vertus donnerent incon- 
tinent une odeur si souefue^ en tons les en- 

' I find '* souef, suavis," in Mbnagb. — It is 
^ridendy the same in signification. 

J. W. W. 



droits de la ville, que chacun et particuli- 
erement S. Euvertre, admira son humilite, 
sa patience, son austerite, et pardessus tout 
son incroyable charite, de sorte que n*en 
pouvant rencontre un plus digne, il le nomma 
son successeur. Les Grands de la ville ne 
s*y accordans pas, en porterent deux des 
meilleures families contre luy. S. Euvertre 
procura une assemblee generale, pour mon- 
trer que son election venoit du Ciel, que 
Dieu des son Etemite Tavoit ainsi arreste, 
et que la seule vertu du venerable A. Ty 
avoit induit ; et pour plus les en assurer, il 
fit une proposition qui fut trouvee bonne de 
toute Tassemblee ; c*est que Ton mist sur un 
autel les noms de ceux qu*ils desiroient, 
avec celuy de S. A : et apres avoir employe 
la nuict en prieres, et celebre le saincte 
Messe, * nous envoyerons (dit il) un enfant 
prendre les billets, celuy qu*il tirera le pre-> 
mier, sera instale en mon lieu. Si cela ne 
vous suffit, nous prendrons le Psaulticr, et 
le livre des Evangiles, pour voir si tout ne 
se rapporte pas.* Cet advis eetant genc- 
ralement receu, Ton possa le nuict en orai- 
son, et npres la Messe, que celebre S. £. 
Ton prend un petit enfant qui ne pouvoit 
encore parler, pour aller a Tautel. Le pre- 
mier billet qu*il tira, fut celuy S. A. au 
grand estonnement de toute TassistancCfdis- 
tinctement par trois fois le proclama Eves- 
que. On ouvre le Psaultier, on Ton trouva 
de prime abord ce verset^ * Bien heureux est 
celuy que vous avez eleu et etably, il de- 
meurera en vostre maison/ Et au livre des 
Evangiles, on y rencontra cos paroles^* Tu 
es Pierre, et sur cette Pierre je bastiray 
mon Eglise ! * Et pour fermer entierement 
Felection, afin que chacun n*en doutast 
plus, S. E. fit ouvrir TApocalypse,' ou Ton 
trouva : ' Personne ne peut mettre un autre 
fondement que celuy deja pose.* A ces mi- 
racles si manifestes personne n*osa resister, 
voyant palpablcment la volont^ divine, tcU 
lement que S. E. la sacra aussi tost. 

" Apres la mort done de S. E. S. A. prit 



' The verse occurs in 1 Cor. iii. 11. 

J. W. W. 



60 



TOEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



la charge de TEglise d*Orleans, en laquelle 
il se comporta si dignement, que comme un 
vigilant Jardinier, il arrache de tout son 
diocese les herbes dommageables, et y en 
planta de bonnes ; prechant d*un zele nom- 
pareil, visitant les malades, assistant les 
vefues, defendant les orphelins, secourant 
les pauvres et particulierement les prison- 
niers, desquels il avoit grand soin. Le 
Colonel Agrapin n*ayant point voulu a sa 
requeste relacher ceux qu*il tenoit, allant a 
TEglLse une pierre tomba sur sa tete, qui 
le blesse si fort que Ton n*en pouvoit etan- 
cher le sang, et n'en attendoit on que la 
mort. Cette affliction desiUa ses yeuz, et 
le faisant souvenir de son injuste refus, pro- 
testa d*accorder la requeste du Sainct, le- 
quel par le signe de la Croix luy restitua sa 
premiere sante : et de la est provenu le pri* 
vilege qu*ont ses successeurs Eveques, de 
delivrer les prisonniers le jour de leur en- 
tree. Faisant agrandir une Eglise que 
S. E. avoit batie, le Maitre Masson tombe 
du faiste en bas, et se froisse tellement les 
membres, qu*il en tiroit a la fin S. A. j ac- 
courut, fit le signe de la Croix sur luj, et 
le rendit sain. 

'* En ce temps le cruel Attila sortit des 
Mers, resolu de s*emparer des Gaules. Le 
saint prelat prevoyant que cette nuee vien- 
droit fondre a Orleans, s*en va a Aries pour 
s^aboucher avec (Etius, Lieutenant General 
de FEmpereur Justinian (!) a luy demander 
secours, et comme une grande fontaine ar- 
rouse les terres par lesquelies elle passe, 
ains» en son chemin il laissa des marques de 
son heureux voyage, guerissant en beau- 
coup de lieux grand nombre de malades. 
Entr*autrcs estant loge une nuict en la mai- 
son de S. Mammert qui avoit perdu la 
parole, et alloit rendre Fesprit, et ayant prie 
le long de cette nuict, il le guerit sur le 
matin, tant du corps de de Tame : car S. M. 
se voue depuis a Dieu, se separa de sa femme 
par son consentement et fut Archivesque de 
Vienne. A son retour la viUe fut inconti- 
nent assiegee, Attila fermant toutes les 
issues, et battant jour et nuict la muraille 
et avoit il deja partage le butin de la ville, et 



fait amas de beaucoup de chariots.^ Comme 
les citoyens efilrayez eurent recours a lenr 
prelat, luy, sans se soucier, pour le salut 
des siens, sortit de la ville et parla a Attila. 
Mais ne Tayant pu flechir, il se mit en pri- 
eres, fit faire des Processions, et porter par 
les rues les reliques des saints. Un Prestre 
s*en estant mocque, disant, que ccla n^avoit 
d9 rien profite aux autres villes, tomba 
roide mort sur la place, portant par ce moyen 
la peine de son insolente temerite. Apres 
toutes ces choses, il commanda aux habitans 
de voir si le secours n*arrivoit point ; ayant 
ete respondu que non, il se remet en prieres, 
et puis leur fait mesme commandement : 
mais n*appercevant point encore de secours, 
pour le troisieme fois il se prostema a terre, 
les yeux et Fesprit vers le Ciel. Se sen- 
tant exauce, il fait monter a la guerite et 
luy rapporte-t-on que Fon ne voyoit rien si 
non une grosse nuee de poussiere ; 11 asseure 
que c*etoit le secours d*(Etius et de Teudo 
Roy des (roths, Icsquels tardans a se montrer 
a Farmee d*Attilla, S. A. fut divinement 
transporte en leur camp, et les advertit qne 
tout estoit perdu, s*ils attendoient au lende- 
main. Us parurent aussi-tost, et forcerent 
Attila de lever si h&tivement le siege, que 
plusieurs des siens se noyerent dans la Loire, 
d*autres s*entretuerent avec regret d*avoir 
perdu le ville : et non contens de cette vic- 
toire, le poursuiverent si vivement avec le 
R. Mcronec, que se vint joindre a eux, qu'Us 
le defirent en bataille rangee pres de Cha- 
lons, jonchant la campagne de 180,000 
cadavres. On ne pent rapporter la joye 
qu*eurent lors ceux d^Orleans, ny Festime 
qu*ils firent de leur sainct prelate Fappellant 
Mur de France, Protecteur de leur ville, et 
vray Pere de tous les Citoyens; lesquels 
furent tous conservez, exceptez quelques 
incredules, qui tombans entres les mains de 
Fennemy, furent traittez avec cruaute. En 

' From here is quoted in the notes to Joan ^ 
Arcy fifth book, p. 37, on the lines, 

** St. Aignan's shrine 
Was throng'd with suppliants, the general Toice 
Call'd on St. Aignan's name again to save 
His people, as of yore," &c. J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



61 



cette mesmc annee Dieu le combla encore 
d*une nouvelle fayeor ; car coxnme pour les 
ravages des armees la famine fiit extreme, 
par sea prierea la terre devint si fertile en 
bleda, vina, et autrea provisiona, que par 
tout son Dioceae Ton ne reaaentoit plua lea 
pertea de la guerre.** 

Two yeara after, on November 17, " il 
paasa de cette vie laborieuae en une pleine 
de repoa.** He haa a Church dedicated to 
him at Orleana ; and on June 14, the day 
he delivered the city, a featival. 

From Le nouveau parterre desjleurs des 
viet des Saints, Par Pbbb Ribademeiba de 
la Compagnie de Jesus ; M. Andre du Yal 
Docteur et Prqfesseur du Ray en Theologie^ 
et par Jsam BAUDonf Historiographe du 
Roy, Lyons, 1666. 



Aberfraw} 

"Abebtbaw Palace is aucceeded by a 
barn, in which are atonea of better work- 
manship than usual in auch buildinga. Here 
was kept a copy of the ancient code of lawa. 
Kear it are frequently found the Glain 
Kaidr, or Druid glass rings. Of theae the 
Tolgar opinion in Cornwall and most parts 
of Wales ia, that they are produced by 
snakea joining their heada together and hia- 
sing, which forma a kind of bubble like a 
ring about the head of one of them, which 
the reat by continual hiaaing blow on till it 
comes o£r at the tail, when it immediately 
hardens and resembles a glass ring. Who- 
ever found it was to prosper in all his un- 
dertakings. These rings are called Glain 
Kadroedh or Gemnue Anguinae. 

Pliny aaya, *' a great number of anakea in 
tummer rolling together form themaelves 
into a kind of mass with the saliva of their 
mouths and froth of their bodies, and pro- 
duce what is called the anguinum or snake*a 
egg. The Druids say, this by their hissing 



(I 



Like the lights 



Which them upon Aberfiraw'a royal walla 
Are waving with the wind." Madoc^ L i. 

J. W. W. 



ia borne up into the air, and must be caught 
in a mantle before it reachca the earth. 
The peraon who catches it must escape on 
horseback, for the snakes will pursue him 
till they are stopped by a river. The proof 
of it is, if it floats against the stream even 
when set in gold. It must be caught in a 
certain period of the moon. 

*' On a little hill near Holyhead is a round 
chapel of St. Fraid, of which the people can 
give no account, except that human bodies 
and stone coffins have been dug up in it 
within memory, and it is still walled round 
for burial. About one quarter of a mile 
north of it on the hill overlooking Holyhead 
are the remains of a double Cromlech in the 
same direction as the rest, and seeming to 
have been considerable. It is called Tre- 
chen Tre rechthre. Tradition says that a 
very profligate debauch^ owner of the ad- 
joining farms of Trergow and Pentros, com- 
mitted great excesses at these stones with 
his mistresses, and at last in a fit of rage 
murdered them there. Under the mountain 
that overhangs the town (Holyhead), and 
is properly called the Head, is a large ca- 
vern in the rock, supported by natural pil- 
lars, called the Parliament Houses, accessi- 
ble by boats, and the tide flows into it. On 
its top is Caer Twr, a circular stone wall 
without mortar, surrounding its summit ten 
feet with a wall, probably a pharos. Seve- 
ral other like fortifications appear on the 
tops of the hills on the coast in this island. 
In the Church of Llanedan a reliquary of 
very ordinary grit stone with a roof-like 
cover, the celebrated Maen Mordhwyd, or 
stone of the thigh, is now chained to the 
church walls, having defied the orders of 
Hugh Lupus to cast it into the sea, whence 
it returned to its usual place. 

^* Llandyfrydog is remarkable for an ac- 
cident that befel Hugh Earl of Shrewsbury, 
in one of his invasions here ; his dogs put 
in the Church one night run mad, and the 
Earl himself died miserably in less than a 
month after.** — Goiigh*8 Camden. 



62 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Winifred's WeU. 

" At the bottom of St. Winifred's well 
are several round stones with red spots, a 
kind of Jungermania moss, odoriferous, 
which they pretend stained with her blood, 
and others on which grows a long odoriferous 
Bissus lolithus, called her hair." — Gough's 
Camden, 

Love of God, 

" The soul of one who serves God," said 
St. John of the Cross, " always swims in 
joy, always keeps holyday, is always in her 
palace of jubilation, ever singing with fresh 
ardour and fresh pleasure a new song of 
joy and love. 

" Perfect love of God (said he) makes 
death welcome and most sweet to a soul. 
They who love thus, die with burning ar- 
dours and impetuous flights, through the 
vehemence of their desires of mounting up 
to their beloved. The rivers of love in the 
heart, now swell almost beyond all bounds, 
being just going to enter the ocean of love. 
So vast and so serene are they that they 
seem even now calm seas, and the soul over- 
flows with torrents of joy, upon the point 
of entering into the full possession of God. 
She seems already to behold that glory, and 
all things in her seem already turned into 
love, seeing there remains no other prepa- 
ration than a thin web, the prison of the 
body being abeady broken." ^ 

Irish at Rouen, 

" With the English (at the siege of Roan) 
1600 Irish Kernes were enrolled, from the 
Prior of Kilmainham, able men, but almost 
naked ; their arms were targets, darts, and 
swords, their horses little and bare, no sad- 
dle, yet never the less nimble, on which 
upon every advantage they plaied with the 

* This is from his " Flamma Vivi Amorif," 
As both paragraphs occur in Butler's Lives of 
the Saints, no doubt the extracts are to be re- 
ferred tu that work. See under November 24. 

J. W. W. 



French, in spoiling the country, rifeb'ng the 
houses, and carrying away children with 
their baggage, upon their cowes backs.'*— 
Speed, p. 638. 



\^^^^^^^^s^^%^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Arrows. 

** The tempests of arrowes still whisling 
in the aire sparkled fire in their fals from 
the helmets of the French, and with their 
steeled heads, rang manie thousands their 
knels that doleful day." — Speed. At Aii*- 
eour. 

Pomp of an Army, 

" And surely the beauty and honourable 
horrour of both the armies, no heart can 
judge of, unless the eye had scene it, the 
banners, ensigns, and pennons streaming in 
the ayre, the glistering of armours, the va- 
rietie of colours, the motion of plumes, the 
forrests of lances, and the thickets of shorter 
weapons, made so great and goodlie a show." 
— Speed, p. 632. 

Paul the Hermit, 

A. G. 350. *' Dans la Basse-Thebaide, il 
y avoit un jeune homme, nomme Paul, que 
son p^re et sa m^re avoient laiss^, k Tage 
de 15 ans, h^ritier d'un grand patrimoioe; 
il avoit une socur maride, et demeuroit avec 
elle. Son caract^re etoit doux et sensible, 
son esprit cultiv^ et rcflechi ; il ^toit savant 
dans les lettres Grecques et Egyptiennes, 
aimoit T^tude et la retraite ; et p^n6tr6 des 
grandes v^rit^ de la religion, il trouvoit le 
bonheur dans la pratique des vertus qu'elle 
prescrit. La persecution Tobligea k chercher 
un asyle dans des montagnes ddsertes; il 
avoit alors 23 ans. Paul, attendant la fin de 
la persecution, s'affectionna au genre de vie 
solitaire qu'il avoit embrass^par necessite : la 
crainte le conduisit dans un desert, rinclioa- 
tionTyfixa. II s'avan^oitchaquejourdansles 
montagnes, et ne s'arretoit que lorsque lafati- 
gue Tobligeoit k prendre quelque repos. Si 
la contemplation de la natiu'e a des charmes 
pour un philosophe, quelle impression vive 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



63 



>foDde ne doit-elle pas faire sur un 
>e penetr^ de Tidee sublime de TEtre 
me qui a tout cree ? Sans doute un 
ne peut regarder les merveilles de 
ers qu'avec les transports de Tenthou- 
; ! Ayec quel respect et quel atten- 
ment ne doit-il pas considerer les 
^es de Dieu ! Les cieux, la terre, les 
mers, tout lui parle de Dieu, et tout 
9uve sa sagesse et sa puissance. Paul, 
avoir err^ long- temps, rencontra une 
gne de roche au pied de laquelle ^toit 
»acieuse caveme ; il j entra, et trouva 
ip^ce de grand sallon, sans toit, om- 
d*un majestuedx palmier, et travers^ 
le fontatne d*une eau pure et trans- 
je^ formant un ruisseau qui s*alloit 
i dans les campagnes, et dont le mur- 
invitoit k cette reverie vague, d^las- 
t paisible et delicieux d*un esprit fa- 
par une longue et profonde medita- 
Ce fut dans cette retraite agreable 
aul fixa sa demeure ; ce fut \^ que, 
ill^ de toutes les frivoles passions hu- 
S oubli^ des hommes, mais priant pour 
;ul, sans soci^t^, mais ajant Dieu pour 
I de ses pcns^es, pour objet de son 
et de ses esp^rances, il connut le 
et le bonheur qu*elle seule peut pro- 
II mourut fig^ de 113 ans.** — Amudes 
Verbiy p. 119. 



*^^.^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^At^ 



Lines to M. C} 

IT ! remember tou ! — poor proof it 

ere 

mdliest recollection, did I say 

rom the ready smile and courtly tones 

rorthless forms of cold civility 

art has tum*d, and thought of you, 

id wishM 

le rejider will call tc» mind the beautiful 
Idresoed to Mary. Poem*, p. 130. One 

• 

IBT ! ten chequer'd years have past 
e we beheld each other last ; 
Mary, I remember thee, 
canst thou have forgotten me," &c. 

J. W. W. 



That I were far from all the hollow train, 
Seated by your fire side. But when I say, 
As true it is, — for blessed be my God ! 
The phrase of flattery never yet defiled 
My honest tongue ; — that at the evening hour 
When we do think upon our absent friends. 
Your image is before us ; that whenever 
With the first glow I read my finished song 
And feel it good, I wish for your applause. 
This sure might prove that I remember you, 
Tho* far away, and mingling with a world 
Ah I how unlike ! — ^and when amid that 

world 
My soul grows sick, and Fancy shadows out 
Some blessed solitude where all is peace. 
And life might be the foretaste of the joys 
The good must meet in heaven, then by our 

home. 
Beside our quiet home, I seem to see 
A little dwelling, whose white, woodbined, 

walls 
Look comfort, and I think that it is yours.** 

Bristol Nov. 6, 1797. 



Chant for the Feast of St. John the Evange" 
Usty extracted from a MS. at Amiens^ written 
about 1250. Bubnet*s History of Music, 

** BoN Chrestien que Dieu conquist 
En Ion battaille, ou son fil mist, 
Oiez le lechion con vous list. 
Que Jhesus le fil Sirac fist. 
Sainte Eglise partie en prie, 
Et en cette feste laissist, 
De Saint Jehan que Dieu eslit, 
Le cousin germain Jhesus Crist, 
Qui paroles et fais escript. 
Lectio libri sapientise. 
Jhesus nostre boins avoes 
Sapience Dieu est nome. 

**It is easy to suppose,** says the Abbe Lb 
Beup, " that the design of those who esta- 
blished such chants in some of the Churches 
of France, was to distinguish festivals and 
holy times, by the ornaments and graces 
with which they were sung.** 



\ 



64 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



French Musical Instruments} 

*^ The instrument which most frequently 
served for an accompaniment to the harp, 
and which disputed the preeminence with 
it in the early times of music in France, 
was the viol ; and indeed, when reduced to 
four strings, and stript of the frets with 
which viols of all kinds seem to have been 
furnished till the sixteenth century, it still 
holds the first place among treble instru- 
ments under the denomination of violin. 

" The viol played with a bow, and wholly 
difierent from the Vielle, whose tones are 
produced by the friction of a wheel, which 
indeed perfoims the part of a bow, was very 
early in favour with the inhabitants of 
France. — ^Bubnet. 



Charles convinced by the Maid. 

" Chables thought proper to desire the 
Maid to give him some unquestionable 
proofs of her being the messenger of God, 
as he might then entirely confide in her ad- 
vice, and follow her instructions. Joan an- 
swered, ' Sire, if I can discover to you your 
thoughts which you confided to God alone, 
will you firmly believe that I am his mes- 
senger?* Charles said he would. She then 
asked him if he remembered that some 
months before, in the chapel of his castle 
of Loches, he privately and alone humbly 
begged three gifts from heaven ? The king 
remembered very well his having made re- 
quests to God, which he had not since re- 
vealed even to his confessor, and said that 
he would no longer doubt of Joan^s divine 
legation, if she could tell him what those 
intreaties were. 

" * Your first suit was, then,' replied Joan, 
* that if you were not the true heir to the 
crown of France, God would please to de- 
prive you of the courage and desire of con- 

' This is used up in the notes to Joan of Arc, 
fifth book, p. 37, on the line, 

** No more the merry viol's note was heard." 

J. W. W. 



tin ding a war, in order to possess it, 
had already caused so much bloodsh 
misery throughout the kingdom. Yc 
cond prayer was, that if the great tr 
and misfortunes which the poor inhal 
of France have lately underwent, w€ 
punishment of any sins by you comi 
that he would please to relieve the 
of France, that you might alone be p 
ed, and make expiation, either by da 
any torment he would please to inflict, 
third desire was, that if the sins of th 
pie were the cause of their sufierin 
would be pleased in his divine me 
grant them pardon, ahd deliver then 
the pains and miseries which they 
been labouring under already above i 
years.* Charles knowing the truth of 
said, was now fii*mly persuaded thi 
was a divine messenger.*' 

Extracted from the Aimals ofNort 
by John Naoebejl, Canon and Arch* 
of the Church of Notre Dame at Eon 
the Lady's Magazine for 1780. 

Fairy Tree at Dompre? 

" Being asked whether she had eve 
any fairies, she answered no ; but th 
of her godmothers pretended to have 
some at the fairy tree, near the vilh 
Dompre." — Rapin, from Pasquieb. 



The Maid foretold by a Nun. 

*' Chables being informed that Jc 
Arc was coming, declared that Mariad' 
non, a nun, had formerly told him H 
would arm one of her sex in defei 
France.** — Rapin. 



Fort London, 

FoBT London was built upon the m 
the church of the Augustines. 



' " There is a fountain in the forest ca 
The fountain of the fairies." &c. 

Joan of Arc, First book, p. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOH LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



65 



The Maid fettered, 

^ On her appearance in court, she com- 
plained that irons Iiad been put on her legs, 
on which the bishop reminded her that she 
often attempted to escape from prison.** — 

KlQKRAL. 

The Maid throws herself from a Tower, 

^ She was charged with throwing herself 
headlong from the tower, in order to kill 
herself, whilst she was prisoner at Beaure- 
voir. She confessed the fact, but said her 
design was not to kill herself, but make her 
escape." — Rapim 

Her favourite ScUitts. 

St. Cathbbime and St. Margaret were 
her fayourite saints. 



^/^^WVWN^«^^\^V%^^^>^^«^» 






Franquet d^ Arras. 

Upoh being charged with putting to death 
Franquet d* Arras, her prisoner, she replied 
be was a known robber, and condemned to 
die bj the bailiff of Senlis. 

Paul the Hermit, 

Paul the Hermit clothed himself with the 
leaves of the palm, eat the fruits, and drank 
of the spring beside it. 

Dufy of Insurrection. 

^ Alob8 il y a justice, il y a n^essite que 

les plus intr^pides, les plus capables de se 

derouer, ceux qui se croient pouryus au 

pn^mier degre d'energie, de chaleur et de 

force, de ces vertus gen^reuses sous la garde 

desquelles a 6t^ remis le d^pdt d*une con- 

ititution populaire que tous les Fran^ais 

▼raiment libres n*ont jamais oubliee ; il y 

talors justice et necessity que ceux Ik, con- 

vimcus d*ailleurs que Tinspiration de leur 

propre coeur, ou celle de la liberty elle- 

ii^e, qui leur fait entendre plus fortement 

^ tout entreprendre; il y a justice et n^ces- 

nte que d*eux-mSmes ils s'investissent de la 



dictature de Tinstruction, qu*ils en pren- 
nent Tinitiative, qu*ils revetent le glorieux 
titre de conjures pour la liberty qu'ils s*^ri- 
gent en magistrats sauveurs de leur conci- 
toyens." — Baboeuf. 

Scripture JExttxtcts. 

*' Fob strong is his right hand that bend- 
eth the bow, his arrows that he shooteth 
are sharp, and shall not miss when they be- 
gin to be shot into the ends of the world.** 
2 Esdras^ xvi. 13. 

^* The trees shall give fruit, and who shall 
gather them ? 

'^ The grapes shall ripen, and who shall 
tread them ? for all places shall be desolate 
of men.'*— 2 Esdrasy xvi. 25, 26. 

" O my people, hear my word : make you 
ready to the battle, and in those evils be 
even as pilgrims upon the earth.** — 2 Es- 
draSy xvi. 40. 

^* And the angel that was sent unto me — 
said, — Thinkest thou to comprehend tlie 
way of the Most High ? 

" Then said I, Yea, my Lord. And he 
answered me and said, I am sent to show 
thee three ways, and to set forth three si- 
militudes before thee ; 

*' Whereof if thou canst declare me one, 
I will show thee abo the way that thou de- 
sirest to see, and I shall show thee from 
whence the wicked heart cometh. 

" And I said. Tell on, my Lord. Then 
said he unto me, Oo thy way, weigh me the 
weight of the fire, or measure me the blast 
of the wind, or call me again the day that 
is past." — 2 Esdras iv. 1 — 5. 

But if the Most High grant thee to live, 
thou shalt see after the third trumpet, that 
the sun shall suddenly shine again in the 
night, and the moon thrice in the day. 

And blood shall drop out of the wood, 
and the stone shall give his voice, and the 
people shall be troubled. 

** And even he shall rule whom they look 
not for that dwell upon the earth, and the 
fowls shall take their flight away together.** 
—2 Esdrasy v. 4—6. 



I 






I — 

66 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



** Let go from thee mortal thoughts, cast 
away the burdens of man, put off now the 
weak nature, 

" And set aside the thoughts that are most 
heavy unto thee, and haste thee to flee from 
these times." — 2 Esdrtu, xiv. 14, 15. 

" Righteous art thou, O Lord, when I 
plead with thee : yet let me talk with thee 
of thy judgments : wherefore doth the way 
of the wicked prosper ? wherefore are all 
they happy that deal very treacherously ? 

*' Thou hast planted them, yea, they have 
taken root : they grow, yea, they bring forth 
fruit." — Jer. xii. 1, 2. 

" How long shall the land mourn, and 
the herbs of every field wither, for the wick- 
edness of them Uiat dwell therein?" — Jer, 
xiu 4. 

** Yea, the hind also calved in the field, 
and forsook it, because there was no grass. 

'^ And the wild asses did stand in the high 
places ; they snuffed up the wind like dra- 
gons ; their eyes did fail, because there was 
no grass." — Jer, xiv. 5, 6. 



Siege of Orleans from Daniel, 

** Nous avons une lettre de Gui de Laval 
^crite k Madame de Laval sa mbre, et ^ 
Madame de Yitr^ son aieule, signee de lui 
ot de deux autres de ses freres, ou, apr^s 
avoir rapport^ de cette fille diverses choses 
cxtraordinaires dont il avoit ^te t^rooin, il 
njoute ces paroles : et semble chose toute 
divine de son fait, et de la voir, et de Touir." 
— P. Daniel. 

At the attack of a Boulevard near the 
Tournelles, " on avoit pr^par6 de quoi y re- 
sister, des feux d*artifice, de Teau bouil- 
lante, dcs pierres d*une grosseur extraordi- 
naire pour faire rouler sur les assaillans. 
L*ordre dans la defense fut admirable, et le 
courage egal. H n*y eut pas jusqu* aux 
femmes qui n*y fussent employees. Cdtoient 
elles, qui durant Fassaut fbumissoient les 
feux d'artifice, et charroient les pierres sur 
le pont, nonobstant celles que lea ennemis 
faisoient voler de toutes parts. H y eut 



m^e de ces femmes qui se mSl^rei 
les soldats, et qui combatterent la 
la main sur la br^he. Le sire i 
mourut de ses blessures le lendei 
Tassaut." 

Among those who threw themsel 
Orleans, Daniel mentions, ^' Giresj 
valier de Rhodes, Coarase Grent 
Gascon, Chapelle Gentilhomme de '. 
gens de valeur et de reputation 
guerre." 

^* Le principaux ^toient le Comtc 
folc, les Seigneurs Talbot, de Scale 
et un nomm^ Glacidas ou Clacidas 
m^rite suppliant k la naissance, Yb 
parvenir aux premieres charges de 1 

Of the forts he says, " II y en ai 
principales, une 'k la porte de Sail 
qu*ils nommoient Paris : la second) 
appelld les douze Pairs, quails noi 
Londres ; et la troisi^me en un en< 
pell6 le Pressoir, qu*ils nomm^renl 
Us s*emparerent de Tisle appell^ 
magne, qu*ils fortifierent, et oh ils 
pont de conmiunication, pour jo 
camp de la Sologne avec le can 
Beausse. 

L*artillerie ^toit tr^ bien servit 
canonnier Lorrain appelle comm 
Maitre Jean, s*y distingua par son 
car quoique cet art. fikt alors encore 
forme, ce Canonnier ne manquoit p 
ceux sur lesquels il tiroit. II y eut 
sion d*armes le jour de Noel ; et c 
les assi^^s en etant pries par les 
leur envoy^rent des Musiciens et < 
eurs d*instrumens pour cdl^brer la 
une de leurs Bastilles ; mais la let 
pas plutdt passee, que les hostilit^i 
menc^rent." — Ibid. 

Oath of Fastolp 

" I PBAT you sende me worde w 
be so hardy to keck agen you in n 

' See Paston Letters. Note on the 

" Fastolfe, all fierce and haughty as 1 

Joan cf Are, Book 

J. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



07 



And sej hem on my half that they shall be 
qwjt as ferre as law and reason wolle. 

" And yff they woUe not dredde ne obbey 
that, then they shall be quyt by Blacberd 
or Whyteberd, that ys to sey, by God or 
the Deyyll." — Fastolf. — Original letters 
written under H. VI. and R. ILL. edited by 
John Fenn. 



^^\^^W^^^^^^^^^^^k^^k^^te 



VUion of the Maid in the Chapel. 

^ Hahc virginenif contigit pascendo pe- 
cora in sacello quodam vilissimo, ad decli- 
nandam pluviam obdormire ; quo in tempore 
risa est se in somnis a Deo qui se ill! osten- 
derat admoneri. 

^ Haec igitur Janna Pulcella virgo, cum 
magnam gloriam in armis esset adepta, et 
regnum Francorum magn& ex parte deper- 
ditunif e manibus Anglorum pugnando eri- 
poisset ; in su& florenti estate constituta, non 
lolum se morituram, sed et genus suae mor- 
tis cunctis prsedixit.** — Jacobus Beboo- 
MSRsis de elari* mid. edited by Jo. Rayisius 
TsxTOK. Palais, 1521. 



^>i^>^S^^^S^*^I^S^*^S0^S^^^^*^»^S^ 



Breakifig her Sicord, 

^ CoNSECBATO Rcgc rcdintegratum est 
belllgeran(U desiderium It Jan& subtristi, 
quod ensem, quern tantoper^ amabat, frcgis- 
set qaando paulo yiolentius, terrendi tantum 
gratil, quasdam impudicas foeminas quate- 
ret, quas procul a castris esse antea edixe- 
rat" — Stephanus Fobc atulus. — Quoted 
in Hcroinae nobilissimse Joannse Dare Lo- 
^uiringa Yulgo Aureliansis Puelle Historia. 
Authore Joanne Hordal. ser. duels Loth. 
Consiliario, &c. Ponti-Mussi. 1612. 



W^f^^W^^^^^^^^^W^fV^^^/V^Mk 



Boat like an £agle, 

** Aux rayons mourans de la lumi^ pfile, 
Tons les yeux ^tonnez virent sur Fonde 

%ale 
Un spacieux Esquif en Aigle fa^nn^ 
Et dont le mast superbe est de Lis couronn^ : 
liUt qni de la nature heureusement se jouS, 
Hit la queuS It la pouppe, et la teste k la 

prou^. 



Le jaune ^lat des 'Lis dont son corps est 

sem^ 
Jusque sous les flots mSme est en plumes 

form^, 
Et le mobile azur de ses voiles tremblantes 
Figure k tons les yeux des ailes tremous- 

santes; 
On croit le voir voler, tant la rame et le vent 
S*accordent k mouvoir cet oyseau decevant.** 
Chablemaqne be COUBTIII.^ 



Vision in the Chapel, 

BoNFiNius, lib 8 decadis, " Joanna Gel- 
lica Puella dum oves pascit, tempestate co- 
acta in proximum sacellum confugit, ibi 
obdormiens liberandse Grallise mandalum di- 
vinitus accepit." — Hobdal. 

St Cacilia, 

*^DiEBU8 ac noctibus (divo Ambrosio 
teste) k divinis colloquiis orationeq; minimi 
cessabat : ita ut etiam angelum suum, suiq; 
corporis et propositi custodem, seepius vi- 
dere et alloqui commeruerit. Proposuerat 
quidem Cascilia virgo, in primis divino af- 
flata spiritu, quadam suse mentis intcgritate, 
superato omni camis aculeo, constantissimo 
pectore onminb corpus suum a contagione 
hominis in mortem usque servare. A pa- 
rentibus itaq; aliquamdiu ante, Valeriano 
cuidam nobilissimo Patritio, acriq; juveni 
Romano desponsata fuit C. virgo. Ex more 
sunt dilatffi nuptise. Eratq; ipsa C. quftdam 
incomparabili pulchritudine, ob venustatem 
formee plurimum diligenda, inerat et inge- 
nium peregregium, ac sermo blandus et dl- 
sertus, modestissimusq. Cumq; tardius nup- 
tisB Cascilise irent in votum, ardentissimus 
juvenis k parentibus conjugium instantis- 
simb expostulare caepit. C. vero, ut prse- 
missum est, ad camem subtus cilicio indue- 
batur, desuper autem vestibus auro contex- 
tis tegebatur ; nee ut optabat amorem sui 
cordis in deum indiciis evidentibus poterat 

' Did the serpent of Urgenda produce Cha- 
pelain's dragon and this eagle ? 



68 



IDEAS AND STUDDCS FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



aperire. Quid multa? venit dies in qud 
thalamus coUocatus est ; et cantantibus or- 
ganis, ilia in corde suo soli domino hymnum 
decantabat,dicens, ^Fiat cor mcum et coq)U8 
meum domine immaculatum, ut non con- 
fundar.* Et biduanis ac triduanis jejuniis 
orans, commendabat domino quod tiiuebat. 
Invitabat angelos precibus, lacrymisq; in- 
terpellabat apostolos, et sancta agmina om- 
nia Christo famulantia exorabat, ut suis 
eam deprecationibus adjuvarent, suamq; do- 
mino pudicitiam oommendarent. Sed cum 
haec agerentur, venit nox in qud suscepit 
unk cum sponso suo secreta cubilis silentia. 
Et ut erat ingenio celebri vegeta, sermoneq; 
diserto, his sermonibus suavissimis sponsum 
alloquitur. *0 dulcissime atq; amantissime 
juvenis, est sccretum quod tibi confitear; 
si modo tu juratus, asseras tota illud obser- 
vantii custodire.* V. illico jurat, se illud 
nulld ratione, null& necessitate detegere. 
Tunc ilia ait, ^Angelum Dei habeo amato- 
rem, qui nimio zclo custodit corpus meum. 
Hie si vel leviter senserit, quod tu me pol- 
luto amore contingas, statim contra te fu- 
rorem suum exagitabit, et amittes florem 
tuffi gratissimie juventutis. Si autem cog- 
noverit, quod me sincero et immaculato 
amore diligas, et virginitatem meam inte- 
gram et illibatam custodios, ita quoque di- 
liget te sicut et me, et ostendet tibi gratiam 
suam.* Ejus igitur verbis suavissimis et sa- 
pientissimis, ac Dei nutu permotus V. spon- 
8U8, illico dixit, * Rect^ pi^ ac sancte dicis. 
Sed si vis ut credam sermonibus tuis, os- 
tende mihi ipsum angelum. Et si ver^ pro- 
bavero quod angelus Dei sit, confestim quod 
hortatis faciam. Si autem virum alium di- 
ligis, te et ilium interficiam.* Tunc beata 
C. dixit, *Si consiliis meis promittis te ac- 
quiescere, et pemiittas te purificari fonte 
perenni, et credas unum deum esse in cselis, 
vivum et verum, poteris eum videre.' Dicit 
ei V. * Et quis erit qui me purificet, ut ego 
angelum videam ? ' respondit ei C. * Est Se- 
nior qui novit purificare homines, ut mere- 
antur videre angelos/ Dicit ei V. * Et ego 
ubi hunc inveniam senera?' respondit C. 
'Ibis in tertium ab urbe miliarium, via qusB 



Appia nuncupatur : illic nonnullos pauperes 
k transeuntibus aux ilium expostulantes in- 
venies, de quibus mihi semper magna cura 
extitit ; eisdero meam in primis ex nomine 
meo dabis salutationem, dicens, C. me ad 
vos misit, ut sanctum senem Urbanum mihi 
ostendatis, quia ad ilium habeo secreta qute 
perferam. Hunc tu dum videris, indicabis 
quae inter nos sunt commentata. Is dum te 
purificaverit etiam vestimentis candidissimis 
te induct. Cum quibus mox ut hoc cubi- 
culum intraveris indutus, angelum sanctum 
etiam tui amatorem efiectimi, invenies; 
qui omnia quseob eo poposceris tibi donabit/ 
Tunc V. accedens omnia quse eadem C. 
praedixerit invenit. Qui Caeciliie verba Ur- 
bano latitanti in sepulchris referens, gaudio 
magno exhilaratus, genibus in terri pros- 
tratus, manibus expansis cum lacrymis dixit. 
* Domine J. C. pastor bone, seminator casti 
consilii, suscipe seminum fructus, quos in 
C. famulS tu& seminasti. Domine J. C. pas- 
tor bone, C famula tua, quasi apis mellifera 
tibi deservit. Nam sponsum quem quasi le- 
onem ferocem accepit, ad te quasi agnum 
mansuetissimum destinavit. Iste hue nbi 
credidisset minimi venisset. A peri igitur 
mi domine cordis ejus januam tu^ gratlA, 
ut te creatorem suum cognoscens, diabolo 
et idolis ejus renuntiet.* Hsbc et his siinilia 
sancto episcopo orante, h vestigio ant€ ipsos 
senior indutus niveis vestibus apparuit, qui 
in manibus tenebat librum aureis Uteris 
scriptum. Quem videns V. mox nimio tre- 
more correptus, in terram quasi exanimis 
cecidit. Quem senior elevans blandis ser- 
monibus dixit, *Fili toUe et lege hujus co- 
dicis textum et crede, ut purificatus mere- 
aris videre sanctum angelum quem tibi 
sponsa tua C. repromisit.* Scripturas autem 
verba haec erant, Unus deus, una fides, imum 
baptisma, unus deus et pater omnium, qui 
est super omnia et in omnibus nobis. Se- 
nior autem interrogans V. expostulavit an 
adhuc in fide hsesitaret, cui ille, magn& voce 
exclamans, inquit, *Nil est profectb sub c<rl« 
verius quod credi queat.* Turn pontifex U. 
y. de fidei reguU edoctum, baptizatumq; 
ac candidis vestimentis indutum, Isetum ad 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



69 



lisit. Reversus igitur V. C. orantem 
;ublculuin invenit, et juxta earn an- 
domlni stantcm, pennis fulgentibus 
abentem, flammeoq; aspectu radian- 
ic duas coronas aureas gestantem. 
e unam C. alteram vero V. dedit, in- 
, *Istas coronas mundo corde et im- 
ito corpore custodite, quia eas de pa- 
Dei Tobis attuli. Et hoc vobis erit 
3, quia ab aliis videri minime pote- 
lisi quibus castitas ita placuerit, sicut 
)is probatum est placuisse.* ** — J. P. 

»MEMSIS. 

suffered martyrdom under Severus. 



•>/^^^^W^^^^N^^^S^^V\^^^^/\ 



hecy (hat the Queen of Sweden shall 
talk Cheeky ^. 

EB some hundred lines of prophetical 
rric upon Christina of Sweden, Sou- 
proceeds : 

'entendra parler le langage d*Atique, 

ge tout ensemble, et doux et magni- 

lue, 

mes aussi beaux, enchantant les es- 

•its, 

dans le Lycee elle Tavoit apris. 
ntendra parler le langage d*Auguste, 
facilement, aussi bien, aussi juste, 

le grand Virgile, ou le grand Ciceron 
It repass^ Teau de leur faux Acheron. 
Qtendra parler le langage de France, 
;ant de justesse, avec tant d'elegance, 
tant d*ornemen8 que ses plus grands 
itheurs 

t ses enyieux, ou ses adorateurs. 
Qtendra parler le langage d'Espagne, 

la gravite qui toujours Taccompagne, 
nme si le Tage et sa superbe cour 
at reqeu Fhonneur de luj donner le 
)ur. 

ntendra parler cette langue polie, 
alors usera la fameuse Italic, 
lYCC tant de grace et de facilite. 
en verra le Tybre, et TAme cpou- 
entd, 



On Tentendra parler tous ces autres Ian- 
gages, 

Dont les peuples du Nord parlent sur leur 
rivages." Axabic. 



^^/>^\/VS^^N/\/N/\*VN^^fc^*^^/'V\ 



St, Margaret 

Op St. Margaret I find recorded by Beb- 
ooMEif SIS, that she called the Pagan Pnefect 
an impudent dog ; that she was thrown into 
a dungeon where a horrible dragon swal" 
lowed her ; that she crossed herself, upon 
which the dragon immediately burst and 
she came out safe, and that she saw the 
Devil standing in the comer like a black 
man, and seized him and threw him down. 



St PetramOa, 

St. Pstbontlla was daughter of the 
Apostle Peter. The exceedin^: beauty of the 
maid alarmed the Apostle, and he suffered 
her to be very ill, till she could not rise 
from her bed for weakness. It chanced that 
some disciples visited him, and one of them 
called Titus asked him why, as he cured so 
many persons miraculously, he did not cure 
his daughter. Peter replied that it was 
better not ; but reflecting that they might 
suppose it was for want of the powei:, he 
said, *'*' Rise Petronilla, and wait upon us,** and 
the maiden rose and waited upon them as 
in health. And when she had finished wait- 
ing upon them, Peter said, *' Go to bed again, 
Petronilla," and her debility returned. — 
Beboomensis. 



Speech of the Maid to the Children, 

** VLmc ubi dicta refert, oculb post terga 

reflexis 
Despicit ingentem turbse puerilis acervum ; 
Infremuere art us, lacrymisq; effatur obortis, 
O claram pubem, o longe melioribus annis 
Servandos juvenes, quos non manet ista pa- 

rentum 
Pauperies, plcnie o fruituros munere pacis, 
Qua; vobis olim nostro Fata sanguine surget: 



70- IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Eyocor in pugnam ; dubio sed murmure lie- 

vtim 
Nescio quid mentem circunstrepit ; baud 

mihi tanto 
Curarum, postquam patrio de limine veni, 
Incubuit moles, si mens pnesaga sinistros 
Nuntiet eventus, si vel me occnmbere leto 
Sors Telit, bostilisve manus sub yincnla duci, 
Huic aninue impertite preces o chara juven- 

tus! 
Gemite quod vestrft pro libertate puellam 
Non pudet armatA toties confligere deztrl 
Nostra Caledonias sic terrent signa cobortes, 
Ut me jamdudnm rapido deroTerit igni 
Betbfortus, pactoq; suos ezasperet auro, 
In nostrum caput, ut captam vel funere 

mersam 
Aspiciant Angli, atq; animos formidine 

solvant. 
Haud tamen "k coepto desistam munere, do- 
nee 
Segreget k castris qui me Deus anna coegit 
Sumere,et usque sequar dominum quocunq; 

vacantem.** 

Valbbandus Vabaicius. 



AUain Blanchard, 

** Cautum est de duobus tamen antistitis 
urbis, videlicet illo vicario, qui contra re- 
gem excommunicationis sententiam teme- 
rari^ tulerat, ut scilicet in vinculis regi plec- 
tendus daretur, qui post urbis deditionem, 
ut dictum est, in tenebris et carcere miser^ 
vitam finivit, et alio quodam Alano Blaun- 
cbard, qui statim dedito Rothomago cruci 
est affixus/* — Titus Livius* Faro^Jidietuis, 



Etymology of Francus, 

** Adonc Francus, qui seul maistre com- 

mande. 
En se bravant au milieu de la bande, 
Voulant sa main d*une lance cbarger, 
D*Astyanax en Francus fit cbanger 
Son premier nom, en signe de vaillance, 
Et des soldats fut nororo^ Porte-lance, 
Phere'enchos, nom des peuples vaincus 
Mai prononce et dit depuis Francui : 



Lance qui fut It nos Francois commune 
Depuis le temps que la bonne Fortune 
Fit aborder en Gaule ce Troyen 
Pour J fonder le mur Parisien." 

La Fbahciadb. 



^^/w/^/^^^/^^rf^^^/v^/w^/^«^/v^< 



Boyal Privilege ofpurchasifig a Prieoner 

in France. 

** Je trouve que ce fut une coustume 
ancienne en France, que toutesfois et quantes 
que la ran^on de guerre excedoit dix milk 
livres, le prisonnier appartenoit au Roy, en 
pajant par luj les dix mille liTres au mais- 
tre du prisonnier, pour le moins le tire-je 
d*un passage qui me semble It ce propos 
fort notable. Quand Jeanne la Pucelle fiit 
prise devant Compeigne par le Bastard de 
Vendosme, qui en saisit Messire Jean de 
Luxembourg, Tun des principaux faToris 
du Due de Bourgougne, TEvesque de Bean- 
yais les interpella de la mettre entre ses 
muns, a fin de luy faire et parfaire sou 
proc^^ comme ajant est^ prise en et sa 
dedaxis de son diocese. Pour les inyiter I 
ce faire il dit que le Roy Henry ofiroit de 
bailler a J. de Lux. 6000 livres, et assignes 
au Bast, de V. 300 livres de rente de son 
estat. Qui n*estoit point peu de recompense 
Il Tun et k Tautre, en esgard k la pauvrete 
et disette qui estoit proveniie de la lon- 
gueur des guerres : puis 11 adjouste dedans 
Facte de soromation ces mots ; et oii par la 
maniere avant dite, ne vueillent, on soient 
contens d*obtemper li ce que dessus com- 
bien que la prise d*icelle femme ne soit sem- 
blable a la prise du roj Princes, ou autres 
de grand estat, lesquels toutefois se pris 
estoient, ou aucun de tel estat, fut Roy, le 
Dauphin, ou autres princes, le Roj les 
pourroit, s*il vouloit, selon le droict usance 
et coustume de France avoir mojennant 
10,000 livres, le dit Evesque et requiertles 
dessusdits au nom que dessus que ladite 
Pucelle luj soit delivree en baillant seurete 
de ladite somme de dix mil francs, pour 
toutes choses quelconque." — Des Recherchet 
de la France^ D^Estiennb Pasquibe, 4to. 
Paris, 1611. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION, 



71 



Tale of Charlemagne and his Mistress. 

^' Francois Petkabque, fort renomm^ 
entre les Poetes Italiens, diBCOurant en une 
epistre son voyage de France et de TAlle- 
maigne, nous raconte que passant par la 
Tille d*Aiz, il apprit de quelques Prestres 
nne histoire proidOgieuse qu* ils tenoient de 
main en main poar tres veritable. Qui es- 
toit que Charles le Grand apres avoir con- 
queste plusieurs pays, 8*esperdit de telle 
fiQon en Tamour d*une simple femme, que 
mettant tout honneur et reputation en ar- 
riere, il oublia non seulement les affaires de 
son rojaume, mais aussi le soing de sa pro- 
pre personne, au grand desplaisir de chacun ; 
estant seulement ententif k courtiser ceste 
Dame: laquelle par bonheur commen^a k 
s'aliter d*une grosse maladies qui luy ap- 
porta la mort. Dont les Princes, et grands 
Seigneurs fort resjouis, esperans que par 
ceste mort, Charles reprendroit comme de- 
vant et ses esprits et les affaires du rojraume 
en main : toutesfois il se trouva tcllement 
infatue de cest amour, qu*encores cheris- 
0oit-il ce cadaver, Tembrassant, baisant, ac- 
colant de la mesme faQon que devant, et au 
lieu de prester Toreille aux legations qui 
luj survenoient, il Tentretenoit de mille 
b^es,' comme s*il eust este plain de vie. Ce 
corps conunenQoit deja non seulement k mal 
ientir, mais aussi se toumoit en putrefac- 
tion, et neantmoins n'y avoit aucun de ses 
favoris qui luy en osast parler : dont advint 
que TArchevesque Turpin mieux advis^ 
qae les autres, pourpensa que telle chose ne 
pouvoit estre advenue sans quelque sorcel- 
lerie. An mojen dequoj espiant un jour 
Theure que le Roy 8*estoit absente de la 
chambre commen^a de foiiiller le corps de 
toutes parts, finalement trouva dans sa bou- 
che au dessous de sa langue un anneau qu'il 

' I suppose this refers to the phrase *' re- 
piltre de baya quelqu'un." See Le Duchat 
tpad Menage in v. who quotes from the Ro- 
MottRt of the Rose. 

** Ah fere vou$ bayet 

o ct <pii ne jteui advenir** 

J. W. W. 



luy osta. Le jour mesme Charlemaigne re- 
toumant sur ses premieres brisees, se trouva 
fort estonn^ de voir une carcasse ainsi pu- 
ante. Parquoy, comme s'il se fust resveill^ 
d*un profond sommeil, commanda que Ton 
Tensevelbt promptement. Ce qui fut fait ; 
mais en contr* eschange de ceste folic, il 
touma tons ses pensemens vers TArcheves- 
que porteur de cest anneau, ne pouvant 
estre de \k en avant sans luy, et le suivant 
en tous les endroits. Quoy voyant ce sage 
Prelat, et craignant que cest anneau ne 
tombast en mains de quelque autre, le jetta 
dans un lac prochain de la ville. Depuis 
lequel temps on dit que ce Roy se trouve 
si espris de Tamour du lieu, qu*il ne desem- 
para la ville d*Aix, oii il bastit un Palais, 
et un Monastere, en Tun desquels il parfit 
le reste de ses jours, et en Tautre voulut 
estre ensevely, ordonnant par son testament 
que tous les Empereurs de Rome eussent \ 
se faire sacrer premierement en ce lieu/* — 
Pasquieb. 



^^V%^rf^^^^^^^^«^^^^M^^^ 



Christening of Clovis, 

^^ Lbs Prestres vont devant, accompagnant 
la croiz, 

Et tout Fair retentit d*harmonieuses voiz. 

De suite apres le dais, en deux files ^ales, 

Marchent d*un grave pas les Princesses roy- 
ales. 

Le Peuple les admire, et s*epand k Fentour, 

Et de confuses voix benit cet heureux jour. 

Les festons ornez d*or, parent les portes 
doubles ; 

Le passage est press^plein d*agr^bles trou- 
bles. 

Les murs sont revestus de longs tapb divers, 

De sable et de rameaux les pavez sont con- 
verts. 

On void de lieux en lleux, dans les places 
publiques, 

De grands arcs de triomphe, et de larges 
portiques. 

Oil les combats du Roy, de rang sont figurez, 

Dans un bel ordre ^al de cartouches dorez. 

Eufin la belle pompe arrive aux portes am- 
ples 



72 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



De ce temple fameux, le plus heureux des 

temples, 
Qui vid laver Terreur des antiques Francois, 
Et garde encor le droit de sacrer tous nos 

Roys. 
Clovis toume ses jeux vers ses troupes vail- 

lantes, 
Et fait entendre aux chefs ces paroles char- 
mantes. 
Mes compagnons, dit il, roon heur est im- 

parfait, 
Si vous ne faites tous le serment que j*ay 

fait. 
Je m*en vay dans ce temple ^ Christ volier 

mon ame, 
Qu*icy de vostre Roy Pexemple vous en- 

flamme. 
Vostre ardeur m*a todjours suiyy dans les 

combas, 
Quand je gagne le ciel, ne m*abandonnez 

pas. 

Qulttons, genereux Francs, toute Idole pro- 
fane, 
Jupiter, et Mercure, et Pallas, et Diane. 
Qu*k jamais tous ces noms soient bannis de 

nos coeurs, 
Pour suivre le seulDieu qui nous a fait vain - 

queurs. 
Alors paroist^ Lisois, qui devant tous s*a- 

vance. 
Nous te suivrons par tout, 6 gloire de la 

France, 
Dit il haussant sa voix. Nous quittons les 

faux Dieux 
Jadis hommes mortels, et pcu dignes de 

cieux. 
Nous croyons d*un seul Dieu T^temellc 

puissance, 
Et Christ qui d*une Yierge en terre prit 

naissance. 
Tous reprennent soudain, nous quittons les 

faux Dieux, 
Nous te suivons en terre, et te suivrons aux 

cieux. 
Ces mots sont repetez de mille voix ensem- 
ble, [ble, 
Du temple resonnant toute la vo^te en trem- 

' Tout cecy est de rhistoire. 



Et la foule Chrestienne, 6meu(3 en 

temps, 
De joye ^pand des pleurs, et des c 

tans. 
Clovis avec Remy s'ayance vers le 
On y void tous les Francs entrer Ik 

emple. 
Aussi-tost ^ genoux ils reverent Is 
Tous adorent le Verbe, et de cceur et 
Remy commence' un chant, les pn 

secondent. 
Cent Toix benissent Dieu, les orgu 

repondent." 

Clovis, ou La France Chi 
par Desmarbsts. 



Letters conveyed by Pilgrims 

Wfi see in one of the original letti 
lished by Fenn, how little intercou 
kept up between one part of the li 
and another ; no opportunity perhapi 
occurred of sending a letter from I 
to London, unless at the time of t 
Another thing strikes us, which is, 
that pilgrims were of in conveying 
gence. 

Fastolf, 

Hembt Windsob gives a bad char 
Fastolf, *' hit is not unknoon that cri 
vengible he hath byn ever, and for tl 
parte with ante pite and mercy. I 
more but wide et corripe eum, for t 
cannot bryng about his matiers in tl 
(world) for the word is not for hym. 
pose it wolnot chaunge yetts be lil 
but I beseche you, sir, help not to 
hym onely, but every other man yf 
any mo mysse disposed." — Fbnn. 

In 1455 the government were ii 
to Fastolf, £4083 15«. 7^rf. for co 
charges during his services in '. 
" whereof the sayd F. hiderto hath hi 
ther payement nor assignacion.^ 



»♦ 



' S. Ilcmy commenca lo Te Deui 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



73 



Epitaph by Bellay. 

" QuA8 polios decuit nostro te inferre sepul- 
chro 
Petronilla, tibi spargimus has lacrimas. 
Spargimus has lacrimas, moesti monumenta 
parentis, 
£t tibi pro thalamo stemimus hone tu- 
mulum. 
Sperabam genitor taedas prseferre jogales, 

£t titulo patris juDgere nomen avi. 
Heu gener est Orcus, quique, O dulcbsima, 
per te 
Se sperabat avum, desinit esse pater.** 

JOACHIMI BbLLAI. 

Tramlation. 

** I WBBP upon thy grave — thy grave, my 

chUd! 
Who shotdd*8t have wept on mine ! we deck 

thy tomb, 
This ! for the bridal bed ! Thy parents 

thought 
To see thy marriage day ; thy father hoped 
From thee the grandsire*s name. Alas, my 

child. 
Death has espoused thee now ; and he who 

hoped, 
Mary! O dearest yet! the grandsire*s name 
From thee, has ceas*d to be a father now.** 

R. S. 



^0^^y^'*^*^^*^>i^^^^>>^^S^S^>^^^*^<,^<,/\^ 



Greek Epitaph translated, 

^ Bkheath in holy sleep Nicander lies, 
ta-aveller ! say not that the good man dies.*' 

I have translated this from memory, and 
believe the name is changed.^ January 14, 
1798. 

Epitaph. 

'^Tbe quiet virtues of domestic life 

Were his who lies below ; therefore his paths 

' The original, ascribed to Callimachus is as 

fDlloWB, 

TpJi Sawv 6 Air«iivof , 'AxdvOto^^ Uphv ^iirvov 
Kotuarai' Ovfitrictiv ai| Xlvf t^q dyaOovQ. 

J. W. W. 



Were paths of pleasantness, and in that hour 
When all the perishable joys of earth 
Desert the desolate heart, he had the hope, 
The sure and certain hope, of joy in heaven.** 



^^^^^^^^^^^I^^^^^FN/^^^/S^V 



Epitcyifh, 

'* The tenant of this grave was one who 

lived 

Remembering God, and in the hour of death 

Faith was his comforter. O you who read. 

Remember your Creator and your Judge, 

And live in fear that you may die in hope.** 

R.S. 
Lamhs-Condait Street, 
January 1, 1798. 



^^^^^^^^^l/^^^«^^^^^^^^>»/S* 



A bad Action of Henry the Fourth, 

1599. *' In the country of Mayne was 
seen a peasant named Francis TrouUlu, aged 
thirty-five years, who had a horn growing 
upon his head, which began to appear when 
he was but seven years old. It was shaped 
almost like that of a ram, only the wreath- 
ings were not spiral but strait, and the end 
bowed inwards towards the cranium. The 
fore part of his head was bald, his beard red, 
and in tufts, such as painters bestow upon 
satyrs. He retired to the woods to hide this 
monstrous deformity, and wrought in the 
coal pits. The Mareschal de Laverdin going 
one day a hunting, his servants spying this 
fellow, who fled, ran after him, and he not 
uncovering himself to salute their master, 
they tore off his cap, and so discovered his 
horn. The M. sent him to the King, who 
bestowed him upon somebody that made 
money by shewing him to the people. This 
poor fellow took it so much to heart to be 
thus bear-led about, and his shame exposed 
to the laughter and censures of all the world, 
that he soon after died.** — Mezebat. Hen- 
ry IV. 



74 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOB LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



PhUip Avgwtus reconciled to his Queen. 

** Philip Augustus had put away his wife 
Gklberge, sister to the King of Denmark, 
and in her place married Mary, the daugh- 
ter of the Duke of Moravia. The King of 
Denmark pursued vehemently in the court 
of Rome, for the honour of his sister thus 
rejected. Philip, not able to avoid the de- 
cision of the cause, and yet resolute not to 
receive Gelberge, prepares his advocates to 
show the reasons which had moved him to 
put her away. The cause was to be pleaded 
before the Pope's legate in the great hall of 
the Bishop's palace at Paris ; thither they 
run of all sides. In this great and solemn 
assembly, Philip's advocates pleaded won- 
derfully well for him against his wife, but 
no man appeared for her. As the cryer 
had demanded three times if there were any 
one to speak for Grelberge, and that silence 
should be held for a consent, behold a young 
man unknowne steps forth of the press, and 
demanded audience. It was granted him 
with great attention. King Philip assenting, 
every man's ears were open to hear this 
advocate, but especially Philip's, who was 
touched and ravished with the free and plaim 
discourse of truth which he heard from the 
mouth of this new advocate, so as they might 
perceive him to change countenance. After 
this young man had ended his discourse, he 
returns into the press again, and was never 
seen more, neither could they learn what 
he was, who had sent him, nor whence he 
came. The judges were amazed, and the 
cause was remitted to the council. Philip, 
without any stay in court, goes to horse, and 
rides presently to Bois de Vincennes, whither 
he had confined Gelberge ; having embraced 
her he receives her into favour, and passed 
the rest of his days with her in nuptial love." 
— ^Db Sebbes. Philip 11. 1193. Pontanus 
caUs her Ingeburga. 

Custom on the Isle of Man. 

" The women of this countrie, (Isle of 
Man,) whensoever they goe out of tlieir 



doore8,gird themselves about with the wind- 
ing sheet that they purpose to be buried in, 
to shew themselves mindful of their mor- 
tal itie. Such of them as are at any time 
condemned to die, are sowed within a sack, 
and flung from a rock into the sea."— ^ 
Prospect of the most famous Parts of the 
World. 1646. 



Half 'Christened Irish. 

" In some comers of Connaught, the peo- 
ple leave the right aimes of their infants 
male unchristened (as they terme it) to the 
end that at any time afterwards, they might 
give a more deadly and ungracious blow 
when they strike; which things doe not 
onely show how palpably they are carried 
away by traditions obscurities, but do also 
intimate how full their hearts be of invete- 
rate revenge." — Ibid. 



^^^\/S^VS/\^^^h^^^^^^^^^^/\^S» 



Cypresses. 

" The duration of the cypress is equalled 
only by that of the oak; they are seldom 
seen in forests. In cemeteries and the en- 
virons of palaces, six feet is a circumference 
not unconmion, with a height proportioned 
to a pyramidal shape." — ^Dai-la way's Tro' 
vets. 

Turkish Fountains. 

" The frequent fountains, all built by use- 
ful piety, are placed at certain distances, and 
measure plains which seem to widen as we 
advance. In those situations, if not pictu- 
resque, they are characteristic, and highly 
so, when connected with the shade of an 
umbrageous plane tree. It was interesting 
to pass one of these at mid-day, and to re- 
mark the devout Mussulman, after his ab- 
lutions, prostrating himself on his carpet, 
and repeating in a still voice those addresses 
to the Deity which are prescribed by his 
prophet." — Ibid. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



75 



JEnehantment of Irish Coward. 

^ At their first onset the wilde Irish ut- 
tered the word Fharroh with great accla- 
madon, and he that did not was taken into 
the ayre and carryed into the vale of Kerry, 
where transform^ (as they did beleeve) he 
remained untill he was hunted with hounds 
from thence to his home.** — Qiuere t ^ 



<^w^^^^<^^^^^^^rf»^^^»* 



Images, 

Feb. 16. The earliest buds on the elm^ 
giring a reddishness to the boughs. 

Feb. 26. The beech preserves its leaves. 

The motion of the river reflected upon 
the arch of the bridge, rolling in waves of 
checquered light. 

Feb. 28. Withey bed red. 

We think the mists of the morning hide 
some beauty from us. At night we dread 
the precipices that they may conceal. Such 
is the difference between youth and age ! 

The flame in passing through brass bars 
becomes green. 

March 3. Bright green of the ivy. Dark 
appearance of the yew trees in the wood. 

Ruined dwelling house, why more melan- 
choly than the ruins of the castle, convent, 
and palace. 

Clattering of the ivy leaves against the 
tree trunk. 

A church seen at night — ^its solemn mas- 
siness. 

The buds of the elder appear in circular 
tufts. 

Whiteness of a shower swept by the 
wind. 

Large buds of the horse chesnut termi- 
nating each branch. 

April 19. White blossoms of the thorn 
like snow, without one green bud. 

' I suppose these extracts to be taken from 
the book above quoted, A Protpect, ^c. but I 
haTe not the means of verifying the Qu^re*s, 
In a note to J nan rf Arc, Southet tells us the 
first part of the book wants a title. It was 
printed for William Humble, in Pope's Head 
Place, 1646.— J. W. W. 



Condensation of vapour over the waters. 
Not a bud visible on the mulberry tree. 
April 22. 



*V^^WW^%^^^V^^^^^^%A^ 



Irish Coward, 



" Some of the wilde Irish perswade them- 
selves, that he who in the barbarous accla- 
mation and outcry of the souldiers, which 
they use with great forcing and straining of 
their voyces, when they joyne battell, doth 
not showte and make a noise as the rest doe, 
is suddenly caught from the ground, and 
carried as it were flying in the ayre, into 
some desert vallics, where he feedeth upon 
grasse, drinketh water, hath some use of 
reason, but not of speech, is ignorant of 
the present condition he stands in, whether 
good or bad, yet at length shall be brought 
to his own home, being caught with the 
helpe of hounds and hunters." — Quare f 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^.^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Mule Monsters, 



** AnticA every year produceth some 
strange creature before not heard of, per- 
adventure not extant. For so Pliny thinks, 
that for want of water, creatures of all kindes 
at sometimes of the yeerc gather to those 
few rivers that are to quench their thirst ; 
and then the males promiscuously enforcing 
the females of every species which comes 
next him, produceth this variety of forms, 
and would be a grace to Africa, were it not so 
full of danger to the inhabitants, which, as 
Salust reports, die more by beasts than by 
diseases.** — Qiusre f 



Apparition of Qffa, 

" Not farre from Bedford sometime stood 
a chappell upon the banke of Ouse, wherein 
(as Florilegus affirmeth) the body of Ofia, 
the great Mercian King, was interred, but 
by the overswelling of that river was borne 
downe, and swallowed up ; whose tombe of 
lead (as it were some phantasticall thing) 
appeared often to them that seeke it not ; 



76 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



but to them that seeke it (saith Rossc) it is 
inyisible/* — QiuBre f 



^^^^AA/^^^^^^^^kA^^^^^^ 



Streams of GlamorganMhire, 

'* Glamobgansuibe — upon whose hills 
you may behold whole herds of cattle feed- 
ing, and from whose rocks most cleare 
springing waters thorow the vallies trick- 
ling, which sportingly doe passe with a most 
pleasant sound, and did not a little revive 
my wearied spirits among those vast moun- 
tains ; whose infancie at first admitted an 
easie step over, but growne unto strength 
more boldly forbade me such passage, and 
with a more steme countenance held on 
their journey unto the British seas. Tave 
among these is accounted fur a chief/* — 
Q^tBref 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^>^^^^^^^^#t 



Strange Cavern, 

" But things of strange note are these, 
by the report of Giraldus, who affirmeth, 
that in a rock or cliff upon the sea side and 
Hand Barry, lying near the S. E. point of 
this countie, is heard out of a little chinke 
the noise as it were of smithes at their 
worke, one whiles the blowing of bellowes 
to increase the heat, then the stroakes of the 
hammer, and sound of the anvile; some- 
times the noise of the grindstone in grinding 
of iron tooles, then the hissing sparks of 
steel-gads,^ as they ilie from their beating, 
with the puffing noise of flames in a fur- 
nace." Whether this is the place whereof 
Clemens Alexandrinus speaketh, I deter- 
mine not^ where in his writings he hath 
these words, " they that have recorded his- 
tories (saith he) doe say that in the He of 
Britaine, there is a certaine hole or cave 
under the bottome of an hill, and on the 
top thereof a gaping chink, into the which 
when the winde is gathered and tossed to 
and fro in the wombe or concavitie thereof, 

' " And with a gad of steel will writ^^ thL«se 
words." Tit, Aiidron. iv. 1. See Nares' 0/u«$. 
in v.— J. W. W. 



there is heard above a sound of c 
for the wind being driven backe i 
hole, is forced to make a loud soun 
vent." — Qiuere f 



^^^#^N^^^^^^A^^k^^^^«^^^W 



Mysterious Inscription. 

" Upom the same shore, on the t 
hill called Minyd-Margan, is erectei 
nument inscribed with a strange chi 
and as strange a conceit held thereol 
by-dwellers whose opinions are pc 
that if any man reade the same 1 
shortly after die." — Qutere f 



Welsh Town destroyed by Lightnini 
Welsh Flo€Uing Island, 

" Just over against the river C 
where it issueth into the sea, there 
times stood an ancient city named '. 
wey, which many years agoe was cor 
by lightning, and so made utterly d< 
Touching those two other miracles, fai 
by Giraldus and Gervasius, that oi 
high hills there are two pooles call 
Meares, the one of which producetl 
store of fish, but all having onely oc 
and in the other there is a moveabh 
which as soon as a man treadeth thei 
forthwith floateth a great way off, w 
the Welsh are said to have often scap 
deluded their enemies assailing them 
matters are out of my creed, and 
thinke the reader would rather beleevt 
than to goe to see whether they be 
no." — Q^<tre f 



^^«^^s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



NoaKs Arh, 



" On Mount Ararat (called Lubar, 
descending place) is an abbey of Si 
gorie's monks. These monkes, if anj 
beleeve them, say that there remains 
some part of the arke, kept by i 
which, if any seeke to ascend, carri< 
backe as farre in the night, as the 
climbed in the day." — Pubchas. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



77 



ExiracU. 

(C ferns .^tes, Scythiam Phosinque 
rigentem [vina 

olit, heu magni Soils pudor ! hospita 
et Attouitse mactat soUemnia mensce, 

«tri divumque memor/* 

V. Flaccus. I. 43. 

B is sublime pride, but not in character. 

" Tu sola animos mentemque peruris 
i ! te viriilem videt immunemq; senectiB 
lis in ripa stantem, juvenesq; vocan- 

tem." Ibid. v. 77. 

viri mecum ; dubiisq; evincite rebus 
neminisse juvet, nostrisq; nepotibus 
instent. Ibid, v 248. 

^ Te pai'vus lituos et bella loquentem 
ir, sub te puerilia tela magistro 
or ferat, et nostram festinet ad has- 
tam.'' Ibid. v. 268. 

" AaifosciT Acastum 
ntem jaculis, et parmae luce coruscum." 

Ibid. V. 486. 

! tempest. 

[nanimns spectat pharetras et inutile 
robur 
itryoniades." Ibid. v. G35. 

Skd cceli patienSjCumprima per altuui 
edit, potui c^uae tantum ferre doloreni." 

Ibid. V. 765. 

ivio hasta la postrera edad, en que 
iejo troco la vida con la muerte. Fal- 
;1 cuer))o, pero su fama ha durado, y 
i por todos lo3 anos, y siglos." — Ma- 



** Jam coeperat 
tarare cornicen, baubant canes, 
ra rebaubant, territi sudant suis 
es in antris, in suis vulpeculie 
*ererto8 codices voWunt suos, 
{inemq; concoquunt suam vafrse ; 
)ri, sed atri dentibus vacant lupi, 
t parandis in canina vulnera." 

PlA HiLAJIIA. 



**Maon£ pater Divum, saevos punire Tyran- 

nos 
Hand alid ratione velis, cum dira libido 
Moverit ingenium 'ferventi tincta veneno, 
Virtutem videant, intabescantq; relicta. 
Anne magis Siculi gemuerunt a;ra juvenoi, 
Et magis auratis pendens laquearibus ensis 
Purpureas subter cervices terruit, * Imus, 
Imus prsecipites,* quam si sibi dicat, et intus 
Palleat iufelix, quod proxima ncsciat uxor." 

Persius. III. 35, &c. 

" QuiN damns id superis, de magna quod 

dare lance 
Non possit magni Messalse lippa propago : 
Compositum jus Aisque animo, sanctosq; re- 

cessus 
Mentis, et incoctum generoso pectus lioncsto, 
Haec ccdo ut admovcam teniplis, et farre 

litabo." Ibid. II. 71, &c. 



Suicide of the Spanish Tyrannicide. 

" Lucio PisoN, Pretor de la Espaiia Cite- 
rior, con imposiciones nuevas, y mxxy graves, 
que inventb, alboroto los animos de los na- 
turales, de suerte, que se conjuraron y her- 
manaron contra el. Llegb el negocio a que 
un labrador Termestino en aquellos campos 
le dio la muerte. Quiso salvarse despues 
de tan gran hazana ; pero fue descubierto 
por el cavallo que dexo cansado \ hallado y 
puesto a question de tormento, no pudieron 
hazer que se descubricsse los companeros de 
aquella conjuracion, dado que no negava 
tenerlos. Y sin embargo, por rezelarse que 
la fuer^a del dolor no le hiziesse blandear, 
el dia siguiente, sacado para de nuevo ator- 
mentarle, se escapo entre las manos a los 
que le llevavan, y con la cabe(;a dio en una 
pena tan gran golpe, que rindio el alma. 
Tanto pudo en un rustico la fee del secrcto, 
y la amistad. Esto sucedio en Kspana el 
ano veinte y seis de Christo." — Mariana. 

Spaniard stvallowed up like Amphiaraus. 

" Eli enemigo (Alman9or, Capitan de Ab- 
derrahman Key de Cordova) tenia sus reales 



78 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



cerca de la villa de Lara. No vinieron 
luego a las manbs. £1 Conde (Feman Gron- 
9alez) cierto dia salio por su recreacion a 
ca^a, J en seguimiento de un j avail se 
aparto de la gente que le acompanava. En 
el monte cerca de alii un hermita de obra 
antigua, se via cubierta de yedra, y un altar 
con nombre del Apostol San Pedro. Un 
hombre santo, llamado Pelagio o Pelayo, con 
dos compaiieros, deseo de vida sossegada, 
avia escogido aquel lugar para su morada. 
La subida era agria, el camino estrecho, la 
fiera acosada, conio k sagrado, se acogia a la 
hermita. ^1 Conde movido de la devocion 
del lugar, no le qubo herir, y puesto de ro~ 
dillas, pedia con grande humildad el ayuda 
de Dios. Vino luego Pelayo, hizo su me- 
sura al Conde. El por ser ya tarde, hizo 
alii noche ; y cenado que ovo lo poco que 
le dieron, la passo en oracion y lagrimas. 
Con el Sol le avbo Pelayo su huesped, del 
sucesso de la guerra. Que saldria con la 
vitoria, y en senal desto, antes de la pelea 
se veria un estrano caso. Bolvio con tanto 
alegre a los sujos, que estavan cuydadosos 
de su salud ; declaro todo lo que passava. 
Encendieronse los animos de los soldados a 
la pelea, que estavan atemorizados. Orde- 
naron sus hazes para pelear. Al punto que 
querian acometer, un Cavallero, que algu- 
nos llaman Pero Con^alez de la Puente de 
Fitcro, dio de espuelas al cavallo para ade- 
lantarse. Abriose la tierra y tragole, sin 
que parcciesse mas. Alborotose la gente, 
espantada de aquel milagro. Avisoles el 
Conde, que aquella era la senal de la vitoria 
que le diera el Hermitaiio qae si la tierra 
no los sufria, menos los sufririan los contra- 
rios." — Ibid. a. d. 950 



«^tf^M/\/^/^/w\^^^^/^/^/w^^/^A 



Garci Fbbnandez murders his adulterous 
Wife, and marries the Servant who be' 
trayed her} 

" Gabci Febn andez (Conde de Castilla) 
se dize caso con dos mugercs ; la una se 

' See Poems in one volume, Gakci Feiuiak- 
DEZ, p. 441. 

'' In an evil day, and an hour of woe, 
Did Garci Femandex wed, &c." —J. W. W. 



Uamo Argentina, de cuya i^sturs 
moro al tiempo que su padre, noi 
ble, y Frances de nacion, la traia < 
ria, juntamente con su madre,a { 
Seis anos despues, estando el Cond 
rido enfermo en la cama, o por i 
miento que le tenia, o con deseo de 1 
se bolvio a Francia con cierto Fra 
temava de la misma romeria; El 
brada la salud, y dexando en el go> 
su estado a Egidio, y a Fernando, 
principales, en trage disfrazado ; 
aquella parte de Francia donde 
que Argentina morava. Tenia A 
una antenada llamada Sancha, qv 
suele acontecer) estava mal con su d 
Esta con esperanc^a que le dieron 
con el C. o por liviandad, como mu^ 
entrada en la casa. Mato el C. en 
a Argentina y al adultero, y con tai 
a la dicha Sancha consigo a Espana 
eronse las bodas de los dos, coe 
aparato y regozijo en Burgos.** — I 
982. 

Oood OenitLS fighting. 

^* AcoNTEcio en aquella batalla ( 
Santistevan de Gormaz, a la ribei 
Duero 982) una cosa digna de i 
Feman Antolinez, hombre noble y 
voto, oia missa al tiempo que se 
de acometer, costumbre ordinaria si 
de la pelea ; por no dezarla comei 
quedo en el tempio quando se t 
anna. Esta piedad quan agradab 
a Dios, se entendi6 por un milagr< 
vase primero en la Iglesia, despuc 
dido en su casa, temia no le afi 
como a cobarde. En tanto, otro 
mejante, es a saber, su Angel bueno 
entre los primeros tan valientemc 
la vitoria de aquel dia se atribuyo 
parte al valor de il dicho Antoline 
firmaron el mUagro las seiiales de h 
y las manchas de la sangre que se 
frescas en sus armas y cavallo. A 
licado el caso, y sabido lo que 
quedo mas conocida la inocencia y 
de Antolinez.** — Ibid. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



79 



I beliere the storj, but not the miracle. 
Antolinez had a friend who served him in 
time, and was secret. 



ChrMan Princess married to the Moor 
OheydaUa, 

** Obsti>alla, hijo de Aimahadio, con 
ajuda de sus parcialidades, se hizo rej de 
Toledo. OtroB le llaman Abdalla, j afir- 
man, que tuvo por muger a Dona Teresa, 
con Toluntad de Don Alonso su hermano, 
rej de Leon, gran desorden y mengua no- 
table. Lo que pretendia con aquel casa- 
miento era, que las fuer^as del uno j del 
otro reyno quedassen mas firmes con aquella 
alian9a. Demas, que se presentava ocasion 
de ensanchar la Religion Christiana, si el 
Moro se bautizava, segun lo mostrava que- 
rer hazer. Con esto enganada la donzella, 
file llevada Toledo, celebraronse las bodas 
con grande aparato, con juegos, y regozijos 
J combites, que duro hasta gran parte de 
la noche. Quitadas las meses, ^ donzella 
fue lleyada a reposar. Vino el Moro en- 
cendido en su apetito carnal. Ella, afiiera, 
dize, tan grave maldad, tanta torpeza. Una 
de dos causas has de hazer, o tu con los 
tujos te bautiza, y con tanto goza de nues- 
tro amor : si esto no hazes no me toques. 
De otra manera, teme la vengan^a de los 
hombres, que no dissimularan nuestra a- 
frenta, y tu engano, y la de Dios que buelve 
por la honestidad sin duda, y castidad de 
los Christianos. De la una, y de la otra 
parte te apercibo seras castigado. Mira que 
la Ittxuria, peste blanda, no te lleve a des- 
penar. Esto dixo ella. Las orejas del Moro, 
con la fuer^a del apetito desenfrenado, esta- 
van cerradas, hizole fuer^a contra su volun- 
tad. Siguiose la divina vengani^a, que de re- 
pente le sobrevino una grave dolencia. En- 
tendio lo que era, y la causa de su mal. Embio 
a Dona Teresa en casa de su hermano, con 
grandes dones que le dio. Ella se hizo Monja 
en el monasterio de San Pelagio de Leon, en 
que passo lo restante de la vida en obras pi- 
as, y de devocion, con que se consolava de la 
afrenta recibida.** — Ibid. a.d. 1005. 



Palencia, why rebuilt. 
" A LO ultimo de su vida hizo el Rey 
(Sancho) que se reedificasse la Ciudad de 
Palencia por una ocasion muy grande. Es- 
tava de anos atras por tierra, a causa de las 
guerras, solo quedavan algunos paredones, 
montones de piedras, y rastros dc los edi- 
ficios que alii ovo antiguamente : demas 
desto, un templo muy viejo, y grossero, con 
advocacion de San Antolin. El Rey Don 
Sancho, quando no tenia en que entender ; 
a costumbrava acuparse en ca^a, por no pa- 
recer que no hazia nada ; demas, que el ex- 
ereicio de monteria es k proposito para la 
salud, y para hazerse los hombros diestros 
en las armas. Sucedio cierto dia, que en 
aquellos lugares fue en seguimiento de un 
javali, tanto que llegb hasta el mismo tem- 
plo, k que la fiera se recogib, por servir en 
quella soledad de albergo y morada de fier- 
as. El Rey sin tener respeto a la santidad 
y devocion del lugar, pretendia con el ven- 
ablo herille, sin mirar que estava cerca del 
Altar, quando acaso echb de ver que el bra90 
de repente se le avia entumecido, y falta- 
dole das fuercas : Entendio que era castigo 
de Dios, por el poco respeto que tuvo al 
lugar santo ; y movido deste escrupulo y 
temor, invoc6 con humildad la ayuda de San 
Antolin, pidio perdon de la culpa que por 
ignorancia cometiera. Oyb el Santo sus 
clamores, sentio a la hora que el bra(;o bol- 
vio en su primera fuercja y vigor. Movido 
otrosi del milagro, acordo desmontar el bos- 
que, y los matorrales, a proposito de edificar 
de nuevo la Ciudad, levantar las murallas, 
y las casas partlculares. Lo mismo se hizo 
del Templo, que le fabricaron magnifica- 
mente on su Obispo, para el goviemo y 
cuydad > de aquella nueva Ciudad." — Ibid. 
A.D. 1032. 



•^S/WS^k/N/V/\^S/\<'\/>^V/\/V/\/V^V 



One good effect of Ancestry, 

When the Moorish king (1285) was asked 
why lie raised the siege of Xeres so preci- 
cipately fi^r fear of King Sancho, " respon- 
dio, Yo fui el primero que entronick y honr6 
la familia y linage de Barrameda con titulo 



J magestad Real: mi enemigo trae descen- 
dencia de mas de quarenta Reyes, cuya me- 
moria tiene gran fuer9a y en el combate a 
mi pusiera temor y espanto, k el diera atre- 
vimiento y esAier9o, si llegaranios a las ma- 
nos." — Ibid. 

A Servant burnt voluntarily with her 
MUtress, 

Aftbb the battle of Naxara, Peter the 
Cruel had D. Urraca de Osorio burnt alive 
at Seville, " execucion en que sucedio un 
caso notable. £n la laguna propia en que 
07 esta plantada una grande alameda, ar- 
maron la hoguera una doncella de aquella 
senora por nombre Isabel Davalos natural 
de Ubeda, luego que se prendio el fuego, 
se metio en el para tenella las faldas, porque 
DO se descompusiesse, y se quemb junta- 
mente con su ama. Hazaua memorable, se- 
nalada lealtad ! conque grandemente se a- 
crecento el odio 7 aborrecimiento que de 
atras al Rej teniam." — Ibid. 



\It faded on the crowing of the Coch, 

Hamlet.] 

In the beginning of the night (say the 
Jews) God causeth all the gates of heaven 
to be shut, and the angels stay at them in si- 
lence, and sendeth evil spirits into the world, 
which hurt all they meet; but after mid- 
night they are commanded to open the same. 
This command and call is heard of the cocks, 
and therefore they clap their wings and crow 
to awaken men, and then the evil spirits lose 
their power of hurting, and in this respect 
the wise men have ordained them a thanks- 
giving to be said at cock-crowing: "Blessed 
art thou O God, Lord of the whole world, 
who hast given understanding to the cock." 

— PUBCHAS. 



From Battinblm. 

I, DEABEST niece, first of our family 
Fled from the treacherous waves and storms 

of life. 
Nor ever could fair skies and flattering gales 



Tempt me again to trust the dangerous sea. 
Still does the tempest beat the little bark 
That bore me here, nor mid so deep a night 
See I one star whose friendly ray may save 
The mariner. Make you then for the port; 
Toil for this holy haven I Innocence 
And virtue will assist ; beloved ! here 
Is comfort, and the end of every ill. 
And I have hope that we shall one day here 
Beside the altar hang our broken sails, 
And smile together at the distant storm. 



Sentences, 

Ant fellow can find water by digging for 
it ; but they are gif\«d persons who, while 
they 4ire walking, can point out the hidden 
spring. 

He has no more ideas of poetry than a 
snail of a fine prospect. 

It is with turnpike roads as with govern- 
ments : th^ worse the road, the heavier the 
tolls ; the worse the government, the more 
oppressive the taxes. 

"PuELL^ Aurelianensis causa adversariis 
oration ibus disceptata. Auctore Jacobo 
Jolio. Parisiis, 1609." 

These declamations, of which some are 
metrical, were spoken by the author's pu- 
pils. They were unreadably dull. 



It is not always he who reads the most 
that knows the most : The butterfly sucks 
as many flowers as the bee. 



v^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^r^^^^^ 



Extracts. 



** AuxEBAT hora metus ; jam se vertentis 

Olympi 
Ut faciem, raptosq; simul montesq; locosq; 
Ex oculis, circumq; graves videre tenebras; 
Ipsa quies rerum,mundiq; silentia terrent, 
Astraq; et eflusis stellatus crinibus ether. 
Ac velut ignot& captus regione viarum, 
Noctivagum qui carpit iter, non aure qui- 

escit 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



81 



culifl, noctisq; metiu niger auget u- 

imque 

iA,et oocnrrens umbris majoribuB arbor 

alitor trepidare viri.** — V. Flac. il 

iibreyifl,etteloyolucri non utilis aer.** 
. n. ▼. 524. 



^»»«»v^««»^^^»»^^<^»^^^^^ 



lEK I see the most enchanting beauties 
irth can show me, I yet think there 
ething far more glorious ; methinks 
% kind of higher perfection peeping 
h the frailty of a fiMse." — Owen Fel- 

rm knowledge doth but show us our 
ice. Our most studious scrutinjr is 
discovery of what we cannot know, 
s the effect, but cannot guess at the 
Learning is like a river, whose head 
ar in the land, is, at first rising, little 
sily viewed : but still as you go, it 
with a wider bank, not without plea- 
id delightful winding, while it is on 
des set with trees and the beauties of 
I flowers. But still the farther you 
it, the deeper and the broader His, 
ist it unwaves itself in the unfathom- 
\n : there you see more water, but no 
10 end of that liquid vastness.** — ^Ibid. 

trgveriie. Look in my face. 

». I do. 

^ay, in my eyes. 

! view *em as I would the settmg sun, 

! to die at midnight.** 

Lee, Massacre of Paris, 

people- 



■e like flags growing on muddy banks, 

weak thin heads blown with one blast 

wind, 

1 will shake and bend themselves one 

y." — Goft's Orestes. 

od comparison badly expressed. 

K erat, et leni canebant ssquora sul- 
^ Fi^c. m. V. 32. 



**Dat pictas auro atque ardentes murice 

vestes, 
Quas n^uit telis festina vocantibus austris 
Hypsipyle." — Ibid. in. v. 340. 

'^ QciPPE nee in ventos, nee in ultima sol- 

vimur ossa; 
Iramanetf'duratq; dolor; cum deinde tre- 

mendi 
Ad solium ven^ Jovis, questuq ; nefandam 
Edocuere necem, patet ollis janua leti, 
Atq; iterum remeare licet ; comes una so- 

rorum 
Additur, et pariter terras atq; ssquora lus- 

trant: 
Quisque suos sontes, inimicaq pectora pcenis 
Implicat, et varift meritos formidine pul- 

sant.** — Ibid. m. v. 383. 



^^^S^^^i^^i^^^^^^^^*^^^\^ 



^ Hamdbal. How would the slaves have 
quaked, had they but seen 
The fights of Trebid, or of Thrasimene, 
Or dreadful Cannie f 

Where the tired sisters bit the Roman looms, 
As if their hands were tir'd with cutting 
dooms. 

Bondkar, Where fourscore valiant sena- 
tors were kill*d, 

The blood of seventy thousand soldiers 
spillM; 

And great iBmilius* death our conquest 
swell*d. 

Hannibal. When all with crimson slaugh- 
ter covered o'er. 

We urged our horses through a flood of gore; 

Whilst firom thebattlements of heaven's high 
wall, 

Each god looked down and shook his awful 
head. 

Mourning to see so many thousands fall. 

And then look'd pale to see us look so red. 

Maherbal. That was a time worthy se- 
verest fate. 
When victory on hills of heroes sate. 
And turned her eyes, all bloodshot, on the 

fray, 
And laughed and clapt her wings, and blest 
the day.** — Leb*8 Sophanisba. 



\ 



I 



82 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Nothing can excel the sitblimitj of the 
last three lines, or the absurdity of all the 
rest. 

** Thb happiest man is but a wretched thing, 
That steds poor comfort from comparison." 

Young's Busiris. 

" YouB bright helm 
Struck a distinguished terror through the 

field; 
The distant legions trembling as it blazed." 

** His tall white plume, which, like a high*' 

wrought foam. 
Floated on the tempestuous stream of fight, 
Shewed where he swept the field."— Ibid. 



y^>^>^^*^^'^^^^^^^^^^^>^^^^ 



** Feabau gli rispose in due parole, 
Che fark quel che deve, e quel che suole. 

Orlando JnnamorcUo, 



^\/^^^%#^^^^^^^^^^^>^^^^^A 



** I AM compelled to suffer ornaments ; 
To put on all the shining guilt of dress ; 
When *tb almost a crime that I still live !*' 

** Just now I met him, at my sight he started. 
Then with such ardent eyes he wandered o'er 

me. 
And gazed with such malignity of love, — 
Sending his soul out to me in a look 
Sa fiercely kind, I trembled." — Busiris, 



w^>>^^%/NA/\A/^^^AA/WS/^A^ 



** AcGio che voi diman, piacendo a Dio, 
Che sara Marte a vintidui d'Aprile. 
Partir possiate." 

Italia Liberata. Trissino, 1. 2. 

** Sbmpbe sempre Tavea davanti agli occhi, 
Ramemorando ogni suo minim' atto, 
£d ogni suo costume, e sempre avendo 
Dentr' alle orecchie il suo parlar soave." 

Ibid. 1. 3. 



u 



Col triplice nemico in campo aperto 
Pugnar sovente, e riportar la palma : 
Vincer se stessi, e far, che premio certo 
Sia I'opra sempre al forte oprar dell' alma. 



Far, che nel corpo incrudelir sia merto, 
Far, che fuora in tempesta, e dentro in 
calma 
Stiansi lo spirto, e in quel, che k sensi spiace, 
Trovi conforto, e compiacenza,'e pace. 

" Ruvide vesti, e breve sonno, e vitto 
Usar semplice e parco, e parchi accent!, 

Aitar I'oppresso, e consolar I'afilitto, 
E ins^nar, come Dio s'ami, e paventi, 

E qual torto sentiero, e qual sia dritto, 
E quai dietro al piacer yengan tormenti, 

Son di qucsti di Dio servi ed amici 

L'opre men belle, e i piu volgari offici." 

FiUcaia. 



V\/VA/V\/\^/\/\/N/N/W%/\/\/\/\*» 



Moorish Princesses converted. 

▲.D. 1050. **PoB este tiempo dos hijiis de 
dos Reyes Moros se tornaron Christianas, j 
se bautizaron. La una fue Casilda, hija de 
Almenon, Rey de Toledo : la otra Zayda, 
hija del Rey Benabet de Sevilla. La ces- 
sion de hozerse Christianas fue deste ma- 
nera. Casilda era muy piadosa y compas- 
siva de los cautivos Christianos que tenian 
aherrojados en casa de su padre, de sugrande 
necessidad y mlseria. Acudiales secreta- 
mente con el regalo y sustento que podia. 
Su padre avisado de lo que passava, y mal 
enojado por el caso, acecho a su hija. £n- 
contr6 la una vez que llevava la comida para 
aquellos pobres; alterado preguntola lo que 
llevava? respondio ella que rosas, y abierta 
la falda las mostro a su padre, por averse en 
ellas convertido la vianda. Este milagro tan 
claro fue ocasion que la donzella se quisi- 
esse tomar Christiana, que de esta suerte 
suele Dios pagar las obras de piedad que con 
los pobres se hazen ; y fruto de la miserl- 
cordia suele ser el conocimiento de la ver- 
dad. Padecia esta donzella fluxo de sangre. 
Avisaronla, fuesse por revelacion, o de otra 
manera, que si queria sanar de aquclla ado- 
lescencia tan grande, se banasse en el lago 
de San Vicente, que esta en tierra de Bri- 
niesca. Su padre, que era amigo de los 
Christianos, por el deseo que tenia de ver 
Sana a su hija, le embio al Rey D. Fernando, 
para que la hiziesse curar. Cobro en ella 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



83 



a salud, con banarse en aquel la- 
es recibio el bautismo, segun que 
nsado,y enreconocimientode tales 
olTidada de su patria, en un her- 
hizo edificar junto al lago, passo 
iios santamente. En vida 7 en 
i esclarecidacon milagrosqueDios 
su intercession ; la Iglesia pone 
ero de los Santos que reynan con 
I el cielo, 7 en muchas Iglesias de 

le haze fiesta a quLnze de Abril. 
, quier fuesse por el exemplo de 
lUda, o por otra ocasion sc movio 

Christiana; en especial, que en 
aparecio S. Isidoro, 7 con dulces 

8 palabras le persuadio pusiesse en 
con brevedad aquel santo propo- 

9 ella parte deste negocio al Rey 
el estava perplexo, sin saber que 

ebria tomar. Por una parte no 
stir a los ruegos de su hija, por 
i la indignacion de los suyos, si le 
cia para que se bautizasse. Acordo 
s comunicar el negocio con D.A- 
» del Rey D. Fernando. Concer- 
* con muestra de dar guerra a los 
Eiesse con golpe de gente entrada 
de Sevilla, 7 con esto cautivasse 
A, que estaria de proposito puesta 
pueblo que para este efecto sena- 
cedio todo como lo tenian trazado : 
bros no entendieron la traza, 7 la 
yada a Leon, fue instru7da en las 
pert«nece saber a un buen Chris- 
autizada se Uamo D. Isabel. Los 
cam que esta senora adelante caso 
mo. D. Alonso, en sazon quae era 
i Castilla. D. Pela70 el de Oviedo 
no fue su muger, sino su amiga." 

lA. 

la Pena de los JEnamorados} 

1090 Chriatiano estava cautivo en 
Sua partes 7 diligencia eran tales, 
termino 7 cortesia, que su amo 

yems in one vol. p. 440. 

len through the favouring night 

■enada took her flight," &c. 

The Lover's Hack.^J. W. W. 



hazia mucha confian^a del dentro 7 fuera 
de su casa. Una hija 8U7a al tan to se le 
aficionb, 7 puso en el los ojos. Pero como 
quier que ella fuesse casadera, 7 el mo^o 
esclavo, no podian passar adelante como 
deseavan : ca el amor mal se puede encu- 
brir, 7 temian si el padre della, 7 amo del, 
lo aabia, pagarian con las cabe9as. Acor- 
daron de huir a tierra de Christianos, reso- 
lucion que al mo^o venia mejor, por bolver 
a los SU708, que a ella por desterrarse de 
su patria : si 7a no la movia el deseo de 
hazerse Christiana, lo que 70 no creo. To- 
maron su camino con todo secreto, hasta 
llegar al penasco 7a dicho, en que la mo9a 
cansada se puso a reposar. En esto vieron 
assomar a su padre con gente de acavallo, 
que venia en su seguimiento. Que podian 
hazer, o a que parte bolverse ? que consejo 
tomar? mentirosas las esperan^as de los 
hombres 7 miserables sus intentos. Acudi- 
eron a lo que solo les quedava de encum- 
brer aquel peiiol, trepando por aquellos 
riscos, que era reparo assaz flaco. El padre 
con un semblante saiiudo los mando abaxar : 
amenagava les sino obedecian de executar 
en ellos una tnuerte mu7 cruel. Los que 
acompa&avan al padre los amonestavan lo 
mismo, pues solo les restava aquella espe- 
ran^a de alcan^ar perdon de la misericordia 
de su padre, con hazer lo que les mandava, 
7 echarsele a los pies. No quisieron venir 
en esto. Los Moros puestos apie acometi- 
eron a aubir el peiiasco : pero el mo^o les 
defendio la subida con galgas, piedras 7 
palos, 7 todo lo demas que le venia a la 
mano, 7 le servia de armas en aquella deses- 
peracion. El padre visto esto, hizo venir 
de un pueblo alii cerca vallesteros para que 
de lexos los flechassen. Ellos vista su per- 
dicion, acordaron con su muerte librarse de 
los denuestos 7 tormentos ma7ores que te- 
mian. Las palabras que en este trance se 
dixeron, no a7 para que relatarlas. Final- 
mente abra^ados entresi fuertemcnte, se 
echaron del peiial abaxo, por aquella parte 
en que los mirava su cruel 7 saiiudo padre. 
Desta manera espiraron antes de llegar a lo 
baxo, con lastima de los presentes, 7 aun 



I 



84 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



con lagrimas de algunos j que se movian 
con aquel triste espectaculo de aquellos 
mo^os desgraciadoB, y a pesar del padre, 
como estavan, los enterraron en aqu^ mis- 
mo lugar ; constancia que se empleara mejor 
en otra hazaiia, y les fuera bien contada la 
muerte, si la padecieran por la virtud y en 
defensa de la verdadera religion, y no por 
satisfacer a sus apetitos desenfrenados/* — 
Ibid. 



•^^^^MV^^fWVS/WS^^^^iA^ 



Aloadiu's Paradise, 



*' Betwbene Orpha and Caramit (in Me- 
sopotamia, now Diarbeth) was the Paradise 
of Aladeules, where he had a fortresse, de- 
stroyed by Selim. Men, by a potion brought 
into a sleep, were brought into this supposed 
Paradise, where, at their waking, they were 
presented with all sensual pleasures of mu- 
sicke, damosells, dainties, &c. which afler, 
having had some taste of another sleepie 
drink, came again to themselves, and then 
did Aladeules tell them, that he could bring 
whom he pleased to Paradise, the place 
where they had bin, and if they would com- 
mit such murders, or haughty attempts, it 
should be theirs. A dangerous devise. Ze- 
lim the Turke destroyed the place.** 

^ In the N. E. parts of Persia there was 
an old man named Aloadin, a Mahumetan, 
which had inclosed a goodly valley situate 
betweene two hUles, and furnished it with 
all variety which Nature and Art could 
yeeld, as fruits, pictures, rilles of milk, 
wine, honey, water, pallaces, and beautifuU 
damosells richly attired, and called it Pa- 
radise. To this was no passage but by an 
impregnable castle: and daily preaching the 
pleasures of this Paradise to the youth which 
he kept in his court, sometimes would minis- 
ter a sleepy drinke to some of them, and 
then conveigh them thither, where being 
entertained with these pleasures four or five 
days, they supposed themselves rapt into 
Paradise ; and then being again cast into a 
trance by the said drink, he caused them to 
be carried forth, and then would examine 
them of what they had scene, and by this 
delusion would make them resolute for any 



enterprise which he should appoint them, 
as to murther any prince his enemy. For 
they feared not death, in hope of their Ma- 
humetical Paradise. But Haolon or Uhm, 
after three years* siege, destroyed him and 
this his Foole*s Paradise* About a. d. 1200. 
— PuBGHAS. So also Maundsvilb, p. 336, 
and Marco Polo, Harris's Col. p. 599. 



^AAA/W^^«M^^^M^^^>^^W 



Inhabitanti of Jupiter, 

'* Thebb appeared to me a bald head, but 
only the upper part thereof, which was bony; 
and I was told that such an appearance is 
seen by those who are to die within a year, 
and that they instantly prepare themsdves. 
The inhabitants of that earth (Jupiter) do 
not fear death, except on this accounti^ that 
they leave their conjugal partner, their chil- 
dren, or parents, for they know that thej 
shall live afler death, and that in dying thej 
do not quit life, because they go to Heaven ; 
wherefore they do not call it dying, but be- 
ing Heaven-niade. Such amongst them as 
have lived in true conjugal love, and have 
taken such care of their children asbecometb 
parents, do not die of diseases, but in tran- 
quillity, as in sleep ; and thus they emigrate 
from the world to heaven. The age to which 
the inhabitants live is, on an average, about 
thirty years, estimated according to yean 
on our earth. It is by the providence of 
the Lord that they die at so early an age, 
lest their numbers should increase beyond 
what that earth is capable of supporting; 
and whereas when they have fulfilled those 
years, they do not suffer themselves to be 
guided by spirits and angels, like those who 
are not so far advanced in age, therefore 
spirits and angels seldom attend them when 
arrived at their thirtieth year. They come to 
maturity also sooner than on our earth; even 
in the first flower of youth they connect 
themselves in marriage, and then it is their 
chief delight to love the partnerof such con- 
nection and to take care of their children. 
Other delights they indeed call delights but 
respectively external.** — Swedekbobg, cow 
ceming the Earths in our Solar Si/stem. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



b6 



wmey of the Jews after Death, 

COB desired to be buried in Canaan, 
BgTpt, for three causes (sajth R. 
>iv Tabchi), because he foresaw that 
lust of Egypt should be made lice ; 
>ecause the Israelites which die out 
lan shall not rise againe without 
un of their rolling through the deep 
len yaults of the earth ; drdly, least 
p^ptians should make an idoll of him. 

b€!tter understanding hereof, let us 
bat is said out of the book Tanchum 
losition of the Pentateuch) concern- 
subject. The Patriarchs (sayth he) 
to be buried in Canaan, because they 
xe there buried, shall first rise in 

of the Messias. And R. Hannaniah 
hat they which die out of Canaan 
dure two deaths : and the same ap- 

Jer. 20, where it is said Pashur 
^o into Babel and should there die, 
•e be buried. * What ?' quoth R. 
^ shall then all the just perish which 
of Canaan ?' * No ; but God will 
lem Mechilloa, that is, deep clifls 
es under the earth, by which they 
iS into the land of promise, whither 
ey are come, Grod shall inspire into 
s breath of life, that they may rise 
8 it is written (Ezek. zxzvii. 12), 
3pen your graves, and cause you to 
t of your sepulchres,* &c. The like 
m in their Targum, or Chaldsean 
tation of the Canticles : when thy 
all rise. Mount Olivet shall cleave 
, and the Israelites which have been 
ill come out of the same, and they 
ave died in strange lands, coming 
t>y holes under the earth, shall come 
^ And for this cause, I myself,* sayth 
lor, * have heard the Jews say, that 
es some of the wealthiest and de- 
among them goe into the land of 
that their bodies may there sleep, 
« freed from this miserable passage 
) many deep seas and rough moun- 

-PUBCHAS. 



Sabbath of the Damned, 

** Thxt begin their sabbath thus soon and 
end it also later than the just time, in com- 
miseration of the purgatory souls, which 
begin and end with them this sabbath*s 
rest, being the whole week besides tor- 
mented in that fire. Judas himself, in ho- 
nour of the Christian sabbath, obtained like 
priviledge; witness S.Brandon in the legend 
(can you refuse him ?) who found him cool- 
ing himself in the sea, sitting upon a stone 
which he had sometime removed out of a 
place where it was needlesse into the high 
way. So meritorious even in Judas is any 
even the least good work. There did Judas 
acquaint Brandon with this Sunday-refresh- 
ing of the hellish prisoners, and desired his 
holy company to scare away the Devils, 
when they should after Sunday evensong 
come to fetch him again, which for that time 
Brandon granted and performed.** — Ibid. 



llie Bitterness of Death, 

" The Angel of Death,'* say the Rabbis, 
" holdeth his sword in his hand at the bed*s 
head, having on the end thereof three drops 
of gall. The sick man spying this deadly 
Angel, openeth his mouth with fear, and 
then those drops fall in, of which one kill- 
eth him, the second maketh him pale, the 
third rotteth and putrifieth.** — ^Ibid. 

Possibly the expression to taste the bitter- 
ness of death may refer to this.^ 



>'SAM^/V^^^^M<WWWVS^V% 



Adam's frst Wife, 

** Whbn God had made Adam, and saw 
it was not good for him to be alone, he made 
him a woman of the earth like unto him, 
and called her Lilis. These disagreed for 
superiority. Lilis, made of the same mould, 
would not be underling, and Adam would 
not endure her hb equal. Lilis seeing no 
hope of agreement, uttered that sacred word 

* See 1 Sam. xv. 32, ** Surely the bitterness 
of death is past."— J. W. W. 



I 



86 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Jehovah, with the cabalistical interpretation 
thereof, and presently did fly into the air. 
Adam plaining his case, God sent three 
angels after her, Senoi, Sensenoi, Sanman- 
geleph, either to bring her back, or denounce 
unto her, that a hundred of her children 
should die in a day. These overtook her 
over the troublesome sea, where one day 
the ^Egyptians should be drowned, and did 
their message to her. She refusing to obey, 
they threatened her drowning ; but she be- 
sought them to let her alone, because she 
was created to vex and kill children on the 
eighth day if they were men ; if women 
children, on the twentieth day. They never- 
theless forcing her to go, Lilis swore to 
them, that whensoever she should find the 
name or figure of those angels written or 
painted on schedule, parchment, or any 
thing, she would do infants no harm, and 
that she would not refuse that punishment 
to lose a hundred children in a day : and 
accordingly a hundred of her children or 
young devils died in a day. And for this 
cause doe they write those names on a scroll 
of parchment, and hang them on their in- 
fants* necks. Thus far Bbn Sib a. 

** In their chambers always is found such 
a picture, and the names of the Angels of 
Health (this office they ascribe to them) are 
written over the chamber door. In their 
book Brandspiegel, printed at Cracovia, 
1597, is shewed tlie authority of this history, 
collected by their wise men out of those 
words, "Male and female create he them,*" 
compared with the forming of Eve of a rib 
in the next chapter ; saying that Lilis, the 
former, was divorced from Adam for her 
pride, which she conceived because she was 
made of earth as well as he, and God gave 
him another, flesh of his flesh.** — Ibid, 



L_ 



Stone that produces Water, 

" At Costantynoble is the vesselle of 
ston, as it were of marbelle, that men clepen 
Enydros, that evermore droppeth watre, and 
fillethe himself everiche zeer, till that it go 



over above, withouten that men 1 
withinne." — The Voiage and Travai 
John MawtdevUe, 



Images. 

April 23. The blossoms swept f 
fruit tree like a shower of snow. 

The wood was in the shade, but a 
tops peered into the slant beam, 
light heads rose like plumes of ven 

The daw below sailed unseen, 
light fell upon his glossy wings. A 
the Rocks.' 

April 24. The brown young leav< 
walnut scarcely distinguishable f: 
boughs. 

There is some tree, perhaps the 
dog-wood, whose large buds shine 
ver, showing only the under par 
leaves. 

In a wet day, I observed that th 
rose brighter. On remarking this to 
told me that in dull days the wh 
were very bright; in clear weather, 
colours shone most visibly. 

May 14. The ash is still unfoliaj 
cept at the extremity of every spra 
its sharp young leaves spread in ti 
stArs. 

The oak still reddish with its 
buds. 

May 18. The oak unfolds its lea\ 
rously ; they droop and hang loose 

I observed the motion of the cc 
like the sparkling of a stream in tl 

In Norfolk they call the flat cou 
Broads.' It presents a kind of oc 

' The Rocks, near Ucfield in Susae 
was therefore written probably in 17 
he again visited hii) friend, T. P. Lami 
Mountsfield Lodge, near Rye. See 
Correspondence, vol. 1, p. 290. Sc 
curious letters of this date are still in e 

J. ' 

* I think this is a mistake. I cerl 
ways heard the word used in the sense 
FoRBY in his VocabuLary of East Angi 
lake formed by the expansion of a riv€ 
country, in v.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



87 



\ the same circular distance, the 
mding down of the horizon. 



■' % /'MS»%^^>^^^^^»^^^i^/^%»^» 



From FiLicAiA. 



r ! Italy I oh thou whom Fate 
with beauty, an unhappy gift, 
ly dower of infinite miseries, 
traces by the hand of Sorrow traced 
thy front ! oh that thou wert less 
ir, 

iauteous, or more strong, that they 
ho now 

iigned endearments of their love be- 
iiile 

e, might love thee less, or fear thee 
lore. 

lould we not behold the hostile hosts 
id squadrons rushing down thy Alps, 
dlic herds upon the banks of Po, 
ig the blood-8tain*d waters. Italy ! 
>uld not see thee, with a sword not 
line, 

r the war, and from a foreign bow 
ig thine arrows, when the war has 
eased, 
or vanquishM still to be a slave." 



■W^^^rf%^/%^^/^V^^^^^^^^W 



From FuicAiA. 



RB is thine own right arm, O Italy? 
)8t thou use the stranger*s ? he who 
aids, 

> attacks thee are Barbarians both, 
th thine enemies, both once thy slave, 
len it is that thou rememberest 
>ld illustrious empire ! this thy faith, 
ighted faith to Valour I Go, divorce 
»nour*d husband — go, and wed thyself 
;h ! Adultress, amid blood and groans 
$9ing arrows take thy sleep — sleep on 
*sword wake thee, drowsy as thou art, 
iked in thy paramour*s embrace, 
! avenging sword awake and strike.** 



Barbarous Superstitions. 

** The Patagonians regard the milky way 
as the hunting forest where departed souls 
delight themselves in hunting ostriches.** — 
Falkneb, p. 115. 

** The Kamtshadales make of the rain- 
bow a new garment for their aerial spirit, 
edged with fringes of red-coloured seal skin, 
and leather thongs of various gaudy dies. 
They explain the nature of storms by the 
shaking of the long and crisped hair of their 
aerial spirit.** — Stbllee, p. 64. 

** The Eopts break out into exultation 
at the appearance of an earthquake, as they 
imagine that heaven is opened, and that 
every celestial blessing is going to alight on 
the land of Egypt.**— Pococke, vol. 1, p. 195. 

** The Kamtshadales account for earth- 
quakes by the driving of an infernal deity 
beneath the earth ; the earth is shaken, they 
say, when the dog that draws the sledge of 
this infernal deity scratches his fleas or 
shakes off the snow from his hide.** — Stsl- 
LBE, p. 267. 

*' The Colmucs hold the lightning to be 
the fire spit out of the mouth of a dragon, 
ridden and scourged by evil Daemons, and 
the thunder they make to be his roarings.** 
— Paixas, vol. 1, p. 343. 

^* Respectiko storms, the people of Chili 
are of opinion that the departed souls are 
returning from their abode beyond the sea, 
to be able to assist their relations and 
friends. Accordingly, when it thunders 
over the mountains, they think that the 
souls of their forefathers are taken in an 
engagement with those of the Spaniards. 
The roaring of the winds they take to be the 
noise of horsemen attacking one another ; 
the howling of the tempest for the beating 
of drums, and the claps of thunder for the 
discharge of muskets and cannons. When 
the wind drives the clouds towards the 



I 



88 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



possessions of the Spaniards, thej rejoice 
that the souls of their forefathers have re- 
pulsed those of their enemies, and call out 
aloud to them to give them no quarter. 
When the contrary happens, they are trou- 
bled and dejected, and encourage the yield- 
ing souls to rally their forces and summon 
up the last remains of their strength.** — 
YxDAVRB, p. 122. Meiner, 

'* SoMB of the pagan Arabs believed 
that of the blood near the dead person's 
brain was formed a bird named H&mah, 
which once in a hundred years visited the 
sepulchre ; though others say this bird is ani- 
mated by the soul of him that is unjustly 
slain, and continually cries Osciini, Oscihii, 
i. e. give me to drink, meaning of the mur- 
therer*s blood, till his death be revenged ; 
and then it flies away.** — Salb. 

*^ Mohammed having hung up his arms 
on a tree, under which he was resting him- 
self, and his companions being dispersed 
some distance from him, an Arab of the 
desart came up to him and drew his sword, 
saying, ^^Who hindreth me from killing 
thee?** to which Mohammed answered, 
** God I ** and Grabricl beating the sword 
out of the AraVs hand, Mohammed took 
it up, and asked him the same question— 
'* Who hindreth me from lulling theeP** 
the Arab replied, ** Nobody I** and imme- 
diately professed Mohanunedism.** — Salb. 



a^^MW^^^^^^^AW^^^^^^O 



The Lave Langvage of Colours. 
From AousTiM db Salazab t Tobbbs. 

O sovBBBiOH beauty, you whose charms 

All other charms surpass. 
Whose lustre nought can imitate 

Except your looking glass. 

A choir of nymphs, the planets they 

Who live but by your light. 
For well we know the sun bestows 

The borrowed rays of night. 

A choir of graces they, for sure 
That title they obtain. 



K they are graces who attend 
In Cytherea*s train. 

These nymphs by various colours n 
Their various feelings tell. 

For Cupid, though the boy be bluK 
Can ju^e of colours welL 

For faith and constancy they blend 
With white the azure blue. 

To show the tyranny of power 
Alone the 8traw*s pale hue. 

A constant and an ardent love 

In fiery tints is seen, 
And hope, that makes affection swe< 

Displays itself in green. 

The mingled red and white display 
A love triumphant there ; 

The copper*s cankerous verdure spc 
Love, envy, and despair. 

A faithful and devoted heart, 
The girdle's circling white. 

And thus a simple ribband speaks 
A woman*s heart aright. 

The hue of bumish*d gold, so bngh 
That emulates the flame. 

The gay and gorgeous emblem shm< 
Of power and love and fame. 

O sovereign beauty, you whose cha 

To all superior shine ! 
Whatever colour pleases you. 

That colour shall be mine. 

May, 16, 1798. 

\AncieHt London Pcutimee.'] 

** Thb youths of this city also have 
on holidays, after evening prayer, at 
nmsters* doors, to exercise their wasters 
bucklers, and the maidens, one of 
playing on a timbrel, in sight of 
masters and dames, to dance for gar! 
hanged athwart the streets. Which 
pastimes in my youth being now supprc 
worser practises within doors are t 
feared." — Stow. 

* i. e. cudgels. See Na&eb' Gitmctry in ir 
quotes this very passage firom Stow'b U 

J. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



89 



The Ten Tribee. 

^ Ix that same regioun ben the moun- 
tajnes of Caspye that men depen Uber m 
tlie oontree. Betwene tho mountajnes the 
Jews of ten lynages ben enclosed, that 
men depen GoUie and Magothe, and their 
mowe not gon out on no side. There 
weren endoeed 22 kjrnges with hire peple, 
that duelleden betwene the mountajnes of 
Sjthje. There Ejng Alisandre chacede 
hem betwene tho mountajnes, and there be 
tboughte for to endose hem thorghe werk 
of his men. But whan he saughe, that he 
mjghte not don it, ne brjng it to an ende, 
he prejed to Grod of Nature, that he wolde 
puforme that that he had begonne. And 
ille were it so, that he was a Pajneme and 
not worthi to ben herd, zit Grod of his grace 
closed the mountajnes togjdre; so that 
thd dwelleu there, alle faste jlokked and 
oiclosedwith highe mountajnes alle aboute, 
ttf onlj on o sjde ; and on that sjde is the 
Me of Caspye, Now maj sum men asken, 
sithe that the see is on that o sjde wherfore 
go thd not out on the see sjde, for to go 
where that hem Ijkethe? But to this 
qnestiounlschal answer, that see of Caspje 
gothe out be londe, undre the mountajnes 
lad renneth be the desert at o sjde of the 
eontree ; and afbre it strecchethe unto the 
endes of Persie. And all thoughe it be 
clept a see, it is no see, ne it touchethe to 
non other see, but it is a lake, the grettest 
of the world. And thoughe thei wolden 
patten him into that see, thd ne wjsten 
Jierer, where that thd scholde arrjven, and 
also thej conen no langage, but onlj hire 
owne, that no man knowethe but thei, and 
therefore mowe thd not gon out. And also 
zee schulle undirstonde, that the Jewes 
han no propre lond of hire owne for to 
dwellen in, in alle the world, but onlj that 
loud betwene the mountajnes. And zit 
thd zdden tribute for that lond to the 
Qneen of Amazoine, the whiche makethe 
hem to ben kept in cloos fulle diligentlj, 
that thd schalle not gon out on no sjde, 
bat the cost of hire lond, for hire lond 



marchethe to tho mountajnes, and often it 
hathe befallen, that sume of the Jewes han 
gon up the mountajnes, and avaled^ down 
to the valejes; but gret nombre of folk 
ne maj not do so, for the mountajnes ben 
so hje and so str^ht up, that thei moste 
abjde there, maugre hire mjghte, for thei 
mowe not gon out, but be a littille issue, 
that was made be strengthe of men, and it 
lastethe wd a 4 grete n^jle ; and afire is 
there zit a lond alle desert, where men 
maj fjnde no watre, ne for djggjnge, ne 
for non other thing, wherfore men maj not 
dwdlen in that place: so is it fulle of 
dragounes, of serpentes and of other yen j- 
mous bestes, that no man dar not passe, 
but zif it be strong wjntre. And that 
strejt passage, men clepen in that eontree 
Cljron ; and that is the passage that the 
Queene of Amazoine makethe to ben kept ; 
and thoghe it happene, sum of hem, be for- 
tune to gon out, thei conen no manner of 
langage but Ebrow, so that thei can not 
speke to the peple. And zit nathdes, men 
sejrn, thd schulle gon out in the tjme of An- 
tecrist, and that thei schulle maken gret 
slaughtre of Cristene men, and therfore alle 
the Jewes, that dwellen in die londes, ler- 
nen alle wejs to speken Ebrew, in hope 
that whan the other Jewes schulle gon out, 
that thei maj undirstonden hire speche, 
and to leden hem into Cristendom, for to 
destroje the Cristene peple. For the Jewes 
sejn that thei knowen wd, be hire prophe- 
cjes, that thd of Caspje schulle gon out 
and spreden thorghe out alle the world, and 
that the Cristene men schulle ben undre hire 
subjecdoun als longe as thei han ben in 
subjeccioun of hem. And zif that zee wil 
w jte how that thei schulle f jnden hire weje, 
after that I have herd seje, I schalle telle 
jou zou. In the time of Antecrist, a fox 
schalle make there his trajne, and m jnen an 

' i. e. descended. See Menage in v. AvalUr, 
It is an old Anglo-Norman word made up from 
the Latin. Spenser and Chaucer both use it. 

'' Such a rain from heaven 'gan availe." 

TroH, and Crtss. Book iii.— J. W. W. 



90 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



hole, where Kyng Alisandre leet make the 
zates ; ^ and so longe he schalle myncn and 
perce the erthe til that he schalle passe 
thorghe, towardes that folke; and whan thei 
seen the fox, thei schuUe have gret marveyUe 
of him, because that thei saughe never suche 
a best ; for of alle othere bestes thei han 
enclosed amonges them, saf only the fox, 
and thanne thei schullen chasen him and pur- 
suen him so strcyte, tille that he come to 
the same place that he came fro, and thanne 
thei schullen dyggen and mynen so strongly, 
tiUe that thei fynden the zates that Kyng 
Alisandre leet make of grete stones and 
passynge huge, wel symented and made 
stronge for the maystrie, and tho zates thei 
schulle breken, and so gon out, be fyndynge 
of that issue.** — Maundbville. 



Province of Darkness. 

" In the kyngdom of Abcaz is a gret 
marvaylle ; for a provynce of the contree, 
that hathe wel in circuyt 3 jomeyes, that 
men clepen Hanyson, is alle covered with 
derknesse, withouten ony brightnesse or 
light ; so that no man may see ne here, ne 
no man dar entren in to hem. And natheles 
thei of the contree seyn, that som tyme 
men heren voys of folk, and hors nyzenge, 
and cokkes crowynge, and men witen wel, 
that men dwellen there ; but thei knowc not 
what men, and thei seyn that the derknesse 
befelle be myracle of Grod ; for a cursed 
Emperor of Persie that highte Saures, pur- 
suede all Cristene men to destroye hem, and 
to compelle hem to make sacrifises to his 
y doles; and rood with grete host, in alle that 
ever he myghte, for to confounde the Cris- 
tene men. And thanne in that contree, 
dwelleden manye gode Cristene men, the 
whiche laften hire godes, and wolde han fled 
in to Grece: and whan they weren in a 

' It is hardly necessary to say that this is 
the old form for gates. It is a corruption of the 
Anglo-Saxon ^ and y , as may be seen in the next 
extract, and is not said to be found except in 
MSS. written after the twelfth century. 

J. W. W. 



playn that highte Megon, anon this cursed 
Emperor mett with hem with his boost, for 
to have slain hem and hewen hem to peces. 
And anon the Cristene men kneleden to the 
grounde and made hire preyeres to God to 
sokoure hem, and anon a gret thikke clowde 
cam and covered the Emperor and alle his 
boost, and so thei enduren in that manere, 
that thei ne mowe not gon out on no syde ; 
and so schulle thei ever more abyden in 
darknesse tille the day of dome, be the my- 
racle of God. Also zee schulle understonde 
that out of that lond of derknesse, gothe out 
a gret ryvere, that schewethe wel, that 
there ben folk dwellynge be many redy 
tokenes, but no man dar not entre in to it." 
—Ibid. 



•^/'^^'^VN^^h^^V^^^W^^^^^V* 



The Faery Falcon. 



^*' In the contree of litille Ermonye is an 
old castelle, that stont upon a rocke, the 
which is cleped the castelle of the sparre- 
hawk, that is bezonde the cytee of Layays, 
beside the town of Pharsipee, that belong- 
ethe to the lordschepe of Cruk, that is a 
riche lord and a gode Cristene man : where 
men fynden a spare-hauk upon a perche 
righte fair, and righte wel made, and a 
fayre lady of Fayrye that kepethe it, and who 
that wil wake that sparhauk 3 dayes and 3 
nyghtes (or 7) withouten companye and 
withouten sleep, that faire lady schal zcven 
him whan he hathe don, the first wyssche 
that he wil wyssche of erthely thinges, and 
that hath been proved often tymes. And o 
tyme befelle that a Kynge of Ermonye, that 
was a worthi knyght, and doughty man, and 
a noble prince woke that hauk som tyme, 
and at the ende of 7 days and 7 nyghtes, 
the lady cam to hym, and bad him wisschen, 
for he had wel disserved it; and he an- 
swered, that he was gret lord ynow, and 
wel in peece, and hadde ynowghe of worldly 
ricchesse, and therfore he wolde wisshe non 
other thing but the body of that faire lady, 
to have it at his wille ; and sche answered 
hym, that he knew not what he asked, and 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



91 



that he was a fool to desire that he 
e not have ; for sche sejde that he 
e not aske but erthely thing, for sche 
m erthelj thing, but a gostlj thing ; 
e kjng scjde that he ne wolde asken 
iier thing. And the ladj answerd, 
e that I maj not withdrawe zou fro 
lewed corage, I schal zeve zou with- 
wjsschinge, and to alle hem that 
* com of zou. Sire kyng, zee schulle 
rerre, withouten pees, and allewejs 
9th degree zee schulle ben in subjec- 
>f zoure enemyes, and zee scrhulle ben 
3f alle godes.* And never sithen, 
*T the Kyng of Ermonje, ne the 
e weren never in pees, ne ther had- 
rver sithen plentee of godes ; and thei 
in sithen allewejes undre tribute of 
irrazines. Also the sone of a pore 
roke that hauke and wisshed that he 
cheve (chevir^) wel, and to ben happy 
rchandise. And the lady graunted 
and he became the most riche and 
ost famouse marchant that myghte 
I see or oner the ; and he becam so 
that he knew not the 1000 part of 
s hadde ^ and he was wysere in wiss- 
s than was the Kyng. Also a knyght 
temple wooke there, and wyssched a 
veremore fulle of gold, and the lady 
ted him. But sche seyde him, that he 
iked the destruccioun of here ordre, 
3 trust and the affiance of that purs, 
•r the grete pryde, that thei scholde 
; and so it was. And therfore loke, 
te him wel, that schalle wake ; for zif 
pe, he is lost, that nevere man schalle 
iim more." — Ihid. from the History of 
ine, hy John of Amu, 

Origin of the Rose? 

ETWENB the cytee and the chirche of 
lem, is the felde Floridus, that is to 

3e mot est vieux, et signifie venir a bent 
que personne, ou de quelque chose, et s'en 
maitre.'* Bichelet, in v. — J. W, W. 
e poem, TIf Ro», p. 439.— J. W. W. 



seyne, the feld florisched ; for als moche a 
a fayre mayden was blamed with wrong 
and sclaundered, that sche hadde don for- 
nycacioun, for whiche cause sche was demed 
to the dethe, and to be brent in that place, 
to the whiche sche was ladd. And as the 
fyre began to brenne aboute hire, sche made 
hire preyeres to oure Lord, that als wissely 
as sche was not gylty of that synne, that he 
wold helpe hire, and make it to be knowen 
to alle men, of his mercyfuUe grace ; and 
whanne sche hadde thus seyd, sche entred 
into the fuyer, and anon was the fuyr 
quenched and oute ; and the brondes that 
weren brennynge, becomen white roseres, 
fulle of roses ; and theise weren the first 
roseres and roses, bothe white and rede, 
that ever ony man saughe. And thus was 
this maiden saved be the grace of God.** — 
Ibid. 



Ladt Gbanqe.^ 

" The true story of this lady, which hap- 
pened in this century, is as frightfully ro- 
mantic as if it had been the fiction of a 
gloomy fancy. She was the wife of one of 
the lords of session in Scotland, a man of the 
very first blood of his country. For some 
mysterious reasons, which have never been 
discovered, she was seized and carried off in 
the dark, she knew not by whom, and by 
nightly journeys was conveyed to the High- 
land shores, from whence she was transport- 
ed by sea to the remote rock of St. Kilda, 
where she remained amongst its few wild in- 
habitants, a forlorn prisoner, but had a con- 
stant supply of provisions, and a woman to 
wait on her. No inquiry was made after her, 
till she at last found means to convey a let- 
ter to a confidential friend, by the daughter 

• For this strange history, see Sir Walter 
Scott's note in Ice. (vol. iv. p. 246, Murray's 
edit.) *' She had become privy to some of the 
Jacobite intrigues in which her husband, Lord 
Grange (brother of the Earl of Mar, and a Lord 
of Session,) and his family were engaged." 



02 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOB LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



of a catechist, who concealed it in a clue of 
yam. Information being thus obtained at 
Edinburgh, a ship was sent to bring her 
off; but intelligence of this being received, 
she was conveyed to M^Leod's island of 
Herries, where she died.** — ^BoewBix. 

Lanb Buchanam says, *^It was supposed 
a courier was despatched over land by her 
enemies, who had arrived at St. Kilda some 
time before the vessel. When the latter ar- 
rived, to their sad disappointment, they 
found the lady in her grave. Whether she 
died by the visitation of God, or the wick- 
edness of man, will for ever remain a se- 
cret ; as their whole address could not pre- 
vail on the minister and his wife, though 
brought to Edinburgh, to declare how it 
happened, as both were afraid of offending 
the great men of that country among whom 
they were forced to reside. 

** A poor old woman told me,** he adds, 
^ that when she served her there, her whole 
time was devoted to weeping, and wrapping 
up letters round pieces of cork, bound up 
with yam, and throwing them into the sea, 
to try if any favourable wave would wall 
them to some Christian, to inform some hu- 
mane person where she resided, in expec- 
tation of carrying tidings to her friends at 
Edinburgh.** 



A^\A/V^^^^l^\/V%^A^^A/V^^ 



Line» found in the pocket book of Mr, Whitb- 
siDB, a Di99enting Minister of Yarmouth^ 
reputed mad^ who destroyed himself 

^ With toilsome steps I pass thro* life*s 

dull road, 
Ko pack-horse half so weary of his load ; 
And when this dirty journey shall conclude. 
To what new realms is then my way pur- 
sued? 
Say— does the pure-embodied spirit fly 
To happier climes, and to a better sky ? 
Or, sinking, does it mix with kindred clay, 
And sleep a whole etemity away ? 
Or, shall this form be once again renew*d. 
With all its frailties and its hopes endued, 
Acting once more on this detested stage 



Passions of youth, infirmities of age ? 
Fve read in Tully what the ancients thought, 
And judged unprejudiced what modems 

taught; 
But no conviction from my reading springs, 
Fm dubious in the most important thmgs. 
Tet one short moment will in full explain 
What all philosophy has sought in vain ; 
Will tell me what no human wisdom knows, 
Clear up each doubt, and terminate my woes. 
Why, l^en, not hasten this decisive hour 
Still in my view, and even in my power ? 
Why should I drag along thb life I hate 
Without one hope to mitigate the weight? 
Why this mysterious being forced to exist, 
When every joy is lost, and every 1m^ 

dismist? 
In chains of darkness wherefore should I 

stay, 
Andmoum in prison, while I keep the kej ?** 



WVMMWMMNMMAAA^A^^^^^ 



May'day in the Highlands. 

** It was a custom, till of late yean, 
among the inhabitants of whole districts in 
the north of Scotland, to extinguish all 
their fires on the evening of the last day of 
April. Early on the first day of May, some 
select persons met in a private place, and 
by turning with great rapidity an augre 
in a dry piece of wood, extracted what 
they called, Tein*>Egin, the forced or ele- 
mentary fire. Some active young men, 
one firom each hamlet in the district, at- 
tended at a distance, and as soon as the 
forced fire was kindled, carried part of it, 
with great expedition and joy, to their re- 
spective villages. The people immediately 
assembled upon some rock or eminence, 
lighted the Bel-tein, and spent the day b 
mirth and festivity. 

** The ceremonies used upon this occa- 
sion were founded upon opinions of which 
there is now no trace remaining in tradition. 
It is in vain to enquire why those ignorant 
persons who are addicted to this supersti- 
tion, throw into the Bel-tein a portion of 
those things upon which they regale them- 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



93 



on the first of May. Neither is 
inj reason assigned bj them for 
I branches of mountain ash^ with 
I of flowers and heath, which they 
dth shouts and gestures of joy, in 
ion three times round the fire. These 
» thej afterwards deposit above the 
f their respectiye dwellings, where 
main till they give place to others in 
ceeding year. Bel-tein is a compo- 
f Bel, a rock, and Tein, fire. The 
y of May is called La Bel Tein, or 
of the fire on the rock. 
i kindle, say the ancient Scots, the 
the rock to welcome the sun after 
eb behind the clouds and tempests 
ark^ months ; and it would be highly 
t not to honour him with titles of 
when we meet him with joy on our 
They call him then, An Lo, the day, 
lis Neav, the light of heaven. — ^Mac- 



Pharos of Alexandria. 

RABAT Eskanderiah est le Fhare ou 
'Alezandrie. Le G^ographe Persien 
it 3*. parlant d* Alexandrle oii ce cli- 
imence, dit que dans cette ville qu* 
Ire fit bAtir sur le bord de la mer 
ran^ ce grand Prince fit construire 
■e qui passe pour Stre une des mer- 
lu monde ; dont la hauteur ^toit de 
14es, au plus haut duquel il fit placer 
lir fait par art talismanique, par le 
luquel la ville d*Alexandrie devoit 
I consenrer sa grandeur et sa puis- 
ant que cet ouyrage menreiUeux 
roit. 

Iques-uns ont ^critquc lesyaisseauz 

▼oient dans ce port, se voyoient de 

dans ce miroir. Quoi qu*il en soit, 

rt c^^bre pamu les orientaux. Les 

-in-Beltein, the split branch of the 
le rock. 

le Armoricans and the Gael of North 
called the winter, and particularl v tho 
f November, Mis-Du, or the black 
— Lhutd. Archm, Brit. 



Persans appellent ce Phare, Le Miroir Alex- 
andre. Us disent que la fortune de la ville 
y ^toit attach^, parceque c*^toit un Talis- 
man.** ^D*Hs]lB£LOT. 



^'V^SA/W^^^^M^^ ^^^^W 



Oenova mia^ ffc. 

** Gbhova mia, se con asciutto ciglio 

Lacero e guasto il tuo bel corpo io miro, 
Non e poca pieta d*ingrato figlio. 

Ma ribello mi sembra agni sospiro. 

La maesta di tue mine ammiro, 
Trofei della costanza, e del consiglio ; 

Ovunque io volgo il passo, o*l guard* io 
giro, 
Incontro il tuo valor nel tuo periglio. 
Piu val d*ogni vittoria im bel sofirire ; 

E contro ai fieri alta vendetta fai 
Col vederti distrutta, e nol sentire. 

Anzi girar la liberta mirai, 
E baciar lieta ogni rulna, e dire 

Ruine si, ma servitu non mai.** 

Del P. Pastobuii. 



^^^^^^f^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Ruins of Moseley, 

Tatlob, if through thy shatter*d fire-swart 
hall 
Unbowed thou wanderest, and with tear- 
less eye, 
*Tis not that thou hast seen unmoved its fall, 
But that thou feePst it were a crime to 
sigh. 
Remain it so thy trophy, until all 
Thy virtue in its danger shall descry. 
To suffer well is more than victory. 
From such to sufier is the patriots call. 
Soon will Desertion*s ivy wreaths intrude 
Where Hospitality*s fresh garlands lay. 
But long shall Freedom*s awful form be 
view*d 
Amid the mouldering monument to stray, 
Transported kbs each stone, and proudly 
say 
Ruin may come, but never Servitude.** 

Wm. Tatlob, Jun. 



94 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



1 



Vivea conteTiio, Sf^. 

YiTEA contento alia capanna mia 

In povertade industre, in dolce stento, 
E perche al canto, ed al lavora intento 

Qualche fama di me spander s'udia. 

Vivea contento alia capanna mia. 

Fatto percio superbo io mi nutria 

D*un van desio d*abbandonar Tarmento : 
Fui negli alti palagi, e in un momento 

Senza pregio restai, ne piu qual pria 

Vivea contento alia capanna mia. 

Degli anni miei perdendo il piu bel fiore, 
11 viver lieto, e la virtu perdei ; 

L*ozio, la gola, e gli aggi ebber Tonore 

Degli anni miei perdendo il piu bel fiore : 
Scorno e dolore, i giomi tristi e rei 

M* occupa al fine, e dico a tutte Tore, 
Ah I s'io pover vivea, or non avrei 
Scorno e dolore, i giomi tristi c rei." 

FfiBDINANDO FAaSEBINI. 

Translation. 

1 DWELT contented in my little cot, 
Poor, but with all the peaceful comforts 

blest 
That industry can give ; my name was 

known 
As one who laboured well, and well* could 

sing. 
I dwelt contented in my little cot. 
So I grew vain, and cherished idle hopes 
To quit my country toil. The princely domes 
I sought, and in a moment found myself 
Unknown, unnoted there, nor now, as once, 
I dwelt contented in my humble cot. 
Destroying the fair spring-tide of my life, 
Virtue I lost, and lost the cheerful heart, 
Sloth, and intemperance, and sorrow came. 
Destroying the fair spring-tide of my life. 
Contempt and grief, and sad and guilty days, 
Came on at last, and every hour I think, 
Ah I in my little cot I 8hould*^ot know 
Contempt and grief, and sad andguilty days I 

R. S. 

Io grido, e gridero, finche nu senta 
L'Adria, il Tebro, il Tirren, F Arno, e'l 
Tesino, 



E chi primo udira, scuota il vicino, 
Ch' e periglio comun quel, che si tenta. 
Non val, che Italia a' picdi altrui si pent*, 

E obbliando il valor, pianga il destino ; 

Troppo innamora il bel terren Latino, 
E in disio di regnar pietate e spenta. 
Invan con occhi moUi, e goance smorte 

Chiedi perdon ; che il suo nemico audace 
Non vuole il suo dolor, ma la sua morte. 

Fiaccia il soffrire a chi *1 pugnar non piace. 
E stolto orgoglio in cosi debil 8ort« 

Non voler guerra, e non soffrir la pace. 

Cabix) Mabia Magoi. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W^A/>i^^^k^ 



Images, 

Cet of the bittern, like the lowing of an 
ox, or as William Taylor says, a cow with 
a cough, three or four times successively. 

Sunset, seen through a grove of firs. 

What is the grass called with a pink blos- 
som? 

Evening sunshine on a hill field, seen 
through and over clustered trees. 

Glitter of the poplar in wind and sun- 
shine. 

Green light of the evening sky where it 
last lingers. 

July 6. In the College Green and at Red- 
land the row of lime trees already begins 
to shed its leaves. 

The afternoon was cloudy, the sky was 
partly clear over the channel, and the clouds 
in that part, though heavy, were white and 
brilliant. The water lay below, a sheet of 
white glory, whose boundary was only made 
visible by the less radiant line of shore and 
horizon. 

July 15. It has been a showery afternoon, I 
over Kingsweston the clouds lie heavy, yet 
hazy, a faint yellow tinge over their base ; 
their summits like distant snow in sunshine. 
A heavier mass of dark cloud lies nearer, 
spreading to the lefk, and falling in nun at 
Clevedon. At its nearer verge beams the 
white glory of the sun, and the sky still 
nearer is varied with the waviness of clouds 
dazzling white, and dark spots and the clear 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



95 



»le through their openings. A few 
since, the slant rays shot down, now 
itself is just seen, and a haziness 
ads the hearier cloud, and the dis- 
cloud is less distinct. Now all is 
1 one deepening cloud, and the dis- 
melted into a faint yellow spread, 
earns sloping down it, and this light 
ntly diminished by the spreading 



SubfecUfor Idylls, 

what William Taylor has told me 
lylls of Gessner and Yoss, and the 
on he has shown me of one by Groe- 
n tempted to introduce them here, 
also can seize the fit objects of com- 
, and place them in the right point 

age wedding. The feelings that I 
r Edmund Seward' experienced in 
shire that evening; even the scenery 
silently suit. A hamlet well em- 

in elms amid a flat coimtry : the 
clear : the distant bells. The tra- 
id a woman, a poor married woman, 
isit from Oxford to Godstow. This 
y in hexameters, 
ned mansion-house,^ — ^rather going 

An old man breaking stones on the 

* some such hard labour) must be 

r speaker, who remembered its old 

Or would it not be well to make 

the fine old house at Stowey, being 
sed by a young heir — the yew trees 
n — ^the casement windows altered 
orch and its jessamine destroyed? 

hospitality, and old fashions, and 
ivolence, all gone together ? 
uneral of a young man, the last of 
ly.' A fine young man, the victim 

hey's early friend. See the beautiful 
his memory, " The Dead Friend." 
I one volume, p. 131. For the " Wed- 
« Engliih Eclogues, p. 158.-J. W.W. 

E»gU$h Eclogues, " The Old Mansion 
p. 149. 
. p. 155. 



of a public school and a university. The 
old steward to relate it. 

A woman going to see her son, lying in 
a hospital after having been wounded by 
the French stinkpots.* 

A ruined cottage.* Its story not to be 
told in dialogue. A mother and her daugh- 
ter once dwelling there. The girl a street- 
walker now — the mother dying at the work- 
house. 

The vices of the poor should not be kept 
out of sight when their miseries are exposed. 
I think an eclogue may be made upon an 
industrious woman afflicted with a drunken 
bad husband. 

The ruined cottage has matter for a best 
poem. The path overgrown — the holyhock 
blooming amid weeds. It shall be related 
to a friend whom I have purposely led there 
in an evening walk. She may be described 
as when a girl the May Queen. The idle 
fellows standing on the bridge in the way 
to church would look up from the water as 
she passed, and bid her good to-morrow. 
Something may be said on the strange want 
of conscience in the libertine. 



BaUads, 

Thb murderer made to touch the dead 
man*8 face. No blood follows — no miracle 
to criminate. He is left alone with the body. 
The dead man then lifU up his head, and 
looks at him. They find him mad when 
they return. 

There dwells a maniac in a castle, its lord. 
One female dwells with him, young and 
beautiful. Her he had married ; another 
he had seduced. On his wedding day, a ra- 
ven, by his repeated flights about the hall 
window, disturbed the guests. They go to 

* See " The Sailor's Mother," p. 152. 
" It was no ball, Sir, but some cursed thing 
Which bursts and burns, that hurt him. Some- 
thing, Sir, 
They do not use on board our English ships, 
It is so wicked." J. W. W. 

» Ibid. p. 156. 



1 



96 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



see on what he was fixed, and find the corpse 
of the forsaken one. He drinks and drinks, 
to drown his agonies, till he enters the bridal 
chamber ; then he thinks he sees her spirit 
by the bridal bed, and screams, and becomes 
a madman — a maniac. The wife alone re- 
mains with him. She does her duty. 

One of the Welsh superstitions is, that if 
a murdered person has been secretly buried, 
his grave may be discovered by a lambent 
blue flame, which hovers over it till the 
body is discovered. 



•^^^^^^w^^^^^^^^^^v^^^^ 



The Primitive Monks. 



" Here they in the desarts hoped to find 
rocks and stocks, yea, beasts themselves, 
more kind than men had been to them. 
What would hide and heat, cover and keep 
warm, served them for cloathes, not placing 
(as their successors in after ages) any holi- 
nesse in their habit, folded up in the af- 
fected fashion thereof. As for their food, 
the grasse was their cloath, the ground 
their table, herbs and roots their diet wild 
fruits and berries their dainties, hunger 
their sauce, their nails their knives, their 
hands their cups, the next well their wine 
cellar. But what their bill of fare wanted 
in cheer, it had in grace, their life being 
constantly spent in prayer, reading, mus- 
ing, and such like pious employments. They 
turned solitarinesse itself into society, and 
cleaving themselves asunder by the divine 
art of meditation, did make of one two or 
more, opposing, answering, moderating in 
their own bosoms, and busy in themselves 
with variety of heavenly recreations. It 
would do one good even but to think of their 
goodness, and at the reboimd and second 
hand to meditate on their meditations For 
if ever poverty was to be envied, it was here ; 
and I appeal to the moderate men of these 
times, whether in the heighth of these wo- 
full warres, they have not sometimes wisht 
(not out of passionate distemper, but serious 
recollection of themselves) some such pri- 
vate place to retire unto, where, out of the 
noise of this clamorous world, they might 



have reposed themselves, and serve 
with more quiet.** — ^Fuujnt*8 Ckitrc 
tary. 



^^^^^^^MMM^^^AA^^A^A^^M 



BeJU no effectual Charm against L 

ning, 

^ Thb frequent firing of abbey ch 
by lightning confuteth the proud mott 
monly written on the bells in their sU 
wherein each bell intitided itself to 
fold efficacy. 

Funera phmgo, Men*s death I tel] 

By dolefull knelL 

Fulgura ) ^ Lightning and thi 

Fulmina ) ^* I break asunder. 

Sabbata pango, On sabbath all 

To church I calL 

Excito lentos. The sleepy head 

I raise firom bed. 

Dissipo ventos. The winds so fier< 

I doe disperse. 

Paco cruentos, Men*8 cruell rage 

I doe asswage. 
Whereas it plainly appears that tbef 
bey steeples, though quilted with be! 
most cap-a-pee, were not of proof a 
the sword of God*8 lightning. Tea, 
rally when the heavens in tempest 
strike fire, the steeples of abbeys p 
often their tynder, whose firequent bv 
portended their final destruction.** — I 



^^^^^^^^%^^^^^^»^^>^^v^^» 



Statues in Dhahi. 



" La Tradition fabuleuse des Orie 
porte, qu*il y a dans Tisle de Dhahi dc 
tucs semblables k celles des Isles fort 
lesquelles ayant les mains ^ev^es, sen 
faire signe aux voyageurs, conune pou 
dire, Retoumez sur vos pas ; car il 
plus d*habitations en allant plus avai 
D*Hebbblot. 



^AAAM^^^^i^AA^^^A^^^^^ 



[Co/i/onttan Paradise,'] 

'* SoMB of the southern Califomians] 
their Paradise in the middle of the 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



97 



the elect enjoy a coolness that they 
▼er meet with in their burning sands ; 
ey supposed Hell to be in the hoUow 
mountains.** — Pbkousb. 



Piango di giqja, jrc. 

fGO di gioja, se '1 Divin rigore 
ibilmente mi flagella, e pace 
sento in me, che ogni altro ben mi 
spiace, 

dolcezza mi si schianta il core, 
i d*un finto comico dolore 
il racconto, in lagrime si sface, 
ange piu, quanto Tudir piu place 
placer, la doglia sua maggiore. 
itre un lieto e dolce pianto io verso, 
ato arbitrio del tacer m*invola 
occulta, ed esclamo al Ciel converso, 
ti celesti, se la gioja sola 
nel gaudio entrar, me con diverso 
gior portento anco il dolor consola." 

FUJCAIA. 

Qual Madrcy Sfv, 

. Madre i figli con pietoso afietto 
, e d'amor si strugge a lor darante, 
icia in fronte,e Tun si stringe al petto, 
tien su i ginocchi, un sulle piante ; 
7e a gli atti, a i gemiti, all* aspetto 
roglie intende si diverse, e tante, 
i un guardo, a quei dispensa un detto. 
ride, o 8*adira, e sempre amante. 
' noi Provvidenza alta infinita 
ia, e questi conforta, e quei provede 
ascolta, e porge a tutti aita, 
niega talor grazia, o mercede, 
I sol, perche a pregar ne invita, 
gar finge, e nel negar concede.** 

FiLICAIA. 

Translation. 

ow the mother views with transport 

meet 

hildren crowding roimd. One to her 

>reast 

laspe, another on her knee will rest; 

: she finds a footstool at her feet. 



She in their lisping words, their anxious eyes. 
Their gestures, every varying wish can 
read. 
And if she smiles, or with a frown denies. 
The frown, the smile, alike from love pro- 
ceed. 
Even so the all-wise Providence beholds 
The children of the earth, and hears their 

prayers. 
Supplies their wants, consoles them in 
their cares. 
And grants the boons they pray for, or with- 
holds. 
That other prayers may make more earnest 

trial. 
Or grants a blessing even in denial.** 

R.S. 



<^>^^^^^v\^^\^^wvw^^s^ - 



Santa Maria Maddalemi, piangente neUa 
Orotta di Marsilia. 

^^ Antbo, in cui visse incognito il rigore 

Di lei, che tanto erro, pianse poi tanto, 

Di lei, cui letto il suol, bevanda il pianto, 
Cibo il cordoglio fu, gioja il dolore. 
Antro dall* onda di quel sacro umore 

Piu, che da gli anni logorato e infranto ; 

E vol silenzi alpestri, che d*un santo 
Orror m*empiete, e mi parlate al core : 
Io col guardo v*ascolto, e udir mi sembra 

Ch* ella qui giunse, e qui ritenne il passo, 
E qui poso le affiticate membra ; 

E risponder vorria, ma*l pianto, ahi lasso! 
M*abbonda si, che *1 volto mio rassembra 

Per doglia un fiume, e per stupore un 



sasso. 



u 



FiLlCAIA. 



Adites. 

" Thb tribe of Ad were descended from 
Ad, the son of Aws or Uz, the son of Aram, 
the son of Sem, the son of Noah, who after 
the confusion of tongues, setded in Al Ah- 
k&f, or the Winding Sands ' in the province 

* See ThalabOf where part of this material is 
used up. 

" O'er all the Winding Sands 
The tents of Ad wore pitch'd ; 



98 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



of Hadramaut, where Ltis posterity greatly 
multiplyed. Their first king was Shedad, 
the son of Ad, of whom the eastern writers 
deliver many fabulous things, particularly 
that he finished the magnificent city his 
father had begun, wherein he built a fine 
palace, adorned with delicious gardens, to 
embellish which he spared neither cost nor 
labour, proposing thereby to create in his 
subjects a superstitious veneration of him- 
self as a god. This garden or paradise was 
called the garden of Irem, and is mentioned 
in the ' Koran, and oflcn alluded to by the 
oriental writers. The city, they tell us, is 
still standing in the desarts of Aden, being 
preserved by Providence as a monument of 
divine justice, though it be invisible, unless 
very rarely, when God permits it to be 
seen, a favour one Colabah pretended to 
have received in the reign of the Khalif 
Mo&wiyah, who sending for him to know 
the truth of the matter, Colabah related his 
whole adventure ; that as he was seeking a 
camel he had lost, he found himself on a 
sudden at the gates of this city, and enter- 
ing it, saw not one inhabitant, at which be- 
ing terrified, he stayed no longer than to 
take with him some fine stones which he 
shewed the Khalif." — SitLE. 

Ths note says,>* Ad lefl two sons, Shed- 
d&d and Sheddid, who reigned jointly after 
his decease, and extended their power over 
the greater part of the world. But Sheddid 
dying, his brother became sole monarch ; 
who having heard of the celestial paradise, 
made a garden in imitation thereof in the 



Happy Al Ahkaf then, 
For many and brave were his sons, 
His daughters were many and fair." — i. 19. 

J. W. W. 

* " Hast thou not considered how thy Lord 
dealt with Ad, the people of Irem, adorned with 
lofty buildings, the like whereof hath not been 
erected in the land ? and with Thamud, who 
hewed the rocks in the valley into houses ? and 
with Pharaoh, the contriver of the stakes, who 
had behaved insolently in the earth, and multi* 
plied corruptions therein ?" — JiToran, ch. 89. lite 
day break. 



desarts of Aden, and called it Irem, : 
the name of his great-grandfather : wh 
was finished, he set out with a great at 
dance to take a view of it ; but when 
were come within a day's journey of 
place, they were all destroyed by a ten 
noise from heaven. 

** They say Pharaoh used to tie thoe 
had a mind to punish, by the hands 
feet to four stakes fixed in the ground, 
so tormented them.'* 

A fine poem might be made upon 
story. A female Arabian, blameless 
miserable, finds herself in this city; 
meets one inhabitant, who had been so n 
better than his countrymen, that when i 
were destroyed and thrown into hell 
was left alone, a wretched man. And e' 
full moon Azrael appeared to him to k 
if he were willing to die, and the wret< 
man, though death was his hourly v 
yet durst not die. The angel comes a^ 
— she falls prostrate before him, and ; 
reward he drops the drops of bitter 
from his sword, but the drops of death 
sweet to her, and she expires with a si 
The Adite then takes courage, and blc 
God, and dies. 

The descendants of Ad in procea 
time falling from the worship of the 
God into idolatry, God sent the pro; 
HM (who is generally agreed to be 
ber) to preach to and reclaim them, 
they refusing to acknowledge his misj 
or to obey him, God sent a hot and si 
eating wind, which blew seven nights 
eight days together, and entering at 1 
nostrils, past through their bodies, and 
stroyed them all, a very few only exce] 
who had believed in Hiid, and retired 
him to another place. Schedad is also a 
Iram Ben Omad. 



Le i^phete Houd. 

" DiEU le destina pour precher ^ ce 
pie Tunite de son essence, et pour le 
tourner du culte des Idoles. Ces L 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



99 



etoient Sakiah, quails invoquoient pour avoir 
de la pluie: Hafedhah, k qui ils recouroient 
pour etre preserve de mauvaises rencontres 
pendant leurs voyages: Razecah, quails croy- 
oient leor foumir les choses necessaires k la 
Tie; et Salemah qu'ils imploroient pour le 
reoouvrement de la sant^ quand lis Etoient 
malades. Ces Adites habitoient dans TAra- 
bie Heureuse en une contree nommee 
Aheaf, mot qui signifie en Arabe des col- 
lines de sable. Houd pr^ha inutilement k 
ce peuple pendant plusieurs ann^, jusqu*^ 
ce que Dieu enfin se lassa de les attendre 
I penitence. 

" La premiere punition que Dieu leur 
envoya, fut une famine de trois ans conse- 
cntifs, pendant lesquels le ciel fut ferm^ 
poor eux. Cette famine jointe k beaucoup 
d autres mauz qu*elle causa, emporta ime 
grande partie de ce peuple, qui etoit le plus 
fort, le plus riche, et le plus puissant de 
toute TAjrabie. 

" Les Adites se voyant reduits k une 
telle extremity, et ne recevant aucun secours 
deleursfausses Divinity resolurent de faire 
on pelerinage en un lieu de la Province de 
Hegiaz,ou est situde presentement laMecque. 
n 8*elevoit pour lors en ce lieu une colline 
de sable rouge, autour de laquelle on voy- 
oit toujours un grand concours de divers 
peoples ; et toutes ces nations, tant fideles 
qn* infidelles, croyoient obtenir de Dieu, en 
le visitant avec devotion, tout ce qu*elles 
loi demandoient concemant les besoins et 
les necessites de la vie. 

** Les Adites ayant done resolu d*entre- 
prendre ce voyage religieux, choisirent 70 
hommes, k la tete desquels ils mirent Mor- 
tadh et Elil, les deux plus considerables per- 
lonnages du pays, pour s*acquitter au nom 
de tout le peuple de ce devoir, et obtenir 
du ciel par ce moyen, la pluie sans laquelle 
tout etoit perdu chez eux. Ces gens etant 
partis, arriverent aupres de Moavie, qui 
regnoit pour lors dans la Province de He- 
giaz, et en furent tres-bien re^us. Us lui 
exposerent le sujet de leur voyage, et lui 
demanderent la permission d*aller faire leurs 
devotions "k la colline rouge, pour obtenir 



de la pluye. Morthad qui etoit le plus sage 
de cette troupe, et qui avoit 6i6 persuade 
par les predications du P. Houd, remontroit 
souvent k ses compagnons, qu*il etoit inu- 
tile d*aller faire des prieres en ce lieu-la, 
si auparavant on n*adheroit aux verites 
que le P. Houd leur prdchoit, et si Ton ne 
faisoit une serieuse penitence de leur peche 
d*incredulite. Car comment voulez-vous, 
leur disoit-il, que Dieu repande sur nous 
la pluie abondante de sa misericorde, si 
nous refusons d*ecouter la voix de celui 
qu'il a envoye pour nous instruire ? 

" Kil, qui etoit des plus obstinds dans son 
erreur, et par consequent des plus contraires 
au Prophete, entendant les discours de son 
collegue, pria aussi-tot le Roi Moavie de re- 
tenir prisonnier Mortadh, pendant que lui 
et les siens iroient faire leurs prieres sur la 
colline. Moavie se rendit k ses instances, 
et retenant celui ci prisonnier, permit aux 
autres poursuivre leur voyage, et d^accom- 
plir leur voeu. 

" Kil demeure seul chef de ces fourvoyds, 
etant arrive avec les siens sur le fieu, fit ainsi 
sa priere : Seigneur, donnez au peuple d* Ad 
de la pluye telle qu^il vous plaira ; et il ne 
Teut pas plutot achevde, qu*il parut trois 
nuees au ciel, Tune blanche, Tautre rouge, 
et la troisieme noire; en meme temps on 
cntendit retentir du ciel ces paroles, Choisis 
laquelle tu veux de ces trois. Kil choisit la 
noire, qu^il croyoit la plus chargde et la plus 
abondante en eau dont ils avoient une ex- 
treme besoin ; et apres avoir fait ce choix, 
il quitta aussi-tot cet endroit, pour prendre 
la route de son pays, se flattant du succ^s 
heureux qu'avoit eu son voyage. 

'* Aussi-tot que Kil fut arrivd dans la val- 
ine de Magaith, une des contrdes du pays 
des Adites, il donna part k ses coropatriotes 
de la reponse favorable qu*il avoit re9ue, 
et de la nude qui devoit arroser bientot toutes 
leurs terres : ces peuples insenses sortirent 
tous de leurs habitations pour la recevoir ; 
mais cette nuee, qui n*etoit grosse que de la 
vengeance divine, ne produisit qu*un vent 
tresfroidet tres violent que les Arabes appel- 
lent Sarsar, lequel soufflant pendant 7 nuits 



100 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



et 7 jours entiers, extermina tous les Infi- 
deles du pays, et ne laissa en vie que le P. 
Houd avec ceux qui Tavoient ecoute, et 
embrasse la foi." — D^Hebbelot. 



Hue respicit Atthar in Pendnameh 
** Qui mandatum potentise suae dedit vento. 
Ut supplicium meritum populo Adi daret/* 

Paueos Asiat Com, 



Mahommedan Purgatory} 

" Abaf, un lieu qui est entre le paradis 
et Tenfer des Mahometans.** 

Some deem it merely a veil of separation, 
some a strong wall; others hold it to be **un 
purgatoire, dans lequel demeurent ceux d*- 
entre les Fideles, dont les bonnes et les me- 
chantes actions sont dans une telle egalit^, 
qu*ils n*ont pas assez merite pour entrer en 
Paradis, ni assez demerit^ pour etre con- 
damnes au feu de TEnfer, ils Yoyent de ce 
lieu la gloire des bien heureux, ils les felici- 
tent de leur bonheur; mais le desir ardent 
qu*ils ont de se joindre k eux,leiir tient lieu 
d*une grande peine. 

*^Mais enfin au jour du Jugement uni- 
versel, lorsque tous les hommes, avant que 
d'etre jug&, seront cit^s pour rendre hom- 
mage k leur Createur, ceux qui sont enfer- 
mes dans ce lieu, se prostemeront devant 
la face du Seigneur en Tadof ant ; et par cet 
acte de religion qui leur tiendra lieu de me- 
rite, le nombre de leurs bonnes oeuTres ve- 
vant k surpasser celui des mauvaises, ils en- 
treront dans la gloire. 

"Saadi dit, touchant ce lieu nommc Araf, 
qu*il paroit un enfer aux bienheureux, et un 
paradis aux damn^s.** — D*Hebbeix)t. 

» — " Hath not Allah made 
AI Araf in his wisdom ? where the sight 

Of heaven may kindle in the penitent 

The strong and purifying fire of hope, 
Till, at the Day of Judgment, he shall see 

The Mercy-Gates unfold."— T^a/afco, xii. 34. 

J. W. W. 



The Wise MarCn 'Remarks on the Pa 

" Lamai, dans ses opuscules, rap 
qu*un grand prince qu*il ne nomme ] 
ayant fait batir un superbe palais, you 
faire voir k tous les gens d*esprit et di 
gout de la ville ; il les convia pour cet 
k un grand festin qu*il leur avoit fait 
parer, et leur denumda apres le repa 
avoient connoissance de quelque b^ 
plus magnifique,et plus parfait dans Vb 
tecture, dans les ornements ou dans les 
bles. Un chacun des convi^ se con 
de lui temoigner son admiration, et d 
donner des louanges, k la reserve d*un 
lequel menant une vie plus retir^ et 
austere, etoit du nombre de ceux qu 
Arabes appellent en leur langue Zahi 
^^ Cet homme parla fort librement au pi 
et lui dit ; Je trouve un grand defaut 
ce batiment, qui consiste en ce que les 
dements n*en sont pas bous, ui les mux 
sez forts ; de sorte qu'Azrael y pourr 
netrer de tous cot^s, et le Sarsar ' y pa 
alsement. £t comme on lui montroi 
lambns azures et dores du meme palais^ 
Touvrage merveilleux surpassoit encc 
richesse de la matiere, il dit, il y a ic 
core une fort grande incommodit^; 
qu*on ne pent point bien juger de.ces 
rages, k moins que Ton ne soit couchi 
renverse; Youlant signifier par cettema 
de parler, que Ton ne connoissoit jamais 
ces choses qu'au lit de la mort, d'ou IN 
decouvroit seulement alors la vanite. 

** Le discours du Zalied donna le coi 
k un philosophe, de dire au meme pr 
vous avez employ^ beaucoup de temps 
tir ce palais de boue et de corruption 
vous voyez cependant avoir si peu de 
dit^ ; quand vous Tauriez ^eve just 
ciel, ne savez-vous pas qu*il sera redu 
jour en poussiere ? Le temps qui vous d 
ici deux jours de repos que vous emp 

* " The walls are weak, the buUding ill sec 
Azrael can enter in ! 
The Sarsar can pierce through, 
The Icy Wind of Death." 

TAa/afco, i. 36.--J. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



101 



si ma], s'envolera bientot comme une fleche 
emportee par le yent des vicissitudes ordi- 
naires du monde, sans que yous puissiez ja- 
mais le recouvrer." — Ibid. 



Account of a Suicide, 

Joseph had once a fellow-servant who 
destroyed himself. The night previous to 
his suicide he alarmed the family, and when 
they were up, said there were robbers in the 
house. The spayed bitch howled at him 
strangely, and ran round him ; in the morn- 
ing he was found hanging. He was coach- 
man, and it was remarkable that one horse, 
though perfectly docile to every other per- 
son, would never permit him to touch it, 
but flung and reared, and even wept at his 
approach. 

His wife siud he oflen alarmed her at night 
hj saying, *^The robin was come! he heard 
the robin, and must go T* then he would go 
to the hayloft and lie there. Was this in- 
sanity, or the delirium of guilt ? — June 27, 
1798. Martin Hall, Wegthury, 



w^^^«^^\^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Oriental Maxim*. 

^ Jb crains Dieu, et apres Dieu, je ne 
crains que celui qui ne le craint pas." 

** n n*y a point d^asyle d^une surcte plus 
grande que la crainte dc Dieu.** 

^ L*orphelin n*est pas celui qui a perdu 
son p^, m«s celui qui n*a ni science, ni 
bonne ^ucation.** 

^ Lorsque T&me est prSte k partir, qu*im- 
porte de mourir sur le trone, ou de mou- 
rir sur la poussiere?'* 

**" Qui a perdu la pudeur, a le cceur mort.** 

"" Lisez les poesies, c*est une marque de 
bonnes inclinations.** 

** Le meilleur remMe dans les afflictions 
est de se remettre k la volont^ de Dieu.** 

" Si vous entendez dire k quelqu*un qu*- 
one montagne a change de place, vous pouvez 
le croire; mais si Ton vous dit qu*un honmie 
a chang^ de moeurs, n*en croyez rien, car il 
reioumera toujours k son naturel.** 



Pelican} 

** Thb pelican makes choice of dry and de- 
sert places to lay her eggs. When her 
young are hatched, she is obliged to bring 
water to them from great distances. To en- 
able her to perform this necessary office, 
nature has provided her with a large sac, 
which extends from the top of the under 
mandible of her bill to the throat, and holds 
as much water as will supply her brood for 
several days. This water she pours into the 
nest to cool her young, to allay their thirst, 
and to teach them to swim. Lions, tigers, 
and other rapacious animals resort to these 
nests, drink the water, and are said not to 
injure the young.** — Smellie*8 Philosophy 
of Natural History. 



Harut and Marut. 



il 



Thb angels expressing their surprize at 
the wickedness of the sons of Adam, after 
prophets had been sent to them with divine 
commissions, God bid them chuse two out 
of their own number to be sent down to be 
judges on earth. Whereupon they pitched 
upon Hardt and Mariit, who exercised their 
office with integrity for some time, till Zo- 
hara, or the planet Venus, descended and 
appeared before them in the shape of a beau- 
tiful woman, bringing a complaint against 
her husband. As soon as they saw her, they 
fell in love with her, and endeavoured to 
prevail on her to satisfy their desires, but 
she flew up again to heaven, whither the 
two angels also returned, but were not ad- 
mitted. However, on the intercession of a 
certain pious man, they were allowed to chuse 
whether they would be punished in this life, 
or in the other ; whereupon they chose the 
former, and now sufier punishment accord- 
ingly in Babel, where they are to remain 
till the day of judgment. They add, that if 
a man has a fancy to learn magic, he may 



' " A desert pelican had built her nest 

In that deep solitude," &c. — Thulaba^ v . i. 

J. W. W. 



102 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



go to them and hear their voice, but cannot 
see them." — SAiiB. 

I have somewhere seen this story in a 
better form, as that the woman was only a 
woman/ and demanded as the price of her 
acquiescence to be taught the cabalistical 
name of God, on pronouncing which she as- 
cended into heaven. 

The concluding part of the story is a noble 
ground-work. 



•wv%<N/^/^Al/s/^/^^/v^^/^^^^ 



Jewish Ideas of Messiah, 

" E por que tendo o Messias ja vindo, se- 
gundo esta opiniao ha mais de 1632 annos, 
ainda em tantos annos nenhum Judeo vio a o 
seu Messias : dizem hunsqueandadesconhe- 
cido perigrinando pelolmundo. Outros que 
esta as portas de Roma na companhia de 
muytos pobres pedindo esmola. Outros, que 
esta escondido nos montes Caspios, & com 
tal cautela,que se algum Judeo o quizer irla 
buscar, o rio Sabatino Iho impede, por que 
chegando algum Judeo as suasmargens,con- 
verte as suas aguas em pedras, lancando hum 
tal chuveyro de pedradas sobre os pobres 
Judeos, que ou hao de ficar alii mortos ; ou 
se hao de retirar deixando a o seu Messias 
la dentro no seu encanto. Outros conside- 
rando que os montes Caspios estao muyto 
pertos, & esta fabula do rio Sabbatino se 
convencia de ridicula, appelaram para o 
Paraiso, dizendo que la esta o Messias entre- 
tido na companhia de Moyses & Elias, para 
quequando for tempo, Deos o mande libertar 
a OS Judeos." — Sermam do Auto da Fe^ 
1705. Pelo^ Arcebisp, de Cranganor, 



^M^^^SM^^^^Arf^^^^^^N^VM^^ 



Arabian Scenery. 

*^ I NOW, for the first time, observed an 
appearance with which I was singularly 
struck, but which became afterwards fa- 

1 Southey adopted this form in Thalaba. 

<< At the length 
A woman come before them ; beautiful 
2Sohara was, as yonder erening star."— iv. 9. 

J.W.W. 



I. 



miliar to me. An Arab, whom I saw ap- 
proaching at a distance, upon a camel, ap- 
peared to move through the air, with the 
gigantic bulk of a tower ; although he was 
travelling along the sand like ourselves. 
Several travellers mention this error of vi- 
sion, which is owing to a peculiar refraction 
produced in these torrid climates, by va- 
pours differing greatly in their nature from 
those which fill the air in temperate re- 
gions." NiEBUHH. 

The translator remarks *' we have all 
observed how greatly objects are magnified 
when seen through mist." 

" Wb passed two of those vallies so 
common in Arabia which when heavy rains 
fall, are filled with water, and are then 
called wadi, or rivers, although perfectly 
dry at other times of the year." — Ibid. 

" The only vegetables by which the sandy 
and barren country is enlivened are a few 
date trees. Houses scattered among groves 
of date trees, and inhabited only in the sea- 
son when the dates are gathered. 

" We came to a large village called El 
Mahad, standing in a beautiful valley which 
receives the waters that fall from Mount 
Kema. In the rainy season these waters 
form a river, which spreads into several 
branches, and fertilizes the adjacent lands, 
like the Nile. 

" The coffee trees were all in flower at 
Bulgosa, and exhaled an exquisitely agree- 
able perfume. 

"We observed a running stream; its 
channel is very broad, but as no rain had 
for a long time fallen, the stream covered 
the breadth of twenty or twenty-four feet. 
In this place it runs with a considerable cur- 
rent, but in Tamama it spreads into a shal- 
low lake, and is lost among the sands. We 
now drew nearer to the river, of which a 
branch was dry, and having its channel filled 
with reeds growing to the height of twenty 
feet, served as a line of road, which was a- 
greeably shaded by the reeds." — ^Ibid. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



103 



** Hum ribeiro, que com suas correntes e 
daras agoas fazia os cora^oes alegres a quern 
OS assi na tiuha.** — PiiLMEiBiM. 

^* HuMA dona, que em sua presen^a re- 
presentaya ser pessoa de merecimento,tendo 
tal aparencia e autoridadeque obrigava todo 
homem a tratala com mais acatamento do 
que suas obras mereciam." — Ibid. 



"" Hek speech, like lovers watchM, was kind 
and low." — Gondibebt. 

^ Famine, plague, and time 
Are enemies enough to human life, 
None need o'ercharge death^s quiver with 
a crime.** 

^ Who on their urged patience can prevail. 
Whose expectation is provok*d with fear ?** 

** Si/)w seems their speed whose thoughts 
before them run.** Ibid. 



^^^*«^^»^w^*^^^W^^^^»^V\/^ 



" Wealth is the conjurer*s devil. 
Whom when he thinks he hath, the devil 
hath him.** — Hebbebt. 



^ "SIajle not thy sport abuses, for the flj 
That feeds on dung, is coloured thereby. 



»» 



'^ Be calm in arguing, for fierceness makes 
Error a fault.** 

*^ Knesuno ne*er spoilt silk stocking.** 

**Thb Sundays of man*s life 
Thredded together on Times string. 

Make bracelets to adorn the wife 
Of the eternal glorious king.** 

" My thoughts are all a case of knives 
Wounding my heart.** Ibid. 

The British Church, 

** Beauty in thee takes up her place, 
And dates her letters from thy face 
When she doth write.** Ibid. 



** The wanton lover in a curious strain 

Can praise his fairest fair. 
And with quaint metaphors her curled hair 

Curie o*er again. 

" LoBD hear my heart, 
Which hath been broken now so long, 
That every part 

Hath got a tongue.** 

" Wilt thou defei 
To succour me 
Thy pile of dust, wherein each crumb 
Says * come.* ** Ibid. 

Qtmintologia ! 

" Whose musk-cat verse 
Voids nought but flowers.** — Cleveland. 



The motto for James Doug1as*s new me- 
thod of cutting for the stone is " Cit5, tu- 
t^ jucunde ! ** 



That reverend and faithfuU ^linister of 
the word, Dr. Sibs, late preacher unto the 
Honourable Society of Gray*slnn, and Mas- 
ter of Katharine Hall in Cambridge, pub- 
lished a 4to volume of sermons on the 4, 5, 
and 6 chapters of Solomon*s Song, 1648, en- 
titled " Bowels Opened.** 



" CoMENz^ la nina (S. Clara) de tiema 
edad k resplandecer en la noche del mundo.^^ 
— Al Villegas. 



Charles the Warlike. 

1477. Cuables the Warlike, Duke of 
Burgundy, was defeated and slain by the 
Swiss and Germans at Nancy. "Being 
overthrown by a great troop of lanciers, and 
not able to be relieved of his followers, for 



104 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



that they were prisoners. He hacl three 
wounds, the one on the head, the other in 
the thigh, and the third in the fundament. 
The Bourguignons would not believe that 
he was slain, but that he was fled into Grer- 
manie, and that he had vowed to do seven 
years penance. There were some among 
the Bourguignons which sold jewels, horses, 
and other things to be paid when he should 
return ; and at Burchselles, in the diocesse 
of Spierre, in Germany, a poore man beg- 
ging, they thought him to be the Duke, who 
did penance : every man desired to see him, 
and he received good alms.** — Gbimb8tonb*8 
History of the Netherlands, 
This was the Duke defeated at Murat.^ 



WeUh Churchyards, 

" She views 
The heapy church-yards, where should 

peaceful sleep 
The relics of the dead. 
What mouldering bones unhoused above the 

soil! 
The sire dislodged by burial of his son I 
The child by her that bare it ! rudely thrown 
To light of day. — 

Within thy region, Cambria I never shocked 
Beholds the visitant of churchyard scenes 
Sights so inhuman. There green turf and 

flowers 
Cover the once and ever-loved renuuns 
Of kindred and of friends, flowers, weekly 

shed. 
And watered with soft tears. No lengthened 

time 
Efiaces their remembrance from the mind. 
No season from the spirit-soothing rite 
The tender mourner ever can restrain.** 

BooKEB*s Malvern, 

" Ik a civilized country one would natu- 
rally suppose that a decent attention were 
paid to the places where are deposited the 
remains of departed friends ; but through- 

» See infra, p. 109.— J. W. W. 



out England in general, how shamefully is 
this pious and affectionate duty Delected! 
Our cemeteries, notwithstanding the awful 
purposes to which they are consecrated, are 
in almost every parish, either common tho- 
rough-fares, or constantly frequented bj 
boys, where they pursue their different 
sports unmolested. In Wales these things 
are not suffered : such practices would justly 
be deemed a profanation. The graves in 
the church-yards there are neatly covered 
with turf, and in many places planted with 
evergreens. Every week some relative or 
friend visits the spot where sleep the objects 
of regard, to see that it has sustained no in- 
jury, and to scatter over it such flowers as 
may happen to be in bloom. The author 
and two other gentlemen, in a tour through 
Wales, had the satisfaction to witness this 
spirit-soothing ceremony : a decent-looking 
female was seen to p^orm it with everj 
sign of tenderness and sensibility.** 

Booker. 



^ *. -V^ **,^/S^^ ^\^ 



The Passing Bell, 

^* The passing bell was anciently rung for 
two purposes ; one, to bespeak the prayers 
of all good Christians for a soul just depart- 
ing; the other, to drive away the evil spirits 
who stood at the bed*s foot and about the 
house, ready to seize their prey, or at least 
to molest and terrify the soul in its passage : 
but by the ringing of that bell (for Durandos 
informs us, evil spirits are much afraid of 
bells) they were kept aloof; and the soul, 
like a hunted hare, gained the start, or had 
what is by sportsmen called law. Hence, 
perhaps, exclusive of the additional labour, 
was occasioned the high price demanded for 
tolling the greatest bell of the church ; for 
that being louder, the evil spirits must go 
farther off* to be clear of its sound.** — En^ 
cychpisdia. 

Reservoir of Mareb, 

" The Sabeans had a reservoir or bason 
for water which was anciently famous and 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



105 



oflen heard talked of in Arabia; 
>dj could give me an exact descrip- 
it, except one man of rank, who 
n bom at Mareb, and had always 
3re. He told me, that the famous 
r, called bj the Arabs Sitte Mareb, 
UTOW Tallej between two ranges of 
i a daj^s journey in length. Six or 
iall rivers meet in that valley, hold- 
r course S. and S. W. and advanc- 
L the territories of the Imam. Some 
rivers contain fishes, and their wa- 
T through the whole year; others 

except in the rainy season. The 
res of hills which confine this valley, 
1 so near to each other upon the 
end, that the intermediate space 
crossed in five or six minutes. To 
the waters in the rainy season, the 
t into the valley was here shut up 
h and thick wall ; and at outlets, 

which the water thus collected 
; conveyed in the season of drought 
the neighbouring fields, three large 
tes were formed in the wall, one 
lOther. The wall was fifly feet high, 
t of large hewn stones. Its ruins 
to be seen. But the waters, which 
Tly used to confine, are now lost 
be sands, after running only a short 
Thus was there nothing incredibly 
ul in the true account of the Sabean 
r. Similar, although much smaller 
rs, are formed at the i*oots of the 
OS in many places through Yemen, 
nstantinople is a vale, the entrance 
ch is likewise shut up by a wall to 
Jie water, which is conveyed thence 
lucts into the capital of the Otto- 
jire. 

tradition that the city of Mareb 
royed by a deluge, occasioned by 
[en bursting of the wall, has entirely 
)f a popular fable. It seems more 
i that the wall, being neglected, fell 
y into disrepair when the kingdom 
abeans declined. But the ruin of 
I proved fatal to the city in a dif- 
ay. The neighbouring fields, when 



no longer watered from the reservoir, be- 
came waste and barren, and the city was 
thus left without means of subsistence. 

'^ Mareb was known to the ancients as 
the capital of the Sabeans by the name of 
Mariaba. In its neighbourhood are some 
ruins, which are pretended to be the re- 
mains of the palace of Queen Balkis.** — 

NiBBUHB. 



«^^i^^^/»/»^^/W>^0^^/W 



Devotement of the Arabs. 

" Thb Arabs have a singular way of dis- 
playing their courage in engagements, not 
unlike the devotement to the infernal gods 
among the ancients. A soldier willing to 
signalize his attachment to his master, binds 
up his leg to his thigh, and continues to fire 
away upon the enemy, till either they be 
routed, or he himself be slain upon the field 
of battle. I could take this only for a fable 
when it was first told me, but I was after- 
wards convinced of its truth, by a late in- 
stance in the case of a Schiech of Hasch- 
id-u Bekil, in the Imam's service, who 
devoted himself in this manner in a battle 
against his own countrymen. Six slaves 
chxirged muskets for him, which he continued 
to fire upon the enemy, till, being at last 
deserted by the Imam^s troops, and even 
by his own servants, he was cut in pieces.** 
—Ibid. 



<^^A^AA^MAM^^^«^^^\^^^te 



Sketches of Nature, 

" Why should the winter always be pre- 
sented to our view, like chilling old age, 
muffled up in fur skin ?" — Stranger, Motto 
to December, 

Thb moon bright ere the daylight is gone. 
The flaky clouds are dark, yet they appear 
not heavier. They look like the patches of 
vegetation on the sea sand. 

The martins. — Their tails are forked ; 
they flutter at their nests before they en- 
ter, showing their white bodies, and often 
rise up and hover there, then dart away on 
arrowy wing. Their notes are even musical 
sometimes. At evening, when looking from 



I 



106 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



the window, the murmuring of their young 
is pleasant — a placid sound, according with 
the quietness of all around. 

July 20. Over the western hill it is like 
a sea of glory, the mist that terminates it 
graduates into clouds of illuminated dark- 
ness, the sun shines full forth. A moun- 
tainous ridge of cloud spreads southwards, 
their summits whitened. 

July 22. I see the distant hills through the 
rainbow; and now it falls upon Pill^ and its 
white church. The green predominates, 
and then the faint reddishness. It travels 
with the clouds, I first saw it tinging Wal- 
ton Castle, and it has now passed completely 
over Pill. 

A line of dark cloud, a blue gray, the sun 
sinks behind it, the streaks above glowing, 
their remoter sides a brownish red. 

July 23, nine o*clock. I never saw an 
evening sky more beautiful. It rains. The 
clouds are of the darkest gray ; but through 
one long opening the sky appears of the 
clearest light, a yellow whiteness. 

July 30. The with- weed, or white con- 
volvulus, is now in blossom. Pestilent as it 
is in gardens, I cannot but like it, it so 
clothes the bush on which it seizes, and its 
white bell flower is so graceful. 

I see fern growing amid the moss and ivy 
of an old wall. Greenness of the young ivy. 

A fine red dwarf hoUihock is now in blos- 
som by the ruined cottage in the glen be- 
low K. Weston hill. A beautiful relic of 
cultivation among nettles and weeds. 

The roots of the elms at Stapleton are 
prodigiously fine. They run into each other, 
and emboss the ground like some cathedral 
roof. Their long flutings near the ground 
look like the clusters of a Gothic column. 

Night. The light-leaved poplars now 
dark as a cypress grove. 

It has been a wet day : the clouds still 
hang heavy, though whitely shining in parts. 
The distant hill is a mass of dark blue. 

* The names here shew us where Southey 
was at this time residing. Pill is a chapelry in 
the parish of Easton in Gordano, and Union of 
Bedminster, six miles from Bristol.— J. W.W. 



A path but little frequented — the g 
a darker green, not worn away. 



^^A^A^^^^^^^^VMMMWWW^ 



Poem of Tarafat. 

P. 8. ** She smiles and displays her br 
teeth rising from their dark-coloured b; 
like a privet plant in full bloom, wl 
pierces a bank of pure sand, moistened y 
dew." 

42. *^ I shake the lash over my ct 
and she quickens her pace, while the su 
vapour rolls in waves over the bun 
cliflfs." 

64. ** I see no difference between 
tomb of the anxious miser gasping ovei 
hoard, and the tomb of the libertine lo 
the maze of voluptuousness. You be 
the sepulchres of them both raised in 
heaps of earth, on which are elevated 
broad piles of solid marble, among 
tombs closely connected.** 

101 . " The muscles of our chargers qi 
as soon as they mingle in battle.** 

103. " Time will produce events of w 
thou canst have no idea ; and he, to ^ 
thou gavest no commission, will bring 
unexpected news.**' — Moaixakat. 



*^^^^«^MA^^^^^^^W^^«^% 



Poem of Zkihair, 

The canal around the tent mention 

P. 41. ** He made a fierce attack, 

feared the number of tents, where D 

the mother of vtdtures, had fixed her : 



sion. 



tt 



59. ** Experience has taught me the e 
of this day and yesterday ; but as K 
events of to-morrow, I confess my I 
ness.'* — Ibid. 



Poem of Lebeid. 

P. 11. ** In the plains which non 
naked a populous tribe once dwelt; bi| 
decamped at early dawn, and nothi 

* This is the motto to the third book ^ 
/afca.-J. W. W. 



r 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



107 



them remains but the canals which encircled 
their tents, and the Thumaam plants with 
which they were repaired." 

15. ^' They hastened their camels, till the 
sultry vapour gradually stole them from 
thy sight." 

34. " They divide the waters of the full 
stream, whose banks are covered with the 
plants of Kolaam. Banks which a grove of 
reeds, part erect and part laid prostrate, 
overshades or clothes us with a mantle.** 

53. ** When the flashes of the noon-tide 
Tapour dance over the plain, and the sultry 
mist clothes the parched hills.** 

62. ^ On many a cold morning, when the 
freezing winds howl, and the hand of the 
North holds their reins, I turn aside theil* 
hlast from the travellers whom I receive in 
my tent." 

76. " To the cords of my tent approaches 
every needy matron." — Ibid. 



^^^^^^A^^^^^^^^^^k^^^v^^ 



Poem of Antara. 

P. 29. ** She turns her right side, as if 
she were in fear of some large headed 
screamer of the night." 

70. ** Then I knew with certainty, that, 
b so fierce a contest with them, many a 
heavy blow would make the perched birds 
of the brain fly quickly from every skull.** 
-Ibid. 



^^s^s^^-^s^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Poem of Amru. 

P. 40. " OcB dark javelins exquisitely 
wrought of Karthlaran reeds, slender and 
delicate.** 

79. ** We have coats of mail that glitter 
like lightning, the plaits of which are seen 
m wrinkles above our belts. When at any 
time our heroes put them off", you may see 
their skin blackened with the pressure of 
the steel." 

81. ^ The plaits of our hauberks re- 
semble the surface of a pool, which the winds 
have ruflled in their course.** 



♦I 



Poem of Hareth. 

P. 64. " Thet surprised you not indeed 
by a sudden assault, but they advanced, and 
the sultry vapour of noon, through which 
you saw them, increased their magnitude.** 

74. ** We thrust them before us till the 
muscles of their thighs were breeched in 
gore." 

i^ttii, Modoc's Brother's Death. 

A. D. 1143. ** Shortlib after died Run, 
the Sonne of Prince Owen of North Wales, a 
faire and a goodlie yoong man, whose death 
when it came to his father*s eares did so 
trouble him, that no kind of plesure could 
comfort his heavie hart, so that he led the 
night in teares and the day in heavinesse. 
— PowKLL*s History of Cambria, 



Character of HoeL 

A. D. 1 145. "At this time Cadelh, Mere- 
dyth and Rees, the sons of Grufiyth ap Rees 
ap Theodor, did lead their powers against 
the castell of Gwys, which after they saw 
they could not win, they sent for Howel, 
the Sonne of Owen Prince of North Wales, 
to their succour, who for his prowesse in 
the field and his discretion in considtation 
was counted the floure of chivalrie, whose 
presence also was thought onlie sufficient to 
overthrowe anie hold." — Ibid. 



Cynetha. 

" III the year 1151, O. Gwyneth tooke 
Cunetha, his brother Cadwalhon his sonne, 
and put out his eies and gelded him, least 
he should have children to inherit part of 
the land.**— Ibid. 



Owen CyveiUoc. 

**Ow«H Ctvbilioc married Wenlhian the 
daughter of O. Gwy.**— Ibid. 



108 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Battle of Cexreoc} 

A. B. 1165. " Ths King gathered another 
armie of chosen men through all his domi- 
nions, as England, Normandie, Anjow, Gas- 
coine and Gwyen, sending for succours from 
Flanders and Brytaine, and then returned 
towardes North Wales, minding utterlie to 
destroie all that had life in the land, and 
comming to Croes Oswalt, called Oswalds- 
tree, incamped there. On the contrarie 
side. Prince Owen and his brother Cadwal- 
lader, with all the power of North Wales, 
and the Lord Rees with the power of South 
Wales, and O. Cyverl and the sonnes of 
Madoc ap Meredjth with the power of 
Powys, and the two sonnes of Madoc ap 
Ednerth with the people betwixt Wye and 
Seaveme, gathered themselves togither and 
came to Corwen in fkleymeon, purposing to 
defend their countrie. But the King un- 
derstanding that they were so nigh, being 
wonderfuU desirous of battell, came to the 
river Ceireoc, and caused the woods to be 
hewen downe. Whereupon a number of the 
Welshmen understanding the passage, un- 
knowing to their captaines, met with the 
King*s ward, where were placed the piked 
men of all the armie, and there began a 
hote skirmish, where diverse worthie men 
were slaine on either side ; but in the end 
the King wanne the passage, and came to 
the mountaine of Berwyn, where he laie in 
campe certaine daies, and so both the armies 
stood in awe each of other ; for the King 
kept the open plaines, and was affraid to be 
intrapped in straits; but the Welshmen 
watched for the advantage of the place, and 
kept the King so straitlie, that neither forrage 
nor victuall might come to his camp, neither 
durst anie souldiour stir abroad: and to 
augment their miseries, there fell such raine 
that the King's men could scant stand upon 
their feete upon those slipperie hillcs. In 

* " Dost thou not remember, brother, 
How in that hot and unexpected charge 
On Keiriog's bank, we gave the enemy 
Their welcoming." 
Madoc in If«/e«, part L ii.— J. W. W. 



the end, the King was compelled to rel 
home without his purpose, and that 
great losse of men and munition be 
his charges. Therefore in a great chol 
caused the pledges eies, whom he ha 
ceived long before that, to be put 
which were Rees and Cadwalhon the s( 
of Owen, and Cynwric and Meredytl 
sonnes of Rees and other.** — Ibid. 



«^i/^Mi^^^K^k^^^^^^^^S^^^^^^ 



Dogs know the Dog-kiUer. 

** It is a conmion experience that 
know the dog-killer ; when as in tim 
infection some petty fellow is sent 01 
kill the dogs ; and that though they 
never seene him before, yet they wi 
come forth and barke and flie at hin 
Lord Bacoii*8 Sylva Sylvamm. 



Ladies drawn by Cows, 

" PiACXNZA. — I observed in this to^ 
notable peece of thriiliness used by the 
tlewomen, who make no scruple to be ca 
to their country-houses near the ton 
coaches drawn by two cowes yoaked \ 
ther. These will carry the Signora a p 
round trot unto her villa ; they affbrc 
also a dish of their milk, and after coU 
bring her home again at night wil 
spending a penny." 

The Voyage ofltaly^ by Rich. Las 
Gent, who travelled through 
five times, as tutor to several c 
English nobility and gentry. Pr 
at Paris, 1670. 



^^^^^^^^v^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Battle of MonJtargU. 

** I SAW but one extraordinery thii 
the rest of the way to Lyons, an ol 
scription in letters of gold, upon a wc 
fabric, a mile before I came to Monti 
importing, that the English being encai 
here, had been forced to raise their 
before Montargis, by reason of great n 
nnd sudden inundations. Some oi 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



109 



French historians will have it, that it was 
the C. de Dunois that forced the English 
to raise the siege here ; but I had rather 
believe publick inscriptions than private 
flattery, and it was more honourable for the 
English to be overcome bj God than bj 
men/* — Lassels. 



Battle of Murat. Duke Charles the 
Warlike. 

^ MuBAT. — I was told here that the Duke 
of Burgundy, seeing his army defeated, and 
himself environed on one side by the lake 
here, and on the other side by the enemies 
conquering army, chose rather to trust him- 
lelf to the lake than to his enemies. Where- 
upon spurring his horse into the lake, one 
of his pages, to save himself also, leaped up 
behind him as he took water. The Duke, 
out of fear, either perceived him not at 
first, or dissembled it till he came to the other 
side of the lake, which is two miles broad. 
The stout horse tugged through with them 
both, and saved them both from drowning,but 
not both from death ; for the Duke, seeing 
in what danger his page had put him, stabbed 
the page with his dagger. Poor Prince ! 
thou mightest have given another offering 
of thanksgiving to God for thy escape than 
this!"— Ibid. 



Crows — dutiful Children, 

" Is Ezameron it is said that the mildnes 
of the crow is wonderfuU : for when the old 
Crowes in age be both naked and bare of 
covering of fethers, then the young crowes 
hide and cover them with their fethers, and 
gather meate and feed them. And some- 
time when they waxe olde and feeble, then 
the young crowes underset them, and reare 
them up with their wings, and comfort them 
to use to fly, to bring the members that be 
diseased into state again.** 

From a book written by Babthelmbw 
CrLAVTviLB, a Franciscan Frier, 1 360. Trans- 
lated by Stephan Batman, Professour in Di- 
vinitie. 



Cock'roaches exorcised, 

** We foimd millions of cock-roaches in 
the bread room; it is necessary a man 
should have seen them with his own eyes, 
to have an idea of the number of these in- 
sects. These pests had so much infested the 
ship, that the holy father, who officiated as 
chaplain, was obliged to have recourse to 
exorcisms more than once.** — Journal of 
D, Francisco Antonio MavreUe^ in the Fr, 
La Princesa, 1781. In La Pebouse. 



Death of Bertrand of Clesquin, 

" Bebtband of Clesquin died at the siege 
of the Castle of Rancon, near unto Puy in 
Auvergne ; the besieged yielding a^r- 
wards, were forced to carry the keies of the 
castle upon the deceased body of the cap- 
tain.** — Montaigne, book i. ch. 3. 



Arabian Horses,^ 

** The Arabian horses are divided into 
two great branches ; the Kadischi, whose 
descent is unknown, and the Kochlani, of 
whom a written genealogy has been kept 
for 2000 years. These last are reserved 
for riding solely, they are highly esteemed 
and consequently very dear. Tliey are 
said to derive their origin from King Solo- 
mon*s studs. However this may be they 
are fit to bear the greatest fatigues, and 
can pass whole days without food. They 
are also said to show uncommon courage 
against an enemy. It is even asserted, that 
when a horse of this race finds himself 
wounded and unable to bear his rider much 
longer, he retires from the fray, and con- 
veys him to a place of seciirity. If the 
rider falls upon the ground, his horse re- 
mains beside him, and neighs till assist- 
ance is brought. The Kochlani are neither 
large nor handsome but amazingly swift. 

* This is quoted in the notes to Thalabo'-^ 
'* Lo ! at his side a courser stood," &c. 
Sixth Book.— J. W. W. 



110 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



The whole race is divided into several fa- 
milies, each of which has its proper name. 
Some of these have a higher reputation 
than others on account of their more an- 
cient and imcontaminated nobility.** 

NiEBUHB. 

The Samiel} 

** The Samiel prevails only on the con- 
fines of the great desert, where the agita- 
tion of the air forms a current for the va- 
pours which are raised by the heat of the 
sun from that parched territory. The places 
the most exposed to this destructive wind 
are the banks of the Euphrates, and some- 
times the environs of Mecca, when the north 
wind blows from the desert. The effects 
of the Samiel are instant suffocation to 
every living creature that happens to be 
within the sphere of its activity, and imme- 
diate putrefaction of the carcases of the 
dead. The Arabians discern its approach 
by an unusual redness in the air, and they 
say that they feel a smell of sulphur as it 
passes. The only means by which any 
person can preserve himself from suffering 
from the noxious blasts, is by throwing 
himself down with his face upon the earth, 
till this whirlwind of poisonous exhalations 
has blown over, which always moves at a 
certain height in the atmosphere. Instinct 
even teaches the brutes to incline their 
heads to the ground on these occasions.** — 

NlSBUUB. 



^^^^^^^^A^^/\^^kA^^^^/\^«> 



Arabian Atmosphere. 

** A CLEAB sky seldom obscured by clouds 
renders storms very unfrequent in the plains. 
The air discharges its electric matter in 
globes of fire, and by the phenomena 
called shooting stars, which are not unfre- 

' This is the Shamytloy or wind of Syria, ur 
Simoom. See notes on Thalaba — 

*' The blast of the desert came ; 
Prostrate in prayer, the pious family 
Felt not the smioom pass." 

Book second. — J. W. W. 



quent and of considerable bulk. In the 
most arid tracts, near the sea, the dews are 
singularly copious. But notwithstanding 
this humidity, the air is so pure that the in- 
habitants sleep in the open air.** — Ibid. 



M^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^«M 



Arabian Birds^ Beasts^ and Plants} 

** Oil the lofly hills of Arabia Petrsea are 
rock-goats. The plains are stocked with 
gazelles, and this beautiful creature is so 
common that the Arabian poets draw from 
it many of their allusions and similitudes. 
In the sandy tracks are numbers of those 
little animals called jerboas, Pharaoh*s rats, 
whose flesh the Arabians eat without anj 
dislike. 

" In places where there was water, we 
found a beautiful variety of the plover, and 
sometimes storks. The deserts are not 
without ostriches, which are called by the 
inhabitants Thar Edsjammel, the camel- 
bird.^ A beautiful lapwing, called Hudhad, 
is also common on the shores of the Persian 
Gulph. Some Arabians have been pur- 
suoded that the language of this bird roaj 
be understood, by a fabulous tradition. 
The vulture is very serviceable, clearing the 
earth of all carcases which corrupt very 
rapidly in hot countries. He also destroys 
the field-mice, which multiply so prodigi- 
ously in some provinces, that were it not 
for this assistance, the peasant might cease 
from the culture of the fields as absolute]/ 
vain. Their performance of these impor- 
tant services induced the ancient Egyptians 
to pay those birds divine honours; and 
even at present it is held unlawful to kill 
them in all the countries which they fre- 
quent. 

The Samarman, or Samarmog,* is thought 

* The reader will find most of this imagery 
worked up in Thalaha.^S , W. W. 

* " And in modem Greek Srpii9cKd/ii|Xo;.'* 

— POCOCKB. 

* See notes to the third book of Thalaha^ 
" And yonder birds our welcome visitants," &c 

J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Ill 



fttive of Korasan, for it comes an- 
x> Arabia, in pursuit of the swarms 
I, of which it destroys incredible 
Mr. Forskal ranks it among the 
and calls it Turdus Seleucus. The 
one by this bird in countries ex- 
the ravages of those insects, have 
; to several ridiculous and super- 
ractices in Syria. It is thought 
racted from Korasan by water, 
for this end brought from a dis- 
b great ceremony, and preserved 
! reservoir on the top of the tower 
|ue. When this water fails, the 
ts of Mosul are in despair. But 
rd*s instincts prompt it not only 
n locusts, but to kill as many of 
K>8sible, it naturally follows these 
the course of their passage, 
chjal is famous for two beautiful 
rith which the Highlanders adorn 
nets, and to preserve which unin- 
bird it seems, leaves a hole in its 
id. 



^^r^*^\/s^^^\^^,^^^^^^^^'^*^»^ 



swarms of locusts darken the air, 
ar at a distance like clouds of 
he noise they make in flying is 
md stunning, like that of a water- 
Termite infests Arabia, it is there 
da. 

le sandy deserts grows a plant of 
lus named Moscharia by M. For- 
!Coant of its musky smell.** — Ibid. 



»BBJA, called by Sir C. Linnaeus, 
, in honour of Mr. F., grows in 

places of the country. It has 
iers, with which it fixes itself so 
y upon stuffs and other smooth 
it it is torn in pieces before it can 
ed. 

Volutella is a very extraordinary 
ig, properly a long slender thread, 
oot or leaves, which entwines it- 

trees ; it bears, however, a sort 



of flower, and berries which are eaten by 
children. The Merium Obesum, a sort of 
laurel-rose, is remarkable for a singular 
bulb, close to the earth, and of the size of 
a man*8 head, which forms all its trunk, 
and out of which the branches spring. 

'* The sandy plains are almost destitute 
of trees, only a few palms are scattered 
here and there. 

" The Indian fig-tree is very common. 
The tamarind is equally useful and agree- 
able. It has a pulp of a vineous taste, of 
which a wholesome refreshing liquor is 
prepared. Its shade shelters houses from 
the torrid heat of the sun, and its fine figure 
greatly adorns the scenery of the country. 
The inhabitants are also fond of raising 
over their houses the shade of the Indian 
fig-tree. 

" The Elcaya and Keura are two trees 
famous for their perfume ; the former is 
common on the hills of Yemen, and the 
women steep its fruit in water, which they 
use for washing and perfuming the head, 
the second bears some resemblance to the 
palm, and produces flowers of a rich and 
delicious smell. These flowers are sold at a 
high price, as the Keura is rather a scarce 
plant. But one little knot, if preserved in 
a cool place, will long continue to diffuse 
its odours through a whole apartment. 

" There are several trees or shrubs of 
the genus Mimosa. One of these trees 
droops its branches whenever any person 
approaches it, seeming as if it saluted those . 
who retire under its shade. This route hos- 
pitality has so endeared this tree to the 
Arabians, that the injuring or cutting of 
it down is strictly prohibited. Another of 
these. Mimosa Selam, produces splendid 
flowers, of a beautiful red colour,^ with which 
the Arabians crown their heads on the 
days of their festivity. The leaves of 
another, Mimosa Orfseta, preserve cameFs 

* ** That with such pride she tricked 
Her glossy tresses, and on holy -day 
Wreathed the red flower-crown roimd 
Their waves of glossy jet ? " 

Tkalaba, Book third.— J. W. W. 



112 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



milk from becoming sour, so that it retains 
all its sweetness for several days. 

** The Indian fig tree grows to a great 
age, the new shoots from the branches of 
the primary stem continuing to nourish the 
top of the tree, even afler the parent stock 
is entirely decayed. 

" Of pumpkins and melons several sorts 
grow naturally in the woods, and serve for 
feeding camels. But the proper melons are 
planted in the fields, where a great variety 
of them is to be found, and in such abund- 
ance, that the Arabians of all ranks use them, 
for some part of the year, as their principal 
article of food. They afford a very agree- 
able liquor. When the fruit is nearly ripe, 
a hole is pierced into the pulp ; this hole is 
then stopped with wax,^ and the melon lefl 
upon the stalk ; within a few days the pulp 
is, in consequence of this process, converted 
into a delicious liquor." — Ibid. 



N/V>/S/WV»«^«*W»^/WV» 



Bhick Stone of the Kaba, 

^* Ih the Kaba is the famous black stone, 
said to have been brought by the angel Oa- 
briel in order to the construction of that edi- 
fice. It was at first of a bright white co- 
lour, so as even to dazzle the eyes at the 
distance of four days* journey ; but it wept 
so long and so abundantly for the sins of 
mankind, that it became at length opaque, 
and at last absolutely black." — Ibid. 



ii^W^%^^\^NA/W^W\^N/\/\/VSi/ 



Well of Zemzem, 

" EUoAR, when banished by her master, 
set Ismael down while she should find some 
wat^r to quench his thirst. Returning after 
an unsuccessful search, she was surprised to 
see a spring bursting up between the cbild^s 
legs. That spring is the present well of 
Zemzem." — Ibid. 

I " Whither is gone the boy ? 
He had piercea the Melon's pulp, 
And closed with wax the wound," &c. 
Thalaba, Second Book.— J. W. W. 



Exposure of Prince Edm 

A. D. 938. A certain court loi 
to Prince Edwin, the king^s bn 
cused the young prince of being < 
in Alfred's conspiracy. The kin^ 
dily gave ear to this accusation, 
easily induced to believe that a 
whose favour the conspiracy wa 
was not innocent. It may be tc 
not sorry to find him guilty, as it 
an opportunity to despatch him c 
way. However, he would not pi 
death publicly, but ordered him 
posed to the fury of the waves, L 
without sails or rudder. The you 
went on board, protesting his ij 
but finding the king inexorable 
himself headlong into the sea. Hi 
who was put on board with him, : 
and was driven on shore at a pL 
Whitsand, on the coast of Picard; 
Stan repented, and built Middle 
called Melton Abbey, in Dorseti 
Rapin. 



Arabian Hospitality. 

" With the Arabs either a roun 
laid on the ground for a small coi 
large coarse woollen cloths for 
number spread all over the room, i 
ten dishes repeated six or seven ti 
laid round at a great feast, and wl 
and lambs boiled and roasted in tl 
When one company has done, an* 
round, even to the meanest, till a 
sumed. And an Arab prince v 
dine in the street before his door, 
to all that pass, even beggars, in 
expression, Bisimillah, that is in i 
of God ; who come and sit down, i 
they have done, give their Hai 

• See Speed's remark, " He bull 
monasteries of Midleton and Michehu 
the most part such seed-plots were e? 
the furrows of blood." P. 340. — J. 

* " Before the tent they spread the 

Ibid.— J. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



113 



«» 



that ijs, God be praised ; for the Arabs are 
great levellers, put every body on a footing 
with them ; and it is by such generosity and 
hospitality that they maintain their interest. 

— POCOCKB. 



Palm Tree, 

" Thx palm or date tree is of great use 
in this country (Egypt) ; and deserves a 
pirticular description. For three or four 
years no body of a tree appears above 
ground, but they are as in our green-houses. 
If the top is cut off, with the boughs coming 
from it, either then or afterwards, the young 
bad and the ends of the tender boughs 
united together at top, are a delicate food, 
lomething like chesnut^, but much finer, and 
is sold very dear. This tree being so fruit- 
ful, they rarely cut off the top, unless the 
tree is blown down; though I have been 
told, that part of it may be cut away without 
hurting the tree. The boughs are of a grain 
like cane; and when the tree grows larger, 
A great number of stringy fibres seem 
to stretch out from the boughs on each 
ilde, which cross one another in such a man- 
ner that they take out from between the 
boughs a sort of bark like close net-work ; 
and this they spin out with the hand, and 
vith it make cords of all sizes, which are 
QOsitly used in Egypt. They also make of 
it a sort of brush for cloaths. Of the leaves 
they tiaake mattresses, baskets, and brooms ; 
and of the branches all sorts of cage-work, 
square baskets for packing, that serve for 
many uses instead of boxes ; and the ends 
of the boughs that grow next to the trunk, 
heing beaten like flax, the fibres separate, 
and being tied together at the narrow end 
they serve for brooms. These boughs do 
not fall off of themselves in many years, 
^ea after they are dead, as they die after 
five or six years ; but, as they are of great 
iwe, they commonly cut them off every 
jear (unless such as are at a great distance 
from any town or village), leaving the ends 
of them on the tree, which strengthen it 
much; and when after many years they 



drop off, the tree is weakened by it, and 
very oflen is broke down by the wind ; the 
diameter of the tree being little more than 
a foot, and not above eight or nine inches 
when the ends of the boughs drop off; and 
if the tree is weak towards the bottom they 
raise a mound of earth round, and it shoots 
out abundance of small roots along the side 
of the tree, which- increase its bulk so that 
the earth being removed, the tree is better 
able to resist the wind. The palm-tree 
grows vei7 high in one stem, and is not of 
a proportionable bulk; it has this peculiarity 
that the heart of the tree is the softest and 
least durable part, the outer parts being 
the most solid ; so that they generally use 
the trees entire on the tops of their houses, 
or divide them only into two parts. A sort 
of bough shoots out, and bears the fruit in 
a kind of sheath, which opens as it grows. 
The male bears a large bunch something 
like millet, which is full of a white flower, 
and unless the young fruit of the female is 
impregnated with it, the fruit is good for 
naught ; and to secure it, they tie a piece of 
this fruit of the male to every bearing branch 
of the female. The fruit of the date, when 
fresh, eats well roasted, and also prepared 
as a sweet-meat : it is esteemed of a hot 
nature, and as it comes in during the win- 
ter, being ripe in November, Providence 
seems to have designed it as a warm food, 
during the cold season, to comfort the sto- 
mach, in a country where it has not given 
wine ; it is proper to drink water with it as 
they do in these countries, and so it be- 
comes a good corrective of that cold ele- 
ment.' ' — POCOCKE. 



Thebaic Palm. 

" III the upper parts of Egypt they have 
a palm tree called the Dome, the stem does 
not grow high, but there soon shoot out 
from it two branches, and from each of 
them two others, and so for four or five 
times each branch divides into two. The 
leaf is of a semicirculai* figure, about three 
feet diameter, and is very beautiful. The 






114 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



fruit is oval, about three inches long and 
two wide. The flesh on it is about a quar- 
ter of an inch thick; but it is dry and 
husky, having something of the taste of 
ginger-bread ; they therefore make holes 
in it and moisten it with water. Under 
this there is a shell, and within that a large 
kernel which is hollow within ; so that, 
making a hole through it when it is green, 
it serves for a snuff-box, and turned when 
dry makes very fine beads that have a 
polish like marble. They are much used 
by the Turks, who bring them from Mecca. 
I have called it the Thebaic palm." — 

FOCOCKE. 



Indians of Chili. 

** The Indians of Chili are no longer those 
Americans who were inspired with terror 
by European weapons. The increase of 
horses, which are now dispersed through 
the interior of the immense deserts of Ame- 
rica, and that of oxen and sheep which has 
also been very great, have converted these 
people into a nation of Arabs, comparable 
in every respect ta those that inhabit the 
deserts of Arabia. Constantly on horseback, 
they consider an excursion of 200 leagues 
as a very short journey. They march, ac- 
companied by their flocks and herds, feed 
upon their flesh and milk, and sometimes 
upon their blood ; ' and cover themselves 
with their skins, of which they make hel- 
mets, cuirassea and bucklers. Hence it ap- 
pears that the inti'oduction of two domestic 
animals has had a decisive influence upon 
the manners of all the ti'ibes which inhabit 
the country from St. Jago to the Straits of 
Mogellan. All their old customs are laid 
aside; they no longer feed on the same 
fruits, nor wear the same dress ; but have 
a more striking resemblance to the Tartars, 
or to the inhabitants of the banks of the 
Red Sea, than to their ancestors who lived 
two centuries ago." — La Fsbouss. 

* I have been assured that they sometimes 
bleed their oxen and horses, and drink their 
Uood. 



Port des Frcmgais. 

" Port des Franqais, on the north-west 
coast of America. The Bay is perhaps the 
most extraordinary place in the world. To 
form a conception of it, let us suppose a 
bason of water, of a depth in the middle 
that could not be fathomed, bordered bj 
peaked mountains of an excessive height, 
covered with snow, without a blade of 
grass upon this immense collection of rodu 
condemned by Nature to perpetual sterility. 
I never saw a breath of airruflle the surface 
of this water ; it is never troubled but bj 
the fall of enormous pieces of ice, which 
continually detach themselves from five 
different glaciers, and which, in falling, 
make a noise that resounds far in the moun- 
tains. The air is in this place so very calm, 
and the silence so profound, that the mere 
voice of a man may be heard half a league 
off, as well as the noise of some sea-biids 
which lay their eggs in the cavities of these 
rocks." — Pebouse. 



Duty of a Conqueror, 

" C'est ii un Conquerant ^ reparer une 
partie des maux qu*il a fait. Je definis 
ainsi le droit de conquSte : un. droit n^- 
cessaire, legitime, et malheureux, qui laisse 
toujours k payer une dette immense, pour 
8*acquitter envers la nature humaine."— 
Montesquieu, lib. 10, ch. 4. 



Copy of a Letter from a Farmer^ a Zkatghter^ 

1798.* 

" Deab Miss, 
** The energy of the races prompts me 
to assure you Uiat my request is forbidden, 
the idea of which I had awkwardly nou- 
rished, notwithstanding my propensity to 
reserve. Mr. T. will be there. Let me 
with confidence assure you that him and 

' I think this queer letter is given in Espbi* 
Ella's Lelien^ but I cannot immediately light 
up*m the reference. — J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



115 



brothers will be very happy to meet you 
and brothers. Us girls cannot go for rea- 
sons. The attention of the cows claims 
our assistance in the evening. Unalterably 
yours. 



Raiseiac and his Son, 

"■ Lf the wars which King Ferdinand 
made against tbe widow of John, King of 
Hungary, about Buda, a man-at-arms was 
ptrticularly noted of all men for so much 
as in a certiun skirmish he had shewed 
exceeding prowess of his body ; and though 
unknown, being slain, was highly commen- 
ded and much bemoaned of all ; but yet 
of none so greatly as of a German lord 
called Raiseiac, as he that was amazed at 
80 rare vertue. His body being recovered 
and had off, this lord, led by a common 
curiositie, drew neere unto it, to see who 
it might be, and having caused him to be 
disarmed, perceived him to be hb own sonne ; 
which known did greatly augment the com- 
passion of all the camp ; he only, without 
framing word, or closing his eyes, but earnest- 
ly viewing the dead body of his son stood 
still upright, till the vehemencie of his sad 
sorrow, having suppressed and choaked his 
rital spirits, felld him stark dead to the 
ground.** — ^Montaigne, b. 1. ch. 2. 



Charles, Duke of Burgujidy. 

*^ Cabolus Pugnax, that great Duke of 
Burgundy, made H. Holland, late Duke of 
Exeter, exiled, runne after his horse like a 
Uckey, and would take no notice of him.^ 
CoMDiBS. BuBTOii*8 Anot, of Melancholy. 



^#N«^ ^^%A^/S^^^^%A/V«^^^ 



Massacre of Saint Bartholomew, 

^ Sdr le quai du Louvre au bas d*une 
fenStre dont la vue donne sur la riviere, on 
a mis une inscription relative au massacre 
de la Saint Barth^lemi. C*est de cette fe- 
nStre que Tinfilme Charles IX. d*ex6crable 



memoire, a tire sur le peupic avcc une ca- 
rabine.* L'histoire dit que ce meurtrier tirait 
par la fenetre de sa chambre sur ses mal- 
heureux sujets, qui pour eviter le massacre 
cherchaient k traverser la Seine a la nage.** 
— Fragments sur Paris, par Meter. Tra- 
duits de VaUemarid, par Dumoubiez. 



Master of Merry Disports, 

" In the feast of Christmas there was in 
the king*8 house, wheresoever he was lodged, 
a lord of misrule, or master of merry dis- 
ports ; and the like had ye in the house of 
every nobleman of honour or good worship, 
were he spiritual or temporal. Among the 
which the Maior of London and either of the 
Sheriffs, had their several Lords of Misrule, 
ever contending, without quarrel or offence, 
who should make the rarest pastimes to de- 
light the beholders. These lords beginning 
their rule at Alhallond Eve, continued the 
same till the morrow after the feast of the 
Purification, commonly called Candlcroas- 
day. In all which space, there were fine 
and subtle disguisings, masks and mumme- 
ries, with playing at cards for counters nails 
and points, more for pastimes than for gain.** 
— Stow*8 Survey, 



Christmas Evergreens, 

" Against the feast of Christmas, every 
man*8 house, as also their parish churches, 
were decked with holm, i vie, bays, and what- 
soever the season of the year afforded to 
be green. The conduits and standards in 
the streets were likewise garnished. Among 
the which I read that in the year 1444, by 
tempest of thunder and lightning, on the 
1 st of February, at night, Paul's steeple was 
fired, but with great labour quenched ; and 
towards the morning of Candlemas-day, at 
the Leaden-hall, in Comhill, a standard- 
tree being set up in the midst of the pave- 
ment, fast in the ground, nailed full of 
holme and ivie, for disport of Christmas to 
the people, wafl uptorn and cast down by 



116 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



the malignant spirit as was thought, and 
the stones of the pavement all about were 
cast in the streets and into divers houses, 
so that the people were sore agast at the 
great tempests/* 



Easter Tree, 

" In the week before Easter, had ye great 
shows made, for the fetching in of a twisted 
tree or with, as they termed it, out of the 
woods, into the king*s house ; and the like 
into every man*s house of honour or wor- 
ship." 

May Day? 

" In the month of May, namely on May- 
day in the morning, every man, except im- 
pediment, would walk into the sweet mea- 
dows and green woods, there to rejoice their 
spirits with the beauty and savour of sweet 
flowers, and with the noise of birds, prais- 
ing God in their kind. 

" And for more notable example hereof 
Edw. Hall hath noted, that King Henry 
VIII. as in the 3rd of his reign and divers 
other years, so namely in the 7th of his reign, 
on May-day in the morning, with Queen 
Catharine his wife, accompanied with many 
lords and ladies, rode a maying from Green- 
wich to the high ground of Shooter's Hill ; 
where as they passed by the way they es- 
pied a company of tall yeomen clothed all 
in green, with green hoods, and with bows 
and arrows to the number of 200. One 
being their chieflain was called Robin Hood, 
who required the King and all his company 
to stay and see his men shoot, whereunto 
the King granting, Robin Hood whistled 
and all the 200 archers shot off, loosing all 
at once. And when he whistled again, they 
likewise shot again. Their arrows whistled 
by crafl of the head so that the noise was 
strange and loud, which greatly delighted 
the King, Queen, and their company. 

* See some striking remarks in Espriella'b 
Letteri, Letter xiii. vol. i. p. 147, third edit. 

J. W. W. 



Moreover this Robin Hood desired the King 
and Queen with their retinue to enter the 
green wood, where in arbours made with 
boughs and decked with flowers, they were 
set and served plentifully with venison and 
wine by Robin Hood and his men to their 
great contentment, and had other pageants 
and pastimes, as ye may read in my said 
author. 

*^ I find also that, in the month of Maj, 
the citizens of London, of all estates, lightly 
in every parish, or sometime two or three 
parishes joining together, had their several 
Mayings, and did fetch in May-poles, with 
divers warlike shews, with good archers, 
moricc dancers, and other devices for pas- 
time all the day long; and towards the 
evening they had stage plays and bonefires 
in the streets." — Ibid. 



Festival Bonfires. 

" In the months of June and July, on 
the vigils of festival days, and on the same 
festival days in the evenings after the sun- 
setting, there were usually made bonefires 
in the streets, every man bestowing wood 
or labour towards them. The wealthier sort 
also before their doors, near to the said 
bonefires would set out tables on the vigils, 
furnished with sweet bread and good drink, 
and on the festival days with meat and 
drink plentifully; whereunto they would 
invite their neighbours and passengers also 
to sit and be merry with them in great fii- 
miliarity, praising God for his benefits be- 
stowed on them, these were called bone- 
fires, as well of good amity amongst neigb- 
bours, that being before at controversie, 
were there by the labour of others recon- 
ciled, and made of bitter enemies loving 
friends ; as also for the virtue that a great 
•fire hath, to purge the infection of the air." 
—Ibid. 

VigU of St. John Baptist, jr. 
" On the vigil of St. John Baptbt, and 
on Saint Peter and Paul the Apostles, every 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



117 



man*«door being Bhadowed with green birch, 
long fennel, St. John*8 wort, orpin, white 
lillies, and such like, garnished upon with 
beautiful flowers, had also lamps of glass, 
with oil burning in them all the night. 
Some hung out branches of iron curiously 
wrought, containing hundreds of lamps 
lighted at once, which made a goodly shew.** 
-Ibid. 



Midsummer Watch. 

**B£8u>B8 the standing watches, all in 
bright hamesa, in every ward and street in 
this city and suburbs, there was also a march- 
ing watch, that passed thro the principal 
itreets thereof; to wit, from the little conduit 
bj Pauls gate^ through West Cheap, by the 
Stocks, through Comhill, by Leaden Hall to 
Aldgate ; then back down Fen Church street 
lod by Grasse Church, about Grasse Church 
conduit, and up Grasse Church street into 
Comhill, and through into West Cheap 
again, and so broke up. The whole way 
ordered for this marching watch extended 
to 3200 Taylor*s Yards of a size, for the 
furniture whereof with lights, there were 
appointed 700 cressets, 500 of them being 
found by the companies, the other 200 by 
the chamber of London. Besides the which 
lights, every constable in London, in num- 
ber more than 240 had his cresset; the 
charge of every cresset was in light 2s, 4d. 
and every cresset had two men, one to bear 
or hold it, another to bear a bag with light 
and to serve it. So that the poor men 
pertaining to the cressets taking wages, be- 
sides that every one had a strawen hat with 
ft badge painted, and his breakfast, amount- 
ed in number to almost 2000. The march- 
ing watch contained in number about 2000 
men ; part of them being old soldiers, of 
skill to be captains, lieutenants, Serjeants, 
corporals, &c. Whifflers, drummers and fifes, 
standard and ensign bearers, demilaunces 
on great horses, gunners with hand guns or 
half hakes, archers in coats of white fustian, 
signed on the breast and back with the arms 



of the city ; their bows bent in their hand 
with sheafs of arrows by their sides ; pike 
men in bright corslets, burganets, &c. Hal- 
bards, the like the billmen in almain rivets,' 
and aprons of mail in great number. 

" There were also divers pageants, mor- 
ris dancers, constables, the one half which 
was 120 on St. Johns eve, the other half 
on St. Peters eve, in bright harness, some 
overgilt and every one a jornett* of scarlet 
thereupon and a chain of gold, his bench 
man following him, his minstrels before him 
and his cresset light passing by him, the 
waits of the city, the maiors officers, for his 
guard before him, all in a livery of woosted 
or sea jackets party-coloured; the maior 
himself well mounted on horseback, the 
sword bearer before him in fair armour, 
well mounted also, the maiors footmen and 
the like torch bearers about him ; bench 
men twain upon great stii-ring horses fol- 
lowing him. The sheriffs watches came 
one after the other in like order, but not 
so large in number as tlie maiors ; for 
where the maior had besides his giant, three 
pageants, each of the sheriffs had besides 
their giant but two pageants ; each their 
morris dance and one bench man, their 
officers in jackets of woosted, or sea party- 
coloured differing from the maiors and each 
from other, but having harnessed men a 
great many, &c. 

"This Midsummer watch was thus ac- 
customed yearly, time out of mind, until 
the year 1539, in which year on 8th May 
a great muster was made by the citizens at 
the Miles end, all in bright harness with 
coats of white silk or cloth and chains of 
gold, in three great battles to the number 
of 15,000 ; which passed through London to 
Westminster, and so through the Sanctuary, 

' The reader will find many of these terms 
explained in Thorn's edition of Stow's Survey ; 
but he candidly confesses his ignorance of " al- 
main rivets." It is easier to conjecture the 
meaning than to supply authority fur it. 

J. W. W. 

' '^De ritalien gittmaia, Et ce mot Italien 
signifie proprement une veste militaire pour un 
jour de bataille." Menage in v. — J. W. W. 



118 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERAKY COMPOSITION. 



mnd round about tbe Park of St. James, 
and returned home through Oldbom. 

" King Henry tlien con^dering the great 
charges of the citizens for the furniture of 
this unusual mustor f^irbad the marching 
watch proTided for at Midsummer that 
year ; which being once laid down, was not 
raised again till the rear 154S, the 2nd of 
Edward VI. Sir John Gresham then beii^ 
Maior, who caused the marvhing watch bc»ih 
on the ere of St, John Baptist and of St- 
Peter the Apo$tle^ to be n^riTed and set 
fortli, in as conwlr orxier as it had been ac- 
customed, which watch was also beautified 
bj the numWr of mor^ than *X> demilances 
and light horse men, prepared by the citi- 
ictts to be «»t inui Scotland, for the rescue 
of the town of HadiUngton. 

** ITiis watch a0ording a great cavalcade 
and si^cndid show, bn>ught ab«r^!ar>ce of 
*W ^K^gnvs U^g^nher, and not a iew of the 
lighter SH^^rt^ such as n^ues. pickpurse*. 
^juarrdlcrs whore«H>ngv^rs. and drunkank, 
which was Kmnd to hare much izK>:«Te> 
niciHNN ThereRvre in the rear 15<>5i, Sir 
TtHw\a.< Kow, Maiivr^ with the univ^iNad vx«- 
5^^nt of the alvlertiHHv a^rved tx> Ut it a>ide, 
<W that year at U>a.<i, jukI in the ivxm 
thcTXHvt^ to ha^nc a suWtantial stan.Ving watcii 
tx^ the sAtVtY anvi i^rv^srratk^a <m* the citr. 
llie M*Kxr hiius.>lf als^. Khi^ at this ti:i> 
*.> weak th*t h.^ .vuia m>t iv> in kb own 
jHH^^i^ tho K.xxvnW iKNiUAinuxl :he Q«>e«i 
wul .xMinoil with this ix^>J«,kvn, Rut it 

It. ami that it wa* h^nr ,4.^.uTe ux kax.^ a 
S!''^ ^*'^^ >Vh.^m^v>n th.^ XUvw ^t 

r*' t*k^ ja^xs aiul tK>«ii h.HKWLv^r!! 
^>^ii tx> Iv Uhl a.i.k. ^^>^v^v.h u 



Lord Maior, and his brethren the Aldermen, 
containii^ the manner and order of a march- 

ing waick in the city iqKm the evoi aoeuf- 
tomed, in commendatioiw whereof, namelj, 
in times of peace to be used, he hath words 
tothnefiRsd. Tke artifioers of sundry schIs 
tker^ wefl aei awork, none but rich 

helped, old soldien, 
fifes and ensign 
bearers, with sodi like men, meet for the 
princes serrice, kept in lire, wherein the 
safety and defence <^ erery commonweal 
cvxi^steth. Armour and weapons being 
yearly occupied in thb wise, the citizens hid 
of their own, readily prepared ftHT any need ; 
ahei e na by intermission hoeoi^ annorers 
are out of work, soldiers out <^ ure, wea- 
pons oxergrown with foulness, few or none 
good being proTided,** &c — Ibid. 



Kaih 



i hwvft i.^^„ . r ^**^^ »T^ tJits cj:t 



•^^^ ^^ 1>CC« U*st .w^ T '^"^ ^^''^ 

^ ^^^^^^i tx^ ^r iv>^, iN^u^ri;^, 



^w^>ii. a,>>,^ xtv 



^Mfc^kt^Mfim^,^^, 



Bard^Tmnr-ade Sports. 

'^ Is t^ month of August, about the feast 
of St. Bartholomew the apostle, before the 
Lord Makw« Aldermen and Sherifis of Lon- 
don, placed ID a large tent near unto Clerk- 
envelL of old time were dirers days spent 
in ike pastime of wrestlii^; where the offi- 
cers of the city, nam^y, the sheriffs, ser- 
pe^juit^ and yeomen, the porters of the 
Kite's Unam or we^h house (now no such 
me&> and otker of tke city were challengers 
of ail men in tke saborbs to wrestle for 
gmmes ap{v>inted, and on other days be- 
tore tke s^id Maior, Aldermen and Sherifis 
in Fensbury field to skooC die standard, 
Ivrwad azTviw and fi%ht, for games. But now 
of late xesars tke wrestling is only prac- 
ti:$ed on Bartkc^omew day in tke afternoon ; 
a2>d tke sk^x^ii^ sonw tkree or fi>ur dsjf 
after in one attemoon and no more. ¥iliat 
$kv>ttM I sf^odk of tke ancient daOy ezer- 
' r^!>ei^ in tke long bow by dtisens of thb citj, 
>K>w ahftct^t c^cdLolT kit off and forsaken? I 
overpass it« tor by tke means of closing in 
of oocuBKXK givH^nds, our arckers for want of 
T\>>ea t\> skvvx abrcmd, cre^ into bowling 
^^7^^ ai^i vvrdixiary dicing bouses, near 



J c 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



119 



rhere they have room enough to ha- 
eir money at unlawful games, where 
them to take their pleasures." — Ibid, 
was one of the great uses of publlck 
in former time, namely, for game and 
e, rather than for drinking excessiye- 
; now of a long while the pleasure and 
i of these houses is chiefly fuddling 
souring vast quantities of wine and 
i stout, and brandy. 



Shrove Tuesday, 

BBT year on Shrove Tuesday, the 
boys do bring cocks of the game to 
laster, and all the forenoon they de- 
hemselves in cock-fighting. Ailer 
all the youths go into the fields to 
t the ball. The scholars of every 
have their ball or bastion in their 
The antient and wealthy men of the 
»me forth on horseback, to see the 
»f the young men and to take part of 
iasure in beholding their agility.** — 
spheh in Stow.^ 



^^^»M^i^^^^»^^W^^«^^.^^^fc^ 



Lent Fridays^ 

^ZBT Friday in Lent, a fresh company 
Dg men comes into the field on horse- 
ind the best horsemen conduct the 
Then march forth the citizens sons, 
her young men with disarmed lances 
ields, and there they practice feats of 
Many courtiers likewise when the 
yeth near, and attendants on noble- 
9 repair to these exercises, and while 
)e of victory doth inflame their minds, 
lew good proof how serviceable they 
be in martial affairs.** — Ibid. 

e reader will find these extracts snb- 
to Stow*8 Survey.— J, W. W. 
SocTHET has headed it from Stow: but 
original Latin of Stephanides, or Fitz- 
Q, it is " Singulis diebm dominicii in Quad- 
Hi."— J. W. W. 



Easter Water-tilts, 

" In Easter holydays, they fight battles 
on the water ; a shield is hanged on a pole, 
fixed in the midst of the stream. A boat 
is prepared without oars, to be carried by 
violence of the water, and in the forepart 
thereof standeth a young man ready to give 
charge upon the shield with his lance ; if so 
be he break his launce against the shield, 
and doth not fall, he is thought to have 
performed a worthy deed ; if so be without 
breddng his launce he runneth strongly 
against the shield, down he falleth into the 
water, for the boat is violently forced with 
the tide. But on each side of the shield 
ride two boats, furnished with young men, 
which recover him that falleth, as soon as 
they may. Upon the bridge, wharfs and 
houses, by the river side, stand great num- 
bers to see and laugh thereat.** — Ibid. 



Slimmer Holiday Evenings. 

** In the holydays all the summer the 
youths are exercised in leaping, dancing, 
shooting, wresting, casting the stone, and 
practising their shields. The maidens trip 
with their timbrels, and dance as long as 
they can well see. In winter, every holy- 
day, before dinner, the boars prepared for 
brawn are set to fight, or else bulls or 
bears are baited.** — Ibid. 



Whittington*s Epitaph^ St. Michaels^ 
Ventrie Ward, 

** Ut fragrans Nardus 
fam& fuit iste Richardus, 
Albificans' villam 
qui juste rexerat illam. 
Flos mercatorum 
Fundator presbyterorum. 
Sic & egenorum, 
testis sit cetus eorum. 



* Anglic^ Whittington, i. e. whiting-town. 



( 



120 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Omnibus exemplum, 
barathrum yincendo morosuDi. 
Condidit hoc templum 
Michaelifl, quam specioaum ! 
Regia spes & prea : 
divinis res rata turbis. 
Fauperibufl Pater extiteiat 
Major quater urbis,^ 
Martius hunc yicit, 
En I annos gens Ubi dicit. 
Finiit ipse dies, 
sis sibi Christe quiea. Amen.** 

Stow. 



^^^^'^^^^^^^^A^^^^^A^^V^ 



St PauTs Buck, 



'* Sib William Baud, knight the drd of 
Edward I., 1274, on Candlemas-daj, grant- 
ed to Harvey de Borham, Dean of Pauls, 
and to the chapter there, that in considera- 
tion of 22 acres of ground or land, bj them 
granted within their manor of Westlej, in 
Essex, to be inclosed into his park at Cu- 
ringham, he would for ever, upon the feast 
day of the Conversion of Paul, in winter, 
give unto them a good doe, seasonable and 
sweet : and upon the feast of the Comme- 
moration of St. Paul, in summer, a good 
buck, and offer the same at the high altar; 
the same to be spent among the canons re- 
sidents. The doe to be brought by one man, 
at the hour of procession, and through the 
procession to the high altar; and the bringer 
to have nothing. The buck to be brought 
by all his meyney in like manner, and they 
to have paid unto them by the church 12 
pence only, and no more to be required. 

" Now what I have heard by report and 
have partly seen, it followeth : On the feast 
day of the Commemoration of St. Paul, the 
buck being brought up to the steps of the 
high altar in Pauls Church, at the hour of 
procession, the dean and chapter apparelled 
in coaps and vestments, with garlands of 
roses on their heads, they sent the body of 

* This epitaph is not in the copy of Stow 
before me. These lines are evidently defective. 
Weevkr, in his Funeral Montunenti, calls it 
" craxed and imperfect," p. 407. — J. W. W. 



the buck to baking, and had the head fixed 
on a pole, bom before the cross in their 
procession, until they issued out at the 
west door, where the keeper that brought 
it blowed the death of the buck, and then 
the homers that were about the city pre- 
sently answered him in like manner; for 
the which pains they had each man, of the 
dean and chapter, 4d, in money and their 
dinner. And the keeper that brought it, 
during his abode there, for that service, 
meat, drink, and lodging, at the dean and 
chapters charges, and Sd, in money at his 
going away, together with a loaf of bread, 
having the picture of St. Paul upon it 

** There was bdonging to the church of 
St. Paul, for both the days, two special 
suits of vestments, the one imbroidered 
with bucks, the other with does.** — Ang^tt 
16, 1798, Hereford. 



^i«v^M/w^«m^^^rf^^^««wv^ 



Ostrick'eggSj how hatched} 

** Wb read in an old Arabian manuscript 
that when the ostrich would hatch her eggs, 
she does not cover them as other fowls do, 
but both the male and female contribute to 
hatch them by the efficacy of their looks 
only f and therefore when one has occasion 
to go to look for food, it advertises its com- 
panion by its cry, and the other never stirs 
during its absence, but remains with its eyes 
fixed upon the eggs, till the return of its 
mate, and then goes in its turn to look for 
food. And this care of theirs is so neces- 
sary, that it cannot be suspended for a mo- 
ment ; for if it should, their eggs would im- 
mediately become addle.** — Harrt8*8 Coi' 
lect.ofVoy, T.YAJHSLBBBy Relat, d^Hgypte^ 
p. 103. 

Thb is said to emblem the perpetual at- 
tention of the Creator to the universe. 

' The note book which furnishes these ax* 
tracts has been kindly lent to me by Mrs. 
Southey.— J. W. W. 

* " Oh ! even with such a look, as fiiUes say, 
The mother ostrich fixes on her egg," &c. 
Thalaba, book iu. p. 24.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



121 



Oladiaiarg, why suppressed, 

OEK the Emperor Honorius, when 
tius, a Christian poet, had endea- 
to obtain the abolition of the gladia- 
pectacles, Telemachos, a hermit of 
t, i^^peared in the amphitheatre. As 
the combat had begun, he descend- 

a dignified simplicity, inflamed by 
t of benevolence and holj zeal, into 
la, and endeavoured to prevent the 
flits from murdering each other, 
ictators, enraged, rose and stoned 
srhaps there may be some who will 
lined to ridicule the simplicity of 
lified man, though had it been the 

heathen philosopher, they would 
mired and cited it as exemplary, 
hos, however, was the last sacrifice 
accursed custom. Honorius was 
forbad the games of the gladiators, 
n that period they were entirely 
1. — Stolbbro*8 Travels. 
h has another name, Almachius. 



V'>^N^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M^^«^ 



eath of AlVs Sons celebrated. 

Persians observe a festival in me- 
the death of Hassan and his bro- 
I sons of Hali, who were killed by 
ear Bagdad. It begins on the 2drd 
st, and lasts ten days, during which 
uare is adorned with lights, and a 
ner or streamer, near which a Mul- 
iest gets up into a pulpit to preach, 
es a most hideous noise. All the 
Its of that quarter go to hear him, 
ed and blue silk gowns, as a token 
r. The women supply the Mullahs 
eatmeats and rose-water, to cool 
en they are heated with preaching, 
of the ten days, they set a figure 

which they call Omar, on an ass, 
* having led them about the town, 

the poor ass, and set fire to the 
rhey are fully persuaded that dur- 

ten days, the gates of heaven stand 
lly open, and that all Mussulmen, 



who happen to die at this season, go directly 
to heaven." — Gebisixi. Bboughton^s Diet, 
of all Religions. 



**^/w^%^^^\^^^^*^^/^/s/^/v^« 



Feast of Lights. 

" Han ucA or Channuccah, the feast of 
lights, or feast of dedication, an annivefsary 
festival among the Jews, in memory of Ju- 
das Maccabaeus^s repairing and dedicating 
anew the temple and altar, which had been 
plundered and prophaned by Antiochus Epi- 
phanes. It was observed on 25th of the 
month Cisleu, and was continued eight days. 
On the first day they light one lamp, on die 
second, two, and so on to the eighth day, 
when they light eight lamps. The occasion 
of this is as follows. The enemies having 
prophaned the city and temple, were driven 
out by Jonathan and his sons. Upon his 
return, he found there was not oil enough 
leA; to light the lamps of the great branch 
for more than one night, but by a miracle 
it lasted eight.** — ^Brouohtom. 



St. Peter ad Vincula.— Lammas Day.^ 

" The first of August was celebrated in 
honour of Augustus, who on that day had 
been saluted with that name, and so given 
occasion to change the name of the month 
from Sextilis to August. Eudoxia, wife of 
Theodosius, having made a journey to Je- 
rusalem, was there presented with the fet- 
ters which St. Peter had been loaded with 
in prison. These she presented to the Pope, 
who afterwards laid them up in a church 
built by Theodosius to the honour of St. 
Peter. She also obtained a decree of her 
husband, that the first of August should be 
kept holy in remembrance of St. Peter's 
bonds, thinking it unreasonable that a hea- 
then emperor should have a holy day.** — 
Ibid. 

Certainly July and August ought to be 
christened. 

* This day has another remarkable name, the 
GuLE of August. See Spblman in v. — J. W. W. 



i 



122 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



^* This daj is called Lammas daj, from a 
conceit the people had that St. Peter was 
patron of the lambs, because our Saviour 
said to him, ' Feed my lambs.* Upon which 
account they thought the mass of this day 
very beneficial to make their lambs thrive.** 
—Ibid. 



Egregori of the Book of Enoch, 

*' Thb Egregori, or watching angels, to 
the number of 200, having fallen in love 
with the daughters of men, on account of 
their excellent beauty, descended on the 
top of mount Hermon.^ Their princes were 
twenty, Semiazas the chief. In the year of 
the world 170, they took themselves wives, 
and conmiitted leudness with them till the 
flood, in which time the women bore to 
them three generations. The first was the 
giants ; they begat the Nephilim, they the 
Eliud. Their chief taught them the force 
of poisonous roots and herbs. Azalzel, the 
art of working metals and precious stones, 
also of making swords, and other instru- 
ments of war. Pharmarus, charms and in- 
cantations. Chobabiel (astrology, Araciel), 
the signs of the earth. Sampsich, those of 
the sun. Sariel, those of the moon; and in 
like manner each of them revealed certain 
secrets to their wives and children. But 
impiety and all manner of corruption in- 
creasing upon the earth, the four archangels, 
by the command of God, bound the princes 
of those transgressors, and threw them into 
the abyss, there to remain till the day of 
j udgemen t.** — Ibid. 

*^ Tub angel Raphael was commissioned 
to heal the earth of the wounds caused by 
the secrets these Egregori had revealed. 
GabriePs charge was, to destroy the giants. 
Michael was commanded to bind Semiazas 
and his companions, and to lead them to the 
uttermost parts of the earth, where they 
were to be confined for seventy generations, 

* See Abp. Lawrence's edit, of the Book of 
Enoch, vii. 7. p. 6 —J. W. W. 



till the consummation of all things, when 
they were to be thrown into the gulph of 
fire. Uriel was sent to Noah, to warn and 
instruct him.** — ^Ibid. 



River Dee, and Ceirioc. 

" Deb, a river deep and swift ; 
It seems as it would rive the rocks alone. 
Or undermine with force the craggie clift 
To Chester runs this river all along, 
With gushing streame and roring water 

strong; 
On both the sides are bankes and hilles good 

store. 
And mightie stones that makes the river rore. 
It flowes with winde, although no raine there 

bee, 

And swelles like sea with waves and foam- 
ing flood; 
A wonder sure, to see this river Dee 
With winde alone to waxe so wyld and wood, 
Make such a sturre as water would be mad, 
And shewe such life as though some spreete 

it had. 
A cause there is, a nature for the same, 
To bring this flood in such straunge case 

and frame.' 
And still on rocke the water runnes, you see, 
A wondrous way, a thing full rare and 

straunge, 
That rocke cannot the course of water 

chaunge. 
For in the streame, huge stones and rocks 

remayne, 
That backward might the flood of force con- 

strayne.'* 
Chubchtabd*s Worthines of Wales. 

He calls Ceirioc, Keeryock. 

" A raging brooke when rayne or snowe is 
great.** 

* " There is a poolo in Meryonetbsbiere of 3 
myle long, rageth so by storm that it. makes 
this river flowe." 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



123 



Coracles. 

The Coracles are still used in some parts 
of Wales.* " They are generally 5^ feet 
long, and 4 broad ; their bottom is a little 
rounded, and their shape nearly oval. These 
, boats are ribbed with light laths, or split 
' twigs, in the manner of basket work, and 
tre covered with a raw hide, or strong can- 
Tss, pitched in such a mode as to prevent 
their leaking. A seat crosses just above 
the centre, towards the broader end. They 
seldom weigh more than between 20 and 
30 pounds. The men paddle them with one 
hand, while they fish with the other; and 
when their work is completed, they throw 
the coracles over their shoulders, and with- 
out difficulty return with them home. 

^ Riding through Abergwilly, we saw se- 
yend of these phcenomena resting with their 
bottoms upwards, against the houses, and 
res^nbling the shells of so many enormous 
turtles ; and indeed a traveller at the first 
▼lew of a coracle on the shoulders of a 
fisherman, might fancy he saw a tortoise 
walking on his hinder legs.** — Wtndham. 



^WW^S/WSM^/WV«/>^«V\^ 



Old Woman of Berkeley.^ 

**▲.!>. 852. Circa dies istos, mulier quse- 
dam malefica, in villa quae Berkeleia dici- 
tor, degens, guise amatrix ac petulantise, 
flagitiis modum usque in senium & auguriis 
Don ponens, usque ad mortem impudica 
permansit. Hsc die quadam cum sederet 
ad pnmdium, comicula quam pro delitiis 



' They are sUU commonly used on the Severn 
tod the Wye. As a b<»y I could manage one 
dexterously in fishing, and have often carried 
it across my shoulders. Herodotus first men- 
tions them, see Clio. c. 194. And it is carious 
that Captain Keppel ascended the Euphrates in 
jut such another conveyance : See Travels, 
vol i. p. 192. This note is used up in Madoc 
in Wales, xiii. p. 848.— J. W. W. 

' I do not feel Justified in omitting such ex- 
tracts as this, though used up, like others, in 
Southxt's works. See the ballad, p. 454. 

J. W. W. 



, pascebat, neacio quid garrire coepit. Quo 
audito, mulieris cultellus de manu excidit, 
simul & facies pallescere coepit, & emisso 
rugitu, Hodi^ inquit, accipiam grande in- 
commodum, hodi^; ad sulcum idtimum, 
meum pervenit aratrum. Quo dicto, nun- 
cius doloris intravit. Muliere verb percunc- 
tata ad quid veniret, Afiero, inquit, tibi filii 
till obitum, & totius familise ejus ex subita 
ruina interitum. Hoc quoque dolore mulier 
permota, lecto protinus decubuit, graviter 
infirmata. Sentiensq; morbum subrepere 
ad vitalia, liberos quos habuit superstites, 
monachum videlicet & monacham per Epis- 
tolam invitavit. Advenientes autem voce 
singultiente alloquitur. Ego, inquit, o pueri, ' 
meo miserabili fato dsemoniacis semper ar- 
tibus inservivi. Ego omnium vitiorum sen- 
tina, ego illecebrarum omnium fui magistra. 
Erat tamen mihi inter hssc mala, spes ves- 
trse religionis, quae meam solidaret animam 
desperatam, vos expectabam propugnatores 
contra dsemones, tutores contra ssevissimos 
hostes. Nunc igitur quoniam ad finem vitsB 
perveni, rogo vos per materna ubera ut mea 
tentetis alleviare tormenta. Insuite me de- 
functam corio cervino, ac deinde in sarco- 
phago lapideo supponite, operculumque fer- 
ro & plumbo constringite,acdemum lapidem 
tribus cathenis ferreis & fortissimis circun- 
dantes, clericos quinquaginta psalmorum 
^cantores, & tot per tres dies presbyteros 
missarum celebratores applicate, qui feroces 
lenigent adversariorum incursus. Ita si tri- 
bus noctibus secura jacuero quarto die me 
infodite humo. Factumq; est ut praeceperat 
illis. Sed, proh dolor ! nil preces, nil lacry- 
msB nil demimi valuere cathense. Primis 
enim duabus noctibus, cum chori psallen- 
tium corpori assistebant, advenientes dse- 
mones ostium Ecclesise confregerunt ingenti 
obice clausum, extremasq; cathenas negotio 
levi dirumpunt. Media autem, quae fortior 
erat, illibata manebat. Terti& autem nocte, 
circa gallicinium, strepitu hostium adven- 
tantium, omne monasterium visum est It 
fiindamento moveri. Unus ergo dtemonum 
& vultu cseteris terribilior, & staturft emi- 
nentior, januas Ecclesise impetu violento 



124 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



concussas in fragmeDta dejecit. Direxerunt 
clerici com laicis, metu steterunt omnium 
capilli & psalmorum concentus defecit. Dae- 
mon ergo gestu ut videbatur arroganti ad 
sepulchrum accedens, & nomen mulieris 
modicum ingeminans, surgere imperavit. 
Qud respondente, quod nequiret pro vincu- 
lis, Jam malo tuo, inquit, solveris; & pro- 
tinus cathenam quae cseterorum ferociam 
dsemonum deluserat, velut stuppeum vin- 
culum rumpebat. Operculum etiam sepul- 
chri pede depellens, mulierem palam omni- 
bus ab ecclesia extraxit, ubi pro foribus 
niger equus superb^ hinniens videbatur, 
uncis ferreis, & clavis undique confixus, 
super quem misera mulier projecta, ab ocu- 
lis assistentium evanuit. Audiebantur ta- 
men clamores per quatuor fere miliaria hor- 
ribiles auxilium postulantes. Ista itaq; qu«B 
retuli incredibilia non erunt, si legatur beati 
Gregorii dialogus, in quo refert, hominem 
in ecclesi& sepultam k dsemonibus foras ejec- 
tum. Et apud Francos Carolus Martellus 
insignis vir fortitudinis, qui Saracenos Gal- 
lias ingressos, Hispaniam redire compulit, 
exactis vitae suae diebus, in Ecclesia beati 
Dionjsii legitur fuisse sepultus. Sed quia 
patrimonia, cum decimis omnium fere Ec- 
clesiarum Galliie, pro stipendio commilito- 
num suorum mutilaverat, miserabiliter a 
malignis spiritibus de sepulchro corporaliter 
avulsus, usque in hodiernum diem nusquam 
comparuit." — Floret Uistoriarumy by Mat- 
thew OF Westmiksteb. 

The story of Guntram' is in this book, 
and it adds, that he applied the treasures 
so found to the uses of the Church. 

St Patrick's Purgatory.^ 

" Miles quidem Hoenus nomine qui mul- 
tis annis sub Rege Stephano militaverat, 

» See the story Quoted in note to " The Vi- 
sion of the Maid of Orleans," p. 76. 

J. W. W. 

• See ballad, " St. Patrick's Purgatory," p. 
425, where, in ** Sir Owen," the reader will easily 
recognise " Hoenus."— J. W. W. 



licenti& It rege impetrati, profectus est in 
Hyberniam ad natale solum, ut parentes vi- 
sitaret. Qui cum aliquandiu in regione ilia 
demoratus fuisset, cepit ad mentem redu- 
cere vitam suam adeb flagitiosam ; quod ab 
ipsis cunabulis, incendiis semper vacaverat 
& rapinis, & quod magis dolebat, se eccled- 
arum fuisse violatorem, & rerum ecclesias- 
ticarum invasorem, praeter multa enormia, 
quae intrinsecus latebant peccata. Miles 
igitur pcenitentia ductus ad episcopum quen- 
dam iUius regionis accessit ; cui cum pec- 
cata sua devotus per ordinem detulisset, in- 
crepavit eum graviter Episcopus, asserens 
ilium nimis divinam clementiam offendisse ; 
unde miles multum contristatus, Deo con- 
dignam facere poenitentiam cogitavit. Cum 
autem Ep. ut justum sibi videbatur, vellet 
ei injungere, poenitentiam, miles respondit, 
Dum igitur ut asseris, factorem meum tarn 
graviter ofiendi, poenitentiam assumam. Om- 
nibus poenitentiis graviorem, & ut peccato- 
rum meorum merear remissionem accipere, 
Purgatorium S. Patricii volo intrare. De 
hoc quoq; Purgatorio & ejus origine quod 
sequitur tradunt veteres historiae Hyber- 
nenses. 

** Magnus Patricius dum in Hybemii 
verbum Dei praedicaret, & multis ibi mira- 
culorum signis choruscaret, bestiales illius 
patrias homines, terrore infemalium tor- 
mentorum^ ac Paradysi amore gaudiorum, 
It mortuis studuit revocare. Sed ipsi piano 
sermone affirmabant, se non conversuros ad 
Christum, nisi oculat& fide prius conspice- 
rent quae promisit. Unde dum B. P. pro 
salute populi in jejuniis, vigiliis & orationi- 
bus positus, Dominum precaretur propen- 
sius, pius Dei filius apparens ei, duxit eum 
in locum desertum, & ostendit illi speluncam 
rotundam & obscuram intrinsecus, & dixit, 
Quisquis veraciter poenitens & in fide cod- 
stans, hanc speluncam ingressus fuerit, spa- 
tio unius diei ac noctis ab omnibus m e& 
purgabitur peccatis, quibus in tot& viti sa& 
Deum offendit; atq; eam ingrediens, non 
solum tormenta malorum, sed si in Dei di- 
lectione constanter perseveraverit, videbit 
& gaudia beatorum. Sic Domino dispa- 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



125 



rente S.P. tam pro domini apparitione quam 
pro speluncse ostensione Ifetus, sperabat mi- 
serum Hybemue populum se ad fidem Ca- 
tholicam conversurum ; et in loco illo con* 
festim oratorium con8truen8,speluncam quae 
in cemiterio est, ante frontem eccleflisB cir- 
cumdedit, & januam cum seris apposuit, ne 
quia earn sine ejus licenti& introiret. Ca* 
nonicos regulares loco illo introduxit, & 
Priori ecclesiai claTem custodiendam com- 
miait, statuens ut quicunq; Purgatorium in- 
^edi Toluerit, ab episcopo loci licentiam 
habeat, & cum literis episcopi accedat ad 
Priorem, & ab eo instructus Purg. intret. 
Multi aatem in diebus Patricii Purg. intra- 
verunt, qui rcversi, testati sunt se tormenta 
graria pertulisse, & gaudia magna ibidem 
k inenarrabilia conspexisse. 

**Milite itaq; supradicto, angnstios^ nimis 
ab episcopo licentiam postulante Purg. ex- 
periendi, cum ilium cognovisset £p. inflexi- 
bilem, tradidit ei literas suas ad Priorem 
loci, mandans ut cum illo ageret, sicut fieri 
•olet cum illis qui purgatorium ingredi de- 
poscunt. Prior autem visis literis, militem 
b ecclesiam perduxit, ubi per dies quinde- 
cim orationibus devotus instabat ; & illis sic 
diebus elapsis, man^ Miss& ^ Priore cele- 
brate, sacHl communione militem commu- 
aivit, adductumque ad speluncse introitum, 
iqa4 eum benedictft aspersit, & aperto ostio 
dixit, Ecce nunc intrabis in nomine Jesu 
Christ], & per concavitatem speluncce tam 
diu ambulabis, donee in campum exiens, a- 
viam^ inyenies artificiosissim^ fabricatam, 
quam cum ingressus fueris, statim ex parte 
Dei nuntios habebis, qui tibi pi^ quod facies 
mdicabunt. Vir autem ille virilem gerens 
aoimum, ad pugnam demonum audacter 
prompit, atq; omnium se orationibus com- 
mendans, frontem suam vivificse Crucis signo 
moniyit, & intrepidus portam iotravit; & 
oetio post eum obserato, Prior cum proces- 
none ecclesiam repetivit. 

^ Miles itaq; per speluncam audacter pro- 



■ Neither Spelmak nor Du Canob explain 
the word, nor am I sure that they refer to it in 
the tense it is here used. See in t. — J. W. W. 



grediens, lumen paulatim totius claritatis 
amisit, sed tandem paryo lumine apparente 
ad campum prsedictum pervenit & aulam. 
Lux ibi non erat, nisi qualis in vesperft hie 
habetur. Aula parietes non habebat, sed 
columnis erat per gjrum subnixa, ut claus- 
trum solet monachorum: ingressusq; cam & 
intus seden8,oculos studios^ hue illucq; con- 
vertit, admirans illius pulchritudinem & 
structuram. Ubi cum paululum solus se- 
disset, ecce quindecim yiri quasi religiosi & 
nuper rasi, albisq; yestibus induti, r^iam 
intrayerunt, & salutantes eum in nomine 
Dei consederunt. Tunc aliis tacentibus, 
unus loquebatur cum ipso, dicens, Benedic- 
tus sit Deus Omnip. qui bonum tibi propo- 
situm inspirayit, ut pro peccatis tuis Purg. 
hoc intrares. sed nisi te yiriliter habeas, cor- 
pore & anim& simul peribis. Mox enim, ut 
banc domum fuerimus egressi, multitudo 
aderit spirituum immundorum, qui tibi gra- 
yia inferentes tormenta, minabuntur inferre 
grayiora. Promittent se ducturos te ad por- 
tam qu& intrasti, si te decipere possint ut 
reyertaris : sed si tormentorum afflictione 
yictus, yel minis territus, seu promissione 
deceptus, assensum eis prsebueris, in cor- 
pore pariter & anim& peribis. Si yero fortis 
in fide, spem totam in Domino posueris, ut 
nee tormentis nee minis, nee promissionibus 
eorum adquiey eris, sed corde integro eos con- 
tempseris, ab omnibus purgaberis delictis, & 
tormenta malorum yidebis, & requiem simi- 
liter bonorum. Et quotiescunq; te cruciaye- 
rint inyoca Dom. Jes. Christum, & per invo- 
cationem hujus nominis statim liberaberis k 
quocunq; tormento, in quo eris, tecum hie 
amplius esse non possumus sed Deo te Om- 
nipotent! conunendamus. 

^* Miles itaq; Ik yiris solus relictus ad no- 
yi generis militiam se instruere csepit. cumq; 
intrepidus pugnam dsBmonum expectaret, 
subito coepit circa domum tumultus audire, 
ac si omnes homines qui in mundo simt, ciun 
animalibus ac bestiis strepuissent, & post hor- 
ridum sonum sequitur terribilior yisus dae- 
monum; cccpit enim undiq; demonum defor- 
mium innumera multitudo in aulam irruere, 
& militem deridendo salutare. Alii homi- 



126 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



nes, inquiunt, qui nobis serviunt, non nisi 
post mortem ad nos veniunt, sed tu nostram 
Bocietatem, cui studios^ deservisti, in tan turn 
honorare desideras, quod vivens corpus tuum 
decemis & animam commendare. Hue ve- 
nisti ut pro peecatis tormenta sustineres ? 
habebis nobiscum pressuras & dolores. Ye- 
runtamen pro eo quod nobis curios^ minis- 
tr&sti, si reverti volueris ad portam quam 
intrasti, te ducemus illssum, ut gaudiens 
in mundo vivas & omne quod eorpori tuo 
suave est, poenitus non amittas. Han: ideo 
dsmones dixerunt quia terrore eum & blan- 
ditiis decipere voluerunt. Sed miles Christi, 
nee terrore concutitur nee blandimento se- 
ducitur, dum sequo animo ita eos contemp- 
sit, quod tacit^ sedens nee unum verbum 
respondit. At dsemones se contemni in- 
dignantes, rogum in aul& ingentis incendii 
succenderunt,et manus militis pedesq; colli- 
gantes, in ignem eum projecerunt, uncis fer- 
reis hue illucq; per incendium detrahentes: 
& ille in ignem missus cum prius grave tor- 
mentum sensisset, nomen J. Christi invo- 
cavit dicens J.Chsiste misbresb mbi. Ad 
hoc quoque nomen incendium rogi ita ex- 
tinctum est, ut nee totius rogi scintilla unica 
appareret; quod cemens miles in animo pro- 
posuit ut eos de caetero non formidaret, quos 
invocato Christi auxilio vinci conspexit. 

*^ Relinquentes verb aulam dsemones, mi- 
litem diutius per vastam regionem quandam 
detraxerunt. Nigra erat terra, & regio te- 
nebrosa. Traxerunt eum dsemones illuc 
recto tramite, quo sol oritur in sstate, quo 
convertent-es coepit miles quasi vulgi totius 
orbis miseros ejulatos audire. Tandem 'k dsB- 
monibus tractus, in campum pervenit Ion- 
gum & latum, miseriis ac dolore perplenum, 
cujus longitudo non potuit transvideri. Cam- 
pus ille hominibus utriusq; sexiis & setatb 
diversse, nudis & in terr& jacentibus ventri- 
bus deorsum versis, plenus erat, quorum cor- 
pora simul & membra clavis ferreis & igni- 
tis in terram usque transfixis, miserabiliter 
torquebantur. Aliquando autem prse dolo- 
ris angustii terram comedebant, clamantes 
& ejulantes, Parce, parce. Miserere, misere- 
re ; cum qui sui miseretur poenitus non ad- 



esset. Dsemones etiam super miseros cur- 
rentes, gravibus eos flagris csedebant, & mi- 
liti dicebant, Haec tormenta quae vidcs sen* 
tiendo patieris, nisi nobis adquiescas, ut ad 
portam per quam in tr&sti, revertaris, ad quam 
si volueris, pacific^ deduceris. Sed ille ad 
mentem revocans qualiter ipsum Deus alibi 
liberavit, credere eis omninb contempsit 
Tunc dsemones in terram eum prostemen- 
tes, ad modum aliorum coufigere conati sunt, 
sed invocato n. J. Christi, nihil amplius in 
loco illo, illi facere potuerunt. In alium 
campum militem trahentes dsemones, banc 
ibidifierentiam conspexit, quod sicut in cam- 
po superiori, homines afflicti ventres habue- 
runt deorsum versos, ita in hoc campo dor- 
sa solo hsBrebant. Dracones autem ignei 
super quosdam sedent«s & dentibus eos ig- 
neis corrodentes modo miserabili affligebant; 
aliorum quoq; colla, brachia & corpora ser- 
pentes igniti circumcingentes, deformibos 
rostris suis, eorum corda extrahere cona- 
bantur. Dsemones prseterea super singulos 
cursitantes & flagris asperrimis caedentes, 
miseros graviter cruciabant, nee unquam I 
fletu & ejulatu afflicti cessabant. Inde tra- 
hentes militem dsemones in alium poenalem 
campum, invenit ibi tantam utriusq; sexib & 
setatis diversse multitudinem, ut totius orbb 
plenitudinem vincere crederetur. Alii ibi 
pendebant in flammis sulphureis, igneis ca- 
thenis per pedes & tibias immissis, & capiti- 
bus ad ima demissis, alii per manus & bra- 
chia, alii per capillos & capita, alii pendebant 
in flammis igneis in uncis ferreis & ignitis per 
oculos & nares, alii per aures & fauces, alii 
per testiculos & mamillas; nee inter fletus 
mberos universorum & ejulatus flagella de- 
monum defuerunt. Cumq; militem hie sicnt 
in aliis poenis inimici torquere voluissent, no- 
men Christi invocavit & illaesus evasit. 

*'Ab illo poenali loco, dsemones militem im- 
pellentes venerunt ad rotam quandam fer. 
& ig. cujus radii & canthi uncis fer. & ig- 
erant undiq; circumfixi : in quibus homines 
pendentes, It flanmia tetri sulphureiq; in- 
cendii, quae a terra surgebat, graviter ure- 
bantur. Hanc enim rotam dae. tanUl agilita- 
te impingebant vectibus quibusdam ferreis, 



:][aammibtis, acdiversis repletam bul- 
ls metallis, homines conditionis & u- 
setatis continentem, quorum quidam 
quidam usq; supercilia & oculos, alii 
id labia & colla, alii ad pectus usq; & 
, alii ad genua usq; & crura, alii ma- 
lam vel pedem, alii ambas manus & 
n caldariis tenebant, & omnes prss 
angusti& vociferabant ac miserabili- 
iabant, & cum coepissent dsem. mili- 
Q aliis submergere,liberatus est Chris- 
ne invocato. 

de dsem. militem in montemexcelsum 
ntes, ostenderunt ei utriusq; sexils 
8 & 8Btatb diverssB multitudinem co- 
, qui omnes nudi sedebant, & super 
pedum curvati, & ad aquilonem con- 
[uasi mortem perterriti expect-abant; 
nibitb ventus turbinis vchementis, ab 
le veniens, ipsos onmes & cum eis mi- 
j-ripuit, & in aliam mentis partem, 
len frigidum & foetidum, flentes & 
antes projecit, & cum de aqu& fri- 
D& surgere conarentur, Dsm. super 
cnrrentes,in ipso omnes flumine sub- 
nnt, at miles Christi nomen invoca- 
onfestim in alift se rip& inyenit. Tunc 
Uum contra austrum trahentes & os- 
tes flammam teterrimam & foetore sul- 
plenam, de puteo quodam ascenden- 



tarn angustiam sensit & miseriam, ut diu ob- 
litus sit sui adjutoris. sed Deo tandem ilium 
respiciente, nomen J. Christi inyocavit & 
protinus vis flammse eum in aerem sursum 
leyavit, ubi in descensione putei aliquamdiu 
attonitus stetit. Sed ecce novi d». ex ore 
put«i prorumpentes, dixerunt, £t tu qui hie 
stas, cui socii nostri, dixerunt hunc esse in- 
femum, non ita fore scias ; nam consuetu- 
dinis nostrsB est semper mentiri, ut quos de- 
cipere non possumus per verum, decipiamus 
per falsum, hie non est infernus, sed nunc 
te ad infernum ducimus. 

'* Trahentes igitur militem hostes novi, 
cum tumultu horrisono ad flumen quoddam 
foetidum, latissimum, ac totum flamm& sul- 
phureo incendio coopertum dsemonumq; 
multitudine repletum, dtcentium ei, quod 
sub flumine illo esset infernus. Pons verb 
protendebatur ultra fiumen, in quo tria qua- 
si impossibilia videbantur : unum quod ita 
lubricus erat ut etiam si latus esset, nullus 
vel yix aliquis, in eo pedem figere posset, 
aliud quod adeo strictus erat, quod nullus 
in eo stare vel ambulare Talebat: tertium 
quod ita altus est & k flumine remotus, quod 
horrendum erat deorsum aspicere. Oportet 
te inquiunt ds. super pontem hunc ambu- 
lare, & ventus ille qui projecit alias, te flu- 
men projiciet in istud, & confestim It sociis 



128 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



incedere, Tocibus sub prophanis ita horrid^ 
aerem concusserunt, quod stridore illo ma- 
gis erat attonitus quam illatione tormento- 
rum quae prius fuerat a dsemonibus perpes- 
8us. Alii hostes, qui sub ponte in flumine 
eraut, uncos suos ferreos & ignitos projece- 
runt ac) ilium, sed militem tangere nequi- 
verunt. & sic demum secur^ processit quia 
nihil sibi contrarium invenit. 

" Miles itaq; invictus jam liber factus ^ 
vexatione Spirituum immundorum, vidit 
ante se murum altum & in aerem evectum, 
mirabilis & structurse impreciabilis, in quo 
portam unam, sed tamen clausam cemebat. 
Hsec metallis ac pretiosis ornata lapidibus 
splendore admirabili radiabat. Ad quam 
cum miles appropinquaret, contra ipsum a- 
qusB tantse suavitatis odor ei occurrens ex- 
ivit, ut viribus corporis resumptis, tormcnta 
quae pertulerat sibi in refrigerium verteren- 
tur. Egressa est autem contra eum veni- 
entem, cum crucibus, cereis/ & vexillis, ac 
velut palmarum aurearum ramis, tam ordi- 
nata processio, quod nunquam t4Jis visa fu- 
erat in hoc mundo. Sequebantur prsedicta 
de omnibus ordinibus, utriusq; sex{Ls ho- 
mines, quorum archiepiscopi alii, & episcopi 
& abbat^s, monachi & presbyteri, ac singu- 
lorum ecclesiae graduum ministri, qui omnes 
sacris vcstibus, & suis ordinibus congruis 
induti, militem cum jucundd veneratione 
susceperunt, atq; cum concentu harmo- 
nise inauditse infra portam secum feliciter 
conduxerunt. Finite itaq; concentu duo 
archiepiscopi cum eo loquentes benedixe- 
runt Deum, qui tant& constantly in tormen- 
tis per qusB transiit & quse pertulit, ejus 
animam confirmavit. Illis igitur militem per 
patriam conducentibus, invenerunt & illi os- 
tenderunt prata amoenissima, diversis flori- 
bus, fructibusq; & herbarum arborumq; 
multiformium decorata, ex quorum suavi- 
tatis odore, ut sibi visum est vivere potuis- 
set. Nox illam aliquando non obnubulat, 
quia semper coelesti qu&dam claritate & in- 
efiabili splendore coruscat. Tantam ibi ho- 



* See Dv Canoe, under Cereus Pauhalit, 

J. W. W. 



minum utriusque sexils vidit muUitudinem, 
quantam residuum saecidi credidit continerc 
non posse. Chori choris per loca astiterunt 
ac dulcis harmonise concentu, Creatorem om- 
nium laudaverunt. Alii quasi reges coron& 
incedebant. Alii amictu aureo induti vide- 
bantur, nonnulli variis indumentis erant 
decorati, juxta quod unusquisq; in ssecolo 
utcbatur. Singuli de propria felicitate gau- 
debant, singuli de aliorum liberatione & 
gaudio exultebant. Omnes qui militem in- 
tuebantur, de ejus adventu Dominum bene- 
dicebant, & de ejus ereptione k mortois 
congaudebant. Non estum non irigus ibi 
aliquis sentiebat, nee quicqnam quod offen- 
dere posset vel nocere, videbat. 

** Tunc sancti pontifices qui militi patriaro 
tam prseclaram ostenderant, dixerunt ei, 
Quoniam misericordid Dei ad nos iUsBsus 
pervenisti, ratioiiem k nobis audire debes, 
de singulis quse vidisti. Fatria hsec terres- 
tris est Paradisus : unde pro peccatis suis 
ejectus est homo primus, hinc verb expul- 
sus in miseriam iUam projectus est in qtt& 
homines moriuntiir, ex cujus came nos 
omnes propagati, et in peccato originali 
omnes nati, per fidem Dni. nst. J. Christi, 
quam in baptismat^ suscepimus, ad hunc 
Paradysum reversi sumus, & quoniam post 
fidei susceptionem, innumeris actualibus 
sumus implicati peccatis, non nisi per pur- 
gationem peccatorum & afflictionem pcent- 
rum hue potuimus pervenire. Poenitentiam 
enim quam ante mortem vel morientes sus- 
cepimus, & in sseculo non peregimus, in locis 
quae vidisti poenalibus, juxta modum & 
quantitatem culparum per tormenta restant 
luenda. Omnes enim qui hie sumus, in 
locis illis poenalibus fuimus pro peccatis, & 
omnes quos in poenis vidisti, prseter eos qui 
infra os putei Infernalis existunt, ad banc 
requiem pervenient, et tandem salvi fient 
Onmi namq; die inde aliqui purgati ad nos 
veniunt, quos in banc requiem, sicut & fe- 
cimus te, introducimus venientes, nee nos- 
trum aliquis novit quam diu hie moratonis 
sit. Per missas verb, psalmos, elemosjnas, 
& orationes ecclesise generalis, & per speci- 
alia amicorum auxilia, aut purgandorum tor- 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



129 



igantur, aut de ipsis suppliciis ad 
nsferentur, donee penitusliberen- 
3 ut vides hie in magna quiete 
nondum tamenad supemam eceli 
kseendere somns digni. Transi- 
\ post spatium k Deo singulis eon- 
in Paradjrsum ecelestem, sicut 
iderit. 

e prsesules venerandi, militem in 
Milivem dueentes jusserunt ut as- 
-sum. Quo eum aspiceret, inter- 
iijusmodi eoloriscoelum esset, res- 
in quo stetit? Qui respondit, 
le esse atfH in fornace ardentis. 
int quod nunc vides introitus est 
sstis Paradjsi ; quando enim ali- 
is recedunt, bine in ccelum as- 
& quamdiu hie manemus, quoti- 
pascit nos cibo ctslesti Deus, & 
Mtfcamur cibo, nobiscum senties 
ido. Yix sermone finito, & ecce 
lis flamnue ignis de ccelo descen- 
am totam cooperuit, & quasi per 
er capita singulorum subsidens, 
mum tota in eis intravit. Unde 
im dulcedinis in corde simul k 
nsit suavitatem, quod vix intel- 
d vivus an mortuus fuisset ; sed 
I momento transivit. Sed miles 
i mansisset, si ibi his deliciis frui 
Sed post talia tantaq; jucunda ei 
runtur. Quoniam, inquiunt sancti 
A requiem beatorum, ut deside- 
rmenta malorum nunc pro parte 
i, oportet te jam, ut per eam viam 
as, revertaris. Si autem, quod 
yixeris, amod5^ ad sssculum re- 
Bti quanta te expectant tormenta; 
^ yixeris & religios^ securus esto, 
id nos pervenies quando de cor- 
s. In isto quoque reditu quo 
rteris, nee dsemonum tormenta 
, quia dse. ad te non audebunt 
aec tormenta te poterunt quae 
tere. Tunc miles flens & ejulans 

etiam Gneci dicunt dxcipri, ita La- 
bar^ loquentcs amodb, id est, ab hoc 
HutTimi Lexicon in v. Modo, 

J. W. W. 



ait, hinc discedere non valeo, quia valde 
timeo ne per fragilitatem humanse miseriae 
aliquid delinquam, quod me impediat hue 
redire. Non, inquiunt, sicut tu vis crit, 
sed sicut ille qui et nos et te fecit voluerit, 
ita fiet. Moerens igitur & lugens miles ab eis 
reducitur ad portam & eo contra voluntatem 
suam egresso, clauditur porta post ipsum. 

" Miles igitur Oenus vi& qua venerat, 
reyersus ad aulam prsefatam pervenit. Sed 
dsemones quos in ipso reditu suo vidit, 
quasi timentes eum fugerunt, & tormenta 
per quae transiit, ei nocere nequiverunt, & 
confestim cum aulam intrasset, occurrunt ei 
quindecimvirisupradicti glorificantesDcum 
qui tantam illi contulerat constantiam in 
tormentis. Oportet te, inquiunt militi, ut 
quantotius hinc ascendas, jam enim in pa- 
tri& tu& clarescit aurora, & nisi portam 
Prior aperiens, te invenerit, de reditu tuo 
desperans, obseratd port&, ad ecclesiam re- 
yertetur. Sicq; miles benedictione percept &, 
ab eis ascendcre festinavit, et hor& e&dem 
qua portam Prior aperuit miles ei festi- 
nus yeniens obviavit. Quem cum Christi 
laudibus Prior suscipiens in ecclesiam 
perduxit, ubi cum per dies quindecim in 
oratione permansisset, signaculum crucis 
accepit, et in terram sanctam devotus pro- 
ficiscens, sepulchrum Dni. cum locis aliis 
yenerabilibus, in sancta contemplatione pe- 
tivit. Et inde expleto laudabiliter peregri- 
nationis yoto, reversus, regem Stephanum 
Dominum suum adiit, consulturus, ut ejus 
consilio,in sanctae religion is ordine reliquum 
yitae suae expleret, ac Regi Regum omnium 
de caetero militaret. Contigit autem eo 
tempore quod Genrasius Ludencis ccenobii 
Abbas, Rege Anglorum St^phano donante, 
locum ad Abbatiam construendam in Ily- 
berni& obtineret. Qui monachum suum 
nomine Gilebertum ad Regem direxit, ut 
ab eo locum susciperet, et ibi construeret 
Abbatiam. At Gilebertus ad Regem ye- 
niens, conquestus est nimis quod patriae 
illius linguam non noyit. Sed inquit Rex, 
bonum tibi interpretem Deo auxiliante in- 
yeniam, & yocato milite Oeno, jussit Rex 
ut cum Gileberto iret, & cum ipso in Hj- 



130 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



ft 



bemi& remaneret. Quod miles gratanter 
annuens cum dicto Gileberto remansit, & 
satis ei devotus ministrans, monachalem 
habitum suscipere voluit ; quia semis esset 
quem Dns. praeelegit. Transeuntes autem in 
Hjbemiam Abbatiam construxerunt. Ubi 
miles Oenus interpres monachi, deTotus 
extitit & in omnibus agendis minister fidelis. 
Quandocumq; vero monachus solus alicubi 
cum milite fuit, de statu purgatorii & poenis 
mirabilibus quas viderat & experto didice- 
rat curios^ ab eo qus&sivit. At ille qui 
nunquam audire potuit de purgatorio loqui 
quin prorumperet in fletum amarissimum, 
coepit sub sigillo secreti amico, pro edifica- 
tione, ea qusB audierat, yiderat & experi- 
mentis didicerat enarrare, affirmans sese 
omnia corporeis oculis conspexisse. Hujus 
autem monachi industria & diligentia, hujus 
militis experientia redacta est in Scriptu- 
ram, simul cum relatione episcoporum re- 
gionis & aliorum religiosorum, qui causd 
justitiffi perhibuerunt testimonium veritati. 
— Matthew Pabis. 



Vision of Thurcillus, 

A.D. 1206. THUBCiiiLus, a poor man of 
Tidstude in the diocese of London, was ac- 
costed at his work bj Julianus Hospitator, 
and told to hold himself in readiness to see 
his patron, St. James, that night. He went 
home, washed the head and feet of two poor 
female guests, whom his wife had received, 
then laid himself down in ^* stratu suo, quem 
seorsum ab uxore ob continentiam prsepa- 
raverat." When all the family were asleep. 
Sunt Julian came, and shaking the man, 
said, * Lo I I am come as I promised, for it 
is time that we should go. Let thy body 
rest in the bed, for thy spirit only is about 
to depart with me, and lest the body should 
appear dead I will send into it a vital 
breath.* 

So they went eastward, and when, they 
had reached the middle of the world en- 
tered a church, ample and grand, open like 
a cloister, and its roof supported only by 
three pillars. In the middle was something 



like a large Baptistery, whence a great 
flame ascended that burnt not, but illumina- 
ted the church and all around as with a per- 
petual noon-day splendour. This proceeded 
from the tithes of the righteous. Here St 
James met him. . The church was built by 
the intercession of the Virgin Mary, that 
all souls, when newly departed, might come 
there for their doom, untouched by the 
fiends. A wall was on the north side onlj. 
^In h&c ergo Basilic^ S. Marise quae congre- 
gatio Animarum dicitur, multas vidi animas 
justorum ex omni parte Candidas, vultusq; 
quasi adolescentium habentes. Extra mu- 
rum aquilonalem eductus conspexi animas 
plurimas muro vicinius astantes, maculis 
albis & nigris respersas, quarum qusdam 
plus candoris quam nigredinis, quaedam e 
contrario similitudinem prseferebant lUe 
vero qusB candidiores erant muro vicinius 
adhserebant & quse longius a muro dista- 
bant, nihil in se candoris habent«s, ex om- 
ni parte deformes apparebant.** 

Near this wall was a cavity, the en- 
trance of Hell, whence a most foul and 
fetid smoke arose into the faces of the souls, 
tod Thurcillus was incommoded by the 
stink so that he coughed twice, and they 
who were near his body say that that 
coughed twice also at the same times ; for 
this smoke proceeded from the tithes that 
were withheld, and Thurcillus had cheated 
the Church ; so he confessed, repented, and 
was forgiven. 

Eastward, the fire of Purgatory blazed 
between two walls, it terminated in a cold 
salt lake, from whence a bridge, covered 
with stakes and nails, led to the Moun- 
tain of Joys. On the mountain stood a 
magnificent church, large enough, as it ap- 
peared, to hold all the inhabitants of the 
earth ; St. Nicolas superintends this pur- 
gatory, and in due time dismisses the souls : 
but they who attempt to pass the bridge 
unaided by their own alms, or the masses 
of their relatives and friends, are cut and 
lacerated dreadfully by the stidces and sharp 
iron, and what they catch at to save them 
pierces them, and they oflen fall and roU 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



131 



^nterhooks to the bottom of the 
&in ; but when at last thej reach 
h beyond, thcj remember not the 
thej have passed. 
IS Paulus Apostolus, ad finem 
tentrionalis residere coepit, intrk 
, & extrk murum ex opposito 
Diabolus cum suis satellitibus re- 
Puteus autem flammivomus, qui 
tei gehennalis, secus pedes diaboli 
t. Qusedam vero libra 8equ& lance 
i affixa erat super murum inter 
ab. cujus pars media dependebat 
>ectum Diaboli exterius. Habcbat 
duo pondera majus & minus, 
tida & quasi aurea, & D. similiter 
;inea & obscura. Accesserunt 
se ex toto nigrse cum magno timore 
.tione una post alteram, singulsB 
3nem operum suorum ibidem 
norum & malorum, nam pondera 
Muderabantsingularum opera ani- 
«cundum quod fecerant bonum 
m. Cum ergo statera se versus 
naret^ per suorum librationem 
I, tollebat Ap. animam illam & 
t eam per portam orientalem, qus 

erat Basilic® in ignem Purgato- 
llic crimina expiaret. Cum verb 
rae se ad diabolum inclinaret & 
raret, mox ille cum satellibus suis 
liseram nimis ejulantem, patremq; 
latrem, qui eam ad seterna genue- 
mta maledicentem, rapientes, cum 
;hinno, prtecipitabant in foveam 
Q & flammivomam quae secus pedes 
»rantis erat. De hujusmodi libra- 
orum & malorum, in Sanctrm. 
riptis siepius reperitur. 

Sunday the devils have their 
sport ; the damned see them sit- 
ed hot seats, and they are made 

their earthly follies and crimes ; 

man acted over his haughtiness 
cilious manner, and as he looked 
faction on his coaiiy robes, they 
irments of fire, 
hunc adductus est miles quidam 

suam in csedibus innocentum & 



tomeamentis peregerat & rapinis. Ilic om- 
nibus armis militaribus armatus,equo niger- 
rimo insidebat, qui piceam flammam cum 
foetore & fumo per os & nares, cum urgere- 
tur calcaribus, in supplicium sui sessorls 
efflabat. Sella equi clavis igneis & pra?Ion- 
gis erat undique prsefLxa. Lorica & galea, 
scutum & ocrese ex toto flammantia nimio 
sui pondere militem graviter onerabant ; 
sed non minori cruciatu eum meduUitus ex- 
urebant. 

The adulterer and adulteress act over 
again their loathed lewdness to the sport of 
the devils ; then vent their mutual hatred 
by mangling each other. 

There is little worth remarkin<j in the 
remainder of the vision. Adam is rather 
finely imagined as beholding the events of 
the world with mingled grief and joy ; his 
original garment* of glory gradually reco- 
vering its lustre as the number of the elect 
increases till it be fulfilled. — Matthew 
Paris. 



Disappearance of St. John. 

** When St. John was 99 yeare old, 
thenne cam our Lord with hys dyscyples to 
hym and said, come my frende to me, for it 
is tyme that thou come, ete and be fed atte 
my table with thy bretherne. Tlienne Saynt 
John aroos up and said to our Lord Jhu. 
Cryst, that he had desired it longe tyme, 
and began to goo. Thenne said our Lord 
to hym, on Sonday next coniyng thou shalt 
come to me. That Sonday the peple came 
alle to the chyrche, whiche was founded in 
hys name and consecrate on that one side 
of Ephesee ; and fro mydnyght forth he 
ceassed not to preche to the people that they 
shold establysshe them and be stedfast in 
the Crysten faith and obeyssaunt to the 
commandemens of God. 

" And after thys he said the masse, and 
howselyd and comuned the peple, and after 
that the messe was fynysshed he bade & 
dyde do make a py tte or a sepulture to fore 

> See Third Series, p. 679.— J. W. W. 



\ 




132 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



the aulter, and after that he had taken hjs 
leve and comanded the peple to God, he 
descended doun into the pjtte or sepulture, 
and helde up hys handes to heven and said, 
' Swete Lord Jhesu Crjste I jelde me unto 
thj desyre and thanke the that thou hast 
Touchedsauf to calle me to the, yf it plaise 
the, receyve me for to be with my bre- 
them, with whom thou hast sumoned me, 
opene to me the yate of the lyf permana- 
ble, and lede me to the feest of thy wel and 
best dressed metes. Thou art Cryst the 
sone of the lyvynge God, whyche by the 
conumdement of ye Fader hast saved the 
world. To the I rendre and yelde grace 
and thankynges world wythouten ende, 
thou knowest wel that I have desired the 
withal my herte. After that he had made 
hys prayer moche amerously and piteously, 
anon cam upon hym grete clerenes and 
light, and so grete brightness that none 
myght see hym. 

** And whan thys lyght and bryghtnes 
was goon and departed, ther was nothynge 
founde in the pytte or grave but manna, 
whiche cam spryngyng from under up- 
wards, lyke as fonde in a fontayn or spryng- 
ynge welle where moche peple have ben de- 
liverd of many diseases and sekenesses by 
the merytes and prayers of thys gloryous 
saynt. Sonmie saye and afierme that he 
deyed without payne of deth, and that he 
was in that clerenes bom into heven body 
and sowle, whereof God knoweth the cer- 
taynte.** — ^From The Oolden Legend. 



■»^M»^^»V^^W»»^<MM»|i>^/«^» 



St, Agneis Name explained. 

'* AoNBS is said of agna, a lambe, for she 
was humble and debonayr as a lambe ; or 
of agno, in Greke whyche is to saye de- 
bonayr and pyteous, for she was debonayr 
and mercy ful ; or Agnes of agnoscendo, for 
she knewe the waye of trouthe, and after 
thys Saynt Austyn saith, trouthe is opposed 
ayenst vanyte, falsenes and doublenes, for 
thyse thre thyngis were taken from her, for 
the trouthe that she had.** — Oolden Legend. 



St. Patrick*s Purgatory. 

Ths Grolden L^end varies the disco 
ry of St. P.'s Purgatory. " Thenne by 
commaundement of God Saynt Patr 
made in therthe a grete circle with 
stafie, and anone therthe after the quant 
of the cercle openyd and there appyere 
grete pytte and a deep, and S. P. by 
revelacion of God understood that th 
was a place of purgatorye, into whiche i 
somever entred therein he shold never hi 
other pcnaunce ne fele none other paj 
and there was shewed to hym that mi 
shold entre whiche shold never retoui 
ne come ageyn, and they that shold 
toume shold abyde but fro one mome 
another and no more.** 



^^^/%^^h^#^S^^^S^'VN/W\/S^S* 



Standard of the Dragon. 

** When Aurel. Ambros. the British ki 
was in the way between life and dea 
there appeared a star of marvellous gre 
ness and brightness, having only one bes 
in which was seen a fiery substance af 
the similitude of a dragon, which Mer 
expounded to signify Uther Pendragi 
who after his brother*s death, obtaining t 
crown, in remembrance of that star ^ * jw 
fabricari duos dracones ex auro, ad draco 
similitudinem ; quern ad radium stelis i 
spexerat ; qui ut mir& arte fabricati fi 
riint, obtulit unum in ecclesi& prinue se 
Yuintonise, alterum vero sibi ad ferendi 
in prsslio detinuit. Ab illo ergo, die vo< 
tus est Uther pen dragon, quod Britann: 
lingu& caput draconis appellamus;* whi 
in like sort the Saxons called for the am 
cause, bfxak Hepeb, and this dragon was us 
''pro vexillo per regem usque hodiV* ^ sa 
Mathew Westmonasteriensis,' who lived 
the time of EJng Edward L, and this d] 
gon, or not much unlike, is one of the re| 
supporters at present. 

'* When the Britons invited the Sazo 
or ancient Westphalians, to their aid. He 



> Geff. Mon. 



» P. 18a 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



133 



gist and Horaa, being their leaders, acknow- 
ledged none other ensigns' but ** puUom' 
eqainum atrum, quae fuerunt vetustissima 
Saxoniae arma ;** not without a manifest allu- 
sion unto their name of Westphali, valen or 
phalen, or (as we in English have made it) 
foal, signifying a colt^ and west, importing 
those who dwelt on the west side of the 
riyer Visurgis or Weser ; which arms their 
kindred that remained in Germanj changed 
into contrary colours, and their posterity, 
which encr^ued in England forsook for 
other different arms upon their first redu- 
cing unto Christianity. For I find that " in 
beilo' apud Beorford in vexillo ^thelbaldi 
erat aureus draco,** which is not unlikely to 
have been borrowed by imitation or chal- 
lenged by conquest from the Britons.** — 
HaAAiiB*8 Collection of CwrUnu DiscaurseSy 
from a paper by Mr, James Ley^ on the an^ 
Uquity of arms in England. 

This dragon was used by Edward HI., 
when was it laid aside ? 



^^•n^^^^^^S^^J^^t^^^i^^y^^i^^i^ 



Three Ranks of Poets. 

** Thekb were three kinds of poets, the 
one was Prududd, the other was Teuluror, 
the third was Klerwr. All these three kinds 
had three sereral matters to treat of. The 
Prududd was to treat of lands, and praise 
of princes, nobles, and gentlemen, and had 
his circuit amongst them. And the Teulu- 
ror did treat of merry jests, and domestical 
pastimes and affairs, and had his circuit 
amongst the countrymen, and his reward 
according to his calling. And the Klerwr 
did treat of inyective and rustical poetry, 
differing from the Prududd and Teuluror, 
and his circuit was amongst the yeomen of 

* Ybrstboak says that Hengistus was o 
** Angria in Westphalia, vulgarly of old time 
called WestJitUiin^y" and that his *' wapen or 
wmes was a leapmg white horse, or Hengst, in 
%nd^e\d."—RntUutiano/D9cay9d JnUUigsnce, 
^ 120^-J. W. W. 

* AlbertDs Crantsins de Saxonia. 

* Mat. West. p. 273. 



the country.** — Jonss in Hbabivb*b CoUeC' 
Hon. 



w>^^^^^^^»w<^^^/»^^«» 



Royal Mode of Burial. 

** Wb must not forget the auncyent man- 
ner of the sepulture of kings in this realme, 
and how they have ben honored and adorned. 
The corps preciously embalmed hath been 
apparelled in royal robes or estate, a crowne 
and diadeame of pure gould put uppon his 
head, having gloves on his hands, howlding 
a septer and ball, with rings on his fingers, 
a coller of gould and precious stones round 
his neck, and the body girt with a sword, 
with sandalles on his leggs, and with spurrs 
of gould. All his atchevements of honor 
and arms caryed up and offered, and theyre 
tombe adorned therewith.** — Sib William 
Dbtuick, Oarter, in HBABifB*s Collection. 



^AAAM^MA^^i^^w^^^Nrf^^^^ 



Noble Mode of Burial. 

^ It doth appeare by the white booke in 
Guildhall, that before the tyme of E. 
Edward III. at the buriall of barons, one 
armed in the armour of the defunct, and 
mounted uppon a trapped horse, should car- 
rye the banner, shield, and helmet of the 
defunct. About that tyme begane the use 
of Herses, composed all of wax candles,^ 
which they by a Latin name called Castra 
Doloris.^ — Lbt, in H. 

By Sir W. Dethick*s paper, the custom 
appears to have continued much later : — 
'* In the tyme of King Henry YIII. and in 
the third year of his reigne, I find that the 
Lord William Courteny had his majestys 
gracious letters patents to be Earle of Devon ; 
but he was not created. Neverthelesse the 
K. would that he should be enterred as an 

« <* Hbbob. Tunllajibulata. Pieces de boU 

3IU Bont dans les Eglises oil Pon pose des chan- 
eliers ou de» eierges^ quand on y veut mettre 
beaucoup de lominaires." Richelet in y. Du 
Cakoe explains it by " Candelabrum EeeUsiatti' 
cum ;" and " Cattrum Dolorit " by " Ferttrum." 
I think that under the words ** Heru** and 
** Hearst" there is some confusion in Todd's 
Johnson, Nares, and Richardson. — J. W. W. 



134 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



earle, which was prepared in all sorts ac- 
customed ; and further, that Sir Edmund 
Carrewe, knt. was in compleat armor, and 
coming ryding into the church, alighted at 
the quier, and was conducted by two knights, 
having his axe in his hand, with the poynt 
downward, and the heralds going before him. 
In that sort he was delivered to the bishop, 
to whom he offered the axe, and then he 
was conveyed to the revestrie, &c." 

A plague upon their &c.s, unless a man 
had Coke*s talent at interpreting them. 



Epitaphs on Hichard I. 

" To the glorie of K. Richard Cceur de 
Lion I have founde these : 
' Hie Richarde jaces, sed Mors si cederit 

armis, 
Victa timore tui, cederet ipsa tuis.* 



»M 



" IsTius in morte perimit formica Leonem. 
Pro dolor, in tanto funere mundus obit." 

"An English poet, imitatinge the epi- 
taphe made on Pompey and his children, 
whose bodyes were buried in diverse coun- 
treys, made these following of the glory of 
this one kinge divided in three places by his 
funeralL* 

" Viscera Garceolum, corpus fons servat 
Ebraudi, 
Et cor Rothomagum, magne Richarde 
tuum! 
In tria dividitur unus qui plus ftiit uno, 
Non uno jaceat gloria tanta loco." 

Camden in H, 

' The annexed extract from Speed will ex- 
plain the several names. 

" Commanding further that when he was 
dead his bowels should be buried at Charron^ 
among the rebellious Po\ct(min$,tL& those who had 
only deserved his worst parts ; but his heart to 
bo mterred at Roatiy as the city which for her 
constant loyalty had merited the same ; and his 
corps in the church of the nunnerie at Font- 
llverard in Gaico'i^ney at the feet of his father 
King Henry, t<^» whom he had been some time 
disobedient*.''— Great Britaine, p. 529, folio. 

J. W. W. 



On Henry II, 

Fob King Henry Ilnd. I find this : 

" Rex Henricus eram, mihi plurima regna 
subegi, 
Multipliciq; modo Duxq; Comesq; fui. 
Cum satis ad votum non essent onmia terne 
Climata, terra modo sufficit octo pedum. 
Qui legis hsec, pensa discrimina mortis, et in 
me 
Humanse speculum conditionis babe." 

" Sufficit hie tumulus cui non suffioerat 

orbis. 
Res brevis ampla mihi, cui fuit ampla 

brevis." 

**BuT this one verse uppon his death com- 
prised as much matter as many long lynes 
to the glorye of himself and his successor, 
Song Richard I. 

" Mira cano, sol occubui t, nox nulla sequuta.** 

Camdbn in H. 



vw\/^A>^/^^^^^AA/v«AA/^/^/^« 



On Rhees ap Gt/ffydh* 

Fob Rhees ap Gruffith ap Rhees ap The- 
odor, Prince of South Wales, renowned in 
his time, these funerall verses were made 
amongst other.' 

** Nobile Cambrensis cecidit diadema de- 
coris. 

Hoc est. Rhesus obi it, Cambria tota gemit 
Subtrahitur, sed non moritur, quia semper 
habetur 

Ipsius egregium nomen in orbe novum. 
Hie tegitur, sed detegitur, quia famaperennis 

Non sinit illustrem voce latere ducem : 
Excess! t probitate modum, sensu probitatem, 

Eloquio sensum, moribus eloquium."* 

Camsek. 



On Richard I. 

♦* At Pont Everard, where Richard I. wa« 
enterred with a gilt image, were these six 

« They are quoted to " Madoc in Wales," rii. 
p. 345.-J. W.W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



185 



ent verses written in golden letters, 
ning his greatest and most glorious at- 
iments ; as his victory against the Si- 
{, his conquering of Cjprus, the sink- 
' the great galeasse of the Saracens, 
iking of their convoj, which in the 
>arts is called a Carvana, and the de- 
ig of Joppe in the Holy Land against 

bitur hoc tumulo, rex auree, laus tua, 

tota 

rea, materiss convenient^ not&. 

tua prima fuit Siculi, Cyprus altera, 

Dromo 

tia, Carvana^ quarta, suprema Jope. 

-essi Siculi, Cyprus possundata, Dromo 

rsus, Carvana capta, retenta Jope/* 

', sharpe and satyrical was that one 
which, by alluding, noted his taking 
lalices from churches for his ransom, 
»lace of his death which was called 
z: 

riste tui calicis pnedo, fit pr»da Ca- 
luzis.** 



^^MM^^^^^i^v^%«%A^^MAA/s^ 



4VAKICU8, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 
ring prelate, which laboured most for 
ideeming King Richard when he was 
'e in Austria, had this epitaph, for that 
s alwayes gadding up and down the 
, and had little rest : 

tpes erat mundo per mundum semper 
eundo ; 

suprema dies, fit tibi prima quies." 

Camden. 



«^#^«A^tf^'^M^^^^^«AAAA^A 



On King John. 

IS epitaph on King John proceeded, 
[Camden, firom a viperous mind : 

;lia sicut adhuc sordet f»tore Johannis, 
da fkdatur, f^dante Johanne, gehen- 



\SL 



or the Graleasses, see Third Series, p. 309. 
» is the Greek and Latin form of the word. 
LkJtTiKi Lex. in v. For the Caravan, see 
uios in V. Caravanna, and Carvanus. 

J. W. W. 



On Richard 11. 

Kino Richard IL had for his kingdom a 
tomb erected at Westminster by King Henry 
v., with this rude glosing epitaph : 

'* Frudens et mundus Richardus jure se- 

cundus. 
Per fatum victus jacet hic sub marmore 

pictus ; 
Yerax sermone fuit et plenus ratione : 
Corpore procerus, animo prudens ut Ho- 

merus. 
EcclesisB favit, elatos suppeditavit, 
Quemvis prostravit regalia qui violavit, 
Obruit haereticos et eorum stravit amicos : 
O Clemens Christe tibi devotus fuit iste, 
Yotis Baptists salves quem protulit iste.** 

Camdbn. 



«\/\AM^^^\/\/V^^Mrf^%/\A^>^^*' 



TalboCs Sword. 

" Talbot's sword,*' says Camden, " was 
found in the river of Dordon, and sold by 
a pesant to an armourer of Burdeaux, with 
this inscription, but pardon the Latine, for 
it was not his, but his camping chaplain : 

" Sum Talboti M.iin.c.xijn. 
Pro vincere inimicos meos.** 



Viceroy*s Epitaph. 

** This was written for Don Pedro of To- 
ledo, viceroy of Naples, wickedly,** says 
Camden, '* detorted out of the Scripture : 

" Hic est 
Qui propter nos et nostram salutem, des- 
cendit ad inferos.* 



»» 



*^/»^/N^^»^^^^^^^^»^^^^^^^ 



Bishop Valentine.^ 

" Bishop Valentine 
Lefl us example to do deeds of charity ; 
To feed the hungry, clothe the naked, visit 

' It can hardly be necessary to r^fer the 
reader to Feb. 14, in Butx^er's Liues of the 
Sainti ;— but it may be to refer him to Jan. 29, 
on St. Francis de Saks.— J. W. W. 



t 



136 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



The weak and sick, to entertain the poor, 
And give the dead a Christian funeral ; 
These were the works of piety he did prac- 
tise, 
And bade us imitate ; not look for lovers 
Or handsome images to please our senses.** 
B. Jonson: a Tale of a Tub. 



^r>A/^^^^^^^^^«^%^^«^N^^Ni^W^ 



WaleStfrom the Polycromeon. 

" Enqltshed by one Trevisa, vycarye of 
Barklye, from the Latin of dan Ranulph, 
monk of Chestre, symply emprynted newe, 
and sette in forme by me, Wynkin de 
Woorde.** 

" Wales now is called Wallia, 

And somtyme it hete Cambria; 

For Camber, Brutus sone. 

Was prynce, and there dyde wone. 

Then Wallia was to mene, 

For Gwalaes the queue, 

Kynge Ebrayens chylde. 

Was wedded thyder mylde, 

And of that lorde Gwalon, 

Withdraweth of the sonn 

And put to 1. i. a. 

And thou shalt fynde Wallia, 

And though this londe 

Be moche lesse than Englonde, 

As good glebe is one as other, 

In Uie doughter as in the moder.** 

^ Of the commodytees of the londe of 
Wales : 

** Though that londe be luyte. 

It is fulle of come and of firuyte. 

And hath grete plente, I wys, 

Of fleshe and eke of fyshe. 

Of beestes tame and wylde. 

Of horse, sheep, and oxen mylde ; 

Good londe for all seedes. 

For com, gras, and herbes that spredes. 

There ben woodes and medes, 

Herbes and floures there spredes. 

There ben ryvers and welles, 

Valeyes and also hylles. 

Valeyes brynge forth flood. 

And hylles metals good. 



Cool groweth under londe, 

And gras above at the honde. 

There lyme is copyous, 

And slattes for hous. 

Hony and mylke whyte. 

There is deynte and not lyte. 

Of braket mete and ale, 

Is grete plente in that vale ; 

And all that nedeth to the ly ve 

That londe bryngeth forth ryve. 

But of grete rychesse to be drawe. 

And close numy in shorte sawe. 

It is a comer small, 

As though God fyrst of all 

Made that londe so fele. 

To be selere of all hele. 

Wales is deled by 

A water that hete twy. 

North Wales from the southe 

Twy deled in places full couthe ; 

The south hete Demecia, 

And the other Yenedocia. 

The fyrst shotheth and arowes beres ; 

That other deleth all with speres. 

In Wales how it be. 

Were somtyme courters thre. 

At Carmarthyn was that one. 

And that other was in Mone, 

The thyrde was in Powysy. 

In Pengwem that now is Shrowsbury* 

There were bysshops seven. 

And now ben foure even. 

Under Saxons all at the honde 

Somtyme under prynces ef the londe.** 

** Of maner and rytes of the Walshmen 

'* The maner lyvynge of the londe 
Is well dyverse from Englond 
In mete and dryke and clotynge 
And many other doyng. 
They be cloteth wonder well 
In a sherte and in a mantell. 
A crysp breche well fayne 
Bothe in wynde and in rayne. 

* See Blakewat'b Histnry ofShrewdmryy to 
i. p. 5. He quotes Gir. Cambrensis, *^ Locj 
ubi nunc castrum Slopesburite situm est, on 
Pengwern, i. e. caput alneti, Tocabator.''— Cdi 
bri<e Deseriptio,—~S . W. W. 



J 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



137 



clothynge thej be bolde 
ii the weder by ryght colde. 
it shetes alwaye 
ore in tbis araje 
foo fyght, pleye and lepe, 
, sytte, lye and slepe. 
it surcot, gown, cote and kyrtell, 
It jopen, tabarde, clock or bel, 
It lace and chaplet that here lappes, 
It bode, hatte or cappes, 
rayd gon the segges 
waye with bare legges. 
:epe non other goynge 
1 they mete with the kynge. 
rowes and short speres 
yght with them that hem deres. 
jrght better yf they neden 
they go than whan they ryden. 
e of castell and tour 
ake wood and mareis for socour. 
they seen it is to doo 
itynge they wole be a goo. 
sayth they ben varyable 
and not stable. 
I axe why it be 
>nder for to see 
I men put out of londe 
out other wolde fonde, 
for nought at this stonde 
many woodes ben at gronde. 
)on the see amonge 
{tels buylded stronge. 
in maye dure longe tfil ete (?) 
re well comune mete, 
m ete and ben murye 
t grete curye, 
te brede colde and bote 
J and of ote ; 
lakes rounde and thynne 
semeth so grete kynne. 
ley ete brede of whete, 
de they done ones ete. 
ive gruell to potage 
^e is kynde to companage, 
tter mylke and chease 
endlonge and comer wese, 
esses they ete snell 
it maketh them drynke well, 
id ale that hath myght 



Theron they spende daye and nyght; 

Ever the reder is the wyne 

They holde it the more fyne. 

Whan they drynke at the ale 

They telle many a lewde tale ; 

For whan drynke is an hondl3mge 

They ben full of janglyng: 

At mete and after eke 

Her solace is salte and leke. 

The husbonde in his wyse 

Telleth that a grete pryse 

To gyve a caudron wiUi grewelle 

To them that sytten his mele 

He deleth his mete at the mele 

And gyveth every man his dele 

And all the overpluse 

He kepeth to his owne use. 

Therfore they have woo 

And mysshappes also, 

They eten bote samon alway 

All though physyke saye nay. 

Her houses ben lowe with all 

And made of gerdes small, 

Not as in cytees nyghe 

But for esonder and not to hyghe. 

Whan all is eaten at home 

Then to theyr neyghbours wyll they rome 

And ete what they may fynde and se 

And then tome home aye. 

They lyfe is ydell that they ledes 

In brennynge slep3mge and suche dedes. 

Walshmen use with theyr myght 

To weshe theyr gestes feet a nyght ; 

Yf he weshe theyr feet all and somme, 

Then they knowe that they be welcome. 

They lyve so easely in a route 

That selde they bere purs about. 

At theyr breche out and at home 

They honge theyr money and combe. 

It is wonder they be se hende 

And hath a crak at the nether ende, 

And without ony core 

Make theyr wardroppe at the dore. 

They have in grete maugery, 

Harpe, tabour and pipe for mynstralcie. 

They bere corps with sorowe grete 

And blow lowde homes of gheet. 

They prayse fast troyan blode, 

For therof came all theyr brode. 



I 



138 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Neyghe kynde they wyll be 

Though they passen an C. degre. 

Above other men they wyll them dyght, 

And worship prestes with theyr might, 

As angels of heven ryght ; 

They worship servaunts of Grod almight. 

Oft gyled was this brode 

And yerned batall all for wode, 

For Merlyns prophecye 

And oft for sortelegye. 

Best in maners of Brytons 

For companye of Saxones 

Ben torned to better ryght 

That is knowen as clere as lyght. 

They tyllen gardens felde and downes 

And drawe them to good townes 

They ryde armed as wole good 

And go ihosed and ishood 

And sytten fayre at theyr mele 

And slepe in beddes fayre and fele, 

So they seme now in mynde 

More Englyshe than Walshe kynde. 

Yf men axe why they nowe doo so, 

More than they wonte to do. 

They lyven in more pees 

Bycause of theyr ryches. 

For they catell slake 

Yf they used oft wrake 

Drede of losse of theyr gode 

Make them now styll of mode. 

All in one it is brought 

Have nothynge & drede nought. 

The poete say th a sawe of preef, 

The foteman singe th before the theef ^ 

And is bolder on the waye 

Than the horsman ryche and gaye.** 

** Of the mervaylles and wonders of 
Wales. 

" There is a pooU at Brechnok 
Therein of fyssche is many a flok 
Oft he chaungeth his hewe on top 
And bereth above a gardyn crop. 

* The allusion is to Juvenal's line, 

" Cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator." 

Sat. X. 32. 

I should state here that it would encumber the 
page too much to explain all the antiquated 
words of this extract. — J. W. W. 



Oft tyme howe it be 

Shap of hous there shalt thou se. 

Whan the pool! is frore it is wonder 

Of the noyse that is there under. 

Yf the prynce of the londe bote 

Byrdes synge well mery note 

A^s meryly as they can 

And syngen for none other man.** 



"WiWVVVWW>«/V>^/N/«*x 



Wind-guarded Cavern, 

" In the countree aboutc Wynchestre is 
a denne or a cave, out of that cave blow- 
eth alway a stronge wynde so that no man 
maye endure to stand before that denne or 
cave.** — Polychronycon, 



St. Magnus^ Dance. 

" Anno gratias 1012 : Cum in villd qu&- 
dam Saxonise nomen Colewiz, in qu4 est 
Ecclesia beati Magni martyris, in vigili^ 
dominicse nativitatis parochia convenisset, 
ut obsequiis interesset divinis, presbyter 
nomine Robertus, de more primam missam 
solenniter inchoavit^, et ecce 12 viri cum 
tribus foeminis in coemiterio choreas du- 
centes, et seculares cantilenas perstre- 
pentes, adeb presbyterum impediebant, ut 
ipse cantantium tumultus, inter sacro- 
sancta solemnia altius resonaret. Cantus 
corum talis erat ; * Equitabat homo per syl- 
vam frondosam, ducebat sibi Meswindam 
formosam, quid stamus, cur non imus P* 
Denique cum k Roberto presbytero man- 
datum habercnt, ut tacerent, et ipsi silere 
contempsissent, imprecatus est presbyter 
iratus, dicens, placeat Deo et S. Magno ut 
ita cantantes permaneatis usque ad annum 
evolutum. Quid ergo ? verba sacerdotb 
pondus adeb habuerunt ut Azo ejusdem 
presbyteri filius, sororem suam qus Avs 
dicebatur, ciun aliis cantantem, per bra- 
chium arripiens ut eam abstraheret, cum 
recedere non potuit, brachium k corpcre 
avulsit,sed inde gutta sanguinis non exivit. 
Ipsa itaq; per totum annum cum ceteris 
permansit, et choreas ducens cantavit. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



139 



uvia super illos non cecidit, non frigus, 
n calor, non fames, non sitis, nee lassi- 
do illos affecit. Indumenta eorum vel 
Iceamenta non sunt attrita, sed quasi 
cordes jugiter cantaverunt. Prius ad ge- 
a, ac demum usque ad femora in terram 
nersi fuerunt. Tandem evoluto anno, 
srebertus Coloniensis Archiep. k nodo 
o manus eorum ligabantur absolvit, et 
te altare S. M. Magni reconciliavit. Filia 
esbjteri cum aliis duobus, continub spi- 
um exhalavit. Cseteri tribus diebus et 
ctibus dormierunt, aliqui postea obie- 
Dt, quidam verb psnam, raembrorum 
orum tremore prodiderimt.'' — Mat. of 
'ettmiiuter. 



^^^^^%/^^^^^»^^^^^^i.^^^fc^^w* 



Eagle of Snowdon. 

" In montanis de Eryri aquila fabulosa 
iquentat, qu» qu&libet quintd ferifi lapidi 
idam insidens fatali, ut interemptorum 
davere famem satiet, bellum eodem die 
tor ezpectare ; lapidemq; prsedictum cui 
nsuevit insidere, jam prope rostrum pur- 
ado pariter et exacuendo perfor&sse.** — 
EAiJ>us Ceanbrensis, 



^A^^iA^^^^^^'^^^^^^^^^^* 



Descent of EUdore, 



^ Pabum autem ante haec nostra tempora 
ndlt his in partibus,** (near Abertawe), 
es memoratu non indigna, quam sibi con- 
isse prsesbjter Elidorus constantissime 
erebat. Cum enim puerilis innocentis? 
odecimum jam ageret annum, quoniam 
ait Salomon radix literarum amara est, 
anquam fructus sit dulcis; puer Uteris 
iictus, ut disciplinam subterfugeret et 
rbera crebra pneceptoris, in concaT& 
vii cujusdam rip& se fugitivus occulta- 
; cumq; ibidem bis sole revoluto jejunus 
itinub jam latitasset, apparuerunt ei ho- 
inculi duo, statures quasi pigmese, di- 
ktes, Si nobiscum venire volueris, in ter- 
Q ludis et deliciis plenam te ducemus. 
louens ille surgensque secutus est per 
m primb subterraneam et tenebrosam 



usque in terram pulcherrimam, fluviis et 
pratis, silvis et planis distinctissimam, ob- 
scuram tamen, et aperto solari lumine non 
illustratam. 

** Erant ibi dies omnes quasi nebulosi, 
et noctes lunss stellarumq; absenti& teter- 
rimse. Adductus est puer ad regem, eiq; 
coram regni curi& prsesentatus, quem cum 
diu cum admiratione cunctorum rex intui- 
tus esset, tandem eum filio suo, quem pue- 
rum habebat, tradens assignavit. Erant 
autem homines statures minimse, sed pro 
quantitatis captu valdb compositse; flavi 
omnes et luxuriante capillo, muliebriter 
per humeros com& demissd. Equos habe- 
bant sues competentes modicitati, lepora- 
riis in quantitate conformcs. Nee carne 
vescebantur, nee pisce, lacteis plerunque 
cibariis utentes, et in pultis modum quasi 
croco confectis. Juramenta^ eis nulla ; nihil 
enim ade6 ut mendacia detestabantur. 
Quoties de superiori hemispherio reverte- 
bantur, ambitiones nostras, infidelitates et 
inconstantias expuebant. Cultus eis reli- 
gionis palam nullus ; veritatis solum, ut 
videbatur, amatores prsecipui et cultores. 

" Solebat autem puer ille ad nostrum 
hemisphaerium pluries ascendere; interdum 
per viam qu& venerat, interdum per aliam : 
primo cum aliis, et postea per se, solumq; 
matri suss se committebat ; patriae modum, 
gentisq; naturam et statum ei declarans. 
Monitus igitur k matre ut auri, quo abun- 
dabat regio munus ei quandoque referret, 
pilam auream, qu& regis filius ludere con- 
sueverat, ab ipso rapiens ludo, per viam 
solitam, ad matrem deproperans, cursim 
asportavit, et cum ad ostium domus pa- 
ternse, populi tamen illius non absque se- 
quela jam pervenisset, intrare festinavit, 
pes hsesit in limine, et sic intrk tectum ca- 
denti, matre ibidem sedente, pilam h manu 
elapsam duo pigmaei k vestigio sequentes 
arripu^e, exeundo in puerum sputa, con- 
temptus et derisiones emittentes. Ipse 

- — 

* *^ It hath be^n observed of the old Cornish 
language, that it afforded no forms of oaths, no 
phrases to swear in." Halbs of Eaton ^ vol. ii. 
p. 152.— J. W. W. 



I 



140 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



yero resurgens ad seq; reversus, mir& facti 
confunditur erubescentid, et matris pluri- 
mum consilia devovens ac deteatans, cum 
vi& redire pararet, quam assueverat, ad 
aquae descensum hypogeumq; meatum cum 
pervenisset, aditus ei jam nuUus apparuit, 
cum tamen per anni fer^ spacium inter 
aquae prsedictse ripas viam inutilis explo- 
rator inquireret. Sed quoniam ea quae ratio 
Don mitigat temporis interdum mor& mi- 
tescunt, et diutumitas sola laxatos hebetat 
plerumq; dolores, siquidem malis multis 
finis de tempore venit, demum tamen ab 
amicis et matre praecipu^ vix revocatus 
sibiq; restitutus et Uteris denuo datus, tan- 
dem processu dierum in sacerdotii gradum 
est promotus." — Gib. Camb, 



Welsh Beavers} 

** Inter universos Cambriae seu etiam 
Loegriae fluvios, solus hie, (Teivi) castores 



habet."— Ibid. 



'W\/N/V\/\/\/W>/WWN/\/^ 



Welsh Lances. 

** Sunt autem his in partibus (Ardudwj) 
lanceae longissimae. Sicut enim arcu prae- 
valet Sudwallia, sic lanceis praevalet Vene- 
dotia : adeb ut ictum hlU: lance& cominus 
datum ferrea loricae tricatura minimi sus- 
tineat/* — Ibid. 



«^«^^\/\/V^^^^\/>A/N^V%A^^^V%/\ 



Bardsey.* 

" Jacet autem extra Lhyn insula mo- 
dica quam monachi inhabitant religio- 
sissimi, quos Caelibes vel Colideos vocant. 
Ilacc autem insula vel ab aeris salubritate 
quam ex Hiberniae confinio sortitur : vel po- 
tiusa liquo ex miraculo ex Sanctorum meri- 

* See Madac in Wales,xn. p. 345. Drayton 
alludes also to the Beavers of the Towy. See 
l*olyvlbwn.—J, W. W. 

» " To Bardsey was the Lord of Ocean bound ; 
Bardsey, the holy islet, on whose soil 
Did many a chief and many a saint repose." 
Modoc in Walei, xiii. p. 347.— J. W. W. 



tis,hoc mirandum habet, quod in e& 
praemoriuntur, quia morbi in e4 ri 
et rarb vel nunquam hie nusquam 
nisi long& senectute confectus. Ha 
En hit Cambrice vocatur, et lingus 
ic& Berdesey; et in e& ut fertur 
sanctorum sepulta suiit corpora.**- 



^^^ikA^/SA^S^^^^^^^/^^^^^^* 



Animal Fidelity, 

'* In hie e&dem silvft de Colesl 
terfecto juvene quodam'^ Cambn 
exercitum pnedicti regis (Hen. 2.] 
unte, leporarius ejusdem inventus 
octo fer^ dies absque cibo domini 
non deseruisse, sed illud k canibus, 
avibus prorsus indemne fideliter < 
randil in bruto dilectione consen 
Ibid. 



^^^^^^^^^^^NM^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



Owen CyveUioc excommumcai 

** Oenum de Cavelioc quia sol 
Walliae principes Archipraesuli cun 
suo non occurrerat, excommuni< 
Oenus iste prae aliis Cambriae pri 
et linguae dicacis extiterat et in te 
moderamine ingenii perspicacis.** — 



MA^\/SA/\^^^^^^^%^iM/\^^k^^^k 



St. Patrick* s Purgatory, 

" Est lacus in partibus Ultonif 
nens insulam bipartitam, cujus pai 
probatae religionis Ecclesiam habei 
tabilis vald^ est et amoena, An 
visitatione Sanctorumq; loci illiuf 
frequently incomparabiliter illustra 
altera hispida nimis et horribilis, s 
tjnoniis dicitur assign ata, quae ut vi 
cacodaemonum turbis et pompis fe 
per manet exposita. Pars ista nov< 
foveas habet. — Hie autem locus I 
rium Patricii ab incolis vocatur."— 



'^^.^/S/V^/X^^^N/N/N^/^^tA/N/NA^ 



St. Patricks Horn. 

"Vidimus inGwallia, Hibernensc 
lum (mendicum) quendam, comu q 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



141 



, qaod S. Patricii fuisse dicebat, pro 
s in collo gestantem. dicebat autem 
rentiam Sancti illias, neminem ausum 
tare. Com igitur, Hibernico more, 
itanti populo comu porrigeret oecu- 
, sacerdoB quidam Bemardus no- 
e manibus ejus illud arripuit, et orb 
IS angulo, aeremq; impellens sonare 
[ui et eidem hor& multis astantibus, 
dem aure tenus paralytic^ retorto, 
passione percussus est. Cum enim 
is eloquii prius eztitisset, et dela- 
iguam detractor habuisset ; sermonis 
ret statim amisit usum." — ^Ibid. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W^X 



King Henry III*s Perjury, 

, Rex quia juraverat cum Edwardo 
^nito suo et Baronagio provisiones 
nses se inviolabiliter servaturum, et 
erat eum jam jur&sse taliter, metu- 
)dammod6 notam perjurii misit ad 
secret^, rogans, ut ab hoc se jura- 
absolveret, quod facillim^ impetra- 
7ontin. of Mat. Paris. 



^^^%/^^^^^k^^^^^^^AAiM^^ 



Monastic Life. 

TI88IMA enim est professio vestra. 
transit, par Angelb est, Angelicse 
3uritati. Non enim sol^ vovistis 

sanctitatem, sed omnis sanctitatis 
onem, et omnis consummationis 

Non est vestrum circk communia 
A languere, neque hoc solum atten- 
lod pnecipiat Deus, sed quid yelit, 
;es quse sitYoluntas Dei bona et be- 
ns et perfecta. Aliorum est enim Deo 

vestrum adhierere ; aliorum est 
jredere, scire, amare, revereri ; ves-*^ 

t sapere, intelligere cognoscere, frui. 

* * * « * 

10 enim Deus est, nunquam minus 
t quam cum solus est. Tunc enim li- 
litur gaudio suo ; tunc ipse suus est 

frnendum Deo in se et se in Deo; 
luce veritatis, in sereno mundi cor- 
^ patet sibi pura conscientia, et li- 

infundit afiecta de Deo memoria : 



et vel illuminatur intellectus et bono suo 
fruitur affectus, vel seipsum deilet bumanse 
fragilitatis defectus. Propter hoc, secundum 
formam propositi vestri habitantes in cselis 
potius quam in cellis, excluso k vobis toto 
seculo, totos Yos inclusistis cum Deo. Cel- 
IsB siquidem et celi habitatio cognatse sunt, 
quia sicut celum et cella ad invicem viden- 
tur aliquem habere cognationem nominis, 
sic et pietatis. A cselando enim caelum et 
cella nomen habere videntur, et quod cic- 
latur in celis hoc et in cellis; quodgeritur 
in cselis hoc et in cellis. quidnam est hoc ? 
vacare Deo, frui Deo. Quod cum secundum 
ordinem pi6 et fideliter celebratur in cellis, 
audeo dicere, sancti Angeli Dei cellas ha- 
bent pro cselis, et sequ^ delectantur in cellis. 
ac in cselis. Nam cum in celU jugiter cseles- 
tia actitatur, caelum cellae et sacramenti 
similitudine, et pietatis afiectu, et similis 
operis efiectu proximum efficitur ; nee jam 
spiritui oranti, vel etiam k corpore exeunti, 
k cell& in caelum longa vel difficilis via in- 
venitur.** — DiviBebnabdi de Vita Solitaria 
adfraires de Monte Dei, 



Arnold of Brescia, 

'* Abnaldum loquor de Brixia, qui uti- 
nam tam sanas esset doctrinae, quam dis- 
trictae est vitae. Et si vultis scire, homo est 
neque manducans neque bibens, solo cum 
diabolo esuriens et sitiens sanguinem ani- 



marum. 



* * 



Nescio an melius salubriusve 
in tanto discrimine rerum egere valeatis, 
quam juxta Apostoli monitum (1 Cor. 5.) 
auferre malum ex vobis, quamquam amicus 
sponsi ligare potius quam fugare curabit, ne 
jam discurrere et eo nocere pluH possit. Hoc 
enim dominus Papa dum adhuc esset apud 
nos, ob mala quae de illo audiebat fieri, scri- 
bendo mandavit, sed non fuit qui faceret 
bonum. Denique si capi vulpes pusillas de- 
molientesvineam scripturascdubriter monet, 
(Cant. 2.) num mult6 magis lupus magnus 
et ferus religandus est, ne Christ! irrumpat 
ovilia, oves mactet et perdat ?" — Bebnabdi 
JEpist. ad Episcopum Constantiensem, 
A merciful hint from a saint to a bishop. 



142 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Purgatory. 

'* HiEHETici non credunt ignem purgato- 
rium restare post mortem, sed statim animam 
solutam k corpore, vel ad requiem transire, 
vel ad damnationem. Quserant ergo ab eo 
qui dixit, quoddam peccatum esse, quod 
neque in hoc seculo, neque in futuro remit- 
tetur, cur hoc dixerit, si nulla manet in 
futura remissio purgatione peccati?" — St. 
Bebnaed. 



Zisca*s Stratagem. 

" Upon a certain time his enemies set 
upon him in a rough place, where no battell 
could be fought but on foot only, whereupon 
when his enemies were lighted from their 
horses, Zisca commanded the women which 
customablj followed the host, to cast their 
kerchiefes upon the ground, wherein the 
horsemen were intangled bj their spurres, 
and were slaine before they could unloose 
their feet."— Historie of the Church, by 
Master Patbick Stmson, late Minister at 
Striveling in Scotland. 1634. 



^^^^^^^^^r^^^^^^^^^/>/>^^ 



St. Theresa. 



" I HAVE seen some of the works of St. 
Theresa, wrote with her own hand ; the cha- 
racter is legible, large, and indifferently 
fair. Donna Beatrix Carillo, who is her 
kinswoman*s niece, keeps them very choicely. 
It was she that shewed them to me. They 
consist of a collection of letters. I do not 
believe they were ever printed. There is a 
great deal of perfection in them, and through- 
out may be discovered a certain air of chear- 
fulness and sweetness of nature, which suffi- 
ciently declares the character of that great 
saint.'* — Countess Danois* Letters from 
Spain. 

Eagle made young. 

** Austen saith, and Plinie also, that in 
age the eagle hath darkncsse and dimnesse 
in eien, and hevinesse in wings, and against 



this disadvantage she is taught by kinde to 
seeke a well of springing water, and then 
she flyeth up into the aire as farre as she 
may, till she be full hot by heat of the aire 
and by travaile of flight, and so then bj 
heate the pores be opened, and the feathers 
chafed, and she falleth sideinglye into the 
well and there the feathers be chaunged 
and the dimnesse of her eien is wiped awaj 
and purged, and she taketh againe her 
might and strength.** 

This will explain a passage in the Jeru- 
salem Conquistada. 



Rainbow and Olow^worm^s Effects, 

" Whebe the rainbow toucheth the tree, 
no caterpillars will hang on the leaves; 
where the glow-worm creepeth in the night, 
no adder will go in the day.*' — John Lillt, 
Epilogue to Campaspe. 



Mexican Gods.^ 

" Ometeuctjli and Ombcihuatl. — The 
former was a god and the latter a goddess, 
who dwelt in a magnificent city in heaven, 
abounding with delights, and there watched 
over the world, and gave to mortals their 
wishes; Ometeuctli to men, and Omeci- 
huatl to women. They had a tradition 
that this goddess having had many children 
in heaven, was delivered of a knife of flint ; 
upon which her children in a rage threw it 
to the earth, from which, when it fell, sprung 
sixteen hundred heroes ; who, knowing their 
high origin, and having no servants, all 
mankind having perished in a general cala- 
mity, agreed to send an embassy to their 
mother, to intreat her to grant them power 
to create men to serve them. The mother 
answered, that if they had had more ex- 
alted sentiments, they would have made 
themselves worthy to live with her eternally 

* See lAadoc in Attlan, ix. p. 378, where other 
extracts are given in the notes ft\>m Torque* 
mada, Clavigero, &c. — J. W. W. 




IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



143 



1 



in heaven : but since they chose to abide 
upon the earth, she desired them to go to 
Mictlanteuctli, god of hell, and ask of him 
one of the bones of the men that had died ; 
to sprinkle this with their own blood, and 
from it thej would have a man and a wo- 
man, who would afterwards multiply. At 
the same time she warned them to be upon 
their guard agunst Mictlanteuctli, who i^r 
giving the bone might suddenly repent. 
With these instructions from his mother, 
Xolotl, one of the heroes, went to hell, and 
afler obtaining what he sought, began to 
run towards the upper surface of the earth, 
upon which Mictlanteuctli enraged, pur- 
sued him, and being unable to come up with 
him, returned to hell. Xolotl in hb pre- 
cipitate flight stumbled, and falling, broke 
the bone into unequal pieces. Gathering 
ihem up again, he continued his flight till 
he arrived at the place where his brothers 
awaited him ; when they put the fragments 
mto a vessel, and sprinkled them with their 
blood, which they drew from difierent parts 
of their bodies. Upon the fourth day they 
beheld a boy, and continuing to sprinkle 
with blood for three days more, a girl was 
likewise formed. They were both consigned 
to the care of Xolotl, to be brought up, who 
fed them with the milk of the ' thistle. In 
that way they believed the recovery of man- 
kind was effected at that time. Thence 
took its rise, as they affirmed, the practice 
of drawing blood from different parts of the 
body so common among these nations, and 
they believed the diflerences in the stature 
of men to have been occasioned by the in- 
equality of the pieces of the bone." 

^ ToNATRicLi and Meztli, names of the 
sun and moon, both deified by these nations. 
They said, that after the recovery and mul- 
tiplication of mankind, each of the above- 
mentioned heroes or demigods had among 
the men his servants and adherents ; and 
that there being no sun, the one that had 
been having come to an end, the heroes 
assembled in Teotihuacan, around a great 
fire, and said to the men, that the first of 



them that should throw themself into the 
fire would have the glory to become a sun. 
Forthwith one of the men, more intrepid 
than the rest, called Nanahuaztin, threw 
himself into the flames and descended to 
hell. In the interval, while they all re- 
mained expecting the event, the heroes made 
wagers with the quails, locusts, and other 
animals, about the place of the sky where 
the sun would first appear ; and the animals 
being mistaken intheir conjectures, were im- 
mediately sacrificed. At length the sun arose 
in that quarter which from that time forward 
was called the Levant ; but he had scarcely 
risen above the horizon, when he stopped, 
which the heroes perceiving, sent to desire 
him to continue his course. The sun re- 
plied, that he would not, until he should see 
them all put to death. The heroes were no 
less enraged than terrified by that answer ; 
upon which one of them named Citli, taking 
his bow and three arrows, shot one at the 
sun ; but the sun saved himself by stooping. 
Citli aimed two other arrows, but in vain. 
The sun, enraged, turned back the last ar- 
row, and fixed it in the forehead of Citli, 
who instantly expired. The rest, intimi- 
dated by the fate of their brother, and un- 
able to cope with the sun, resolved to die 
by the hands of Xolotl ; who, after killing 
all his brothers, put an end to his own life. 
The heroes before they died left their cloaths 
to their servants ; and since the conquest 
of these countries by the Spaniards, certain 
ancient garments have been found, which 
were preserved by the Indians with extra- 
ordinary veneration, under a belief that 
they had them by inheritance from those 
ancient heroes. The men were aflccted 
with great melancholy upon losing their 
masters, but Tezcatlipoca commanded one 
of them to go to the house o£ the sun. and 
from thence to bring music to celebrate his 
festival ; he told him that for his journey, 
which was to be by sea, he would prepare 
a bridge of whales and tortoises, and de- 
sired him to sing always as he went a song 
which he gave him. This, the Mexicans 
said, was the origin of the music and danc- 



144 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



ing with which they celebrated the festivals 
of their gods. They ascribed the daily 
sacrifice which they made of quails to the 
Sim, to that which the heroes made of those 
birds; and the barbarous sacrifices of human 
victims, so common afterwards in these 
countries, they ascribed to the example of 
Xolotl with his brethren. 

** They told a similar fable of the origin 
of the moon. Tezcociztecal, another of those 
who assembled in Teotihuacan, following 
the example of Nanahuatzin, threw himself 
into the fire ; but the flames being some- 
what less fierce, he turned out less bright, 
and was transformed into the moon.** 

" Tbzcatldpoca. — This was the greatest 
god adored in these countries, after the in- 
visible Grod, or Supreme Being. His name 
means Shining Mirror, from one that was 
affixed to his image. He was the Grod of 
Providence, the soul of the world, the cre- 
ator of heaven and earth, and master of all 
things. They represented him always young, 
to denote that no length of years ever dimi- 
nished his power. They believed that he 
rewarded with various benefits the just, 
and punished the wicked with diseases and 
other afiiictions. They placed stone seats 
in the corners of the streets, for that god to 
rest upon when he chose it, and upon which 
no person was ever allowed to sit down. 
Some said that he had descended from hea- 
ven by a rope made of spiders* webs, and 
had persecuted and driven from these coun- 
tries the grand priest of Tula Quetzalcoatl. 
His principal image was of teotl, divine 
stone, which is a black shining stone, like 
black marble, and was richly dressed. It 
had golden ear-rings, and from the under 
lip hung a crystal tube, within which was a 
green feather, or a turquoise stone, which 
at first sight appeared to be a gem. His 
hair was tied with a golden string, from 
the end of which hung an ear of the same 
metal, with the appearance of ascending 
smoke painted on it, by which they in- 
tended to represent the prayers of the dis- 
tressed. The whole breast was covered with 



massy gold. He had bracelets of gold upon 
both his arms, an emerald in the navel, and 
in his lefl hand a golden fan, set round with 
beautiAil feathers, and polished like a mir- 
ror, in which they imagined he saw eyeiy 
thing that happened in the world. At other 
times, to denote his justice, they represented 
him sitting on a bench covered with a red 
cloth, upon which were drawn the figures 
of skulls and other bones of the dead : upon 
his left arm a shield with four arrows, and 
his right lifted in the attitude of throwing 
a spear ; his body dyed black, and his head 
crowned with quail feathers.** 

'* HuiTZiLOPOCHTU, or Mexitli, was the 
Grod of War ; the deity the most honoured 
by the Mexicans, and their chief protector. 
Of this god some said he was a pure spirit, 
others that he was born of a woman, but 
without the assistance of a man, and de- 
scribed his birth in the following manner. 
There lived, said they, in Coatepec, a place 
near to the ancient city of Tula, a woman 
called Coatlicue, mother of the Ceutzon- 
huiznahuis, who was extremely devoted to 
the worship of the gods. One day as she 
was employed, according to her usual cus- 
tom, in walking in the temple, she beheld, 
descending in the air, a ball made of various 
feathers. She seized it, and kept it in her 
bosom, intending afterwards to employ the 
feathers in decoration of the altar; but 
when she wanted it after her walk was at 
an end, she could not find it, at which she 
was extremely surprised, and her wonder 
was very greatly increased when she began 
to perceive from that moment that she was 
pregnant. Her pregnancy advanced till it 
was discovered by her children, who, al- 
though they could not themselves suspect 
their mother*s virtue, yet fearing the dis- 
grace she would suffer upon her delivery, 
determined to prevent it by putting her to 
death. They could not take their resolu- 
tion so secretly as to conceal it from their 
mother, who, while she was in deep afflic- 
tion at the thoughts of dying by her own 
children, heard an unexpected voice issue 



)EAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITIOK. 



14^ 



inb, saying, * Be not afraid, mo- 
liall save joii, with the greatest 
ourself and glorj to me.* Her 
i sons, guided and encouraged 
er Cojolxauhqui, who had been 
enlj bent upon the deed, were 
on the point of executing their 
m Huitzilopochtli was bom with 
is left hand, a spear in his right, 
of green feathers on his head ; 
adorned with feathers, and his 
and thighs streaked with blue 
«>on as he came into the world, 
a twisted pine, and commanded 
dldiers called Tochancalqui, to 
Cojolxauhqui, as the one who 
e most guilty ; and he himself 
e rest with so much fury, that, 
heir efibrts, their arms or their 
le killed them all, plundered 
, and presented the spoils to his 
[ankind were so terrified by this 
from that time they called him 
terror, and Tetzauhteotl, terri- 

tue was of gigantic size, in the 
man seated on a blue coloured 
the four comers of which issued 
flakes. His forehead was blue, 
was covered with a golden mask, 
sr of the same kind covered the 
lead. Upon his head he carried 
crest, shaped like the beak of a 
his neck a collar, consisting of 
>f the human heart ; in his right 
e blue twisted club ; in his left 
which appeared five balls of 
iposed in the form of a cross, 
le upper part of the shield rose 
g with four arrows, which the 
retended to have been sent to 
leaven to perform those glorious 
h we have seen in their history. 
IS girt with a large golden snake, 
1 with various lesser figures of 

, woman-bom. who from the womb, 
aortal sire, leapt terrible, 
yenger of his mother's fame." 
r in Aitlany ix. p. S78.— J. W. W. 



animals, made of gold and precious stones, 
which ornaments and insignia had each 
their peculiar meaning. They never deli- 
berated upon making war without imploring 
the protection of this god with prayers and 
sacrifices, and ofi*ered up a greater number 
of human victims to him than to any other 
of the gods." 



^%A^^^S/\^^^^k^^^^^^^^^^^A 



The Thirteen Rarities of Britain. 

" Dtbnwtii, i. e. white handle, the sword 
of Ryzerc the generous, which, when drawn 
out of the sheath, would become a flame 
from the handle to its point. 

" Len Arthur, Arthur's veil, in Cornwall, 
whoever wore it would see every body, and 
nobody see him. 

** The coat of Padam, which would fit a 
noble, but one of mean birth it would not. 

" The mantle of Tegau would not fit an 
unchaste woman, nor cover her; but it 
would cover a chaste one to the ground. 

" The knife of Lawvrodez, which would 
serve twenty-four persons round the diflfe- 
rent tables. 

" The dish of Ryzerc the scholar, what- 
ever might be desired upon it would be 
found ready dressed. 

'* The chessboard of Gwenzolan, the tables 
of silver, and the men of gold, and they 
would play of themselves when the dice 
were thrown. 

" The whetstone of Tudeno, which would 
sharpen the weapon of the brave, and blunt 
the coward's. 

" The horn of Br&n, the liquor desired 
would be found in it. 

** The halter of Cludno, the horse that 
should be desired would be found in it. 

" The cauldron of Dyrnoc, in which the 
meat of a coward would never be done 
enough, but that of the hero would be ready 
instantly. 

** The car of Morgan Mwynvawr, whoever 
went in it would be instantly in whatever 
place he desired. 

" The Barged (what is that ?) of G wyzno. 
If the provision of one person was put in it, 



\ 



146 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



the provision of an hundred men would be 
found therein when opened. 
Given me bj William Owen. 



wv^v^^^/s^^^%^^^^^»^/w 



The Deaf Serpent. 

'* A 8BBPEKT, whiche that aspidis 
Li cleped, of his kinde hath this, 
That he the stone noblest of all 
The whiche that men carbuncle call, 
Bereth in his heed above on high, 
For whiche whan that a man by slight. 
The stone to W3mne, and him to dante, 
With his carecte him wolde enchante. 
Anone as he perceiveth that, 
He lejth downe his one ear all plat 
Unto the ground, and halt it fast ; 
And eke that other eare als faste 
He 'shoppeth with his taille so sore, 
That he the wordes, lasse or more. 
Of his enchantement ne hereth. 
And in this wise himselfe he skiereth. 
So that he hath the wordes wajved. 
And thus his eare is nought deceived.** 

GOWEK. 

Does not " the deaf adder, that heareth 
not the voice of the charmer, charm he never 
so wisely,** allude to some snake that cannot 
be enticed by music, as thej catch them in 
Egypt f and hence this ingenious mode of 
stopping his ears. — ^R. S. 

'* QcBTZALCOATL. This was among the 
Mexicans, and all the other nations of Ana- 
huac, the god of the air. He was said to 
have been once high priest of Tula. They 
figured him tall, big, and of a fair com- 
plexion, with an open forehead, large eyes, 
long black hair, and a thick beard. From 
a love of decency, he wore always a long 
robe ; he was so rich that he had palaces 
of silvex and precious stones ; he was thought 
to possess the greatest industry, and to have 
invented the art of melting metals and cut- 
ting gems. He was supposed to have had the 

* Qy. stoppeth ? [Quoted to ThaUba, ixth 
Book, p. 286.- J. W. W.] 



most profound wisdom, which he c 
in the laws which he left to manki 
above all, to have had the most r 
exemplary manners. Whenever h< 
ed to promulgate a law in his kinj 
ordered a crier to the top of the i 
Izatzitepec (the hill of shouting), 
city of Tula, whose voice was heai 
distance of three hundred miles, 
time, the com grew so strong that 
ear was a load for a man ; gourds 
long as a man*s body : it was unii 
to die cotton, for it grew natural! 
Isolours, and all other fruits and se 
in the same abundance, and of e: 
nary size. Then, too, there was i 
dible number of beautiful and sweei 
birds. All his subjects were ricl 
sum up all in one word, the Mexic 
gined as much happiness under th 
hood of Quetzalcoatl, as the Gr 
under the reign of Saturn, whom tl 
can god likewise resembled in t 
which he suffered. Amidst all this 
rity, Tezcatlipoca, I know not for i 
son, wishing to drive him from th 
try, appeared to him in the form < 
man, and told him that it was thi 
the gods that he should be takei 
kingdom of Tlapalla. At the same 
offered him a beverage, which Que 
readily accepted, in hopes of obtaii 
immortality after which he aspired, 
no sooner drank it, than he felt hi 
strongly inclined to go to Tlapalls 
set out immediately, accompanied 
of his subjects, who on the way ent 
him with music. Near the city of 
tillan, he felled a tree with stone 
remained fixed in the trunk ; and m 
nepantla, he laid his hand upon a st 
lefl an impression, which the Mexica 
ed the Spaniards afler the conques 
his arrival at Cholula, the citizens 
him, and made him take upon him 
vemment of their city. Besides the 

* Claudian in Ruf. p. 29. [This re 
to lib. i. V. 209, &c.— J. W. W.] 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



147 



nreetncss of his manners, the aversion 
;wed to all kinds of cruelty, insomuch 
16 could not bear to hear the very 
on of war, added much to the afiec- 
ntertalned for him by the inhabitants 
)lula. To him they said they owed 
knowledge of melting metals, their 
)y which they were ever afterwards 
led, the rites and ceremonies of their 
»n, and even, as some affirmed, the ar- 
nent of their seasons and calendar. 
(Ver being twenty years in Cholula, he 
ed to pursue his journey to the ima- 
' kingdom of Tlapalla, carrying along 
tim four noble and virtuous youths. 
! maritime province of C!oatzacoalco, 
missed them, and desired them to as- 
he Cholulans that he would return to 
rt and direct them« The Cholulans, 
respect to their beloved Quetzalcoatl, 
le reins of government into the hands 
se young men. Some people sud that 
idenly disappeared, others that he died 
that coast ; but however it might be, 
alcoatl was consecrated as a god. Bar- 
>men offered up their prayers to him, 
er to become fruitful. — Quetzalcoatl, 
aid, cleared the way for the god of 
because in these countries rain is ge- 
f preceded by wind." 
en Cortes came " the shippes they 
pinion was the god of the ayre called 
dcoualt, whiche came with the temples 
backe, for they dayly looked for him.** 
iq.o/the Weast India, 



TMoc} 

LALOC, Otherwise Tlalocateuctli, mas- 
paradise, was the god of water. They 
him fertilizer of the earth, and pro- 
of their temporal goods. They be- 
he resided upon the highest moUn- 
irhere the clouds are generally formed, 
18 those of Tlaloc, Tlascala, and To- 



»r Tlaloe and Aiauh^ see the xiith sec* 
; Madoc in AsU&n, p. 385.— J. W. W. 



luca, whither they often went to implore his 
protection. The ancients also believed that 
in all the high mountains there resided other 
gods, subaltern to Tlaloc. They all went 
under the same name, and were revered not 
only as gods of water, but also as the gods 
of mountains. The image of Tlaloc was 
painted blue and green, to express the dif- 
ferent colours that are observed in water. 
He held in his hand a rod of gold, of an 
undulated and pointed form, by which they 
intended to denote the lightning. 

" In the inner part of the greater temple 
of Mexico, there was a particular place where 
they supposed that on a certain day of the 
year all the children which had been sacri- 
ficed to Tlaloc, came, and invisibly assisted 
at the ceremony.'* 



Aiavh, 

*' AiAUH is one of the names of the water 
goddess, the companion of Tlaloc. TheTlas- 
calans called her Matlalcueje, that is, clothed 
in a green robe ; and they gave the same 
name to the highest mountain of Tlascala, 
on whose summit are formed those stormy 
clouds which generally burst over the city 
of Angelopoli. To that summit the Tlasca- 
lans ascended to perform their sacrifices, 
and offer up their prayers.** 



St John, 

" If it were worth while to unravel the 
fable of the caldron of oil, perhaps it 
might appear to be an African tale that 
rose out of a confusion of the names of 
the island. The Phoenicians, Syrians, and 
Jews used to call the island Batraos, which 
signified turpentine, gum exuding from pines 
and other trees, for which this and the other 
islands of the Cyclades were famous. The 
resinous juices called turpentines are ob- 
tained from some trees by incision, and re- 
ceived into bats or vats, in trenches, and 
afterwards freed from their impurities b}* 



148 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERABY COMPOSITION. 



straining, boiling, distilling, and so on. The 
process is not always favourable to the health 
of such as are engaged in it. How easy to 
an African lip, a confusion of terms, as bat, 
bath, botmon, botamo, albotim, balneum, and 
so on ; and how natural to an enthusiast, a 
confusion of coppers, persecutions, and the 
miracle of escaping unhurt.**-^RoBiif80if. 
Hiit. of Baptism. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^w 



Christian Symbols, 

'* A ULLT on a tomb denotes a virgin or 
a confessor, and a palm-branch signifies a 
martyr.** — ^Robikson. 



^^W^^^^^^^^f^^M^^^^^i^^ 



Peruvian Bark* 



" There is a famous tree known in seve- 
ral provinces of South America under the 
name of quina'quinoj and in the province 
of Maynas, on the banks of the river Ma- 
rannon, under that of Tatchi. A fragrant 
resin distills from the trunk by means of an 
incision. The seeds, called by the Spaniards 
Pepitas de quina-quina^ have the form of 
beans, or of flat almonds, and are enclosed 
in a kind of doubled leaf, between which 
and the leaf is found a little of the same re- 
sin that distills from the tree. Their chief 
use is to make fifllnigations, which are re- 
puted cordial and wholesome, but their re- 
putation is much less now than formerly. 

'^ This tree grows plentifully in several 
provinces of high Peru. The natives make 
rolb or masses of the resin, which they sell 
at Potosi and Chucuisaca, where they serve 
not only to fumigate or perfume with, but 
also for several other uses in physic, some- 
times under the form of a plaster, sometimes 
under that of a compound oil made from 
the resin. This substance is supposed to 
promote perspiration, strengthen the nerves, 
and to restore the motion of the joints in 
gouty people, by barely carrying in the 
hand, and continually handling it. 

^ The stalk is triangular, furrowed, and 



pithy, emitting branches alternately, with a 
leafy wing running along every angle, like 
a three-edged sword blade, terminating here 
and there in a rounded form. These wings 
are thick, and curiously veined. When 
steeped in hot water, in order to expand 
them, they become covered all over with a 
white powdery substance.** — Trans, of the 
Linmean Soc, vol. 3. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^MA^^i^^A^^ 



New England Fasts and Thanksgivings. 

^ There is one distinguishing character- 
istic in the religious character of the New 
Englanders which we must not omit men- 
tioning ; and that is the custom of annuallj 
celebrating fasts and thanksgivings. In the 
spring, the governors of the several New 
England States, except Rhode Island, issue 
their proclamations, appointing a day to be 
religiously observed in fasting, humiliation, 
and prayer, throughout their respective 
States, in which the predominating vices, 
that particularly call for humiliation, are 
enumerated. In autumn, after harvest, that 
gladsome era in the husbandman*s life, the 
governors again issue their proclainatioDS, 
appointing a day of public thanksgiving, 
enumerating the public blessings received 
in the course of the foregoing year, lliis 
pious custom originated with their venerable 
ancestors, the first settlers of New England, 
and has been handed down through the suc- 
cessive generations of their posterity. A 
custom so rational, and so happily calculated 
to cherish in the minds of the people a sense 
of their dependence on the Great Benefac- 
tor of the world for all their blessings, it is 
hoped will ever be preserved." — Wihtei- 

BOTHAM. 



^««W«MAA^^«^MMMAAA«^VW 



Du Ouesclin. 

"Bbrtrahd du Guesclin had been «1- 
wayes a most valiant knight, and one highly 
renowned in all histories. After he bail 
performed many worthy enterprizes ever to 
his fame and honour, he niaried with abeau- 
tifuU lady, named Tiphania, descended oft 



DBAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



149 



r. After which mariage,he grow- 
i and diBContinue his former ex- 
mes, as he sate discoursing with 
e gentlj began to blame and re- 
declaring that, before their ma- 
allowed the warres, wherein he 
ed the cheifest reputation, and 
;her suted with the nature nor 
rue gentleman to lose the least 
honour wonne before, bj over 
ting a new-made choise. As for 
she, who ought to shine bj the 
ince of your fame, I shall account 

low dejected if you give over a 
'ell begun, and lose your spirits 
love, wer it to one more worthy 
fe. 

wordes did so neerely touch the 
it hee began againe to follow 
rein he carried himselfe so va- 
\, they did well and worthily at- 
> him, to stand as a stout rampier 
, in the very sharpest times of 

evermore made a meere barre 
, against the hottest invasions of 
1. By vertue of his valour, king 

having reconquered most part 
ritories, whiche had been insulted 
eigne of the preceding kings, al- 
e head against that valiant £d- 
med the Black Prince, and Prince 
nd disappointed all his hopes. It 
t re-established Henry II. king 
in his kingdom, in despight of all 
uid English forces. Hee was also 
table of France by king Charles 
Ide him in such endeared affec- 
s valour, that having bestowed 
on him in his life time, afler his 
id him so much honour, as to let 
>ied at S. Denis, at tho feete of 
nbe which this king had prepared 
umselfe.*'— TVeoffitry of An, and 



«^/»<WWM^^»A^^^^W^W»«W^» 



Arabian Vipers. 

rus avoucheth, that those vipers 
d in the provinces of Arabia, al- 



though they do bite, yet their biting is not 
venomous, because they doe feede on the 
baulme tree, and sleepe under the shadow 
thereof." — Treatwy, jrc. 



^^^^S^^^A/^^^^^^^^^^M^M^ 



Reason far Wearing Spectades, 

'* I HAVB heard of a great lord in Spaine, 
that would alwaies eate cherries with his 
spectacles on his nose, onely to make them 
seeme the bigger and more nourishing.** 

Ibid. 



«^^AA^i^^^M^^^^^%^A^^kA^ 



St. PatricVs Purgatory. 

'* QcjB quidem Trophonii fabula mihi 
adeo videtur similis ei, quse de Patricii au- 
tre, quod est in Hybemi&, fertur, ut altera 
ex alter& nata credi possit. Tametsi non 
desunt etiam hodi^ permulti, qui descen- 
dant, sed prius triduano evicti jejunio, ne 
capita Sana ingrediantur. Qui descenderunt 
aiunt sibi ridendi libidinem, in omni vitft 
ademptam.** — Erasmus. 



^>^^/VS/V\^/>/SMAAA^M^^* 



John the Baptist. 

'* Whsu John was about thirty years of 
age, in obedience to the heavenly call, he 
entered on his ministry, by quitting the 
hill country, and going down by the wilder- 
ness to the plains of Jordan, by proclaim- 
ing the kingdom of God, the near advent of 
the Messiah, and the necessity of preparing 
to receive him by laying aside sin and su- 
perstition, and by an exercise of universal 
justice ; and lastly, by identifying the per- 
son of Jesus as the Messiah. He distributed 
various rules of righteousness among the 
different classes that attended his ministry. 
He said to soldiers. Do violence to no man ; 
he exhorted publicans to avoid exaction; 
and he taught the people benevolence. Let 
him that hath two coats impart to him that 
hath none ; and he directed all to Jesus as 
Master and Lord, in manifesting whom his 
ministry was to cease. His dress was plain. 



150 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



hiB diet abstemious, and his whole deport- 
ment grave, serious, and severe. 

*^ It is uncertain bj what means John 
obtained an interview with Herod, but, 
certain it is, be reproved him for living in 
adultery with Herodias his brother Philip*8 
wife, and his language was that of a man 
who well understood civil government, for 
he considered law as supreme in a state, and 
told the king, 1/ is not lawful far thee to have 
thy brother's uri/e, Herodias was extremely 
displeased with John for his honest free- 
dom, and determined to destroy him, but 
though she prevailed on the king to impri- 
son him, yet she could not persuade him to 
put him to death. Two great obstacles 
opposed her design. Herod himself was 
shocked at the thought, for he had observed 
John, was convinced of his piety and love 
of justice, he had received pleasure in hear- 
ing him, and had done many things which 
John had advised him to do, and as there 
is a dignity in innocence, the qualities of 
the man had struck him with an awe so 
deep and solemn that, tyrant as he was, he 
could not think of taking away the life of 
John. Herod also dreaded the resentment 
of the public, for he knew the muUUude held 
John as a prophet, Herodias, therefore, 
waited for a favourable opportunity to sur- 
prise the king into the perpetration of a 
crime, which neither justice nor policy 
could approve, and such an one she found 
on the king's birth-day. The story is at 
large in the gospel. Dreadful is the con- 
dition of a country where any one man is 
above controul, and can do what this ab- 
solute king did ! whether he felt, or only 
pretended to feel, great sorrow, the fact 
was the same, lie sent an executioner^ and 
commanded the head of the prophet to be 
brought^ and John was assassinated in the 
prison, 

'' The murder did not sit easy on the re- 
collection of Herod, for, soon afler, when 
he heard of the fame of Jesus, his conscience 
exclaimed, it is John whom I beheaded, he 
is risen from the dead I Certainly John the 
Baptist will ripe from the dead, and Herod \ 



the tetrarch must meet him befcnre an ua* 
partial judge, who will reward or pamsh 
each according to the deeds done in the 
body. In the present case, the judge htth 
declared the character of John. Johm wos 
a burning and a shining light. Among them 
that are bom of women^ there hath not risen 
a greater than John the Baptist. 

*^ Jesus speaking of the ill treatment of 
John, implies that posterity would do hii 
character justice ; and true it is the chil- 
dren of wisdom have justified John. But 
mankind have entertained, according to 
their various prejudices, very different opi- 
nions of that in which his work oonasted. 
The Jews praise his rectitude, and pity his 
fate, for John was their countiyman, and 
they hated Herod.^ The Arabians celebrate 
his abstemiousness, and say Providence 
avenged his death.' The Catholics have in- 
vented a thousand fables, and placed to 
his account the origin of monachiam, and 
the working of miracles. They have put 
him among their gods, consecrated watersi 
built baptisteries and temples to his honoar, 
assigned him a day in the calendar, called 
themselves by his name, collected hb pre- 
tended relics, adorned them with silver and 
gold and jewellery, and wholly overlooked 
that which made John the greatest that had 
been bom of women.* How deplorable » 
it, that in the seventeenth century, in the 
enlightened kingdom of France, such a man 
as Du Fresne, of extensive literature, of 
amiable manners, an instructor of all Eu- 
rope in matters of antiquity, ahould dis- 
grace his pen by publishing a treatise to 

" * Joseph Gorion. 1. 5. cap. 45. Gana Tie- 
mach David, i. xxt. 2. Herodes Johannem »• 
cerdotem maximum, eo quod ipsum redarsruisset 
occidlt gladio,cum multis aUissapientibus Israel, 
&c.» 

" • Koran, chap. 3, ch. 17, note 6. Joh. Hea* 
ric. Hottingeri Historia Oriental, ex variis Ori- 
ental, monument. coUecta. Tiguri. 1651. cap. 9. 
Muhammedis geneal. p. 86. 96. Beidhavi. Zud- 
haschari. Kesseua, &uc. D'Herbelot. Bibl. Jalu* 
Ben Zacnaria." 

<* * Barun. Annal.~Acta Sanct. ^Faciandi 
Antiq. Christ." 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



151 



t his native city of Amiens was in 
1 of that precious relic the head of 
the Baptist, found at Jerusalem, 
I Constantinople, discovered again 
,y of Emesa, then transported to 
carried again to Constantinople, 
I French found it when thej took 
and whence thej oonve/ed it to 
rhere it is now enshrined in all 
of saintship.*^ ^ — ^Robihsoh^s JETiit 



^^N^VN^^^^^^^V^^^^^^'^W* 



Education of Chivalry, 

>HTOif8 jusqu it Tenfance de celui 
iestinoit it devenir Chevalier. D^ 
; atteint FAge de sept ans, on le re- 
mains des femmes, poor le oonfier 
les. Une ^ucation m&le et ro- 
ir^paroit de bonne heure aux tra- 
a guerre, dont la profession ^toit 
ue celle de la Chevalerie. Au d^- 
lecoors patemels, une infinite de 
Princes et de ch&teaux offroient 
I toujours ouvertes, oii la jeune 
recevoit les premieres le9ons du 
i*elle devoit embrasser ; et mdme 
«8 oii la gen^rosit^ des Seigneurs 
t abondamment it tous ses besoins. 
onrce ^it la seule, dans cessi^- 
iureux, oii la puissance et la lib^- 
Souverains, ^alement restrelntes, 
point encore ouvert une route plus 
>Ius utile, pour quiconque vouloit 
r k la defense et it la gloire de 
et de leur couronne. S^attacher 
3 iUustre Chevalier n*avoit rien, 
[nps-lit,qui piit avilir, ni d^grader : 
idre service pour service ; et Ton 
ssoit point les raffinemens d*une 
I plus subtile que judicieuse, qui 
us^ de rendre it celui qui vouloit 
ment tenir lieu de p^re, les ser- 
m pk« doit attendre de son fils. 



t^ hbtorique da ehef de S. Jean Bap- 

des preuTes et des remarques par 

1 Fresne, Sr. da Cange. Paris. Cfra- 



Si Ton trouve que je fais aux sidles dont 
je parlc plus d'honneur qu*ils ne m^tent, 
en leur attribuant des id^ si saines et des 
sentimens si vertucux, on peut chercher 
dans la vanit^ des m^es sidles la source 
de cet usage: mais il faudra, du moins, 
avouer que la vanit^ concouroit alors au 
bien public, et qu*elle imitoit la vertu.** — 
MhnoireM sur Fancienne Chevalerie^ par 
Saihtx-Palatb. 

Palace Pomp of the Barane. 

'* L*BSPXGa d*ind^pendance dont avoient 
joui les hauts Barons, au commencement de 
la troisi^e race, et T^tat de leurs Maisons, 
compost des m^es officiers que celle du 
Roi, furent pour leurs successeurs comme 
des titres qui les mettoient en droit d*imi- 
ter, par le faste de ce quMls appelloient leur 
Cour, la splendeur et la magnificence qui 
n*appartenoient qu* it la dignite Royale* 
D*autres Seigneurs subaltemes, par une es- 
p^e de contagion trop ordinaire dans tous 
les sidles, en cherchant de plus en plus it 
se rapprocher de ceux-ci,s*efforcoient ^de- 
ment d*41ever T^tat de leurs maisons. On 
trouvoit dans un ch&teau, dans un monas- 
t^re, des offices semblables it ceux de la 
cour d*un Souverain ; et comme le Roi com- 
mettoit ces offices aux Princes de son sang, 
les Seigneurs distribuoient aussi de pareilles 
dignites it leurs parens ; qui de leur c6t^ re- 
gardoient ces places sous le meme point de 
vde, et trouvoient^ en les acceptant, de quoi 
satisfaire la vanite dont ils se repaissoientJ 



tf 



Ibid. 



«^^<V>/«^<^»^»W^<^^^^»^M% 



Pages, 

" Lbs premiss places que Ton donnoit 
it remplir aux jeunes gens qui sortoient de 
Tenfance, ^ient celles de Pages, Yarlets ou 
Damoiseaux; noms quelquefois communs 
aux ecuyers. Les fonctions de ces Pages 
^toient les services ordinaires des domes- 
tiques aupr^ de la personne de leur mattre 
et de leur mattresse : ils les aocompagnoient 



^ la chasse, dans leurs yoyages, dans leurs 
visites ou promenades, faisoient leurs mes- 
sages, et meme les servoient k table, et leur 
versoient k boire." — Ibid. 

LWnwur de Dieu et dcs Dames, 

" I^ES premieres lemons qu'on leur don- 
noit regardoient principalement Tamour de 
Dieu et des Dames, c*est k dire, la religion 
et la galanterie. Si Ton en croit la chro- 
nique de Jean de Saintre, c*etoit ordinaire- 
ment les Dames qui se chargeoient du soin 
de leur apprendre, en meme terns, leur ca- 
techisme et Tart d*aimer. Mais autant la 
devotion qu*on leur inspiroit ^toit accom- 
pagn^e de puerility et de superstitions, au- 
tant Tamour des Dames, qu*on leur recom- 
mandoit, ^toit-il rempli de raffinement et de 
fanatisme. II semble qu*on ne pouvoit, dans 
ces siccles ignorans et grossiers, presenter 
aux hommes la religion sous une forme as- 
sez materielle pour la mettre k leur portde; 
ni leur donner, en meme temps, une idee de 
Tamour assez pure, assez m^taphysique, 
pour prevenir les exc^ dont etoit capable 
une Nation qui conservoit par- tout le ca- 
ract^re impetucux qu^elle montroit k la 
guerre. 

" Pour mettre le jeune novice en ^tat de 
pratiquer ces bizarres lemons de galanterie, 
on lui faisoit de bonne heure faire choix 
de quelqu*une des plus nobles, des plus 
belles et des plus vertueuses Dames des 
Cours qu'il frdquentoit ; c*dtoit elle k qui, 
comme k T£tre souverain, il rapportoit tous 
ses sentimens, toutes ses pens^es et toutes 
ses actions. Get amour, aussi indulgent que 
la religion de ce temps-I^ se pretoit et s*ac- 
commodoit k d*autres passions moins pures 
et moins honnetes.** — Ibid. 



»/W>/W>^«^>^^VS^^rf»/V^/V>^ 



The Amusements of the Pages, 

** Les jeux m6mes, qui faisoient partie 
de Tamusement des el^ves contribuoient en- 
core k leur instruction. Le godt naturel k 



leur fige, d^imiter tout ce quails voyoient 
faire aux personnes d'un Age plus avanc^ 
les portoit k lancer conune eux la pierre on 
le dard, k d^fendre un passage que d*autre8 
essayoient de forcer; et faisant de leurs 
chaperons des casques ou des bacinets, ils se 
disputoient la prise de quelque place; ils 
prenoient un avant-gout des dificrentes es- 
p^ces de Toumois, et comraen9oient i se 
former aux noble cxercices des Ecuyers et 
des Chevaliers.*' — Ibid. 



■wwvwwwwv/v/v^wv^^ 



Ceremony on quitting Pagehood, 

** Avaut que de passer de T^tat de Page 
k celui d'Ecuyer, la religion avoit introduit 
une espece de c^r^onie dont le but etoit 
d'apprendrc aux )eunes gens Tusage qu'ilt 
devoient faire de T^p^e, qui pour la pre- 
mise fois leur ^toit remise entre les mains. 
Le jeune Gentilhomme, nouvellement sorti 
hors de Page^ 4toit present^ k Tautel par 
son p^re et sa m^re, qui chacun un cierge 
k la main alloient k Toffrande. Le Pretre 
celebrant prenoit de dessus Tautel une ^p^ 
et une ceinture, sur laquelle il faisoit plu- 
sieurs benedictions, et Tattachoit au cdt^ du 
jeune Gentilhomme qui alors commen^oit 
k la porter." — ^Ibid. 



Blackbird and Woodlark 

The blackbird is a solitary bird, fre* 
qucnting woods and thickets, chiefly of 
evergreens, such as pines, firs, &c. especially 
where there are perennial springs, which 
afford it both shelter and subsistence. Thej 
begin to warble earlier than any other 
birds, and their most obvious character is 
timorousness. 

The woodlark sings during the night. 

R.S. 

Ladders blackened, 

" At the attempt to surprise Geneva 
1602, the ladders on which the scalade was 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERAEY COMPOSITION. 



performed were blackened, to prevent 
being perceiTed." — Urdeertal Hitiory. 



FkUip DtAt of MUan. 
'mur nicceeded to the dukedom of 
1 . . . . upon the murder of hia brother 

Haria. He mirried Beatrix, widov 
icino. Philip, tit this time, iraatcarue); 
tj years of age, and she was about 
'-eight, but pmaessed of all the re- 
I of her husband's authoritj, m well as 
h. The disproportion there was be- 
I their agea had disgusted Philip so 
, (hat he had absUuned from her bed. 
ca not i4)pear that the ladj resented 
■rovocation in anj indecent, or indeed 
mate manner ; and she bad even sub- 
d to Eerre him in the most menial 
s. Unfortnnatelj for her, she eoier- 
] ■■ an attendant one Oroinbelti, a 
r man accompliahed in the arts of mu- 
ancing, and the other embellishments 
ire mott acceptable at a court. Philip 
lering her life as an obstacle to his 
lire, accused her of criminal converaa- 
vith this youth ; and though nothing 
. be worse founded than the charge, 
in enchanted utensils were pretended 

found under her bed. Upon this vil- 
a pretext the duuhess was seized and 
led prisoner in the Castle of Binasco. 
joiith was imprisoned at the same 
-, and, according to common report, 
ofthemwereput to the torture. What- 
might be in this, it is certain that he 
ortured ; and unable to withstand the 

of the pain, he confessed the criuii- 
I, for which both of them were con- 
ed to death, after being confronted 

each other. On this occasion the 
less shewed an invincible constancy, 
reproached Orombelli with his weak- 

in yielding to tortures to confess a 
lood ; and in the most solemn and af- 
ig manner she called God to witness 
er innocency, only she implored his 
in for having yielded to the Arch- 



bishop of Milan in persuading her to so 
unequal a match. She declared she never 
had resented the Duke*s abstaining from 
her bed, and she mentioned the great for- 
tune and acquisitions she had brought Phi- 
lip, concluding that she the less regretted 
ber death, bei:ause she had preserved her 
innocenue. Having finished the pathetic 
declaration, OrombcUi was put to death be- 
fore her eyes, and she followed him with 
the most heroic constancy. By the ac- 
counts of all historians she was a woman of 
a very exalted character, and no reproach 
remains upon her memory, but the inequa- 
lity of her mateh with Philip. The young 
man was so perfectly conscious of his own 
innocence, that he might have escaped when 
the was made prisoner, but instead of that 
he came as usual to court, and declared he 
knew nothing of the matter, though his 
friends told him of his danger. Soon after 
the execution of the Duchess, the Dnke 
brought to his court a young Milanese lady, 
whom he had ravished some time before." 
—Ibid. 

Murderert of Makdm. 
A.D. 94. " Malcolm king of Scots died by 
the hands of robbers. In the churchyard 
of Glamis stands a carved stone, referring 
to the circumstances of this assassination. 
A centaur and a wolf denote the barbarity 
of the conspirators, while two fishes express 
the fate of these murtherers. While they 
tried to escape, the snow misled them ; they 
wandered to the lake of Forfar, the ice 
broke, and they all perished miserably. 
Many ontifiue weapons lately found in 
draining that lake confirm this account, 
and near these there were found brass pots 
and pans, probably part of the plunder of 
Malcolm's palace." — ^Pbhitakt. Artdmn. 



The Form lued al Ike Fiuural of the Greek 

Emprrort. 

" AiTEB the body bad lain«n state, and 

had received the salutes of the patricians. 



154 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



the senators, and the great officers, the 
Master of the Ceremonies cried aloud, ' Be 
gone, O Emperor, the King of kings, the 
Lord of lords demands you.* On which 
the attendants raised the body and carried 
it to the church of the Apostles, where the 
High Chamberlain with his own hands put 
on its shroud, and lowered it into the im- 
perial tomb.** — CoDiNiJS. Andrews, 



St RommUl} 

** 1006. St. Robhtald founded the Ca- 
maldules in Italy. He fled from Spain, 
because the Spaniards, to make sure of his 
relics, were going to murder him.** — St. 
Foix. Andrews, 



^^^>W^^^^»^^^^^^^^^^'%^^>^ 



Bloody Soil near Battle, 

** Expect not here I should insert what 
William of Newbury writeth, that not far 
from Battail Abby, in the place where so 
great a slaughter of the Englishmen was 
made, ailer any shower, presently sweateth 
forth very fresh blood out of the earth, as 
if the evidence thereof did plainly declare 
the voice of blood there shed, and crieth 
still from the earth unto the Lord.** — ^Ful- 



ler. 



Vmv^^^>^^^»^^w%^^w^^^ 



St Keyne's WeU.^ 

'* I Know not whether it be worth the re- 
porting, that there is in Cornwall, near the 
parbh of St. Neots, a well arched over with 
the robes of four kinds of trees, withy, oak, 
elm, and ash, dedicated to St. Ke3me. The 
reported vertue of the water is this, that 
whether husband or wife come first to drink 
thereof, they get the mastery thereby.** — 
Ibid. 

Wars in Wales, 

" I AM much affected with the ingenuity 
of an English nobleman, who following the 

» See the Ballad, D. 436.— J. W.W. 
« Ibid. p. 446. —J. W.W. 



camp of King Henry III. in these ptrto 
(Carnarvonshire), wrote home to his friendf 
about the end of September, 1245, the naked 
truth indeed, as followeth ; * We lie in our 
tents watching, fasting, praying and frees- 
ing. We watch for fear of the Welshmen, 
who are wont to invade us in the night; 
we fast for want of meat, for the half-peny 
loaf is worth five pence ; we pray to God 
to send us home speedily ; we freeze for 
want of winter garments, having nothing 
but thin linen betwixt us and the wind.**— 
Ibid. 



A tf>/VN/%^^^^^»\^^^^^V^S^ 



Temple of Quetudcoatl, 

** The temple of Quetzalcoatl differed 
from the rest in form, it being round, the 
others all quadrangular. The door of this 
sanctuary was the mouth of an enormoixi 
serpent of stone, armed with fangs. Some 
Spaniards, tempted by curiosity to go into 
that diabolical temple, afterwards confessed 
the horror which they felt upon entering it" 



Mexican Funerals, 

** As soon as any person died, certain 
masters of funeral ceremonies were caHec^ 
who were generally men advanced in years. 
They cut a number of pieces of paper, with 
which they dressed the dead body, and took 
a glass of water with which they sprinkled 
the head. They then drest it in a habit 
suitable to the rank, the wealth, and the 
circimistances attending the death of the 
party. If the deceased had been a warrior, 
they clothed him in the habit of Huitzilo- 
pochtli. 

*' With the habit they gave the d^ t 
jug of water, which was to serve on the 
journey to the other worid, and also at suc- 
cessive different times, different pieces of 
paper, mentioning the use of each. On 
consigning the first piece to the dead, thej 
said, * By means of this you will pass, with- 
out danger, between the two mountains 
which fight against each other.* With the 



MixhatTt CAotr.' 

ofGilbettioeCiHtertiuiiiiins 
stood on St. Micbael's Mount. On one cor* 
ner of the battlement* of the tower above ia 
a stone niche, called St Michael'a Chair, 
nhich gives all women that venture to ait 
in it the auperioiitj over their huabauda.** 

CjtMDBIf. 



DEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERABT COMPOSITION. 



aaid, ' B7 nteam of ttiia jon will 
ut obatniction along the road 
efended by the great acrpent.* 
Jiird, ' 'By tbia 70U will go le- 
ngh the place where there ia the 
[ochitonal.* The fourth waa a 
irt throagh the eight deaerta; 
irough the eight hilla ; and the 
given in order to paaa without 
rh the aharp wind ; for the/ pre- 
t it waa necessary to past a place 
hecajan, where a wind blew ao 
t to tear up rocka, and ao sharp, 
like a knife ; on which account 
Mi all the habita which the de- 
worn during life, their anna and 
ehold goods, in order that the 
ia fire might defend them from 
' that terrible wind. One of the 
moat ridiculooi ceremonies at 
aa the killing a tecbichi, a do- 
^uped, resembling a little dog, 
my the deceased in their journey 
ler world. They fixed a Btring 
leck, believing that necessary to 
> pass the deep river of Chiuhna- 
Ncw Watera. They buried the 
r burned it along with the body 
iter, according to the kind of 
hich be died. While the maalers 
moniea were lighting up the fire 
iie body was to be burned, the 
its kept singing in a melancholy 
fler burning the body, they ga- 
Bshea in an earthen pot, amongst 
irding to the circumptancea of the 
they put a gem of more or less 
sh they said would serve him in 
heart in the other world. They 
( earthen pot in a deep ditch, and 
lays after made oblations of bread 



were firmly persuaded, that with- 
guide aa tbe techicbi, it would be 
to get through some dangerous 
h led to the other world." 



Con, OifOK of Ok Sm. 

"AMOHodieinfaabitaiitsoftheNew World 
B common and general! received opinion waa 
embraced with them, that, at the beginning 
of the world, from the Seplentrionalt, or 
Northern parts, there came a man cidled 
Con or Conon, who had no bones in hia 
whole body, and therefore went verie quicke 
and lightly, much shortening the wayes, 
abasing the hills and mountaines, and n ' 
ing the lowe-layd Tallies onelie wilh his 
word and will, and named himselfe to be the 
Sonne of the sunne. 

" lliis man filled the earth with men 
women, which be produced, giving unto 
them divers fruites, and other Uiiogs neces- 
sary for humane life. But by a displea 
sure ha received from them, bee converted 
tbe earth, which bee before had freely given 
them, into a drie and barren sand, and looke 
away the raine also, that it should nevi 
more showre downe, nor moisture any plac 
Yet as pittying their miaery, he led them 
rivers only, to the end that they might cc 
serve themselves, in watering the groui 
by theyr owne paine and labour. 

" At length came one Pachamo, who n 
likewise sonne both to the aunne and moone, 
and, having expelled or banished Conon, 
converted those men into cattea, and afler- 
ward created other men. The people tooke 
this man to be a god, and so he was gene- 
rally reputed, untill the Christians came 
into those countries, havbg erected a very 
good temple unto him, ncare to Lima, it 
beeing the most renowned in all those lands : 

> See the Ballad, p. 431.— J. W. W. 



156 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



because of extraordinarj devotion there 
used, in regard of oracles and answeres 
which di veils gave to priests and sacrificers 
there dwelling in divers places." — 7V«i- 
surie^ &c. 

Henry Holland. 

" Hehrt, Duke of Exeter, though he had 
married the sister of Edward IV. was re- 
duced to such want as to be seen begging 
his bread in rags and barefoot in Flanders. 
After the battle of Barnet, where he fought 
bravely against Edward IV. he was not to 
be found till his body was cast upon the 
coast of Kent, as if he had been shipwreckt.** 
— Camden. 



«^\^i^i^S/>/\^W\^^VS^^l/V/V>/\/^ 



Hankford^s Oak* 

" In Monkley Church, Devonshire, is a 
monument for Sir William Hankford, Chief 
Justice of the King*8 Bench, of whom the 
Devonshire historians pretend that he was 
the person who imprisoned Prince Henry, 
son of Henry IV. and that fearing his dis- 
pleasure when King, he retired to his seat 
here, and charging the keeper of his park 
to kill any man in his night walk that would 
not tell him who he was, he went into the 
park under those circumstances, and was 
killed. A tree near which this accident is 
said to have happened is still called Hank- 
ford's oak." — GouGH. 



VW%/S/\/>/VA<%/V>/W\M/S>N/V^S« 



Turkish Astronomy, 

** From the mufli to the peasant it is ge- 
nerally believe<l that there are seven hea- 
vens, from which the earth is immoveably 
suspended by a large chain ; that the sun is 
an immense ball of fire, at least as big as a 
whole Ottoman province, formed for the 
sole purpose of giving light and heat to the 
earth ; that eclipses of the moon are occa- 
sioned by a great dragon attempting to de- 
vour that luminary ; that the fixed stars 
hang by chains from the highest heaven. 
These absurdities are, in part, supported by 



the testimony of the Koran."— Eton's Swr- 
vey of the Turkish Empire, 



V^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^M«* 



A Succubus, 



*'In Germanic," said Lutheb, '* was here- 
tofore a noble familie, which were bom of 
a Succubus, and fell out thus : 

^ A gentleman had a fair young wife 
which died, and was also buried. Not long 
after the gentleman and his servant Ijing 
together in one chamber, his dead wife in 
the night time approached into the chamber, 
and leaned herself upon the gentleman's 
bed, like as if shee had been desirous to 
speak with him. The servant^ seeing the 
same two or three nights one after another, 
asked his master whether he knew that 
every night a woman in white apparel came 
unto his bed. The gentleman said, * No : 
I sleep soundly,* said he, *• and see nothing.' 
When night approached, the gentleman con- 
sidering the same, laie waking in bed. I1ien 
the woman appeared unto him and canie 
hard to his bed side. The gentleman de- 
manded who she was ? Shee answered, * I 
am your wife." Hee said, ' My wife is dead 
and buried.' Shee said, ' True ; by reason 
of your swearing and sins I died ; but if you 
would take mee again, and would also ab- 
stain from swearing one particular oath, 
which commonly you use, then would I bee 
your wife again.' Hee said, * I am content 
to perform what you desire.' Whereupon 
his dead wife remained with him, ruled his 
hous, laie with him, ate and drank with him, 
and had children together. Now it fell out, 
that on a time the gentleman had guests, 
and his wife after supper was to fetch out of 
his chest som banquetting stuflT: shee stay- 
ing somewhat long, her husband, forgetting 
himself, was moved thereby to swear his 
accustomed oath ; whereupon the woman 
vanished that instant. Now seeing shee re- 
turned not again, they went up into the 
chamber to see what was becom of her. 
There they found the gown which shee wore, 
half lying within the chest and half without 
But shee was never seen afterwards. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



157 



" The Prince Electx)r of Saxon, John 
Frederick, having received advertisement of 
this strange accident, sent thereupon pre- 
sently unto me,** said Luther, ** to have my 
opinion what I held of tliat woman and of 
the children which were begotten and bom 
of these two persons : whereupon I wrote 
to his highness, that in mj opinion neither 
that woman, nor those children were not 
right human creatures, but divels." — Da. 
Maetiii Luth£s*8 Divine Discourses tU his 
Table, Sfv, translated by Captain Henrie 
BelL 1652. 



•N^^^^/S^S^^^y^/S^^^^^^^/N^/S** 



The Nix. 



^ The Divel casteth before the eies a 
blaze or a mist, and so deceiveth people, 
insomuch that one thinkcth hee lietb by a 
right woman, and yet is no such matter. 
But inasmuch as children or divels are con- 
ceived in such sort, the same are very hor- 
rible and fearful examples in that Satan can 
plague and so torment people as to beget 
children. Like unto this is it also with that 
which they call the Nix in the water, who 
draweth people unto him, as maids and vir- 
gins, of whom hee begetteth divels children." 
-Ibid. 



•^^^^^^/\/V\^^^^^^^SA^«t^/S> 



Kiilcrops, 

** The Divel can also steal children away, 
as sometimes children within the space of 
six weeks after their birth are lost, and other 
children or changelings laid in their places. 
Of the Saxons they were called Kiilcrops. 

^ Eight years since,'* said Luther, '* at 
Dessaw, I did see and touch such a changed 
child, which was twelve years of age, hee 
bad his eies and all members like another 
childc. Hee did nothing but feed, and 
would eat as much as two clowns or thresh- 
ers were able to eat. When one touched 
^ then it cried out ; when anie evil hap- 
pened in the hous then it laughed and was 
joiful ; but when all went well, then it cried 
and was verj aad. I told the Prince of 
Anhalt, if I were Prince of that countrie, 



so would I venture homicidium thereon, 
and would throw it into the river Muldaw. 
I admonished the people dwelling in that 
place devoutly to pray to God to take away 
the divel ; the same was don accordingly, 
and the second year after the changeling 
died.*'— Ibid. 

" In Saxonia, near unto Halberstad, was 
a man that also had a Killcrop, who sucked 
the mother and five other women drie, and 
besides devoured very much. This man 
was advised that hee should in his pilgrim- 
age at Halberstad make a promise of the 
Killcrop to the Virgin Marie, and should 
cause him there to be rockd. This advice 
the man followed, and carried the change- 
ling thither in a basket ; but going over a 
river, being upon the bridge, another divel 
that was below in the river called, and said 
'KUlcrop! Killcrop!' Then the childe in 
the basket, which never before spake one 
word, answered *Ho! ho!* The divel in 
the water asked further, ' "Whither art thou 
going ! * the child in the basket said, ' I am 
going towards Halberstad to our loving mo- 
ther, to be rocked.' The man being much 
affrighted thereat-, threw the childe with the 
basket over the bridge into the water; where- 
upon the two divels flew away together, and 
cried ^ Ho ! ho ! ha ! * tumbling themselves 
one over another, and so vanished. 

^ Such changelings and Kiilcrops,** said 
Luther, ** supponit Satan in locum vero- 
rum filiorum ;* for the divel hath this power, 
that hee changeth children, and in stead 
thereof laieth divels in the cradles, which 
prosper not, only they feed and suck : but 
such changelings live not above eighteen or 
nineteen years. One of these more fowleth 
itself in the excrements than ten other chil- 
dren do, so that the parents are much there- 
with disquieted, and the mothers in such sort 
are sucked out, that afterwards they are able 
to give suck no more. Such changelings," 
said Luther, " are also baptized, in regard 
that they cannot bee known the first year, 
but are known onely by sucking the mothers 
drie.- 



158 



IDEAS AN1> STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Queen Christina. 

** La reinc Chrbtine, en quittant la cou- 
ronne pour se livrer plus enti^ment aux 
gens de lettres, ressemble k cette femme qui 
se fit arracher deux belles dents pour plaire 
k son amant, qui se disoit toujours dpris de 
son &me seule, et inaccessible k tous ses 
charmes cxt^ieurs ; mais sa nuutresse ^tant 
moins belle, il ne Faima plus.** — Madame 
Neckeb. 



\^^\A/^^^/\^^^h^^h^^^^(^^^ 



Drums of Captivei Skins. 

" In some provinces thej flead the cap- 
tives taken in war, and with their skins co- 
vered their drums, thinking with the sound 
of them to affright their enemies;^ for their 
opinion was, that when their kindred heard 
the rumbling noise of those drums, thej 
would be immediately seized with fear and 
put to flight.** — Gabcilasso. 

Parents eat. 

** What was most abominable above all, 
was a custom amongst some Indians to eat 
the flesh of their parents, so soon as they 
were dead, accounting it a part of their re- 
spect and duty to bury and intomb them 
within their own entrails, which they boiled 
or roasted according to the quantity ; if the 
body was lean and extenuated, they boiled 
the flesh to make it the more tender; and if 
it were gross and fleshy, then it was roasted : 
and for the bones, they buried them with 
some ceremony, either in the holes of rocks, 
or the hollow trees.** — Ibid. 



^AMMAAA^AAA^^>^/^^^^^H» 



7^ Inca Royal Bounty. 

** In process of time the Inca, willing to 
enlarge the privileges of his people, gave 
them permission to bore their ears, though 
not so wide as the Incas.** — Ibid. 

' See anecdote of Zisca, third series, p. 381. 
This extract is quoted to the lines, 

*' He stript the skin, and formed of it a drum, 
Whose sound affrighted armies." 

Madoe in Aitlan, xiii. p. 389.— J. W. W. 



Peruvian Ideas of the Moon. 

'* Whbh they observed the moon 
to grow dark in her eclipse, they sai 
was sick; and when she was totally obs( 
that she was dead; and then they fearc 
she should fall from heaven, and overv 
and kill them, and that the world shoi 
entirely dissolved. With these appr 
sions, to soon as the moon enterei 
eclipse, they sounded their trumpeti 
comets, beat their kettles, symbals, ai 
the instruments which could make noii 
sound ; they tied their dogs in string: 
beat them till they cried and howled; s 
that with their voices they called upc 
moon, who having received certain se! 
from them, was very inclinable to he 
to their call, and that all these variet 
sounds together served to rouse and «% 
her, being fallen into a drowsiness and 
ber which her sickness had caused 
then they made their children cry an 
*• Mama Quilla,* or, ' Mother Moon, d 
dye, lest we all perish.*' — Ibid. 

• 

'^CoNCEBNnfo the spots in the moon 
conceived another fable more ridiculou 
the former, and may be compared wit) 
which the more refined ancients fran 
Diana, and that the moon was a hui 
though this seems more bestial and al 
for they feignd that a certain fox, i 
the moon so beautiful, fell enamour 
her, and that his love gave him wings 
which he ascended heaven, and being 
to embrace the moon, she closed and 
so close to the fox, that ever since that 
the spots have appeared in the brigl 
of her body.** — Ibid. 



0/ the Sun. 

" Whbit they saw the sun set with 
sea, as they may every night observe 
westward from the coast of Peru, thr 
sied that the waters were parted by the 
of his fire and heat ; and that being a 
swimmer, he plunged himself into thei 



I 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOE LITEEAEY COMPOSmoST. 



159 



0/Thander. 
OitB of their fkblei is, tlut the Maker 
1 things bath placed in Heaven a rirgin, 
daughter of a king, holding a bucket of 
T in her hand, for refreihment of the 
1 when occasion requires ; and that tome- 
sher brother knocking upon this bucket, 
ei thunder and lightning to proceed from 
lhe«e noi«ei thej bbj are effects of the 
>nt nature of man, but hail and rain and 
r, falling with leu noise and impetuoiit;, 
nore agreeable to the gentle nature of a 
lan. On this tale the following poem 

" Pulchra Njinpha, 
Frater tutu 
Umam tuam 
Nunc infringit, 
Cujus ictus 
Tonat, fulget, 
Fulminatque. 
Sed tu Njmpba 
Tuam Ijmpham 
Fundena pluis, 
Interdumque 
Grandinem leu 

Mundi factor 

Pacha camac ' 

Tiracocha 

Ad hoc munus 

Te aufficit 

Et prafeciL" 
he original metre is preserred in these 
ei.— Ibid. 



FiM Sunt, 
Tu Indians of Culbua did beleeve that 
gods had made the world thej knew not 



On refamne to 
tha words "Pdcfu Cuae" are omitted here. 
Spanish inteipreCation is, " £1 Dim ;■» le 
ii." See Ubro ii. lom. L p. 54. Ed. Ida- 



how : and that sinci 
were past, and that the fift and last is the 
Bunne which nowgiveth light unto the world. 
" The first Bunne (fonoolh) perished hj 
water, and all living creatures therewith. 
The second fell from heaven, and with the 
fall slew all living creatores, and then were 
manjgiantaintbecountrj. The third sunne 
was consumed b; fire ; and the fourth hj 
tempest of aire and winde ; and then man- 
kinde perished not, but was turned into apes. 
Yet when that fourth sun perishd, all was 
tumd into darkness, and so continued five 
and twenty jears: and at the fifteenth yecre 
God did form one man and woman, who 
brought forth children, and at the end of 
other ten jeara appeared this fifl sunne new- 
Ij borne, which after their reckoning is now 
in this jear 1612, 918 jears since. Three 
daje after this sun appeared, they held that 
all the gods did die, and that these which 
since they worship, were bom in process of 
time." — PiimcB as. 



Omtiu of CliaHti I.'t Fale. 
" The bust of King Charles I. carved by 
Bamini, as it was brought in a boat upon 
the Thames, a strange bird, the like whereof 
the bargemen had never seen, drop'd a drop 
of blood, or blood like upon it, which lefl a 
stain not to be wiped off" — Adbiet. 

"CouHiBL SharingtoD Talbot was at Not- 
tingham when King Charles I. did set up 
his standard upon the top of the tower there. 
He told me, that the first night the wind 
blew it so, that it hung down almost hori- 
zontal, which some did take to be an ill 
omen."— Ibid. 

" Th> da; thai the Long Parliament be- 
gan, 1641, the sceptre fell out of the figure 
of King Charles in wood, in Sir *— Trcn- 
cbard's hall at Wullich in Dorset, as they 
were at dinner in the parlour." — Ibid, 

' In theeditionuf AnBBBT'iMi«*lloni«now 
b«roreme, Bvo. 17B4, " Tbonias" is the sinuune. 
J. W. W. 



160 IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Omen of Protector Somerset s Fate. 

"These is a tradition which I have heard 
from persons of honour, that as the Protector 
Seymour and his dutchess were walking in 
the gallery at Sheen, in Surrey, both of them 
did see a hand with a bloody sword come 
out of the wall. He was aflerwards be- 
headed."— Ibid. 

Ominous Fly of Fire, 

" The Lady Viscountess Maidstone told 
me she saw as it were a fly of fire fly round 
about her in the dark, half an hour before 
her lord died. He was killed at sea ; and 
the like before her mother-in-law, the Coun- 
tess of Winchelsea, died. She was then with 
child."— Ibid. 



Corps* Candles} 

"Whew any Christian is drowned in the 
river Dee, there will appear over the water 
where the corps is, a light, by which means 
they do find the body. And it is therefore 
called the holy Dee."— Ibid. 

King Arthurs Cave, 

"One of the legends of Arthur's posthum- 
ous fame is, that there is in Merlin's hill a 
cave, the mouth of which many have seen 
at a distance ; but when they approached 
the place where they supposed it to be situ- 
ated, they have not been able to find it. 
Once indeed a venerable stranger enquired 
for the hill, and having by his skill in magic 
walked directly to 'the cavern, he came to 
a narrow passage, which was obstructed by 
a wheel in perpetual ' motion, placed there 
by the art of Merlin. The stranger atten- 
tively surveyed the machine for a short time; 
took a book from his bosom, read out of it 
a few words, unintelligible to those who 

* The reader should refer to the whole Letter 
on the CanhtL'uHun Ciirph, or Corps-Candles in 
Wales. It is addresMd to Mr. Baxter. See p. 
231 of the Miscellanies — J. W. W. 



watched his motions, and then touched the 
wheel with his wand. Immediately it stood 
still, and the stranger passed beyond it 
When he returned, he read another sentence 
from his book, and the wheel resumed its 
motion. He then told the wondering peo- 
ple that he had been to view King Arthur 
and his knights of the round table, who were 
laid asleep in that cave by the enchantments 
of Merlin. At a set time the magician would 
rouse them from their sleep, when they would 
rush forth, drive out the Saxons, and insti- 
tute a Shiboleth to distinguii>h the genuine 
descendants of the ancient Britons, over 
whom Kins: Arthur would rei<rn with tran- 
scendant dignity and splendour. The stran- 
ger departed, and no one from that day bts 
been able to fiiid the entrance of the cave.** 
— Mrs. Morgan's Tour to Mil/ord Haven. 
Merlin's Hill is by Caermarthen. 



Herb of Orpheus. 

" Upon the mountain Pangeas grows an 
herb which is called the harp, upon this oc- 
casion. The women that tore Orpheus in 
pieces, cast his limbs into the river Hebms, 
and his head being changed, the whole body 
was turned into the shape of a dragon. But 
as for his harp, such was the will of Apollo, 
it remained in the same form,,and from the 
streaming blood grew up the herb which was 
called the harp, which during the solemnity 
of the sacrifices to Bacchus, sends forth t 
sound like that of a harp when played upon. 
At which time the natives being covered 
with the skins of young hinds, and waving 
their thyrsuses in their hands, sing a hymn, 
of which these are part of the words, 

"And then shalt thou be wise, 
When Folly does thy brain surprise." 

As Clitonymus reports in his third book of 
tragical relations." — Flutabch. 



««\^^»^^^^^^^«>^^^^^^i^^^w^^ 



Herb that Starves Tigers, 

"In the Ganges grows an herb resembling 
bugloss, which the natives bruise and keep 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



161 



Ibe juice tbtj charilj. With thi* juice IQ 
llie dead of the aight thej go and besprinkle 
ihe tiger's deiu, the Tertue of which is snch 
tfa*t the tigan not being kble to itir fortli 
\>j reuoD of the itroog seent of the Juice, 
ve ittrved to deslh.'* — Il»d. 



Rnwr imd Beii that hate Slep-Mo&ert. 

" Ufoh the mountun M^entis, near the 
riTCr Ljcormas, grows a flower called the 
vhite violet, which if jon do but Qune the 
word atcpdame, presently dies awaj. 

On the mountain Brixaba near the Tanais 
grows an herb bj the barbarians colled 
FhTjia, not tulike our common rue, which 
if the son of a former mother have it in hia 
possession, he can never be injured b; bis 
ttfp-dame. It chieflj grows near the place 
vkich is called Boreas's den,, and being 
fathered, u colder than snow. But if anj 
•tcp-dame be forming a design against her 
wn-in-law, it sets itself on fire, and sends 
Girth a bright flame. B7 which means thcj 
who are thus warned, avoid the danger the; 
m in.-— Ibid. 



Reed that diteovert Gviil. 
" In the river Phasia grows a reed which 
ii called Leucophjllus, or the reed with 
the white leaf. This reed is found at the 
dawning of the morning light, at what time 
the lacrificea are offered to Hecate, and 
this too, b; the djvtne inspiration of Pan 
at the beginning of the spring, when thej 
vbo are tronbled with jealous heads gather 
ibis reed and strew it in their wires' cham- 
Wn to keep them chaste. And the nature 
of the reed b such, that if any wild extra- 
vagant person happens to come rashlj in 
jiuik into the room where it lies, he pre- 
Hntlj become* deprived of his rational 
thnighti, and immediately confesses what- 
*>tx be has wickedly done and intended to 
in. At what time, the; that are present 
U hear htm la; hold of him, sow falm up in 
* Hck, aud throw him into a hole, called 



The Little Mouth of the Wicked, which is 
round like the mouth of awell; which after 
thirty da;9 empties the body into the lake 
Mteotis, that is full of worms, where of a 
sudden the bod; is seized and torn to pieces 
by several vultures unseen before, nor is il 
known from whence the; come." — Ibid. 



Midaive*' Magic, 
" A VKBT singular belief prevailed not 
man; ;eara ago in these parts (about Lang- 
holme in Scotland) ; nothing less than that 
the midwives had power of transferring part 
of the primeval curse bestowed on our great 
first mother, from the good wife to her hus- 
band. I saw the reputed ofispringAf such 
a labour, who kindly came into the world 
without giving her mother the least uni 
nets, white the poor husband was roa 
with agony in his uncouth and unnatural 
pains."' — Pbhhaht's Hehridet. 



FJamborai^h Head. 
" Thi vast height of the precipices, and 
the »nia>ing grandeur of the caverns which 
open on the north side, giving wide snd 
solemn admission, through moBt exalted 
arches, into the body of the mounts ' 
together with the gradual decline of light, 
the deep silence of the place unless in- 
terrupted by the striking of the oar, the 
collision of a iwelling wave agunst the 
sides, or the loud Sutter of the pigeons 
affiighted from their nests in the distant 
roof, afford pleasures of scenery which 
such formations as this alone can yield. 
These also are wonderfully diverMfied { in 
I parts the caserns penetrate far, and 
in darkness, in others are pervious, 
and give a romantic passage by another 
opening, equally superb. Many of the 
rocks are insulated, of a pyramidal (b 
and soar to a great height. The basea of 
, are solid, but in some pierced through 
arched. All are covered with the 
dungof theinnumerableflocksofnuf^Vtr] \ 



162 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



birds, which resort here annuallj to breed, 
and fill every little projection, every hole 
which will give them leave to rest. Mul- 
titudes were swimming about ; others swarm- 
ed id the air, and stunned us with the 
variety of their croaks and screams. Kitti- 
wakes and herring-gulls, guillemots and 
black guillemots, auks, puffins, shags and 
corvorants are among the species which re- 
sort hither. The notes of aU sea-fowl are 
most harsh and inharmonious. I have 
have often rested under rocks like these, 
attentive to the various soimds over my 
head ; which, mixed with the deep roar of 
the waves slowly swelling and retiring from 
the vast caverns beneath, have produced a 
fine effect. The sharp voice of the gulls, 
the frequent chatter of the guillemots, the 
loud notes of the auks, the scream of the 
herons, together with the deep periodical 
croak of the corvorants, which serves as a 
bass to the rest, have often furnished me 
with a concert, which, joined to the wild 
scenery surrounding me, afforded in an 
high degree that species of pleasure which 
results from the novelty and the gloomy 
mijesty of the entertainment." — Fbjxjxast's 
Arctic Zoology, 



Northern LighU, 

" Thst are the constant attendants of 
the clear evenings in all these northern 
blands, and prove great reliefs amidst the 
gloom of the long winter nights. They 
commonly appear at twilight, near the ho- 
rizon, of a dun colour, approaching to yel- 
low; sometimes continuing in that state 
for 9everal hours without any sensible 
motion ; afler which they break out into 
streams of stronger lights, spreading into 
columns, and altering slowly into ten thou- 
sand different shapes, varying their co- 
lours from all the tints of yellow to the 
obscurest russet. They often cover the 
whole hemisphere, and ^en make the most 
brilliant appearance. Their motions at 
these times are most amazingly quick ; and 



they astonish the spectator with the rapid 
change of their form. They break out in 
places where none were seen before, skim- 
ming briskly along the heavens; are sud- 
denly extinguished, and leave behind an 
uniform dusky tract. This again is bril- 
liantly illuminated in the same manner, and 
as suddenly left a dull blank. In certain 
nights they assume the i^pearance of vast 
columns, on one side of the deepest yellow, 
on the other declining away till it becomes 
undistinguished from the sky. They have 
generally a strong tremulous motion from 
end to end which continues till the whole 
vanishes. In a word, we who only see the 
extremities of these northern phenomena, 
have but a faint idea of their splendour and 
their motions. According to the state of 
the atmosphere they differ in colours ; thej 
often put on the colour of blood, and make 
a most dreadful appearance. The rustic 
sages become prophetic, and terrify the ga- 
zing spectators with the dread of war, pes- 
tilence, and famine. 

" About the Icy Sea. The Aurora Bo- 
realis is as common here as in Europe, and 
usually exhibits similar variations; one 
species regularly appears between the north- 
east and east, like a luminous rainbow, with 
numbers of columns of light radiating from 
it : beneath the arch is a darkness, through 
which the stars appear with some brilliancj. 
This species is thought by the natives to be 
a forerunner of storms. There is another 
kind, which begins with certain insulated 
rays from the north, and others firom the 
north-east; they augment little by little, 
till they fill the whole sky, and form a 
splendour of colours rich as gold, rubies, 
and emeralds, but the attendant phenomena 
strike the beholders with horrors, for thej 
crackle, sparkle, hiss, make a whistling 
sound, and a noise even equal to artificial 
fireworks. The idea of an electrical cause 
is so strongly impressed by this description, 
that there can remain no doubt of the origin 
of these appearances. The inhabitants sajt 
on this occasion, it is a troop of men furi- 
ously mad which are passing by. Everj 



DEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



163 



■uck with terror i even the dogs 
en are seiied with euch dread, 
■ill tall on the ground and be- 
reable till the cauM ia over." — 



AU Sold*- Dag. 
^lutam at Naples on All Souli' 
row open the chamel houtes, 
with torches, and decked out 

flower; pageHitr}r of Hay-daj ; 
)w crowds through these vaults 
e cofEns, omj, the bodies of their 

relations. The floors are di- 
beds like a gardeo, and under 

of earth the corpses are laid in 
session. The place a perfectlj 
! soil is rather a pounded stone 
and parches up the flesli com- 
twelveuionth; when that period 
he bod; is taken up, dressed in 
tiabit and fixed like a statue in 
my retain a horrid resemblance 
ej were when animated, and 
strong marks of agon; in their 
atures." — Swdibuhhe. 

I cnstomaiT at Salerno, till a 
jnod held in the 15th Centui; 
and abolished the practice, on 
U Souls toproride a sumptuous 
■at and beds in ererj house, 
ds from purgator; might come, 
Y, and afterwards take a nap. 
: whole night, the house was 
by its inhabitants, and that fa- 
oked upon as Bfcursed b; Uea- 
ise table the smallest remnant 
was to be seen the next mom- 
he proprietor returned. . Tills 
!nt seldom, if ever befell them, 
acted feast drew togelher sll the 
the country, who weut from 
luse, revelling without control, 
g off what thej had not time to 
hile the master of the house was 
R in the cold churcL" — Ibid. - 



PousonuM Qhott-lumnUd. 

" Paosanus, in the heat of his lust, sent 
for Cleonice, a free-bom virgin of Byzan- 
tium, with an inteotion to have enjoyed 
her ; but when she came, out of a strange 
sort of jealousy and provocation, for which 
he could give no reason, stabbed her. Hiis 
murder was attended with iHghtful viuons, 
insomuch that his repose in the night was 
not only interrupted with the ^ipeannce of 
her shRpe, but still he thought he heard 
her uttering these lines : 

' To execution go, the gods are Just, 

And rarely pardon murder joiu'd with 
lust.' 
After this, the apparition still haunting 
him, he suled to Psycopompeion, in Here- 
clea, and by propitiations, charms, and 
dirges, called up the ghost of the damsel ; 
which, appearing before him, told him in 
few words that he should be free from all 
his afirightt and molestations upon his re- 
turn to Lacedtemou; where he was no 
sooner arrived but he died." — Plutarch. 
Coacenuag lueh u>hom Qod ii ttoa to puniik. 

Pausanias says, he weut to Phlgalea, to 
the Arcadian avocators of souls. 



EfftOM of a Danigui* death. 
" Dbubtkics related that about Britain 
there were many small and desolate islands, 
some of which were called the Isles of 
damons and demy gods ; and that he him- 
self, at the command of the emperor, sailed 
tp the nearest of those places for curiosity 
sake, where he found few inhabitants, but 
that they were all esteemed by the Britons 
as sacred and divine. Not long aAer he 
was arrived there, be said, the ur and the 



and thunder ; which at length ceasiog, he 
says, the inhabitants told him that one of 
the demons or demy-gods was deceased. 
For as a lamp, says he, while 'tis lighted, 
offends nobody with its scent, but when 'tis 



164 



IDEAS AND STUDDiS FOR LTTERAKY COIvrPOSITION. 



extingubhed it sends out such a scent as is 
nauseous to everybodj; so these great 
souls, whilst thej shine, are mild and gra- 
cious, without being troublesome to anj 
body; but whenthej draw to an end, they 
cause great storms and tempests, and not 
seldom infect the air with contagious dis- 
tempers. They say, farther^ that Saturn is 
detained prisoner in one of those islands, 
where he keeps fast asleep in chains, and 
that he has several of those daemons ioar his 
valets and attendants.** — Fi.utajich. Whif 
the Oracles cease. 



^/WW^AA^^^^WS/VN/VV/W 



WoT'engine* 

^ When Archidamus the son of Agesi- 
laus, beheld a dart to be shot from an en- 
gine, newly brought out of Sicily, he cried 
out, O Hercules ! the valour of man is at 
an end. — Ibid. 



^WN/N^^^^N^^^^^'^^^^WX^ 



Sleeping Naked, 

** In 1387, William of Wykeham visited 
the priory of Selbome. Among other com- 
plaints, he says, * it has been evidently 
proved to him that some of the canons, 
living dissolutely after the flesh, and not 
after the spirit, sleep naked in their beds 
without their breeches and shirts,* * absque 
femoralibus et camisiis,* he enjoins that 
these culprits shall be punished by severe 
fasting, especially if they shall be found to 
be faulty a third time ; and threatens the 
prior and sub-prior with suspension if they 
do not correct this enormity. 

** The rule of not sleeping naked was en- 
joined the Knights Templars, who also 
were subject to the rules of St. Augustine.** 
— GuKTLEBi, Hist TemplariaruoL 

** He also forbids them foppish ornaments, 
and the affectation of appearing like beaux 
with garments edged with costly furs, with 
fringed gloves, and silken girdles trinmied 
with gold and silver.** — ^White*8 Antiqid* 
ties of Selbome, 



Charles of Burgundy. 

^ Credulity proceeds from a m 
integrity; a vice more honest tl 
the overthrow and death of the gn 
of Burgundy, who committed a m 
of his army to an earle whom he 
merly strucken.** — SA]fi>T*8 Ovid, 



•>V>^^VW>/>«V>/>/\/>/S/W\/S/VN 



Gyalbertui Beech, 

'* Mabillon tells us in his Itin 
the old Beech at Yillambrosa, to 
flourishing, and greener than an; 
rest, under whose umbrage the 
Eremit Gualbertushad his cell.** — ] 
Silua, 

'' Whilb we condemn the beecl 
we must not omit to praise the ma 
fats our swine and deer, and hath 
families even supported men wit] 
Chios endured a memorable si^ 
benefit of this mast ; and in som 
France they now grind the Buck' 
it affords a sweet oil which the po4 
eat most willingly. But there is 
ther benefit which this tree prese 
that its very leaves, being gathen 
the fall, and somewhat before they i 
bitten, afford the best and easi( 
tresses in the world to lay under o 
' instead of straw; because, besides t 
demess and loose lying together, t 
tinue sweet for seven or eight ye 
before which time straw becomes m 
hard. They are thus used by di' 
sons of quality in Dauphine ; and 
zerland I have sometimes lain on 
my great refreshment So as of 
it may properly be said — 

' The wood*s an house ; the leavei 
Silva domus, cubilia frondes.**— 

] 

' ^aybQ k fayiXv, 

* That is, the " mast." Camde 
Buckinehamshire from the Bde^ i. e. 1 
tree, ft is pure Anglo-Saxon. — J. "V 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Jefr l« Jamt. 
"Thk most celebrated work of Ali ii iDti- 
tuled Je& we Jame; it ii writteo npoo 
pircluDeDt in mjaterioiu cboracters iater- 
■uied with figiu«B, wherein are couched 
in the grand events that are to happen 
from the b^inning of Miulemanitoi to the 
end of the world. Thia parchment i* de- 
po«ited ID the bandi of those of hia family, 
lud even to this time nobody fans Atey- 
pbered it in any lort of manner but Jaafer 
Sadek, for, as for the entire explication of 
it, that is re«erved for the twelM Imam, 
who ii snnuuned b; way of excellence the 
Mohdi, or grand directs." — Ockuit, S. of 



Egyplum Alma>»adi. 
"Tom Abb£ Fluche, in hia HIatory o! the 
Heavens, maintains, and I believe with rea- 
■on, that the Egyptian grotesque figures, 
lor example, a man widt a dog's head, && 
a sort of almanacks indicating the 
of the iocreaM of the Nile, &c. Aj 
the French have now in their almanack, 
apposite to every day in the year, a plant, 
imal, or an instrument of husbuidry, 
it wonld if engraved resemble not a little 
Egyptian almanaii. It is curious to 
obaerve how very ancient fashions and 
pneticei are revived." — MacLaDuii.Zoni 
Dngkirm. 

Halidag* origiaaUj/ Aumane. 
LniaET in bis Annales PoUtiques, vol.2, 
p. 180, an«r qiproTing very much of the 
abolition of several holidays which had re- 
coitly taken place (in t7T0),maint>unBthat 
DO blame can attach to those who in troduced 
1 great number of holidays { their motive, 
be says, was humanity, not superstition ; 
for at that time, the common people were 
Ntfi, * adscript^ glebK,* whose labour was 
mirely for the beneUt of the master, who 
gtTe them little more than bare mainte- 
tttice. It certainly waa, therefore, humane 
'Ddiminiih the number of working daya at 
I IW time; but now that the common people 



are free, it is necessary to increase them, as 
they have in general even by industry little 
enough to support themaelvea." — Ibid. 



Seaimu ailertd. 

" It is long since matij, of whom I am 
one, have muntained, that the seasons are 
altered ; that it is not so hot now in sum- 
mer as when we were boys. Others laugh 
at this, and say that the supposed altera- 
tion proceeds from on alteration in our- 
selvea, from our having become older and 
consequently colder. 

"In I7S3 or 1784, in the course of a con- 
versation I had with mj brewer, who is very 
intelligent and eminent tn his way. he msin- 
taiaed that an alteration had taken place. 
This observation he mode from a variety 
of circumstances ; the diminution of the 
nunber of swallows, the coldncaa that at- 
tends nun, the alteration in the hours of 
labour at the time of sowing barley, which 
a great many years ago was a work per- 
formed very early in the morning, on ac- 
count of the intenaeness of the heat after 
the sun had been up for some time. He 
added that for many years past be had 
found that the barley did not malt aa for- 
merly, and the period be fixed on was the 
year in which the earthquake at Lisbon 
happened. 

" I was much surprised at this la^t obser- 
vation, and did not pay much attention to 
It till last summer, when I happened to read 
Les Annales Folitiqucs of Linguct, a very 
scarce book, which I was sure my brewer 
had never read ; for there to my astonish- 
ment I found the very same opinion, with 
this additional fact, that in Champagne, 
where he was born, they have not been able 
since that earthquake to moke the same 
wine. He saya too that he has aeen the 
title-deeds of several eatatea in Ficardy, 
which proved that at that time they had a 
number of excellent vineyards, but that now 
no Euch crop can be reared there. He also 
attempts to account philosophically for that 
earthquake having such effects." — Ibid, 



166 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Murder of Fergus} 

'* FcBOUsius m. periit yeneno ab lutore 
dato. Alii scribunt, cum uxor ssepe expro- 
brasset ei matrimonii contemptum, et pelli- 
cum greges, neque quicquam profecisset, 
tandem noctu dormientem ab e& strangula- 
tum. Quiestione de morte ejus habit& cum 
amicorum plurimi inaimularentur, nee quia- 
quam ne in gravissimis quidem tormentis 
quicquam fateretur, mulier alioqui ferox tot 
innoxiorum capitum miserta in medium pro- 
cessit ; ac ^ superiore loco caedem k se fac- 
tam confessa, ne ad ludibrium superesset, 
pectus cultro transfodit : quod ejus factum 
▼ari^ pro cujusque ingenio est acceptum, 
ac perinde sermonibus celebratum.*' — ^Bu- 

CHAHAlf. 



**k/W\#S^MAAA^^^tfW^^'^^>% 



Dog'rihbed Indian Woman* 

'* On the 11th January (1772) as some 
of my companions were hunting, they saw 
the track of a strange snow-shoe, which 
thej followed ; and at a considerable dis« 
tance came to a little hut, where they dis- 
covered a young woman sitting alone. As 
they foxmd that she understood their lan- 
guage, they brought her with them to the 
tents. On examination, she proved to be 
one of the Western Dog-ribbed Indians, 
who had been taken prisoner by the Atha- 
puscow Indians, in the summer of 1770 ; 
and in the following summer, when the In- 
dians that took her prisoner were near this 
part, she had eloped from them, with an in- 
tent to return to her own country ; but the 
distance being so great, and having after 
she was taken prisoner been carried in a 
canoe the whole way, the turnings and wind- 
ings of the rivers and lakes were so nume- 
rous that she forgot the tra^k ; so she built 
the hut in which we found her, to protect 
her from the weather during the winter, and 
here she had resided from the first setting 
in of the fall. 

** From her account of the moons past 

* See the " Wife of Fergus," a Mono-drama. 
Poemtf p. lll.-*J. W. W. 



since her elopement, it appeared that she 
had been near seven montlis without seeing 
a human face ; during all which time she 
had supported herself very well by snaring 
partridges, rabbits, and squirrels ; she had 
also killed two or three beavers, and some 
porcupines. That she did not seem to have 
been in want is evident, as she had a small 
stock of provisions by her when she was 
disco«vered, and was in good health and con- 
dition ; and I think one of the finest women, 
of a real Indian, that I have seen in anj 
part of North America. 

** The methods practised by this poor 
creature to procure a livelihood were truly 
admirable, and are great proofs that neces- 
sity b the real mother of invention. When 
the few deer sinews that she had an oppor- 
tunity of taking with her were all expended 
in making snares and sewing her clothing, 
she had nothing to supply their place but 
the sinews of the rabbits* legs and feet; 
these she twisted together for that purpose 
with great dexterity and success. The rab- 
bits, &c. which she caught h\ those snares 
not only furnished her with a comfortable 
subsistence, but of the skins she made a suit 
of neat and warm clothing for the winter. 
It is scarcely possible to conceive that a 
person in her forlorn situation could be so 
composed as to be capable of contriving or 
executing any thing that was not absolutelj 
necessary to her existence ; but there were 
sufficient proofs that she had extended her 
care much farther, as all her clothing, be- 
side being calculated for real service, shewed 
great t4iste, and exhibited no little varietj 
of ornament. The materials, though rude, 
were very curiously wrought, and so judi- 
ciously placed as to make the whole of her 
garb have a very pleasing, though rather 
romantic appearance. 

** Her leisure hours from himting hsd 
been employed in twisting the inner rind 
or bark of willows into small lines, like net- 
twine, of which she had some hundred fa- 
thoms by her; with this she intended to 
make a fishing- net as soon as the spring ad- 
vanced. It is of the inner bark of willows 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



167 



tviited in thb mumer thftt t&e Dog-ribbed 
Indiins nuJie their fisliing nets. 

" Five or six incbee of an iron hoop made 
into m knife, and the shank of an arrow-head 
or iron, which Berred her at an awl, were 
lU the metaJa thia poor woman had with 
her when she eloped ; and with tbese imple- 
ment! ihe had made herself complete snow- 
iboea, and several other useful articles. 

" Her method of making a fire was 
eqnallj singular and curious, having no 
otiier materials for that purpose than two 
hard anlphurous stones. These, ^ long 
friction and hard kuocking produced a few 
qiarks, which at length communicated to 
touchwood ; but as this method was 
attended with great trouble, and not always 
with success, she did not Buffer her fire to 

I out all 1^ winter. 

" When the Atbapuscow Indians took 
this woman prisoner, they, according to the 
Tsal custom of those savages, surprised 
Iter and her part; in the night, and kiUed 
every soul in the tent except herself and 
three other young women. Among those 
trhcan they killed were her father, mother, 
md hnsband ; her young child, four or five 
hs old, riie concealed in a bundle of 
clothing, and took with her undiscovered in 
the night ; but when she arrived at the place 
where the Athapuscow Indians hod lefl their 

' Ca, which was not far distant, the j began 
examine her bundle, and finding the 
diild, one of the women took it from her, 
ud killed it on the spot. 

" This last piece of barbarity gave her 
nch a disgust to those Indiana, that not- 
withstanding the man who took care of her 
treated her in erery respect as his wife, and 
WIS, she said, remarkably kind to and even 
Gnd of ber ; so far was she from being able 
to reconcile herself to any of the tribe that 
■he rather cbose tc expose herself U> misery 
wd want than lire in ease and affluence 
Uiong persona who had so cruelly murdered 
kr infant. The poor woman's relation of 
tliii shocking story, which she delivered in 
(very affecting manner, only excited laugh- 
ht among the savages of my party. 



" The singularity of the circnmslanee, 
the comeliness of her person and her ap- 
prored accomplishments, occasioned a 
strong contest between several of the In- 
dians of my party who shoald have ber for 
awife; and the poor girl was actually won 
and tost at wrestling by near half a score 
different men the same evening. Mj guide, 
Halonabbee, who at that time had no less 
than seven wives, all women grown, besides 
a young girl of eleven or twelve years old, 
would have put in for the prise also, had 
not one of hia wives made him ashamed of 
it, by telling him that he had already more 
wives than he could properly attend. This 
piece of satire, however true, proved fatal 
to the poor girl who dared to make so open 
a declaration ; for the great man, Malonab- 
bee, who would willingly have been thought 
equal to eight or ten men in tverj respect, 
took it as such an affront that he fell on her 
with both hands and feet, and bmised her 
to such a degree, that, after lingering some 
time she died." — HBUtHs's Jourarg to the 
NorOieni Oeeaa, 



Trett, Sre. 

"Tee trees are pine, larch, juniper, pop- 
lar, birch, and bush-willow, growing very 
high, and alder. 

" Gooseberries spread along the ground 
like vines, the fruit most plentiful and best 
on the under branches, owing to the re- 
flected heat from below, and the shelter. 
They thrive in stony and rocky ground, 
exposed to the sun. Cranberries. Heath- 
berries grow close to the ground, a favour- 
ite food of many birds that migrate there 
in summer, particularly the grey goose. 

"Dewater-berriesbestin swampyground 
covered with moss. The plant is not very 
unlike the strawberry, but the leaves larger. 
Out of the centre of the plant shoots a single 
stalk, sometimes seven or eight inches high, 
and each plant only produces one berry, 
which at some distance resembles a straw- 
berry ; but not so conical. Some have three 
or four lobes, some nearly twenty. Currans 



168 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



red and black, in moist not swampy groand, 
best in small vallies, between the rocks. 
Strawberries very fine, and raspberries best 
where the soil has been burnt. Blueberries 
on bushes which grow to eighteen inches or 
two feet, but generally much lower ; a fine 
plum bloom. Hips in such quantities as to 
make the spots where they grow look quite 
red at a distance." — Ibid. 



Birds. 
** The brown fishing eagle. Snowy owl, 
a bird that follows the hunter all day long, 
and seizes the fowls he shoots. Ravens 
of richest black, tinged with purple and 
violet hues. The rufied grouse. Delicate 
brown, varied prettily with black and white, 
hawk-like tail, of orange, barred with black, 
brown, and white, and often spread like a 
fan. A ruff of glossy black feathers, tinged 
with rich purple round the neck, which 
they can erect. In winter they are usually 
found perched on the pine branches, and 
easily taken. Their nests generally at the 
root of a tree, twelve or fourteen eggs. It 
is remarkable, and perhaps peculiar to these 
birds, that they clap their wings with such 
force, that at half a mile distance it re- 
sembles thunder. The sharp-tailed grouse 
dive through the snow. Red-breasted thrush, 
of sweet song. Larks. Sand martins. Bit- 
terns. Pelicans. Swans.** — Ibid. 



«^^^^^wv^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



[^OldAge the North' IndiojCs Misfortune,'] 

** Old age is the greatest calamity that can 
befall a North Indian ; for when he is past 
labour he is neglected and treated with great 
disrespect, even by his own children. They 
not only serve him last at meals, but gene- 
rally give him the coarsest and worst of the 
victuals ; and such of the skins as they do 
not choose to wear, are made up In the clum- 
siest manner into clothing for their aged pa- 
rents ; who, as they had, in all probability, 
treated their fathers and mothers with the 
same neglect, in their turns submitted pa- 
tiently to their lot, even without a murmur. 



knowing it to be the common misfortune 
attendant on old age ; so that they may be 
said to wait patiently for the melancholj 
hour when, being no longer capable of walk- 
ing, they are to be left alone, to starve and 
perish for want. This, however shocking 
and unnatural it may i^pear, is so common 
that among those people one-half at least of 
the aged persons of both sexes absolutelj 
die in this miserable condition.** — ^Ibid. 



[^North and South'Ttidians" Name for (he 
Aurora BorecdisJ] 

*' Tub North Indians call the Aurora Bo- 
realis Ed-thin, that is, deer ; and when that 
meteor is very bright, they say that deer is 
plentiful in that part of the atmosphere ; 
but they have never yet extended their ideas 
so far as to entertain hopes of tasting those 
celestial animals. Their ideas in this respect 
are founded on a principle one would not 
imagine. Experience had shown them that 
when a hairy deer-skin is briskly stroked 
with the hand in a dark night, it will emit 
many sparks of electrical fire, as the back 
of a cat will. The idea which the Southern 
Indians have of this meteor is equally ro- 
mantic, though more pleasing, as they be- 
lieve it to be the spirits of their departed 
friends dancing in the clouds; and when 
the Aurora Borealis is remarkably bright, 
at which time they vary most in colour, 
form, and situation, they say their deceased 
friends are very merry." 



i«WWW\/^^«^W^MAM/W^^W• 



[^Fairies called Nant-e'TiaJ] 
" Thet are very superstitious with respect 
to the existence of several kinds of fairies, 
called by them Nant-e-na, whom they fre- 
quently say they see, and who are supposed 
by them to inhabit the different elements of 
earth, sea, and air, according to their seye- 
ral qualities. To one or other of these fai- 
ries they usually attribute any change in 
their circumstances, either for the better or 
worse.** — ^Ibid. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 

kSHghted, uid then put \u, he came out in 
B few houn ill unazed, sad told strange 
BtorieB of his going under ground, &c. To 
prevent this delusion for the future, the lords 
juBtices caused the frjen to depsxt, and laid 
the hole open and exposed to the air." — 
r-ry >■ irr i 1 Adouraile CuTvuiHa, RaritieM, amd Wtnidert 

laeiairt of rratet.] - r. ■ j . 

^ -r ■> „ Ettghnd, ^. 

poem in HaUujt's Collection, called 
lel of English Folicie, saja, 
re of Wales, Christ Jeiu most us 
keepe 
, make not our childers cbtlde to 



Irith Gold and Siloer Sfinei.'] 



Iver and golde there is the oore, - 
;tIi«wildeIrish,though tbeybepoore, 
7 are rude, and can thereon do skill ; 
; if we had their peace and good will 
ae and 6ne, and metal for to pure, 
le Irish might we fiode the ourei 
Ijondon sutii a juellere, 
brought from thence golde oore to 

of was f^ned mettal good and cleoe, 
f touch, no better could be scene." 



Si. PeUricU* Purgatorg. 
OCT the latter end of king James, the 
'thematterwas discovered by theEarl 
: and the Lord Chancellor, who, de- 
a know the truth, sent some persons 
ity to inquire exactly' into it : who 
hU this miraculous cave descending 
) the bottom of hell.was no other but 
cell digged out of the rockj ground, 
: ttj windows or holes, so as the door 
hut, it was utterly dark, being of so 
epth that a tall man could not stand 
in it; and of no greater capacity than 
six or seven persons. Now when 
ire to go this pilgrimage, he was kept 
and watching \)j the fi7ers, and told 
ful storiet, to that being thoroughly 



[ The Ironlonet of TVicunum.] 
" Tbb people of Tucuman, whom the Spa- 
niards c^l Irontones, fix the bodies of the 
enemies they kill, in rows to the trunks of 
trees, for a terror, that the borderers maj 
not dare to go over to hunt in their liber- 
ties." — F. Nicholas del Techo. 



Hg Snuail, or, the EmhajOtd Itland. 

" Akban-Mobe, the largest of the south 
blesof ArTan.onthccoiuitof Galwaj. Here 
several of the ancient Irbh saints were bu- 
ried, whence the island obtained the name 
of Arrannanoim. The inhabitants are still 
persuaded that in a clear day ihey can see 
from this coast Hy Brasail, or the inchnnlcd 
island, the paradise of the Pagan Irish, and 
concerning which they relate a number of 
romantic stories." — CoUecbmea da Rebut 
Hibemicu. Beaofobd's Ancietit Topagra' 
phy of IreUmd. 



" Tbe old Irish say great part of Ireland 
was swallowed by the sea, and that the 
sunken part Q&ea rises, and is to be seen 
on the horiEDU frequently from the northern 
coast. On the north west of the island, this 
part so appearing is called Tir-lludi, or the 
city of Hud ; that it contains a city which 
onca possessed all the riches of the world, 
the key of which lies buried under some 
druidical monument." — CoUecUattOt No. 14. 
Int. p. S2, Vau^kcet. 

Wheh Mr. Burton went in search of the 
Ogham monument on Callan mountain,! 7S5, 



170 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



^ the common people coald not be conyinced 
that the search was made afler an inscrip- 
tion, but after an enchanted key that lies 
with the interred hero Conane (the monu- 
ment is called Conane*s tomb), which when 
found will restore an enchanted city sunken 
on the neighbouring shore of the Atlantie 
sea, to its former splendour, and convert 
the hideous moory heights of Callan moun- 
tain into rich fruitful plains. Their imagi- 
nations= are heated in this gloomy aweful 
wild, expecting also great riches whenever 
this city is discovered." — Coll, No» 14. 
Notes, p. 529. 

This resurging part of the island is 
called O Breasal, or O Brazil. The royal 
island. Colonel Yallancey says it is evi- 
dently the lost city of Arabian story, vbited 
by their fabulous prophet, Houd. He com- 
bines if with the remarks of Whitehurst upon 
the Giant*s Causeway, and suspects it al- 
ludes to the lost Atlantis, which Whitehurst 
thinks perhaps existed there. 

Is that very extraordinary phenomenon, 
seen from Sicily, ever seen on the Irish 
coast — the palace of Morjaine le Fay ? If 
so, an actual apparition explains the tale.^ 



VS«W^W>^/VW«A«V>/WVNot 



[Xtf Capitaine Bonrg-de-BarJ] 

"Lbs Anglois detenoient prisonnier en 
leur bastille un Capitaine FranQois nonmi^ le 
Bourg-de-Bar, lequd estoit enferr^ par les 
pieds d'un gros et pesant fer, tellement qu*il 
ne pouvoit aller, et estoit souvent visits par 
un Augustin Anglois Confesseur de Talbot, 
maistre dudit prisonnier. Le dit Augustin 
avoit accoustum^ de luy donner k manger, 
et ledit de Talbot se fioit en luy de le bicn 
garder comme son prisonnier, esperant d'en 
avoir une grosse finance, ou delivrance d*au- 
tres prisonniers. Done quand cet Augustin 
vid les Anglois se retirer ainsi hastivement, 
il demeura avec ledit prisonnier en intention 

^ Soothe t's conjecture is quite correct. See 
notes on Madoc in Wales, xi. p. 342, where most 
of this is giyen. — J. W. W. 



de le mener apr^ ledit de Talbot son mais- 
tre, et le mena par dessous le bras, bien 
demy U'uct d*arc de distance, mais ils n*ens- 
sent jamais peu atteindre les Anglois. Lore 
iceluy Bourg voyant les Anglois s*en aller 
en grand desordre, reconnut bien qu'ils 
avoient du pire, si prit TAugustin a bona 
poings, et luy dit qu*il n*iroit plus avant, 
et que s*il ne le portoit jusques a Orleans, 
il luy feroit oii feroit faire desplaisir. £t 
combien qu*il y eut tousjours des Anglois 
y Francois qui escarmouchoient encore, 
toutesfois eet Augustin par force et con- 
trainte le porta sur ses espaules jusques a 
Orleans.*' Quaref P. Daniel. ■ 130. 

ITke Maid aitd the Voice.^ 
Said the maid, " En nom Dieu je s^aj 
bien ce que vous pensez, et voulez dire de 
la voix que j'ay ouye touchant vostre Sacre, 
et je le vous diray. Je me suis mise en 
oraison, en ma maniere accoustum^, je me 
complaignois, pour ce qu*on ne me vouloit 
pas croire de ce que je disois ; et lors la 
voix me dit,*Fille va, va, je seray a ton aydc, 
val' Et quand cette voix me vient, je suis 
tant resjouye que merveilles. Et en disant 
lesdites paroles, elle levoit les yeux au cicl, 
en monstrant signe d*une grande exulta- 
tion."— Ibid. 133. 



^^^^^^^^^^^v^^^^^^^v^*^^^ 



IRichemonfs Humamii/J] 

RiCHEMONT, when he took Saint Severe, 
" Fit nourrir plus de cent enfans que les 
meres avoient laissez, les unes prises, et les 
autres enfuyes, et fit amener des chevres 
pour les allaiter." — ^Ibid. 372. 



*^ ^ *i^t^^M* »*K*K*Ww*WWW^"VWV » » 



Dagcherfs Soul /ought for. 
'* Ansoalds, revenant de son Ambassade 
de SicilC) aborde a une petite lie, et ea- 



* See note on " Joan of Are,** p. 24, wher« it 
is said that " Richemont has left an honourable 
name, though he tied a prime minister up in s 
sack, and threw him into the riTer." P. Dakul 
is the authority.— J. W. W. 



lomme Jeu, et parlant des G&ul«« «t 

da Boi Dtkgobert, Jeui lui dit, qu'aiuit H& 

;i de prier Dieu pour I'Ame de cc 

Prince, il «volt tq, Bur la mer, des Diablei 

tioient le Roi Dftgobert lie snr ito E«- 
iliuf, et le menoient, en le batUnt, aux ma< 

de Vulcaio. Que Dagobert crioit, 
•pptUant a ton leconrs S. Deois, S. Uau- 
nee, et S. Martin, lea priant de te delivrer 
<t de le conduire dans le lein d' Abraham. 
Co SaioU coumrent aprea lee diaUef, leur 
uneli^rent cette Ame, et I'eminen^rent au 
Cid, en chantant de« verseta dea Paeaumea." 
lliia legend ia sculptured on the monu- 
ment of Dagobert I. Threior dei Anii- 
failei de la Covromu de France. 1745. — 
T. ], ^. 11. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



171 



Pacton of CharU> V. of France. 
At the uDclion of Charlea V. the twelve 
pten are represented each atretcbnig out 
hii right hand towarda the king. 



" Tbb white horse waa the mark of bo- 
•ereigntf. Margaret, daughter of James, 
^ing of Scotland, is represented on one when 
(he entered Toara as the future Dauphin ess. 
Her head-dress, and that of her female at- 
lendanla, is the coeflure pointue, which was 
fuhiooable almnst during two centuries. It 
it thus shaped. From the top falls a long 
while robe, hanging strait to the elbow, and 
there thrown over the arm. No hair is vi- 
uble, nor anj thing between the face and 
ksL Their wusts are short, exocttj as thej 
■hould be to render the form most graceful, 
Irag sleeves, and the dresses long. A white 
bindkerchief, or rather sash, crosses the 
■hoiilden, and meets upon the breaat, under 
which the gown comes up, straight bordered 
•bore. The neck quite bare, and unoma- 
nented. 1436. The«e figures please me 
toBch."— T. 2. Planche, 156. See Traa. 
•tf Comminei. p. 6, note upon the Ezcett of 



Thick Heads in BrazU. 

"Blockbbuis and loggerheads are i 
request in Brasil, and helmets are of little 
use, everj one having an artificialized n 
turall morion of hii head ; for the Brasilia) 
heads, some of them are as hard as the wood 
that growes in their countrjt, for they c 
not b« broken, and the; have them so hard 
that ours in comparison of theirs are lil 
pompion ; and when thej will injure anj 
white man, thej call him soft head, so that 
hard-head and block-head, termes of ri 
proach with ua, attributed to them would 
be taken for terms of honour and gentle- 
man-like qualifications. This propertj thej 
purehaaed bj art, with going bare-headed, 
which is a certain waj to attain unto 
qualitj of a Brasillan chevalier, and to har- 
den the tender head of any Priscian, be jond 
the fear of breaking, or needing the imper- 
tinent ptaister of pedantic mountebanks. 

" The Indians of Iliapaniola, the skuls of 
their heads are so hard and thick, that the 
Spaniards agreed that the head of an 
dian, although bare, was not to be struck, 
for fear of breaking their swords.*' — Bdl- 
wB»'g Man Tratuformd, or TIte ArtificiaU 
Changeling. 1654. 



Dirty-headed Irish. 
"To what use or purpose should that 
superfluous crop of bur serve? or what 
emolument it can bring, none can see, u 
lesse it be to breed lice and dandro,' al^er 
the manner of jour Irish ; who, as thej are 
a nation estranged from anj human excel- 
lencj, scarce acknowledge anj other nae of 
their huire than to wipe their hands from 
the fat and dirt of their meales, and any 
otfaerfllth,forwhich cause thej nourishlong 
fealt locks, hanging down to their shoulders, 
which thej are wont to use instead of nap- 
kins, to wipe their greasie fingers." — BtJL- 



' This ia evidenlly the old form of "dan- 
driff,"i.e. scurf; from the AngloSaxon" Tun/' 
a letter, and Drop, filth.— J. W. W. 1 



172 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Welsh Raggednets, 

** ScHTR Mawbicb, akiiA the Berclaj 
Fra the gret bataill held hjs way, 
With a gret rout of Walls men, 
Qubareuir thai jeid men mycht thum ken. 
For thai wele ner all nakjt war, 
Or lynnjn clathys had but mar.** 

Tlu Bruce f book idiir p. 417. 

PSnkerton says, " this anecdote of the 
Welch in the fourteenth century is curious. 
They appeared naked even toScotish pea- 
sants,*' 



Chivalrous Speech. 

The Douglas, '^ Lordihgs, he said, sen it 
is sua 
That we hafi* chasyt on sic maner. 
That we now cummyn ar sa ner. 
That we may not eschew the fycht, 
Hot giff we fouly tak the flycht } 
Lat ilkane on his leman mene ; 
And how he mony tym has bene 
In gret thrang and Weill cummyn away ; 
Think wc to do rycht sua to day.** 

Ibid, book zv. 346. 



Heart of Bruce. 

Douglas, " The Bruce*s heart, that on 
his breast 
Was hinging, in the field he kest. 
Upon a penny-stone cast and more, 
And said, Now fass thou fobth befobb 

As THOU WAS WOHT IN FIELD TO BB 
And I SHALL FOLLOW OB ELSE DIE.** 

Ibid. XX. 



^^^•'<^VN^^\/^^^/S^/^^^^/\^«* 



Sun and Sea Worship, 

** Thb Emperors of Peru extended at last 
their dominions beyond the bounds of their 
local superstition. They set out with their 
arms and mission from a country where the 
sun was very welcome, and imposed the 
worship of their father, the sun, on all the 



mtions they subjugated,, with great success 
as long as sun-wcn^hip held good. But at 
length they came to a people who,^ situated 
on a rocky coast in a sultry climate, could 
Bot in conscience submit to adore a being 
almost msupportable, and conseqviently odi- 
ous to them; and durst propose to their 
conquerors to quit their irrational idolatry, 
and to worship with themselves their mother 
and goddess the sea, the inexhausted giver 
of good things.** — Letter from North AmS' 
rica, in a Pochet of Prose and Verse, being a 
Selection from the Literary IVoductions of 

AUEXANDEB EbLLBT, 

Men Ornamented, not Women. 

" A TOUNG man among the Indians is 
dressed with visible attention ; a warrior is 
a furious beau, and a woman, the Asiatic, 
the European, the African DoQ, is with 
them a neglected squat animal, whose hair 
is stroked over those glistening eyes it dares 
not uplifl, and who seldom uses its aspen 
tongue^^ and when k does, is scarcely loud 
enough to be heard. When we reproach 
the Indians on this account, they point to 
their animated woods, and tell us that they 
see not whence we have picked up a con- 
trary practice; but that they themselves 



^ ^ After answering many of the lady's ques- 
tions, ho looked into Uie yard through the win- 
dow very earnestly, where an aspen tree grew. 
The lady asked him, ' What he was looking at 
so earnestly V He asked her, ' What tree she 
called that in the yard V She said, < It was a 
quaking asp.' He replied in broken English, 
* Indian no call him quake asp.' ' What then?' 
asked the inquisitive nostess. ' Woman tongue, 
Woman tongue,' answered the sagacious war- 
rior, * never still, never still, always go.' "— 
Hunter's Memmrt of hia Captivity ammig tkt 
North American Indiantf p. 376. 

I mentioned this soon after the publication of 
Hunter's book to a Welsh friend, who told me 
that the aspen poplar bore the same name among 
the Cymry,— " Tafod y Mtrehen;' or Wamau't 
Tongue, This was on the Conwav, and I noted 
it down at the time ; but I do not find it in Rich- 
ard*8 Welsh Dictionary."— J. W. W. 



)EAS AND STTTDIES FOR LITBRABY COMPOSITION. 



their leMon from wbat«Ter 
d Uiem, from the birdi ftud the 
i males are lavithl; adorned id 
)f their females, from the gaj 
Lhe turkj cock, and the onu- 

heod of the atag "— K«T.f .m r 



"Haivi of an Old Indian.'^ 
es, " tliat in the bappj daji of 
11 lored or feared bj all ; that 
abawk bis enem;r ^id could not 
e ; that ererj river was then an 
ind ererj squih he met a wife ; 
I he was gro*rD old, ever; one 
omed him ; the deer bounded 
i) erring aim, and tbe girls co- 
Klxes repoliiTelj at hii ap- 
was he taj longer permitted 
grace the glorious file of war : " 
udes with ardent wishes, " that 
e had never disclosed bun, or 
im with that power of renova- 
«med M improperlj granted to 
la snake." — Ibid. 



Wo TrOia JFtghlag. 

rriors of two tribea of American 

accidentlj on the banks of a 
und thejr were strangers to one 
le of the parties demands of the 
liej were and what about, and 
answer their name, and that 
anting of beavers ; and being 
D their turn, answered, that 
iras immaterial, but that their 

to hunt men. TVe are men, 
tediale replj, go no further, 
ut off bj agreement to a small 
1 river, deitrojed their canoes 
I, and fonght till onlj a few of 
nntera remained alive, and but 
an hunters, who was spared to 



1 1 iDipect orieinated, — " The Old 
hia Qrandun?'— Pmhi, p. 134. 
J. W. W. 



carr^ to his nation an account, that he had 
met with a tribe who could hunt men better 
than his own." — Ibid. 



Teraphim.* 
" Tub manner how the Teraphim were 
made is fondl; conceited thus among the 
Rabbles. The; killed a man that was a 
first bom son, and wrung off bis head, and 
seasoned it with salt and spices, and wrote 
upon a plate of gold, th« name of an un- 
deane spirit, and put it nnder the head upon 
a trail, and lighted candles before It, and 
worshipped it," — Godwth'i Mote* and 



De/mive Fire. 
1159. Hbdkt n. " dertroied tbe strong 
castell of Gerberie, except one turret, which 
his eouldiera could not take, by reason of 
the fire and smoke which staide and kept 
them from it." — HouHiaiit. 



Hauy the Sftoad't Cmtlty. 

1165. Herbi in his attempt upon Wales 
" did justice on the sons of Rice or Rees, 
and dso on the sonnes and daughters of 
other noble men that were hu complices 
verie rigorousUe ; cansmg the eles' of the 
^lonng striplings to be pecked out of their 
heads, and their noies to be cut aSor slit ; 
and tiie eares of the joong gentlewomen to 
be stuSed. 

" But yet I find in other authors that in 
this jouroie King Uenrie did not greatlie 

■ Quoted in " Thalaba," Book II., 5, on the 

" A teraph stood against the cavern side," Ac. 
Pmihi, p. 324. 
> This is quoted to " Madoc in Wales," B. 11., 
" David, saest then never 
Those ejreless spectres hy ibj bridal bed ?" &c. 
Potmi, p. 317 J. W, W. 



174 IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



prevaile against his enemies, but rather lost 
manie of his men of warre, both horssemen 
and footmen ; for by his severe proceeding 
against them, he rather made them more 
eger to seek revenge, than quieted them in 
anie tumult." — Ibid. 



^^^^s/sy%^^^^^^^^^^^^^s^^^^^ 



Boards Head, 



" Upon the daie of young Henry's coro- 
nation. King Henry the father served his 
Sonne at the table as sewer, bringing up the 
bore's head with trumpets before it, ac- 
cording to the manner.** — Ibid. 



i^W^»»WWM^S^»<^»»»>/»/W»^ 



Fresh Meat strange Diet for England, 

Qtueref 

** 1172. In Ireland, evill diet in eating of 
fresh flesh and drinking of water, contrarie 
to the custome of the Englishmen, brought 
the flix and other diseases in the King*s 
armie, so that manie died thereof, for 

Gravissimum est imperium consuetudinis.** 

Ibid. 



^^^^^^^^k^^^^^^^^^^NAA^ 



u 



Henry the Second stript when Dead, 

1189. Immbdiatblt upon his death, 
those that were about him applied their 
market so busilie in catching and filching 
awaie things that laie readie for them, that 
the King's corps laie naked a long time, till 
a child covered the nether parts of his body 
with a short cloke, and then it seemed that 
his surname was fulfilled that he had from 
his childhood, which was Shortmantell, being 
so called, because he was the first who 
brought short clokes out of Anjou into 
England. — Ibid. 



His Epitaph, 

To the epitaph of Henry IL these con- 
cluding lines are in Holinshed, p. 27 : 



*' Quod potes instanter operare bonuin, qui 
mundus 
Transit, et incautos mors inopina rapit 

To the other couplet this is affixed : 

** Tumuli regis superscriptio brevis exoi 
nat.*' 

Both are thus translated, 

** Of late King Henrie was my name, 

which conquerd manie a land, 
And diverse dukedoms did possesse, 

and earledoms held in hand. 
And yet while all the earth could scarse 

my greedie mind suffice. 
Eight foot within the ground now serves 

wherein my carcase lies. 
Now thou that readest this, note well 

my force with force of death, 
And let that serve to shew the state 

of all that yeeldeth breath. 
Doo good then here, foreslowe no time, 

cast off all worldlie cares, 
For brittle world full soone dooth faile, 

and death dooth strike unwares.** 

Another. 

** Small epitaph now serves to decke 
this toome of statelie king : 

And he who whilome thought whole earl 
could scarse his mind content. 

In little roome hath roome at large 
that serves now life is spent.** 



«W>/W«A/^WN/\/>/W>/W^%^ 



The Lady Breme, 

" We read in an old historic of Fland< 
written by one whose name is not know 
but printed at Lions by Guillaume Roui 
1562, that the Lady, wife to the LordM 
liam de Breuse, presented upon a time u 
the Queenc of England a gift of four hi 
dred kine and one bull, of colour all wh 
the eares excepted, which were red. . 
though this tale may seem incredible, yc 
we shall consider that the said Breuse ^ 
a Lord Marcher, and had goodlie posi 
sions in Wales and on the mju*8he8, in wl 



I 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERAHT COMPOSITION. 



19 the moat part of the peoples nib- 
»>iisuteth in cattell, it mvf carrie 
b« more likelihood of truth. Touch- 
death of the Mud ladie, ho aaith, 
bin eleven daies after (he was corn- 
to priaon heere in England, in the 
of Windsor, ahe waa found dead, 
Detwixt her eons legs, who likewise 
ead, sate directlie up againat a wall 
chamber, wherein thej were kept 
rd pitance. As the fame went the; 
aiahed to death. William de Breuae 
escaped into France. a.D.1210.'" — 



WeUh Monk Hatred. 
B Gr*t abbeie or frierie that u read 
beene erected there (in Walea) unce 
>lution of the noble house of Bangor, 
avonred not of Romiih dr^s, waa 
r Gw^, which wta builded in the 
146. Afterwarda theie venulne 
i like bees, or rather crawled like 
IT all the land, and drew in with 
eir lowaie religion, tempered with I 
i how manie millions of abomina- 
lavtng utterlie forgotten the lesson 
jnbrosius Telesinus (Q^r.TalieaNn ?} 
ght them (who writ in the yeare 
en the right Chriatian faith (which 
of Arimathea taught the ile of 
I reigned in this land, before the 
jid blood thiratie monke Augustine 
. it with the poison of Romish er- 
B certeine ode, a part whereof are 
w verses iniuing. 
* Gwae'r offeiriad bjd, 
!f ja angreiSUa gwji, 

Ac aj phregetha : 
jwae nj cheidw ej gail, 
Ic ef jn vigail, 

Ac njs areilia : 
!}wae mj theidw ej dheuMd, 
ihae bleidhie Rhlefeniaid, 

Ai flbn greirppa." 



ITins in English, almost word for word, 

" Wo be to that prcest ybome, 

That will not cleanelie weed his come 

And preach hia charge among : 
Wo be to that shepheard, I sue. 
That will not watch hia fold alwue 

As to his office dooth belong : 
Wo be to him that dooth not kecpe 
From ravening Romiah wolves his sheepe 

With atafie and weapon strong." — Ibid. 



Onmd Strgeanti/ Temtre of Brieiuton. 

" BxmsTON, in Dorsetahire, was held in 
Grand Sergeant; hj a prett; odd jocular 
tenure ; viz. b; finding a man to go before 
the Kings armj for fortj i»j* when he 
should make war m Scotland (some records 
aa; in Walea), bareheaded and barefooted, 
in Uls shirt and linnen drawers, holding in 
one hand a bow without a string, in the 
other an arrow without feathers." — Gib- 
bon's Canidat. 

This ma; be alluded to in Madoc.* 



Arabian AnitnaU. 
" In the places where we generally rested 
Brefoundthejerboa,the tortoise, the lizard, 
and some serpents, but not in great number. 
There is also an immense quantity of anaila 
attached to the thorny planta on which the 
camels feed. Near the few springs of water 
are found wild rabbits, and the track of the 
antelope and the ostrich are fret^uently dia- 
coverable." — Baowns'a TravtU in Afriett, 
Egypt, tatd Syria. 



Mitftd. 

" Wb diamonnted and seated ourselvea, 

as is usual for strangers in thia country, on 

a mUjed, or place used for prayer, ai^oining 



176 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



the tomb of a Marahvt, or holj persoQ. In 
a short time the chiefs came to congratu- 
late us on our arrival, with the grave but 
simple ceremony that is in general use 
among the Arabs. They then conducted us 
to an apartment, which, though not very 
commodious, was the best they were pro- 
vided with." — Ibid. 



^^>«M/W«M/WW^W«A«S/VWWS^ 



King of the Crocodiles. 

" The people at Isna in Upper Egypt have 
a superstition concerning crocodiles similar 
to that entertained in the West Indies; they 
say there is a king of them who resides near 
Isna, and who has ears but no tail ; and he 
possesses an uncommon regal quality, that 
of doing no harm (* The king can do no 
wrong.*) Some are bold enough to assert 
that they have seen him.** — Ibid. 



^^^^^^^^^^«^^A^^^W>/^A^ 



CameL 
Thb camel called ship of the land. 



^^^W^^A^^WV^/V%^/^^^^ 



Catnelsfor Souls* 

" Axi affirmed that the pious, when they 
come forth from their sepidchres, shall find 
ready prepared for them white-winged ca- 
mels, with saddels of gold. Here,** says 
Sale, ** are some footsteps of the doctrine of 
the ancient Arabians,** 



VVW%/\/VWWW%M^^^VN^^ 



Lake JHHoaca, 



*' JuvAT de lacu Intiticacd, falsb vulgb 
Titicac& dicto, aliquid promere, qui in su- 
pem& provinci& Feruan& Collao medius ja- 
cet. In hunc flumina plus decem,eaque satis 
ampla confluunt; exitum habet unum,eum- 
que non vald^ latum, sed, ut opinio est, pro- 
fundissimum, quem nequc ponte jungere 
profunditas et latitudo sinunt, neque tut5 
scaphis trajici rapidi infem^ vortices pati- 

» See Poeiw, p. 437, for the Ballad.— J. W. W. 



untur. Trajicitur tamen, miro ingenio et 
Indorum proprio ; ponte prorsus junoeo ip- 
si aqus commisso, nullis fulcris nixo, aed in 
modum suberis ponte supematante, ac pre 
levitate materis nunquam merso ; est vero 
trajectio facillima et tutissima. Occupat 
lacus ipse circuitum bis mille quadringenta 
stadia ; longus est fer^ nongenta, latus 
ubi maxim^ ducenta et vigintL Insulas 
habet olim habitatas et fertiles, nunc de- 
sertas, producit uberrima junci genus, quod 
indigenie Totoram vocant, cujus plurimus 
ipsis usus est; nam et cibus est suibus, ju- 
mentis, ipsisq; hominibus perjucundus, et 
domus et focus et vestis et navigium, et om- 
nia pen^ vitiB humane subtidia una Totora 
Uris prestat,hoc enim accolarum est nomen. 
li ade6 se ab hominum cieteronim consor- 
tio et opinione alienarunt, ut interrogati ali- 
quando,- qui sint, serib responderint, se non 
homines esaef sed Uros, quod genus ab hn- 
mano diversum esse sentirent. Urorum re- 
perti sunt populi integri in medio lacu ha- 
bitantium scaphis quibusdam j unceis, quibns 
inequitant, simul connezis, et ex un& aliqnii 
rupe aut stipite religatis. Unde interdum 
solventes totua populus subitb patriam mu- 
tat. Itaque aliquando conquisitus populus 
urorum hesternis sedibus commutatis, ac ne 
vestigio quidem relicto, facile vestigantium 
studium curamque irrisit.** — ^Acosta deNa" 
turd Novi Orbis, 



*^^^^^^^^^^^^»^^^^v^iM^% 



Trichomata'ParastasiSy or^ Athenian Wig- 
gery^ No. 119, Bishopsgate'Street-witkin, 
three doors from the London Tavern. 

" Ross, by great labour and at vast ex- 
pence, has exerted all the genius and abili- 
ties of the first artists in Europe, to com- 
plete his exhibition of ornamental hair in 
all its luxuriant varieties, and particularly 
the Sultana head dress, so much admired on 
the queen*8 birth-day. 

" In this exhibition the elegance of nature 
and convenience of art are so combined, aa 
at once to rival and ameliorate each other. 
The room is secluded from the view of im- 



IDEAS AND STUD[ES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



177 



jurioiitj, where hit fair pstroos 
emiptedlj ezamiiiB the effect of 
■esies oD Poupec of all complex- 
j % trial on thenuelvea, blend the 
Inta with tbeir own. 
g on public ftTonr, he confidently 
t whole fsBhionable world to U 
of unexunpled bute ud ezcel- 
lar, Thwrtdas AMgtui 1, 1799. 



tUent motive, perhaps of niper> 
st have impelled the founder* of 
he choice of a mort unpromising 
^niej erected their habitations 
■tone, in a plain about two milei 
ne mile broad, at the foot of three 
unt«in9 : the loil is a rock ; the 
I of the holj well of Zemsem is 
rackish ; the pastures are remote 
3tj, and grapes are transported 
sntj miles from the gardens of 



AhdiA Molalleb. 
randfather of Mahomet was Ab- 
eb, the son of Hashem, a wealthy 
lus citizen, who relieved the dis- 
nine with the supplies of com- 
eccB, which bad been fed bj the 
af the father, wai saved by the 
the son. The kingdom of Yemen 
t to theChristian princes of Abjs- 
ir vassal Abrahah was provoked 
lit to avenge the honour of the 
the holy citj was invested bj a 
;[rfiaats and an arm; of Africans. 
ras proposed, and in the first an- 
e grandfather of Mahomet de- 
e restitution of his cattle: 'And 
Abrahah, * do jon not rather em* 
emencj in fkvour of jour temple, 
tve threatened to destroy.' 'Be- 
llied the btrepid chief, ' the cat- 
own : the Caaba belongs to the 



gods, and tlia/ will defend their bouse from 
injur; and sacrilege.' The want of provi- 
sions, or the valour of the Koreiih, com- 
pelled the Abyssinians to a disgraceful re- 
treat ; their discomfiture has been adorned 
with a miraculous flight of birds, who show- 
ered down stones on the heads of the infi- 
dels, and the deliverance was long comme- 
morated by the lera of the elephant. The 
glory of Abdol Motalleb was crowned with 
domestic happiness ; his life was prolonged 
to the age of 1 10 years, and he became the 
father of six daughters and thirteen sons. 
His best beloved, Abdallah, was the most 
beautiful and modest of the Arabian youth ; 
and in the first night, when he consummated 
his marriage with Amina, of the noble race 
of the Zahrites, two hundred virgins are 
said to have expired of jealousy and despair. 
Mahomet, the only son of Abdallah and Ami- 
na, was bom at Mecca, four yeara afler the 
death of Justinian, and two months after 
thedefeat of the Abyssinians, whose victory 
would have introduced into the Caaba the 
religion of the Christians." — Ibid. aj). 169. 



Flight of Mohammtd, 
" Thb Eoreishites had long been jealous 
ofthe pre-eminence of the family of Hosheni. 
Thdr malice was coloured with the pretence 
of religion : in the age of Job, the crime of 
impiety was punished by the Arabian ma- 
gistrate, andMahometwasguilty of desert- 
ing and denying the national deities. But 
so loose was the policy of Mecca, that the 
leaden of the Koreish, instead of accusing 
a criminal, were oompelled U> employ the 
measures of perauasion or violence. They 
repeatedly addressed Abu Taleb in the style 
of reproach and menace. ' Thy nephew re* 
viles our religion; he accuses our wise fore- 
fathers of ignorance and folly ; silence him 
quickly, lest he kindle tumult and discord 
in the city. If he persevere, we shall draw 
our swords against him and his adherents, 
and thou wilt be responsible fbr the blood 
of thy fellow-citiceos.' The weight and 



178 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



moderation of Abu Taleb eluded the yio- 
lence of religious fftctioD; the mo«t helpless 
or timid of the disciples retired to Ethiopia, 
and the prophet withdrew himself to vftrious 
places of strength in the town and country. 
As he was still supported bj bii famil]', the 
rest of the tribe of Koreish engaged them- 
selres to renounce tdl intercourse with the 
children of Hashem, neither to buj nor sell, 
neither to many nor to give in marriage, 
but to pursue them with implacable enmity, 
till they should deliver the person of Ma- 
homet to the justice of the gods. The de- 
cree was suspended in the (^ba before the 
eyes of the nation ; the meuengers of the 
Koreish pursued the Musulmsn exiles in the 
heart of Africa : they beai^d the prophet 
and his most faithful followers, intercepted 
their water, and inSamed their mutual ani* 
mosity by the retaliation of injuries and in- 
sults. A doubtful truce restored the appear- 
ances of concord ; till the death of Abu Ta- 
leb abandoned Mahomet to the power of his 
enemies, at the moment when he was de- 
prived of hii domestic comforts by the loss 
of his faithful and generous Cadijoh. 

" Abu Sophian, the chief of the branch 
of Ommiyah, succeeded to the principality 
of the republic of Mecca. A zealous votary 
of the idols, a mortal foe of the line of Ha- 
shem, he convened an assembly of the Ko- 
reisbites and their nllies, to decide the fate 
of the apoitle. His imprisonment might pro- 
voke the despair of his enthusiasm ; uid the 
exile of an eloquent and popular fanatic 
would diffuse the mischief through the pro- 
vinces of Arabia. His death was resolved ; 
and they agreed that a tword from each tribe 
should be buried in his besrt, to divide the 
guilt of his blood and baffle the vengeance 
of the Hashemites. An angel or a spy re- 
vealed their conspiracy, and flight was the 
only resource of Mahomet. At the dead of 
night, accompanied by his friend Abubeker, 
he silently escaped ftvro his boose ; tlie aa- 
sasuns watched at the door, but they were 
deceived by the figure of AJl, who reposed 
on the bed, and wa» covered with the green 
vestment of the apostle. The Koreish re- 



spected the piety of the heroic youth j but 
some verses of Ali which are still extant,u- 
hibit an interesting picture of his snxict;, 
his tendemesB, and his religious con6deiice. 
Three days Mahomet and his companion were 
concealed in the cave of Thor, at the dis* 
tance of a league from Mecca; and in lbs 
close of each evening, they received from the 
BOn and daughter of Abubeker a secret gup- 
ply of inlelligence and food. The diligence 
of the Koreish explored every haunt in tie 
neighbourhood of the city ; they arrived xt 
the entrance of the cavern, but the prori- 
dential deceit of a spider's web and a pi- 
geon's nest i* supposed to convince tben 
that tbe place was solitary and inviolate. 
' We are only two,' said the trembling Abu- 
beker.' ' There is a third,' relied the jro- 
fbet, * it is God himself.* 

" No sooner was the pursuit abated, thss 
the two frigitives issued from the rock, and 
mounted their camels ; on the rood to Me- 
dina they were overtaken by the emissaries 
of the Koreish ; they redeemed theuiselies 
with prayers and promises from their band: ; 
in this eventful moment, the lance of sn 
Arab might have changed the histoiy of the 
world ." — GiBBow. 



Arrival at Medtna. 
" Mbsika, or the city known under tbe 
name of Yatfaieb, before it was sanctified 
by the throne of the Frt^bet, was divided 
between the tribes of the Charegites and 
the Awsites, whose hereditary feud was re- 
kindled by the slightest provocations : two 
colonies of Jews, who boasted a sacerdotal 
race, were their humble allies, and without 
converting the Arabs, they introduced the 
taste of science and religion, which distin- 
guished Medina aa tbe City of the Book. 
Some of her noblest dtisene, in a [ulgrimsge 
to the Caaba, were converted by the preach- 
ing of Mahomet ; on their r«tum they dif- 
fused the belief of God and his Prt^het, sid 
the new alliance was ratified by their d«f»i- 
tiea in two secret and nocturnal interriew 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOB LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



on A hill in the auborbi of Mecca. In the 
fiKt, ten Char^ites and tvo AwtiUfl united 
is futh uid love, proteated in the nime of 
thor wiTCB, their children, and their absent 
brethren, thM thej would for ever profess 
the creed ftod obserre the precepts of the 
Koran. The Mcond was a political auocU- 
tion, the 6rtt vital spark of the empire of 
the Saraceni. Seventj-three men and two 
women of Medina held a solemn confereDce 
with Mahomet, hij kinsmen, and his dlsci- 
jde* ; and pledged themselvos to each other 
bj a mutiul oftth of fidelity. Tbey pro- 
niaed in the naioe of the citji that if he 
■bould be banished, they would receive him 
u ■ coDfederate, obej bim as a leader, and 
defend htm to the last eztremitj, like their 
wive* and children. ' But if you are re- 
called bj jour country,' tbej asked with 
t flattering anxiety, * will jou not abandon 
your new allies f ' All thingt,' replied Ma- 
bomet with a smile, * are now common be- 
tween us ; yoar blood is as my blood, your 
rub as my ruin. We ore bound to each 
other by the ties of honour and interest. I 
imyonrfriend,and the enemy of your foes.' 
' But if we are killed in your service, what,' 
exclaimed the deputies of Medina, * will be 
our reward ?' ' Paeaoisb," replied the Pro- 
phet 'Stretch forth thy hand.' Hestretched 
it forth, and they reiterated the oath of alle- 
giance and fidelity. Their treaty was rati- 
I Ged by the paople, who unanimously em- 
I braced the profession of Islam ; they re- 
! joiced in the eaile of the Apostle, but they 
trembled for his safety, and impatiently ex- 
pected his arrival. Ailer a perilous and 
Hfud journey along the sea-coast, he halted 
U Koba, two miles from the city, and made 
kii public entry into Medina, siiteen days 
■fter his fiight from Mecca. Five hundred 
of the citizans advanced la meet him ; he 
*u hailed with acclama^ons of loyalty and 
dno^D. Mahomet was mounted on a she 
cunel, an umbrella shaded his head, and a 
tuiban was unfurled before him to supply 
■he deSuenoy of a standard. His bravest 
•iiKiplea, who had been scattered by the 
norm, aMcmbled round his person ; and the 



equal, though various merit of the Moslems 
was distinguished by the names of Moha- 
gerians and Aniars, the fugitives of Mecca 
and the auxiliaries of Medina. To eradi' 
cate the seeds of jealousy Mahomet judi- 
ciously coupled his principal followers with 
the rights and obligations of brethren, and 
when Ali found himself without a peer, the 
prophet tenderly declared thai he would be 
the companion and brother of the noble 
youth. The expedient was crowned with 
success i the holy fraternity was respected 
in peace and war; and the two parties vied 
wiUi each other in a generotu emulation of 
courage and fidelity. Once only the con- 
cord was slightly ruSod by an accidental 
quarrel; apatriot of Medina arraigned the 
insolence of the strangers, but the hint of 
their expulsion was heard with abhorrence, 
and his own son most eagerly ofiered to lay 
at the Apostle's feet the bead of his father." 



" Lb Nil — tantot fleuve tranquille, U suit 
leutement te cours que la nature et Tart 
lui ont trac£ ; taotct torreat imp^tueux, 
rougi des sables de I'Ethiopie, il se gonfle, 
francbit ses bords, domine sur les campagnes, 
et couvre de see flots un espace de deux 
cents lieues." — Satabt. 



" Lb Lotus est one nymphee particulihre 
It I'Egypte, qui croit dins les ruisseoux et 
au bord des lacs. II y en a de deux espi- 
ces, I'une & fleur blanche, et I'autrc )k fleur 
bleufttre. Le calice du lotus s'epanouit 
comme celui d'une Urge tulippe, et rfpand 
ane odeur suave, approchante de celle du 
lis. La premiere esp^e produit une ra- 
cine ronde, semblable k une pomme de terre. 



' The reader is rtferrad to R. Ditpa'b JUat- 
Imtfmi ifih4 iMui of tht AncitnU, and Tamara 
AfMm.-J.W.W. 



180 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Les habitans des bords du lac Menzale 8*en 
nourrissent. Les ruisseauz des enyirons 
de Damiette sont couverts de oette fleur 
majestueuse, qui s^^l^ye d*environ deux 
pieds au-dessus des eauz. Le lotus ne se 
trouve point sur les grands canauz du Nil, 
mais dans les ruisseauz qui trayersent Tin- 
t^eur des terres.** — ^Ibid. 



•^^^^^^^^^V^^^^^\^^^N^^^ 



Palm, 

^ Lb superbe dattier dont la tite flexible 
se penche mollement comme celle d*une 
belle qui s*endort, est couronn^ de ses grap- 
pes pendantes.** — Dafard el Hadad. Sa- 

VAXT. 



Sycamore Fig-tree of Egypt* 

" Lb sycomore d'Egypte produit une fi- 
gue qui croit sur le tronc de Tarbre, et non 
k rextr^mit4 des rameaux. On la mange, 
mais elle est un peu s^che. Get arbre de- 
vicnt fort gros et tr^ touffu. Rarement il 
s*^^ye droit. Ordinairement il se courbe 
et devient tortueux. Ses branches 8*etend- 
ant borizontalement et fort loin donnent un 
bel ombrage. Sa feuille est decoupee, et 
son bois impr^gn^ d*un sue amer n*est point 
sujet k la piqiire des insectes. Le syco- 
more yit plusieurs sidles.** — SAyABT. 

He speaks of it as growing with palm 
trees on the sides of the Nile. 



>^^^^^^M^^S^^V^^^^^V^^fV^^ 



Delia Scenery, 

^ Unb surface immense, sans montagne, 
sans coUine, couple de canaux innombrables 
et couyerte de moissons; des sjcomores 
toufius dont le bois indestructible prot^e 
la cabane de terre oii le laboureur se retire 
rhiyer, car F^t^ il dort sous Tombrage ; des 
dattiers rassembl^s en for^t, ou ^pars dans 
la plaine, couronn^ au sommet de grappes 
6normes dont le fruit ofire un aliment sucr^ 

* See KiTTO's CyeUmttdia of Biblical Liiera- 
tur$, in y. Shikmnth.^i. W. W. 



et salutaire ; des cassiers, dont les branches 
flexibles se parent de fleurs jaunes, et por- 
tent une silique connue dans la m^ecine; 
des orangers, des citronniers que le ciseta 
n*a point mutilds, et qui ^tendant leurs ra- 
meaux parfum^ forment des yoiites impe- 
netrable aux rayons du soleil : yoilik les 
principaux arbres que Ton rencontre dsDS 
le Delta. L*hiyer ne les d^pouille point de 
leurs feuilles. lis sont pai^ toute Tannee 
comme aux jours du printemps.** — ^Ibid. 



«<yw»*^«<VVWVWWW>»w» 



Women Swimming. 

" Lbs filles descendent du yillage pour 
layer leur linge et puiser de Teau. Toutes 
font leur toilette. Leurs cruches et leurs 
yStemens sont sur le riyage. Elles se frot- 
tent le corps ayec le limon du Nil, s*y pr^- 
cipitent et se jouent parmi les ondes. Plu- 
sieurs sont yenues k la nage autour de notre 
bateau en nous criant ila sidi at maidi. 
Seigneur, donne-moi un medin. Elles na- 
gent ayec beaucoup de grace. Leurs che- 
yeux tress^ flottent sur leurs ^paules. 
Elles ont la peau fort brune, le teint h&l^ 
mais la plupart sont tr^-bien faites. La 
facility ayec laquelle elles se soutienoent 
contre la rapidity du courant, fait yoir com- 
bien Texercice donne de force et de sou- 
plesse aux personnes les plus delicates.** — S. 



^^^^^^>/wwwwwwwwv^ 



Balm, 

" Lb bamier est une plante qui produit 
une gousse pjramidale, k plusieurs loges, 
couleur de citron, et remplie de graius 
musqu^. Cuite ayec de la yiande, cette 
gousse ofire une nourriture saine et d'un 
goiit tr^-agr^ables. Les Egyptiens en font 
grand usage dans leurs ragoiits.** 

Indian Millet 

** Lb dourra ou millet d*Inde, est une 
plante ^ey^e k feuille de roseau. H porte 
une panicule qui renferme beaucoup de 
grains dont les laboureurs font du pam.** 



IDEAS AKD STUDIES FOR LITERART COMPOSITION. 



161 



lOeU oftkt Nile. 
" Nova TOgntniB entre des ilea dont !'• 
berbe eat trta-Iiaute, et oil I'on mSne paltre 
let bufflca. Un ber^r asiis sur le eou 
da premier de la troupe, descend dans le 
fleaTe, fait daquer loii fooet, et dlrige la 
nurche, tout le tnnipeaD suit b la file, et 
nige en ineaglKQt>en le lieu du p&turage. 
Di vmuMent I'onde de leurs Urges na- 
Manz. Cei animaux Tivent dam le Nil 
pendant lea cbalenra. Us t'j pVmgeiit 
juaqa'aiu £paale»,et puuent fherbe tendre 
le \aag de ks bord*. Lea feinellea dounent 
en abondancc nn lait graa, avec le^uel on 
bit d'ezcellent beurre." 



Egyptian Qroett. 
" Lei environs de HellS o&ent de apa- 
denx eocloa, oil lea orangera, lea citroaniers, 
Ie« grenadier! plant^ boiu ordre, croiEsent 
fart hauta et fort toofTua. Leurs brancbes 
eDtielaceel forment de riants berceaiuc, su 
denna deaqnels lea ajcomores et lea pal- 
miera £l%vent leur feuillage d'un verd fonce. 
Dei ruiueaox j coulent parmi des touSea 
lie baailic ' et de rotiers. Je ne puis Toua 
exprimer combien il eat doux. Lonque le 
ciel eat embrSaf dea feux de la canicule, de 
reajnrer un air frua aooa eea ombrtgea en- 
cbant^. Cest nne Tolapt^ qui so sent 
I qu'on ne pent la d£crire. L'odeur 
de la flenr d'orange m£l£e aux suavea ^a- 
Ditlonl dea plan tea balsam iques, i^Teille 
doucement lea sena engourdia par la cba- 
lenr, et fut couler dans I'fime lea plus agr£- 
ables KUMtions. 



Dirgt cf Ommia. 

" Lbs Uoak aont dea chanta £l^aqnet, 

tA Ton pleure la mart d'uD b£roa, on lea 

malheuri de ratnoar. Abulfeda noua a 

axuerrf U fin d'un Moal cbant^ par Om- 



" 1^ baaOk en_ 
hot qn'en Franoe, et' 
■Un odoriflnnMs." 



mia aur le bord de la foaae oil aea nereux 
avoient ii& jett& aprte la d^fajte de Beder. 

" N'ai-je pas aesez pleur^ fur lea noblea 
fila dea Frincea de la Mecque I 

" A la TUe de leura oa bria^, aemblable 
i la tourterelle cacb£e dans la for^t pro- 
fonde, j'ai rempli I'air de mea gjmiaaemens. 

" M^ea infortun^es, le front proatem^ 
centre terre m£leE tos soupirs k mea pleura. 
Et vouB, femmes qui auiTez les convois, 
cbantez des hymnes fun^bres entrecoup^ de 
longs sanglota. Que sont devenus ik Beder, 
lea princes du peuple, les chefs dea tribua F 

**Le vieox et le jeune guerrier j aont 
concb^a nnda et aana vie. 

" Combien la Mecqoe aura cbangf de 
facet 

" Cea plaines desol^es, ces deserts sau- 
TKgea, aemblent eux-m&nea partager ma 
douleur." — Sat a ki. 



Tht Cutbm of Florida. 

Thb first-bom mole ia sacrificed tbere. 

An European ia settled and married 
among the Floridans ; bia child is to be sa- 
crificed. There ma; be a struggle between 
auperatition and maternal lore in bis wife. 
The; escape together. Will this make a 
pla/F 



ELQira'a snfferings. Dunstsu and Priest 
villainj. Here also the afler-ator; is the 

beat. 

The Conqneit of Lisbon. 
The Battle of AljubarrotM. 
Edmund Ironside, 



The DtOriietion of tlu Bom iXiww/.' 
Thahika, the child wbote mother pe- 
rishes with the Adite in the garden of Irem, 



This ia the originBl gltetch of the poei 

das tooffisa agr£- For parlicnlsTS tbe reader ia referred to t1 
Pretaoe of the coUectad Edition. Doro, or Do 



182 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



18 destined to destroy this nursery of evil 
magicians under the roots of the sea. Tho 
scene he there witnessed is well calculatied 
to produce a complete self devotement to 
the service of (jod» 

Cannot the Dom Danael be made to 
allegorize those systems that make the 
misery of mankind ? 

Previous to the great work, Thamama 
goes to the Simorg to learn his wisdom, and 
to Babel, where H&rut and Mfirut suffer 
unseen. 

It would be well to make Thamama*s 
most painful obstacles arise from those do- 
mestic feelings which in another would be 
viJrtue» 

He may destroy the palace of Aloadin. 

Cannot the Province of Darkness be in- 
troduced here ? and the situation of the ten 
tribes ? 

The simplicity of Arabian manners will 
contrast well with the magnificent ma- 
chinery. We may also go to Persia, for 
the voluptuousness of nature. 

Wealth, Power, and Priestcraft form the 
Trinity of Evil. Old Simorg- Anka gives 
him the philosophy of history. 

Perhaps the death of Thamama should 
conclude the poem, as the only adequate 
reward. Besides, he must sacrifice so much 
as to make it the only desirable one. 

Now I can see a little way. Book 1. 
The garden of Irem, and preparing his young 
mind. 2. An old Arab finds the lonely 
boy. His life, and growing love. He is 
summoned to his destination, first to the 
mountains of E&f, where the Simorg exists, 
then to H&rut and M&rut. 

Aloadin must be connected with the evil 
magicians : one who by voluptuous indul- 
gences trains up devoted slaves. This is 
plain enough. 

Oneiza, after he has left her on his mis- 
sion, is thrown in his way by the Magicians. 
She must die. Then will Uie conclusion be 



daniel, is mentioned in the continuation of the 
Arabian Tales as a seminary for evil magicians, 
under the roots of the sea. — J. W. W. 



thus. — He is told to ask his reward, and ex- 
presses resignation to the wiU of God, whose 
will 18 right. Then the Sansar, the icj 
wind of Death pervades him, and he is 
welcomed in Paradise by Oneiza*8 houri 
form. 

The seal of Solomon and the buckler of 
Ben Giaour would be useftd, but they have 
been made so trite. There will be much to 
avoid in this poem. Magnitude has been 
oft^n mistaken for sublimity; and it will 
not be easy to find a new way of destroying 
an enchanter's den. Perhaps the know- 
ledge of the ineffable name will be the best 
talisman. 

Here the incident may be introduced of 
one about to commit a midnight murder, 
when a sudden light falls upon him. Will 
it not be best to make this happen to Tha- 
mama, when about to assassinate one of 
those whom it is his mission to destroy? 
Let it be Aloadin. 

The perpetual wind which rushing out of 
a cavern renders it unenterable, may guard 
the entrance to the Domdanyel. 

The account of Port des Fran^ais in Pe- 
rouse's Voyage is a sublime picture, vol. 8, 
p. 254. Thamama may either find the de- 
scent from such a place ; or it will be better 
to bring him there after he has lost Oneiza, 
and let him thence depart with some strange 
boatman, or without a boatman. Almost, I 
think, Cadman*s ship might come for him. 

He shall go without a talisman, and Hi- 
rut and Marut may tell him that the just 
man needs none. From them he falls b 
with Aloadin, book 5. There let him find 
Oneiza, afid dwell with her in the delight- 
ful realm of Cashmeer, forgetful of his call. 
The Sultan hears of her beauty, and sends 
for her ; this will partake of the evils to be 
destroyed. He resists the messengers. 
Oneiza, in endeavouring to save him, is mor- 
tally wounded, and he led away prisoner. 
A horde of Tartars may deliver him, and 
from them he reaches the bay : or better, 
let him reach the sea, and the vessel carrj 
him to that desolate haven. This should 
end the 8th book. 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITEItARY COMPOSITION. 



183 



the «vili of ef tablubed sjatemi be 
iII^oHzed t Can Humuuoa »ee them 
! rndnu where the Magiciuugtrrern? 
nuf be » boge gladiatoriaa sport or 
ice. How can the mental murder of 
naakind be prcKoted F Can the ex- 
« of wealth aad want be ahown equall j 
to virtue and bappineu — of course 
Ijrneceswr; to the powers of the Dom- 
•ii I do not think thia can be done 
Danner fit for poetrj. 
le Domdanyel. Should it be a neit of 
lU — a labjrinth of apartmeuta — where 
Id Magicians unite the cruelties of iu- 
an, or Mexican priests, with the vices 
berius 7 If I could make Opinion, a 
, ita dreadful guard. All thia, the mun 
)f the poem, will be the most difficult 
ecute, and I fear the least interesting 
executed. When Thamama first ap- 
, thej attempt to buj his friendship. 
lim be led to a harem, but pass rapidlj 
the temptations, which he scorns. Let 
leans used to terrif;f him be undefined, 
ae ignotum pro magnifico.* All maj be 
Jished bj hia bare appearance in the 

ifaonld think the Upas might be intro- 

L 

idman's ship may do excellentlj thus. 

e who have perished in attempting the 

itnre of theDoam-danyel, fell by their 

Euilt ; yet, for that the attempt was 

, their punishment ia temporary : they 

carry future adventurers, and be rc- 

d whenever one succeeds. 

le Turk's receipt for making poison 

a red hured Christian lad may be tried 

ater in the pelican's nest. 
rtde from a dead head. 
xhaf» Alis Jetr we Jame may be cou- 
d. Were I a Mohammedan I should 
inly adopt the Persian heresy. 
Idols of Ad. Pride of Shedad the 
Houd's denunciations. Uoud sees 
id release the camel. The garden 
!, and palace supplied with water by 
^nudros stone. The wise man's remarks 



on the palace. Drought. Uorthdh and Kil 
sent to Uecco. Ketum of Eil with the 

2. The Dom Daniel. The magicians 
watchiog ten lighta, kindled for the family 
of Hodeirah : eight are extinguished, and 
while thej watch, another goes out. They 
make a Teraphim to enquire whether the 
dangerous one is destroyed. They make 
poison from a red headed Christian, and send 
one of their emissaries to destroy Tholaba 
with it. 

The light in the Dom Daniel comes from 
a great serpent's eyes. They nurse earth- 
quakes, and feed volcanoes Ihere. 

The Teraphim cannot see into the gar* 
den of Irem. 

The Upas thus. Oneof the Dom-Daniel 
pupils reigns in Java. A complete system 
of slavery and beastly luxuries. Thalaba 
lands there. They ore at war, and to make 
an effectual wei^wn-poison, kill the red- 
headed Christian, that a poison tree may 
spring up, OS from Cerberus. It is this 
Sulbut who sends forOneiza; and to him 
Thalaba is led a prisoner. The incidents 
follow thus therefore, Hirut and MArut — 
Simorg — Aloadin — his retirement — Java. 

The Simoom must save Thalaba, when, 
as he is praying, a murderer comes to kill 

Of the souls of the wicked there may be 
this plan. They endure no punishment till 
the day of judgment, but assist the evil 
principle, thut by winning if possible the 
universe, they may, by possessing them- 
selves of power, escape punishment! This 
system may be explained to Thalaba by the 
spirit of Nimrod on the site of Babel. 

Adam is shown to Thalaba and his gar- 
ment of glory. 

3. Thalaba's life and love. His summons. 
Burying Abdaldar. Thalaba observes hia 

ring and its characters. Hewears it, though 
cautioned against it as dangerous. In the 
morning they find the body of the magician 
dug up, and the ensuing night Thalaba is 
awakened by a Genius, who attempts to rob 
him of the ring. Then follows the partoral 



184 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



part of the poem, — ^its relief. A locust is 
dropt by the bird close to Thalaba and 
Oneiza. He looks at the hieroglyphics on 
its forehead^ and reads, ** When the sun shall 
be darkened at noon, journey to the east*** 
A total eclipse soon takes place* 

A succession of extraordinary appear** 
ances before Thalaba enters the garden of 
Aloadin. The meteorous appearance — the 
enchanted fountains — and the way through 
the mountain pass. 

Sinking under severe cold on Caucasus, 
Thalaba is stimulated by seeing a cedar 
erect itself against the pressure of the snow. 
A wedding procession passes him after 
he has lost Oneixa. 

With Adam are the Prophets and Mar- 
tyrs. They are nourished by odours. Trees 
of gold and silver* 

Oriental despotism and devastation in 
Java. Hidden com pits. 

" Arbor triste de dia**-^ emblem of virtue 
in adversity. 

Thalaba makes the spirit bring him the 
bow and the quiver of Hodeirah. This 
makes Moath and Oneisa believe him. 

He goes on a dromedary to Kaf. Mor- 
gan*s Algiers. 102. 

One of the magicians offers himself as a 
guide to Babylon. In the desert they see 
the sand columns. The magician tempts 
Thalaba to use his ring and summon demons 
to his aid— 4ie himself is overwhelmed. 

4. Thalaba proceeds till he comes to the 
sea. He takes up a shell, and the charac- 
ters thereon tell him, to seek H&rut and 
M&rut at Babylon, and learn from them the 
talisman requisite for his success. He meets 
a man who offers himself as a guide — it is 
Lobaba. He leads him into the desert, and 
tempts him to demand aid of the genii by 
his ring. A moving column overwhelms 
him. Ruins of Babylon. Spirit of Nimrod. 
H&rut and M&rut. 

As he is about to pull off his ring, that 
Lobaba may read it, a fly stings his finger, 
and it instantly swells. 

When the magician tells Thalaba that 
only his ring protects him, he throws it 



away, and says he needs no protector but 
God. 

6. Bagdat. Babylon. Nimrod. Mohareb 
comes up, and it appears that he also seeb 
the angels. Discovering Thalaba*s niission, 
he attacks him, and his horse carries him 
away. 

2. A few connecting lines to open with. 
More preparation for the catastrophe. 

4. Desert sufferings. Water appearance. 
Solomon. Light worse than heat« 

5. Pelican*s nest. Babylon as it was. 

The spirits of those who have failed re- 
late each to Thalaba how he perished. 
Hints in the Arabian account of the Pyra- 
mids. 

After the Simorgr*-in the frozen bay, the 
Northern lights* 

Mohareb and Thalaba contend by the 
bitumen springs. Into these Thalaba flings 
his ring, and afterwards strikes Mohareb. 

Talisman in the garden of Aloadin. 

Qy. Would it be disgusting to destroy 
Oneiza by a vampire, and haunt ThaUbs 
with her vampire corpse ? Something like 
the apparition in Donica might release him. 

The appearance of Nimrod must be trans- 
planted* It comes too near the argumenta- 
tive dialogue with Lobaba. 

Zohak defends the cavern of the angds. 

6. Thalaba finds a horse caparisoned, who 
comes to him. Meteor. Springs. 

4. The shell incident must be altered. I 
wished to make it of the same class of mi- 
racles, of natural agents supematurally act- 
ing, as the locust. But it b flat and verjr 
bad. Either a voice from the darkness, or 
the appearance of his father^a spirit 

Returning from the chase home, Thalaba 
sees some one going firom his house, and it 
is the Angel of Death. 

Moath must reappear. 

Zohak is said to have built Babylon. 

7. Survey of the garden, with a view to 
escape. Mountains. Burnet*' River Fall 

I This implies a reference to BuBNZT'i Tki- 
oria Sacra TeUuriSy—not for its philosophy, but 
for its beauty, a great fitvourite with Southey 
and Wordsworth.— J. W. W. 



[DEAS AtTD STIJCIES FOR LITERAST COMPOSITION. 



i«n goee to dettroj Aloadia. The 
ral light. A Toice stating that 
inst be inrdTed in the general 
1 of the Mrceren. The wind 
ThaUba and Oiuiza, ■■ in an 
ar, and places them beyond the 

leatroctiiHi of the Aditei must be 
fixed for taking poweuion of the 
1 garden. Tbu the whole mul- 
aaaembled. 
lao must call on Aawad when he 

}om Daniel the image of Eblia ib 
eah and blood, like life, a giant 
ing np with one hand the arch of 
whoae waTes roll above the only 

thii image Thalaba thruit* the 
B waten burst in — but an egg of 
ads him, and buojs him to the 
the sea. 

)k should coDtain a view of fUtu- 
ry' suggested a paradise wholly 
I — trees of light growing in a soil 
palaces of water refracting all rich 
Che Uohammedan Paradise might 
run oTer bj the Simorgh, u what 
izpected, but which was only 
i the gross conceptions of man- 
e wicked should lie in sight of 
wiib no torture, save the tKdium 
■ existence, and enry. 

demands of the assembled ytmtliB 
len, Who will do a deed of danger 
'aradiae eternally as his reward, 
as Thalaba — and duhes ont his 
h a dob. Then a darkness falls 
jarden, invoWing those who seek 
Um. He only, with Oneiza, sees 
id, and escapes. 
raa treated with cruelty. " Uli 

dicta fjns attendentes, verbera- 
ita, ut aliqnando reliquerunt eum 
uum." Ismael Ebn-Aly. Maracei. 

to conclude with " who comes 

1 Sir H. Davy. Ue says in the pre- 
L* then also in habits of most frequent 
V inlenxmiMwithDaTy," &c.p. ui, 

J.W.W. 



180 

from the bridal chamber f it is Airael, the 
Angel of Death. 

Eighth to begin, 'Now go not tothetombs, 
old man — there is a maniac there.' Vampire. 
Departure again upon the mistion. Seicnre 
of Thalaba. Java. Mohareb. 

Ehawla ougbt to be brought forward in 
these middle books. May she not deliver 
np Thalaba to the emissarie* of Mobareb F 

How to conrey Thalaba to Java f Should 
he be aelied by alare merchants. If it were 
not an island, he should be pressed as a 
■oldier. But if it could be effected by the 
agency of Ehawla, that were best. Thus 
tiien. — At night a light in a bouse, Ehawla 
gpbning threads fine as the silkworms, and 
singing unknown words. She tells Thalaba 
to twist it round bis bands, and it binds 
him in unbreakable fetters. Then ehe di-ags 
him to Java, for as only his own act could 
fetter him, so also can his own act effect 
his ruin, and the attempt is by tear to pro- 
duce apostacy. 

Ehawla alone surviTes the appearance 
of the Upas, but her power ceases over 
Thalaba. Then the journey to Eaf. 

The Paradise Book. First the Moham- 
medan hell and heaven, and all their pre- 
liminaries — " types, BbadowB, unrealities." 
Then a gradation of heavens, and the ascent 
of mind from earth to the management of 
the elements, uid the power of creation. 

9. Dungeon sufferings — in view of the 
execution place. 'Arbor tristedadia.' The 
stars consulted, and the result, that Moha- 
reb's death must precede Thalaba's, pre- 
serves faim. Terror and repentance of 
Maimnna. 

7. Were it better to make a shining plate 
on the forehead of Aloadin the talisman? 
and the bird, the evil spirit hovering over 
him to convey him at last body and soul 
to bell? 

A boy seized at the moment of birth by 
Khawla. His veins exhausted and filled 
with the blood of Thalaba. On him they 
try the means of death, and all in vain. 
Then Khawla consults the Demons, and 
Maimnna the stars. The one is terrified 



186 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



and made penitent, the other is told — and 
with the agony of constraint — ^the poison 
from the Christian. 

The plan of the ninth must be new mo- 
delled. Will this be better — for Mohareb 
to discover that his death must precede 
Thalaba's, and therefore to preserve his? 
and lest the sisters should destroy him, he 
restores Abdaldar*s ring. 

The conversion of Maimuna happens on 
that mysterious night when all things wor- 
ship God. 

In the last book, when Thalaba has left 
the choice of his reward to heaven, the spi- 
rits of both his parents appear, and he knows 
that his death-hour is arrived. 

5. Mohareb may endeavour to convert 
Thalaba. Tale of Zohak in a few lines. 

6. Zohak affected by the ring on Thala- 
ba*8 return. 

6. The Paradise of Aloadin should mock 
Mohammed*s as much as possible. 

A son of Okba to be slain by Thalaba. 
One bred up to sorcery. Thalaba hesitates 
with pity. He sees his name written on the 
Table of Destiny — ^the Destroyer : and the 
young victim pleads that his father ruined 
him ; and Thalaba knows the name of Ho- 
deirah^s murderer. 

Mohareb in the Domdaniel flies from 
Thalaba and clings around the knees of the 
giant idol for protection. Thalaba strikes 
the image. 

The moment Maimima looses the chain 
of Thalaba her repentance is accepted. 
They find themselves in her cavern, and all 
the appearances of old age fall upon the 
pardoned sorceress. Her death follows. 

Cold. Tom's* show» of fiery snow in the 
sunshine. 

Thalaba finds. a young woman, a damsel, 
in an ice palace. It is the daughter of 
Okba, hidden there by her father^ where 
none but one with the soul-purchased ring 
can enter, because from any other visitor 

' This alludes to his brother, the late Cap- 
tain Thomas Southey, R.N. As before ob- 
served, he was in the habit of noting remark- 
able appearances and images.— J. wTw. 



he has foreseen her death. She practises 
magic innocently, knowing no ill — ^forming 
figures of snow, that can exist each but for 
a day. She loves Thalaba — ^but when she 
names her father, he knows the name, and 
is commanded to kill her, to root up the 
race. This he refuses to do, and his diso- 
bedience is not accounted as sinful. But 
she is transformed into one of the green 
birds of paradise, and hovers over him on 
his way. Her voice becomes soothing and 
affectionate ; like the note of the dove, it is 
the tone of happiness, of tenderness, not of 
gaiety. 

The Simorgh preserves somewhat of his 
oracular character by rejoicing in the ap- 
proaching downfall of sorcery, and predict- 
ing the ^ture destruction of other evils is 
enormous. Then he informs Thalaba, 
darkly, of his way, and warns him. Dogs 
are to draw him over the frozen plains and 
glaciers — each with a mark on the fore- 
head — these are they who have failed. *' Open 
not thine eyea at the outcry thou wilt hear.* 
The Domdanielites follow and lash the dogs 
to madden them and drive them down the 
precipice. The bandage is torn violently 
from his eyes ; he is allowed to look, if he 
can be firm. Hodeirah*s spirit defends him, 
and drives away the aggressors. When at 
the bay, the dogs, bloody and foaming, ask 
their reward. He gives them the bidden 
answer, * God reward ye!* and they die, 
and are removed to Paradise. 

The prison walls of Thalaba thrown down 
by the Termites. 

Maimuna goes for the human wax. It 
is the mysterious night. The Gouls are 
lying powerless by the grave, and she sees 
within the spirit of the dead, and the hun- 
dred-headed worm that never dies, and that 
only on this night ceases to torment the 
widied. 

The crime of allowing oppression must 
strongly be stated to justify Uie Upas. Thus 
the red headed Christian may have been 
espoused to a damsel whom Mohareb h^s 
taken for his seraglio, and she may escape 
and cry out to the people. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION 



187 



The wand of Maim una breaks in the dun- 
geon. It mast be introduced as her spindle. 

In the garden of Okba*8 daughter, a foun- 
tain of fire supplies the want of the 8un*s 
warmth, and rolls its rivulet. 

After Maimuna enters the dungeon, the 
scene through the remainder of the book 
must continue there. No threat, no voice, 
no token, only the threatening of silence 
and the loss of power. From the prison 
bars they see the red-haired Christian led 
to execution, and Maimuna*s fear explains 
what they are going to make of him, and to 
do with her. 

10. llie prison walls thrown down by the 
Termites. The wind incloses them as in a 
car, and they alight in the ice-cave. Death 
of Maimuna. Laila. 

4. The ring disables Zohak as well as the 
charm of Mohareb* 

Okba comes. When Thalaba refuses to 
kill Laila, he triumphs, and thinks Thalaba 
has forfeited all claim to God*8 protection, 
and attempts to kill. Laila runs to stop 
the blow, and receives it, and thus the pro- 
phecy is accomplished, and Thalaba the 
occoiian of her death. 

11. Green Bird. Simorg. Journey. Voy- 
age. 

At the entrance of the Domdaniel, Laila 
leaves him, and then speaks and requests 
one return for her affection : it is, that he 
will pray to Grod to pardon her father. His 
sword most not strike Okba, and thus his 
character will rise as he subdues the feeling 
of revenge. 

The boatmen warn him each of the dan- 
ger by which he perished. 

11. Demons ready to down- thrust the 
tottering avalanch. Others below that like 
angels spread a cloud to receive him, and 
call on Thalaba to leap and save himself. 
On these Oneiza darts with Sulfagar, — ^the 
two-pointed sword of All snatched from the 
ttmom^ of heaven. 

The balance in which the Japanese pil- 
grims are suspended, should precede the 
sledge journey. A permitted trial. It 
Would have a good effect to make him go 



through the ceremony of interment, and 
transplant that idea fit>m St. Patrick*s pur- 
gatory. 

The sunbeams should clothe him — and 
thus his garment of glory gives him light 
through the way of darkness. This will be 
fine at sunrise, and after his prayer. 

Khawla attacks him by the fire, to pre- 
vent his getting the sword. He hurls her 
into it. Okba. Mohareb. At the moment 
when Mohareb, subdued, clings to the knees 
of the great idol| Hodeirah and Zeinab ap- 
pear. 

Before he mounts the sledge, the dogs 
must implore him, if he can fear, to return 
in time for his sake and for theirs, and they 
must weep with fear. 

10. The prophecy will be better from 
Azrael, that Laila or Thalaba must die. 

The cavern, like S. Catherine*s. The 
frozen bay. Northern lights. 

It must not be told who the green bird is, 
till she speaks herself. 

Thalaba must have his bow, it must there- 
fore be mentioned, book 8, be found again 
in Maimuna^s cave, and supply the place of 
the club, book 10. 

11. Entrance. Speech of Laila. Prayer 
of Thalaba. The sun beams. Dark way. 
Glow-worm beast. Helmet. Dropping 
Pass. The great serpent. Then the fire 
and the sword, and tiie death of Khawla, 
and the battle with Mohareb. Okba. 

Thalaba throws his rbg into the sea — as 
faith is the talisman. 

There must be a great descent. Two 
Dive*s hold a chain over it : they are com- 
pelled to let down Thalaba, blaspheming. 

12. I must light a torch miraculously to 
guide him through the dark way — ^it is more 
fit for painting than the sunbeams. 

The alarm must be given, and the whole 
army of magicians assembled. 

The sword in the fire lies on the white 
ashes of Hodeirah. 

The fire shall clothe Thalaba and pro- 
tect him. 

The Simorg tells Thalaba that the talis- 
man is in the heart of the Great Image. 



A 



I8B 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERABT COMPOSITION. 



Funeral ceremoniei biieflj' run over at 
the death of M«imiim. 

7. Night MDutementi of liucnr/. Per- 
fumed li^ts. Truuparent dreu. 

6. FerBian lilies. 

Tbe Mareb TeserroiTf and the punishmeiit 
of Tbamud alluded to. 

Euphrates esteemed unholj water bj the 
Moslem. 

3. Oneiza must sport with the bow and 

N. fi. Shedad was the first King of Ad. 

Certain lines to this purport: the Evil 
Power maj fence themselves ronnd with 
dangers, but wisdom and courage may sub- 
due them all — so God in bis jusdce had 
appointed. 

When Thalaba is taken, Mumnna calls a 
spirit, and enquires what they can do with 
him. The answer is, " In the city of Mo- 
hareb thou shalt secure thy safety." 

9. The Angels to manifest themselves. 
Their situation, and garment of glory bright- 
ening as the atonement proceeds. 

All must be rewritten from his speech to 
the Simorg to his actual entrance into the 
Domdanie). It is flat and common. 

The inscription which whoso reads will 
die. It is on the original throne of Nim- 
rod. He reads it, " Search and find." He 
overturns it, and discovers a key. It is in 
an island where a grievous superstition 
reigns. An ever-living old woman, Super- 
stition, is the priestess. Child sacrifices, 
and the dying dropt down a gulph, whose 
iron doors nerer open but to let in a victim, 
like the Venice prison. The boat takes him 
there. The people rejoice, and tell him of 
the inscription, which he must read, for it 
is the remedy. It is a torch he finds — the 
holy light of enquiry ; and he must first 
subdae the giant Opinion. He allegory 
must be nowhere naked; and the Koran 
ought to be his shield. 

A boat in a brook : a Peri belmswoman. 
Thou wilt go with me. The brook becomes 
a river, rough and wide : Wilt thou go with 
me f The river enters the sea ; Darest thou 
go wiUi me ? 



The dogs. But a quiet journey. Sceoery 
like that delightful print in Heame. Ice 
and firs and potdar islands. The dogs keep 
the prayer hours, and turn to Mecca. No 
terror to be excited, only a stratagem to 
waken curiosity. 

He should know the Peri before he tnuti 
ber ; therefore he must deliver her from a 
Dive. 

At sea. Let the spirit of Moath pitt 
him, to indicate the old man's death. 

Thus, the throne of Nimrod is the altar. 
At the hour of sacrifice comes Thalaba to 
read the inscription. The Giant, aeetBg 
that he dies not, attempts to kill him. Iha- 
laba cleaves him down with the axe of 
sacrifice. 

How then to employ the arrow* T Hiih, 
the first foe must be the old and faithful 
servant of the Queen, bewitched so u to 
be her enemy. He must be taken, not 

It most be Leoline who uses tlie axe of 

sacrifice. 

Jan. 20, ISOO. Agun to be recast ! 

The Leoline and Lady story is clumsy— 
is like a third arm — a young sLxtb Goger. 
The strike of extermination must smite it 

At landing, terrors and the funeral. Then 
a display of the Mohammedan paradise. 
Types, &c Art thou satisfied with this F 
lien the true progressive heaven. At once 
the glory is extinguished, and the dread 
descent before him. 

A gaunt and ghastly figure gnard* two 
iron doors. Of what is not seen, for etei^ 
nal mists are round them ; nor is he seen, 
for the senqih guide approacbea, and atk> 
if yet t and a dead voice only answers, tht 
hour is not yet bom : — " meanwhile rest in 
the sunbeam." 

Here, dreanu of futurity, and tbe angel 
song of Oneiza, and the passing spirit of old 
Moath : from this, the voice awakes hin- 
The gates unfold at his stroke. Within i> 
darkness and the far gleam of fires, and aounds 
that terrify; and a strong fiood of wind im* 
pells him in, and the gates with a thandci- 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITEBART COMPOSITION. 



ISO 



we him in, and then the light be- 

aore Tirid, ud the dive* mppeu dis- 

>oD the ubjM. 

■th, a brook, a mountun, the mut 
ita foot There joamej. Thou wilt 

e tree ; there lift th; *oic« and aak. 

e flouriiheB on ihe aide Irtmi the mitt; 

;hi all blaated on one tide bend for- 

om the p<naon. 

« den ghould be the ipirita of Ab- 

■nd Lobaba, all agonj irith fear. 

•r in a cavern where the tide onteni. 

be brink of the descent a skeleton, 

in held bj no hand, nor teen whence 

«d*. 

irachute of six living wingt, lome- 

' Ezekidiim, and a lamp dropt down 

« fire to the foul ur- 
ic the damsel of the boat t my rea- 

11 aak, and Ibej ought to know. 

ng the onmcceMfnl adventurer! waa 

>. He failed becatue Miriam, faiamii- 

etained him. She therefore ii con- 

l to waft the (iiture deatrojer. He 

he door of entrance. 

Thaleiba — alleratioiu. 
uluab'* feet washed b; Tbalaba and 

Abdaldar first attempt by magic to 
the boy, as bj holding hia hand and 
to him a soDg in words unintelligible; 
king of the melon juice, and breath- 
>n it a spell, then giving it to Tba- 
he dagger attempt should not be till 
ad failed. 

garden of Irem is necessary, "not 
B, not on earth." May he live there 
wtU) fais mother. Her natural death 
tbegap. Or shall I place the twelfth 
here to instruct himF 



whole praceanon description may be 
Ted to Kdiama, before the chariot 
[eniaat. When Maimnoa has un- 
liis chain, a new conclusion must be 



found : her lover need not cease till she has 
placed him where she foundhim; or an earth* 
quake may throw open tho gates, to show 
her the power of Allah, and then the whirl- 
wbd waft them. 

Lobaba should not be killed as he is ; let 
him ride ofi', so is the faith of Thalaba more 
proved and pure. 



Fbdro the i/iut.' 

The character of Pedro after the murder 
of Inez is well adapted for the drama, just 
but cruel ; his heart hardened by sufiering 
and indulged revenge, yet still doating a, 
the dead. 

The death of Goniales and Coetlo is to 
horrible, nor is there anything in the story 
dramatic. PachecDeacq>ed,onUiatciTCum< 
stance a tale may be grafted. 

Pacheco has lost hii sight by lightning, or 
in battle. He labours under the agonies of 
remorse. The priest, to whom be has con- 
fessed, enjoins him to say certain prayera in 
the place where be had committed the crime; 
for thus disfigured, there was no danger of 
discovery. 

A high reward has been ofiered for Pa- 
checo. A Portugneze noble has stripped hit 
wife and daughter of their posseuions, and 
offered to restore them as the price of the 
daughter's prostitution. She comes to Coim< 
bra to demand justice. Here is matter for 
a good scene. Pedro is much affected by her 

Pacheco begs alms of his daughter. She 
bids him remember her and her father ii 
his prayers. He knows her then, but will 
not make himself known. 

The priest who had confessed Pacheco be- 
trays bim, and tendt an emissary to inform 
Pedro that be it in Coimbra, and receives 
the reward. Pacheco it thrown into prison. 

The noble whom Leonor has accused is 

■ Tha reader will connect this mt«Dded drama 
wiChLiiCatu,aiid Sadnick llu Lai i>f 1^* Cethi. 
He Bhould likewise consult W.S.Iuidor'spoems 
on the Bubject.-J. TV. W. 



190 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



sent for by Pedro to answer the accusation. 
He first informs her of her father^s impri- 
sonment, and, irritated by Pedro, offers to 
force the prison and deliver him, if Leonor 
will be his. A fine scene may be made when 
the high-minded Leonor tells him how her 
heart might have been won, and how she 
could have loved. 

Pedro sends his own confessor to prepare 
Pacheco for death. His remorse and resig- 
nation affect the priest ; he begs for his 
daughter*s sake to die privately. The priest 
intercedes with Pedro; this last request af- 
fects him, but he is inexorable. 

The day on which the corpse of Inez is 
crowned is fixed for the death of Pacheco. 
The tortures are ready for him when that 
ceremony shall be over. At this moment, 
when the soul of Pedro is susceptible of the 
strongest feelings, Leonor comes with the 
children of Inez to intercede, her last hope. 
She succeeds. The noble offers his hand, and 
is refused. Leonor expresses her determi- 
nation to live with her mother, and at her 
death to enter a convent. Pacheco becomes 
a monk. 

It opens with her accompanying priest ac- 
quunting Pedro*s confessor with her busi- 
ness, and requiring his assistance. This gives 
her character and his. Leonor comes. The 
interview. As she leaves the king, Pacheco 
comes in, to the place where Inez was mur- 
dered. He sends away his guide. Scene be- 
tween him and the king, who, hearing he is 
come to pray there, tells him to pray for him, 
and to curse the murderers. This may be 
very striking. 

Leonor confronted with the noble. She 
sees Pacheco, and knows him not. Arrival 
of the informer. Pedro enquires out how he 
knew him, and sends to put the treacherous 
priest to death. 

News of his imprisonment. The noble's 
offer. Her friendly priest relates to her that 
he has vbited him. She goes to attend him 
in the dungeon. The confessor sees him first. 
He intercedes, but in vain. 

It will not well make a fiflh act. The 
coronation. Her last and successful effort. 



The noble*s offer. Then she tells him how 
she could have loved. 

The conclusion does not follow from the 
previous circumstances, one great fault. The 
story admits of good scenes, but nothingverj 
striking in effect ; it would make an excel- 
lent drama, but hardly for the mob. 

Pedro Coelho and Aivaro Gonial vez were 
the murderers who suffered. Diogo Lopes 
Pacheco was afterwards pardoned, on proof 
of not having been an accomplice. The Spa« 
niard emigrants given up to Pedro the Cruel 
by the Cruel Pedro were Pedro Nunes de 
Guzman, Mem Rodriguez Tenono, Ferman 
Gudiel de Toledo, and Fortun Sanches Gal- 
deron. 

Vicente Amado, a Franciscan, was the 
confessor of Pedro. 



Tlie Days of Quben Mabt. 

The reign of Queen Mary is a good pe* 
riod for a play. Sir Walter, a young man of 
fortune, is a convert to the reformed reli* 
gion. He has been bred up with the pro^ 
pect of marrying Mary, a neighbouring heir- 
ess, and they are strongly attached to each 
other. Sir Walter has a cousin, his next heir, 
who knows his opinions, and envies his for- 
tune. 

Mary is a zealous Catholic, but every wa/ 
amiable; and her confessor a sincere, piouS) 
excellent man. 

The man who converted Walter possesses 
the honourable and honest spirit of Gilbert 
Wakefield.' He must be elderly, and when 
the play opens, in prison. 

Mary and her confessor both abhor per- 
secution. He may have suff*ered it under 
Henry VIII. Walter's friend is burnt, and 
he accompanies him to the stake, though Mar; 
and her confessor intreat him not to incur 
suspicion. 

* " He had a fearless and inflexible honesty 
which made him utterly regardless of all dang^i 
and would have enabled him to exult In mar^ 
dom." See Esfriblla'b Ltttgrt, voL L p. 4l» 
third edit.- J. W. W. 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



191 



The couain excitea persecution agaiDst 
him. The confeMor, attached to him from 
his joath ap, seeks by cTcrj means to save 
him. He urges an immediate marriage to 
lull mspicion, on the usual terms of educat- 
ing the children. Marj too is willing. Here 
tfae bigotrj should be whollv on Walter's 
side ; but he conseuts ; at that instant he 
is apprehended. 

His trial aod enthusiastic courage. The 
(^iportune death of the queen preserves him. 
I un afraid that this storj, like Fedro, 
rither affords the opportunitj of excellent 
scenes, than for a general effect ; and the 
conclusion b not arising from the storj. It 
is like cutting the knot, the " Deus inter- 
But there are four dramatic characters, 
and neither of them hackneyed ; the mar- 
tjT, Walter, the good and enlightened con- 
feswr, and Mary, so pious, so affectionate. 
Catholicism is a good system for women, 
perhaps for all of us irhen stripped of iu 
tricks, and in Mary it should assume its most 
favourable appearance. 

Walter's principles are not known when 
the drama opens. Stephen, hia couxin, sus- 
pects them, and discovera them when he iu- 
fomig him of hia friend's arrest. 

Thus it might commence. It is Walter's 
birtb-day. His coming of age, if the spec- 
tacle be useful. However, he is engaged in 
nliering some of his tenants, when Mary 
meets him in her walks. He shows uneasi- 
ness. The confessor seeks him, to say that 
he has perceived his change of opinion, and 
to advise him prudence. 

A good scene might be made when Wal- 
ler and Mary listen to an account of a 
martyrdom. 

But is there enough of plot? 1. To make 
Waller's religion known. 2. To hurry him 
on by endeavouring to save his friend. 3. 
To the execution. 4. To his own arrest. 

The third might conclude with great ef- 
fect. Mary and her confessor beholding 
'rom a lai^ window the procession to the 
•take They close the window when the 
'•ggots are kindled, and pray for bis soul. 



The light is seen through tite window, and 
the Te Deum heard. 

The progress of Walter's mind is fine. At 
Urst uneasy ; by opposition and danger made 
more enthusiastic, but almost wishing for 
contented ignorance ; worked up by the 
death of his friend almost to the desire of 
martyrdom ; half yielding to love and pru- 
dence; then persecuted himself, and settling 
into a calm and Christian fortitude. 

It should be on a holyday, and by the 
Church. The martyr should be urging 
him to absent himself, but be called away 
(to be arrested). Mary leads him in. 
comes out abruptly, as though he were ill. 
The confessor follows him to know why f 
Stephen's newa. ' Beware of that man !' 
says the priest. 

The marriage was to take place on his 
coming of age. Mary affectionately en- 
quires why he is so changed ? Then the 
scene with the priest. He speaks of old 
Sir Walter's goodness. When Walter wa- 
vers, Stephen comes with an account 1 
the Lutheran is confined. 

A dungeon scene where the confessor 
beseeches the condemned not to drive o 
Walter to martyrdom. Surly virtue, an 
the spirit of an early martyr in a subsequent 
interview with Walter. 

Night. Walter walking on the placi 
execution. Mary and the confessor. And 
then the proposal of immediate marriage. 
This coming from her will make a power- 
ful scene. His arrest. The confessor sent 
with all speed to court to state his expected 



The objections to this subject are, that a 
modem audience would not sympathize 
with Walter, and that a Lord Cbamberlab 
would fancy more was meant than ex- 
pressed. 

It wants show and atage effect Some 
might be produced by hearing the church 
music in the first scene. 

Stephen should be a bigotled and violent 
Roman Catholic, deceiving himself as 



There a 



t be a scene in which Mary ( 



192 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



discovers the heresj of Walter. This must 
be earlj. 

Walter may hear her singing the hymn 
to the Virgin in her oratory. This will be 
excellent in effect. He betrays himself to 
Stephen, irritated by his violence. 

The confessor should have been a monk 
of Glastonbury. That he may have seen 
the last abbot executed. 

A late illness of Mary may have pre- 
vented their marriage. It should open on 
his birth-day, and that on Lady-day. Mary 
stopping at his mansion on her way to mass. 

When Mrs. Palmer was burnt to death, 
and ran all flaming into the streets, Edith ^ 
saw her. Their attention was drawn by 
the howling of the dogs who saw her on 
fire. In the execution of Gilbert, or the 
related martyrdom, this circumstance will 
be very striking. — WesUmnf^ April 1799. 

Cintra, October 10, 1800. 

1. Gilbert arrives for refuge, his daugh- 
ter dead, her husband Seward imprisoned. 
Father Francis enters ; an enquiry for news 
leads to a talk upon the growth of heresy, 
in which the able priest discovers the latent 
Lutheran. Gilbert retires to rest. Then 
comes his character by Sir William. 

Francis comes to tell Lady Margaret, 
Sir Walter's mother, that Mary is coming to 
visit her, because the next day there will be 
an execution. 

Latimbs at the stake appeared in a 
shroud when the executioner had taken off 
his prison garments.^ 

' That is, the late Mrs. Southey. 

^ Fox, the martvrolog^t, telb that Master 
Latimer was brought forth *' in a poor Bristol 
frieze frock, all worn, with his buttoned cap, 
and a kerchief on his head, all readv to the fii«, 
a new long shroud hanging over his hose down to 
the feet. — And being stripped to his shroud, he 
seemed as comely a person to them that were 
there present, as one should lightly see: and 
whereas in his clothes he appeared a witnered 
and crooked silly old man, he now stood bolt up- 
rieht, as comely a father as one might lightly 
behold." — Tkg Martjfrdom of RidUy and Latimer, 
A. D. 1555. J. W. W. 



Sfibfectsfor Little Poems. 

Inscription for a tablet by the Hamp- 
shire Avon.^ The flags* sword-leaves ; the 
six-legged insect; the fireshness of run- 
ning water, noticed. From the near hill 
you see the ocean, to which the river is 
running. The trite allusion, — where'er we 
go, we're journeying to the tomb. But 
this is not the less true for being trite. 

Lakthoht, an Inscription, noting it ai 
the death-place of St. David. . Knowing 
this, though the vale be not more beauti- 
ful, yet it will be seen with more delight 

GnAij)U8, his visit to Lanthony may 
furnish a kind of Greek sonnet. The cause 
that led him, and the effect of his going, 
how useful to me six hundred years after- 
wards. 

Friendship,' it should be slow of growth. 
The flower that blossoms earliest fades the 
first. The oak utters its leaves timorously, 
but it preserves them through the winter. 

Thb Clouds, a descriptive musing ; and 
from this window I have rich subjects ; fan- 
tastic resemblances. So our hopes change, 
and so they disappear. 

In 1795 I saw the body of a poor msn 
in Clare Street, carried on a board, who 
had been begging the preceding day, and 
having neither money nor home, laid down 
by a lime-kiln (it was in March,) and wss 
suffocated. An inscription by the lime- 
kiln may tell this, and give advice to the 
reader, whether rich or poor. 

SuRELT a fine inscription might be writ* 
ten for Sea-mills, upon the wretched man 
who destroyed himself there. 

* Two Inscriptions will readily occur to the 
reader. One, For a Cavern that overlmtks tht River 
Avon ; the other, For a Tablet on the Banks oft 
Stream. — Poems, p. 170. 

* This is worked up in eleventh sonnet, Feemsy 
p. 108. J. W. W. 



cS AND STUDIES FOR LITERART COMPOSITION. 



tbu ii subject enongh for 
lie bover, the porch, the 
ndiy, tbc jBrd horse-chei' 
tliry, M laf grandmother 
uhanges now, colloquially 
.o catch the sound of A»b- 
>eak of the familj burjing- 
. kJIchen, the black boanled 
at picture-bible. What a 
•a the old bird and beast 
I had that book I an old 
bistorj hu such fine lies. 
' the whale in it. 

drinking tlie poiton. A 



at Fensbiirst, faj the oik 
Philip Sidney's birth. So 
1 but tbe memory of the 



e,' an emblem, and some- 
's way. Kingdoms should 
well, but only strict there ; 
borne than anywhere else. 
J lose our asperities as we 
, we should be serious in 
lay be cheerful in age, and 



f paint thee like a blue- 
id, icicle-bearded old mnn, 
low-ball ; but they should 
ruddy faced old boy, ait- 
Btmas fire. 

a thought The present 
, ; but in remembrance the 
of fatigue will increase its 



" For a Tablet acPens- 
ily tree," Poemi, p. 129. 



Ily Tree," Po 
I Sonnet xt. I 



<>, p. 109. 
J.W. W. 



Thbkb is a marine on board the Royal 
George who persuaded his father to mur- 
der his mother, and then turned king's < 
dence against him, and had him hung. 
'Jliis will make a very diabolical ballad. 
This man is benighted, and falls in with a 
traveller in the dark. The voice strikes 
him as familiar ; and when the moon ap- 
pears he sees tbe very face of his father, 
for it is a devil in the corpse. He leads 
him t« the wheel where his father had suf- 
fered, and fixes him there. 

SoHHKT. A ship returning to port,* 

Not into tbe grave, O my soul!* not 
into the grave shouldst thou descend to 
contemplate thy friend. Raise thyself to 
that better world, thy birthright, and com- 
mune with him there. 

A CHARACTEB has occurTed to me, ad- 
mirably fine in the grotesque magic. A 
little man gifted with the power of extend- 
ing all bis limbs to any length ; who can 
stretch bis neck and look in at the window 
of the highest tower ; and when walking 
under a precipice, can put up his hand in- 
to the ^i^le's nest Is tic on the bank of a 
river P he lengthens his legs, and steps 
across. The story should conclude v ' 
his diladng his mouth, and swallowing 
somebody. 

These is a lie in the life of St. Isidore" 
which may perhaps make a ballad. A n: 
who could find no surety for his rent i 
pealed to the saint, pledging his word 
the landlord before his tomb, and praying 
if be failed that Isidore might punish him 
The fellow however could not pay it, and 
BO run away one night. His road lay by 
the church of St. Andrew, wherein Isidore 
was buried, and he was miraculously kept 

4 WOTkedU] 

' See ihe exquisiti 
Edmand Seward, Pr> 

• See the Ballad," 
&e. Pmixi, p. 433. 



194 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



all night running round and round the 
church, while he thought he was getting 
on his way. In the morning the landlord 
found him ; he repented, prayed for for- 
giTeness, worked harder, and paid the debt. 

Dona Ana Mabia Remesal promised, 
on the wedding day of her sister Mariana, 
to give a sum of money towards the ca- 
nonization of St. Isidore. She either for- 
got her Yow or neglected it. Maria de la 
Cabera, the wife of Isadore, appeared to her 
with an Alguazil and a black dog, as she 
lay in her bed, and arrested her for this 
debt. They let her go, however, on her 
sincere promise of speedy payment. This 
will make a tolerable ballad. Let her be 
called from the company on the wedding 
evening, and led to the tomb of St. Isidore, 
to pass the night. It should be the bride- 
groom who makes the vow. 

Onb of my war poems may be made upon 
that description of Jemappe given me by 
Carlisle, expressing joy for the event, with 
an abhorrence of the war principle. 

Anothbb must be upon this story. At the 
evacuation of Toulon, a husband, his wife, 
and infant were attempting to escape in the 
last boat. The husband had got in, when 
they pushed off. The wife flung her child 
to him. The child fell short, and sunk, and 
the mother leapt after. Tom' told me this 
on the authority of an eye-witness. 

Thb treatment of Colonel Despard,' de- 
scribed as in a dramatic fragment. Related 
abroad as a proof of foreign tyranny to an 
Englishman. 

Inscription in a forest.,' near no path ; who 
reads it has most like been led by the love 
of nature, and he may enjoy the beauties of 

* His brother, Captain Thomas Southey, — 
often mentioned. 

* See Ebpriblla's L«t(«rt, vol. iii. p. 95, third 
edit. 

* See Inscriptions, p. 172. J. W. W. 



scenery more by knowing another has felt 
them. If it has pleased thee to be told of 
this, cleanse the moss and weeds from the 
tablet ! 

EcLoouB. The witch.^ A man nailing a 
horse-shoe at his door. Tales of the old 
woman, and superstitions. 

Eclogue. A winter evening. Children 
and their grandmother. They beg for a 
story. A ghost story. My motber*s accoimt 
of Moll* Bees*s murder, and the remorse of 
the murderer, that led him to accuse him- 
self. A gibbet and a ghost are easily added. 

HiSTOBT,* the painful feelings it excites. 
The historic Muse appears. She speaks of 
Greece, of Rome, Holland, Padilla, and the 
many, martyrs of freedom ; then personallj 
addresses the poet. 

Obmia, a Monodrama, where did the For- 
tugueze writer find the story ? She enters 
her husband*s tent at midnight, and his sur- 
prise must be expressed by her. 

The death of Malcolm*s murderers. A 
ballad. 

What can be made of the story of St Ro- 
muald ? ^ Should it be a ballad showing how 
a man might be too good P 

Mbs. Wilson's* story of the dog. A gen- 
tleman sat up in a haunted house at Dublin 
with a great dog. The dog growled at first, 
his anger increased, at last he leaped at a 
particular part of the wall, then round and 
round the room ran raging, and leapt again 
at the same place, then pawed at the door 
furiously. The man let him out, he rushed 

• See English Eclogues, Poems, p. 154. 

• Ibid. "The Grandmother's Tale," p. 150. 

• See Poemi, p. 140, " History." 

f See BaUad, " St. Bomuald/^ Poemty p. 456. 
' She was tne old oocunaut of Greta BaO, 
and the kind friend of all tne children. 

J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



I9A 



ad tlie man found him in the gar- 
i room below, leaping at the same 
wall. He himself neither saw nor 
hing, but declared he would not 
undergo another night of such 
!1ie dog lay gasping with exhauB- 
fbaming so that his master wai 
ice tempted to shoot him in com- 
"his will be better told dramati- 



n young man departing from 



for the first time to LoDdon, 
isfa stuff for an eclogue. 

tj costom of interment makes the 
>ad friend more unpleasant. We 
e grave, corruption, and worms, 
ould be better. 

)u wish, when reading of foreign 
« their beauties F Itisamdan- 
; to be among strangers ! ' 

1 fo? Gerald." What the verdict 
n, what he thought himielf. Pos- 
God will judge him. 

, their lot after death ? Do their 
nat« other bodies f or are tbey 
d to a better world ? Were the 
'Stem true, it would, I think, ex- 
from afuture life; for what coD- 
of identity could be restored to 
an the soul system, or indeed any 
J must grow up somewhere, else 
' be like the beasts that perish. 

ill may he believe that the affairs 
ruled by fatality, else would not 
one so inferior have ruined thy 
ou the while living and warning. 
The Catos, &c. 

a, in love with a fencer, is said to 
[lio Tnvelkr'a Botum," Pmiu, p. 



have been cured with a potion of hb blood. 
This will make a ballad. For the lewd em- 
press substitute a maiden, and let the potion 
effect a cure, — by producing death. 

Thi good old Customs, and the Cause of 
Religion and Order, a song, addressed to 
all the confederate powers, each stanza re- 
citing for what they are fighting, and con- 
cluding with the same burthen.' 



Edwabd the ConrissoB took off a tax, 
because he saw the devil dancing upon the 
money which had been raised by it. 

InscRipnoM under the bust of Fox. 

Tbi devil bath not always bad hia due. 
He hath the credit of a murder, but not of 
a battle ; the murder is committed by the 
instigation of the devil — the victory by the 
favour of Providence. Then the tax story 
of king Edward Confessor. 

The present war was undertaken to pre- 
vent the people from being affected by the 
Jacobinical principles instilled into them. 
The story of Cortex's purge. 



I DO Qot love books that affect me strong- 
ly, at least if the effect be long. The siuf- 
deTt pathetic is pleasurable. Lines sent with 
some such book as the Letters from Lau- 



St. ViBCmTt Rodtt. 
It occurs to me that I could write a fine 
local poem upon this subject It might be- 
gin by saying why I ought to celebrate them. 



196 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



The camp, mj cavern, the legend of the 
building to which there leads no path, Cook*8 
folly and its tale, the suicide at Sea- Mills. 
Trenchard and Gordon. Chatterton. Bris- 
tol, too, might have its fame. And Ashton 
might be mentioned. The hot wells, and 
those who come to die there. 



»V>W«/VA[MM/«A/>^«^««MMMM/\B 



The devil once came to St. Antonj to 
ask why people abused him for all their 
wickedness, when their own corrupt nature 
was the cause. Applied to Pitt. 

The glow-worm. 

Sonnet to the pocket-handkerchief of 
one's mistress.^ 

Eclogue. The spirit of a monk and a 
devil. The monk stiffly refusing to go with 
the fiend, a wandering angel hears the dis- 
pute ; it is concluded by allowing the monk 
his own psalm-singing heaven. 

An old woman*8 snuiT-box.' 

Love elegy. On Delia*8 hair. What 
Cupid makes of it. Happy the comb, the 
barber, the curling-paper. The bear who 
died for his grease.' 

Sonnet on an old quid of tobacco.' 

Love elegy. The poet has stolen a lock 
of Delia's hair, and finds he has spoilt her 
wig.* 

Stx^hs, dip your gossamer pencils in her 
cheek, to tinge the rose ; scent the violets 
with her breath. Gnomes, bring up your 
diamonds to ripen from her eye-beams. Sa- 
lamanders, bask in her looks. Light from 
her eye, the glow-worm. Nymphs, catch 
her tear to make pearls.* 

• The reader will find all these hints worked 
up in Th« AmaUfry Foenu of Abel Shufflebottom, 
pp. 114—416. 

* These are probably worked up under 
" Snuff," p. 161. J.W. W. 



MAEULLEde Stilimene. The Turks under 
Soliman Bassa attacked Coccin, the capital 
of the isle. They forced the gate, the com- 
bat was fierce in the gateway, and the wo- 
men fought. Marulle was wounded by the 
same blow that slew her father the gover- 
nor. She seized his shield and buckler, and 
repelled the foe. On the morrow the Ve- 
netian commander arrived to relieve the 
isle, and found them safe. In the name of 
the senate he adopted Marulle, desired her 
to choose among his captains a husband, 
and promised a dowry from the state. '^ A 
good captain," she replied, '* might be a bad 
father, and that the field of battle was not 
the place to choose a husband." This story 
has suggested to me the idea of dramatizing 
in single scenes such subjects as are not in 
themselves enough for whole plays. Didra- 
mas. 

When the Turks were on the point of 
taking Sigeth, 1566, an Hungarian was 
about to kill his wife, to preserve her from 
violation. She bids him not have the guilt 
of murder, arms herself, goes with him to 
battle, and dies with him. A Didrama.— 
Imp, Hist. p. 692. 



VS^kA^^k^^^^'^^^A^^VW^^'^* 



Little Poems. 



Sancib de Navarre. Sancho, king of 
Navarre, was slain in combat by Gonzalto, 
Count of Castille. Theresa, sister of the 
slain, wife of the king of Leon, vowed re- 
venge. To get him into her power, she en- 
tered into a treaty of marriage for him and 
her sister Sancie. Gronzales repaired to Na- 
varre to the marriage. Gercias, the king, an 
accomplice in Theresa's plot, seized him on 
his arrival, fettered and dungeoned him. 
Sancie visited him in prison, kept her plight- 
ed faith, delivered and married him. 

Le Moyne. La Galerie, p. 150. 

Constance. Barri de S. Annez, her hut- 



band. St. Foiz. Fraiu^oise de Cezeley. 
Dune de Barrj. La Galerie, p. 298. 

Thb Americun Indians* death-song. 

The Peravian's dirge over the body of 
his father, stolen from the Spaniards* ce- 
metery. 

Halcyons, a Monodrama. 

Thb oak of the forest.^ Ita trunk was 
strong, and the swine fed under its boughs ; 
Imt the ivy clung round it, and as the oak 
decayed, the woodman, instead of lopping 
iway the parasite plant, hewed off its broad 
boughs. 

Mtthological sketches. Greenland. 
Lipland. Japan. N. American. Celtic. 
The last little known, the rest new to poetry. 

Also characteristic poema of their man- 
ners. 

A LADT stayed to dress herself, instead 
of going to church in time. Mass was half 
orer as she came to the church door, and a 
troop of little devils were dancing on her 
long train. 

St. Jambs of Nisibis was abused by some 
joong girls washing at a fountain. He made 
them all old and ugly. 

IsscsipnoN for the prison-room of Sa- 
vsge. 

• 

Thb glow-worm. Shines in the dark, — 
like certain men of letters. ^ With love, the 
light of love.** Exposed to danger, &c. 

Knvo WiLLiAM*s Cove. Torbay. Where 
he landed. The precedent. 

The ebb tide^ more rapid than the flood, 
— so with human happiness and human yir- 
tae. 

' See '' The Oak of our Fathers," Poems, p. 12a 
« See Poemi^ p. 230. J. W. W. 



Ibscbiption. Taunton and Judge Jef- 
feries.* 

Fob the market-place at Rouen. 

Fob Old Sarum.^ Addressed to a fo- 
reigner. What must be the privileges of 
English subjects, when the old pauper there 
sends two Members to Parliament ! 

Fob St. Domingo and ^Ir. Pitt. 

To a book-worm, that had eat my Sid- 
ney's Arcadia. Why not go to such and 
such books. 

The weathercock. Could I copy thee, I 
also might ornament the church. 

Fob where Jane Shore died. 

EcixnauB. Describing the new clergyman 
of a village, as contrasted with his prede- 
cessor. 

Baixad. The single combat between 
the dog and the murderer of his master. 

The pig.* Not ugly. His eyes, pignsnies, 
that see the wind. His ears. His tail curled 
like hop- tendrils, or a lady*s hair. Aptitude 
of parts. Pig a philosopher, and without 
prejudices. What is dirt ? Berkleian hy- 
pothesis sublimely introduced. Pig a de- 
mocrat, and right obstinate. Pig an aristo- 
crat, seeking to profit himself dirtily. Man 
not so wise in life, not so useful in death. 
Pig the victim of society. Wild boar. Pig 
unfortunate. The sow-gelder*8 horn. Tythe 
pig, learned pig, brawn pig, pig*s chitter- 
lins, black puddings. Smell of the bean- 
flowers. Bacon. Pig*s ringed nose, ear- 
rings, but the pig does not conceive his to 
be an ornament. Pig*s yoke, his cravatt, 

' See Inscription, " For a Monument at Taun- 
ton," p. 172. 

* See Espbiella's Letten, voL i. p. 55, third 
edit 

« See " The Pig, a colloquial Poem," p. 162. 

J. W. W. 



193 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERABT COMPOSITION. 



pillory, or necklace. IHg'i pettjtoei. Pigi 
gtink, there ia do sUnk. Offer the pig thj 
ameUing-botde. Moaei the pig'* friend. Hii 
face,— see it rouged mth saltpetre, and 
dresaed. 

Mdeic, — m; own feelinga. The harp, the 
organ. Militarj muaic, its damned abuse. 
The female Toice. Stage sioging, how loath- 



I wovu> not live over my youth agMn.' 
Its puns are real, its pleaturea unsatiifac- 
tory. Fear and uncertainty damp all its 

A JJTTLS while, and I shall be at home. 
If I had loat thee, ao wearily ahould I en- 
dure life as now this absence. 

Thb old woman'a anafT-box, the moat in- 
nocent aenauality, and the laat, perhapa too 
the great«at advantage as yet of Columbus's 
discovery. The fine lady's snaff; the fine 
gentleniao's ; the doctor'a ; the schoolmu- 
ter's i but the old woman reconciles me to 
it. Snuff* the only way of aatisfying the 



A woiun-SBiiTAKT of Mra. Lockyers, 
about eight years ago, delivered heraelf of 
a dead child, — it was supposed and admitted 
on her trial, — whose body ahe waa discovered 
burning at night. This will balladize. A 
madwoman in the snow. 

Tbb bee, a fool, because be doea not want 
the honey, and because he will be plundered 
ofit.» 

A WASP trying to 0y through the window. 

To a troublesome tooth. 

Rraonia a pig'a nose. The pork must 
give up aonie of hia natural rights to enjoy 



i. p. 161. 
J.W.W. 



the protection of society. Piggy gnu 
ungratefully. Kemember your atye, 
grains, your wash. Betides, you are k 
fnl! 

FnsBu'e pictures. 

Uabt HaiBs'i Female Biography. 

Thb barber. What would be tlu 
gentleman and fine lady without him 
counsellor, the schoolmaster, the judge 
company the judge's asaertiona wou' 
confuted, but with the wig on 1 Wi 
hia wig he is Jove without bia thunder. 
nua unceatuaed, Fhoebua vnbeamed. 
portance of the barber in society. 



A POEM upon the necessity of writ 
poem. Like Uendofa's sonnet, doi 
writing upon it, but to conclude wit 
point that so life passes in resolving h 

It was my faith that the spirits of 
men beheld the earth, and received 
fame with delight, deriving happinesa 
the welfare of their friends, poateritj 
country. Hampden and Sidney ! may 
believe this, — or would not the sight of 
land inflict a pang to the beatified pa 
II ampden and Sidney ! it is so ; ye b 
the patriot's effort, ye look to hb trii 
and the regeneration of your native 1 

To a dancing bear.' The slave trat 
guments. The animal ia happier tl 
wild. He would have been killed if h 
not been taught to dance. As an in 
animal, it ia right to make him oonb 
to our uae. Everything was made for 
now what can tite bear be made for, e 
to dance, and for his pomatum t Bs 
Not the owner's in terest to injure him ; 
he is not bul«d. 

* Ibid. p. 1S3.-J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



A toAii. A coxcomb fool-foced jack-a- 
tapts naVing huQ Ugly and useleM I 

Odb to Recoverj.* 

latcKimoa. Bangor. Hk DUHacre. 

HoPB, — a mixed being,— a aort of deni- 
deril, (porting with the igntB-fatniu, bnoy- 
iog the wrecked sailor to prolong bis pain, 
lie tormentor of Tantalua. 

Thx Spaniard who killed Piso. Ballad. 

AaaocAK aong during Ihe thnnder'ttorm.* 

BiBTH of Sommona. Codom. A Japa- 



The aeagnll. As be riaes on the warea, 
K> ahonld man ride nnmffied on the atorm 
offbrtune. 

To a volnnteer who conceivet himself the 
Bnowqiarte of the corporati<KL Half comic 
till the elooe,— that in death his foUjr will be 
preferable to their guilt. 

AxKBPrBAW. Inscription. 

Inacaimoii. Evesham. Montford. 

Camiu. Narrative. 

To the memor7 of Camoeni. 

Tan sugar maple. 

Odb. Bodrigo in the enchanted tower. 

A TEATBLLBB rcduced to find amiuement 

> Sm Ponu, p. IS3. ' Ibid. p. 133. 



in his own resourcea, compared to a bear in 
winter sucking his paws. 

FiBUi of corn in a wet season. Deicrip- 
tive aoimet, — and the point, alas t how smaU 
will be the aixpennjr loaf I 

The lyrical manner elucidated in an ode 
upon a Gooseberry Pie.' Growth of the 
wheat, and its processes. Whence the water 
came. Hie sugar and slave trade. The 
fmit And didst thou scratuh thy tender 
anna, &c. gatherer t 

A BALIOD of the devil walking abroad to 
look at his stock on earth,— counting the 
young of the viper, — aeeing a navy, — a re- 
view, — going to cburcli, — and at last, bear- 
ing the division in the House of Commons.* 



AiUTOBi sonnets, by Abel Shufflebot- 
tom,' A query whether he has not a double 
identity, because he sees his Delia though 
she is ikr away. 

DiBOB of the American widow by the 
mourning war-pole.* 

EcLoarB. The long road-elms on the 
common near Wellington cut down. They 
were the only shelter. A man, who was car- 
rying his child, and his wife sat on the trunk 
□f one, and the boughs rose over them, and 
gave the last shadow of the yet unwithered 

Mt forefathers. A deeply interesting 
poem of domestic feelings might be made 
under this Utie. 

SoNO of the Old Chikkaash to his grand- 
son, by the monrning war-pole of his aon,* 

' Ibid. p. 126, " A Pindaric Ode." 
* Ibid. p. 114. 



200 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERAKY COMPOSITION. 



I wouu> I were that reverend gentleman, 
with gold-laced hat and golden-headed cane, 
that hangs in Delia^s parlour. For Delia 
sits opposite him, and his eyes are alwajs 
fixed on her unblamed.^ 

Sonnet. A pigeon. It is pleasant to see 
his pouting breast, and the rainbow gloss of 
his neck, and his red feet, and his tumbling 
in the air; but pleasanter to see his feet 
sticking up through a pie-crust. 

Sonnet. The rainbow. Did not that 
bow of the covenant confirm us that the 
world should no more be destroyed hj water? 
England! thy navy would not be permitted 
to exist, for a three-decker might defy the 
deluge. 

Draw not the picture of Delia I thou 
wilt make me detest thee as a blasphemer, 
and thou wilt tempt all the world beside to 
idolatry.^ 

Delia playing cup and ball, — methought 
my heart was the ball, and the point on which 
she caught it, Cupid*s arrow .^ 

Insckiption. Kenwith Castle. 



Images, 

Green of the copse-covered hill, broken 
like the waters of a still lake. 

Evening. A flight of small birds only 
visible by the glitter of their wings. 

In the evening the harshest sounds are 
harmonised by distance. The very bark of 
a far-off dog is musical. 

August 25. It is the plane that hangs 
down its globular seeds. 

The swan in swimming arches back his 



> Pmhu, p. 114. 



* Ibid. p. 134. 
J. W. W. 



serpent neck, and reclines his head between 
his wings. His wings are a little opened, 
as sail-like to catch the wind; his breast 
protruded like a prow. This bird is beau- 
tiful from its colour and habits ; for it is 
clumsy in shape, and of most foul physiog- 
nomy ; there is such a makishness in its eje 
and head, as well as neck. 

^' The swan arch*d back his snakey neck, 

And his proud head reclined 
Between his wings, now half unclo8*d 

Like sails to catch the wind. 

The waters yielded to his breast, 

Protruded like a prow, 
And still they roar'd as strong he oar*d 

With sable feet below."— For Rudiger? 

The leaves of the holly are prickly only 
when they are within reach of cattle ; higher 
up they preserve their waviness, but are 
smooth, more tapering, as having lost their 
angular points, and ending in a point Some 
of the mid-height leaves, with the taper 
shape of the upper ones, retain three, two, 
or one point. The leaf is very beautiful, the 
middle fibre beautifully varying by its lighter 
hue from the dark glossy green. The lower 
side is pale- grey bh, and shows th^ thickness 
of the leaf.^ 

Beautiful appearance of an ash when 
the moon shines through it, particularly its 
edge. 

The moon seems to roll through the rifled 
clouds. 

The insect that makes a six spotted shade 
is not a spider. It has four long legs, and 
two short ones in front. It seems to use 
the long legs like oars. 

Oct. 2. The ivy now begins to blossom, 
the flower appears globular. What is afler- 
wards the berry, is now of an olive colonr, 

» See Ballad, p. 420. The reader wUl observe 
that these stanzas were not used, p. 420. 
< Ponw, p. 129. J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



201 



and pointed in the middle. The calix of 
each is a greyer green, the anthers a greyish 
yellow. The smell of a bush is very plea- 
nut ; but closely observed, it has an oily 
Kent,^ not disagreeable, and yet powerful 
enough to half offend. The bees swarm over 
these blossoms, probably because the only 
ones at this time of year. 

MoRNiKo. Mist shower from the elms, 
and thick-leaved trees. 

Whitekess of the rocks occasioned by 
the lichens. 

Toe grass grey with dew. 

Oct. 10. Rich appearance of the fern in 
the wood* 

The acorns brown ripe, or ripeningyeUow. 

Op the various trees, I observe only the 
ash uniform in its fading colour, pale yel- 
lowing green. Its leaves rise very beautr- 
iiiily, light as a lady*s plumes. 

A PATH so little frequented, that the 
leaves lay on it untrodden, light as they had 
fallen. 

The horse-chesnut rich in autumn. 

Im the forest of Dean, I saw no trees 
more richly varied than the beech, standing 
•ingly, and with room to spread. 

Tub leaves of the reed spread out straight 
on the wind, like ship streamers. 

The darker and the more tempestuous the 
night, the more luminous the sea to leeward 
of the vesseL 

A VESSEL when first seen at sea, appears 
to be ascending. 

Odd i^pearanoeof the cobwebs in a frosty 
morning. 



Iir a hoar morning the cattle track their 
feeding path by their breath thawing the 
frost. 

A CLOUDED morning after snow. The line 
of hill scarcely to be distinguished from the 
sky by being lighter. 

Rime on the trees. 

Sparkluvo of the snow. 

White frost on the stone wall, but none 
on the moss in its interstices, as though the 
force of v<^table life repelled it. 

Move where you will at sea, the long line 
of moonlight still meets your eye. 

When the wind follows the sun, it omens 
fair weather, and vice vers&. 

April 25. The petals of the pilewort grow 
white when overblown. The first buds of 
the ash are black, they then redden, and 
appear not unlike the valerian fiower, a 
cluster of red seeds. 

The horse-chesnut buds covered with 
gum, and woolly within. 

The cry of the bat comes so short and 
quick, as to be felt in the 6ar like a tremu- 
lous touch. 

At evening the reflection of the bridge 
on the water was strong as reality, and 
blended with the bridge into one pile. 

I SAW a stream that had made its way 
through the foot of an old tree, which thus 
formed a strange bridge, — an arch above it. 

One of the most beautiful images I ever 
noticed was the reflection of a mast on the 
river at evening. Its yellow colours were 
vivid as life, — it waved like a coiling ser- 
pent, and the huge tail seemed to roll up 
as the monster were menacing. 



202 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Bats love the water. I observe them 
dipping their breasts like the swallow. 

An ash growing up for some four feet 
along a rock, so that the stem was half 
trunk, half root.^ 

On the way to Moreton Hamstead, we 
crossed a little bridge of one plank. The 
bough of a hazel had been broken and bent 
down to the post at the other end as a rail. 
It had recovered, and branched out, so that 
the rail grew. 

MooNLioHT. A sheep feeding on the edge 
of a bank. It was a strange sight. 



Joan of Arc. 

The Seine. Treasury of Antient and 
Modem Times, p. 74. 

Washing at meals. Robin Hood. Ben 
Jonson. Chenier. Coryat. 

Merovingian kings. Boileau. 

DuGuesclin. Treasury of An. &c. Mon- 
taigne. 

Talbot*s sword. Camden. 

Battle of Montargis. Lassels. 

The love education of chivalry may be 
well given by Conrade, describing his de- 
votion to Agnes. 

Archery must be attended to. Scotch 
Encyc. 

The nuns singing may afiect the maid. 
B. 9. 

Helplessness of men in complete armour 
when on the ground. Battle of Pavia. Gor- 
don's Tacitus, V. 1, p. 219; v. 3, p. 100. 

Hooks to pull the man from off the horse. 
Lyttleton's Henry II. v. 1, p. 297. 

Peasantry building huts in churchyards, 
in hopes of protection from the place. Lyt 
V. 2, p. 135. 

* The classical reader will call to mind a simi- 
lar image in Sallust. " £t forte eo loco grandis 
ilex coaiuerat inter saxa, paullulikm mode prona, 
dein flexa atque aucta in altitudinem, quo cuncta 
gignentium natura fert,*' &c.— B<//. Jug, xciii. 

J. W. W. 



Vavasor. Lyt v. 3, p. 84. 

There is in Mrs. Dobson's Life < 
trarch a fine trait of a country expo 
enemies, taken from one of his letten 
peasant drives his flock with a lance 

Beech oil. 

In the Bruce, king Edward is callec 
Schyr Edouard the king. 

** Then was that gallant heart of Doi 
pierced.*' 
The Bruce. Barnes. Qy. Ms 

Gallantry in war. The Douglas. 
The Irish Kernes. Bulwer's Art d 
ling. ^ 

Shield made a boat of. 
Hippocras. Belleau. 
Foot armour lighter than horse ar 
Commines. 

A good contrast to La Hire's pra; 
Carlos Magna. 
St. Catharine. Agostinho da Cnu 
And now the knights of France difb 
&c. 

'* En esto es mi parecer 

Que en cavallo no te fies ; 
Por lo qual has de entender 

Que de ninguno confies 
Tu lymosna, y bien hazer. 

JEl CavaUero Determinado^ writt 
French by Ouves de uiMaechb; 
lated by Hernando de Acuna. Bare 
1565. It is the advice of Understand 
the knight before he enters upon his o 
with Atropos. 

Lambrequins, ribbands embroiderer 
silver and gold, which hung from the 
ets of the knights, — long enough t< 
over the crupper. Sovereigns wore . 
in them. 

White wand of capitulation. 231, 
Du Guesclin. 

The editors of the Memoires for f 
History say that it was conunon for toi 
purchase from the nearest ruffian th 
vilege of collecting the harvest fro: 
little land they durst cultivate. £v 
Hire received £1200 from the peo 
Amiens for such a security. — Tom. 5, ] 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



203 



1 



When Salisbury left England, the Duke 
of Orleans ^ pria ce Comte qu'il ne voulust 
fkire aucune guerre en ses terres, ny a ses 
snbjets, veu qu'il estoit prisonnier, et qu*il 
ne se pouvoit defendre, et dit-on qu*il luy 
promit et octroya sa requeste.*^ — Mem. torn. 
7, p. 73. Jeuville is spelt YeuviUe. 

In an attack upon ** le boulevart du bout 
da pont d'Orleans, les Francois les abbat- 
toient des eschelles dedans les fossez,dont ils 
ne se pouvoient relever, attendu qu*on jet- 
toit sur eux cercles liez et croisez, cendres 
Tives, chaux, gresses fondues et eau& 
chaudes, que les femmes d*Orleans leur ap- 
portoient : et pour rafraischer les Francois 
da grand travail qu'ils soufiroient, les dites 
femmes leur bailloient vin, viandes, fruicts, 
Tinugre et toiiiulles blanches ; et aussi leur 
portoient des pierres et tout ce qui pouvoit 
servir a la defense, dont aucunes- furent 
Teaes durant Tassaut, qui repoussoient a 
coups de lances les Anglois des entrees du 
boulevart, et les abbatoient es fossez." — 
Mem. tom. 7, p. 80. 

The Dukes of Burgundy and Luxem- 
bourg urged Bedford to leave the Orlean- 
nois in peace, at the request of the people 
themselves, who asserted that this had been 
promised their Duke, 90. His refusal of- 
fended Burgundy, and made him withdraw 
bis troops. 

** II y eut un Carme docteur en theolo- 
gie, bien aigre homme, qui luy dit, que la 
saincte-escriture defendoit d*ajouter foy "k 
telles parolles, si on ne monstroit signe ; et 
elle respondit pleinement, qu*elle ne vouloit 
pas tenter Dieu, et que le signe que Dieu 
luy avoit ordonn^, c'estoit lever le siege de 
devant Orleans, et de mener le Roy sacrer 
i Reims. B y eut un autre Docteur en 
theologie, de I'ordre des Freres Prescheurs 
qoi luy va dire, Jeanne vous demandcz des 
gens d*armes, et si vous dites, que c*est le 
pUisir de Dieu que les Anglois laissent le 
Royaume de France et s*en aillent en leur 
pays, si cela est, il ne faut point de gens 
d*armes; car le seul plaisir deDieu les 
peut destruire, et faire aller en leur pays. 



L 



A quoy elle respondit qu* elle desmandoit 



des gens, non mie en grand nombre, les- 
quels combattroient et Dieu donneroit la 
victoire." 99. 

Jean Dolon was her esquire. Her page 
'* un bien gentilhomme nomm^ Louis de 
Comtes, dit Imerguei.** 

When the heralds were detained and 
threatened to be burnt, Dunois sent to 
threaten reprisals on his prisoners : '*Mais 
lesdits Anglois en renvoyerent seulement 
un, auquel elle demanda que dit Talbot ? 
et le Heraut respondit, que luy et tons les 
autres Anglois disoient d*elle tons les maux 
qu*ils pouvoient, en Tinjuriant, et que s*ils 
la tenoient, ils la feroient ardoir. Or t*en 
retoume luy dit-elle et ne fais doute que tu 
ameneras ton compagnon, et dis a Talbot, 
que s*il s*arme, je m*armeray aussi, et qu*il 
se trouve en place devant la ville, et s'il me 
peut prendre, qu*il me face ardoir, & si je 
le desconfis, qu*il face lever les sieges et 
8*en aillent en leur pays."* 112. 

When St. Loup was attacked, the Eng- 
lish retired " au clocher de FEglise. 11 y 
eut la des Anglois audit clocher qui se des- 
guiserent, et qui prirent des habiUemens de 
Prestres ou de gens d'Eglise, pour par ce 
moyen se sauver, lesquels neantmoins on 
voulat tuer, mais ladite Jeanne les garda et 
preserva, disant qu*on ne devoit rien de- 
mander aux gens d*£glise. Duquel bon 
success furent a cette heure (de vespres) 
rendues graces et louanges a Dieu par 
toutes les Eglises, en hymnes et devotes 
oraisons, avec le son des cloches, que les 
Anglois pouvoient bien oiiyr.** 117. 

At Patay. *' Le Due d'Alen^on dit a la 
Pucelle, Jeanne, voila les Anglois en ba- 
taille, combatrons nosP Et elle demanda 
audit Due, avez-vous vos esperons ? Lors 
le Due luy dit comment da, nous en fautdra- 
t-il retirer, ou fuir ? et elle dit nenny ; en 
nom Dieu allez sur eux, car ils s^enfuiront, 
et n*arresteront point et seront deconfits, 
sans guerres de perte de vos gens ; et pour 
ce faut-il vos esperons pour les suivre.** p. 
142. 



A 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Thx Bizth book concludes with tbeir 
setting sail, the Mventli op«m with fome 
balf'dozen liueg in this manner : 

" Now go your wij ye goodly company, 
God and good angels guide ye on your 

then immediately to the action. They find 
Cadwallon, with the reniuns of the colony 
unong the kills. The priest had stimulated 
the Uexicsns to attack them, some interfer- 
ence in rescuing a victim may be imagined. 
Coatel informs Lincoya in time of the me- 
ditated attack. The death of Cynetha must 
be told in this book, and perhaps the ac- 
count how Lincoya escaped when destined 
to sacrifice by the aid of his Mexican mis- 
tress Coatel. I love to keep the story flow- 
ing on in one unbroken tide of time if 
possible ; but this cannot here be done. 

Madoc therefore proposes peace again to 
the Axtecas, by a prisoner, Tlalala; the 
fierce enthusiast promises to bear his pro- 
posal, and oppose it ; this man is a sav^e 
UeguluB. TezoEoraoc, priest of Mexitli, 
deniands a white sacrifice. Tlalala and 
Ocelopan devote themselves to bring one. 
They go to the mountain settlements, and 
lie in wait. They find Caradoc, sleeping, 
but as they are about to seiie htm the wind 
sweeps over his harp, and they believe 
him divinely protected. Young Hoel ap- 
proaches. Him they catch up. Madoc 
beholds and follows — the alarm is given, 
and the Welsh haslen to his assistance ; but 
an ambush was prepared, and Madoc and 
the child are both conveyed away. Hoel 
ia caverned among the rocks that bonier the 
lake, a victim to TIaloc; here be is left to 
perish, for the stone is never rolled from 
the mouth of the cavern, except when a vic- 
tim ia thrust in. Coatel discovers another 



The reader will obserre that these lines 
the Secund Fart of "Madoc" as it now 
stands, f onni, p. 359. Itisnottboughlneces. 
sary by the Editor to mark off all the alura- 
tionsroade.—J.W.W. 



entrance, and preserves him. During the 
time of peace she may have learnt aooK I 
Welsh, enough to be understood. 

Madoc it reserved for the gladiatoriao 

sacrifice. Ocelopan and Ttalala both claim 
the combat; the lot decides it in favoui 
of Ocelopan, and he is killed. Tlalala then 
engages him. An attack is now made on 
the Aztecas. Teiozomoc is for instantly 
killing the prisoner, but Tlalala iniisti on 
having him preserved to continue the com- 
bat. To this Huitziton lends his weight, in 
hopes of yet conciliating matters, and Coa- 
nocotiin, the king, from a noble spirit 
Madoc is therefore bound. The battle il 
dreadful, but the Welsh are repelled bj 
multitudes who throng though to certain 
death. They pass the night on the field, 
and on the morrow again renew the battle, 
when Madoc appears among them. Duiing 
the confusion of the night Coatel bad cut 
bis bands, conveyed him, to. the cavern, and 
given him a canoe, in whii-b he had es- 
caped with Hoel over the lake. 

Elen is wandering at midnight along the 
opposite shore, half deranged, when they 
land. 

In this, the great engagement, Mervyn 
ia captured and led away to immediately be 
sacrificed. The discovery of her sex con- 
fuses them; and Caradoc, who enters the 
temple in the hope of rescuing Madoc, finds 
his own Senena stretched on the altar. 

The appearance of Madoc appeases the 
Webb, and he makes them retire. Hit es- 
cape astonishes the Aztecas. Huitziton and 
Tnjatzin the old priest, father of Coatei, 
argue that it is, if not a miracle, certainly 
a proof that the strangers' God is the la- 
perior one. Coanocotzin, who is somewhat 
of a Capaneus, and Tezozomoc, who is a 
thorough priest, suspect treachery. They 
assemble together all who had access to the 
temple, and propose a test similar to the 
water of jealousy. Coatel's fears betray 
her, and she is immediately sacrificed. 

Lincoya is sitting with an old Peruviar 
among the mountains, when the tidinp 
reach him ; be sits stunned with the grief- 



IDEAS AKD STUDIES FOR LITERAET COMPOSITION. 



panion, to emploj or divert bis bot- 
Ues to him & l^eni) like thftt tn tbe 
Souli, he listen! wiib deep atten- 
i enquires if the journe; be long? 
xins he is told. There is a shorter 
: youth exclaimed, and leapt down 

i^tecas assemble their whole force 
1 their eoemiei. An earthquake 

nuuij of them, and whilst Tezo- 
nd the inferior priests are perform- 
un rites upon a mountun, a volca- 
ition kills them ; intimidated by 
Aitecas take counsel together, and 
ce of Huitziton prevails. Tlalala 

it violently and vainly ; be then 
e tidings to the WcUh, and chal- 
ladoc first, and on hia refusal, any 
Uowera, but the challenge is every 
iufed. At the moment the Aitecaa 
leir emigration, in the presence of 
, he destroys himself on the grave 
■iend Ocelopan. So Madoc is left 
isioD of the land, without an ene- 



: Eighth Book, the Aitecas attempt 
the ships of Madoc. The attaclc 
by night Tlalala is then taken 

leavers to be described, where Ma- 
a alone along tbe Towys' winding 

idelity of the dog, onght not to be 
n. I love dogs, and would wil- 
ke this to Peru, if I could make htm 

thing may be made out of the 
' Gftr, and the Eagle of Snowdon. 
tory of Elidore may be alluded to, 

in a simile between its sunless 
1 the clouds of Peru, 
e Third Book, the scurry should 
be described; there it room for a 
1 description, 
lection of a dead friend, when 

and useful, though painful even to 
Cadwallon and Gnetha. 
sorry must not be introduced. One 



might ^t with Lucretius, but the Toyage 
in loo short, and then it were not an invi- 
tmg circumstance. 

Coatel faints when led to the altar, and 
is sacrificed senseless; in that dreadful 
hour Nature was kind. 

Place of shelter among the monntuns, 
compared to that where Manuel was dO' 
feated. From KnoUea'i very interesting 
account. 

Burning the ships. The alarmed eagle 
from his mountain-nest gazed on the mid- 
night splendour. 

Will it lessen the fitness of the poem to 
suppose a marriage between Madoc and 
Elen T Her meeting him on the shore of 
the lake after his escape affords a fine op- 
portunity for discovering afiTection. 

At Merthyr, I saw the furnace fires re* 
fleeted upon the clouds at night. This it 
a good image for the burning (he ships. 

In the engagement by the ships tbe co- 
racles and water pilgrimages may be men- 
tioned. 

The probation of a savage on the banks 
of the Oronoco can be briefly told by Tla- 
lala. Relaljng how his father slew one in 
the gladiatorlan Bacri6ce, after having him- 
self taken bim prisoner. 

Tbe traditions respecting tbe Mammuth, 
and the race of strangers mentioned in that 
Spanish account of Peru. 

The Eighth Book had better begin thus : 
Tlalala is brought a prisoner from tbe 
ships, he bod lain in wut to kill 'one of the 
Welsh, and had been taken. The ships 
should be bnrnt. Some books afterwards by 
Madoc himself after his release, to show 
bit resolution of remaining in tbe country. 

When Tlalala comes with ofiers of peace, 
he finds Azllan in an uproar. It is (he 
festival of tbe arrival of the gods, and no 
sign* of their arrival are eeen ; all is con- 
sternation. Tezozomoc comes from hit 
nine months' fast, and asks a white victim. 

The iires are blazing, and tbe victims 
ready to be thrown in. The priests call 
on their gods, and gaah themtelvcs, and 



206 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



fants* blood ; first with the insect ointment. 
The intoxication of joy succeeds. 

The unction must be reserved for the 
mountain sacrifice. 

The pond Ezapan is made thick with 
blood. 

The gods must not aorrive till the white 
yictims are taken. 

Funeral of Ocelopan, and Coanocotzin. 

Night marked by the fire flies, the flames 
growing brighter, and the smoke unseen in 
the darker atmosphere. Tezozomoc has 
seen Mexitlb's mother, who tells him how 
to invite the gods. Ocelopan and Tlalala 
devote themselves, and drink each other*s 
blood. Then Tezozomoc feels the passing 
Deity. The priests shout they come, and 
the victims are thrown into the fire. 

The Flyers and the dance of Yucatan at 
the coronation of Huitziton. 

The banner of the nation to be taken 
from Mexitlis* shield. 

Ocelopan seizes Hoel and runs away 
with him. Madoc follows, and is seized; 
but Ocelopan, without waiting for them, 
hastens on to Aztlan with the child. Pro- 
cession to the sacred cavern by the lake, 
hymn to Taloc, and congratidations to the 
child who is destined to the joys of Talo- 
can, the cool paradise. Hoel, tired of cry- 
ing, is amused by the pomp. Coatel has 
been sent with the temple-girls to gather 
flowers for the shrine of Coatlantona ; she 
has separated from them when she disco- 
vers the way into the cavern. From a rock 
she may see the procession ; and she may 
be led to find out the secret entrance by 
the cries of the child. 

Afler the escape of Madoc, the Peru- 
vians perform the ceremony of driving 
away calamity. — OarciUuo^ p. 258. 

Ocelopan and Tlalala both insist that 
Madoc shall die by the gladiatorian sacri- 
fice. Tlalala tells how his father took pri- 
soner a chief who had passed the probation 
(Robertson), and who had made a drum of 
his enemies* skin (Garcilaso) ; that he killed 
him in the gladiatorian sacrifice, and be- 
sought the gods for a son who might follow 



his example, and that the gods had heird 
him. The priests think it will encourage 
the people to see a stranger killed in single 
combat. Coanocotzin gives Madoc a sword. 
The combat and death of Ocelopan. At- 
tack made by the whole Welsh force. 

Book 5. Elen may ask to see HoeTs 
grave. 

Book 6. The religious rites before their 
embarkation described. On such a depir- 
ture both Y. Flaccus and Camoens have 
written. That, however, matters not. 

The harp heard by Tlalala compared to 
the music of the herb that sprung from the 
blood of Orpheus. 

Could I not with some efiect introduce 
the excommunication of Owen Cyveilioc ? 

Wherever Harold penetrated into Wales, 
he erected stone pillars, remuning in Gi- 
raldus*s time, thus inscribed : Hic ruiT vic- 
tor Haraldus. This should be noticed. 

Compared with the other Europeans, the 
Welsh were called unarmed. This should 
be noted. And the wisdom of Madoc may 
borrow the armour of the Saxons. 

Cornage* tenure noticed. 

The ships were galleys. — Lyt 8. 91. 

Coatel in passing to the temple of Coat* 
lantona sees Madoc lying bound. That 
end of the town is deserted. She cuts his 
bonds, leads him to Hoel, and refuses to 
accompany their flight, thinking of her fa- 
ther. They cross the lake ; and at landing 
find Elen on the bank. Gwenlhian is watch- 
ing her brother's arms; ready to destroj 
herself with hia sword, if danger should 
approach. 

Perhaps the narrative of Madoc*s escape 
should be an afler relation by himself. In 
this case the eleventh book would open 
with Elen wandering along the water side. 

Mervyn is with Gwenlhian. Madoc takes 
the boy to the battle — ** I was a stripling 
such as thou art — at Corwen.** The suffu- 

* See Du Canoe in v. Ccmagiumy et Tentrt 
per eomagium. In Cowel's words, " The scr* 
vice of which tenure is to blow a horn when an/ 
invasion of the northern enemy is perceived," 
in v.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



207 



non of fear is mistaken for the glow of cou- 
rage, and Mervjn goes to fight. 

Lincoya is armed like the Welsh. Of 
the battle, the chief incidents are the death 
of Coanocotzin and the capture of Mervjn. 

On the YOjage, flying fish. 

Book 2. The isocratic system briefly 
shown by Cadwallon. 

12. Funeral. Coronation. Coatel. Lin- 
coya. 

I belidye afler all it will be better not to 
identify Madoc with Mango Capac, and 
consequently not lay the scene in Peru. 

A miracle. The broken idol of Mexitli 
u found one morning whole in the temple 
at Patamba, and the banner of the nation 
above it. 

It was the voice of a bird that occasioned 
the migration of the Aztecans. This bird 
should be supposed the spirit of Coano- 
cotzin. 

13. Aztlan. Ceremony of driving away 
calamity. Ambassadors from Huitziton, 
warning Madoc to depart. They follow 
him to the ships, which he then bums. 

The ships must not be burnt. It would 
be too like other poems ; and the descrip- 
tion of the fire would interfere with that of 
the volcano, for which all my combustible 
ideas ought to be reserved. 

The ships should be pulled to pieces, and 
vessels made of them to act upon the lake, 
like the galleys, by force of their beaks. 

10 and 11. Kenric should be in the 
battle. 

3. Shoal of porpoises before the tempest. 
Their leaping. 

Water - spout — Le Nouveau Monde. 
CMani. 19. 102. P. 

Becalm him. 

14. Close of the century. Hymn at sun- 
set The mountain sacrifice. The eruption. 
The earthquake. 

The troops assembled to march the first 
morning of the new century. The pond. The 
unction. The prisoners* breast the altaV. 

6. Dr. Beddoes suggested that Madoc 
ihould recommend Emma to Rodri and 
Llewelyn. Certainly. 



2. Somewhat of Madoc*s early character 
should be given. The buds of genius. 

Something fine may be made of the last 
interview between Madoc and Huitziton. 
Madoc should have saved the ashes of the 
kings and heroes, and give them to the 
emigrating monarch. This should soften 
him; his father's urn; and they should 
separate with feelings of afiection. 

Effect of the century's termination. Ves- 
sels broken, lights extinguished, women 
and children veiled with aloe-leaves and 
shut up. The priests bathe in the pond 
Ezapan. Unctions of scorpion-poultice and 
that of infants* blood. Hymn at sunset. 
Procession to the mountain. The prisoner. 
Topographical description. 

The birds fluttering about during the 
night earthquake. 

15. Aztlan. The storm abates, the Welsh 
put out their galleys to assist the Aztecans. 
Huitziton resolves to emigrate — the omen 
drawn from the bird. Tlalala goes to Azt- 
lan, and takes possession of the house where 
he was bom. His wife and child have been 
saved. He refuses all ofiers of friendship, 
and only requests a weapon to die with. 
This at length he seizes; then veib her 
face, alluding to the late rites, and stabs 
himself. 

Huitziton kindles a fire in a perfectly 
calm day, to direct his emigration the way 
the smoke takes. It leads by Aztlan. Ma- 
doc brings the ashes himself. Huitziton 
requests, if ever Patamba should reappear, 
that respect may be shewn to the remains 
of Coanocotzin. 



^>^MA/^^/v^M«w«/wv^M/^^ 



Ilanquel must be noticed in the earlier 
books. 

14. Hymn to the warriors* dead, to inter- 
cede with the sun. Coanocotzin and Oce- 
lopan particularized, so shall they not be 
debarred the joy of vengeance. 

A monk wants to go with Madoc. 

7. Would this increase the interest The 
victim to be a female ; the offering to Te- 
teoinan. The anachronism matters not. 



A 



208 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



She is to be shot with arrows. Her bro- 
ther comes to the Welsh, and goes with 
them to Aztlan. He rushes to save, or ra- 
ther revenge her, and the Welsh take his part. 

Some of the North American tribes held 
annually the Festival of the Dead, when 
thej dug up all who had died in the pre- 
ceding year and set food before them. This 
will make a strong scene ; and here I can 
find a wife for Cadwallon. A young widow 
about to be compelled to an unwelcome 
marriage. 

The lake islands, floating gardens, and 
dwellings. 

The sacrifice of the first-bom. There 
must be a book in which Madoc converts 
his Indians from Paganism. It may hinge 
upon this sacrifice. The high-prie8t of the 
tribe may be a good man. His daughter 
may have a child, and attempt to conceal 
it, so that her punishment for this impiety 
may affect hiiq. And what with his in- 
fluence, and that of Madoc, the idols over- 
thrown. 

In Garcilaso, History of Florida, is an 
instance where the death of the chief occa- 
sioned the defeat of the Indians. — P. 202. 

Afler reading Grarcilaso^s Floridan His- 
tory, I find it was not a place for Euro- 
peans to fix in. South America will be 
better. Up the great river, and somewhere 
iu the interior of that continent. Brazil, 
or Paraguay, or El Dorado. 

7. The opening lines lyrically to group 
sea scenery, describing all the characteristic 
appearances, and voyage feelings. 

A.D. 715. Sacara, the Spanish governor 
of Merida, when the Moors took that town, 
is said to have sailed in search of the For- 
tunate Islands. 

Carlos Magno, p. 23, a speaking bird ; 
but not understandable, like the guide of 
Huitziton. 

David*s tyranny. A woman's cruelty 
murdering the innocent reptile that she 
fears. 

Madoc goes up the Mississippi certainly. 



It is difficult to weave into one thread 
the two actions. The reformation of the 
friendly tribe — ^with the external war. The 
Priests must be the link. 

The Pathocas are the auxiliar tribe. Eri- 
lyab their chief, a man well minded, but too 
weak to be virtuous. His son, Rajenet, b 
a sullen and crafty savage, hostile to the 
Welsh from jealousy ; and because Gwen- 
Ihian is refused to him. He therefore leaguej 
in secret with the Aztecans. 

Gwenlhian must marry a savage. I know 
only his name — Herma ; but he must de- 
serve her. 

Melamin is the wife of Cadwallon. How 
he wooed her must be told to Madoc, be- 
cause it will be a less interruption than that 
at any other time, and because I want a 
child bom about the period of Madoc^s re- 
turn. This boy the priest Dithlal claims 
as a sacrifice. He leagues with Rajenet 

In the great danger, when all hands are 
called out to rescue Madoc, Rajenet oflers 
to remain and guard the women. Herma 
does the same from suspicion ; thus the 
one is signalized, and the other got rid of. 

The priestcraft of Dithial should all be 
exposed ; his coward confession marks him 
an under character to Tezozomoc. 

Immediate possession of the crown is one 
of Rajenet's motives. Erilyab is half tempt- 
ed by superstition ; and the promij^e that 
Aztlan will remit all tribute if he will as- 
sist to turn out the strangers. Conscious 
of his own unworthiness, he at last shall 
give up all his authority, and so rise into 
respectability. 

Herma is the victim who escapes. Book 7. 

The Pathoca chief priest is not a rogue. 
He should be father of Melamin. His name 
Uraraja. 

Erilyab shall be a woman ; hating the 
Aztecans for her husband*s death. 

The new characters then are Erilyab, 
Rffjenet, Herma, Melamin, Uraraja, Dithial. 
The seven old ones make the whole num- 
ber of prominent savages amount to thir- 
teen. 



[DEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



,d GwenlluaD must be brought 
iMgronnd. 

iture of Mtdoo mtut not be at 
ime witli that of Uoel. 
seen the print of a snake-itatne 
in TacBtan. It maj be managed 
a the idol, and make Dithial tams 
ipent and pass him for the de- 
•itj. Madoc ihonld kill him. 
:aed victim is Melamin. To her 
■ralloa goes to seek an alliance. 
ince the colore of Uadoc hap- 



on shows Madoc an infMit of but 
■, the first bom of the colonj', 
at himself and Uelomin. After 

of Herma, all being peaceable, 

accompanied him to his own 
-this if rambling. AlW the re- 
le mouniains, the; go to form an 
Hie mode of entering a village. 
let. Quits North American sa- 
[elamin first seen bj her hus- 
r-pole. Then the festiral of the 
I their return Melamin accom- 
brother. Reverence. Gratitude 
a love. CToetha most be kept 
tie longer, that her atteotions to 
lalf win CadwaUon's heart. Hie 
tship uf Canada. Books 7 and 8, 
D of 7, as now. 

follows thus, Dithial demands 
's child for the snake idol. He 
Iream. He comes again the next 
thcr Rajenet eomes, and demands 
rab's name. For the snake idol 
n life, and at night seized one 
Hi, nnder protection of the Cam- 
1 been refused. The mother tells 
A cavern u the temple ; at the 
he great serpent sunning himself, 

kct of fascinating. Madoc kills 

'( demand of GwenDuan. 

. Areligiousceremonjofnaming 

it shoiUd be done on Cynetha's 



grave. This ought to be as solemn and 
striking as possible. During the after fes- 
tival, Tlalala's attempt on Caradoc: and 
here we fall into the great road. 

Book 11 will than be the present 8th, 
and on 12, 13. 

14 (the 11th). When Hadoe reaches the 
settlement, he finds Dithial a prisoner, Ra- 
jenet dead. Thej had seized the oppor- 
tunitj of making their own terms. Meaning 
to secure the women as hostages. The dog 
killed Rajenet, and with Herma auccessfullj 
defended them. The inweaving this throws 
the battle and capture of Aztlan to book 
15. The twellUi remains for book 16. 

Book 17. The town purified. Dithial's 
confession. The resignation of Eriljab. 
Herma's marriage. £leao f I think so. 
I. During that ceremony the war-em- 
Csradoc retires in envious re- 
collection to the lake banks. Senena fol- 
lows, and avows herself. Some moonlight 
scene. Some song that he had taught her. 

19. The great lake-battle, now in 13. 14 
makes 20. 

21. The close. Hanquel and her child 
nutj have escaped, and be by Tlalala ltd 
to Madoc. 

June 6, 1801, Lisbon. 

Certunlj to Bardsej, and there the In- 
terview with LlewelTu should be ; be has 
watched his uncle, uid follows in a cora- 
cle. 

Were not some Adamites in England 
then, who died for want of food — as Jane 
Shore is fabled to have perished. One of 
these Madoc might relieve in death, and 
thus be tuned lo answer a volunleer priest 
angrily. 

The Welsh Indians have a Bible. Madoc 
will onlj preach what the feelings of min 
instinctively assent to ; the rest he leaves 
for tunes of reason. Surely this u wisdom. 

Tlaiala's first feeling religious on his 
esc^ie Irom the lake. Note Aguilar's re- 
lease firam the Indians. 

Cowmeny of the peace at Astlan, and 
incensing Madoe. 



210 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



At Huitziton*8 coronation the Paste-Idol 
ground to powder and given to be drank. 

October 4, 1801.^ Sentence of annihila- 
tion pronounced upon Caradoc and Senena. 
The song, book 4, and the harp incident, 
are transferable to Madoc himself. 

Nor can the Cadwallon and Melamin 
story enter. It ii too episodical. 

Out with Ririd ! he is good for nothing. 



No rupture before Madoc*8 return, only 
the gathering of the storm. Cadwallon*8 
narrative therefore communicates little, only 
the escape of Herma. The arrival of Ma- 
doc is while the treason is preparing. 

Book 8. Therefore an interview with 
Coanocotzin, wherein no ground for sus- 
picion appears, except that the King intreats 
Madoc to remove. The demand of the child 
for sacrifice follows; and the capture of 
Madoc is concerted between Tezozomoc, 
Dithial, and Rajenet. 

I think there might be a brother of Hoit- 
ziton, 'cui nomen Hiolqui,* a young man 
deeply attached to Madoc, and in his ab- 
sence learning much from Cadwallon, his 
own inclination rather favoured by the wis- 
dom of his elder brother. Him I would 
attach to Gwenlhian ; and when Hoitziton 
announces war to Madoc, the elder of in- 
tellect should with all affection and feeling 
and justice refuse to quit the Welsh, with 
whom he has lived, and to bear arms either 
against or with them. He should kill Ra- 
jenet In the subsequent defeat of the Az- 
tecans, a heavy grief possesses him, and 
thus the interest of pity is excited in Gwen- 
lhian. After the earthquake he should 

■ See Preface to collected edition of Poemt :— 
" It was my wish before Madoc could be con- 
sidered as completed, to see more of Wales than 
I had yet seen. This I had some opportunity 
of doing in the autumn of 1801. with my old 
friends and schoolfellows, Charles Wynn and 
Peter Ehnslev." P. x. As I transcribe this, 
the news reaches me that Mr. Wynn is no more. 
Hit name and Southey's are indissdubly con- 
nected together."— J. W. W. 



abandon all to share hifi brother's suf 
but on the emigration, Hoitziton coi 
him as his King. His brother, n 
acted the father's part toward him, 
dearest and nearest friend to renia 
a fraternal tie is thus established I 
Hoitziton and Madoc by the man 
Gwenlhian and Hiolqui, and nothing 
love can be suflered in the poem. 

Helhua sleeps in the Field of the 
before the Great Serpent puts on li 
is warned against the strangers. 



^f^^^'ti^^^'^^^S^^^S^*^*,^'^^^^'^^ 



The Kalettdar, 



The death of Henry V. The h 
denunciation at the siege of Dreux 
tells him how beautiful he remember 
country, how happy the people. A s 
and war the text. 

Crecy. — This must be a moralit; 
the Prince's crest. The only existing 
of that slaughter ! 

Wallace, an ode.*— The populace e: 
as he goes to execution, and telling 
rebellion and outlaw life and hiding 
Lay on him the whole weight of sv 
famy. Then burst out. 

Bosworth, a ballad. — A woman ex] 
her husband from that fight, and thi 
inconsequence to her of the public c 

Mary Magdalen. — ^A musing on tl 
quisite picture of Corregio. 

Lady Day. — A Socinian hymn 
Virgin. Catholic nonsense alluded to. 
man's evening hymn. The Protestant 
extreme here. What object more 
interesting than the Mother of Jesui 

St. John will furnish two poems, 
tale of the robber, and moralizings 
last advice, " Love one another." 

Milton. — A hymn to the memory 
blind republican. 

Rape of the Sabines. — The part < 
history to dwell upon is the reconcJ 



» See " King Henry V. and the He 
Dreux."— Pnemi, p. 432. 
• See « Death of Wallace."— Ibid. p. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



211 



two armies. Like David, I would 
listory instruct mankind. 
Battle of Murat affords matter for a 
em. On the anniversary of the fight 
Holland thinks he knows a mendi- 
Igrim bj the pile of bones. The beggar 
(, so more to humble himself, relates 
torj to the man whom he had once 
ned. His obstinate ambition, escape 
the lake, and murdering the page, 
nded fugitive, he is healed bj a Be- 
a young woman, Swiss, who had lost 
rothed husband in the wars he had 
ned ; she is one whom religion has 
ted; and whose holy resignation 
agony in him; he resolves to be 
no more, and on the day of the fight 
y to visit the pile of bones, the mo- 
t of his wickedness. It is remark- 
lat this pile should have been de- 
: on the anniversary of that day. 
cour. — ^The ruinous effects in Eng- 
'that successful war. 
tiers. — Glory. Detail of the conse- 
s of such a battle. The field of 

The distant wife. 
Conversion of St. Paul. — Conviction 
on him. But who does not feel the 
monitor at times P Paul the hermit 
tke a fine serious narrative, 
story of St. Agnes is very fine. I 
>elieved the miracle, for the rest must 

/ecilia*8 is an amusing story. One 
bave invented it for its singularity, 
an odd angel — a kind of angelic in- 
Heywood would have been puzzled 
to class him. I must not forget that 
ble picture by Carlo Dolce, at Sir 
rt Blackwood*s. Is it possible for 
to equal it ? 

be Dii Manes, a Christian hymn. 
sa. — The progress of religious en- 
OL This should be in Spenser*s 

itmas. — ^But Good Friday will be a 
day for serious musings on Christi- 
o condense the moral and political 
of Christ. Christmas must be cheer- 



ful, anti-puritanical, half catholic. I hate 
puritan manners. 

Of my former poems I must remove the 
New Year's Ode, the First of December, 
and the Hymn to the Penates. 

The first of April. — Can I not make a 
kind of satyrical poem ? as, contending for 
the prize of Folly, and exposing the serious 
follies of mankind. 

Easter. — I should think the development 
of my own religious opinions might make 
an interesting poem. If not, one might in- 
dulge the fullness of those devotional feel- 
ings, which here every thing seems to curb. 
Why are they so little understood, and so 
generally professed only by weak enthusi- 
asts, who render them ridiculous ; or knaves, 
who render them suspected ? Perhaps Easter 
were the best day for a Millenarian hymn. 

The Confirmation of Magna Charta by 
Henry HI. Narrative blank verse. It 
might conclude with a solemn repetition of 
the curses denounced against those who 
should violate the charter. 

The Discovery of America, an ode. — ^Be- 
neficial to Europe, not for its gold, not for 
the conversion of some savages, but because 
liberty found shelter there, and returned 
from thence. 

John the Baptist. -^Herodias requesting 
his head. Narrative full, and declfunatory. 

Pultowa.^ Patkul. The future fortunes 
and reputation of Charles, an invective ode. 

Llewelyn, an historic ode. — The prophecy 
alluded to. Glory of the defeated King, yet 
the event fortunate for Wales. 

For Lammas Day. — Some particulars may 
be found in the Transactions of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. 1, p. 92, 
Cadell, relative to the customs in Mid Lo- 
thian on that day. 

Topographical books should always be 
consulted. 

In voL 4 of Plutarch's Morals is a Pagan 
vision of a future state, in the tract con- 
cerning those whom God is slow to punish. 

» See " The Battle of Pultowa."— Powwi, p. 
124.— J. W. W. 



212 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



I should like to give it in a note to S. Fa- 
trick's Furgatorj, but for its length. 

December. — The senate passed a decree 
to make the year begin in that month, be- 
cause Nero was bom in it ! — ^Tacitus, book 
xiii.* Gordon, yoI. 2, p. 516. 

L* Almanac chantant de M. Nan. 

L*Ann^e sacr^e de Fierre-Juste Sautel, 
Jesuite. 

La Madelaine au Desert de la Sainte- 
Beanme, en Frovence, par Fierre de St. 
Louis. Un chef-d'ceuvre etonnant de ridi- 
cule et de mauvais godt,** sajs the A. Sa- 
batier. 

The Death of Joan of Arc must be a re- 
gular drama. 



/^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^w^^^* 



Noteifwr Thalahcu 

F<HSON from a red-headed Christian. — 
Garcilasso, 1,3; Nieuhoff, 97, 2. " Three 
ounces of a red-haired wench.* * Dogs roll 
in a putrid carcase ; yet the skin of man 
absorbs the poison. — Garcilasso, 2, 3. Mad 
dogs perhaps analogous; yet red hair a 
beauty then. — Absalom. 

Ornaments. Incas* liberality to their 
subjects. Savages. — Kellet, p. 114. 

Jugglers. Tavernier. Query, the science 
of the priests. 

Northern Lights. There is a passage in 
Tacitus certainly descriptive of this pheno- 
menon. — Pennant. R. B. account of pro- 
digies. Noise of the rising sun, 3. C. 25. 

Polygamy perhaps the radical evil of the 
east. Domestic slavery leading to the 
opinion that despotism was equally neces- 
sary in a state as in a family. Something 
like polygamy among the Jews. 

Persians — why better than the Turks 
with the same government and religion? 
painting allowed, and wine; more litera- 
ture ; courteous to Europeans, so as to be 
called the Frenchmen of the East. 



* I think there is a mistake here. The two 
passages in the " Annals" occur, lib. xv. c. 74, 
lib. xvi. 12. In the first, the words are '' Men- 
sis quoque Aprilis Ntronig cog^omentum acci- 
peret." In tne second, " Aprilem eumdemque 
Neroneum.''—J. W. W. 



Arabia. Query, if reclaimableP 
from the Arab his horse, and he mi 
take himself to the pastoral state. 

Camel. Professor Heering*s letl 
introducing them at die Cape. — M 
Magazine, January 1800.. He foi^e 
this animal seems made by nature 
level country only. 

Slavery of women. Vashti and 
suerus. 

Balm. Martyrs* blood at Beder. — 
Magno. p. 44, 61. The balsam of 
braz. Sympathetic powder. — Sir K. ] 

Fatalism. The story of Solomon, 
follies in England. The marked for 
in Carlos Magno, 255. Inoculation st 
but beauty the most saleable comm 
and thus interest sets aside the creec 

Nightingale. Grongora. Strada. A 
lips. Crashaw. 

Palace of Irem. Grongora. Escu 

Magical travelling. History of 
Guadalupe, p. 246. The woman wh 
her husband the devil was coming fc 
The Frenchman*s scheme for gettin 
of the whirl of the world; rising 
Paris, and dropping down at the anti 
— Jehan Molinet, 181. 

Superstition of emitted light. Yi 
cellos, 211, 229. Dee lights. ( 
candles. Is Moses's forehead the foi 
of this ? The primary light which k 
them P The Mohammedans write of 
his shining hand. 

The balance of the dead. — Carlos A! 
287. 

Bird-parasol. Anchieta. The one-: 
man in the Margarita Philosophica. 

Magic. — ^English Chaplain, 3, C14). 

Bird of the Brain. Seat of the 
Otaheitean opinion. 

A good mock-philosophic note mij 
made upon the changes produced i 
earth by the falling in of the Dom-E 
The origin of the Maelstrom prov 
have been this. Increase of cdd^ a 
those regions, the rush of ihe water 

* Lovd Dreghom, &c. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LIXERARY COMPOSITION. 



213 



it out a great portion of the central 
lence no yineyards in England as 
y. Consequences from the im- 
IVLBJitity of steam thus generated. — 

• 

I was the Dom-Daniel formed. The 
on of the earth from the sun took 
1 consequence of the war in heavem 
evil and his angels were projected 
le fluid mass ; but the heavier bo- 

this projectile motion necessarily 
! outermost, and in their whirling 
d the evil spirits into the centre, 
their breath, naturally warm, and 
ore heated, formed the central ca- 
- air-bubbles in the fused earth, 
they burrowed they made volcanos ; 
>untains in which these craters are 

being only the mole-hills which they 
lip. 

** And thus they spend 
tie wick of Ufe*s poor shallow lamp, 
ring tricks with nature, giving laws 
ant worlds, and trifling in their own.** 

COWPEB. 

je. — Olearius. Parrot. — ^Bruce. 
itions. The Moor» prohibited the 
baths. 

>kba fulfilling the prophecy. Dam- 
Curious prophecy, that worked its 
:complishment* 
na, the Portuguese phrase for a cox- 

>me Jews have a diminutive opinion 
book of Esther, because the word 
i is not to be found in all the extent 
;:-— FuLLEB. Triple Reconciler, 131. 
mon — whom many, sajs Gaffarel, 
nconsiderately reckon among the 
d. 

ing carriages would be the best mode 
clling in Arabia. 

Ldamson*8 Senegal. An account of 
ostriches. 

>iaz, p. 4, sajs, that in some of his 
« they sufiered so much from thirst 
leir lips and tongues had chaps in 
rith dryness. 



" FuoiT Hinda speculatores canitiei mes 
Cepitq; eam fastidium ab inclinatione 
capitis mei. 
Ita mos est Diabolis, ut fugiant 
Ubi apparuerint stellsB volantes.** 

Yahya Ehn Said. Abtd Phartffuii. 



^^s^s^^^^^^^^r^^>y^^fs^^^^0^^^^ 



From the Koran. 

" Fbab the fire, whose fewel is men and 
stones prepared for the unbelievers." — 
Ch. 2. 

" Verilt those who disbelieve our signs, 
we will surely cast to be broiled in hell 
fire. So often as their skins shall be well 
burned, we will give them other skins in ex- 
change, that they may take the sharper tor- 
ment.*'— Ch. 4. 

** There is no kind of beast on earth, 
nor fowl which fliethwith its wings, but the 
same is a people like unto you ; we have 
not omitted any thing in the book of our 
decrees; then unto their Lord shall they 
return.*'— Ch. 6. 

" With him are the keys of the secret 
things, none knoweth them besides himself: 
he knoweth that which is on the dry land, 
and in the sea ; there falleth no leaf but 
he knoweth it; neither is there a single 
grain in the dark parts of the earth, neither 
a green thing, nor a dry thing, but it is 
written in the perspic\U)us book." — Ch. 6. 

" It is he who hath ordained the stars 
for you, that ye may be directed thereby 
in the darkness of the land, and of the sea." 
— Ch. 6. 

** He would not open his lip to speech, 
or sufier the fish of reply to swim in the 
sea of utterance." — Bahab-Damush. 

" Bt wheedling and coaxing, she pre- 
vailed upon him to remove the cover from 
the jar of secrecy, and pour the wine of 
his inmost thoughts into the cup of rela- 
tion." — Ibid. 



A 



2U 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



" Fartheb, the light-footed steed of 
the pen has not found permission to pro- 
ceed on the plain of prolixity.** — Ibid. 

" The Jonas of day descends into the 
belly of the whale of the west." — Ibid. 



«^^^^Srf%i^S/SX^/SA^^/S/\/S/S/S^««N^^\ 



" La manana desterrava 
Con azotas de luz, la noche esaura.** 

David. 

'* Absai^m. — Hasta los hombros pende su 

cabello 
Mas que el oro de Arabia roxo, y bello.** 

** Cai>a ano qual renuevo lo cortava 
A damas se vendia para omato.** 

David. 



*»\rs^v^^#^^iAr^^vwv%/v\^^%/v 



" This conversation resembles the falla- 
cious appearance of water in a desart, which 
ends in bitter disappointment to the stag 
parched with thirst.** — Sacontaui. 



ti 



Absai<om so absolutely fair — 
He farre puff*d up, died wavering in the 

air, — 
A growing gallows grasping tumid hope. 
The wind was hangman, and his hairs the 
rope." 

LoBD Stiblime. Doomsday, 6th Hour, 



••>/S/V\/N/>/S/W^«W\/SA/W>^ 



*^ M0BAMMEDB8 vinum appellabat ma- 
trem peccatorum ; cui sententise Hafez, 
Anacreon ille Fersarum, minime ascribit 
suam ; dicit autem 

* AcBB illud (vinum) quod vir religiosus 
matrem peccatorum} vocitat. 



■ " But Thalaba took not the draught ; 
For riffhtly he knew had the prophet Torbidden 
^at beverage, the mother of sin," &c. 
Thalaba, Book tI. p. 25.— J. W. W. 



Optabilius nobis ac dulcius videtur, 
Virginia suavium.* ** 

Poeseos Asiat. Ci 



»4 



Ji7VBi«is, qui post mortem ob liber 
tem suam vivit, 
Sicut pratum post imbris efiusionem ' 
cit." 

In Ubro Hamasa. Poes^ i 



" ViDi in hortulo violam, 
Cujus folia rore splendebant ; 
Similis erat flos ille (puellae) cei 

habenti oculos 
Quorum cilia lacrymas stillant.** 

Ebu Rumi. Poeseoij < 



** Iludb ignem ilium nobis liquidum, 
Hoc est, ignem ilium aquas similem a 

H 

^^Medicinam (vinum) quae somni orig 
affer.**— Ibid. 



•««%M^%,'^^ 



" Ebadicet te Deus, ignave miles ; 
Nunquam te irrigent matutinas nubis g 
Neu fundat pluviam nubes super don 

tribiis, 
Ubi tu commoraris, neu virescant e 

colles ! 
Indulsti, fill Bader, ignominisD 
Pallium, nee te deserent ilium seci 

miserise. 

De Antane et Ablas amori 

SibW. 

^^A DULCIBU8 Hafezi numeris stilla 
mortalitatis aqua.*' — Hafbz, 



** His fingers, in beauty and slende 
appearing as the Yed ^ Bieza, or like 

' '' The miraculously shining hand of M* 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



215 



of the sun, being tinged with Hinna, seemed 
branches of transparent red coral.** — IntrO' 
dtutum to the Bahar-Demush, or Ckarden of 
KMowUdgeyhy^isAJxytOoJAJLU. Translated 
by Scott* 

^ Mr joints and members seemed as if 
tbej would separate from each other, and 
the bird of life would quit the nest of mj 
body.- 

^ The bird of my soul became a captive 
in the net of her glossy ringlet.'* * — ^Bahab- 
Dakush. 



^f^^^^^^N^^WS^^^^^^^^^A^^^ 



" Shb had laid aside the rings which used 
to grace her ankles, lest the sound of them 
should expose her to calamity.** — Asiatic 
Researches. 



Thb grave of Francisco Jorge, the Ma- 
ronite martyr, was visited by two strange 
birds, white, and of unusual size. They 
emblemed, says Yasconcellos, the purity 
and the indefatigable activity of his soul. 



tf^^h«^^^>^/^^/^%^^^^^^«^^^^» 



Pastoral Poetry, 

Pastobal poetry must be made inter- 
esting by story. The characters must be 
such as are to be found in nature; these 
must be sought in an age or country of 
•imple manners. 

The shepherds and shepherdesses of ro- 
msBoe are beings that can be found no- 
where. Such a work will not, tiierefore, 
be pastoral, but it will be something better. 
It will neither have pastoral love nor pasto- 
ral verses. 

' Are these merely metaphorical ? or do they 
allude to the *' perched birds of the brain " of 
tke Moalkkat — the Pa^ Arabs' belief? was 
it from a wish to conciliate these Pagans, that 
the seals of the blessed are said to animate green 
birds in the grores of paradise ? 

Parrots are called in the Bahar-Danush '* the 
green vested resemblers of heaven's dwellers." 

So again " the bird of understanding fled 
from the nest of my brain. 



I think a good story may be made of 
Robin Hood — my old favourite. It must 
have forest scenery, forest manners, and 
outlaw morality. Should he be the prin- 
cipal character, or like the Arthur of Spen- 
ser — a kind of tutelary hero ? 

Some tale of feudal tyranny may be 
grafted on; perhaps made the principal 
action. A neif with an evil lord. 

The age of Robin Hood is in every point 
favourable. The royal authority was Inx 
enough to allow any undue power to a dis- 
tant lord. The crusading spirit abroad, 
some little heresy also in the world ; chi- 
valry in perfection ; and practical equality 
in Sherwood. 

Perhaps the old system of wardship would 
be the best hinge. For the first time I wish 
for my law books. 

But with all this, what becomes of the 
pastoral ? Every thing, however, that is 
good in the pastoral may still be retained. 
Scenes of natural beauty, and descriptions 
of simple life. 

The popular belief of fairies, goblins, 
witches, and ghosts, and the Catholic saint- 
system render any machinery needless. 

It is difficult to avoid a moral anachron- 
ism. We can go back to old scenery and 
old manners, but not to old associations. 
In this subject I shall not much feel this 
defect. There is no difficulty in thinking 
like Robin Hood ; and persecuted affection 
must feel pretty much the same in all ages. 

In this I can introduce the fine incident 
of my schoolboy tale. AfYer long absence 
a young man approaches his native castle, 
and finds it in ruins. It is evening; and 
by the moonlight he sees a woman sitting 
on a grave. His beaver is down. She runs 
to him, and calls him father; for it is his 
sister, watching her father*s grave, a maniac. 



W^^'WSM^^^^^'VN/S/'^S/V^^ 



Extr€Lcts, 

^* Ai>MiB*D and lost, just welcom*d and de- 

plor*d, 
Cam*st thou, faur nymph, to wake delight 

and grief; 



216 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERABT COMPOSITION. 



Like Lapland summers, with each beautj 

stored, 
Transient like them, and exquisitely brief?'* 

Mrs. West's elegy on a young lady who 
died soon after her marriage. 



"Whobvbb casts up his eyes loseth the 
idea of Paradise.** 

In the inscription over the portal of the 
famous mausoleum at Com. ChardiiL 



«M«WW/\/SA/^«M/«M>VNA«<^\» 



" O QUAM verenda micat in oculis lenitas ! 
Minantur ct rident simuL* 



It 



Chinese ode, in Sir W. Jones*8 ** Poeseos 
Asiatics Coomientarii.** 



The Silkworm. 

^MiLLB legunt releguntq; vias, atq; orbibus 

orbes 
Agglomerant, cseco donee se carcere claudant 
Sponte su4.** — ^Vida. 



la Poets. 

" Hat7d longum tales ideo Isstantur, et ipsi 
Ssepe suis superan t monumentis, illaudatique 
Extremum ante diem foetus fleyere caducos, 
Viventesq; suae viderunt funera famsB.** 

Ibid. 



'V^A/V\^^^^^^^^V^^%^/SA^ 



" QuANDO fuer^a a Saul humano rito 
En ella entrar, con habitos caydos 
For pagar lo que deve al appetito'* 

David, del Doctob Jacobo Uziel. 



Humilitj/* 

** A TATTEB*i> cloak that pride wean when 
deform*d.** — Gbbib. 



^^i^^\A''\A^^^^V\^^A/S^^^V 



L 



^ But I have sinuous shells, of pearly hue 
Within, and they that lustre have imbibed 



In the 8un*s palace-porch; where, when 
unyoked [wave. 

His chariot wheel stands midway in the 
Shake one, and it awakens ; then apply 
Its polish*d lips to your attentive ear, 
And it remembers its august abodes 
And murmurs as the ocean murmurs there "' 

Ibid. 

** And the long moon-beam on the hard 

wet sand 
Lay like a jasper column half uprear*d.** 

Ibid. 

** Nob is there aught above like Jove him- 
self, [fizt, 
Nor weighs against his purpose, when once 
Aught but, with supplicating knee, the 

prayers. 
Swifler than light are they, and every face 
Though diflerent, glows with beauty : at the 
throne [kind. 

Of mercy, when clouds shut it from mao- 
They fall bare-bosomed ; and indignant 
Jove [voice 

Drops at the soothing sweetness of their 
The thunder from his hand.** — ^Ibid. 



" Anrsi, dans ce cachot^ dans ce s^oor da 

crime, 
Oii la mort s^essayait k fraper sa victime, 
Dieu laissait ^haper, de son sein glorieuXf 
Un rayon du bonheur dont on jouit aux 

Cieux. 
Telle, en un souterrein, une faible ouver- 

ture 
Labse entrer sous la voCite, une lumi^ 

pure, 
Dont le mobile ^clat, dans Tombre repandu, 
Rejouit le captif sur la terre ^tendu.** 

Lb Svibb. 

Applied to one solitary and cherished 
hope, the simile is striking. 



* The reader will reoollpct that Wordsworth 
has the same imae^. The next image Southej 
once told me he thought almost unequaUed. 

J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



217 



•* Tout cet appareil de dehors, 
Le train, les honneurs, les thresors, 
ant ce qui est a Tarbre un verdoyant 
llage: 
lie en connoist le prix et s^ait bien 

s'en servir; 
tans se plaindre an Ciel, sans plojer 
sous Toragc 
He les quitte au Tent, qui les luj 

Tient ravir.** 
Lb Motive. La Femme Forte, 

'oB n*e8t que la bile ^laircie 
*un corps lourd obscur et brutal ; 
*Argent k nos yeux si fatal, 
1 est que T^ume endurcie/* — ^Ibid. 



^^^^^^iM^^^^^A^^^^^^^/^'^^ 



jrare Mede est mort. 

Abradates 
intenant encore son Ombre entre les 
Qorts 

IX quil a yaincTi suit les Ombres er- 
antes 
net Panthea. 

Le Moths. La OdUerie, 



VR Jbone Webetown thar was slayne. 

uhen be dede wis, as ye her, 

and intill hys coffer 

yr that hym send a lady, 

le luffyt per drouery.^ 

aid quhen he had yemyt a yer 

r, as a gud batchiller, 

rrenturs castell off* Dowglas 

o kep sa peralous was ; 

mycht he weill ask a lady 

mours and hyr drouery.'* 

The Bruce, B. 8, p. 488. 



^«^bA^A^iA^ta^/v^/^/w^/^^/^^ 



aer n*est plus qu*un cercle aux yeux 
5S Matelots [flots." 

Ciel forme un d6me appuy^ sur les 
p Nouceau Monde, par M. Lb Suibb. 

■ drouery y is not in a Tiew of marriage, 
rm is old French. 



" Du sommet d*un rocher precipitant ses 

flots, 
Une cascade au loin fait mugir les dchos, 
Tombe, ^ume et bouillonne, et son eau 

tourment^e 
Semble se disperser en poussi^re argentic.** 

Lb Suibb. 

The silver dust of the waters. 

" Sa ceinture ^louit par le jeu varil 
Du feu des diamans avec For maril.** — Ibid. 



\^/\/x^MiA^^^^h^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



** Lb bon sens 8*eclost de ses levres de rose 

Comme sort un bon fruit d*une agreable 

fleur.** — Lb Motbb. La Femme Forte, 



" Thukdeb — 

it grones and grumbles 
It rouls and roars, and round-round-round 
it rumbles.*' 

Stlybstbb*s Du Bartas, 



Freedom, 

I HAVE seldom met with a nobler burst 
in any poem than in " The Bruce.'* After 
describing the oppressive government of 
'' Jhone the Balleoll, 

" A ! fredome is a nobill thing ! 
Fredome mayse man to haifi* liking ; 
Fredome all solace to man giffis : 
He levys at ese, that frely levys I 
A noble hart may haiff* nane ese 
Na ellys nocht that may him plese, 
Gyfi* fredome failyhe ; for fre liking 
Is yharnyt our all othir thing. 
Na he, that ay base levyt fre. 
May nocht knaw weill the propyrte 
The angyr, na the wrechyt dome 
That is cowplyt to foule thryldome.** 

Buke 1, p. 225. 



^^s^^^^^\/w%^w*^/ww^ 



" Restabat cura sepulchri ; 
Quo foderem ferrum deerat : miserabile 
corpus 



\ 



1 



218 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Frondibus obtexi, puerum nee ab ubere 

Yulsi, 
Sicut erat foliis t^tur, funusq; paratur 
Heu nimis incertum et primis violalnle 

ventis.** — Bussibebs. 



A OaUery. 

*•*• UifB porte d^airain s*ouyre alors en deux 

pails. 
Le lieu vaste revolt les avides regards. 

Vers le bout ^oign^ que Toeil k peine acheve, 
La votite semble basse, et le pav^ 8*^eve. 
Le lambris qui les suit vers un but limits 
Diminue k T^al d*un et d*autre cost^.** 

Cloyis. 



^k/^'WNi'«^^'«^i'^A^^^A^^WV\ 



** To vi con apariencia manifiesta 
que no fue el respuesta por 41 mismo, 
mas por algun espiritu compuesta : 
como si alguna furia del abismo 
al sabio las entranas le rojera, 
6 como que le toma parasismo 
con los mismos efectos : y tal era 
la presencia del viejo quando vino 
a danue la respuesta verdadera. 
Andaba con furioso desatino 
torciendose las manos arnigadas, 
los ojo8 bueltos de un color sanguine : 
las barbas, antes largos y peynadas, 
Uevaba vedijosas y rehueltas^ 
couio de fieras sierpes enroscadas : 
las rocas, que con mil nudosas bueltas 
la cabeza prudente le cenian, 
por este j aquel hombro lleva sueltas : 
las horrendas palabras parecian 
salir por una trompa resonante, 
y que los yertos labios no movian,*^ 

L. Lbonabdo. 



" Old bed-rid age laments 
Its many winters, or does wish *em more, 
To have more strength to fight, or less to 
die." 

SonTHBBi«B*8 Persian Prince. 



^* O CALL me home again, dear Chief I and 

put me 
To joking foxes, milking of he-goats. 
Pounding of water in a mortar, laving 
The sea dry with a nut-shell, gathering all 
The leaves are fallen this autumn, making 

ropes of sand, 
Catching the winds together in a net. 
Mustering of ants, and numbring atoms ; 

aU 
That hell and jou thought exquisite tor- 
ments, rather 
Than stay me here a thougbt more. I 

would sooner 
Keep fleas within a circle, and be accomp- 

tant 
A thousand year which of *em and how far 
Outleap*d the other, than endure a minute 
Such as I have within." 

Bbn JoNSOii. The DevU is an Ast. 



*^A^^^^^v^^^s^^^^^A/^^,/^^^ 



" Hbbe is Domine Picklock 
My man o* law, sollicits all my causes, 
Follows my business, makes and compounds 

my quarrels 
Between my tenants and me ; sows all my 

strifes 
And reaps them too ; troubles the countrj 

for me, 
And vexes any neighbour that I please.** 
B. J. The Staple of News. 



Conscience. 

'* Poor plodding priests, and preaching friars 

may make 
Their hollow pulpits and the empty iles 
Of churches ring with that round word : 

but we 
That draw the subtile and more piercing 

air 
In that sublimed region of a court. 
Know all is good we make so, and go on 
Secur'd by the prosperity of our crimes.** 

B. J. Mortimer's Fall 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



219 



B con noi Tamor della Tirtu, 
non basta ad evitar le colpe 
Imeno a punir le. 
)n del Cielo, che diventa castigo 
n*abusa, il piu crudel tormento 
lo i malvagi, e il conservar nel core, 
alor dispetto, 

lei giusto, e dell* onesto i semi.'* 
Metastasio. IssipUe. 



^^r^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^m 



>scTATioN in a weake minde, makes 
greater, and a good less : but in a 
I minde, it digests an evill before it 
ind makes a future good long before 
** — Db. Jos. Hall*8 MedUationM and 
1617. 



tf^^^^^^^^k^^^^^A^^^^^^^^^V 



B heart of man is a short word, a 
ibstance, scarce enough to give a 
I meale ; jet great in capacitie, yea, 
ite in desire, that the round globe 
rorld cannot fill the three corners 
-Ibid.^ 

I suspect to have suggested Quarles* 
1. 



VM^>WM^^M^^^^^^AAM^A^to 



BI8TIAN societie is like a bundle of 
layed together, whereof one kindles 

Solitary men have fewest provo- 
to evill, but againe fewest incitations 

So much as doing good is better 
t doing evill, will I account Chris- 
[m1 fellowship better than an Ere- 
and melancholike solitarinesse.** — 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^"^N^^V^^ 



inde n*a point de longues injustices.** 

M. DB Sbvionb. 



^VMS^A/MWM^^N««iA«^VNM^ 



Scripture JSztracts. 

HOLD I have made thee this day a 
d city, and an iron pillar, and brazen 

See infri, p. 222— J. W. W. 



walls against the whole land, against the 
kings of Judah, against the princes thereof, 
against the priests thereof, and against the 
people of the land. 

^ And they shall fight agunst thee, but 
they shall not prevail against thee ; for I 
am with thee, saith the Lord, to deliver 
thee.**— JeremiiaA, chap. i. 18, 19. 

'* Thb lion is come up from his thicket, 
and the destroyer of the Gentiles is on his 
way; he is gone forth from his place to 
make thy land desolate, and thy cities shall 
be laid waste without an inhabitant. 

** For this gird you with sackcloth, la- 
ment and howl ; for the fierce anger of the 
Lord is not turned back from us. 

" And it shall come to pass at that day, 
saith the Lord, that the heart of the king 
shall perish, and the heart, of the princes ; 
and the priests shall be astonbhed, and the 
prophets shall wonder.** — Ibid. chap. iv. 7, 
8, 9. 

" I BEHELD, and lo, there was no man, 
and all the birds of the heavens were fled. 

" I beheld, and lo, the fruitful place was 
a wUdemess, and all the cities thereof were 
broken down at the presence of the Lord 
and by his fierce anger.'* — Ibid. chap. iv. 
25, 26. 

" Fob thus hath the Lord of hosts said. 
Hew ye down trees and cast a mount against 
Jerusalem; this is the city to be visited*, 
she is wholly oppression in the midst of her. 

** As a fountain casteth out her waters, 
so she casteth out her wickedness : violence 
and spoil is heard in her ; before me con- 
tinually is grief and wounds. 

" Be thou instructed, O Jerusalem, lest 
my soul depart from thee ; lest I make thee 
desolate, a land not inhabited.** — Ibid. chap, 
vi. 6, 7, 8. 

" And the carcases of this people shall be 
meat for the fowls of the heaven, and for 
the beasts of the earth ; and none shall fray 
them away.** — Ibid. chap. vii. 33. 



220 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



(( 



Death is come up into our windows 
and is entered into our palaces, to cut off 
the children from without, and the joung 
men from the streets.** — Ibid. chap. ix. 21« 

*^ Sat unto the King and to the Queen, 
humble yourselves, sit down ; for your prin- 
cipalities shall come down, even the crown 
of your glory. 

" Lift up your eyes and behold them that 
come from the North : where is the flock 
that was given thee, thy beautiful flock ? 

^* Can the Ethiopian change his skin or 
the leopard his spots ? then may ye also do 
good, that are accustomed to do evil." — 
Ibid. chap. xiii. 18. 20. 23. 

" MoBBovEB I will take from them the 
voice of mirth and the voice of gladness, 
the voice of the bridegroom and the voice 
of the bride, the sound of the millstones and 
the light of the candle." — Ibid. chap. xxv. 
10. 



'* If thou art read in amorous books, thou*lt 

find 
That Cupid*B arrow has a golden head. 
And *twas a golden shaft that wounded 

them." Mat. The Old Couple. 

" Over their marriage bed Til write their 

ages. 
And only say, here lies Sir Argent Scrape, 
Together with his wife the Lady Covet. 
And whosoever reads it, will suppose 
The place to be a tomb, no marriage bed. 
To fit them for an Hymenasal song. 
Instead of those so high and spirited strains 
Which the old Grecian lovers used to sing, 
ril sing a quiet dirge, and bid them sleep 
In peaceful rest, and bid the clothes, instead 
Of earth, lie gently on their aged bones.** 

Ibid. 



" Well, let it be a riddle I 
I have not so much wit as to expound it, 
Nor yet so little as to lose my thoughts, 



Or study to find out what the DO-reason 
Of a young wenches will b.** Ibid. 



'* Like the black and melanchollck yew- 
tree. 
Dost think to root thyself in dead men's 

graves^ 
And yet to prosper?" 

John Wbbsteb, The White DevU^ 
or Vittoria Corombona. 



Ahrap aril Key rsro yirog koto, yaia ica- 

Tol fitv halfAoviQ doty Acoc fuyaXa lia 

*E^Xo2, eri^OSytoi, ^vXaicec dyt/ruy ay- 

0< pa ^vKaooHOiv re ^ixat icai o)(€r\ta 

*Hepa kooafieyoi, irayTif i^otrutyretix alav> 
nXwo^orai' Kal Tsro ycpac f^aoikny'iov 
ioxpy'^* Hesiob. 

" Kal rol fuy \i(piooiy viro oferip^vt 

dafuyriQf 
Bfjoay ec thputtvra ^6fioy Kpvipi at^ao, 
Nutyv/Jiyoi' BdyaTog Be koI ixfrayXnc rtp 

ioyfac 
ErXc /leXac, Xa^irpoi' ^ IXnroy ^aoc ♦«- 

Xloior Ibid. 



VX/VS/S'^^VS^^VVWW^/W^^ 






** Each small breath 
Disturbs the quiet of poor shallow waters. 
But winds must arm themselves ere the Uirgi 

sea 
Is seen to tremble. — Pray your pardon, Sir, 
I must not throw away my courage on 
A cause so trivial.** 

William Habikgton. The Queen 
of Arragofu 



IIbbcules when left by the Argonauts : 

** Tacitumq; pudet potuisse relinqui.** 
V. Flaccus, lib. iv. 57. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



221 



uiTBS humeros spatiosaque pectoris 

isa 

it" Ibid. V. 244. 

)ater orantes cssorom Tartariu um- 
*aa 

caT& tandem ad meritsB Bpectacula 
ignsB 

t; samminigreflcuntculminamontis.** 

Ibid. V. 258. 

f must have imitated these lines, but 
I excelled them. This man*8 demo- 
is always attributed to pique, — as if 
could not have made him a repub- 

lo. 
us et in scopulos, et monstris horrida 
istra 

IS jubet ire vias ; heu multa moran- 
im, 

temque preces, inclusaque pectore 
erba.** Ibid. v. 370. 

' 8ubit4 resides socios formidine Jason 
pitat, rumpitq; moras, tempusq; ti- 
lendL- Ibid. v. 626. 



EzACTO Isetus certamine victor 
e gramineo consederat, arbore fultus 
les humeros. 

- adhuc per membra calet, creberq; re- 
urrit 

IS, et placidi radiant in casside vultus.** 
CuLUDiAN. 171 Prob. et Olyb. Cons, 
V. 113, &c. 

rupurr visu, suspensaq; gaudia vocem 
issam tenuere diu.** Ibid. v. 234. 



DOC killing Coanocotzin. 



Ultbix manus mucrone furenti 



ur. 



f« 



Ibid. In Rvff. II. v. 233. 



" ExuviA tibi Indus erant, primusq; solebas 
Asperacomplecti torvum post preliapatrem, 
Signa triumphato quoties flexisset ab Istro 
Arcte& de strage calens, et poscere partem 
De spoliis, Scjthicosve arcus, aut rapta Gre- 

lonis 
Cingula, vel jaculum Daci, vel frena Suevi. 
nie ^ coruscanti clipeo te ssepe volentem 
Sustulit arridens, et pectore pressit anhelo 
Intrepidum ferri, galeae nee triste timentem 
Fulgur, et ad summas tendentem brachia 

cristas.** — Ibid. De HI, Cons, Honor, 

v. 23, &c. 

" Hos tibi virtutum stimulos, hsec semina 

laudum, 
Hsec exempla dabat.** Ibid. y. 59. 

^* Illi justitiam confirmaverc triumphi ; 
Frsesentes docuere Deoa.'* * 

Ibid. iv. Cons, Honor, v. 98. 



«^/V^/NA^^k^WSAyN^SM^/W^^ 



^^ M£TV£lfDA VOluptaS 

mti, pulcherq; timor.** Ibid. v. 363. 



John Bunyan of his Pilgrim* s Progress, 

*^ It came from mine own heart, so to mj 

head. 
And thence into mj fingers trickled ; 
Then to my pen, from whence immediately 
On paper I did dribble it daintily.** 



" MusiCK is nothing else, but wild sounds 
civilised into Time and Tune. Such the 
extensiveness thereof, that it stoopeth as 
low as brute beasts, yet mounteth as high 
as angels. For horses will do more for a 
whistle than for a whip, and by hearing 
their bells, gingel away their weariness.*' — 

FUIXEB. 

" Instahs de bonheur — goiites d*avance 
par Fespoir de les voir renaitre, goiites apr^ 
qu*ils se sont ^oul^s, par le souvenir qui 
les perp^tue.*' — Voy. du J, Anacharsis, 

Motto for Christmas or May day. 

I Thalala. [This 18 evidently intended to re- 
fer to Madoc in AUlan, ix. See Putins, p 377. 

J. W. W.] 
* Conquests of the French. 



i 



i 



222 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



" Noi erayam lungb* essol mare anchora, 

Come gente ch*aspetta 8U camino, 
Che va col cuor, et col corpo dimora.*' 

Dante, Purgatorio. 



#«A^^^k^^^^ ^^^AiAi^VSA^^^^ 



tf 



" EvBN in laughter the heart is sorrow- 
ful, and the end of that mirth is heaviness. 
— Proverbs f chap. xiv. 13. 



Bishop Hall ^ has stolen from Hugo de 
Anima. Qu ables' Emb. p. 5 1 . " The heart 
is a small thing, but desireth great matters. 
It is not sufficient for a kite*s dinner, yet 
the whole world is not sufficient for it.** 



•«^^^W^>S^^^^^S/«^^^MM^^^^^% 



»» 



'* Au ! where*s that pearl portcullis that 
adom*d 
Those dainty two-leaved ruby gates P 

QUABLES. 



** El canonizar los yerros, y los defectos, 
es cerrar la puerta a su correccion." — Bib- 
lioteca Eapafiola, 



" Heaven is the Magazin wherein He puts 

Both good and evil ; FrayV is the key that 
shuts 

And opens this great treasure : *tis a key 

Whose wards are Faith and Hope and Cha- 
rity. 

Wouldst thou prevent a judgement due to 
sin? 

Turn but the key and thou mayest lock it in. 

Or wouldst thou have a blessing fall upon 
thee? 

Open the door and it will shower on thee. 

Qoables. 



M 



^* Ambition hath now sent 
Thee on her frothy errand ; Discontent 
Fays thee thy wages." Ibid. 

» See mprh, p. 219 — J. W. W. 



^ Why, we must fight, I know it, an 

for't. 
It was apparent in the fiery eye 
Of young Verdone ; Beaupre looked) 

shook toOf 
Familiar signs of anger. They're bot 

fellows, 
Try'd and approved." 

Beaumont and Fletchi 
Litde French Lawye 



" On trouve dans le livre de Que 
livre tant condamn^) une comparaisc 
mante. L'&me du juste est, dit-il, 
le printems ; cette saison, qui nous 
charmante, ne produit rien : elle n'e 
able que par les esp^rances qu*eU 
donne : c'est ainsi qu'est la vie de I 
juste.'* — Mad. Neckeb. 



^* La craintedu p^ril, m^e de tant de 

Za Coloml 

" L'aspect impr^vu de tant de Cas 
D'etonnement,d*efiroi, peint ses regaj 

lans; 
Ses mains du choix des fruits se form 

^tude, 
Demeurent un moment dans la meme a 



** Ici, d*nn verd brillant le jour peig 

nues; 
Lk, des colonnes d*eau dans les ain 

nues, 
Fortant les fiots aux cieux, retomboi< 

les mers.'* 

*^ FouB en combler les voeux, le Ciel 

seconde. 
Fait planer sur les airs un peuple 

Tonde ; 
Etceshdtesdes flots, en oiseaux tram 
Qui f^yoient, par essains, nos P^h 

fames, 
Comme un nuage ^pab dans leurs ^ 

biment." 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



223 



" EiTTREPBEiiDBE un projet sans peser les 

hazards, 
D*im vulgaire g^nie annonce rimprudence ; 
Craindre des maux prevus est manquer de 



Constance. 



n 



Ibid. 



^ SovDAnt les cbeyeuz blancs du yieOlard 

qu*elle suit, 
Brillent, comme un pbosphore au milieu de 

U nuit.- Ibid. 

** Tbs montagnards fougeux, leur casque oii 
pour ciniier 

Des Yautours encbain^ rendent un cri ter- 
rible, 

Troublent de TEspagnol le courage invin- 
cible." Ibid. 



" 0! Qun> solutis est beatius curis 
Cam mens onus reponit, ac peregrino 
Lahore fessi, venimus larem ad nostrum 
Desideratoq; acquiescimus lecto!** 

Catul. 

This motto might serve for another Hymn 
to the Penates. 



'*./S/VS.^^\/VW% 



"' El fulminante acero resplandece, 
Que trine el fuerte brai;o al pecho aplica, 

Qual lengua de serpiente, que parece, 
Que el movimiento en tres la multiplica.** 

Eli Macabbo.^ 



[iVore/ way of crossing a River,'] 

^ Thb Turks having been attacked in a 
place where thej were much exposed, Ata- 
pakun charged the Romans at the head of 
^ bravest soldiers, to give the others time 
to cross the river. He gave eminent proofs 
for awhile of his courage and conduct : but 
^hen he saw that there was another armj 

' Hie portion of Ideas and Studies famished 
J^ by Mrs. Soothey ends with this extract. 
^ iaie of the volume is August 10, 1798, but 
ituuiy extracts of more recent date are inter- 
' W.W. 



of the enemy beyond the Meander, which 
slew all those who appeared before them, 
his ardour abated, and he sought a place 
where he might pass the stream with less 
danger. Finding none fordable, he placed 
himself in his buckler, as in a boat, making 
use of his sword for a rudder, and holding 
the bridle of his horse, who swam behind, 
gained the other side of the river." — Uni- 
versal History, 



%/\/V%A^^^^^^^«^^SAM^^^A^^» 



[Night in Ilgypt.] 

** La nuit avoit abaisse ses ombres sur 
la terre ; mais ici elles ne sont point cpaisses, 
imp^netrables. C*est un voile transparent 
qui ne couvre les objets qu^k moiti^. On 
apper9oit k travers, Tazur d*un ciel serein 
et un nombre infini d*^toiles qui brillent au 
firmament. Elles ont une lumi^re plus ccla- 
tante, et paroissent plus grandes que dans 
les climats temp^res. La nuit en Egypte a 
mille charmes que nous eprouvons rarement 
en Europe. Jamais d*^paisses tencbres ne 
couvrent son front. Le souffle des tem- 
pStes n*en trouble point la tranquillity. Des 
deluges d*eau ne la rendent point Timage 
du chaos. Le vent tombe ordinairement 
avec le soleil. La nature demeure dans un 
calme parfait. Cest alors que Thomme qui 
aime la contemplation, pent se livrer sans 
trouble a Tetude de son Stre ; c*est alors 
que Tastronome qui lit dans les cieux, jou- 
issant de la vue d*un firmament sans nuages, 
peut suivre le cours des astres k travers 
rimmensit^ de I'espace." — Savabt. 



<^»^/VN^/V<^V»^A<MV^»^^<^ 



[Sherbet.] 

^ SoBBET Tient du mot Arabe chorb^ qui 
signifie breuvage. C*est le nectar des Orien- 
taux. II est compost de jus de citron, de 
Sucre et d*eau, dans laquellc on a fait dis- 
soudre des p&tes parfum^, compost avec 
les excellens fruits de Damas. On y mele 
ordinairement quelques gouttes d*eau rose. 
Cette boisson est tres agr^ble.** 



^Produce of the Desert,'] 

" Cette ^tendue ne pr^scnte aux regards 
qu'un sable sterile. On rencontre settlement 
dans les enfoncements des rochers, et sur le 
bord des torrens d'hiver, un peu de verdure, 
des acacias qui produisent la gomme ara- 
bique, le s^me, du bois de scorpion, dont la 
racine tortueuse est renomm^ contre la 
piqiiure de cet insecte, et quelques autres 
plantes. Les autruches, les chamois, les 
gazelles et les tigres, qui leur font une 
guerre continuelle, habitent les antres des 
rochers et bondissent k travers ces sables, 
oii ils trouvent k peine quelques brins 
d*herbe. On j rencontre des cailloux de 
diverses couleurs, rouges, gris, noirs, bleus, 
et tons d*un grain extrSmement fin; leur 
surface expos4e a Fair est ondee et rabo- 
teuse : celle qui repose sur le sable est polie 
et brillante." 



^/V\/\/\/WN/N/WVS^^^^^K^^» 



[The Flight of Mahomet'] 

" Perhaps the Koreish would have been 
content with the flight of Mahomet^ had 
they not been provoked and alarmed by the 
vengeance of an enemy, who could intercept 
their Syrian trade as it passed and repassed 
through the territory of Medina. Abu So- 
phian himself, with only thirty or forty fol- 
lowers, conducted a wealthy caravan of 
1000 camels: the fortune or dexterity of 
his march escaped the vigilance of Maho- 
met ; but the chief of the Koreish was in- 
formed that the holy robbers were placed in 
ambush to wait his return. He dispatched 
a messenger to his brethren of Mecca, and 
they were roused by the fear of losing their 
merchandize and their provisions, unless 
they hastened to his relief with the military 
force of the city. The sacred band of Ma- 
homet was formed of 313 Moslems, of whom 
seventy-seven were fugitives* and the rest 
auxiliaries : they mounted by turns a train 
of seventy camels (the camels of Yathreb 
were formidable in war) : but such was the 
poverty of his first disciples that only two 



could appear on horseback in the field. In 
the fertile and famous vale of Beder, three 
stations from Medina, he was informed bj 
his scouts of the caravan that approached 
on one side, of the Koreish, 100 horse 850 
foot, who advanced on the other. After a 
short debate, he sacrificed the prospect of 
wealth to the pursuit of glory and revenge ; 
and a slight intrenchment was formed to 
cover his troops and a stream of fresh water 
that glided through the valley. ' God,* 
he exclaimed, as the numbers of the Koreish 
descended from the hills, ' God, if these 
are destroyed, by whom wilt thou be wor- 
shipped on the earth ? — Courage, my chil- 
dren, close your ranks ; discharge your 
arrows, and the day is your own.* At these 
words he placed himself, with Abubeker, 
on a throne or pulpit, and instantly de- 
manded the succour of Gabriel and 3000 
angels. His eye was fixed on the field of 
battle ; the Mussulmans faint«d and were 
pressed : in that decisive moment the Pro- 
phet started from his throne, mounted his 
horse, and cast a handful of sand into the 
air ; * Let their faces be covered with con- 
fusion.* Both armies heard the thunder of 
his voice ; their fancy beheld the angelic 
warriors ; the Koreish trembled and fled ; 
seventy of the bravest were slain, and seventy 
captives adorned the first victory of the 
faithful. The dead bodies of the Koreish 
were despoiled and insulted ; two of the 
most obnoxious prisoners were punished 
with death, and the ransom of the others, 
4000 drams of silver, compensated in some 
degree the escape of the caravan. But it 
was in vain that the camels of Abu Sophian 
explored a new road through the desert 
and along the Euphrates ; they were over- 
taken by the diligence of the Mussulmans, 
and wealthy must have been the prize, if 
20,000 drams could be set apart for the 
fifth of the Apostle.** — Gibbon. 

In the stony province the camels were 
numerous, but the horse appears to have 
been less common than in the Happy or the 
Desert Arabia, 



EAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



225 



i Fight of the Koreish.} 

sntment of the public and pri- 
lulated Abu Sophian to collect 
XK) men, 700 of whom were 
lirasses and 200 were mounted 
z: 3000 camels attended his 
his wife Henda, with fifteen 
ecca, incessantly sounded their 
Qimate the troops, and to mag- 
tness of Uobal, the most popu- 
the Caaba. The standard of 
bomet was upheld by 950 be- 
iisproportion of numbers was 
rming than in the field of Be- 
r presumption of victory pre- 
t the divine and human sense 
tie. The second battle was 
lount Ohud, six miles to the 
Una ; the Koreish advanced in 
I crescent, and the right wing 
ras led by Caled, the fiercest 
sessfiil of die Arabian warriors. 
Mahomet were skilfully posted 
ity of the hill ; and their rear 
by a detachment of fifty arch- 
tight of their charge impelled 
e centre of the idolaters, but 
it they lost the advantage of 
, the archers deserted their 
ifussulmans were tempted by 
3beyed their general and dis- 
' ranks. The intrepid Caled 
cavalry on their fiank and 
ed with a loud voice, that Ma- 
tin. He was indeed wounded 
ith a javelin, two of his teeth 
ed with a stone; yet in the 
iilt and dismay, he reproached 
ith the murder of a prophet, 
le friendly hand that staunched 
I conveyed him to a place of 
>nty martyrs died for the sins 
: * they fell,* said the apostle, 
:h brodier embracing his life- 
>n.* Their bodies were man- 
ihuman females of Mecca, and 
.bu Sophian tasted the entrails 
e tmcle of Mahomet.** — Ibid. 



Mamthon. 

^^ Ik these plains the neighings of horses 
are heard every night, and men are seen 
fighting ; and those who purposely come as 
hearers or spectators into these plains suffer 
for their curiosity ; but such as are acci- 
dentally witnesses of these prodigies are not 
injured by the anger of the demons.** — 
Fausanias. 



^A/W^^^^^/\/>^^^^^^S^^VS^^ 



" I HAVB heard from a certain Cyprian 
botanist, that the ebony does not produce 
either leaves or fruit, and that it is never 
seen exposed to the sun ; that its roots are 
indeed under the earth, which the Ethio- 
pians dig out, and that there are men among 
them skilled in finding the place of its con- 
cealment.** — Ibid. 



^^^^^^^^^^A^AMM^^^h^^^ 



{^Perversion of Etymology by the Meccatu-'i 

^* The idolatrous Meccans deduced the 
names of their idols from those of the true 
God; deriving, for example, All&t from 
Alia ; al Uzza from al Aziz, the mighty ; 
and Manat from al Mannan, the bountiful.* 
— Sale. 



%A^^«^^^^^^^^^^^^rfM%^MWW« 



{Dew Water ofFerrea,"] 

** Of these Islands (the Canaries) the last 
is called Ferrea, in which there is no other 
water that may be drunke, but onely that 
is gathered of the deawe, which continually 
distilleth from one onely tree, growing on 
the highest banke of the iland, and falling 
into a rounde trench made ^ith man*s 
hand.** — Fetbr Mabtts. 

* This is used up on the lines in Thalaba : 

*< The Ethiop, keen of scent, 
Detects the ebonv, 
That deep inearth'd and hatine light, 
A leafless tree and barren of all fruit, 
With darkness feeds its boughs of ravin grain." 
First Book, 22. Poems, p. 217.— J. W. W. 



\ 




IHuman Faggots.'] 

" Lf Guadaloupe. — Entering into their 
inner lodgings, thej found faggottes of the 
bones of mens amies and legges, which they 
reserve to make heades for their arrowes, 
because they lack iron." — P. Maettb. 



^*^^^^^^^f^%^>^^t^^^0^^%0S^^^ 



[Deaik of Titnanthes.'] 

*^ The statue of the Cleonsean Timanthes, 
who contended with men in the Pancratium, 
and was victorious, was made by the Athe- 
nian Myron. They report that Timanthes 
died in the following manner : after he had 
withdrawn himself from athletic exercises, 
on account of his age, he used every day to 
bend a large bow, for the purpose of making 
trial of his strength. Happening, however, 
to take a journey, he omitted this exercbe 
during his absence from home, and on his 
return attempted to bend his bow as usual, 
but finding that his strength failed him, he 
raised a funeral pile and threw himself into 
the fire." — Pausakias. 



l^Story of SmihynuuJ] 

" Thb country of Euthymus was Locris 
in Italy, near the promontory Zephyrium, 
and his father was called Astycles ; though 
the natives of this place affirm that he was 
bom of the river Csecinas, which bounding 
Locris and Rhegium, affords a wonderful 
circumstance with respect to grasshoppers, 
for the grasshoppers within Locris, as far 
as to the river Csecinas, sing like other 
grasshoppers, but in the parts beyond this 
river they do not sing at all. 

*' Euthymus was crowned in boxing. His 
statue was the work of Pythagoras, and is 
worthy of inspection in the most eminent 
degree. Euthymus, after this, passing over 
into Italy,, fought with a hero, of whom the 
following particulars are related. They say 
that Ulysses, during his wanderings afler 
the destruction of Troy, among other cities 
of Italy and Sicily, which he was driven to 



by the winds, came at length to Temcssa 
with his ships. Here one of his associates 
having ravished a virgin, in consequence of 
being heated with wine, he was stoned to 
death by the inhabitants for the action. 
But Ulysses, who considered his death as 
of no consequence, immediately set sail and 
lefl the place. The dsemon, however, of 
the murdered man did not at any time 
cease from cutting off the inhabitants of 
Temessa of every age, till the Pythian deity 
ordered them to propitiate the slain hero, 
to consecrate a temple to him, and devote 
to him every year the most beautiful virgiii 
in Temessa. When all this was performed 
agreeable to the mandate of the god, they 
were no longer afflicted through the wrath 
of the diemon. But Euthymus, who hap- 
pened to arrive at Temessa at the time in 
which they sacrificed after the usual manner 
to the daemon, having learned the particu- 
lars of this affair, requested that he might 
be admitted within the temple and behold 
the virgin. Hb request being granted, as 
soon as he saw her he was at first moved 
with pity for her condition, but afterwards 
fell in love with her. In consequence of 
this, the virgin swore that she would cohabit 
with him if he could rescue her from the 
impending death : and Euthymus, anniog 
himself, fought with the daemon, conquered 
him, and drove him out of the country ; and 
afterwards the hero vanished and merged 
himself in the sea. They farther report, 
that in consequence of the city being freed 
through Euthymus from this grievous cala^ 
mity, his nuptials were celebrated in a very 
splendid manner. I have likewise heard 
still farther concerning this Euthymus, that 
he lived to extreme old age, and that having 
avoided death, he departed after some other 
manner from an association with mankind. 
Indeed, I have even heard it asserted, by a 
seafaring merchant, that Euthymus is alive 
at present at Temessa, and such are the 
reports which I have heard : but I also re- 
member to have seen a picture, which was 
painted very accurately after an ancient 
original. In this picture there were the 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



227 



7011th Sybaris, the river Calabrus, the foun- 
tain Caljca, and the cities Hera and Te- 
messa. The daemon too was represented in 
this picture, who was vanquished bj Euth j- 
mus. His colour was vehemently black, 
and his whole form was terrible in the ex- 
treme. He was clothed with the skin of a 
wolf, and the name Lybas was given to him 
in the inscription on the picture.** — ^Ibid. 



^^^^^^^^^^^»^y^>^^^^^^^^^w 



[^Descent of Amphiaraus.'] 

** As you go from Potniae to Thebes, you 
will see on the right hand of the road an 
bclosure, not very large, and in it certain 
pillars. They are of opinion that the earth 
opened in this place to Amphiaraus ; and 
they say that birds will not sit on these 
pillars, nor grass grow, nor any tame or 
lavage animal feed in this place.** — Ibid. 

{^Vipers and the Balsam Tree,'] 

^ Thb balsam tree is nearly of the same 
aze as a sprig of myrtle, and its leaves are 
like those of the herb sweet -marjoram. 
Vipers take up their residence about these 
plants, and are in some places more nume- 
rous than in others ; for the juice of the 
balsam tree is their sweetest food, and they 
are delighted with the shade produced by 
its leaves. When the time therefore arrives 
for gathering the juice of this tree, the Ara- 
bians come into the sacred grove, each of 
them holding two twigs. By shaking these 
they put to flight the vipers ; for they are 
unwilling to kill them, because they con- 
lider them as the sacred inhabitants of the 
balsam ; and if it happens that any one is 
wounded by a viper, iJie wound resembles 
that which b made by iron, but is not at- 
tended with any dangerous consequences ; 
for these animids being fed with the juice 
of the balsam tree, which is the most odo- 
riferous of all trees, their poison becomes 
changed from a deadly quality into one 
^hidtk produces a milder effect.** — Ibid. 



So also ^ the inhabitants of Helicon say 
that none of the herbs or roots which are 
produced in this mountain are destructive 
to mankind. They add, that the pastures 
here even debilitate the venom of serpents; 
so that those who are frequently bit by 
serpents in this part escape the danger with 
greater ease than if they were of the nation 
of the Psylli,^ or had discovered an antidote 
against poison.**— Ibid. 

"Thb nature of the pastures contributes 
in no small degree to the strength of the 
venon) in serpents. For I once heard a 
Phoenician say that in the moimtainous 
parts of Phcenicia the roots that grow there 
render the vipers more fierce. The same 
person, too, farther added, that he saw a 
viper pursue a man, who fled to a tree for 
shelter, and that the viper blew its venom 
against the tree to which the man had es- 
caped, and by this means caused his death.** 
—Ibid. 



^«S/^WW^^^V^«^M^MM^A 



[^Nightingales of Orpheui Tonnb!] 

" The Thracians say that the nightingales 
which build their nests about the sepulchre 
of Orpheus sing sweeter and louder than 
other nightingales.** — Ibid. 



^A/VS/>/S/W>/V>/Nr>>/WS/S/W/V«^ 



[Eurynomus.] 

" EuBTTfOMrs, according to the Delphic 
interpreters of sacred concerns, is one of 
the demons belonging to Hades, and who 
eats the flesh of dead bodies, so as to leave 
the bones quite bare. His colour, as he 
appears in the picture at Delphos, is be- 
tween azure and black, and like that of 



* An African people, serpent charmers, like 
their descendants. — Ubrod. It. 173. Plimt 
speaks to the fact, lib. vii. c. 2, xxviii. c. 3, and 
LucAK 's lines are well known : — 

** Gens unica terms 
Incolit k SJBTO serpintum innoxia morsii 
Marmaridffi Psylli." — Fhart, ix. 891. 

J. W. W. 



228 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



flies which infest meat. He shews his teeth, 
and sits on the skin of a vulture.** — ^Ibid. 



«^^^^^^^^^^^/VS^^^^«i^/\A^ 



IThe Sycamore of J^gypt."] 

" Thb sycamore which in Arabic is 
called Giomez, is of the height of a beech, 
and bears its fruit in a manner quite dif- 
ferent from other trees. It has them on 
the trunk itself, whicb shoots out little 
sprigs in form of grape stalks, at the end 
of which grow the fruits close to one ano- 
ther, almost like bimches of grapes. The 
tree is always green, and bears fruit seve- 
ral times in the year, without observing 
any certain seasons ; for I have seen some 
sycamores that have given fruit two months 
after others. The fruit has the figure and 
smell of real figs, but is inferiour to them 
in the taste, having a disgustful sweetness. 
Its colour is a yellow, inclining to an oker, 
shadowed by a flesh colour. In the inside 
it resembles the common figs, excepting 
that it has a blackish colouring, with yel- 
low spots. This sort of tree is pretty com- 
mon in Egypt. The people, for the greater 
part, live upon its fruit, and think them- 
selves well regaled when they have a piece 
of bread, a couple of sycamore figs, and a 
pitcher filled with water from the Nile.** — 

NOBDBN. 



%^^^^^^^^^^A^^^^^^^%^v^ 



[^Locusts."] 

** Thb locusto are remarkable for the 
hieroglyphic that they bear upon the fore- 
head.^ Their colour is green throughout 
the whole body, excepting a little yellow 
rim that surrounds their head, and which 
is lost at the eyes. This insect has two 
upper wings, pretty solid. They are green, 
like the rest of the body, except that there 
is in each a little white spot. The locust 

1 The reader should refer to the magnificent 
passage in Thalaba — 

<< For these mysterious lines were legible — 
When the sun shall be darkened at noon, 
Son of Hodeirah depart." 

Third Book, 34. Poena, p. 242.— J. W. W. 



keeps them extended like great sails of a 
ship going before the wind. It has besides 
two other wings underneath the former, 
and which resemble a light transparent 
stufi^, pretty much like a cobweb, and which 
it makes use of in the manner of smack 
sails, that are along a vesseL But whea 
the locust reposes herself, she does like a 
vessel that lies at anchor ; for she keeps 
the second sails furled under the others." 
—Ibid. 



^^^/VW>^^^^^^^^^tf^^^^WW 



IThe DareirtL] 

*^ Thb Dareira is a kind of gnat, with 
which the water sometimes is almost all 
covered towards the evening. I take it 
for that sort of insect that the bats go in 
quest of upon the Nile« for their prey.**— 
Ibid. 

[^American Indian name for the Small Pox.] 

** Thb American Indians call the small- 
pox OonatkquAra, imagining it to proceed 
from the invisible darts of angry fate, 
pointed against them, for their young peo- 
ple*s vicious conduct.** — ^Adaib. 

lYo He Wah the Author of V^etation.] 

^ To inculcate on their young people 
that Yo He Wah is the author of vegeta- 
tion, they call the growth of vegetables 
Wahr&ah, moved by Yohewah. In like 
manner, Wah-kh signifies that the fruits 
are ripe, or moved to their joy by Yohe- 
wah.**— Ibid. 

[^Magic Rain StoneJ} 
** The Indian magi, who are to invoke 
Yo He Wah, and mediate with the supreme 
holy fire that he may give seasonable rains, 
have a transparent stone of supposed great 
power in assbting to bring down the rain, 
when it is put in a basin of water ; by a 
reputed divine virtue, impressed on one of 
the like sort, in time of old, which comma- 
nicates it circularly. This stone would 
sufier a great decay, they assert, were it 
even seen by their own laity ; but if by 



IS AND STUDIES FOB LITEEABY COMPOSITION. 



mid be utterlj despoiled of 
innicative power." — Ibid. 

ie Prophefi CarbuneU.'} 
1 prophet who lived ia Tjm- 
DOcle aetr u big u an ^g, 
i he found where & great 

dead ; and that it sparkled 
JEing lustre, u to il]iiniinat« 

houae, like stroog fla»he« of 
ning, to the great terror of 
dunt not upon anj account 
ilreadful fire-darting place, 
den death. When he died 
rith him according to cui- 



ke North Aiiteriean Indimu.'] 
compels the widow, through 
of her weeds, to re&Mn all 
r and diversions, at the pen- 
Teas, aod likewise to go with 
ithout the privilege of oil to 
e nearest kinsmen of the de- 
l keep a very watchful eye 
ct in this respect. The place 
also calculated to wake the 
for he is inlombed io the 
•r bed ; and if he was a war 
bliged for the first moon to 
me under bis mourning wnr- 
deeked with all his martial 
nuat be beard to cry wiih 
a.' But none of them are 
month's supposed religious 
or sweats, and wastes them 
; for they are allowed no 



> <• By the door 
, the head and biancbes ahom, 
ree with many a weapon bai^, 
nr-pola, and bis mniiimieat. 
Diver moulder'd, hii itoae.axe, 
D greea with moss, his bow- 

M wind."— 

ks.— Erit(wb,Ti. Pomii.p. 336. 
J.W.W. 



" The war-pole is a small peeled tree 
punted red, the top and boughs cut off 
short. It is fixt in the ground oppocite to 
his door, and all his implements of war arc 
hung on the short bongbs of it till they rot." 
—Ibid. 

[ Tie Spirit* ij/" rteir Dead.] 
" Tbodqh they imagine the report of 
guns will send off the ghoita of their kin- 
dred that died at home to their quiet place, 
yet they Grmly believe that the spirits of 
those who are killed by the enemy, without 
equal revenge of blood, find no rest ; and 
at night haunt the bouses of the tribe to 
which they belonged ; but when that kin- 
dred duty of retaliaticm is justly executed, 
they immediately get ease, and power to 
fly away." — Ibid. 



ITie While CircU.} 
" Thi Indiaoi use the same ceremonies 
to the bones of their dead as If they were 
covered with th^ former skin, flesh, and 
ligaments. It is but a few diiys since I 
saw some return with the bones of nine of 
their people, who bad been two mnnths be- 
fore killed by the enemy. They weie tied 
in white deer-skins' separately; and, when 
carried by the door of one of the houses of 
their family, they were lud down t^posite 
to it till the female relations convened with 
flowing hair, and wept over them about 
half an hour. Then they carried them 
home to iLeir friendly magazines of morta- 
lity, wept over them again, and then buried 
them with the usual solemnities. The 
chieftain carried twelve short sticks tied 
together, in the form of a quadrangle, so 
that each square consisted of three. The 
sticks were only peeled, withoat any paint- 
ing ; but there were swan feathers tied to 
each corner. They called that frame the 

* " Soon the mountaineers 
Saw the while deer-skin ghrond,'' &c. 
Madoc in Wales. —The Peace Pottm, p. 333. 
J. W. W. 



230 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



White Circle, and placed it over the door 
while the women were weeping over the 
bones." — Ibid. 



*>^t^^*^,^>-^^k^^S^^^^^^^^*^^ 



Interment of their Kindred *« Bones, 

** When anj of tbem die at a distance, 
if the company be not driven and pursued 
by the enemy, they place the corpse on a 
scaffold, covered with notched logs to se- 
cure it from being torn by wild beasts or 
birds of prey. When they imagine the 
flesh is consumed, and the bones are tho- 
roughly dried, they return to the place, 
bring them home, and inter them in a very 
solemn manner." — Ibid. 



[North American Indians* Funeral.'] 

** Thet laid the corpse in his tomb in a 
sitting posture, with his feet towards the 
east, his head anointed with bear*s oil, and 
his face painted red, but not streaked with 
black, because that is a constant emblem 
of war and death. He was drest in his 
finest apparel, having his gun, and pouch, 
and trusty hiccory bow, with a young pan- 
ther's skin full of arrows, along side of him, 
and every other useful thing he had been 
possessed of, that when he rises again they 
may serve him in that track of land which 
pleased him best before he went to take 
his long sleep. His tomb was firm and 
clean inside ; they covered it with thick 
logs, so as to bear several tiers of cypress- 
bark, and such a quantity of clay as would 
confine the putrid smell, and be on a level 
with the rest of the floor. They often sleep 
over those tombs, which with the loud wail- 
ing of the women at the dusk of the even- 
ing and dawn of the day, on benches close 
by the tombs, must awake the memory of 
their relations very often. And if they were 
killed by an enemy, it helps to irritate and 
set on such revengeful tempers to retaliate 
blood for blood.** — A. 

[The Warrior* 8 Rejoicing Day.'\ 
** In the time of their rejoicings they fix 
a certain day for the warriors to be crowned. 



for they cannot sleep sound or eas 
an old title while a new or highe 
due. On that long wished for daj 
appear on the field of parade, as 
cheerful as the birds in spring, 
martial drums beat, their bloody 
are displayed, and most of the yoc 
pie are dancing, and rejoicing for 
sent success of their nation, and 
return and preferment of their frie 
relations. Every expectant war 
that joyful day wears deer-skin 
scenes painted red, his body is i 
with bear's oil, a young softened ot 
is tied on each 1^, a long collar of £ 
feathers hangs round his neck, and 
is painted with the various streak 
rainbow. Thus they appear, whei 
the old magi come forth, holding \ 
white wands and crowns as there t 
riors to be graduated : and in a f 
posture, they alternately deliver 
oration with great vehemence of ex] 
chiefly commending their strict obc 
of the law of purity, while they at 
nied the beloved ark of war, which 
the supreme chieftain to give tl 
victory ; and they encourage the 
continue to tliirst afler glory in i 
of their brave ancestors, who die 
in defence of their country. At i 
elusion of their orations, one of tl 
calls three times with a loud voio 
the warriors by his new name, or ^ 
and holds up the white crown 
sceptre or wand. He then gladly 
and runs whooping to and aroui 
three times. One of the old belo^ 
puts the crown on his head and t] 
into his hand, then he returns to hi 
place, whooping with joy. In like 
they proceed with the rest of the i 
warriors, concluding with thb strc 
tion, — * Remember what you are'- 
title — according to the old beloved 
The crown is wrought round with 
feathers of a swan at the lower en* 
it surrounds his temples, and it is c 
weaved with a quantity of white < 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



231 



make it sit easy, and appear more beauti- 
ful ; to this part that wreathes his brows, 
the skilful artist warps close together a 
ringlet of the longest feathers of the swan, 
and turning them carefully upward in an 
uniform position, he ties them together 
with deers* sinews, so as the bandage will 
not appear to the sharpest eyes without 
handling it. It is a little open at the top, 
and about fifteen inches high. The crowns 
they use in constituting war-leaden are al- 
ways worked with feathers of the tail of the 
cherubic eagle, three or four inches higher 
than the other.** — ^Ibid. 



,^^VN^^\AA/^^^/W%^^^^/V% 



{^Si^ing of Muley IshmaeL'] 

'* Mni^T Ishmael, who in the beginning 
of this century reigned or tyrannized at 
Morocco, used to remark that *' were a 
number of rats put into a basket, they 
would certainly eat their way out unless 
the basket were continually shaken.*** — 
Chemibk. 

lArab Cure for Ottn'shot Wounds.'] 

** Thb Arabs attempt to heal all simple 
and gun-shot wounds, by pouring fresh 
batter, almost boyling hot,^ into the part 
affected. And I have been credibly in- 
formed that numbers of persons have been 
cored by this method.**— Shaw. 

[^Moorish Customs after Meat,] 

^ Thb Moors know not the use of table- 
cloths, forks, or spoons ; their meal ended, 
they lick their fingers, and wipe them on 

' " The treating wuunds with oil, and that 
poared in hot, in consequence of which the ma- 
jority of those wounded by gun-shots died; 
prevailed nniTersally in the European armies, 
till niperaeded by Ambrose Paree, that distin- 
gauhed French surgeon to the French kings, 
who, being a Protestant, would have perished 
io St. Bartholomew's massacre, had he not been 
saved from it by the contriyance of Charles IX. 
bimaelf." — Kote to Macbride's Viattiuironf p. 
462. Third Edit.— J. W. W. 



their clothes, which they wash when dirty. 
Those who keep negro slaves, call them, 
and rub their hands in their hair ; or if a 
Jew happens to be present, they make a 
napkin of his garments.** — Chehisb. 



«^i^A^^N^A^A^k^«^^^^^V^^^ 



• {The Seven Songs of Hasan Casa,] 

Rouif D the gallery of the tomb of Abas 
n. at Com, runs sl frize, divided equally 
into cartridges of azure, wherein are writ- 
ten, in large characters of gold, seven songs 
in distichs, made by the learned Hasan Caza, 
the first in honour of Mahommed, the others 
of Ali. — From Chabdin. 

The first Song. 

** I salute the glorious Creature of whom 
the Sun is but the shadow ! Master-piece 
of the Lord of human creatures ! great Star 
of Justice and Religion ! 

" Infallible expounder of the four books,' 
Conductor of the eight ' Mobiles, Governor 
of the seven* Parts, Chief of the Faithful ! 

" Doctor of that knowledge which is* in- 
fused into the Prophets ! royal Hero cele- 
brated by twelve^ successors I Though the 
Veil should be taken away, yet would not 
my belief be encreased. Light of God! 
Illuminating Soul of Prophecy ! Guide of 
true believers ! 

** The first object of God, when he be- 
thought himself of sending his orders to 

• " The Pentateuch, the Psalter, the Gospel, 
and the Alcoran, the Mahometans bBlieving that 
these books ever were, and always shall be, the 
rule of their faith." 

' ** The heavens of the planets of the Primum 
MobUe." 

* ** The seven climates which was the ancient 
diyision of the earth." 

' *' It is in the original, ' Doctor in the know- 
ledge of the prophets who knew not their ABC;' 
for the Mahometans affirm that Mahomet was 
so ignorant in human learning, that he could 
not read ; to the end they might the better horn 
thence conclude that his knowledge was super- 
natural." 

' ** The twelve heirs and successors of Maho- 
met, the last of which was carried to heaven, 
and shall return to confound the reign of the un- 
faithful" 



232 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



earth, and Embassador, Centre of divine se- 
crets concerning what is past and to come, 
who has caused the acknowledgment of Grod 
to shine forth out of the darkness of errors, 
as the Morning goes before the Sun, before 
he mounts the horizon, thwart a dark night. 

*' Principal Type of things created I In- 
strument of the creation of the world, the 
highest of the race of Adam I Soul of the 
great Apostles and Messengers I 

** Thou art that Lord, through whom one 
verse in Uie Alcoran promises the fulfilling 
of our desires. Thou art that Sun through 
whom another verse tells the sovereign 
beauty shall be seen. Light of eyes ! Crown 
of prophecy I Idol of the Angel (xabriel I 

^* Thou art in the world a world of virtue 
and dignity. Thou art upon the earth a 
sun of majesty and grandeur. 

** The Sea is not rich and liberal, but by 
the gifts of thy munificent hands. The An- 
gel Treasurer of Heaven reaps his harvest 
in the fertile gardens of the purity of thy 
nature. 

'* Moses, who divided the sea, b the por- 
ter of the throne of thy justice. Jesus, the 
Monarch of the fourth Heaven, ke^ps guard 
before the veil of the throne of thy glory. 

**That incomprehensible Painter, who 
drew the Mole at one stroke of his pencil 
koun-fikoun,^ never made so fair a por- 
traiture as the globe of thy visage. 

*' From thy descent into the cradle to the 
last day of thy life, the Angels who register 
words never heard thee speak a word which 
did not ravish Grod himself with joy. 

** No man, in whatsoever condition he is, 
can resemble God so much as thou dost. 
But if there could be an image to represent 
Grod as he is, it could be no other than thy- 
self, that Embassador whom out of bis ex- 
traordinary clemency he sent to the Earth. 

** Happy and holy is the man who believes 
all that Grod has spoken in the Alcoran, ac- 
cording to the sense which his Prophet has 
observed in the Book of his sentences. If 
he should be compared with any other ex- 

* ** Let it be so, and it was so." Gren. 1. 



alted being, there could not be found a more 
perfect exemplar than MahometJ* 

The Second Song. 

** O unexpressible man, who hast no equal 
but Mahomet, the elect Prophet, God has 
assigned upon thy love * the dowry of the 
ladies of Paradise. 

** The Primum Mobile would never dart 
the ball of the Sun through the trunk uf 
Heaven, were it not to serve the morning 
out of the extreme love she has for thee. 

" What is the power of the Stars and Des- 
tiny in comparison of thine ? and what if 
the light of the Sun compared with that of 
thy understanding ? Destiny does but exe- 
cute thy commands. The Sun is enlightened 
by the beams of thy knowledge. 

^^ When the numerous train of thy Ma- 
jesty goes in its pomp, we see the sphere' 
bound to the hand of the Captain that guides 
it, like a little bell at the neck of a mule. 

Let not Hercules vaunt any more the 
force of his courage ; for who would endure 
a fiy to brave it upon the wings of the great 
Phenix of the East ? 

''Had Hercules seen the valour of thy arm 
in one action, assuredly the Bird of his Soul 
would have broken the cage of his body, and 
fled for fear. 

'* The inunense sea of thy merit tosses up 
surges above the heavens, and upon this sea 
of virtue the tempests of adversity cause no 
more disorder than rushes in the water. 

" If thy glory be weighed in the balance 
of exalted sense, the highest mountains 
weighed against it would appear no more 
than the seed of lentils. 

'' In the great career of happiness, (where 
the transports of those who run the race 

* *' The Persians affirm that Aly was the 
handsomest person that ever was, and that his 
beauty was unconceivable; for which reasoo the 
painters usually cover his face with a veil, and 
will not let it be seen. But what the poet here 
speaks of Haly signifies that the blessed in hea- 
ven account it their chiefest felicity to be belored 
by him." 

• " Or fortune. The sense is, thou knowest 
how to turn the world at thy pleasure, as a mule 
turns the little bell that hangs at his neck." 



■ rf » -I 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



233 



nuke them like horses that get the bit in 
their teeth, and throw their riders, 

" And causes them with the force of their 
sirars to prick an artery, at what time the 
, Angel of Death comes like a fatal physician 
to take them by the arm of the soul.) 

**■ Thou shalt escape this rude career as the 
Sun passes on from the east. They shall 
carry before thee the honourable standard 
<A the supreme majesty, and behind thee the 
spoils as marks of the victory. 

''And in this race, were all the inhabi- 
tants of the world as brave as Hercules, the 
most undaunted of them would not have the 
courage to stand a moment before thee. 

**• Oiod shall create a Body ^ of Air that 
shall cry with a loud voice on his behalf, 
Victory I victory I there is none so stout as 
Aly! there is no sword like to Sulfagar,^ 
that Heroes sword with two points.** 

The Third Song. 

•* Thou from whose purity the Heaven of 
Unsinfulness draws its lustre, the Sun is 
made a crown of Glory of the shadow of thy 
Umbrello. 

''Jesus, the great Chymist, made use of 
the earth of the portal of thy prudence, for 
red sulphur, of which he composed the Tak- 
sir and the stone ^ Phale, by means whereof 
he understood all things, and healed all men. 

"The eternal Painter painted a great 
many images, and brought to light a great 
many ideas, with a design to form thy lovely 
countenance, but he found none that came 
near thy beauty. 

" The Faulcon of thy Umbrello having 
extended his wings, has found the birds^ of 
the seventh Heaven nestling under the large 
feather of thy left wing. 



' Renown or fame. 

^ " Sulphagar is the name of Haly's sword, 
which, the Mahomedans say, divides Itself at the 
«Qd with two points." 

' Stones of divination. The Mahometans say 
tbat when Jesus Christ was living, physic fiou- 
riabed in its highest degree of excellency, and 
tiutt God gave him so many secrets of that art, 
that he raised the dead, and penetrated the very 
thoughts of men." 

* " That is to say, the greatest Prophet." 



" Whoever has sealed^ his heart with thy 
love, has found that his heart is become a 
mine of precious stones. 

" The most powerful Creator of all things 
admired upon the sixth day of the creation 
that superiority of excellency which thou 
hast above all his other creatures. 

" Upon the memorable day of thy victory, 
the sweat of thy hands was to thy enemies 
a profound deluge that swallowed *em up 
like the sea. 

" Thou, Vulture of the heavenly constel- 
lation, didst fly upon the blood as a dog upon 
the water. 

" Insipid Poet, who comparest to the Sea 
the sweat of the hand of thy Hero I Thou 
art astonished at the thought that comes into 
thy head, that the sea which resembles that 
sweat is (Hie blue Sea (Heaven). 

" Whoever has lifted up the hand of Ne- 
cessity toward the Portal of thy beneficence, 
he has it always returned back full of what 
he desired. 

" O divine and sacred Host, who givest 
the Saints to drink out of the bason of Pa- 
radise, to speak something in thy praise, we 
must needs say that Nature is only adorned 
and enriched by thee. 

" A thousand and a thousand years toge- 
ther the Heavens, considering the high price 
of thy pure essence, beheld the water of the 
fountain of Paradise muddy in comparison 
of that. 

" As well God as Mahomet has always 
found thy opinion the most just : the one 
gave thee a sword with two points, the other 
a most incomparable virgin. 

" Had not thy perfect being been in the 
idea of the Creator, Eve had been eternally 
a virgin, and Adam a batchelor.** 

The Fourth Song. 

" Great Saint, who art the true mansion 
of God, as the Prophet teaches in the Book 
of his sentences, thou art also the Kebleh 

' '^ A figure taken from the custom of the Per- 
sians to seal their mines with the king's seal and 
of his officers, because all mines belung to the 
king." 



284 IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



of the world and of religion, the soul of the 
world of Mahomet. 

*' Thy mouth is tlie treasure of sublimest 
sense, thou hast placed thy mouth upon the 
fountain of understanding and knowledge, 
which is the mouth * of Mahomet. 

"Thou art the Pontiff who art only found 
worthy to enter into the sanctuary of the 
great Prophet, and only capable to stand 
upon the foot-pace of Mahomet. 

" The hearts which thy victorious sword 
continually leads to the true Religion, are 
the flowers with which the vapours of the 
ocean of thy puissance cover the garden of 
Mahomet. 

" Since the Sphere of the Law has been 
illuminated by several stars, the Moon never 
appeared so clear and bright, till when thou 
tookest upon thee the Empire of the Hea- 
ven of Mahomet. 

" The Angel Gabriel, messenger of truth, 
every day kisses the groundsil of thy gate, 
as being the only way that leads to the 
throne of Mahomet 

" Thy grandeur above all human possibi- 
lity is an impossible comparison ; but if any 
thing may compare with it, it must be the 
power and authority of Mahomet. 

" O sovereign King, if in the celebrating 
thy praises, I should study upon what once 
the wise Hassan did in the time of Maho- 
met, 

" I should not dare to presume to praise 
thy majesty, since God himself has spoken 
thy eulogy by the mouth of Mahomet. 

" The explication of thy being cannot 
proceed iroi^ the tongue of mortal men, 
unless we except what has been spoken of 
thee by Mahomet. 

" But it is not the same thing with the 
unfolding ofbur own wants, for that is need- 
less with thee. Thou knowest what they 
are, and thou knowest also that I am the 



' " An allusion to the kiss which the Mahu* 
metans say that Mahomet gave Halv, when he 
publicly appointed him his heir and succesifor, 
and is a prophane imitation of the manner of 
Christ's giving his Holy Spirit to his Apostles." 



devoted slave of thy house and of thefamilj 
of Mahomet. 

" My soul desires to fly to thee, pressed 
by the obligations which I have to men ; do 
me some favour that may deliver me from 
my obligations to men, I conjure thee bj 
the soul of Mahomet. 

" Turn not away thy compassionate ind 
favourable looks from my countenance. 
love of my heart, cast a tender glance upon 
me, O heart of the heart of Mahomet 

The fifth Song. 

" Minister especial elected of Grod for the 
master of the faithful, thou art the soul of 
the Prophet of God. We ought not to give 
thee any other name, O Master of ike 
faithful ! 

" Thy always victorious arm has brought 
under the yoke the heads of the most 
haughty heroes of the age, O Master of the 
faithful I 

" The treasures which Nature hides ind 
those with which it covers the universe, are 
without lustre and price, to what thou 
liberally bestowest upon us, O Master of 
the faithful ! 

" The sparkling rubies cover themsclres 
with earth in the hollow of the mine, 
ashamed of their not being bright enough 
to be put into thy treasures, O Master of 
the faithful I 

" I will not say what was the difference 
between the gentle Zephirus and the breath 
of t-hy mouth, which refreshes the soul and 
the heart, O Master of the faithful ! 

" All that Jesus did with his breath was 
an emblem, but afterwards this is all. That 
was an emblem which signified what mira- 
cles were to be wrought by the words of 
thy mouth, O Master of the faithful t 

^* How can an understanding so short and 
confused as mine represent the excellency 
and price of thy majesty, O Master of the 
faithful ! 

" The Universal Spirit, with its sublime 
knowledge, cannot arrive at the portal of 
thy wondrous essence, O Master of the 
faithful ! 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LrtERARY COMPOSITION. 



235 



there a place more exalted than 
ligh throne of Grod, I would affirm 
by place, O Master of the faith- 

we may give thee praises worthy 
r, it behoves us to depaint thy 
[ essence: but for that reason 
is impossible to praise thee ac- 

thy merit, O Father of the 

art all that thou deservedst to 

ivho can comprehend thy merit, 

be thy God? O Master of the 

>eg all as poor beggars at the gate 
eneficence, and the kings of the 

in the number of those beggars, 

of the faithful ! 

3rice of thy favours surpasses the 
of human understanding. The 
thy majesty and thy glory is too 

the shoulders of human under- 

The sixth Song. 

r of an unconceivable puissance, 
ands of Providence are executed 
iers. Thou canst turn with thy 
e the vast celestial sphere. 
Sun, under whose shadow and 

1 omens Nature rolls, is but a glit- 
un of the clasp of thy girdle, 
temal fountain of which the visible 
not so much as a single drop, is 
a drop to the sea of thy bounty, 
an wit, that divided the world into 
s, is no more with thee than an 
lust. He divides his knowledge 
iegrees, but how many degrees are 
to be a canton of thy knowledge. 
Superiour of the College* of the 

Gabriel, with all his art and 
e, is but a meer scholar to thee, 
erses of the Alcoran, which assure 
e favour and mercy of God, were 
heaven for thy sake. 

Mahometans say that God created 
by the ministry of angels, which is 
n the theology of the Jews." 



^* *Tis too small a praise of thy ineffable 
power to call it the zenith of power, since 
the zenith is no more than the nadir of the 
power of thy porter. 

" These two stars, which are the eyes of 
the world, are two globes, which not having 
been thfmght beautiful enough to make a 
part of the structure of thy mansion were 
placed at the avenues. 

" The famous bird which is placed over 
the roof of thy palace raises from the earth 
the nine vaults of heaven like a grain of 
wheat. 

" Whatever the gulph of predestination 
encloses, its wonders and its prodigies came 
not to light, nor were made manifest but 
by thy commandment. 

" The humble slave of thy grandeur, poor 
Hassan, employs himself day and night every 
year, every month in the country of Amul 
to sing thy praises. 

** Devoutly he prostrates his face to the 
earth at the gate of thy glorious palace ; he 
exposes to thy eyes a sick heart, of which he 
implores from thee the cure. 

** Can a man conceal his distemper from 
a wholesome remedy ? Certainly it is no 
piece of wisdom for a man to conceal his 
distemper from an infallible and sovereign 
cure. 

The seventh Song. 

" Glorious city of Nedgef, since thou art 
become the mansion of the son of the faith, 
thy territory is become more honourable 
than the country of Zemzem and Mecca the 
holy. 

** Nedgef is the true Kabeh* for people 
that seek the truth, because the adamant of 
religion has there his habitation. 

*' Which is also the son of pure belief, 
the Master of the faithful, the Governor of 
the kingdom of the love of Gk>d, the chief 
of the citizens of the heavenly Babylon. 

" O destroyer of heresy, thou art the 
secretary of the commandments of divine 

* " The house of Abraham, to which the 
Alcoran commands pilgrimage once in a man's 
life." 



I 



236 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



inspiration, the judge of things commanded 
or forbidden. 

'* If the idea of thee the most noble in 
divine sense were not in the world, the 
world would be but an imperfect and sense- 
less figure. 

*' Supreme majesty, who hast augmented 
the lustre of the supreme throne, all crea- 
tures incessantly praise thy name. 

** The sun is less than an atom in the 
heaven of assemblies where thou art ho- 
noured : and the atoms are greater than the 
sun, upon those places of the earth where 
thou hast wrought thy miracles. 

" The crown of Grerashid^ is cloudy and 
tarnished before the heron tuft of thy tur- 
ban. The throne of Fereydon is a wooden 
bench in comparison of thy seat. 

** The glory of Solomon, who was the 
glory of the earth, was a small thing in com- 
parison of thee, because it was only borrow- 
ed of the durable glory of thy servant Sel- 
mon. 

" The infallibility of Predestination de- 
pends only upon thy conduct : she is so mo- 
dest as never to set her foot before thine. 

*' *Tis a sin to compare thee with man, 
for how can a lump of earth pretend to com- 
pare with a diamond of the clearest water P 

** Human wit cannot find a man equal to 
thee, but by turning toward Mahomet. This 
b our firm and clear faith, and I say no 
more. 

" They cry with a loud voice upon the 
gates of Paradise to those that come to visit 
thy highness, you that have repented and 
are become good people, receive your salary, 
entering there for ever. 



N^^^^k/^^^^^N^A^^^A^^^^* 



[Indian Notion of European Faithlesiness,'] 

** Lbs Sauvages ne connoissent ni le tien, 
ni le mien, car on pent dire que ce qui est 
h Tun est k Tautre. Lors qu*un Sauvage 
n*a pas reiissi 'k la chasse des castors, ses 



* " The ancient kings of Persia of the first 
race and monarchs of the last." 



confreres le seoourent sans en ^tre priez. 
Si son fusil se creve ou se casse, cbacun 
d*eux 8*empresse k lui en ofifrir un autre. 
Si ses enfans sont pris ou tuez par les en- 
nemis, on lui donne autant d*esclaves qa'il 
en a besoin pour le faire subsister. H n*j 
a que ceux qui sont Chretiens, et qoi de- 
meurent aux portes de nos villes, chez qui 
Targent soit en usage. Les autres ne vea- 
lent ni le manier, ni m^e le voir, ils Tap- 
pellent le Serpent des Francois. Ils disent 
qu*on se tug, qu*on se pille, qu*on se diffame, 
qu*on se vend, et qu*on se trahit parmi noiu 
pour de Targent; que les maris vendent 
leurs femmes, et les meres leors filles pour 
ce metal. lis trouvent etrange que les uns 
ayent plus de bien qne les autres, et que 
ceux qui en ont le plus, soient estimez da- 
vantage que ceux qui en ont le moins. 
Enfin, ils disent que le titre de Sauvages, 
dont nous les quidifions, nous conviencbt)it 
mieux que celui d*hommes, puis qu*il n*y a 
rien moins que de Thomme sage dans toutes 
nos actions. Ceux qui ont ^t^ en France 
m*ont souvent tourment^ sur tous les maui 
qu*ils y ont vu faire, et sur les desordres 
qui se commettent dans nos villes, pour de 
Targent. On a beau leur donner des raisons 
pour leur faire connoitre que la propriety 
des biens est utile au muntien de la Society ; 
ils se moquent de tout ce qu*on pent dire 
sur cela. Au reste, ils ne se qnerellent, 
ni ne se battent, ni ne se volent, et ne m^- 
disent jamais les uns des autres. lis se 
moquent des Sciences et des Arts, ils m 
raillent de la grande subordination quails 
remarquent parmi pons. lis nous traitent 
d*esclave8, ils disent que nous sommes des 
miserables dont la vie ne tient k rien, que 
nous nous degradons de notre condition, en 
nous reduisant k la servitude d*un seul 
homme qui pent tout, et qui n*a d*antre 
loi que sa volenti ; qne nous nous battons 
et nous qnerellons incessamment, que les 
enfans se moquent de leurs peres, que nous 
ne sommes jamais d*accord ; que nous nous 
emprisonnons les uns les autres, et que 
m^me nous nous detruisons en public. H^ 
s*estiment au delk de tout ce qu*on pent 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITIOK. 



237 



i'lmaginer, et all^raent pour toute raisoxi, 
qo^iJa sont uasai grands maitres les um que 
ks antres, parce que les homines ^tant 
petris d*un meme limon, il ne doit point y 
SToir de distinction, ni de subordination 
CDtre eux. Us pretendent que leur oon- 
tentement d*esprit surpasse de beaucoup 
DOS richesses ; que toutes nos Sciences ne 
Talent pas celle de savoir passer la vie dans 
one tranquillite parfaite ; qu*un homme 
' n*e8t homme chez nous qu*autant qu*il est 
riche.' Mais que parmi eux, il faut pour 
etre homme avoir le talent de bien courir, 
chasser, pechcr, tirer un coup de fleche et 
de fusil, conduire un canot, savoir faire la 
gaerre, connoitre les forets, vivre de pen, 
coDstruire des cabanes, couper des arbres, 
et savoir faire cent lieues dims les bois sans 
aatre guide ni provision que son arc et ses 
fleches. Us disent encore que nous sommes 
des trompeurs qui leur vendons de tres- 
mauvaises marchandises quatre fois plus 
qu'elles ne vaient, en echange de leurs cas- 
tors ; que nos fusils cr^vent k tout moment 
et les estropient, apres les avoir bien payez. 
Je voudrois avoir le tems de vous raconter 
toutes les sottises qu*ils disent touchant nos 
manieres, il y auroit de quo! m*occuper diz 
oa douze jours.'* — La Hontan. 



^»^^»^^^»^^^^^^^^^>^^^^^^rf» 



[^Circassian Gentlemen,'] 

^ Cbux qui tiennent parmi eux (les Cir- 
ctssiens) le rang de gentils-hommes, sont 
tout le jour sans rien faire, demeurent assis 
et parlent fort peu." — Tavsbnieb. 

[Superstition relative to (he Indian Crocodile.'] 

^ Trb Indian Crocodile is easily tamed. 
Some of the Malays at Batavia are so su- 
perstitious as to imagine that such a croco- 
dile is their brother or sister. They endea- 
vour, therefore, to save some of their pro- 
visions, that they may every day carry food 
to the crocodile, which approaches at their 
calL" — FoBSTBB*s Note to Fra PaoUno dti 
San Bartolome&s Voyage to the East In- 
dies, 



[Phantoms^ or Estantiguas^ about MundaJ] 

'* Or dia, como tengo dicho, se yen im- 
pressas senales de despojos, de armas y ca- 
vallos; y ven los moradores encontrarse por 
el aire esquadrones, oyense vozes, como de 
personas que acometem : estantiguas llama 
el vulgo Espanol a semejantes aparencias, o 
fantasmas, que el vaho de la tierra, quando 
el Sol sale, h se pone forma en el aire baxo, 
como se ven en el alto las nubes formadas 
envariasfiguras, y semejan^as." — ^Memdoza. 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^«^^^^^ 



Hawks of Noroega, 

** The Hawks of Noroega keep alive the 
last bird which they catch in a winter day, 
that he may keep ijieir feet warm at night, 
and at morning they let him go, and ob- 
serve which way he flies, that they may not 
himt in that quarter, not wishing to hurt 
him for the comfort he has given them.** — 
Arte de Furtar, 



«^^i^^AAM^M^^iM^^^v^^^^ 



[ Vision of the two Jesuits.] 

1576. Two Jesuits were going from S. 
Vicente, in Brazil, to N. Senhora da Con- 
Qei^am de Itanhae. ** Fazendo seu caminho 
estes Religiosos, fechouse a noite, & come- 
caram a ver ao longe, como distancia de 
tres, ou quatro legoas pella, mesma praia, 
hum fogo grande, et afastados delles outros 
menores, que deziam ser onto, outros, doze, 
a modo de figuras humanas ; cuja vista co- 
mecou a metellos em medo & espauto; mas 
apagouse presto & desapareceo. Porem 
quanda menos cuidavam, tornarom a ver o 
mesmo portento mais temeroso, & pello 
mesmo modo, & tam perto de si, que clara- 
mente enxergavam ser a maneira de hum 
corpo humano, o qual lan^ava da cabe<;a 
grandes chamas de fogo, como se cada qual 
dos cabellos della fora a luz de huma grande 
tocha, mas de diversa cor : ficaram atonitos 
OS Padres a vista de couza tam horrcnda, 
mas com mais excesso, quando viram que 
abrindo as costas despedia de dentro das 



I 



238 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



entranhas huma labarede de fogo, nem mais 
nem menos, que a de fomalha dos engenhos 
de a^uquar, quando mais a cesa & rigurosa : 
& da mesma maneira apareciaS os fogos das 
outo, ou doze figuras humanas, posto que 
de estatura menor, que representavam mo- 
^08 de quinze annos de idade : estes hiam 
como bailando & fazendo festa, a figura 

maior em circuito. Huns diziam que de- 

via de ser certas pessoas, de quem se dizia 
que morrerao em mao estado ; outros que 
eram avizos de Decs, & outras cousas se- 
melhantes. O certo h^ que com estas figu- 
ras costuma o Senhor mostramos as penas 
do inferno, pera horror & freio de pecca- 
dores, quando as veem, ou em si, ou pin- 
tadas, quais estas logo andaram em painel 
pella terra, et foram mandados a Portu- 
gal, com espanto de lodos." — Vida do P. 
Joseph Anchieta. Lisboa, 1672. 



/N/VNA/VS/VA/VNA/^^^M/VWW 



\_Effect of Exorcism,'] 

** Nam sei que tinha com esta praya o 
inimigo infernal ; parece pretendia com sens 
rigores fazer difficultozo o caminho da ro- 
maria da Senhora. Por huma parte della 
caminhava Joseph outra noite, em compan- 
hia de alguns Romeiros, quando a des boras 
Ihe aparece outra vizam tambemespantosa; 
huma figura de hum homem armado em 
fogos, metido em prisoens de cadeas, & 
grilhoens de fogo. A vista desta vizam 
horrenda, nam poderam sosterse em pe os 
companheiros de puro horror, & pegados 
as vestiduras de Joseph, gritavam que Ihe 
acudisse; assi o fez o Padre, & dizendo 
certos exorcismos da santa Igrcja, desapa- 
recco a vizara & se meteo no mar." — Vida 
do Anchieta. 



Arandela, 

** A Thing in the shape of a funnel, fas- 
tened to the thick end of a lance to defend 
the man*s hand, thought to have been in- 
vented at Arundel in Sussex, and thence 
to have its name. It is also a sort of band 



worn by women made after that 
and therefore so called. Others, wi 
probability, say the word is Arabicl 
NEBAS* Dictionary* 



^h^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^i/^^^ 



Bauson or Bausana. 

** A FIGURE made like a man and 
with straw, used formerly to set < 
where the garrison was weak, to : 
appear stronger ; and from these in 
statues applied to signify a fool, o 
stupid person, or one that stands g 
any thing as if he were out of his 
—Ibid. 



MA^^i^iA^^kA^k^^^^^^^^^^*^<M 



[^Chotdtries.'] 

" FoRTtNES are expended in 1 
choultries on the roads for the ac 
dation of travellers, who there find 
from the injuries of the weathe; 
Hindoos esteem such actions as vex 
ing to the gods. The choultries 
Gothic construction, and in the ma 
no wood is made use of. They co 
consist of one large apartment, whic 
times is divided into two, withou 
door or window, and entirely opei 
south, with a vaulted gallery all 
close to the building, which b alwf 
a wood. All choultries have a tan 
small pagoda dedicated to PoUear, 
traveller may perform his prayers ai 
tions before he pursues his journey 
pitality extends so far in some^ 
choultries as to regale the travel 
congee, a liquor made of rice and 

SONMERAT. 



Bramitu, 

** Their persons are held so sac 
they cannot be punished with death 
commission of any crime whatever, 
bramin has merited death, his eyes 
out, but he is permitted to live, 
a bramin is one of the five great ani 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



>le sins; *nd the Veduna ordwi 
ever U guiltj of lucli a murder 
rorm A pilgrimage of tweire years, 
ms, and carrying the «kull of the 
out of which he i» obliged to eat 
c all that is given him. This time 
he is to bestow large alms, and 
:mple to the god of the murdered 
sect." — Ibid. 



Heejaderke't Ufarrioffe Apportiox- 

.Tin Hebhsiekkb, ainsi nommf )i 
n village de Holande d'oit il itoit, 
I Haerlem 1S74 %£ de loixante- 
Ajrant beaucoap travullS pen- 
I vivoit, il mourut asaez riche ; et 
ier quelque memoire de lui, il le- 
»n testament de quoi marier tous 
me fills du village d'oil il £toit. 
fut k condition que le jour des 
marif et la marine evec tous les 
boient danger sur sa fosse. Ce 
ratiquoit si religieusement. It ce 
issQra, qu' encore que le change- 
religion arrlv^ en ces pais-1^ e&t 
ilir et abbatre toutes les croix 
ieres, les babitans neanmoins de 
rke n*ont jam^B voulu permettre 
,t celle qui est sur la fosse de ce 
aquelle est de cuivre, et leur sert 
un titre pour jouir de la dot et de 
in faite h lenrs fiUes." — Entretient 
'U*, j(V. del Peintrei, par Pbli- 

le iocubuB tale the circumstance 
by witches (if decency be pos- 
T have a striking effect. " Dolo- 
(u insignis fi-igidiutis." 



[Marvellmu Carbuncle.'] 
ABTHOLOHED lays, that he " saw 
le of the king of Pegu so bright 
lark place it made all the bystan- 



ders' bodies transparent, so penetrating won 
its splendour." — Seobbdos daNahtreta. 

One of those rascally quack books mode 
up by modem ignor&ace from old impu- 
dence. 

[_Siberian EaHh-l 
" Some of the Siberian tribes, when ^ey 
travel, carry a small bag of their native 
earth, the taste of which, they suppose, will 
preserve them from all the evils of a foreign 
sky." — Gmeur. 



iWhite BoyM.1 
" BcsBT used to call his favourite scho- 
lars his white boys."— Wbfe (aFoKi>,Tol. 1, 
p. 29. 



[MiraeU of Franciico de Ptada.'] 
" A ifiBACLE is told by Vieyra, of Saint 
Francisco de Paula, that when King Fer- 
dinand of Naples laid on an oppressive tax, 
he broke a piece of the money so collected, 
before him, and blood came out of it." — 
Cmret. Brai. t. 16, p. 106. 



Idea*, j-c. 

A DSBTDL chapter might be written upon 
historical errors, or rather falsehoods. 

The pillars, which Procopius mentions, 
of the Canaanites, fall under this head. 
They may be classed with the written co- 
lumns of Shem and Jubal. 

Thebb might be a new Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress written, allegorizing the journey of 
life. Knight-errantry would not be an 
unfit basis, — as thus the first stages might 
be passed as a child under protection of the 
Sage PhusLs, who brings him safely by the 
perilous passes where Small-Pox, Measles, 
&c. are the custom, each of course allego- 
rized. The ceremony of knighting might 
mark manhood. Th?n woulil be ^e fields 



.JC 



240 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



of infancy, the hills of manhood, and the 
vale of age. Marriage would be joining 
company for the journey. 

New governors always popular, because 
the people have hope in them as they have 
in new physicians. 

November 10, 1804. 

I have this evening proposed to Long- 
man to edite the works of Sir Philip Sidney, 
proposing to write a Life,* an Essay on the 
Arcadia, and another on his metres. 

The first Essay should be upon what may 
be called the middle period of Romance. 
Biondi in Italy. Grombauld in France. 
Why these things succeeded to pure chiv- 
alry. The literary character of Elizabeth's 
reign. 

In the second, a history of English metre. 
Specimens of hexameters in French, Spa- 
nish, and Italian, and corresponding speci- 
mens of my own to every practical metre 
which Sir Philip has used. 



W^^rf^^^l^^^^A'^^^^^^^^'^^ 



What can be made of Judaism in Por- 
tugal f 

Gabriel has brought up his son Henrique 
in the religion of his forefathers, but not his 
daughter Violante. The Confessor there- 
fore, who is a good man, has no suspicion. 

D. Duarte, son of an inquisitor, is in love 
with Yiolant-e. The father is an avaricious 
hard hearted man, and has set his eye upon 
Gabriers possessions, knowing him to be a 
New Christian. He is also superstitious. 
Bring in the belief in the books which dis- 
cover hidden treasures, and make him post- 
pone the seizure of Gabriel, while Gabriel 
by his knowledge goes at midnight to secure 
one. 

This scene, if laid in a nunnery garden, 
might connect another plot of some nun in 

' This Life, nearly, if not quite, complete, is 
in the hands of the Rev. C. C. Southoy. His 
father put it into my hands many years ago, 
knowing my love for Sir P. Sidney's character 
and works. — J. W. W. 



love with the English captain, — and 
the inquisitor might be made to as& 
her escape by preparing ladders, &c. 
may be Duarte*8 sister 

Fountain in Epinu, 

*' In Epire is a fountain, intensely 
Dip into it a torch and it will kindle it 
in a kindled torch, and — wonderful — i 
quench it.** 

'* About two leagues from Room wi 
a round hill to the left, called in Tu 
Gedeen-gedmaze, which signifies that 
ever goes up never returns, which the 
sians say was the fate of a page sent \ 
Schaah Abbas with a lighted torch i 
hand. However this be, it is certain 
easy matter to ascend this place, be 
the whole hill consists of sand, whi 
shiiled from place to place by the 
and must soon tire whoever attem{ 
climb it.** — BxLL. 



^Ai/^^^^^^»^^^^A^«A^WS<>V*^^ 



Traditions in Bretagne. 

" JoN Gaut t Taw (John and his 
is a kind of daemon, who in the night 
ries five lighted candles on his five fii 
and whirls them about with great rap 
The repeated cry of the cuckoo indl 
the year of marriage. They dip the i 
of children into certain wells ; if the 
sinks to the bottom, the child infa 
dies before the expiration of a year : 
swims, it is a sign that the child will 1 
long time, and the wet shirt is put o 
poor creature to preserve it from ever] 
of evil. In one place a number of s 
are told about a small black staff, wh 
changed into a black dog, an eagle, or t 
In another, they believe that eagles, I 
command of a genius, carry men u[ 
the air. A sudden noise, three time 
pcated, foretells an impending misfui 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 241 



ctumal howling of a dog is a cer- 
etoken of death. In the roaring of 
ant main by night, and in the whis- 
the wind, they hear the voice of 
1 persons demanding a grave. Sub- 
>us treasures are guarded by giants, 
and fairies. Some of these hob- 
are called Teuss :' the Teuss Ar- 
ippears in the shape of a dog, a cow, 
i other domestic animal, and per- 
l menial services. The blood freezes 
Dg the dreadful tales about the Car 
ifCariqiiel Ancou,* which is covered 
rinding sheet, and drawn by skele- 
rhe rumbling of its wheels is heard 
person is on the point of dying, 
the castle of Morlaix there are a 
of little manikins, not above a foot 
bo from time to time dry a large 
r of gold in the sun. Whoever mo- 
pproaches them receives as much 
in hold in one hand: but he who 
'ith a sack to. fill it with gold, is ill 
and sent away empty handed.** — 
.T*8 Voyage dans le Fihisterre, M, 
Tarch^ 1801. 



w^^^^^^^'^^W^A^^^^^'^A* 



[Moorish Lust'] 

44. *^ In Carpetaniso finibus, multas 
I moniales Benedictinae, ne viola- 
i Mauris, "k Deo consecutsB sunt ut 
.bsorberentur ; quaedamque campa- 
tutis die! horis, qu& vocante venie- 
preces, auditur.** — Luitpband, p. 



BXB writer, Julianus in Adversariis, 
es the wonder. " Frequentes in 
un HispanisB locis audiuntur subtus 
lonitus campanarum, ubi creduntur 
onasteria sacrarum Yirginimi, qusB 
'ent in salacium Maurorum manus, 
t k terr& sorberi, ut in jugis Car- 



^ELLOUTlEa, Dietvonnairsds la Langut 

, in V. " Teiis." 

bid. in w. CarrighelL &c. Anemi, 

J. W. W. 



petanis prop^ Margalizam in Carpetania, in 
templo S. Quiteris, et etiam alibi.** — Notes^ 
p. 129. 

[7%e bursting of the Harp Strings."] 

Ah Irish Priest at Lisbon said, *' that 
when his father died the strings of his harp 
all burst at once with a noise like thunder.** 



(( 



Sword of Attila. 

Gladio utebatnr Attila, ut ipse puta- 
bat, divinitus ei misso : namque dum qu&- 
dam npcte perquietem vidisset se k Marte 
armari,post«rodie quidam ex gregariis roili- 
tibus detulit ad eum ensem in campo pa- 
tenti, dum vestigium cujusdam vitulse sau- 
ciatflB insequeretur, forte fortun& repertum. 
Qu8B res fidem praecedentis sui soronii, non 
modic6 confirmavit.** — Olah, in Attil. 



^^fSyS^^i^iy^^^^i^i^^i^^^^S^^S^ 



[Shades of Battle,] 

Aftsb the great defeat of Attila, *' tridub 
armorum fragorem iisdem vestigiis audi- 
tum pugnantium clamorem, umbris perti- 
naci contentione post mortem in pugn& 
perstantibus.** — ^Rodbb Tolet. 



[Sailor's Ghost- Cry.] 

Mahoel db Sousa b Sbpulveda and his 
companions. ** Ab infortunio dum se miseri 
ad viam parant, silentio noctis nautica er- 
rantium ibidem animarum exaudita celeus- 
mata.** — Maitbus. 



[Field of Stones.] 

Thbbb is said to be a field in Shropshire 
covered with stones, which, though often 
cleared away, are always reproduced. 



^^V^^^^^^'W^^^^^^V^^^^^ 



[Omen of the Coronation Stone.] 
** Thb famous coronation stone- was said 
to make a strange noise when any of the 



B 



242 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



true line of Milesians were crowned, but 
otherwise it was silent.** — 0*Hau/>ban. 



^>i^^^s^^^^^>^^^^i^^sr*i^^^^ 



IStone with SmeU of a CarpteJi 

In Crediton church is one stone remark- 
able, because it has the smell of a corpse. 



«^vw^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



IThe Virtue of Wickliffe's Dust.} 

«* I HAVE heard,'* says Fuller, " that the 
brook near Lutterworth in Leicestershire, 
into which the ashes of the burnt bones of 
WickliflTe were cast, never since doth drowne 
the meadow about it. Papists expound this 
to be because God was well pleased with 
the sacrifice of the ashes of such an heretick. 
Protestants ascribe it rather to proceed from 
the virtue of the dust of such a reverend 
martyr.** — Good Thoughts in Bad Times. 



«^F^ ^^^^^^^^^^^/^^^^^%^^ 



IBattle Stone-field.'] 

Akin to this is a Spanish story. A great 
battle was fought between the Castros and 
the Laras. The field of battle was smooth 
and free from stones, but from that hour 
stones appeared ; and it is now so rocky 
that no horseman can pass safely, nor man 
on foot without care and fear : there where 
the deaths were most niunerous, the rocks 
are thickest. — Coronica del R. D. Alonso, 
p. 341. 



^^S^^^^F^^^0^^0^^^^^^S^^^ 



[^Self'renufval of the Executioner^ s Falchion."] 

** What shall we say to this prodigious 
thing, which the executioners of justice 
upon malefactors, whom we cannot name 
without horror, find to be true too often ; 
namely, that when any such malefactor is to 
be delivered into their hands, the sword or 
faulchion, that they are wont to use in this 
business, removes itself, no man coming so 
much as near it : as it is at large discoursed 
of by Lavaterus in his book de Spectris, 
and Natalis Taillepied, in his treatise de 



TApparition des Esprit^.** — Gaztabel, 
heard of Curiosities, 



m^i^^^^^^^t^^^^^^^^^^^^fSi^i^^^f^ 



Locrine, 



** Cbafti mon for sothe he wes ; 
He wrohte her, withoute les. 
Tuo merveilles grete y wys, 
Wrokynghole that on clepud ys 
Sikerlich without^ gyle. 
Biside Glastingbury a myle. 
A t;hapele that other ys 
That over the erthe hongeth thus. 
From the erthe tuenti fet, 
The leynthe for sothe last yet. 
Of seint Susanne, wythoute les 
The chapele ycleped wes.*' 

Chronicle of JEngland^ v. 12 



^Deadly Venom of the Salamander^ 

" VsNSNUM Salamandri tam grave, 
arborem tetigit, poma omnia veneno t 
rimo inficit; et qui ex eis edant st 
emoriantur.*' — Plin. 1. 29, c. 4.' 



[^Mysterious Name of Rome.] 

'* Rome had an elder and mystei 
name, which it was death to pronounoi 
F. DE OcAMPo, 1 . 20. 1 2. On what clai 



authority P 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^K^^^^^^^fc* 



ICader Idris.] 

" On the very summit of Cader '. 
there is an excavation in the solid rock 
sembling a couch ; and it is siud that ^ 
ever should rest a night in that seat, 
be found in the morning either dead, ra 
mad, or endued with supernatural geo 
— Davibs. Celtic Researches. 



* These are not Pliny's exact words, I 
suspect, a note made up ftt>m them. Th 
fercnee is correct. It is well known in 1 
that the Musk Rat will infect a whole b 
Madeira.— J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



243 



[^Innda Viventium.'] 

jj>iT8 sajs, *' there is an isle in a lake 
h Munster called Insula Yiventium, 
i no one can die in it. When the 
Guits are mortally sick, and would 
die than linger on in misery, they 

into a boat and wafted over to the 
isle, where, as soon as they land, 
pire." " This is the same," says Led- 
as the Icelandic Udainsaker, or Land 
[mmortals, of which Bartholine tells 

it b situated in North Iceland, that 
Jves believe no one can die there, 
;h labouring under a deadly sickness, 
I is carried out of its precincts ; and 
Tefore the inhabitants have deserted 
ing all the terrors of death, without 
g the prospect of release.** 



%A/V«A^^^k^^i^^^^«^^.^^AM 



AfjfiOQ *Ovttpu>y» 

coBDTHO to Pythagoras the ^rjfWQ 
ty, the People of Dreams, are souls 
ire collected in the milky way. This, 
lomas Taylor, admirably elucidates 
aes in Odyss. zxiv. 1 1 . [ManichsBan. 
isobre. T. 1. 144.] 

itrav *€lfuav» re poaQ Kat Aivicd^a 

irpnyy 

tp fitkioio irvXac, koX hriyiov oytipuv 
aljj/a ^KovTO jcar* atrtpohiXov Xei- 

-e ralttffi ;f/v^at, eiZuXa Kafiovruv, 

Is evident from hence that the souls 
uitors passed through the galaxy, or 
ts of the blessed, according to the 
ncient theology; and I doubt not 
mer describes in these lines the com- 
1 progression of an impure soid till 
as its original habitation in the stars, 
lin begins to gravitate to this terrene 
' — Restoration of the Platonic The" 



^^^^A/^^^»A^^^^^^^k^/«^/^^* 



Virtue of Pulverized Testicles,'] 

EQUB est verum quod dicunt rustic!, 
bi per violentiam quis sectus est, non 



possit celebrare, nisi testes siccos pulveri- 
zatod gerat in burso.** — Gloss, to the Par- 
tidas. 

What an ingredient for a philtre I 

[^Poisonous Tree of the Celebes.] 

" There is a tree in the isle of Celebes 
which poisons whomsoever lies under its 
western shade, unless he gets into the shade 
of its eastern side, which is the antidote.** 
— Diooo J>B CouTO, 4. 7. 8. 



JElden Hole. 

'* It is reported that several attempts 
have been made to fence the hole round with 
a stone wall, as the manner of the fences are 
all over the country ; but it has been all in 
vain ; what they built up in the day would 
be pulled down in the night, so it is vain 
to try the securing it. This the people tell 
us.** — Mrs. Fienne8*8 MSS, 



[^Cold-blooded Unchanter.] 

One might make an enchanter cold- 
blooded — because the son of an incubus — 
ex frigiditate seminis} Unfeeling accord- 
ingly and long-lived. A good personage 
for a tale of Gothic superstition. 



[Poxoer of Music, 

'* TiETiE tantafuer^a la musica que, como 
muchos auctores gravissimos y aprovados 
escriven, una fuente de Alexina al taiier de 
la vihuela se mueve y salta como cosa biva.** 
— Fernan Nunez. Qlos. a las Tredentas de 
J. d, Af, 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^A 



[Origin of Mandrakes,] 

Mandrakes were supposed to spring un- 
der a gibbet from the blood of Uie male- 
factor. 

» See supri, p. 236.— J. W. W. 



244 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



IHeadUss Men.'] 

Hbrrera (1. 2. 12) tells a storj of two 
of Columbus*8 companions, when they were 
in want of food at Isabella. Going through 
one of the streets, they saw a party of men 
whom they supposed to be newly come from 
Castile, with swords by their side, y rebo^- 
dos eon tocos de camino, muffled as was then 
the mode. Upon saluting and asking them 
whence they came, the strangers pulled off 
their hats, and their heads in them, and dis- 
appeared. 



[^Babe crying in the Womb.'] 
A WOMAN in the isle of Orleans, 1661, in 
a time of signs and tokens heard the babe cry 
in her womb. — Chaslsyoix. St. Fbakce, 
tom. 2, p. 102. 



^^^^^^'^^^^^«^«#^^^\AA^^^^^ 



[^Afonk and Fish Mortality.] 

** On the borders of Burgundy a small 
lake belonging to a convent, which con- 
tains no more fish than there are monks in 
that convent, and these so sympathize, that 
whenever a monk sickens and dies, a fish 
sickens and dies also, and floats on the wa- 
ter.** — ^Fb. Marco de Gaudalajare. Sscp. 
de lot MoriscoSy p. 68. 



^^^^^^^^^hAA^^ ^« 



\_Sepvlchre Knocking.] 

A KNOCKiNO is heard in the sepulchre of 
S. Victorian in Aragon whenever the abbot 
or one of the monks is to die. — Ibid. 



^^^^»^^^^^*^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



^Bachelors' Buttons.*] 
**It was an old custom among countrymen 
to try whether they should succeed with 

* I suppose this to be a note on the words, 

" 'TIS in his butttmt he will carry it,** 

in the Merry Wives of Windaor, Act iii. Scene ii. 
Within my own recollection, both in Shrop- 
shire and Staffordshire, this old custom was 
common enough.— J. W. W. 



their mistresses by carrying bachelors* but- 
tons (the flower of the Lychnis kind so 
called) in their pockets. They judged of 
their good or bad success by their growing 
or not growing there.** — Note to Shakespeare. 
Bo6wsix*8, vol. 8, p. 114. 



» ^#^^^^^^A^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 



j^atage ^upersttftfonsr. 

l^Earthquakes at Tongataboo.] 

** At Tongataboo they account for their 
frequent earthquakes, by supposing the 
island rests upon the shouldei's of a verj 
powerful deity called Mowee, who has sup- 
ported it for such a length of time as ex- 
ceeds their conceptions. This heavy burden 
often exhausts his patience, and then he 
endeavours, but in vain, to shake it off; 
which, however, never ffuls to excite s 
horrid outcry over the whole country, that 
lasts for some time after the shock is over, 
and we have sometimes seen them endea- 
vour to quell his discontent and reduce him 
to good behaviour, by beating the ground 
with large sticks. — Tongaloer, the god of 
the sky, and Fenoulonga, of the rain, thej 
suppose to be males. Besides these, thej 
have a great many others of both sexes, 
over earth, sea, and sky, each acting is 
their proper sphere, and sometimes coun- 
teracting one another, according as interest 
or inclination leads them. They also ac- 
knowledge the existence of a great number 
of strange gods, calling them by the general 
name of Fyga, among whom they rank ours 
as the greatest; and when they think it 
will answer their purpose, they will readily 
acknowledge him as far wiser, and in every 
respect better than theirs, having taught us 
to make so much better ships, tools, cloth, 
&c. than they have ever been able to do. 
Besides these, they imagine every indivi' 
dual to be under the power and control of 
a spirit peculiar to himself, which they call 
Odooa, who interests himself in all their 
concerns, but is little regarded till angry, 
when they think he inflicts upon them all 
the deadly disorders to which they are sub- 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



245 



ject ; and then, to appease him, the rela- 
tions and other connections of the afflicted 
person, especially if he be a chief, run into 
all the inhuman practices of cutting off 
their little fingers, beating their faces, and 
tabooing themselves from certain kinds of 
food." 

** A TOUKO woman gave us an affecting 
account of the fate of one of Moomooe*8 
sons. The youth, it seems, lived at some 
distance from Noogollifva, where the father 
lies sick, and by order of whom he was sent 
fur, under pretence of having his little fin- 
gers cut oir, a custom common here, and 
done with a view to appease the anger of 
the Odooa, that the sick person may re- 
cover, but in fact that he might be strangled. 
Upon the arrival of Colelallo, he was sa- 
luted in a cordial manner by his elder bro- 
ther, Toogahowe, and soon after went to 
sec his father, whose attendants seized upon 
him with a view to strangle him instantly ; 
when he, guessing their intention, said, if 
they would use gentler means he would 
submit to his father*s will ; but they con- 
tinuing their violence, he by a gi*eat exer- 
tion beat them off. Three feejee men were 
then called, and these being joined by a 
sister of the unfortunate Colelallo, they ac- 
complished his death." — Missionary Voyage, 

The Egyptians had this custom also. Are 
not all sacrifices vicarious ? 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^0^^^^^^ ^ 



** Thet believe the immortidity of the 
soul, which at death, they -say, is immedi- 
ately conveyed in a very large fast sailing 
canoe to a distant country called Doob- 
ludha, which they describe as resembling 
the Mahometan Paradise. They call the 
god of this region of pleasure Higgolayo, 
and esteem him as the greatest and most 
powerful of all others, the rest bemg no 
better than servants to him.** — Ibid. 



•^^^AA^M^A^^^i^/^"^^^^^ 



Otarxttb. The general name for Deity 
ia all its ramifications is Eatooa« Three 



are held supreme. Tane, the Father; Oro- 
mattow, the Son ; Taroa, the Bird, the Spi- 
rit. This stinks of the Methodist. Their 
other greater gods they call Fwhanow-po, 
bom of night. Among these are the names 
Orohho, Oehawhow, Tamma, Toaheite, Va- 
veah. Each family has its Tee, or guar- 
dian spirit; he is supposed to be one of 
their departed relatives, who for his supe- 
rior excellencies has been exalted to an 
Eatooa. They suppose this spirit can in- 
fiict sickness or remove it; and preserve 
them from a malignant deity also called 
Tee, who has no power but upon earth, 
and is always employed in mischief. 

AVhen the spirit departs from the body, 
they have a notion it is swallowed by the 
Eatooa bird, who frequents their morais, 
and passes through him, in order to be pu- 
rified, and be united to the Deity. — Ibid. 



•^^^^^^%^^\^^\^M/V^^%'>^^ 



*' In the beginning, Tane took Taroa and 
begat Avye freshwater, Atye the sea, Awa 
the water-spout, Matai the wind, Arye the 
sky, and Po the night, then Mahaiina the 
sun, in the shape of a man called Oeroa 
Tabooa. He had by Townoo the thirteen 
months. Then she returned to earth, and 
Oeroa embraced a rock called Poppoharra 
Harreha, which conceived a son named Te- 
tooboo-amata-hatoo, after which the rock 
returned to its original state, and the father 
of the months himself died, and went to 
dust The son he left embraced the sand 
of the sea, which conceived the brother and 
sister Tee and Opeera; then he also re- 
turned to earth. Tee and Opeera married ; 
she fell sick at last, and requested her hus- 
band to heal her ; she would in his illness 
do the same for him ; and thus they should 
both live for ever. But Tee let her die, 
and married her and his daughter, Oheera- 
Reene-Moonoa. Their children peopled 
the earth.**— Ibid. 



•»>/VWS#VW^V**VWS'W>« 



** Thbt believe the stars are the children 
of the sun and moon. When the sim and 



246 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



moon are eclipsed, they suppose them in 
the act of copiilation. When a star shoots, 
it is the Eatooa. They put great confidence 
in dreams, and suppose in sleep the soul 
leaves the body under the care of the guar- 
dian angel, and moves at large through the 
region of spirits. Thus they say, my soul 
was such a night in such a place, and saw 
such a spirit. When a person dies, they 
say his soul is harre Po, gone to the night** 
—Ibid. 



«V%/V^^PWVWVS/^W^V>M^ 



**Thbt entertain a high idea of the power 
of spirits. In the beautiful and romantic 
view of Taloo harbour, the remarkable 
peaked mountain is said to be but a part of 
the original one. Some spirits from Ulietga 
had broken off the other half, and were 
transporting it down the bay in order to 
carry it away with them, but being over- 
taken by the break of day, they were obliged 
to drop it near the mouth of the harbour, 
where it now stands conspicuous as a rock, 
— for these spirits walk and work by night.** 
—Ibid. 



•'X/N/XM^^VS/WW^^^V^MW^ 



[^NotioTU in the Kingdom of Benin.] 

** Les habitans du Royaume de Benin, 
en Afrique, reconnoissent un Dieu qui re- 
compense ou punit, selon le bien ou le mal 
qu*on a fait. Bs croyent que Tombre du 
corps est un etre r^el, qui nous accompagne 
jMtns cesse, qui se rend k son gre visible ou 
invisible, et par qui Dieu est instruit, li no- 
tre mort, de nos bonnes et de nos mauvaises 
actions.** — Saintfoix. 



v»/s/</N/>.»«'w<r«»v»/wvWMW» 



{Maldivt Ingenuity.'] 

Thb inhabitants of the Maldives — '* de 
Testoupe du Cocos ils font des chemises en- 
tieres avec les manches et les quartiers, d*un 
mesme tissu, aussi-bien que des demi-vestes.** 
— Anciennee Relations. 



L 



\_Self -performing Insintmeni.1 

**A MANUSCRIPT,** says Mr. Marsden,**b 
now lying before me, containing the ad- 
ventures of two princes who were sent by 
the king their father to obtain for him the 
possession of an extraordinary self-perform- 
ing instrument of music, whose enchanting 
air he had heard in a dream.** — Asiatic Re- 



searches. 



^««^^^V^/W\MA«V\/VN^«WWS^^ 



[^Processional Music of the Idol of 
Juggernaut.'] 

" Under the idol of Juggernaut, when 
he rides abroad in his procession, sit the 
king*s wives, * which, af^r their manner, 
play on all instruments, making a most 
sweet melody.* *' — Linschoten. 



^MAAA^tAA^VA/V^N<V>/«A«N«^ 



[Offspring of Menu.] 

^* The sons of Marichi, and of all the 
other Richis, who were the offspring of 
Menu, are called the companies of Pitris or 
forefathers. 

" They are elsewhere called the proge- 
nitors of mankind, and the patriarchs in- 
habiting the moon.** — Inst, of Menu. 



From the Hindoo Mythology. Sonnerat. 

" The Andon is the visible world: it is 
composed of one sun, one earth, planets, and 
stars. The whole is surrounded with s 
round and very thick shell. The Andons 
are innumerable, and ranged one upon 
another, very much in the manner of piling 
eggs.- 



MWMMMW^^^^V^^^^h^^^^^ 



** Satialooam is the Paradise of Brah* 
ma, the Yaicondon of Yichenou, the Caila- 
son of Eswara.** 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^•^^f^^^^ 



*' The virtues are divided into two classest 
which must not be confounded. The one 
is called Pravarty, and the other Nivarty. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 247 



The first contains two articles, called Ische- 
tam and Bourtam. Ischetam comprehends 
all actions done in religious ceremonies; but 
the building of temples, chouUrie^ digging 
tanks, planting rows of trees, &c. all such 
good works are called Bourtam. Those 
who practise them will die at the time that 
the sun advances towards the south, and 
the night of a day when the moon is in her 
second quarter. After their death they 
will find themselves in the world of the 
moon, where they will be happy according 
to their deserts. 

^ The soul in the state of Nivarty bums 
with the fire of wisdom. Its power anni- 
hilates the action of the senses, and this 
soul enters into the immensity of the uni- 
versal being. All men in the state of Ni- 
varty will die at the time that the sun takes 
his course towards the north, and the morn- 
ing of the day when the moon is in the first 
quarter. Raised by the sunbeams, the soul 
will go to the paradise of Brahma, called 
Satialogam, where it will enjoy those inex- 
pressible delights possessed by the gods. 
The matter of which it is composed becomes 
subtile, and is changed into an universal 
body, and the faculty of this casual body is 
destroyed by the wisdom of the soul. From 
this delightful place it goes to the Sorgon ; 
from whence the followers of Yichenou pass 
into the Yaicondon, and the followers of 
£swara into the Cailason." 

** Dbvbndrbn is king of the Deverkels 
or demigods. The Sorgon is his paradise. 
He supports the east part of the universe. 
He is represented covered with eyes, with 
four arms, holding a hook, a coulichou, and 
mounted on a white elephant. Devendren 
had many wars to sustain against the giants, 
enemies of the gods. Alternately conque- 
ror and conquered, he has at several times 
been driven out of the Sorgon ; and it was 
only by the protection of Brahma, Yichenou, 

' The Choultry or Madan, is a repository of 
stone, covered with a vault, adorned on all sides 
with acalptnre, and built in temples to shew the 
dirmitv. 



and Eswara, that he at last destroyed the 
giants, and remained peaceable possessor of 
the Sorgon. 

" Aguini, god of fire, second of the Dever- 
kels. He supports the south-east part of 
the universe, and is represented with four 
arms, holding in two a crit ; his head sur- 
rounded with flames, and mounted on a 
ram. 

** Yamen,* god of death, and king of hell, 
governs the south, a terrible figure holding 
a staff* and mounted on a buffalo. 

** Niroudi, king of the demons, and bad 
genii, supports the south-west. He is car- 
ried on a giant*s shoulders, and holds a 
sabre 

** Yarounin, god of the sea, supports the 
west, he rides a crocodile with a whip. 

** Yayou, god of the wind, supports the 
north-west. His weapon a sabre, his beast 
an antelope. 

" Couberen, god of wealth, the north, on 
a white horse with plumes. 

** Isanien, equipped like Eswara, and 
also on an ox, supports the north-east.** 



** Chourixit, Sandrien, Anguaraguen, 
Bouda, Barasouadi, Soura, and Sani, are 
the Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, 
Yenus, and Saturn, demigods as well as 
planets ; each presiding over one day of the 
week. Sani is the god who punishes men 
during their life-time, he approaches only 
to hurt them. The Hindoos fear him much, 
and address prayers to him. He is blue, 
quadrimontf, and rides a raven. Two ser- 
pents form a circle about him.** 

" Thirty -THBEB courous of Deverkels, 
all pure spirits, all sons of Cassiber and 
Adidi inhabit the Sorgon. A courou is 
100 lacks ; a lack, 100,000. They are di- 
vided into tribes, called 

** 1. Yassoukels. These are only eight in 

* '* Two forms inseparable in unity 
Hath Tamen ; even as with hope and fear 
The soul regardeth him doth ne appear," &c. 
The Curse of Keharoa, — Fadalun, xxiii. 13. 
Poemn, p. 621.— J. W. W. 



number. Perhaps, and probably the pro- 
tectors of the octagon world. 

" 2. Maroutoukels. Only two. 

" 3. Guinerers. Grods of music. 

'* 4. Guimbourouders. Of singing. 

" 5. Chidders. 

" 6. Vitiaders. 

** 7. Guerouders. They have .wings, and 
their noses are like the eaglets beak. Viche- 
nQu rides on a Gueronder. 

" 8. Grindouvers, famous for their beauty. 
They have wings, and love to fly in the air 
with their wives. 

" 9. Fidourdevadegals ; protectors of the 
dead. The only tribe that is adored and 
supplicated.*' 

'* Thb Calls and Poudaris are tutelary 
divinities, protectresses of cities. Each 
city has its own. They delight in blood, 
and some of them in human sacrifice. They 
are not immorialt of giant stature, many- 
armed, their heads surrounded with flames. 
Several fierce animab are also placed under 
their feet." 

*' Or the giants, or bad genii, are five 
tribes. 

** 1. Achourecp, of whom some have go- 
verned the world, a favour they obtained 
by their penances. 

" 2. Rachadars, who have often subjected 
the world under the government of some of 
their kings. But these monarchs, abusing 
the power given them by the greater gods, 
were punished by Vichenou and Eswara. 

'* 3. Bonders, or Boudons, attendants and 
guards of Eswara. 

** 4. Caleguejers. The most powerful 
race of giants. They inhabit the Padalon. 

** 5. Guingerers, endowed with extra- 
ordinary strength. They serve the Achou- 
rers as soldiers, and inhabit also the Pada- 
lon. 

** Many of these malicious genii are con- 
demned to wander on the earth after their 
decease, on account of their bad actions ; 
and cannot quit it but by collecting the 
prayers the Indians make to the gods ; so 



that they get near those who are praying, 
and endeavour to confound them ; that 
they may omit some of the ceremonies pre- 
scribed by their ritual. It is by ihis means, 
and not by their own works, that they can 
find grace before the Lord. When they 
have collected a suflicient quantity of pray- 
ers, they are permitted to change their na- 
ture ; and then from wandering unfortunate 
genii they become souls, passing into the 
bodies of men, and by this change enjoy- 
ing the happiness promised to the latter. 
Li order to prevent such surprbe is the 
reason that the Indians, in beginning the 
divine service, repeat a prayer, and fling 
water three times over the lef^ shoulder, 
which is the only part where the genii can 
attack them.** 

*' Thbt believe also in spirits, attribut- 
ing the same qualities to them which we 
give to hobgoblins. They name them 
Mouni, or Cateri, or Pichache. They have 
no body, but take what form they please. 
It is particularly during the night-time 
that they roam to hurt mankind, endea- 
vouring to lead astray travellers to preci- 
pices, wells, and rivers; transforming them- 
selves into Will-o*-the-wisps, houses, men, 
or animals, to conceal the danger into which 
they are conducting the traveller. To make 
them propitious, the Indians erect colossal 
statues to their honour, and pray to them." 

*' Thb wicked will be flung into hell, a 
place beneath the' earth, near the south, 
called Padalam. Rivers of fire, horrible 
monsters, destructive arms, infectious in- 
sects, and all sorts of evils are concentered 
in this terrible comer. After the dc^Ui of 
these unfortunate people, the Emaguinguil- 
liers, the giant servants of Yamen drag 
them, tied and bound with cords ; they are 
beat, whipt, and trod under foot; thej 
walk on points of iron ; their bodies shall 
be picked by crows, and gnawn by dogs; 
and they shall be flung into a burning riter. 
It is not till after these cruelties have been 
exercised upon them that the ministers of 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



249 



rill conduct them before Yunen. 
corruptible and severe judge will 
1 them according to the faidts thejr 
omitted. Those who have despised 
es of religion shall be cast on heaps 
ig arms, and suffer this torment as 
iara as they have hairs on their bo- 
"hose who insult the Bramins and 
in high office, shall be cut in pieces, 
ers shall be forced to embrace a 
lade hot with fire. Those who fail 
duty, who do not take care of their 
and who abandon them to roam 
shall be continually torn by the 
Those who do hurt to men, or who 
[lals, shall be cast from precipices 
rmented by wild beasts. Those who 
b reverenced thejr parents, nor the 
^ shall burn in a fire whose flames 
e to 10,000 yogenais. Those who 
used old men and children shall be 
t furnaces. Those who have slept 
&y time with lewd women shall be 
3 walk on thorns. Slanderers and 
&torf, stretched upon beds of red- 
shall be obliged to eat excrements.^ 
ihall serve for food to the worms. 
ho rob the Bramins shall be sawed 
the middle of their bodies. Those 
n motives of vanity slay cows and 
imals in the sacrifices, shall be beat 
ivil. False witnesses shall be Anns 
i top of high mountains. Lastly, 
ual, the idlers, and those who have 
pity on the poor and miserable, 
flung into burning caverns f shall 
ed under mill-stones, and trod un- 
. by elephants ; and their bruised 
t flesh shall serve for food to those 
All these miserable sinners shall 
i this manner during many thou- 
rs ; and their imperishable bodies, 
I divided by torments, shall re-unite 
as quicksilver. They afterwards 
condemned to a new life, during 



i Kings, xviii. 27; Isaiah, xxxvi. 12. 
that these disgusting expressions are 
.—J. W. W» 



which their torments shall be lengthened, 
and by an effect of the Divine power they 
shall find themselves again in the seed of 
man. This seed diffused in the womb, 
shall be, during a whole night, like mud. 
The fifth day it shall be like globules of 
water. In the fourth month, the sinews of 
the foetus shall be formed. In the fifth, he 
shall experience hunger and thirst. In the 
sixth, an epidermis shall cover his body. 
In the seventh, he shall be sensible of mo- 
tions. He will inhabit ti»e right side of his 
mother, and be nourished by the suction of 
the nourishment she takes. Reduced to 
flutter in his excrements, the worms shall 
bite him; the sharp nutriture and warm 
water which his mother drinks will give 
him acute pains. He will suffer much in 
his birth ; and when bom will be still sub- 
ject to infinite pains. It is thus that this 
painful birth shall be renewed, till these 
unhappy creatures have the courage to give 
themselves up entirely to the practice of 
virtue." 

^ All souls whom a violent death has- 
tens to the grave, except those who perish 
in a war, or in defence of their gods or 
their country, remain wandering and ram- 
bling upon the earth as long a time as they 
were destined to live in the bodies they 
lately animated. They can be judged only 
after this interval.** 

" Ir the destiny of the soul has been so 
unfortunate, that it is doomed to animate 
the body of an animal, it will successively 
pass into different disguises of this kind, 
except some fortunate circumstance deli- 
vers it from this deplorable state ; because 
an animal cannot perform a meritorious act. 
Those fortunate circumstances are, the sight 
of a deity, whether in his temples or in the 
streets during the ceremony of a procession. 
Sometimes the sight alone of a holy place 
may operate for the deliverance. At this 
epocha the soul passes into the body of & 
man, and thus wanders from body to body 
till it becomes perfectly pure.** 



i 



250 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



^ Thb gods and the giants desiring to 
procure themselves immortality, after the 
counsel of Vichenou, transported the moun- 
tain of Mandrig^iri into the sea of milk, to 
get the Amourdon : they surrounded it with 
the serpent Addissechen, and drawing it 
alternately, some by the head and some by 
the tail, they turned the mountain topsy- 
turvy, that they might change the sea into 
butt«r. They drew it with such swiftness, 
that Adissechen, overcome with weariness, 
could no longer «6upport the fatigue; his 
body trembled, his thousand shivering 
mouths made the earth resound with his 
hissings ; a torrent of flame issued from his 
eyes; his thousand tongues, black and 
hanging, palpitated ; and he vomited a ter- 
rible poison, which in an instant spread 
itself every where. Vichenou, more intre- 
pid than the other gods and giants, who fled, 
took the poison, and rubbed his body with 
it, which immediately became blue. It is 
in commemoration of this event, that in 
almost all the temples dedicated to him, 
they represent him of a blue colour. The 
gods and giants returned to their work; 
they laboured during a thousand years, afler 
which the mountain sunk by degrees into 
the sea. Yichenou then took the form of a 
tortoise of an extraordinary size, went into 
the sea, and easily lifted up the sunk moun- 
tain. All the gods, after having given him 
praises, united to turn the mountain. At 
last, after many ages, the cow Camadenou 
came out of the sea of milk, as also the 
horse Outchisaravam, and the white ele- 
phant Ariapadum, and the tree Calpaga 
Vroucham. Their labours also produced 
three goddesses, Latchimi, goddess of riches, 
wife of Yichenou ; Sarasouadi, goddess of 
sciences and harmony, whom Brahma took 
to his wife ; and Moudevi, goddess of dis- 
cord and misfortune, with whom, for good 
reason, no person would trouble themselves ; 
for the Indians suppose, that whoever is 
under her influence will never have a grain 
of rice to appease his hunger. She is re- 
presented green, mounted on an ass, carry- 
ing a banner in her hand, on which a raven 



is punted. Those animals are given her is 
attributes, because they are held infamous 
by the Gentoos. The physician Danoo- 
vandri afterwards came out from the bottom 
of the sea with a vase full of Amourdon. 
Yichenou distributed it among the gods 
alone ; and the giants, who saw themselves 
disappointed, furious for having been de- 
ceived, dispersed themselves over the earth, 
preventing homage being paid to any deity 
whatever, and exercised all kinds of cruelty 
to make themselves adored.** 

'* Yichehou assumed the form of a wo- 
man, under the name of Moyeni, to seduce 
the giants and take the Amortam from them. 
Eswara was so struck with her beauty, that 
he could not resist his desires, and became 
with her the father of Ayenar. The Gentoos 
esteem this son of Eswara and Yichenou as 
the protector of the world, of good order, 
and of the police ; but they do not rank 
him with gods of the first class. They build 
small temples to him in the woods, com- 
monly at a distance from the highway, bnt 
never in towns. He is known by the quan- 
tity of horses made of dried earth, which 
they consecrate to him, and are placed with- 
out side the temple, but under cover. It 
is not permitted to pass near those temples 
in a carriage, on horseback, or on foot with 
shoes on. He is the only god to whom 
sanguinary offerings are made; kids and 
cocks being sacrificed to him.** 

" Latchimi, the wealth-giver, the mother 
of the world, the perfectly beautiful, had bj 
her husband Yichenou, Manmadin, god of 
love, a child in figure like Cupid, carrying 
a quiver on his shoulders, and a bow and 
arrow in his hand; but his bow is of sugar 
cane, his arrows of all sorts of flowers, and 
he is mounted on a parroquet. Although 
an infant, they have given him a wife called 
Radi, which signifies Debauch ; they repre- 
sent her as a beautiful woman, on her knees, 
on horseback, throwing a dart.** 

" Eswara unites in himself both sexes, 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



251 



Parvadi is only a part of himself, 
and greatest of his sons is PoUear. 
les over marriages. The Indians 
house, without having first carried 
on the ground, which they sprinkle 
and throw flowers on it everj day. 

not invoke it before Ihej under- 
enterprize, they believe that Grod 

1 them forget what they wanted to 
e, and that their labour will be in 
!e has an elephant*s head, and rides 
It in the pagodas they place him 
2stal with his legs almost crossed, 
dways put before the door of his 
This rat was a giant, Gudje-mouga- 
!>n whom the gods had bestowed 
ity, as well as great powers ; which 
i, and did much harm to mankind, 
ntreated by the sages and peni- 
leliver them, pulled out one of his 
1 threw it against the oppressor. 
1 entered the giant*s stomach, and 
r him. He immediately changed 
ito a rat, as large as a mountain, 
I to attack PoUear: who sprung 
ck, telling him, that hereafter he 
er be his carrier. The Hindoos, 
adoration of this god, cross the 
t the fist, and in this manner give 
s several blows on the temples : 
t always with the arms cro^-ised, 
hold of their ears, and make three 
ns, bending the knee ; after which, 
* hands joined, they address their 
!> him, and strike their forehead, 
e a great veneration for this deity, 
lage they place in all temples, 
ghways, and in the country at the 
ime tree, that all the world may 
opportunity of invoking him, be- 
undertake any concern, and that 
may make their adorations and 

to him before they pursue their 



second son of Eswara is Soupra- 

hom his father produced from the 

middle of his forehead, to destroy 

Soura-Parpma. This last, by 



strength of penances, had obtained the go- 
vernment of the world and immortality; 
but became so wicked that God was obliged 
to punish him. He sent Soupramanier, who 
fought him unsuccessfully for ten days ; but 
at last, making use of the Velle, anns which 
he had received from his father, he cut the 
giant in two. These two parts changed, one 
into a peacock, and the other into a cook. 
Soupramanier gave them a better heart, and 
from that moment they paid homage to 
Eswara. He enjoined the peacock always 
to carry him, and the cock to be always in 
his standard." 

" VAntBYBaT, the third son of Eswara, 
was created from his breath, to overthrow 
the pride of the Deverkels and the Peni- 
tents, and to humble Brahma, who had 
vaunted that he was the greatest of the 
three gods. Vairevert pulled off one of 
Brahma^s heads, and received the blood of 
all the Deverkels and Penitents in the skull; 
but afterwards brought them to life again, 
and gave them purer hearts. This is the 
god who by Eswara*s command will come 
to destroy the world at the end of the ages. 
He is blue, three-eyed, with two tusks like 
crescents, a collar of heads round his neck, 
falling on his stomach ; his girdle is made 
of serpents, 4iis hair of a fire colour, bells 
are on hb feet, he rides a dog.*' 

" Thb fiflh incarnation of Vichenou was 
in a Bramin dwarf, under the name of 
Vamen; it was wrought to restrain the 
pride of the giant Bely. The latter afler 
having conquered the gods, expelled them 
from Sorgon. He was generous, true to 
his word, compassionate and charitable.' 

* " Their talk was of the city of the days 
Of old, Earth's wonder once, and of the fame 
Of Baly its great founder, - he whose name 

In ancient story and in poet's praise, 
Liveth and flourisheth for endless glory, 

Because his might 
Put down the wrong, and age upheld the 
right," &c. 

The Curse of Kehama,— The City of 
Bely, XV. 4.— J.W. W. 



252 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Yichenou, under the form of a yerj little 
Bramin, presented himself before him while 
he was sacrificing, and asked him for three 
paces of land to build a hut. Belj ridi- 
culed the apparent imbecUitj of the dwarf, 
in telling him, that he ought not to limit 
his demand to a request so trifling; that 
his generosity could bestow a much larger 
donation of land. Yamen answered, that 
being of so small a stature, what he asked 
was more than sufficient The prince imme- 
diately granted his request, and to ratify 
his donation, poured water into his right 
hand ; which was no sooner done, than the 
dwarf grew so prodigiously, that his body 
filled the uniyerse. He measured the earUi 
with one pace, and the heayens with an- 
other,^ and then summoned Bely to giye 
him his word for the third. The prince then 
recognized Vichenou, adored him, and pre- 
sented his head to him : but the god, satis- 
fied with his submission, sent him to goyem 
Pndalon, and permitted him to return annu- 
ally to the earth, on the day of the full moon 
in November, the anniyersary of his over- 
throw, to witness the fireworks and illu- 
minations, a sight of which he was very 
fond." 

" Pabassousama was only one part of 
Vichenou. He declared war against the 
kings of the race of the sun, defeated them 
all, and gave their kingdom to the Bramins. 
He would afterwards have retired into a 
corner of the country he had presented 
them, to pass his days in tranquillity, but 
none of the Bramins would permit him : 
and finding no asylum on the earth, he re- 
tired on the Grants, whose foundation was 
washed by the waves. It was there that he 
called Varounin, god of the sea, begging 
him to withdraw his waters, in order to 

' The classical reader will call to mind Ho- 
mer's description of strife, Iliad, A. 443. 

Oipavtfi Iffrripi^t Ktipti, Kdi M xOovl fiaivii. 
With which may be compared the words in 
the Btwk of Wisdom, *' It touched the heaven, 
but it stood upon the earth." xviii. 16. 

J. W. W. 



give him a place he could inhabit ; he onlj 
desired the space of an arrow's flight, which 
he would shoot. Yarounin consented, bat 
the penitent Narader, witness of the pro- 
mise he had just given, made him sensible 
of his imprudence, by assuring him, that it 
was Vichenou himself, and that he would 
send his arrow beyond all the seas; in 
which case Varounin would not know what 
to do with his waters. Varounin, lament- 
ing at not being able to recall his promise, 
ran speedily to Yamen, god of death, b^;ging 
his assistance in this dilemma. To oblige 
him, Yamen changed himself into a white 
ant, called Karia among the Indians, who, 
in the night time came when Parassourama 
was asleep, and by favour of the darkness 
gnawed his bow-string in such a manner, ss 
to leave jiist string enough to keep the bow 
stretched. Parassourama, not perceiving 
the trick played him, repaired in the morn- 
ing to the sea shore ; he put an arrow to his 
bow, which he was preparing to shoot with 
all his strength ; but in drawing the string, 
to give it more elasticity, it broke in such 
a manner, that the arrow could not go fsr. 
The land over which it passed dried, and 
formed the country of Malealon, which we 
call the coast of Malabar. Parassourama 
recaUing to mind the ingratitude of the 
Bramins, cursed them, and imposed this lot 
upon them, that if a Bramin should die on 
this new spot of earth, he should return to 
earth again, in the shape of an ass. There- 
fore no Bramin*8 residence is to be seen on 
this proscribed coast. According to the 
Tamoul tradition, this god still lives on the 
Malabar coast. They represent him a ter- 
rible and disagreeable figure. On the Coro- 
mandel coast he is painted green, with a 
more agreeable countenance, holding in one 
hand a hatchet, and a fan of palm leaves in 
the other." 

*' Masiatajlb' was wife of the penitent 

' All these materials were of course oollecied 
for the ** Curse of Kehama. " This is quoted to 
•the lines. 

*^ It chanced that near her, on the river brink, 



EAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



253 



li, and mother of Farassourama. 
commanded the elements, but 
»erve that empire longer than 
IS pure. One day, while she 
I water out of a tank, and, ac- 
er custom, was making with 
rth a bowl to carrj it to the 
w on the surface of the water 
)f Grandouers, who were flying 
i. Struck with their charms, 
her heart. The earth of the 
L, and the water mixed again 
ihe tank. From this time she 

make use of a vase. This 
overed to Chamadaguini that 
deriated from purity, and in 
his rage he ordered his son to 
de place where criminals were 

1 to behead her. This order 
1, but Farassourama was so 
d for the loss of his mother, 
iguini told him to take up the 
ten the head upon it, which he 
nd repeat a prayer in her ear, 
^ht him, and his mother would 
» life. The son ran eagerly to 

he was ordered, but by a very 
der, he joined the head of his 
e body of a Farichi who had 
d for her crimes : a monstrous 
rhich gave to this woman the 
xidess and the vices of a crimi- 
Idess becoming impure by such 
AS driven from her house, and 
I kinds of cruelties. The De- 
lving the destruction she made, 
' in giving her the power to 
U-pox, and promising her she 
plored for that disorder. — Ma- 

great goddess of the Farias, 
r above the Deity. To honour 
re a custom of dancing with 
>f water on their heads, placed 

red form of Marriataly stood ; 
idol roughly hewn of wood, 
, and mean, and rude ; 
ess of the poor was she ; 
I regarded ner with piety." 
TA« Curte, IL 8.— J. W. W. 



one above another, lliese pots are adorned 
with the leaves of the Margosier, a tree con- 
secrated to her. Fearing her son Farassou- 
rama would no longer adore her, she prayed 
the Deverkels to grant her another child, 
and they gave her Catavareyen ; the Farias 
divide their adoration between his mother 
and him. Mariatale is by many authors 
called the devil Ganga. I'hey sacrifice he- 
goats to her.** 

*^ YiCHBicou resides in the sea of milk, in 
contemplative repose, throned on Addis- 
sechen, or Seja, the thousand-headed ser- 
pent who supports the universe. They 
reckon seven seas : ' 1 , of salt ; 2, of butter ; 
3, of tain, or curdled milk; 4, of calon, the 
liquor drawn from the palm ; 5, of the ser- 
pent; 6, of water; 7, of milk, which they 
call tirouparcadel.** 

** Thb two Rachaders, Ragou and Que- 
dou, were metamorphosed into snakes, one 
red, the other black. They are enemies to 
the Sun and Moon, who prevented them 
from swallowing a portion of the Amortam. 
Eclipses happen when they attack them.** 

'* Devendben, in the figure of a handsome 
man, one day went to find a courtesan, to 
prove if she would be faithful to him. He 
promised her great rewards, and she received 
him well during the whole night. Deven- 
dren counterfeited death, and the courtesan 
was so prepossessed of the truth, that she 
absolutely would be burned with him, though 
they represented to her that he was not her 
husband. As she was going to precipitate 
herself into the flames, Devendren awoke, 
acknowledged the deceit, took her for his 
wife, and carried her into his paradise.** 

** Mammadhv once dared to shoot his ar- 

* In the extract from Kindersley, Poems, 
p. 610, there is some little difference. The 
quotation is to the line, 
** Yea, the seven earths, that, each with its own 
ocean," &c« Mount Calumy, xix. 6. 

J. W. W. 



J 



254 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



rows at Eswara. The god darted flame from 
the eje in his forehead, and consumed him 
to ashes. Afterwards he restored him to 
life.- 

'* AaouNiN, a lame Deverkel, conducts the 
chariot of the sun. The chariot is supported 
at one end bj Mount Merou, the rest is 
sustained by the air. There is only one 
wheel. It is drawn by seven green horses. 
The Yalaguilliers, to the number of 60,000, 
follow the sun in his twelve chambers, ador- 
ing him, and singing his praise. 

**The mountain Merou is composed of 
8,000 small mountains. It is of gold, in the 
middle of the earth. The gods alone can 
go there. With this mountain they churned 
the sea of milk to make the Amortam.**^ 

*'TAKniisoneof thetenBrahmas. Thir- 
teen of his daughters married the Penitent 
Cassiapen. Of these Adidi was mother 
of the Deverkcls ; Singinde, of Ragou and 
Quedou ; Yinde, of Arounin the lame ; Ca- 
trou, of all snakes ; Arite, of twelve lovely 
daughters, the eldest of whom, Arambe, is 
the dancer of the Deverkels.** 



•^^^^^^^^^^^^^A^^kA^^^Wt 



" Thbt believe that we receive from the 
moon a certain vital water which gathereth 
and disposeth itself in the brain, descending 
thence, as from a source, into all the mem- 
bers for their functions.** — Besnisb. 

*' All the Avatars were of a dark-blue 
colour, to mark their celestial descent.** — 
Maurice. 

*' Mata, or, as the word is explained by 
some Hindu scholars, thejirtt inclination of 
the Oodhead to diversify himself (%\xQ\i is their 
phrase), by creating worlds^ is feigned to be 
the mother of universal nature, and of all 
the inferior gods; as a Cashmirian informed 

' Oa " The Amreeta-cap of immortality,'* see 
Notes to " Curse of Kehama,*' Po9m$^ p. 624. 

J. W. W. 



me, when I asked him why Cama^ or Love, 
was represented as her son.** — Sib W. Johbs. 

*' The appropriate seat of Mahadeva (Es- 
wara) was mount Cailisa, every splinter of 
whose rocks was an inestimable gem. His 
terrestrial haunts are the snowy hills of 
Himalaya^ or that branch of them to the 
east of the Brahmapuira,wh.ich has the name 
of Chandrasic^harcL, or the Mountains of the 
Moon.** —Ibid. 

*' There the sun shines not, nor the moon 
and stars. These lightnings flash not in that 
place: how should even fire blaze there f 
Ood irradiates all this bright substance, and 
by its effulgence the universe b enlightened. 
— From the Yqjurveda. Asiat. R. 

This may be finely applied to £swara*8 
glory throne. 

' Hsec ait, et sese radiorum nocte suorum 
Claudit inaccessum.' ** Cojlumbds. 

*' Jambu is the Sanscrit name of a deli- 
cate fruit, called J&man by the Muselmans, 
and by us rose-apple : but the largest tnd 
richest sort is named Amrita, or Immortal; 
and the mythologists of Tibet apply the same 
word to a celestial tree bearing ambrosial 
fruit, and adjoining to four vast rocks, from 
which as many sacred rivers derive their se- 
veral streams.** — ^Ibid. 

It is odd that Sir W. Jones makes no re- 
mark upon this resemblance to the inunor- 
talizing milk, or tree of life. 

** Gabuda, whom Vishnu rides, is often 
painted with the face of a beautiful youth, 
and the body of an imaginary eagle. Uis 
name is better spelt Garura. He is the ra- 
tional eagle.** — Ibid. 

*' Kids are still offered to Cali, the wife 
of Siva, to palliate the cruelty of the slaugh- 
ter which gave such offence to Buddha. The 
Brahmans inculcate a belief that the poor 
victims rise in the heaven of Indra, where 
they become the musicians of his band. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



255 



^ Formerly haman sacrifices were made 
to this goddess, and bulls and horses.** — 
Ibid. 

Capardin, wUh thick hair, is a title of Es- 
wara. 

Thst suppose that the Sphinx, or Singh 
as thej call her, will appear at the end of 
the world so huge, as at the instant of her 
birth to seize on an elephant. This tradi- 
tion was related bj a Pundit to Colonel 
Pearse. Sir W. Jones conceives the sculp- 
ture representing it to be intended for a 
lion, — so Sif^h means, so several Bramins 
told him who had seen it. Yet if the draw- 
ing of the colonel be correct, the female 
breasts are visible. 



^^^•^^S^^^FS^t^^^^^S^^^^^n^ 



Oriental Images. 

^ Hbb eyes appear like moons eclipsed, 
which let /all their gathered nectar, through 
ptin caused by the tooth of the furious dra- 
goQ." — Sotigs of Jayadeva, 

" Spbbad a string of gems on those two 
soft globes ; let the golden bells of thy zone 
tinkle, and proclaim the mild edict of love. 
Say, O damsel, with delicate speech, shall 
I (lye red, with the juice of alactaca, those 
beautiful feet, which will make the full- 
blown land-lotus blush with shame.** — Ibid. 

**Ain> Radha, with timid joy, darting 
ber eyest on Govinda, while she musically 
sounded the rings of her ankles, and the 
bells of her zone, entered the mystic bower 
of her only beloved.*' 

**Hi8 locks, interwoven with blossoms, 
were like a cloud variegated with moon- 
beams.** 

** Place now a fresh circle of musk, black 
u the lunar spots, on the moon of my fore- 
bead, and mix gay flowers on my tresses, 
with a peacock*8 feathers, in graceful order. 



that they may wave like the banners of 
Cama.** 

He applauds another who dances in the 
sportive circle, ** whilst her bracelets ring, as 
she beats time with her palms.** 

" If powder of sandal wood finely levi- 
gated be applied to her breasts, she starts, 
and mistakes it for poison.** — Ibid. 



** I MTSBLF never was not, nor thou, nor 
all the princes of the earth ; nor shall we 
ever hereafler cease to be.*' — Kbeeshna, in 
the Bhagvat Geeta. 

*' As the soul in this mortal frame findcth 
infancy, youth, and old age, so in some fu- 
ture frame will it find the like.** — Ibid. 

" The former state of beings is unknown, 
the middle state b evident, and their future 
state is not to be discovered. Why, then, 
shouldst thou trouble thyself about such 
things as these?** — Ibid. 

'* Let the motive be in the deed, and not 
in the event.** — Ibid. 

" Pebfobm thy duty, abandon all thought 
of the consequence, and make the event 
equal, whether it terminate in good or evil; 
for such an equality is called Yog,** — Ibid. 

" Although thou wert the greatest of all 
offenders, thou shalt be able to cross the 
gulf of sin with the bark of wisdom.** — Ibid. 

** The man who, performing the duties of 
life, and quitting all interest in them, placeth 
them upon Brahm the Supreme, is not taint- 
ed by sin ; but remaineth like the leaf of the 
lotus, unaffected by the waters.*' — Ibid. 

The Yogee of a subdued mind is com- 
pared *^ to a lamp, standing in a place without 
wind, which waveth not.** — Ibid. 



256 IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



^I OLADL.T inspire those who are con- 
stantly employed in my service, with that 
use of reason by which they come unto me ; 
and in compassion I stand in my own na- 
ture, and dissipate the darkness of their ig- 
norance with the light of the hunp of wb- 
dom." — ^Ibid. 

The crop of heads on their deities is 
merely a pdpable metaphor of ** the eternal 
God whose countenance is turned on every 
side." — Ibid. 

** As a single sun illuminateth the whole 
world, even so doth the spirit enlighten every 
body."— Ibid. 

^ There are these three passages to Na- 
rak (the infernal regions), lust, anger, and 
avarice, which are the destroyers of the soul : 
wherefore a man should avoid them; for, 
being freed from these gates of sin, at length 
he goeth the journey of the Most High." — 
Ibid. 



«^^^^^^^^%^^^h^^^^^^^^ 



'* Whence should men out of place have 
wealth, which makes others give way to the 
fangrooms of their horses ? Whence should 
they procure white umbrellas with long 
sticks, horses, elephants, and a troop of at- 
tendants ?" HiTOPADESA. 



W^SMA^^^k^MA^AAA^^^A^ 



** Before the sun had put on his crown 
of rays." — Life of Creeshna, 

" Tht anger was but mercy, which gave 
us an occasion of beholding thy power." — 
Ibid. 



*A^M/«AMAM^MMMM«^V^W^ 



*' Hell, called Temalogu, is a large fiery 
cellar, where there are fiery leeches." — Let' 
tere to the Dan. Mies, 



^VWW^^^^S^^^^A^^^^A^ 



** Thou art pleasanter than sweet Samar- 
cand in her Tallies of jonquils." — Translated 
from the Persian and Arabic by the author 
of Gebir. 



" FciT Vizier NodhamoU Mole unio i 
laris, quern 
Ck>nflavit (Deus) misericors ex nobi 
Apparuit et non agnovere tempora pi 

ejus .• . . . 

Quare ilium illis invidens, in coi 
iterum reposuit." 
Shablo*ddaula. Abul-Phara 

"The Banyans," says Herbert, ' 
that at the last judgment the eun wil 
hie light like purling brimstone'* P. 

" When those two damsels dep 
musk was diffused from their robes, 
eastern gale sheds the scent of clove 
flowers." — AifRiOLKAis. Moallakat 

Sand-hills oflen mentioned. " 
bosom of a vale surrounded with hillo 
spiry sand." — " Let me weep at the w 
brance of our beloved, at the sight 
station where her tent was raised I 
edge of yon bending sands." 

** Her bosom was smooth as a min 
like the pure egg of an ostrich of a y el' 
tint blended with white, and nourishe 
stream of wholesome water not yet distm 
What meaning has this ? 

'* Her long coal-black hair decorat 

' RoDALETN GrORDOK CUMMIKO in \ 
Yeart of a Hunter's Life in the Fur InU 
South Africa f speaks of the ostrich ib 
used for water-vases by the ** bush-gii 
Bakalahari women who belong to the in 
ing Bechuana tribes of the Kalahari desi 
VoL I, p. 113. I do not know wheth* 
can be used in illustration, neither do '. 
what authority is due to the book quote 
rodotus, in the old time, and Bruce, ii 
recent days, told stories equally won 
which have turned out true. One canno 
ever, but lament that Mr. Cumroing's ni 
should be so needlessly blood-stained as 
times— neither is mawkish sentimentaBi 
to be admired.—J. W. W. 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



257 



thick and diflfused like bunches of 
clustering on the palm tree." 

LMQ both as white and as smooth as 
3m of a young palm, or a fresh reed, 
ig over the rivulet.** 

rmiEUD, seest thou the lightning? the 

it gleams like the lamps of a hermit, 

the oil poured on them shakes the 

•J which they are suspended.** — Ibid. 



IB Betele maketh the mouth and lips 
^rmillion colour, and the breath sweet 



easing 



»« 



— ^Bbsmisb. 



well becomes thee, who art soft as 
»h-blown Mallica, to fill with water 
lals which have been dug round these 

shrubs.** — Sacomtala. 

r friend Priyamvada has tied this 
I of bark so closely over my bosom 
gives me pain.** — Ibid. 

IB venerable sage must have an un- 
heart, since he has allotted a mean 
^ment to so lovely a girl, and has 
1 her in a coarse mantle of woven 
-Ibid. 

>w then I deliver to the priests this 
of fresh Cusa grass, to be scattered 
the place of sacrifice.** — Ibid. 



«^^^kMA^^^^^^^tf^%^^WV^^ 



[BBB has been a happy omen. The 
Brahman who ofiiciat^ in our mom* 
Tifice, dropped the clarified butter 
h his sight was impeded by clouds of 
I into the very centre of the adorable 



lOTHBB prest the juice of Lacsha, to 
er feet exquisitely red.** 



" The delighted genii have been collect- 
ing, among the trees of life, those crimson 
and azure dyes, with which the celestial 
damsels tinge their beautiful feet, — and they 
now are writing thy actions in verses wor- 
thy of divine melody.'* — Ibid. 



When S. Roberto reformed the Bene- 
dictines at Molismo, part of the regular 
business of the day was ** cortar folhas de 
palma, & tecer dellas os habitos que tra- 
ziad.** — Brito, Chro, de Osier. 



HoDOBS speaks of peacocks in abun- 
dance, *^ which, sitting on the vast horizon- 
tal branches, and displaying their varied 
plumage to the sun, dazzle the eyes of the 
traveller as he passes.** 



*' A Rbtshbb whose austerities were such 
that he subsisted entirely on the drops of 
milk which fell from the mouths of calves 
in the act of calving.** — Life of Creeshna, 

** Thb two children learned to walk to- 
gether, either round their beds, or by hold- 
ing a calTs tail in their hands.** 

*^ Thus did the Gopias admire him who 
had on a yellow robe, a peacock*s feather 
on his head, a brilliant rosary round his neck, 
and a flute on his lip.* 



1* 



** Thb peacocks on the house-tops were 
rejoicing and singing in the smoke which 
arose from the constant burning of aroma- 
tics in such quantity as to form a cloud that 
resembled the rainy season.** 

'' Oh her sitting down or rising up, the 
Devates became mad with admiration at the 
tinkling that proceeded from the golden 
bells that adorned her feet and ankles.** — 
Ibid. 



i 



25S 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Sonnets. 

Uhlbss strikingly good, immediately for- 
gotten. They please us like the scenery of 
a tame country ; we look with pleasure upon 
a green field, and the light ash that bends 
over its hedges, and the grey alders along 
its clear brook side. But the next copse, 
or the little arch that spans the brook, ef- 
faces the faint impression ; and they in their 
turn yield to the following picture. But 
the woods of the Wye, and the rocks of 
Avon, even these we long remember, and 
years will scarcely blunt the recollection of 
the Tagus, and the heights of Lisbon, and 
the thousand-fold beauties of Cintra. 

Kbtt has well observed the likeness of 
the sonnet to the Greek epigrauL 

Upon amatory poems a general condem- 
nation may be past. It is unfortunate that 
men will write nonsense, as well as talk it, 
to the women, with whom they amuse them- 
selves; this is little honourable to the com- 
mon sense of either sex. Cupid was very 
well in his day, on a cameo or a bas-relief, 
but his bastard descendants are insufferable 
that figure in a song or sonnet on an up- 
holsterer*s shop card, or a hair-dresser^s 
shop sign at a watering-place. 

PBBsoNAii sonnets form a large class ; — 
lords, dukes, kings, queens, and poets have 
had their share. Of these, the most are 
utterly worthless ; some only useful as hints 
to the literary history of the times — like our 
old introductory verses — mementos of who 
and who associated together— of the names 
we know. 



•^^^^M^^'^^^^W\/\/W\/\/Ni#\ 



LUerary Ohservationt. 

At the revival of letters, almost every 
poet was proud of imitating the ancients ; 
the manner and the matter were new to an 
unlearned people, and they produced a bet- 
ter taste. 

CoPTiNQ from obscure writers. If there 



be a gem in the dunghill, it is well to se- 
cure it and set it whcire its brilliancy may 
be seen. More often the rudiments of a 
thought are found — the seed that will only 
vegetate in a good soil, and must be wanned 
by the sun into life and blossom. So in 
this Milton has done — he has quickeneid 
grub ideas into butterfly beauty. 

Tus heroic writers of these countries 
must not be meted by the Epic measure; 
they are as our Drayton and Daniel in their 
plans. Writers that never can be popular 
yet ought not to be despised. The analogy 
indeed of language fails. Ours has been 
the slow -growing oak; theirs of so rapid a 
growth, that it never has exceeded sapling 
strength. This is disadvantageous. A little 
rust would hide the poorness of the medal. 

Poetical ornaments. These are not 
enough. If the groundwork be bad, they 
are like the rich colouring of a dauber*s pic- 
ture, like the jewels that bedizen a clunisy 
church-idol. To lard a good story with 
prettinesses, were like periwigging and pow- 
dering the Apollo Belvidere — and dr^ng 
the Venus of Florence in a hoop. 

Im poetry, as in painting, mediocrity b 
probably attainable by all. In these coun- 
tries the poets resemble missal -painters ;•— 
their colours often rich, their pencilling de- 
licate ; but no knowledge of design or per- 
spective, and often as deformedly incorrect 
in outline as the pictures of the Mexicaiu. 
There are masons enough, but no architect. 
They have raised huge edifices, but faced 
them with a confused mixture of mud and 
marble. 

Devotional poetry usually unsuccess- 
ful, not because the subject is bad, but be- 
cause it has usually been managed by block- 
heads. 

Nabrativb. Milton. Klopstock. Gete- 
ner. Bodmer. G.Fletcher. St.Isidro. Be 
Antony -poems. Vida. Sannazarius. Mariuo. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



259 



Htmhs. Surely no worse a subject than 
old Pagan faith. 

MrsTicAL. The Orientals. Crashaw. St. 
Teresa. 

AU.BGOBT. Ph. Fletcher. John Bunyan 
the Great. Calderon. 

But Poperj has culled the absurdities, 
and magnified them as in a solar microscope. 
The Real Presence, the Immaculat« (Con- 
ception ; without the genius of Quarles, or 
eren Herbert, thej are tenfold more ridi- 
cqIoub. Ledesma. The Nun of Mexico. 

Thb early poets must not be translated. 

Because they are not worth translating. 

Because we haye no language wherein to 
translate them. That of Chaucer is too 
rugged, and almost as difficult Modern 
versification would be like an attempt to 
polish freestone. It would but caricature 
the grossness of old ideas. 



Arf^'^%^^N^^W^^^'^^^%^^^^^NMi^ 



Modem Latin. 



At the reriyal of letters it was fashion- 
able to be a scholar. Latin was more spo- 
ken, and more written, than now. It was 
the q>t8tolary and colloquial language of the 
learned. 

ITie modem languages were scarcely 
formed. There were no conyentional 
phrases of poetry ; no beaten road which 
the imitator might follow. 

The mediocre poets, as in their vema- 
colar works, haye such. Have the better 
ones speculated amiss ? Would Vida Fra- 
castoriiis — aboye all, Flaminius, haye been 
now so generally known, had they written 
in Italian? Could Erasmus haye made 
Datch readable? 

Tet among the modern Latinists is no 
one poet of great and original genius. The 
reason is obyious. 

The Jesuit system had its influence. A 
<^ab composed of all nations conspiring for 
uniyersal rule. A common language was 



necessary ; and it has eyer been the plan 
of priestcraft to keep the people ignorant. 

A writer of original genius must wield 
language at his will. The syntax must bend 
to him. lie must sometimes create — ^who 
else are the makers of language ? 

Much as I shall do, much will remain. 
Many a pleasant bye-path remains, into 
which chance may lead the future trayeller. 
Many a store of hidden treasure is to be 
found among the mouldering libraries. 
Many a conquest yet to be made from the 
worms and spiders. I omit no labour ; but 
the traveller of most anxious curiosity wants 
a guide. I am not parsimonious ; but there 
are bounds which independence must not 
pass. Grod has giyen me abundant talents, 
which haye not been buried ; but from so- 
ciety I haye not received capital enough to 
produce interest. 



[^Spanish Bombast,'] 

" Tu auras les conceptions grandes et 
hautes, et non monstrueuses ny quintes- 
sencieuses comme sont celles des Espag- 
nols. n faudroit a un Apollon pour les 
interpreter, encor il y seroit bien empesch^ 
ayec tons ses oracles et Trepieds.** — Ron- 
SABD. Pre/, to the Franciade, p. 25 



VN/\/WW«MA/SM<'WWWV>ff 



[Outcast.'] 

Is our word outcast in any way traceable 
to Hindostan ? 



[Gothic GeiuusJ] 

Gothic genius improved every fiction 
which it adopted. Like torch-light in a 
cathedral, its strong lights and shades made 
every thing terrible, and as it were living. 
See now the Seven Sleepers. 

" In the weste syde of Germania is a 
people called Scribonius, that hath snowe 
all the somer tyme, and eteth rawe flesshe, 
and ben clothed in ghoot buck skynnes. 
In thoyr countrees whan the nyght is short 



260 



roEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



men may see all the nyght the sonne hemes. 
And after, in the winter, whan the daje is 
short, tho men se the lyghte of the sonne, 
yet the sonne is not seen. Item, faste be- 
syde that people, under the clyflfof Occean, 
is a denne under an hyghe stone. Therin 
slepen seven men, and have long slept, and 
ben hole and sounde in bodye and clothynge 
and all withouten wemme,^ for whiche cause 
the comyn people have them in grete wor- 
shyp and reverence. They are supposed 
Romayns by theyr clothynge. There was 
a man somtyme that for covetyse wolde 
strype one of them, and have his clothyng, 
but forwith his arme waxed all drye. It 
may be that God lyste to kepe them so hole 
and sounde, for mysbyleved men, in tyme 
to com3mge, sholde thrughe them be con- 
verted and tourned to good byleve." — Polt/- 
cronicoriy vol. i. p. 26. 



^^k^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^,^ 



[Similyy — Metaphor^ — Machinery^ ^.] 

'' As simily is dilated metaphor, so ma- 
chinery is dilated personification.** The 
Sailor at San Miguels. Milton has not 
used machinery — for the supernatural pow- 
ers are the characters of his poems, the 
agents themselves, not the wire-workers. 

{Int>entory of Orijalva's Treasure.^ 

" In the inventorie of the treasure that 
Grijalva brought from his wars, are 

" A whole harness of furniture for an 
armed man, of gold thlnne beaten. 

"Another whole armour of wood, with 
leaves of golde, garnished with little black 
stones. 

" Four pieces of armour of wood, made 
for the knees, and covered with golden leafe. 

" The armour wherewith the Indians of 
Tabasco defend themselves are targets and 

* FoRBT, in his Vocabulary of East Anglia, 
explains it,—'* A small fretted place in a jgar- 
mont." It is pure Anglo-Saxon. See " Bos- 
worth," in V. " Worn — to<fm — loam." 

J. W. W. 



8kulle8,made of woodeor barke of trees, and 
some of gold very thinne. 

" In the inventory of presents reserved 
for the K. of Spaine : 

" A helmet of woode, champed with golde, 
and besette with stones, and at the bevier 
five-and-twentie belles of golde, and upon 
the toppe a greene birde, with his eyes, 
beake, and feete of golde. 

"A sallet^ of flaunches of golde, and belles 
rounde aboute it, decked with golde. 

** A targatte of woode covered with leather, 
beset round about with belles of Latton, and 
the bossc in the midst was planched with 
gold, and there was engraved upon the same 
' Vitsilopuchtli, god of the warres,* and also 
foure heades set crosswise, whiche heades 
were of a lion, a tigre, an eagle, and an owie, 
very lively made with feathers.** 



A^k^h/N^^^V^^^^^^^^tf^^/V^^V 



[St. Peter, the Sailor's Patron,} 

" And beyng at sea, Cortes willed all his 
navie, as the use is, to have S. Peter for their 
patrone, warning them alwayes to follow the 
admirall, wherein he went, bycause he car- 
ried light for the night season to guide 
them the way.** 

ILong Hair of the Indians.'] 
" Ordinarily the Indians wear long hair, 

and on their solemne feastes and in wars 

they use their hair platted and bound about 

their forheads. 

" The heare of their heades platted and 

bound aboute their foreheads, like unto 

women.** 



[Censering of CortezJ] 
** Teudilli, according to their usance, did 
his reverence to the captains, burning frank- 
incense and little strawes touched in bloud 
of his own bodie. And at Chiauiztlan, the 

* i.e. Acasaue or head-piece. See Nabks' 
Gloss, in V. ana Menage sub v. Salade. 

J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



261 



»ke a little chafjngdishe in his hande 
si into it a certAine gume, whyche sa- 
1 in sweete smel much like unto fran- 
ise, and with asencerhe smoked Cortez 
be ceremonye they use in theyr salu- 
I to theyr gods and nobilitie.** 



Kings' Presents, 

[ant skinnes of beast and foule, cor- 
ind dressed in their feathers and in 

wenty-four targets of gold feathers, 
it with pearl, both curious and gallant 
hold. Five targets of feathers and 



HB woodde whereof they make their 
IT and targettes is verye hard and 
I, for they use to toast it at the fire.** 

o send a shield and an arrow was the 
of defiance.** — Tobqubm, vol. 1, p. 128. 
he temple and palace courts so polished, 
hey actually shone like burnbhed gold 
ver in the son.** — Ibid, p. 251. 



[ Writers of Comedy."] 

iTaiTBES of comedy are very apt to 
J and overstrain, in complacency to the 
lent of their audience, of whom the 
est part could not find out the jest, if 
! within nature. They must under- 
delicacy, and the just bounds of wit, 
ish natural beauties ; but they can see 
*st of a mufi* as big as a barrel, of a 
:irk* as large as a towel, and if thoughts 
retched in proportion, they will mis- 
the extravagance for humour, or wit, 
th ; and the writer acquires the re- 
Ion of an excellent poet.** — Ou>- 
r. 



A muslin neckcloth carelessly put on, 
'he manner in which the French officers 
Jieir cravats when they returned from the 
of Sieenkirk."— Gross's Diet, of tht Vul- 
mgue, in v. — J. W. W. 



From ViujsGAS. 

" Emouoh, enough, old Winter ! 
Thou workest to annoy us 
With cold, and rain, and tempest 
When snows have hid the country. 
And rivers cease to flow. 
The flocks and herds accuse thee. 
And even the little ermine 
Complains of thee, old Winter I 
For thou to man art freezing. 
And his white fur is warm. 
The beasts they crouch in cover. 
The birds are cold and hungry, 
The birds are cold and silent. 
Or, with a weak complaining. 
They call thee hard, old Winter ! 
But not to one, old Winter ! 
Thy tyranny extends ; 
For I have wine and music, 
The cheerful hearth and song.** 

March 3rd, Prospect Place, 1797. 



Xartfa and Fatima. 

La maiiana de San Juan, 
Al punto que alboreava. 
Gran fiesta hazen los Moros 
For la Vega de Granada : 
Rebolvienda sus cavallos 
Jugando van de las lan^as, 
Ricos pendones en ellas 
Labrados por sus amadas ; 
Ricas aljubas vestidas 
De oro y seda labradas ; 
El Moro que amores tiene 
Alii bien se senalava ; 
Y el Moro que no los tiene 
For tenerlos trabajava. 
Mirando las damas Moras 
De las torres del Alhambro, 
Entre las quales avia 
Dos de amor muy lastimadas 
La una llaman Xarifa, 
La otra Fatima se llama. 
Solian ser muy amigas 
Aunque agora no se hablan ; 
Xarifa Uena de cclos 
A Fatima le hablava, 



! 



J 



262 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Haj Fatima hermans mia 
Como estas de amor tocada ! 
Solias tener color ; 
Veo que agora te falta. 
Solias tratar amores 
Agora estas de callada. 
Fero si los quieres yer 
Asomate a essa'yentana, 
T veras a Abindarraez 

Y su gentileza y gala. 
Fatima como discreta 
Desta manera se habla, 
No estoj tocada de amores 
Ny en mi vida los tratara ; 
Si se perdio mi color 
Tengo dello justa causa, 
For la muerte de mi padre 
Que Malique Alabez matara. 

Y si amores jo quisiera 
Esta hermana confiada 
Que alii veo cavalleros 
En aquella Vega Uana 

De quien pudiera servir me, 

Y ddlos ser muy amada 
De tanto valor 7 esfuen^o 
Como Abindarraez alabas. 
Con esto las damas Moras 
Fusieron fin a su habla. 

Translation. 

On the morning of St. Juan, 
When the sun was in the east, 

In the plain before Granada, 
Did the Moors begin their feast. 

Now thej spur their stately coursers, 
Now their banners they unfold. 

By their favourite ladies* labours 
All adom*d with silk and gold. 

He who has obtained a mistress 
Seeks applause before her eyes. 

And the youth who is without one 
Now to gain a mistress tries. 

From the towers of the Alhambra 
Many a lady saw the sport ; 

Two were there by Love subjected. 
Maidens of the Moorish court. 

Fatima and fair Xarifa, 
They were ardent friends before. 



Now they shunnM each other's conv 
For they now were friends no moi 

To her comrade spake Xarifa — 
Jealous thoughts were in her brei 

*^ Fatima ! ah my poor sister. 
How art thou by Love possessed ! 

*' Once your cheeks were fresh and bio 
Pale and sickly is your brow — 

Once in love -tales you delighted — 
You of love are silent now. 

*« Would you therefore see the past) 
Draw towards this window near, 

You may see Abindarraez 
And his gallant carriage here.** 

Fatima, for she was prudent, 
Thus the jealous maid address'd- 

*' Love-tales I have never heeded, 
Nor am I by love po8ses8*d. 

*' If my cheeks have lost their coloi 
I have cause enough for pain 

For the slaughter of my father, 
Who by Alabez was slun. 

" And of this be sure, my sister. 
If my heart were tum*d to love. 

Many cavaliers are yonder, 
AVho are mine if I approve. 

** Gallant as Abindarraez, 
He whose merits you allow.** 

So the Moorish maiden answer*d. 
And they ceased their converse n 



^»/S»»^<^^»<<^^^».^>»MVMW»» 



Xd gran Perdida de Alhama, 

*' Y POB alegrarse un dia, se p; 
(el Rey Chico) con otros principales 
leros por la ciudad, por dar alivi( 
penas, rodeando de sus Zegris y Go 
le vino una triste nueva, como era 
Alhama por los Christianos. Con 
embaxada, el Rey Chico ayna pen, 
sesoj como aquel que quedava hered 
Reyno. Y tanto dolor sintio, que i 
sagero que la nueva le traxo le man 
tar, y descavalgando de unamula en 
yva passeando, pidio un cavallo, en 
subio y muy apriessa se fue al Alfa 



[DBAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITIOX. 



263 



1 gran perdida de Alhama. Y 
Alhambra, mando tocar sua trom- 
pierra 7 emafiles, para que con 
! juntasse la gente de guerra j 
80Corro de Alhama. La gcnte 
toda se junta, al son bi^licoso que 
as trompetas. Y preguntandole 
e para que los mandava juntar, 
enal de guerra, el respondio que 
. socorro de Albama que avian 
I Christianos. Entonces un Al- 
I le dixo. * For cierto, Rey que 
3a muj bien toda su desrentura, 
dldoa Alhama, y merecias perder 
ejno, pues mataste a los nobles 
Abencerrages, 7 a los que que- 
08 mandaste desterrar de tu 
r loqual se tomaron Christianos, 
smos agora te hazen la guerra ; 
los Zegris que eran de Cordova, 
iado dellos. Pues agora y^ al 
i Alhama, y di a los Zegris que 
;an en semejante desventura que 
esta embaxada que al Rey Chico 
la perdida de Alhama, 7 por lo 
loro yiejo Alfaqui le dixo repre- 
o por la muerte de los Abencer- 
ixo aqual Romance antiguo tan 
Bure el Re7, que dize en Arabigo 
ance mu7 dolorosamente, desta 



ivase el Re7 Moro 
iudad de Granada, 
IS puertas de Elvira ^ 
s de Bivarambla, 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 

le fueron venidas 
lama era ganada, 
as echo en el fuego, 
nsagero matara. 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 

^er will find this translation, and 
Alcayde" in the notes to the Chroni' 
Id. Bat, as that work has become 
IS the translations there ^ary some* 

these original draughts, I have 
ight to print them here. See Chro- 

371.-J.W. W. 



** Descavalga de una mula 

Y en un cavallo cavalga, 
Por el Zacatin arriba 
Subidi se avia al Alhambre. 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 

" Como en el Alhambre estuvo, 
Al mismo punto mandava 
Que se toquen sus trompetas 
Los anafiles de plata. 

Ay de mi Alhama I 

** Y que las caxas de guerra 
A priessa toquen al arma, 
Porque lo oygan sus Moriscos 
Los de la Vega y Granada — 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 

" Los Moros que el son oyeron 
Que el sangriento Marte llama, 
Uno a uno y dos a dos 
Juntado se ha gran batalla. 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 

" Alli hablo un Moro viejo, 
Desta manera hablava : 
Para que nos llamas Rey, 
Para que es este llamada ? * 

Ay de mi Alhama t 

'* Aveys de saber amigos 
Una nueva desdichada. 
Que Christianos con braveza 
Ya nos ban fanado a Alhama. 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 

** Alli hablo un Alfaqui 
De barba crecida y cana ; 
Bien se te emplea buen Rey 
Buen Rey bien se te emplea. 

Ay de mi Alhama I 

^* Mataste los Bencerrages 
Que era la flor de Granada. 
Cogiste los Tomadizos 
De Cordova la nombrada. 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 

" Por esso mereces Rey 
Una pena bien doblada — 
Que te pierdas tu y el Reyno 

Y que se pierda Granada. 

Ay de mi Alhama ! 



f 



264 IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Translation, 

Through the city of Granada 
Swift the Moorish monarch hastened, 
From the portals of Elvira 
To the gate of Bivarambla. 

Ah ! alas Alhama ! 

He had letters that Alhama 
Had been taken by the Christians ; 
In the fire he threw the letters, 
And he cut the bearer's head off. 

Ah! alas Alhama! 

Quick he from his mule dismounted, 
Quick the monarch leapt on horseback ; 
Through the Zacatin he hasten'd, 
Hastened eager to the palace. 

Ah ! alas Alhama ! 

Soon as he was in the palace. 
At the instant he commanded 
That the trumpets should be sounded 
And the clarions of silver. 

Ah ! alas Alhama ! 

And he bade the drums of battle 
Beat to arms their loud alarums. 
That the Moors might hear the summons 
0*er the plain and through the city. 

Ah ! alas Alhama ! 

The Moors who heard the loud alarums 
Hastened where the monarch summoned. 
One by one and two by two, 
They have formed a huge battalion. 

Ah ! alas Alhama ! 

Then an aged Moor address'd him — 
Thus did he address the Monarch — 
" Wherefore, Monarch ! hast thou call'd us, 
Wherefore is this lamentation ?** 

Ah! alas Alhama. 

*^ Friends, you have to learn the tidings. 
Evil tidings of misfortune. 
For the Christians have surprized us. 
They have won from us Alhama." 

Ah ! alas Alhama ! 

" Then," exclaim'd an old Alfaqui, 
One whose beard was long and hoary, 
" You have acted well, good Monarch, 
Good Monarch, you have acted well. 

Ah ! alas Alhama ! 



" You have kill'd the Bencerrages, 
The strength and glory of Granada. 
You have foster'd here the strangers. 
Runaways from their Cordova. 

Ah I alas Alhama ! 

" Therefore, King, thou hast deserved this, 
Ay, and sorrows doubled on thee ; 
Hast deserved to lose Granada, 
And to perish with thy kingdom." 

Ah ! alas Alhama I 
May 6, 1798. 



^^^/NyV^^^V^^^^A^ii/^^^^^^ 



La Perdida de Alhama, 

" EsTB Romance se hizo en Aravigo cd 
aquella occasion de la perdida de Alhama ; 
el qual era en aquella lengua muy doloroso 
y triste, tanto que vino a vedarMe en Gra- 
nada, que no se cantasse,^ porque cada vez 
que lo cantavan en qualquiera parte pro- 
vocava a Uanto y dolor, aunque despues se 
canto otro en lengua Casteliana de lamijme 
materiii que dezia. 

'* Fob la ciudad de Granada 
El Rey Moro se passea, 
Desde la puerta de Elvira 
lUegava a la plaza nueva. 
Cartas le fueron venidas 
Que le dan muy mala nueva, 
Que era ganada el Alhama, 
Can batalla y gran pelea. 
El Rey con aquestas cartas 
Grande enojo recibiera, 
Al Moro qui se las traxo 
Mando cortar la cabeza ; 
Las cartas pedazos hizo. 
Con la Sana que le ciega, 
Descavalga de una mula 
Y cavalga en una yfgvn. 
For la calle del Zacatin 



' The same prohibition was made agaioKt the 
" Ran*-de* VacneSj cet air si cheri des Suiztses 
Qu'il fut defcndu, sous peine de mort, de le jouer 
oans leura troupes, parce qu'il fieut fSondre en 
larmes, deserter ou mourir ceux qui Penten* 
daient, tant il excitait en eux I'ardent desir de 
revoir leur pays."— Roosseau, Dietionnain <U 
Muxique, v. Musique, — J, W. W, 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



265 



Al Albambra se subiera. 
Trompetas mando tocar 

Y las cazas de pelea : 
Porque lo ojeran los Moros 
De Granada y de la Vega ; 
Uno a uno j dos a dos, 
Gran esquadron se hiziera. 
Quando los tuoiera juntos, 
Un Moro alii le dixera ; 

* Para que nos llamas Rej 
Con trompa j caxa de guerra ? * 

* Avrejs de saber mis Moros, 
Que tengo una mala nueya, 
Que la mi Cuidad de Alhama 
Ya del Rej Fernando era. 
LfOs Christianos la ganaron 
Con muy crecida pelea.* 
Alii hablo un Alfaqui 
Desta suerte le dixera 

' Bien se te emplea buen Rej — 
Buen Rey muy bien se te emplea- 
Mataste los Bencerrages 
Que era la flor desta tierra, 
Acogiste los Tomadizos 
Que de Cordova yinieran 

Y ansi mereces buen Rey 
Que todo el Reyno se pierda 

Y que se pierda Granada 

Y que te pierdas en ella.'" 



^^^^N^S/^^^^M^^A^^AAM^^ 



Moro Alcayde^ Moro Alcayde, Sfc. 

** Moao Alcayde, Moro Alcayde, 
£1 de la yellida barba, 
£1 Rey te manda prender 
Por la prendida de Alhama, 

Y cortorte la cabeza 

Y ponerla en el Albambra. 
Porque a ti castigo sea 

Y otros tiemblen en miralla ; 
Pues perdiste la tenencia 
De una ciudad tan preciada. 
£1 Alcayde respondia 
Desta manera les habla ; 
Cayalleros y hombres buenos 
Los que regis a Ghranada, 
Dezid de mi parte al Rey 
Como no le deyo nada. 



Yo me estava en Antequera, 
£n las bodas de mi hermana ; 
(Mai fuego queme las bodas 

Y quien a eUas me llamava !) 
£1 Rey me dio la licencia, 
Que yo no me la tomaya. 
Pedilla por quinze dias 
Diomela por tres semanas : 
De averse Alhama perdido 

A mi me pesa en el alma ; 
Que si el Rey perdio su tierra 
Yo perdi mi honra y fama. 
Perdi hijos y muger 
Las cosas que mas amava. 
Perdi una hija donzella 
Que era la flor de Granada. 
£1 que la tiene cautiva 
Marquez de Caliz se llama : 
Cien doblas le doy por ella, 
No me las estima en nada. 
La respuesta que me han dado 
Es, que mi hija es Christiana, 

Y por nombre le avian puesta 
Dona Maria de Alhama. 

£1 nombre que ella tenia 
Mora Fatima se llama. 
Diziendo assi el buen Alcayde, 
Lo Uevaron a Granada, 

Y siendo pucsto ante el Rey 
La sentencia le fue dada 
Que le corten la cabeza 

Y la lleven al Albambra. 
Executose la justicia 

Ansi como el Rey lo manda. 

Translation, 

^* MooB Alcayde, Moor Alcayde, 
With the long and flowing beard. 
The King has sent us to arrest thee 
For the capture of Alhama. 
He has bade us cut thy head ofl*, 
And expose it on the palace, 
That others may behold and fear." 
Then the old Aicayde answered. 
Thus in answer did he say, 
** Cavaliers and gentle Moslem, 
Honourable of Granada ! 
Tell the King for me, I pray you, 
I have not deserved to die. 



266 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



I was gone to Aotequera, 
To the marriage of my liater, 
(Pestilence upon the marriage, 
And on those who ask*d me there !) 
I had license from the Monarch, 
License more than I had taken ; 
I for fifteen days petitioned, 
He allowed me twenty-one. 
And indeed my soul is sorry 
For the capture of Alhama, 
If the King has lost his city, 
I have lost my fame and honour, 
I have lost my wife and children. 
All that I on earth loved best. 
I have lost a damsel daughter. 
Once the flower of Moorish maids ; 
To the Count of Calis for ransom 
I a hundred doblas offered. 
But the answer he retum*d me 
Was that she was tum*d a Christian. 
And the name that they had given her 
Donna Maria de Alhama. 
This the name of my dear daughter, 
Fatima, the Moorish maid I ** 
Thus ezclaimM the good AJcayde. 
Then they took him to Granada, 
And they brought him to the King ; 
Sentence then was past upon him, 
Instantly to cut his head off* 
And expose it on the palace. 
Sentence was performed upon him. 
As the monarch had decreed. 

Sale la EstreUa de Venus^ ffc, 

" Salb la Estrella de Venus 
Al tiempo que el sol se pone 
Y el enemiga del dia 
Su negro manto descoge. 

" Y con ello un fuerte Moro 
Semcjante a Rodamonte 
Sale de Sydonia ayrado 
De Xeres la vega corte. 

'* Por do entra Guadalete 
Al mar de Espana, y por donde 
De santa Maria el Puerto 
Recibe faraoso nombre. 



" Desesperado camina, 
Que aunque es de linage noble 
Lo deza su Dama ingrata 
Porque se snena que es pobre. 

^ Y aquella noche se casa 
Con un Moro feo y torpe 
Porque fue Alcaydc en SevOla 
Del Alcazar y le Torre. 

** Quexavase gravamente 
De un agravio tan inorme, 

Y a sus palabras la vega 
Con el Eco le responde. 

" Zayda dize mas ayrada 

Que el mar que las naves sorbe, 

Mas dura e inexorable 

Que las entranas de on monte. 

'* Como permites cruel 
Despues de tantos favores. 
Que de prendas que son mias 
Agena mano se adome ? 

*^ Es possible que te abraces 
A las cortezas de un roble 

Y dexes al arbor tuyo 
Desnudo de fruto y flores ? 

'* Dexaste un pobre muy rico 

Y un rico muy pobre escoges 

Y las riquezas del cuerpo 
A las del alma antepones ? 

^ Dexas al noble Gasul, 
Dexas seys ailos de amores, 

Y das la mano a Albenzayde 
Que a penas no le conoces ? 

[Here the division into stanzas endi 

*^ Alha permita enemiga 
Que te aborrezca y le adores, 
Que por celos lo sospires 

Y por ausencia le llorcs. 

Y en la cama lo afastidies 

Y que a la mesa le enojes, 

Y que de noche no duermas 

Y de dia no reposes, 

Ni en las Zambras ni las fiestas 
No se vista tus colores, 
Ni el almayzal que le labres 
Ni la manga que le hordes, 

Y sc ponga el de su amiga 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



267 



Con U cifra de ra nombre 
T para verle en las canas 
No conaienia que te assomes, 
A la poerta ni yentana 
Para que mas te alborotes 

Y si le has de aborrecer 
Que largos anos le gozes, 

Y si mucho le quisieres 

De yerle muerto te assombres 
Que es la major maldicion 
Que te pueden dar los hombres. 

Y pl^a Alba que suceda 
Quando la mano le tomes. 
Con esto llego a Xerez 

A la mitad de la noche, 
Hallo el palacio cubierto 
De luminarias y Yozes. 

Y los Moros fronterizos 
Que por todas partes corren 
Con mil hachas encendidas 
Con las libreas conformes. 
Delante del dcsposado 

En los estribos se pone, 
Que tambien anda a cavallo ; 
Por honra de aquella noche : 
Arrojado le ha una lan9a 
De parte a parte passole. 
Alborotose la pla^a, 
Desnudo el Moro su estoque 

Y por in medio de todos 
Para Medina bolviose. 



v* '^^sAM4^/^/wv«/^/s/^/w\/^^«« 



Par la plaqa de San Lucar, Sfc. 

Por la pla^a de San Lucar 
Galan passeando vicne 
£1 animoso Gaztd 
De bianco morado 7 verde : 
Quierese partir gallardo 
A jugar canas a Gelues 
Que haze fiestas su Alcalde 
Por las pazes de los Rejes. 
Adora un Abencerraga 
Reliquia de los valientes 
Que mataron en Granada 
Los Zegries 7 Gomeles. 
Por despedirse 7 hablalle 
Buclve 7 rebueive mil vezes, 



Penetrando con los ojos 
Las venturosas paredes. 
Al cabo de una hora de anos 
De esperan^as impaciente 
Viola salir a un balcon 
Iliziendo loa anoe brevea. 
Arremetio su cavallo 
Viendo aquel sol que amanece, 
Hiziendo que se arrodille 

Y el suelo en su nombre bese. 
Con Yoz turbada le dize. 

No es possible sucederme 
Coea triste en esta ausencia 
Viendo assi tu vista alegre. 
Alia me llevan sin alma 
Obligacion 7 parientes 
Bolverame mi cu7dado 
Por ver si de me le tienes 
Dkme una empresa en memoria, 

Y no para que me acuerde 
Sino para que me adome 
Guarde, acompane, 7 esfuercc. 
Celosa esta Lindaraxa 

Que de celos grandes muere 
De Za7da la de Xeres 
Porque su Gazul la quiere, 

Y de esto la han informado 
Que por ella ardiendo muere : 

Y assi a Gazul le respondc, 
Si en la guerra te sucede 
Como mi pecho dessea 

Y el tu7o falso merece. 
No bolveras a San Lucar 
Tan ufano como sueles 

A los ojos que te adoran, 
Ya los que mas te aborrecen. 

Y plegue a Alha que en las canas 
Los enemigos que tienes 

Te tiren secretas lanQas, 
Porque mueras como micntes, 

Y que tra7gan fuertes jacos 
Debaxo los Alquiceles 
Porque si quieres vengarte 
Acabes 7 no te vengues. 
Tus amigos no te a7uden, 
Tus contrarios te atropellen, 

Y que en hombros dellos saigas 
Quando a servir Damas entres. 

Y que en lugor de llorarte 



268 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Las que enganas 7 entretienes 
Con maldiciones te ajuden, 

Y de tu maerte se huelguen. 
Piensa Gazul que se burla, 
Que es proprio del inocente, 

Y al^andose en los estribos 
Tomarle la mano quiere. 
Miente le dize Senora 

El Moro que me rebuelre, 
A quien estas maldiciones 
Le vengan porque me venguen. 
Mi alma aborrece Zayda 
De que la amo se arrepiente, 
Malditos sean los anos 
Que la servi por mi suerte. 
Dexome a mi por un Moro 
Mas rico de pobres bienes : 
Esto que oye Lindaraxa 
Aqui la paciencia pierde. 
A este punto passo un page 
Con sus cayallos ginetes,^ 
Que los llcvaya gallardos 
De plumas y de jaezes, 
La Ian9a con que ha de entrar 
La toma, y fuerte arremete 
Haziendola mil pedai^os 
Contra las mismas paredes. 

Y manda que sus cavallos 
Jaezes y plumas truequen, 
Los verdes truequen leonados 
Pura entrar leonado en Grelues. 

m 

From LuFEECio Leonardo. 

The sun has chased away the early shower, 
And on the misty mountains* clearer height 
Pours o*er the clouds atilant his growing 
light. 
The husbandman, loathing the idle hour, 
Starts from his rest, and to his daily toil 
Light-hearted man goes forth, and pa- 
tient now 
As the slow ox drags on the heavy plough, 
With the young harvest fills the reeking 
soil. 



' See Third Series, p. 538. Our word " Jen' 
«et."— J. W. W. 



Domestic love his due return awaits 
With the clean board bespread with coun- 
try care. 
And clust*ring round his knee his children 

play. 
His days are pleasant and his nights secure. 
Oh, cities ! haunt of power and wretch- 
edness. 
Who would your busy vanities endure !** 

June l^h, 1797, at W. Millers, 
Christ Church. 

BAETdLOME LeONAJUK). 

Extract /ram an Epistle. 

^^ Ever as the river swifl and silent flows 
Towards the ocean, I am borne adown 
llie quiet tide of time. Nought now remams 
Of earlier years ; and for the years to come, 
Their dark and undiscoverable deeds 
Elude the mortal eye. Beholding thus 
How daily life wains on, so may I learn 
Not with an unprovided mind to meet 
That hour when death shall gather up the 

old 
And withered plant, whose season is gone by. 
The spring flowers fade, the autumnal fruits 

decay, 
And grey old Winter, with his clouds snd 

storms. 
Comes on : the leaves, whose calm, cool 

murmuring 
Made pleasant music to our green-wood 

walks, 
Now rustle dry beneath our sinking feet 
So all things rise and perish ; we the while 
Do with a dull and profitless eye behold 
All this, and think not of our latter end. 
My friend I we will not let that soil, which oft 
Impr^nate with the rains and dews of 

Heaven, 
Is barren still and stubborn to the plough, 
Emblem our thankless hearts, nor of our 

God 
Forgetful, be as is the worthless vine 
That in due season brings not forth its fruit 
Thinkest thou that God created num alone 
'i'o wander o*er the world and ocean waste, 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



269 



he blasting thunderbolt of war ? 

s his being's end ? Oh, how he errs 

his godlike nature and his God 

orly, basely, blasphemously deems ! 

ler actions and for nobler ends, 

ter part, the deathless and divine, 

ade. The fire that animates my 

ast 

t be quenched. And when that 

ast is cold 

jctinguishable fire shall burst 

ighter splendour. Till that hour 

ive, 

t to my better part, my Friend, 

f lot to live, and thro* the world 

of human praise, pass quietly, 
tern Despot, he whose silver towers 
sk an emulous splendour to the sun, 
too poor for Sin*8 extravagance, 
toe, like the air and light of Heaven, 
ccessible, at every heart 

admittance. Wretched fool is he, 
t)* the perils of the earth and waves 

for gold I a little peaceful home 
all my wants and wbhes, add to this 
: and friend — ^and this is happiness.*' 

L4^ Christ Church. 



WdiUa y el CabaUo. — Tbtabte. 

[ntANDO estaba una Ardilla 
n generoso Alazan, 
i docil k espuela y rienda 
idestraba en galopar. 

iendole hacer movimientos 
1 velocea, y a compas, 
1 mui poca cortedad 
aquesta suerte le dixo ; 

Senor mio 
^e ese brio, 
rigereza 
' destreza. 
To me espanto ; 
tue otro tanto 
lo hacer, y acaso mas. 

Yo sol viva 
oi activa ; 



Me meiico, 
Me paseo, 
Yo trabajo 
Subo y baxo ; 
No me estoi quieta jamas. 

" El paso detiene entonces 
El buen Potro, y mui formal. 
En los terminos siguientes 
Respuesta a la Ardilla da : 

** Tantas Idas, 

Y venidas, 
Tantas vueltas 

Y revneltas, 
(Quiero amiga 
Que me diga) 

Son de alguna utilidad ? 

** Yo me afano ; 
Mas no en vano. 
S^ mi oficio ; 

Y en servicio 
De mi Dueno 
Tengo empeno, 

De lucir mi habilidad. 

" Con que algunes escritorcs 
Ardillas tambien seren. 
Si en obras frivolas gastan 
Todo el calor natural.** 



TrarukUion, 

A SQUiRBEL sat and eyed a horse. 
Who answering to the rein, 

Stept stately, or with rapid course 
Went thundering o*er the plain. 

The squirrel marked his varied pace. 
His docile strength and speed. 

Then, with a pert conceited face. 
He thus adcbress'd the steed. 

" Your swiftness, and form. 
Your grace, Mr. Horse, 
And your state that I see, 
Astonish not me, 
Because I can equal your best. 

** So active am I, 
I can run, I can fly. 



1 



i 



270 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Aboye and below, 
Here and there I can go, 
All action, and never at rest.** 

The horse, who heard the strange address, 

Look*d scornfully aside, 
Then paused, and listen*d to his speech. 

And gravely thus replied : 

" Your vaultings in air. 
Your bounds here and there, 
I pray you, my friend, 
In what do they end, 
The use of all this let me know ? 

" It is not in vain 
That I move o*er the plain, 
I speed to fulfil 
My govemor*s will, 
And in this my ability show.** 

Some certain writers, squirrel-like. 

The steed*8 advice may fit, 
Who, when by Nature gifted well, 

In trifles waste their wit. 



WWV>/\/\/W>/>^/WN^^^^» 



ISea' Captain* 8 Exclamation.'] 

" I, Anthony James Pye MoUoy, 
Can make, break, disrate, and destroy.** 

This was the usual exclamation of this gal- 
lant captain of the '* Caesar,** as he walked 
the deck. 



[iSirc and Baron.] 

** These ancient barons afiected rather 
to be stiled by the name of Sire than Ba- 
ron, as Le Sire de Montmorencie, Le Sire 
de Beauvin, and the like. And the Baron 
cf Coney carried, to that purpose, this rithme 
in his device, 

* Je ne suis Roy ne Prince aussi 
Je suis le Sire de Coney.* '* 

Selden. 



^^^^^^v^^^/^^^^^^M^^^^^fX 



Ridiculous appearance of the names in 
V. Varanius : — Pipinius heros. Talebotus. 
Ilongrefibrtus. Scallus. 



** Nec cuiquam Bethfortiadum de ] 

pepercit. 
Tum Talebotream loquitur Sufibrt 



aurem. 



^WS^^^^^^^^V^^-'^^^^WVN^ 



{^Richard Beauchampf Earl of Warm 

** It was Richard Beauchamp, Eai 
Warwick, whom Dunois defeated, boi 
1380. * Whether we consider him as f 
dier or statesman,* says Fenn, ^ he wai 
of the most considerable personages o 
time. In 1 408 he visited the Holy Sepn 
at Jerusalem, and on his journey tb 
acquitted himself with the greatest v 
at tournaments, and other acts of valo 
the courts of several princes.* ** 

Extracts. 

** Em quern se unis por natureza 
Com a niur severidade a mdr brandur 

Ultssi 



««/S/V^»/W/V/V»/N^«ry\^<%/V<S<N<» 



** SiLENcio y soledad, ministros pur 
De alta contemplacion, tened el velc 
A profanos sentidos inferiores.** 

B. Leonak 



^^^^^^s^^^^^^^^ww^v^w^* 



Lance heads gilt. '^ Outro Ihe 1 
huma facha d*armas com o ferro dou 
— Palmeirim. 

^ E FORQUE nestes encontros qoe 
tres lan^as, que trazia, o quinto se di 
esperando Ihe viesse outra. Albayii 
mandon dar d*algumas, que tcnha pel 
pessoa, porque as vezes justava, e era ; 
e o ferro dourado.** — Ibid. 



The sound of the drum called l| 
French Palalalalan. — Pasquieb. 

Fuller observes, that *^ though ' 
be the best sauce for victoric, yet nj 
not be more than the meat.** 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



271 



JO vivo vixit, quo pereiinte perit." 

JOANMIS AUBATI. 



^0^90^^^^>^^^^^^^^^^S^^^>^ 



** Such a stream 
old have lulled the traveller to sleep, 
at its beauties,** &c. 

SlDMET. P. 68. 



lUDO el rayo de la ardiente espada.** 

Lop£ DB Vega. 

tared the lightning of his fierj sword.** 



^^^fc^^^^^^^^^^^^^^W^^/V^^ 



:. viiiita el Llugar con llanto tiemo 
onde la hermosa virgen Caterina 
poeo con el Esposo etemo 
a Angelica Rachel siendo madrina, 
I Esposo, que el nevado invierno 
3 cubrio con escarcha matutina 
i tiene los ojos de palomas 
labio de lirio vierte aromas.** 

LoFB DE Vega. 

i ViRGBM fue Madrina en los despo- 
! Caterina y Christo.** 



I body of Clovis, son of Chilperic, 
Predegondahad murdered and thrown 
ie river, was known by the fisher- 
ho found it by the long hair.^ 

Mezerat. 



1445, a young man flourished of un- 
m talents and acquirements. Mon- 
t suspects him to be Antichrist, be- 
one of the signs of the times when 
irist should appear, is, that men and 
I shall change dress, alluding to the 
— Pasquieb. 



loted on those lines in ** Joan of Arc,'' 

niiarlesy and hide thee in a woman's garb, 
keae long locks will not disgrace thoe 
en!" Book iii., Poemsy p. 23. 

J.W.W. 



** QUISQUIS 

Vos labor ezercet, fructu minuente la- 
borem.'* 
Qidnque Martyres. Framcisi Bbncu. 



^ Late undantem dant sparsa incendia 
lucem.**~MicH. IIospitalius. 

'* SuADET inire preces, et mentem inferre 

beatis 
Sedibtur—Ihid. 

** Iljjb mihi satis, ille diu vixisse videtur, 
Cujus honesta fuit non turpis clausula vita;.** 
Ibid. 

" With that came Melyn upon a great 
black horse, and sayde to King Aithur, * Ye 
have never done. Have ye not done ynough. 
Of 3 score 000, ye have left on lyve but 
15,000, it is tyme for to saye No I for God 
is wrothe with you that you wyll never 
have done.*** — Mori Arthur, chap. 15. 



\^WM^^^^^^«i^^^^^^^^^^^M 



*' So an Herauld rod as nigh Sir Gareth 
as he could, and there he saw written about 
the helme in golde, — *This is Sir G. of 
Orkney.* *' — Amadu of QauL. 

'* Amd anon he was aware of a K. armed, 
walking his horse easily by a wood side, and 
his shield laced to his shoulder.** — Ibid. 

** Then the King of the burning S. stept 
forward, and lifting up his arm as if he would 
strike the Cynoccphal on the top of his head, 
seized with hb left hand on tjie shield, which 
he pulled to him with so much strength, 
that plucking it from his neck, he brought 
him with his nose to the groimd.** — Ibid, 
p. 84. 



^^^^^w^^^r^^^^s^^^SAA/^^ 



From Rebolledo. Pamaso, 9. 182. N. xzvii. 

With what a deafening roar yon torrent 

rolls 
Its weight of waters from the precipice 



272 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



Whose mountain mass darkens the hollow 

▼ale! 
Yet there it falls not, for the eternal wind 
That sweeps with force compressed the 

winding straits, 
Scatters the midway stream, and borne afar. 
The heavy mist descends, a ceaseless shower. 
Methinks that Eolus here forms his clouds, 
As Yulcan, amid Etna*s cavem*d fires. 
Shapes the red bolts of Jove. Sure if some 

sage 
Of elder times had journey *d here, his art 
With many a mystic fable shadowing jtruth, 
Had sanctified this spot, where Man might 

learn 
Wisdom from Nature, marking how the 

stream 
That seeks the yalley*s depth, borne up- 
ward joins 
The clouds of heaven, but from its height 

abased 
When it would rise, descends to earth in 

rain/* 
Feb, 4M, 1798. Lamb's C. Street. 



V\^^%^^%^^%^^^^V^%^WS^V«^^A 



From the Condb db Rbbollbdo. 
Not long this fearful conflict shall endure 
That arras the air with lightning, that over- 
spreads 
Earth with its horrors, making the firm globe 
Tremble. Not long these terrors shall en- 
dure 
That seem as they appaird the fires of 

heaven. 
For Night approaches now, preserving 

Night, 
And War will sleep in darkness. But the 

Chief 
Stretch*d forth his hand, and bade the Sun 

stand still 
On Gibeon, and thou. Moon, over the vale 
Of Ajilon, till vengeance be compleat. 
And wherefore did the Harmonies of Heaven 
Cease at the voice of Joshua ? the Most High, 
He who is Just, suspended Nature's laws. 
That Kings might meet the meed they me- 
rited. 
Jan, 30, 1798. 



From L. Leonardo. I. 73. 11. 

Thou art determined to be beautiful. 
Lysis ! and, Lysis, either thou art mad 
Or hast no looking-glass. Dost thou not 

know 
Thy paint-bepla8ter*d forehead, broad tod 

bare, 
With not a grey lock left, thy mouth so blacky 
And that invincible breath. Rightly we 

deem 
That with arandom hand blind Fortunedeals 
The lots of life. To thee she gave a boon, 
That crowds so anxiously and vainly wish, 
Old age, and left in thee no trace of youth, 
Save all its folly and its ignorance. 
Jan, 2, 98. 



From L. Leonardo. Y. 1, 18. HI. 

Content with what I am, the sounding 

.names ^ 

Of Glory tempt not me ; nor is there ought 
In glittering Grandeur that provokes one 

wish 
Beyond my peaceful state. What Uiough 

I boast 
No trapping that the multitude adore 
In conunon with the great, enough for me, 
That naked, like the mighty of the earth, 
I came into the world ; and that, like me, 
They must descend into the grave, the house 
For all appointed. For the space between, 
What more of happiness have I to seek 
Than that dear woman*8 love whose truth 

I know. 
And whose fond heart is satisfied with me. 
1 Jan. 1798. 



From B. Leonardo. V. 2. 187. X. 

Fadius, to think that God hath in the lines 
Of the right hand disclosed the things to 

come. 
And in the wrinkles of the skin pourtrayU 
As in a map, the way of human life. 
This is to follow with the multitude 
EiTor and Ignorance, their common guides. 
Yet surely I allow that God has placed 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



273 



ate in our own hands, or evil or good, 
as we make it. Tell me, Fabius, 
lot a king thyself, when envying not 
dt of kings, no idle wish disturbs 
}uiet life, when, a self-governed man, 
ws exist to thee ; and when no change 
which the will of Heaven may visit 
hee 
reak the even calmness of thy soul. 

31«/ Dec. 97. 
Lamb's Conduit Street, 



Futura, 

January 13, 1803. 
lo is it that so prefers cities that he 
>t live in the country, and loves London 
f all, for the sake of man the philoso- 
' — ^yet even in London lives retired, 
iting in shade, and quiet, and retire- 
—in solitude ? oh no ! but his acts of 
re so secretly bestowed that they are 
It atithe time, though keenly felt and 
*emembered afWwards — a good Me- 
it ? The king is afraid of him, and 
f his own authority ordered him to be 
•yed. Oh, a Jacobin ; away with him 
•. Aris ! — ^no, not by law and a trial — 
gainst law by confinement — not by a 
•martial, but by Mr. Tiffin. 
W. Yeo and the Soldier. The Sol- 
lad gone into the field to do — what ? 
rou a classic reader — ^have you had 
mefit of a liberal education ? — to do 
' As in praesenti had done in the entry.* 
rhat goeth into the mouth defileth, but 
id. The soldier swore when he got 
ayonet ; but the recording angel put 
ath down among his good things. So, 
ith reverence be his title spoken. 



Keswick, Saturday Evening, 
June 11, 1808. 

Portugal Delivered, 
B Siege of Lisbon; the election at 
)ra ; the battle of Aljubarrota. 
e of the finest incidents would be the 



disappearance of Nuno after the battle, 
when he went to save his brother. 

For a poetical hero, there is Vasco Lo- 
beira, and his Oriana may supply that fe- 
male interest to the story which is all it 
wants. 

26 Nov, 1814. 

I HAVE this day made up my mind to 
take the subject. 

2^ March, 18191 

The weight of this poem will depend upon 
two characters. Nuno Alvarez, who is the 
ideal of chivalry, full of joy, hope, enthu- 
siastic patriotism, and enthusiastic devotion ; 
and his brother, twenty years older than 
himself, who had been a father to him, and 
is, from a deep sense of duty, with the 
Spaniards : satisfied that their cause is just ; 
utterly dissatisfied with their conduct — the 
perfect example of a good and wise man in 
such circumstances. Hated by the popu- 
lace of his own country ; hated by most of 
the Spaniards, but respected by Juan and 
Joam, though disliked by one, and feared 
by the other ; and loved and reverenced by 
Nuno, and by all who know him well. Be- 
fore the battle he takes leave of Juan, and 
while the event is doubtful, executes his 
long meditated purpose of hiding himself 
from the world. His daughter is Lobeira*s 
love. 

If this character can be developed as it 
is conceived, I think it will be the best de- 
lineation that I shall ever have made. 



In Aragon no vassal of the crown could 
be buried without the king*s leave ; the per- 
mission implying that he had discharged his 
loyalty. 

Sisters of Helicon — yours is a thankless 
service ; he who rears the olive of Pallas 
is well repaid — or the grain of Ceres — ^your 
votaries receive only a barren laurel to wave 
over their graves. 

* This note of exclamation is in the original 
MSS. and is evidently intended to point to the 
time elapsed since the preceding entry. 

J* W. W^« 



( 



274 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



I wish I were as young as thee, my own 

dear Margaret — 
For some things I full fain would learn, and 

some full fain forget. 

Ramiro} 

Mt old folios ; why do you for ever read 
them P a song of songs to come, and the 
burden Barbara ! Barbara ! 



The Man in the Moon is dead, and who 
shall succeed him ? Some say Mr. Game- 
rin is set out to take possession ; others that 
the planets are to elect * * then thinks he 
has a fair chance, being sure of Mercury 
and Venus ; others say Lord Melville, be- 
cause a brass face is the best complexion ; 
or Lord *, because he wants a place, and 
this would be conspicuous enough to suit 
him. Mr. Addington, for he who is so ex- 
cellent a Chancellor of the Exchequer, would 
make a most excellent Man in the Moon. 
Bonaparte ; but he is afraid of the Crescent. 
Or the Duke of York — because in Holland 
he 80 often shifted his quarters, I dreamt 
this this morning July 3, 1804. 



^^v^^v^^/w^^^/^/>^^^vs/s/^ 



Ideas, ifv. 

How the Bishop of Bremen went to Hell 
by water. 

The Dominican dipping for gold in a 
volcano. 

The sepulchre that fits every body ; he 
who has measured himself thereby never 
more feels fatigue. 

The babe bom in the grave. 

Inspiration of Hafiz. 

The Mistress of Don Manuel Ponce de 
Leon let fall her glove into the circus where 
there were lions ; the knight, though un- 
armed, leaped down and picked it up ; but 
as she stooped to receive it, he dashed the 
glove in her face. 

St. Endeus, King of Ireland. 

Escape of Ferran Gonzalez from Leon. 

' Sae Poems, p. 442.— J. W. W. 



But these conjectures all are all false, 
And ril tell you the true one to end them; 

The Devil had torn his blue pantaloons, 
Ajid he sent for a taylor to mend them. 

OWBH PaBFIT.- 

A. D. 988. Vladimar sent to Constantine 
Porphyrogenitus, to demand baptism, and 
the Emperor^s sister, Helena, in marriage — 
else he threatened to march on from Theo- 
dosia, which he had just taken. Constan- 
tine sent priests and the lady. The Rus- 
sian then restored his conquests, made bis 
people be baptized by thousands in the 
Dnieper, and threw Peroun into the river 
with the rest of the idols. 

Ballad from Count Stolberg*s story of the 
foundation of Rapperschweil ; a traveller 
admiring the town ; and a burgher telling 
him what a chance it was whether there 
should be a town there or a gibbet ; making 
it the scene of the wife's adultery. The 
end that the town makes the place the 
better, and the story no whit th^ worse. 

A good monodrama may be made of Hi- 
milcon, the Carthaginian general, who, after 
losing a victorious army in Sicily by pesti- 
lence, returned alone, related to the people 
what he had done, what suffered, accused 
the Gods, and then retiring into his apart- 
ment slew himself. 

The Dew' that falls on St. John's night 
is supposed to have the virtue to stop the 
plague. — Bruce. — Connect this with the 
Witch and the Well of Rogoes. 

Give me the May-green of hope, or the 
healthy June appearance of the trees in their 
full life-beauty ; not Autumn— hectic co- 
lours that foretell the fall. 



' This was a cripple tailor, who lived in a 
cut de sac, or close court, at Bristol. He sud- 
denly disappeared one fine day, and was neTer 
heard of more. All sorts of conjectures, of 
course, were made relative to his flight. 

J. W. W. 

' Brand, in his " Popular Antiquities," quotes 
the following from an ancient calendtf of the 
Romish Church. 

" 24 June. The Nativity of John the Baptist. 
Dew and new leaves in estimation," 

J. W. W. 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



276 



iX^c Mrfrpoi. 

*h history — its atrocious character. 
holomew*s Day. Damiens. Iron 
[c. Shame afler shame, and this 
ipstart, the consummation, 
(oiling Well. Mary, I cannot now 
thee, but thou shalt see a type — a 
as calm and a spirit as troubled 

ptions for Major Cartwright*s Hie- 
on. — Alfred. 



Oarcin, son of Oarci Ferrandez. 

id his mother were in the town of 
evan, he went hunting rabbits with 
b King, who lived in Gk>rmaz, and in 
the king fell, e descubrio * * *. At 
i Count*s carver, in cutting up the 
)r his supper, laughed. Aba asked 
1 the story of the king*s fall was 

^reed with this Moor to poison her 
rhich he was to be apprized by a 
straw sent down the river; and 
marry him and give him the land. 
arera*s lover, Sancho, informed the 
rho made his mother drink of the 
cup, sent down the straw, and 
e Moorish King, whose name was 
lie, or Mahomad Almohadio. 
)rpe8. 

Rodrigo.^ But for this I want the 
)nica, and the Conde de Mora*s 
Toledo, both being lying books of 
igination, unless they are belied. 



Chrintmas Tale. 

iTMAS tale, this Christmas time, 
Williams Wynn, you ask of me, 
gin. Dear Williams Wynn, 
istmas tale for thee. 

»lay at cards this Christmas time — 
cheat, dear W. W. it is a sin, &c. 

See Poemi, p. 441.— J. W. W. 



The three illustranda arc the doctrine of 
Plato*s ec^diXa — so all things sinful are 
only copies of their prototypes in the mind 
of the *IiAaQ whose name, after the Per- 
sian custom, I write upside down — the om- 
nipotence of law, and the sin of cheating 
at cards. 

The Lady Cheatabell, playing at hunt 
the Knave out of town, packed the cards, 
and gave herself the Knave of Hearts, being 
Jack. From that time forth at midnight the 
Knave himself haunted her. The bloody 
Heart first came into the room, and he after 
it — also with his nose. She goes to a con- 
jurer : he calls up the Queen of Hearts, as a 
superior spirit, but he is outwitted— every- 
thing yields to law. He was Jack, and takes 
everything ; wherefore he wins the Queen, 
and both spirits haunt the Lady Cheatabell. 
Again the conjuror is consulted — ^he calls 
up the Kjiave and Queen of Spades, and ties 
them. When they see each other, both par- 
ties stop, both become powerless and mo- 
tionless — and thus the Knave is hunted out 
of town, or laid in the Red Sea — si placet 

Inscriptions, 

WoBURNE — The Duke of Bedford. 
Smithfield — the Martyrs. 



Man-in-ihe-Moon Thought. 

This man-in-the-moon thought might be 
extended into a good satire. 

Journey there upon a night mare, who 
was begotten by Pegasus upon El Borak. 

The goddess of the moon ; young and 
lovely when I arrived. Her change to old 
age. 

All the lost things there; but some things 
recovered from thence. 

Candidates for the manship, Mr. Phillips 
among the rest. But Bonaparte sends up 
one, and he immediately declares war a- 
gainst England. 

Inventory of things found there. — The 
Decades of Livy, &c. Lord Nelson*s dying 
orders. 



276 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LriERARY COMPOSITION. 



Fire Flies, ^c, 

*^ QuAM multiplex cincindelarum diver- 
sitas noctu stellarum instar passim coUu- 
centium ! Alise bruchi magnitudine alarum 
jactatione, alise soils ex oculis lucem vibrant, 
qu8B libro legendo sufficiat. Qusedam soils 
natibus splendorem edunt. Vermes quoque 
majusculi toto corpore coruscant. Ligna, 
arundines, arborum folia, plantarum radices, 
postquam computruere, in territoriis maxime 
humidis, adamantum, pjroporum, smarag- 
dorum, chrysolithorum, rubinorum,&c. more 
lucem yiridem, rubram, flavam, cseruleam 
noctu spargunt, mirumque in modum oculos 
oblectant." — Dobbizhoff^b, tom. ii. p. 389. 



[Indian WomatCs defence of Child'murderJ] 

An Indian woman, who had just put to 
death her new-bom daughter, thus defended 
herself to Gumella, afler patiently listening 
to all his reproaches : — " Would to Grod I 
father, — ^would to God that my mother, when 
she brought me into the world, had had love 
and compassion enough for me to have spared 
me all the pains which I have endured till 
this day, and am to endure till the end of 
my life I If my mother had buried me as 
soon as bom, I should have been dead, but 
should not have felt death, and she would 
have exempted me from that death to which 
I am unavoidably subject, and as well as 
from sorrows that are as bitter. Think, 
father, what a life we Indian women endure 
among these Indians ! they go with us with 
their bows and arrows, and that is all. We 
go laden with a basket, with a child hang- 
ing at the breast, and another in the basket. 
These go to kill a bird or a fish ; we must 
dig the earth, and provide for all with the 
harvest. They return at night without any 
burden ; we must carry roots to eat, maize 
for their chicha. Our husbands when they 
reach home, go talk with their friends ; we 
must fetch wood and water to prepare their 
supper. They go to sleep ; we must spend 
great part of the night in grinding maize, 
to make their drink. And what is the end 



of our watching! they drink the chicha, b- 
toxicate themselves, beat us to a jelly, take 
us by the hair of the head, and trample as 
under foot. Would to God I father, that 
my mother had buried me as soon as she 
bore me into the world ! Thou knowest that 
all this is true, for it is what daily passes 
before your eyes ; but our worst evil you 
do not understand, because you cannot feel 
it. After serving her husband like a slave, 
the poor Indian sees him at the end of 
twenty years take a girl for his wife, who 
is without understanding : he loves her, and 
though she beats our children and maltreats 
us, we cannot complain, for he cares nothing 
for us, and loves us no longer. The young 
wife rules everything, and treats us as her 
servants, and silences us, if we presume to 
speak, with the stick. Can then a woman 
procure a greater blessing for her daughter 
than to save her from all this, which is worse 
than death I Would to God I father, I saj, 
that my mother had shown her love to me 
in burying me as soon as I was born ; mj 
heart would not have had so much to en- 
dure, nor my eyes so much to weep !" 

This he says he has translated literallj 
from the Betoye language, as it was uttered 
to him. 



[^Germ of the Tale of Paraguay J] 

A FABTT of Spaniards were gathering the 
herb of Paraquay on the south bank of the 
Rio Empa]ado,and having gathered all thej 
could find, sent three of their number over 
the river, to see if any trees were on the 
other side. There were found a hut of the 
savages, and a plantation of maize. Terrified 
at supposing that the whole forest swarmed 
with savages ; they lurked in their huts, 
and sent to the Reduction of S. Joachim, 
requesting that a Jesuit would come in search 
of these savages, and reduce them. Dobriz- 
hofier went with forty Indians, crost the 
Empalado, searched the woods as far as the 
Monday^ miri, and on the third day traced 
out by a human footsteps little hovel con- 
taining a mother, a son in his twentieth, and 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



277 



adaughter in her fifteenth year. Being asked 
where the rest of their horde were, they re- 
plied, tiiey were the only suryivors ! the 
small-pox had cutoff all the rest. The youth 
had repeatedly searched the woods in hopes 
of finding a wife, but in vain. The Spaniards 
also for two years had been employed in that 
part of the^untry herb gathering and they 
confirmed his assertion, that it was utterly 
uninhabited. 

The missionary asked them to go with him 
to the Reduction : the mother made but 
one objection, she had tamed three boars, 
who were like dogs to her. If they got 
into a dry place, or should be exposed to the 
sun, having always lived in the thick shade, 
they would infallibly perish. ^* Hanc soli- 
citadinem quseso, animo ejicias tuo, reposui ; 
cordi mihi forechara animalcula,nil dubites. 
Sole estuante umbram, ubi ubi demum, cap- 
tabimus. Neque lacunae, amnes, paludes ubi 
refrigeruntur tua hiec corcula unquam dee- 
runt." 

Here they had lived in a place infested 
by all sorts of insects and reptiles, with no- 
thing but muddy water for their drink. Alces 
(tntas), deer, rabbits, birds, maize, the roots 
of the mamUo tree, was their food. They 
spun the threads of the caraquata for their 
deaths and hammocks. Honey was their 
damty. The mother smoked through a reed; 
the son chawed. He had a shell for a knife. 
Sometimes he used a reed. But he had two 
bits of an old knife, no bigger each than his 
thumb, fastened with thread and wax to a 
wooden handle, which he wore in his girdle. 
With them he made his arrows and traps, 
and opened trees to get the honey. They 
had no vessels to boil anything, and there- 
fore used the herb cold, gourds being their 
only cups or pots. The women both wore 
their hiunmock by day. The youth a man- 
delion (lacema), girt with a cord, it was 
from hb shoulders to the knee, and his gourd 
of tobacco hung from the girdle. 

Dobrizhofier, not liking the girFs trans- 
parent dress, gave her a cloth, which she 
turbaned round her head. He gave the 
brother perizomala — drawers, which incon- 



venienced him terribly, for else he could 
climb trees like a monkey. All wore the 
hair loose. The man had neither bored his 
lip, nor wore any feathers. They had no 
earring, but they wore a string of wooden 
pyramidal beads, very heavy and very noisy. 
Dobrizhofier asked if they were to fi'ighten 
away the gnats, and gave a gay string of 
beads in their place. They were both tall 
and well made. The girl would have been 
called beautiful by any European ; she was 
like a nymph or driad. ITiey were rejoiced 
rather than terrified at the sight of Dobriz 
and his party. They spake Guarani, but as 
imperfectly as may be supposed. 

The man had never seen other woman ; 
the girl never other man, for, just before 
her birth, her father had been killed by a 
tyger. The girl gathered fruits and woixl, 
through thorns and reeds, in a di*eadful 
country. Not to be alone at this employ- 
ment, she usually had a parrot on her shoul- 
der, a monkey on her arm, fearless of tygers, 
though the place abounded with them (they 
knew her) ; yet tygers are there more dan- 
gerous than in the savannahs, where cattle 
are plenty. 

They were clothed, treated with especial 
kindness, and sent often to the woods, in 
hopes of saving their health, and few weeks 
as usual brought with it a severe seasoning, 
rheum, loss of spirit, appetite, and flesh. 
In a few months the mother died, a happy 
death, in full belief and faith of a Happy 
hereafter. The maid withered like a flower, 
and soon followed her to the grave, and *^nisi 
vehementissime fallor, ad caelum." 

There was not a dry eye at her burial. 
The brother recovered ; he also got through 
the small-pox remarkably well, and no fear 
was now entertained for him. He was in 
high health, chearful and happy, content in 
all acts of religion ; every body loved him. 

An old Indian Christian with whom the 
youth lived, told Dobrizhofier he thought 
him inclined to derangement-, for every night 
he said his mother and sister came to him, 
and said, " Thee be baptized, for we are 
coming for you." Dobrizhofier spoke to 



f 



278 



IDEAS AND STUDIES FOR LITERARY COMPOSITION. 



him ; he affirmed the same thing, and that 
he could have no rest for their warning. 
But he was still in high health, and still 
cheerful. Dobrizhofier was struck by the 
strangeness of the story ; he baptized him 
at ten o*clock on June 23, the eve of St. John 
the Baptist, and in the evening, without the 
slightest apparent indisposition, the youth 
fell asleep in the Lord." — Dobrizhoffbb, 
Hist, of the Abipanes. 



Missionary Poems, 

Vandebkemp, epitaph. 
A Greenland eclogue. 
Bavians Kloof, epitaph. 
Surinam. 



Feby. 16, 1814. 
Hbbbebt' called me back this morning on 
Castrigg, near Tom*s old lodging, to look at 
" something very curious." It was merely 
an icicle formed by the drippingof the water 
through a hollow bank, and reaching the 
road, so that it became a little pillar. The 
thing was not above three or four inches 
long, but I was repaid for the trouble of 
turning back, for it shaped itself presently 
into an allegorical vision : — a splendid hall, 
supported (chapterhouse like) by one central 
pillar, glittering like cut glass, and rendered 

* His wonderful boy, of whom he wrote to 
Neville White,—" The severest of all afflictions 
has fallen upon me. I have lost my dear son 
Herbert — my beautiful boy — beautiful in in- 
tellect and disposition ; he who was everything 
which my heart desired. God's will be done! " 
—MS. Letter, 17th April, 1816. 

J. W. W. 



brilliant by a light within it, like Abdaldar's 
ring ; but upon nearer inspection the pillar 
was of ice, and the light which gave its bril- 
liance was all the while conBuming it. 

Now as, V8B mihi I the expected marriage 
of the princess must operate aa a tax upon 
my poor brain, may I not thank Herbert 
and his icicle for a feasible and striking plan. 
Begin with such a vision ; — then answer the 
reproach for obtruding thoughts of morta- 
lity and death on such an occasion, and pro- 
ceed in a high strain of religious philosophj, 
to show in what manner death, as it must be 
the last thing of life, becomes also the best 
In this way William I. may best be intro- 
duced, and those of the ancestors of those 
whose names bear a fair report in history, 
or seem likely to be written in the book of 
life. 



April 11th, 1814. News arrived of Buo- 
naparte*s having consented to retire upon 
a pension. 

Immediate feelings. Personal retro- 
spect. 

Buonaparte*s partizans. His sole ex- 
cuse the specific madness which is produced 
by the possession of uncontrolled power. 
Causes of the Revolution. The sins of the 
fathers, &c. Henry IV.'s conformity per- 
haps a mortal blow to religion in France. 
Moral, political, and military profligacy. 
Practical reforms make men happier, better, 
and wiser. In the church abolish vows of 
celibacy, and confession. 

April 13. Begin with the Duke. ** Quern 
virum," &c. Alexander, Frederic, Blucher, 
Platoff, and so end with the prince. 





)LLECmONS FOR HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE 

AND POETRY. 



Astrea} 




[IR Philip Sidney tacked toge- 
ther the pastoral and the epic 
romance. D*Urfe has united 
them. He has done this with 
t skill, and involved the fates of his 
berds and his heroes, so as to form a 
•constructed whole. 

lis romance has one wearying and in- 
ortable fault. Love questions after the 
en^al fashion are continually arising; 
let speeches are made pro and con, like 
?laidoyen Historiques of Tristan. It 
[so too much dialogue^which was thought 
$piritual in its day, but which is very 
and very worthless, 
lave read Astrea in a detestable trans- 
Q, in which there is not a single beauty 
ipression. These " persons of quality '* 
r by any accident stumble upon one ; 
f where you meet vulgarisms and bar- 
ms, French idioms and their own idiot- 
Ilcre are some instances of a strange 
)f wortls. 

lover has stabbed himself mortally ! ** he 
It the last gasp, yet hearing the lamen- 
n of his shepherdess, and knowing her 
S did call unto her. She, hearing a faint 
w voice, went towards him. Oh ! bca- 
, how the sight of him did amitse hur." 
i. p. 185. 



) )uthey read over the Aitnea again in his 
' days, with great delight. It was on his 
iring an early edition of the original. 

J. W. W. 



**Mandragne the witch, finding them both 
dead, cursed her art, hated all her demons, 
tore her hair, and extremely grieved at the 
death of these two faithful lovers, and her 
own contentment^ &c. 

A lover has resolved upon suicide : *' and 
but for Olimbom, perhaps I had served my 
own turn; for he was so careful of me, that 
I could not do any thing to myself, but gave 
me so many diverting reasons to the con- 
trary, that he kept me alive," &c. Part i. 
p. 417. 

An instance of extraordinary i<^norance 
seems to mark this " person of quality" for 
a woman. P. i. p. 12, is a picture of Saturn, 
throughout which he is spoken of in the fe- 
minine gender, and called a hag. Ko man 
could be so uneducated as t6 have made 
these blunders. It appears too that she be- 
gan to translate the book before she had 
read it, for p. 12, mention is made of the 
den of an old Mandrake. I marked this 
place with a note of astonishment and n 
Quid diabolusf but after a while it ap- 
peared that Mandragne is the name of a 
sorceress. 

This is probably the book in which Sterne 
found the tomb of the two lovers. 

What magic there is, is good ; it is the 
central point to which every thing tends. 
All the strangers come to the fountain, or 
are sent by the oracle, and the whole is well 
managed. I scarcely ever read a work of 
fiction in which the events could so little be 
foreseen. 

La Fontaine valued this book above all 
others, except Marot and Kabclais ; and 



280 



COLLECTIONS FOR HISTORY OF 



here it was that he studied his rural de- 
scriptions. 

"This pastoral romance," says Gifford, 
" which once formed the delight of our 
grandmothers, is now never heard of, and 
would in fact exhaust thepatience and weary 
the curiosity of the most modest and indefa- 
tigable dcYOurer of morals at a watering 
place, or a boarding school/* — ^B. J. vol. Vi 
p. 394, &c. 

" Astrea,** Gifford says, ** bears a remote 
or allegorical allusion to the gallantries of 
the court of Henry FV." — Ibid. 



Pharamond. 

Whoever was the inventor of the French 
heroic romance, Calprenade is the writer who 
carried it to its greatest perfection. 

(Les Trois Sidles, tom. i. p. 230. Le seul 
nom, — ^le mSme genre.) * 

It is the fault of the romances of chivalry 
that they contain so many adventures of the 
same character, one succeeding the other, 
which have no necessary connection with the 
main story, and which might be lefl out 
without affecting it ; in fact they are in the 
main made up of these useless episodes. The 
fault of Calprenade is of an opposite charac- 
ter : he ran into the other extreme, and his 
three romances for variety of adventures 
and character, and for extent and intricacy 
of plot, are perhaps the most extraordinary 
works that have ever appeared. There is not 
one of them which would not furnish the 
plots for fifty tragedies, perhaps for twice 
the number, and yet all these are made into 
one whole. For this kind of invention, cer- 
tainly he never has been equalled. 

The old romances gave true manners, 
though they applied them to wrong times ; 
but the anachronism was of little import-. 
Every thing in them was fiction. A double 
sin was committed by the French romancers 
in chusing historical groundwork, and in 

' This evidently is the beginning and the 
end of an intended extract. — J. W. W. 



Frenchifying the manners of all ages 
cially in the abominable fashion of fi 
ter writing. Story is involved within 
like a nest of boxes ; or they come on 
another, so that you have always to g 
to learn what has happened, and th 
business seldom goes on ; this was 
able from the prodigious ntunber of c 
ters which were introduced. 

Pharamond was the romance wh 
composed with most care ; but he c 
live to finish it. Seven parts of the 
he printed ; the remainder were ad( 
M.deYaumoriere. The story is by no 
80 ably conducted as in the former ] 
perceived the great inferiority before 
the cause of it. 

Oyron le Courtays, 

Thb utter want of method in thii 
makes it appear as if it consbted of \ 
metrical romances transposed. 

It begins with an adventure of Bn 
Brun, an old knight above 120 years 
who, though he had not borne arms fo 
years, comes to Kamelot to try whetl 
knights of the present time were as g 
those of his days. He stands qmniain i 
Falamedes, Gravaine, and many other 
honours Tristan, Sir Lancelot, and 
Arthur enough to take a spear ag^ainsl 
and overthrows them all like so man 
dren. 

Then follows an adventure of Trisfe 
Falamedes, which is in Mort Arthui 

Gyron now appears. He goes (whei 
does not appear) to Maloane, the c« 
his friend Danayn le Roux. The h 
Maloane twice tempts him, but in vain, 
go to a tournament. Sir Lac, the fri 
K. Meliadus, falls in love with the lac 
waylays her after the tournament, an 
her from her guard of twenty -five ki 
Gyron (who is all this while unknow 
indeed supposed to be dead,) wins he 
from him ; but Sir Lac's love for h< 
now inflamed him, his heart gives y 



ENGLISH LITERATURE AND POETRY. 



281 



imptation, and he leads her to a foun- 
n the forest. As he is dbarming him- 
9 commit the sin, his sword drops into 
ater, and in taking it out he is struck 
le motto, ^ LoyaaUe passe taut y faid" 
i hoKnit taut et decait tous hammes de^ 
queis elle se kerberge,'* Upon this, his 
rse for having sinned even in thought 
:h, that he stabs himself; the lady pre- 
I him from repeating the blow. After 
rj adventures, Danayn finds them in this 
don, Icams the whole truth, and loving 
n better than ever for this his courtesy, 
is termed, takes him home to Maloane, 
e he is soon healed. A great deal by 
)f episode is related of Hector le Brun 
. Meliadus. 

ere are no other divisions than of chap- 
but what maj be called the second part 
on this story. Gyron sends Danayn to 
; him his damsel ; he carries her oflf for 
df ; is pursued; overtaken at last, and 
ted after a desperate battle. Gyron, 
rh he had resolved to kill him, spares 
6r courtesy, and then rescues him from 
nt immediately after. The incidental 
are a story of Gralahalt le Brun, with 
1 in his youth Gyron had been compa- 
and a curious adventure which befab 
s sans pitie, in which he finds the bodies 
bus and the damsel of Northumberland 
bouse cut in the rock, and learns their 
ry from the son of Febus, a very old 
who dwells there, leading a life of pe- 
i with his son, the father of Gyron, but 
n knows not his birth, 
ten comes agood adventure of the knight 
paauTj in the valley of Serfage, where 
m le Nolr makes serfs of every body 
enters. This is an excellent adventure, 
the sequel we are referred to the ro- 
« of Meliadus. 

mayn delivers Gyron and his damsel, 
had been betrayed, and was tied to a 
to suffer from the severity of the wea- 
in the cold country of Sorolois. Tliey 
econciled, separate each on adventure, 
ire both made prisoners. Here too, we 
eferred to Meliadus for their relea^ ; 



the *' Latin book £rom which this is trans- 
lated saying no farther.** And the romance 
ends with a chapter in which Galinans le 
Blanc, son of Gjrron and the damsel, who is 
bom the chapter before, defeats the best 
knights of the Round Table one after an- 
other ; but he is a wicked knight, having 
been brought up by the false traitor who 
imprisoned his father. 

Everywhere the knights are represented 
as children to those of Uterpendragon*s days. 
The prowess of these worthies exceeds in 
hyperbole any thing in E^plandian. They 
make nothing of singly attacking large ar- 
mies, and killing giants with a blow of the 
fist. 

I think I can perceive that oftentimes he 
who began one of these adventures planned 
it as he went on ; and often ended with a 
different feeling of character from that which 
he began with. 

I never read a romance so completely free 
from all impurity of thought or word. Yet 
what morals does it indicate I Gyron acts 
from no other principle than that of cour- 
tesy; and his damsel, whom he married, 
Danayn carries off as his concubine. 

Monnon de la Selve, or, Hennor de la 
Selve, as the name is sometimes printed, the 
son of a forester, seems to be the original 
of Braggadochio. 



\/NA/W«AA>W«<«AA«WM\/S'\/« 



Meliadus de Leannoys. 



This book professed to have been written 
by the author of the Brut, at the request of 
King Henry of England, and recompiled 
from the Latin, in which it had been rudely 
and confusedly written by Mabtre Rusticien 
de Pise, at the desire of King Edward of Eng- 
land. What is curious, is, that it was to have 
been about Palamedes, and in the name of 
Palamedes the author says he begins it. He 
brings Esclabor, the faUier of the knight, 
from Babylon to Rome, and from Rome to 
Northumberland ; and having thus got to 
King Arthur, nothing more is said about 
him. A few desultory adventures of K. Pha- 



282 



COLLECTIONS FOR HISTORY OF 



ramond by the Morhoult d*Irland, brings on 
the stage K. Meliadus, and the Bon Cheva- 
lier saru paauTy the two heroes of the book. 
Many tales of their heroism and of their ri- 
vaby are related, just in the manner of the 
episodes in G3rron, so much so indeed, as to 
identify the author, and the business of the 
first half of the book ends in a tournament, 
where they take difierent sides, and in which, 
on the whole, the Chevalier is most fortu- 
nate. The manner in which each speaks of 
his rival is always very fine, in the noblest 
spirit of chivalry. 

Meliadus falls in love with the Queen of 
Scotland, and forcibly carries her off, out of 
King Arthur*s dominions ; for which, he is 
attacked in his own kingdom, conquered by 
the prowess of the Bon Chevalier saru paour^ 
and taken. Arthur imprisons him. His con- 
finement is more rigorous than the king 
either intended or knew. Meantime Arthur 
falls sick : his vassals go to war with each 
other, and Ariohan, a terrible Saxon, at the 
suggestion of some of them invades Logres. 
The king recovers, and sends to all his liege 
men. The Chevalier sans paour refuses to 
come, saying, Arthur has disgraced and in- 
jured all chivalry by hb imprisonment of 
the best knight living. In consequence of 
this Meliadus is delivered. He accepts the 
defiance of Andhar, and concludes the war 
by defeating him. When the author had got 
thus far, he filled up the rest of his book 
with any stories which came into his head 
about the round table. Galchad le Brun, 
Segurades, Gyron, Tristan, &c. are intro- 
duced without the slightest connection of 
time, place, or any thing else, and the whole 
ends with the death of Meliadus, in the words 
wherein it is related in Tristan. 



Tristan, 

This Romance has disappointed me, it is 
very inferior to Meliadus. The characters 
are in many instances so discordant, and the 
leading circumstances of the story so little 
consonant not merely with our ordinary 



morals, but oiu* ordinary feelings, t 
general effect of the book is far froi 
pleasant. There is something vile 
ducing that love on which the whole 
turns — by a philtre, — in making b 
heroes live in adultery, — and in \ 
worthy usage of the second Yseult 
everlasting fault of the romancers i 
ficing the character of one hero to < 
the fame of another, is carried to a gi 
gree here. With the creatures of 1 
creation an author may do what he i 
it is a literary crime to take up i. 
whom others have represented as a 
of prowess and of worth, and to engri 
upon him and stain him with dis 
Palamedes is better conceived th 
other personage in the book. 



^'N^^^VS^^k/^^^/^^A^^^^^'V* 



Sainct Chreaal} 



Joseph of Arimathea ung gentii 
chevalier. He was shut in prison a 
gotten there for forty-two years 
food. But Vespasian, the son of Ti 
ing cured of leprosy by the S. V< 
went against Jerusalem to revenge tl 
of our Lord, and he opened the prisoi 
was a great pillar, and there found 
alive and well, for our Lord had 
him, and he thought he had slept froj 
Friday till the Sunday following. 

P. 14. Joseph prays " nudz co 
nudz genoulx." 

14. The prophet David taken \ 
by Nebuchadnezzar. 

18. Christ consecrates Joseph th 
bishop, and the mystery of trans 
tiation is shown in a miracle as hid 
the doctrine ; for he is made, ver; 

> *' Yet true it is, that lone; before tba 
Hither came Joseph of Arimathy, 
Who brought with him the Holy Gi 
(they sav), 
And preach't the truth ; but since it g 
did decay." 

Spender. Faerie Qveene, T 

J. V 



ENGLISH LITERATURE AND POETRY. 



283 



lis wQl, to diflinember a beautifxil 
10 appears in the Ciborium.^ The 
aks like a cake, and it lies on the 
:e a piece of bread, but becomes a 
tin when he pats it to his mouth, 
nt il le vit si le cuyda traire hors 
jche, mais il ne peust. Et quant 
e eel enfant si luj fut advis que 
ulceurs que langue d*homme pour- 
mer, ne penser, estoyent en son 

Et si nestoyt mye le chastel de 
le ne desclos (f) ains estoit tout en- 
de moult riches murs quarres de 
rermeil et vert et bis et blanc.*' 
Car celiuj seroit plain de trop folle 
! qui oseroit monstre mensonge en 
chose comme est ceste saincte hys- 
5 le vray Crucifix fist et escripvit 
Dpre main, et pour ce doit il estre 

plus grant honneur.** He then 
our Saviour only wrote twice in his 
ife, according to the Scriptures, 
composed the Lord^s prayer, and 
: woman was taken in adultery, 
trouvons si hardy clcrc qui dye 
u fist oncques cscripture puis la 
ion, ne mais la saincte escripture du 
reaal seullement, et qui vouldroit 
puis 11 eust fait autre escripture de 

il seroit tcnu a menteur, et si dy 

seroit de trop folle hardyesse qui 
3 vouldroit mettre en si haulte 
ame est ceste hystoire que le filz de 
n*ipvit luy mesmes de sa propre 
is que il eust mis la mortelle vie 
evestu la mageste celestielle ! " 
[IS of this kind have obtained au- 
i the Sanscrit, and things as impu- 
he Romish Church, 
le same story of the tree of life as 
lot du Lac. 

Celicolen. 

re Robert de Berron " qui ceste 
ranslata de latin en fran^oys.'" 



iiim, appellant Scriptores Ecclesias- 
Ordo Bomanus tegimen et uwbraculum 
— Du Cange, in v.— J. W. W. 



95. JosepVs wife, soon after her arrival 
in England, lay in in a richly built castle. 
He was called Galaad, and when he grew 
up, Galaad le fort, and therefore the castle 
in which he was bom was called Galleford ; 
which is probably the etymology of OuUd- 
ford in this romance. 

101. ** Messire Robert de Bosrou que 
ceste histoire translata de latin en fran^oys 
par le commandement de Saincte Eglise.** 

This book makes no reference to the le- 
gend concerning Glastonbury, though it is 
in the days of King Luce. 

Its dreams and types very much in the 
manner of the Gesta Romanorum. 

145. In the apartment with the S. Greaal 
appears a chess board with pieces of ivory 
and gold. Gawain plays the ivory, and the 
gold play themselves and check mate him. 

150. Perceval*s uncle, the hermit, has a 
mule which belonged to Joseph of Arima- 
thea when he was in Pilate*s service ! 

169. Perceval. " En toute le monde 
neust len sceu trouves ung plus beau che- 
valier que luy, plus gros, ne mieulx quarre 
de bras corps et jambes.'* 

37. K. Euelach— Pygmalion! Oh the 
difference between a Grecian and a monkish 
imagination 1 

47-2. A wild phoenix. 

89. Joseph, with 148 companions, sailed 
from Babylon to Great Britjun upon Jo- 
seph's shirt, which he took off for that pur- 
pose and spread upon the water. The night 
was fair and serene, and the sea fair and 
peaceable and without tempest, and the 
moon shone bright, and it was in the month 
of April, on Easter eve, when they embarked, 
or emshirted, to speak more properly, and 
at break of day they arrived in England, 
this being in every respect the most re- 
markable passage that ever was made from 
the Persian gulf. 

The conclusion of the first part refers to 
Merlin, Lancelot, Tristan, and other books 
of the Round Table, of which I take this to 
be one of the latest. 

136. A guillotine invented for love of 
Gawain, Lancelot, anil Perceval, by Lor- 



J 



284 



COLLECTIONS FOU HISTORY OF 



gueilleuse Pucelle. It was literally for love 
of them, — for, as she could have no joy of 
them in life, she was determined to have joy 
of them in death, and so in her chapel she 
prepared four magnificent coffins for them 
and for herself. Gawain was her guest, 
and by good fortune this pious Pucelle was 
so proud that she never asked any guest his 
name ; so she took him into the chapel and 
showed him the coffins, and told him why 
they were made, and then showing him some 
relics, she made him observe her device, 
which was that when she had these knights 
here she would lead them to adore these 
relics, and as soon as they had put their 
heads through the window by which they 
were to be seen, she would then take out a 
peg, and a knife, sharp as a razor, would 
fall upon their necks. 

Through great part of this book the name 
is written Parlevaulx — but at the close 
Perceval. Is this proof of two authors ? 
Sic opinor. 

Ships and sepulchres the favourite ob- 
jects of the author*s fancy. 

Few or no moralizations in the second 
part, which seems to be by a diffisrent hand, 
or perhaps by many. The first is clearly 
one man*s work, and very Gestaiah, 

** How Parlevaulx had a tub made ready, 
and made all the knights of the Sire des 
Mares be beheaded before him, so that their 
blood should run into the tub ; and how he 
had the Sire des Mares drowned in this tub 
in the blood of his knights.** 

Loheant, the only son of Arthur and 
Guenever, had a custom that whenever he 
killed a man he lay down to sleep upon his 
body. He was taking his nap one day upon 
a giant whom he had just demolished, when 
Sir Keux, the seneschal came by, and for 
the sake of getting credit, killed him in his 
sleep, then cut ofi* the giant*s head and 
carried it to court, to claim the merit of 
having slain him and revenged Loheac. 
But a damsel had seen all. 165. 



L^Opere Magnamme dei due TrUtanL, Cava- 

LIERI DEIXE TaVOLA RiTOKDA, Co'l PH- 

vilegio del tommo Powtefice et deJV ilbu' 

triss, Senato Veneio per anni xx. 

In Yeuetia per Michele Tramezmo 1555. 

The first part is made from the French 
romance, with an interpolation about the 
birth of the second Tristan, parts of which 
the author did not bear in mind when he 
returned to the thread of the original 
story. 

P. 173. So good a journey that she was 
not more than four months going from Corn- 
wall to Britanny. 

Don Chehai, my old acquaintance, is 
called. 

229. Here is the old knight firom Giron. 

The second part is original, and very 
worthless. 

22. ^ Ella cavalco su un bonissimo ca- 
vallo Armellino come neve, co crini k coda 
faUiy ch*era maraviglia k vederlo ? ** 

64. A lady who has been long ill grows 
fat with joy afler her recovery, so that in 
the course of a day it is perceptible, and 
she is complimented upon it. 

114. ** La Infanta et Taltre signore le 
trassero Telmo di testa, et li nettarono fl 
viso con le maniche delle loro camicie.** 
Had they no handkerchiefs, that shift sleeves 
were used for this purpose ? Again, 171, 
" cosi cavatoli Telmo gli ascuigaron il volto 
con le lor sottili maniche delle camicie.** 

1 76. From Cornwall to Camelot a journey 
of 1000 leagues ! 

193. King Tristan asks why King Arthur 
took a castle from a certain Phebus, in which 
quarrel he is about to fight a combat in the 
King*s cause. ^* Sire rispose Don Galasso, 
per due cause principali, la prima perche 
Phebro era infidcle inimico della nostra 
santa fede catholica. Non me ne dite piu, 
rispose il Re, che questa basta.** 

207. Coarse and witless satire upon the 
Portugueze. The Spanish geogn^hy in this 
book is correct. 

236. Elisandro, performing his vigil be- 
fore knighthood, past the night agreeabij, 



ENGLISH LITERATURE AND POETRY. 



285 



^ Dondimeno il peso dell* arme havra fatta 
roperation sua su le cami et su Tossa de 
Elisandro.** 

245. " La salsa de S. Bernardo" — a 
phrase for hunger. 

250. All the women fall in love with the 
inexorable Tristan at first sight, and one of 
them dies of love in the course of an hour or 
two. 

Perceval le Oalloyt, 

Thb Preface calls it ** ung ancicn livre 
intitule Lhystoire de Perceval le gallois 
faict en ryme et langaige non usite, les- 
quelz ilz avoient faict traduyte de rjme 
en prose et langaige moderne pour im- 
printter.** 

The prologue states that Philip, Count of 
Flanders, gave orders to bring to light the 
life and chivalrous deeds of Percival "sujvan t 
le chronique diceluj Prince et traictie du S. 
Graal.** Both he and his chronicler died be- 
fore this could be accomplished ; and a long 
time after Madame Jehanne, Countess of 
Flanders, seeing the beginning of the Chro- 
nicle, and knowing the intention of Count 
Philip her " ayeul," ordered **ung sien fa- 
milierorateur** named Mennessier ^Hraduire 
et achever** this work. The which he did, 
but because his language and that of his 
predecessor is not in usage in our conmion 
French but ^* fort non acoustumete estrange,** 
to satisfy the desires, pleasures, and will of 
the princes, lords, and others following the 
mother tongue of France, I have employed 
myself ^ a traduire et mectre de Rithme en 
prose** the book, following closely according 
to my possibility and power the sense of my 
predeoessor-translators. 

Was the metrical Romance then in Flem- 
iih or in Walloon ? 

P. 71-2. ^^ Le Roy commande que les 
mangonneaulx que vault a dire les pion- 
niers.** 

Perceval in this romance is without one of 
the virtues which the S. Greall imputes to 
him. 

fil 28. A lady at a tournament ** fort coin- 



tement proprement vestue et par especial 
manches serrees et estroictes portoit, par- 
quoy les aultres la nommerent lapucelle aux 
manches estroictes.** 

30. " Le superlatif du tounioy.** 

44. Arthur*s mother turns out to be alive 
in this romance, living in a castle, where 
Gavain by great adventure discovers her. 
Mother and son, however, meet afterwards 
with great unconcern. 

67. Gawain cut off a man*s head — ** ac- 
taignit ung de telle sorte que la teste envois 
par terre, qui si doulcement et vistement 
fust decolle, que bien petit ne sentit les- 
pee.** 

71. ** Tristan qui jamais ne rist.** 

1 12. Afler a long battle, — ** il est assez a 
croire et a considerer que les deux cheval- 
liers furent lors fort foibles et petit vertueux, 
car tant avoient de sang perdu qua grand 
peine se soubstenoient.** 

126. A chapter begins thus — " Icy fine et 
fault le compte delescu,** — but no tale of a 
shield has been told. 

133. A chess board, where one set play 
themselves. It seems they were made at 
London. 

146. Fighting with a knight whose sword 
breaks, Perceval throws away his own sword, 
and proposes to finish the battle with fists, 
so they set to and box, knock one another*s 
helmets ofi* (not considering the knuckles), 
and then hammer away at the face and the 
teeth, till the knight loses his wind and 
yields. This is the only boxing match I 
have met with. 

There are no regular squires in these ro- 
mances. 

155. ^ Ne peult homme estre du Dyable 
deceu du jour quil le graal veu aura; ne 
s^auroit telle voye tenir quil puist faire ung 
peche mortel.*' 

157. A huntsman ** bien botte dugnes 
bottes dengleterre.** 

175. " Le beau descongneu is Guiglaius,** 
son of Gavain. 

177. ** Gauchier de Doudain qui ceste 
hystoire nous a commemoree.** 

196. Here we have the Dame de Male- 



286 



COLLECTIONS FOR HISTORY OF 



hault, whose brother is here made the king 
of the hundred knights. 

196. " Les oysillons chantent en leur latin 
divers mottetz en leur ramage." 

At the end Perceval has a brother called 
Agloal — the author forgetting that all his 
brothers had been killed at the beginning, 
lie turns hennit, and when he dies the 
Graal and the Lana and " le digne tailloir 
dargent** are carried up to heaven with his 
soul. 

There are some good adventures of Ga- 
van, whose history takes up as great a part 
of the work as Perceval's. One of these 
represents him as behaving very ill. This 
story is grossly inconsistent, strangely so ; 
but on the whole the author considers him 
as a perfect knight. 

Perceval is by no means a hero who at- 
tracts the reader ; he is far too indifferent 
to his plighted BlancheAeur. 



QUARLBS.^ 

" The darling of our plebeian judgement* » 
that is, such as have ingenuity enough to 
delight in poetry, but are not sufficiently 
instructed to maie a right choice and dis- 
tinction." — Phillips. 

Phillips erroneously says that the em- 
blems are a copy from Hermannus Hugo's 
original. 

School of the Heart 

Introduc. 
"TuRH in, my mind, and wander not abroad, 
Here's work enough at home." 

" Self-knowledge 'twixt a wise man and a fool 
Doth make the difference." 

" Hast thou an ear 
To listen but to what thou shouldst not 
heai ?" 



* No chronological order is observed in these 
extracts, but they are given as they appear to 
have been written. — J. VV. W, 



**Thy composure 
Is spirit and immortal ; tliine inclosure 
In walls of flesh is, not to make thee debtor 
For house-room to them, but to make them 
better." 

6. " Take notice of thine heart 

Such as that is, the rest is, or will be, 
Better or worse, blame-worthy, or fault- 
free." 

10. The serpent says, — 

" The knowledge thou hast got of good 

and ill. 
Is of good gone and past, of evil present still.' 



•11 H 



16. " Oh that thou didst but see how blind 
thou art, 
And feel the dismal darkness of thy heart" 

17. " How wouldst thou hate thyself, if 
thou didst know 
The baseness of those things thou prizestso.** 

19. "'Tis as good forbear, 

As speak to one that hath no heart tohetr." 

21. " Stretching their strength, they lay 
their weakness bare." 

" That glittering crown 
Cn which thou gazest, is not gold, but 

grief; 
Tiiat sceptre, sorrow." 

35. *^ The whole round earth Is not enough 

to fill 
The heart's three corners, but it craveth 

still. 
Only the Trinity, that made it, can 
Suifice the vast triangled heart of man." 

40. ^^ And antedate my own damnation 
by despair." 

56. ** The stains of sin I see 

Are oaded^ all, or dyed in grain." 

* Woaded. — R. S. [I had noted another in- 
stance of this word, but as this ^eet goes 
through the press I cannot find it. 

J. W. W.] 



ENGLISH LITERATURE AND POETRY. 



287 



65. **The sacrifice which I like best, is such 
As rich men cannot boast, and poor men 
need not grutch." 

72. ** Some things thou knowest not ; 
misknowest others ; 
And oil thy conscience its own knowledge 
smothers.** 

96. A stanza describing the lily ends thus, 

** Can there be to thy sight 
A more intire delight ? " 

144. ^' He that doth fear because he loves, 
will never 

Adventure to offend, 
But always bend 
His best endeavours to content his friend." 

151. Play upon vowels, consonants, &c. 

154. " And ergos^ drawn from trust and 
confidence. 
Twist and tie truths with stronger conse- 
quence 
Than either sense or reason ; for the heart, 
And not the head, is fountain of this art.*' 



v^W^A^^^^^V^^fWH^/^^^^^w 



QuABLES. Feast for Warms. 1642. 

To the Reader. " My mouth*s no diction- 
ary; it only serves as Uie needful interpre- 
ter of my heart.*' 

P. 10. "What mister word is that?** 

13. ** Then all was whvtty and all to prayer 
went.** 

24. Charity. 

** Chill breasts have starved her here, and 

she is driven 
Away, and with Astrea fled to heaven.** 

26. " Thus all on sudden was the sea 
tranquill, 
The heavens were quiet, and the waves 
were still." 

30. Argument, — 

** "Within the bowels of the fish 
Jonah laments in great anguish." 



40. The king of Nineveh. 

" He reared his trembling corps again. 
His hair all filthy with the dust he lay in." 

" Respectless of his pomp." 

40-1. Popish austerities and Puritan 
cant. 

63. " it no'te avaU." 

78. Mors Tua. 

JEsther. 

P. 105. " The city wonders when a body 
names thee." 

110." When time, that endeth all things, 
did assuage 
The burning fever of Assuerus* rage. 
And quiet satisfaction had assign*d 
Delightful julips to his troubled mind.*' 

111. — " those kingdoms be but ill be- 
blest 

Whose rule's committed to a young man's 
breast." 

112. An exultation for the peace and 
prosperity of Britain ! 

1 15. " When God had with his all-produc- 
ing blast 
Blown up the bubble of the world." 

124. " 'Tis not the spring-tide of an high 
estate 
Creates a man (though seeming) fortunate : 
The blaze of honour. Fortune's sweet ex- 
cess. 
Do undeserve the name of happiness. 
The frown of indisposed Fortune makes 
Man poor, but not unhappy. He that takes 
Her checks with patience, leaves the name 

of poor. 
And lets in Fortune at a backer door. 
Lord, let my fortunes be or rich or poor. 
If small, live less account, if great,, the 



more. 



fi 



131. " The way to bliss lies not on beds 
of down. 
And he that had no cross deserves no 



crown. 



•» 



288 



COLLECTIONS FOR HISTORY OF 



Here, I think, Penn found his title.^ 

Job, 

P. 179. Satan's account of his employ- 
ment on earth. A stroke of satire, hardly 
to have been looked for here. 

185. Alexander. 

** Wouldst thou by conquest win more fame 

than he ? 
Subdue thyself; thyselfs a world to thee." 

But this whole Meditation is impressive 
as well as characteristic. 
206. Meditation 8. 

213. ** What refuge hast thou then, but 

to present 
A heart inricht with the sad complement 
Of a true convert, on thy bended knee 
Before thy God, t'atone^ thy God and 

thee." 

234. *^ To Athens, gown'd, he goes, and 
from that school 
Returns unsped, a more instructed fool." 

234. " The swelling of an outward for- 
tune can 
Create a prosperous, not a happy man. 
A peaceful conscience is the true content. 
And wealth is but her golden ornament." 

234. '^ I am to God, I only seem to man." 

All these scriptural poems of his are di- 



' The title alluded to is his No Cross no 
Crown, Uc. 1682. 8vo. It is Jeremy Taylor 
that says (I quote memoriter), " Every person 
shall in some sort bear his cross, and it is not 
well with those who do it not.'* 

' This is the old sense of the word. I in- 
stance the following, not found in Nareb' GIom, 
or elsewhere, 

*' Which union must all divers things attonej'*&Lc. 
Lord Brooke, Treat, of Monarchie, 

** And if some kind wight goe not to attone 
My surly master with me, wretched maid, 
I shall be beaten dead." 

Browne, Britannia $ PastaraU, 

J. W. W. 



vided into short sections, followed each by 
a meditation. 

Samson, 
Justification in the preface of certsiD 
passages at which ** extreme severity might 
shock." 

P. 268. ** Even when her bed-rid faith 
was grown so frail. 
That very hope grew heartless to prevail." 

276. — " some false delusion that possest 
The weakness of a lonely woman's breast." 

278. ** her breathless tongue dbjoins 
Her broken words." 

282. A catalogue of birds, &c. in the man- 
ner of Chaucer and Spenser. 

" The cuckoo, ever telling of one tale." 

313. Luxuries of the table. 
Viper-wines mentioned as aphrodisiacs. 
327. Some of his oddities in the descrip- 
tion of Samson killing the Philistines. 

355. ** Where Heaven doth please to 

ruin, human wit 
Must fail, and deeper policy submit ; 
There wisdom must be fooFd, and strength 

of brain 
Must work against itself, or work in vain." 

" the silly ass*s bone. 
Not worth the spuming." 

365. Gold, — ^why so rarely produced by 
nature. 

381. Here is Cowley's conceit, speaking 
of the temple which Samson pulled down, 
the ruins, he says, 

'* with an unexpected blow. 
Gave every one his death and burial too." 

382. The concluding Meditation. 

SioiCs Sonnets. 
This is a paraphrase of Solomon's Song, 
cut into shreds of four couplets, in which 1 
have not found a single line or expression 
worth noting. 



ENGLISH LITERATURE AND POETRY. 



289 



SiaiCt Elegies^ wept by Jeremie the 
Prophet, 

This is a paraphrase of the Lamentations, 
m el^es of six couplets. And he follows 
the Hebrew form, bj beginning them al- 
phabeticallj. 

P. 445. " My joys are tum*d to sorrows, 
backt with fears. 
And I, poor I, lie pickled up in tears.** 

An Alphabet of Elegie» upon Dr, AUmer, 

Ix the same form as the Lamentations, 
eoDcluded with an alphabetical epitaph, — 
m which, however, he leaves out X and Z, 
and makes I and U stand each, as in the 
dictionary, for two letters. 

Elegy on Dr, Wilson of the Rolls, 

The dedication, to Robert, son of Sir 
Julius Cesar, is very striking. 

P. 505. *' My passion has no April in her 
eyes. 
I cannot spend in mists ; I cannot mizzle; 
Mj fluent brains are too severe to drizzle 
Slight drops, my prompted fancy cannot 

shower 
And shine within an hour.** 

" let such perfume 
Sospicious lines with skill, whilst I presume 
On strength of nature.*' 

Spirit and etnl he uses as monosyllables. 

MUdreiadoi, To the Memory of Mildred, 
Lady Luekyn. 

In this poem he has imitated the manner 
of Phineas Fletcher. 
The epitaph is in shape of an hour-glass. 

Ooicoigne, 

Thb affair in which he was taken prisoner 
must be that which is so misrepresented in 
Grimestone's History, p. 558. See also P. 
Bor. i. 504, where, though still with an in- 
jorious suspicion, the matter is better ex- 
pbuned. And the Commentarios of D. Ber- 
Qtrdino de Mendoza, ff. 250. 



He uses went for gone. Fruits of War, 
61. 

" Is wit now went so wandering from thy 
mind?** 

As in the first edition of his " Hundred 
sundry Flowers, 1572,** the account of his 
shipwreck is called ** last voyage into Hol- 
land in March,** it appears that he had 
visited that country before. 



••/V«/W^^V«/«MAy\/\/\/N/V>^>> 



TixaU Poetry,^ 

Preface. 

" To some persons this volume will al- 
ways be interesting; in some libraries it 
will always preserve a place ; to some fami- 
lies it.will always be precious.** 

P. 7. On the death of a child, — 

— " God created such immortal flowers 
To grow in his own paradise, not ours.** 

37. A good specimen of continuous trip- 
lets. 

57. A glass-bell in a pendant. This 
seems (if I understand the verses) to have 
been really worn as an ear-ring, and as a 
lover's gift. 

65. A glass concave on one side, convex 
on the other, — a sportive piece of furniture. 

100. ** Is this the house to which none 
ever came 
Unwilling or unwelcome.*' 

Mbs. Thimalbt. 

140. "The dead man*s thumb of azure blew.*' 

What meadow-flower is thb ? 

218. " Long waiting Love doth passage And 
Into the slow-believing mind.** 

Sidney Godolfhin. 

These lines bear a religious application 
also. 

221. — "so highly happy in his love.** 

* The poetry, of course, takes its name from 
the place. It was edited by Arthur Clifford, 
Esq. Edinb. 1813. 4to.— J. W. W. 



m 



V 



290 



COLLECTIONS FOR HISTORY OP 



249. " Go to the dull churchyard, and see 
Those hillocks of mortality ; 
Where proudest man is only found 
By a small swelling in the ground.** 

266. A poem of rich absurdity upon the 
house of Loretto. 

352. How little must this editor have 
read, not to know that the cocoa tree was 
intended. 

389. Stonyhurst. It was Sir E. Sher- 
bume*s seat. Mr. Weld gave it in 1794 to 
the English Jesuits of Liege, on their mi- 
gration to England. 



Thomas Tusser. Dr, Mawr's edition, 

P. 22. Hbbeb has a copy of Tusser with 
MS. notes by Gabriel Harvey. 

25. Lord Molesworth in 1723 said that 
this book should be read, learnt by heart, 
and copied in country schools. 

vii. " By practise and ill -speeding 
These lessons had their breeding.** 

zxxv. ** Sit down, Robin, and rest thee.** 

xL A pretty stanza, but it tells what 
everybody knows. 

Here is the opinion stated that the sick 
feel the ebb and flow.^ 

8. ** For best is the best, whatsoever ye 
pay.- 

28. * '* Hog measeled kill. 

For Fleming that will.** 

39. ** Thy measeled bacon-hog, cow, or 

thy boar. 
Shut up for to heal, for infecting thy 

store; 
Or kill it for bacon, or souse it to sell 
ForFleming, that loves it so daintily well.** 

41. *' Be sure of vergis, a gallon at least. 
So good for the kitchen, so needful for 
beast.** 



* See Tht Doctor, &c. << The Soaniards 
think that all who die of chnmic diseases, 
breathe their last during the ebb." P. 207. 
One volume.— J. W. W. 



63. Strawberries seem to have required 
more care in winter then than now. Was 
this needless care ? or had the plant not 
yet become acclimated ? 

85. What trees are meant by raisins? 
can this word be used for vines ? I think 
not, because grapes, white and red, are 
mentioned in the same list. 

86. ^* Dame Profit shall give thee reward 
for thy pain.** 

88. Cattle fed in the winter upon lop- 
pings ; and sheep, during snow, upon misle- 
toe and ivy. 

96. This mutilation of fillies seems no 
longer to be practised. One is glad to find 
any barbarous practice fall into disuse. 

102. Swans, a part of the live stock, 110. 

109. And peacocks. 

126. Number of dogs, a plague to the 
farmer. 

131. Use of leeks in March. 

132. *^ No spoon-meat no belly full, la- 
bourers think.** 

138. " Save step for a stile, of the crotch 



of the bough.** 

172. " Where chamber is sweeped, and 
wormwood is strewn. 
No flea for his life dare abide to be 
known.**' 

181. The safiron plot served for bleach- 
ing ground in winter. 

183. ** Grant harvest-lord more by a 
penny or two. 
To call on his fellows the better to do \ 
Give gloves to thy reapers, a largess to cry, 
And daily to loiterers have a good eye.** 

188. ** The better thou thrivest, the glad- 
der am I.** 

190. Lent-provision : salt fish, and-- 

** Go, stack it up dry, 
With pease-straw between it, the safer to 
lie.** 



*£. 



• See Second Series, p. 637. — J. W. W. 



ENGLISH LITERATURE AND POETRY. 



291 



The Fletchers. 



) Fletcher (the father I suppose) 
slved in some factious opposition to 
id, the Provost of King's CJoUege ; 
fessed the slander and falsehf)od of 
rges he had assisted in bringing 
iiim. There are several letters upon 
ter among the Laytsduwne MS. p. 
23, 19 and seq. 

122, No. 65, 59. Dr. Fletcher to 
irghlej, of his intention to write in 
e history of the Queen's times, with 
i of it. 

216, Na 112, 39. Some merchants, 
to Rusnia, represent that if some 
\ in Dr. Fletcher's History of Rus- 
not expunged, their trade will be 
The book was accordingly sup- 
good remarks on both by Sir Eger- 
dges in the Preface to his Genevan 
of the Theatrum Poetarum.* 
» also he observes, and I think 
Jiat Kirke White seems sometimes 
come nearest to the manner of Giles 
p. 



Dbattow. 

e original preface to the Heroical 
I, he gives his reason why he ob- 
ot the person's dignity in the dedica- 
lach couple : " Seeing none to whom 
dedicated any two epistles, but have 
fites overmat<;hed by them who are 
» speak in the epistles, however the 
in dedication, yet in respect of their 
in my devotion, and the cause be- 
cited, I hope they suffer no dispa- 
nt, seeing every one is the first in 
articular interest, having in some 
•ted the complexion of the epistles 
character of their judgments to 
[ dedicate them, excepting only the 
dness of the person's passion, in 

3Ta. From the press of Bonnant, 1824. 
»py before me, Sonthey has carefully 
this Preface.— J. W. W. 



those points wherein the passion is blame- 
ful. Lastly, such manifest difference being 
betwixt every one of them, where, or how- 
soever they be marshalled, how can I be 
justly appeached of unadvisement ?" This 
part of the preface was omitted in the later 
editions. 

He apologized also for his notes, saying 
that he had introduced the matters histori- 
cal, which required such explanation, be- 
cause " the work might in truth be judged 
brainish, if nothing but amorous humour 
were han