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Full text of "The Commons : a monthly record devoted to aspects of life and labor from the social settlement point of view"

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'CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



APRIL, 1896. 



No. 1. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 

140 North Union Street. 

CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement 
located two doors from the southwest corner of 
Milwaukee avenue and North Union street. 

As explained in the second clause of the Arti- 
cles of Incorporation of the Chicago Commons 
Association, filed with the Secretary of the State 
of Illinois, 

" 2. The object for which it 
is formed is to provide a center 
for a higher civic and social 
life, to initiate and maintain 
religious, educational and 
philanthropic enterprises and 
to investigate and improve 
conditions in the industrial 
districts of Chicago." 

VISITORS, singly or in 
groups, are welcome at 
any time. Milwaukee 
avenue cable and trolley 
cars pass the door. The 
residents make special 
effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and 
evening, which are usu- 
ally busy and interesting 
occasions, exemplifying 
well the more formal 
and public work of the 
Settlement. 

RESIDENCE. All in- 
quiries with reference to 
terms and conditions of 
residence, permanent or 
temporary, should be ad- 
dressed to Graham Taylor, 
Warden. 




CHICAGO COfinONS. 

VIKW OF THE SETTLEMENT KESIDENOE. 



OUR PURPOSE AND SCOPE. 



We cannot better formulate our conception 
of the purpose and scope of the social settle- 
ment than in the words of the initial state- 
ment of them published when we entered 
into residence, verified by every phase of our 
life and work at the Commons and attested by 
the approving citations of settlement workers 
both in England and America: 

The purpose and constituency of the Settlement 
have gradually denned themselves. It consists of 
a group of Christian people who choose to live 
where they seem to be needed, for the purpose of 
being all they can be to the people with Avhom they 
identify themselves, and for all whose interests 
they will do what they can. It is as little of an 



organization and as much of a personal relation- 
ship as it can be made. It seeks to unify and help 
all other organizations and people in the neighbor- 
hood that will make for righteousness and brother- 
hood. It is not a church, but hopes to be a helper of 
all the churches. It is not a charity, but expects to 
aid in the organization and cooperation of all exist- 
ing charities. It is not an exclusive social circle, 
but aspires to be a center of the best social life and 
interests of the people. It is not a school, but pro- 
poses to be a source and 
agency of educational ef- 
fort and general culture. 
It is non-political, yet has 
begun to be a rallying 
point and moral force for 
civic patriotism. It is 
non sectarian, but avow- 
edly Christian, and open- 
ly cooperative with the 
churches. 

The most subtle 
temptation of the set- 
tlements is gradually 
and even unconsciously 
to substitute the easier, 
impersonal attitude 
and methods for the 
harder, personal con- 
secration and service. 
The elimination of per- 
sonality from "charity" 
and philanthropy, as 
from businesses one of 
the greatest curses of 
the age. It has made much of our industrial 
life inhuman, and not a little of our charity 
and philanthropy really such hard and harm- 
ful things that the very words have become 
hateful to those who are occasionally forced 
to depend upon them, or worse still to accept 
them as substitutes for social and indus- 
trial justice. The settlement movement will 
lose its motive should it ever be content to 
become institutionalized, or less than a corpo- 
rate personality- a ministering body of the 
Son of Man. 

"He who shall introduce into public affairs 
the principles of primitive Christianity will 
change the face of the world." Dr. Benj. 
Hush, 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[April, 



"NOT WHAT WE GIVE." 



" Lo, it is I, be not afraid! 
In many climes without avail, 
Thou hast spent thy life for the Holy Grail; 
Behold it is here this cup which thou 
Didst fill at the streamlet for me but now: 
This crust is my body broken for thee, 
This water His blood that died on the tree; 
The Holy Supper is kept, indeed, 
In whatso we share another's need; 
Not what we give, but what we share, 
For the gift without the giver is bare; 
Who gives himself with his alms feeds three, 
Himself, his hungering neighbor, and me." 

From The Vision of Sir Launfal, 
James Russell Lowell. 




THE KINDERGARTEN. 



The starting point and basis of the educa- 
tional effort, and also of the social redemp- 
tive work undertaken at Chicago Commons, 
is in the kindergarten. Its history, which 
we hope to tell with some detail in a later 
issue, is one of providential opportunity, of 
self-sacrifice and earnest devotion on the part 
of Hs workers, and of instant and unreserved 

ponse on the part of the neighborhood. 

;mt seventy little ones are enrolled, and 
the effect of the effort thus far upon the chil- 
dren and their homes is too obvious to be 
misunderstood or mistaken. The kindergar- 
ten takes advantage of the association with a 
large household in the work of the children 
for the house. Almost every day they prepare 
the vegetables for the Commons table, and as 
occasion arises they wash dish-cloths, scour 
pans, polish silverware and render other serv- 
ice in a blessed outgoing of happy and free- 
hearted helpfulness. In conducting the work of 
this kindergarten, Miss Bertha Hofer puts into 
practical effect, both for the children and for 
the young women who assist her, the princi- 
ples mastered in the Froebel-Pestalozzi house 
of Berlin, Germany, of which she is a graduate. 

OUR NEIGHBORHOOD CHURCH. 



The relations of the Settlement to the 
Church are peculiarly close and happy. 
While the Commons proposes to give all the 
help it can to all the churches of the neigh- 
borhood, its affiliation with one of them is of 
uniquely reciprocal value. The Tabernacle 



Church is five blocks west of us, at the cor- 
ner of Grand avenue and Morgan st. , and is 
the only English speaking congregation in the 
ward. Its pastor and his family have re- 
sided at the Commons from the beginning. 
Most of the residents attend its services. 
Sixteen of them have belonged to the church, 
ten are still in membership. One resident is 
Sunday-school superintendent. Another is 
the head of the Industrial Schools, the 
children' s Sunday evening service,and church 
visitation. Another teaches a week-night 
adult Bible class. Many members of the 
congregation frequent the Commons, and 
with the cooperation of the pastor and trustees 
a children's chorus of 350 voices is in 
excellent training at the church. So far 
from being what many suspect the settle- 
ments to be a proposed substitute for the 
churches Chicago Commons has no higher 
aspiration than to help the Church to become 
more of a social settlement in each com- 
munity for the social unification, the Christian 
neighborliness and the spiritual fellowship 
of all the people in that " righteousness, 
peace and joy in the Holy Ghost " in which 
the Kingdom of God consists. 



SANITARY WORK IN THE WARD. 

The interest of Chicago Commons in the 
sanitary conditions of its community is dis- 
played in the fact that the city's ward in- 
spectorship of streets and alleys is located at 
the Settlement, being held by Herman 
F. Hegner, a graduate of Chicago Seminary, 
who finds a social ministry in the practical 
evangelization of the menacing garbage boxes 
which line the streets and alleys, and require 
for their proper cleansing unceasing vigi- 
lance. Every day the inspector is required 
to cover his territory, reporting upon the 
faithfulness of the garbage contractor and 
his scavengers, and by tactful precept and 
counsel, and occasional exemplary firmness, 
urging the people to cleanliness and care. 
The result has been such that in the recent 
wholesale inspection and complaint by the 
Civic Federation, the Seventeenth ward was 
one of the few escaping criticism. 

In addition to the street and alley inspect- 
orship, five tenement house inspectorships 
are located with us. These are volunteer 
officers, and thus far the press of other 
duties has minimized the activity in this field, 
but plans are making for a more thorough 
pushing out along this line, and much it is 
needed. 



1896.] 



eov\ 
v.\ 




CHICAGO COMMONS 



INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMIC UNION, 

No part of the week's activity at the Com- 
mons is more far-reaching or attracts wider 
interest and attention than the meeting held 
every Tuesday evening in the assembly room 
by the Industrial and Economic Union. 
Here, as brothers, individualist, socialist, 
anarchist, " single taxer," and others, repre- 
senting every shade of social and economic 
philosophy, meet for the discussion of the 
vital issues of the day. Space is not at hand 
for the extensive description of this work; 
suffice it to say that the interest and at- 
tendance constantly increase, and serious dis- 
cussion is the rule. Among the recent 
speakers and topics have been Clarence S. 
Darrow, on "The Social Outlook;" Dr. C. 
A. F. Lindorme, on ' ' The Scientific Basis of 
Equality;" O. A. Bishop, on "Socialism;" 
Mrs. Catherine Waugh McCulloch, on "Social 
Purity," William Howard, president of the 
Longshoremen' s Union, on " Duties of Labor 
Leaders;" F. M. Wilkes, on " Kelation of 
Socialism to the Single Tax," Stoughton 
Cooley, on "Proportional Representation," 
and John Loyd on "The Church and Social 
Reform." Topics in prospect are "Single 
Tax in its Relation to Socialism," "Hered- 
ity," "Intermarriage." 

CIVIC FEDERATION. 



In the year of its existence and activity, 
the Seventeenth Ward Council of the Civic 
Federation has more than excused its ex- 
istence. In many ways the moral tone of 
the ward shows the effects of its efforts. 
The chief feature of its history thus far, how- 
ever, has been its strong influence in the 
politics of the ward. In the aldermanic 
election a year ago the Federation, organized 
as a " citizens' party, "came within a scant 
margin of electing its independent candidate 
against the machine nominees, and the 
politicians of at least one party in the ward 
showed by their readiness to nominate a 
better man this spring their wholesome fear 
of the activity of this well organized and 
determined body of incorruptible citizens. 

In the campaign which is at its height as 
CHICAGO COMMONS goes to press, the Federa- 
tion, separately organized as a ward branch 
of the Municipal Voters' League, has in- 
dorsed the Republican candidate, Magnus 
C. Knudson, and is actively in the field to 
elect him, and to defeat the present alderman, 
whose official record is, to say the least, un- 
savory. 



THE WOMAN'S CLUB. 



The Chicago Commons Woman's Club, 
although of comparatively recent organiza- 
tion, is already a strong feature of the neigh- 
borhood life. The Club meets alternate 
Monday evenings for discussion and enter- 
tainment, and the membership is growing. 
The Club has heard addresses on important 
themes; for instance, Mrs. Cook on the pro- 
posed Bible reader for the schools, and Miss 
Wilson on Chicago architecture. The most 
original and far-reaching action of the Club 
thus far is a resolution addressed to the 
Seventeenth Ward Council of the Civic Fed- 
eration, asking what the Club could best do 
to fulfill its avowed purpose to improve and 
uplift the tone of the neighborhood. This 
resolution is in the hands of the Federation' s 
municipal committee, and it is expected that 
some real benefit will accrue through the co- 
operation of the two bodies. 



MUSIC IN THE SETTLEMENT. 



Chicago Commons bids fair to become a 
musical center in its community. In every 
possible way it is assisting to this end. In 
the kindergarten the piano is used to accom- 
pany games, marches and other exercises, and 
chords serve for signals in- place of the bell 
of the older school days. Every opportunity 
is improved of bringing good music into the 
clubs; sometimes the Italian boys, for in- 
stance, will gather solely for an evening of 
singing. Mrs. Cara Gregg teaches a num- 
ber of pupils on piano, mandolin and guitar, 
and by no means insignificant is the impres- 
sion of the hymns of the daily prayer service, 
and the vocal and piano music incident to the 
home life. 

The musical expression of the week cul- 
minates, however, in the People's Chorus, 
which meets on Thursday evenings, in the 
kindergarten rooms, for the study of the best 
choral music under the direction of Miss 
Mari Hofer. A concert was given recently 
with great success, and the chorus increas- 
ingly reaches the hearts that long for good 
music. 

OUR POPULAR PROPAGANDA. 



The public presentation of the cause for 
which Chicago Commons stands, in common 
with most other settlements, is a primary 
part of its work. The Warden, sometimes 



509808 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[April, 



accompanied by one or more of his fellow- 
residents, has met many large and eagerly 
inquiring gatherings for this purpose. Since 
January 1 the story of the settlement motive 
and movement has been told in many churches, 
colleges, clubs and social gatherings, in and 
out of Chicago, as far as Toledo, Ohio, where 
a course of four lectures was delivered; at the 
Michigan State Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation Convention, and in the Protestant 
Episcopal Cathedral of Cleveland. 

Large numbers of men, many from the in- 
dustrial classes, including some bodies of 
organized labor, attended these regular or 
special occasions and participated with em- 
ployers in freely and frankly discussing the 
vital interests at issue. One of the most in- 
teresting of these gatherings was held under 
the auspices of the Men's Club of the First 
Congregational Church of Elgin. The large 
chapel was filled with a fine body of men 
from the great shops, who, together with a 
few of the employing class present, dispas- 
sionately and most earnestly discussed the la- 
bor movement, the history and present signifi- 
cance of which had been presented. The 
church that thus mediates and educates is 
entering upon a new lease of power and service. 

In addition to work of this kind, every 
other opportunity is welcomed to foster the 
spirit of conciliation. The Sunday after- 
noon meeting at -the Central Y. M. C. A., 
conducted by the Warden, with the assistance 
of one of the residents, has this in mind, and 
" Christian Aspects of Current Issues" is a 
general topic whose applications to varying 
themes, representatives of many classes meet 
there to discuss. Important as is the local 
and neighborhood phase of our work, we feel 
that our mission calls us to every place where 
men are reaching out to attain unto the 
exemplification of brotherhood. 



CHICAGO COMMONS ASSOCIATION. 



The legal tenure of the little household 
property of the Commons is provided for, and 
the acquisition of the title-deed of our resi- 
dence is invited, by the incorporation, under 
the Illinois law, of The Chicago Commons 
Association. The personal and representa- 
tive character of the trustees is sufficient 
guarantee of the business management of the 
funds committed to our care. David Fales, 
Esq. (Lake Forest), and Prof. H. M. Scott 
(West Side) represent the Seminary board of 
directors and faculty; Thomas P. Ballard 
(Evanston) and Charles H. Hulburd (North 



Side) are also members of the City Mis- 
sionary society's board of directors; John 
S. Field (Knickerbocker Ice Co.) and J. H. 
Strong (U. S. Life Insurance Co.) represent 
Plymouth Church; E. Burritt Smith, Esq. 
(South Side), is an officer in the University 
Church, and a prominent legal represent- 
ative of the Civic Federation; Edward 
Payson (Oak Park) is treasurer and Graham 
Taylor (Professor of Christian Sociology, 
Chicago Theological Seminary) is president 
of the Association and resident Warden. 



OUR ASSOCIATE MEMBERSHIP. 



The support of Chicago Commons is to 
come, if at all, from the faith and free will of 
those who believe enough in what it stands 
for to sacrifice whatever its service may cost 
that the residents cannot pay. It has al- 
ready cost no little faith and sacrifice to 
stand in the breach financially, while this 
contributory constituency has been slowly 
rallying to the support of the work. But 
our associates in the settlement motive and 
service are already a widely scattered com- 
pany of people in all walks of life, in many 
different denominations, who have become 
interested in many ways and give many 
small amounts. Some of them constitute 
Sunday-school classes, Endeavor societies, 
men's and women's organizations, social 
clubs and churches who have taken out 
memberships in the name of their associa- 
tions. The contributions are both occasional 
and regular, the latter being paid in install- 
ments, monthly, quarterly and annually. 
Some of the contributions are given to the 
specific branches of the work in which the 
donors are specially interested, e. g., the 
kindergarten, the industrial training, the 
Christian work and consolation among the 
poor and insane at the Cook County Infirm- 
ary, the various branches of church work 
with which the residents cooperate. Upon 
these associate members we wholly depend 
for the $3,500 needed to maintain the work, 
having no endowments or funds from any 
other sources whatever. Not half of this 
sum has yet been guaranteed, the balance of 
the cost being carried by the Warden's per- 
sonal note at bank. Every dollar received 
by voluntary offering saves the time and 
strength which soliciting costs, to the actual 
work which needs every resident worker. 
No membership fee is named; each associ- 
ate being left free to offer whatever faith and 
free will prompt, 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



SCHOOL OF SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



la the last week of April (27 to May 2, 
inclusive) is to be held the Spring session of 
the Chicago Commons School of Social Eco- 
nomics. The sessions will be held in the lower 
rooms of the Settlement residence. The gen- 
eral topic of the Spring session will be " The 
Social Function of Education," and a pro 
gram of rare excellence is preparing, as will 
be seen in the announcement that the list of 
speakers will include President George A. 
Gates, of Iowa College; President H. H. Bel- 
field, of the Chicago Manual Training School; 
Col. W. L. Parker, of the Cook County 
Normal school; Professors Albion W. Small 
and George H. Mead, of Chicago University; 
Miss Josephine Locke, of the Chicago schools; 
Miss Arnalie Hofer, of the Kindergarten 
Magazine; the Rev. D. M. Fisk, Ph.D., of 
Toledo, Professor W. B. Chamberlain, of 
Chicago Theological Seminary; Professor W. 
L. Tomlins, of Chicago, and others. 

Rarely will so brilliant a gathering of edu- 
cators discuss a more vital matter, and Chi- 
cago Commons ought to be a Mecca that 
week for all who are interested in the subject 
of education. The summer session of the 
school, last August, was characterized by an 
aggregate attendance approximating ],500, 
and including teachers, ministers and others 
who welcomed the privileges of the occasion. 

INTER-SEMINARY ECONOMIC CLUB. 

Students from five theological seminaries 
have welcomed the opportunity offered by 
the Commons to discuss economic and indus- 
trial topics, and twice a month have met in 
the kindergarten room, organized as the 
Interseminary Economic Club, to talk over 
these things with representatives of various 
interests. The attendance of students has 
varied from thirty-five to seventy-five, and 
most interesting and profitable have been 
such topics as " The Duty of the Community 
toward Arrested Boys," opened by Mark 
Crawford, warden of the Bridewell; "Rela- 
tion of the Minister to Social Purity," by 
Mrs. Catherine Waugh McCulloch; "What 
the Community has a Right to Expect of the 
Church," opened by William Howard, presi- 
dent of the Longshoremen's Union, O. A. 
Bishop and Dr. C. A. F. Lindoi-me; "Condi- 
tion of Some Unorganized Working People," 
by Mrs. Florence P. Kelley, State factory 
inspector; " Social Possibilities of the Settle- 
ment Movement," by Prof. Graham Taylor 
and other residents of the Commons. 



COMMONS NOTES. 

There is great need of more games for 
the boys- especially crokinole, which is un- 
ceasingly popular. 

A gift of several framed engravings, 

by Mrs. E. W. Blatchford, of Oak Park, is 
appreciated by residents and visitors alike. 

Our daily vesper service is greatly 
aided and enriched by the Century Com- 
pany's gift of GO copies of the Laudes Domini 
hymnal. 

Among our chief needs we count a 
flag staff and flag, by which, every day, we 
might give an object lesson in American 
citizenship and loyalty. 

--George M. Basford, of Oak Park, 
has interesting work ahead for his class of 
boys in the form of ambulance drill, modeled 
somewhat after the service on the English 
railroads. 

Many of our thoughtful visitors re- 
member us after they are at home again, and 
packages of games and magazines following 
upon their visit very practically bespeak their 
interest in our work. 

The beautiful Christmas gift of the 

Sistine Madonna by the residents of Hull 
House is an unfailing source of delight to us, 
not only for itself but for its significance of 
cordiality and fellowship in service. 

A sand pile in the rear yard is one of 
the things we need, and the children, even 
the older ones, look forward to the day of its 
being put there. A couple of good loads 
would do a great deal in this direction. 

As soon as the weather permits, the 

kindergartners mean to start a bit of a gar- 
den outside. This will perhaps be a be- 
ginning for the unbroken summer session of 
the kindergarten, now out of the question. 

A feature of home administration at 

the Commons is the volunteer " door serv- 
ice" by the residents, with a view of mak- 
ing the welcome at the threshold a personal 
one, representing the cordial greeting of the 
family. 

Friends of the Commons in various 

directions are promising us flowers in the 
summer. No one who has not lived amid 
entire absence of beauty can appreciate what 
flowers mean in the dingy river wards of 
Chicago. And we know where to put them 
to do much good. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[April, 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and 

Work, especially in the Industrial Districts 

of the City of Chicago. 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Twenty-five cents per year. Single copies sent to any 
address upon application. For larger numbers, special 
terms may be obtained on application. 



ALL COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 140 North 
Union Street, Chicago, 111. 



VOL. I. CHICAGO, APRIL, 1896. No. t. 

The kindergarten owes much of its outside 
interest and support to the cordial endorse- 
ment and assistance of the Child Garden and 
Kindergarten Magazine. 

*** 

We extend greetings in advance to the new 
organ of the Christian Industrial League, 
Industrial Life, shortly to be issued under 
the editorship of the Rev. A. Lincoln Shear. 

* 

* * 

When manual training is in operation with 
us, the boy question, we expect, will be well 
nigh settled. Give a boy earnest work to do 
with his hands or his brain and you need not 
provide further against mischief -making. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

The first number of CHICAGO COMMONS is 
issued without promise for the future, except 
in the statement of our desire that it shall be 
helpful in explaining to those whom it may 
concern the motive and the progress of 
social settlements in general, and of Chicago 
Commons in particular. It is expected to 
issue in the first week of each month, and 
to present a view of work for the humanizing 
and uplifting of social conditions in the 
" river wards " and other industrial sections 
of Chicago, as well as in similar districts in 
other cities. It is our desire to have the 
paper reach the hands of those having 
sympathy with their fellow men of every 
class and condition, and especially those 
of every person who stands ready to help 
in the effort toward the betterment of the 
conditions of our common human life. 

Upon this platform we modestly come forth, 
the friend of every effort making to help men 
and women and children to be their best 



selves. We purpose to avoid controversy and 
yet reserve the right of comment and criti- 
cism upon those things obstructive of or 
hostile to the principles and purposes for 
which we stand. We ask the help and 
encouragement of our friends and the friends 
of our work, and will try, if not always to 
command success, yet always to deserve it. 



THE SETTLEMENT NAME. 



When in search for the Settlement's name, 
we groped for weeks after some title which 
had at its root, if not in its form, that good 
old English word common. For the idea of 
the sharing of what each has equally with all, 
and all with each, of what belongs to no one 
and no class, but to every one of the whole 
body, is the idea underlying not only this word 
and its equivalents in many tongues, but the 
very conception of that community and com- 
munion in which society and religion consist, 
and which constitute the essence of the set- 
tlement motive and movement. The baptis- 
mal day came, when the name had to be 
forthcoming, for strangely enough the 
"printer's devil" himself was at the door 
demanding it for official announcement in the 
annual statement of the Sociological depart- 
ment. A friend in need appeared indeed, as 
we alighted from an elevator on the top floor 
of a sky-scraper, on the afternoon of the last 
day of grace. In desperation we suddenly 
" held him up " with the demand for a name. 
But he was equal to this, as he had been to 
many another emergency; for he mused and 
mulled a moment over our preference for 
something qornmon, and, as he stepped into 
the car "going down," said, "Call it Chi- 
cago Commons." It was done, and bet- 
ter than that moment knew was the name 
builded. For its popular lineage was really 
behind it, woven through English history. 
As the freemen of the race organized in their 
early shires, municipalities and guilds, and 
later on combined to form one body repre- 
senting the whole people, so the represented 
people, without any primary distinction of 
class, came to be known as "the Commons." 
To this ideal of social democracy, the name 
adds the suggestion of those few patches of 
mother earth still unclaimed as private 
property, which at least afford standing room 
equally for all, irrespective of pecuniary cir- 
cumstances or social status. 

So we called our household and its home- 
stead " Chicago Commons," in hope that it 
might be a common center where the masses 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



and the classes could meet and mingle as 
men and exchange their social values in some- 
thing like a "clearing-house" for the com- 
monwealth; where friendship, neighborship 
and fellow-citizenship might form the per- 
sonal bonds of that social unification which 
alone can save our American democracy from 
disruption, cloven as it is under the increas- 
ing social stress and strain; and where that 
brotherhood of which we talk and sing may 
be more practically lived out and inwrought, 
as it must be if Christianity continues to be 
a living faith and its churches the people's 
fellowship. GRAHAM TAYLOR. 



* 
* * 



It would be difficult to overestimate the 
influence of the settlements in making public 
opinion in matters relating to industrial dis- 
turbances. Particularly has this been the case 
recently in relation to the strike of the garment 
workers in Chicago and in the general question 
of the sweating system. In this matter Hull 
House has been foremost, calling and through 
Miss Addams conducting the great anti-sweat- 
ing meeting of March 8 at Central Music Hall, 
and making a strong and telling appeal for 
arbitration in the clothing strike. Miss 
Addams' s address in favor of this arbitration, 
made before the Central Council of the Civic 
Federation, March 19, was admirable and 
fairly settled the question of the standing of 
the Federation in the matter. 

# 

* * 

A welcome addition to our residential and 
working force comes in the person of Dr. Mary 
Edna Goble, a graduate of the Illinois 
Training School for Nurses and of the medi- 
cal department of the University of Michigan. 
Dr. Goble will have charge of the tenement 
house inspection and of the instruction in 
household sanitation f first aid to the in- 
jured, etc. Through her medical skill the Set- 
tlement will come into more vital touch with 
its neighbors in their homes, and into closer 
co-operation with the Illinois Medical College 
in the Commons dispensary work for the 

poor. 

* 

# * 

The residents of Chicago Commons have 
decided upon Tuesday afternoon and evening 
as the weekly occasion upon which they will 
make special effort to be at home to their 
friends. This is not intended to restrict vis- 
itation to that day, for interested friends are 
always welcome, but in order that those com- 



ing from a distance may be reasonably assured 
of finding the residents at home and compar- 
atively at liberty. 

* 

* # 

Through the courtesy of N. H. Carpenter, 
secretary of the Art Institute, in cooperat- 
tion with Mr. French, the Institute's Direc- 
tor, the residents of the Commons have free 
access to the exhibitions and lectures at 
the Institute, a privilege which has been 
thoroughly availed of and appreciated. 

* 

* * 

We mean to regard as "preferred" names 
upon our mailing list, all settlements, and to 
send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course 
to all such. In return, we ask for all reports, 
and, so far as possible, all printed matter 
issued by settlements in the course of their 
regular work. 

* * 

Canon Barnett's recent papers in the Fort- 
nightly Review and the Nineteenth Century, 
on social settlements, should be familiar to 
all our readers. Canon Barnett may fairly 
be called the Moses of the settlement move- 
ment, and his utterances on the subject are 
to be regarded as authoritative. 

# 

* * 

The schedule of classes and clubs in the 
Plymouth Winter Night College gives a good 
idea of the work which has been going on in 
the educational department of the settlement. 
It is now undergoing revision preparatory 
to the beginning of the new term of the 
college work. 

* * 

Christian Endeavor Societies in parties 
have been among our recent visitors, in- 
cluding two groups from Evanston and one 
from the Woodlawn Park Presbyterian 
Church. Couples and trios of Endeavorers 
are almost daily callers. 

* 

* * 

A four-page leaflet, bearing a picture of 
our residence, and describing our work some- 
what fully, has recently been published, and 
is on hand in sufficient supply. We will 
gladly furnish copies to any one upon appli- 
cation. 

* 

* * 

' ' The remedy for social discontent and 
dynamite bombs is Christianity as taught in 
the New Testament." Prof. R. T. Ely. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[April, 



fln tbe Worlfc of Settlements 



THE GREAT SETTLEMENT NEED. 

It has been notable in the English Settlements 
that it has been possible to find men and women 
from the more prosperous classes who are willing to 
give their time and at least two or three years of 
their life to living among: the poor and working: for 
tin-in. In the rush of our materialistic civilization 
that time does not yet appear to have come in this 

city We have been obliged thus far to 

depend wholly on the student class for resident 
workers. It is the permanent factor which is most 
needed for the strong development of our work. 
Could three or four be found who would live at the 
Settlement for two years and then carry the interest 
which had been grounded during their residence, 
and use the knowledge and apprehension of con- 
ditions obtained at that time, we could accomplish 
the work of a generation." Report of University 
Settlement Society, New York City. 



THE CHICAGO FEDERATION. 



Many Chicago settlement workers were 
present at the last quarterly meeting of the 
Federation of Chicago Settlements at the 
University settlement, March 7. Eight 
settlements were represented by the total at- 
tendance of forty-three, and a most enjoy- 
able and profitable meeting was held. 

A tabulation of personal and vital statistics 
for the use of settlements was adopted to 
cover these points: Name, nationality, resi- 
dence, whether owner of home or tenants, 
occupation, industrial or trade organization, 
social affiliations (societies or clubs), edu- 
cational advantages, church or religious 
affiliation, remarks. A committee was ap- 
pointed to form a definition of a " Settle- 
ment" by which membership in the Federa- 
tion may be regulated. It was voted that 
each settlement appoint one representative 
to act upon a committee for the extension 
of the musical work. 

Much interest was displayed in Miss Julia 
C. Lathrop's report as chairman of the com- 
mittee on settlements, of the National Con- 
ference of Charities and Corrections, which 
is to hold its annual session at Grand Rapids, 
beginning June 9, and including one session 
or more on the subject of settlements. 

A committee to cooperate in arousing in- 
terest in the session was appointed, in- 
cluding Dr. Brown, Miss Stowe and Mrs. 
Helen Campbell. 

The secretary was directed to convey the 
sympathy of the Federation to Percy Al- 
den, of Mansfield House, London, in the 
loss which the recent tire there brought upon 
him in the destruction of his personal 
property and papers. 



There was a general discussion of the re- 
lation of the Settlements to ward and mu- 
nicipal politics, and a resolution was passed 
requesting Mr. Rosenthal, a member of the 
Federation, to accept the nomination which 
had been tendered him for the office of 
Alderman in the Seventh Ward. 

Miss Jane Addams declined re-election as 
president of the Federation, and the officers 
chosen are Graham Taylor, of Chicago Com 
mons, president; Miss Gertrude Barnum, of 
Hull House, secretary; Mrs. N. E. Sly, of the 
Northwestern University settlement, treas- 
urer. The next meeting will be held at the 
Elm street settlement in the latter part of May. 

FIRE AT MANSFIELD HOUSE. 



The sympathy of all settlement workers, 
and also of thousands of other American 
friends, goes out to the residents of Mans- 
field House, East London, upon learning 9f 
the fire which wrought grievous and irrepara- 
ble loss there a few weeks ago. The office 
of Percy Aldeu, the warden, was completely 
burned out by the flames, which destroyed, 
as the Mansfield House magazine reports, 
"all his books, papers, accounts, address 
books and a great and growing store of valu- 
able material relating to social movements; 
in short, all the results of the past ten years' 
work and more that could be committed to 
paper, and all the personal possessions that 
he cared, for." 

In a personal letter concerning the misfor- 
tune, Mr. Alden writes: 

Among the lost papers were my American notes 
and that which I value far more highly, the list of 
addresses of my many American friends. I shall be 
very grateful to these friends if they will kindly 
forward their addresses to me as soon as convenient 
so that 1 may be able to replace the destroyed list 
as completely and as early as possible. 

Let every one knowing of Mr. Alden's mis- 
fortune rally now to his aid, sending him 
copies of all printed matter, addresses of 
American friends and other information 
likely to be of use in filling the gap caused 
by the flames. Every aid extended to him 
is an aid to the Settlement movement and 
all that it involves. 



The purpose of the Gospel is to convert 
men from sin whether they live in heathendom 
or Christendom, America or India. Christi- 
anity is not apologizing for the sins of this 
country or any other country. It condemns 
them all, high and low, small and great. 
Chicago Advance. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



9 



A SETTLEMENT_BIBLIOCRAPHY. 

" Where can I get information about social 
settlements?" is a question of almost daily 
repetition in the ears of settlement workers. 
" Is there no book on the subject ? To whom 
can I write for facts?" In compiling a 
" Bibliography of College, Social and Uni- 
versity Settlements," Miss M. Katherine 
Jones, Vice- President of the College Settle- 
ments Association, has gone far toward satis- 
factorily answering these queries. This 
Bibliography is now pretty well known 
among settlement workers, but many who 
are interested in the subject of settlements 
need to know of it, for it is the best, and 
indeed fairly the only, publication of its 
kind. All the settlements in the world then 
known to the compiler are mentioned, with 
address in each case, and in most instan- 
ces a bibliography of periodical literature 
referring to the work. As the Bibliography 
more thoroughly covers its field it will be- 
come even more valuable. The price is 10 
cents, and copies may be obtained of the 
Secretary of the College Settlements Associa- 
tion, Miss Caroline L. Williamson, 3230 Michi- 
gan Avenue, Chicago, 111. 



DELANCEY STREET'S GOOD REPORT. 



The .annual report of the University set- 
tlement at 26 Delancey street, New York 
city, is just at hand, and shows a good year's 
work complete. The report summarizes in a 
clear tabular form the satisfactory work of 
the various clubs, classes and other interior 
agencies, except in reference to the kinder- 
garten and library, which are fully reported. 

During the year, the settlement gave mate- 
rial aid in meeting the distressing conditions 
ensuing upon the great cloak-makers' strike, 
distributing wisely the funds subscribed for 
relief, acting with real, earnest friendliness 
toward the needy, studying the conditions 
with a scientific eye to discover the inherent 
cause of the troubles, and aiding as far as 
seemed possible toward the adjustment of 
more harmonious relations. An art exhibition 
in the spring lasted four weeks, and a total 
attendance is reported of 105.696, one ban- 
ner day alone scoring over 7,000. A strong 
part was played in the great battle for mu- 
nicipal reform, the headworker acting as a 
member of the famous Committee of Seventy. 
And in general, the University settlement of 
New York has striven earnestly and in many 
ways successfully to be the effective civic and 
moral center about which the people of its 



community might rally for social initiative 
and uplift. 

UNION SEMINARY SETTLEMENT. 



Among the newer settlements reported is 
the Union Seminary settlement, of New York 
city, recently established by the " Union 
Settlement Association," under the auspices 
of the Seminary Alumni Club. The consti- 
tution defines the object of the society to be 
"the maintenance of settlements in New 
York city for the assertion and application, 
in the spirit of Jesus Christ, of the principles 
of brotherhood along the lines of educational, 
social, civic, and religious well-being." The 
settlement has been located at No. 237 East 
One hundred and Fourth street, in a crowded 
neighborhood that is poorly supplied with 
educational, remedial, and religious agencies, 

The work of its firt>t few months, sum- 
marized by the Outlook of February 29, indi- 
cates a good grasp already upon the neighbor- 
hood. William E. McCord, of the Seminary 
Senior class, is the head worker. 



RESIDENTS OF THE COMMONS- 



Chicago Commons has thus far been dis- 
tinct among settlements in the continuous 
residence of families. At present there are 
three family groups including five young 
children. There are in residence eighteen 
adults, men and women being equally 
divided. The stability and continuity of the 
Settlement life and work are secured by the 
continuous presence of the nucleus of per- 
manent residents centering in the family 
groups of Professor Graham Taylor, the 
Eev. B. F. Boiler, and John P. Gavit, 
together with Misses M. Emerett Colman, 
Bertha Hofer and Ida E. Hegner, and Her- 
man F. Hegner. 

Other residents now at the Settlement 
include: Mi^s Jessie M. House, Robert E. 
Todd. the Rev. Morris W. Morse, Andrew 
Erickson, Mrs. Katharine Lente Stevenson, 
Miss Alice B. Cogswell. 

The following have been in residence for 
longer or shorter periods; Miss 'Alice M. 
Hunt, Jesse Kolmos. the Rev. Philip S. 
Matzinger, Mrs. C. K. Gregg, Miss Ruby 
Mertz, H. H. Stutson, Arthur B. Merriam, 
Clifford Snowden, Thomas Puggard, S. M. 
Cooper, Dr. and Mrs. F. C. Wellman, Dr. 
and Mrs. O. T. Robinson, Mr. and Mrs. Max 
West, Walter Vose Gulick, James Lee Reed, 
Frederick Tucker. 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[April. 



among tbe Boofes 



SOCIOLOGICAL READING REFERENCES 



Such was the demand made upon us by 
correspondents all over the county for refer- 
ences to the best reading on Sociological 
lines, that we issued, more than a year ago, 
a little bibliography entitled "Books for Be- 
ginners in the Study of Christian Sociology 
and Social Economics." As the edition is 
exhausted and out of date, we propose to 
make CHICAGO COMMONS as helpfully valuable 
as we may to readers, students and field 
workers, by noting with brief comment the 
freshest contributions to social science which 
come from the periodical and book press, and 
by adding each month a list of references on 
some specific line of study which will at least 
afford a working equipment for its pursuit. 
We invite both inquiries and suggestions re- 
garding helpful titles from our fellow stu- 
dents all over the field. 

At the head of the new books should stand 
Giddings's " Principles of Sociology" (Mac- 
Millau, New York) by the eminent Columbia 
University professor who, perhaps, next to 
Lester F. Ward, is the most original and 
philosophical of American sociologists. 
Professor Patten's monograph, on "A Theory 
of Social Forces," (American Academy of 
Political and Social Science, Philadelphia,) 
takes high scientific rank from its very appear- 
ance. 

More popular but less thorough is Bas- 
com's "Theory of Social Order" (Thos. Y. 
Crowell, New York). Remarkable gatherings 
of facts have been made by Teuney in 
"Triumphs of the Cross" (Balch Bros., 
Boston), and Crafts in " Practical Christian 
Sociology," (Funk & Wagnalls Co.) which, 
though valuable contributions to the liter- 
ature, add nothing to the science of Society. 

Crawford's " The Brotherhood of Mankind, 
a Study Towards a Christian Philosophy of 
History " (T. & T. Clark) is a permanently 
valuable and very timely addition to the fun- 
damental discussions of Christian sociology. 



The relation of the sociological movement 
to modern missions, especially in foreign 
lands, is the theme of two courses of lectures 
recently delivered, one at Princeton, Auburn, 
and other seminaries, by Rev. Mr. Dennis, 
author of " Foreign Missions After a Cen- 
tury," the other by President C. D. Hart- 
rauft, of Hartford Theological Seminary. 
The first is soon to be published, and it is to 
be hoped the latter may be added to the 
series of "Vedder Lectures. 

The following valuable references for the 
study of Social Ethics are suggested by the 
Rev. D. M. Fisk, Ph. D., of Toledo, Ohio, 
and give evidence of the increasing emphasis 
laid by the greatest authorities in ethical 
science upon societary relationships: 

Seth. A Study of Ethical Principles. JAS. A. 
SETH. (Scribners.) 

Part I, Chap. 3. The Ethics of Personality, 

p. 193. 
Part II, Chap. 2. The Social Life, p, 283. 

Mackenzie. Manual of Ethics. (Clive,) London. 
Chap. 9. The Individual and Society, p. 153. 
Chap. 10. The Moral Order. Social imper- 
ative, etc. 

Hyslop. Elements of Ethics. JAS. H. HYSLOF. 
(Scribners.) 

Chap. 10. Theory of Rights and Duties. 

Smyth. Christian Ethics. NEWMAN SMYTH. 
(Scribners.) 

Part I, Chap. 5. Realization of Christian 

Ideal, p. 241. 
Part II, Chap. 3. Duties Toward Others, p. 

371. 
Part II, Chap. 4. The Social Problem, p. 441. 

Bowne. The Principles of Ethics. BORDEN P. 
BOWNE. (Harpers.) 

Chap. 10. The Ethics of Society, p. 247. 

Dorner. System of Christian Ethics. J. A. 
DORNER. (Scrib & Welford.) 

Christian Social Love, p. 504. 
The Organized World, p. 516. 
The State, p. 554. 

Martensens. Christian Ethics. (T. & T. Clark.) 
Vol. 3. Social Ethics. 



"Talk about the questions of the day: 
there is but one question, and that is the 
Gospel. It can and will correct everything 
needing correction." W. E. Gladstone. 

Every ray of sunlight brings a bit of joy 
into some life. Every smile helps to lighten 
the burdens of some heart- Sel. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



SEMINARY DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY. 

As the Commons is related by a personal 
tie to the Sociological department of Chicago 
Seminary, the Warden of the one and the 
professor of the other may be warranted in 
counting upon the interest of the friends of 
both in notes from the class-room .and its 
''clinics" on the city-fields. 

The department room and alcoves in the 
library of the seminary are the center of 
growing interest, not only among the stu- 
dents who are required to do much original 
research there, but also among many min- 
isters and readers who come there to pursue 
special lines of investigation. 

A course in Biblical Sociology was insti- 
tuted this year for the first time in this or 
any other institution, so far as known. It 
was prescribed the first half of the year, but 
was elected by almost the entire Junior 
class the second half. The syllabi of this 
course will be revised and possibly printed 
for the students' use next year. An 
abridged course will be given in several 
summer schools. 

The elective class in Theories of Social 
Order spent most of the term in the study of 
socialism and the relation of Christianity to 
it. Ely ' s "Socialism and Social Reform" was 
used as a reference text-book, with collateral 
readings from Marx, Morris, the Fabian 
Essays and the more popular socialistic 
literature. Both in the class-room and at the 
Tuesday evening economic discussions at the 
Commons the students met those actively 
engaged in the Socialistic Labor Party for 
conference and discussion. An interest- 
ing debate was held on the question, " Re- 
solved, that the objections to Socialism out- 
weigh the arguments for it as a scheme for 
the reorganization of Society." 



Stoe 



Sfcetdbes 



THIS record of "The Little Maidens' 
Meeting," is given here verbatim: 

"The Club consisted of only five members: 
Their names were: Amy Bolten, treasurer, 
aged eleven; Clara Kirchoff, president, 
aged nine; Elsie Ryckoff, aged eleven; Rosa- 
lie Strehl, aged ten; Belle Phillips, aged 
eleven. Elsie Ryckoff was the secretary of 
the club, but because we had so few mem- 
bers, Amy Bolten and Clara Kirchoff do some 
of the secretary's work. We hope to have 
more members next year. Belle Phillips had 
the reason of not staying in our club because 
she did not like to work on Saturdays and 



could not read German well enough. She 
had her name canceled the end of March. 
Amy counted the money up and the sum is 
$2.60 cts." 

APROPOS of the kindergarten, these letters, 
received by Miss Hofer, are self-explanatory, 
and show the reflex action of the work, even 
at a distance, upon those who assist in it: 

My mamma has read me about the poor 
children's kindergarten in the Child Garden, 
and I send ten cents to help toward it. 

ROY 



Enclosed pleased find twenty cents, ten of 
it earned by a boy of five bringing up wood 
from the woodhouse, eight steps, to the 
kitchen, one cent a day; the other ten earned 
by a three-year-old sister waiting on her in- 
valid mother. They will send more as soon 
as they earn it. They had saved it for Christ- 



mas. 



s. s. B. 



MANY bright and breezy things come with- 
in the notice of the settlement workers, here 
and elsewhere so many, in fact, that most of 
them are forgotten. But now and then an 
unusually bright or funny saying sticks in 
mind. For instance, in one of the Italian 
boys' classes the story of the life of Wash- 
ington was being told, and the immortal 
episode of the hatchet and the cherry tree 
was among the particulars recalled. 

"And what did George's father say. to 
him," asked the teacher, "when he con- 
fessed that he had chopped down the tree?" 

The frugal mind of one of the boys arose 
promptly to the emergency, as he replied: 

"He say, ' Go pick up the wood.' ' 

AND speaking of " picking up wood " re- 
calls vividly to the minds of certain of the 
earlier residents of the Commons some 
examples of that industry which formerly 
were the despair of the neighborhood, the 
street department and the police. Most of 
the less prominent streets of central Chicago 
are paved with wooden blocks sections of 
round tree trunks, eight inches or so in length. 
It has been a source of great annoyance in 
summer days since the street was thus paved 
to have certain thrifty but less public-spirited 
persons dig up these blocks in considerable 
quantities for purposes of fuel. A part 
of the mission of the Commons, and particu- 
larly of its kindergarten, is to instil by ex- 
ample a higher sort of public spirit, and to 
teach people who do not now appreciate the 
fact, that the stealing of street pavement is 
neither public nor private economy. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[April. 








Docker Bros, f ianos 







Arion Pianos 



233 STflTE STREET 
49-53 JACKSON STREET 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I, No. 4. 



CHICAGO, JULY, 1896. 



16 Pages. 




THE SUMMER CAMPAIGN. 



Youngsters of the Chicago Commons Kindergarten Upon One of Their Picnic Trips to 

the Suburban Fields and Woods. 



IN ACCORDANCE with the request of many friends, this photograph from the May issue, which is 
now exhausted, is reprinted with its explanatory paragraph. The picture is a typical one, and 
the whole story is told in the explanatory headline. The occasion upon which the picture was taken 
was really the second outing of the spring, for in happy parties they had been once to Union 
Park, and had feasted with unmitigated delight for an hour upon beauties approximating in their 
minds those of Heaven. Imagine, then, the ecstacy of a whole day in the orchard of Mr. and Mrs. 
Belknap'a beautiful place at Oak Park ! Eighty-seven of these little ones enjoyed thus every hour of the 
12th of May, and marked it in memory as a " beginning of days." The kind friends who planned the 
outing furnished also transportation out and back, and a bountiful lunch in the midday hour, all of which 
contributed for the little folks a day of untarnished ecstacy. They came home with great armfuls of green 
weeds, in the effort to perpetuate thus one of the occasions, far too few for these little children of the city, 
when close to Mother Nature's heart they may drink in the sights and sounds of fairyland, and refresh 
their hungry souls through communion, such as only children and the childlike can know, with the great 
unwritten, unrestricted Word of God. For an infinitesimal cost it has been possible thus to do more toward 
the brightening of these lives than one day's time could do in almost any other way. This has been the 

(Continued on page 11.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[July, 



FOR 'A THAT! 



A prince can mak a belted knight, 

A marquis, duke and a' that; 
But an honest man's aboon his might; 

Gude faith, he mauna fa' that! 
For a' that, and a' that, 

Their dignities, and ' that, 
The pith o' sense and pride o' worth, 

Are higher ranks than a' that. 

Then let us pray that come it may, 

As come it will for a' that, 
That sense and worth, o'er a' the earth 

May bear the gree, 1 and a' that; 
For a' that, and a' that 

It's coming yet, for a' that, 
That man to man, the warld o'er 

Shall brothers be, for a' that. 

Robert Burns, last two verses of 

" Honest Poverty. 



Sear the gree be decidedly victor. 



THE SOCIAL PROPAGANDA. 



Field Notes of the Western Summer Schools and 
Chautauquas. 



Eager Audiences in Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa 
Discuss the Progress of Brotherhood Splendid 
Labor Meeting at Des Moineg. 



[BY THE WARDEN.] 

The growth of social consciousness and culture 
is nowhere more apparent than in the numerous 
summer assemblies for popular education. The 
attendance and attention given to classes for the 
study of the social teachings of the Bible and to 
courses of lectures on the Labor Movement and 
other branches of social economics are simply 
astonishing, even to one in constant personal con- 
tact with the growing interests in these directions. 
The new movement seems to be in solution every- 
where, needing only a point to precipitate upon. 
While prevalent among all classes, it is noteworthy 
that the women of the West seem to have a greater 
degree of social interest and intelligence than any 
other class of the population. This is largely due 
to the woman's clubs which have grown so rapidly 
even in the agricultural states, that they seem to 
be well-nigh omnipresent. For fifteen years the 
Woman's Social Science Club of Kansas has done 
a splendid educational and social work for the 
womanhood of that great commonwealth. When 
a bright woman was known to be living on some 
lonely ranch or in an isolated town she was invited 
to the meeting of this club, which, for wider use- 
fulness, though at the inconvenience of the major- 
ity of its members, has been held in every quarter 
of the state. When necessary, her traveling ex- 
penses were paid, that she might take part in dis- 
cussion or read her first paper. Thus there came 



to be little groups of women in every county, gath- 
ered around leaders who received their training in 
this way; so that when the State Club federated 
the local centers there were found to be quite a 
thousand members. Since women have the muni- 
cipal suffrage in Kansas the significance of this 
social training is great, and its effect is in plain 
sight. So effectually is the prohibitory law en- 
forced, for example, in Ottawa, and to so high an 
ideal has the social order been raised, that its pop- 
ulation of 8,000 people require but one policeman 
by day and another at night! The jail stands 
empty most of the time, and no grand jury has 
been necessary during ten years. 

DISCUSSING THE CHURCH'S MINISTRY. 

So great was the demand for teaching on social 
topics at the Chautauqua Assembly that the writ- 
er's eighteen appointments grew to thirty during 
the ten days of his visit, special conferences being 
requested by the young women college gradu- 
ates and undergraduates, by public school teach- 
ers and superintendents, by pastors, fifty of 
whom, representing various denominations, were 
present eagerly discussing the social aspects of 
their own and the Church's ministry. So many 
were the inquiries regarding the topics of each 
lecture that a question hour was held every even- 
ing, and drew nearly as many people as the lec- 
ture. One of the most interesting features of this 
experience was the conference with the men in the 
Santa F6 railway repair shops, where, at the noon 
hour, foremen, mechanics and laboring men, 
grouped around their great machines, listened to 
the discussion of the motive and the methods of 
the Labor Movement. The social spirit of the 
occasion found no more beautiful expression than 
in the noon concert given in these shops by the 
orchestra, who, as members of the Musicians' 
Union of Kansas City, volunteered this token of 
fraternity to their brother workingmen. Dr. Gun- 
saulus well exclaims, "Give me a Kansas audi- 
ence!" 

INTEREST IN NEBRASKA. " 

In Nebraska, at the Crete Assembly, the same 
interest manifested itself in similar ways. The 
note-books, the demand for bibliography, the refer- 
ences to books read, the study of Labor Commis- 
sioner Wright's Chautauqua text book, entitled 
" The Industrial Evolution of the United States," 
the intense interest in the story of the rise and pro- 
gress of the Labor Movement through the past six 
hundred years of English history, all bore evidence 
of the deepening social consciousness of the nation 
and the growing social intelligence of these great 
Western states. The tremendous moral earnest- 
ness with which social aspects of the coinage 
question were discussed, not only by such repre- 
sentative debaters as Hon. John P. Irish, the 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



effective advocate of the gold standard, and the 
brilliant Mr. Bryan, Presidential candidate of the 
silver sentiment, but also by all classes of the peo- 
ple themselves, was a revelation to an Eastern man. 
Whatever may be thought of the economic princi- 
ples involved, no man can gainsay the candor, 
ability, depth of conviction and manly spirit with 
which the contending views are held and discussed. 
The nation has little to fear from this great awak- 
ening of such a citizenship to active participation 
in its economic development and legislation. 

LABOR MEETINGS AT DBS MOINES. 

The large city constituency that Des Moines sup- 
plies to the new Iowa Midland Chautauqua was no 
exception to the prevailing popular interest in the 
same themes. The many appointments for their 
discussion on the grounds did not prove sufficient, 
and invitations poured from the city for the repe- 
tition of some of the addresses or presentation of 
other phases of the subject. Conferences were 
held with three churches, the social economic sec- 
tion of the Woman's Club and the Trades and 
Labor Assembly. 

On Sunday night the great Calvary Tabernacle 
held a large audience of workingmen and women, 
.among whom were many business and professional 
men, bankers and employers of labor, who seemed 
to listen with equal interest to the discussion of 
labor and religion and what was common to both. 
The following evening the invitation of working- 
men to meet them in their Trades and Labor As- 
sembly hall was accepted for the purpose of an 
informal conversational conference over the ways 
and means of making the most and the best of their 
labor unions. 

There, for three hours, the men listened to the 
plainest talk and the frankest criticism. They 
appreciated the best that the speakers had to offer 
And applauded the reading of Arnold Toynbee's 
most conciliatory pleadings. One of their number, 
an old English miner, made the most telling speech. 
Ridiculing the workingmen's subserviency to party, 
by which his old-countrymen had been kept crying 
to this Tory lord, " pick us up," and to that Liberal 
commoner, " pick us up," and by which American 
workingmen were still crying "McKinley, pick us 
up," "Bryan, pick us up," the " old-man-eloquent" 
thundered out, " It's time to pick ourselves up!" 
.and again, " The man that can't master the week's 
-wages he earns won't master the movement for 
more." The Tabernacle pastor, himself a gradu- 
ate from an English coal mine, and one of the 
most heroic of American city mission workers with 
Parkhurst in New York, alone in Omaha, and sin- 
gle-handed in Des Moines, made a rousing plea for 
the brain-power of the workingmen to be applied 



to the study of industrial economics and the history 
of the Labor Movement. 

BEGINING A NEW EPOCH. 

One of the leading editors of the city, who had 
been keenly interested throughout, declared it to 
have been one of the most enjoyable and profitable 
evenings he had ever passed, and predicted that 
this meeting would prove to have begun a new and 
inestimably important educational movement for 
the people of Des Moines. One of the trades 
unionists immediately turned his prophecy into 
history by moving that the first of a series of such 
meetings be held in two weeks, and that the editor, 
minister and the old miner be invited to address it. 
With a vim it was so voted, and with hand-shaking 
all around the new brotherhood adjourned to meet 
many a time thus to pray, 

" that come it may, 
As come it will, for a' that, 
That man to man, the war Id o'er, 
Shall brothers be for a' that." 



FOREIGN MISSIONS AT HOME. 



Resemblance of the Social Settlements to Missionary 
Homes in Heathen Lands. 



[It is in accordance with special request that we publish 
below the substance of an article by Rev. J. D. Davis, D.D., 
of Kyoto, Japan, originally printed in the Chicago Advance. 
Regretting that our limits of space prevent its quotation in 
full, we still believe that the gist of it will do much toward 
explaining and arousing interest in the social settlement. 
ED. CHICAGO COMMONS.] 

Never before was there a nation with so much 
foreign missionary work to be done within its 
own borders as our own; and unless it is done we 
shall not long remain a nation. It is only the 
fact that there are proportionally so many more 
to do this work at home than there are among 
the nations that know not Christ, that consti- 
tutes an unanswerable call to any workers to 
leave our own shores. 

But it is not alone the millions who have come 
to its shores from other lands who need to be 
touched and vivified with the love and life of 
Christ and made meet for citizenship in a free 
republic and in the kingdom of God on earth and in 
heaven. There are also within our borders millions 
who, though American born, are forgetful of, or 
estranged from, the great principles of Chris- 
tianity which are really the foundation of our 
nation. The sixty-five millions of the United 
States are divided today into two nearly equal 
parts; the church-goers, who are nearly all 
gathered into the church as members, and the 
non-church-goers, who are largely estranged from 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[July, 



the church, many of them even violent opposers 

of it. 

***** 

A prominent pastor of a large up-town church 
in a city not a thousand miles from Chicago, re- 
cently said to the writer, that, although his church 
was working in two mission Sabbath Schools in 
the deserted quarters of the city, there was not 
one-tenth enough work to keep his large church 
in a healthy condition. 

Is there not a more excellent way? May we 
not learn something from foreign mission meth- 
ods, and introduce them at home, especially in 
our large cities? The writer was profoundly im- 
pressed with the importance of doing this, during 
a recent visit to the Chicago Commons or social 
settlement of the Chicago Theological Seminary, 
at 140 North Union street, near Milwaukee avenue, 
of which Prof. Graham Taylor is warden. 

SIMILAR TO MISSIONS. 

I was particularly impressed with the similarity 
of methods in this settlement and those in foreign 
lands. Our foreign missionary boards do not 
send men and women simply to itinerate, to open 
mission schools on the Sabbath, or to preach here 
and there among the millions. 

All this has its value, but it is merely surface 
work as compared with the influence and the 
results which come from the establishment of a 
Christian home in the midst of the people, and 
the throwing of that home open to the people, 
inviting them into it, making them feel at home 
there, having nothing too nice or too sacred for 
them to see and touch. 

It took some grace for a lady of my acquaint- 
ance to have a chief, on one of the Micronesian 
Islands, come into the bright, new home of the 
missionary, being clothed in little else than a 
fresh coat of oil, and lie down to try the bed and 
leave the oily imprint of his form upon her new 
white counterpane; but such forbearance and love 
as that helped to win this chief and that island 

to Christ. 

***** 

Twenty years ago the writer entered the old 
capital city, Kyoto, in Japan; ours the first 
missionary family to live there. We were in the 
midst of a people who were bitterly opposed to 
Christianity. But our house was thrown open to 
them, and they were invited to come. Neither 
myself nor my dear companion was ever too 
busy to welcome them, talk with them and show 
them everything of interest in the house. They 
were always seated in our best chairs, in our best 
room. More than 2,000 came thus into our home 
during the first year we were in the city. Each 
of our three little children was a missionary, the 



center of interest and attraction to all who called. 
I have always regarded the influence of such a 
Christian home in Japan as worth more for the 
cause of Christ there than all the direct work 
which the missionary can do outside of it. 

THE NEEDED ADDITION. 

Why cannot more such missionary work as this 
be done among the masses in large cities? With- 
out remitting anything which is being done by 
visitation, by mission schools and mission churches, 
cannot this be added, and is not this necessary to 
make the other efforts succeed? Are there not 
those among the up-town Christians whom God is 
calling to move back down town, to form centers 
of Christian love and life, ganglia, as it were, 
which shall make more living and effective the 
weaker and more interrupted efforts? Are there 
not many thousands massed together in our great 
cities who are almost untouched by any influences 
from Christian homes, who regard the church as 
their enemy, and who can be reached in no other 
way so well, if at all, save as Christian families 
show them that they love them enough to come 
and put their homes and their hearts among them 
and win them, being willing to suffer with them, 
weep with them, rejoice with them, and thus put 
the heart of Christ, the Christ who is with us,, 
alongside of them and win them? Even our 
Savior ate with publicans and sinners. 
***** 

There are suburban towns round Chicago which 
are called " Saints' Rests." Should the saints rest 
in that way, while there are hundreds of thousand* 
massed together in the great city who come under 
the influence of no Christian homes? 

It is not necessary that all should move back 
down town. Not many are likely to feel and heed 
this call, at present. But when a few devoted 
hearts do feel and heed it, as Prof. Graham Taylor,, 
Mr. Adams of the Bohemian Mission, and 
others do, when they move their families with their 
children into the submerged sections of the city, 
shall they not be sustained by the prayers and 
sympathy of all who love the Lord? Shall the 
few hundred dollars needed to keep such a de- 
voted heart as that of Professor Taylor from being 
financially "ground to powder," be withheld? 
For he stands alone financially responsible for the 
Chicago Commons, and he must have help. It 
may be that he, and such as he, will move the 
world toward Africa and save it. Let us sustain 
him. 

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy 
heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. 
This is the first and great commandment. And a 
second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neigh- 
bor as thyself. Jesus Christ. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



SUPPORT OF OUR WORK. 
The support of Chicago Commons is to come, 
if at all, from the faith and free will of those who 
believe enough in what it stands for, to sacrifice 
whatever its service may cost that the residents 
cannot pay. It has already cost no little faith and 
sacrifice to stand in the breach financially, while 
this contributory constituency has been slowly 
rallying in the form of Sunday School classes, 
Endeavor societies, men's and women's organiza- 
tions, social clubs and churches who have taken 
out memberships in the name of their associations, 
to which are to be added widely scattered individu- 



Wardeu's personal note at bank. Every dollar re- 
ceived by voluntary offering saves to the actual 
work which needs every resident worker, the time 
and strength which soliciting costs. No member- 
ship fee is named, each associate being left free 
to offer whatever faith and free will prompt. 



THE DRINKING TROUGH. 



Evident Need of a Fountain at the Busy Union Street 
Corner of Milwaukee Avenue. 



Wide interest was aroused by the paragraph in 
the May issue of CHICAGO COMMONS referring 
to the water trough in front of the saloon next door 




THE DRINKING TROUGH 
[showing Illinois Medical College and Chicago Commons Free Dispensary. 



als, young and old, and in every walk of life. The 
contributions are both occasional and regular, the 
latter being paid in instalments, monthly, quar- 
terly and annually. Some of the contribution* are 
given to the specific branches of the work in 
which the donors are specially interested, e. g., 
the kindergarten, the industrial training, the 
Christian work and consolation among the poor 
and insane at the Cook County Infirmary, the 
various branches of church work with which the 
residents co-operate. Upon these associate mem- 
bers we wholly depend for the $3,500 needed to 
maintain the work, having no endowments or 
funds from any other sources whatever. Scarcely 
half of this sum has yet been guaranteed, the 
balance of the cost having been carried bylhe 



to the Commons, which, every day, as was then 
stated, is thronged by the poor parched horses and 
thirsty men and children who can find no other 
public place in this whole section of the city to 
quench their thirst. In order to make more vivid 
the impression of this need, we have chosen as one 
of our illustrations a photograph showing the 
trough in the very act of use by a thirsty boy. 

We now hold in trust for this need about five 
dollars, in the words of the former appeal, "as a 
magnet to the humane instinct of many friends 
everywhere, who will, we believe, help us rear at 
the intersection of these three great thoroughfares 
a plain, substantial and ample fountain in His name 
who will one day say, ' I was thirsty and ye gave 
me drink.' " 



6 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[July, 



THE CRY OF THE CHILDREN. 



And well may the children weep before you! 

They are weary ere they run. 
They have never seen the sunshine, nor the glory, 

Which is brighter than the sun. 
They know the grief of man, without its wisdom ; 

They sink in man's despair, without its calm; 
Are slaves without the liberty of Christdom 

Are martyrs, by the pang without the palm; 
Are worn, as if with age, yet unretrievingly 

The harvest of its memories cannot reap; 
Are orphans of the earthly love and heavenly. 

Let them weep ! Let them weep ! 

They look up with their pale and sunken faces, 

And their look is dread to see, 
For they mind you of their angels in high places 

With eyes turned on Deity. 
1 How long," they say, " how long, O cruel nation, 
Will you stand, to move the world, on a child's heart- 
Stifle down with a mailed heel its palpitation, 

And tread onward to your throne amid the mart? 
Our blood splashes upward, O gold-heaper 

And your purple shows your path! 
But the child's sob in the silence curses deeper 
Than the strong man in his wrath. 

From " The Cry of The Children," 

by Elizabeth Barrett Browning. 



Settlement anfc 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 

140 NORTH UNION STREET, AT MILWAUKEE AVE. 

(Via Milwaukee Ave. cable and trolley cars, or via Hal- 
sted St. or Grand Ave. cars, stopping at Austin Avenue 
and Halsted St.) 

Chicago Commons is a Social Settlement located two 
doors from the southwest corner of Milwaukee Avenue 
and North Union street. 

As explained in the second clause of the Articles of In- 
corporation of The Chicago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of Illinois, 

"2. The object for which it is formed is to provide a 
center for a higher civic and social life, to initiate and 
maintain religious, educational and philanthropic enter- 
prises and to investigate and improve conditions in the in- 
dustrial districts of Chicago." 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome at any time, 
but the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Residence All inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should 
be addressed to Graham Taylor, Kesident Warden. 

Information, concerning the work of Chicago Commons 
is gladly furnished to all who inquire. A four-page leaflet, 
bearing a picture of our residence, and describing the work 
somewhat fully, is on hand in sufficient supply. Copies 
will be mailed to any one upou application. Please enclose 
postage. 



OUR PURPOSE AND SCOPE- 



We cannot better formulate our conception of 
the purpose and scope of the social settlement 
than in the words of the initial statement of them 
published when we entered into residence, verified 
by every phase of our life and work at the Com- 
mons and attested by the approving citations of 
settlement workers both in England and America: 

The purpose and constituency of the settlement have 
gradually defined themselves. It consists of a group of 
Christian people who choose to live where they seem to be 



needed, for the purpose of being all they can be to the peo- 
ple with whom they identify themselves, and for all whose 
interests they will do what they can. It is as little of an 
organization and as much of a personal relationship as it 
can be made. It seeks to unify and help all other organiza- 
tions and people in the neighborhood that will make for 
righteousness and brotherhood. It is not a church, but 
hopes to be a helper of all the churches. It is not a charity, 
but expects to aid in the organization and co-operation of 
all existing charities. It is not an exclusive social circle, 
but aspires to be a center of the best social life and in- 
terests of the oeople. It is n<'t a school, but purposes to be 
a source and" agency of educational effort and general 
culture. It is non-political, yet has begun to be a rallying 




VIEW OF THE SETTLEMENT RESIDENCE. 

point and moral force for civic patriotism. It is non-sec- 
tarian, but avowedly Christian, and openly co-operative 
with the churches. 

The most subtle temptation of the settlements is 
gradually, and even unconsciously, to substitute 
the easier, impersonal attitude and methods for 
the harder, personal consecration and service. 
The elimination of personality from " charity " and 
philanthropy, as from business, is one of the 
greatest curses of the age. It has made much of 
our industrial life inhuman, and not a little of our 
charity and philanthropy really such hard and 
harmful things that the very words have become 
hateful to those who are occasionally forced to de- 
pend upon them, or worse still to accept them as 
substitutes for social and industrial j ustice. The 
settlement movement will lose its motive and its 
power should it ever be content to become institu- 
tionalized, or less than a corporate personality a 
ministering body of the Son of Man. 



Since our suspension of the regular Sunday after- 
noon meeting, begun in May, a group of the more thought- 
ful men have continued to come at 4:00 o'clock Sunday 
afternoons and hear Dr. C. A. S. Lindorme's interesting 
talks upon various philosophical and ethical phases of social 
and industrial life. It is hoped to make the Sunday meet- 
ing one of the features of our life and work next winter, 
adding to the lectures by various leaders in moral thought, 
the attractions of music, ethical readings, etc. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



SCHOOL OF SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



Discussion of Social Reconstruction Postponed Until 
the Early Winter. 



In accordance with many requests it was de- 
cided to postpone the autumn session of the Chi- 
cago Commons School of Social Economics from 
the first week of September, when it was expected 
to be held, until early in October, when those who 
had been away from the city during the summer 
and who would be interested in the sessions of the 
school, might attend them. As the current politi- 
cal campaign draws on, it becomes increasingly 
evident that a calm discussion of the social status 
and of proposed remedies of existing evils will be 
more likely to be possible at some other time than 
in the closing weeks of a political campaign which 
every indication declares will be one of the most 
earnest and momentous in the history of the 
United States. 

For this reason it has been decided to postpone 
the session of the School at least until the latter 
part of November or early December, when every 
effort will be made to focus the best thought ob- 
tainable upon the subject of " Social Reconstruc- 
tion," with special reference to the question: " Do 
the principles of the Sermon on the Mount afford 
a sufficient basis?" It is impossible at this time 
to announce the names of speakers, but it is our de- 
sire to secure for our aid in this discussion the best 
available exponents of every school of social and 
religious philosophy and reform. We feel thatwe 
can safely promise an occasion of deep interest, a 
series of exceedingly valuable contributions to the 
study of social facts, forces and ideals, and that the 
sessions will be of unique value to all interested in 
the solution of the menacing social problems by 
which modern life is beset. Notice of dates and 
programmes will be given in later issues of CHIC- 
AGO COMMONS, and will be sent to those who regis- 
tered at the Spring Session, and to any others who 
apply with postage. 



THE KINDERGARTEN. 



Starting Point and I'.asis of Educational Effort 
Summer Session. 



The starting point and basis of the educational 
effort, and also of the social redemptive work un- 
dertaken at Chicago Commons, is in the kinder- 
garten. Its history, is one of providential oppor- 
tunity, of self-sacrifice and earnest devotion on the 
part of its workers, and of instant and unreserved 
response on the part of the neighborhood. About 
ninety little ones are enrolled, and the effect of the 
effort thus far upon the children and their homes 
is too obvious to be misunderstood or mistaken. 



The kindergarten takes advantage of the associa 
tion with a large household in the work of the 
children for the house. Almost every day they 
have prepared the vegetables for the Commons 
table, and as occasion arises they wash dish-cloths, 
scour pans, polish silverware and render other 
service in a blessed outgoing of happy and free- 
hearted helpfulness. 

THE SUMMER KINDERGARTEN. 

The experiment of carrying on our kindergarten 
throughout the summer has been more than suc- 
cessful. So sure were we that our friends would 
support this venture that we assumed the risk of 
the living board and room-rent of the two noble 
young ladies who on June 28 finished their hard 
winter's work in a public-school kindergarten in 
Wisconsin, and in the first week of July came to 
Chicago Commons to give their summer vacation 
without one cent of remuneration from any source, 
to the children of our neighborhood. Day after 
day, usually without the help of even a pianist, 
those two young women have given their lives for 
Christ's sake without hope of return, caring often 
for fifty children all the morning, and spending the 
afternoon calling in the homes of the children 
or making good times for the older ones. On 
Saturday morning they have conducted a sewing 
school for the girls, with a most satisfactory at- 
tendance. 

TO SUPPORT THE WORK. 

As to the support of this work, the response to 
our request was instantaneous and generous. But 
little is lacking to insure the amount needed for 
the bare living of these two earnest workers and 
for the small amount of materials needed in the 
work of the kindergarten. This is an effort whose 
results are immediately evident, and no better or 
more needed work has been or will be done by 
Chicago Commons than the summer kindergarten 
which keeps two-score of little folks off of the 
dirty, dangerous and degrading streets of Chicago. 
We feel sure that our friends will not compel the 
Settlement residents from their limited personal 
funds to bear this expense. 



Never was there a time, in the history of the 
world, when moral heroes were more needed. 
The world waits for such. The providence of God 
has commanded science to labor and prepare the 
way for such. For them she is laying her iron 
tracks and stretching her wires and bridging the 
oceans. But where are they? Who shall breathe 
into our civil and political relations the breath of 
a higher life? Mark Hopkins. 

Whosoever would save his soul shall lose it, and 
whosoever shall lose bis soul for my sake shall find 
it. Jesus Christ. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[July 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and 

Work, especially in the Industrial Districts 

of the City of Chicago. 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Twenty-five cents per year, postpaid to any State or 
Country. Single copies sent to any address upon applica- 
tion. For larger numbers, special terms may oe obtained 
on application. The publishers will be glad to receive 
lists of church members or other addresses, to whom sam- 
ple copies may be sent. 

Changes of Address Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it is due. 

To Other Settlements We mean to regard as "pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such. In return, we ask for all reports, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 



ALL COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 



Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post-Offlce at Chicago, 111. 



VOL. 



JULY, 1896 



No. 4 



' ' I J HAT I want of the young men and women 
W of the country," said Dr. H. C. Mabie at 
the Christian Endeavor Convention at Washington, 
" is that they be laid on God's altar without condi- 
tions." 



IN the sad and sudden death of Mr. I. N. Camp 
we of Chicago Commons lose a warm friend, 
who has taken several opportunities to help our 
work. To his stricken family we extend heartfelt 
sympathy. 

*** 

INDUCTIVE scholarly study by practical work- 
1 ers is greatly needed. The splendid literature 
of the social movements, increasing daily, offers 
great opportunities. Under the head " From Soci- 
ological Cla s s Rooms " we report this month an of- 
fer which should interest settlement workers. 



THE JULY ISSUE. 



It was the intention of the publishers of CHI- 
CAGO COMMONS to make the July and August issues 
of the paper of eight pages only, but the welcome 
accorded to the little publication has been so cordial, 
and the demand for sample and back numbers and 
for information about the Settlement so great, that 
we felt it wise to make our July issue a special 
number, both illustrating our Settlement work and 
suggesting the development possible for the paper 
in months to come if the present extraordinary de- 
mand is maintained. With a view of making this 
special issue of permanent value in the literature 
of the settlement movement, and as representative of 



our work as possible, we have published this montk 
a paper of sixteen pages, have reprinted certain 
distinctive articles and editorials from previous is- 
sues, now nearly or quite out of print, and have 
endeavored to make sure of a sufficient supply im 
order to begin new subscriptions for some time, 
when desired, with an issue quite fairly represent- 
ing the early numbers of the paper. 

With earnest gratitude to our friends who have so 
cordially aided us, with special acknowledgments 
to the Bible Class in the First Congregational 
Church of Evanston, conducted by Mr. Thomas P. 
Ballard, who have been standing behind us finan- 
cially in our venture, and without whose assur- 
ance we hardly would have dared to launch out, 
we issue now our fourth number, asking continued 
co-operation and leniency of judgment on the part 
of our friends. Only by the considerable and 
rapid growth of our circulation can we be assured 
against financial loss or in favor of the advertise- 
ments which will enable us to improve the paper 
as we desire. 

Furthermore we ask every person into whose 
hands a copy of the paper may fall, to do what he 
may to make new friends for it and increase its 
circulation. The subscription blank at the bottom 
of page 15 may be filled, torn out and mailed 
to us. The subscription price is so trifling that 
nearly anyone can afford the cost, and we hope 
that through our paper, with the aid of our friends 
and subscribers, many new hands and hearts may 
be enlisted in the work w love, here or elsewhere. 



MANUAL TRAINING. 



Those who deal with boys in settlement work or 
otherwise are unanimous in the belief that to set 
a boy's hands and eyes and brain at work is to 
solve the " boy problem." We of Chicago Com- 
mons, awake day and night, it might be said al- 
most literally, to the need of the great army of 
boys in the industrial districts of Chicago, feel that 
our greatest mission is to the boys of our own dis- 
trict, and that through some plan of manual train- 
ing is the solution of the problem to be reached. 
A good friend of our work has provided a sum 
sufficient for the initial expense, and now we be- 
speak the cooperation of all who are interested in 
the most important, because most dangerous, citi- 
zen of the commonwealth The Boy. Even the 
best equipped manual training class will not run 
itself, or live usefully upon interest of its own 
making. 

THE SETTLEMENT NAME. 

When in search for the Settlement's name, we 
groped for weeks after some title which had at its 
root, if not in its form, that good old English word 
common. For the idea of the sharing of what each 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



9 



has equally with all, and all with each, of what 
belongs to no one and to no class, but to every one 
of the whole body, is the idea underlying not only 
this word and its equivalents in many tongues, but 
the very conception of that community and com- 
munion in which society and religion consist, and 
which constitute the essence of the settlement 
motive and movement. The baptismal day came, 
when the name had to be forthcoming, for strangely 
enough the " printer's devil " himself was at the 
door demanding it for official announcement. 

A friend in need appeared indeed, as we alighted 
from an elevator on the top floor of a sky-scraper 
on the afternoon of the last day of grace. In des- 
peration we suddenly " held him up " with the 
demand for a name. But he was equal to this, as 
he had been to many another emergency; for he 
mused and mulled a moment over our preference 
for something common, and, as he stepped into the 
car " going down," said, " Call it Chicago Com- 
mons." It was done, and better than that moment 
knew was the name builded. For its popular 
lineage was really behind it, woven through Eng- 
lish history. As the freemen of the race organ- 
ized in their early shires, municipalities and guilds, 
and later on combined to form one body represent- 
ing the whole people, so the represented people, 
without any primary distinction of class, came to 
be known as "the Commons." To this ideal of 
social democracy, the name adds the suggestion of 
those few patches of mother eaith still unclaimed 
as private property, which at least afford standing 
room equally for all, irrespective of pecuniary cir- 
cumstances or social status. 

So we called our household and its homestead 
" Chicago Commons," in hope that it might be a 
common center where the masses and the classes 
could meet and mingle as men, and exchange their 
social values in something like a " clearing-house " 
for the commonwealth; where friendship, neigh- 
borship and fellow-citizenship might form the per- 
sonal bonds of that social unification which alone 
can save our American democracy from disruption, 
cloven as it is under the increasing social stress 
and strain; and where that brotherhood of which 
we talk and sing may be more practically lived out 
and inwrought, as it must be if Christianity con- 
tinues to be a living faith and its churches the 
people's fellowship. GKAHAM TAYLOR. 

ONE of our chief lines of work is the exposi- 
tion of the settlement idea and movement, 
and of various kindred phases of social life and 
progress. We hold ourselves ready to present the 
cause upon every opportunity, and are glad to hear 
of churches, schools, clubs and classes where what 
we have to offer will be helpful. An address or 
sermpn upon " The Settlement Idea " would add 
interest to the morning service one of these hot 



Sunday mornings and we hold ourselves ready to 
furnish such a feature or even a day's series of so- 
cial studies. A recent suburban pilgrimage of 
this sort included a Sunday morning address upon 
" The New Brotherhood," an afternoon men's 
meeting considering " The Call of the Times for 
Men," and an evening talk on " The Social Settle- 
ment; What it has to offer for the solution of so- 
cial problems." 

*** 

THE postponement of the Chicago Commons 
School of Social Economics will be regretted 
by none more than by those who have its arrange- 
ment in charge. But so desirous are we that the 
discussion of Social Reconstruction shall be calm, 
judicial and candidly truth-seeking, that we feared 
to jeopardize the best results of such a discussion by 
precipitating it in the heat of what promises to be 
the most heated campaign of recent years. Im 
view of the universally conceded fact that social 
conditions are very far from the ideal, it is self- 
evident that a conference regarding remedies 
should not be complicated by the presence of 
issues more or less purely partisan. We ask of our 
friends and the friends of the ultimate truth, the 
utmost of aid to make the coming session one of 
permanent value. 

gibe Htflbt Sketches 

MOST pathetic are some of the incidents in con- 
nection with our "fresh air" excursions. To most 
of the children " The Country" means a great place 
of mysterious delights, known only by a rarely 
privileged few. Some are afraid of what they see, 
and one little child was terribly frightened at sight 
of the grass waving in billows as the wind passed 
over it. She had never seen grass before, and she 
thought it was alive ! Another little girl, ten 
years old, was taken to the lake shore beach, and 
feared every breaking wave afresh. The sticks 
and dead insects and fish on the shore were things 
of terror, and not until she had been there a week 
or more could she be induced to wade in even the 
calmest water. A resident asked one little girl, 
just starting for Elgin : 

" Are you glad to go to the country, Mamie ? " 

" I I guess so." 

" Haven't you ever been to the country ? " 

" No, ma'am; what does it look like ?" 

THE watering trough next door has many uses 
beside that for which it is intended. Aside from 
the horses and men and women and boys and girls 
who drink out of it, there are heated passers-by 
who dip their heads in for a cooling. Now and 
then a man or boy tosses in his dog for a bath, 
and perhaps, next, some luckless urchin will be 
ducked there by his frolicsome playmates. To- 
ward evening the procession of horses becomes 
well nigh incessant, and the human drinkers 
scarcely get a chance, which sends many into the 
saloon instead. Now and then one will see beside 
the trough the not infrequent sight of a mother or 
father, bringing the children to the horse-trough 
to wash before supper. 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[July, 



OUR ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Random Glimpses of Daily Life and Work About 
the Settlement Residence. 



It would hardly have been possible to select four 
illustrations more typical of the work of Chicago 
Commons, or of the life of the people among whom 
it stands. Especially is this true of the photo- 
graph of the "drinking fountain." The camera 
stood in front of the Settlement residence, on the 
west side of Union street (almost exactly at the 
spot marked by the head of the procession in the 
picture on this page) and looking northerly (to the 
right according to this picture) along Union 



the opening of the college in the spring. A busy 
space of city street is that in front of our windows. 
The illustration below shows not only the party of 
happy children, with busy grown-folks anxious for 
a propitious starting, but by means of the bulletin 
in front of the porch exhibits one of our ways of 
announcing the subjects of the Industrial and 
Economic Union meetings every Tuesday evening. 
This particular sign says: "Tuesday Night. The 
Referendum. The People Should Veto Bad Leg- 
islation. Several Speakers. Eight o'clock. All' 
Welcome!" But the children are not interested in 
economic topics; they are off for the country, and. 




OFF FOR A PICNIC. 



street across Austin and Milwaukee avenues. 
In the immediate foreground is one of our 
little girl friends, all unconscious of the steady 
gaze of the camera. Just back of her is the horse- 
trough, from which a sturdy specimen of " our 
boys" is about to drink. Further distant, at the 
left, is one of our Italian neighbors, coming home 
from market. Visible above the little girl's head, 
and yet more unconscious of the camera, is a bridal 
couple, just married in the Settlement parlor by 
Rev. Mr. Boiler, and now hastening to the trolley 
car which has been stopped for them. Other pass- 
ers go to and from their work, and the two young 
men on the opposite 'side of the avenue have just 
left the " Chicago Commons Dispensary " in the 
basement of the Medical College. The van in front 
of the college has brought the goods of students 
for this photograph was taken about the time of 



our large photograph of the youngsters under the- 
trees is the proof that they arrived there safely. 



OUR NEIGHBORHOOD CHURCH. 

The relations of the Settlement to the Church 
are peculiarly close and happy. While the Com- 
mons proposes to give all the help it can to all the 
churches of- the neighborhood, its affiliation with 
one of them is of reciprocal value. The Taber- 
nacle Congregational Church is five blocks west of 
us,atthe corner of Grand avenue and Morgan street,. 
and is the only English-speaking Protestant con- 
gregation in the ward. Its pastor and his family 
have resided at the Commons from the beginning. 
Most of the residents attend its services. Sixteen 
of them have belonged to the Church and ten are 
still in membership. One resident is Sunday- 
School superintendent. Another is the head of the 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



Industrial Schools, the children's Sunday evening 
service, and. parish visitation. Another teaches 
a week-night adult Bible class. Many members 
of the congregation frequent the Commons, and 
with the co-operation of the pastor and trustees a 
children's chorus of 350 voices has been in 
excellent training at the Church. So far from be- 
ing what many suspect the settlements to be a 
proposed substitute for the Churches Chicago 
Commons has no higher aspiration than to help 
th.e Church to become more of a social settlement 
in each community for the social unification, the 
Christian neighborliness and the spiritual fellow- 
ship of all the people in that " righteousness, peace 
and joy in the Holy Ghost" in which the Kingdom 
of God consists. 



THE SUMMER CAMPAIGN. 

(Continued from 1st Page.) 

keynote of our summer campaign "Away from 
the city ! " 

And our friends in the suburbs have been rally- 
ing nobly to our help in this regard. The group 
of good friends in Dwight, 111., who welcomed one 
of our neighbors with her child in June have taken 
another, fresh from the Cook County Hospital, 
with her infant, and thus helped to restore hope 
and courage to a nearly despairing life. 

The Sunday School of the Congregational 
Church at Downer's Grove, under the direction of 
Rev. H. H. Rood, secured a farm house and a good 
woman to have charge of it, and have kept for a 
fortnight each, several groups of children. A score 
of young people will have been entertained at 
Elgin in small groups for a week or more at a 
time. These are only examples of a work growing 
in capacity and outreach, and showing a blessed 
awakening on the part of Christians in the coun- 
try to the need of their city brethren, and to the 
fact that " to have is to owe." Nothing has been 
said of the several picnics for a day apiece by 
groups of the boys and girls to suburban fields and 
woods, or of the outings enjoyed by the residents 
for one day or longer through the kindness of the 
friends of the Settlement and its work. 



THE VOTERS' MEETING. 

One of the best indications of what the Settle- 
ment may do and become as a center for efforts to- 
ward civic righteousness was the meeting held just 
after the giving away of the famous " Union Loop" 
franchise by the Chicago Common Council. Both 
of the Aldermen of the 17th Ward, including the 
one who was elected through the efforts of the 
better citizens of the ward, voted with the gang 
of " boodlers " in giving away the franchise, and 
the 17th Ward Council of the Civic Federation 
called a meeting to take action upon the mat- 



ter. The large assembly room of the Settlement 
residence was packed with the voters of the 
ward, and many stood outside in the yard, while 
the " reform " Alderman was explaining his vote. 
His explanation and pledges for the future were 
sufficiently satisfactory to avoid a vote of censure, 
but a committee of fifteen voters was appointed 
to confer with the Alderman and watch the prog- 
ress of events. 

It was an extraordinary occasion, and exhibited 
most satisfactorily the readiness of the rank and 
file of the 17th Ward voters to meet for the consid- 
eration of the interests of the ward. It was, in- 
deed, only one of the many indications, within the 
observation of this and other settlements, of the 
eagerness among every-day American citizens to 
help whenever the opportunity arises, in the work 
for social honesty and civic righteousness. 

CHICAGO COMMON^ ASSOCIATION. 
The legal tenure of the little household property 
of the Commons is provided for, and the ac- 
quisition of the title deed of our residence is in- 
vited, by the incorporation, under the Illinois law,, 
of The Chicago Commons Association. The per- 
sonal and representative character of the trustees is 
sufficient guarantee of the business management of 
the funds committed to our care. David Fales, E? q., 
(Lake Forest), and Prof. H. M. Scott, (West Side),, 
represent the Seminary board of directors and 
faculty; Thomas P. Ballard, (Evanston), and 
Charles H. Hulburd, (North Side), are also mem- 
bers of the City Missionary Society's board of 
directors; John S. Field, (Knickerbocker Ice Co.), 
and J. H. Strong, (U. S. Life Insurance Co.), 
represent Plymouth Church; E. Burritt Smith, 
Esq., (South Side), is an officer in the University 
Church, and a prominent legal representative of 
the Civic Federation; Edward Payson, (Oak Park),, 
is treasurer, and Graham Taylor, (Professor of 
Christian Sociology, Chicago Theological Semi- 
nary), is president of the Association and resident 
warden. 

COMMONS NOTES. 

The boys are already eagerly looking forward to the 

coming winter evenings, and the prospect of manual 
training. 

We shall be much in need of games in the coming 

year's work. Crokinole is by far the most popular, and we 
have but two sets. 

The Woman's Club continues its meetings through- 
out the summer, gaining in interest so much that increasing 
from fortnightly to weekly occasions, a good attendance 
has characterized the meetings of even the hottest Monday 
evenings. 

Plans are already making for the meetings of the 

Inter-Seminary Economic Club, which was of so great in- 
terest and value last winter, when students from five 
theological seminaries in Chicago welcomed the opportunity 
to discuss economic and industrial topics, and twice a 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[July, 



month met to talk over these things with representatives 
of various interests. 

We shall need much help from good men of 
patience, tact and native wit to help us to cope with our 
" boy problem " next winter. 

The Girls' Progressive Club, composed of our work- 
ing-girl friends and a number of the Chicago graduates of 
women's colleges, has met during the summer months with 
notable sustenance of interest. Several outings have been 
enjoyed. 

The effort to keep green the bit of lawn in front of 

the Commons residence has been even more successful 
than we supposed possible. We have fairly worn out our 
100 feet of hose, and count a new supply among our imme- 
diate needs. 

Astonishing as the announcement may seem to 

many dwellers in ordinary city conditions, a very plague of 
mosquitoes has added wakeful nights to the usual trials of 
life in Union street. The wooden sidewalks of Chicago 
cover many a stagnant pool where the little pests are bred. 

A large number of magazines have been sent to the 

Settlement, but are not in use because, they being in full 
volumes, it is felt that it would be wasteful to have the num- 
bers scattered and worn out separately. Who will help 
us in this matter by paying for the binding of one vol- 
ume, or more? 

A score of needs, within the house, await the day of 
our ability to meet them. Some have to do with adorn- 
ment, some with mere utility. We scarcely know in which 
category to class, for instance, our dream of the day when a 
strip of cocoa matting will stretch from end to end of each 
of our long hall-ways! 

Especial attention is being given during the hot 
weather to the matter of sanitation. In the absence of 
Kev. H. F. Hegner, the ward inspection of alleys and scav- 
enger work is in the hands of Mr.Todd, and every endeavor 
is put forth to interfere effectively in all cases of unsani- 
tary conditions coming within our notice. 

Our "flower mission" work has been decidedly 

effective during the summer. Friends in neighboring sub- 
urban towns, and from even so far away as Iowa, have sent 
to us weekly, or oftener, cut flowers and plants, which it 
has been our pleasure to distribute as effectively as possible. 
The recipients have fully appreciated the service. 

The Tuesday evening meetings of the Industrial 
and Economic Union continue with unabated interest, the 
men refusing to hear of such a thing as a "summer inter- 
mission." The most notable thus far in the summer series 
was that addressed by John Turner, the English anarchist, 
whose address, heard by a large audience, gave rise to warm 
discussion and was the occasion of a second meeting, when 
his arguments were criticized by Deputy Factory Inspector 
Bisno. 

The work carried on by the Commons among the 

poor at the County Infirmary has gone on during the 
summer with undiminished faithfulness. By the coopera- 
tion of a number of Endeavor Societies of the county, 
insuring the support of Mr. Robert E. Todd, a resident of 
,the Commons, this ministry of friendship and Christian 
visitation has been maintained without a break. There is 
need of yet more extensive help in this matter, to assure 
the carrying on of the work without diminution. 

In addition to the summer school occasions in the 
"West where the Commons work has been described by the 



Warden, the cause has been presented more or less recently 
by other workers in the Settlement, at West Pullman, Fair 
View, Lake Forest, Oak Park, Ridgeland, and several 
churches within the city, and at Grand Rapids, Ludington 
and Manistee, Mich. The eager attention with which 
descriptions of this phase of social unification are heard 
promise equal interest for occasions in the future. 

The residential force at the Commons has not de- 
clined in numbers during the summer as we feared. Among 
the temporary residents, in addition to our kindergarteners, 
Miss Harriet Krause and Miss Leola Day, latterly of Hurley, 
Wis., there have come to us Mr. Walter Vose Gulick, a 
former Commons resident, more recently of Dwight, 111., 
Rev. Morrison Weimer.for six years pastor of the Congrega- 
tional church in Sedgwick, Kans., now in Chicago for two 
years of post-graduate seminary study; and others have 
taken part in our work for longer or shorter terms. 



Jrom Sociological Class IRooms, 



CLASSES FOR WORKERS. 



Courses by Prof. Henderson and Dr. Ayres at the 
University of Chicago. 



It is announced that the University of Chicago 
will offer in university extension for the fall 
quarter, two courses in sociology for the special 
benefit of those engaged in charity work. One of 
these courses will be given by Prof. Charles R. 
Henderson, the other by Dr. Philip W. Ayres. Dr. 
Henderson will consider especially the principles 
involved in poor relief, and will direct the work 
of his classes and set them to studying their own 
experiences, in the light of social laws. 

Dr. Ayres' courses will be on the problem of the 
poor in cities. This course will include a study of 
the homes of the poor, and of the causes of pov- 
erty, with some account of the practical measures 
adopted in American and foreign cities to improve 
the conditions and remove the causes. Some 
attention will also be given to experiments of 
municipal government at home and abroad, in the 
direction of better tenements, streets and parks. 
Dr. Ayres calls his courses "a practical course for 
workers." The settlements in Chicago and others 
interested have been asked to organize classes of 
friendly visitors and others interested in this kind 
of work to begin about October 1st. 

This kind of instruction is being regarded more 
and more as of importance for the complete furn- 
ishing of workers, and Dr. Ayres stands particulary 
for inductive inquiry in all social lines. Under 
his general direction a group of university stud- 
ents is spending the summer in Chicago, located 
at the settlements, and 'Studying at first hand city 
institutions and social conditions. The courses 
referred to above will be of great value to those 
desiring to follow up these kinds of study. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



13 



IJn tbe OTorlfc of Settlements. 



THE ESSENTIAL OF HELPFULNESS. 



But before I seriously undertake to make of him 
[the poor man] an independent, Intelligent, strug- 
gling brother man, to wake him from his torpor, 
to set him on his feet, to kindle in his son 1 that fire 
which keeps my own soul full of light and warmth, 
I must have something more than the impulse of a 
wise economy. This needs a sympathy which makes 
his life, with all its needs and miseries, my own. It 
demands of me to wrestle with his enemies, to un- 
dertake a fight for him which he is not yet ready 
to undertake himself, to sacrifice myself that I may 
make his true self live. Phillips Broohs, Sermons, 
Vol. II. 

Believe it, 'tis the mass of men He loves, 

And, where there is most sorrow and most want, 

There most is He, for there is He 

Most needed. James Russell Lowell. 



MISS ADDAMS AT MANSFIELD HOUSE. 



Cordial Reception in Canning Town to the Head of 
Hull House. 



All settlement workers and their friends will be 
interested in the account of the visit of Miss Jane 
Addams to Mansfield House, thus reported in the 
July number of the Mansfield House Magazine: 

" One of the most interesting meetings ever held 
in Canning Town was the reception of Miss Jane 
Addams, of Hull House, Chicago, on Saturday, 
June 13. It was held in the Recreation Ground, at 
the back of the Boys' Club, generally known as 
Fairbairn House, and there were present Mr. J. 
Spencer Curwen, Mr. Keir Hardie, Mr. Alderman 
Ben Tillett, Mr. Trenwith, head of the labour 
party in the Victorian Parliament, Tom McCarthy, 
Herbert Burrows, and a large number of people 
interested in the labour movement. Refreshments 
were served, and the meeting was held in the open 
air. Miss Addams received a great ovation from 
the men and women of Mansfield House, three 
rousing cheers startling the neighbourhood for a 
considerable distance round the garden. A delight- 
ful spirit of comradeship and good-will seemed to 
pervade the whole meeting, and from the time 
when Randolph, at the request of the Warden, ex- 
tended a hearty welcome to Miss Addams, until 
Reason's speech, which closed the proceedings, the 
interest of the audience never flagged for one mo- 
ment. Miss Addams made a strong appeal to the 
leaders of the labour movement to assist all hon- 
est attempts put forth by the settlements, and the 
high tone of her remarks gave the key to the rest 
of the meeting. Miss Addams has, by this time, 
left England for the Continent, and we hope to see 
her again in September, before she sails for the 
States. She has the heartiest good wishes of every- 
body connected with Mansfield House." 



A CALIFORNIA SETTLEMENT. 



The annual report of the " Manse Settlement As- 
sociation," of West Oakland, Cal., comes to hand 
just as we go to press. The settlement, founded 
in February, 1895, by Rev. Frank E. Hinckley, is 
at 1730 Eighth street, West Oakland, and is known 
as "The Manse." Mr. Hinckley managed the work 
practically single-handed until last November, 
when he relinquished it to the association of ladies 
now in charge. While unconnected with institu- 
tions, and free from denominational control, this 
settlement " seeks to co-operate with all organiza- 
tions which aim at the good of the community and 
the advancement of the highest forces of society. 
It especially endeavors to promote civil, industrial, 
and individual justice and peace, and cordially wel- 
comes to its work and privileges all who desire to 
promote these objects or who respond to the spirit 
of mutual helpfulness." 

Among the social and educational departments 
already undertaken are: For both sexes, young 
people's social and literary union; lectures, recep- 
tions and art exhibits; for women, housekeepers' 
cooking class, lectures and women's club; for 
young women, reading circle, sewing club and 
singing class; for boys, boys' club and Sunday 
afternoon literary hour; for girls, sewing classes, 
kitchen garden and cooking class; and for young 
men, drawing and music classes. 

THE 

LEWIS INSTITUTE 

Will open September 21, 1896, with a full corps of instructors 
and courses in 

SCIENCE 
LITERATURE AND 



TECHNOLOGY 

The buildings located at the corner of West Madison 
and Eobey streets, have been erected at a cost of 



$230,000 



and are equipped with all necessary apparatus and 

appliances, including shops, laboratories 

and libraries. 

An endowment of over one million dollars enables the 
Institute to offer, at a nominal tuition, 

THE BEST POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES 
TO YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN 

who wish to equip themselves for the productive 

industries or for advanced 

university work. 



For circular of information, address, 

LEWIS INSTITUTE, CHICAGO 



14 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[July, 



among tbe 



A SHORT SOCIOLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Constantly are coming to us requests for guid- 
ance in the matter of reading upon the subjects 
connected with the great social movements of the 
race. So pressing has been this demand that a 
year ago Prof. Graham Taylor prepared and issued, 
through the Congregational Sunday School and 
Publishing Society, a little bibliography of avail- 
able books in the fields of Christian Sociology and 
Social Economics. The edition is exhausted and 
out of date, but the Bibliography is now undergo- 
ing revision, and pending its issue we publish a 
^selected list of references which will be useful to 
those desiring a more popular course. To those 
.asking for a very small list of books available for 
busy people we suggest the short list. The prices 
quoted are furnished by courtesy of A. C. McClurg 
& Co., by whom the books listed are for sale. In 
most cases, except where marked " net," a discount 
from list prices is allowed. 

SHORT LIST. 

The New Era, by Eev. Josiah Strong, D.D. The Baker & 

Taylor Company, New York. 75 cents ; paper, 35 cents. 
How the Other Half Lives, by Jacob Rlls. Scrlbners, New 

York. $1.25 net. 
*Rullng Ideas of the Present Age, by Eev. Washington 

Gladden, D.D. Houghton, Mifflln & Co., Boston. $1.25. 
*Social Meanings of Religious Experiences, by Rev. George 

D. Herron, D.D. T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. 75 

cents. 
tThe Labor Movement in America, by Prof. Richard T.Ely. 

T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. $1.50. 
tTools and the Man, by Rev. Washington Gladden, D.D. 

Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. $1.25. 
Socialism and Social Reform, by Prof. Richard T. Ely. T. 

Y. Crowell & Co., New York. $1.50. 
Social Reform and the Church, by Prof. John R. Commons. 

T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. 75 cents. 
JThe Kingdom of God, a Plan of Study, by Rev. F. Herbert 

Stead. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh.' ls-6d net, 53 cents. 

LONGER SELECTED LIST. 

In the various fields of social and economic 
study the following list will be found sufficiently 
exhaustive for all popular purposes : 

Books to Arouse Interest. 

The New Era, Josiah Strong, D.D. The Baker & Taylor 

Company, New York. 76 cents; paper 35 cents. 
Social Aspects of Christianity, Prof. R. T. Ely. T. Y. 

Crowell & Co., New York. 90 cents. 
Philanthropy and Social Progress (Essays). T. Y. Crowell 

& Co., New York. $1.50. 
In Darkest England, General William Booth. Funk & 

Wagnalls Company, New York. $1.00; paper 50 cents. 
Prisoners of Poverty, Mrs. Helen Campbell. Roberts 

Brothers, Boston. $1.00. 
How the Other Half Lives, Jacob Riis. Scribners, New 

York. $1.25 net. 
Ruling Ideas of the Present Age. Rev. Dr. Washington 

Gladden. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. $1.25. 
Progress and Poverty, Henry George (especially the clos 

ing chapters) . John W. Lovell Company, New York. 

$1.00; paper, 50 cents. 
Wealth against Commonwealth, Henry Demarest Lloyd. 

Harper & Brothers, New York. $1.00. 

*t Choice between this and the other book marked with 
the same sign. 

$A plan of Bible study, alone and unsurpassed in its 
kind. 



On. the, General Social Outlook. 

The Social Horizon (anonymous) . Swann, Sonnenschein & 
Co., London. $1.00. 

Social Evolution, Benjamin Kidd. Macmillan & Co., New 
York. $1.50. 

Introduction to the Study of Society, Prof. Albion W. Small 
and George E. Vincent. American Book Company, Chi- 
cago. $1.80 net. 

The Americon Journal of Sociology, monthly; $2. Univer- 
sity of Chicago Press, Chicago. 

On the Family. 

The Family; an Historical and Social Study, Charles F. 

Thwing. Lee, Boston. $2.00. 
The History of Human Marriage, Edward Westermarck. 

Macmillan & Co., New York. $4.00. 

On Political Economics. 

Outlines of Economics, Prof. Richard T. Ely. Hunt & 

Eaton, N. Y. $1.25 net. 
Principles of Economics, Alfred Marshall. Macmillan & 

Co., New York. 2 vols., $3.00 per vol. net. 
Recent Economic Changes, David A. Wells. D. Appleton 

& Co., New York. $1.50, net. 

On The Labor Movement. 

The History of Trade Unionism, Sidney and Beatrice Webb. 
Longmans, Green & Co., London. $5.00. 

Conflicts of Labor and Capital (2d ed.), G. S. Howell. Mac- 
millan & Co., New York. $2.50. 

Trade Unionism, New and Old, same author. Scribner's, 
New York. $1.00 net. 

The Labor Problem; a Symposium, edited by W. E. Barns. 
Harper & Brothers, New York. $1.00. 

The Industrial Revolution in England, etc. (4th ed.), Arnold 
Toynbee. Longmans, Green & Co. $3.50. 

The Labor Movement in America, by Prof. Richard T. Ely. 
T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. $1.50. 

The Evolution of Industry, Henry Dyer. Macmillan & Co., 
New York. $1.50. 

Hull House Maps and Papers, (Essays by Hull House resi- 
dents) . T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. $2.50. 

Reports of the U. S. Labor Bureau. Address Commissioner 
of Labor, Washington, D. C. 

On Civics and Citizenship. 

The American Citizen. Charles T. Dole, D. C. Heath & Co. 
Boston. 90 cents net. 

The American Commonwealth, James Bryce, M. P, Mac- 
millan & Co., New York. 2 vols., $4.00 net. 

Civil Government in the United States, John Fiske. Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. $1.00 net. 

Municipal Government in Great Britain. Albert Shaw. 
Century Co., New York $2.00. 

Municipal Government in Europe, ditto. $2.00. 
On Socialism, Pro and Contra. 

Looking Backward, Edward Bellamy. Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co., Boston. $1.00; paper, 50 cents. 

Socialism and Social Reform, Prof. Richard T. Ely. T. Y. 
Crowell & Co., New York. $1.50. 

Merrie England (pamphlet) . Robert Blatchford. Common- 
wealth Company, New York. 10 cents. 

Fabian Essays, by English Economists. Charles E. Brown 
& Co., Boston. 75 cents. 

On Charities and Correction. 
American Charities, Prof. Amos Warner. T. Y.'Crowell & 

Co., New York. $1.75. 
PunisJiment and Reformation, Fred'k Howard Wines. T. 

Y. Crowell & Co., New York. $1.75. 

An Introduction to the study of Dependent, Defective and 
Delinquent Classes, Prof. Charles R. Henderson. D. C. 
Heath & Co., Boston. $1.50. 

The Children of the Poor, Jacob Riis. Scribners, New York. 

$1.25 net. 
The Jukes, R. L. Dugdale. G. P. Putnam Sons, New York. 

Out of print; obtainable at most libraries. 
The Charities Review, monthly publication of New York 

Charity Organization Society. $2. 

On the Social Settlement Idea. 

Bibliography of College, Social and University Settlements. 
Miss M. Katharine Jones. (Address Miss Caroline L 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



15 



Williamson, 3230 Michigan Ave., Chicago.) 10 cents. 
Neighborhood Guilds, Dr. Stanton Colt. Swann, Sonnen- 

schein & Co., London. $1.00. 

Essays in " Philanthropy and Social Progress. "(See above). 
Hull House Maps and Papers. (See above.) 
CHICAGO COMMONS, monthly record of Social Settlement 

movement, 25 cents per year. 

On Social Aspects of Christianity. 

The World as the Subject of Eedemption, Canon W. H. 

Feemantle. Longmans, Green & Co. $2.00 net. 
Social Reform and the Church, Prof. John R. Commons. 

T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. 75 cents. 
The Christian Society, Prof. George D. Herron, D.D. Flem 

ing H. Revell Company, Chicago. 75 cents. 
Social Meanings of Religious Experiences, Prof. Herron. 

T. Y. Crowell & Co., New York. 75 cents. 



Hand Book No. 2, Forward Movements. The Congrego^- 
tivnalist, Boston. 4 cents. 

The Kingdom of God, Rev. A. B. Bruce. Scribners, New 
York. $2.00. 

The Kingdom of God: a Plan of Study. Rev. F. Herbert 
Stead. T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh. ls-6d net; 53 cents. 



ALL THE BOOKS 



In the above list, and many others on Sociological Subjects 
may be procured, usually at a liberal reduction, from pub- 
lishers' prices, at the Congregational Book Store, 
175 Wabash avenue, Chicago. 

Their catalogue FREE on request. 



A. C. McCLURG & CO. 

BOOKSELLERS PUBLISHERS STATIONERS 



Offer a complete stock not only of the lighter books of the day, such as in FICTION, 

TRAVEL, BELLES LETTRES, etc,, etc,, but also take pride in their large 

and careful selections in such departments as 



Sociology, Economics, 

, 

Political Science and Finance 



The Books on Sociology, enumerated in the present number of CHICAGO COMMONS, can be 

obtained of 

A. C. McCLURG & CO., 



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CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



AUGUST, 1896. 



No. 5. 




A UNION STREET GLIMPSE. 

View of Chicago Commons from the Illinois Medical College looking southwest. Drinking trough at right of center. Tracks 

In the foreground run east and west on Austin Avenue; the trolley car at right is going northwest 

on Milwaukee Avenue. Union Street runs north and soutli . 



LABOR ISSUE. 



September Number of " Chicago Commons " to be of 

Value for Workingmen and to All Interested 

in t f ie Labor Movement Prof. Taylor's 

Labor Studies. 



The September issue of CHICAGO COMMONS, 
which will follow the August number as early in 
the month as possible, might be called our " Labor 
Day Issue," since it will contain much that will be 
of interest to the friends and observers of the 
Labor Movement. Its principal feature will be 
the first of a series of monthly studies on the 

SOCIAL CONDITION AND MOVEMENT Of 
LAKOR. 

The studies will be conducted by Professor Tay- 
lor, and are designed to be of the utmost possible 



popular interest and value. ' It is intended that 
each of the studies shall contain : 

1. Definite statement of the ground to be covered. 

2. Assignments of specific topics for individual 

original investigation and observation, and in 
historical, biographical, economic and statis- 
tical lines. 

3. Reading references. 

4. Appropriate excerpts, etc. 

ADDITIONAL FEATURES. 

In addition to these studies, the September issue 
will contain an unique account of the enforcement 
of the Golden Rule as the shop-ordinance in a 
western factory; a short bibliography of the 
labor movement; poetry and other selections of a 
timely character; in short, every effort will be 
made to insure for the September number of 
CHICAGO COMMONS an interested reading by the 
friends of the Labor Movement wherever it may 
circulate. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[August, 



"LORD, MAKE US ALL LOVE ALL." 

Lord, make us all love all, that when we meet 
Even myriads of earth's myriads at thy bar, 
We may be glad as all true lovers are, 
Who, having parted, count reunion sweet. 
Safe gathered home around thy blessed feet, 
Come home by different roads from near and far, 
Whether by whirlwind or by flaming car, 
From pangs or sleep, safe folded round thy seat. 
Oh, if our brother's blood cry out at us, 
How shall we meet thee who hast loved us all, 
Thee whom we never loved, not loving him? 
The unloving cannot chant with seraphim, 
Bear harp of gold or psalm victorious, 
Or face the vision beatifical. 

Christina O. Rosxetti. 



SOCIOLOGY GAINS GROUND. 



Its Advent in the National Educational 
Association, 



Recognition in a Series of Notable Paper* at One 
of the Foremost Gatherings of Educators Ad- 
dresses by Commissioner Harris of the Bureau 
of Education, Professors Small and Barnes, 
President Hall of Worcester, and Others. 



The sociological class-room from which we hear 
this month is nothing less than the session of the 
National Educational Association at Buffalo, de- 
voted to the relation between education and soci- 
ology. The main paper was presented by Prof. 
Albion W. Small of the University of Chicago. It 
was an elaborate attempt to define philosophically 
the relationship between the new science and the 
old. Education, Professor Small maintains, con- 
sists in 

(1) Cultivating the powers of discriminating ob- 
servation. 

(2) Strengthening the logical faculties. 

(8) Improving the process and powers of com- 
parison. 

The analytic study of sociology includes 

(1) Man's natural environment, animate and in- 
animate. 

(2) Man himself as an individual in all his 
characteristics. 

(3) Man's associations or institutions. 

POINTS RY PROFESSOR SMALL. 

Some of the sparks flashed as follows: 
"The demand of sociology upon pedagogy is 
that teachers stop training one particular mental 
power and pay attention to all the powers; stop 
wet-nursing orphan mental faculties and bring the 
child into touch with what is and as it is, and the 
mind itself will do the rest." " The study of soci- 
ology should begin with the nursing bottle and 
should continue as long as social relations exist." 
" Sociology, like charity, should begin at home 



with the family and extend to the compass of the 
race." "The first studies in sociology should be 
of the society, next the school-house and the town 
in which we live." 

THE CHILD AS A SOCIAL FACTOR. 

Prof. Earl Barnes, of Leland Stanford, Jr., Uni- 
versity, followed with a briefer but suggestive 
paper, designed to answer these three questions: 

(1) What makes the child a social factor distinct 
from the adult? 

(2) How does society take advantage of this and 
use it for its own advantage? 

(3) How does the pupil react upon society and 
affect it? 

The child was declared to be naturally a great con- 
servative in the smaller affairs pertaining to itself, 
and they were relegated to habit. In the larger 
matters of religion, ethics, politics and art children 
tend to be radical and return to logical conclusions. 
This makes the pupil the great radical force of the 
world. The adult accepts expediency, necessity, 
or what he calls experience, as the basis of action. 
The child, accepts authority or the logical out-put 
of his own mind. 

Society tries to mould the pupil in its own like- 
ness, that he may safely bear along the accumu- 
lated treasures of civilization. To-day, society 
talks of educating a child for himself, but really, 
society, through the state, church, societies and in- 
dividuals, educates our children for Catholicism, 
Protestantism, American citizenship, temperance, 
or whatever other ideas may be in vogue. " In 
the larger freedom we are giving, lies our hope,' 
said Professor Barnes. 

PRESERVES THE RACE FROM EXTINCTION. 

The child tends to preserve the race from extinc- 
tion by constantly rejecting some part of the ac- 
cumulated civilization, thus enabling biological 
adjustment to keep pace with the advance in civil- 
ization. He also recalls each generation to the 
eternal ideals of the race, and thereby becomes the 
ever-renewed savior of society. Through imme- 
diate reaction upon the adults around him, the 
pupil retards the decadence of his elders. Society 
is coming to trust more and more in all the radical 
tendencies of childhood and to distrust all educa- 
tion that tends to emphasize the natural conserva- 
tism of children in small things, and in this society 
is wise. 

President Canfield, of Ohio State University, was 
prevented from presenting his paper on " The 
Teacher as a Social Factor," but the proceedings 
will doubtless contain it. 

The discussion was participated in by several of 
the most eminent members of the Association. 

Mr. J. M. Harper, inspector of superior schools, 
Quebec, Canada, emphasized individual ethics that 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



3 



inspires clean lines, as fundamental to social ethics, 
sociology and psychology. 

SOCIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY. 

President G. Stanley Hall, of Clark University, 
Worcester, Mass., commented upon the marvelous 
development which sociology has had in this coun- 
try within the last few years. " The relations be- 
tween sociology and psychology," he said, "are 
getting exceedingly close and fruitful," and added, 
" I doa't exactly know where one ends and the 
other begins." The sociological results of heredity 
are explaining how the amalgamation of the masses 
made the strength of the present. Man is univer- 
salized. We have four, grandparents, eight great- 
grandparents, until, if we figure back to William I, 
we have 23,000,000 ancestors. 

United States Commissioner of Education, Mr. 
William T. Harris, closed with a fine emphasis 
upon " The Teacher as a Factor in Sociology." 
" Education," he said, " is the foundation of sociol- 
ogy, which is the science of civilization, the science 
of the combination of man into social wholes, the 
family, civil society, the state and the church. The 
teacher, with the exception of the clergyman, has 
the best opportunity to bring about the highest re- 
lation between the individual and the social whole. 
The teacher has the finest opportunity to lift his or 
her profession up to the point where it will >be 
recognized as a profession through the study and 
teaching of sociology." 



PERMANENT SOCIAL RESULTS. 



The Warden's Field Notes of His Pilgrimage to 
Northern Michigan Good Work of the Sf en's 
League at Petoskey Interest in the CoiDjnons 
Kindergarten. 



[BY THE WARDEN.] 

There has been no abatement of the intense in- 
terest found in Kansas, Nebraska and Iowa in the 
discussion of social phenomena as reported in the 
previous issue of CHICAGO COMMONS as the Ward- 
en's pilgrimage has carried the test into Michigan. 
Indeed, it would seem impossible to surpass the 
interest displayed, for instance, at Bay View; and 
no more grateful evidence of this fact could pre- 
sent itself than in the response made in practical 
effort to attain practical result in the local life of 
the neighboring city of Petoskey. 

Bay View is the great Chautauqua of the West. 
Its six university schools, presided over by Prof. 
John M. Coulter, of the University of Chicago, 
and manned by professors from the great educa- 
tional centers, east and west, include no less than 
thirty classes in the ancient and modern languages, 
literature, sciences, pedagogy, music, art, physical 
culture and elocution. Teachers and special stu- 
dents constitute most of the classes and pay for the 



opportunity to do the most thorough intellectual 
work of which they are capable. 

The popular platform courses, which command 
a most intelligent though most diverse audience, 
are strictly educational and have been given by 
some of the eminent educators of this and other 
lands. Around the large and handsomely equipped 
lecture halls, library and auditorium are grouped 
hundreds of cottages, overlooking, from charming 
terraces, the rarely beautiful scenery of Little 
Traverse Bay. Suburbs of this summer city dot 
the long arm of land which stretches a full half- 
circle around these bluest waters of the northland 
lake. 

THE WOKK AT PETOSKEY. 

The more significant and permanent social re- 
sults of the pilgrimage which we have been report- 
ing are well exemplified at Petoskey. Last sum* 
mer, under the personal, prompt and vigorous 
pastoral Lsadership of Rev. James Gale Inglis, 
formerly of Chicago and now for the second time 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in Petos- 
key, a " Men's League " was organized. While com- 
posed chiefly of the men of his church, it includes 
those of the Jewish and Catholic faith, and of no 
avowed religious attitude. Its object is to promote 
the social and intellectual fellowship of the men, 
and to unite them in organized effort for extending 
the influence and power for good of the church in 
the community. Appropriately to its purpose, the 
discussion at its first meeting was upon the relation 
of the church to the community, which was vari- 
ously viewed from the standpoint of the business 
man, the lawyer, the physician and the politician, 
the mayor of the city speaking from the political 
viewpoint. 

THE LEAGUE'S MEETINGS. 

At subsequent sessions through the winter such 
points of practical relationship between Christian 
sentiment and community interests as these were 
discussed with free speech and variant view: 
" Early Closing of Our Business Houses Advan- 
tages, Difficulties and a Feasible Plan; " "The Ob- 
servance of Memorial Day Should it be Perpetu- 
ated? Its Abuses, its Relation to the G. A. R." (the 
local post being present); "The Liquor Police 
Law What it is," defined by a lawyer, its enforce- 
ment from the citizen's and saloon-keeper's points 
of view, and practical methods. 

The anniversary address this summer was keyed 
to the same note, struck last season at the initia- 
tory meeting the relation of the churches to the 
community in Petoskey. The discussion by the 
League and others who remained after the close of 
the Sunday evening service, earnestly emphasized 
the local applications of the theme. 

Refreshingly frank, free and fearless were the 
(Continued on page 7.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[August, 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and 

Work, especially in the Industrial Districts 

of the City of Chicago. 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Twenty-flve cents per year, postpaid to any State or 
Country. Single copies sent to any address upon applica- 
tion. For larger numbers, special terms may be obtained 
on application. The publishers will be glad to receive 
lists of church members or other addresses, to whom sam- 
ple copies may be sent. 

Changes of Address -Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it is due. 

To Other Settlements We mean to regard as " pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such. In return, we ask for all reports, and. so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 



ALL COMMUNICATIONS 

Kelating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 



Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post-Office at Chicago, 111. 



Vol. 1, No. 5. ~GTNa AUGUST, 1896. 



TO WHOM it may concern: The work of the 
settlements this winter will demand a great 
deal of non-resident help. Is this not a call to YOU 
to offer your services? 

* 

* * 

EIGHT pages this month signify only a tempo- 
rary reduction and a preparation for larger 
issues in the future. It is our desire to make this 
paper increasingly helpful, and we shall be under 
obligation for suggestions or other aid looking to 

that end. 

* 

* * 

TO THE many friends inquiring as to the pub- 
lication in permanent form of the Sociologi- 
cal Bibliography published in the July issue of 
CHICAGO COMMONS, we are glad to say that it is 
undergoing somewhat careful revision and amend- 
ment, with the idea of publication presently in 
leaflet form at a nominal price. 



A SETTLEMENT WARNING. 



In a recent symposium upon the settlement ques- 
tion it was well said by Miss Starr, of Hull House, 
that there is danger just now of the formation of a 
sort of " settlement cult," and that before long it 
may be necessary to bring into existence a new 
" Movement " with a new " Idea " to be spelled 
with capital letters and designed to correct and 
offset the blunders of the settlement Movement, 
Idea and Cult. This is a timely warning. Scarcely 
too often can it be insisted upon that there is upon 



the settlements no obligation to work for brother- 
hood, neighborhood, industrial justice, which binds 
not equally upon every man and woman in propor- 
tion to his or her ability and opportunity. 

Why are we who chance to have been called into 
this peculiar sort of life more bound to emphasize 
the Brotherhood of Man, to seek for and preach 
social democracy, than others, living elsewhere? 
Of what concern is it to us more than to you, O 
readers, that men and women and children are de- 
prived of the God-given rights of life, liberty and 
the pursuit of happiness? The social settlement 
is not an institution, manned by a peculiarly-con- 
stituted priesthood, and divinely ordained, in the 
division of human labor, to do what no others can 
do. It is rather a protest against neglect, a small 
recognition of the fact that society has left undone 
those things it ought to have done, and has done 
those things it ought not to have done; a rebuke to 
every man and woman who asks, " Am I my broth- 
er's keeper? " 

Let the social settlement be unction to no man's 
soul. Let no man be glad " that some one is found 
fitted to do this kind of work." The settlement is 
a miserable pittance, and only a pittance, paid on 
account against the unspeakable obligation of So- 
cial Justice. It is at its best only an acknowledg- 
ment of what every man owes to every other man. 
By no means should one take comfort in his own 
neglect of Justice because a few brethren have 
repented of theirs. 



THE sudden and most unexpected death of Mr. 
William H. Colvin, of Chicago, bereaves the 
whole settlement movement of one of its firmest 
friends and most intelligent and helpful co-oper- 
ators. He literally carried Hull House on his 
heart. Many of its more burdensome details he 
made his daily concern. Its success inspired his 
highest social hope and his most self-sacrificing 
civic effort. He not only gave generously what he 
had, but at greater cost though with greater joy, 
what he was. To have seen his quiet enjoyment 
of a " Jane Club " tea, and to have caught the zest 
of his earnest, manly converse with some working- 
man in the reception room was to have a new hope 
born in one's heart of the democracy of wealth. 



WITH all due regard to Professor Taylor's in- 
junction that his " Labor Studies," referred 
to in another column, should be announced " with- 
out adjectives," the editor of CHICAGO COMMONS 
feels it to be in the interest of simple truth-telling to 
say that these studies are sure to be of great value 
to all interested in the social phenomena of our 
time, and to prophesy for them a wide reading. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



5 



Similar studies in Christian Citizenship, conducted 
by Professor Taylor in the Golden Rule and Young 
Men's Era, have been used by classes all over the 
country. We expect the coming " Labor Studies " 
to be of even greater value. 



WE CONGRATULATE both Epworth House, 
of this city, and Miss Harriet Krause, who 
has been in charge of the Chicago Commons sum- 
mer kindergarten, that Miss Krause is to be in 
charge of the Epworth House kindergarten during 
the coming winter. Miss Krause has made herself 
beloved by all with whom she came in contact dur- 
ing her stay at the Commons, and it is a matter of 
sincere rejoicing that she is to remain, for the 
present at least, in settlement service. 



Cl NOTHER glimpse of the Chicago Commons 
/ \ neighborhood is seen in the photograph 
which we republish this month. But it is not our 
intention to limit our camera's activity to our own 
neighborhood. We are preparing for a series of 
illustrated articles upon the settlements of Chicago 
and other cities, and hope to intersperse also por- 
traits and character sketches of prominent settle- 
ment workers. 



Sifce Xigbt 



PROBABLY nothing could be more significant of 
the good done by the country trips of our friends 
among the girls and boys of our neighborhood than 
such a letter as this, which relieved a very anxious 
Italian mother's heart. The little girl had never 
been away from home before, and the eagerness 
with which the entire family awaited the first tid- 
ings of her safe arrival was pathetic to see. Here 
is the letter, as nearly rt'i-lxitim et literatim as types 
can make it, omitting only names: 



St. 



ELGIN, ILL., Aug. 1C, 1896. 

Dear Mother I like to write you a few lines. I am in a 
good place I got a room for myself and I sleep along I alone]. 
I can eat all 1 want [ !] every day I can get fresh milk from 
the cows. Hi ere is a eirl as large as I am. and she has to 
[2] big sister and they like me and I am going to stay only 
for a week. Mother dont be mad over there I get nice 
f resli air I dount get stomache* no more. When I got out 
to Elgin a lady took us to the picnic and stay till 4 o'lck then 
the lady took me to the lady nouse and the lady is so nice 
and I and haveing a good time. I see lots of tiowes and 
trees there are peach trees apples trees pare trees Cherry 
trees, and I can have all I want and the little girl said that 
when I coming home she is going to give me lots of flowers. 
I play with the little girl all time I get fresh water from the 
ground I an going to the park all this week good by Mother 
aud all of yous. The number where I am staying for a week 

is street, Elgin, 111. 

From your loveing 
Dauter, 



Settlement anfc IReigbborboob. 



A BUSY SUMMER. 



Outline Sketch of the Work in the Settlement 
During the Heated Weeks. 



* Stomach-ache. This poor child is suffering from chronic 
catarrh of the stomach. 



The reports of the work in our own settlement 
are reduced this month to the minimum, partly to 
accord with our temporarily restricted space limits, 
partly because while even more personal and far- 
reaching than the apparently larger work of the 
winter season, the activities of the summer cam- 
paign are less susceptible of detailed description. 
A brief sketch will suffice to carry the story on 
where the reports of the July issue left it off. 

As has been indicated, the residential force, while 
materially reduced in numbers, has still been large 
enough for practical work, and by careful manage- 
ment all necessary duties have been provided for. 
In addition to the routfhe work, a very large num- 
ber of personal visits have been made, in houses 
extending over a widely radiating territory. These 
visits have not been impertinent intrusions, but 
have been made legitimate by the call for children 
in the fresh air work, by the distribution of the 
constant supply of beautiful flowers sent in by 
friends in the outlying country districts, and by the 
appallingly accelerating number of calls for mate- 
rial aid in these sad days of increasing unemploy- 
ment and consequent distress. 

KINDERGARTEN A SUCCESS. 

The summer kindergarten draws to its close as 
CHICAGO COMMONS goes to press, after a season of 
successful work, justifying beyond the possibility 
of a doubt the risk assumed at the outset. Upward 
of fifty little folks have enjoyed every day of the 
session, and have been kept from the degredation 
of the streets. Two noble young women have 
given their services in this good cause, sacrificing 
their hard-earned vacation " without money and 
without price," and have set a standard which 
would test the consecration of many a worker. 
The gifts of our friends for their subsistence while 
here have almost exactly balanced the cost of the 
work. 

TENEMENT HOUSE INSPECTION. 

A feature of the work during July has been the 
inspection and detailed description of typical 
crowded tenements in the ward. This work has 
been done by one of the residents in the direct be- 
half of the Committee of Fifty, but its results will 
prove of great value in the settlement experience 
and study. While the Seventeenth Ward is in 
the respect of crowded and unsanitary houses far 
from the worst in Chicago, there are several sec- 



6 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[August, 



tions of the ward in which the investigators found 
conditions belying the city's claim to civilization. 

THE FRESH AIR CAMPAIGN. 

In previous accounts the fresh air work has been 
quite fully described. About seventy-five children 
have been given outings of longer or shorter dura- 
tion; by the Christian Endeavorers of Elgin and 
the Congregational Sunday School of Downer's 
Grove several older persons have been helped at 
Dwight and elsewhere to vacations otherwise im- 
possible, and a series of picnics for a day at a time 
have been made possible, notably by the Margaret 
Circle of King's Daughters, of Berwyn, who " per- 
sonally conducted" several parties of boys to Riv- 
erside. Best of all, perhaps, is the outing brought 
about by this circle for an invalid member of the 
Girls'. Progressive Club. 

IN THE HOUSE. 

Of the regular work in the house, the Tuesday 
evening meetings of the Industrial Economic Un- 
ion have continued without interruption. The 
topic of chief interest in these meetings has been 
the silver question, at least three meetings having 
been given up to it, the principal speakers being 
H. L. Bliss, Col. J. C. Roberts, of the American 
Bimetallic Union, and Rev. Morris W. Morse, of 
California. 

The Woman's Club, meeting weekly, has consid- 
ered various topics of timely interest, has enjoyed 
an outing at Oak Park and is preparing for an ac- 
tive winter's campaign. The Girls' Progressive 
Club and the Wednesday Evening Club of younger 
girls, have also met without intermission. 

Hn the Worlfc of Settlements. 

CLEVELAND'S NEW SETTLEMENT. 



Hiram House and its Affiliation with the Young 
Men's Christian Association. 



The first announcement of " Hiram House," the 
new settlement in Cleveland, under the auspices of 
Hiram College, shows that the Young Men's and 
Young Women's Christian associations are to oc- 
cupy an important place in the college life of the 
institution. At the opening of the college year in 
1895 the Home Missionary class took up the study 
of sociological questions as outlined in the Y. M. 
C. A. Handbook, by Prof. Graham Taylor. This 
class grew until it became necessary to organize it 
into a club for sociological study. One of the first 
actions of the club was to organize a " Social Set- 
tlement Board," with President E. V. Zollars as 
chairman, and under the auspices of this board the 
settlement was founded at the corner of Washing- 
ton and Hanover streets, overlooking what is known 
as " The Island " or " The Triangle." It is not a 



criminal section, but a district of very poor homes. 
It has a kindergarten under the management of 
Misses Lida Gibbons and Carrie Goodrich. It will 
also have a day nursery, lecture courses, entertain- 
ments, reading rooms, etc., and will publish a 
monthly paper, Hiram House Bulletin, as a 
medium between the settlement and its friends 
and supporters. 

TRIBUTE TO HULL HOUSE. 



The August issue of the Arena contains an arti- 
cle by Annie L. Muzzey, entitled " A Social Settle- 
ment," and treating of Hull House in a style 
exhibiting a rare accuracy and clearness of dis- 
crimination as to the settlement idea in general 
and Hull House in particular. It is to be regretted 
that space is not available for a substantial quota- 
tion from the article. This brief extract must 
serve until the reader has opportunity to secure the 
article entire: 

The mission of Hull House is simply one of pure neigh- 
borliness. It assumes at the outset that there is to be an 
exchange of kindly offices and mutual benefits. It sits down 
in the midst of its humble neighborhood with the idea of 
sharing the influence of its larger opportunities with those 
whose lives are defrauded of the light and beauty that be- 
long equally to all. It has no cumbrous theories to which i t 
is bound to conform, but is ruled only by a loving intelli- 
gence that constantly seeks the best good of the community 
of which it has, by free choice, become an important and a 
responsible part. 



SAN FRANCISCO'S SECOND REPORT. 

An exceedingly attractive and well-printed little 
pamphlet is the second annual report of the San 
Francisco Settlement Association, just at hand 
and dated April, 1896. " Settlement House," as it 
is called, is at 15 South Park, and was opened Jan- 
uary 2, 1895. The residential force has never 
exceeded four persons, making thus a small and 
homogeneous group, more like a normal family 
than is possible in the case of a large settlement. 
The importance of this factor is recognized by 
the present report, in words which every settlement 
worker will do well to keep in mind: "It is well 
to remember that these informal and mutually 
helpfu-l relations between the Settlement and its 
neighbors are what constitute its distinctive char- 
acter." 

The work of the Settlement is of the usual sort, 
and its clubs and classes greatly increased during 
the past year. 



THE JULY ISSUE of CHICAGO COMMONS was designed 
not only to be representative of the earlier issues of 
the paper, and to exhibit the work of one particular settle- 
ment, but also and especially to explain the settlement idea 
in general. Among the general articles published with this 
in view are those on " Foreign Missions at Home Resem- 
blance of the Settlements to Missionary Homes in Heathen 
Lands," " Purpose and Scope of the Settlement," " In the 
World of Settlements (Department)," "A Short Sociologi- 
cal Bibliography," etc., etc. 

We will send any quantity, postpaid, at the rate of 
two cents per copy, or will mail them at that rate to any list 
of addresses sent to us. (Enclose stamps, check, post- 
office order or cash, at our risfe.) 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



PERMANENT SOCIAL RESULTS. 

(Continued from pages.) 

manly, though differing, expressions of opinion by 
layman and minister, church member and outsider, 
Democratic editor and Republican editor. The 
next evening a private meeting of the City Council 
was quietly held to discuss the moral situation of 
the city as it had been portrayed by the prominent 
citizens who had so plainly placed themselves on 
record regarding it. 

UNION CONFERENCE. 

The following Sunday evening a union mass 
meeting, in which several churches united their 
congregation?, was held at the Petoskey Opera 
House, at which addresses were made by Professor 
Taylor and others representing the .ministers and 
citizens of Petoskey, on the practical ways and 
means of promoting civic betterment. Thus the 
church exemplified its real relation to the com- 
munity by lifting the civic ideal, providing a free 
floor for a non-partisan discussion of the actual 
social condition, and initiating a practical move- 
ment for betterment, but stopping short of com- 
mitting itself to any scheme of procedure or 
identifying itself with any reform organization. 

INTEREST IN THE COMMONS. 

Interest in our kindergarten among the widely 
representative cottagers was marked, both last 
summer, when it was only a hope, and this season, 
when we had the story of the year's success to tell. 
Not only in the great auditorium did hundreds 
hear of its work for the child life of our ward, but 
the repetition of the tale was invited at Harbor 
Point, in the house of Mr. D. B. Gamble, of Proc- 
tor & Gamble, whose experiment in profit-sharing 
is widely known, and at Wequetonsing. The cot- 
tagers at the latter family resort added, to the gifts 
which a year ago enabled us to realize the hoped- 
for blessing upon our little neighbors, a generous 
share of the expense of its ensuing second year. 

The July issue of CHICAGO COMMONS was in 
great demand, especially because of its kindergar- 
ten pictures and its list of books on social sub- 
jects. 

BIBLE AND LABOR STUDIES. 

The themes upon which Professor Taylor has 
lectured in five summer assemblies are grouped in 
two courses. The first included the following 
eight studies on "The Social Teachings of the 
Bible": 

Social Teachings of the ttil>l<-. 

I. The Collective Terms of Scripture. 

II. The Formative Forces of Society. 

III. The World-View of the Prophet?. 

IV. The Social Significance of the Lil'c of the Son of 
Man. 

\ . The Social Results of the Coming of the Spirit. 



VI. St. Paul's Conception of the Church as a Social 
Orgauism. 

VII. Kingdom, Church, World. 

VIII. Personal and Corporate Means for Realizing the 
Kingdom of God on Earth. 

THE LABOR .MOVEMENT. 

The second course of seven lectures included 
the following lectures, showing the progress and 
stages of 

The Movement for the Emancipation of Labor. 
I. From Serfdom to Wages The Peasant Pioneers. 
II. From the Actual to the Ideal Commonwealth Sir 
Thomas More and the Utopias. 

III. From the Factory to Freedom of Woman and Child 
Factory Reformers. 

IV. From Legal Inferiority to Charter Rights Chart- 
ists and Churchmen. 

V. From the Chaos of Competition to the Organiza- 
tion of Industry Trades Unionists and Socialists. 

VI. From the Caste of Class to Social Democracy 
Arnold Toynbee and Social Settlements.. 

VII. From Ecclesiasticism to the Kingdom of God The 
Social Evangelists. 

JOTTINGS OF THE CAMPAIGN. 

Laboring men will hold a meeting this evening 
at Trades Assemby hall. It will be similar to the 
meetings held while Professor Taylor was in the 
city. Des Moines, Iowa, Daily News, August 3, 1896. 

The Courier, of Lincoln, Neb., for Saturday, 
August 8, reprints in full the warden's " field notes " 
from our July issue. 

THE 

LEWIS INSTITUTE 

Will open September 21, 1896, with a full corps of instructors 
and courses in 

SCIENCE 
LITERATURE AND 



TECHNOLOGY 

The buildings located at the corner of West Madison 
and Robey streets, have been erected at a cost of 



$230,000 



and are equipped with all necessary apparatus and 

appliances, including shops, laboratories 

and libraries. 

An endowment of over one million dollars enables the 
Institute to offer, at a nominal tuition, 

THE BEST POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES 
TO YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN 

who wish to equip themselves for the productive 

industries or for advanced 

university work. 



For circular of information, address, 

LEWIS INSTITUTE. CHICAGO 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 




v.<>x/> PLoya &&/P &&& Gk&x2 ek&/?> $-&/?> $VXA> $^^*&^$^&rf $*&/?$*&/?$>&/?>$-& 



^e cx^- cx^a c^^s ci^~ c>^w cy~v ci^~o c^^) cJ^~i) cxxx^> c^<x~ cy^ o^<^> cxxx" 



flManos .,. 










S.-5V/0 ^0,/y3 GL <V50 9v.<>X^ ^<>X^ Ck.<>XA> v.<V> 3^.<V/0 Pl^OXO fk<V/0 ^>&//) Gk^X^ ^XA> fk^X/3 Gk^ 



Decker Bros 



Arion JPiaxios 



23S STftTE STREET 
49-53 JflGKSON STREET 




The 
Desplaincs 

Press 

P. F. Pettibonc & Co. 
Chicago 




A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 
LIFE AND WORK 



CHICAGO 




LET US remember, even in these mo- 
ments of depression, that there never 
has been a time when such union 
between classes has been so possible as it 
is to-day, or soon will become. For not 
only has the law given to workman and 
employer equality of rights, but education 
bids fair to give them equality of culture. 
We are all, now, workmen as well as em- 
ployers, inhabitants of a larger world ; no 
longer members of a single class, but fellow- 
citizens of one great people ; no longer the 
poor recipients of a class tradition, but heirs 
of a nation's history. Nay more, we are no 
longer citizens of a single nation we are 
participators in the life of mankind, and joint 
heirs of the world's inheritance. Strengthened 
by this wider communion, and ennobled by 
this vaster heritage, shall we not trample 
under foot the passions that divide, and pass 
united through the invisible portals of a new 
age to inaugurate a new life ? 

ARNOLD TOYNBEE. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



A. C. McCLURG & CO. 

BOOKSELLERS PUBLISHERS STATIONERS 



O 



I G 



Offer a complete stock not only of the lighter books of the day, such as in FICTION 

TRAVEL, BELLES LETTRES, etc,, etc,, but also take pride in their large 

and careful selections in such departments as 



Sociology, Economics, 
Political Science and Finance 



The Books on Sociology, enumerated in the present number of CHICAGO COMMONS, can be 

obtained of 

A. C. McCLURG & CO., 



CHICAGO 



THE 

LEWIS INSTITUTE 

Will open September 21, 1896, with a full corps of instructors 
and courses in 

SCIENCE 
LITERATURE AND 



TECHNOLOGY 

The buildings located at the corner of West Madison 
and Kobey streets, have been erected at a cost of 



$23O,OOO 



TREES, 

FLOWERING 

SHRUBS, 

HARDY ROSES 

PERENNIAL 

PLANTS, 



and are equipped with all necessary apparatus and 

appliances, including shops, laboratories 

and libraries. 

An endowment of over one million dollars enables the 
Institute to offer, at a nominal tuition, 

THE BEST POSSIBLE ADVANTAGES 
TO YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN 

who wish to equip themselves for the productive 

industries or for advanced 

university work. 



Landscape Gardening. 



For circular of information,, address, 

LEWIS INSTITUTE, CHICAGO. 



PAYSON FAIR OAKS 



NURSERY, 

North Oak Park Avenue, 

OAK PARK, ILL, 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



SEPTEMBER, 1896. 



No. 6. 



A SOCIAL LABOR HYMN. 



Dedicated to Chicago Commons, by WILLIAM A. 
CHAMBERLAIN, Professor of Sacred Music, Chicago 
Theological Seminary. 

TUXE "Christmas" or ''Handel." 
A band of earnest brothers strong 

With loyal hearts and true, 
We join our hands, we raise our song. 
And friendship here renew. 

By common toil made one in heart; 

Each, part of greater whole; 
Alike we seek a higher art 

The life of mind and soul. 

The work that holds our hardened hands 

Shall not enchain the mind; 
We burst our soul-enslaving bands, 

In thought, one life to find. 

'Mid darkness, striving, toil and pain, 

One star of hope we see- 
One voice rings out a clear refrain : 
" The Truth shall make jou free.'' 

O, Carpenter of Galilee, 

Thou Brother of Mankind ! 
Our light, our hope, in thee we see, 

Our rest in thee we find. 



GOLDEN RULE IN BUSINESS. 



Almost Unique Evidence of the Practicability of 
Christianity in the Relations of Employer and 
Employed Kemarkable Letters from " The 
OflBce." 

So remarkable, alas! are the following letters 
from a Christian employer to his men, that we feel 
it necessary to assure our readers that they are 
genuine, bona fide letters, actually received by the 
employes in a well-known western factory. They 
are self- explanatory and seem to need no other 
comment than the statement of the fact that on the 
shop walls in large letters are these words: 
RULE GOVERNING THIS SHOP. 
"WHATSOEVER YE WOULD THAT MEN SHOULD DO 
UNTO YOU, DO YOU LIKEWISE UNTO THEM." 

A CHRISTMAS LETTER. 

Here is one of the letters received by each per- 
son in the company's employ: 

DECEMBER 24, 1895- 

Dear Friend: We enclose herein our check in your favor 

for the sum of $ , being 5 per cent, (five cents on each 

dollar) of the amount that has been paid to >ou in wages 



from this office from the beginning of the year, or the time 
that you entered our service, up to and including December 
31, assuming that you put in FULL TIME for the remaining 
days of the year, excepting, of course, Christmas day. 

We do this because we ought to try in every way that we 
can to carry out the spirit of the Golden Rule that we pro- 
fess to believe in. During the time that we have worked 
together it has been our effort to regard your interests as 
important as our own, and we are very happy to say that 
the interest you have shown in your work is the most con- 
clusive proof that you, too, believe that the Golden Rule is 
applicable to the affairs of everyday life. 

The " peace on earth and good will toward man " that 
was proclaimed first, to the lowly shepherds, who were 
common working people, by the angels on the night that 
Jesus the Savior of the world was born in the Bethlehem 
manger, can never fully come until everyone of us and " all 
people " to whom the glad tidings were sent, acknowledge 
Jesus as King and Savior, and live the Golden Rule every 
day. 

To try to carry out this rule is the purpose of this little 
division of the fruit of our labor together. Shall we begin 
to-day to do a little more to hasten the coming of this good 
time when all men will be brothers? If we do, not one dol- 
larnot one cent of this money will go into saloons or any 
other improper use. and let us be frank upon this point, 
and urge upon you this fact. With things as they are around 
you to-day, you can never hope for anything but daily toil, 
and you may consider yourself lucky if you get that, unless 
you save some of your earnings. If this is your only hope of 
emancipation from a life of toil, won't you make this little 
dividend a "nest egg" to begin on? If you decide to do 
this, you may keep this check in your possession for one 
year from date, at that time, or at any time prior to that, if 
your necessities demand the money, or you find an oppor- 
tunity to invest it, you may present it at this office and ex- 
change it for another check, to which we will add interest 
at the rate of 6 per cent, for the time for which you have 
held it. 

Bear in mind this one thing on this point: No one can 
help you so much as you can help yourself. In conclusion, 
the writer desires to cheerfully acknowledge the faithfulness 
with which you have done your work during the year that is 
past, and to thank you most earnestly for the kindly token 
of your good will, and to wish you and all of yours a " Truly 
Merry Christmas." Very faithfully yours, 



For the 



Co. 



WHAT BUSINESS IS FOR. 

This is a second remarkable letter sent by thi& 
firm to every employe : 

FEBRUARY 26, 1896. 

For a long time we have felt that it was necessary that 
there should be a more perfect understanding of the pur- 
poses of carrying on the business of the Company 

by all that are engaged in the work, in order to insure the 
success that will come to all of us if we each do our share 
toward it. In the first place, there is only one True and 
Right Reason why this or any other business should live a 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[September, 



minute, and that reason is to Do Gnml. No matter how much 
some may sneer at the statement, it is and always will be 
true, just the same. This business never has been, is not 
now, nor never will be run simply to make money for those 
in charge of it, otherwise called the owners. It has been 
run to do good, and God has blessed it in many ways. We 
have done good by making better goods In our line than 
were ever made before, as our rapidly increasing sales 
abundantly prove. We have tried to do justice to every 
man the men that do the work, the men that sell the goods 
and the men that use them. We think that all of you will 
agree to the truth of this statement, that we have at least 
tried. We are going to keep trying, because it is right that 
we should keep on trying to do right all the way to the 

cemetery, 710 matter how many others do wrong 

The Golden Eule will continue to hang on the wall, but 
don't forget that it is a double-acting rule and works both 
ways, and in writing these words to you we are carrying it 
out and doing to you just exactly as we would want you to 
do to us if we were working in the shop and you were work- 
ing In the office. The great labor leader, Eugene V. Debs, 
in a speech at Memorial Hall, where he addressed twelve 
hundred workingmen, and the writer was one of them, on 
the 20th of January last, gave them this advice: " Boys, 
buy books instead of beer, and you will be on the road to 
freedom from the slavery you are now in." We are going 
to hang these words on the wall of the shop beside the 
Golden Rule, and may God bless every one of you and help 
you to observe them. This Washington's Birthday is a good 
time to begin, and you have this afternoon as a half holiday 
with pay, as a token of our good will to help you start. 
Very faithfully yours, 



We add only the lament of the wealthy author 
of these letters that he had not built his fine new 
residence near his factory among the homes of its 
operatives. " What a social settlement of our own 
we could have had!" he regretfully exclaimed. 



SUMMER IN CITY SLUMS. 



Suffering in the Poor Quarters of Chicago New 
York's Good Work. 



That blistering fortnight in August, nearly un- 
precedented, gave the lie squarely to the popular 
notion that among those known as "the poor" the 
real suffering is limited to the winter time. Those 
who live and observe in the unprivileged sections 
of the great cities know that there scarcely could 
be greater suffering for human beings than in 
those breathless noons and nights when the ther- 
mometer's sluggish variations were between 95 
and 105 degrees; when the crowded quarters 
became unendurable and the dirty streets were 
fairly stifling with the stench of unclean garbage 
boxes and filthy outhouses. A tour at night through 
the streets of Chicago's crowded quarters exhib- 
ited conditions of suffering almost incredible in 
some parts of the Jewish and Polish sections 
the narrow streets were literally full of men, 
women and children lying upon the sidewalks, in 
the gutters and on the rotten wood-pulp which 
serves as "pavement," and gasping for the very 
breath of life. 

For the relief of this suffering Chicago, as a 



city, 'did almost nothing except to allow the 
people to lie upon the grass in the parks all night. 
Hundreds of dead horses lay in the streets several 
days, becoming a nuisance and menace to the 
health of the people. There were, however, sev- 
eral notable private efforts to help in the situa- 
tion, the Fresh Air Sanitarium of the Daily News 
at Lincoln Park especially proving a source of 
great blessing. 

In New York City the municipal authorities paid 
much attention to the welfare of the people during 
the heated term. The streets of the East Side, 
which, under Commissioner Waring's administra- 
tion, are habitually clean, were flushed daily from 
the city hydrants, the free baths were made access- 
ible at all hours of the night, and $5,000 were voted 
from the city treasury for ice to be given to the 
poor and sick. 

The experience, whose likelihood of recurrence 
is suggested by Australia's heated term last year 
with its maximum of 125 degrees in the shade, 
ought to teach Chicago something of the vital im- 
portance of the things we are neglecting parks 
for the people, playgrounds for the children, clean- 
liness and permanent repair of streets, abolition of 
unsightly and unsanitary garbage boxes, public 
baths and adequate health inspection. And in the 
meanwhile, the tax-dodger and the dishonest and 
lecherous political ringster delay the city in its 
progress toward the higher ideal of municipal life 
and service. 



SOCIAL LABOR HYMNS AND SONGS. 



Need of a ^Popular Hynmology for the New Social 
Meetings. 



At the spring session of our School of Social 
Economics attention was called to the songlessness 
of American labor meetings and popular gather- 
ings. Discussion demonstrated the entire want of 
both music and words well adapted to the social 
occasions and spirit characterizing working peo- 
ple's assemblies. The intensely individualistic 
nature of the hymnology in commonest use was 
conceded. While a subsequent search of church 
collections showed that their " we," " us " and 
" our " hymns bore a larger proportion to the " I,' 
" me " and " my " hymns than was at first supposed 
yet few of them transcended the sphere of a dis- 
tinctly limited experiential and church fellowship 
to move in the broader ranges of humanity's com- 
mon experiences, yearnings and aspirations, 
much less to express the sorrows and sympathies, 
claims and hopes of the working world. 

In song literature there seemed to be no larger 
provision for labor's heart hunger. Very signifi- 
cant is the failure of the Chicago Record to elicit a 
labor song worthy of the theme and adapted to 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



use, by the offer of a $1,000 prize for the words and 
another for the music. Although as many manu- 
scripts were received as dollars offered the 
very representative and competent judges rejected 
every one as below the required standard. In the 
English song books of the Salvation Army there 
are only a very few very inferior doggerels de- 
signed to elicit support of the social work by such 
couplets as: 

God bless and speed the Social Wing 

Ten thousand hearts exclaim- 
In faith an effort will be made 
The " Darkest England " plan. 

In song literature there seems to be no larger 
provision. 

We purpose to gather and publish the bibliogra- 
phy of whatever hymns and songs of labor we can 
find and invite the co-operation of our readers in 
this effort. Such collections as Ebenezer Elliot's 
" Corn Law Rhymes,'' the " Chants of Labor " pub- 
lished by the National Amalgamated Sailors' and 
Firemen's Union of Great Britain and Ireland 
(London, 1891), William Morris' " Chants for So- 
cialists," hymns of the Labor Church, " Pleasant 
Sunday Afternoon " service songs, etc., are what 
we seek. 

We will be grateful for the suggestion of such 
hymns as Elliot's " When Wilt Thou Save the Peo- 
ple, Lord? " Gladden's " Oh, Master Let Me Walk 
with Thee;" Whittier's "Dear Lord and Father of 
Mankind." The co-operation of friends in labor 
unions, social settlements and the fraternal associ- 
tions is especially invited in supplying us with 
copies both of song books and single songs or 
hymns. Original compositions will also be wel- 
come, if their authors will send postage for the re- 
turn of their manuscripts and concede our right to 
publish only such as our purpose and space de- 
mand. The social labor hymn printed in another 
column is the first response to this call. Others 
have been submitted to our judgment and are to be 
published elsewhere. 



The great mistake of the best men through gen- 
eration after generation has been that great one of 
thinking to help the poor by almsgiving, and by 
preaching of patience or of hope, and by every 
other means except the one thing which God 
orders for them JUSTICE. John Ruskin. 

The true calling of a Chrisian is not to do extra- 
ordinary things, but to do ordinary things in an 
extraordinary way. The most trivial tasks can be 
accomplished in a noble, gentle, regal spirit, which 
overrides and puts aside all petty, paltry feelings, 
and which elevates all things. Dean Stanley. 

Christian citizenship is more than reform it is 
regeneration. Wheelock. 

Pure democracy and pure theocracy are one. 

Prof. Herron, 



from Sociological Class IRooms. 



SOCIOLOGICAL TRAINING OF THE MINISTRY. 



At Chicago Theological Seminary Professor Tay- 
lor will have, in his " required " work, all the stu- 
dents, including those of the Swedish, Danish, Nor- 
wegian and German departments. The first half 
of the year is devoted to an inductive study of 
the social teachings of the Bible. The elective 
course is upon the " Social Condition and Move- 
ment of Labor," and deals with the industrial struc- 
ture of society, especially since the introduction of 
machinery and the factory system; and includes 
original investigations of labor organizations and 
legislation, child-labor and the sweating system, 
the standard of living and the living wage, strikes 
and industrial peace. The latter course will essen- 
tially follow the " Labor Studies," to be published 
in these columns through the issues of the entire 
year. Students will be brought into personal con- 
tact with representatives of organized labor and 
employing capital, both on their own ground and 
in the class-room. 

The second half of this seminary year is 
assigned in required work to sociology, involving 
the study of social phenomena for the nature, 
structure, design, progress, and dynamics of the 
social organism, and the fundamental relationship 
between society and the individual, the Kingdom 
and the church. Two elective courses offered are: 

1. Pauperism and poverty, public relief and pri- 
vate charity, charity organization methods, the 
function and agencies of the church in charity. 

2. Child saving. The private and public treat- 
ment of dependent, defective and delinquent child- 
ren, and the evils and restriction of child labor. 



INTERSEMINARY ECONOMIC CLUB. 



The first meeting for the winter of the Inter- 
seminary Economic Club will be held at Chicago 
Commons on Saturday afternoon, October 17, at 2 
o'clock. The discussion, which will be conducted 
by Prof. Graham Taylor, will be upon the subject, 
"The Social Extension of Christianity." These 
meetings last winter were a most delightful feature 
of the work of the Commons. Like those of most 
of the meetings at the Settlement, the name refers 
to an occasion rather than to a specific organiza- 
tion. The meetings are held fortnightly, on Satur- 
day afternoons, and are attended especially by 
the students of the theological seminaries of the 
city. They are open, however, to all interested in 
the relation of the church and ministry to social 
life and progress. 



The first comer is almost always an honest man, 
Victor Hugo. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[September, 



MUTATION. 



Deep is the heart of human kind; 

Vain are the thinkers who would find 

A perfect symbol for its thought; 

Vainly the final word is sought. 

There is no line of human creeds 

But tells its tale of human needs, 

Yet still, from age to age, they change. 

The future to the past is strange, 

And the yearnings of each day, 

New doubts that stir, new hopes that sway, 

Shall be-embodied, endlessly, 

In creeds to be, and yet to be. 

Priscttla Leonard, in The Outlook. 




CHICAGO COMMONS. 

14O North Union Street, at Milwaukee Avenue. 

(Reached by all Milwaukee avenue cable and electric cars > 
or by Grand avenue or Halsted street electric cars, stopping 
at corner of Austin avenue and Halsted street, one block 
west of Union street.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement located 
on North Union street, two doors from the southwest cor- 
ner of Milwaukee avenue and the crossing of Union street 
upon Milwaukee and Austin avenues. 

Object. As explained in the second clause of the Articles 
of Incorporation of the Chicago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of Illino s: 

"2. The object for which it is formed is to provide a center for a 
higher civic and social life to initiate and maintain religious, educa- 
tional and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and improve 
conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago." 

Or, as the explanatory circular of the settlement has ex- 
plained it: 

" As exemplified at Chicago Commons, the Social Settlement con- 
sists primarily of a group of people who choose to make their home 
in that part of the great city where they seem to be most needed, 
rather than where the neighborhood offers the most of privilege or 
social prestige." 

Support. The work is supported in addition to what the 
residents are able to pay for rent of rooms, by the free-will 
gifts of those who believe in what the work stands for. The 
gift of any person is welcomed, and the contributions are 
both occasional and regular, the latter being paid in in- 
stalments, monthly, quarterly and annually, at the conven- 
ience of the giver. 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome at any time, 
but the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Residence All inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should be 
addressed to GRAHAM TAYLOK, Resident Warden. 

Information concerning the work of Chicago Commons 
is gladly furnished to all who inquire. A four-page leaflet, 
bearing a picture of pur residence, and other literature de- 
scribing the work will be mailed to any one upon applica- 
tion. Please enclose postage. 



It is often easier to send a few pennies to help 
the poor black boy in Africa than it is to show the 
Christ-like spirit to the little black boy just 
around the corner of the street. ./Sooner T. Wash- 
ington. 



Settlement anfc 



SOCIAL NEEDS AND AIMS," 



Subject of the School of Social Economics to be 
held December 7-12 Some of the Speakers- 
Shall We Publish? 



The postponed session of the Chicago Commons 
School of Social Economics will be held $t the 
Settlement residence, 140 North Union street, in 
the week beginning December 7. It is as yet im- 
possible to announce a complete programme, but 
every indication points to the fulfillment of our 
expectation that the sessions will be of somewhat 
remarkable importance in contributing to the dis- 
cussion of the social status and outlook, and of 
remedial theories and programmes. The formal 
subject of these discussions, as has been announced 
already, is to be that of Social Reconstruction, or, 
as we prefer to express it, "Social Needs and 
Aims," with a partic ular bearing upon the question 
whether the principles of the Sermon on the Mount 
afford, after all, a sufficient basis for the constitu- 
tion of rational civilized society. 

SOME OF THE SPEAKERS. 

The careful search for the speakers who will 
contribute most helpfully to the discussion is in 
progress, and it is hoped to have adequate repre- 
sentation of many schools of social philosophy 
and reform. We are hoping to have present, for 
instance, Rev. Dr. Washington Gladden, for whose 
final answer we are waiting. Mr. Henry Demorest 
Lloyd, author of " Wealth against Commonwealth," 
has promised to be with us, and the presence of 
Rev. B. Fay Mills depends upon the arrangement 
of some pending engagements. 

We propose that a distinguishing characteristic of 
these sessions, as it has been habitually of all meet- 
ings held under our roof, shall be absolute freedom 
of speech and debate, appreciating that useful dis- 
cussion of these great themes must depend upon 
the frank utterance .of every man's honest thought. 

SHALL WE PUBLISH? 

In this connection arises a question which many 
inquiries make an important one Shall the proceed- 
ings of this session be published in permanent form ? 
The reply to the question must depend almost 
wholly upon the assurance of financial support, for 
such an undertaking involves no small expense. 
With this in view, then, we request every reader of 
CHICAGO COMMONS, and others interested, under 
whose eye this paragraph may fall, to express, by 
means of a postal card or otherwise, willingness 
to co-operate in this work by the purchase of one 
or more copies of the proceedings at a price not 
exceeding, say $1.00. While such an expression 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



need not be binding upon anyone, it would afford 
us a basis upon which to judge whether the ven- 
ture in question would be wise. 



"CHICAGO COMMONS SUNDAY MEETING." 



Musical Service to be Held at the Settlement on 
October 18. 



It has always been a part of the settlement plan 
to have a popular Sunday afternoon meeting; a 
broadly religious service which should prove an 
uplifting influence to the everyday working people 
who surround the Commons. In the latter part of 
May such a meeting was begun, but it was found 
that not before the fall would the people for whom 
it was designed attend it, and the effort was sus- 
pended for the summer. 

On the 18th of October, at 4 p. M., the first 
"Sunday Meeting" of the winter season will be 
held. The feature of the occasion will be the 
vocal and instrumental music, for which arrange- 
ments are making, and a short and helpful address 
will be given. It is intended that this meeting 
shall be peculiarly the meeting of the Settlement, 
and will represent its best effort for the deeper life 
of the neighborhood. While it will never be di- 
dactically religious, nor with any view of proselyt- 
ing, its motive will always be to appeal to the 
fundamental religious being which exists in all 
normal men and women, and to be a restful and 
uplifting occasion for workers seeking a respite 
from the humdrum round of daily toil. 



MEDICAL COLLEGE GRADUATION. 



Close of the Second Successful Year. Work of the 
Chicago Commons Dispensary. 

Common interest allies the Settlement and the 
Illinois Medical College, located on an opposite 
street corner, to share the Settlement's privilege 
and opportunity for service. The residents of the 
Commons viewed with satisfaction the second 
year's good work, which closed early in the present 
month. The Secretary reports 78 students enrolled, 
of whom 92 per cent were school teachers. The 
graduating class of 1896 numbered 10. 

In the dispensary connected with the college, 
and known as the Chicago Commons Free Dispen- 
sary, Dr. Brown, its President, reports that nearly 
5,000 patients have been treated since March 10, 
the dispensary having proved itself a real blessing 
to hundreds who otherwise would be obliged to go 
to a considerable distance for free attendance or 
suffer for lack of it. Every effort is making to pre- 
vent the dispensary's being used by persons able 
to pay for the services of the resident physicians 

WANTED. A score of tactful men and women to give 
one evening a week at Chicago Commons this winter in con- 
ducting clubs for the boys and girls who look to the Settle- 
ment for almost their only healthful and uplifting recrea- 
tion. Almost any kind of talent can lind employment in 
his work. 



of the neighborhood, and more and more is the 
work of the institution being reduced to the neces- 
sary service of those absolutely unable to pay at 
all. 

The officers of the disp'ensary are: President 
Dr. H. H. Brown, Secretary of the College Faculty; 
Secretary, Prof. Graham Taylor; Treasurer, Her- 
man F. Hegner; Registrar, Dr. Mary Edna Goble. 
The last three are all residents of the Commons. 

Only the question of the expense of coal to heat 
the necessary rooms stands in the way of continu- 
ing the dispensary in operation throughout the 
winter. It is hoped that some arrangement can be 
made, for in the hard winter that is before us there 
will almost certainly be an increasing number of 
those needing medical aid and unable to pay for it. 



'THE TUESDAY MEETING.' 



The Tuesday evening meetings for wage earners 
have taxed the seating capacity of our largest 
room since the first of August, and bid fair to be- 
come the feature of Seventeenth Ward life during 
the winter. Of course the coinage question has 
been uppermost, and the intense interest in the 
presidential campaign has drawn people of all 
classes and shades of thought to the discussion. 
Every phase of the question has been presented 
and argued by the best speakers obtainable, from 
the Greenbacker to the Gold ultra-monometallist. 
The best of temper has prevailed, and no one 
attending the meetings could doubt that they are 
profitable, not only for the intelligent presentation 
of economic subjects, but also and perhaps more 
important, the inspiration and cultivation of a 
fraternity and mutual respect that is delightful to 
see and have part in, and that promises mightily 
for the peaceful solution of the vast problems of 
our time. 



COMMONS NOTES. 



The prospects for the opening of the Plymouth Winter 
Night College (under which name our educational work is 
organized) are must satisfactory, and every indication 
promises a good winter's work. The scope ot the depart- 
ment Is outlined in some detail in the advertisement on 
the inside of the back cover of this issue. 

The kindergarten opens for its winter session with its 

quarters renovated and in good repair, and with every evi- 
dence of increasing usefulness. The radius of the neigh- 
borhood from which children come to us grows daily wider. 

The labor bureaus of the various states have promptly 
responded to the request for files of their reports for our 
library. We are gathering at the Commons an increasingly 
satisfactory sociological library, and will be glad 9f addi- 
tions, whether of books, magazines, pamphlets or clippings. 

The removal of a partition has given us a large and 

highly convenient library, and affords one large front room 
for social and club gatherings. 

Wednesday evening is "Girls' Club Night" with us 
now, all the clubs of the younger girls meeting on that even- 
ing and closing with general exercises, calisthenics, etc. 

About $15 are now in hand for the drinking fountain, 

and we have also the generous offer of Winchester & Co., 
plumbers, of Chicago, to furnish labor free of charge 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[September, 




Vol. 1. No. 



September, 1896 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICK 

Twenty-five cents per year, postpaid to any State or 
Country. Single copies sent to any address upon applica- 
tion. For larger numbers, special terms may oe obtained 
on application. The publishers will be glad to receive 
lists of church members or other addresses, to whom sam- 
ple copies may be sent. 

Changes of Address Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it is due. 

To Other Settlements We mean to regard as " pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such. In return, we ask for all reports, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 

Advertisements First-class advertisements desired 
at reasonable rates, which will be furnished upon applica- 
tion. 



ALL COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 



Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post-Office at Chicago, 111. 



THERE are dozens of eager small boys within 
call of Chicago Commons (and doubtless of 
every other settlement) simply waiting for you to 
come and organize them into a club. 



LABOR DAY IN CHICAGO. 



A remarkable spectacle was that presented at 
Sharpshooters' Park, Chicago, on the 7th of Sep- 
tember. In recognition of Labor Day, preparations 
had been made for an entertainment on a grand 
scale; games and sports of many kinds had been 
provided for, and it was expected that ten thousand 
men, women and children, more or less, should 
enjoy the day as a great public festival. But as a 
festival it was a failure. As a means of money-mak- 
ing for those in charge it missed fire altogether, 
inadequate ticket-collecting arrangements having 
resulted in a loss, it is said, of $1,000. 

But as an exhibition of the possibilities of dem- 
ocracy and of popular earnestness it was one of the 
most remarkable scenes ever witnessed upon this 
continent. The sports and games were neglected, 



the " picnic " features, usually so prominent, were 
fairly ignored, as that great mass of humanity de- 
voted itself to discussing and hearing the discus- 
sion of purely economic subjects. Men gathered 
in knots and earnestly argued pro and contra the 
great questions of the day, and one passing about 
among them must have noticed the almost entire 
absence of the ordinary chaffing and gossip, sub- 
stituted as it was by the earnest canvassing, with 
real intelligence, of questions long regarded as too 
abstruse for the minds of any but specialists. 

He must be indeed a pessimist who can view 
with anything less than hopefulness this earnest 
devotion of the masses of American workingmento 
the study of those economic and industrial subjects 
which so vitally concern their own future. As the 
Chicago Record well said in closing an editorial 
comment upon the remarkable scene of Labor Day: 

The problems of the' present day are very largely eco- 
nomic in nature, and an encouraging sign of the times is the 
interest shown by workingmen in the discussion of these 
subjects. An argument frequently advanced by working- 
men in favor of shorter hours is that they need more time in 
which to study matters affecting their general welfare and 
relating to their duties as citizens. The more disposition 
they show to make such use of their time the more sympa- 
thy will they have from the public in their agitation for 
shorter hours of toil. 



THE SETTLEMENT AND THE CAMPAIGN. 



An editorial in The Gongregationalist (Boston) re- 
cently contained the following: 

It would be interesting to find out the exact position in 
this campaign of pronounced social reformers, the men and 
women who work in college settlements and that increasing 
class of educated persons who in recent years have exhibited 
in various ways marked sympathy with manual toilers. 

We have seen thus far no reply to this question, 
and feel incompetent to make one, but it is timely 
for us to say that the opinions of settlement resi- 
dents, like those of other private individuals, differ 
upon this and other important questions concern- 
ing which honest men are divided. The settlement 
as an institution however, stands above all for one 
thing applicable to the present controversy the 
freedom of honest opinion and speech and the 
recognition by every man of the honesty and good 
faith of his neighbor. The settlement endorses 
very cordially the manly words of Mr. Talcott 
Williams, when he said, in The Independent, " No 
political issue is fully understood whose discussion 
implies that great masses of men are knowingly 
swayed by immoral motives." 

Chicago Commons, for one, has offered thus far 
in the campaign, and will continue to offer, a com- 
mon ground upon which those of opposed opin- 
ions may meet for candid argument, a neutral plat- 
form from which all sides may be presented with- 
out fear or favor; a friendly forum whose only and 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



cardinal rule is freedom of speech with the frank 
recognition of common human rights and unre- 
served belief in the final good sense of " all the 
people." 

SETTLEMENT SCHOLARSHIPS. 



It is becoming more and more frequent to find 
churches, literary and social clubs, young people's 
societies and other similar organizations looking 
about for some healthful activity in which to inter- 
est themselves. To such, as well aa to individuals 
who believe in our kind of social effort, we suggest 
again the feasibility of establishing a "scholarship " 
in one of the city settlements, supplying the funds 
necessary for the subsistence of a resident during a 
part or the whole of the winter. There are many 
persons eager to enter upon settlement residence 
and work, who cannot do so for lack of money with 
which to support themselves during residence. In 
not a few cases, only a part of the total sum would 
need to be raised, and even the total sum needed 
for such a purpose is suprisingly small. We 
should be glad to establish communication be- 
tween the parties to such an arrangement, and 
to afford opportunities for its fulfillment in our 
own residence and upon our own field. From 
the standpoint of scholarly investigation, this plan 
offers many advantages. Some rarely useful 
scientific work has been done for instance by 
" fellows " of the College Settlements Association. 

A WORD TO LABOR UNIONS. 



The present economic campaign has brought 
about one highly gratifying result the deep in- 
terest of all parties and classes in the discussion of 
topics hitherto supposedly closed to the ordinary 
mind. In consequence, meetings of all kinds where 
these things might possibly be discussed have been 
largely attended. This has been true of the labor 
meetings especially, and it is of this fact that a 
word may be said here. It has been a matter of 
nearly common knowledge, and of regret upon the 
part of those interested, that the meetings of many 
labor unions have been far less interesting and far 
less cordially attended than was to be hoped, in 
spite of many efforts to make them more spicy and 
attractive. For this problem the deep interest in 
the campaign suggests a solution that of devoting 
some part of the labor meetings to the discussion 
of industrial economics. If the labor union could 
become more of a school, its usefulness would be 
vastly increased, and the membership would be 
brought to appreciate their magnificent heritage 
and prospect of rights, responsibilities and power. 



THE Health Board's report, showing that Chi- 
cago's tainted water "supply" has killed 
thousands of babies during the summer months? 



ought to sound the doom of the corrupt politics 
and the vicious tax system which curse Chicago's 
municipal life. Perhaps it may require a fearful 
epidemic of disease to teach us in the matter of 
sanitation what we learned in 1871 concerning fire. 

* 
* * 

n TTENTION of all settlements andsimilar works 
/ V is called to the request at the head of our 
editorial column for all reports, and, so far as possi- 
ble, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, 
issued by settlements in the course of their regular 
work. We shall esteem it a kindness if we may be 
notified promptly of the establishment of any new 
settlements, the opening of new work in existing 
settlements, in short, to be informed of all matters 
involving the history of the settlement movement. 



Sifce 



Sfcetcbes 



MOST amusing and at the same time most pa- 
thetic are the questions asked and requests pre- 
ferred by neighbors and visitors at the Commons. 
From the New England man who inquired whether 
the "inmates" were "allowed to see visitors " to 
the neighbor who requested that we keep a couple 
of dogs for him; from the woman who desires us 
to send a refractory neighbor to jail, to the visitor 
who asked if the horde of seventy-two boys (whom 
she saw rollicking in the gymnasium) all lived with 
us, the queries vary, and each seems at the time to 
have capped the climax. There is the man who 
wants to see "the Gospel garbage inspector" or 
the "superintendent of swill"; the next, who 
wants us to get him a job on the police force; 
another whose chickens have been stolen; and yet 
another whose baby has swallowed a half-dollar. 
But a very large proportion of callers, God help 
them! are the men out of work hundreds of them 
whom we can only turn away; the women whose 
husbands are sick; the disabled and helpless, hope- 
less and incompetent, whom the fearful struggle 
for existence has crowded to the wall. A thousand 
opportunities for helpful, hopeful ministry open 
on every side, and we are very few! 



IT WAS at Grand Rapids that Mrs. Lucretia Will- 
lard Treat told of one of her early kindergarten 
experiences on the Levee in St. Louis, where after 
vainly trying to find something on which to base 
their teaching, the kindergarteners finally fell 
back upon "Light," the only thing which the 
children knew of. Each was to bring next day 
something illustrating " light." Some brought 
bits of candle, one brought an illustration of 
" Rising Sun " stove polish ! Another urchin 
proudly presented to the teacher an unspeakably 
obscene illustration a double-page newspaper 
picture, indescribably shocking. The teacher was 
in despair at this apparent failure of all her 
efforts, and the child, seeing something evidently 
wrong, passed over all the tilthiness of the sicken- 
ing picture, and planting his finger upon one 
corner, showed the only thing his innocence saw 
in it all through a tiny window, the crescent 
moon ! 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[September, 



1fn tbe Worlfc of Settlements. 



BE A CHRIST! 



" A new commandment give I unto you, that you 
love one another," is still, alas, a new command- 
ment in a world that is more or less avowedly 
dominated by the doctrine of Cain. The New Re. 
demption will come when that new commandment 
has cast out the Evil Spirit, the Prince of this 
world, whose watchword is, "Each man for him. 
self, and the devil take the hindmost." For it was 
the hindmost whom Christ came to save. 

For tliis New Redemption for which the world 
waits, there must come a new Catholicity, trans- 
forming and widening and redeeming the old. The 
neve religion, which is but the primitive essence of 
the oldest of all religions, has but one formula 
lie a Christ '. The new church which is already 
dimly becoming conscious of its own existence, 
under all kinds of ecclesiastical and dogmatic and 
agnostic concealments, is not less broad. What is 
the church? It is the Union of all who Love, in 
the Service of all who Suffer. 

Are you willing to help? If Christ came to your 
city would He find you ready? If so, you will not 
have long to wait. For "the least of these, my 
brethren," are a numerous tribe, and an hour will 
not pass before your readiness will be put to the 
test. And Christ will then see, in your case, " How 
the men, My brethren, believe in Me." William T. 
Stead in " If Christ Came to Chicago." 



A dream of man and woman, 
Diviner, but still human ; 
Solving the riddle old, 
Shaping the age of gold. 
The love of God and neighbor 
An equal-handed labor; 
The richer life, where Duty 
Walks hand in hand with Beauty. 



IN DEFENSE OF TOYNBEE HALL. 



Spicy Letter Reflecting an East London Settlement 
Controversy. 



An East London controversy of considerable 
interest is reflected by a recent letter from a 
London correspondent signing himself " E. P. B.", 
published in the Chicago Daily Record, under the 
title " Toynbee Hall." According to this article, it 
appears that Secretary Loch, of the London Char- 
ity Organization Society, together with others of 
like opinion, has passed criticisms upon Toynbee 
Hall upon the ground that its educational work is 
so purely classical as to be far above the heads of 
the neighborhood. These critics are quoted by 
this correspondent as saying, in effect, " The idea 
that the untutored classes of Whitechapel can ap- 
preciate or in any way profit by the Greek-and- 
Latin educational course of Toynbee Hall is ab- 
surd. The whole tone of the place is pitched 
above the capacities of the people whom it is seek- 
ing to help. Toynbee is all right in itself. Its men 
are of the best, in respect both to education and 



character, but they are spending themselves, their 
time and what money they can collect to arrive at 
results wholly incommensurate with the cost." 

The Record's correspondent is warm in defense 
of Toynbee's work. " These men," he urges, "are 
manifestly taking hold of the Whitechapel prob- 
lem at the right end, whatever may be the outcome. 
If they fail to redeem this fearful quarter, if at 
last the tide of commerce rolls over their walls and 
buries them from memory, still will they suffer a 
fate in no wise different from that of hundreds of 
missions, societies and homes that have gone be- 
fore. If pure blood, trained minds and triumphant 
wills, coming to dwell in the heart of the slums 
and to pour out their utmost power, cannot effect 
reformation, then the job may as well be left to 
the direct attention of God. It is beyond human 
instrumentality. 

"The records of Toynbee Hall, however, show 
that immense good has been accomplished in 

Whitechapel in the last ten years It 

is safe to say that the excellent moral influence of 
the institution has been felt to the uttermost re- 
cesses of these slums, and that if there were fifty 
Toynbee Halls instead of two or three among the 
million people of East London a definite impress 
might begin to be apparent on the frightful degre- 
dation of the place." 



TENEMENT HOUSE CHAPTER. 



Almost a settlement work is that of the Tene- 
ment House Chapter of the King's Daughters and 
Sons of New York City, for which Mrs. Louise S. 
Houghton and Jacob A. lliis have made an appeal. 
The Chapter rooms are at 77 Madison street, near 
Chatham Square, and the work includes several 
clubs, two sewing schools, a kindergarten and a 
library of 2,000 volumes; in the summer fresh air 
work. A visitor is employed all the year, who co- 
operates with the Charity Organization Society, 
investigating charity cases and distributing delica- 
cies, medicines and aid in general. The cost of the 
work is about $5,000 a year, of which three-fourths 
is raised by voluntary offerings. The present ap- 
peal has in view the fact that at this season of the 
year especially there is much suffering in the tene- 
ment houses. Miss Clara Field, 7 Madison street, 
New York, is treasurer. 



THE JULY ISSUE of CHICAGO COMMONS was designed 
not only to be representative of the earlier issues of 
the paper, and to exhibit the work of one particular settle- 
ment, but also and especially to explain the settlement idea 
in general. Among the general articles published with this 
in view are those on " Foreign Missions at Home Resem- 
blance of the Settlements to Missionary Homes in Heathen 
Lands," "Purpose and Scope of the Settlement," " In the 
World of Settlements" (Department), "A Short Sociologi- 
cal Bibliography," etc., etc. 

We will send any quantity, postpaid, at the rate of 
two cents per copy, or will mail them at that rate to any list 
of addresses sent to us. (Enclose stamps, check, post 
office order or cash, at our rtefc.) 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



9 



THE LABOR MOVEMENT 



First of the Studies Concerning; the Prog- 
ress and Social Condition of Labor. 



INTRODUCTORY SURVEY OF THE FIELD. 



Need and Value of Fuller Knowledge and Scope of 

the Studies Review of the Ground 

to be Covered.* 



[CONDUCTED BY PKOFKSSOU GRAHAM TAYLOR.] 



What is the Labor Movement? 

This question is raised at the outset because it is 
seldom squarely asked and rarely fairly answered. 
James Russell Lowell numbers it among those 
questions which come knocking at the door of every 
generation. " The porter always grumbles and is 
slow to open. 'Who's there, in the name of Beelze- 
bub ?' he mutters. Not a change for the better in our 
human housekeeping ever has taken place that wise 
and good men have not opposed it, have not prophe- 
sied, with the alderman, that the world would wake 
up with its throat cut, in consequence of it. The 
suppression of the slave trade, the abolition of 
slavery, trades unions at all of these, excellent 
people shook their heads despondingly and mut- 
tered ' Ichabod.' But trade unions are now de- 
bating instead of conspiring, and we all read their 
discussions with comfort and hope, sure that they 
are learning the business of citizenship and the 
difficulties of practical legislation." and Lowell 
reassures the excellent shakers of heads that 
" unless the household, like the Thane of Cawdor 
and his wife, have been doing some deed without a 
name, they need not shudder. It turns out at 
worst to be a poor relation who wishes to come in 
out of the cold," or as Mazzini introduces the dem- 
ocratic stranger, "a people struggling into the sun- 
shine." 

But those who thus withstand it because they 
know too little of it or, because of some practical 
experiences, think they know too much will learn, 
upon a broader view, that the Labor Movement is 
not yesterday's movement of some men against 
other?, of a few employes "on strike," or an em- 
ployer who has ordered a " lockout." For to the 
student of the history that has been making for the 
past six hundred years it seems more like the 
movement of Man. Classes and crafts are moved 



*The second Study, to be published in the October issue 
of CHICAGO COMMONS, will follow in outline the historical 
development of the Labor Movement from the events im- 
mediately preceding the Black Death (1348) to the establish- 
ment of the factory system (1844) or, " From Serfdom to 
Wages," 



by it, but it is the movement of the mass. Men 
and measures are its way-marks, but its progress 
marks the way which the common life is taking. 

NEED OF BROADE"R KNOWLEDGE. 

While among its adherents there are more who 
understand it to be nothing less than the struggle 
for a human standard of life, yet the Labor Move- 
ment suffers from nothing so much as the lack of 
the breadth that comes only from knowledge of the 
past and vision for the future, upon the part not 
only of the rank and file but of the leadership in 
its organizations. If more labor-union men were 
only aware how much better their predecessors 
builded than they knew, they themselves could 
build the better. If more knew the long train of 
events, complications, toils and sacrifices which has 
led the way to present situations, so many would 
not attempt or expect the impossible. If, on the 
other hand, what has been accomplished by the 
intelligent sacrifices of the few were not so un- 
known, the many now marshalled into the organ- 
ized army of industry would reap Jhe peaceful 
victories within their easier reach. 

So keenly is the lack of more thorough historical 
and economic knowledge felt by the most intelli- 
gent workingmen, that little groups of them are 
withdrawing from their unions to devote their time 
to the study of the mighty problem. But how 
much better would it be to devote more of the time 
and energy of the unions to more systematic educa- 
tional effort. Most of them can develop such per- 
sonal resources from within and can command 
enough supplemental help from outside to make 
the educational session as interesting as profitable. 

THE JURY OF PUBLIC OPINION. 

There is, moreover, a third party to the contro- 
versy between those who oppose and adhere to 
organized labor, who have a right to be heard, but 
need to be taught first. It is that great undecided 
jury the Public who know not what to think or 
do, and yet whose interests are more and more 
seriously involved, and upon whose attitude and 
action public safety and the progress of the whole 
Labor Movement in every last analysis depend. If 
once the facls could only be gotten before them 
they will agree upon a verdict which will neither 
be doubted nor disputed. But no public question 
is so little understood by the public as that of labor 
organization, so far are the masses of the people 
from understanding that the movement of labor is 
the upward struggle of the common life. 

The Labor Movement is therefore far more than 
any organization, programme, plan of action, or 
single issue. It is nothing less than the more or 
less concerted movement of the majorities of the 
world's workers for the recognition of human rights 
and personal wlws in the working'World; the 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[September. 



more or less organized effort of fellow-crafts- 
men and the federated forces of all trades-unions 
to attain and maintain that standard of life or com- 
fort which makes it possible for " men to live the 
life of men." The general movement thus de- 
scribed includes such specific objects of pursuit as 
a living wage, upon less than which a man cannot 
live and be a man, and upon which the existence of 
home, its wifehood, motherhood, and childhood 
depend; a fairer share of leisure and privilege 
involving limitation of the hours of labor and ex- 
tension of the opportunities for relief from the 
monotony of subdivided toil; protection for the 
life, limb and health of the working man, wo- 
man and child; a tenable social status with the 
possibility of peace, progress and human brother- 
hood; and the legal recognition of the right to 
combine, and the freedom of speech and action in 
the promotion of these ends, limited only by the 
protection of personal liberty and public safety. 

PRACTICAL VALUE OF THE 8TDDY. 

If, as Arnold Toynbee urged, " Social problems 
of the present be borne in mind in studying the 
past," even that historical research which to too 
many seems remote from the solution of to-day's 
problems, will be fruitful in present values. Not 
the least important result to accrue to the advan- 
tage of labor is to make more widely known the 
fact that its movement has a history. Then it will 
more readily be believed that it both has made and 
is making history. Of just this dignity, in its own 
sight, no less than in that of others, organized 
labor stands in greatest need. 

Not until it is as self-conscious and as widely 
recognized in this country, as it has long since been 
in England, that it is part of the great race move- 
ment and has place in the literature of the lan- 
guage, and law of the land, will organized labor 
hold an equal footing here as there. Not until 
industrial differences are attributed in the public 
mind to other and higher causes than mere indi- 
vidual selfishness and personal antagonisms, will 
the movement to settle them rise higher than a 
more or less annoying quarrel. 

To emphasize only or chiefly the personal ani- 
mosities and class antagonisms as the causes of 
industrial differences is hopelessly to misconceive 
and needlessly to embitter a situation already so 
little understood and so complicated by "bad 
blood " as to be without any solution, perhaps, to 
the majority of men. The very first step toward 
solving "the labor problem," therefore, is an edu- 
cational effort to secure the acknowledgment that 
the differences which divide the industrial world 
are real, and have great general historical causes 
to account for the division, if not for the specific 
form of each several issue that arises into dispute. 

PRESENT CONDITIONS TRANSITIONAL. 

It is well nigh criminal to discuss such issues 
without premising the fact that civilization is still 
in the throes of an industrial revolution, which by 
the introduction of machinery and the subdivision 
of labor consequent thereupon, has wrought more 
radical and rapid changes to which the people 
"iave been obliged to adjust themselves, than the 
political or military revolutions to which it may be 
compared. Incalculable will be the practical value 
of the common understanding of historical ante- 
cedents, economic principles, social conditions and 
industrial forces to the promotion of industrial 



peace and social progress. If, for example, there 
could be a wider interchange of experience in the 
practical attempts to conciliate and arbitrate indus- 
trial disputes, how fast and far the most approved 
and successful of such methods would supplant 
the war measures that so universally prevail in the 
strike, lockout, boycott and blacklist. 

Above all, the intellectual necessity imposed by 
such study upon those representing contesting 
classes, to stand in each other's place, and to recog- 
nize, at least for the time being, certain common 
interests at stake, would play no small part in 
interpreting the majorities and minorities to each 
other. For as the elimination of the personal 
element from the relationship between employer 
and employe is so largely the dangerous factor in 
the present situation, no solvent can have highly 
practical value that does not make for the restora- 
tion of the bond of brotherhood. 

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OP THE STUDIES. 

These studies are undertaken at the prompting 
of the conviction that upon the calm, impartial 
interpretation of the social condition of labor, in the 
light of its past movements and present tendencies, 
our industrial peace and social progress depend. 
In the hope that these ends may be promoted by a 
definite plan of study, opening up easily accessible 
sources of information, and marking out practical 
methods for personal observation and considera- 
tion, or for the social discussion by friendly groups 
of the common workaday life, the following lines 
of inquiry are proposed for the co-operative pur- 
suit of our fellow students. 



The Movement of Labor. 

FROM SERFDOM TO WAGES the movement should be 
followed in an outline study of its historical development 
in England from the events immediately preceding the 
Black Death (1318) to the establishment of the factory sys- 
tem (1844). 

When the general course of events has thus been outlined, 
the following specific movements will, among others, invite 
special study: 

FROM INFERIORITY TO EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW: 
The evolution of English labor-legislation.from the " Statute 
of Laborers " (1350) to the repeal of the anti-combination 
laws (1824) and the factory acts (1844, 1847), etc., etc. 

FROM COMPETITION TO COMBINATION : The organization 
of labor, necessity for under the competitive system, rise of 
among agricultural laborers and in craft-guilds, promoted 
by the introduction of machinery, development of trade- 
unions, their relation to the old guilds, the new trade union- 
ism, the federation of labor and socialism. 

FROM ACTUAL CONDITIONS TOWARD IDEAL COMMON- 
WEALTHS: Literary Utopias, communistic experiments, 
democratic aspirations, socialistic propaganda, religious, 
social evangelism, etc., etc. 



THE ORGANIZATION OF LABOR: Continued necessity for 
under existing conditions, avowed aims of, principles of 
association; methods, by combination for brotherhood and 
benefits, by conflict with the-weapons of the boycott and of 
the strike, by intimidation, coercion and picketing, by con- 
ciliation and arbitration, by co-operation in productive in- 
dustry, profit and gain sharing, in distril>ution, co-operative 
stores, etc.; economic, political, ethical and religious aspects 
of the principles, methods and tendencies of organized 
labor. 

EXISTING LABOR LEGISLATION: Underlying varying 
principles, development of labor legislation in England since 
the acts of isi'4 and 1*47, and in the United States; attitude 
for and' against legislative interference; government labor 
officers, commissioners, factory inspectors, boards of con- 
ciliation, etc.; tendency toward the initiative, referendum 
and proportional representation. 

Social Condition of Labor. 

Present conditions in which the industrial class 
in general, and individual crafts or classes in par- 
ticular, are found to be, are to be not only com- 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



pared with past conditions, e. g., wage earners 
with serfs and slaves, but contrasted with ethical 
ideals of what conditions should be and may 
become. From this point of view social conditions 
of labor may be observed and studied under the 
following topics: 

STANDARD OF LIFE AND THE LIVING WAGE. General 
economic aspect of as illustrated among the agricultural 
laborers and those of the several crafts and trades. 

PRESENT SPECIFIC CONDITIONS. Child-labor and ap- 
prenticeship, workingwomen their relation to men's work 
and family life, the sweating system, hours of labor and Sun- 
day rest, Idleness involuntary and voluntary, relief work 
for the unemployed, dealing with the tramp. 

RELATIVE STATUS OF THE INDUSTRIAL CLASSES. 
Educational ; compulsory schooling, industrial training. 
Municipal; the housing, sanitary provisions and recreation 
spaces of industrial districts in cities. Political; intelli- 
gence, freedom, affiliations and interests. Social : in- 
equality, power of initiative, common-ground for neighbor- 
hood co-operation, social unification, relation of social 
settlements to this status. Moral ; honesty. sobriety, social 
purity, ethical ideals. Religtous; attitude toward religion 
and toward the churches, relation of religion to industrial 
ethics, and of the churches to the social condition of labor. 

Biographical and Literary Studies. 

Supplemental to the historical and economic 
study of the Labor Movement, but vitally impor- 
tant to it, is acquaintanceship with the Jives and 
writings of its rarest personal exponents. Subjects 
for biographical and literary studies, with biblo- 
graphieal suggestions, will be indicated in connec- 
tion with the. successive periods or phases of the 
movement to be reviewed. 

For the sake of those who may prefer to select 
their lines of study in advance a list of biographi- 
cal and literary subjects is appended, which may 
be added to as our course proceeds: 

St. Francis and his Tertiary Order. 

John Wyclif and " The Kingdom of God." 

William Langland and " Piers Plowman." 

John Ball, the Preacher of the Peasant Revolt. 

Sir John Oldcastle. the Protector of the Persecuted. 

Erasmus and the " Christian Prince." 

Sir Thomas More and the " Utopia." 

John Wesley and the Social Results of the Wesleyan 
Movement. 

Robert Owen at New Lanark and New Harmony. 

Richard Oastler, the Child-Saver. 

The Seventh Earl of Shaftesbury. 

Carlyle and his " Signs of the Times," " Past and Pres- 
ent." 

Frederick Denison Maurice, his Life and Letters. 

Charles Kingsley and "Yeast" and "Alton Locke." 

Thomas Chalmers and "The Christian and Civic Econ- 
omy of Large Towns." 

Mazzini and his "Thoughts on Democracy" and "The 
Duties of Man." 

John Ruskin and " Fors Clavigera " (letters to working- 
men) , " Time and Tide," " Unto this Last." 

Arnold Toynbee and " The Industrial Revolution." 

William Morris and " The Dream of John Ball," " Signs 
of Change" and " News fromNowhere." 

Karl Marx and " The Bible of Socialism." 

Count Leo Tolstoi, the Nobleman Laborer. 

William and Catherine Booth "In Darkest England." 

Pestalozzi, Froebel and Horace Mann, the apostles of 
democracy in education. 



Literature of Labor. 

The literature of the Labor Movement is far 
richer, more varied and voluminous than is gener- 
ally supposed. Webb's Bibliography of Trades 
Unionism, which does not cover the many other 
phases of the literature, nor much of the American 
writing on that subject, contains nearly one thou- 
sand references, a large proportion of which are to 
rare original sources. But there is rapidly coming 
to be a hopefully accessible and popular literature, 
to which, for the most part, the practical design of 
these studies limits our reference. Bearing in 
mind also the two classes of readers likely to make 
use of these studies, we will suggest by the use of 



the asterisk(*) the books to be commended to those 
of limited time and means and then will add a 
longer list from which wider selection may be 
made.t 

BOOKS OF GENERAL REFERENCE, to which con- 
stant allusion will be made : 

* Trade Unionism, New and Old, G. S. Howell. Scrib- 
ners. New York. $1.00 net. 

* The Labor Movement in America. Richard T. Ely. T. 
T. Crowell & Co., New York. $1.50. 

[Comprehensive briefer treatments of English and 
American movements.] 

Conflicts of Labor and Capital (2d ed.). G. S. Howell. 
Macmillan & Co., New York. $2.50. [Showing the histori- 
cal, administrative, political, social, economic and industrial 
aspects of Englisa trade unions. 1 

History and Development of Guilds and the Origin of 
Trade Unions, Dr. Lujo Brentano. Triibner & Co., Lon- 
don. $1.25 net. [The first historical review of the religious, 
town or merchant, and craft guilds, and their relation 
to trade unions.] 

Six Centuries of Work and Wages. A History of English 
Labor, 1250-1833, J. E. Thorald Rogers. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. $3.00. [Abridgement in Social Science Library. 
Household Publishing Co., New York. 25 cents.l 

History of Trade Unionism, Sidney and Beatrice Webb. 
Longmans, Green & Co. $5.00. [An exhaustive history of 
modern trade unions, denying their relation to the old 
guilds, and written from the socialist's point of view.] 

An Introduction to English Economic History and Theory 
(2d ed.), 2 vols., W. J. Ashley. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York. 1st vol.. $1.50: 2d vol., $3.00. [A thorough, critical 
treatment of the Middle Age period, maintaining a conserv- 
ative and mediatory position between conflicting opinions 
on the more controverted historical and economic points.] 

*The Industrial Revolution in England (4th ed.), Arnold 
Toynbee. Longmans, Green & Co. $3.50. [The most sug- 
gestive historical and economic interpretation of the rise of 
the present industrial order, in the eighteenth century, from 
the social point of view.l 

*The condition of the Working Classes In England in 
1844, F. Engels (translated by Mrs. Florence Kelley). Scrib- 
ner, New York. $1.25. 

Democracy and Liberty, 2 vols., W. E. H. Lecky. Long- 
mans, Green & Co. $5.00. [Chapters VIII and IX are de- 
voted to a conservative's estimate of contemporaneous so- 
cialism and labor questions.] 

Classes and Masses; a Hand Book of Social Facts, W. H. 
Mallock. Adam and Charles Black, London. $1.25. [A de- 
tenseofthe present order and laisaez faire; attacking pro- 
posed reconstructions and legislatve interference.] 

Problems of Poverty; an Inquiry into the Industrial 
Condition of the Poor, J . A. Hobson. Methuen & Co., Lon- 
don. $1.00 net. 

The Evolution of Modern Capitalism; a Study of Ma- 
chine Production, J. A. Hobson. Scnbner, New York. $1.25. 

[The scientific analysis of existing conditions in these 
two volumes gives great weight to the author's forecast of 
"a coherent industrial organism," and his "interpretation 
of the tendencies visible In the development of modern 
industry.] 

* Outlines of English Industrial History, W.Cunningham 
and Ellen A. McArthur. Macmillan & Co., New York. $1.25 
net. 

*The Industrial History of England (3d ed.), H. De B. 
Gibbens. Metnuen & Co. $1.20. 

* English Social Reformers, H. De B. Gibbens. Methuen 
&Co. $1.00. 

[These two volumes are remarkably concise and compre- 
hensive, yet readable, popular expositions of the historical 
development of our modern industrial life.] 

* A Short History of the English People. J. R. Green. 
Harper & Brothers. $1.20. [Invaluable for its luminous 
glimpses of the common people's life and living at successive 
periods.] 

Life and Labor of the People in London, 7 vols., Charles 
Booth. Williams & Norgate. Vols. 1-4, $1.50 each; vols. 
1-7, $3.00 each. 

Pauperism and the Endowment of Old Age. Charles 
Booth. $1.50. 

Hull House Maps and Papers, by Hull House residents. 
T. Y. Crowell & Co. $2.50. 
[The three last named works are the results of most elab- 

t A somewhat extended bibliographical list of sociological 
works was published in the July issue of CHICAGO COM- 
MONS. 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[September, 



orate and accurate statistical investigations of the condition 
of English and American industrial classes.] 

* Industrial Evolution of the United States, Carroll D 
Wright, U. S. Commissioner of Labor. The Chautauqua 
Press. $1.00. [The planting and growth of American me- 
chanical industries are described. The labor movement 
and the influence of machinery on labor are treated.] 

The Labor Movement the Problem of To-day, edited by 
George McNeil. The M. J. Hazen Co.. New York. Sub- 
scription, $3.75. [Containing historical sketch of the rise of 
the modern laborer, by Prof. E. J. James; discussions of 
various phases of the problem by Prof. F. H. Giddings, 
Henry George and others, and accounts of various trade or- 
ganizations and federations of labor, by their representa- 
tives.] 

* The Labor Problem, edited by William E. Barns. Har- 
per & Brothers, New York. $1.00. [Plain questions 
and practical answers by political economists, manufactur- 
ers, workingmen, divines, labor commissioners, journalists 
and others, with an historical consideration of the conflict.] 

* Tools and the Man Property and Industry under the 
Christian Law, Washington Gladden. Houghton, Mittiin & 
Co. $1.25. 

Ruling Ideas in the Present Age, Washington Gladden. 
Houuhton. Miftlin & Co. $1.25. 

[ The two books last mentioned treat the ethical and re- 
ligious aspect* of many principles and relationships involved 
in the industrial status.] 

Principles of Economics. Vol. I (3d ed. ) . Alfred Marshall, 
Professor of Political Economy in the University of Cam- 
bridge. Macmillan & Co. 2 vols., $3.00 per vol.. net. [In 
Book IV, on The Agents of Production Land. Labor, Cap- 
ital and Organization, the personal, ethical and social ele- 
ments receive stronger emphasis, and throughout (espe- 
cially pp. 46-49, 275-295. 594-598, 638-650, 755. 771-790) the rights 
of labor have more liberal recognition and advocacy than 
at the hand of any other economist.] 

Handy Book of the Labor Laws (3d ed.), George Howell. 
Macmillan & Co. $1.50. [A popular guide to existing English 
labor legislation.] 

Hand Book to the Labor Laws of the United States. F. 
J. Stimson. Scribners, New York. $1.50. 

*The Labour Annual: A year book of social, economic 
and political reform, second issue, 1896. Edited by Joseph 
Edwards; Clarion Company, Ltd., 72 Fleet street, London. 
Is., net. [Probably the oest existing compendium of infor- 
mation concerning the contemporary movement of labor 
and reform.] 

Reports of the United States Labor Bureau: 
Annual. 

1886. First. Industrial Depressions. 

1887. Second. Convict Labor. 

1888. Third. Strikes and Lockouts (18S1-1SS6). 

1889. Fourth, Working Women in Large Cities. 

1890. Fifth, Railroad Labor. 

1891. Sixth. Cost of Production I (one vol.) 

1892. Seventh. Cost of Production II (two vols.) 

1893. Eighth, Industrial Education. 

1894. Ninth, Building and Loan Associations. 

1895. Tenth, Strikes and Lockouts (1887-1894). 

Special. 

1889. First, Marriage and Divorce. 

1892. Second. Labor Laws of Various States and Terri- 

tories. 

1893. Third. Analysis and Index of State Labor Reports 

prior to November, 1892. 
1893. Fourth. Compulsory Insurance. 

1893. Fifth, The Gothenberg System of Liquor Traffic. 

1894. Seventh, The Slums of Great Cities (Baltimore, 

Chicago, New York. Philadelphia). 

1895. Eighth, Housing of the Working People. 

[The sixth and seventh annual reports on the "Cost of 
Production " are of unique value, containing as they do, ex- 
haustive inquiry into the incomes and. detailed expenditures 
of operatives, and affording information as to the life of 
working families not to be obtained elsewhere.] 

State Reports of Labor Bureaus and Factory Inspectors. 

Serial Publications and Proceedings: 

Social Science Journal. [Of the Am. Social Science As- 
sociation.] 

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science. 

American Statistical Association. 

American Economic Association. 

American Journal of Sociology. 

All the Books in the above list, except government re- 
ports, may be obtained of A. C. McCLURG & Co., Wabash 
avenue and Madison street, Chicago. 



Hmona tbe Books. 



VALUABLE LABOR "BULLETIN.' 



Peculiarly Useful Features of the Labor Depart- 
ment's I i 1 1 M Issue. 



The value of the new Bulletin of the Department 
of Labor is made more evident by the importance 
of the contents of the fifth issue, now before us, 
though space limits preclude more than mention. 
There is a report upon the Department's recent 
investigations as to convict labor, supplementing 
its report of 1887; the fourth chapter of W. F. 
Willoughby's series of articles on Industrial Com- 
munities, describing the great Krupp iron and 
steel works at Essen, Germany; summaries of the 
recent reports of the labor bureaus of Maryland, 
Michigan and North Carolina; outline of the 
Massachusetts report upon the unemployed; the 
new Maryland sweat shop law for the protection 
of garment workers; recent labor decisions by 
courts, and a list of government contracts effecting 
labor. Most valuable of all, perhaps, because 
otherwise most inaccessible, are the abstracts of 
foreign statistical publications for instance, an 
exhaustive report upon the trade guilds of Austria; 
a report upon last year's strikes in France, and one 
upon strikes and lockouts in Great Britain and 
Ireland. 



REPORT ON STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS. 



Space is at hand for only a brief mention of the 
Tenth Annual Report of the United States Com- 
missioner of Labor. The report relates entirely 
to the strikes and lockouts occurring in the United 
States from January 1, 1887, to June 30, 1894. It 
thus supplements the Third Annual Report, of 
December, 1887, which reported strikes and lock- 
outs from January 1, 1881, to December 31, 1886. 
We have now a decidedly complete record of 
labor disturbances in this country from January 
1, 1881, to June 30, 1894. An improvement is 
made in this report in that experience and care 
have enabled the adoption throughout of the 
individual strike as unit of record, whereas the 
Third report made the establishment in which 
strikes or lockouts occurred, the unit. Twenty- 
six tables show with great exactness the number 
of strikes and lockouts by years, States and indus- 
tries, the number and sex of employes involved, 
thrown out of employment and retained; loss of 
wages and to employers, causes of trouble in 
each case, and whether the strike or lockout 
succeeded or failed. Address, Commissioner of 
Labor, Washington, D. C. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



PLYMOUTH 
WINTER NIGHT 
COLLEGE 




AT 



OPENS For those who feel 

^^CTTC^BFR their education to be 

- insufficient, and who 

1 ST for any reason are 

unable to attend the regular Night Schools 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

140 NORTH UNION 

ST R E ET 



TUITION FEE 
25 CENTS FOR TERM OF TEN WEEKS 



CLASSES IN 
MATHEMATICS Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, etc., etc. 

ENGLISH Writing, Spelling, Beading, Grammar, Composition 
GEOGRAPHY Physical, Descriptive, Baces of Men 
HISTORY American, English, French, etc., etc. 

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE French. German, Latin 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE AND ECONOMY Cooking. Sewing, 
Dressmaking, Home Nursing, First Aid to the Injured 

MUSIC Singing, Piano, Violin, Mandolin, Banjo 
People's and Children's Choruses for Study of Good Music 

ART Drawing, Needlework, Embroidery 

SCIENCE Natural History Club 
SHORTHAND, MECHANICAL DRAWING, ETC., ETC. 




Other Features of Chicago Commons 

Free Kindergarten for Little Children, open daily except Saturday and Sunday 

From 9 till 12 and throughout the year 
Clubs for Boys, Girls, Young Men, Young Women and Grown Folks 

Meeting tor Men and Women for discussion of industrial and economic subjects 
Every Tuesday evening at 8 o'clock. Admission FREE. Open to all 

Sunday Meeting, for Men and Women, opens October 18th 

Good music, helpful lectures. An uplifting, restful gathering for busy people 

Seventeenth Ward Council of the Civic Federation 

In which are united those interested in making the ward a clean, safe, happy place to live. All 
good citizens, regardless of politics, creed, color or sex, are invited to join 

Labor Studies. A class of the residents and others to study with Professor Taylor the history 

and outlook of the Labor Movement 
A School of Philosophy, independent of the Settlement, is accorded rooms at the Commons 

weekly, and is cpen to those interested 



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NX! 



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VOL. \ No. 7 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 
LIFE AND WORK 

CHICAGO 



DINNER 



OCTOBER, 1896 



25 

Cents 

a 
Year 



THE universal blunder of this world is 
in thinking that there are certain 
persons put Into the world to govern 
and certain others to obey. Every- 
body is in this world to govern, and every- 
body to obey. There are no benefactors or 
beneficiaries in distinct classes. Every man 
is at once both benefactor and beneficiary. 
Every good deed you do, you ought to thank 
your fellow man for giving you the oppor- 
tunity to do, and he ought to be thankful 
to you for doing it. . . 

Feudalism had its vague shadow of duty 
and mutual service, but it soon gave place 
to the epoch of individualism. . . Now men are 
coming to see that beyond and above this 
individualism there is something highei 
/Mutualism. . . Don't you see that in this mu- 
tualism the world becomes an entirely dif- 
ferent thing? Men's dreams are after the 
perfect world of mutualism. AXen's follies 
may anticipate it. A\en will think of it in 
the midst of deepest subjection to the false 
conditions under which they are now living. 
This is new life, where service is universal 
law; is but the coming in of the life of God 
upon man; the coming into the inlets of our 
life of th.e. :i gtfe^.t ocean-life that lies beyond. 
PHILLIPS BROOKS. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



WE DESIRE TO TREBLE 
OUR CIRCULATION 



AND 

WITHIN 
TWELVE 
MONTHS 

TO 
SECURE 



TEN THOUSAND 



READERS 



THIS WILL BE VERY EASY 

IF EVERYBODY HELPS 

IN ONE OF THE FOLLOWING WAYS: 



OF CHICAGO 
COMMONS, 



1. BY GETTING SUBSCRIBERS. 

To help this along, we will send six copies for one year to any one address, anywhere, for $1.25. 
This is a club rate of i2O cents -per copy, and will apply to any number of copies above six, 
sent to one address. 

2. BY SENDING US LISTS 

of church members, clubs, societies, or personal friends, in any number. We shall be glad to send 
sample copies to any persons upon application. Send us your church directory to-day. 

3. BY ADVERTISING. 

It is by cash receipts from advertising that we hope to make up the discrepancy between the low 
price of subscriptions and the cost of printing and delivering the paper. We will send rates upon 
application and allow a liberal commission upon desirable advertising secured for us. 

4. IN GENERAL, 

By interesting yourself and friends in Chicago Commons, and the cause of social brotherhood 
for which it stands and which it tries to aid. For instance, why not write a couple of letters to-day 
to some good friends, telling them about it, and sending them your copy of the paper ? We will 
send you another copy for every one you distribute in this way. 



WHEN YOU THINK, 

That in these ways, and others that may occur to you, you can assure the permanency, stability and 
constant development of the paper ; that thus you can be of material assistance in arousing interest 
in the work of social reform and rejuvenation, not alone in the social settlement, but in churches, 
societies and among individuals widely scattered in many parts of the world; 



YOU WILL GLADLY HELP. 



For sample copies, advertising rates and all information 
on the subject of the paper, address 



CHICAGO COMMONS, 



140 NORTH UNION STREET, 

CHICAGO, ILLS, 




A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



OCTOBER, 1896. 



No. 7. 



TOWARD HUMANITY. 



If one might save 

Man from his curse, the whole wide world would share 
The lightened horror of this ignorance 
Whose sha low is chill fear, and cruelty 
Its bitter pastime. Yea, if one might save ! 
And means must be ! There must be refuge! Men 
Perished in winter winds till one smote fire 
From flint-stoues coldly hiding what they held, 
The red spark, treasured from the kindling sun. 
They gorged on flesh like wolves till one sowed corn, 
Which grew a weed, yet makes the life of man; 
They mowed and babbled till some tongue struck speech, 
And patient fingers framed the lettered sound. 
What good gift have my brothers, but it came 
From search and strife and loving sacrifice? 

Edwin Arnold, in The Light of Asia. 



SOCIAL WORK IN CLEVELAND. 



Hiram House and Its Great Opportunity Interest at 
Hiram College Social Awakening Among the 
Disciples. 

[BY THE WARDEN.] 

The presentation of the settlement motive and 
method, at a summer assembly three years ago by 
the Warden of Chicago Commons, sowed the seed 
of new life and effort in the heart of a student 
in General Garfield's old college at Hiram, Ohio. 
For two years it silently germinated, until his 
graduation, when, despite many things to the con- 
trary, and not a few deepest misgivings, it found 
what seems to be permanent rootage, first, in the 
heart of the college life, and then in one of the 
most neglected and needy of the industrial dis- 
tricts in the city of Cleveland. At 141 Orange 
street, in the heart of a predominantly Jewish pop- 
ulation, the Warden recently found seven resi- 
dents, three men and four women, all but one 
formerly students at Hiram College, comfortably 
located in two cottage-like frame buildings, flanked 
by a pretty lawn. 

A CONGESTED DISTRICT. 

After the summer work in another locality the 
settlement located there last September. The pre- 
liminary canvass of the district discovered 8,000 
inhabitants, 2,596 of whom are between the ages of 
six and twenty-one years. In the single block, on 
Orange street between Cross and Perry, in which- 
Hiram House is situated, there are no less than 



1,900 people, of whom 628 are between these ages. 
The response from the neighborhood has already 
been so great as to supply the kindergarten, day- 
nursery and evening educational classes with as 
many attendants as the residents can well take 
care of. The Cleveland General Hospital and its 
well-co ad acted dispensary are located upon the 
same block, and the very cordial and practical co- 
operation between it and the settlement, has al- 
ready proven to be of reciprocal value. 

INTEREST AT THE COLLEGE. 

As in the case of most other settlements, Hiram 
House is finding the reflex influence of its work 
upon its more resourceful and privileged constitu- 
ency to be not the least valuable element in the so- 
cial service rendered. This was impressively 
demonstrated to the writer by the settlement con- 
ference at Hiram College on a recent Sunday. The 
College church was thronged by faculty, students, 
and the old friends and neighbors of President 
Garfield, whose modest little one-and-a-half-story 
homestead is the only local monument standing to 
his early manhood, and is still the pride of the 
town. The eager interest in, and the manifest 
sympathy for every feature of the settlement 
movement, and the nobly generous response to the 
appeal for support in behalf of Hiram House were 
impressive evidences of the hold that this form of 
social service has already gotten upon the heart 
of college and town. It is the more significant in 
view of the fact that this unsectarian work has 
been inaugurated by, and is likely in large part to 
enlist the co-operation and fellowship of, the 
Disciples, who number 5,000 churches with 750,000 
members. 

THE SOCIOLOGICAL CLUB. 

The living link between the Settlement and Hi- 
ram College, is the "Hiram Christian Sociological 
Club," composed of college men and women, with 
the object of studying society in relation to the 
Kingdom of God, and to make practical efforts for 
the betterment of human social relations. The 
club has been in existence about two years and has 
discussed the sociological aspects of such present 
issues as " Immigration," "The Sphere of Volun- 
tary Organization," " The New Philanthropy as it 
Affects the Poor Women and Children in Fac- 
tories," " South Carolina Liquor Dispensary Law," 
" The Standard Oil Trust," with selections from 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[October, 



"Wealth Against Commonwealth," "Are Corpora- 
tions Subject to Moral Law?" "The Initiative and 
Proportional Representation," "The National Bank 
System," "The Church and the Working Classes," 
"An Account of a Visit to Hull House," etc. 

DISCIPLES' SOCIAL AWAKENING. 
The social awakening among the Disciples' 
churches is also manifest in Chicago not only in 
the work they have recently inaugurated in con- 
nection with the Peoples' Institute, but also more 
significantly in the broad social interpretation of 
scripture and church life by Prof. Willett, at the 
Disciples' Divinity House, connected with the 
University of Chicago. 



RECKPTION TO WOBK.INGMEN. 

Cleveland Y. M. C. A. Gives the Opportunity to Pre- 
sent the Laborer s Kight and Duty to Learn. 



The forces of labor, education and religion were 
rarely blended and focused on the evening of Octo- 
ber 12th at a reception given to the mechanics of 
Cleveland by the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion in their great Christian club-house. Its audi- 
torium was filled by over a thousand working men 
who listened eagerly and with marked approval to 
the discussion of the question of " Laborers' Right 
and Duty to Learn." 

Copies of the Labor Issue of September of CHI- 
CAGO COMMONS were sought for and almost de- 
manded by men who thronged the platform for 
half an hour to secure a sample, with an earnest- 
ness which confirms the belief that there never has 
been a wider opportunity for practical educational 
efforts in the line of industrial economics than the 
present epoch-making period in American political 
and social progress. 



The parish priest of Austerity 

Climbed up a high churcli steeple 

To be nearer God, so that he miglit hand 

His Word down to the people. 

And In sermon script he daily wrote 

What he thought was sent from Heaven, 

And he dropped it down on the people's heads 

Two times one day in seven. 

In his age, God said ''Come down and die," 

And he cried out from the steeple, 

" Where art Thou, Lord? " and the Lord replied, 

" Down here among my people." 



Men are unjust because they are ignorant, and 
the cure for all injustice is humanitarian educa- 
tion. Let us clamor less for mere dollars and cents 
and make our claim for justice in the form of op- 
portunity for our children, for their mental and 
moral growth. JSo man can resist that appeal. 
Shall we have a new slogan of war and cry out for 
the real emancipation of the soul? Leduire News. 



GOLDEN RULE MEN. 



Further Testimony as to the Practicability of Christ's 

Principles in Daily Life Hull House's 

Tribute to Wm. H. Colvin. 



That "The Golden Rule in Business" is a theme 
of present day interest, and the question of its 
practicability one close to very many hearts, has 
been displayed in many ways to us since the pub- 
lication in the last i:-sue of CHICAGO COMMONS of 
the account of a practical application of those 
words of Jesus to the business relations of em- 
ployer and employe. In another form comes to us 
the evidence of another business man's effort to 
live unto his less fortunate fellows after an exalted 
ideal. The death of Mr. William H. Colvin, of 
this city, to which we have referred in a previous 
issue, is noticed by Hull House, of which he was a 
notably firm friend and supporter, in a warmly 
appreciative memorial, published with the Null 
House Bulletin, and presumably from the pen of 
Miss Jane Addanis. We have space for but a few 
selections: 

Few business men are able to retain a really sympathetic 
view of the lives and aspirations of working people. Even 
those who, like Mr. Colvin, have had the early struggle and 
training of the workiug boy, are apt to lose this sympathy 
In the years of business success. It is, then, a rare gift to 
the community when a man who has constantly grown 
larger in his sympathy, clearer in his insight and more for- 
bearing in his charity, Is able to devote the leisure or his 
middle lite to the higher interests ol the city, and with an 
enlightened conscience and trained ability insist that the 
best results of civilized life shall be secured for the benefit 
of working people. 

It is characteristic of Mr. Colvin that as 

chairman of the executive committee of the Municipal 
Voters' League, he insisted that a strong campaign should 
be made iu the wards occupied by workingmen, relying 
upon them for most valuable help, because they had a right 
to the education and the credit incidental to such a cam- 
paign, and because business men alone could not purify the 

city government He was too modest to realize 

how far his fait iful and able services contributed to a bet- 
ter city or Imw rare is sucli devotion. 

Mr. Colvin's helpful activity among working people was 
largely inspired by his conviction that the principle of the 
organization of labor must be sustained if the present in- 
dustrial order is to continue. TTe held to this conviction in 
times of stress and upheaval, when he was quite ready to 
admit that trades unions were making serious blunders. . 

Sentences of his are easily recalled. During a 

strike, when the insistence of Hull House for arbitration 
could so easily be misconstiued into partisanship, he said: 
"H.. 11 House can't afford not to stand for arbitration. In 
fif'y years from now the people who are not insisting upon 
arb.tration in this crisis will be looked upon with amazement, 
perhaps with contempt." 

The offer of a new building was once made to Hull House 
from a man who was notoriously corrupt in his business 
methods. ])u> ing the long and careful discussion of ethics 
and practical conduct which followed this offer, Mr. Colvin 
never wavered from his position. " It is better for working 
people to have less, than to grow more confused in their 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



notions of honesty," and he himself took back the message 
of refusal In so fair a spirit that he retained the man for his 

firm friend 

His children contemplate a memorial building at Hull 
House, which will be to the residents and to many of their 
nMgh'.)ors the memorial of a man "who did justly, who 
loved mercy and who walked humbly before his God." 

FROM THE "GOLDEN RULE" SHOP. 

Nothing thus far published in these columns has 
attracted so much attention or so unqualifiedly 
favorable comment as the account of the establish- 
ment of the Golden Rule as the shop rule in a 
western factory. Of the many letters received in 
reference to it, the most interesting is from the 
gentleman at the head of the establishment in 
question, to whom the publication was an entire 
surprise. The portion of his last letter given be- 
low, though written with no idea of its publication, 
is an important word of sequel to our first article: 

I feel somewhat diffident about being referred to as an 
exemplification of the fact that the Golden Rule Is applica. 
ble to every day affairs. I never said that we had attained 
the decree of perfection required to carry out that lofty 
standard. I have always said that we are " trying," simply 
trying to attain to It, and while I am painfully conscious of 
the fact that we corne far short, many times, of the practi- 
cal interpretation of it In our dealings with our fellows, It 
affords me great pleasure to say that our experience has 
been a very pleasant, happy and satisfactory one, and we 
are going to keep the old mle hanging on the wall, and try 
next year to come nearer to it than we have In the year 
that's past. 

The pleasure that I have in saying this is very greatly 
enhanced as I add. what simple justice would require that 
I should add, that is, that I have every reason to believe 
that the boys in the shop are trying just as earnestly to 
carry out their part of the rule as we are who are in the 
office. 

PROFIT SHARING AT IVORYDALE. 

In this connection reference may be made ap- 
propriately to the profit-sharing successfully car- 
ried on by the firm of Proctor & Gamble, makers 
of Ivory soap, at Ivorydale, Ohio, near Cincinnati. 
Reports of the seventeenth semi annual dividend 
meeting, of this year, and of former meetings, 
have been received. Space limits preclude more 
than the men lion that addresses were made by Dr. 
Washington Gladden an 1 H< n. Benj. Butterworth, 
and that the tone and spirit of the meeting was 
evidently one of the utmost sweetness and brother- 
liness. The address of Mr. James N. Gamble on 
the occasion of the sixth meeting, in May, 1890, a 
copy of which is also in hand, set a keynote for 
mutual respect and regard and fairness of dealing 
which could not well fail of its results. In that 
speech Mr. Gamble mentions incidentally that 
profits of $60,t ! 00 had been shared during the two 
and a half years since the experiment was begun. 
Pamphlets concerning the progress of the idea 
doubtless can be obtained by addressing Proctor & 
Gamble, Cincinnati, Ohio. 



COMMONPLACE LIVES. 



A commonplace life," we say, and we sigh, 

But why should we sigli as we say? 
The commonplace sun In the commonplace sky 

M ikes up the commonplace day. 
The moon and the stars are commonplace things, 
And the flower that blooms and the bird that sings. 
But dark were the world, and sad our lut, 
If the flowers should fail and the un shine not 
And God, who studies each separate soul, 
Out of commonplace lives makes his beautiful whole. 

Susan Coolidge. 



SOCIAL LABOR HYMNS 



Several Useful Collections in Response to Our Re- 
quest of Last Month. 



Our call for social labor hymns and songs seems 
to have struck a respoi sive chord in many minds 
and hearts. Since our last issue, we have received 
the results of several atttempts at original effort, 
and the suggestion of not a few striking lines and 
collections which prove to be valuable sources for 
the compilation which we hope may grow under 
our hand. It is a source of some surprise, indeed, 
to find so many collections, albeit most of them 
small and unpretentious, made with a view of 
supplying just such a need as ours. We had 
hoped to give some selections in this issue, but 
space is available for only a brief mention of some 
of the collections sent to us or referred to by 
interested correspondents: 

" Mansfield House Song Book," used in the Manstield 
House Pleasant Sunday Afternoon Service. Published for 
private use only. 

" The Social Gospelln Song for Religious Services," edited 
by Walter Walsh, Newcastle-on-Tyue; Andrew Reid, Sons 
& Co., London, Paternoster Row, E. C., 1891. 

" The Labour Church Hymn Book." Office of the Labor 
Prtrphet, London, 72 Fleet Street, E. C. Price, Id, paper; 2d, 
cloth. 

" Machine Room Chants," by the late Tom Maguire, with 
memorial note by J. Keir Hardie. London, 53 Fleet Street, 
E.G., 1895. 

" A Song Book for Socialists." London, William Reeves 
185 Fleet Street, E. C. Price, Id. 

"Songs for the Sons of God," by Griffith Dell. Man- 
chester, Labour Press Society, Limited, 57 and 59 Tib Street. 

"Labor Songs," compiled by Herbert N. Casson. Lynn 
Labor Press, 153 Oxford Street, Lynn, Mass. 

Several song books of the Salvation Army, containing 
some such hymns as we seek. 

Pending our further publication on this subject, 
we repeat our request for copies of, or references 
to song-books, single hymns, or poems, original 
or discovered, which will suit our purpose. As we 
said, in former reference to this subject, "original 
compositions will be welcome, if their authors 
will send postage for the return of their manu- 
scrip's and concede our right to publish only such 
as our purpose and space demand." 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[October, 



THE MAKING OF MEN. 



As the Insect from the rock 

Takes the color of its wing; 
As the boulder from the shock 

Of the ocean's rhymthic swing 
Makes itself a perfect form, 

Learns a calmer front to raise ; 
As the shell, enameled warm 

With the prism's mystic rays. 
Praises wind and wave that make 

All its chambers fair and strong; 
As the mighty poets take 

Grief and pain to build their song: 
Even so for every soul, 

Whatsoe'er its lot may be, 
Building, as the heavens roll, 

Something large and strong and free 
Tilings that hurt and things that mar 

Shape the man for perfect praise; 
Shock and strain and ruin are 

Friendlier than the smiling days, 

Rev. J. W. Chaawtish, in The Outlook. 



SOCIAL STUDY CLASSES. 



Interesting Work for the Winter Planned for a 
Grand Rapids Literary Ciub Programme for the 
Evanston Class, 



The Sunday School class in the Evanston Con- 
gregational Church, conducted by Mr. Thomas P. 
Ballard, to which we have several times referred, 
has a very notable programme of study set 
forth for the winter. In the explanatory circular 
just issued by Mr. Ballard we learn that the class 
"studies Bible truth as revealed in conduct. It 
seeks to understand living issues in the light of 
Christian law. There is but one permanent solu- 
tion of all problems affecting the individual, socie- 
ty, business, politics, and that is the Christian one. 
Christian life implies a zealous desire to develop 
character, both of the individual and of society, in 
loyalty to the Master. It is, therefore, more logic- 
ally a confession of defect, rather than a profession 
of virtue. The discussions are informal. Each 
one is free to take part or not, as he prefers. The 
class has been favored with instruction from Dr. 
Washington Gladden of Columbus, O., Dr. Josiah 
Strong, of New York City; Dr. Graham Taylor, 
Dr. J. F. Loba, Prof. J. Scott Clark and others." 
This class has supported liberally work at the Chi- 
cago Commons, more especially contributing gen- 
erously toward the support of this paper. The 
class meets every Sundiy at 12:10 in the pastor's 
study. From the programme for the winter we 
cull these suggestive titles: 

Octoberll " Whosoever shall lose 'his life for my sake 
shall find it." 

November 1 Responsibility of citizpnship. 

December 13 Karly Christianity. Kingsley's "Hypatia." 

December 20 Thy Kingdom come. 

December 27 Looking backward. The world's progress 
toward Christianity in isoc. 



January 17 Dr. Barnan'o's work in London. 

January 24 What is faith? 

January 31 Shall we give to beggars? " The Vision of 
Sir i aunfal." 

February 7 Browning's " Kabbi Ben Ezra. " 

February 14 Manstield House. London. 

February 21 Modern Pharisaism, or old enemies in new 
clothes, 

March 7 Mendelssohn. The Christian as musician. 

March 21 St. George's Episcopal Church, New York. 

March 28 Emerson's Essay on " Success." 

A GRAND RAPIDS CLASS. 

An exceedingly interesting outline of study is 
that sent us by Miss Emma Field, of Grand Rapids, 
which will be carried out this winter in the La- 
dies' Literary Club, of that city. The topics are 
highly suggestive, indicating the broad field to be 
covered. The method seems to be that of a series 
of studies or papers by members of the club. 
Dates and subjects: 

October 14th Social Science, Its Antiquity, Scope and 
Value. 

October 28th The Ascent of Man: " He Setteth the Soli- 
tary in Families." 

November nth Socialism: " Who is My Neighbor?" 

November 25th Dives and Lazarus. Distribution of 
Wealth. 

December 9th Individual Rights and Responsibilities; 
Interdependence. " Who did sin, this man or his parents, 
that he was born blind? " 

January 13th Industrialism vs. Militarism, Co-opera- 
tion, Governmental Aggression. 

January 27th Poverty and Her Daughter, Crime." 

February 'Oth To re-create or to degenerate? 

February 24th -Functions and Limits of Government. 
Centra lization; Civil Service and Unwisdom of Pensions. 

March 10th The Attitude of the State Toward Educa- 
tional Institutions. 

March 24th Nurture vs. Nature. " As a man purposeth 
in his heart, so lie is." 

April 14th The Ethical Factor The highest rule of life. 

April 28th The Law of Supply and Demand. 

May 12th The New Philanthropy. 

May 26th The Duty of Women's Clubs toward Public 
Questions. 

REFERENCE. 

The Bible, Plato's "Republic," More's " Utopia," Bella- 
my's " Looking Backward." Dr. Strong's " New Era," Prof. 
Ely's "Social Aspects of Christianity," Prof. F. H. Gid- 
ding's " Theory of Sociology " and " The Principles of Soci- 
ology," Lyman Abbott's " Evolution of Christianity," Amos 
G. Warner's. " American Cnarities;" Herbert Spencer's 
"Social Statics," Toynbee's "Industrial Revolution," 
American Journal of St>ciob>ay, Cluirit'ex Rtvu-.w, CHICA- 
GO COMMONS, report* of National Conference of Chanties 
and Corrections. (Keference to existing local conditions, 
causes and correctives will be made whenever practicable.) 



PLEA FOR NEGLECTED CHILDREN. 



A Principal Feature of the State Conference of 
Charities and Corrections. 



A valuable conference will be that of charities 
and corrections for the State of Illinois, to be held 
at Springfield, 111., November 12th and 13th, under 
the auspices of the State Board of Charities. Miss 
Jane Addatns, of Hull House, will present "The 
Settlement" on Thursday evening, her address 
being followed by discussion. Prof. Bamberger, 
of the Jewish Manual Training School of Chicago, 
will open the discussion on Friday morning of 
manual training for neglected children, and Dr. 
Julia Holmes Smith will make " A Doctor's Plea 
to the State in Behalf of Dependent Children." 
Other prominent features of the programme will 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



be the addresses, " How Shall We Care for Neg- 
lected and Dependent Children?" by Mrs. Lucy 
L. Flower, Trustee State University; "The Legal 
Status of the Dependent Child," by Judge Orrin 
N. Carter, of Chicago; "The Provisional Treat- 
ment of the Insane, and the Methods of Securing 
Legal Authority for their Restraint," by Dr. Sanger 
Brown, Member of the Board of Auxiliary Visitors 
for Cook County; "The Principle of Charity Or- 
ganization in Towns and Village?," by Rev. Dr. 
C. R. Henderson, University of Chicago; the exhi- 
bition by pupils from State School for Deaf and 
Dumb at Jacksonville. "State Care of the Insane " 
will be the subject of Dr. Clarke Gapen, of Kan- 
kakee, and " The Poor House from a Physician's 
Point of View," that of Dr. George F. Mead of 
Pinckneyville; "The County Jail" will be dis- 
cussed by Dr. Frederick Howard Wines; " State 
Care of the Wrong-doer," by Major McClaughry, 
Pontiac; the discus&ion of the latter to be opened 
by H. H. Hart, Secretary Minnesota State Board of 
Charities and of the National Conference of Chari- 
ties and Correction. 

A special rate of one fare and a third for the 
round trip is made by the railroads for those at- 
tending the conference. Any inquiries as to the 
programme and discussion of special subjects will 
be answered if addressed to Miss Julia C. Lathrop, 
Rockford, Ills. Correspondence regarding rail- 
road tickets, hotels, and boarding places should be 
addressed to George F. Miner, Secretary of the 
State Board of Charities, Springfield, Ills. 



CHRISTIAN FRATERNITY. 



Jesus does not claim that men in the world to-day 
are physiologically equal. There are the lame and 
halt. Nor are they mentally on an equality. There 
are men to whom one talent was given, and those 
to whom five and ten. Nor does Jesus so far fall 
into the class of nature philosophers as to teach 
that because men are to be brothers they are there- 
fore to be twins. The equality of fraternity does 
not consist in duplication of powers, but in enjoy- 
ment of love. 

According to the new social standard of Jesus 
two men are equal not because they have equal 
claims upon each other, but because they owe 
equal duties to each other. The gospel is not a 
new Declaration of Rights, but a Declaration of 
Duties. As to what equality shall consist in when 
the perfect social order is attained, Jesus gives us 
no clear teaching. But one can hardly doubt it 
would be little different. Men would then be 
brothers and society an all-embracing family, but 
individuality is not to be lost. And individuality is 
synonymous with personal inequalities. Prof. 
Shatter Matheit. 



Settlement ant> 




CHICAGO COMMONS. 

14O North Union Street, at Milwaukee Avenue. 

(Keached by all Milwaukee avenue cable and electric cars; 
or by Grand avenue or Halsted str< et electric cars, stopping 
at corner of Austin avenue and Halsted street, one block 
west of Union street.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS Is a Social Settlement located 
on North Union street, two doors from the southwest cor- 
ner of Milwaukee avenue and the crossing of Union street 
upon Milwaukee and Austin avenues. 

Object. As explained iiithe second clause of the Articles 
of Incorp'Tation of the Ohii-ago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of lllino s: 

"2. The object for which it is formed is to provide a center for a 
higher civic and social life to Initiate and maintain religious, educa- 
tional and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and Improve 
conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago." 

Or, as the explanatory circular of .the settlement has ex- 
plained it: 

" As exemplified at Chicago Commons, the Social Settlement con- 
sists primarily of a group of people who choose to make their home 
In that part of the great city where they seem to be most needed, 
rather than where the neighborhood offers the most of privilege or 
social prestige." 

Support. The work is supported in addition to what the 
residents are able to pay for rent of rooms by the free-will 
gifts of those who believe in what the work stands for. The 
gift of any person is welcomed, and the contributions are 
both occasional and regular, the latter being paid in In- 
stalments, monthly, quarterly and annually, at the conven- 
ience of the giver. 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome at any time, 
Init the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Information concerning the work of Chicago Commons 
is gladly furnished to all who inquire. A four-pHge leaflet, 
ben ring a picture of our residence, and other literature de- 
scribing the work will be mailed to any one upon applica- 
tion. Please enclose postage, 

Residence All Inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should be 
addressed to GRAHAM TAYLOR, Resident Warden. 



OUR SECOND BIRTHDAY. 



Woman's Club and Girls' Progressive Club Make 
Presentation to the Commons. 



The second birthday of Chicago Commons was 
observed on the evening of Monday, October 26, 
with great enjoyment. The first move toward a 
settlement in the Seventeenth waid was taken in 
May, 1894, when Mr. Hegner and other students 
of the Seminary began residence at 124 Erie street, 
boarding in a private house; but the present settle- 
ment residence was formally opened October 21, 
1894, and this was the date celebrated, by a largely 



6 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[ October, 



attended reception, under the auspices of the 
Womans' Club and the Girls' Progressive Club. 
Fully 200 persons were present. Mrs. Katberine 
Lente Stevenson, president of the Woman's Club, 
presided. A most interesting programme of music, 
recitations, etc., was presented under the direction 
of Organist Falk, of the Tabernacle Church. The 
united clubs presented to the Settlement a hand- 
some punch-bowl and glasses, the presentation 
speech being made by Mrs. Reocb, vice-pres- 
ident of the Woman's Club, and Professor 
Taylor responding. Remarks were made also by 
Mrs. Stevenson and Miss Richardson. Refresh- 
ments were served, and the evening was closed 
with the singing of " America." 



CHICAGO COMMONS LIBRARY, 



Increasingly I sct'ul Collection of Books and Other 
Material The Settlement Keading Koom. 



The library of Chicago Commons is as yet hardly 
more than a nucleus. In the personal libraries of 
the residents are most of the indispensable works, 
literary, scientific and economic, but an effort is 
making to gather a Settlement library, particularly 
of sociological and economic material, that shall 
remain and be available regardless of changes in 
personnel. 

The removal of a partition gives us a large front 
room for library purposes, and our shelf-space as 
yet considerably exceeds necessity. Yet the li- 
brary grows steadily and promises increasing use- 
fulness. To Mr. Henry D. Lloyd and Prof. Richard 
T. Ely we are indebted for complete sets of their 
works, and to Messrs. Ginn & Co. for a consider- 
able number of the more modern classical works 
recently published by them in popular form. 
Another friend has given a full set of the Encyclo- 
paedia Brittanica, and others have sent in from 
time to time valuable additions. 

SOCIOLOGICAL LITERATURE. 

Especial attention is given to the gathering of 
sociological literature and data. Files of the labor 
reports of the various states, as complete as possi- 
ble, have promptly followed our request to the 
labor commissioners. United States government 
statistical reports are received and filed, and from 
all manner of sources similar works are sought. 
In addition to this, a system of classification is in 
use by means of which is being accumulated and 
rendered easily available a mass of most valuable 
material of the more fragmentary and occasional 
sort clippings, pamphlets, circulars, magazine 
articles, reports, etc., relating to many subjects of 
sociological importance, particularly with reference 
to social and political conditions in Chicago; and 



a special effort is made to miss no important re- 
port, article or reference relating to the settlement 
movement in general or to any settlement in par- 
ticular. To this collection we cordially invite con 
tributions of all matter likely to be of permanent 
value. 

THE SETTLEMENT READING KOOM. 

By means of the kindly co-operation of several 
friends, especially Mr. W. A. Giles, the exchange 
list of CHICAGO COMMONS, and the sharing within 
the house of the papers and magazines received 
by individual residents, our reading room is sup- 
plied with a goodly list of American and foreign 
periodicals, which are in constant use by both resi- 
dents and neighbors. We now regularly receive 
upward of sixty periodicals, aside from the dailies^ 
the list including: 

Arena, American, American Journal of Sociology, Bulle- 
tin of the U. S. Labor Bureau, Christian Education, Cliris- 
tian World (London). Courier (Lincoln, Neb.), College 
Settlement News (Phila.). Christian Intelligent er, Coast 
Seamen's Journal, Children's Home tinder, Christian 
Evangelist, Christian Endeaveror. Child Garden. Charities 
Review. Cleveland Citizen, Cosmopolitan, Coming Nation 
(SocialisO, Deariinet-s' Advocate. The Dial, Eight-Hour 
herald, Economist. Fornm. Firebrand (AmuvhlM), Tne 
Farmer's Voice, (iolden Rule. Hull House Bulletin, Harper's 
"Weekly, Harper's Magazine, Hartlord Si-minary Review, 
Independent, "Justice" (London), Kindergarten Mauazine, 
Kingdom, Labour Leader (London), "L nd>n," Leud-a- 
Haml, Life, Leclaire News, Ma> sneld House Magazine 
(Kast London), McClure's. Men (Y. M. C. A.). Mirror (111. 
State Reformatory), Nation. National Bimetalhst, "The 
Nazarene" (organ of Minster St. Neighborhood Guild^ 
Philadelphia). Outlook, The People (Socialist), Puck, Pratt 
Institute Monthly. Railway Review. Review of Reviews,. 
Single Tax Courier, St. Nicholas, Sc.ibner s, Social Uaztte 
(Siivatloii Army. London). Telegrapher's Advocate, Union 
Signal, War Cry (Salvation Army), Weste'n Laborer, World 
Christian, Youth's Companion, Young People's Weekly. 

To this should be added occasional publications- 
of various kinds, and we shall be glad to add others 
contributed lor the benefit of those who use th& 
reading room. 

THE BOYS' LIBRARY. 

In this connection mention should be made of 
the boys' library, which is now being gathered 
with a view of interesting our boys in good read- 
ing. Good, live, interesting books of fiction, travel,, 
adventure, biography and history are especially 
desired for this purpose. It is purposed to open 
this library at least one day a week, after the first of. 
November. 



PLEASANT SUNDAY AFTERNOON. 



First of the Sunday Meetings at the Commons an 
Unqualified Success. 

Chicago Commons "Pleasant Sunday Afternoons" 
were started with eminent success October 18, and 
it instantly became evident that the occasion would 
fill a real need. The meeting was held in the 
large rear room of the Settlement basement, which, 
with our great flag, a piano lamp, a spreading palm 
and a rug or two, was made as attractive and home- 



1896. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



like as the bare whitewashed walls, the low rafters 
and great square posts along the middle would 
permit. The room was filled with a company 
mingling the very persons for whose better ac- 
quaintance the Settlement chiefly exists; the busy 
men and women of the neighborhood, and a num- 
ber of interested visitors from more distant parts 
of the city and suburbs. 

Prof. W. B. Chamberlain, of Chicago Seminary, 
had charge of the music, and brought with him an 
orchestra from Oak Park, whose music afforded 
great enjoyment. The programme opened wilh a 
"Pontifical March," by Gounod; other instrumental 
selections were the familiar " Traumerei " of Schu- 
mann, 'cello and trombone solos, the Intermezzo 
from " Cavalieria Rusticana," and Mendelssohn's 
"Priests' March." Professor Chamberlain sang two 
solos by Gounod, " Adore and be Still " and, with an 
original 'cello obligato, " Nazareth." His remarks 
upon " Music as a Socializing Force" were brief but 
deeply thoughtful and effective. Professor Taylor 
spoke of the possibilities of the Pleasant Sunday 
Afternoon, and the Twenty-third Psalm was read. 
Few who were present will forget the Moment of 
Silence in which each solemnly communed as best 
he would with that which to him was highest, 
and the Lord's Prayer was joined by all with 
unusual reverence and accord. 

The second occasion was honored by the pres- 
ence of Miss Jane Addams, of Hull House, who 
spoke of "The Social Conscience," recounting 
many evidences of the progress of social ideals in 
Europe, observed during her recent European 
journey. Mr. E. S. Osgood of the Seminary and 
Mit-s Taylor of the Commons played most accept- 
ably upon the violin and piano, respectively. 

As we go to press we are anticipa'ing the third 
of the Sunday meetings, when Dr. Philip VV. Ayres 
is to speak on " Friendship." 



SCHOOL OF SOCIAL ECONOMICS. 



Hull House'* Generous Offer to Co-operate in the 
Conferences. 



Everything thing seems conspiring to prosper 
the plans for the Chicago Commons School of 
Social Economics. With especial gratification we 
announce the kindly offer of co-operation on the 
part of Hull House, through Miss Jane Addams, 
an offer which we have been prompt to accept. 
As a result a part of the sessions of the conference 
will be held in the Hull House gymnasium, es- 
pecially those at which are expected larger audi- 
ences than the Commons residence will accom- 
modate. 

We hope to be able to announce in the next 
issue a substantially complete programme for the 



sessions but for this time must content ourselves 
with repeating what we have said already regard- 
ing the purpose and subject of the conference; 
that it will be held in the second week of Decem- 
ber 7th to 12th, and that the subject of discus- 
sion is to be "Social Reconstruction," with a par- 
ticular bearing upon the question whether the 
principles of the Sermon on the Mount afford, 
after all, a sufficient basis for the constitution of 
rational civilized society. 

We expect to be assisted by representatives of 
many schools of social philosophy and reform, 
among them Dr. Washington Gladden, Mr. Henry 
Demarest Lloyd, Mi.-s Jane Addams, Mr. Ernest 
Howard Crosby, of New York City, who will pre- 
sent the view of Tolstoi; and others of similar seri- 
ousness of mind, with whom correspondence is yet 
in progress. 

These sessions will be open to the public, and 
we cordially invite to them all persons of whatever 
shade of opinion who seriously desire to aid in the 
uplift or upgrowth of human society. 



COMMONS NOTES. 



We are still receiving flies of magazines, but have to 

file them away until by some means we can get them bound. 

Mrs. Thaddeus P. Stanwood of Evanston, addressed 

the Woman's Club at a recent meeting, speaking of the 
work of the Evanston Club. 

Mr. Benjamin Vartsibldian, a native Armenian stu- 
dent at the Seminary, anil resident of the settlement, 
recently addressed the Girls' Progressive and Woman's 
Clubs most thrillingly on the subject of the Armenian 
massacres. 

The boys' work begins in real earnest for the winter 
on Friday evening, October 30. Young people of the Evan- 
st >n Congregational Church arranged an entertainment. 
The snme young people are interesting themselves effect- 
ively in the boys' library project. 

The Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip, of the 
Tabernacle Church, are holding two meetings a week at the 
Commons at present, one of them, on Monday evening, 
being devoted to gymnastics under the direction of 
Mr. Guild, g>muasian director at the seminary. 

The Children's Chorus begins the winter with every 
prospect of interest and good work. Miss Marie Moferis 
again in charge, and already has nearly 20o children under 
Instruction every Thursday afternoon. Grown people of 
the neighborhood are added to the adult chorus every 
Thursday evening. They are learning the best choral 
music in the best way. 



On a voyage round the world, I had the oppor- 
tunity of seeing savage life in all conceivable con- 
ditions of savage degradation, and in this experi- 
ence of mine 1 found nothing more degrading, 
nothing so helpless nothing nearly so intolerably 
dull and miserable, as the life I had left behind in 
the East End of London. If the alternative were 
presented to me to choose the life of one of those 
people in the East End, or ihat of a savage, I would 
distinctly choose the latter. Prof. T. If. Huxley. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[October, 




f 

Vol. J. No. 7 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
i, SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 
^ LIFE AND WORK * 




October, J896 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Twenty-five cents per year, postpaid to any State or 
Country. Single copies sent to any address upon applica- 
tion. For larger numbers, special terms may oe obtained 
on application. 'Hie publishers will be glad to receive 
lists of church members or other addresses, to whom sam- 
ple copies may be sent. 

Changes of Address Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it Is due. 

To other Settlements We mean to regard us " pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such. In return, we ask for all reports, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 

Advertisements First-class advertisements desired 
at reasonable rates, which will be furnished upon applica- 
tion. 



ALT, COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 



Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1806, at the 
Post Office at Chicago, 111. 



WE desire to call attention to the tirst issue of 
the proposed series of Chicago Commons 
Leaflets, advertised elsewhere. In this series we 
plan to issue from time to time short articles, 
bibliographies, etc., of a sociological character, ap- 
pearing in our columns, likely to be useful or in- 
spiring in settlements and similar work. The 
price in every case will be as near as possible to 
the bare co.t of publication and postage. 



THE PURPOSE OF THIS PAPER. 
The reception accorded to this paper by all 
classes exceeds in cordiality our most hopeful 
expectations, and corroborates the belief with 
which we began the publication, that there was a 
field and a demand. We feel that it is timely to 
say a word in explanation of our purpose and 
scope. It should be understood that while our 
allegiance is chiefly to 1he Settlement whose name 
we bear, and whose interests we desire especially 
to subserve, and while we devote ourselves partic- 
ularly to the general improvement of industrial 
conditions in ihe "river wards" of Chicago, we 
stand for and desire to report, as fully as may be, 



the settlement movement in general. Most of all 
are we anxious to encourage and reflect the pro- 
gress of the social principles of justice and broth- 
hood among men. With this in view we have 
interested ourselves in all efforts to understand 
social conditions or to raise and extend social ideals. 
To all persons, in all countries, interested in these 
things we look for the support and continued ex- 
tension of the circulation of CHICAGO COMMONS. 
With an idea of affording opportunity for our 
friends to render help we make the clubbing pro 
positions to be found on page 2 of cover, to which 
we refer our readers, and unhesitatingly ask the 
aid of all friends in the encouragement and im- 
provement of the paper. 



CN EQUANIMITY. 



By the time this page reaches many of our readers 
the great question of the political campaign will 
have been settled, so far as the election is concerned. 
In either case a vast number of honest men will be 
disappointed, and in the minds of many there will 
be great anxiety lest the vote of the people involve 
a mighty injury to the nation's ultimate prosperity 
and to the cause of popular government. We feel 
it to be timely under these circumstances to recall, 
to all who feel thus, their faith in God and in their 
fellow men; to say as we said before, that it is im- 
possible that vast masses of men are either dishon- 
est in motive or altogether deceived in mind. Let 
us all possess our souls in peace and equanimity, 
knowing well that whatever the temporary fate of 
well-loved men or sacred causes, the Right and the 
Truth will triumph in the end. The man whose 
confidence in the ultimate sanity of the universe 
has thus far been corroborated by the progress of 
mankind, will be false to both experience and faith 
if, in what seems never so serious a blow to cher- 
ished beliefs and institution?, he sees aught but a 
more or less trivial incident in the march of man 
toward Righteousness and Justice. 



PLEASANT SUNDAY AFTERNOON. 



With unmixed gratification we announce the 
successful inauguration of the " Chicago Commons 
Pleasant Sunday Afternoon," and the hearty re- 
sponse accorded by the very people who it was 
hoped would enjoy the occasion. Ever since the 
opening of the Settlement it has been our wish to 
find just the right use for our building during 
Sunday afternoon. More than that, we have al- 
ways wanted by some means to minister to the 
deeper spiritual needs of the vast population of 
busy men and women surrounding us. In the 
Tuesday evening meeting economic and industrial 
questions of vital importance are discussed, some 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



9 



times with considerable heat; in the meetings of 
the Seventeeth Ward Council of the Civic Federa- 
tion the battle for good government is planned and 
waged; the Woman's Club affords for the women 
opportunity for interesting co-operation invaluable 
study and good work. But nowhere has there 
been an occasion for the quiet gathering of men 
and women seeking refuge from the cares of daily 
life, from toil and worry and temptation; for 
thoughtful and reverent meditation upon the deep 
things of life. Nowhere has there been an oppor- 
tunity for the emphasis upon the unity and sanct- 
ity of the family life which we feel to be in these 
days necessary. 

Such an occasion we have sought to offer in the 
Pleasant Sunday Afternoon. It will not be a place 
or a time for sectarian proselyting, or for the pro- 
mulgation of doctrines or theories concerning 
which men differ. Music, that tremendous social- 
izing force, under whose mysterious sway hearts 
melt together and aspirations ascend in common 
uplift of soul, will be predominant, and the very 
brief, informal heart-talks, for which we will in- 
vite the best and largest-souled men and women 
available to us>, will treat of the deep and truly re- 
ligious things which all men have and hold, the 
solidarity of the race, the common human interests 
of all nations and all souls. To these occasions we 
cordially invite all men and women interested in 
the welfare of humanity. 



WHATEVER the result of the present cam- 
paign, one thing is mightily sure: Nothing 
now can keep the American people from thought 
and action in the field of economics. The prob- 
lems of the future are industrial, and the American 
democracy is not only eager but able to cope with 
them. The people have entered the field of 
economic study and discussion TO STAY. It will 
be more and more difficult to deceive, to browbeat 
or to betray the people. And it is legitimate occa- 
sion for unmitigated thankfulness. 



WITH much satisfaction we report the com- 
pletion by CHICAGO COMMONS of its second 
year of existence as a settlement. The two years 
have been full and busy ones, and the results cer- 
tainly seem to justify every expenditure of money 
and time and effort. We enter upon the third 
year with courage and increased hope of doing 
really helpful service. 



MANY unavoidable causes have delayed this 
issue of CHICAGO COMMONS. We offer 
apologies and ask for leniency of judgment. 



FROM SERFDOM TO WAGES. 



Second Study of the Progress and Social 
Condition of Labor. 



WAY -MARKS, HISTORICAL, LITERARY, BIO- 
GRAPHICAL. 



Contract of the Status or Serf and Wage Earner 
(,'anscs of the Change Kefereiioes t<> Available 
Literature. 

[CONDUCTED BY I'KOFKSSOK GKAHAM TAYLOR.] 

"The brilliant though chequered career of trades 
unions" is declared by Prof. Alfred Marshall, of 
Cambridge University, England, the greatest of 
contemporary political economists, to be "more 
full of interest and instruction than almost any- 
thing else in English history." His high estimate 
upon the historical study of Trade Unionism is 
equally applicable to that of the broader move- 
ment of labor through the past six hundred years 
of English and American history, the outline 
sketch of which is the subject of this second study; 
Chequered indeed has its history been, with a class 
selfishness as abhorrent as that of any individual, 
yet also with as humane an unselfishness as gilds 
the progress of altruism. Chequered with strikes 
and violence? Yes, but also with the heroism of 
as sublime a patience, as brave a self-sacrifice, as 
serene a faith and as divine a hope as have glori- 
fied the Book of Martyrs. Chequered, be it sadly 
admitted, with cruel contempt of personal liberty 
and the awful injustice of the mob, but, be it not 
denied, with a consciousness of and conscience for 
justice, justifying its claim to be one of the pro- 
foundest ethical and religious movements passing 
through the nineteenth century into the twentieth. 

The master motive and final goal of this move- 
ment of common life for the emancipation of labor 
is, and ever has been, however unconsciously, in- 
dustrial democracy. 

SLAVERY AND SERFDOM. 

The slave labor of antiquity and the serf labor 
of the middle ages constitute the background for 
the story of the rise of the modern laborer. The 
glamour shed over antiquity by the literary study 
and hero worship of the classics, has obscured 
from sight the common life of the twelve slaves 
upon whose burden-bent backs every Greek or 
Roman freeman stood. The pathetic story of "The 
Ancient Lowly " has never yet been told. What 
data there may be awaiting some new Gibbon, 
whose birthright it will be to depict the life and 
labor of the people of antiquity, is indicated in the 
curious and laborious compilation, under the above 
title, which C. Osborne Ward, translator and libra- 
rian of the United States Department of Labor, at 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[October, 



Washington, has gleaned for " A history of the 
ancient working people from the earliest known 
period to the adoption of Christianity by Constan- 
tine." 

"GOOD OLD TIMES" AND BETTER NEW ONES. 
. To understand the evolution of the better social 
conditions of labor, it is necessary on the one hand 
to contrast those of the medieval serf with the an- 
cient slave, and on the other to compare the stand- 
ard of the modern wage-earner's life with the status 
of the serf. The contrasts above suggested are far 
more favorable to the serf than to the average 
modern wage earner. For, while labor suffered uo 
such loss of all dignity and freedom under serfdom 
as under slavery, yet the gains of the wage system 
have never wholly compensated the wage-earners 
for some things they lost in ceasing to be serfs. The 
" cash nexus," against which Thomas Carlyle ful- 
minated the lightning of his " Past and Present," 
has in many respects been a sorry substitute for 
the more personal bond between lord and serf, 
however necessary the substitution is proving to be 
to the higher interdependent union which is being 
painfully evolved. But, if anyone is disposed to 
prefer "the good old times " to our present condi- 
tions, as upon the whole so far better than what we 
know to be bad enough, let him read Jessopp's de- 
scription of "An English Village Six Hundred 
Years Ago," and then answer the author's ques- 
tions, " Should we like to change with those fore- 
fathers of ours? Were the former times better 
than these? Has the world grown worse as it has 
grown older?" Far as the social conditions of our. 
labor are from what they ought 1o be and will be, the 
simple facts of the contrast compel acquiesence in 
the author's conclusion, that they " were living a 
life hugely below the level of yours. They were 
more wretched in their poverty; they were incom- 
parably less prosperous in their prosperity; they 
were woise clad, worse fed, worse housed, worse 
taught, worse tended, worse governed." 

REFERENCES*-'- The Ancient Lowly," C. O.Ward, 
Washington, I). C.; " Gesta Christi," C. L. Brace, 
A. C. Armstrong & Co., Chap. 5, 6, 9, 21; " English 
Economic History," VV. J. Ashley, Putnam, 2 vols.; 
" Outlines of English Industrial History," Cunning- 
ham, Macmillan, pages 1 to 68; "Industrial History 
of England," Gibbius, Methuen, pages 1 to 39. 

CAUSES OF THE CHANGE. 

Three classes of causes wrought the change from 
the serfdom of feudalism to the wages system of 
our individualistic era. 

1st economic forces were silently and grad. 
ually at work, in the leasing of the manor lands to 
the serf, who thereby became a tenant-farmer, 
with a looser bond of personal dependence upon 



* For full Bibliography, with prices and publishers see 
September issue of CHICAGO COMMONS. 



his lord ; in the commutation of personal ser- 
vice for money, and manumission by purchase, 
and in the principle of competition introduced 
by the lord's acceptance of a part of the wages 
earned elsewhere by his serf in lieu of personal 
service. 

2d. The disturbance of life and labor in 1348 by 
the pestilence of "The Black Death," which in 
two or three years cost England, as it had Europe, 
the lo,-s of from one-third to one-half of its popu- 
lation. While the harvests were rotting for the 
lack of reapers, labor, for the first time, really 
competed for wages in the open market of the 
world. Masters lost their men, serfs were loosed 
from the soil, landless men became "tramps." 
Opinions differ as to the economic influence of the 
" Black Death," Thorold Rogers magnifying, and 
Ashley minimizing, its effects upon the industrial 
transition. 

REFERENCES "The Black Death," J. F. C. 
Hecker, No. 67 in the Humboldt Library; " Short 
History of the English People," J. R. Green, page 
202; ''Economic Interpretation of History," Rogers, 
pages 29, 30; " English Economic History,," Ashley, 
vol. 2, page 264. 

THE PEASANT PIONEERS. 

Personal influences constitute the third class of 
causes which wrought emancipation from serfdom. 
The personal luxury of the lords, enhancing their 
demand for money above their claims for services, 
tended toward the liberty of labor. The serfs' 
growing personal independence of their lords, and 
interdependence upon each other, gave being to 
the spirit of social revolt for the first, time in En- 
glish history. In the first concerted movement of 
the working world, called " The Peasant's Revolt " 
(1331), labor came to self consciousness, found its 
voice in the song of a poor poet, heard its consci- 
ence in the preaching of "the proud, mad priest of 
Kent," and followed its first great leader into the 
field of public action, in what was the first great 
" strike " in English history. William Langland's 
"Piers the Plowman" is the first and almost the 
only great labor song in English literature. " On 
the eve of a great struggle between wealth and 
labor," the historian Green declares, " Langland 
stands alone in his fairness to both, in his shrewd 
political and religious common sense." The gospel 
which " Long Will " thus sang between the lines of 
clashing classes John Ball carried into the rapidly as- 
sembling camp of labor. Wyclif's bold, clear declar- 
ation of the rights of man had struck the key note of 
this poet's song, and gave the text for this preacher'^ 
rough and homely sermons. " Mad, as the land 
owners called him, it was in the preaching of John 
Ball," Mr. Green affirms, " that England first list- 
ened to the knell of feudalism and the declaration 
of the rights of man." 

That " knell," as it resounded over all Europe, 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



had the same religious tone as in England. On the 
banners of the marching peasantry, in the valley 
of the Rhine, a serf kneeled before the crucified 
Christ, with the demand of "nothing but God's 
justice." The Schwabian peasants protested that 
they should not be held as serfs, "seeing that 
Ch ist hath bought us and redeemed us with His 
blood; we would have God as our Lord and know 
our brother in our neighbor; we would willingly 
obey our chosen rulers, but we have no doubt but 
they, as true and good Christians, will willingly 
free us from serfdom or prove to us from the gos- 
pel that we are serfs." 

THE FIRST STRIKE. 

The man of action was sure to follow such sing- 
Ing and preaching, and was equally sure to be fol- 
lowed. The blow which John Tyler struck at the 
head of the tax-gatherer, who threatened his little 
daughter's virtue, rang round the English peasant 
world. Soon a hundred thousand men, headed by 
Wat Tyler, m srched on London to demand of 
King Richard their rights in these immortal words 
of English liberty: " We will that you make us 
free, our heirs and our land, and that we be no 
more bond, nor so reputed." Whatever may be 
thought of the character of this peasant revolt, and 
of its effect upon industrial emancipation, the rea- 
sonableness of its demand and the patient trust- 
fulness of its peasants in their king, is in strong 
contrast with the perfidy and frightful severity 
with which the "pardoned" and pacified people 
were persecuted and remanded to the serfdom from 
which the very stars in their courses were fighting 
to set them free. 

When we come to study the development of 
English labor legislation we will need to remind 
ourselves of the fact which must be stated here, 
that, despite the enactment of the Statute of La- 
borers in 1350, and the long succession of acts re- 
enforcing its terrible penalties against those who 
received or gave wages higher than obtained before 
the pestilence, the progress of the working classes 
toward industrial freedom and economic independ- 
ence, went steadily forward. The Golden Age of 
the English laborer, in which his rate of wages 
bore a better comparison to the cost of living 
than ever before or since, was reached in the last 
quarter of the fifteenth and the first quarter of the 
sixteenth century. In 1601 there began to be real- 
ized the effect of the debasement of currency, the 
destruction of the craft gilds, the enclosure of 
common land by private ownership and the confis- 
cation of church funds, which reduced the English 
yeomen and craftsmen alike to abject poverty. By 
the substitution of charity for justice in the enact- 
ment of the Poor Laws, English free labor was 
degraded from the sorrows of poverty to the shame 
of pauperism. The dole of the poor rate met the 



deficit between the week's wage and the worker'^ 
subsistence. The two centuries of silent suffering 
which followed are monumental to the patience of 
the people's poor. 

R E KERENC ES Ash 1 ey's " Economic History," vol. 
2, chapters 4 and 5; Brace's " Gesta Christi," chap- 
ter 21; Green's "Short History of the English Peo- 
ple," pages 263-275; Gibbins' " Industrial History 
of England," pages 4U-75, and " English Social 
Reformers," pages 1 to 64; Cunningham's "Out- 
lines of English Industrial History," pages 78 to 
106; "The Rise of the Modern Laborer," by Prof. 
E. J. James, |in "The Lab-.r Movement, the 
Problem of To-day," edited by George McNeil : 
"The Dream of John Ball," William Morris, Hum- 
boldt Library No. 5. 

STATDS TO BE TESTED UY STANDARD. 

Hovering over the sinking status of the working 
masses was the rising ideal of the standard of a hu- 
man life. Wyclifri " Kingdom of God," Sir Thomas 
More's "Utopia," Erasmus' "Christian Prince,' 
appealed to the imagination with their ideal com- 
monwealths. The test by which the social status 
must, more and more, be found wanting or tenable, 
is its contrast or comparison with what ought and 
may be the ethical, not to say Christian, standard 
of laboring life. Not merely by how much better 
the social condition of labor is than it once was, 
but also by how much worse it is than it ought to 
be, are the discontent of some and the aspiration 
of all to be judged. Further effort to strike this 
balance must await our next study of the " Indus- 
trial Revolution of the XVIII Century." 



Did you ever sit down and sum up the cost of an 
arrest for an ordinary case of street brawling or 
drunkenness the salaries of the police, the cost of 
patrol wagons, station houses, police courts, prison 
board and trial? Experience proves it is cheaper, 
wiser and more pru.lent to rescue the children ere 
evil habits have become crystallized into evil char- 
acter, and ere an inherited tendency strengthened 
by evil surroundings launches forth upon the world 
a multitude of helpless paupers, hopeless criminals 
or degraded profligates, each and all of whom shall 
become sources of contamination to others, and so 
pass on to generations yet unborn the taint of 
pauperism, crime and vice. The Nazarene, Philn. 

Men may not know how fruits grow, but they do 
know that they cannot grow in five minutes. Some 
lives have not even a stalk on which fruits could 
hang, even if they did grow in five minutes. Some 
have never planted one sound seed of joy in all 
their lives; and others who may have planted a 
germ or two have lived so little in sunshine that 
they never could come to maturity. Drummond. 



We are rapidly getting to feel that no one can 
lay his head on his pillow at peace with himself 
who is not giving of his time and his sustenance to 
diminish the number of the outcas's of society, 
and to increase the number of those who can^earn 
a reasonable income and have Hie opportunity of 
living, if they will it. a noble life. Alfred MarsluiU. 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[October, 



In tbe TOorfo of Settlements* 



THE RESIDENT. 



The Resident is the essential factor in a settlement, 
but he is In no sense a chief officer. His influence is 
that of a friend. After he has seen a family through 
trials and joys, he becomes indeed a neii/hbor, and 
is given the right to help toward a higher life. 
This is why a settlement made up of residents has 
a power that casual visitors or workers coming in 
from another side of life do not have. ...... 

The neighborhood residents hold different religious 
and social creeds, but they unite in a belief that 110 
class or neighborhood can live to itself, and that 
unless we love our brother whom we have seen we 
cannot love God whom we have not seen. There is 
also a hope among them that in some unconven- 
tional way the religious feeling may be crystallized 
into a form that will recognize that the life of 
Christ, if sincerely followed, will lead to social jus- 
tice and political purity. For the Kingdom of 
Heaven within will prove itself in making a King- 
dom of Heaven without. University /' Chicago Set- 
tlement Circular. 



THE LAW OF LOVE. 



Make channels for the streams of love, 

Where I hey may broadly run ; 
And love lias overflowing streams 

To fill them every one. 

But If at any time we cease 

Such channels to provide, 
The very founts of love for us 

Will soon be parched and dried. 

For we must share, if we would keep 

That blessing from above; 
Ceasing to give, we cease to have; 

Such is the law of love. 

R. C. Trench. 



SETTLEMENT FEDERATION. 



Largest Meeting of the Affiliated Settlements of 
Chicago The Question of Relief Miss Addams's 
Foreign Trip. 



The most largely attended meeting in the history 
of the Federation of Chicago Settlements was held 
at Chicago Commons on Saturday evening, October 
17, and was in some respects the best meeting yet 
held. About seventy-five persons represented all 
but one of the city settlements. The Kirkland Settle- 
ment appeared for the first time. The principal 
topic of discussion was the certainty that there will 
be great need of material relief in Chicago during 
the coming winter. It was manifest that to all the 
Settlements have come evidences of an approach- 
ing season of unparalleled distress, and there was 
an earnest discussion of ways and means. No final 
decision was reached as to the method of co-opera- 
tion> and the matter is still under advisement. 

Mr. Galwey, of the Clybourn Avenue Settle- 
ment, presented the report of the music commit- 



tee, and in accordance with its recommendations 
was made secretary of the committee, which will 
seek to encourage co-operation among the settle- 
ments in the way of music. It is proposed, for 
instance, to plan for a union of the settlement 
choruses, to give one or more general concerts; for 
a registration and more or less sharing of the 
musical assistance available for entertainments ; 
in short, for the highest possible degree of united 
effort in this direction. 

The feature of the evening was Miss Jane Ad- 
dams's account of her recent visitation of the for- 
eign settlements, and her study of the Labor Move- 
ment abroad. In her own graphic way she de- 
scribed the differing characteristics of the various 
settlements Toynbee with its educational im- 
pulse, Mansfield and its intimate alliance with the 
Labor Movement, Oxford and its high church affil- 
iations, Sussex and its work for the reclaiming and 
upbuilding of child life, and so on through the 
list. The Labor Movement in England was shown 
to be in many respects apparently far in advance 
of that in America; under better leadership, more 
powerful, and ready to follow up its progress thus 
far with further steps toward ideals. Miss Addams 
also touched briefly upon her interesting visit to 
Count Lyof Tolstoi, in Russia. 

A subsequent special meeting of the Federation 
was held to act upon the matter of relief, and as a 
result the question of a feasible plan of action is 
in the hands of a committee. 



LONDON SETTLEMENTS. 



We have received many inquiries from persons 
intending to visit London, concerning social settle- 
ments in that city, says the Outlook. A few words 
may be helpful to them and to others. The most 
prominent social settlements in London are Toynbee 
Hall, Oxford House, Mansfield House, and Brown- 
ing Hall. This is by no means a complete list, but 
it contains the ones which probably will be the 
most interesting to tourists. All except Browning 
Hall are in East London, and easily found from the 
directories. Toynbee Hall was the first of the 
settlements, but its work has somewhat changed. 
It is now a kind of university in the East End. It 
appeals more largely to the better class of the 
poor, especially to those who aspire to knowledge 
and are desirous of rising. It is doing a valuable 
work, but does not largely reach the laboring and 
outcast classes. Oxford House is located at Beth- 
nal Green, and represents the High Church party 
of the Establishment, its head worker is the 
Rev. Mr. Ingraham, and he is surely an enthusiast 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



13 



in his mission. This settlement has established 
many clubs. In a certain way it reaches the labor- 
ing people ; but more in providing them with 
amusement and pleasant and agreeable surround- 
ings than in otherwise influencing their life. It is 
quite as worthy of study as Toynbee Hall. 

To our mind more interesting still is Mansfield 
House, Canning Town, located in the vicinity of 
the Victoria Docks. Mr. Percy Alden is the head 
worker. This settlement has two departments 
one for men and one for women. Of the latter 
Miss Cheetham is the head worker. More than 
any other settlement, this reaches the lower strata 
of the laboring classes. It is peculiar in the hold 
it has upon men, and no one of all the settlements 
in London better repays careful study. The meet- 
ing which is held on Sunday evening for the dis- 
cussion of current events in their ethical relations 
is especially worth visiting. 

The latest of the prominent settlements in Lon- 
don is Browning Hall, of which Eev. F. Herbert 
Stead, a younger brother of Mr. W. T. Stead, is the 
head worker. Mr. and Mrs. Stead are peculiarly 
bright and able people. Few are more cultured, 
and few represent in themselves a finer type of 
life. Their settlement is in South London, in the 
midst of what Mr. Charles Booth has proved to be 
even more desolate than the East. Before entering 
this field Mr. Stead had been a pastor in Leicester, 
and for some years had edited the Independent. 
From what we know of the workers we should say 
that Toynbee Hall should be studied as an educa- 
tional center among the poor; Oxford House for 
its men's amusement clubs ; Mansfield House as 
the one which is doing most to reach and ennoble 
the laboring men, and to relieve present distress ; 
and Browning Hall as the one where there is prob- 
ably the most intelligent and wise study of the 
many phases of the social problem. 

Of the other settlements we will mention only 
that at Bermondsey, under the patronage of the 
English Wesleyans. This is also said to be doing 
an excellent work, but with it we are not person- 
ally familiar. Visitors are cordially welcomed at 
the various houses, but perhaps it ought to be said 
that care should be taken not to impose too much 
on the courtesy of the workers. There is danger, 
as the number of Americans interested in such 
studies increases, that their presence, instead of 
being a help, may become a burden on the hos- 
pitable and always courteous residents. 

CHICAGO COMMONS LKAFLETS. The article in 
the July issue of CHICAGO COMMONS reprinted from the 
Chicago Adrance. entitled " Foreign Missions at Home," and 
suggesting the putntfl of resemblance in scope and method 
between th.-* settlements and the foreign missionary stut ions, 
lias been issued as No. 1 in a proposed series of ThicHgo 
Commons Leaflets " It is a folder convenient for enclosure 
in a letter, and better than any other single arti le wo 
know of. explains the Settlement idea fiom this point of 
view. This Ipaflet may be obtained In any quantity at the 
rate of Jo for 5 cents, postage prepaid. 



MINSTER STREET GUILD. 

Interesting: Story of the Origin of n Philadelphia 
Settlement Work. 



No more interesting or valuable work of the set- 
tlement sort is carried on in this country than the 
quiet work of the Minster Street Neighborhood 
Guild at 618 Minster street, Philadelphia. Its 
sweet-toned little periodical publication, The Na- 
zarene, gives this month, in reply to inquiries, an 
account of its origin. The italics in the selection 
below are our own. They emphasize the peculiar 
fact in the history of the Minster street work: 

The originator is a college man and a graduate of two 
theological seminaries. Another member of the family is a 
graduate of the Normal School and another of the High 
School. Several years ago the originator [Rev. Chas. S. 
Daniel] wrote a book, "Ai," which I send you, and after- 
wards began this work on some xuch lines as are indicated 
in the hook. The hook is nut a history of the work, as it 
antedated this wwk. 

It differs from a college settlement In having a family 
instead of single persons as residents. The father votes 
down evils as well as talksagainst them. There are chil- 
dren and the normal life of a family is maintained. We 
believe a community ought so to be sweetened as to make 
family life tolerable. Every corner of a city ought to be a 
fit place for a refined and educated family to live in, in 
brotherhood with their neighbors, else there is something 
radically wrong with our civilization. It is not the camping 
ground for brave soldiers, who nevertheless expect soon to 
be relieved from duty, nor is it a hotel for bohemlan philos- 
ophers. 

Every settlement worker, by the way, ought to 
read Mr. Daniel's book, "Ai," which is one of the 
cleverest, most far- reaching social studies in fiction 
form within our knowledge. 



WEEKLY SUNDAY CONCERTS. 



Feature of Work at the University of Chicago Set. 
tie men t. 



The weekly Sunday concert is, for other settle- 
ments, the most suggestive feature of the 24-page 
pamphlet just issued by the University of Chicago 
settlement. Programmes both eacred and secular 
are presented, ranging from folk-song to oratorio, 
and the best work of the masters; for instance: 

COMPOSERS' DAYS. John Sebastian Bach. 1st 
programme: His life, vocal and piano selections. 
3d programme: The Fugue, with illustrations; 
"Chorale Vorspiel," "Vater Unses," Prelude and 
Fugue in F minor. WAGNER PROGRAMME: Story 
of Neibelungen King, with illustrations from "The 
Walkuf%." FOLK-SONG PROGRAMME: Russian 
Music, Irish Songs, Negro Melodies. 

In addition to the usual catalogue of clubs, 
classes, and other institutional features, the little 
pamphlet contains some unusually fine reflections 
upon various things touching settlement life and 
work, for which space is not at hand. "The Sa- 
loon," says the introduction, for instance " is really 



14 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[October, 



the clubhouse of the working men. At its hos- 
pitable tables ideas are exchanged, business 
transacted, Americanism interpreted, and poli- 
ticians trained. The women and children have no 
common meeting place, lacking even such a social 
center as the saloon. The settlement, accordingly, 
stands in the community as a Neighborhood 
House, a social meeting-place, where the families 
become known to each other and are associated 
together for the good of the whole neighborhood." 



KINCSLEY HOUSE, PITTSBURGH. 

Valuable Papers on the Settlement Idea included in 
the Annual Report. 



Kingaley House, Pittsburgh, Pa., issues its third 
annual report, and shows much occasion for con- 
gratulation. Six residents and about forty non- 
resident workers are listed. The various depart- 
ments of work are interestingly described. There- 
port includes two papers which are especially 
valuable additions to the literature of social set- 
tlements. Both are by Very Rev. George Hodges, 
D.D., dean of the Episcopal divinity school at 
Cambridge, Mass. Dean Ho Iges was the founder 
of Kingsley House, and his little eight-page 
pamphlet, "What Kingsley House is For," is a 
strong paper. The other pper, bound in as an 
appendix to the report, is the substance of Dean 
Hodges' remarkable address on " Religion in the 
Settlement," delivered at the National Conference 
of Charities atd Correction at Grand Rapids in 
June. We presume that copies may be obtained 
upon application. 



HULL HOUSE WORK. 

The importance and diversity of the con- 
tribution of Hull House to the life of ils neigh- 
borhood needs no better evidence than in the 
issue of the Bulletin of the Settlement, dated 
October 15, 1896. A rich and varied list of pub- 
lic entertainments is announced, including Tues- 
day evening lectures, Sunday afternoon concerts 
and entertainments in the gymnasium. The 
advanced, second iry and primary classes are of 
wide scope and evidence an eager request for edu- 
cational advantages. In the list of clubs and socie- 
ties meeting at Hull House is further indication of 
the Settlement's occupancy of an enviable place in 
the life of iis community. The review of the sum- 
mer's work shows that a great deal of out-of-door 
benefit has been given. The next issue of the 
Bulletin will appear in December. Copies can be 
obtained by addressing, with postage, Hull House, 
335 South Halsted street, Chicago. 



SETTLEMENT JOTTINGS. 



The successful vacation school carried on during the 
summer by the Northwestern University Settlement (Chi- 
cago) is reported by Mrs. Mary E. Sly, tlie head worker, in 
the Northwestern Christian Advocate. The mo-t hardened 
skeptic on the subject surely would be converted by this 
interesting story to belief in vacation schools and their 
blessing to the children in keeping them off the streets dur- 
ing the iong vacation. 

-'Ben Adhem House" is one of the newer settle- 
ments, reported as having been established at 24 Mall street 
in the Roxbury district of Boston. We have reports from 
several other new settlements, including Bowen House, at 
430 First street, and the University Settlement at 908 North 
Eighth street, Lincoln, Nebraska, each with two residents 
as a beginning. We hope to describe their work more fully 
in a future Issue. 



CHICAGO SETTLEMENTS. 
Directory of Addresses and Visiting: Days. 



NOTE. Where a " Visitors' Day " is mentioned, it indi- 
cates the day when the residents make an especial effort 
to be at home to receive callers, but the Settlements wel- 
come visitors at any time. 



Hull House, 335 South Hnlsted street, southwest corner of 
West Polk street. Opened September, 1889. Saturday. 

Northwestern University Settlement, 252 West Chicago 
avenue. Opened 1891. Mondays. 

Clybourn Avenue Settlement, 279 Clybourn avenue. 
Opened 1892. 

Maxwell Sireet Settlement, 185 West 13th street. Opened 
November, 1893. Tuesday, Saturday or Sunday after~ 
noun. 

University of Chicago Settlement, 4638 Ashland ave- 
nue. Opened January, 1894. The head resident is at 
home Thursday afternoon. 

Epworth House, 49 Pearce street. Opened March, 1894. 
Wednesday. 

Chicago Commonii, 140 North Union street (at Milwaukee 
avenue). Opened October, 1894. Tuesday. 

Medical Missionary College Settlement, 744 Forty- 
seventh street. Opened June, 1895. 

Helen Heath Settlement, 869 Thirty-third court. Opened 
October, 1895. Wednesday. 

Elm Street Settlement, 80 Elm street. Opened Novem- 
ber, 1895. 

Kirklaml Settlement, 334 Indiana street. Opened 1896. 
Monday. 

I myself having reached the ( ther shore, help 
others to cross the stream; I myself having at- 
tained salvation, am a saviour of others; being 
comforted, I comfort others and lead them to the 
place of refuge. Buddha. 



1896. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



ENOUGH. 

I will not ak my neighbor of his creed; 

Nor what lie deems of doctrine old or new; 
Nor what rites his honest soul may need 

To worship God the only wise and tine; 
Nor what he thinks of the anointed Christ; 
Nor with what baptism he has been baptized. 

I ak not what temptations have beset 
His human heart, now self-debased and sore; 

Nor by what wayside well the Lord he met; 
Nor where was uttered, " Go and sin no more.' 

Between his soul and God that business lies; 

Not mine to cavil, question, or despise. 

I ask not by which name, among the rest 
That Christians go by. he Is named or known ; 

Whether his t'aitli has ever been " professed," 
Or whether proven by his deeds alone; 

So there be Christhood in him, all is well; 

He Is my brother, and in peace we dwell. 

If grace and patience in his actions speak, 

Or fall iu words of kindness from his tongue, 
Which raise the fallen, fortify the weak, 

And heal the heart by sorrow rent and wrung; 
If he give good for ill, and love for hate- 
Friend of the friendless, poor, and desolate 

I find In him discipleship so true, 
So full, tn it nothing further I demand 

He may be bondman, freeman. Gentile, Jew, 
But we are brothers walk we hand in hand. 

In his white life let me the Christhood see; 

It is enough for him, enough for me. 



Jfrom Sociological Class IRooms. 



STUDYING ETHICS FROM LIFE. 



Interesting: Course of Study at Iceland Stanford 
Junior University. 



The department of Ethics in the Leland Stan- 
ford Junior University is devoted to the study of 
human activities, from the point of view of the 
individual life and its relation?. The aim is to 
find the laws which determine the development of 
the individual in relation to the universe, and to 
attain something of that higher wisdom of life 
which consists in the sympathetic understanding 
of the concrete situations in which ethical pro- 
blems are always presented. Ethics is thus 
regard* d as a branch of Science ; its aims and 
method* being those common to all science, with 
such differences only as are necessitated by the 
subject matter. The chief of these differences lies 
in the emphasis which must be placed on the 
development of sympathetic appreciation or ''wis- 
dom" in the study of the world of thought, 
emotion, and will. 

The material for study is human life and its 
expres-ious wherever found. This includes actual 
conduct, past and present ; the ideals embodied in 
history, literature, art and religion ; the concrete 



studies of ethical problems presented by literature; 
and the reflective studies of these given by phi- 
losophy. 

In two general lecture courses a tentative dis- 
cussion is given of the larger questions of the 
science of ethics and the art of conduct, with the 
aim of stimulating the student's thought and obser- 
vation, and of bringing a fuller recogniiion of the 
relations of great ethical problems to individual 
life. The second of these courses deals particu- 
larly with the ethics of personal life, including the 
problems of the vocation, the personal relations, 
the use of culture-aids, and the relation of self- 
culture to service. 

LITERARY AND BIOGRAPHICAL. 

Each year courses are given in Dante's "Divine 
Comedy " and Goethe's "Faust," as presenting for 
comparative study the most complete embodi- 
ments, respectively, of the mediaeval and modern 
ideals of life, and as giving masterly presentations 
of the fundamental problems which belong in all 
epochs. These works are studied openly and sym- 
pathetically, with no desire to read into them or 
out of them a preconceived philosophy of life. 

Autobiography furnishes one of the most direct 
and concrete bodies of material for the study of 
ethical problems. A course is given in the pro- 
blems of personal life as presented in autobio- 
graphic?, including Cellini's, Rousseau's, Goethe's, 
Tolstoi's and St. Augustine's. 

Two courses are given in Ethical Philosophy. 
Thete are regarded as accessory to the main work 
of the department. The first is devoted to modern 
English ethical philosophy, with Sidgwick and 
Spencer as a basis, and with side studies in Green, 
Martineau, Stephen and others. The second is 
given as a seminary course. Each year some one 
philosopher is selected and his works thoroughly 
studied, to determine his ethical theory, and its 
sources and value. For the present year the sub- 
ject is Plato. 

HISTORY OF MORALS. 

A second seminary course is devoted to special 
studies iu the history of morals. Some one period 
is selected and studied as exhaustively as possible 
through all the important expressions of its life, 
as action, literature, art, religion, etc. The object 
is a sympathetic understanding of the moral worth 
and meaning of the epoch. At present the Italian 
Renaissance is the epoch studied. 

EDWARD HOWARD GRIGGS. 



A hundred years hence what difference will it 
make whether you were rich or poor, a peer or a 
peasant? But what difference may it not make 
whether you did what was right or what was 
wrong? "Architects of Fate." 



16 CHICAGO COMMONS. [October, 




PLYMOUTH 
WINTER NIGHT 
COLLEGE 

AT. . . 

OPENED For those who feel f* i_i i ^* A /* /k <T* /-M\/I R/I /-MM e? 

OPTORFR theireducationtobe CHICAGO COMMONS 

^^ I WDC-n in8ufflci ent, and who 14O NORTH UNION 

1 ST for any reason are 

unable to attend the regular Night Schools 

TUITION FEE 
25 CENTS FOR TERM OF TEN WEEKS 



CLASSES IN 

MATHEMATICS Arithmetic. Algebra, Geometry, etc., etc. 

ENGLISH Writing, Spelling, Beading, Grammar, Composition 
GEOGRAPHY Physical, Descriptive, Kaces of Men 
HISTORY American, English, French, etc., etc. 

LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE French. German, Latin 

DOMESTIC SCIENCE AND ECONOMY Cooking. Sewing, 
Dressmaking, Home Nursing, First Aid to the Injured 

MUSIC Singing, Piano, Violin, Mandolin, Banjo 

People's and Children's Choruses for Study of Good Music 

ART Drawing, Needlework, Embroidery 

SCIENCE Natural History Club 
SHORTHAND, MECHANICAL DRAWING, ETC., ETC. 




Other Features of Chicago Commons 

Free Kindergarten lor Little Children, open daily except Saturday and Sunday 

From 9 till 12 and throughout the year 
Clubs for Boys, Girls, Young Men, Young Women and Grown Folks 

Meeting lor Men and \V omen for discussion of industrial and economic subjects 
Every Tuesday evening at 8 o'clock. Admission FRKK. Open to all 

Sunday Meeting, for Men and Women, opens October 18th 

Good music, helpful lectures. An uplifting, restful gathering for husy people 

Seventeenth Ward Council of the Civic Federation 

In which are united those interested in making the ward a clean, safe, happy place to live. All 
good citizens, regardless of politics, creed, color or sex, are invited to join 

Labor Studies. A class of the residents and others to study with Professor Taylor the history 
and outlook of the Labor Movement 

A School of Philosophy, independent of the Settlement, is accorded rooms at the Commons 
weekly, and is upen to those interested 



OR APPLY CHICAGO COMMONS 

14O NORTH UNION STREET (At Milwaukee Ave.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



A. C. McCLURG & CO. 



BOOKSELLERS 



PUBLISHERS 



STATIONERS 



. O HIG 

Offer a complete stock not only of the lighter books of the day, such as in FICTION 

TRAVEL, BELLES LETTRES, etc,, etc., but also take pride in their large 

and careful selections in such departments as 



Sociology, Economics, 



Political Science and Finance 



The Books on Sociology, enumerated in the present number of CHICAGO COMMONS, can be 

obtained of 

/ A. C. McCLURG & CO., 



AVHJIMTLJE? ANID IVTJVIDISOINC 

CHICAGO 



P. F. PETTIBONE & Go. 



INCORPORATED 



PRINTERS 

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BLANK BOOK MAKERS 



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FLAT OPENING BLANK BOOKS 



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Lithographing 



and 5O Jackson Street 

CHICAGO 



Novelties in 
Stationery Articles 
Society Stationery and 
Engraving 



SPECIAL 
ATTENTION TO 
CHURCH 
WORK 



OPEN DISCUSSIONS 



OF QUESTIONS OF 



SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL 
ECONOMICS 



A FREE FLOOR 



FOR 
BOTH 



FREE SPEECH 



FOR 
ALL 
PARTIES 



NO FAVOR 



A meeting place and common 
neutral ground where folks 
of all classes and schools of 
thought 



MAY STRIKE HANDS 

AND TALK THINGS OVER 



EVERY TUESDAY EVENING 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

140 NORTH UNION STREET 

(3 Doors South of Milwaukee Ave.) 

For Earnest Men and Women. 

Everybody Welcome; Free Heading Room 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 




^K($K($H<$H($^ 
& 

(0 
r<$ 

uo, 




Docker Bros. P ianos 



r^*^* jp ^^^ 
Camp & Co. 



Arion Pianos 



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WITH SURRL.EMEINJT. 



r 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 
LIFE AND WORK 

CHICAGO 



VOL. J No. 8 



DINNER 



NOVEMBER, J896 



25 
Cents 

a 
Year 



*Y 



B 



UT oh, the poor! the poor! the poor! 
That stand by the inward-opening door 
Trade's hand doth tighten ever more. 
And sigh their monstrous foul-air sigh 
For the outside air of liberty. 
Where Nature spreads her wild blue sky 
For Art to make into melody! 
Thou Trade! thou king of the modern days! 

Change thy ways. 

Change thy ways; 
Let the sweaty laborers file 

A little while, 

A little while, 

Where Art and Nature sing and smile. 
Trade! is thy heart all dead, all dead? 
And hast thou nothing but a head? 

****** 
And ever Love hears the poor-folks' crying, 
And ever Love hears the women's sighing, 
And ever sweet knighthood's death-defying, 
And ever wise childhood's deep implying, 
But never a trader's glozing and lying. 

And yet shall Love himself be heard, 
Though long deferred, though long deferred : 
O'er the modern waste a dove hath whirred : 
Music is Love in search of a word. 
SIDNEY LANIER, 

'The Symphony.''' 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



WE DESIRE TO TREBLE 
OUR CIRCULATION 



^ ^ HIP 



AND 

WITHIN 

TWELVE 

MONTHS 

TO 

SECURE 



TEN THOUSAND 



READERS 



THIS WILL BE VERY EASY 

IF EVERYBODY HELPS 

IN ONE OF THE FOLLOWING WAYS! 



OF CHICAGO 
COMMONS, 



1. BY GETTING SUBSCRIBERS. 

To help this along, we will send six copies for one year to any one address, any where, for $1.25. 
This is a club rate of 13O cents per copy, and will apply to any number of copies above six, 
sent to one address. 

2. BY SENDING US LISTS 

of church members, clubs, societies, or personal friends, in any number. We shall be glad to send 
sample copies to any persons upon application. Send us your church directory to-day. 

3 BY ADVERTISING. 

It is by cash receipts from advertising that we hope to make up the discrepancy between the low 
price of subscriptions and the cost of printing and delivering the paper. We will send rates upon 
application and allow a liberal commission upon desirable advertising secured for us. 

4. IN GENERAL, 

By interesting yourself and friends in Chicago Commons, and the cause of social brotherhood 
for which it stands and which it tries to aid. For instance, why not write a couple of letters to-day 
to some good friends, telling them about it, and sending them your copy of the paper ? We will 
send you another copy for every one you distribute in this way. 



WHEN YOU THINK, 

That in these ways, and others that may occur to you, you can assure the permanency, stability and 
constant development of the paper ; that thus you can be of material assistance in arousing interest 
in the work of social reform and rejuvenation, not alone in the social settlement, but in churches, 
societies and among individuals widely scattered in many parts of the world ; 



YOU WILL GLADLY HELP. 



For sample copies, advertising rates and all information 
on the subject of the paper, address 



CHICAGO COMMONS, 



140 NORTH UNION STREET, 

CHICAGO, ILLS. 



[SIXTEEN PAGES AND FOUR-PAGE SUPPLEMENT.] 

CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



NOVEMBER, 1896. 



No. 8. 



VOX POPULI. 



True Is the people's sturdy soul ; 

The pessimist, whose narrow dread 
Would yield them a reluctant dole 

Of power, may shrink to see instead 
In their wide hand the mighty whole, 

The sovereign crown upon their head. 

But he whose wiser, wider view 

Sees the sure struggle of his kind 
Toward the righteous and the true, 

Leaves, day by day, such doubts behind; 
Bests on the many, not the few, 

And deeply trusts the people's mind. 

Priscilla Leonard, in The Outloolt. 



TABERNACLE CHURCH. 



Its Notable History and Its Great Opportunity. 



Story of a Church in a Chicago River Ward Great 
Need of Workers and Financial Reinforce- 
ment Foundations for Future Work- 
Church and Settlement. 



To few churches in Chicago or elsewhere has it 
been given to command, in respect of site, a more 
important strategic position than that occupied by 
the Tabernacle Congregational church, illustra- 
tions of whose exterior and auditorium are given 
herewith. Almost in the center of the Seven- 
teenth Ward, on one of the important thorough- 
fares leading from the heart of the city to the out- 
lying territory, but a block or two from that greater 
artery of traffic, Milwaukee avenue, which carries 
a mighty stream of humanity back and forth, this 
church looks out upon, and is in a position to min- 
ister to, a community whose importance and need 
is scarcely to be overestimated. In the heart of a 
ward enclosing nearly 30,000 persons of many 
nationalities, the Tabernacle stands as the only 
English-speaking, Protestant church. 

A NOTABLE HISTORY. 

From its beginning in 1857, in a comparatively 
small Sunday school work under the direction of 
the First Congregational church, the history of 
the Tabernacle church has been a notable one; its 
part in the city's life and work one of usefulness 
and achievement. Its pastors have been for the 
most part men of especial ability and fitness for 
such a field, and from the outset the church has 
occupied a marked position in the Congregational 



fellowship, as one of peculiar service to the com- 
munity. For instance, during the distressing days 
just following the great fire of 1871, its pastor acted 
as one of the division superintendents on the West 
Side for the Aid and Relief Society, and the base- 
ment of the church served long as a supply depot. 
To the ministry and missionary force it has always 
been an extraordinary contributor; few churches 
anywhere have graduated so many young men 
into active Christian work. 

THE EXODUS TO THE SUBURBS. 

Beginning with a strong and brave constituency, 
this church like all others similarly situated, suf- 
fered early the effects of the exodus of the more 
resourceful folk to the suburban homes and 
churches, and of late years it has been an increas- 
ingly difficult problem how to do the work that 
needs to be done, weakened by the constant and 
ever accelerating outgo of the workers and 
financial supporters. While the resident mem- 
bership and average attendance upon the 
regular services have long shown far less of a 
permanent constituency than the church has been 
supposed to have, yet there has stood by, all through 
the years a " remnant" of the faithful, a kind of 
" Old Guard," who always could be counted upon 
in the darkest hours to be on hand and to do their 
best. The long-continued support of the First 
Congregational church and of the Chicago City 




THK TABKRNACLE CHURCH. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



Missionary Society, which at present controls the 
property, is gratefully to be remembered as among 
the means by which the church has been kept alive 
through the years of financial insufficiency, and 
the aid of the Missionary Society to the Tabernacle 
church is to-day the chief bulwark between this 
great industrial district and the condition of utter 
churchlessness, so far as English- speaking Protest- 
antism is concerned. 

THE CHURCH'S GREAT NEED. 
The primary need of the church that it may do 
its work for the surrounding community is per- 
sonal resource, to strengthen and encourage the 
brave little nucleus still standing in the breach. 
Second only to this is the need which its former 
pastor, Rev. E. F. Williams, D.D., well stated in 
the Chicago Advance: 

"Could means be secured with which to replace the 
present edifice with a more commodious and more modern 
structure, it would seem as if there would be no limit to the 
good which here would be done. Here peoples of all nation- 
alities meet. They have a home feeling in the Tabernacle 
church. Often it is found that fifteen, even twenty, differ- 
ent nationalities are represented in the Sunday school. 
The population in spite of the constant change which is 
going on, is larger than ever. If there is less of a purely 
American element in the district than formerly, the foreign 
element has become even more accessible, and ready to 
assimilate American ideas, and to enter into the work of 
an American church. It would be difficult in all the coun- 
try to find a field which has been more faithful considering 
the amount of money and labor expended upon it, or which 
offers greater attractions to benevolence and consecration." 
Equally difficult is it to overestimate the in- 
fluence in such a locality of a well-equipped 
church, inspired with the idea of its mission to the 
community. A fine, well arranged building, which 
could also be a source of income to the church, 




would perhaps be the means of opening the way 
to the wider usefulness of which this church is 
capable, and may at least serve as the ideal toward 
which the friends of this work may begin to look. 

GOOD FOUNDATIONS FOR THE FUTURE WORK. 

The response of the community to every effort 
put forth by the church or in its name, is sufficient 
guarantee of the eagerness with which the largest 
work would be received. One needs only to know 
the environment to feel sure that there is the 
widest opportunity for a great working church on 
this field, toward which there are already upon the 
ground the good beginnings in the form of a large 
and growing Sunday school, daily kindergarten, 
young people's society, boys' and girls' brigades, 
junior endeavor society, industrial schools, a large 
band of young men, a flourishing women's organ- 
ization, and other long-established agencies. 

CHURCH AND SETTLEMENT. 

Toward no interest or group of the neighbor- 
hood has Chicago Commons felt the same peculiar 
affection as toward the Tabernacle church, and to 
none have the settlement residents contributed so 
large a measure of their time and strength. The 
pastor, Rev. B. F. Boiler, was, with his family, 
among the earliest residents of the settlement, and 
while exempted from settlement service, and de- 
voting all his time to the pastorate, has always 
given to the Commons his heartiest sympathy and 
endorsement. Indeed, the relations of the church 
and the settlement, since their mutual interests 
and obligations as regards their needy field began 
to be recognized, have been particularly warm and 
affectionate. The measure of the interest of the 
Commons residents in the work of the church may 
be inferred from the fact that of their number 
among the church workers two are deacons, one is 
superintendent of the Sunday school, one of the 
primary department, one of the infant department; 
two are teachers of Bible classes, several, of the 
classes in th3 main school; one is in charge of the 
industrial work at the chvirch; one, of the Girls' 
Brigade, and through the co-operation of the set- 
tlement, several other workers have been enlisted 
in the various departments. 

It is as resident members of this church, that 
the Chicago Commons household plead for all the 
aid and consecrated service which the Tabernacle 
needs to fulfill its great mission to this dense and 
cosmopolitan population. 



Under the direction of Mr. Eoy B. Guild, of Chicago 

Theological Seminary, the Tabernacle Brotherhood is hav- 
ing a most successful gymnastic class every week, once a 
month going to the seminary gymnasium for the more im- 
portant work, impossible in our restricted quarters. 



THE TABERNACLE CHURCH AUDITORIUM. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



COD SAVE THE PEOPLE. 



When wilt Thou save the people? 

O God of mercy, when? 
Not kings and lords, but nations, 

Not thrones and crowns, but men! 
Flowers of Thy heart, God, are they; 
Let them not pass, like weeds, away, 
Their heritage, a sunless day. 
God save the people ! 

Shall crime bring crime forever. 

Strength aiding still the strong? 
Is it Thy will, O Father, 

That men shall toil for wrong? 
' No," say Thy mountains; "No," Thy skies. 
Man's clouded sun shall brightly rise 
And songs ascend, instead of sighs. 
God save the people ! 

When wilt Thou save the people? 

O God of mercy, when? 
The people, Lord, the people, 

Not thrones and crowns, but men ! 
God save the people; thine they are, 
Thy children, as thine angels fair; 
From vice, oppression and despair, 

God save the people ! 

Ebenezer EllioU. 



MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY. 



The Warden's Pilgrimage Thither Results in Steps 

Toward a Fellowship at the Commons 

Interest in Social Matters. 



[BY THE WARDEN.] 

The University of Michigan threw the doors of 
its heart as well as of its great hall wide open to 
the presentation of the settlement motive and 
movement, on Sunday, Nov. 1. At the invitation 
of the Students' Christian association, the Warden 
of the Commons was invited to address two mass 
meetings. In the morning at Newberry Hall he 
addressed the religious gathering of the students, 
on " The Social Significance of the Incarnation." 
In the evening, the large University Hall held a 
great audience of 2,500 persons, faculty, students 
and the united congregations of the several 
churches, whose pastors fraternally merged their 
evening services for the occasion. The theme of 
the address was, " The social significance of the 
university settlement movement." 

A UNIVERSITY FELLOWSHIP. 

At the close of the address Professors D'Ooge 
and Henry C. Adams warmly ratified the proposi- 
tion to establish a Michigan University fellowship 
at Chicago Commons, which will keep in residence 
at the settlement a graduate student not only to 
represent the University in the work for this great 
city center, but also to prosecute some original 
scientific investigations in social economics, the 
results of which shall be reported to the Univer- 



sity in an elaborate thesis. The suggestion thus 
lodged is under serious consideration, and will be 
carried out at once so far as to provide summer 
residence for one or more students during the next 
long vacation. The interest in practical social 
progress was still further evinced by the eager 
questions about settlement work following the in- 
formal social reception on Saturday evening and 
the address at the city Young Men's Christian 
Association Sunday afternoon, as well as by the 
attentive hearing given by the large audience at 
the Congregational Church to the Sunday morning 
sermon on, "The Social Extension of Christianity." 

SUNDAY SCHOOL SETTLEMENT STUDIES. 

At the latter service, the pastor announced that 
the young people's class of the Sunday school, 
which is taught by one of the University professors, 
would devote six of their studies to the work of 
social settlements in this country and abroad. In 
a very quiet and effective way the teacher of this 
class has for some time been exemplifying the 
subject of these studies, by residing in a neighbor- 
hood where the presence and neighborship of him- 
self and household are "doing the truth" from 
which " the light " will thus the more surely come 
to his scholars. The brief description of the class- 
room work in economics and sociology kindly con- 
tributed to this issue by Professors Adams and 
Cooley, will be read with interest. 



A SETTLEMENT TRIBUTE. 



Pleasant Words Which Testify of the Friendship 
Every Neighborhood Needs. 



Our non-resident associates all over the country 
will appreciate as fully as we do, the following 
words of one of our neighbors, at the birthday 
party given by the Girls' Progressive Club and the 
Woman's Club, to commemorate the second anni- 
versary of the opening of the house. Speaking for 
both clubs, the president of the latter thus voiced 
what we are glad to know is the common senti- 
ment of the neighborhood: 

" I have looked forward with so much eagerness 
to this meeting that I am almost at a loss for 
words to express the pleasure I now feel at the 
sight of so many friends on this eventful occasion. 
I am sure our presence here is the best token of 
our love for the Commons and its inmates. 

" Two years ago when some of us paid our first 
visit to the Commons, we had not the slightest 
conception of what it would become to us. Some 
of us had left homes in small country villages, 
where we knew every one, and every one knew us. 
We came to this large city and found ourselves 
shut up in our homes, as if they were jails. We 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



were afraid to speak with our neighbors, and our 
neighbors were afraid of us. When the Chicago 
Commons opened its doors and invited us to visit 
there, we hardly knew what it meant. But we 
called, and to our surprise found ourselves among 
friends, friends that were interested in us and in 
our daily lives. Its doors were open to us at any 
and all limes, with a sympathizing friend always 
ready to listen to us, encourage and help us amidst 
the trials and discouragements that come to all of 
us some time or other. Very soon we began to 
wonder how we ever managed to exist without the 
Commons. Now, through its instrumentality we 
do know and speak with our neighbors as our 
Woman's Club can testify. And I know that I but 
voice the thought of my sisters in the various clubs 
when I say, how much we appreciate the privilege 
of coming together here once a week, and how 
much we enjoy our meetings, both business and 
social. I am sure every one of you will join with 
me in asking God to bless the Commons and its 
workers, and give them long life and prosperity." 

After presenting the lemonade bowl and cups as 
the birthday gift of the clubs to the house, she 
added, "We hope you will not think us selfish in 
choosing the gift we have. It is true we hope to 
partake many times of its contents, but always 
with you and with many others yet to join us." 

No better expression of the aim and spirit of the 
Settlement movement has come to us than in these 
sincere words of our good friend and neighbor, 
from whose pencil and crumpled sheet of paper 
we have copied them. The motive of our whole 
movement lies in those last few words, " with you 
and with many." 



OUR BROTHER YET. 



Think gently of the erring one; 

Oh, let us not forget. 
However darkly stained by sin 

He is our brother yet. 

Heir of the same inheritance, 

Child of the self-same God; 
He has but stumbled in the path 

We have in weakness trod. 

Speak gently to the erring one; 

We yet may lead him back, 
With holy words and tones of love, 

From misery's thorny track. 

Forget not, brother, thou hast sinned, 

And sinful yet may'st be; 
Deal gently with the erring heart 

As God has dealt with thee. 

F. O. Lee. 



The Philadelphia College settlement has organized a 
general class for practical sociological study, which will 
pursue an orderly course, investigating poor relief and pre- 
ventive measures. One dollar will be charged for the course 
of about 17 lectures by well-known experts. 



CALL TO THE CHURCHES. 



44 Quiet Day" Looking Toward Social Vision. 



Evangelical Alliance Issues a Significant Letter to 
Pastors Recognition of Social Changes. 



That the signs of the times are being encourag- 
ingly discerned by the churches is in evidence in 
the remarkably significant call issued by the Evan- 
gelical Alliance to the pastors of the United States,, 
to convene the churches of each community No- 
vember 17, for a " quiet day " of prayer and confer- 
ence over " the perplexities, difficulties and dangers 
which characterize these closing years of the 
century." The letter, signed by Dr. Josiah Strong 
and others, is in large part as follows: 

The present is pre-eminently a period of transition and 
as such is characterized by a spirit of unrest, uncertainty, 
and anxiety. Such periods are crowded with great perils, 
and no less with great opportunities. The century now 
drawing to a close, and especially the latter half of it, has 
witnessed innovations in the industrial world which have 
wrought a revolution in the physical life of the nation and 
are having a profound and far-reaching influence on the 
nation's social, moral, and spiritual life. 

Futhermore, many are beginning to see that the churches 
must adopt new aims as well as new methods. With the 
organization of industry has come the closer organization of 
society, which has opened before the churches new oppor- 
tunities and laid on them hitherto unknown obligations, for 

" Xew occasions teach new duties." 

Society is gaining self-consciousness, which marks one of 
the most important steps in the progress of the race. We 
are beginning to see that society is an organization which 
lives one vast life, of which every man is a part. We are 
gaining what Walter Besant calls "the sense of humanity." 
We are discovering thatl ife is something larger and far- 
ther related than we had thought; and with this perception 
of wider and multiplied relations comes a new sense of so- 
cial obligation, the perception of new social duties. 

In the settlement of our vast domain, thousands of com- 
munities have sprung up, into which people have gathered 
of all races and from all lands. What were at first mere 
aggregations of human beings, most heterogeneous in 
character, are being transformed into social organisms, 
each having a life which may live on for many centuries, 
with boundless possibilities of good and evil to generations 
yet unborn. This process of transformation involves the 
creation of new moral obligations, which need to be denned 
and enforced by the churches. 

These great social changes which distinguish our times 
call on the churches to develop the social conscience, which, 
in most men is feeble and in many scarcely exists, and to 
lay on that conscience the social teachings of our Lord Jesus 
Christ. Unless, this is done, the close and multiplied rela- 
tions int9 which modern civilization is thrusting us will 
become simply intolerable, and society will at length degen- 
erate into a cage of wild beasts. 

As we are passing through a period of social reconstruc- 
tion or evolution, many are beginning to see that the 
churches have a mission to society as well as to the in- 
dividual. Churches are enlarging the scope of their activi- 
ties. They are taking a new .interest in social reforms, 
there is a quickened philanthropy, and a deeper concern for 
the physical well-being of men, all of which promises a 
larger sphere of usefulness and influence. 

Spiritual growth has not kept pace with the unpre- 
cedented material development of the century, and no mod- 
ern civilization is more materialistic than our own. 
Churches and ministers have not escaped the influence of 
materialism. 

A great spiritual quickening would dissipate doubt, would 
kindle enthusiasm, would open our eyes to the providential 
significance of changed conditions, would make us quick to 
discern the teachings of the Spirit concerning new social 
obligations, would subordinate all our activities to spiritual 
ends, would deliver us from the bondage of materiali>m, 
and more closely uniting us in the bonds of Christian fellow- 
ship, would prepare us for that large co-operation demanded 
by the magnitude of the redemptive work which awaits us, 
and make us and our churches " live more abundantly." 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



6 



JESUS THE CARPENTER. 



" ' Isn't this Joseph's Son?' " Aye, It is He, 
Joseph the carpenter, same trade as me. 
I thought as I'd find it, I knew it was here, 

But my sight's getting queer. 

" I don't know right where as His shed might ha' stood, 
But often, as I've been a-planing my wood, 
I've took off my hat just with thinking of He, 

At the same work as me. 

" He warn't that set up that He couldn't stoop down, 
And work in the country for folks in the town, 
And I'll warrant He felt a bit proud, as I've done, 

At a good job begun. 

" The parson he knows that I'll not make too free, 
But on Sundays I feel as pleased as can be. 
When I wears my clean smock and sets in a pew, 

And has thoughts not a few. 

" I think of how not the parson hissen, 
As is teacher and father and shepherd of men, 
Not he knows as much of the Lord in that shed, 

Where He earned His own bread. 

" And when I goes home to my missus, says she, 
4 Are you wanting your key? ' 
For she knows my queer ways and my love for the shed, 

(We've been forty years wed.) 

" So I comes right away by mysen with the Book, 
And I turns the old pages and has a good look, 
For the text as I've found as tells me as He, 

Were the same trade with me. 

" Why don't I mark it? Ah, many says so, 
But I think I'd as lief, with your leave, let it go, 
It do seem that nice when I fallen it sudden, 

Unexpected, you know. Anonymous. 



PICTURES FOR THE PEOPLE. 



"Christ-Child" Readings With An Art Purpose. 

l.iiu ii Picture Collections to be Added to the Work 
at Chicago Commons Help Needed. 



The first steps of an effort to get the best avail- 
able pictures before the less privileged people of 
Chicago will be taken on the afternoons of Satur- 
days, November 28 and December 5, when will be 
given a series of readings of the legends, stories 
and poems regarding the Christ-Child, to be illus- 
trated by stereopticon views from the paintings of 
the great masters, and interspersed with singing of 
carols. The readings will be by Mrs. Andrea 
Hofer Proudfoot, author of the now well-nigh 
famous " Child's Christ-Tales." The views have 
been prepared and the stereopticon will be operated 
by Mr. George Schreiber. 

The object of these " afternoons " is to raise a 
fund for the distribution of the beautiful pictures 
and stories of the Christ-Child among the little 
children of the crowded sections of Chicago, who 
seldom or never get a glimpse of the sweet things 
of life. It is hoped that a larger art movement may 
be developed from this as a beginning. In the words 



of the little circular sent out by those in charge of 
this matter: 

"These two afternoons are to be made impres- 
sive to the children, preparing them in the purest 
Christmas spirit for the beautiful season of giving 
and receiving loving gifts, and therefore we ask a 
small fee, that the children may in turn help send 
these exquisite pictures farther. It is hoped that 
all parents will co-operate in helping to a right 
appreciation of Christmas, which cannot begin too 
early in the season. The two parties will be given 
on the Saturday afternoons of November 28 and 
December 5, at two o'clock, in Eecital Hall, seventh 
floor of the Auditorium ( Wabash Avenue entrance). 
The price for tickets has been placed at fifteen 
cents each; two tickets for twenty-five cents. 
Tickets are on sale at the Child-Garden office, 
1400 Auditorium, Chicago. 



WANTED, LOAN PICTURE COLLECTIONS. 

In a number of the settlements throughout the 
country, a very successful feature of the work in 
needy neighborhoods has been the carrying on of a 
system of picture loan collections. That is, sets 
of a few good framed pictures are gathered and 
loaned for periods of two weeks each to the 
neighboring families, after the fashion of circulat- 
ing libraries. They have been invariably success- 
ful, the people welcoming the opportunity to have 
the best pictures in their homes, if only for a short 
time, and in many cases the results have been 
most remarkable. 

The residents of Chicago Commons will be very 
glad to introduce this work as a feature of the 
settlement's service to the neighborhood, and will 
be glad to receive from any source framed pictures 
for this purpose. It is absolutely necessary, how- 
ever, to the success and usefulness of the plan that 
the pictures should be of the highest artisticjnerit. 
The very purpose of the thing would be defeated 
by the distribution of inferior works. Photographs 
of the old masters, and of famous modern paintings 
are preferred, but very often there are beautiful 
and inspiring pictures of a more obscure sort which 
might well be made useful. In order that the 
quality of the pictures may be of the very best, 
Mr. George Schreiber, who now directs the art in- 
struction in the Commons and who has lately 
taken up his residence in the settlement, will be 
made judge of the fitness of the pictures for this 
purpose. In cases where persons interested in 
this branch of the settlement's service have no 
pictures at their disposal, but send cash for the 
purchase of pictures for the loan collections, Mr. 
Schreiber will be asked to oversee the selection. 
We are desirous of making this work truly useful 
and of placing at the disposal of our neighbors 
only the very best that can be obtained. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



Settlement anfc meigbborboofc. 




CHICAGO COMMONS. 

14O North Union Street, at Milwaukee Avenue. 

(Beached by all Milwaukee avenue cable and electric cars; 
or by Grand avenue or Halsted street electric cars, stopping 
at corner of Austin avenue and Halsted street, one block 
west of Union street.) 

CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement located 
on North Union street, two doors from the southwest cor- 
ner of Milwaukee avenue and the crossing of Union street 
upon Milwaukee and Austin avenues. 

Object. As explained in the second clause of the Articles 
of Incorporation of the Chicago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of Illinois: 

"2. The object for which it Is formed is to provide a center for a 
higher civic and social life to initiate and maintain religious, educa- 
tional and philanthropic enterprises ami to investigate and Improve 
conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago." 

Or, as the explanatory circular of .the settlement has ex- 
plained it: 

" As exemplified at Chicago Commons, the Social Settlement con- 
sists primarily of a group of people who choose to make their home 
In that part of the great city where they seem to be most needed, 
rather than where the neighborhood offers the most of privilege or 
social prestige." 

Support. The work is supported in addition to what the 
residents are able to pay for rent of rooms, by the free-will 
gifts of those who believe in what the work stands for. The 
gift of any person is welcomed, and the contributions are 
both occasional and regular, the latter being paid in in- 
stalments, monthly, quarterly and annually, at the conven- 
ience of the giver. 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome at any time, 
but the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Information concerning the work of Chicago Commons 
Is gladly furnished to all who inquire. A four-page leaflet, 
bearing a picture of our residence, and other literature de- 
scribing the work will be mailed to any one upon applica- 
tion. Please enclose postage, 

Residence All inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should be 
addressed to GKAHAM TAYLOR, Resident Warden. 



INDUSTRIAL TRAINING. 



Work for the Hands of Lively Boys and Girls Nor- 
mal Training for those Expecting: to Teach. 



Of great interest to all those who have to work 
with the restless boys and girls of any class will be 
the new departments of the Commons activity in 
the way of industrial training. It has become in- 
disputably apparent that the only way to make the 
work for the younger folks either comfortable in 
the doing or permanent in the result, is to base it 
in general upon the idea of manual training, of 
giving the restless hands and eyes something to 
do. Two of our residents have for several weeks 



been making a study of manual training methods 
in practical work and study under the direction of 
Miss Murray at the Agassiz public school, and 
have begun in the settlement the instruction of 
clubs of boys and girls in the various forms of 
handiwork available for the purpose, such as wood- 
carving, basket-weaving and chair-caning, sewing 
of various kinds, etc. This is in addition of course, 
to the regular Sloyd manual training, in which 
Misses House and Colman soon will be instructing 
several classes in the use of tools for wood working. 
In addition still to this, Miss Colman will have, 
every Saturday morning at 9 o'clock, a normal 
class in these things, for the benefit of those who 
do, or are expecting to do, work among the boys 
and girls to whom the handiwork of these kinds 
would be useful. The class has already begun, 
but persons may enter at any time. 



MR. SHELDON'S; VISIT. 



Reports of Good Pastoral Service in Topeka, Kan- 
sas Sermons in Stories. 



The residents of the Commons shared with the 
faculty and students of the Chicago Theological 
Seminary the privilege of entertaining Rev. Chas. 
M. Sheldon, of Topeka, Kansas. At the Seminary 
Conference he spoke on the question, " How to put 
yourself in another's place," in a rarely inspiring 
and helpful way, by describing his own experi- 
ment of living a week at a time among different 
classes in his own city neighborhood. His experi- 
ence in thus sharing the life of street car men, 
lawyers, doctors, railway workers, college students, 
the newspaper fraternity and the unemployed, was 
an object lesson which profoundly emphasized the 
necessity of cultivating the capacity to be touched 
by others, in order to possess the power of touch- 
ing them. 

In similar ways he has acquired the material for 
those serial sermon-stories which he has for years 
given, first to his Sunday evening hearers at the 
Central Congregational Church of Topeka, and 
then to the readers of the Chicago Advance, and 
the still wider constituency who not only have en- 
joyed but have felt the fact-fiction through which 
he has personally applied the social ethics of the 
gospel to the individual conscience under the titles 
" The Crucifixion of Philip Strong," " His Broth- 
er's Keeper," and " In His Steps." His fraternal 
participation in our Tuesday evening meeting, 
Brotherhood conference, household vespers and 
table-talk have constituted him a non-resident 
member of the inner fellowship at the Commons. 



The Seventeenth Ward Council of the Civic Federation 

is preparing for an active campaign during the winter. 
The date of the first meeting for the season will be an- 
nounced shortly. 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



THE BOYS' WORK. 



After a long season of rather anxious waiting 
and preparation and of comparative standstill for 
lack of the efficient help that is needed in such 
service, the boys' clubs are ready to do good and 
systematic work for this winter. Through the co- 
operation of a group of young people from the 
First Congregational church of Evanston, several 
clubs have been organized, and will at once begin 
to do some pleasant and profitable work in the way 
of scroll-sawing, basket-weaving, wood-carving, 
clay-modeling, varying this work with story-tell- 
ing, readings from good fiction, etc. In no depart- 
ment of the settlement is efficient help needed 
more than in this one of helping the boys of our 
neighborhood to spend at least one pleasant and 
profitable evening a week within doors. The sup- 
ply of boys is practically unlimited, and we know 
of no way in which young people can make their 
efforts tell to better advantage. 



COMMONS NOTES. 



A class of the residents is studying the social teach- 
ings of the Bible with Professor Taylor, on Sunday morn- 
ings. 1_ 

Dr. C. A. F. 'Lindorme is conducting a class in Mon- 
istic Philosophy on two evenings a week at the Commons. 
It is a private class, independent of the settlement. 

With regard to the fountain of which we have said so 

much, and for which our friends have sent us so many gifts, 
we are able to say that the time of the completion of the 
plan seems not so very far off owing to the interest of some 
good friends in Evanston, of whose aid iu this matter we 
shall be able to speak fully in our next issue. 

A " labor exchange " has been meeting every Wednes- 
day evening at the Commons of late, and is progressing. 
This is a plan of organizing industry upon a basis of the 
direct exchange of labor and commodities by means of 
labor checks. This organization is independent of the set- 
tlement, but is accorded room for its meetings. 

A practical opportunity to mitigate the barrenness of 

our long hallways is found in the idea of having made over 
into strips of floor-covering old ingrain carpets. Several 
skilled workmen in this industry are known to the Com- 
mons residents, and we shall be glad to receive pieces of 
old ingrain, however worn or soiled, for this purpose. 

Pending changes in the personnel of our household 

make it necessary for us to refurnish, completely, several of 
our rooms. Having no fund from which we may do this, we 
shall be glad to be assisted in this matter by friends of the 
settlement having unused furniture which can be spared 
for this purpose. We would suggest that those able to help 
in this matter correspond with the Warden before sending 
anything to the settlement, in order to avoid unnecessary 
duplication. 

Unabated interest marks the progress of the industrial- 
economic discussions held at the Commons on Tuesday 
evenings. The accommodations of the room are usually 
taxed by the attendance, and groups of visitors from the 
more distant parts of the city and suburbs are almost always 
present. Among the topics lately discussed have been, 
" Election Retrospect." opened by Rev. W. I). P. Bliss, of 
Boston; "Scientific Money," by Professor Edward W. 
Bemis; "Uses and Abuses of Corporations," by Mr. Henry 
D.Lloyd; "A Briton's Impressions of America," by Pro- 
fessor W. D. Mackenzie; " Social Feeling in Great Britain," 
by Ed ward B. Hooker, of Hull House; "The Social Out- 
look," by Professor Taylor, etc., etc. 

In addition to the beautiful 18-foot flag given to us by 

General and Mrs. Fit/simons, which we were loth to use 



upon all occasions in this destructively smoky atmosphere, 
we have received as the gift of Mr. Dorr A. Kimball, of 
Evanston, two others, of six and twelve feet respectively, 
affording us one for ordinary, every-day use, and a " storm 
flag "for bad weather, so that we have been able to fly 
"Old Glory "from the house-top every day since the rais- 
ing of the nag-staff. Speaking of flags, we have had in mind 
using as decorations in our great barn of a rear room, flags 
of all nations as fast as we could get them, and mention the 
matter now for the benefit of anyone having in hand flags of 
any kind not iu use and available for this purpose. 



CENSUS ON CRIMINOLOGY. 



First Volume of Dr. Wines's Report on Crime, 
Pauperism and Benevolence. 



A highly important and much-anticipated gov- 
ernment report has just come to hand in the form 
of the first volume of the Xlth Census on the sub- 
jects of Crime, Pauperism and Benevolence. Space 
is by no means at hand for more than a mere men- 
tion of the great scope of the report, whose inves- 
tigations were conducted by no less a person than 
Dr. Frederick Howard Wines, the distinguished 
author of the well nigh-famous work on " Punish- 
ment and Reformation" which is now used as a 
text-book in many classes. Very startling and in- 
structive are some of the tabulations in their modi- 
fication of popular theories, a?, for instance, in the 
matter of the relation between the native and the 
foreign birth and parentage with reference to crime, 
pauperism, and benevolence, the ratio being far 
less favorable to the native and far more so to the 
foreign than is popularly supposed. Especially 
valuable are the statistics with reference to the 
juvenile offenders and dependents, the light thrown 
upon the relation of idleness and lack of education 
to delinquency being exceedingly favorable to the 
claims of manual training. A very excellent 
feature of the report is the tabulation of cross- 
references by which a great amount of labor is 
saved for those who wish to make further com- 
parisons and analyses. 



SOCIOLOGY AND MISSIONS. 

Dr. Denny's Important Work to be Issued In the 
Spring- 



The sociological study of foreign missions which 
is being made by Dr. James S. Denny for a vol- 
ume to be entitled " Christian Missions and Social 
Progress," will be issued in the early spring, by 
Fleming H. Revell Company. Its publication has 
been delayed by the author's desire to make the work 
as comprehensive and accurate as possible. It 
will be an enlargement of lectures delivered before 
Princeton, Auburn, and Lane theological semin- 
aries. Fifty full-page illustrations will embellish 
the work, the literary material for which has al- 
ready cost the author fully $3,000. The publishers 
design it to be the most important work on mis- 
sions ever issued by their house. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 




r 

Vol. J. No. 8 



- November, 1896 



SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Twenty-five cents per year, postpaid to any State or 
Country. Single copies sent to any address upon applica- 
tion. For larger numbers, special terms may oe obtained 
on application. 'Ihe publishers will be glad to receive 
lists of church members or other addresses, to whom sam- 
ple copies may be sent. 

Changes of Address -Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it is due. 

To other Settlements We mean to regard as "pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such. In return, we ask for all reports, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 

Advertisements First-class advertisements desired 
at reasonable rates, which will be furnished upon applica- 
tion. 



AIX, COMMUNICATIONS 

Kelating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, .JOHN F. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 



Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post- Office at Chicago. 111. 



THE supplement issued with this number con- 
tains the schedule of classes, clubs and lec- 
tures in Chicago Commons for the fall term. It is as 
complete as possible, and will serve to give a good 
idea of the character and scope of the work done, 
not only in this particular settlement, but in most 
others as well. We expect to keep it in type, and 
to issue it, corrected to date, from time to time. 



"THE BEST FOR THE NEEDIEST.' 



The whole settlement idea was stated in five 
words the other day by a settlement worker, in the 
phrase above, "The best for the neediest." If 
Chicago Commons were to select a motto to 
epitomize its motive and method, it might well be 
those five words. To put it very roughly, it would 
seem to make comparatively little difference, for 
the present, what sort of churches, what sort of 
preaching, what sort of music, what sort of art, 
what sort of schools, the folks who have always 
been privileged above their fellows may have; but 
it makes a great deal of difference what sort of 



service in these lines is given to those whom 
society seeks to rescue from conditions of neglect 
and misfortune. 

To judge merely from appearances one would 
have a right to assume that it was the rich and cul- 
tured and privileged who were regarded as the 
dangerous and needy class in society; for do we 
not surround such with all the safeguards, all the 
wholesome influences, all the parks, all the fresh 
air, all the clean streets, all the best service? What 
a safe and sturdy majority of society the poor dis- 
tricts of the great city must gather together, since 
we think it necessary to repay them for their un- 
relieved life and unremitting labor in the social 
cellar, with only the tag-ends of what the favored 
of creation do not want, with barely enough to 
keep body and soul together, with the wretchedest 
of pictures, the music only of the barrel organ and 
the little German band, with filth and foul air and 
no parks at all ! How do we prop up with extra- 
ordinary measures the supposedly strong places 
in the social fabric, and upon the weakest spots 
bestow the heaviest burdens! 

In any sphere of activity except the care of the 
lives and souls of men and women and children, 
the insanity of our course would be self-evident. 
The social settlement protests against this idiotic 
mismanagement with a new social idea; and it is 
this: " The best for the neediest." 



THE SAFETY OF FREE SPEECH. 



If any one thing has been more apparent than 
another in the campaign that is just past it has 
been the readiness of the people to grasp and deal 
with the problems of the national life. To those 
who have doubted the willingness and ability of 
the people to do their own thinking and to cope at 
first hand with the issues of the day, the spectacle 
of the past few months must come as a stinging 
rebuke. It ought to be one of the sources of 
thanksgiving this year that the people so readily 
seized the opportunity to study and discuss the 
questions of the hour; that a campaign of educa- 
tion should engross the minds of all for months 
and that when the election was over the result was 
accepted with the best spirit by all concerned. It 
would have been indeed a source for anxiety and 
doubt had it been impossible to arouse the people 
to an interest in the issues of the campaign, but 
no nation is in any permanent danger of decay or 
of enslavement while such a campaign as that just 
past is possible. 

Among the wicked and foolish things said by a 
few men during the campaign the wickedest and 
most foolish of all were expressions of disbelief 
in the honesty and good intentions of the people, 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



9 



and whatever a man may think of the issues in- 
volved, however elated or disappointed he may be 
at the result of the election, he must feel sure at 
least that the mass of the people meant to do 
right, meant to do the best thing for their country 
and for their loved ones, and that generally speak- 
ing they are not only willing but able to meet the 
emergencies of the national life. 

Moreover, it is too late in the day to doubt the 
ability of the people to manage their own affairs 
and to manage them honestly. If one should thus 
question the expediency of popular government it 
is nevertheless impossible to take any backward 
step in this regard. Popular government has come 
to stay, and the only course open to one who fears 
its dangers is to make it as safe as possible. But 
this safety needs no guarantee from any superior 
person who would assume to restrict the franchise 
or the powers of rulership to himself and a few 
others of his caste. Popular government is safe 
to-day, and the best service that the doubter can do 
to his fellows and to the nation in the matter is to 
keep his hands off and to give the popular will 
free play. 

The safety of our nation and its institutions may 
be insured only by the wider extension of the 
benefits of education. If we are to be ruled by 
our masters, the majority, our only safety lies in 
the better and better education of these our mas- 
ters, and there can be no education worth the name 
without free speech. Over-cautious people some- 
times raise the question whether the unrestricted 
freedom of expression, which is a characteristic of 
the meetings held at the Commons, is safe. And 
we always protest that nothing else would be safe. 
No boiler ever was kept from explosion by sitting 
on the safety valve. 



TWICE before, in issues of CHICAGO COMMONS, 
has been told the simple story of the found- 
ing and purpose of the settlement whose name we 
bear. In view of the fact that this issue of the 
paper will go into the hands of many to whom the 
whole settlement movement is more or less of an 
enigma, and that we are deeply anxious to have 
our position thoroughly understood by those of 
our own ward-neighbors to whom this paper must 
serve as their first introduction to the work and its 
purpose, we have thought it necessary again to tell 
the simple story of our coming into the Seven- 
teenth Ward and of what we are here for. On 
page 17 (Supplement) we have briefly explained the 
purpose and scope of the settlement, and hope the 
explanation will make friends not only for this one 
settlement but for all the others of whose work ours 
is more or less afac simile. 



ONE may seek long for a better or more appre- 
ciative suggestion of what every neighbor- 
hood in any large city needs, and of the thing that 
the settlements are intended more than anything 
else to supply, than the tribute paid by a neighbor 
to the Commons upon the occasion of the settle- 
ment's second birthday, and given in full in another 
column. We publish it, not because it is a tribute 
to the Commons, but because it testifies so clearly 
to the heart-hunger of the mass of the crowded 
city populations, and the instant response of the 
neighborhood to the smallest effort to supply the 
living bond whose absence is the most dreadful 
thing about those dreadful city deserts called 

slums. 

* 
* * 

THE story of the Tabernacle church work, told 
this month, is given with two purposes. 
Chief is the expression of the desire all we of 
Chicago Commons sincerely feel to do all in our 
power to arouse interest in what seems to us one 
of the most important church fields in the city. A 
further desire has been to emphasize the greatness 
of the opportunity before this church and to cheer 
our fellow-members standing with us in the breach, 
with a word of confidence as to the future. 



WE shall account it a favor if any subscriber 
will notify us promptly of failure to receive 
the copies of CHICAGO COMMONS. It is unavoidable 
that with so large a list as we now have, some 
errors should occur, but we are anxious to reduce 
the number of these to the minimum. And our 
subscribers must help to avoid unnecessary delays 
by advising us promptly also of changes of ad- 
dress. 



ABOUT CO-OPERATIVE DISTRIBUTION- 



Prof. Hi-mis and Others Contribute to the Sixth 
Issue of the Labor Bulletin. 



In the sixth issue of the Bulletin of the Depart- 
ment of Labor are, as usual, a number of exceed- 
ingly timely and interesting articles. W. F. Wil- 
loughby continues his series upon " Industrial 
Communities," with description 'of the "Familis- 
tere Society, of Guise, France"; Prof. Edward W. 
Bemis has a valuable contribution upon "Co- 
operative Distribution," including chapters on 
"The Co-operative Store," "Labor Exchanges," 
"Co-operative Shipping Associations" and a good 
summary of laws relating to co-operation. There 
are as usual summaries of the recent state labor re- 
ports, labor legislation, and important government 
contracts affecting labor interests. 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



THE EVE OF THE 
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. 



THIRD STUDY of the LABOR MOVEMENT. 



Eighteenth Century Origin of Nineteenth Century 
Labor Problems. 



Domestic System of Industry. The Cry of the 

Factory Child and England's Response. 

Introduction of Machinery. 



BY PROFESSOR GRAHAM TAYLOR. 



The three greatest stages of modern progress 
have been marked by changes so rapid and radical 
as to be designated revolutionary. The Renais- 
sance and Reformation four hundred years ago 
were nothing less than an intellectual and religious 
revolution. Even the basis Bacon lays for the 
modern inductive method of thought has been 
aptly called the " Baconian Rebellion." The dem- 
ocratic movements two hundred years ago were 
politically revolutionary. The industrial upheav- 
als of one hundred years ago, though peaceful 
when compared with the violence attending the 
former movements, yet inaugurated a change in 
modern life so profound and far-reaching as justly 
to be called the " Industrial Revolution of the 
Eighteenth Century." But from the historical and 
psychological points of view the industrial move- 
ment was purely evolutionary, notwithstanding 
the suddenness of its beginning and the rapidity 
of its pace. To ascribe the vast social effects of 
such historic causes to personal thrift or thriftless- 
ness; to charge the industrial differences which 
divide and threaten to disrupt civilized peoples, to 
base or baseless class animosities; to hope to solve 
the " Labor Problem " solely by changing the 
seriously aggravating disposition of individuals, 
is surely, in view of the history under review, 
hopelessly to misconceive and needlessly to embit- 
ter a situation already so highly strained and so 
complicated by bad blood as to be without any so- 
lution to the majority of men. The very first step 
toward solving the " Labor Problem " is to ac- 
knowledge that the differences which divide the 
two great contending classes are real, and that 
they have great general historical causes to account 
for the division, if not for the specific form of each 
several issue that rises into dispute. 

THE DOMESTIC SYSTEM OF INDUSTRY. 

To realize the forces which broke up the found- 
ations of the great deep of English medieval so- 
ciety, and the change which almost unrecognizedly 
altered the very face of the whole earth, we must 
describe the conditions of industrial life which for 



half a century characterized the manufacturing 
population of England and the continent. To do 
so we must strike a balance between the very 
opposite descriptions drawn with artistic pictur- 
esqueness by historians of opposite points of view. 
All agree that the weaver's shop was his farmhouse 
or village home, and that his wife and unmarried 
daughters, assisted in some instances by a neigh- 
bor or two, were his helpers. So invariably was 
spinning the occupation of women that the distaff 
came to be the synonym of her very sex, and " spin- 
ster " still describes the unmarried girl. But here 
the historians differ in their pictures of the scene. 
Thus Caskell in 1836, in his volume on " Artisans 
and Machinery," throws a roseate light on the 
home industry, " So long as families were thus 
bound together by the strong link of interest and 
affection, each member in its turn, as it attained an 
age fitted for the loom, joined its labor to the gen- 
eral stock, its earnings forming part of the fund, 
the whole of which was placed at the disposal of 
the father or mother as the case might be; and 
each individual looked to him or to her for the 
adequate supply of its wants. No separate or dis- 
tinct interests were ever acknowledged or dreamed 
of. If any one, by superior industry or skill, earned 
more in proportion than another, no claim was 
made for such excess on the part of the individual. 
On the contrary, it was looked upon equally as a 
part of the wages of the family perhaps grate- 
fully and affectionately acknowledged, but leading 
to no other result. 

" The greatest misfortune the most unfavorable 
change which has resulted from factory labor is 
the breaking up of these family ties, the conse- 
quent abolition of the domestic circle, and the per- 
version of all the social obligations which should 
exist between parent and child on the one hand 
and between children themselves on the other. It 
is in these respects that the family of the factory 
laborer offers such strong contrasts and unhappy 
differences to their precursors in manufacturing 
industry." 

A CONTRASTING VIEW. 

Mr. Daniel Pidgeon, in his "Old World Ques- 
tions and New World Answers," casts a shadow on 
the scene: " If there was something idyllic about 
the picture of the old English weaver working at 
his loom with his family around him, carding or 
spinning wool or cotton for his use, that home of 
industry was very different in fact and fiction. 
Huddled together in a hut whose living and sleep- 
ing accommodations were curtailed, by the tools of 
his trade, to limits which left little room for 
decency, the weaver's family lived and worked 
without comfort, convenience, good food or good 
air. The children became toilers from their earli- 
est youth, and grew up quite ignorant, no one hav- 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



ing yet conceived of education except as a luxury 
of the rich. Theft of materials and drunkenness 
made almost every cottage a scene of crime, want 
and disorder. The grossest superstitions took the 
place of intelligence, health was impossible in the 
absence of cleanliness and pure air, and such was 
the moral atmosphere of labor that, if some family 
with more virtue than common tried to conduct 
themselves so as to save their self-respect, they 
were abused or ostracized by their neighbors. It 
was under this system that there arose in England 
that pauper class, the reproach of civilization, 
which once created, continued to grow until a 
fourth of the national income scarcely sufficed to 
support the nation's poor." 

TRAVAIL OP THE TRANSITION. 

However favorably or unfavorably the social 
condition of labor under the domestic system may 
be compared or contrasted with that under the 
factory system, the change was so rapid and radi- 
cal as to be for a long while disastrous to the help- 
less .people and bewildering even to those who 
tried either to do business under the new order, or 
to philosophize upon it. Whole populations are 
described as having been literally torn up by the 
roots, and bursting over the legal restraints which 
for generations had restricted the liberty of move- 
ment, were swept from scattered country hamlets 
to eddy about rapidly growing towns, which rose 
in distant valleys and by secluded streams. There 
men found themselves without the warm attach- 
ments of previously abiding neighborliness, and 
conscious only of being living tools transiently in 
the hands of strangers. Whereas, despite the ill 
conditions previously existing, " masters and men 
were in general so joined together in sentiment 
and in love to each other that they did not wish to 
be separated if they could help it ; " now the em- 
ployers declared in the language of one of them, 
" there can be no union between the employer and 
employed because there is no reciprocity of feel- 
ing between them, and it is to the interest of the 
employer to get as much work done for the small- 
est sum possible." Thus was marked the entrance 
into laboring life of that new and all-pervasive 
principle of competition, which for the first time 
made labor a commodity on a world-wide market, 
the demands of which at times could not be sup- 
plied by the men, or by the women and men 
together, or even by men, women and their little 
children, all of whom in turn became drugs upon 
the market during those strangely new depressions 
of trade which with increasing frequency disturb 
modern industry. The very name " manufacturer" 
no longer applied to the actual weaver, but came 
to designate the owners of the new tools with 
which their " hands " wove. Even farmers be- 
came a class distinct from laborers, and " thrust 



them out of the farmhouse into a hovel." Chil- 
dren lost their childhood, women their wifehood 
and motherhood, and men their humanity in the 
early thraldom of the factory system. The new 
experiences of hurry and worry, of confusion and 
crowding, of commercial depression, irregularity 
in work and lack of employment, of rise in rents, 
and sudden fluctuation in the prices of the neces- 
saries of life, together with the industrial strikes 
and violent clash of classes, began to be universal. 

CRY OF THE FACTORY CHILD. 

It was the cry of the laboring child that awoke 
Richard Oastler, and through him the nation, to 
the fact that, for good or ill, England and the civ- 
ilized world were in the birth-throes of a new era 
of human life. This young Yorkshireman is de- 
scribed as one of the foremost of the abolitionists, 
just then taking up the anti-slavery cause, which 
was falling like the mantle of Elijah from the 
shoulders of Wilberforce upon the stout-hearted 
younger men of the next generation. The great 
Emancipator had five years before retired from the 
battle royal which for twenty years he had waged 
for the freedom of the slave. The parliamentary 
struggle, which issued in the " bill for the aboli- 
tion of slavery," was on, when Oastler was discuss- 
ing the situation with a friend who was the owner 
of a great mill. " I wonder," said the manufac- 
turer, "you have never turned your attention to 
the factory system." "Why should I? I have 
nothing to do with factories." " But you are very 
enthusiastic against slavery in the West Indies; I 
assure you that there are cruelties daily practiced 
in our mills, which, if you knew, you would try to 
prevent." In the Leeds Mercury, the next day, 
Oastler opened the people's campaign for the 
emancipation of women and children from the 
thraldom of the new system of industry. Michelet 
thus commented upon the situation which the 
young child-saver bravely confronted: "In the 
height of the great duel between France and Eng- 
land, when the English manufacturers represented 
to Mr. Pitt that the rise in the rate of wages inca- 
pacitated them from paying the taxes, he pro- 
nounced the terrible words, ' Take the children.' 
Those words weigh heavily upon England as a 
curse." Though it is doubtful whether the great 
statesman should be charged with that utterance, 
the children, nevertheless, were taken, and 

" The child's sob in the silence curses deeper 
Thau the strong man in his wrath." 

The facts had been unknown neither to the poor 
victim nor to parliament. But Oastler forced them 
out of the timid hearts of the poor, and the com- 
mittee rooms of the House of Commons, upon the 
attention of the nation. Twenty-five years before 
a Doctor Aiken had publicly noted " the surprising 
influence of inventions and machines to extend our 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



trade, and also to call in hands from all parts, par- 
ticularly children, for the cotton mills." He was 
impressed by their " very tender age," and by the 
fact that they " were collected from workhouses and 
transported in crowds many hundreds of miles dis- 
tant, where they served unknown, unprotected and 
forgotten by those to whose care nature or the 
law had confided them, confined too long to work 
in close quarters." In 1815 a member of Parlia- 
ment, Homer by name, asserted that a gang of 
children had been put up for sale and advertised 
as part of a bankrupt's effects. Robert Blinco, 
quoted by Gibbins, recorded in his memoirs his 
observation of the regular systematic traffic in 
children which had sprung up between overseers 
of the poor and mill owners, through middlemen, 
who conveyed them in wagons and boats, herded 
them in cellars for inspection and "apprenticed'' 
them to work in relays for from sixteen to eighteen 
hours a day, to be lodged in filthy bothies, often 
without separation of the sexes, to be fed on the 
coarsest and cheapest fare, so that some fought 
with the swine for the refuse from their master's 
table, and when fugitives for their lives were cap- 
tured and returned to the mills by officers of the 
law, and compelled, even the young women among 
them, not only to work but to sleep in riveted 
chains. 

A STORY OF CHILD SLAVERY. 

No more impassioned and pathetic appeal to 
English manhood has ever been made than Oast- 
ler addressed to his fellow-countrymen for the 
freedom of the little factory slaves. " Take a lit- 
tle female captive six or seven years old," he ex- 
claimed; "she shall rise from bed at 4 A. M. of a 
cold winter's day, but before she rises she wakes 
perhaps half a dozen times, and says, ' Father, is it 
time? father, is it time? ' and at last when she gets 
up and puts her little bits of rags upon her weary 
limbs, weary yet with the last day's work, she 
leaves her parents in bed, for their labor, if they 
have any, is not required so early. She trudges 
along through rain and snow, mire and darkness 
to the mill, and there for thirteen, fourteen, six- 
teen, seventeen or even eighteen hours is obliged 
to work, with only thirty minutes interval for 
meals and play. Homeward again at night she 
would go when she was able, but many a time she 
hid herself in the wool in the mill, as she had not 
strength to go. And if she were one moment be- 
hind the appointed time, if the bell had ceased to 
ring when she arrived, with trembling, shivering, 
weary limbs at the factory door, there stood a 
monster in human form, and as she passed he 
lashed her. This [holding up an over-looker's 
strap] is no fiction; it was hard at work in this 
town last week. The girl I am speaking of died." 
In 1831 Mr. Sadler, a member of Parliament, de- 



clared to the House of Commons that the demand 
for children was so great as to place a premium 
upon marriage and parentage among the most 
dissolute and idle persons, and he voiced the con- 
science of all then and since who have not been 
seared by the hot iron of greed in these indignant 
tones of astonishment, " Our ancestors could not 
have supposed it possible, posterity will not be- 
lieve it true, that a generation of Englishmen had 
existed that would work lisping infancy of a few 
summers old, regardless alike of its smiles or 
tears, and unmoved by its unresisting weakness, 
twelve, thirteen, fourteen, sixteen hours a day, and 
through the weary night also, till in the dewy 
morn of existence the bud of youth faded and fell 
ere it was unfolded. Then, in order to keep them 
awake, to stimulate their exertions, means are 
made use of to which I shall not avert as a last in- 
stance of the degradation to which this system 
has reduced the manufacturing operatives of this 
country. Children are beaten with thongs pre- 
pared for the purpose; yes, the females of the 
country, no matter whether children or grown up 
and 1 hardly know which is the most disgusting 
outrage are beaten, beaten in your free market of 
labor, as you term it, like slaves, the poor wretch 
is flogged before its companions, flogged, I say, 
like a dog by a tyrant over-looker. We speak with 
execration of the cart-whip of the West Indies, 
but let us see this night an equal feeling rise 
against the factory town of England." 

The child's " sob in the silence," and the voice it 
found in the press and platform through Oastler's 
pen and speech, and on the floor of Parliament 
through Sadler's brave denunciations of those who 
were defended in general terms as "unimpeach- 
able for their humanity and kindness," and yet 
testified to dividends of hundreds and even thou- 
sand per cent, from child labor, were not without 
response from the heart and conscience of the na- 
tion. Although poor Oastler's reward at the hand 
of his own generation was persecution by impris- 
onment for debt, and worse still, a neglected old 
age, yet the public opinion aroused by him forced 
parliamentiary action to that beneficent factory 
legislation then instituted, which will be hereafter 
more particularly considered. But the astonishing 
fact remains that fifty years of this agony inter- 
vened between Dr. Aiken's first disclosure of its 
existence and the beginning of the really efficient 
legislation against child labor. Two historic mem- 
orials of the fearful struggle remain, sufficiently 
impressive it would seem to deter our own or suc- 
ceeding generations, especially in America, from 
repeating the dreadful injustice. One is the rise 
and triumph and enduring fame of Lord Ashley, 
the seventh Earl of Shaftesbury, the greatest 
champion of the weakest and most oppressed vie- 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



13 



tims of our modern industrial system. For, what 
individual conscience or national economy dare 
challenge the choice which he deliberately made 
in 1833, when, in the words of hia biographer, 
" On one hand lay ease, influence, promotion and 
troops of friends, and on the other an unpopular 
cause, unceasing labor midst every kind of oppo- 
sition, perpetual worry and anxiety, estrangement 
of friends, annihilation of leisure and a life among 
the poor." The other monumental witness to all 
generations against the inhumanity of money 
against man rises in English literature to over- 
whelm the reader's heart with the speechless 
pathos of mute suffering, and to strike the indi- 
vidual and national conscience with the conviction 
of sin in those words of Mrs. Browning's " Cry of 
the Children," that seem to reverberate from the 
judgment throne: 

" How long, they say. how long, oh cruel nation, 

Will you stand, to move the world, on a child's heart, 
Stifle down with a mailed heel its palpitation, 
And tread onward toward your throne amid the mart?" 

THE INTRODUCTION OP MACHINERY. 

The causes which produced this period of dire 
distress are to be found in the invention and the 
sudden introduction to the industrial world of the 
machinery which supplanted handcraft and almost 
inconceivably increased both the productivity and 
power of labor. Our next study will describe the 
first growths of machinery and balance its general 
and permanent advantage and the partial and tem- 
porary ill-effects in the working world. 

REFERENCES Descriptive of the Eve of the Industrial 
Eevolution: Toynbee, " Industrial Revolution," Address on 
"Industry and Democracy," pages 189 to 192; Carlyle, 
"Past and Present; " Walpole, "History of England," Vol. 
I, pp. 50 to 76; Caskell, " Artisans and Machinery," chap- 
ter 2; Pidgeon, chapter 15 (Harper & Bros.) ; Gibbins, 
"English Social Reformers," Chapter on the Factory Re- 
formers and his Industrial History of England, Chapter on 
the Eve of the Revolution, page 43; The Life of Lord 
Shaftesbury, by Edwin Hodder; Mrs. Elizabeth Barrett 
Browning's Poems, " The Cry of the Children." 



CRIMINOLOGY AND EDUCATION. 



Annual Report of the United States Commissioner 
School Laws and Statistics. 



A digest of the school laws of the various states 
of the union opens the second volume of the report 
of the United States Commissioner of Education 
for 1893-94, just issued, and is followed by a chap- 
ter on sanitary legislation affecting schools in the 
United States, by Hannah B. Clark, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. Chapter XIII gives a preliminary 
list of the learned and educational societies of the 
United States. A curious insertion in this report 
is a chapter, giving certain "Criminological Studies" 
of the case of a recently notorious murderer, and 
also one on " Psychological, Criminological and 
Demographical Congresses in Europe," both by 
Arthur MacDonald, specialist of the bureau. The 
report includes also an important array of statistics 
of various classes of educational institutions of 
the United States. 



In the TClorlfc of Settlements. 



SUGGESTION OF THE HOUR. 



The practical suggestion of the hour is for each 
great church in the family districts to found its social 
settlement and Christian center in some foreign dis- 
trict. Already our city has two orthodox social settle- 
ments that equal and probably surpass Toynbee Hall 
and Mansfield House, and these are models of institu. 
tioiis that should be reproduced a score vt times. In 
these settlements are many young men and women 
who give themselves on Sunday to moral instruction, 
to song and precept and the lifting up of noble 
idea s. On Monday they become friendly visit- 
ors, kindergartners, or work in the industrial school, 
with boys at the bench, or organize clubs for 
men for the discussion of social themes. The in- 
f .uenre of these settlements is simply regenerating 
the communities in which they work. In times of 
peril the friendly example and influence of one such 
institution will be worth a s- tanding army. Bibles are 
less expensive than bullets; they are also more effec- 
tive Rev. Newell Dwight Hillis, Central Church, 
Chicago. 

A SETTLEMENT PILGRIMAGE, 



Seminary Students at the Missionary Alliance Visit 
Hull House and the Commons. 



We have received no more significant visit than 
that of fully one hundred students from the Inter- 
Seminary Missionary Alliance, recently held at the 
University of Chicago. At the close of Professor 
Taylor's address before the Alliance on " The City 
and the Slums," he merely offered to conduct 
through the Commons and Hull House any of the 
visitors who desired to catch a glimpse of Chicago 
settlements. Although, on their crowded pro- 
gramme, Sunday morning was the only clear space 
at which hour they were assured that nothing of 
the settlement work could be seen, this body of 
men, representing seminaries scattered all over the 
country, appeared in the middle of the morning at 
the doors of the Commons. After the inspection 
of the residence, the motive and method of settle- 
ment work were explained, and many questions 
were answered. 

The passage of the black-frocked fraternity 
through the three river wards on their way to Hull 
House created an amusing local sensation. Miss 
Addams graciously received the party, and aided 
by Mrs. Florence Kelley described the work of 

CHICAGO COMMONS LEAFLETS The article in 
the July issue of CHICAGO COMMONS reprinted from the 
Chicago Advance, entitled " Foreign Missions at Home," and 
suggesting the points of resemblance in scope and method 
between the settlements and the foreign missionary stations, 
has been issued as No. l in a proposed series of "Chicago 
Commons Leaflets." It is a folder convenient for enclosure 
in a letter, and better than any other single article we 
know of, explains the Settlement idea from this point of 
view. This leaflet may be obtained in any quantity at the 
rate of 1O for 5 cents, postage prepaid. 



14 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



the settlement and the social condition of the sew- 
ing trades, which the latter's official factory in- 
spection has done so much to improve. 

The eagerness of the questions regarding the 
bearings of settlement work upon parish and mis- 
sionary effort manifested the alertness with which 
its suggestiveness for church work was appreci- 
ated. Their parting expressions of gratitude for 
the pleasure and profit of their visit mitigated our 
regret in being unable to provide upon so short 
notice against the loss of their dinner. 



LOUISVILLE "NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE." 



New Settlement in the Kentucky City Beginning 
with Good Prospects. 



"We are delighted to read over the familiar sig- 
nature of our friend and one-time temporary resi- 
dent, Mr. Archibald A. Hill, of Louisville, Ky., the 
letter head running thus, " Neighborhood House 
A Social Work, Northwest corner Preston and Jef- 
ferson Sts.," and off in the corner Prof. Ely's declar- 
ation, " Moral civilization consists in perfecting the 
duties and enlarging the circle of brotherhood." 
Mr. Hill regretfully disclaims having attained the 
settlement ideal, because as yet unable to secure 
permanent residents for the house, in which, how- 
ever, he himself spends twelve of each twenty-four 
hours, some of which friends share with him, in 
work for the needy people. 

While at first almost thwarted in securing a 
house by the prejudice of the Jewish neighbor- 
hood, his first rejoinder in offering the use of its 
rooms for a long desired Hebrew library went far 
to clear up their misunderstanding of his purpose 
and to bring them into neighborly co-operation 
with him. Clubs and classes, music and manual 
training are already under way, and the beginning 
has been most auspiciously made toward fulfilling 
the purpose of the devoted young founder of this 
work, to do what he can " to prepare the world for 
the time when society shall express the love of 
our common Father." 



"PUNCH" ON BROWNING HALL. 

Clever Parody Upon Robert Browning's 
Among the Ruins." 



1 Love 



A pamphlet entitled " The First Year of Robert 
Browning Hall " has been sent us by a friend in 
England. It contains a number of interesting 
illustrations, including portraits of Rev. and Mrs. 
F. Herbert Stead, and a photograph of the settle- 
ment residence, and reports much good work. A 
remarkable feature of the pamphlet is a poem on 
"Browning at Browning Hall" from London 
Punch. The poem is especially remarkable as a 



very serious-minded and reverent parody upon 
Browning's " Love Among the Ruins." Here are 
the last two of the twelve stanzas: 

Well, a Walworth chap may not quite grasp Sordello, 

Poor good fellow! 
But the author of Sordello hath the whim 

To grasp him, 
And for Hall and Settlement to bear his name 

He holds fame ! 

With this Eobert Browning Social Settlement 

I'm content, 
Over poverty, pain, folly, noise and sin, 

May they win. 
As I say, despite wit, wealth, fame and the rest, 

"Love is best.'"* 



*Last line of ' Love Among the Ruins." 



UNION SETTLEMENT BULLETIN. 



The first issue of the Union Settlement Bureau 
published by the Union Settlement Association, 
237 East 104th street, New York City, Includes a 
report of the work carried on by that settlement 
during the summer, and expresses the hope that a 
sufficient degree of interest will be aroused to in- 
sure the continuous publication of the Bulletin 
monthly or bi-monthly. The Bulletin is designed 
as a medium of communication between the settle- 
ment and its friends, and, " according to its ability, 
a promoter of all good movement among the 
people of the district." 



A NEW IOWA SETTLEMENT. 



We are glad to welcome to the fellowship of 
settlements, that which has been established 
recently by the King's Daughters of Des Moines, 
Iowa, at 722 Mulberry street, in that city. Their 
house was opened in September, and while not yet 
christened, is occupied by five residents, three of 
whom are women and two men. Their work opens 
with a day nursery, newsboys' club, cooking 
school, and kindergarten, and the usual neighborly 
ministries. 

SETTLEMENT JOTTINGS. 



Miss Isabel Eaton, Button Fellow '93 and '94, of the 

College Settlements Association, now holds the Association 
fellowship at the Philadelphia Settlement and is investigat 
ing there the industrial status of the negro people of that 
city. Her good work at Hull House and the New York 
Settlement has an enduring monument in her exhaustive 
study of " Receipts and expenditures of certain wage earn- 
ers in the garments trade," which though never given 
adequate publicity, will become a classic upon the subject 
of the sweating system. During the past year or so Miss 
Eaton has been at the head of a settlement in Hartford- 
Conn. 

The Settlement Bulletin, of the University of Chicago 

settlement, is about to resume publication In a new form, 
widened in scope, and enlarged. 

Mr. William E. George, well-known as the founder of 

the ' George Junior Republic " for boys, in New York state, 
spoke of his work at the Kirkland settlement. Chicago, 
recently, to an audience of greatly interested people. 



1896. J CHICAGO COMMONS. 15 

Social Economic Conference 



DECEMBER 7 to 12, 1896 

UNDER AUSPICES OF 



Chicago Commons and Hull House 

SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS 

SESSIONS AT 2:30 AND 8 P. M. 

December 7, 8, 9. At Chicago Commons, J40 N. Union St., (at Milwaukee Ave.) 
December 10, II, J2. At Hull House, 335 S. Habted St., (Cor. W. Polk St.) 



GENERAL TOPIC: "SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTION 



SPEAKERS: 

DR. WASHINGTON GLADDEN, of Columbus, Ohio, will speak on the Social Basis afforded by the Sermon 

on the Mount. 

HON. ERNEST HOWARD CROSBY, of New York City, will present the Philosophy of Tolstoy. 
MR. HENRY DEMAREST LLOYD, author of "Wealth Against Commonwealth," will speak on "The 

Money of the New Conscience.' 

MISS JANE ADDAMS, of Hull House, will speak of "Ethical Impulses Working Toward Social Reconstruction." 
REV. THOMAS CUTHBERT HALL, D. D., of the Fourth Presbyterian Church, Chicago, will have as his 

theme, " Christ's Words to His Disciples in the Matter of Reform." 
PROFESSOR JOHN DEWEY, of the University of Chicago, will make his topic "The Relation of Education 

to Social Reform." 

MRS. CHARLOTTE C. HOLT, of Chicago, will present the view of Individualism or Laissez Faire. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM DOUGLAS MACKENZIE, of Chicago Theological Seminary, will present The 

Christian social ideal of the Kingdom of God. 

DR. JOHN GRAHAM BROOKS, of Cambridge, Mass., will speak of "The Fabian Movement." 
MR. CHARLES O. BORING, of Chicago, will speak of "Co-operation as Applied Christianity." 
MR. JOHN Z. WHITE, of Ghicage, will speak for the Single Tax. 
PROFESSOR GRAHAM TAYLOR will preside and introduce the general topic. 



OTHER PHILOSOPHIES AND PLANS OF SOCIAL REFORM AND AMELIORATION 
Will be presented by speakers with whom correspondence is yet incomplete. 



PROVISIONAL PROGRAMME 
At CHICAGO COMMONS 

Monday, December 7th. 2:30 p. m., Opening Address, Professor Taylor, Mrs. Holt. 8 p. m. t Dr. Gladden. 
Tuesday, December 8th. 2:30 p. m., Dr. Gladden. 8 p. m., Mr. Crosby. 
Wednesday, December 9th. 2:30 p. m., Mr. Crosby. 8 p. m. t Mr. Lloyd. 

At HULL HOUSE 

Thursday, December JOth. 2:30 p.m., Miss Addams. 8 p. m., Dr. Brooks. 

Friday, December \ 1th. 2:30 p. m., Dr. Dewey. 8 p. m., Dr. Hall. 

Saturday, December \ 2th. 2:30 p.m., Mr. Boring, Mr. White. 8 p.m., Professor Mackenzie 



Chicago Commons is reached by all Milwaukee Avenue cable and electric cars; or by Grand Avenue or Halsted Street 
electric cars, stopping at the corner of Austin Avenue and Halsted Street, which is one block west of Union Street. 
Hull i louse is passed by all Halsted Street electric cars, and by Van Buren Street cable line. 

NO CHARGE FOR ADMISSION EVERYBODY WELCOME 

For further information concerning the Conference address either Settlement. 



16 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



from Sociological Claee IRooms, 



COURSES IN SOCIOLOGY. 



Lectures, Classes and Studies at the University of 
Michigan. 



The backbone, so to speak, of the undergraduate 
work in sociology at the University of Michigan is 
a course consisting of three lectures and one quiz 
weekly which continue throughout the year. The 
work during the first semester is upon the princi- 
ples of sociology,' and aims at a systematic and 
comprehensive survey of the subject. The matter 
presented is arranged under the following heads: 
1. Human Nature as the Basis of Association. 2. 
The Family in Relation to the Social Order. 3. The 
growth of Population. 4. Organization. 5. Com- 
munication. 6. Social Thought and Feeling, 
[embracing the study of public opinion, vogue, 
tradition, 'etc.] 7. Social Institutions. 8. The 
Individual and the Social Order. 9. Competition. 
10. Social Classes. 11. Dependence and Crime. 
12. Progress. 

The second semester is taken up with a more 
detailed study of questions of the day. The topics 
treated are the following: The Laws of Popula- 
tion; Degeneration [embracing a study of heredity, 
drink and economic changes as causes of degenera- 
tion]; Poor-relief; Temporary Relief of the Unem- 
ployed, Tramps, Dependent Children; Nature and 
Causes of Crime; Treatment of Crime; Immigra- 
tion and Assimilation; The Problems of Great 
Cities; Social Settlements; Divorce and the Status 
of Women. 

Assigned reading and short essays on special 
topics are required of the students taking this 
work, and Warner's "American Charities" is used 
as a text-book in the study of poor-relief. 

During the first semester a one-hour-a-week 
course is given in the Theory and Practice of 
Statistics. 

GRADUATE STUDIES IN ECONOMICS. 

The graduate work consists of a two-hours-a- 
week seminary course extending through both 
semesters, conducted by Dr. Charles H. Cooley,and 
of a course called Critical Studies in Economics and 
Sociology occupying three hours a week through- 
out the year and given jointly by Prof. Adams, 
Prof. Taylor and Dr. Cooley. In the seminary 
each student chooses or is assigned a special topic 
upon which he reads, working out the bibliography 
chiefly for himself, and upon which he makes re- 
ports about once in two weeks. 

The sociological work stands in the closest pos- 
sible relation to that in Political Economy, Finance, 
Socialism, etc., conducted by Professors Adams 
and Taylor, to that in History and Administrative 
Law carried on by the historical department, and 
to the courses in Political Philosophy and Ethics 
offered by Professor Lloyd. Besides these the 
students had the benefit last year of a series of 
lectures relating chiefly to penology, provided by 
the State Board of Charities and Corrections. 

EAGEll INTEREST IN THE WORK. 

There cannot be the least doubt that there is an 
eager interest in sociological topics among the 
more thoughtful of the three thousand students 
assembled at Ann Arbor. This is evident partly 



by the large and increasing number who elect to 
study the subject in the class-room, but still more 
by the great demand for sociological literature at 
the library, by the large and eager audiences that 
greet Miss Jane Addams, Professor Graham Taylor 
and other leaders of " forward movements " when 
they speak here, and by such indications as the 
recent decision of the Students Christian Associa- 
tion to devote a part of its energies to the estab- 
lishment of fellowships to enable students to carry 
on social settlement work. 



Instruction in Political Economy begins with a 
study of the Industrial History of England from 
the thirteenth century to the seventeenth, and of 
England and the United States from the seven- 
teenth century to the present time. It is the design 
of this course to leave upon the mind of the 
student the impression that social and industrial 
conditions are historic products, and to explain 
how the law of property, the principles of liberty, 
and the organization of industry came to be what 
they are; for in no other way can the student pre- 
pare himself either for understanding economic 
principles or for judging respecting proposed social 
and industrial reforms. This course in Industrial 
History is followed by a course upon the Princi- 
ples of Economics, which in its turn is followed by 
a course upon Current Industrial Problems and 
the Science of Finance. Under the head of Cur- 
rent Industrial Problems a cursory analysis is made 
of such questions as emigration, commercial crises 
and depressions, the railway problem, free trade 
and protection, our more elemental principles of 
taxation and social and industrial reform. 

SPECIAL COURSES FOR ADVANCED STUDENTS. 

Besides the above four courses, which are in the 
main followed by all students taking economics, 
there are special courses, designated for advanced 
students, in Money and Banking, in The Transpor- 
tation Problem, in Socialism, which includes a 
study of the Agrarian Problem, in the Industrial 
History of the United States, in the History of 
Political Economy, besides seminary courses in 
Finance and Economic Theory. Provision is also 
made for strictly graduate instruction in which 
each of the three instructors in the department 
occupy six weeks of each semester in the examina- 
tion of some selected topic. These topics as 
arranged, provide for a three years course of in- 
struction,without repetition,so that any student who 
desires to take either of the advanced degrees 
offered by the University is furnished with new 
material for reading and analysis during the entire 
period of his residence. The interest shown in 
economics at the University is most encouraging. 
Although none of the work is required for the 
baccalaureate degree, it is a favorite subject of 
election by large numbers of students. 



The Fifth Biennial report of the Minnesota 
Bureau of Labor (Part I) is taken up with a dis- 
cussion of the question of the modern variation of 
the purchasing power of gold, and deals with the 
relation of this purchasing power to the prices of 
various agricultural commodities. The report has 
had not a little circulation as a campaign document, 
but will be useful when political issues have 
changed. The second part of the report will be 
upon the subject of factory inspection. 



1896. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



17 



Supplement to Chicago Commons. 

November, 1896, 



IF I WERE A VOICE. 



If I were a voice, a persuasive voice, 

That could travel the wide world through, 

I would fly on tbe beams of the morning light, 

And speak to men with a gentle might, 
And tell them to be true. 

I'd fly, I'd fly, o'er land and sea, 

Wherever a human heart might be; 

Telling a tale, or singing a song 

In praise of the Right, m blame of the Wrong. . 



If I were a voice, a consoling voice, 
I'd fly on the wings of the air; ~ 

The homes of sorrow and quiet I'd seek,] 

And calm and truthful words I'd speak 
To save them from despair. 

I'd fly, I'd fly, o'er the crowded town, 

And drop, like the happy sunlight, down 

Into the hearts of suffering men, 

And teach them to rejoice again. 

If I were a voice, a convincing voice, 

I'd travel wiih the wind; 
And whenever I saw the nations torn 
By warfare, jealousy or scorn, 

Or hatred of their kind, 
I'd fly, I'd fly, on the thunder crash 
And into their blinded bosoms flash; 
And, all their evil thoughts subdued, 
I'd teach them Christian Brotherhood. 

If I were a voice, an immortal voice, 

I'd speak in the people's ear; 
And whenever they shouted " Liberty," 
Without deserving to be free 

I'd make their error clear. 
I'd fly, I'd fly, on the wings of day, 
Rebuking wrong on my world-wide way, 
And making all the earth rejoice, 
If I were a voice an immortal voice. 

C. Mackay. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



What the Social Settlement Stands for. 



A Neighborhood Center and Clearing: House Sig- 
nificance of the Name. 



Chicago Commons is a social settlement located 
in the Seventeenth Ward of Chicago, at 140 North 
Union street, near Milwaukee avenue. It was 
founded in May, 1894, and consists of a group of 
people who could live elsewhere, but who choose 
their place of residence with a view of being 
where they seem to be needed rather than where 
the neighborhood offers the most of social prestige 
and privilege. They are there because they be- 
lieve in the sharing of life; that most of the mis- 
chief of the modern social situation arises from 
the distant separation of classes, of the educated 
and privileged from those whose conditions have 
always been those of unremitting and poorly re- 
warded toil; because they believe that none can 
permanently help or really be helped by another 
whom he does not know, the conditions of whose 
life he does not understand. 

To share the life of the neighborhood, its com- 
forts and discomforts, its privileges and its responsi- 
bilities, its political and civic and personal duties 
and pleasures, the little group at the Commons has 
established its home in the Seventeenth Ward. 



There was no idea of building up a n*>w institu- 
tion, a new kind of mission, or any substitute foi 
churches; no intention of making proselytes to 
any sect or denomination, but simply the heartj 
desire to make a home among homes, where the 
folks in it could share their lives with their neigh- 
bors without the artificial barriers of form thai 
separate man from man in the more conventional 
kinds of life. 

The Commons residents desired also to offer a 
place that should become a kind of social center, 
where the values of life could be shared, where the 
things of the daily toil could be laid aside for the 
time and man could meet with man and woman 
with woman upon the basis only of common hu- 
manity, where those whose homes are somewhat 
small and cramped could find opportunity for the 
social gatherings impossible in the smaller quarters. 

As to the name by which our house, ourselves 
and our work here with the neighborhood have 
become well-known not only in the vicinity but 
also throughout the country, and, indeed, in other 
lands, we can scarcely do better to make its mean- 
ing clear than to repeat the substance of the 
explanation of its selection given by Professor Tay- 
lor in a former issue of CHICAGO COMMONS: 

THE SETTLEMENT NAME. 

" When in search for the settlement's name, we 
groped for weeks after some title which had at its 
root, if not in its form, that good old English word 
common. For the idea of the sharing of what each 
has equally with all, and all with each, of what 
belongs to no one and no class, but to every one of 
the whole body, is the idea underlying not only 
this word and its equivalents in many tongues, but 
the very conception of that community and com- 
munion in which society and religion consist, and 
which constitute the essence of the settlement 
motive and movement. 

"A friend in need appeared indeed, as we 
alighted from an elevator on the top floor of a sky- 
scraper, on the afternoon of the last day of grace. 
In desperation we suddenly ' held him up ' with 
the demand for a name. But he was equal to this, 
as he had been to many another emergency, for he 
mused and mulled a moment over our preference 
for something common, and, as he stepped into the 
car ' going down,' said, ' Call it Chicago Commons.' 
It was done, and better than that moment knew 
was the name builded. For its popular lineage 
was really behind it; woven through English his- 
tory. As the freemen of the race organized in 
their early shires, municipalities and guilds, and 
later on combined to form one body representing 
the whole people, so the represented people, with- 
out any primary distinction of class, came to be 
known as 'the Commons.' To this ideal of social 
democracy, the name adds the suggestion of those 
few patches of mother earth still unclaimed as 
private property, which at leapt afford standing 
room equally for all, irrespective of pecuniary 
circumstances or social status. 

A SOCIAL CLEARING HOUSE. 

" So we called our household and its homestead 
' Chicago Commons,' in hope that it might be a 
common center where the masses and the classes 
could meet and mingle as men and exchange their 
social values in something like a 'clearing house' 
for the commonwealth, where friendship, neigh- 
(Continued on page 20.) 



CHICAGO COMM 



SCHEDULE OF 

CLASSES, CLU 

DEPARTMENTS OF STUDY. ..FALL 



ART... Drawing -from Casts and Still Life, Art Talks, Studies in Ruskiii and 
Morris, Painting 1 , Embroidery, Clay Modeling. 

MUSIC... choral Singing, Vocal Culture (Small Classes and Private Work) 
Piano, Mandolin, Violin, Guitar. 

ACADEMIC... German, French, Advanced Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, 
Mechanical Drawing, Elocution, Literature. 

BUSINESS... Bookkeeping, Stenography. 

DAILY. 

KINDERGARTEN (Except Saturday and Sunday) . Mrs. Bertha Hofer Hegner, Kindergartner, 9.OO till 12.OO a. m. 
HOUSEHOLD VESPERS (Neighbors .Welcome) 7.OO p. m. 

MONDAY. 

MANDOLIN Mrs. Cara Gregg (North Chicago School of Music) 3.OO p. m. 

VOCAL, CULTURE (Small Classes) Miss Grace Medary, 4.OO p. m. 

(Pupil of Ferdinand Seiber, Conservatory of Music, Berlin, Germany). 
ELOCUTION (Children) . ..... . . Miss Julia Davis (Columbia School of Oratory) 4.OO p. m. 

MANUAL TRAINING, '..-.'. . . . . . . Miss M. Emerett Colman, 4.OO p. m. 

COOKING (Girls) . . Mrs. C. O. Eichardson, 6.3O p. m. 

GERMAN, . . ....'. . . .-' Andrew Erickson, A. B. (Wheaton College) 7.15 p.m. 

ENGLISH READING FOR MEN AND WOMEN, . Frederick Nelson, A. B. (University of Wyoming), 7.3O p. m. 

WOOD CARVING, Miss Jessie M. House, 7.3O p. m. 

GIRLS' PROGRESSIVE CLUB Miss Belle Eichardson, President, 8.00 p. m. 

WOMEN'S CLUB, Mrs. Katherine Lente Stevenson, President, 8.OO p. m. 

GYMNASIUM DRILL, .... (Tabernacle Church Brotherhood of Andrew and Philip) 8.OO p. m. 

Directed by Eoy B. Guild, A.B., Physical Director (Chicago Theological Seminary). 
GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION, . . . . . Ernest B. Kent. A. B. (Iowa College) 8.15 p. m. 

TUESDAY. 

SEWING CLASSES FOR GIRLS , Misses House and Colman, 4.OO p. m. 

ROSETTE CLUB (Girls) Miss Ida E. Hegner (Milwaukee State Normal School), 6.3O p. m. 

HOME DRESSMAKING, . . Instructors, Mrs. Luther Conant, and Mrs. James Ward, . t 3.OO p. m. 

Assisted by Mrs. Geo. Shufeldt, Miss Lilian Cole, Mrs. Edward Martin; all of Oak Park. 1 7.3O p. m. 

DRAWING FROM CASTS AND STILL LIFE, George L. Schreiber, 7.30 p. in. 

(Extension Lecturer on Art, University of Chicago.) 

BASKET WEAVING Miss Colman, 7.3O p. in. 

COOKING, . . . . . . . . Miss Emma Heckenlively (Armour Institute) 8.OO p. m. 

PROFESSIONAL DRESSMAKING, Mrs. Adele Strawbridge (Cornwell System) 8.OO p. m. 

INDUSTRIAL-ECONOMIC DISCUSSION FOR MEN AND WOMEN, Prof. Graham Taylor, presiding, 8.OO p. m. 

WEDNESDAY. 

MANUAL TRAINING MiSS Colman, 4.OO p. m. 

DRAWING (For Children) Mr. Schreiber, 4.OO p. m. 

ELOCUTION (Girls over 13 years old) . . . Archie E. Turner (Columbia School of Oratory), 4.OO p. m. 

BOOKKEEPING, L. W. Wiltberger. A. B. (Beloit College) 7.OO p. m. 

GIRLS' CLUBS Little Women Club, Miss Ida E. Hegner, 7.15 p. m. 

Golden Rule Club, . . . . Miss Alice B. Cogswell. 

Mayflower Club. ..... Miss Florence E. Patrick. 

Violet Club, ...... Miss Sarah Ward. 

American Beauty Club. . Miss Louie Chester and Miss Alice Ormes. 

Pansy Club, ...... Miss Mabel Warner. 

Lily Club, ...... Miss Grace Dietrich. 

CALISTHENICS FOR UNIT BD GIRLS' CLUBS 8.15p.m. 

FRENCH (Elementary) E. S. Osgood, A. B. (Iowa College) 8.OO p. m. 

LABOR EXCHANGE 8.OO p. m. 

TUITION 25 CENTS FOR TEN LESSONS, EXCEF 

DR. MARY EDNA GOBLE, Resident Physician. 

Office Hours: 3 to 5 and 6:3O to 7:3O p. m. 



5, NOVEMBER, 1896. 



LECTURES. CHICAGO COMMONS 

140 NORTH UNION STREET 

1896... NEAR MILWAUKEE AVENUE. 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE... Professional Dressmaking, Home Dressmaking-, 

Cooking, Home Nursing. 

INDUSTRIAL TRAIN ING... Manual Training, Sewing, Basket Weaving, Wood 

Carving, Chair Caning. 

NIGHT SCHOOL STUDENTS... English Grammar and Composition, Spell- 
ing and Writing, Elocution, Arithmetic. 

OTHER BRANCHES WILL BE ARRANGED tor if there is sufficient dema nd 

for them. 
THURSDAY. 

MANDOLIN AND GUITAR, . ... * . t ^ . . . . . Mrs. Gregg, 3.00p.m. 

CHILDREN'S CHORUS, . . . . . . . . Miss Marl RuefHofer, director 4.OO p. m. 

PENNY PROVIDENT BANK, . . Miss Hefner, 5.3O p. m. 

FKENCH (Advanced) ............. Mr. Osgood, 7.OO p. m. 

VOCAL CULTURE (Small Class) . . Miss Hofer, 7.OO p. m. 

FIRST AID TO THE INJURED (For Boys) . Geo. M. Basford, Mechanical Editor Railway Review, 7.OO p. m. 

CHAIR CANING, Miss House, 7.3O p. m. 

DRAWING AND PAINTING, . Mr. Schreiber, 7.3O p. m. 

PEOPLE'S CHORUS Miss Hofer, 8.OO p. in. 

EMBROIDERY, . . . Miss Mary Tiffany (Decorative Art Department, Marshall Field & Co.) 8.OO p. m. 

MECHANICAL DRAWING, . Mr. Basford, 8.OO p. m. 

ENGLISH READING (For Italian Men) . Professor H. L. Boltwood, Principal of the High School, Evanston, 8.OO p. m. 

COOKING, . . . Miss Heckenlively, 8.OO p. m. 

READINGS IN TENNYSON, . . ,. . . i . ' Mr. Kent, 8.OO p. m. 

TABERNACLE CHURCH BROTHERHOOD OF ANDREW AND PHILIP, .... 8.OO p. m. 

FRIDAY. 

PIANO \ MiSS Marie Menefee (Berlin Conservatory), 3.OO p. m. 

' Miss Harriet Brown, " " 3.OO p. m. 

ITALIAN MOTHERS, Monthly, . . 3.OO p. m. 

CECILIAN CHOIR, i i .: . i . . . ....... Miss Brown, 4.OO p. m. 

MANUAL TRAINING . . Miss House, 4.OO p. m. 

ARITHMETIC Kosta D. Momeroff, B. 8. (Wheaton College) 7.OO p. m. 

ENGLISH READING FOR MEN AND WOMEN, '. Mr. Nelson, 7.3O p. m. 

BOYS' CLUBS, ...... 7.30 p. m 

STENOGRAPHY, . Miss Jessie Sherk, (Ferris Business College), 8.OO p. m. 

ALGEBRA, . . . . . .... . . . . . . . Mr. Momeroff, 8.OO p. m. 

UNITED STATES HISTORY, . . C. E. Baird, (Oberlin College) 8.OO p. m. 

MOTHER'S MEETING, ; ' , . .' . Mrs. Hegner, 8.OO p.m. 

(Alternate Fridays, English and German Speaking Mothers.) 

SATURDAY. 

NORMAL INSTRUCTION IN MANUAL TRAINING, . . ... . Miss Colman, 9.OO a. m. 

MANUAL TRAINING, . . . . . ; . . . . . . . . 1O.3O a. m. 

ART TALKS (Meets at the Art Institute) . ', . . . . . . Mr. Schreiber, 1.3O p. m., 3.15 p. m. 

PKIVATE ART CLASS FOR TEACHERS, .' . . . . Mr. Schreiber, 9.OO till 12.OO a. m. 

ELOCUTION, Miss Mary M. Mason (N. W. University School of Oratory) 7.OO p. m. 

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING FOK BOVS, . . . . . Misses House and Colman, 7.3O p. m. 

HOME NURSING .' .... Miss Emma Warren, M. D. 8.OO p. m. 

SPELLING AND WRITING, . . . . Mrs. Ida Smedley (Cook County Normal School) 8.OO p. in. 



TABERNACLE CHURCH INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL (Cor. Grand Ave. and Morgan Street) j ^ OT ^ 0y , S ' 

< For Girls, 2.3O p. m 

SUNDAY. 

BIBLICAL SOCIOLOGY (Resident's Class) . . . . , Professor Graham Taylor, 9.OO a. m. 

PLEASANT SUNDAY AFTERNOON, (An hour of Music, Song and Fellowship for Men and Women) 4.OO to 5.OO p. m. 

fOFESSIONAL DRESSMAKING, ART AND MUSIC. 

Further information about the classes can be obtained by writing or applying to 

HERMAN F. HEGNER, 

Resident in Charge of Educational Work, Chicago Commons. 

Office Hours 5.OO till 7.3O P. M., Except Wednesdays and Saturdays. 



20 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[November, 



(Continued from page 17.) 

borship and fellow-citizenship might form the 
personal bonds of that social unification which 
alone can save our American democracy from dis- 
ruption, cloven as it is under the increasing social 
stress and strain, and where that brotherhood of 
which we talk and sing may be more practically 
lived out and inwrought." 

There have grown up around this home-center a 
number of activities and interests in the way of 
educational classes, social clubs and friendly 
groups. A kindergarten meets every morning 
except Saturday and Sunday, and our offer to in- 
terest our more resourceful friends in teaching 
those who feel the need of further study has re- 
sulted in the gathering of classes in all branches 
of practical knowledge, including science, art, 
music and domestic economy. Two fine choruses, 
one of children and one of adults, are progressing 
well in the study and appreciation of good music. 
A weekly meeting of men and women represent- 
ing all classes discusses industrial and economic 
questions. The participation and interest of the 
residents of the settlement in the civic and polit- 
ical interests of the ward has resulted in the or- 
ganization of the Seventeenth Ward Council of the 
Civic Federation, which meets bi-weekly at the 
Commons. 

The schedule of classes, cluba and lectures, on 
the reverse side of this sheet, gives a good idea of 
the variety and scope of the work doing by, for 
and with the neighborhood at Chicago Commons. 



SUPPORT OF THE SETTLEMENT. 



Appeal To All Friends to Stand by the Work with 
Financial Help. 



The support of Chicago Commons, in addition to 
what the residents are able to pay for rent of 
rooms, comes from the free-will offerings of those 
who believe in what the work stands for. The 
financial stringency has brought many serious 
problems to the settlement, and it is hoped that 
substantial relief will come through the response 
to the following self-explanatory letter, which is 
being sent to friends of the settlement, and others 
likely to be interested: 

The successful inauguration of an effort to apply 
our common Christianity to social and civic life in 
one of the river-wards of down-town Chicago may 
not be without interest to you. For the lack of 
social centers whence higher ideal, stronger initia- 
tive, and personal help to self-help may be steadily 
applied to neighborhood life, these districts not 
only degrade those who live in them, but menace 
the peace and progress of our cities. The perma- 
nent residence of a little group, who will share 
their culture, influence and home-life with the 
people of these city centers, is proving to be the 
most effective means of supplying their needs. 

The work at Chicago Commons is partly shown 
by the schedule of appointments. Its progress is 
years in advance of what we expected. 

The response of our neighbors in this great in- 
dustrial district is indicated by over 1,000 regular 
attendances on 75 weekly appointments. Occas- 
ional attendances of visitors, students, groups 
and societies add 200 more from the more privi- 
leged but no less needy classes. To these attend- 
ances upon occasions at the settlement are to be 



added many more upon those at the industrial and 
Sunday schools, city and county institutions, etc., 
where our residents regularly serve. 

The resource most essential to such work and 
most difficult to obtain is personal. This is sup- 
plied by about twenty-five resident workers (most 
of whom receive no compensation and others only 
subsistence), and by upwards of thirty non-resident 
volunteers. A few of us not only give our own 
and family life to this cause but have borne the 
largest share of its financial burden. The most we 
ourselves can do, and our classes and clubs can 
pay, is not enough by about $3,500 per year. This 
sum will keep over fifty workers in service at the 
Commons, the Tabernacle Church, the County In- 
firmary at Dunning, and other fields among the 
densest populations of the city. 

To relieve us from spending in collecting this 
sum, time and strength which we should put into 
the work with this neglected population, we are 
seeking the assurance of some definite amount for 
its support during the coming year. 

Will you not associate yourself with us as a non- 
resident helper by subscribing something toward 
its maintenance and development, to be given by 
yourself or secured by you from others? Kindly 
inform me whether we may depend upon you for 
any help this year. 

In behalf of the residents, truly yours, 

GKAHAM TAYLOR, Resident Warden. 



A SETTLEMENT MONTHLY. 



CHICAGO COMMONS 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 

SOCIAL SETTLEMENT LIFE AND WORK 
AT HOME AND ABROAD .... 



THE SOCIAL PROGRESS OF BROTHER- 
HOOD AMONG MEN .... 

AMONG ITS FEATURES: 

News from the Social Settlements. 

Sketches of Life in the Crowded City Centers. 

Outlines of Social Teaching in College, University 

and Seminary Class Rooms. 
Notes of Literature in the Social Field. 
The Social Work of the Churches. 
Comments on Current Life from the Settlement 

Point of View. 



PUBLISHED FOR CHICAGO COMMONS. A SOCIAL 
SETTLEMENT AT 140 N. UNION ST., CHICAGO. 



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series of "Afternoons" in 

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To liHteii to READINGS of the LEGENDS and 
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NUMBER. 



MONTHLY 
L SE 
AND WORK 

CHIGXGO 



SETTLEMENT 





i OR whosoever would save his life 
shall lose it; and whosoever shall 
lose his life for my sake and the gospel's 
shall save it. "Jesus Christ. 

For our sakes, He beggared Himself, 
that we, through His beggary might be en- 
riched. Paul. 

He, existing in the form of God, did 
not consider an equal state with God a 
thing to be selfishly grasped and held, but 
emptied Himself, and took the form of a 
slave, being made in the likeness of man. 
-Paul. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



WE DESIRE TO TREBLE 
OUR CIRCULATION 




AND 

WITHIN 
TWELVE 
MONTHS 
TO 
-.SECURE 



TEN THOUSAND 



READERS 



THIS WILL BE VERY EASY 

IF EVERYBODY HELPS 

IN ONE OF THE FOLLOWING WAYS: 



OF CHICAGO 
COMMONS. 



1. BY GETTING SUBSCRIBERS. 

To help this along, we will send six copies for one year to any one address, any where, for $1.25. 
This is a club rate of 2O cents per copy, and will apply to any number of copies above six, 
sent to one address. 

2. BY SENDING US LISTS 

of church members, clubs, societies, or personal friends, in any number. We shall be glad to send 
sample copies to any persons upon application. Send us your church directory to-day. 

3 BY ADVERTISING. 

It is by cash receipts from advertising that we hope to make up the discrepancy between the low 
price of subscriptions and the cost of printing and delivering the paper. We will send rates upon 
application and allow a liberal commission upon desirable advertising secured for us. 

4. IN GENERAL, 

By interesting yourself and friends in Chicago Commons, and the cause of social brotherhood 
for which it stands and which it tries to aid. For instance, why not write a couple of letters to-day 
to some good friends, telling them about it, and sending them your copy of the paper ? We will 
send you another copy for every one you distribute in this way. 



WHEN YOU THINK, 

That in these ways, and others that may occur to you, you can assure the permanency, stability and 
constant development of the paper ; that thus you can be of material assistance in arousing interest 
in the work of social reform and rejuvenation, not alone in the social settlement, but in churches, 
societies and among individuals widely scattered in many parts of the world ; 



YOU WILL GLADLY HELP. 



For sample copies, advertising rates and all information 
on the subject of the paper, address 



CHICAGO COMMONS, 



140 NORTH UNION STREET, 

CHICAGO, ILLS 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



DECEMBER, 1896. 



No. 9. 



TEACH US, TODAY. 



fWIMTTKN FOR CHICAGO COMMONS. i:v KATHARINE 
LENTK STKVKNSOX.] 



Oh Thou, who with toil-hardened hands, 
Taught men, who toiled, the worth of life, 

Teach us, to-day; let our souls hear 
Thy words ring clearly o'er our strife. 

Speak once again:" Life's more than meat, 
The body more than raiment fair; 

The soul of service unto man 
Is more than creed, or psalm, or prayer." 

So much we have forgotten, Lord, 
We rear vast domes unto Thy name; 

We build our church-walls broad and high, 
They hide, from us, our deepest shame. 

Outside, the cowering people crowd; 

Outside, the wild tides ebb and flow; 
Outside, Thy manhood is debased 

By all that means Thy brother's woe. 

Daily, O Christ, Thou'rt crucified 
We fix the nails and point the spear; 

Wherever wrong is done to man, 
Oil man's own Man, Thou'rt needed there. 

And yet, again, we hear thee say: 
" Father, they know not what they do." 

Oh, heart of pity, infinite, 
Forgive us that these words are true. 

Open our eyes, that we may see; 

Unstop our ears, that we may hear; 
Quicken our soul's sense, till it grasps 

The scope of Thy life's purpose here! 

Then till us with Thy love's own might, 
" Peace and good will," help us to bring: 

Anew incarnated, O Christ, 
Thy Christmas song may all earth sing. 



BOULEVARD SETTLEMENTS. 



Extending the Idea Into the Upper Circles. 

Unique Sort of House-Warming in a Western City. 
Conference on the Charity Question in a Lake- 
Front Mansion. New Conception of the So- 
cial Function of a Beautiful Home. 



The possibility of extending the settlement idea 
to the extent of opening social centers in the more 
privileged parts of the cities has been strongly felt 
and notably illustrated by not a few of the wealthy 
and purposeful in various parts of Chicago and 
elsewhere, but of late one or two rather remark- 



able instances have come within our knowledge. 
This engraved invitation lies before the writer: 

Mr. and Mrs. S. M. Jones 
will be pleased to have you spend the 

evening of 

Wednesday, December twenty-third, 

with them at their home, 

No. 2339 Monroe Street, 

from 7.30 to 1 1 o'clock, 

to meet the workers of the 

Acme Sucker Kod Company. 

It means that Mr. and Mrs. Jones, upon the com- 
pl^tion of their beautiful new home in a fashion- 
able part of a western city, felt that it was a social 
trust in their hands, to be used not as their exclu- 
sive property, but for the benefit of those who 
have helped in the production of the wealth which 
built the house. No account of the gathering has 
as yet reached us, but it is fairly safe to say that 
those of the "upper" world who received and ac- 
cepted this invitation found that there is a func- 
tion of social converse of which far too little 
advantage has been taken, and that the graces of 
mind and heart which make for the enjoyment of 
social gatherings and the mutual inspiration of 
those who thus meet together, are by no means 
confined to, nor in the majority in, either any one 
class in society, or any one kind of district in the 
city. 

A CONFERENCE ON THE CHARITY QUESTION. 

Of somewhat similar significance was the con- 
ference, on a recent Sunday evening, at the beauti- 
ful home and under the initiative and direction of 
Mrs. John C. Coonley. A company representing 
many social interests and occupations gathered to 
hear the presentation of the subject of " The Social 
Value of Charity Organization," by Professor John 
Graham Brooks, of Cambridge, Mass. Professor 
Brooks is one of the best-informed men in the 
country on this subject, being at the head of the 
Cambridge Charity Organization and a close stu- 
dent of the question in all its bearings. Space is 
lacking for any account of the address, or of the 
brisk discussion from many points of view which 
followed. Suffice it to say that the occasion was a 
very profitable one in its bringing together of the 
representatives of many interests and view-points, 
and affording the opportunity of at least a begin- 
ning of progress toward mutual understanding. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



SOCIAL ECONOMIC CONFERENCE. 



Earnest Men and Women Discuss the Needs and Aims 

of Society 

ASPECTS OF HUMAN PROGRESS FROM MANY POINTS OF VIEW, 



Important Gatherings under the Auspices of Chicago Commons and Hull House. Great Emphasis upon the 

Character of Jesus and the Christian Social Ideal. Practice and Philosophy of Tolstoy. 

Relation of Property to Human Life. Fabianism, the Single Tax, and 

44 The Money of the New Conscience." Ideals of 

Social Brotherhood. 



A sight to warm the heart of the most hopeless of 
pessimists was any one of the sessions of the Social 
Economic Conference, held by Chicago Commons 
and Hull House in the second week of December. 
To one stumbling unprepared upon the opening 
session in that back basement "assembly hall" of 
the Commons it must have seemed a strange sight 
indeed. That low room, so recently redeemed from 
a long life as a stable, made habitable only by con- 
stant and most assiduous cleaning and many coats 
of paint and whitewash, was filled to the utmost by 
as strange a gathering as has been seen in the land. 
The invitation to come to that old house and dis- 
cuss the question of " Social Reconstruction " had 
drawn together as diverse a company as one could 
wish to see. Every phase of social and economic 
thought was represented in the audiences which 
gathered day after day and joined thought and 
question upon the vital themes that were discussed. 
As one report of the meetings put it: 

" From distant states came students, pastors, 
farmers, manufacturers, and men and women en- 
listed in social service. From every part of the 
great city ministers of many faiths, professors and 
students of the great universities, deaconesses and 
nurses, in the plain habit of their orders; men 
from the banks, board of trade, exchanges and 
business offices, lawyers, doctors, school-teachers, 
editors, women from the parlors of " society," the 
counter of the store, the desk of the office, the 
quiet of the home; working people, from the 
trades, the docks, the shops, the trains, the ships, 
the streets, and more's the pity from the swell- 
ing ranks of the army of the unemployed; the rep- 
resentatives of almost every phase of economic 
thought and social ideal, individualists, socialists, 
communists, single taxers, co-operators, trades- 
unionists, collectivists, opportunists, Christians and 



Jews, Protestants, Catholics, and agnostics, some- 
how found their way to this bare but common floor, 
where 'free speech, fraternal tolerance, all sides and 
no favor ' had been announced to be the sole basis 
of frank and fearless discussion." 

So large was the response to the invitation that 
after the first session the meetings were transferred 
to the larger quarters of the Tabernacle Church 
and on the occasion of Mr. Henry D. Lloyd's ad- 
dress, even the ample accommodations of the 
neighboring Scandia Hall were required for the 
attendance. The sessions of the last part of the 
week were held in the Hull House gymnasium and 
once in the Ewing street church. 

QUESTIONS AND OPEN DISCUSSIONS. 

The method of conducting the conference was 
exceedingly simple, the undeviating rule of all the 
sessions being the absolute freedom of speech per- 
mitted to every person, whatever his views. Each 
paper or address was followed by a season of direct 
questioning of the speaker, in order to get his 
thought clearly before the audience. Then the 
question was thrown open for general discussion, 
remarks being limited to three minutes, unless the 
time was extended by vote of the meeting, which 
in many cases was done. The principal speaker 
was given the last ten minutes or so for rejoinder 
to the points brought out in the discussion. 

Professor Graham Taylor, of Chicago Theologi- 
cal Seminary, and Warden of the Commons, opened 
the discussion of the general theme of the con- 
ference with a short address in which he called 
attention to the many signs of change in social re- 
lations, especially the change from independ- 
ence to interdependence, and from competition 
to combination and cooperation. He com- 
mented vigorously upon the increasing inequality 
in the distribution of wealth and income, quoting 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



from Charles B. Spahr's new book, " The Present 
Distribution of Wealth in the United States," the 
figures, for instance, that 

"Less than half the families in America are p roper tyless; 
nevertheless, seven-eighths of the families hold but one- 
eighth of the national wealth, while one per cent of the 
families hold more than the remaining ninety-nine." 

Professor Taylor's address was a plea for the 
patient, tolerant, brotherly discussion of the things 
pertaining to the common welfare and to common 
justice, and the key-note which he struck thus was 
that of the conference, from beginning to end. 

JESUS THE CENTRAL FIGURE. 

It would be scarcely too much to say that the 
character, the claims upon men, the social author- 
ity, the teachings, of Jesus formed the principal 
topic of discussion throughout the conference. 
Again and again, in topics seemingly having little 
to do with the question of the life or teachings of 
Jesus, the whole discussion would halt for an in- 
terval of question or comment, or even somewhat 
heated debate, having at the root the entire 
matter of the practicability of real Christianity, 
and some of the most interesting passages of the 
conference were in the course of such discussion 
Some of the most surprising divisions of opinion, 
too, occurred at such times. This was especially 
true in the discussions which followed the papers 
of Mr. Ernest Howard Crosby, of New York City, 
who spoke twice upon " The Philosophy and Prac- 
tice of Count Tolstoy," and who was probably the 
most conspicuous if not the most distinguished 
participant in the conference. Mr. Crosby is a 
convert to the Tolstoyan philosophy, which is noth- 
ing more or less than a belief in the obligation and 
the practicability of an absolutely literal fulfill- 
ment of the commands of Jesus to his disciples. 
While serving in Egypt under the appointment of 
President Harrison as a member of the Interna- 
tional Court, Mr. Crosby fell by chance upon a 
French edition of Tolstoy's volume entitled "Life,'' 
and from that became an earnest student of the 
Russian's works. Returning to America, he turned 
his back upon a political career both brilliant and 
promising, upon a legal practice of no small di- 
mensions, and upon a position in metropolitan soci- 
ety assured by both the young man's own career of 
prominence in the cause of reform and that of his 
father (the late Rev. Dr. Howard Crosb\% formerly 
Chancellor of the University of the City of New 
York, and Dr. Parkhurst's predecessor in the pres- 
idency of the Society for the Prevention of Crime), 
and has set about the fulfillment as best he may of 
the commands of Jesus, which he insists upon in- 
terpreting with the same unquestioning literalness 
and with much the same conclusions, as does the 
Russian peasant nobleman, whose advice to him in 
Ms predicament of entanglement with the current 



order of society was, first of all, to speak the truth 
as he saw it with utter frankness, " For then," the 
old man said, "people will not suffer you to be 
inconsistent." 

THE TOLSTOYAN PHILOSOPHY. 

Mr. Crosby's two addresses were in reality two 
parts of one long paper, the first outlining the in- 
teresting history of the life of Count Tolstoy, and 
defining and discussing four of the five points 
which constitute the basis of Tolstoy's philosophy 
of life. These five points are given always in the 
words of the Gospels, and are in substance as fol- 
lows: 

I. " I say unto you that every one who is angry with his 
brother, [whether with cause or without], shall be in danger 
of the judgment,"etc. 

II. "I say unto you that every one that looketh on a 
woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her 
already in his heart." 

III. " I say unto you, swear not at all But let 

your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay, for whatsoever is more 
than these is of the evil one." 

IV. " I say unto you, resist not him that is evil, but who- 
soever smiteth thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the 

other also Give to him that asketh thee, and 

from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away." 

V. "I say unto you, love your enemies, and pray for 
them that despitefully use you," etc. 

THE QUESTION OF NON-RESISTANCE. 

The second part of the paper was devoted to the 
discussion of the question of non-resistance, upon 
which Tolstoy places his chief emphasis, and which 
is, in fact, perhaps the distinctive tenet of the Tols- 
toyan philosophy. Absolute abstinence from re- 
course to force in any form whatever is emphasized 
by Tolstoy, even to the point of refraining from 
participation in any function of government, and as 
far as possible from the enjoyment of any benefit 
of government, on the ground that all government 
is maintained in the last analysis by force of armp, 
and that the use of force was expressly forbidden 
by Jesus to his followers. At no point did Mr. 
Crosby flinch from the application of this princi- 
ple, stoutly maintaining, for instance, that there 
could be no such thing, and never was such a 
thing, aa a " holy war," on the ground that all war 
is in the last resort an effort by two men to take 
each other's lives, and by no stretch of imagina- 
tion could such a state of affairs be taken to be 
due to love of each other. Moreover, he argued, 
however "holy " might be the motives of the man 
or men to whom the war was due in the first place, 
nobody could assure the same condition of affairs 
in the hearts of all the men taking part in the war, 
and no act could be Christian or Christ-like which 
had not at its root brotherly love. He could not 
believe that Christ would look with approval upon 
forcible intervention, even in Armenia to-day, and 
argued that slavery could have been suppressed, or 
rather removed, from this country without the 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



bloodshed, and at much less than the still unceasing 
cost, of the civil war. Few who heard it will ever 
forget the ringing words with which he closed the 
meeting at which his last address was delivered, 
when in reply to an attack, thinly disguised in a 
seeming tribute to Tolstoy, upon the character of 
Jesus, he gave reason for the faith that was in him, 
and warmly urged his hearers to study the life and 
character of Jesus as described in the best availa- 
ble translations of the Gospels. 

DR. GLADDEN ON SOCIAL SERVICE. 

Dr. Washington Gladden was, as always, the pic- 
ture of self-control and the voice of optimistic 
earnestness. He spoke twice, once upon the theme 
" The True Socialism," and then upon the basis 
afforded for social reconstruction by the principles 
of the Sermon on the Mount. Dr. Gladden dis- 
appointed two classes of hearers, the ultra radicals, 
because, while very severe in his denunciation of 
the present social conditions, he still seemed to 
think the existing system could be used as a basis 
for what he called the "true socialism," and the 
ultra-conservatives, because he spoke for what 
seemed to them very drastic changes in the status, 
especially in the matter of the control of the pub- 
lic franchises, and of the great producing monopo- 
lies which might fairly be called " natural." He 
parted company with the orthodox socialist, go far 
as present measures are concerned, at least, at the 
point of their demand for the socializing of the 
minor forms of private enterprise in production. 
Very high indeed was the standard set by this 
speaker for the ideal of social service. The public 
officer, he holds, is no more bound to view his office 
as a public trust than is the private citizen in his 
conduct of the branch of business in his charge- 
Every work that is proper to do at all is to be 
thought of in its social aspects. All work should 
be infused with the motive of rendering the larg- 
est service to fellow men. " From this point of 
view," said Dr. Gladden, " the scavenger who sees 
in his work a social service is a public benefactor, 
and the lawyer who cares only for himself is a 
public fool." He was especially unsparing in his 
denunciation of gamblers, " who produce nothing, 
distribute nothing, but make their living at the 
expense of the community." Whether they gam- 
ble in the cheap hells of the criminal sections of 
the great cities, or in the more " respectable " pre- 
cints of the stock exchange, the}' are all parasites, 
Dr. Gladden said, and so far as the social service is 
concerned are to be classed with the sneak thieves. 

PROPERTY OR HUMANITY MOST IMPORTANT? 

The second of Dr. Gladden's addresses, on the 
Sermon on the Mount, was not a Bible study, 
or an analytical examination of thie New Testa- 
ment account of the words of Christ. It dealt 



chiefly with the ideal of universal brotherhood, as 
derived from the Universal Fatherhood, and with 
the present conflict between property and human- 
ity. At the outset, the'speaker raised the question 
whether the relations of men to each other should 
be regarded as having only an economic basis. In 
his stirring appeal against the purely economic in- 
terpretation of society, Dr. Gladden argued that 
slavery was the natural outcome of such an inter- 
pretation. Said he, " The habit of regarding the 
separate possession of private property as the ulti- 
mate ideal of social life leads inevitably to the 
Cain-like saying, ' I have paid this man what was 
nominated in the bond; what more have I to do 
with him?'" For a full application of the princi- 
ples of the Sermon on the Mount to all social 
relations the speaker pleaded. Christianity, he de- 
clared, is not a lubricant for those parts of a heart- 
less machine which bind and squeak, but a law of 
social and individual existence, which is to be ap- 
plied to all the relations of human life. " Shall 
brotherhood be tributary to property, or property 
to brotherhood? " was a question which seemed to 
have but one possible answer. Dr. Gladden left no 
possible doubt as to his belief in the necessity of 
a new heart in the individuals of society. " You 
cannot make an altruistic result by the mere ad- 
dition of egoistic units," said he, "the only per- 
manent or tolerable socialism would be that based 
upon individual units inspired by an altruistic 
ideal, and co-operating on a basis, not of property, 
but of personality." 

" THE MONEY OF THE NEW CONSCIENCE." 

A very striking and altogether remarkable 
address was that of Mr. Henry Demarest Lloyd, 
the now famous biographer of the Standard Oil 
Company, and to-day the most formidable because 
the best informed and most fearless enemy of the 
great trusts and monopolies. Mr. Lloyd's topic 
was " The Money of the New Conscience." The 
novelty of the title, together with the assurance 
that Mr. Lloyd would speak of the question of the 
currency, attracted a large audience, perhaps the 
largest of the week. Those who expected a mere 
polemic were disappointed, for Mr. Lloyd's ad- 
dress was eminently constructive. On the point 
of the coinage, Mr. Lloyd expressed his belief 
that the money of justice could not be based upon 
either gold or silver, or any other single com- 
modity, whose price was variable, but upon the 
coinage of all commodities, so to speak, as has been 
practically done in times of financial distress by the 
issuance of clearing-house certificates and similar 
paper evidences of faith based upon securities of all 
kinds, and representing wealth of nearly all sorts. 
The need of money reform Mr. Lloyd conceded, but 
it seemed to him that none of the proposed methods 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



was adequate, or made possible the carrying out 
under it of the Golden Rule. There must be a 
reform all along the line, and it must be based 
upon the consideration of the best interests of all 
mankind. A new conscience must be brought to 
bear upon the problems of the time, and infused 
into all the relations of society. " The new con- 
science," said Mr. Lloyd, " is that in a man which 
rises up in him to protest against the things which 
are iu the interest of the things which ought to be." 
An adequate money reform, he thought, would go 
far to employ the idle labor of the world. " And if 
the idle labor of the world could be employed, if 
the idle soldiers of the world could be set to work, 
and if all the other idlers could be turned from 
their idleness, we could do anything in the world 
that we wanted to do. The first year, we could 
take the women and children out of the shops and 
factories and send them home, to stay home The 
second year, we could buy up all the monopolies 
and begin to administer them for the benefit of the 
people. The third year, we could rebuild the 
slums in all the cities of the world. The fourth 
year we could give to every child the beginnings 
of an education which could go on to college and 
university. The fifth year, by applying labor 
adequately to cleanliness and isolation and proper 
nursing,we could abolish all the contagious diseases. 
The sixth year, we could pay all the national 
debts of the world. And the seventh year 
"and the seventh year," he cried, with rising 
emphasis and eagerness, " the seventh year, we 
could do what we are told the Creator of the Uni- 
verse did after His six days' labor of creation. 
We could rest, and look upon our work and behold 
that it was good." 

Nobody who heard Mr. Lloyd without prejudice 
could fail to be impressed with his earnestness, or 
the high moral tone of his ideals. At least twice 
repeated, this sentiment of his was applauded to 
the echo: "Repudiation and Revolution are words 
which have no place in the vocabulary of a self- 
governing people." 

SOCIAL PROGRESS GROWTH OF HUMAN LIFE. 

Professor Charles R. Henderson, of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, represented the more conservative 
side of the discussion in his paper under the title, 
" Social Reconstruction, a Growth of Human Life." 
Against violent catastrophes and the expectation 
of them, on the one hand, and against a mere 
laissez faire reliance upon the blind forces of 
" Nature " to bring about righteousness and justice 
in human conditions, on the other hand, Professor 
Henderson urges that these three things should be 
remembered; first, that social reconstruction is a 
vital process; second, and more than that, it is a 
Ii a mil it, vital process, involving not merely a bio- 



logical development, but the education of men. It 
was upon this point that Professor Henderson 
made his emphasis. The necessity and the oppor- 
tunity for intelligent control of this process he 
dwelt upon at length, showing that intelligence 
and morality must grow together " up to human- 
ity." A broad scope must be given to all adminis- 
trations. No one in all the conference was more 
insistent than Professor Henderson, upon the 
necessity for a social estimate of the stewardship of 
property, especially the property of an educative 
kind, as in the cases of art and literature. "Art is 
not safe," he said, for instance, "as the private 
possession of an individual or class of indivi- 
duals. Statues and other beautiful things are not 
a blessing when confined to'the mansions of the 
wealthy. The money of men must not be hoarded, 
or spent as the _selfish possession of the favored 
few. It must be spent for the benefit of the many. 
It must be spent for schools, and if it is not spent 
for schools, then it will be necessary to spend it for 
rifles and for soldiers, to kill." He thought it a 
cause for rejoicing that the workingmen were dis- 
contented, since it showed the infinite possibilities 
for progress. As to the church, in answer to a 
question, Dr. Henderson gave it a broad place in 
his economy of society, but thought it ought not to 
be expected to take the place of agencies better 
adapted to do many things required of it in the de- 
mands of some classes of its critics. Those who 
took chief exception to his view were the more 
radical anarchists, one of whom, agreeing with 
much that the professor had said, still maintained 
that while the processes of evolution might be 
slow, their climaxes were always swift and sudden, 
and in human affairs had always taken the world 
by surprise. 

MISS ADDAMS ON ETHICAL IMPULSES. 

Miss Jane Addams, of Hull House, spoke rather 
briefly but with great sweetness, as always, upon 
the theme, "Ethical Impulses Working Toward 
Social Reconstruction." Her practical mind found 
its utterance in her insistence that even the high- 
est moral ideas must have their basis in the con- 
crete relations of life, and yet the ethical standards 
must be those above, not those of our contempo- 
raries. Miss Addams was another who thought the 
progress of the world must be more or less slow, 
working step by step for the elevation of the 
masses of men, not so much by the upward leaps 
of the few favored individuals, as by the slow 
spirals gained by painful working on through 
average advance of the many. The church's mis- 
sion, she thought, was to adjust the lives of men to 
ideals and to conditions. 

Because there was no interval for discussion 
between Miss Addarns's paper and that of Mr. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



Crosby, which immediately followed, many points 
which might have been instructive in further dis- 
cussion were overlooked. 

WHAT FABIANISM HAS DONE FOR SOCIALISM. 

It was hoped that Mrs. Florence Kelley would 
present the Marxian view of socialism, but she was 
unable to do so on account of pressing duties, and 
Professor John Graham Brooks, of Cambridge, 
Mass., reviewed briefly yet clearly the whole field 
of socialism under his lesser title of "The Fabian 
Movement." Very forcibly he presented the view 
of the practical problems which, as he said, had 
raised the issue between facts and the fine phrases 
of theory. Psychology is the question at the bot- 
tom of it all, Professor Brooks thinks, and in the 
meeting of social crises we must consider many 
things of soul and of society which some theorists 
are very loth to take into account. He laid em- 
phasis upon the service of the Fabian principles of 
deliberation, investigation and experiment in clear- 
ing the ground of false and useless issues. Espe- 
cial emphasis he placed upon the discovery through 
the Fabian method of an extra- economic element, 
a moral force, leading to the conscious regulation 
of the conditions of the struggle for existence, in 
order to make it as fair as possible. " I am tired," 
he said, " of the constant reference to the ' fight ' 
between individualism and socialism, as if it must 
be either one or the other. It is no longer a ques- 
tion of ' either, or,' but of both till the end of the 
chapter." Upon this duality of principle he dwelt 
with especial emphasis, seeking to show that both 
the principles of socialism and individualism were 
persistent conditions of human life and progress. 

A spicy discussion followed Mr. Brooks's address, 
for some of the workingmen pressed him closely 
for an answer to the question, Has the condition of 
the working classes improved in the competitive 
battle with labor-saving machinery? The stress of 
the evening came upon this question, for there 
were present several men of several classes in- 
cluding at least one employer of labor in manu- 
factures, who upon his unqualified affirmative, and 
statement that wages have beyond a doubt greatly 
increased, presented very strongly the view that 
while the wages of the men who are employed have 
doubtless risen, and while the condition of those 
who are able to purchase the fruits of the new ma- 
chinery has doubtless shown improvement, there 
is a vast and increasing class of those dislodged by 
machinery who never make up what they lose; and 
when the increase in the wages of those who have 
work is averaged with the pittance or the nothing 
of those whom machinery has thrown out of the 
ranks of skilled labor altogether, it will be found 
that the working classes have not profited, gen- 
erally speaking, by the encroachments of machin- 



ery. One of the workiugmen put this view very 
searchingly when he asked of Professor Brooks, 
" Isn't this Fabian Society purely a middle class 
movement?" And upon the affirmative reply, 
added, " Well, let the present trend of economic 
conditions continue but a very short time, and 
there will not be any middle-class left to carry on 
any such movement!" 

THE NEW EDUCATION. 

The tremendous forces which the new education 
is setting at work for the reforming of society were 
indicated with great power and discernment by 
Professor John Dewey, of the University of Chi- 
cago, who spoke on the topic, " The Relation of 
Education to Social Reform." The power of edu- 
cation for good or ill in both individual and social 
spheres is commonly admitted, but it is when a 
man like Professor Dewey analyzes the situation 
and points out the places where the real education 
begins the formation of character, that the import- 
ance of the subject is to some degree appreciated. 
For, as Professor Dewey said, it is education, even 
in the more formal sense of the deliberate training^ 
of the schools, that comes nearest and goes furthest 
down in making or marring the balance between 
the individual and the social forces that determine 
character. Education, in his view, might be de- 
fined as the concentration of all the best social 
resources so as rightly to shape and modify the 
individual character. It is therefore the chief and 
most important instrument of social progress. It 
was to the question of the needed reconstruction of 
educational methods themselves that Professor 
Dewey devoted himself chiefly, for as he said, if 
education is to become a means of social recon- 
struction it must itself be radically reformed. 
There must be more socialization and democrat- 
ization of the schools. The ideals must be less 
individualistic. They must be required to be and 
to do more what the home and the neighborhood 
used to do and to be. There must be less o! books 
and more of life. That is an ideal school in which 
society begins to organize itself. Thus the whole 
education should be an active industrial training, 
that it may be seen what the typical forms of life 
are in relation to the social value. Professor 
Dewey pleaded especially for tolerance toward the 
new methods on the part of the public, and that in 
press and speech, critics should refrain from de- 
nouncing as "fads" the things which were doing so 
much to socialize the forces of education. 

AS TO THE SINGLE LAND TAX. 

The fact that the problems of our day are more 
and more proving to be ethical at their root and in 
their bearing was nowhere better attested than in 
the reception accorded to Mr. Edward O. Brown's 



1896. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



able paper on the Single Tax. Mr. Brown pre- 
sented more particularly the economic aspects of 
the subject, but it was the question of the justice 
of the land tax, as a method of raising the revenue 
needed for the expenses of government, that 
attracted interett generally speaking more than 
casual. The conservative part of the audience 
criticised the proposed reform as too harsh in its 
effect upon existing values, and the more radical, 
believed that while the single tax might result 
practically in the nationalization of the land, the 
prop >sed method was too drastic to be accepted 
without a revolution by the powers that be in 
the world of finance and fiscal administration, 
and too moderate to make any part of a really 
acceptable platform of social reconstruction. Not a 
few there were in the audience who had never heard 
anything more than the name of the single tax, and 
to these the paper was deeply interesting, in that 
it presented the question of the possibility of 
practically abolishing the present system of taxa- 
tion upon industry, and substituting a tax system 
which should return to the community that part of 
the increase in the value of land which by its pres- 
ence as a community it alone creates, rather than to 
have all the " unearned increment " revert to the 
"owner" of the land, who does nothing to make it 
more valuable than it was before. 

CO-OPERATION AND THE LABOR EXCHANGE. 

Mr. Charles O. Boring represented more definite- 
ly than any other speaker on the programme the 
actual efforts toward practical co-operation which 
are making on the part of various people and corn- 
unities in these days. His topic was the proposi- 
tion, " Co-Opera 1 ion is Applied Christianity," and 
like most of the other papers of the conference his 
was an actual preaching of the gospel of brother- 
hood and love. Mr. Boring is one of the leading 
exponents of the theory of industrial co-operation 
in the United Slates, and is one of those who wel- 
comes everything that looks like a step in that 
direction, whatever its name, and whether it suits 
his own ideas as to detail or not. He drew strong- 
lessons from the success of the co-operative com- 
munities among the American aborigines before the 
intervention of "civilization " and the vices of the 
white man, and paid high tribute to the success of 
the Mormon form of co-operation in Utah, pictur- 
ing its magnificent results in redeeming the arid 
wastes and creating countless wealth, although 
much of the popular product was stolen by the 
aristocracy, the hierarchy and the priesthood. 

In connection with the address by Mr. Boring, 
the subject of the somewhat newly organized 
" Labor Exchange " was discussed as a practical 
carrying out into more or less successful operation 
of the idea of co-operation. Mr. Hanson, warden of 



the "St. Paul Commons," a settlement named after 
the Chicago Commons, and in which there -is the 
headquarters of a flourishing labor exchange, ex- 
plained its operation at some length and there was 
an animated and highly interesting discussion of 
its practicability and probable results, for a de- 
tailed account of which space is not here *available. 
The socialists among the audience were inclined to 
criticise the labor exchange on the ground that as 
soon as its product should come into competition 
with the great trusts and monopolies in the open 
market, as they must do in order to become a real 
factor in the industrial reorganization, they would 
be crushed to pieces, as far more powerful private 
concerns had always been crushed. But it was 
more generally conceded that the exchange offered 
at least a ray of hope that a practical way might be 
found to begin on a small scale to draw toward the 
day of the exchange of commodities on the basis 
of labor values. This discussion was probably the 
most practical of the conference from a standpoint 
regarding immediate measures. 

THE CAUTION TO THE DISCIPLES. 

The Christian ideal came up for discussion again 
in the strong and vivid address by Rev. Dr. Thomas 
C. Hall, of the Fourth Presbyterian Church of 
Chicago, who spoke of "Christ's Words to His 
Disciples in Matters of Reform." Dr. Hall is not 
held by the impression growing in some quarters, 
that Christ was in effect a socialist, He believes 
that very little that Jesus said can fairly be inter- 
preted as intended to teach a form of socialism. 
Far more important than either socialism or 
anarchism or any of the distinctions between them, 
in Dr. Hall's view, is the distinction which Jesus 
drew between those who desire righteousness and 
those who do not. It was to divide men into these 
two classes that Christ came, he said. Against 
idolatry, the worship of "isms" and definitions 
and names, as if even of single tax, or socialism, or 
any other mere form, Jesus raised the single issue 
of righteousness. It was this one thing, Right- 
eousness, that Dr. Hall emphasized throughout 
his address. As regards the church, he said, it is 
a piece of machinery, intended to incarnate in the 
world a spirit. It has made blunders, some very 
sad ones. It has turned to idols, of definition, and 
creed, of machinery and ceremonies. All these 
things are subordinate, however useful in their 
places, to righteousness. Jesus was no sooner gone 
than "orthodoxy" came into question. The im- 
portance of the one consideration, that of spirit, 
was lost sight of; the one great question, upon 
which Christ came to divide the world, " Do you 
(Continued on page 10.) 

*For further and detailed information regarding the 
Labor Exchange, address, "Secretary, Labor Exchange, I*. 
East Washington street, Chicago." 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 

SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 

LIFE AND WORK *. 




Vol. 1. No. 9 



December, 1896 



SUBSCKIPT1ON PRICE 

Twenty-five cents per year, postpaid to any State or 
Country. Single copies sent to any address upon applica- 
tion. For larger numbers, special terms may oe obtained 
on application. The publishers will be glad to receive 
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Changes of Address Please notify the publishers 
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To Other Settlements We mean to regard HS "pre- 
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to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
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tion. 

AM, COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN F. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 

Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post-Off^* at Chicago, 111. 

A HI NT of the blessed time of the prevalence 
of the conception of even a beautiful home 
as a social trust, " not your own," is given in the 
article on "Boulevard Settlements" in another 
column. 



IT IS in the settlements that the sombre side of 
the great festivals of the people are observed 
most clearly. Among the people who, by reason 
of unemployment, are without the necessaries of 
life, it is difficult to see undiminished the cheer of 
the Christmas. Nevertheless, the blessed minis- 
tries of the good friends of the Commons to those 
who in our neighborhood lacked the wherewithal 
to be merry, mitigated in a marked degree the sad- 
ness of the contrasts, and marked the beginnings 
of friendships full of promise. 



THE SOCIAL ECONOMIC CONFERENCE. 

Significant beyond tbe appreciation of the far- 
thest-seeing student of the times, startling in some 
of its aspects, hopeful bt-yond the dream of the 
most optimistic, the Social Economic conference 
just held under the auspices of Chicago Commons 
and Hull House, afforded an occasion of the deep- 



est interest for students of social phenomena. It 
was a marked sign of the times that the call for 
such a conference should bring out so diverse a 
gathering. Let no one doubt the presence of grave 
social issues or the consuming interest of all classes 
in these issues, let none suppose that the people 
are not ready to think and speak and act in mat- 
ters pertaining to the common interest, when under 
one roof and upon a common floor can be gathered 
twice a day for a full week a large audience, com- 
ing not to be amused or diverted, nor in the lower 
sense to be merely interested, but with great serious- 
ness of mind to look each other in the face and 
question together concerning the common interests 
of the race. Many men and women learned les- 
sons in that conference that will never be forgot- 
ten. Upon that floor minds of very differing kinds 
clashed together and learned each to respect the 
other. Men who had supposed themselves oppo- 
nents found that their quarrel had all the time been 
upon names rather than upon realities. Brethren 
who hitherto have regarded each other as rogues 
and villains unhung, discovered that their entire 
difference had been due to lack of acquaintance. 
The revolutionary socialist and the optimistic 
laissez faire found opportunity to explain them- 
selves each to the other. The agnostic and the 
disbeliever had their opportunity to express their 
opinion of Jesus and of the church, and the Chris- 
tian had occasion and took advantage of it, to give 
reason for the faith that is in him. It was inevi- 
table that some foolish things should be said, some 
very extreme things, some very false and mistaken 
things. And not all the foolish, or extreme, or 
mistaken, or false things, were said by either, or 
any one, side in the discussions. 

Some lessons were learned. All who saw and 
listened had opportunity to learn that no one side 
or school has a monopoly of the truth, that most 
men are honest and ready to be taught, that no 
point in an argument is ever gained by a man who 
cannot keep his temper, that nobody ever is con- 
vinced by abuse or epithets, that the way to bring 
men to see a thing is to show it to them, calmly 
and patiently and lovingly. Another thing that 
was learned by some who previously had doubted 
it, was the fact of which we have already spoken 
the safety of freedom of speech. This was a 
characteristic of the sessions, and it did everybody 
good, even in the cases wherein some person hith- 
erto entrenched in a casing of fancied infallibility, 
learned for the first time, with a shock, that things 
held by them as self-evident truths not to be ques- 
tioned or even discussed, were thought by men and 
women, equally honest, to be absurd. 

To us who are Christians, the most striking thing 
fcbout the sessions was the evidence constantly at 
hand of the continued authority conceded by me n 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



9 



of many opinions to the commands of Jesus. Even 
those who were most bitter in their denunciations 
of the church, in their ridiculing of all sorts of 
theological dogma, were ready to admit in the last 
analysis that they had no objection to the words or 
life or character of Jesus himself : indeed, the only 
thing they had to say against even the church, was 
that it had failed to live up to its own standard. 
Again and again it became evident that after all, 
the highest ideal of social service and character 
possible to the minds of even the most uncom- 
promising atheist of them all, was that offered by 
the service and character of Jesus. 

We turn from these sessions and look forward to 
those to come with the utmost confidence in their 
usefulness as an educative force, as an opportunity 
for folks of seemingly opposing thought to look 
into each other's faces and see truth and honesty 
in each other's eyes, as a time of truce between 
representatives of opposing, or apparently oppos 
ing, interests, as a means of peaceful outlook upon 
social life, as a kind of social safety-valve in these 
troubled and portentous times. 



THE ERA OF THE PEOPLE. 



One of the most pleasing signs of the new order 
of things, wherein the triumphs of industry and 
genius are to be regarded as above the achieve- 
ments of force or cunning, is to be noted in the 
designs of the new series of silver notes issued by 
the Treasury department. It ought to be occasion 
for rejoicing to all good men that the time has 
come when upon the currency of the nation 
the portraits and groups are not the mem- 
orials of the triumphs of nation over nation, scenes 
of battle, or even the heroes of international di- 
plomacy, but the waymarks of the nation's real 
prosperity. 

It has been remarked often that thus far, with a 
few marked exceptions, written history has been 
the account of wars and butcheries, of lewd and 
crafty kings and unscrupulous diplomatists, of 
aristocracies and oligarchies; that the real history 
of peoples has yet to be written. John Richard 
Green, in whose history of the " English people " 
was instituted nearly or quite the first rebellion 
against the former fashion of depicting only the 
transactions and alliances of the " upper classes," 
called notice to the fact that what we call Grecian 
history is only the history of the masters. The 
great mass of the Greeks were slaves, and we have 
no history of these. 

It is in this respect that the Hebrew history 
differs most remarkably from that of other nations. 
As a recent writer says, "the class of persons who 
in Greece are presented to us as the elect of society 
are denounced as Scribes and Pharisees and Hypo- 



crites, and they are accounted as more hopelessly 
immoral than the most abandoned classes in the 
community." The same writer says also that "the 
realization of an orderly and righteous democratic 
state for the human race will involve a reconstruc- 
tion of history." Of this reconstruction with regard 
to our own people there are a thousand evidences 
on all hands. This small matter of the pictures 
on the money-bills of the nation is only one; and 
all go to show that a new era has begun in which 
not the " great " man of the former history shall 
be accounted chief, but he who by skill of hand 
or mind or greatness of heart shall lead the people, 
all the people, into their inheritance of the earth. 



ABOUT the most insolent act of defiance of the 
public in the recent history of Chicago was 
the calm hold-up of the proposed four-cent fare 
for Chicago street railroads. It was as flagrant a 
case of bulldozing of a city government as could 
be imagined. When all the rapidly-accumulating 
evidence regarding street railroads is to the effect 
that at a three-cent fare the roads pay a good profit 
upon the investment, the threat of the Chicago 
officials to cut down in retaliation the wages of the 
employes, and the entire management by the com- 
panies of the campaign against the proposed re- 
duction was an insult to the intelligence and in- 
dependence of the citizens of Chicago. It is 
performances like this that are doing more than all 
the propaganda of socialists to hasten the day of 
the municipal management of the municipal trans- 
portation and communication. 



WE REJOICE to see the movement on foot to 
extend the enjoyment of art, or rather, the 
opportunity to enjoy art, into the settlement dis- 
tricts. The exhibition by Mr. and Mrs. Schreiber and 
Mrs. Proudfoot, of the "Christ-child pictures," for 
the benefit of a fund for art extension, is a move- 
ment in just the right direction, and should have 
the support of every one interested in the generous 
use of art privileges. The example of Mr. 
Schreiber, in devoting his art to the education of 
those who hitherto have not been thought to have 
any need of art, is one that might well be followed 
by many others. 

*** 

THE organization after long waiting, of a 
district of the Bureau of Charities to include 
the Eleventh, Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth wards of Chicago is cause for congratulation. 
It means a far more effective administration of the 
work in that district of the city, and an extension 
of the friendly visiting idea far beyond the point 
to which the settlements in the territory have thus 
far been able to carry it. It should have gener- 
ous support.. 



THE proportions of the several departments of 
our paper are sacrificed this month to the 
necessity of giving the fullest possible scope con- 
sistent with our space limits to the report of the 
Social Economic Conference. 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



SOCIAL ECONOMIC CONFERENCE. 

(Continued from page 7.) 

want a divine order or are you satisfied with the 
present order?" was buried away in the dust of a 
host of other trivial questions, and it was in the 
blindness of these things that the church's blunders 
have been made. An immense amount of reform 
energy has been wasted while men have been cut- 
ting each other's throats in quarrels over non- 
essential matters. Very impressive and cordially 
applauded was Dr. Hall's warm emphasis upon the 
fact that there are more points upon which we can 
unite than there are upon which we can righteously 
separate. 

Jesus gave to his disciples very clearly, Dr. 
Hall declared, a method for their propaganda. 
The main thing was proclamation. "As ye go, 
preach, saying, ' The Kingdom of God is at hand.' 
And for this preaching, there were several matters 
of method. They were to know how to flee into 
another place, if unwelcome in one; they were not 
to seek martyrdom as a thing desirable for itself. 
They were to be wise as serpents and harmless as 
doves." In this connection Dr. Hall precipitated 
a further discussion of the matter of non-resistance, 
by declaring it as his opinion that Jesus did not 
intend to teach the extreme of non-resistance. It 
was the doctor's opinion that it was lawful to re- 
sist, even by violence, as far as it could be done 
without hating. Against sectarianism, and even 
denominationalism, the spirit of Jesus arose to 
recall his prayer, that " they may be one." 

THE CHRISTIAN STANDARD OP SOCIAL LIFE. 

Professor William Douglas Mackenzie, of Chi- 
cago Theological Seminary, closed the sessions of 
the conference with a memorable address on "The 
Christian Ideal in Social Reform." He struck the 
keynote for the sweet temper of his remarks, the 
night before the last, when he replied to a par- 
ticularly bitter attack upon the church. A work- 
ingman, discussing Dr. Hall's paper, had made 
what seemed to be an attack upon the character of 
Jesus, arraigning the church for many shortcom- 
ings, and Christianity for its failure to reform 
society. Professor Mackenzie, with characteristic 
sweetness and gentleness, turned the words back 
upon the speaker by showing that the very stand- 
ard by which he had judged the church and the 
Christianity it professed was the highest standard 
of which the mind of man was capable of thinking 
the standard of the life aud character of that 
same Jesus Christ! 

When he came to deliver his address, the fol- 
lowing evening, Prof. Mackenzie took up, as it 
were, the same thread of discourse, and his ad- 
dress was a fitting closing for the conference. 
Christians claim, said he, that Christ has brought 
nto the world the highest possible ideal of rational 



regular social progress. Such an ideal must be, 
first of all, universal. It must be definite, perma- 
nent, adaptable to every time and place and nation. 
It must be not only a sanction, but an inspiration, 
a command to life. To prove that despite the im- 
perfection of the obedience of those professing to 
obey the commands of Jesus, the Christian ideal 
had been of great actual influence in the world, 
Professor Mackenzie referred to three matters 
within common observation and knowledge. First, 
there is now such a phrase as " the rights of man." 
There was no such thing before Jesus Christ. He 
gave common human rights to the slave and the 
outcast equality of all men before God. When 
Jesus Christ said, " God is no respecter of persons," 
he shook every throne and every aristocracy. A 
second thing which Jesus Christ has done in the 
world is to make a beginning of the recognition of 
the honor of womanhood. The third thing to 
which the speaker referred was the spread of uni- 
versal education. " Along with the equal rights of 
man," said the professor, " goes the right of every 
child to have the best possible education. And 
education was first conceived of as a broad neces- 
sity of human life when the church wanted people 
to read the Bible. Universal education was never 
dreamed of till the Reformation." 

HOW SHALL THE IDEAL EXTEND? 

With regard to what the Christian ideal has 
yet to do in the world Professor Mackenzie 
would carry these points on into questions. " Does 
all Chicago yet believe in the universal equality 
of the rights of man? Does all Chicago yet honor 
womanhood? Does Chicago yet give equal oppor- 
tunity of education to every child? " There must 
be an extension of the ideas of the rights of man 
into the positive love of brother, exemplifying it- 
self in improved industrial relations and a reign of 
love among men. This can only be done from 
within the hearts of men. Mere smashing of ex- 
isting conditions can only create new problems, 
perhaps worse than those we have. The Christian 
ideal says that we can change society for the better 
only by changing the ideals in the hearts of men. 

AN EARNEST DISCUSSION. 

A very lively discussion followed Professor 
Mackenzie's address, but the professor proved him- 
self the equal of his interlocutors and critics. To 
one who declared that there was only a material 
bond between men, and that even the professor 
himself did not believe the things he had been 
preaching, but regarded it himself as a sort of 
" joke," he became sublime in eloquence. Amid 
the death-like silence in which the audience 
awaited his reply, he began: 

" Do you happen to know of a ' joke ' for which 
men will lay down their lives as men have laid 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



down and will lay down for the Christian ideal? 
And as for the idea of human kinship which you 
have favored, that's the ideal that has made the 
world satanic, that has been the sum of all tyran- 
nies, and that has drowned brotherhood in rivers 
of blood !" 

The applause that followed this splendid out- 
burst was of long duration, and was again and 
again renewed. 

The professor was ready to admit to the socialist 
all that evil conditions may do to damage charac- 
ter, but said he, after all, character is what a man 
makes of himself in spite of his conditions when 
he masters his circumstances. In the question of 
the removal of the slums for instance, if conditions 
alter character, the 'problem will be how to get 
men to wish to change the conditions which are 
making their character. 

OPINIONS UPON THE CONFERENCE. 

After the conclusion of Professor Mackenzie's 
address, the audience remained to pass a vote of 
thanks to the settlements for the planning of the 
conferences, and for a short discussion of the gen- 
eral subject of the discussion of these topics. The 
criticisms passed at this time, taken together with 
those offered from time to time during the sessions 
and since, went far to attest the moderation from 
both points of view of those who spoke, and the 
probability that the questions were as concrete as 
the times permitted and as broad in scope as 
was consistent with a measure of timeliness, and 
that all sides had fair play. It was even amusing 
to find on the one hand, the more conservative 
among those who attended declaring that thediscus- 
sions were dangerously radical, and on the other, 
those of the revolutionary schools insisting that 
there was nothing in the entire conference that 
really faced the questions of the hour. One went so 
far as to declare the whole thing "dish-water." 
While on the one hand, those of agnostic and athe- 
istic tendencies felt that there had been "too much 
religion and Christianity" in the discussions, there 
were ministers who thought the Gospel had not 
been preached sufficiently. The vast majority of 
opinion, however, was that substantial progress to- 
ward mutual understanding and respect had been 
made, and that future conferences would be 
awaited with the assurance that they were well 
worth while, and were capable of being made occa- 
sions of great social value. 

For the next conference, which it is planned to 
hold in the late winter or early spring, no subject 
has yet been selected'. It is hoped that those in- 
terested will take occasion without reserve to send 
such suggestions as they may care to make, both 
as to subject and as to the manner of conducting the 
conferences, to the settlements, in writing. These 
suggestions may be addressed to Miss Jane Addams, 
Hull House; to Professor Graham Taylor, 140 
North Union Street, or to the editor of CHICAGO 
COMMONS. J. P. G. 



Settlement anfc 




CHICAGO COMMONS. 

14O North Union Street, at Milwaukee Avenue. 

(Reached by all Milwaukee avenue cable and electric cars; 
or by Grand avenue or Halsted str> et electric cars, stopping 
at corner of Austin avenue and Halsted street, one blocfc 
west of Union street.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement located 
on North Union street, two doors from the southwest cor- 
ner of Milwaukee avenue and the crossing of Union street 
upon Milwaukee and Austin avenues. 

Object. As explained in the second clause of the Articles 
of Incorporation of the Chicago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of Illinois: 

"2. The object for which it is formed is to provide a center for a 
higher civic and social life to Initiate and maintain religious, educa- 
tional and philanthropic enterprises and to Investigate and improve 
conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago." 

Or, as the explanatory circular of the settlement has ex- 
plained it : 

" As exemplified at Chicago Commons, the Social Settlement con- 
sists primarily of a group of people who choose to make their home 
in that part of the great city where they seem to be most needed, 
rather than where the neighborhood offers the most of privilege or 
social prestige." 

Support. The work is supported in addition to what the 
residents are able to pay for rent of rooms, by the f ree-will 
gifts of those who believe in what the work stands for. The 
gift of any person is welcomed, and the contributions are 
both occasional and regular, the latter being paid in in- 
stalments, monthly, quarterly and annually, at the conven- 
ience of the giver. 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome at any time, 
but the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Information concerning the work of Chicago Commons 
is gladly furnished to all who Inquire. A four-page leaflet,, 
bearing a picture of our residence, and other literature de- 
scribing the work will be mailed to any one upon applica- 
tion. Please enclose postage. 

Residence All inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should be 
addressed to GRAHAM TAYLOR, Resident Warden. 



OUR NEIGHBORHOOD CHRISTMAS. 



Holiday Week of Simple but Enjoyable Observances 
by Old and Young. 



Our pleasant Sunday afternoon opened the quiet 
festivities of the holiday week with a delightful 
foretaste of Christmas song, story and spirit. At 
four o'clock the bare walls and white-washed floor- 
beams of our humble assembly hall encircled a 
throng of our neighbors and not a few friends of 
the house from distant parts of the city. When 
piano and violin had hushed all hearts and drawn 
them together, the " Reliques of the Christ," that 
modern poem which breathes so much of the med- 
ieval mysticism, was read by the chairman. Then 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



the Chicago Commons adult chorus, reinforced by 
some kindly voices from the University of Chicago 
settlement, sang several sweet Christmas carols, 
interspersed among which were Hans Christian 
Anderson's story of " The Fir Tree," read by Miss 
Blood, president of the Columbian School of Ora- 
tory, and a sweet old German Christ-child legend, 
recited by Mrs. George L. Schreiber. The angel's 
song from St. Luke was read, and the violin called 
us to prayer by its sweetly solemn "Ave Maria." A 
moment of silence, broken by all voices in unison 
praying " Our Father," was followed by a few sim- 
ple words about the Word becoming our flesh, that 
about each one of us there might be "peace on 
earth and good will to men." Hearts blended as 
*very voice helped swell the chorus, "Home, Sweet 
Home," and with many a kindly greeting and ten- 
der pressure from hard hands our pleasant Sunday 
Afternoon closed. 

THE KINDERGARTEN FESTIVAL. 

The Women's Club Christmas week meeting was 
signalized by the kindly presence and gracious 
speech of Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin, who urged upon 
responsive ears the advantages of the federation of 
all women's clubs. The kindergarten festival came 
next, and around the tree as happy a group of 
mothers and children gathered as can be described. 
Simple little presents which came from far and 
wide made each mother and child equally happy, 
and as a memento of the neighborly feast there 
was taken to each home a little copy of some great 
masterpiece portraying the Madonna and the Holy 
Ohild, each encircled by a bright frame-work 
woven by the fingers of the little ones themselves. 
A second time the Christmas tree glowed with its 
good cheer for the Girls' Clubs, who, with their 
young lady friends from Evanston, made merry, 
and, parting, each took a picture and story of the 
Christ-child, daintily bound, as their keepsake of 
the goodly fellowship. 

Then followed the time honored observances at 
the neighborhood church by the Tabernacle Sun- 
day School and the Industrial School, with their 
separate songs, gifts, stories and stereopticon pic- 
tures. 

DISTRIBUTING CHRISTMAS DINNERS. 

The pleasantest i'eature of the Christmas Day 
was the arrival from Oak Park of three wagon 
loads of provisions, with a company of young men 
under the command of Mr. Edward Payson, who 
distributed the goods to the needy families of the 
Commons neighborhood, thus not only making 
glad the hearts of many saddened by the prospect 
of passing the Christmas with empty stomachs, (as 
not a few would have had to do) but better than all 
that, 'learning the lesson of humar sympathy 
through actual contact with those whom they 
sought to help, and making the beginnings at least 



of friendships which will continue, and which are 
quite as valuable to those helping as to those 
helped. Through other friends this ministry to 
those who would have had no Christmas cheer was 
extended to still other neighbors with great success 
and enjoyment to all concerned. 

Yet in store for us are these three good things: 
The visit on December 28 of the Hull House 
Women's Club, Jane Club and Shakespeare Club 
to our Girl's Progressive and Women's Clubs ; the 
Christmas entertainment to be given at Central 
Music Hall on the afternoon of Dec. 30, in which 
the Christ-child will be portrayed in art and song 
by stereopticon pictures from the masters, and 
singing by children's choruses and eminent solo- 
ists, for the benefit of a fund for the extension of 
art and music among the people surrounding five 
Chicago Settlements; and, last but by no means 
least, the boys' New Year's Night. Somewhere in 
between, should there prove to be any "between- 
times," the Commons' household will be at home 
with each other. 



BEQUEST TO THE CHILDREN. 



Memorial of Miss Mary I.. Harmon in a Loving 
Gift to Little Ones Whom She Laved. 



Doubly precious to us is the gift of a much 
needed piano for the Chicago Commons kinder- 
garten. Almost the whole story is told by the in- 
scription on the piano, in gold letters: 

" This piano is the bequest of Miss Mary L. Harmon, of 
Chicago, for the use and benefit of little children whom the 
owner dearly loved." 

Miss Harmon's was one of those sweet lives 
which with possibilities of a bright career are 
nevertheless devoted voluntarily to the quiet minis- 
tries of home life and the enjoyment of the smaller 
circles of loving friends. She was the daughter of 
Isaac D. and Annie M. Harmon, of Chicago, and 
though born in Peru, 111., passed the larger part of 
her life, and died, in this city. Miss Harmon ob- 
tained her academic education at the famous 
school of Dio Lewis at Lexington, Mass. An ap- 
preciative sketch of her life, placed in our hands 
by one of her friends, gives us the facts above, 
pays tribute to her exceptional literary abilities, 
and adds these words of description which could 
not be true of any but a fine, sweet soul: "She 
could make flowers flourish where others failed; 
all dumb animals were her friends, she loved and 
had a wonderful control over them. She was one 
of the most humane of women, and to the utmost 
extent of her ability she succored the needy and 
distressed. In the- bequest of her piano to the 
'Commons' her wishes will be gratified, for she 
dearly loved little children and they loved her in 
return." 



1896.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



13 



Sifce Higbt Sketches, 



A LITTLE story that came to us in a roundabout 
way illustrates a number of things in which the 
settlements believe; not least the influence of the 
good music which it is a part of the work of the 
settlements to extend. During the morning exer- 
cises in one of the schools in a ward in which a 
settlement has influence, the children began to call 
for the song " Holy Night," and "The First Christ- 
mas." The teacher did not know the songs and 
asked where they had learned them. 

"Oh, at the singing class at the " Kindergarten/' 
(So the settlements are generally known in their 
neighborhoods). 

The result was that the children at the request 
of the teacher and pupils alike, stood up and sang 
the songs and since then have been teaching them 
to the school, to the great delight of all con- 
cerned. * 



No MORE impressive sight falls under the eye 
in the industrial districts of a great city than the 
mighty tide of human life that surges back and 
forth along some great thoroughfare on the way to 
and from the factories and shops. Such a sight 
may be seen twice a day by the residents of the 
Commons as the procession of the workers marches 
up and down Milwaukee avenue past the door. 
Five hundred men and women have been counted 
within three minutes passing the front windows of 
the Commons. Often has it brought to mind those 
stirring verses of Thomas Wentworth Higginson: 

From street and square, from hill and glen 
Of this vast world beyond my door, 

I hear the tramp of marching men, 
The patient armies of the poor. 

The halo of the city's lamps 
Hangs, a vast torchlight, in the air; 

I watch it, through the evening damps, 
The masters of the world are there. 

Not ermine clad, nor throned in state, 
Their title deeds not yet made plain; 

But waking early, toiling late, 
The heirs of all the earth remain. 

Some day, by laws as fixed and fair 
As guide the planets in their sweep, 

The children of each outcast heir 
The harvest fruit of Time shall reap. 

The peasant's brain shall yet be wise, 
The untamed pulse grow calm and still, 

The blind shall see, the lowly rise, 
And work in peace God's wondrous will. 

Some day, without a trumpet's call, 
This news shall o'er the world be blown; 

The heritage comes back to all. 
The myriad monarchs take their own ! 



THE FACTORY SYSTEM 



Fourth Study of the Movement and Social Con- 
dition of Labor. 



FIRST GROWTHS OF MACHINE PRODUCTION. 



Epoch-Making Inventions which Revolutionized the 

Industrial "World. Stealing a Silk Process 

from Italy. First American 

Machinery. 



[Bv PROFESSOR GRAHAM TAYLOR.] 

The evolutionary character of the " Industrial 
Revolution," which in the middle of the eighteenth 
century overthrew the domestic system of manu- 
facture and introduced the factory, is discoverable 
even where least observed. For even the startling 
inventions which about this time seemed to burst 
all at once upon the industrial horizon, and actually 
produced such a sudden overthrow of time-honored 
crafts and conditions in the working world, are 
upon closer view seen to be not without antecedent 
causes and genealogical descent. 

INVENTIONS ARE GROWTHS, NOT FLASHES. 

The four great inventions which revolutionized 
the textile art, the spinning-jenny, the water- frame, 
the mule, and the power-loom, were not, as is pop- 
ularly supposed, the sudden effects of a single idea 
flashing instantly upon a single brain. They grew 
Their growth was due to necessity of overcoming 
practical difficulties in the way of supplying one 
of the greatest wants of life. The weaver had 
woven far faster than the spinster could spin. 
John Kay's fly-shuttle invented in 1738, accelerated 
the weaver's natural pace by enabling one man to 
weave as fast and as much as two shuttle-throwers. 
But with John Wyatt's spinning contrivance which 
appeared the same year, the spinster started upon 
the brilliant spurt in the race, by which she dis- 
tanced the weaver. For by his more promissory 
than effective invention it was shown that the 
single pair of hands which had been spinning a 
single thread could multiply the product twenty, a 
hundred or a thousand fold. The failure of Wyatt's 
appliance only stimulated others to overcome the 
difficulties which he had failed to solve. Har- 
greaves, a poor handweaver finding the spinning- 
wheel of his wife Jenny overturned upon his cot- 
tage floor, caught from the continued revolution of 
the wheel the suggestion of the horizontal wheel 
and perpendicular spindles. And the spinning- 
jenny began to whirl in 1764. But his neighboring 
spinsters, not willing that one should do the work 
of eight, broke into his cottage and destroyed his 
machine, driving the inventor to Nottingham, there 



14 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



to found its world-famous industry. His success 
in spinning the woof prompted Richard Ark- 
wright, a barber's assistant, to produce the 
warp. Notwithstanding the destruction of his 
models by his wife, and the deferring of his hopes 
by poverty, his water-frame completed the founda- 
tion of the new cotton industry in 1770. Six years 
later Samuel Crompton, another young weaver 
combined the jenny and the water-frame in his 
" mule," which increased the fineness of the fibre 
from 80 to 350 hanks of yarn to the pound, so that 
from one pound of cotton a thread 160 miles long 
could be spun. Thus the spinster had distanced 
the weaver, when Edmund Cartwright, a clergy- 
man, hearing that "so much cotton would be spun 
that hands would never be found to weave," re- 
plied, "that Arkwright must then set his wits to 
work to invent a weaving mill." Within three 
years, 1784, he had himself invented the power- 
loom. " The present spinning machinery, which 
we now use, is supposed to be a compound of about 
800 inventions. The present carding machinery, 
is a compound of about sixty patents." The steam 
engine through Watt's inventiveness in 1769 began 
to supply power to move the myriad looms which 
soon brought the weaver abreast of the spinster. 
Transportation and means of communication soon 
followed in the development of the canal system 
from 1777, in the improvement of the roads from 
1818, and in the construction of the first railway in 
1830. Mr. Greet e in his history of the English 
people, thus links this chain of progress together: 
" At the time when Hargreaves and Arkwright 
were struggling to make their inventions available, 
the enterprise of a duke and the ingenuity of a 
millwright, not only solved the problem of dis- 
tribution, which the trade of the country was forc- 
ing upon England, and which improved cotton 
machinery was sure to complicate, but they paved 
the way by constructing canals for the greatest 
application of the steam engine, which could not 
have played its part in establishing the factory 
system without means of distributing coal, and the 
system itself, without the steam engine, would have 
been a feeble institution." 

A CLOSE SECRET AND THE OPENING WORLD. 

The movement of life to open the world to every- 
one proved too strong for the effort of trade and 
national selfishness to keep inventive secrets close. 
But the way in which they were wrested and 
yielded, is a sorry comment on the ethics of com- 
merce. Two illustrations are characteristic of the 
process. Long after the silk industry had found 
lodgment in England, rumors of an unknown and, 
greatly improved method of manufacture in 
Italy began to be whispered, to account for the 
smuggling of foreign goods in large quantities into 
the country. The cocoons were said to be unwound 
by machinery resembling a great water-driven 
corn-mill, capable of producing an unlimited 
-quantity of the delicate tibre, so difficult to un- 
wind by hand. Three brothers named Lombe who 
were conducting the business of silk-throwers in 
London determined to discover, and if possible ap- 
propriate the process. The youngest of them, 
John, was sent to Leghorn for the purpose in 1715. 
In various disguises, and under different pretexts, 
and by generous use of his money he gained access 
to the factory, but failed to see the machinery. 



Ingratiating himself to the confidence of the priest 
who was the father confessor of the proprietor, he 
secured through him, for charity's sake a boy's 
place in attendance upon a spinning-engine, and 
was allowed to sleep in the mill. The secret was his. 
Piece by piece drawings of the machinery passed 
from him through the hands of the priest to the 
agents of the Lombe brother, hidden in bales of 
silk consigned to London. Great was the risk thus 
hazarded. The penalty prescribed for even attempt- 
ing to discover this art was death, and the lorfeit- 
uie of all goods, and the infamy of being painted 
in effigy on the outside of the prison walls hanging 
from the gallows by one foot. To escape with his 
life from the suspicions sure to be aroused by 
withdrawal from the mill, was the last act in this 
tragedy. No sooner was he missed than an Italian 
war vessel was dispatched in pursuit of the Eng- 
lish merchantman, which however, outsailed its 
pursuer and safely landed the bold " captain of in- 
dustry." The story runs that, " After Mr. Louibe's 
return to England, an Italian priest was much in 
his company, that the young man died at 29 years 
of ago, and that an Italian female sent to England 
with a commission to poison him, succeeded in so 
doing." The success of the experiment is said 
however, to have been satisfactory as "the modest 
little sum 120,000 pounds was made out of the un- 
dertaking." If this story from Knight's " Old 
England," Book 7, Chap. 2, is credible, Italy and not 
England, was the birthplace of the first factory, in 
the modern sense of the term. 

FIRST AMERICAN MACHINERY. 

The transference of machine production from 
England to America is well-nigh as striking. The 
English Parliament, between 1774 and 1781, had 
enacted the severest penalties against exporting to 
America textile machinery. The packing or ship- 
ping of any such implement, model or plan was 
outlawed and punished by forfeiture, fine and im- 
prisonment. The emigration of artisans was also 
interdicted. Smuggling or invention was the only 
recourse of the colonists, both being aided by an 
American boycott on English manufactured goods, 
and by heavy duiies laid upon importation. Sam- 
uel Slater won President Jackson's designation as, 
" The Father of American Manufacturers," after 
this fashion. At fourteen years of age he had 
been apprenticed to Arkwright's money partner, 
Mr. Strutt, at Milford, England. Accidently notic- 
ing in an American paper the offer of bounties for 
the production of cotton-machinery, he memorized 
the construction of the machinery then being set 
up under his supervision in a new mill in course 
of erection. Partly evading the law by carrying 
the plans, models and specifications in his head, in- 
stead of his hands, he nevertheless, out of his own 
head, and chiefly with his own hands reproduced 
the machinery and set it in operation for the first 
time in America in Pawtucket, R. I., December 20, 
1790. In 1814 the first factory in the world " in 
which all the processes involved in the manufac- 
ture of goods from the raw material to the finished 
product, were carried on in one establishment by 
successive steps mathematically considered under 
one harmonious system," was organized and 
operated by Francis C. Lowell of Boston in Wal- 
tham, Mass. " So," adds Mr. Carroll D. Wright, 
" America furnished the stone which completed the 



1896. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



15 



industrial arch of the factory system of manufac- 
ture." 

FACTORY SYSTEM DEFINED. 

.No better descriptive definition of the factory 
system is known to us than that given by Commis- 
sioner Wright in the Tenth United States Census. 
"A factory is an establishment where several 
workmen are collected for the purpose of ob- 
taining greater and cheaper conveniences for 
labor than they could procure individually at their 
homes; for producing results by their combined 
efforts which they could not accomplish separately; 
and for preventing the loss occasioned by carrying 
articles from place to place during the several 
processes necessary to complete their manufacture. 
The principle of a factory is, that each laborer, 
working separately, is controlled by some associat- 
ing principle, which directs his producing powers 
to effect a common result, which it is the object 
collectively to attain. Factories are therefore the 
legitimate outgrowth of the universal tendency to 
association, which is inherent in our nature, and 
by the development of which all industrial suc- 
cesses have been gained; and from this principle 
springs the necessity for sub-division of labor with- 
out which the factory system would have met with 
but feeble growth. The minute sub-division of 
labor required an equally extensive power of com- 
bination, to unite the several parts so that their 
aggregate shall produce one harmonious result. 
The type-founder is never allowed to forget that 
he is working for the compositor: the compositor 
has constant reference to the pressman; the press- 
man to the folder, and the folder to the binder. The 
factory is therefore, in broad terms, an association 
of separate occupations conducted in one establish- 
ment in order to facilitate the combination of the 
processes into which most branches of manufac- 
turers are divided." 

It will thus be seen how naturally and neces- 
sarily the farmhouse workroom under the domestic 
system was supplanted by the mill and the factory 
town. The machinery simply required more space 
and strength of walls than the cottage could afford, 
and the country neighborhood could not supply the 
hands to run it, which nothing less than a large 
town or great city could gather and shelter. 

The philosophy of this industrial history is by 
no one better thought out and set forth, than by 
Hobson in his " Evolution of Modern Capitalism." 
While stoutly maintaining the evolutionary origin 
of machine production as against " the heroic 
theory," he admits that early in the eighteenth 
century a " vast acceleration in the invention 
of complex machinery applied to almost all 
industrial arts dates from that period, and the 
application upon an extensive scale of non-human 
motor powers, manifested itself then for the first 
time." Not more than three inventions during the 
three preceding centuries are to be compared with 
this group which mark the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. Nevertheless, as this authority 
shows, it does not make against the gradual growth 
of machinery, for as he graphically explains, " the 
pressure of industrial circumstances direct the in- 
telligence of many minds towards the comprehen- 
sion of some single central point of difficulty, the 
common knowledge of the age induces many to 
reach similar conclusions: that solution which is 
slightly better adapted to the facts, or ' grasps the 
skirts of happy chance,' comes out victorious, and 
the inventor, purveyor, or, in some cases, the rob- 



ber, is crowned as a great inventive genius." Thus, 
" an irregular and catastrophic appearance to the 
working of a force is given, which is in its inner 
pressure much more regular than in its outward 
expression. The earlier increments of a great in- 
dustrial invention make no figure in the annals of 
history because they do not pay, and the final 
increment which reaches the paying point gets all 
the credit, though the inherent importance and the 
inventive genius of the earlier attempts may have 
been as great or greater." This author marks out 
three periods of abnormal activity in the evolution 
of modern industry. First, 1780-1795, when the 
application of steam to machine industries ripened 
the fruits of early inventions. Second, 1830-1845, 
when stimulated by the cessation of war, and by 
steam locomotion, the new inventions were more 
widely utilized. Third, 1856-1860, when the con- 
struction of machinery by machinery became the 
settled rule of industry. 

The story thus told in barest outline to suggest 
more than it attempts to tell, leads up to our next 
study of the present effects of machine production 
upon labor, and of the imperative necessity laid 
upon ethics and economics to effect the better 
adjustment of these mightiest forces of modern 
civilization. This problem is the most portentous 
legacy which the twentieth century will inherit 
from the nineteenth. 

REFERENCES: Hobson" The Evolution of Modern 
Capitalism " (Scribner's) Chap. 3. Wright" Report on the 
Factory System of the United States in U. S. Tenth Census, 
Vol. on Statistics of Manufacturers. (Washington, 1883). 
Also the same authors, " Industrial Evolution of the United 
States." Chapters 10 to 14 (Chatauqua Press). Gibbins' 
" Industrial History of England," (Mathuen) pages 156 to 
166. "Factories and the Factory System," W. Cooke Tay. 
lor, LL.D. Walpole's "History of England." Vol. I, pp 
50-76 "Artisans and Machinery," P. Gaskell, Esq., 1836, 
Chapter 2. Knights of Old England, Book VII, Chap. 2. 



NEW ZEALAND LABOR BULLETIN. 



Valuable Publication Which is a Current Compen- 
dium of the Labor Interests of the World. 



One of the most interesting and valuable of the 
periodical publications that come to our hand is 
the Journal of the Department of Labour, issued 
under the direction of the Hon. the Minister of 
Labour, at Wellington, New Zealand. It is really 
a monthly compendium on the subject of labor in 
all countries. For instance, the issue for Novem- 
ber, just at hand, reports current local conditions, 
legal decisions during the previous month, the 
skilled labor markets of Europe and the United 
States, etc., and also has several very valuable arti- 
cles of a general character, such as " Factory Labor 
in India," "Sweating in Melbourne," "The Tele- 
phone A Comparison of Public and Private Sub- 
scription Rates in Many Countries," "The German 
Industrial Census,' "Some Greek Paybills," etc. 



"Dreamer of dreams, born out of my due time. 

Why should I strive to set the crooked straight? 
Let it siiflice me that my murmuring rhyme, 

Beats with light wing against the ivory gate, 

Telling ;i tale not too importunate 
To those who in the sleepy regions stay, 
Lulled by the singer of an empty day. 

" Folks say, a wizard to a northern king 

At Christmas-tide such wondrous things did show, 

That through one window men beheld the spring, 
And through another saw the summer glow, 
And through a third the fruited vines arow, 

While still, unheard, but in its wonted way. 

Piped the drear wind of that December day. 

\\'illiain Morri 



16 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[December, 



INFLUENCE. 



No stream from its source 

Flows seaward, how lonely soever its course. 

But some land is gladdened ! ISIo star ever rose 

And set, without influence somewhere! Who knows 

What earth needs from earth's lowest creature? 

No life 

Can be pure in its purpose and strong in its strife. 
And all life not be purer and stronger thereby. 

Owen Meredith. 

NEW CHARITY DISTRICT. 



West Side River Ward* Organized for More Effective 
Neighborly Visitation. 



The most important achievement of the month 
in the work for the west-side river wards has been 
the initial movement toward the establishment of 
a district of the Bureau of Charities, for the Seven- 
teenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth wards, border- 
ing upon the river, and the Eleventh ward, which 
forms their western boundary. The three wards 
first named contain the densest and most hetero- 
geneous population in the city, aggregating up- 
ward of 120,000 souls, and the congestion of pov- 
erty so centers in this district that the county 
agent's office has long been located in it. The 
present movement was initiated by the Central 
Bureau of Charities, in pursuance of its thu- far 
successful effort to district the city for the more 
effective neighborly administration of charity, and 
the promotion of friendly relationships among the 
people of the respective communities. The settle- 
ments, of which there are three in the district 
Hull House, Epworth House and the Commons 
co-operate very heartjly with the new office and its 
agent, Mr. Walter Vose Gulick, a resident of the 
Commons, anticipating not only great relief from 
the overwhelming burden of dealing individually 
with the vast mass of destitute people surrounding 
them, but also increased efficiency in their relief 
work through the removal of its administration to 
a central office which will enable them to combine 
in large part their own investigation, friendly visit- 
ing and disbursements, and to join forces with the 
more resourceful constituency on the westward 
side of the territory and the outlying suburbs. 

The need of immediate and generous assistance 
in this work is imminent. The unusually severe 
destitution calls no less for the contribution of sus- 
tenance for the unemployed both earlier and in 
larger measure than usual, but also for the bare 
expense of effective administration, which will in- 
sure economical disbursement, increased donations 
and those friendly relationships between the classes 
which constitute the most valuable and permanent 
residuum of such emergencies. 

Aid in this work will be gratefully received by 
the Central Bureau, at Room 214, First National 
Bank Building, by either of the settlements in the 
district,' or by Mr. Gulick, who may be addressed 
for the present at Chicago Commons. 



Social ano Xabor fining 



A NOTE from Dr. Jane E. Robbins, of the New 
York College Settlement, encloses the following 
social hymn, with the remark that it was written 
for one of their clubs: 

(Tune, "Militant.") 

As brothers now we gather in our might, 
With all who stand for Justice. Truth and Kight, 
And bravely struggle forward toward the light, 
Courage brother, forward bravely. 

Lo, now a morn is breaking o'er our land, 
When Justice, crowned by all shall glorious stand; 
Truth, Honor, Justice seek we hand-in-hand, 
Courage, brother, forward bravely. 



THE DAY OF THE LORD. 



The clay of the Lord is at hand! 

Its storms roll up the sky; 
The nations sleep starving on heaps of gold; 

All dreHiners toss and sigh; 
The night is darkest before the morn; 
When the pain is sorest the child is born, 

And the Day of the Lord at hand 

The Day of the Lord at hand. 

Gather you, gather you, angels of God- 
Freedom and mercy and truth; 

O come! for the earth is grown coward and old; 
Come down, and renew us her youth. 

Wisdom, self-sacrifice, daring and love, 

Haste to the battle-field, stoop from above. 
To the Day of the Lord at hand - 
To the Day of the Lord at hand. 

Gather you. gather you, hounds of hell- 
Famine and plague and war; 

Idleness, bigotry, cant and misrule. 
Gather, and fall in the snare! 

Hireling and Mammonite, bigot and knave, 

Crawl to the battle-field, sneak to your grave, 
In the Day of the Lord at hand- 
In the Day of the Lord at hand. 

Who'd sit down and sigh for a lost ag^ of gold, 
While the Lord of all ages is here? 

True hearts will leap up at the trumpet of God, 
And those who can suffer can dare. 

Each old age of gold was an iron age, too. 

And the meekest of saints may find stern work to do. 
In the Day of the Lord at hand- 
In the Day of the Lord at hand. 

Charles Kingsley. 



WHILE THE DAYS ARE GOING BY. 



There are lonely hearts to cherish 
While the days are going by; 

There are weary souls who perish 
While the days are going by. 

If a smile we can renew 

As our journey we pursue, 

O, the good we all may do 
While the days are going by. 

There's no time for idle scorning 
While the days are going by; 

Be our faces like the morning 
While the days are going by. 

O, the world is full of sighs, 

Full of sad and weeping eyes; 

Help your fallen brother rise 
While the days are going by. 

All the loving links that bind us 

While the days are going by. 
One by one we leave behind us. 
While the days are going by. 
But the seeds of good we sow 
Both in sun and shade will grow, 
And will keep our hearts aglow 
While the days are going by. 



G. Cooper. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



A. C. McCLURG & CO. 

BOOKSELLERS PUBLISHERS STATIONERS 



Offer a complete stock not only of the lighter books of the day, such as in FICTION 

TRAVEL, BELLES LETTRES, etc*, etc., but also take pride in their large 

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Sociology, Economics, 
Political Science and Finance 



The Books on Sociology, reported from time to time in CHICAGO COMMONS, can be 

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SXI 



VOL. J No. to 



r 50 

Cents 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 
LIFE AND WORK 

CHICAGO 



JANUARY, J897 



WHEN the ear heard me, then it 
blessed me; 
And when the eye saw me, it gave witness 

unto me; 

Because I delivered the poor that cried, 
The fatherless also, and him that had none 

to help him. 
The blessing of him that was ready to 

perish came upon me 
And I caused the heart of the widow to 

sing for joy. 
I was eyes to the blind 
And feet was I to the lame. 
I was a father to the poor 
And the cause of him I knew not I searched 

out. 
I put on righteousness and it clothed itself 

with me, 
And justice was my robe and diadem. 

Job. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



WE DESIRE TO TREBLE 
OUR CIRCULATION 



AND 

WITHIN 
TWELVE 
MONTHS 

TO 
SECURE 



READERS 



THIS WILL BE VERY EASY 

IF EVERYBODY HELPS 

IN ONE OF THE FOLLOWING WAYS! 



OF CHICAGO 
COMMONS. 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE, 
50 CENTS PER YEAR. 



1. BY GETTING SUBSCRIBERS. 

To help this along, we will send six copies for one year to any one address, anywhere, for $2.50. 
This is a club rate of 4O cents per copy, and will apply to any number of copies above six, 
sent to one address. 

2. BY SENDING US LISTS 

of church members, clubs, societies, or personal friends, in any number. We shall be glad to send 
sample copies to any persons upon application. Send us your church directory to-day. 

3. BY ADVERTISING. 

It is by cash receipts from advertising that we hope to make up the discrepancy between the low 
price of subscriptions and the cost of printing and delivering the paper. We will send rates upon 
application and allow a liberal commission upon desirable advertising secured for us. 

4. IN GENERAL, 

By interesting yourself and friends in Chicago Commons, and the cause of social brotherhood 
for which it stands and which it tries to aid. For instance, why not write a couple of letters to-day 
to some good friends, telling them about it, and sending them your copy of the paper ? We will 
send you another copy for every one you distribute in this way. 



WHEN YOU THINK, 

That in these ways, and others that may occur to you, you can assure the permanency, stability and 
constant development of the paper ; that thus you can be of material assistance in arousing interest 
in the work of social reform and rejuvenation, not alone in the social settlement, but in churches, 
societies and among individuals widely scattered in many parts of the world ; 



YOU WILL GLADLY HELP. 



For sample copies, advertising rates and all information 
on the subject of the paper, address 



CHICAGO COMMONS, 



140 NORTH UNION STREET, 

CHICAGO, ILLS, 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



JANUARY, 1897. 



No. 1O. 



[FOB CHICAGO COMMONS.] 

TWO MEN- 



[BY ELISABETH PORTER.] 

A hero died, and deeds of dauntless glory, 

The record of a life's eventful story, 

Were carved upon a tomb of gleaming marble white. 

But strange, sad fate ! 
Few lingered by his splendid resting place, 

He was so great! 

Another died. No deeds of proud renown, 
As jewels in a life's resplendent crown, 
Shone on a shaft of gleaming marble rare. 
Only a simple stone, 
Told to the passer-by his name alone, 

But you will find 
Men linger by his quiet resting place, 

He was so hind! 



TENEMENT HOUSE CONFERENCE. 



To be Held Under Settlement Auspices, in Chicago, 
February 1 and 2. 



To the few people who are familiar with the river 
wards of Chicago, and the homes of the working 
people and the very poor, the need of some radical 
changes and reforms in the tenement housing sys- 
tem here has long been apparent. The Improved 
Housing Conference set for February 1st and 2d 
will attempt to show the insanitary and demor- 
alizing condition of many Chicago tenements, the 
growth of the rear tenement system and its mon- 
strous evils, and will seek to suggest plans for re- 
forms in the housing and immediate environment 
of the poorer citizens of Chicago. 

An investigation of conditions in the tenement 
districts reveals wretched overcrowding of people 
in the tenements, and of dwellings on the lots; the 
absence of sufficient light and air, and of adequate 
water and sewer connections. The streets and al- 
leys are badly paved and unspeakably dirty, and 
there are no parks, playgrounds, or dooryards in 
these districts. Rear tenements are almost uni- 
versal, and border on alleys reeking with mud and 
filth, and are shut in by adjoining houses and 
stables. Chicago has given little heed to the hous- 
ing of her poorer citizens, and there have grown 



up, consequently, in this city of magnificent dis- 
tances, large districts where the worst evils of over- 
crowding abound. The Improved Housing Con- 
ference earnestly desires the co-operation of citi- 
zens interested in this question, and their aid in 
plans and work that may be proposed for better 
homes for the people. 

DATES AND HOURS OF THE CONFERENCE. 

The Conference will be held under the auspices 
of Northwestern University Settlement, and 
with the co-operation of the Bureau of Associated 
Charities, Hull House and Chicago Commons. Its 
sessions will be on Monday evening, February 1st, 
at 7: 30, and Tuesday afternoon and evening, Feb- 
ruary 3d, at 2:30 and 7:30, at Northwestern Uni- 
versity Settlement, 252 West Chicago avenue, near 
Milwaukee avenue. The Executive Committee for 
the Conference includes: 

Mrs. Henry Wade Rogers, Miss Jane Addams, 
Dr. F.W.Reilly, Assistant Commissioner of Health; 
Prof. William Caldwell, Prof. Graham Taylor, Mrs. 
Charles Henrotin, Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson, Dr. 
Philip W. Ayres, Secretary of the Bureau of Char- 
ities; Prof. C. F. Bradley. 

THE PROGRAMME. 

So far as the programme is arranged, the follow- 
ing subjects will be discussed by the speakers 
named, and a brief conference or discussion will 
follow each address: 

The Housing Question and Scientific Reform, 

PROF. WM. CALDWELL. Northwestern University. 
Baths in Tenement Houses and Public Baths, 

DR. SARAH HACKETT STEVENSON. 

The Insanitary Condition of Someof OurTenement Houses, 
DR. PHILIP W. AYRES, Supt. Bur. of Ass. Charities. 
The Relation of the House to Family Life, 

PROF. GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago Commons. 
A German Experiment in Home Making, 

DR. S. G. SMITH, St. Paul, Minn. 
The Attempt to Regulate Tenement Manufacture, 

MRS. FLORENCE KELLY*, Sta'e Factory and Ten. Insp. 
The Present Condition of Sanitary and Housing Statutes in 
Chicago, 

DR F.W.REILLY. Ass't. Com. of Health. 

Recent English Progress in Housing the Poor, 

DR. S. G. SMITH. 

Miss Addams, Mrs. Rogers, Miss Ada Sweet and 
others will speak at the Conference on Parks and 
Playgrounds for the People, Rear Tenements in 
Chicago, Tenement Reform in New York, and 
What can Chicago do to Better the Homes of the 
Working People? 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[January, 



THE LIFE I SEEK. 



Not in some cloistered cell 
Dost Thou, Lord, bid me dwell. 

My love to show; 
But 'mid the busy marts 
Where men with burdened hearts 

Do come and go. 

Some tempted soul to cheer, 
When breath of ill is near 

And foes annoy; 
The sinning to restrain, 
To ease the throb of pain. 

Be such my joy. 

Lord make me quick to see 
Each ta>k awaiting me, 

And quick to do; 
Oh grant me strength, I pray, 
With lowly love each day, 

And purpose true, 

To go as Jesus went, 
Spending and being spent, 

Myself forgot: 
Supplying human needs 
By loving words and deeds, 

Oh, happy lot! 

R. M. Offord, in New ForTc Observer. 



SETTLEMENTS IN FOREIGN LANDS. 



"Social Centers" in China and Turkey Industrial 

Training in Constantinople Antedating the 

People's Palace. 

Under the title, "The Social Settlement in Foreign 
Missions," Professor Robert C. Chapin, of Beloit 
College, has in a recent issue of Our Church Life, 
the organ of Wisconsin Congregationalism, an arti- 
cle pointing out afresh the essential similarity of 
the settlements and their methods to the homes 
and home-outreaching of the missionaries in the 
foreign fields. Says Prof. Chapin: 

"The social settlement, perhaps better than any- 
thing else, represents the zeal of our day for social 
amelioration, and it is interesting to notice in how 
many ways the work of our foreign missionaries is 
an anticipation and application of the same idea. 

"The missionary goes to reside in a heathen land, 
as Toynbee's friends went to live in East London in 
1884, and with the same purpose. He wants to 
know the people and to have them know him. He 
must come in contact with them, must share their 
sympathy, and so, through the binding of personal 
ties give them an impulse to better things. The 
missionary begins sometimes with the idea that the 
chief impulse is to be given to individual lives by 
the preaching of personal Salvation, while the uni- 
versity student may think that if only the environ- 
ment of the tenement dwellers can be improved, if 
drainage and light, snap and sociability can have 
their way, the individual character cannot fail to 
grow in the right direction. 

CHAKACTER AND ENVIRONMENT. 

" But just as the resident of the college settlement 
gradually realizes that mere plumbers and decora- 
tors cannot eradicate selfishness, so the foreign 



worker soon finds that he, too, must concern him- 
self with social environment no less than with per- 
sonal character. By the time he has baptized his 
first convert, the contradiction between the social 
body in which that convert is still incorporated and 
the new spirit of the man's life is forced upon his 
attention. How can a Christian draw the caste 
lines of India? How can he live in polygamy in 
Africa? 

"The way in which the Roman church sometimes 
dealt with the incompatibility of new wine and old 
bottles was by diluting the strength of the wine, 
and adapting Christian teaching to the existing en- 
vironment. The mission stations of the nineteenth 
century have reversed the process and sought to 
bring the environment into accord with the de- 
mands of the Christian life, thus striking out along 
the path which the residents of Halls and Houses 
in later years are following. 

HOMES AS SOCIAL CENTERS. 

" Accordingly,everymissionary's home is a "social 
center." It is the point from which the rays of 
light are sent into darkened homes about. It was 
a revelation to the Chinese peasantry to know of a 
family where the husband never beat his wife. The 
villagers of the Turkish Empire had a new view of 
the family relation when they saw the American 
women sit down to eat at the same table with the 
men, instead of serving their fathers and brothers 
and then making a meal off what was left. 

"The educational branch of settlement work came 
into prominence early in the history of the Ameri- 
can Board, and not only the study of books but 
also the training of the hand has found a place 
in its missions. At the People's Palace in London 
are great shops where the boys from the slums are 
taught engineering, draughting and the trades in 
order that they may win a competence and maintain 
themselves on a higher level than their parents. 

INDUSTRIAL TRAINING IN CONSTANTINOPLE. 

" But before the People's Palace was built, or 
Besant's book had suggested it, Dr. Cyrus Hanilin 
had established a bakery at Constantinople to give 
an economic uplift to the persecuted Christians, 
and Dr. Nevius was teaching the farmers' boys of 
China to cultivate the small fruits. In India to- 
day Mr. James Smith has in operation at Amed- 
nuggar an industrial school modeled after the Chi- 
cago Manual Training School, that has set the ex- 
ample for the British government, and compelled 
it to provide similar instruction throughout the 
Indian Empire. 

" In like manner have hospitals and dispensaries, 
colleges and kindergartens clustered about the 
homes of the missionaries, about those centers 
where the people had learned to go with their wants, 
where in persecution they had found protection, in 



1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



famine food always the helping hand of those 
who lived among them as neighbors in Christ's 
sense of the word. All these things are but the 
manifestation, on the foreign field, of that " law of 
social service" which a real Christianity every- 
where enjoins, and they show us that no body of 
Christian workers has been more successful in 
using the social settlement as a fulcrum for the up- 
lifting of personal character and communal life." 



PARKS SUPPLANTING SLUMS. 



Good News from Jacob RHs About the Passing of 
Old "Mulberry Bend." 



Space was wanting in the last issue of CHICAGO 
COMMONS for this stirring news, from the article in 
the Christmas Century by Jacob A. Riis, on the 
subject of the redemption of the once distressing 
and world-famous slum in New York known as 
" Mulberry Bend." It contains cheering news for all 
settlement workers, with its message of hope for 
those who work alone as it seems and face to face 
with almost overwhelming odds. 

" Mulberry-bend has gone, and in its place have 
come grass and flowers and sunshine. Across the 
Bowery, where 824,000 human beings were known 
to live out of sight and reach of a green spot, four 
of the most crowded blocks have been seized lor 
demolition, to make room for the two small parks 
demanded by the Tenement House Commission. 
Bone-alley, redolent of filth and squalor and 
wretchedness is to go, and the children of that 
teeming neighborhood are to have a veritable little 
Coney Island, with sand-hills and shells, established 
at their very doors. Who can doubt the influence 
it will have upon young lives heretofore framed in 
gutters? I question whether the greatest wrong 
done the children of the poor in the past has not 
been the aesthetic starvation of their lives rather 
than the physical injury. In the park to be laid 
out by the Schiff Fountain, in the shadow of the 
Hebrew Institute one of the noblest of charities 
a great public bath is to rise upon the site of the 
present rookeries, harbinger of others to come. All 
about new schoolhouses are going up on a plan of 
structural perfection and architectural excellence 
at which earlier school boards would have stood " 
aghast. 

"The Mott-street barracks are on their last legs. 
The rear houses were cleared by order of the 
Board of Health last June, and even the salonn- 
keeper who collected the rents admitted to me, 
when it was well over, that it was a good thing. 
These tenements were among the first to be seized 
under the sanitary expropriation law. Th^y were 
nearly the worst in the city, and hopeless from 
structural defects. The rift between the front 
and rear buildings it hardly deserves the name of 
gap is just six feet ten inches wide. Through it 
camp whatever of sunlight and air reached the 
rear houses, for they backed up against the rear 
tenemen's on Elizabeth-street, so that one could 
put his hand through the dark little windows on 
the stairs, and touch the wall of the neighbor's 
house hardly a foot away." 



HIGH SCHOOL SOCIOLOGICAL CLUB. 



Good Work of Students in the Hyde Park District 
Study and ServU-c. 



An example of what may be done in the way 
of social service by a group of young people en- 
gaged in study at school, is the " Sociological Club '' 
of the Hyde Park School. This club is the out- 
growth and successor of two of the old-time school 
societies which had devoted themselves to the 
more purely literary kinds of activity, debate, etc. 
Now they are engaged in the study of their fellow- 
men. And they are not only studying them, they 
are helping them in many practical ways. They 
are assisting in the making of a sociological 
map of the district in wMch the school is located, 
they have taken families in need under their care, 
and they are greatly interested in the work of the 
University of Chicago settlement. At a recent 
meeting, the motive and method of the work at 
Chicago Commons was explained by one of the 
residents. And it ought to be added that this 
work, far from detracting from the quality of their 
scholarship, has, according to the testimony of all 
concerned, made for a greater interest in the 
branches of study, since it has given to it all a 
social significance of usefulness fairly transform- 
ing both motive and method. Such a club might 
well be organized in every high school in the 
country. 

TELL ME THE GOOD OF MY NEIGHBOR. 



Tell me the good of my neighbor. 

Make me his lover; 
What there is evil, unaided 

I shall discover. 

Better might I to his failings 

Know only blindness, 
For they may surely be hidden 

Under his kindness. . 

Then over error and weakness, 

Draw me a cover; 
Tell me the good of my neighbor, 

Make me his lover. 

L. A. Coonley. 



Mrs. Humphrey Ward has just raised the funds 
for a Passmorw Edwards House, similar to Toynbee 
Hall, which is to be erected in the Bloomsbury re- 
gion of London. 

Eose Hawthorne Lathrop, wife of George Par- 
sons Lathri'p, after taking a course of training in 
the New York Cancer Hospital, is using her skill 
for the benefit, of the victims of thisterrible scourge 
in the tenementdistrict of the East Side, New York. 
She has recently become ill from pneumonia con- 
tracted in the discharge of her self-imposed 
duties. 

When will tr-ith be the standard of value? Horace Mann. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[January, 



[FOR CHICAGO COMMONS.] 
TEACH US, TODAY.* 



[BY KATHARINE LENTE STEVENSON.] 



Oh Thou, who with toil-hardened hands, 
Taught men, who toiled, the worth of life, 

Teach us, to-day; let our souls hear 
Thy words ring clearly o'er our strife. 

Speak once again:" Life's more than meat, 
The body more than raiment fair; 

The soul of service unto man 
Is more than creed, or psalm, or prayer." 

So much we have forgotten, Lord, 
We rear vast domes unto Thy name; 

We build our church-walls broad and high, 
They hide, from us, our deepest shame. 

Outside, the cowering people crowd; 

Outside, the wild tides ebb and flow; 
Outside, Thy manhood is debased 

By all that means Thy brother's woe. 

Daily, O Christ, Thou'rt crucified 
We fix the nails and point the spear; 

Wherever wrong is done to man, 
Oh man's own Man, Thou'rt wounded there. 

And yet, again, we hear thee say: 
" Father, they know not what they do." 

Oh, heart of pity, infinite, 
Forgive us that these words are true. 

Open our eyes, that we may see; 

Un:4op our ears, that we may hear; 
Quicken our soul's sense, till it grasps 

The scope of Thy life's purpose here! 

Then fill us with Thy love's own might, 
" Peace and good will," help us to bring; 

Anew incarnated, O Christ, 
Thy Christmas song may all earth sing. 



*\ particularly exasperating typographical error in Mrs. 
Katherine Lente Stevenson's beautiful poem, written for 
the December issue of CHICAGO COMMONS, leads us to re- 
peat the poem, this time as she wrote it. It is well worthy 
of repetition, fur its own sake. 



WANTED PROMPT, GENEROUS HELP. 



Need of Aid for the Cold and Hungry Poor in 
Chicago Kiver Wards. 



The bitterly cold weather with which January 
draws towards its close, adds emphasis to our ap- 
peal for support for the West Side charity work, 
in which we of the Commons feel the keenest inter-, 
est. In connection with our own local effort we 
have frequent need of aid to meet urgent emer- 
gencies, and the gifts by our friends of money, 
clothing and food have been thoroughly appreci- 
ated and administered with the best wisdom in our 
power. There is still much dire need, and we be- 
speak generous assistance. Cash can be used to 
the best advantage. Send to Chicago Commons, or 
to Walter Vose Gulick, 55 South Morgan street, or 
to Bureau of Charities, Room 214, First National 
Bank Building. 



Settlement anfc 




CHICAGO COMMONS. 

14O North Union Street, at Milwaukee Avenue. 

(Beached by all Milwaukee avenue cable and electric cars, 
or by Grand avenue or Halsted stn et electric cars, stopping 
at corner of Austin avenue and Halsted street, one block 
west of Union street.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement located 
on North Union street, two doors from the southwest cor- 
ner of Milwaukee avt-nue and the crossing of Union street 
upon Milwaukee and Austin avenues. 

Object. As explained in the second clause of the Articles 
of Incorporation of the Chicago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of Illinois: 

"2. The object for which it is formed is to provide a center for a 
higher civic and social life to initiate and maintain religious, educa- 
tional and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and improve 
conditions In the industrial districts of Chicago." 

Or, as the explanatory circular of the settlement has ex- 
plained it: 

" As exemplified at Chicago Commons, the Social Settlement con- 
sists primarily of a group of people who choose to make their home 
in that part of the great city where they seem to be most needed, 
rather than where the neighborhood offers the most of privilege or 
social prestige." 

Support. The work is supported in addition to what the 
residents are able to pay for rent of rooms, by the free-will 
gifts of those who believe in what the work stands for. The 

ift of any person is welcomed, and the contributions are 
oth occasional and regular, the latter being paid in in- 
stalments, monthly, quarterly and annually, at the conven- 
ience of the giver. 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome at any time,, 
but the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Information concerning the work of Chicago Commons 
is gladly furnished to all who inquire. A four-page leaflet, 
bearing a picture of our residence, and other literature de- 
scribing the work will be mailed to anyone upon applica- 
tion. Please enclose postage. 

Residence All inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should be 
addressed to GRAHAM TAYLOR, Resident Warden. 



WOMANS' CLUB PROSPERS. 



New Officers Elected. Outings, Fast and in Pros- 
pect. Interesting Programmes, 



No better work has been done under the aus- 
pices of the Commons this season, or indeed since 
its beginning, than that of the Woman's Club. We 
all view its progress with great pride. At a recent 
meeting, the entire roll of officers was changed. Miss 
M. E. Colman of the Commons became president, 
Mrs. Graham Taylor and Mrs. James Reoch, vice- 
presidents, Mrs. C. Pederson, secretary, and Mrs. 
Herman F. Hegner, treasurer. The social occasion 
of the past month, one of the pleasantest yet held 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



by the club, was enjoyed by invitation of Mrs. 
Luther Conant, at her home in Oak Park. The 
club was entertained by Mrs. Ball, who told of 
the history and plan of work of the Chicago Wo- 
man's Club, of which she is president, and Mrs. 
Butler, president of the XlXth Century Club, 
read several selections. Miss Taylor sang. 

Later programmes have included or will include, 
an address on charity work by Mr. Walter Vose 
Gulick, superintendent of the West Side District 
of the Bureau of Charities, also by Miss Florence 
Haythorn, teacher at the County Jail. In Feb- 
ruary the club is to have another outing at Ravens- 
wood. 



COMMONS NOTES. 



We should be glad to receive a number of 

games of Jackstraws, for use with the boys. 

There are now upward of eighty girls in the 
seven clubs that meet in the settlement every 
Wednesday night. There is need of additional 
helpers. 

Recent topics discussed at the Tuesday 
evening economic meeting have been : " Machin- 
ery and Labor," " Mutual Exchange of Labor," 
" Immigration," " Growth of the Spirit of Toler- 
ance," " The Social Results of the Civil War," etc. 

Only the absence of a sufficient number of 

jackknives prevents the immediate organization of 
a number of whittling clubs among the boys. This 
has proved a most valuable agency in other settle- 
ments. Who will come to the rescue with a lot of 
good knives? 

The Tabernacle Church Sunday School has 

great need of teachers. This is a Sunday afternoon 
opportunity for those who cannot get out for settle- 
ment work in the evening, and likewise for those 
who prefer to do the more purely spiritual forms 
of social service. 

-We have great need of additional kinder- 
garten chairs. Our kindergarten has outgrown 
its quarters, and now it is necessary to have two 
departments, one in the old kindergarten rooms in 
the front, the other in the large rear assembly 
hall. This requires additional furniture, and it is 
lacking. 

New Year's night was a jolly time in the 
settlement. After the boys had had their party, 
and the other neighbors who had been in the 
house had gone to their homes, the residents gath- 
ered in the kindergarten room and had their own 
Chris'mas tree, with much jollification and a gen- 
eral relaxation from the strain of the ordinary cares 
of settlement life. 

Through the co-operation of some resource- 
ful friends, a large quantity of corn meal, molasses 
and bacon was delivered at a store-house near 
the settlement, and sold at cost to persons whose 
means were limited. By this means a number of 
families were enabled to keep from hunger whose 
cash resources would have been quickly ex- 
hausted had they been obliged to purchase in the 
ordinary way. 



Soctal*1Labor poems 



IN the "Penny Poets" booklet, "Hymns that 
Have Helped," referred to elsewhere, Mr. Stead 
gives these words of introductory explanation in 
regard to the hymn, " God Save the People," which 
we reprint, with the sincere desire that many may 
become familiar with its stirring lines. As Mr. 
Stead says, it is " the nearest approach to an Eng- 
lish Marsellaise that a sense of social injustice has 
wrung from the heart of the oppressed." The tune 
given for it is " Commonwealth." Of the hymn it- 
self, Mr. Stead says: 

" This democratic anthem of the masses is much 
in vogue in Labor Churches Pleasant Sunday After- 
noon Meetings and Congregational churches of the 
more advanced type. The tune to which it is set, 
aptly fitted to the words, has a great hold upon 
those who sing it. The hymn was the handiwork 
of Ebenezer Elliott, the Suffield Corn Law rhymer, 
a sturdy, uncompromising democrat, with a heart 
embittered against the landed classes, whose chief 
aim in making laws, in those days, seemed to him 
to be keeping up the price of bread, regardless of 
the needs of the hungry poor * * * It is the 
nearest approach to an English Marsellaise that a 
sense of social injustice has wrung from the heart 
of the oppressed. Rev. Charles Garrett, of Liver- 
pool, writes; 'This hymn rings in my mind like 
the cry of a nation on its knees.' A Scottish jour- 
nalist, writing from South Wales, says: ' So far as 
my experience goes, this hymn can rouse great 
popular audiences as nothing else can. It seems 
to go right down to the hearts of the people, and it 
can be sung very effectively.' " Here is the hymn 
again : 

COD SAVE THE PEOPLE. 

When wilt Thou save the people? 

O God of mercy, when? 
Not kings and lords, but nations, 

Not thrones and crowns, but men! 
Flowers of Thy heart, O God, are they; 
Let them not pass, like weeds, away 
Their heritage a sunless day. 
God save the people ! 

Shall crime bring crime forever, 

Strength aiding still the strong? 
Is it Thy will, O Father, 

That nion shall toil for wrong? 
" No," say Thy mountains; " No," Thy skies. 
Man's clouded sun shall brightly rise 
And songs ascend, instead of sighs. 
God save the people ! 

When wilt Thou save the people? 

O God of mercy, when? 
The people, Lord, the people. 

Not thrones and crowns, but men! 
God save the people; thine they are, . 
Thy children, as thine angels fair; 
From vice, oppression and despair, 
God save the peopl-! 

Eltenezcr Elliott. 



As fire cannot extinguish fire, so evil cannot suppress evil. 
Good alone, confronting evil and resisting its contagion, can 
overcome evil. Count Tolstoy. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[January, 




A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
, SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 
LIFE AND WORK "* 



Vol. 1. No. 10 




January, 1897. 



CHICAGO COMMON? is a Social Settlement monthly, pub- 
lished for the Settlement of the same name, and devoted 
to the record of the Settlement Movement in all conntries 
and of the social progress of the ideal of Brotherhood among 
men. To this end its features include news of the settle- 
ments, sketches of life in the crowded city centers, outlines 
of social teachings in institutions of learning, progress and 
ethical import and aspects of the Labor Movement, the 
social work of the churches, notes on literature in the social 
field, comments on current life from the settlemeut point of 
view, etc. 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Fifty cents a year, (Two shillings. English; 2.50 francs, 
French foreign stamps accepted.) 
Postpaid to any State or Country. 
Six copies to one address for $2.50. 
Send check, draft, P. O. money order, cash or stamps, 

At OUR RISK. 

Changes of Address Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it is due. 

To other Settlements We mean to regard as "pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such In return, we ask for all reports, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 

Advertisements First-class advertisements desired 
at reasonable rates, which will be furnished upon applica- 
tion. 

ALL, COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago. 111. 

Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post Office at Chicago, 111. 



JUST as this issue of CHICAGO COMMONS goes to 
press is held the quarterly meeting of the 
Federation of Chicago Settlements. The meeting 
will be reported in the succeeding issue. 

*** 

THE sudden and quite unexpected death, on 
January 9th, of Miss Mary E. Keyser, of Hull 
House, not only was an event of great sadness and 
bereavement to her family and to her devoted 
friends in the Hull House circle, but was 
keenly felt by those in the Chicago settle- 
ments who knew her as one of the most faith- 
ful and devoted of workers. What her death 
means to those who lived with her at Hull House 
may be imagined from the fact that Miss Keyser, 



with Miss Addams and Miss Ellen Starr, made up 
the original three who moved into the Nineteenth 
Ward desert when Hull House was undreamed of r 
and when the quiet settlement there in that neg- 
lected neighborhood of the devoted trio partook of 
the nature of self-immolation. From that day to 
the day x>f her death, Miss Keyser made one of the 
brave Hull House party, to her faithfulness and 
good management was due in large measure the 
smooth running of the household menage, and in 
the general settlement work she was a power and 
a well-loved sister. On the day after her death, in 
the neighborhood church where she was a faithful 
attendant and worker, a simple and impressive 
service was held, and the Sunday evening meeting 
at Hull House was given the character of a memo- 
rial service, Rev. Mr. Baumgartner referring ten- 
derly to the goodness and usefulness of the life 
that had been ended in human service. 



OUR CHANCE OF PRICE. 



With a good deal of regret and no little embar- 
rassment, we face the necessity of announcing that 
with the beginning of the second volume of CHI- 
CAGO COMMONS, that is, with the issue of April, 
1897, the subscription price will be increased to 
Fifty Cents per year. This has become necessary 
through several circumstances. When the publica- 
tion began, it was supposed that the paper would be 
confined largely to the record of the settlement 
whose name it bore, and incidentally also, to the 
reporting of the progress of the more or less local 
works of one sort or another within the scope of the 
settlement world. It was thought, too, that eight 
pages, exending upon special occasions to twelve, 
would be sufficient for the purposes of the magazine. 
Most unexpectedly large and even eager has been 
the response from all directions, and from a monthly 
edition of 1,000, we have been obliged to increase 
steadily to 3,000 and more, with every indication of 
continuing growth. Moreover the natural outreach- 
ing of our scope in the reporting of the various 
manifestations of the great social movement toward 
brotherhood has required a larger space, and there- 
fore a far greater expense for composition and 
press-work than was dreamed of as necessary at 
the outset. For these reasons, the income from all 
sources has been scarcely sufficient to meet current 
expenses, to say nothing of the normal growth and 
extension of the paper. 

On the other hand, the response of our subscrib- 
ers and friends has been so cordial, and the expres- 
sions of commendation from this country and 
abroad so unanimous and continuous, that we feel 
sure our friends will not think the new price ex- 
cessive. Upon our part, and in return for the in- 
creased income, we may say that we expect to 



1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



maintain the size of at least twelve pages, to pub- 
lish frequent illustrations, to extend our scope in 
many ways, as the opportunity occurs, and while 
not attempting to publish a general literary maga- 
zine, to popularize the observation of social man- 
ifestation in all ways, and through every oppor- 
tunity to bring before an increasing constituency 
the record of the social progress of the ideal of 
brotherhood among men; that is, of the kingdom 
of God. 

We have to ask the continued help and interest 
of our friends, and of the Mends of the general 
movement for whose encouragement we stand. 
There are many ways in which all having the in- 
terests of the movement at heart can give it prac- 
tical aid, so far as this phase of it is concerned. 
By subscribing personally, by securing subscribers 
among your friends, by advertising and securing 
advertisements, by sending your copy of the paper 
to some one who has not seen it, by sending us lists 
of persons to whom sample copies may be sent; in 
short, by taking a real personal interest in the 
work, it will be possible to do more of a really 
practical kind than would seem possible at a super- 
ficial glance. 



VERSIONS OF SCRIPTURE. 
Apropos of the original and somewhat unusual 
version of the words of Paul, quoted upon our 
cover in the December issue of CHICAGO COMMONS 
(" For our sakes He beggared Himself"), not a few 
comments have been made; some approving, some 
otherwise. The translation, by the way, is that 
given by Dr. Van Dyke, in his " Gospel for an Age 
of Doubt" (see page 146*), and was quoted because 
of its vivid freshness of idea. It is in this way that 
variant translations of Scripture, even when of dif- 
fering degrees of correctness, are of great value, 
even to the casual reader. Certain words become 
polarized, as it were, and almost lose the freshness 
of their meaning, and in such a case, the intro- 
duction of a new version forces the thought, and 
often brings out shades a*>d depths of meaning 
that the ordinary familiarity with a fixed phraseol- 
ogy fails to educe. Especially spirited and uncon- 
ventional for this purpose are such translations as 
Tolstoy's, whose " Gospel in Brief," while no suf- 
ficient substitute for the "authorized" or revised 
versions of the gospels, is one of the most refresh- 
ing and inspiring translations available. There are 
many private translations of the New Testament, 
and in all of them are to be found gems of clear- 
cut expression that fairly jar the thought out of old 
ruts and conventional trains of thought. 



THE impudence of the Chicago street railway 
companies in preventing the consummation of 
an ordinance providing for lower street-car 
fares, as referred to in our last issue, becomes the 
more glariugaud intolerable in view of the showing 
made in their annual reports that while almost 
every other line of business has suffered great 
losses and shrinkages, the earnings of these corpo- 
rations, even upon enormously watered stock, has 
approximated 15 to 18 per cent. Considering the 
fact that the most valuable part of the railways' 
equipment, i. e., their street right of way, is by all 
right the property of the people, the refusal of 
these companies to recompense the public in any 
degree whatever, by direct compensation, by lower 
fares, or by better service, exhibits a cool disregard 
of fundamental equity which is exasperating, to 
say the least. 



ONE of the most interesting, and indeed, most 
valuable of settlement documents, is the 
pamphlet issued by the Church Social Union, and 
reprinted by the College Settlements Association. 
It is a " Report on the questions drawn up by 
Present Residents in our College Settlements, and 
Submitted to Past Residents." Space is not avail- 
able for an extended review of the ground covered, 
but in the February issue of the CHICAGO COM- 
MONS we hope to treat it more fully. The ques- 
tions relate to the experience of settlement life 
and its effect upon personal character and mental 
attitudes, and the pamphlet as a whole is probably 
one of the best commentaries in existence upon 
actual life with and work among the less fortunate. 



Many a so-called home in city slums is only a 
training school for a life of violence and crime. 
An East Side district in New York City recently 
gave convincing evidence that this statement is true. 
Among the children there was a daily average of 
eight fights to each block of dwellings. These en- 
counters were not infrequently encouraged in a 
practical way by the parents. In one of the fights 
a boy struck by another boy did not return the 
blow. " Why didn't you hit him?" screamed the 
boy's mother, and the enraged woman followed up 
the question by fiercely striking the little fellow 
because his fists were too inactive to suit her ideas 
of their right use. Given a boy thus goaded to 
fighting, add a few years of belligerency,then let him 
be crazed by liquor, and you have a fully equipped 
recruit for the army of ruffians and murderers. 
Youth's Companion. 



*The Gospel for an Age of Doubt. The Yale Lectures on 
Preaching, i.soo. by Henry Van Dyke. D. D., Pastor of the 
Brick Church in New York. New York and London, The 
Macmillan Company, 189C. 



How can tliis flood of pernicious reading be stayed? It 
must be done, if done at all in the expressive language of 
Doctor Chalmers " by the expulsive power of a new affec- 
tion." A purer current of thought at the fountain can alone 
wash the channels clean. For this purpose, I know of no 
plan as yet conceived by philanthropy which promises to be 
so comprehensive and efficacious as th> establishment of 
good libraries in all our school districts, open respectively to 
all the children in the state, and within half an hour's walk 
of any spot upon its surface. Horace Mann. 

"Every new mind is a new classification. If it prove a 
mind of uncommon activity and power, a Locke, a Lavoi- 
sier, a Iluttou, a Bentham. a Fourier, it imposes its classifi- 
cation on other men. and lo! a new system." Emerson. 

Oh, do not pray for eay lives. Pray to be stronger men ! 
Do not pray for tasks equal to your powers. Pray for pow- 
ers equal to your tasks! Phillips Brook*. 



PLYMOUTH WINTER NIGHT COLLEGE, 

DEPARTMENTS OF STUDY. 



SCHEDULE OF 

CLASSES, CLL 

..WINTE 



AE*T... Drawing from Casts and Still Life, Art Talks, Studies in Buskin and 
Morris, Painting, Embroidery, Clay Modeling. 

. Cnoral singing, Vocal Culture (Small Classes and Private Work) 
Piano, Mandolin, Violin, Guitar. 



ACADEMIC... German, French, Advanced Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, 
Mechanical Drawing, Elocution, Literature. 

^- Bookkeeping, Stenography. 



KINDERGARTEN (Except Saturday and Sunday) 
HOUSEHOLD VESPERS (Neighbors Welcome) 



MANDOLIN 

ELOCUTION (Children) 
MANUAL TRAINING, 
COOKING (Girls) 

GERMAN 

WOOD CARVING, 

GIRLS' PROGRESSIVE CLUB, . 

WOMEN'S CLUB, 

EMBROIDERY, 

GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION, 



DAILY. 

. Mrs. Bertha Hofer Hegner, Kindergartner, 9.OO till 12.OO a. m. 

7.OO p. m. 

MONDAY. 

Mrs. Cara Gregg (North Chicago School of Music) 3.OO p. m. 

Miss Julia Davis (Columbia School of Oratory) 4.OO p. m. 

Miss M. Emerett Colman, 4.OO p. m. 

Mrs. C. O. Richardson, 6.3O p. m. 

Miss Clara Hausenstein, Carlsruhe Seminary, Germany, 7.15 p. m. 

Miss Jessie M. House, 7.3O p. m. 
8.OO p. m. 
8.OO p. m. 

Miss Hausenstein, 8.15 p. m. 
Ernest B. Kent. A. B. (Iowa College) 8.15 p. m. 



TUESDAY. 

SEWING CLASSES FOR GIRLS , Misses House and Colman, 4.OO p. m. 

ROSKTTE CLUB (Girls) . . . . . Miss Ida E. Hegner (Milwaukee State Normal School), 6.3O p. m. 

HOME DRESSMAKING, . . Instructors, Mrs. Luther Conant, and Mrs. James Ward, . j 3.OO p. m. 

Assisted by Mrs. Geo. Shufeldt, Miss Lilian Cole, Mrs. Edward Martin; all of Oak Park. 1 7.3O p. m. 

DRAWING FROM CASTS AND STILL LIFE, George L. Schreiber, 7.3O p. m. 

(Extension Lecturer on Art, University of Chicago.) 

MANUAL TRAINING, Miss Colman, 7.3O p. m. 

ENGLISH READING FOR MEN AND WOMEN, . Frederick Nelson, A. B. (University of Wyoming), 7.3O p. m. 
COOKING, ......... Miss Emma Heckenlively (Armour Institute) 8.OO p. m. 

PROFESSIONAL DRESSMAKING, Mrs. Adele Strawbridge (Cornwell System) 8.OO p. m. 

INDUSTRIAL-ECONOMIC DISCUSSION FOR MEN AND WOMEN, Prof. Graham Taylor, presiding, 8.OO p. m. 



MANUAL TRAINING, . 
DRAWING (For Children) . 
ELOCUTION (Girls over 13 years old) 
BOOKKEEPING, .... 
BOYS' CLUBS. .... 

GIRLS' CLUBS Little Women Club, 

Golden Rule Club, . 

Mayflower Club, 

Violet Club, 

American Beauty Club, 

Pansy Club, 

Lily Club, 



WEDNESDAY. 

..... . Miss Colman, 4.OO p. m. 

Mr. Schreiber, 4.OO p. m. 

Archie E. Turner (Columbia School of Oratory), 4.OO p. m. 

L. W. Wiltberger, A. B. (Beloit College) 7.OO p. m. 

. . . 7.15 p. in. 

. Miss Ida E. Hegner, 7.15 p. m. 

Miss Alice B. Cogswell. 
.' Miss Florence E. Patrick. 

Miss Sarah Ward. 

. Miss Louie Chester and Miss Alice Ormes. 
Miss Mabel Warner. 
Miss Grace Dietrich. 



CALISTHENICS FOR UNITED GIRLS' CLUBS, . . 8.15 p.m. 

FRENCH (Elementary) . R. S. Osgood, A. B. (Iowa College) 8.00 p. m. 

TUITION 25 CENTS FOR TEN LESSONS, EXCEPT IN NORMAL 



DR. MARY EDNA GOBLE, Resident Physician, 

Office Hours: 3 to 5 and 6:3O to 7:3O p. m. 



D LECTURES. CHICAGO COMMONS 



14O NORTH UNION STREET 

NEAR MILWAUKEE AVENUE. 



DOMESTIC SCIENCE... Professional Dressmaking, Home Dressmaking, 

Cooking, Home Nursing. 

INDUSTRIAL TRAIN ING... Manual Training, Sewing, Basket Weaving, Wood 

Carving, Chair Caning. 

NIGHT SCHOOL STUDENTS... English Grammar and Composition, Spell- 
ing and Writing, Elocution, Arithmetic. 

OTHER BRANCHES WILL BE ARRANGED for if there is sufficie nt demand 

for them. 
THURSDAY. 

CHILDREN'S CHORUS, ......... Miss Mari Ruef Hofer, director 4.oo p. m. 

PENNY PROVIDENT BANK, Miss Hefner, 5.30 p. m. 

FRENCH (Conversational Class) Mr. Schreiber, 7.OO p. m. 

fOCAL CULTURE (Small Class) .... ... Miss Hofer, 7.OO p. m. 

?IRST AID TO THE INJURED (For Boys) . Geo. M. Basford, Mechanical Editor Railway Review, 7.OO p. m. 

ffANUAL TRAINING, Miss House, 7.3O p. m. 

DRAWING AND PAINTING, Mr. Schreiber, 7.30 p. m. 

?EOPLE*S CHORUS, .... ....... Miss Hofer, 8.OO p. m. 

HECHANICAL DRAWING, Mr. Basford, 8.OO p. in. 

ENGLISH READING (For Italian Men) . 1'rofessor H. L. Boltwood, Principal of the High School, Evanston, 8.00 p. m. 

3OOKING, Miss Heckenlively, 8.OO p. m. 

HEADINGS IN TENNYSON, Mr. Kent, 8.OO p. in. 

PABERNACLE CHURCH BROTHERHOOD OF ANDREW AND PHILIP, . . . 8.OO p. m. 

FRIDAY. 

PIANO j Miss Marie Menefee (Berlin Conservatory), 3.OO p.m. 

^ Miss Harriet Brown, " " 3.OO p. m. 

[TALIAN MOTHERS, Monthly, 3.OO p. m. 

3ECILIAN CHOIR, Miss Brown, 4.OO p. m. 

dANUAL TRAINING Miss House, 4.OO p. m. 

ARITHMETIC Konstantin D. Momeroff, B. S. (Wheaton College) 7 .00 p. m. 

ENGLISH READING FOR MEN AND WOMKN, . . . . . . . Mr. Nelson, 7. 3O p. m. 

BOYS' CLUBS, 7.3O p. m 

STENOGRAPHY, Miss Jessie Shefk, (Ferris Business College), 8.OO p. in. 

1LGEBRA, .... ......... Mr. Momeroff, 8.00 p. m. 

MOTHER'S MEETING (Alternate Fridays, English and German Speaking Mothers) . Mrs. Hegner, 8.OO p. m. 

SATURDAY. 

FORMAL INSTRUCTION IN MANUAL TRAINING, .... Miss Colman, 9.OO to 13.OO a. m. 

PRIVATE ART CLASS, . . . "... Mr. Schreiber, 9.OO to 13.OO a. m. 

ELOCUTION, Miss Mary M. Mason (N. W. University School of Oratory) 7.00 p. m. 

MANUAL TRAINING, Misses House and Colman, 7.3O p. m. 

AMERICAN HISTORY STORIES FOR ITALIAN BOYS, ..... Ephraim Hecht, 7.3O p. m. 

MANUAL TRAINIJG, Miss House, 7.3O. p.m. 

HOME NURSING, Miss Emma Warren, M. D. 8.00 pi m. 

SPELLING AND WRITING Airs. Ida Smedley (Cook County Normal School) 8.OO p. m. 



FABERNACLE CHURCH INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL (Cor. Grand Ave. and Morgan Street) j ^ F * ^ S> ^'"H *' ' 

< For Girls, 2.3O p. m. 

SUNDAY. 

BIBLICAL SOCIOLOGY (Residents' Class) Professor Graham Taylor, 9.OO a. m. 

PLEASANT SUNDAY AFTERNOON, (An hour of Music, Song and Fellowship for Men and Women) 4.OO to 5.OO p. m. 

'RAINING, PROFESSIONAL DRESSMAKING, ART AND MUSIC. 

Further information about the classes can !>< obtained by writing or applying to 

HERMAN r. HEGNER. 

Resident in Charge of Educational Work, Chicago Commons. 

Office Hours 5.OO till 7.3O P. M., Except Wednesdays and Saturdays. 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[January, 



In tbe TOorlfc of Settlements* 



"AN UNDEFINED COMPANY." 

"Are you a society?" was asked of George Mac- 
donald'8 Robert Falconer when he worked among 
the poor in London. " No; why should we be any- 
thing? We are an undefined company of people who 
have grown into human relations with each other 
naturally through one attractive force love for 
human beings. When we die, there will be no corpo- 
rate body left behind to stimulate life." Quoted in 
Robert E. Speer's " The Man-Christ Jesus." 



MANSFIELD HOUSE REPORT. 



Fine List of Lecture Topics in the English Settle- 
ment's Annual Review. 



Just as we go to press comes to hand the Annual 
Report of the Mansfield House University Settle- 
ment, of West Ham, London. An illustrated 
article descriptive of Mansfield House is now in 
process of preparation, and space is available at 
present for no more than the fact that the report is 
first a beautiful specimen of press-work, and as 
usual in the case of Mansfield House publications, 
is an exceedingly interesting and lucid review of 
the excellent work of that settlement, in this case 
covering the past year. The report is illustrated 
with photographs of the buildings and other 
scenes of timely and appropriate interest. Most 
striking of all, and most provocative of congratu- 
lation is the description of the new settlement 
residence which, as the report puts it, " is at last 
in the way to become an accomplished fact." We 
hope to reproduce some of the illustrations in an 
early issue of CHICAGO COMMONS. " Besides ac- 
commodation for thirteen residents, with a war- 
den's suite and proper offices for the warden and 
secretary, the residence will contain a good-sized 
reception room, the lack of which has been 
severely felt in the past." 

One of the most interesting features of the 
report, in its suggestiveness to other settlements, 
is the list of the topics spoken upon by competent 
speakers at the Pleasant Sunday Afternoon and 
other meetings. This list includes the following: 

Gambling, Old Testament Socialism, The King- 
dom of Love, The Message of the Leaves, From 
Social Contact to Social Organism, Total Absti- 
nence, Tyndale and the English Bible, The Loafer 
and the Worker, Diplomacy and Politics, Mutual 
Helpfulness, Man and His Fellows, The Military 
Spirit, Co-operation, Character and Environment, 
The Unknown God (by R. A. Woods, of Boston), 
The Gospel of Duty, Christ in History, New Zeal- 
and Problems, Religious Leaders, The Immorality 
of Competition, War and Christianity, The Teach- 
ing of John Ruskin, Armenia and the Persecution, 



The Transvaal Crisis, St. Paul, Mazzini, Excava- 
tions in Egypt, Social Work in Chicago (this lec- 
ture was by Miss Jane Addams), Economic Teach- 
ings of Carlyle, Utopias, Past, Present and Future, 
The Supernatural in Art, Trades Unions and 
Legislation, Walt Whitman, Parish Councils and 
the Land, etc. 

PRATT NEIGHBORSHIP SETTLEMENT. 



Institute's Prosperous Work in the Greenpoint Dis- 
trict of Brooklyn. 



The Pratt Institute Neighborship Association, of 
Brooklyn, has a settlement in that part of the city 
known as Greenpoint, which is the Seventeenth 
Ward of Brooklyn, and contains a population of 
over 45,000 working people. Even though there 
were no settlement, the name, "Neighborship," 
involving the main feature of the settlement idea, 
would incline one to give it a settlement standing. 
Three residents at present constitute the settle- 
ment proper, but there is a work carried on by the 
Association, each chapter, or branch of the organi- 
zation undertaking some work at the " The Astral," 
as the large apartment house in which the settle- 
ment is located is called. The departments are 
similar in general scope to those in other settle- 
ments, with the added impetus given by connec- 
tion with so large and resourceful an institution as 
the Pratt Institute, whose trained workers afford a 
force of teachers upon occasion. The report of 
the headworker, Miss May White Ovingtou, closes 
with these words from Carlyle : 

"It is great and there is no other greatness. To make 
some nook of God's Creation a little fruitfuller, better, more 
worthy of God; to make some hearts a little wiser, man- 
fuller, happier, more blessed, less accursed ! It is a work 
fora God." 

KINCSLEY HOUSE RECORD. 



The first two numbers of the KiiiysUy House 
Mecord reach us from the Pittsburg settlement of 
that name. It is a readable record of the work and 
the need in the settlement neighborhood, and will 
make friends for the effort which it represents. 
The first issue, dated December, 1896, is character- 
ized by a fine article on " Christmas and the Settle- 
ment Idea," by Dean George Hodges, of the Cam- 
bridge Divinity School, who founded the settlement. 



SETTLEMENT NOTES. 



The Elm Street Settlement in Chicago has taken 
a new impetus, and is facing, with earnestnes-, the 
great need in its vicinity, under the direction of 
Miss Snyder, formerly of the Northwestern Uni- 
versity Settlement. Mr. Robert A. Kilbourn, who 
succeeded Mr. White as head worker, has accepted 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



the sup^rintendency of the district of the Bureau 
of Charities located at the Northwestern Settle- 
ment. 

A neat circular descriptive of the growing work 
at Hiram House, Cleveland, has been issued in 
quantity. Mr. George A. Bellamy, the Warden, 
was a recent visitor at the Chicago settlements, 
making his headquarters at the Commons. 

The schedule of classes and clubs of the Eas1 
Side House, at the foot of Seventy-sixth street, 
East Kiver, New York, has been sent to us, and 
shows a good body of far reaching work in hand. 
Mr. Ciarence Gordon is secretary of the supporting 
association and resident manager of the settle- 
ment. 



CHICAGO SETTLEMENTS. 
Directory of Addresses and Visiting; Days. 



NOTE. Where a "Visitors' Day" is mentioned, it indi- 
cates the day when the residents make an especial effort 
to be at home to receive callers, but the Settlements wel- 
come visitors at any time. 



Hull House, 335 South Halsted street, southwest corner of 
West Polk street. Opened September, 1889. Saturday. 

Northwestern University Settlement, 252 West Chicago 
avenue. Opened 1891. Mondays. 

Clyboura Avenue Settlement, 279 Clybourn avenue. 
Opened 1892. 

Maxwell Street Settlement, 185 West 13th street. Opened 
November, 1893. Tuesday, Saturday or Sunday after- 
noon. 

University of Chicago Settlement, 4638 Ashland ave- 
nue. Opened January, 1894. The head resident is at 
home Thursday afternoon. 

Epworth House, 49 Pearce street. Opened March, 1894. 
Wednesday. 

Chicago Commons, 140 North Union street (just south of 
Milwaukee avenue). Opened October, 1894. Tuesday. 

Medical Missionary College Settlement, 744 Forty- 
seventh street. Opened June, 1895. 

Helen Heath Settlement, 8G9 Thirty-third court. Opened 
October, 1895. Wednesday. 

Elm Street Settlement, 80 Kim street. Opened Novem- 
ber, 1895. 

Kirkland Settlement, 334 Indiana street. Opened 1896. 
Monday. 



A great step is gained when a child has learned that there 
is no necessary connection between liking a thing and doing 
it. From Hare Brother*' " Guesses at Truth." 

How easy is pen and paper piety; it is far cheaper to 
work one's head than one's heart to goodness. I can make 
a hundred meditations sooner than subdue one sin. Thomas 
Fuller. 

" I think it must somewhere be written that the virtues 
of mothers shall occasionally be visited on the children." 



Tlabor StuMes. 



MACHINERY AND LABOR. 



FIFTH STUDY OF THE LABOR MOVEMENT. 



Effects of Machine Production Upon the Economic 
Condition of the Laboring Classes. Dis- 
placement Vs. Expansion. 



[CONDUCTED BY PROFESSOR GRAHAM TAYLOR.! 

The fixed limits of our space must restrict the 
purpose and scope of these studies. We can hope 
to accomplish nothing more by them than to block 
out the progressive study of the movement of labor,, 
to suggest a method and order of treating each 
stage of progress or topic under review, to refer to 
easily accessible sources of information and illus- 
tration, and to give condensed summaries of the 
conclusions of experts, for the sake of the many 
who may not have access to the books. The present 
study of this large and complex subject can scarcely 
claim to be more than the barest intimation of the 
vast and complex data to be traversed by anyone 
who would secure an intelligent view of the rela- 
tion of machinery to labor. 

The manifold and sweeping changes wrought in, 
the economic life and relations of men by the in- 
vention and operation of machinery may be grouped 
under three classifications, namely, (1) the dis- 
placement of labor, (2) the expansion of labor, and 
(3) the establishment of the competitive and cap- 
italistic system of industry. 

DISPLACEMENT OP LABOR BY MACHINERY. 

The economic effects of the introduction and op- 
eration of machinery to a vast class of working peo- 
ple, are disastrous in the extreme. For instance, in 
his first annual report, United States Labor Com- 
missioner Wright refers to a manufactory of agri- 
cultural implements in a western state, which re- 
ported that 600 employes were doing the work that 
without machinery would have required 2,145, a dis- 
placement in one establishment alone, of 1,545. In a 
large eastern boot and shoe manufactory, it was 
found that 100 persons are able to do with machinery 
what required 500 to do before, a displacement of 80- 
per cent. In another locality, a workman who could 
turn out six pairs of women's shoes in a week 
without machinery will now turn out eighteen 
pairs. Goodyear's sewing machine for turned 
shoes, with one man, will sew 250 pairs in one day. 
It would require eight men, working by hand, to 
sew that number. One boy, running a planing ma- 
chine, displaces 25 men. The oil pipe lines- 
displace 5,700 teams and double that num- 
ber of men. A lately completed quadruple 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[January, 



stereotype perfecting press, run by one 
pressman and four skilled laborers will 
print, cut, fold, paste and count (with supplement 
inserted if desired) 48,000 eight-page papers per 
hour. To do the press-work alone for this number 
of papers would take, on the old plan, a man and a 
boy working ten hours a day one hundred days. 
In summary of the situation, Mr. Wright says, for 
instance, "The mechanical industries of the United 
States are carried on by steam and water power 
representing, in round numbers, 3,500,000 horse- 
power, each horse-power equaling the muscular 
labor of six men; that is to say, if men were em- 
ployed to furnish the power to carry on the indus- 
tries of this country, it would require 21,000,000 
men, representing a population, according to the 
ratio of the census of 1880, of 105,000,000. The in- 
dustries are now carried on by 4,000,000, in round 
numbers representing a population of 20,000,000. 
The present cost of operating the railroads of the 
country is, in round numbers, $502,000,000 per an- 
num; but to carry on the same amount of work 
with men and horses would cost the country $11,- 
308,500,000. 

A MILLION REPLACED. 

Tt has been calculated that to make by hand all 
the yarn spun in England in one year by the use of 
the self-acting mule, would take a hundred million 
men. It is reckoned, says John A. Hobson, in his 
"Problems of Poverty" that fifty men could with 
modern machinery do all the cotton spinning of 
Lancashire a century ago. 

It is obvious that with this tremendous augmen- 
tation of the power of the individual worker the 
number of employes required for any given work 
will be greatly reduced. Mr. Hobson finally sums 
up the situation as to the displacement of labor 
in these words: "Thus while it may be true 
that the ultimate effect of the introduction of 
machinery is not to diminish the demand for 
labor, it would seem to operate in driving a 
larger and larger proportion of labor to find em- 
ployment in those industries which from their 
nature furnish a less steady employment. Again, 
though the demand for labor may in the long run 
always keep pace with the growth of machinery, it 
is obvious that the workers whose skill loses its 
value by the introduction of machinery must al- 
ways be injured. The process of displacement in 
particular trades has been responsible for a large 
amount of actual hardship and suffering among the 
working classes." 

EXPANSION OF LABOR. 

On the other hand, and in the long run, if dis- 
placement of the individuals is overlooked, there 
is far more of an expansion in the total volume 
of labor, and ever larger numbers of working 



people are enabled to obtain for consumption 
things formerly out of their reach. This is estima- 
ble in various ways. For instance in the matter of 
the consumption of cotton goods, an enormous in- 
crease is to be noted. The per capita consumption 
increases since 1830 at the following rate: 1830, 
5.9 Ibs.; 1880, 13.91 Ibs.; 1890, 19 Ibs. 

Increase in consumption of iron, per capita, in 
1870, 103.64 Ibs.; 1880, 204.99 Ibs.; 1890, 283.38 Ibs. 

Commissioner Wright regards the statistics of 
persons engaged in all occupations as an even 
more conclusive offset to the displacement of labor. 
" From 1860 to 1890, a period of thirty years, and 
the most prolific period in this country of inven- 
tions and therefore of the most intensified influence 
in all directions of their introduction, the popula- 
tion increased 99.16 per cent, while during the 
same period the number of persons employed in all 
occupations manufacturing, agriculture, domestic 
service, everything increased 176.07 per cent. In 
the twenty years, 1870 to 1890, the population in- 
creased 62.41 per cent, while the number of persons 
in all occupations increased 81.80 per cent. An 
analysis of these statements shows that the increase 
of the number of those engaged in manufacturing, 
mechanical and mining industries, those in which 
the influence of inventions is most keenly felt, for 
the period from 1860 to 1890, was 172.27 per cent, 
as against 99.16 per cent increase in the total 
population." 

EARLY AND LATER EFFECTS. 

These more optimistic conclusions need to be 
balanced by the inductions of Hobson, which 
appear to be drawn from a wider range of data. 
In his " Problem of Poverty" pages 35-38 he says, 
" It is generally urged that machinery employs as 
many men as it displaces. This has in fact been 
the earlier effect of the introduction of machinery 
into the great staple industries of the country. 
Taking a purely historical view of the situation 
one would say that, the labor displaced by machin- 
ery found employment in other occupations directly 
or indirectly due to the machinery itself. Pro- 
vided the aggregate volume of commerce grows at 
a corresponding pace with the labor-saving power 
of new machinery, the classes dependent on 
the use of their labor have nothing in the long 
run to fear. It is however clear that this exactly 
balanced effect by no means necessarily happens. 
The expansion of consumption of commodities 
produced by machinery is not necessarily such as 
to provide employment for the displaced in the 
same trade or its subsidiary trades. The result of 
the introduction of machinery may be a displace- 
ment of human by mechanical labor so far as the 
entire trade is concerned. The bearing of this 
tendency is of great significance. In 1857 there 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



13 



were 5,001,050 persons engaged in, or connected 
with the five great staple branches of production 
in England agriculture, textile fabrics, minerals 
transport service, machinery and tools. In 1881, 
though the population showed a growth of nine 
millions, the number of workers engaged in these 
staple trades was only 5,213,518, hardly any increase 
thus while it may be true that the ultimate 
effect of the introduction of machinery is not to 
diminish the demand for labor, it would seem to 
operate in driving a larger proportion of labor to 
find employment in those industries which from 
their nature furnish a less steady employment." 

" IN THE LONG RUN AND THE SHORT." 

Very true therefore, is Mr. Hobson's added com- 
ment, " It is little comfort to the hand worker, 
driven out to seek unskilled labor by the competi- 
tion of new machinery, that the world would be a 
gainer in the loug run. The " short run," if the 
expression may be used, is often quite long enough 
to make the difference between a happy and a 
miserable life. Philosophers may reckon this evil 
as a part of the inevitable price of progress, but it 
is none the less deplorable for that. Society as a 
whole gains largely by each step; a small number 
of those who can least afford to lose, are the only 
losers." The final conclusion of this careful and 
suggestive writer is, that "so long then as a com- 
munity grows in numbers, so long as individuals 
desire to satisfy more fully their present wants, 
and continue to develop new wants, forming a 
a higher or more intricate standard of consumption, 
there is no evidence to justify the conclusion that 
machinery has the effect of causing a net diminu- 
tion in demand for labor, though it tends to 
diminish the proportion of employment in the 
manufacturing industries; but there is strong 
reason to believe that it tends to make employment 
more unstable, more precarious in tenure, and 
more fluctuating in market value." 

OUR UNJUST OPTIMISM. 

We very much need in America this reminder of 
the difference in the effect of machinery upon labor 
in a new and rapidly developing country, and in the 
later and slower stages of civilization that are sure 
to follow the sprightlier pace with which a young 
settlement starts off. It can hardly be denied that 
our industrial life is rapidly passing through and 
out of these simpler and more prosperous condi- 
tions of its youth. We are therefore in great dan- 
ger of doing the gravest injustice to large classes, 
and even masses, of our suffering fellow country- 
men, by asserting and maintaining the easy going 
optimism prevalent in all our well-to-do circles, 
which so stoutly claims that "no man, willing and 
able to work, fails to find opportunity to earn a de- 
cent livelihood, except there be some moral obli- 



quity to account for his failure." The facts of the 
increasing displacement and irregularity of labor, 
and the precariousness of livelihood, consequent 
upon the inevitable and ultimately beneficial devel- 
opment of labor saving machinery, must be faced, 
and the general good, undoubtedly promoted 
thereby, must somehow, sooner or later, be made to 
compensate thosejwho suffer loss as unjust as it has 
been irretrievable. 

COMPETITIVE AND CAPITALISTIC SYSTEM. 

The development of the principle of competition 
into the system which became both the exclusive 
basis and controlling power of industrial effort and 
relationship is the farthest reaching effect resulting 
from the introduction of machinery. For while 
the principle of competition hap, perhaps, never 
been inoperative," and the development of its influ- 
ence over industrial life and action far antedates the 
introduction of machinery, yet it did not become 
the all-controlling, all-pervasive force throughout 
the whole industrial world until the invention and 
operation of machinery compelled men to struggle 
with each other for existence town with town, 
trade with trade, nation with nation as they never 
had before in times of peace or in civilized lands. 
Competition, for instance, was undoubtedly felt in 
English agricultural interests in the Fourteenth 
century, but not until England began to compete 
with Flanders for the woolen trade of her own and 
other peoples, did English laboring life begin to 
feel its real force. For, in the Fifteenth century, 
wool growing began to compete with agriculture 
for the use of the land, and flocks of sheep with 
villages of peasants, for its occupancy and liveli- 
hood. But when machinery and the factory system 
supplanted the domestic industries, the force which 
had never been unfelt, the pressure of which had 
already developed into an international commercial 
competition, became nothing less than irresistably 
revolutionary within every sphere of the nation's 
life. The farm house manufacturer who, with his 
family and a few neighbors, worked with his own 
hands to supply the well-known needs of a famil- 
iar neighboring population, lost not only his shop, 
but the very title of his calling, when the market 
of his neighborhood expanded into the hitherto 
unknown market of the world. With the loss of 
the producer's personal knowledge of the personal 
needs of his small and clearly defined market, the 
lack of adjustment between supply and demand 
became more possible, frequent and serious, and 
" overproduction " came to be a factor in the eco- 
nomic life of the people. 

THE EVOLVED "MANUFACTURER." 

The " manufacturer" was no longer the hand- 
working producer, but the possessor of the ma- 
chinery of production, who employed the workers 



14 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[January, 



to work for him, not with him, and owned the prod- 
uct of their work. Thus the real manufacturers 
became merely the ' hands " of the so-called 
4t manufacturer," who in turn came to be the pro- 
prietor of patents sometimes by right of invention, 
oftener by purchase, not seldom by robbery or 
the seller of goods and the payer of wages, in ac- 
cordance with his ability to manipulate " the 
market." 

However inevitable and generally advantageous 
some such subdivision of labor undoubtedly was 
and is, from an economic point of view, it produced 
industrial results so vast, it effected social changes 
so radical, and it disturbed ethical relations so pro- 
foundly as to create new conditions of life and to 
demand a readjustment as radical as the change 
in conditions has been universal and imperious. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES. First Annual 
Report of the United Stales Commissioner of 
Labor on Industrial Depressions; Section on Ma- 
chinery and Overproduction, pp. 80 to 90 (Wash- 
ington, 1886). " Industrial Evolution of the United 
States," Carroll D. Wright, pp. 323 to 342, on In- 
fluence of Machinery on Labor (Flood & Vincent, 
Chautauqua Press). " Problems of Poverty," by 
John A. Hobson, pp. 30-45; section on the Effects 
of Machinery on the Condition of the Working 
Classes (Methuen & Co., London). " The Evolution 
of Modern Capitalism," by John A. Hobson, pp. 
167-133 (Scribners). 

The next Study will be devoted to the social and 
ethical aspects of the competitive industrial order. 



THE NEW LABOR ANNUAL. 



"Volume of a Useful Reform Compendium for 1897 
Better Than Ever. 



Better than ever is the new issue of The Labor 
Annual, for 1897. Mr. Joseph Edwards, the editor 
of the Annual, has done for English labor what 
the movement in America has long needed, and 
will need increasingly. In a compact form, with 
attractive press-work and well-arranged material, 
he has grouped together a vast amount of the most 
useful matter with regard to labor and reform 
movements of all kinds. Most valuable are the 
lists of addresses, the reviews of important literary 
works, the outline histories of great reform agita- 
tions, biographies of leaders in the battle for in- 
dustrial justice, with portraits of the chiefs, 
quotations from the works of ethical writers upon 
topics of social reconstruction, in short, in a vol- 
ume of about 275 pages are gathered just the 
matters of information which those interested in 
reforms of many kinds are always seeking and no- 
where finding, except in this handy and cheap 
compendium. London, " Clarion " Company, Lim- 
ited, 72 Fleet street, E. C. Price; designed cover, 
one shilling, net; blue cloth, two shillings net. 



LABOR NO T ES. 

"The Plea of Labor from the Standpoint of 
a Russian Peasant " is the title of a striking article 
in the January Arena, by Ernest Howard Crosby, 
the disciple of Tolstoy, whose stirring addresses 
are remembered as features of the recent Social 
Economic Conference. 

"Labor in Recent Painting" is the title of an 
interesting series of articles in Brotherhood, J. 
Bruce Wallace's paper published in London, and 
"designed to help the peaceful evolution of a 
justerand happier social order." The series fol- 
lows the course of modern art in its portrayal of 
scenes and conditions of the humble and laborious 
life of the common people. 

The need of economic education for all classes 
is felt in many quarters, and economic clubs and 
meetings are springing up in all directions. A 
programme card just received announces the meet- 
ings of the " Economic Educational Club,'' of the 
Fifteenth Ward, which meets at Nathan's Hall, 
corner of Milwaukee and Western avenues, every 
Sunday evening at 8 o'clock. Some of the topics 
are suggestive: "The Dishonesty of Politicians," 
"Industrial Organization," " The Coming Indus- 
trial devolution," "The Necessity of Proper Food," 
"The March of Socialism," "Jefferson or Hamil- 
ton, Which?" etc. 

The Christian !ndeavorer,of Chicago, is devoting 
itself to the good cause of Sunday rest, and has 
won the commendation of the American Federation 
of Labor, that body having at its Cincinnati con- 
vention passed resolutions expressing its apprecia- 
tion of the course of the paper in this matter. 

Two matters of the utmost importance to work- 
ing people have recently been under official inves- 
tigation in Belgium, and the results are briefly re- 
ported in the Bulletin <>f the United, State* Depart- 
ment of Labor. One is the establishment of a 
minimum wage scale, and the other is the question 
of Sunday work. The last named invebtigation, 
when complete, will cover the matter of Sunday 
work in Belgium, Germany, Austria, Switzerland 
and England, and will carry the inquiry into the 
lines of all sorts of industrial work?, including 
large stores, and will give the opinions and advice 
of the councils of industry and commercial and in- 
dustrial associations. 



We are glad to add to our exchange list, and 
so to the settlement reading room, the weekly Lon- 
don, probably the best and nearly the only, maga- 
zine in the world devoUd to the interests of munic- 
ipal reform and the business management of city 
affairs. 



CHICAGO COMMONS LEAFLETS. The article in a 
former issue of CHICAGO COMMONS, reprinted from the 
Clncagn Advance, entitled ' Foreign Missionsat Home." and 
suggesting the points of resemblance in scope and n ethod 
between the settlement^ and theforeiun missionary stations, 
has been issued as No. 1 in a proposed series of '" Chicago 
Commons Leaflets." It is a folder convenient for enclosure 
in a letter, and better than any other single article we know 
of, explains the Settlement idea from this point of view. 
This leaflet may be obtained in any quantity at the rate of 
two for a cent, postage prepaid. 



1897.J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



15 



jfrom Sociological <na00*1Room$ 



UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. 



Important and Attractive Courses in Sociology Con. 
ducted by Professors Small, Starr, Thomas and 
Henderson, and Dr. Vincent. 



Instruction in the science and philosophy of so- 
ciety in the University of Chicago may be grouped 
under four general heads. 

1. THE THEORY OF HUMAN ASSOCIATION; its ori- 
gin, development, present forms and future possi- 
bilities. During the current quarter Head Profes- 
sor Albion W. Small is conducting the following 
courses: First: The Philosophy of the State and 
Government; an examination of the origin of polit- 
ical society, and a review of the theories of the 
functions of government. These theories are tested 
by sociological criteria of social organs, and a doc- 
trine of the ideal function of the State is derived, 
as indicated by the term "mutualism," which as- 
sumes that neither individualism nor socialism has 
solved the political equation. Second: Premises 
of Social Ethics. This course attempts to show 
how scientific conceptions of conduct making for 
social welfare are to be formed. It exposes the 
failures of the Spencerian system of ethics to lay a 
basis for a valid theory of social conduct, and it 
proposes a system of positive ethics which avoids 
both the partialness of utilitarianism and illusive 
formal completeness of the speculative systems. 
Third: A Seminar: Subject, Ruling Social Ideas 
in the United States. During the present year the 
study is directed to the effect which has been pro- 
duced upon our version of the laissez faire doctrine 
by actual experiment by the national government 
with enterprises not to be reconciled with that doc- 
trine. 

In connection with this department of work, Dr. 
George E. Vincent is conducting a course in Social 
Structure in which chief emphasis is laid upon the 
analysis of contemporary society. Students of the 
course are engaged in the study of towns, villages, 
and particular social problems. The object of the 
course is to maintain a close relation between the 
actual facts of life and the philosophy which seeks 
to explain them. Dr. Vincent also conducts a 
course for undergraduates entitled "Urban Life in 
the United States." The aim in this course- is to 
interest younger students in the phenomen a which 
are presented by the remarkable growth of modern 
cities, especially in the United States. Novels and 
short stories descriptive of city life are largely 
employed. The class makes personally conducted 
excursions to the Common Council, newspaper 
offices, large department stores, factories, the tene- 
ment house districts, social settlements, etc. 



STUDIES OF ABNORMAL CONDITIONS. 

2. THE STUDY OF ABNORMAL, SOCIAL CONDITIONS, 
and Methods of Amelioration. Prof. Charles R. 
Henderson is in charge of this work. He conducts 
three classes. 

First: A class composed of graduate students 
and divinity school students engaged in a study of 
American charities, public and private. They will 
consider the extent and cause of extreme poverty, 
of physical and moral defect, of dependence and 
pauperism; the state systems of outdoor and indoor 
relief; associated charities, and various methods of 
preventing social misery. The history of relief 
methods will be considered in the spring quarter, 
as well as the subject of crime. Second: Another 
class will study the organized efforts by members 
of wage-earning occupations to secure a larger 
share in the good of our civilization. The " labor 
movement" of Germany, France, England and the 
United States will be followed in some detail and 
an estimate of various schemes of betterment will 
be sought. Third: The Seminar in Social In- 
stitutions is just now engaged in special subjects 
of social amelioration and the preparation of ex- 
tended theses. 

Dr. Henderson is also engaged actively in prac- 
tical work in connection with the organized chari- 
ties of Chicago. 

3. ANTHROPOLOGY AND FOLK PSYCHOLOGY. 
Prof. Frederick Starr is offering two courses. In 
the first, an elementary course < n Physical Anthro- 
pology, he will consider the methods of anthropo- 
logical study, man's relation to the animal world, 
the origin and character of race differences, ques- 
tions of race change and race mixture and the 
method of studying criminology and degeneration. 
In the second course, on Japan, the land and the 
people are studied in detail. 

SOCIAL ART ORIGINS AND PSYCHOLOGY. 

4. Prof. W. I. Thomas offers the following 
courses: 1. ETHNOLOGICAL AESTHETICS, in which, 
in connection with an examination of primitive or- 
nament, amusement, and art, an attempt is made to 
explain the origin and social value of art and 
aesthetic feeling. 2. SEX IN FOLK PSYCHOLOGY, in 
which, after an examination of the causes deter- 
mining sex, the physical and mental characteristics 
of woman are compared with those of man, and the 
participation of women in the economic, religious, 
political, legal, and technological activities of 
various stages of society are reviewed with refer- 
ence to determining the social meaning of sex. 

5. HYGIENE AND SANITATION. Professor Marion 
Talbot is offering two courses. The subject is one 
of Sanitary Aspects of Foods, in which special 
stress is laid on problems in dietetics which bear 
upon practical life. The assertion that "half 



16 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[January, 



the struggle of life is a struggle for food " is 
made the basis of studying means of effecting 
economy, both physiological and pecuniary, as will 
enable persons of moderate means to increase the 
proportion of their inconie which may be devoted 
to other ends than physical existence. No instruc- 
tion in the art of cooking is given, but its scientific 
principles are studied. The second course, offered 
in the Graduate School, is designed only for stu- 
dents capable of carrying on independent investi- 
gations in sanitary science. 

Hmon$ tbe Books. 

LITERATURE FOR THE POOR. 



Penny Booklets Which Bring: the Classics Within 
Reach of All. 



From William T. Stead we have received a 
very welcome selection from the series of the 
Penny Library which he is editing and publishing 
in London atone penny each, for the benefit of the 
poor to whom the masterpieces of literature are, at 
their cheapest, out of reach. There are six book- 
lets in the lot sent by Mr. Stead, and they represent 
five of the different series. There are, "Lord 
Macauley's Introduction to the History of Eng- 
land," from the "Penny Prose Classics ; ""Always 
Arbitrate Before You Fight," from "Political 
Papers for the People;" "Poems of Robert 
Browning" from "The Penny Poets;" "The Ad- 
ventures of Reynard the Fox," from " Books for 
the Bairns," and "The True History of Joshua 
Davidson, Christian and Communist " (by Mrs. E. 
Lynn Linton), from tbe "Penny Popular Novels." 
With these is another notable number of the 
" Penny Poets," a double number (price twopence), 
entitled " Hymns That Have Helped " and includ- 
ing some of the grand hymns that have expressed 
the faith of the centuries. At an earlier date Mr. 
Stead sent to The Commons the full set of the 
" Penny Poets " then in print, and we hope to notice 
the latter issues as they appear. [Review of Reviews 
Office: Mowbray Temple, London,W. C., Eng.] 



VALUABLE VOLUME FOR TEACHERS. 



Education in Many Countries Reported Upon by 
Commissioner Harris. 



Another valuable report comes from the United 
States Commissioner of Education, and will be 
welcomed by all who are interested in the educa- 
tional side of social service and the practical de- 
velopment of the world's school systems. It is the 
first volume of the annual report for 1894-5, and in 
addition to the statistical reports upon the schools 
of the United States, contains good articles on the 



school systems of England and Scotland, France, 
Belgium, Italy, Netherlands, and Central Europe, 
an article upon the Manitoba school case, upon 
" Higher Education in Russian, Austrian and Prus- 
sian Poland," upon the " Facilities for the Univer- 
sity Education of Women in England " and "The 
Educational Status of Women in different Coun- 
tries " (including all of Europe, even to Finland; 
India and Japan and the Spanish-American coun- 
tries and a fine bibliography of selected books and 
references upon the development of women in the 
various lines of activity). Also, the report has a 
highly satisfactory social and educational study of 
" Chautauqua," together with several other articles 
of less note. [Washington, Government Printing 
Office; address The Commissioner of Labor, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CONTRACT, 



Comparison of Wages Paid by the Organized Peo- 
ple and by Individuals. 



In the latest issue of the Bulletin of the Depart- 
ment of Labor, Ethelbert Stewart has a striking 
paper on " Rates of Wages Paid under Public and 
Private Contract." The tables used in this article 
are the results of an original investigation in the 
cities of Baltimore, Boston, New York and Phila- 
delphia as to the wages paid, first, to those engaged 
on public work employed directly by the city or 
state, second, to those engaged on public work em- 
ployed by contractors, and third, to those engaged 
on private work employed by contractors or firms- 
The figures seem to show quite conclusively that 
the state or municipality pays better wages for 
shorter hours than does j either the private in- 
dividual or the contractor on public account, and 
with evident approval is quoted the opinion that 
"the tendency of letting public contracts to the 
lowest bidder is to lower the wages of labor; that 
the lowest bidder is, generally speaking, the 
man who pays lowest wages or expects to use 
poorest material; that the idea that the lowest 
bidder is the one willing to accept least profits for 
himself is erroneous." 



The American efforts toward the establishment 
of labor pensions and insurance are reviewed in 
the American Journal of Sociology for January by 
Paul Monroe, of the University of Chicago. He 
takes as his illustration of what strikes him as a 
rather satisfactory system so far as it goes, the plan 
carried out in his establishment at Dolgeville, N.Y., 
by Alfred Dolge, one of the best and most favor- 
ably-known employers of labor in the United 
States. In the same issue, H. L. Bliss, of 
Chicago, undertakes to find very serious fault with 
some of the official statistics 01 recent publication, 
more especially those of the Census and Labor 
Bureaus. [The University Press, Chicago, $2 per 
year.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



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VOL. J No. n 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
.SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 
LIFE AND WORK **. 



CHICAGO 



FEBRUARY. J897 



50 
Cents 

Year 



IT IS not when we sleep soft and wake 
merrily ourselves, that we think on 
other people's sufferings. Our hearts 
are waxed light within us then, and we are 
for righting our ain wrangs and fighting 
our ain battles. But when the hour of 
trouble comes to the mind or to the body 
and when the hour of death 
comes, that comes to high and low 

then it is na what we hae dune for 
outsells, but what we hae dune for others, 
that we think on maist pleasantly. Jeanie 
Deans, in " The Heart of Midlothian" 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



NOTHING 



IN THIS 



WORLD 



Is so cheap as a newspaper, whether it be measured by the cost 
of its production or by its value to the consumer. We are talking 
about an American, metropolitan daily paper of the first class like 



THE 

CHICAGO RECORD. 



It's so cheap and so good you can't afford in this day of progress 
to be without it. There are other papers possibly as good, but none 
better, and none just like it. It prints all the real news of the 
world the news you care for every day, and prints it in the shortest 
possible space. You can read THE CHICAGO RECORD and 
do a day's work too. It is an independent paper and gives all 
political news free 'from the taint of party bias. In a word it's 
a complete, condensed, clean, honest family newspaper, and it has 
the largest morning circulation in Chicago or the west over 
200,000 a day. 

Prof. J. T. Hatfield of the Northwestern University says : "THE 
CHICAGO RECORD comes as near being the ideal daily 
journal as we are for some time likely to find on these 
mortal shores." 

Sold by newsdealers everywhere, and subscriptions 
received by all postmasters. Address, 

THE CHICAGO RECORD, 

181 MADISON STREET. 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



FEBRUARY, 1897. 



No. 11. 



SOCIETY. 



I. 

I looked and saw a splendid pageantry 
Of beautiful women and of lordly men, 
Taking their pleasure in a flowery plain, 

Where poppies and the red anemone, 

And many another leaf of cramoisy, 
Flickered about their feet and gave their stain 
To heels of iron or satin, and the grain 

Of silken garments, floating far and free, 

As in the dance they wove themselves, or strayed 
By twos together, or lightly smiled and bowed, 

Or curtseyed to each other, or else played 

At games of mirth and pastime, unafraid 
In their delight; and all so high and proud, 
They seemed scarce of the earth whereon they trod. 

II. 

I looked again and saw that flowery space 

Stirring as if alive, beneath the tread 

That rested now upon an old man's head, 
And now upon a baby's gasping face, 
Or mother's bosom, or the rounded grace 

Of a girl's throat; and what had seemed the red 

Of flowers was blood, in gouts and gushes shed 
From hearts that broke under that frolic pace, 
And now and then from out the dreadful floor 

An arm or brow was lifted from the rest, 
As if to strike In madness, or implore 

For mercy; and anon some suffering breast 
Heaved from the mass and sank; and as before 

The revelers above them thronged and prest. 

William Dean Howells, in "Harper's Magazine." 



BAD TENEMENTS. 



CHICAGO'S NEED OF RADICAL REFORM. 



Conference in the Interest of Better Housing. Earn- 
est Appeal for a More Modern and 
Humane Policy* 



That Chicago has a tenement house problem is 
slowly dawning upon the resourceful folk who 
have at heart the interests of social betterment, 
and that an effort to get at the facts is able to inter- 
est a goodly number of earnest people was demon- 
strated at the sessions of the tenement house con- 
ference held in the early days of February under 
the auspices of the Northwestern University Set- 
tlement. The rooms of the settlement at 252 West 
Chicago avenue were closely crowded at every ses- 
sion, and some of the addresses were repeated for 



the benefit of an overflow meeting on the second 
floor. The guiding and inspiring soul of the move- 
ment was Mrs. Henry Wade Rogers, of Evanston, 
who also is the mainstay of the Northwestern set- 
tlement, and who in her work in connection with 
the settlement has become greatly interested in the 
problem of the housing of the poor in the crowded 
city centers. 

EARNEST WORDS FROM BOSTON. 

The distinguished figure of the sessions was 
that of Robert Treat Paine, of Boston, that wealthy 
commoner who has given the best years of his life 
to the study of questions of administration of 
charity and the organization of helpfulness. Mr. 
Paine reviewed the history of the better dwellings 
movement in Boston, and illustrated his prophecy 
of great possibilities in Chicago by reference to 
Manchester, where, as he pointed out, the city can 
build and maintain model dwellings cheaper and 
better than any private citizen or than any corpo- 
ration. He made the most cordial plea for play 
grounds for the city children, and favored the 
clearing out and flagging of the interior of city 
blocks where nothing better was possible. Said 
he : " There is no way to keep boys out of the re- 
formatory, and from presently graduating into 
criminals, other than giving them play grounds." 

SOME CHICAGO CONDITIONS. 

Dr. Philip W. Ayres, secretary of the Chicago 
Bureau of Associated Charities, made a stirring ex- 
hibit, by means of photographs and tabulations, of 
conditions in the crowded parts of Chicago, more 
particularly in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
wards, which have been regarded as among the 
less objectionable parts of Chicago's poorer dis- 
tricts. The lack of sewer connections, the bad 
grading, which gravitates sewage and surface 
drainage into low places under the tenement win- 
dows, the closets below the level of the streets and 
therefore below the sewers, the r great masses of 
collected garbage under and adjoining the houses, 
were dwelt upon and made a striking impression. 
Dr. Ayres asserted that little is known of the actual 
tenement house conditions in Chicago, and showed 
that much of what is regarded as improved tene- 
ment property is really more dangerous than the 
old tumbledown sort, because with its pretentious 
brick front it is more permanent in its construe- 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[February, 



tion and harder to attack. He quoted the result of 
the United States slum investigation, which showed 
that of all the families in the great slum district 
canvassed in Chicago, only three per cent, had 
access to bathrooms and more than fifty per 
cent, had no water closet facilities in the building, 
but must share with a large number a common 
privy in the yard or under the sidewalk. 

He quoted the absurd antideluvian health laws 
of Chicago, which, for instance forbid the existence 
of any manure boxes and then provide for their 
dimensions and specify how often they must be 
emptied! Under the Chicago law as interpreted by 
the building authorities, any landlord may cover 
his entire lot with buildings if he wishes. A num- 
ber of photographs exhibited showed some distress- 
ing conditions. 

A MOVEMENT AGAINST TENEMENTS. 

Miss Jane Addams, of Hull House, spoke of the 
growing sentiment in London against tenement 
houses in general and altogether, as such. She 
quoted Octavia Hill and others of the workers in 
London, in the opinion that tenement houses could 
be done away with. Strangely enough, as Miss 
Addams showed tenement houses had their origin 
in the Peabody philanthropic fund, the example of 
the philanthropist having been followed by un- 
scrupulous persons, who built bigger and closer, 
and for the Peabody four per cent, took ten and 
twelve. Miss Addams spoke, too, of the movement 
under foot in London to make the tenements more 
attractive by interior decorations, Walter Crane 
and others interesting themselves in decorations, 
etc., for the common social room of the tenement. 

PROPERTY RIGHTS VS. HUMAN RIGHTS. 

Rev. Dr. Samuel G. Smith,"of St. Paul, Minn., de- 
scribed some of the foreign efforts toward better 
housing of the working people, particularly in 
Berlin, Stuttgart, France and England. Particu- 
larly interesting was his reference to the insurance 
plan in vogue in Germany, an association insuring 
a man's life, and holding the insurance policy as 
security for the mortgage on the property. Then, 
if the man dies, his insurance pays for the house, 
and his family is left with a home all paid for. 

The warmest applause of the conference followed 
Dr. Smith's emphatic declaration that " the rights 
of private property, though sanctified by laws and 
courts through a thousand years of Anglo-Saxon 
history must step to the rear now and make way 
for the prior rights of man." 

THE HOUSE AND THE HOME LIFE. 

Professor Graham Taylor, who emphasized the 
importance of the house in its bearing upon the 
life of the people who lived in it, made an earnest 
plea for a view larger than that material one of 
mere dollars and cents; declaring that it was high 



time for the putting of an earthly foundation under 
the ideals and air castles of which we talk so much, 
high time to recognize the importance of the per- 
sonality of the members of the families, however 
poor, and to take hold of the question and bring 
the force of ideal and initiative into bearing upon 
the material surroundings of the human lives 
penned up in unsanitary hovels. His reference to 
the relation of cheap fares to human life, and of 
decent homes to morality of girls and boys was 
warmly applauded. He closed with a quotation 
from Tennyson's "Locksley Hall, Sixty Years 
After " : 

"Is it well that while we range with Science, glorying the 

Time, 

City children soak and blacken soul and sense in city slime? 
There among the glooming alleys Progress halts on palsied 

feet, 
Crime and hunger cast our maidens by the thousand on the 

street. 
There the master scrimps his haggard mistress of her daily 

bread, 

There a single sordid attic "holds the living and the dead. 
There the smold'ring fire of fever creeps across the rotted 

floor 
And the crowded couch of incest in the warrens of the 

poor." 

CHICAGO'S ANTEDILUVIAN HEALTH CODE. 
One of the most interesting speakers was Dr. F. 
W. Reilly, assistant Commissioner of the Health 
Department of Chicago. He corroborated Dr. 
Ayres's characterization of the municipal health 
ordinances of Chicago, and showed thai, even the 
ordinances that are enforcible are neglected and 
disregarded in the interest of people who have 
" pulls." Almost the entire health code of Chicago 
was adopted when the city was a mere village, with 
a view of preventing the inroads of cholera via the 
lake vessels, and all the patching and amending 
and tinkering of these ordinances has resulted in 
the accumulation of some 2,000 pages of ordi- 
nances and 7,000 -pages of "proceedings"! He 
spoke of some pending legislation looking to the 
increase of the powers of the health board to 
permit the demolition of dangerous and unhabit- 
able buildings and the effective recommendation 
of necessary paving in cases of danger to health. 

Mrs. Florence Kelley, state factory inspector, 
reviewed her efforts under the Illinois law to 
regulate tenement manufacture of clothing, etc. 
In her opinion it is entirely impossible to break up 
tenement manufacture, or to do more than to 
limit somewhat the dangers of infection and the 
more flagrant evasions of the child-labor laws. 
She paid her especial respects to the bakeries and 
laundries in tenement houses which add heat and 
foul smoke and dampness to the already intoler- 
able conditions. 

HUMANE RENT COLLECTING. 

Possibly the most effective address of the con- 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



ference was that of Mrs. Frederick P. Bagley, of 
Chicago, who in the third person told of her highly 
satisfactory success in the line of humane and 
friendly rent collecting in some Chicago tenement 
property owned by her husband. The property 
had been used solely for the squeezing of money 
out of poor tenants by one of the regulation agents, 
and it had been abandoned by him in disgust as 
no longer available. It was half empty when 
Mrs. Bagley took charge of it and began to put 
heart and soul into the effort to meet her tenants 
as human beings. The property is now always 
full, there is never any loss of rent, and her 
relations with the people are of the kindest and 
most friendly. 

The closing paper was by Mrs. Henry Wade 
Rogers, who summed up the proceedings and laid 
great stress upon the outrageous crowding of 
buildings in Chicago upon the territory in the 
denser wards. In eight or ten wards of Chicago, 
she said, the ground was built upon to an extent 
practically double the most crowded condition that 
a sane policy would permit. Chicago has but ten 
tenement house inspectors, while Glasgow, with 
but half our population, has 134. Mrs. Rogers 
dwelt upon the absence of parks and dooryards in 
those parts of the city where they are . most 
needed, and emphasized the need of a more 
consistent and humane system of enforcible 
ordinances looking to the regulation of the loca- 
tion, size, lighting and ventilation of new tenement 
houses and demolition of unsanitary buildings. 

The following resolutions were adopted: 

THK KESOLUTIONS. 

The Improved Housing Conference recognizes the move- 
ment for better housing, which has been inaugurated in the 
leading cities of the world, as so important in its sanitary 
and social influence that the City of Chicago should not fail 
to participate in its benefits. We have heard with pleasure 
the results achieved elsewhere and urge our people to apply 
their lessons to our local needs. 

The sanitary condition of many tenements in this city and 
their unfitness for habitation demand that a careful and 
complete official tenement-house census should be made by 
the public authorities. We recognize the necessity of a 
larger number of inspectors, who shall rigidly enforce 
existing ordinances for better housing of the people. 

We recommend to capitalists the study of our local 
conditions and the great opportunity of making reasonably 
profitable investments by the erectjon of suitable tepements 
to benefit working people. We believe systematic measures 
should be employed to encourage workingmen to secure 
their own homes. 

We recommend the appointment of a representative per- 
manent committee to continue the agitation and to obtain 
needed reforms, and we appoint Mrs. Henry Wade Eogers, 
Dr. Graham Taylor, Miss Jane Addams, Bishop Samuel 
Fallows and Dr. James Gibson Johnson as members of such 
a committee, with instructions to add twenty to their 
number. 

The present mania for another Indian, if not 
foreign war, ought to be highly alarming to the 
people of the United States. I have great confi- 
dence in Him who is King of kings and Lord of 
lords that the time is drawing nigh (though much 
distress must first come), when all the nations of 
the earth shall beat their swords into plowshares 
and their spears into pruning hooks, and the earth 
shall be covered with the knowledge of God as the 
waters cover the seas. Elias Boudinot in 1819. 



AT THE GATES. 



If labor calls you, pass the gates with praise, 

Since God first wrought, 
And willed to man hushed nights, and toiling days; 

If death, firm-souled approach the untried lot, 
For life not less than death transcends our thought. 

If love be yours, O prize its hour of bliss; 
Love, the great parent, hallows all that is; 

Love, Labor, Death who fearless owns the three, 
Still walks secure, still dwells in victory. 

Dora Reade Ooodale, in "The Congregationalist.' 



JOSEPH PARKER ON THE POOR. 



(From "No Waste in Love; Judas and the Woman who 
Anointed Christ.") 

The bad man can use nice words. He talks 
about the poor. "The poor" he would sell his 
mother's bones to enrich himself ! The poor he 
would tear the gas lamps from their sockets in the 
church and sell them, if he could do it and not be 
found out. Yet he talks about the poor, makes a 
mouthful of the word, says it unctuously, as if he 
cared for the poor. He can care for nothing that 
is wise, beautiful, tender, and truly necessitous. 
He comes into the church and he says, looking at 
anything which he may call by the name of orna- 
ment, "Why was this waste made? Why was not 
this sold and given to the poor, my clients?" He 
misunderstands all beauty, as if the beautiful were 
not a gift to the poor. Why, sometimes the poor 
see more in a picture than the rich can see. To 
put up a beautiful building of any kind in a town 
is to give something to the poor. 

What are the poor? Mere eaters and drinkers, 
gormandizers, people gathered around a trough to 
eat and drink? Have they not eyes, imaginations, 
sensibilities, divinity of nature that can be touched 
by the appeals of beauty and music and heroism 
and nobleness? Simon, the leper, could give a 
dinner, but he who gives an idea gives a continual 
feast. He who shows a beautiful picture, and gets 
a man to look right into it and through it, is actu- 
ally giving to the poor. We misunderstand the 
poor when we suppose that they can only eat and 
drink, and that to give to- them means to give them 
something in their hands, or something they can 
gnaw with their teeth. It is a base idea, it is a 
total misconception of the whole case, it must 
not have any place in Christ's church. Build the 
most beautiful churches you can, and you sustain 
labor, you keep men at work, in an honest way; 
and fill the places with the poor. Every picture 
may be a hint, every tint of beauty may fill the soul 
with a new hope, and every sound of the organ 
may answer something already in the soul, but 
silent. Abolish all narrow views, and do not sup 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[February, 



pose that the poor are only so many machines for 
the consumption of food and drink. 

Many people care for the poor multitudinously, 
they care for a great nameless quantity called the 
poor; they often mention them over their smoking 
soup; they sometimes refer to them with most 
touching sympathy as they are gulping down their 
last champagne. They have a warm side for the 
poor, understanding by that term something im- 
measurable and far away. They would take the 
shadow into their own houses if there were less of 
it, but being so vast they let it alone. These people 
are great in epitaphs. Men cannot live on epi- 
taphs, and the poor are not much obliged to us for 
drinking their health in a bacchanalian toast. Bet- 
ter throw a bone without any flesh upon it to the 
hungriest dog that ever lived, than talk about all 
the hungry dogs and give them ho bone. Church 
of the living God, you can be mighty amongst the 
poor; foiled for the moment in wordy argument, 
you can set up a plea for Christianity in the hearts 
of the poor that the poor can understand and 
apply. 

The word waste was used in connection with this 
offering. "Why to what purpose was this 
waste? " The word that was rendered waste in the 
English tongue may be rendered perdition. At the 
last Christ said, concerning this same opposing and 
querulous Judas Iscariot, " I have lost none but the 
son of waste, the son of perdition. It was not the 
ointment that was wasted, but himself that was 
waste." 

Ay, so it shall be in the judgment. Nothing 
shall be lost that can be kept, and what is lost 
shall be the son of perdition. "Things Concerning 
Himself," pp. 209-212. 



Mrs.Rose Hawthorne Lathrop, who has deter- 
mined to devote the remainder of her life to the 
work of alleviating the suffering of certain of the 
poor in this city, has made for herself a home on 
the second floor of a small, old house at 1 Scammel 
street, over on the East Side, near the foot of Grand 
St., N.Y. Mrs. Lathrop's main idea is to minister to 
those who are troubled with cancer and skin dis- 
eases. She has explored the tenement district sur- 
rounding her home, and now has fifty patients 
under her care. A neighboring building is thought 
by her to be suitable for hospital purposes. It can 
be purchased at a low figure, and fitted up without 
a great expenditure. For this and for her daily 
ministrations she is asking aid, and will devote to 
the sick poor any money that may be sent to her. 
The New York Sun has interested itself in Mrs. 
Lathrop, and will receive contributions for her 
work. 



A man of business has no more right to make 
personal profit the supreme purpose of his store, 
his shop, his capital, his factory, his railway, 
than Jesus had to work miracles for personal 
profit. Prof. George D. Herron. 



1In tbe Morlb of Settlements. 



THE FINAL, OBJECT. 



It is not. however, our final object to center the life 
of the neighborhood about the settlement, but rather 
to discover and incite individual initiative and mutual 
aid among the people themselves; and thus truly to 
rehabilitate personal, family and neighborhood life. 
The organized neighborhood work is wholly sub- 
ordinated to this motive. It begins with people on 
the basis of their interests. It pursues the method of 
democratic co-operation. Its chief educational aim 
is that the people shall be trained, intellectually and 
morally, in that greatest influence of modern life, the 
power of association. .Robert A. Woods, in Fifth. 
Annual^Keport of South End House, Boston. 



SETTLEMENT VIEWS. 



Opinions of Former Residents Upon Impor- 
tant Matters. 



Striking Results of an Inquiry Among Those "Who 
Had Lived in Settlements. 



One of the most interesting, and in some ways, 
most valuable documents bearing upon settlement 
work is the " Report on Questions drawn up by 
Present Residents in College Settlements and Sub- 
mitted to Past Residents, Reprinted for the College 
Settlements Association by the Church Social 
Union." The paper involves the testimony of res- 
idents in the settlements of the association, most of 
whom had been in residence a year or more, upon 
their experience in the social service of settlement 
life, their estimate of the value of it and its vari- 
ous forms, and their idea of the results to be ex- 
pected. Eighty-three sets of questions were sub- 
mitted, and forty-two sets of answers were received, 
and their fullness and candor are surprising. 

The most vital question of all, it would appear, 
is that touching the utility of the settlement idea, 
as in question No. 4: 

" In your opinion, is the amount of work done 
commensurate with the energy expended?" Here, 
says the report, twenty-nine enthusiastic and 
emphatic " ayes " are offset by nine reluctant 
" noes," three or four well-balanced uncertainties, 
and one vigorous and aggrieved negative. Several, 
in answering " yes," state that they have in mind 
good done the residents. One concise answer 
says, " For short term residents, no; for permanent 
residents, yes." Some short term residents would 
not agree to this, however. Another answer points 
out that " the results are in so large a share pre- 
ventive that it is difficult to judge till more time 
has elapsed." " The good done the workers, in its 
direct influence on them and through them on their 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



friends, has sometimes seemed to me quite to make 
up for the waste and friction which results from 
our system of transients." " That depends," says 
another, " upon what is meant by ' work done.' 
If actual achievement, showing itself in tangible 
results that can be tabulated, no. If by ' work 
done ' is meant influence exerted upon both sides 
and through them upon classes of people, indi- 
vidual lives transformed and made centers of energy 
and light, yes, a thousand times." 

Of three head workers who are unanimously in 
the affirmative, one says " The fact that we are on 
the ground is in itself a great saving of strength." 
Another: "The amount of work done for the 
money expended is rather larger, I think, than 
that done in so-called club work." The third: "It 
is impossible to measure either energy expended 
or work accomplished; but if I didn't believe that 
what we are doing is worth while, I shouldn't, stay 
here." 

The subtle nature of the settlement influence, 
and the fact that, as an institution, the settlement is 
merely a step in a direction thought to be approxi- 
mately right, is recognized by many of the keener- 
eyed souls, who emphasize the spiritual element 
in the settlement faith by pointing out that as set- 
tlements are simply " a transitional stage towards a 
larger life," their results must remain invisible, 
and that existence and results are really the same 
thing. One worker sounds the well to the bottom 
when she says the results are " as commensurate 
as are the result sof energy anywhere expended 
upon that uncertain factor, man." 

IS IT A DEPRIVATION? 

Another searching question, which settlement 
residents are constantly asked, and answer with 
an increasingly emphatic negative, is No. 5 of the 
schedule: 

Do you consider life in a settlement as a form of 
deprivation? 

These are the answers, the report says, which 
more than any others show the love and gratitude 
which our residents feel for the settlements. One 
sums up a common feeling when she says, " Physi- 
cally, yes; intellectually and spiritually, no." Only 
two regard settlement life as assuredly a cross of 
deprivation. Some of the answers are guarded; 
for instance, one says, " Deprivation is not the 
word I should use. In six months spent in the 
settlement I consider that I gained more knowl- 
edge of life than I could in almost any other ex- 
perience in a similar length of time. However," 
she says, " I do not consider settlement life normal 
or healthful." Of this " melancholy sentiment," 
as the report calls it, it is remarked that it is alone, 
with one exception. All feel that companionship 
in life and work goes far to compensate for any 



loss. One splendid tribute, more far-reaching in its 
bearings upon ultimate questions of life and social 
communion, says, " Settlement life is impossible 
for any length of time without the fellowship of 
kindred minds. Under no circumstances should 
one resident only be permitted to undertake the 
work of a settlement. With this proviso, settle- 
ment life is so rich and full that the pace is apt 
to be too great. It requires a nature of exceptional 
mental, moral and physical strength not to be over- 
whelmed with the inrush of new impressions. For 
this reason, every settlementer, in addition to her 
annual holiday, should occasionally go away and 
incubate." 

" I found there," says another, " plenty of friends, 
plenty of opportunity and much stimulus." " If 
sensibly lived," says another, "with sufficient 
change and amusement, it is a happy life; no dep- 
rivation, but an opportunity." 

Some of the answers are far more enthusiastic: 
" Only in the sense in which a community life must 
always have its deprivations. It is to me the hap- 
piest and fullest life of that sort that I know or can 
imagine." 

AS TO CLASS DISTINCTIONS. , 

The eighth question was a very gingerly putting 
of the question whether there seemed to these 
former residents any possibility of doing away 
with class distinctions. The result is 'best told in 
the words of the report: 

" There is something significant in the profound, 
gentle, absolute aversion- to the idea of class be- 
trayed by these moderate and thoughtful women. 
Little or no revolutionary sentiment is to be found 
throughout the papers. Their tone is one of patience ; 
of grave desire to work wisely and wait patiently 
for more light. But there is also a general sense 
of deep suffering under the consciousness of social 
inequalities, of unshared privilege. In the pres- 
ence of this sense, so surprising, so inconceivable 
to our fathers, the answer to this specific question 
seems of secondary importance. 

AS TO POVERTY. 

Most interesting and instructive are the answers 
to the question with regard to the attitude of mind 
toward poverty Does poverty seem to you a 
greater or less evil since you have lived among 
poor people? 

While the response that the mere deprivation of 
material things had come to seem far less of an 
evil, it was unanimously agreed that the awfulness 
of abject poverty must be seen to be appreciated. 
" The moral effects of extreme poverty are much 
less detrimental than I had supposed, but I had 
never realized how fearful and far-reaching the 
physical results are." A head worker says, " My 
sympathies are much less roused now than in the 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[February, 



past by the type of poverty that lies on rags and 
begs for crusts. * * * My sympathies 
are very strong for the poor who try to ' keep up 
an appearance ' on starvation wages. Poverty of 
either kind seems a greater evil than before I lived 
in a settlement." 

Finally, another head worker sums it up thus: 
" The poverty that makes it absolutely hopeless to 
get anything like a full development of the indi- 
vidual or a fair chance in life, seems to me to be 
worse. On the other hand, I have come to see that 
a person with too much of this world's goods is 
nearly as badly handicapped in other ways. Lack 
of character seems the worst thing and the great- 
est evil. Things do not matter much except as 
they react upon character. The poverty that dwarfs 
and blunts is most horrible, and I never realized it 
as I have since I came here. Under present con- 
ditions, I've come to the conclusion that a certain 
degree of poverty is a stimulus, but it must not be 
hopeless poverty." 

IN THE MATTER OF THRIFT. 

All are unanimous in the opinion that hygienic 
living is impossible for working people under pres- 
ent tenement house conditions, though some are of 
the opinion that the people thus conditioned might 
live better than they do. 

In the matter of the possibility and advantages of 
thrift under present conditions, there is difference 
of opinion, but one of the replies suggests three 
fruitful lines of thought: 

1. Thrift is practically impossible on a variable 
or uncertain income. To live on five hundred 
dollars a year, one needs to be sure that it will be 
five hundred and not four and a half; also that it 
will be paid promptly at certain fixed intervals. It 
is human nature to buy more freely for credit 
than it coujd or would for cash, and to trust to 
Providence to pay the bill. Also, a lack of money 
often prevents an advantageous purchase. 

2. Thrift among the poor usually means econ- 
omy in rent, with its accompaniments of over- 
crowding and unsanitary surroundings, and a 
grinding parsimony, affecting the necessities of 
life, and resulting in an anaemic condition not only 
of body but of soul. 

8. There is on record, from the lips of Christ, 
no commendation of thrift, but he twice commends 
lavishness, and expressly inculcates the opposite of 
what New Englanders call 'forehandedness.' 

CAUSES AND CONTRIBUTING CONDITIONS. 

On the point of the causes of distress among the 
poor, " Almost all show a thoughtfulness far from 
the comfortable assurance which states that 
liquor or laziness is at the bottom of the whole 
matter, and all, with two or three exceptions, come 



to the conclusion that the suffering of the poor is 
not, as a rule, due to individual fault, but to con- 
ditions of inheritance and environment." Seven- 
teen (out of the forty-two) trace poverty back to 
original causes over which the poor have no con- 
trol; twelve accent present incompetence, however 
caused; four, shiftlessness; seven, intemperance. 
One only gives intemperance as a primary cause. 
Here is a summary of the general view: "Con- 
ditions over which they are as yet ignorant that 
they have control. It seems to be a linked chain 
of causes poverty begetting intemperance, shift- 
lessness and incompetence, all of which, in turn, 
beget poverty (this, of course, applying to the 
pauperized poor), and behind all these causes the 
primary evil of our irresponsible and defective 
society." 

" Very quietly, very positively, very unani- 
mously" (only one exception) is the answer "no," 
to the question, " Are you, on the whole, satisfied 
with the conditions of the wage-earning population 
which is not suffering acute distress?" 

VITAL REFORMS PROPOSED. 

All confess to a great and vital change of views 
upon social questions during their settlement res- 
idence, but none has a panacea. Many immediate 
reforms are favored. " Probably," says the report, 
" no reform which has occurred to the human 
mind during the last decade remains unmentioned. 
First and universal, comes improved housing of the 
poor. In quick succession follow the organization 
of labor (first with the head workers), the eight- 
hour movement, playgrounds and parks, improved 
schools and school laws, municipal reforms, per- 
suasion of the poor to have smaller families, trade 
schools, public baths, income tax, coffee houses, 
cooking and sewing schools obligatory in public 
schools, regeneration of the upper classes, con- 
sumers' leagues, the inculcation of thrift, free sil- 
ver, municipalization of railways, lighting, etc.; 
temperance reform, very low in the list; sweat 
shop regulations, and finally mentioned by one 
writer only direct religious work. 

This striking remark closes the report in the 
words of a head worker: 

" It is now impossible for me to remember what 
I thought on these questions before entering set- 
tlement work. The conviction deepens that, while 
we are bound to do all we can to bring about more 
just conditions in society, still even a perfect dis- 
tribution of wealth would not render our social 
conditions what they should be. To this end the 
development of character and belief in spiritual 
verities is more important than any redistribution 
of wealth. This is to apply to rich and poor alike. 
To-day there is, I believe, more spiritual life among 
the poor, as a class, than among the rich." 



1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



SETTLEMENT FEDERATION. 



Proceedings of the Winter Meeting of the Chicago 
Organization at Hall House. 



There are now at least twelve settlements in Chi- 
cago, and several others are in process of organiza- 
tion. The last meeting of the Federation of 
Chicago Settlements showed a total membership of 
above 110, Hull House and Chicago Commons be- 
ing the largest, and Elm Street and Maxwell Street 
settlements the smallest in point of numbers. The 
most interesting feature of the meeting, which was 
held at Hull House, as the last issue of CHICAGO 
COMMONS was going to press, was the account by 
Mrs. Charlotte Perkins Stetson of _her sojourn in 
England, whence she had just returned. Mrs. 
Stetson's story was the more interesting because 
she had spent her time somewhat out of the beaten 
tracks, and had had opportunity to study social as- 
pects in England rather more searchingly than 
many who see only the surface of things. She 
noticed particularly the greater advancement of the 
English people in social and reformative thought, 
and of the larger spread of intelligent informa- 
tion among the middle and upper classes upon the 
subject. No one in England who pretends to any 
degree of information would confuse the terms 
" socialist " and " anarchist," she said, for instance. 
She remarked also upon the far greater homo- 
geneity of population in England than in America; 
upon the fact that domestic servants, for instance, 
are of the same nationality as their mistresses, and 
upon the many good and ill conditions which might 
and do arise from this fact. 

The matter of new locations for settlements in 
Chicago was discussed with much interest, and the 
art and music extension work was also canvassed. 
Miss Addams told with much satisfaction of the 
work of the Kyrle Society in England, and of Miss 
Octavia Hill, in the efforts to improve the condi- 
tions of the dwellings of the working people. 

The interesting feature in the reports from the 
settlements was that from the Kirkland Settlement, 
where Mr. Bradley is successfully managing a 
company of more than 150 boys, organizing them 
into a municipality, after somewhat the same 
fashion as Mr. George in his " Boys' Republic." 

Another gratifying report was of the great success 
attending the weekly men's meeting and economic 
discussion at the Clybourn Avenue Settlement. 
The attendance at these meetings has of late aver- 
aged as many as 250 persons. 

The place for the next meeting of the Federation 
has not yet been selected. It is expected that the 
discussion will be upon some points of general 
policy which are stumbling stones to nearly all 
settlement workers. 



SOUTH END HOUSE, BOSTON, 



Many Activities Referred to in the Fifth Annual 
Report. 



Five or six men have been constantly in resi- 
dence at the South End (formerly Andover) House, 
in Boston, according to the fifth annual report. 
This is the settlement of which Robert A. Woods is 
the head, and the report is one of the most signifi- 
cant and satisfactory that have come to our hand. 
An additional building has been taken at 611 Har- 
rison street, and has proved a good investment. 
Says the report, upon one important point: 

"The house is of increasing use as a kind of 
neutral ground at the boundary line that separates 
the working classes from the other classes in the 
community. Here the business man and the profes- 
sional man can meet the trade union man, with 
perfect freedom from restraint on both sides. 
Every time such a meeting has occurred at the 
house there has been an increase of mutual under- 
standing and respect." 

A strike was settled upon the basis proposed by 
the settlement as arbitrators. This settlement is 
among the most industrious and successful in this 
country in the close and scientific study of social 
problems and conditions, and the year has seen a 
good work done in this direction. "The Autonomy 
of a Tenement House Street," and "A Study of 
Beggars and their Lodgings," by Alvan F. 
Sanborn, were published under the auspices of the 
settlement and received with marked interest 
throughout the country. Another paper, by Wil- 
liam A. Clark, formerly of this settlement, now of 
Lincoln House, was on " Evening Schools in Bos- 
ton," and a paper by Frederic A. Bushee on the 
" Italians of the North End of Boston " will be 
issued soon. 



HULL HOUSE FREE LECTURES. 



Practical 



Method of Popular Education Under 
Settlement Auspices. 



Interested and active, as usual, in all that con- 
cerns the welfare of the great cosmopolitan com- 
munity in which it is a center of social and intel- 
lectual life, Hull House has this winter taken up 
and carried out successfully a practical method of 
public education which might well have the emu- 
lation of settlements everywhere. In co-operation 
with the Board of Education, which gladly lent all 
the aid in its power, Hull House has twice a week 
taken possession of the Medill High School for a 
course of free popular lectures. So eager has been 
the response of the neighborhood to this opportun- 
ity that it has been necessary to close the gates of 
the school often a half hour before the lecture wa8 
to begin, so dense was the crowd that pressed to 
[Continued on payc 10.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[February, 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 

SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 

LIFE AND WORK *'* 




Vol. J. No. \\ 



February, J897. 



CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement monthly, pub- 
ished for the Settlement of the same name, and devoted 
to the- record of the Settlement Movement in all conntries 
and of the social progress of the ideal of Brotherhood among 
men. To this end its features include news of the settle- 
ments, sketches of life in the crowded city centers, outlines 
of social teachings in institutions of learning, progress and 
ethical import and aspects of the Labor Movement, the 
social work of the churches, notes on literature in the social 
field, comments on current life from the settlement point of 
view, etc. 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Fifty cents a year, (Two shillings, English; 2.50 francs, 
French foreign stamps accepted.) 

Postpaid to any State or Country. 

Six copies to one address for .$2.50. 

Send check, draft, P. O. money order, cash or stamps, 

A7 OUR KISK. 

Changes of Address Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it is due. 

To other Settlements "We mean to regard as "pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such. In return, we ask for all reports, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 

Advertisements First-class advertisements desired 
at reasonable rates, which will be furnished upon applica- 
tion. 

ALL COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 

Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post-Office at Chicago, 111. 

THE plucky little Neighborhood Guild in Min- 
ster street, Philadelphia, enters upon another 
year with fresh courage and outlook. This is one 
of the ideal settlements in this country a family 
home, located where a home is most needed. 

A WORD OF CAUTION. 



The constant temptation of settlements and 
workers of other kinds in the service of the poorer 
parts of cities is to forget the master-motive of self- 
spending, and to attempt to build up self out of the 
neighborhood rather than to build up the neigh- 
borhood out of self. Again and again do we 
need a word of caution on this point. How 
shall we build up this meeting ? How shall 
we enlarge our classes, how shall we ex- 



tend the membership of the clubs, how shall 
we reach out and take in this, that and the other 
group of neighbors, so that we may justify to those 
who support our work the continued expenditure 
that is necessary for the maintenance of our work? 
etc., etc. Against the spirit that usually gives 
rise to these questions Paul gave warning in his 
injunction to "strengthen the things that remain," 
and for modern caution we have seen or heard 
nothing better than the words of that veteran of set- 
tlement service, Robert A. Woods, of Boston, who 
in the current report of South End House, of which 
he is head, says: 

"Our settlement has for its aim to bring about a 
better and more beautiful life in its neighborhood 
and district, to develop through study and action 
in this single locality new ways of meeting some of 
the serious problems of society, such as may be ap- 
plied in other places; to draw into this effort the 
finest powers of heart and mind. It is no part of 
the plan to build up an institution, complicated, self- 
contained. The settlement is rather, in its truest 
meaning, a center of personal forces which become in- 
volved with the interests of the neighborhood without, 
and spend themselves through every channel of the 
local life." 

To strengthen the things that remain is the first 
duty. Far too often settlement work and other 
activity in similar fields, is based upon the idea 
that the people of the poorer districts are semi- 
barbarous, have no wish to grow toward righteous- 
ness, and that some superior persons from a more 
privileged sphere of life must come in and teach 
them to desire_better things. This is almost wholly 
erroneous. The first and most imperative duty is to 
search out and encourage the present good impulses 
and activities, to bring out and find expression for 
the aspirations that already exist. It is the almost 
unanimous testimony of those who have lived 
among what is superciliously called the "common 
people" that there is fully as much of spiritual 
energy, of moral earnestness, and vastly more of the 
spirit of mutual helpfulness and self-sacrifice 
among the poor than among the classes above. 
Whether this be true or not, the fact remains that 
all the principles of pedagogics and enlightened 
psychology command the using of the forces at hand 
rather than the bringing in of machinery from 
without. In every ward of the great city there is 
force of righteousness enough in existence among 
the people to redeem the community from corrup- 
tion and filth of any kind. The lack is for a means 
of expression, and it appears to us evident so evi- 
dent that the utterance of it smacks of platitude 
that those who would be useful in settlements or 
in any other form of service among these crowded 
populations must first buckle to and give aid and 
direction and expression to the impulses of the 
people. 

"Personal forces spending themselves through 



1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



every channel of the local life " this is the key- 
note of the spirit that should characterize settle- 
ment life and work. It would carry the residents 
out into the social, civic and religious life already 
existing, and lead them to conserve in every way 
influences among the people available for uplift 
and inspiration unto righteousness. To uphold 
and emphasize and show the practicability of the 
highest ideal, and to afford initiative and leader- 
ship in the effecting of the best that the people can 
be encouraged to desire and demand these are 
the most important duties of the settlement, and 
the building up of its own specialized departments 
should be the secondary, not the primary thing. 
At the top of the first page of its constitution it 
would be well if a settlement should have and 
should need no other every settlement would do 
wisely to write these words: 

" NOT TO BE MINISTERED UNTO, BUT TO MINISTER." 



A BUREAU OF SETTLEMENTS, 



From time to time of late there have been propo- 
sitions made looking to the establishment of a 
central Settlement Bureau for the whole country; 
a kind of clearing house from which information 
could be disseminated, and the general movement 
encouraged in a way more effective and sustained 
than was possible through the efforts of the scat- 
tered individuals making up the force of settle- 
ment residents throughout the country. So far as 
we know, none of these propositions has ever been 
pushed beyond the proposal stage except in so far 
as the College Settlements Association acts as a 
central bureau for its membership. 

With no idea of establishing any formidable in- 
stitution or becoming responsible more than before 
for the settlement outreach, CHICAGO COMMONS is 
ready to act so far as possible as a central bureau 
of information concerning the settlements of the 
United States at least. It reaches most of the 
classes of people likely to be interested in such a 
movement, and many of the settlements make it 
their custom to afford constant information con- 
cerning their progress. It seems fitting that 
Chicago should be the location of such a central 
bureau, and more and more has this paper been 
called upon for information and to act as a center 
of communication. 

With this in view, we will hold ourselves ready 
upon application, first: to afford any information 
in our power concerning the history, aims, work 
and present status of the settlements of America 
and so far as possible, of other countries; second, 
to put settlements in communication with one an- 
other, where that is desired; third, to keep, so far 
as possible a list and bibliography of the settlements, 
with a view of having on hand at all times the 



fullest possible statement of the literature of the 
settlement movement; and fourth, to make our- 
selves useful in every possible way to the residents 
of settlements and to all others interested in the 
question from any point of view. 

Now, to make such an effort in any degree suc- 
cessful, the fullest co-operation is absolutely 
necessary, and for this reason we call urgently 
upon all settlement residents and others interested 
in the matter for the following aid: 

First: Prompt information as to the foundation 
of new settlements, or old ones not well known. 
Better that we should duplicate information than 
not to have it at all. 

Second: Copies (several if possible), of all re- 
ports, circulars, and other printed matter, however 
apparently trivial, including tickets, programmes 
and all other transient material, issued by or con- 
cerning any settlement. 

Third: References to, and if possible copies of, 
all periodical newspaper, magazine or review 
articles, or allusions, however scant, in books or 
pamphlets, with reference to the settlement move- 
ment or to any settlement. These references 
should always give minute particulars as to the 
name of the publication, date, author if possible, 
etc. 

Fourth: In general, the most exhaustive and 
generous interest in this matter, so that the editor of 
CHICAGO COMMONS may have prompt and com- 
plete information at hand concerning all phases 
of the settlement world and work, and of all matters 
related to it. Rare material will be carefully 
preserved, and returned to the sender if desired. 



1 NQUIRIES concerning the March issue of CHI- 
1 CAGO COMMONS leads us to explain that while 
this number has been unavoidably delayed by 
the illness of the managing editor, it is our pur- 
pose to issue the paper usually not earlier than the 
last ten days of the month whose name the issue 
bears. This enables us to report upon the doings 
of the month just past, rather than to try, after the 
common newspaper fashion, to anticipate events 
in order .to keep them within memory of the 
readers of the paper. 

* 

* * 

I met an hundred men on the road to Delphi, and 
they were all my brothers. Rudyard Kipling. 

*** 
Nothing can bring peace but the triumph of 

principles. Emerson. 

* 

* * 

In the world-strife now waging, the victory 
cannot be by violence; and every conquest under 
the Prince of War retards the standard of the 
Prince of Peace. Ruskin. 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[February, 



HULL HOUSE FREE LECTURES. 

[Continued from page 7.] 

hear the speakers and to see the views with which 
many of the lectures were illustrated. For the 
benefit of settlements which may find a way to 
" do likewise " we give in full the list of the lec- 
tures. 

On Tuesday evenings stereopticon lectures were 
given, and numbers two and six of the Friday 
evening lectures were illustrated also. The lectur- 
ers volunteered their services. 
Tuesday, Feb. 2" Greenland." Prof. Rollin D. D. 

Salisbury, University of Chicago. 
Friday, Feb. 5" The National Park." Prof. John 

M. Coulter, University of Chicago. 
Tuesday, Feb. 9" Views from Everywhere." Mr. 

T. Dundass Todd, editor of Photo-Beacon. 
Friday, Feb. 12 "Stories of the Soul Among 

Savages." Prof. William I. Thomas, University 

of Chicago. 
Tuesday, Feb. 16" Paris." Miss Enella Benedict, 

Art Institute. 
Friday, Feb. 19" The Battles of the Rebellion." 

Mr. John D. Cress, Chicago. 
Tuesday, Feb. 23" Gold and Gold Mining." Mr. 

William H. Van Arsdale (Consulting Engineer). 
Friday, Feb. 26" The Story of the Brain." Prof. 

George Herbert Mead, University of Chicago. 
Tuesday, March 2" Japan." Rev. James Gibson 

Johnson, New England Church. 
Friday, March 5" The Russian Peasant and Count 

Tolstoy." Miss Jane Addams, Hull House. 
Tuesday, March 9" Afield with a Camera." Mr. 

T. George Hislop, Chicago. 
Wednesday, March 10 " Travels in Mexico." Prof. 

Frederick Starr, University of Chicago. 



EAST SIDE HOUSE PLANT. 



Effective Outfit for Settlement Work on the East 
Kiver Bank. 



A letter from Bishop Henry C. Potter to the New 
York Evening Post, on the settlement question, 
and warmly endorsing the movement, is a feature 
of the fifth annual report of the East Side House 
of New York City. In addition to the fine list of 
activities which center at the settlement residence 
the possibilities of the plant are well indicated by 
the descriptive list of the East Side House prop- 
erty, which includes: 

Swimming pool, 80 x 12 feet, on the East River 
bank. 

Park, 200x50 feet, with swings, benches and a 
pavilion. 

Small cinder running track. 

Three-story frame building, 40 x 36 feet. 

Three story brick building, 23x64 feet. 

Gymnasium, brick construction, 33x26 feet, well 
equipped. 

The three lots owned by the East Side House, on 
which this property is located, are on the bluff at 



the foot of East Seventy-sixth street, about twenty 
feet above the level of the piers and river front. 
The settlement also leases an adjoining strip of 
land on the river about 200 x 150 feet. 



TRINITY COURT'S SEVENTH YEAR. 



A prettily illustrated pamphlet, just at hand, 
describes the year's work at Trinity Court, the set- 
tlement of Trinity College, located at 131 Camber- 
well Road, S. E., London. This is the seventh 
annual report, and it shows a good year's progress. 
The settlement has a strong religious bent, and 
partakes in some characteristics of the nature of 
a mission, and in addition has many institutional 
features, including a Boys' Brigade, of whose suc- 
cessful summer camp photographs are shown. It 
is very evident that the settlement is really a social 
center in its neighborhood, for within its building 
are held the meetings of labor unions and working- 
men's clubs, a lodge of Odd Fellows, and other 
neighborhood organizations distinct from the set- 
tlement. One of the illustrations shows "Mr. 
Underbill's Bible Class," a splendid group of above 
eighty young men, with their teacher in their 
midst. 

LINCOLN HOUSE REVIEW. 



The Lincoln House Revieic, bimonthly, and pub- 
lished under the auspices of Lincoln House, Bos- 
ton, at twenty-five cents per year, continues to 
present a bright, attractive, well-printed magazine. 
The latest issue contains a variety interesting mat- 
ter, notably a selection from John Stuart Mill, 
under the title of "Choice Passages from Important 
Books on Social Reconstruction." The principal 
article is one by Professor Frank Parsons, 'on "The 
Initiative and Referendum." Future articles an- 
nounced include " The Life of John Ruskin," by 
Professor Vida D. Scudder, " The Life of Charle 
Kingsley," by Robert A. Woods, " The Electric 
Ballot," by Professor Frank Parsons. There will 
be also brief sketches of Owen, Morris, Marx, La- 
Salle, Saint Simon and Le Play, " with a special 
view of giving the social message that each had for 
his time." 

HARTLEY HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT. 



The preliminary announcement of " Hartley 
House," an industrial settlement under the au- 
spices of the New York Society for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor, is sent to us. The name of 
the settlement is in honor of Robert M. Hartley, 
for thirty years the devoted superintendent of the 
work of the association. The location is In the 
heart of one of the most crowded tenement districts 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



of the West Side of New York City, and the special 
work to which the settlement will devote its chief 
efforts will be the instruction of those who have 
had no opportunity to learn, in the essentials of 
home making. The circular says: "The funda- 
mental ends sought to be accomplished are indi- 
cated by the following divisions: (1) Branch of 
free labor bureau; (2) Home-keeping department; 
(3) Industrial branch for women; (4) Library and 
reading room for girls and women; (5) Rational 
recreation department. There are to be in resi- 
dence, as a primary nucleus, a resident head and 
an associate resident, a trained nurse and an in- 
structress in homekeeping." 



MINSTER STREET REPORTS. 



The January issue of The Nazarene, the quaint 
little organ of the Minster Street Neighborhood 
Guild in Philadelphia, was taken up with the re- 
port of the Guild for 1896. It shows that at an 
expense of little more than two thousand dollars 
that beautiful home has been maintained in the 
crowded quarter of Minster street, and has been 
the center of many blessed activities, including a 
large and flourishing girls' club work, sewing 
school, library, savings bank, etc. This is one of 
the settlements where the activity is very largely 
personal rather than institutional, but even the 
tabulated results are most satisfactory. The guild 
house is at 618 Minster street, Philadelphia. The 
subscription price of The Nazarene is fifty cents a 
year. 



SETTLEMENT IN BALTIMORE, 



This letter from Mrs. J. S. Dinwoodie, head 
worker of the Baltimore settlement, No. 1409 Hull 
street, gives tersely enough the history of the work 
there which already has won a warm place in the 
hearts of Baltimore folk of all classes, and an 
assured suppor 

" Since April we have existed, with bodies over- 
worked with the immense field, and leaving all save 
principal points untouched. I worked alone until 
June, when joined by another, whose husband and 
child and my own son make up the family, all of 
whom help in the neighborly works. As we do 
the housekeeping, having as yet no money for do- 
mestic help, our outside work is the more limited." 



A DETROIT SETTLEMENT. 

A social settlement has been opened in Detroit, 
the Kindergarten Magazine announces, with Miss 
Mary L. Peckham as "house mother." The kin- 
dergarten, which has for some time been carried on 
in the Berean Chapel, was the nucleus of the set- 
tlement, which occupies a six-room cottage near 
by. In addition to being an experienced teacher, 



Miss Peckham is, it is said, a kindergartner and 
trained nurse, as well as experienced in social set- 
tlement life. 



All settlement workers, particularly those of 

the College Settlements association, are interested 
in the news of the marriage of Miss Caroline L. 
Williamson, for several years secretary of the 
association, to Dr. Prank Hugh Montgomery. 
Mrs. Montgomery continues as secretary, and com- 
munications may still be addressed to her at 3230 
Michigan avenue, Chicago. 

The Mansfield House Magazine for February 
contains a brief abstract of an address on " Christ 
and Social Reform," delivered there at the Sunday 
Union service on January 17. It is a stirring vision 
of the approach of great spiritual awakening 
among the common people of the United States. 

Xabor StuMes. 



COMPETITIVE INDUSTRIAL ORDER. 



SOME OF ITS OBVIOUS SOCIAL, ASPECTS. 



Sixth Study, Effects Upon Social Conditions of In- 
dustrial Competition Intensified by Machinery. 
Results and Tests of Machine Production 
and of Competitive Distribution. 



[CONDUCTED BY PROFESSOR GRAHAM TAYLOR.] 
Swift as are the changes in modern social condi- 
tions, they are the less observable because we are 
all borne onward together by the mighty tide of 
life. To quicken observation and realize the 
change we need the testimony of some contem- 
porary who stops to look back and recalls the im- 
pressions made by transition in order to add the 
emphasis of its effects which can only be realized 
leng afterwards. 

A STORY-TELLER AS AN EYE WITNESS. 

No more interesting evidence can be cited to 
corroborate the half-conscious impressions of the 
passing present by the more impressive facts of the 
recent past than J. M. Barrie gives us in his filial 
tribute to his mother, " Margaret Ogilvy," and the 
story of his own boyhood's experience of the 
change in his early home, when the little old fam- 
ily community was suddenly changed into the new 
factory town. 

"Before I reached my tenth year a giant entered 
my native place in the night, and we woke to find 
him in possession. He transformed it into a new 
place at a rate with which we boys only could 
keep up, for as fast as he built dams we made rafts 
to sail on them; he knocked down houses, and there 
we were crying, ' PillyP among the ruins; he dug 
trenches and we jumped them; we had to be 
dragged by the legs from beneath his engines ; he 
sunk wells and in we went. But though there were 
never circumstances to which boys could not adapt 
themselves in half an hour, older folks are slower 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[February, 



in the uptake, and I am sure they stood and gaped 
at the changes so suddenly being worked in our 
midst, and scarce knew their way home in 
the dark. Where had been formerly but the 
click of the shuttle was soon the roar of 'power,' 
hand-looms were pushed into the corner as a room 
is cleared for a dance. Every morning at half -past 
five the town was awakened with a yell, and from 
a chimney-stalk that rose high into our caller air 
the conqueror waved forevermore his flag of 
smoke. Another era had dawned, new customs, 
new fashions sprang into life, all as lusty as if they 
had been born at twenty-one. As quickly as two 
people may exchange seats, the daughter, till now 
but a knitter of stockings, became the bread-win- 
ner, he who had been the bread-winner sat down to 
the knitting of stockings; what had been yesterday 
a nest of weavers was to-day a town of girls." 

In what is likely to be a too one-sidedly 
serious and ominous subject to any one who sees, 
much more feels, the awful undertow of social 
progress at this great turn of the tide, the fun and 
pathos, the gain and loss depicted in this humanly 
two-sided story is not amiss. And so we yield to 
its spell for a few sentences more: 

" I am not of those who would fling stones at the 
change; it is something, surely, that backs are no 
longer prematurely bent; you may no more look 
through dim panes of glass at the aged poor weav- 
ing tremulously for their little bit of ground in the 
cemetery. Rather are their working years too 
few now, not because they will it so, but because 
it is with youth that the power-looms must be fed. 
Well this teaches them to make provision, and 
they have the means as they never had before. 
Not in batches are boys now sent to college, the 
half-dozen have dwindled to one, doubtless be- 
cause in these days they can begin to draw wages 
as they step out of their fourteenth year. Here 
assuredly there is loss, but all the losses would be 
but a pebble in a sea of gain were it not for this, 
that with so many of the family, young mothers 
among them, working in factories, home life is not 
so beautiful as it was. So much of what is great in 
Scotland has sprung from the closeness of the 
family ties; it is there I sometimes fear that my 
country is being struck. That we are all being 
reduced to one dead level, that character abounds 
no more and life itself is less interesting, such things 
I have read but I do not believe them. In our 
little town, which is a sample of many, life is as 
interesting, as pathetic, as joyous as ever it was; 
no group of weavers was better to look at or think 
about than the rivulet of winsome girls that over- 
runs our streets every time the sluice is raised, the 
comedy of summer evenings and winter firesides is 
played with the old zest and every window blind is 
the curtain of a romance. Once the lights of a 
little town are lit, who could ever hope to recall 
its story or the story of a simple wynd in it? And 
who looking at lighted windows needs to turn to 
books?" 

The social changes thus graphically described, 
and narrated throughout these studies, although 
undoubtedly coincident with and involved in the 
development of the competitive, machine-produc- 
tion system of industry, are not inconsiderately and 
by wholesale, to be attributed to it as wholly the 
effects of even this complex cause. 



Many of these social ills are so unquestionably 
to be found both before and beyond the sway of 
our present industrial order, as to raise a question 
regarding the relation of effect and cause between 
them and this system of industry. 

ANCIENT VERSION OP OUR MODERN TRAMP PROBLEM. 

The "tramp," for example, is often claimed to be 
the product, exclusively, of our machine-wage-sys- 
tem, never known among men before its introduc- 
tion. But long before either the wage-system or 
machinery were known Sir Thomas More penned 
the following pathetically powerful picture of 
family-tramping in the fifteenth century, which is 
as much worse than we have ever known, as women 
and little children are less able than single men to 
take care of themselves "on the road." 

"By one means or other, by hook or by crook, 
they must needs depart away, for, wretched souls, 
men, women, husbands, wives, fatherless children, 
widows, wof ul mothers with their young babes and 
their whole household, small in substance and 
much in number, as husbandry requireth many 
hands. Away they trudge, I say, out of their known 
and accustomed houses, finding no place to rest in. 
All their household stuff, which is very little worth, 
though it might well abide a sale, yet being sud- 
denly thrust out, they be constrained to sell it for 
a thing of naught. And when they have wandered 
about till that be spent, what can they else do but 
steal, and then justly, pardy," [i. e., pardon the mis- 
use of the word "justly"} "be hanged, or else go 
about a begging? And yet, then as they be cast 
into prison as vagabonds, because they go about 
and work not, whom no man will set to work, 
though they so willingly proffer themselves 
thereto. For one shepherd or herdsman is enough 
to eat up that ground with cattle to the occupying 
whereof about husbandry many hands were requi- 
site." 

While the wholesale displacement of labor and 
lack of employment ante-date machinery by two 
centuries, it is to be noted that our eminent author 
thus lodges in literature monumental evidence as 
to the social effects of the introduction or wider 
application of the competitive principle to English 
industrial life. For he writes in protest of the 
competition between the new wool-growing inter- 
ests with agriculture for the possession of the soil, 
which, in the effort to compete with Flanders for 
the woolen trade of the world, supplanted whole 
farming populations by a few herdsmen, and de- 
stroyed entire villages of houses to make a single 
ranch. 

INTENSIVE FORCE IN DIRECT EFFECTS. 

Thus, while the vast social changes, which for 
better or worse, are coincident with the indubitable 
progress of our modern life, are not to be attributed 
to machine-production as their sole source, yet, it 
cannot be questioned that the machine-system has 
intensified all and occasioned some of the follow- 
ing effects upon labor: 

(I.) The Separation of the Employing and Em- 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



13 



ployed Classes, the former becoming more irre- 
sponsible, and the latter being left to suffer their 
own resourcelessness. But the growth of the work- 
ingmen's independence, both in spirit and when 
organized, industrially, is to be noted as a direct 
result of this separation. 

(2.) The Concentration of Capital and especially 
the tools of production in the hands of relatively 
few; the consequent depletion of the numerical 
and economic power of the middle classes and the 
increase of a propertyless wage-class dependent 
upon the few owners of machine-tools for the op- 
portunity to earn their subsistence and for their 
standard of living. But whatever advantages have 
come to the industrial classes from their combina- 
tion in labor organizations are directly attributable 
to the necessity to organize forced upon labor by 
this concentration of capital. 

OUR WEALTHY AND PROPERTYLESS FAMILIES. 

NOTE. The relation between the concentration 
of wealth and propertyless population now existing 
in our own country is most ingeniously brought to 
light and conclusively demonstrated by Charles B. 
Spahr in his recent volume "The Present Distribu- 
tion of Wealth in the United States" (T. Y. Crowell 
& Co., N. Y.). From a great variety of public, 
official, documentary sources (including both the 
United States and Massachusetts Reports, Savings 
Bank accounts compared with the records of Sur- 
rogate or Probate Courts), which with remarkable 
concurrence establish almost identically the same 
percentages; he draws the following conclusions: 

"That while the aggregate number of wealthy 
families in the United States is but little larger 
than in Great Britain, and their aggregate wealth 
less, and that the number of the well-to-do class is 
three times as large in the United States as in 
Great Britain, yet the following disparity obtains 
here in 1890: 

125,000 families worth $50,000 and over, own $33,000,000,000, 
or $204,000 per family; 1,375,000 families worth $5,000 to $50,- 
000, own $23,000,000,000, or $16,000 per family; 5,500,000 fam- 
ilies worth $500 to $5,000, own $8,200,000,000, or $1,500 per 
family; 5,500,000 families worth under $500, own $800,000,000, 
or $J 50 per family. 

Thus, while less than half the families in Amer- 
ica are propertyless, nevertheless seven-eighths of 
the families hold but one-eighth of the national 
wealth and one per cent, of the families hold more 
than the remaining ninety-nine. 

Again, comparing incomes, the following con- 
trasts appear: 

200,000 families receive $5,000 and over, $3,500 being the 
average from labor, an aggregate of $700,000,000; 1,300,000 
families receive $5,000 to $1,200; $1,200 being the average 
from labor, an aggregate of $1,560,000,000; 11,000,000 families 
receive $1,200 and under; $380 being the average from labor, 



an aggregate of $4,200,000,000. The aggregate income from 
capital being $4,340,000,000, as against $6,460,000,000 from 
labor. 

Classifying the incomes of both capitalistic and 
laboring families still further he finds that "more 
than five-sixths of the incomes of the wealthiest 
class is received by the 125,000 richest families, 
while less than one-half of the incomes of the work- 
ing classes is received by the poorest 6,500,000 
families. In other words,one per cent, of our families 
receive nearly one-fourth of the national income, 
while fifty per cent, receive barely one-fifth." De- 
spite the fact "that the general distribution of in- 
comes in the United States is wider and better 
than in most countries of Western Europe, how- 
ever, one-eighth of the families in America receive 
more than half the aggregate income, and the rich- 
est one per cent., receives a larger income than the 
poorest fifty per cent. In fact, this small class of 
wealthy property-owners receives from property 
alone as large an income as half of our people re- 
ceive from property and labor." 

ABSOLUTE VERSUS RELATIVE GAIN FOR LABOR. 

(3). The lowering of the price of manufacturers' 
goods and the increase in the purchasing power oj 
labor together with the great growth in the pro- 
portion of wage receivers to the total population, 
indicate very marked gain in the comfort and general 
social condition of the industrial classes considered 
as a whole and compared, for instance, with their 
social status immediately before or soon after the 
introduction of the factory system. 

But, relatively to the increased productivity of 
labor, not even the claimants for the largest 
absolute gains of labor pretend to contend that 
labor receives its proportionate share of the value 
of the total product. 

NOTE. The trenchant criticism of official statis- 
tical returns, upon which are based the claims of 
the increase in the rate of wages, should be studied 
in Spohr's volume above noted, Chapter V, on 
" Recent History of Wages," and in the article by 
H. L. Bliss in the American Journal of Sociology for 
January, 1897, on " Eccentric Official Statistics." 
On the other side Giffin's " Progress of the Working 
Classes in the Last Half Century," and W. H. 
Mallock's " Classes and Masses " (A. and C. Black), 
deal with English industrial conditions where they 
both maintain that the inequalities between capital 
and labor are growing less. 

(4.) The increase in the complexity, fluctuations, 
speculative element and uncertainty of industrial inter- 
esteaffects the social condition of labor by enhanc- 
ing the precariousness of livelihood, shortening the 
working season and lengthening its working day, 
lessening the yearly average of wages by the more 
frequent intervals of enforced idleness, and by 



14 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[February, 



breaking up the permanency of abode and com- 
pelling populations to become transient through 
the necessity of seeking work from place to place. 

DETERIORATION AND ADVANCE IN POPULATIONS. 

(5.) The centralization of population in factory 
towns and manufacturing cities has ever been at- 
tended with the most serious social and ethical 
effects upon the sanitary, safety, family interests 
and moral condition of the operative classes. These 
more disastrous results, however, in almost every 
aspect, have been worse at the initiation of the 
Factory System, during the first few years of the 
history of these industrial centers, and in the most 
congested parts of the greatest cities. Marked 
improvements in the safety appliances and sanitary 
provisions for shops; in transferring the heavy and 
low grade toil from the human back and muscle 
to the iron lever, steel chain and steam engine; in 
reducing the hours of the working day, bettering 
the houses, increasing the educational advantages 
and social privileges of industrial towns or dis- 
tricts; these and many more signs of social progress 
in industrial life early began to give more hopeful 
promise to the new order, and have attended its 
devious and often darkened development suffici- 
ently to relieve the hopelessness with which the 
future has been fraught to increasing multitudes. 

WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN INDUSTRY. 

(6.) The disproportionate increase of women workers 
over men, and the persistency of child labor, have 
more slowly withdrawn their menace to the work- 
ingmen's home. 

NOTE. The unverified advance statement of 
"United States Labor Commissioner Wright's forth- 
coming Eleventh Annual Report furnishes the 
following comparative showing of the present 
status (1895-1896) which however does not include 
many callings in which women and children 
abound : 

Male employes, 18 years of age or over, increased 
in the present period over the former period 63.1 
per cent., while female employes of the same age 
increased 66.3 per cent. Male employes under 18 
years of age increased 80.6 per cent., while female 
employes under 18 years of age increased 89.1 per 
cent. The proportion of females 10 years of age 
and over employed in all occupations in the United 
States rose in its relation to the whole number 
employed from 14.68 in 1870 to 17.22 in 1890, while 
males decreased in proportion from 85.32 per cent, 
in 1870 to 82.78 per cent, in 1890. Of the total 
females, 88.7 per cent, were single, 8.5 per cent, 
married, 2.5 per cent, divorced. In 76.1 per cent, 
of the instances where women do the same work 
with the same efficiency as men, they receive less 
pay for it than the men, in 16.5 per cent, they 



receive greater pay than men, and in 7.4 per cent, 
the same pay for the same work. But the men's 
pay is 50.1 per cent, greater than the women's 
where they get more for the same work, while the 
women's is only 10.3 per cent, greater than the 
men's when their wages exceed. The completion 
of the pending compilation of wage statistics in 
leading countries of the world will be awaited 
with interest. 

(7.) The last and most far reaching of the social 
effects of the machine production system here 
noted is the intensifying, the permanency . and the 
practically universal pervasiveness of the principle of 
industrial competition, to the Ethical Aspects of 
which our next Study will be devoted. 

Social ano OLabor Songs ano poems 

THE following " labor hymn," written by Mrs. N- 
E. Sly, head worker of the Northwestern Univer- 
sity settlement, has been sung and much enjoyed 
there. We are indebted for it to Secretary Philip 
W. Ayres, of the Bureau of Charities, who is a 
resident of that settlement: 



The earth is Thine, O Lord, 

'Twas fashioned by Thy hand; 
Thou gayest it to the sons of men, 
And said. " Possess the land." 
We thank Thee for Thy gift 
A. glorious heritage; 

The work of our hands establish Thou, 
And bless from age to age. 

Our smiling harvest fields, 

The fruits of vine and tree 
Belong to all the sons of men 
By Thy divine decree. 
We thank Thee for this gift 
A glorious heritage; 
The work of our hands establish Thou, 
And bless from age to age. 

Thou gavest to man the skill 

That fashioned wheel and bands 
Which bears the yields of fruitful fields 
To the more barren lands. 
We thank Thee for this gift 
A glorious heritage; 
The work of our hands establish Thou, 
And bless from age to age., 

We toil with spade or wheel, 
With trowel, plane or pen; 
The work of our hands we gladly give 
To bless our fellow men. 
We thank Thee for Thy gifts 
A glorious heritage; 
The work of our hands establish Thou, 
And bless from age to age. 



CHICAGO COMMONS LEAFLETS. The article in a 
former issue of CHICAGO COMMONS, reprinted from the 
Chicago Advance, entitled " Foreign Missions at Home," and 
suggesting the points of resemblance in scope and method 
between the settlements and the foreign missionary stations, 
has been issued as No. l in a proposed series of "Chicago 
Commons Leaflets." It is a folder convenient for enclosure 
in a letter, and better than any other single article we know 
of, explains the Settlement idea from this point of view. 
This leaflet may be obtained in any quantity at the rate of 
two for a cent, postage prepaid. 



1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS 



15 



MUNICIPAL FUNCTIONS." 



Topic for the Next Session of the Inter-Settlement 
Social Economic Conference. 



Some pending engagements make it still impos- 
sible to set absolutely the date of the spring ses- 
sion of the Social Economic Conference, which 
will be held, probably, in May, under the auspices 
of Chicago Commons and Hull House. These 
conferences were begun under the title of the 
" Chicago Commons School of Social Economics," 
and were held in the settlement whose name they 
bore, but so satisfactory was the result of the 
co-operation with Hull House in the session of 
December 7-12 last, that there has since been no 
doubt that they would be continued, for the pres- 
ent at least, in the same way. 

The topic of the spring session will be u Mu- 
nicipal Functions," and the growing interest in 
the subject of municipal government makes it 
safe to assure a most valuable series of discus- 
sions. The municipal ownership and control will 
be fully discussed, and other points involved in the 
general subject under consideration will be fully 
treated. 

In the next issue of CHICAGO COMMONS the pro- 
gramme will be outlined as fully as possible. 

Settlement anfc 1ReiQbborboot>. 




CHICAGO COMMONS. 

14O North Union Street, at Milwaukee Avenue. 

(Reached by all Milwaukee avenue cable and electriccars, 
or by Grand avenue or Halsted street electriccars, stopping 
at corner of Austin avenue and Halsted street, one block 
west of Union street.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement located 
on North Union street, two doors from the southwest cor- 
ner of Milwaukee avenue and the crossing of Union street 
upon Milwaukee and Austin avenues. 

Object. As explained in the second clause of the Articles 
of Incorporation of the Chicago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of Illinois: 

"2. The object for which it is formed Is to provide a center for a 
higher civic and social life to initiate and maintain religious, educa- 
tional and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate and Improve 
conditions in the industrial district* of Chicago." 

Or, as the explanatory circular of the settlement has ex- 
plained it: 



" As exemplified at Chicago Commons, the Social Settlement con- 
sists primarily of a group of people who choose to make their borne 
In that part of the great city where they seem to be most needed, 
rather than where the neighborhood offers the most of privileee or 
social prestige." 

Support The work is supported in addition to what the 
residents are able to pay for rent of rooms, by the free-will 
gifts of those who believe in what the work stands for. The 
gift of any person is welcomed, and the contributions are 
both occasional and regular, the latter being paid in in- 
stalments, monthly, quarterly and annually, at the conven- 
ience of the giver. 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome 'at any time, 
but the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 

Information concerning the work of Chicago Commons 
is gladly furnished to all who inquire. A four-page leaflet 
bearing a picture of our residence, and other literature de- 
scribing the work will be mailed to anyone upon applica- 
tion. Please enclose postage. 

Residence All inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should be 
addressed to GRAHAM TAYLOR, Resident Warden. 



RECEPTION AT THE COMMONS. 

School Teachers and Non-resident Workers Wel- 
comed at the Settlement. 



Two exceedingly interesting and enjoyable 
occasions have marked the recent history of the 
Commons. The first was a reception and afternoon 
tea in honor of the school teachers of the ward. 
The teachers responded with cordiality, and fairly 
filled the house that afternoon, getting what was 
really their first insight into the work of the 
settlement. Professor Taylor spoke at some 
length of the various phases of the work, and 
answered many questions. The two public schools 
of the ward, the Montefiore and Washington 
schools, were strongly represented, and not a little 
gain has been made in our work with the boys, for 
instance, through the co-operation with the teach- 
ers, which has resulted from this meeting and its 
consequent better acquaintance. 

Another highly enjoyed reception was that to 
the non-resident workers of the settlement. It has 
been long in contemplation, but the number was 
so large and their residences, and work at the 
settlement so scattered in point of territory and 
time respectively, that it was well-nigh impossible 
to settle upon a day convenient to all. When it 
finally took place, it afforded a welcome oppor- 
tunity to talk over the work, the settlement motive 
and movement, and for all to enjoy the display of 
the varied talents that have been put to so good 
use in the service of the Commons neighborhood. 



OUR BENEFIT ENTERTAINMENT. 



Columbia School of Oratory Lends a Hand Toward 
the Settlement's Support. 



No better friends have the workers in the 
Commons than the heads and students of the 
Columbia School of Oratory, and they have lately 
exhibited their interest in the most practical way. 
In Steinway Hall, on Thursday evening, February 
llth, these good friends carried out their long 



16 



CHICAGO COMMONS 



[February. 



anticipated plan of giving a benefit entertainment 
for the Commons work. There was a very large 
audience, and the programme was first-class in the 
most exact sense of the phrase. Those taking part 
were Mr. William Middelschulte, Miss Elizabeth 
Woodbury, Mr. W. C. E. Seeboeck, Mrs. Theodora 
C. B. Dean, Miss Bertha M. Kaderly, Miss Glenna 
Smith, Miss Gertrude Smith and Miss Mary A. 
Blood. It was largely through the efforts and 
interest of Miss Blood that the occasion was 
arranged and its success assured, though all con- 
nected with the Columbia School of Oratory count 
themselves and are counted by the residents of the 
settlement as staunch friends of the work. A 
large party of the students recently visited the 
Commons and with great interest observed the 
work then in progress, and Professor Taylor 
shortly afterward at the school made explanation 
of the history, motive and activity of the settle- 
ment. 

COMMONS NOTES. 



Five classes of boys are now regularly 

engaged in the practice of manual training. It is 
solving the problem of our unruly boys. 

Friends are adding to our already valuable 

collection of material on social and general 
subjects by sending important pamphlets, clip- 
pings, etc. Such are always welcome and always 
carefully preserved. 

The young men of Mr. T. P. Ballard's Sunday 

School class in the First Congregational Church of 
Evanston still co-operate generously in the matter 
of the boys' work, especially of the boys' library, 
which is used with great eagerness by some fifty 
of our boys, many of whom are now for the first 
time gaining an interest in reading. 

The Young Men's Brotherhood of the Taber- 
nacle church, which has for some months held its 
meetings at the Commons, gave a most successful 
Washington's Birthday banquet at the church. It 
was largely attended, and greatly enjoyed. Not- 
able as a feature of the programme was the drill 
of a picked team from the Brotherhood gymnasium 
class, which through the kindness of the Theolog- 
ical Seminary authorities and of the gymnasium 
director, Mr. Roy B. Guild, has been practicing all 
winter once a week in the Seminary gymnasium 
under Mr. Guild's direction and training. 

~ Undiminished interest marks the Tuesday 

evening economic meeting at the Commons. It is 
still a meeting ground for many classes of society 
and many shades and kinds of opinion and creed. 
It is still characterized by the utmost freedom of 
speech and tolerance. Among recent speakers 
have been Mr. D. D. Thompson, of the North- 
western Christian Advocate who spoke on 
" Religious Phases of the Labor Movement", Mr. 
Luther Conant, of Oak Park, who discussed some 
tendencies of modern capitalism, Dr. Bayard 
Holmes, Mr. George E. Hooker, of Hull House, 
Rev. Duncan C. Milner, of Armour Mission, 
Secretary Elderkin, of the Seamen's Union, and 
others. 



Sfcetcbes 



THE work of all the Chicago settlements has 
been fairly demoralized during the past weeks by 
their necessity of turning themselves into bureaus of 
supplies for the cold and hungry neighbors. There 
was no avoiding it. Take for instance the case of 
a poor neighbor, to minister to whose bodily ail- 
ment a physcian's help was called. Soon the doctor 
was at the door with this report: 

" Why that woman isn't sick. She has had faint- 
ing spells, to be sure, and has no relish for her 
food, but there's nothing the matter with her ex- 
cept that she needs something to eat! If you or I 
had lived for two months on mush and milk twice 
a day, without salt or sugar, and without a mouth- 
ful of anything else, I guess we would lose our 
appetite for our food. It's enough to turn the 
stomach of an angel! Here's a prescription "- 
and with that he handed in an order on the neigh- 
boring butcher for some good soup meat, and the 
good friends who have helped in the emergency 
enabled the Commons residents to add not a little 
else to vary the poor old woman's diet for a while. 



" I LOVE little pussy, her coat is so warm," sang 
the kindergarten the other morning, and one 
youngster thought it was not specific enough to 
cover the cases of families wherein a dog, rather 
than a cat, was the pet. So, while the teachers who 
remembered the frantic efforts they had made to 
pass the plug-nosed brute who guarded the young- 
ster's door, struggled with suppressed laughter, 
the school sang, with new ardor, 

" I love my dear bull-dog, his coat is so warm, 
And If I don't hurt him he'll do me no harm," 
etc., etc. 



THE care necessary in the teaching of children, 
to avoid the wrong impressions due to mispro- 
nunciation and misunderstanding, was brought to 
mind in the kindergarten in connection with the 
preparations for the Washington's birthday cele- 
bration at the Commons, when, almost without ex- 
ception, the children were discovered to be sing- 
ing, with huge satisfaction : 

" Three chairs for the red, white and blue!" 

The joke appears when one appreciates that our 
kindergarten chairs are painted red, and give the 
children so much pleasure by their color that there is 
always a protest when a child has to sit in one of the 
plain brown chairs, of which we have a few. Thus 
it was that the youngsters felt they could do no 
greater honor to the red, white and blue than to 
vote three of their beautiful red chairs to the cause 
of patriotism and the glory of the flag. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



A. C. McCLURG & CO. 



BOOKSELLERS 



PUBLISHERS 



STATIONERS 



. o 

Offer a complete stock not only of the lighter books of the day, such as in FICTION 

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and careful selections in such departments as 

Sociology, Economics, 

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Political Science and Finance 



The Books on Sociology, referred to from time to time in CHICAGO COMMONS, can be 

obtained of 

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Hill 



XX 



VOL. \ No. 



A MONTHLY RECORD OF 
, SOCIAL SETTLEMENT 

LIFE AND WORK 

CHIQXOO 



MARCH, 



i 



50 
Cents 



Year 



nnO move among the people on the 
common street ; to meet them in 
the market place on equal terms; to live 
among them not as saint or monk, but as 
brother-man with brother-man ; to serve 
God not with form or ritual, but in the 
free impulse of a soul ; to bear the burdens 
of society and relieve its needs; to carry 
on the multitudinous activities of the city 
social, commercial, political, philanthropic 
in Christ's spirit and for his ends : this is 
the religion of the Son of Man and the 
only meetness for Heaven which has much 
reality in it. Henry Drummond. 



TO ALL SETTLEMENTS: I 

Send Files of all your Literature and Historical Matter for 
the Settlement Bureau. Address 

EDITOR OF CHICAGO COMMONS, 

J40 North Union St., CHICAGO, ILL, 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 




OTHING 



IN THIS 



WORLD 



Is so cheap as a newspaper, whether it be measiired by the cost 
of its production or by its value to the consumer. We are talking 
about an American, metropolitan daily paper of the first class like 



THE 

CHICAGO RECORD. 



It's so cheap and so good you can't afford in this day of progress 
to be without it. There are other papers possibly as good, but none 
better, and none just like it. It prints all the real news of the 
world the news you care for every day, and prints it in the shortest 
possible space. You can read THE CHICAGO RECORD and 
do a day's work too. It is an independent paper and gives all 
political news free from the taint of party bias. In a word it's 
a complete, condensed, clean, honest family newspaper, and it has 
the largest morning circulation in Chicago or the west over 
200,000 a day. 

Prof. J. T. Hatfield of the Northwestern University says : "THE 
CHICAGO RECORD t comes as near being the ideal daily 
journal as we are for some time likely to find on these 
mortal shores." 

Sold by newsdealers everywhere, and subscriptions 
received by all postmasters. Address, 

THE CHICAGO RECORD, 

181 MADISON STREET. 



CHICAGO COMMONS 

A Monthly Record of Social Settlement Life and Work. 



Vol. I. 



MARCH, 1897. 



No. 12. 



HOW WEARY IS OUR HEART. 



Of ceremonious embassies that hold 
Parley with hell in tine and silken phrase, 
How weary is our heart these many days ! 

Of wavering counsellors, neither hot nor cold, 
Whom from His mouth God speweth, be it told, 
How weary is our heart these many days! 

Yea, for the ravelled night is round the lands, 

And sick are we of all the imperial story, 
The tramp of Power, and its long trail of pain; 

The mighty brows in meanest arts grown hoary ; 
The mighty hands. 

That in the dear, affronted name of Peace 
Bind down a people to be racked and slain; 

The emulous armies waxing without cease, 
All-puissant all in vain ; 

The pacts and leagues to murder by delays. 
And the dumb throngs that on the deaf thrones gaze; 

The common, loveless lust of territory; 
The lips that only babble of their mart 

While to the night the shrieking hamlets blaze; 
The bought allegiance, and the purchased praise, 

False honor, and shameful glory 
Of all the evil whereof this is part, 

How weary is our heart, 
How weary is our heart these many days ! 

William Watson, in the London Chronicle. 



PLANNING FOR SUMMER 



Help Needed to Meet the Great Need and Opportu- 
nityNot Too Soon to Begin Arrangements. 



None too soon do the Commons residents feel it 
to be to begin. the planning for the summer cam- 
paign, and none too soon to begin enlisting the in- 
terest of the friends upon whom we must depend 
for support during the financially dull months of 
the heated season. The experience of the last 
summer taught us many things concerning the 
needs of such a work as ours during those weeks 
of sultry weather and physical weariness. In some 
respects it is the most trying and difficult time in 
the settlement year. The work is less formal, 
necessarily less organized, more personal, and the 
fatigues of hot weather are more severe. More- 
over, the force is necessarily short-handed. Hence 
we feel very strongly our need, and our right and 
duty, to ask the most cordial assistance in our 
effort to make the summer work of the Commons 
tell for the most. We who will remain upon the 
field willingly give what it demands in the way of 



tax upon ourselves, but we feel that there should 
not be added to that the burden of anxiety concern- 
ing our financial support while on the field. 

THE SUMMER KINDERGARTEN. 

It is still too early to enter into intimate details, 
but some idea can be given. In the first place, it 
is our expectation to continue the kindergarten, 
practically without interruption throughout the 
summer. This depends, however, upon whether the 
friends of the settlement and of the little children 
in whose behalf this work will be undertaken will 
give it support. We have practical assurance of 
the gratuitous service of two or more trained kin- 
dergartners who will give their summer vacations 
in this unselfish way. Only their actual expenses 
must be provided, and for this the sum of $50 will 
be sufficient. We shall be glad to begin " salting 
down " the gifts of our friends for this purpose. 
The value of this kind of service cannot be overes- 
timated. In the long summer vacations harm is 
done to the little children who have no playground 
but the street, which could be prevented if the 
kindergarten could be continued. It depends upon 
the readers of CHICAGO COMMONS whether this 
shall be done this year. 

THE SUMMER OUTINGS. 

Another species of work to which we are hoping 
to devote ourselves is the sending of individuals 
and parties away into the suburban and rural dis- 
tricts so far as we have opportunities. Good friends 
in Elgin, Downer's Grove, Dwight, Berwyn, Evans- 
ton, Longwood, Oak Park and elsewhere co-opera- 
ted so eagerly last summer in this activity that we 
feel confident there will be no lack of help in this 
direction this year. It is scarcely too soon to begin 
planning for it. No service to which the Sunday- 
schools, clubs and other agencies of the suburban 
towns could devote themselves would give more 
pleasure or do more good. 

FRESH AIR FUND AND FLOWERS. 

The officers of the parent Chautauqua, in New 
York state, sent us last summer a check for $59 to 
apply upon our fresh air fund, and there were 
other gifts for the same purpose. "We shall need 
more this year if we are to do all that we might in 
the way of sending tired mothers and others who 
cannot go away for an extended period to the 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[March, 



parks and nearer suburbs. The smallest gifts, 
from one cent upward, can be put to good use in 
this way. 

Another delightful and far-reaching part of the 
settlement work last summer was the ministry of 
flowers which the kindness of friends in all parts 
of the surrounding territory enabled us to main- 
tain. From even as far-away as Iowa came the 
fragrant tributes, and many a home in our neigh- 
borhood was brightened by the bouquets. The 
Chicago Flower Mission was an indispensable 
source of supply and communication in this man- 
ner. 

In short, in all the ways in which we can be use- 
ful for the exchange of human relationship in the 
blistering months that are before us, not less try- 
ing, not less full of suffering and deprivation than 
the bitter winter for those who are poor and neg- 
lected by their fellows, we hold ourselves ready to 
act as faithful administrators of the gifts and help- 
fulnesses of our friends. We have nothing to give 
but ourselves. 

flu tbe TOorlfc of Settlements, 

A PLACE OF EXCHANGE. 



Hull House stands not so much for a solution of 
problems as a place of exchange . . . the exchange 
is the vital thing- This is the heart of the movement. 
This is the reason of the settlement ; the rest is pure 
facade. This only can destroy the artificial and 
justify its life. It must help that direct touch of 
richer with poorer, wise with simple, learned with 
untaught, dynamic with static, which has for its aim 
the realization by all the children of their kinship 
with the great family. Dr. Dorothea Moore, in the 
American Journal of Sociology. 



" These trifles! Can it be they make or mar 

A human life ? 
Are souls as lightly swayed as rushes are, 

By love or strife?" 

" Yea, yea! A look the fainting heart may break 

Or make it whole; 
And just one word, if said for love's sweet sake 

May save a soul !" 



PASSMORE EDWARDS HOUSE. 



New Settlement in the Bloomsbury District of Lon- 
donSplendid Endowment Letter From 
Mrs. Humphrey Ward. 



A recent issue of CHICAGO COMMONS an- 
nounced the completion by Mrs. Humphrey Ward, 
of the effort to establish " Passmore Edwards 
House," in the Bloomsbury district of London. 
We have since received a clipping from the Chris- 
tian World, of London, published some time ago, 
and outlining the plan of the settlement. From 



this it appears that the new movement was more 
or less an outgrowth of the work of the University 
Hall settlement, carried on at Marchmont Hall. A 
site was acquired, at the corner of Tavistock Place 
and Little Coram Street, at a cost of $25,000, on 
which to build. The Duke of Bedford presented 
along with the site, for which a nominal rental of 
$50 a year is to be paid, a large piece of ground to 
serve as a garden, guaranteeing that it shall not be 
built upon. There was a brisk competition be- 
tween a number of able architects for the planning 
of the buildings, which include a public building, 
with concert hall, library, gymnasium and class 
rooms, work-shops, billiard rooms, etc., together 
with a residence for eighteen residents and warden. 
The total cost will be about 20,000, and Passmore 
Edwards having given 10,000 of that sum, the 
settlement will bear his name. The residence will 
be known as Emerson House. " Under the new 
articles of association," says the Christian World, 
" the committee will be bound to devote some of 
their resources to an improved teaching of the 
Bible in the light of modern knowledge and 
research; but the social work will be quite disso- 
ciated from any special form of religious propa- 
ganda." 

MRS. WARD'S LETTER. 

Just as we go to press, the following letter in 
reply to one of inquiry comes from Mrs. Ward, and 
adds the definite word needed to complete the 
news of the new settlement: 

LEWENS HALL, MILNTHORPE, ENGLAND, ) 
March 9, 1897. ) 
EDITOR OF CHICAGO COMMONS, 

Dear Sir: I shall be very glad to send you the papers 
concerning the Passmore Edwards settlement as soon 
as they are finally passed for publication. At present, 
however, our draft programme, etc., are still in proof and 
await the final ratification of the Council within the next 
week or two. The buildings of the new settlement are 
rising fast and will be ready for opening in October. They 
will be, we believe, the most beautiful and commodious yet 
erected for settlement purposes in London, and by the 
kindness of the Duke of Bedford, the ground landlord, will 
have a garden attached to them a great boon in a very 
crowded part of London. But when I am able to send you 
the papers you will see that they contain all the information 
we have at present to give. Believe me, 

Faithfully, MARY A. WARD. 



CHURCH SETTLEMENT HOUSE. 



Annual Report of the Episcopal Work in East 84th 
Street, New York. 



Dated January, 1897, the annual report of the 
Church Settlement House (329 East 84th street, 
New York, Miss Marion L. Gurney, director), is 
just at hand. It is an inspiring statement of the 
progress of a good work. " We feel that we may 
fairly regard our work as having passed the experi- 
mental stage," they say. " Experience has fully 
upheld the fundamental principles of our lives and 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



work. We are more than ever convinced of the 
futility of presenting religious truth to the masses 
without a practical demonstration of the brother- 
hood of man, and the equal hopelessness of at- 
tempted social reform based on any other founda- 
tion than that of the Incarnation." The Church 
Settlement feels its mission to be primarily to the 
large and apparently increasing body of the non- 
church-goers. Its forms of activity are practically 



A SETTLEMENT SYMPOSIUM. 



Publication of the Papers and Addresses Delivered 
at the Grand Rapids Charities Conference. 



Under the title " Social Settlements and the La- 
bor Question " have been published, in a pamphlet 
of about seventy-five pages, the papers and ad- 




JN THE HULL HOUSE RECEPTION ROOM. 

[Printed by courtesy of the American Journal of Sociology.] 



the same as in other settlements, including as they 
do the kindergarten, clubs, classes, etc. And it is 
especially delightful to find at the end of the report 
the words which, more than any others we ever 
see, indicate a fine appreciation of the settlement 
idea and motive: "As we discern more and more 
clearly the outlines of our future work, we see 
that our chief function is not so much to work for 
the people as with them, and that many of the 
social and religious questions which vex us now 
find their true solution in the magic word 'to- 
gether.'" 



dresses in the Social Settlement Section of the 
National Conference of Charities and Correction, 
at Grand Rapids, Mich., in June of last year. 
There is no more comprehensive volume on the 
subject of settlements than this. It contains, in 
this order, the papers and addresses on " What the 
Settlement Work Stands For," by Miss Julia C. 
Lathrop, of Hull House; "English and Scotch Set- 
tlements," by Dr. William C. Caldwell, of North- 
western University; "The Settlement aud Educa. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[March, 



tion," by Jacob J. Abt, of the Maxwell street set- 
tlement, Chicago; "The Settlement and Organized 
Charity," by Miss Mary E. McDowell, of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago settlement; "Social Settle- 
ments," by C. S. Loch, secretary of the London 
Charity organization; "Civic Efforts of Social Set- 
tlements," by Miss Katharine B. Davis, of the 
Philadelphia College settlement; " The Settlement 
and Municipal Reform," by James B. Reynolds, of 
the University settlement in Delancey street, New 
York; " The Social Settlement and the Labor 
Movement," by Prof. Graham Taylor, of Chicago 
Commons; "Religion in the Settlement," by Dean 
George Hodges, of the Episcopal Divinity School, 
Cambridge, Mass., and founder of Kingsley House, 
Pittsburg; " Benevolent Features of Trades Un- 
ions," by John D. Flanagan, ex-president of the 
Michigan Federation of Labor; "The Working 
Child," by Mrs. Florence Kelley, of Hull House, 
state factory inspector of Illinois, and the report 
of the social settlement section committee of the 
Conference, including the tabulation of replies to 
inquiries sent out by the committee to the Ameri- 
can settlements concerning their work. 

A limited number of copies of this pamphlet are 
in stock here, and can be obtained from CHICAGO 
COMMONS for ten cents each, post-paid. 



SETTLEMENT BIBLIOGRAPHY FREE. 



It is good news to announce the fact that the 
executive committee of the College Settlements 
association has decided to distribute free the re- 
mainder of the last (1895) edition of the " Bibliog- 
raphy of College, Social and University Settle- 
ments." Copies of this indispensable compendium 
of settlement information may be obtained free 
upon enclosure of address, with tico cents postage, 
either to the editor of CHICAGO COMMOXS, or to 
the secretary of the Settlements association, Mrs. 
F. H. Montgomery, 3230 Michigan avenue, Chi- 
cago. It is expected that a new and revised edi- 
tion of the Bibliography will be issued this fall. 
It will probably be, as before, under the charge of 
Miss M. Katharine Jones, of Englewood, X. J., to 
whom information and corrections should be 
sent. 



CHICAGO COMMONS LEAFLETS. The article in a 
former issue of CHICAGO COMMONS, reprinted from the 
Chicago Advance, entitled " Foreign Missions at Home," and 
suggesting the points of resemblance in scope and method 
between the settlements and the foreign missionary stations, 
has been issued as No. 1 in a proposed series of "Chicago 
Commons Leaflets." It is a folder convenient for enclosure 
in a letter, and better than any other single article we know 
of, explains the Settlement idea from this point of view. 
This leaflet may be obtained in any quantity at the rate of 
two for a cent, postage prepaid. 



BUREAU OF 
SETTLEMENTS 



UNDER 
THE DIRECTION OF 



CHICAGO 
COMMONS 



PURPOSES 



To collect, disburse and publish bibliog- 
raphy and other historical data and general 
information concerning the world-wide Set- 
tlement Movement. 

To facilitate helpful communication between 
Settlements. 

To be of all possible service to people living 
and working on the basis of the Settlement 
Idea. 



WANTED, THEREFORE, 



Prompt Information as to the foundation 
of new Settlements, or the existence of old 
ones not well known. Better that we should 
duplicate information than not to have it 
at all. 

Copies (several if possible), of all reports, 
circulars, and other printed matter, however 
apparently trivial, including tickets, pro- 
grammes and all other transient material, 
issued by or concerning any Settlement. 
Complete" files of all such matter are urgently 
desired. 

References to, and if possible copies of,- all 
periodical, newspaper, magazine or review 
articles, or allusions, however scant, in books 
or pamphlets, with reference to the Settle- 
ment Movement or to any Settlement. These 
references should always give minute par- 
ticulars as to the name of the publication, 
date, author if possible, etc. 

In short, we desire to have on hand and to 
keep complete, material suggesting the en- 
tire history of each and every Settle- 
ment. 

All head-workers and secretaries of Settle- 
ments in all Countries are urged to co- 
operate. 

NOTE Copies of the " Bibliography of Settle- 
ments." issued by the College Settlements Associa- 
tion, can now be obtained of CHICAGO COMMONS 
free upon receipt of two cents postage. 

Material for and inquiries concerning the 
Bureau should be addressed to 

Editor of CHICAGO COMMONS, 

140 North Union St., Chicago, III., U.S.A. 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



CONFERENCE OF WORKERS. 

One Way in \vhich the; Northwestern Settlement 
Unifies Its Efforts. 

The workers connected with the Northwestern 
University Settlement have commenced to hold 
monthly conferences to discuss methods used in the 
clubs and classes, or other interests of the settle- 
ment. Through this, non-residents who are not 
able to be identified with the neighborhood more 
than two or three hours a week, have an oppor- 
tunity to become acquainted with their fellow- 
workers, and through exchange of ideas gain a 
more distinct feeling of fellowship with the neigh- 
borhood than they are able to gain by their own 
limited experience. The subject for the March 
meeting was " The Boys' Clubs," and Mr. Bradley 
was present to tell of his wonderful work on In- 
diana street, and to answer questions. He also 
gave a deeply interesting account of his experience 
with the boys during the summer months in the 
' City of Allandale," which is located on a farm 
forty miles north of Chicago. 

In the evening of the same da}' the drawing class 
had an exhibition of work, and a prize, consisting 
of a term in the Art Institute, was awarded. 

JESSIE BARTLETT. 



DESCRIPTION OF HULL HOUSE. 

Fine Illustrated Article in the American Journal of 
Sociology. 

The best description of the work at Hull House, 
and the best reflection of its spirit and purpose 
that we have ever seen, is in the article by Dr. 
Dorothea Moore, who for some months has been 
a resident of Hull House, in the March issue of 
the American Journal. of Sociology . Exceptionally 
fine half-tone illustrations, from photographs, 
adorn the article, and give a good idea of the 
building. The views include the exterior of the 
old main house and the children's building the 
Butler Gallery omitted the gymnasium and coffee 
house, the reception room, with a group of chil- 
dren reading at the table, the crib room in the 
creche, a rollicking group on the upper veranda 
of the children's building, and two or three per- 
sonal groups. Through the courtesy of the Jour- 
nal, we are permitted to reproduce two of the 
illustrations. Un ictrsitt/ of Chicago Pi'- u. 



PEMBROKE MISSION, LONDON. 

A colored, analytical map of its district of Wai- 
worth (southeast London) faces the first page of 
the annual report of the mission of Pembroke Col- 
lege (Cambridge), which is just received. This 
mission is practically a settlement since its workers 



eside upon the field and its activities are of a gen- 
eral social nature. Its work is of a religious char- 
acter, and Bible study and church activities go 
hand in hand with social outreach. The spirit and 
motive are well exhibited in the quoted words of 
Bishop Thorold, to whom much of its impetus is due 
" We recognize, welcome and proclaim a salvation 
for both worlds, for body as well as spirit, and for 
time as well as for eternity and for weekday as 
well as for Sunday." 



HULL STREET SETTLEMENT, BALTIMORE. 



The Social Settlement in Hull street, Baltimore, 
to which we have already referred, owes its first 
impetus to the Baltimore visit of Dr. George W. 
Gray, of Chicago, secretary of the Forward Move- 
ment, and head of Epworth House, Chicago. The 
first report is just issued, and shows a most satisfac- 
tory progress. The settlement is already the social 
center of the neighborhood, the scene of lectures 
classes, etc., the headquarters of a Woman's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union, the center for relief work, 
and the friendly home to which all the neighbor- 
hood in need of perplexity turn instinctively. An 
extensive fresh-air work is contemplated for the 
summer, and there is a strong movement on foot to 
inaugurate a kindergarten. 



RUGBY BOYS' CLUB, WEST LONDON. 



The newly issued report of the Rugby Boys' 
Club, of Xotting Hill (West London), at 223 Wal- 
mer Road, tells of a good year's work following 
the engagement of a salaried headworker. The 
departments of work reported upon include the 
"Old Guard Club," cricket, football, boys' brigade, 
religious instruction, bamboo and cobblers' work- 
shop, debating society, Rugby House (the settle- 
ment residence) and the educational classes. Most 
interesting of all, and most peculiar to the settle- 
ment is the account of the seaside camp, which 
last August constituted an innovation in the settle- 
ment work and a feature most enjoyable to all 
concerned. The camp was in Aldeburgh, in Suf- 
folk, in tents, and lasted a week. In spite of a 
beginning in pouring rain, the camp was a great 
success. 

SETTLEMENT LITERATURE RECEIVED 

Friends in all parts of the world ar.e responding 
to our appeal for settlement literature, old and 
new. For obvious reasons it is impossible to re- 
port in detail upon it all. Among the more impor- 
tant documents received of late are the following: 

Tenth Annual Report of the Federation of 
Workingmeu's Social Clubs. December, 1896. 
London. 

Proposition for a Self-Supporting Co-operative 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[March, 



Social Settlement in Van Buren County, Michigan. 

Report for 1895-6 of the Lancashire College Set- 
tlement in Hulme, Manchester, England. (We very 
much desire a complete file of reports from this 
settlement, especially the report for 1896-7.) 

Proposition for a permanent settlement in Step- 
ney (East London) to follow and conserve the social 
work done by non-residents there for the last five 
years or more. 

The College Settlement News (organ of the Phila- 
delphia College Settlement) for February, 1897. 
Notable for its reprint from earlier issues of the 
illuminating replies to the self-imposed question, 
"What is a Settlement?" 



SETTLEMENT NOTES. 



An interesting settlement feature of the recent 
municipal campaign in Philadelphia was the 
candidacy of Miss Katharine B. Davis, head of the 
College settlement, for school director of the Fifth 
Ward. She made a fine run, and the outlook for 
the next campaign is highly encouraging. 

From the College Settlement at 95 Rivington 
street, New York, we receive copies of their " pro- 
gramme of organized work," which shows a busy 
week, with two appointments on Sunday, seven on 
Monday, five on Tuesday, eight on Wednesday, six 
on Thursday, six on Friday and ten oa Saturday. 
Kindergarten, musical instruction and penny prov- 
ident bank are daily occasions. 

The address on "Christ and Social Reform'' 
referred to in the last issue of this paper as having 
been given at Mansfield House, the name of the 
speaker being inadvertently omitted, was by Pro- 
fessor George D. Herron. Private letters from 
some who heard the address confirm our reference 
to the abstract in the Mansfield House Ma<j~.inc 
as indicating a stirring vision of the great spiritual 
awakening in the United States. 



NEW CHICAGO SETTLEMENTS. 

Rumor is out, according to a Chicago correspondent of the 
Kinf/dnm. that several new social settlements will soon be 
established in the near river wards of the West Side. Dr. 
H. W. Thomas and Rev. Frank B. Vrooman.of the People's 
church, are moving in this work. "Harvard Settlement," 
as it is proposed to call the central house, will be the initial 
establishment, if Mr. Vrooman secures the necessary sup- 
port from the Harvard Alumni. The expectation is to copy 
the main features of Toynbee Hall management, as it is 
conducted in East London. This is much more individual- 
istic, and unsystematized, or brought under organization and 
co-operation, than prevails in most social settlements in 
American cities. The new institution will mean simply a 
place of residence for university men, who each tries 
to give some personal help according to his own bent or 
fitness to the life of the people in the district, or to the pub- 
lic institutions among them. 



Edward King told the Twilight 'Club in New 
York recently that morally the masses need less 
uplifting than a good many of the uplifters, but 
that materially the masses do need help, and the 
best way to help them is to help those among the 
masses who are uplifting themselves and their 
fellows. "A great obstacle," he said, "stands in 
the way from ^the want of confidence on the part 
of workingmen, and the suspicion that every one 
who professes to be their friend has some axe to 
grind. What you have got to do is, not to stand on 
a pedestal and try to lift the masses, but to come 
down and help them lift themselves." 



LIFE'S COST. 



I could not at the first be born 
But by another's bitter wailing pain; 
Another's loss must be my sweetest gain; 
And Love, only to win that I might be, 

Must wet her couch forlorn 
With tears of blood and sweat of agony. 

Since then I cannot live a week 
But some fair thing must leave the daisied dells, 
The joy of pastures, bubbling springs and wells, 
And grassy murmurs of its peaceful days, 

To bleed in pain, and reek, 
And die, for me to tread life's pleasant ways. 

I cannot sure be warmed or lit 
But men must crouch and toil in tortuous caves, 
Bowed on themselves, while day and night in waves 
Of blackness wash away their sunless lives ; 

Or blasted and sore hit, 
Dark life to darker death the miner drives. 

Naked, I cannot clothed be 

But worms must patient weave their satin shroud; 
The sheep must shiver to the April cloud, 
Yielding his one white coat to keep me warm; 

In shop and factory, 
For me must weary toiling millions swarm. 

With gems I deck not brow or hand 
But through the roaring dark of cruel seas 
Some wretch with shivering breath and trembling knees 
Goes headlong, while the sea-sharks dodge his quest; 

Then at my door he stands, 
Naked, with bleeding ears and heaving chest. 

I fall not on my knees and pray 
But God must come from heaven to fetch that sigh, 
And pierced hands must take it back on high ; 
And through His broken heart and cloven side 

Love makes an open way 
For me, who could not live but that He died. 

awful sweetest life of mine, 

That God and man both serve in blood and tears! 
O prayers I breathe not but through other prayers! 
O breath of life compact of others' sighs ! 

With this dread gift divine 
Ah, whither go? what worthily devise? 

If on myself I dare to spend 

This dreadful thing, in pleasure lapped and reared, 
What am I but a hideous idol smeared 
With human blood, that with its carrion smile 

Alike to foe and friend 
Maddens the wretch who perishes the while? 

1 will away and find my God, 

And what I dare not keep ask Him to take, 
And taking love's sweet sacrifice to make; 
Then, like a wave the sorrow and the pain 

High heaven with glory flood 
For them, for me, for all, a splendid gain. 

Jane EHice Hopkins, in MacmiUan's Magazine, 1875. 



It was the purpose of Froebel to put the teach- 
ings of the Sermon on the Mount of Beatitudes 
into the conduct and habits of the child, and so 
make its life automatic. Habit rules, and to make 
the Golden Rule the habit of the child, and to de- 
velop the spiritual faculties first, is the largest 
mission of education. Hezekiah Butterworth, in the 
Kindergarten Magazine. 



1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



THE MAKING OF MAN. 



Where is one, that born of woman, altogether, can 

escape 
From the lower world within him, moods of tiger, or of 

ape? 
Man a> yet is being made, and ere the crowning age of 

ag-"s. 

Shall not a>on after iron pass and touch him into shape? 
All about him shadow still, but, while the races (tower and 

fade, 

Prophet eyes may catch a glory slowly gaining in the shade, 
Till the peoples all are one, and all their voices blend in 

clioric 

Hallelujah to the Maker" It is finished, man is made"! 

Tennyson. 



Social TKHorfe ot tbe Cburcbes. 



SOCIAL STUDIES IN SUNDAY-SCHOOL. 



How Mr. Yergin Combines Modern Studies with the 
Regular Lessons. 



Rev. V. M. Yergin, of Clyde, N. Y., has sent us, 
says the New York Examiner, a copy of Outlines 
of Sociological studies in connection with the cur- 
rent Sunday-school Lessons. He adopted this plan 
in order to reach men and women who could not 
get into the Sunday-school to study the regular 
lesson, and has chosen subjects which are daily 
discussed in the store, the office, the factory and 
on the streets. By following the Sunday-school 
lessons they are kept in touch with the regular 
work of the church, and are held more closely to 
the Bible as their authoritative text-book. The 
interest manifested thus far has exceeded his 
expectation, and he has had to change the time for 
meeting from Sunday to Thursday evening after 
the prayer meeting, so that the Sunday-school 
teachers may join the class. ' Last Thursday, Dr. 
Hartman, one of the Staff Surgeons of Syracuse 
Hospital, spoke on "The Modern Hospital," as a 
sociological institution. This week the distin- 
guished Jewish Rabbi, Dr. Guttmann, of Syracuse, 
will speak on "The Sanitary Laws of the Hebrews 
under the Mosaic Legislation." In connection 
with the lesson for February 21, Judge Cowles 
told why Judge Lynch has so many executions. 
The topics for February and March were: Chris- 
tian Socialism ; Spiritual and Civil Authority, or 
Church and State; Mob Law or Legal Procedure, 
Which? Miracle versus Magic; Rescue Work by 
Personal Effort (College and Social Settlements); 
Social Reformation by Individual Regeneration; 
Relation of Modern Athletics to Social Ethics. 



AN ENGLISH INNOVATION. 



Baptist Church in Nottingham Opens Its Floor to 
Free Social Discussions. 



An English correspondent sends an account of 
an innovation by the Baptist church at Wood- 
borough-road, Nottingham, which has met with 



marked success. It has started a weekly confer- 
ence " for the discussion of public questions in a 
Christian light," and every Friday night the school- 
room is well filled with a crowd of earnest men and 
women; "Anglican and Nonconformist, Conserva- 
tive and Radical, Individualist and Socialist " he 
says " sit side by side, and are at perfect liberty 
to air their opinions and their views." Among the 
topics have been " Old Age Pensions," " The 
Unemployed," "The Coming Woman," "China 
and the Opium Trade," "Slavery under the British 
Flag in Africa," " Armenia," and " Education." All 
of these addresses are followed by interesting dis- 
cussions, and there have been besides debates on 
such subjects as "The House of Lords or the Refer- 
endum," il Work and Wages," " Are the Socialists 
Right?" and "The Vaccination Laws." Once a 
month an evening is devoted to " Current Topics," 
when a prominent Town Councillor or public man 
gives an informal chat on the subjects of the 
hour. 

" In the four months that the conference has 
existed it has completely justified its institution," 
the writer adds. " Men have been attracted to it 
who have not been inside a place of worship for 
years, and who are amazed to find the church 
interesting itself in social and political life. Gradu- 
ally their interest in matters of religion is being 
awakened or revived, and they are to be seen 
sometimes worshipping among the congregation of 
a Sunday." 



A MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP STRAW. 



The report of the Water Department of Chicago 
shows that the tax-payers are profiting almost as 
largely as those of New York from their ownership 
of the water-works. In brief, the report reads as 
follows: 

Receipts $3,226,000 

Operating expenses 285,000 

Net earnings $2,941,000 

The investment in Chicago water-works, accord- 
ing to the New York Sun,, is $28,000,000. When 
interest on bonds to this amount is deducted from 
the net earnings, the remaining profits are over 
$1,500,000, or $5 a year for every family in the 
city. The public also receives free the vast quan- 
tities of water used in its parks, streets and public 
buildings, to say nothing of the incidental advan- 
tage of cheaper fire insurance than would be possi- 
ble were the water supply in any way inadequate. 



"The destiny of nations lies far more in the 
hands of women the mothers than in the pos- 
sessors of power." 

" Go, make thy garden as fair as thou canst, 

Thou workest never alone; 
Perchance he whose plot is next to thine 
Will see it, and mend his own." 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[March, 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



A MONTHLY RECORD OP SOCIAL, SETTLE- 
MENT LIF-B AND WORK. 



Vol. I. CHICAGO, MARCH, 1897. No. 12. 



CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement monthly, pub 
Ished for the Settlement of the same name, and devoted 
to the record of the Settlement Movement in all countries 
and of the social progress of the ideal of Brotherhood among 
men. To this end its features include news of the settle- 
ments, sketches of life in the crowded city centers, outlines 
of social teachings in institutions of learning, progress and 
ethical import and aspects of the Labor Movement, the 
social work of the churches, notes on literature in the social 
field, comments on current life from the settlement point of 

view, etc. 

SUBSCRIPTION PRICE 

Fifty cents a year, (Two Shillings, English; 2.50 francs, 
French foreign stamps accepted.) 

Postpaid to any State or Country. 

Six copies to one address for $2.50. 

Send check, draft, P. O. money order, cash or stamps 
AT ouit BISK. 

Changes of Address Please notify the publishers 
promptly of any change of address, or of failure to receive 
the paper within a reasonable interval after it is due. 

To other Settlements We mean to regard as "pre- 
ferred " names upon our mailing list, all settlements, and 
to send CHICAGO COMMONS as a matter of course to all 
such. In return, we ask for all reports, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all printed or circular matter, however trivial, issued 
by settlements in the course of their regular work. 

Advertisements First-class advertisements desired 
at reasonable rates, which will be furnished upon applica- 
tion. 

ALL, COMMUNICATIONS 

Relating to this publication should be addressed to the 
Managing Editor, JOHN P. GAVIT, Chicago Commons, 
140 North Union Street, Chicago, 111. 

Entered as Second Class Matter May 18, 1896, at the 
Post-Office at Chicago, 111. 



WARM sympathy must be extended to Robert 
Treat Paine, of Boston, whose recent par- 
ticipation in the Tenement House Conference and 
in the Charity discussions were not needed to 
make him well known and beloved in Chicago, in 
the bereavement caused by the death of his wife. 
A resolution adopted by the Board of Managers of 
Trinity Parish House, Boston, pays warm tribute to 
her character and helpfulness. 



OF INTEREST to every publication of the sec- 
ond class using the United States mails, is 
the contention in which the Springfield, Mass., Re- 
publican is taking the lead, that the annual deficit 
of the Post-Office Department is due, not to exces- 
sive privileges afforded to publishers and others, 
but to gross frauds on the part of railroads, through 
overcharges for the transportation of mail matter. 
As the mails are now carried, the rate for each 
four years is determined by weighing the mail for 
only one month of the forty-eight, and it is as- 



serted by the Republican to have been the custom, 
of some at least of the roads, for years, deliber- 
ately to pad the weight of the cars in the month 
when the weighing is done, and thus for the suc- 
ceeding four years to cheat the government. We 
have seen no denial of these charges, which, if 
true, account for millions of loss to the government 
since this system of weighing went into effect. 
The Republican is insisting upon Postmaster-Gen- 
eral Vilas' recommendation that the government 
build and own its mail-cars, paying for hauling by 
the mile. 



"FORGIVE US OUR DEBTS.' 



The beautiful poem, " Life's Cost," which we 
reprint on another page from an old number of 
Macmillan's Magazine, is a rarely searching expres- 
sion of a truth that must be more and more enforced 
in the days to come the vast debt of every human 
life to every other human life and to all life. One 
of the most precious significances of the Lord's 
Prayer is lost sight of in the feeling that "Forgive 
us our debts " must have reference only to the in- 
dividual's personal debt to God, and to the individ- 
ual's need of forgiveness for sin and neglect. Yet, 
think of our unpaid and unpayable debts to fellow- 
men! Think of the life spent out in dark mines 
and caves, in mills and factories, in unrewarded 
toil and want, suffering and deprivation, before any 
comfort, or supply of food, or clothing, or learning, 
or beauty, or knowledge can come to one of us. 

Francois Coppe"e has a wonderful sketch,* 
"At Table," in which he voices the reverie 
of the young man at a choice dinner party, who 
sees behind every luxurious detail of the elegant 
dinner the life-cost of it. In the gilded bread he 
reads the story of the laborious life of the farmer 
who raised the wheat, of the miller whose limbs were 
twisted by rheumatism contracted from the damps 
of the river beside which stood his mill. The 
magnificent pearl at the throat of the belle of the 
evening brought to his mind the picture of the 
pearl diver of the East Indies battling with the 
shark for life, and often staining the water with his 
blood. That these elegant women might sit, half- 
nude, in that tropic warmth, the coal miners of the 
provinces had toiled in the subterranean caverns, 
with never a glimpse of daylight. And at the end 
of the story, the young man asks himself, " Do they 
think of it as often as they should? Do they think 
of it?" 

Not enough do we think of the lives woven 
into our lives, whether directly or indirectly. 



* Ten Tales by Francois Coppe"e. Translated by Walter 
Learned: introduction by Brauder Matthews. New York, 
Harper & Brothers, 1891. 



1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



9 



We forget that, as an actual everyday fact, no man 
liveth or dieth to himself. It is well-nigh impos- 
sible to buy a garment in an American city that 
has not been made at the expense of human com- 
fort, and under iniquitous conditions of industry. 
The shoes on our feet, the coats on our backs, the 
food that we eat, are all, as it were, saturated with 
the poured out life of nature and of man, and it is 
with hearts full of gratitude toward those who 
have spent their lives for us, and who very seldom 
have been adequately rewarded for their toil, that 
we should have always on our hearts, if not upon 
our lips, the prayer, " Forgive us our debts." 



THE summer work in the settlements now be- 
gins to demand attention. There is no part 
of the year in the crowded cities that involves 
more of danger for the people in whose behalf the 
settlements are at work than the very hot months. 
Every person who lived in a city settlement 
through that blistering fortnight last August will 
understand our question whether on the whole the 
sufferings of the poor in the hottest weather are 
not fully as great as, if not greater than, in the 
coldest. In behalf of our friends and neighbors 
about us, we of CHICAGO COMMONS earnestly plead 
for hearty co-operation in the summer work out- 
lined in another column and feel safe in speaking 
for every other settlement to the same effect. This 
is no more our business, dear readers, than it is 
yours. What are you going to do about it? 



A MOVEMENT to which comparatively little 
public attention has been attracted, but 
which is, nevertheless, of the first importance to 
the systematic study of the social condition of this 
country, is that looking toward the establishment 
of a permanent Census Bureau, in place of the in- 
termittent decennial census experiment. The ex- 
istence of a permanent corps of social observers, 
freed more or less wholly from the evils of polit- 
ical appointment and the spoils system, would go 
far toward establishing public confidence in the 
work of gathering public statistics, and would in- 
sure the practical freedom of the work from par- 
tisan or factional bias. 

*** 

THE death of Professor Henry Drummond is 
one of those inscrutable events involving, so 
far as the superficial view is able to discover, noth- 
ing but loss to humanity and to the causs of the 
Kingdom. No other man has done more to con- 
ciliate the differing minds, to translate the reali- 
ties of the spiritual realm into the vernacular of 
ordinary life, and to make the essence of religion 
reasonable. Into the social sphere he was about to 



carry the splendid vision of creation as the fruit 
and method of Love (as displayed in the marvelous 
" Ascent of Man "), but he is dead, the work unfin- 
ished. For science and for religion Henry Drum- 
mond has done a service of interpretation which 
can hardly be overestimated, and which will not 
just now be adequately acknowledged. He was 
one of the prophets of the Christian faith in this 

momentous epoch. 

* 

* * 

WITH this issue CHICAGO COMMONS closes its 
first volume, and prepares to enter upon it 8 
second with great gratitude to those whose encour- 
agement and co-operation have in so large measure 
aided the successful carrying on of the publication 
throughout its first year. The time has now come 
for us to ask a renewal of support upon the part of 
those who subscribed at the beginning. All sub- 
scriptions whose term of expiration is indicated on 
the mailing label in the figures " 4-97 " are now 
expired, and renewal is due from this date. We 
earnestly ask continued support in order that we 
may go forward with our work of social report and 
propaganda. * 

*** 

THE proposition looking to the establishment 
of a central Bureau of Settlements to be con- 
ducted by CHICAGO COMMONS meets with favor 
from the start, and we are already in receipt of a 
considerable quantity of literature and information 
from various settlements. To make this work a 
success will require the cordial co-operation of all 
settlements. We particularly desire as complete a 
file as possible from each settlement of its litera- 
ture, if possible from the earliest days of the work. 
In a word, we would like to have from each settle- 
ment sufficiently complete data, kept up to date 
from time to time, to afford information sufficient 
for the writing of the history of each individual 
settlement. An advertisement in another column 
further explains our wish. 

* 

* * 

WITH considerable pleasure, and in no sense 
as a part of. our advertising contract with 
the Chicago Record, we call attention to the adver- 
tisement of that paper on the second page of the 
cover of CHICAGO COMMONS. While no paper of 
which we know can be called ideal or said to have 
escaped entirely the temptations and tendencies of 
modern journalism, we know of no cleaner, fairer 
or more high-minded daily newspaper in the United 
States than the Chicago Record at the present time. 



The only way to regenerate the world is to do 
the duty which lies nearest us, and not to hunt 
after grand, far-fetched ones for ourselves. If each 
drop of rain chose where it should fall, God's 
showers would not fall as they do now. Charles 
Kingsley. 



10 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[March, 



Commons anfc its Morfc. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 

140 North Union Street, at Milwaukee Avenue. 

(Reached by all Milwaukee avenue cable and electriccars, 
or by Grand avenue or Halsted stn et electriccars, stopping 
at corner of Austin avenue and Halsted street, one block 
west of Union street.) 



CHICAGO COMMONS is a Social Settlement located 
on North Union street, two doors from the southwest cor- 
ner of Milwaukee avenue and the crossing of Union street 
upon Milwaukee and Austin avenues. 

Object. As explained in the second clause of the Articles 
of Incorporation of the Chicago Commons Association, filed 
with the Secretary of the State of Illinois: 

"2. The object for which it is formed is to provide a center for a 
higher civic and social life to initiate and maintain religious, educa- 
tional and philanthropic enterprises and to investigate, and improve 
conditions in the industrial districts of Chicago." 

Or, as the explanatory circular of the settlement has ex- 
plained it: 

"As exemplified at Chicago Commons, the Social Settlement con- 
sists primarily of a group of people who chouse to make their home 
in that part of the great city where they seem to be most needed, 
rather than where the neighborhood olfers the most privilege or 
social prestage." 

Support The work is supported in addition to what the 
residents are able to pay for rent of rooms, by the free will 
gifts of those who believe in what the work stand* for. The 
gift of any person is welcomed, and the contributions are 
both occasional and regular, the latter being paid in in- 
stallments, nvnthly, quarterly and annually, at the conven- 
ience of the giver. 

Visitors, singly or in groups, are welcome at any time, 
but the residents make especial effort to be at home on 
Tuesday afternoon and evening. 



Information concerning the work of Chicago-Commons 

is gladly furnished to all who inquire. A four-page leaflet, 
bearing a picture of our residence, and other literature de- 
scribing the work will be mailed to any one upon applica- 
tion. Please enclose postage. 

Kesidenee. All inquiries with reference to terms and 
conditions of residence, permanent or temporary, should be 
addressed to GRAHAM TAYLOR, Resident Warden. 



GIRLS' PROGRESSIVE CLUB. 



Good Record of the Year's Work. Reception to the 
Tabernacle Church Girls' Club. 



One of the pleasantest occasions in the recent 
history of the Commons was the reception tendered 
by the Girls' Progressive club of the settlement 
to the Girls' club of the Tabernacle church. It 
was a very large gathering, and every feature was 
greatly enjoyed. Music, recitations and refresh- 
ments enlivened the social intercourse. 

The progress of the Girls' Progressive club has 
been one of the most satisfactory features of the 
growth of 1he settlement. It was in May, 1895, 
that the club organized with but three members; 
the membership now numbers about seventy. The 
club has from the beginning been self-supporting 
and self-governing, pays rent to the settlement for 
the use of its room, and has supported four 




A NEW PICTURE OF CHICAGO COMMONS. 

[From the Triennial Year-Book of Chicago Theological Seminary. 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



11 



children by scholarships of $10.00 per year each, 
in the kindergarten, has assisted in the remodeling 
of the settlement reading room, and in addition to 
the original furnishing of its own room has given 
sums of various amounts for several purposes 
allied to the settlement work. A new feature of 
the organization of the club is the division of the 
members into groups or circles for the s.tudy of 
hygiene, home nursing, English literature and art. 
Several interesting talks have we heard with much 
enjoyment. 

THE DRINKING FOUNTAIN PLAN. 

Assurance now that the Need will be Supplied by the 
Gift from the Evanston Woman's Club. 



The need of a drinking fountain at the Commons 
to supply the want which the great trough in 
front of the saloon next door was but poorly ful- 
filling, has been quite as evident in the warmer 
days of the early spring as it was last summer when 
we first proposed to meet it, and when so many of 
our friends sent money to help in the work. The 
Evanston Woman's Club has voted to present a 
fountain to the Commons in the near future, and 
we look forward to the day of its establishment 
The setting up of the fountain will be done by the 
the settlement, and for this purpose the gifts of 
our friends will be used. The city supplies water 
for public fountains, so that a small addition to the 
sum already in hand will assure the improvement. 



COMMONS NOTES. 



r We are now ready to have our sand-pile re- 
plenished. It was one of the most useful and help- 
ful adjuncts to the kindergarten work last year,but 
heavy rains and winter's snows and winds and 
thawings have washed much of it away. Two or 
three loads would equip us in this regard for the 
summer. 

The reception of the Commons Woman's 
club to the Nineteenth Century club of Oak Park 
was a great success. Acquaintances were made 
and friendships renewed, and a fine social gather- 
ing was enjoyed. Not a few of the husbands of 
both clubs applauded modestly from the back- 
ground. 

The kitchen garden in the yard which gave 

so much pleasure and was of so much educational 
value to the little children last year is to be worked 
again as soon as the weather permits. We shall 
need three or four loads of good, rich black soil, 
with which to fertilize the stiff clayey ground upon 
which the garden must be made. 

The kindergarten grows apace. Eighty or 

more in daily attendance is a usual thing. For 
this large company the present supply of kinder 
garten chairs is quite inadequate, and we are look- 

ng for some good friend to give us an additional 
supply. No gift to the settlement could be more 
effective or more directly profitable in evident 
good. 



OLabor Studies. 

[CONDUCTED BY PROFESSOR GRAHAM TAYLOR.] 
ETHICS AND COMPETITION 



VALIDITY OF THE APPEAL FROM LAW TO 
MOKALS. 



Characteristic Scene Exemplifying the Extremes 

of Individualism and Socialism. Brutalis'm 

Gone Mad, vs. the Socialists' Vision 

of Brotherhood. 



To any intelligent consideration of the ethical 
effects of the competitive system, a preliminary 
survey of the question at issue is necessary. For,, 
on the one hand, it has been long and widely denied 
that, from a scientific point of view, there can be 
any valid or vital relation between so fundamental 
a principle of economics and the dicta of ethics or 
of religion. And, on the other hand, it has been 
very tardily admitted by those occupying the re- 
ligious point of view, that the postulates of politi- 
cal economy can be brought to the bar of ethical 
and religious judgments, because they have been 
so universally conceded to lie within the domain 
of "natural law," as to exempt the standard of 
man's economic life, alone, from the jurisdiction of 
his conscience and his faith. To submit this dis- 
pute to the reader's judgment, and to bring the 
chief elements of the problem into plainest view, 
the description of a concrete discussion of the is- 
sues involved may best serve our purpose. 

THE BATTLE IN THE CONCKETE. 

It was one of those rare but most significant 
gatherings of workingmen, where, with the least 
exercise of authority consistent with order, and 
with a freedom of speech greater than is dreamed 
of almost anywhere else, the economics and ethics 
of industry are being intelligently, earnestly and 
practically discussed. The battle was on between 
socialism and individualism. An eminent socialist 
leader, from the workingmen's own ranks, had pre- 
sented his argument, when a stranger to the men 
(not a"workingman")aroseand thus took up the 
gauntlet that had been thrown down before all 
comers: 

" I am tired of hearing this ' brotherhood ' talk 
among workingmen, and this appeal to the stronger 
to help the weaker. By Force all things that exist 
are evolved, maintained, perpetuated. In nature, 
only the fit survive. Everywhere and always the 
debilitated perish. Everywhere and always the 
mightiest have won. Black, furious and tragic are 
the bloody annals of Man's evolution. In busi- 
ness and in industry competition must be to the 
death. The strongest beast gets the biggest bone. 



12 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[March, 



Might is master it ought to be for progress de- 
pends upon its triumph. With the normal man, it 
is a pleasure to struggle, a pastime to fight, and 
nothing is sweeter to him than to confiscate his 
confiscator and surpass his surpasser; to smite his 
enemy, hip and thigh, and to spoil him of that of 
which he has despoiled others. The normal man 
prefers to eat others, rather than to be eaten. Only 
with the abnormal man is it otherwise. He is of 
the mob. He sheepishly obeys public opinion. He 
is one of a ' flock.' Might is right, absolutely, 
unreservedly. The chief intent of false religions 
and false moralisms is to arrest competition half- 
way, in order to safeguard degenerates in possess- 
ing that which they could neither seize nor defend, 
if competition were unlimited. 

" The Golden Rule, " he continued, " never has 
'been, is not, and never will be practicable. It is 
a lying dream. Grim and harsh all this may appear 
to nervous souls, but it is true to nature." 

It is not within the province of our present pur- 
pose to describe the effect upon our own or other 
minds of this inhuman declaration of what the 
speaker was pleased to call the " Philosophy of 
Power." But it does subserve the object for which 
this incident has been cited to note the fact that 
for the first time in the writer's long observation, 
this particular group of radically disagreeing men 
was instantly by the shock to common human in- 
stinct, welded into unanimity, expressing itself 
first in startled silence, then in awestruck murmurs 
of disavowal, finally in the common consent of in' 
dignant protest. 

THE SOCIALIST'S RETORT. 

The socialist arose to say his final word and close 
the discussion. 

"There is in nature," said he, "as Drummond 
teaches us, a struggle for the life of others, as 
surely as for the life of self. This mother instinct 
prevails in every realm of life. The hyena type of 
animal shows it least." And, pointing his finger 
at the stranger, he exclaimed, " That man's evolu- 
tion seems to have been arrested at the hyena stage! 

" This is not the power impelling human prog- 
ress! Have the best things of the world been 
prompted by selfishness and achieved by compe- 
tition? Are the highest things that man possesses 
in art, literature and music, through discovery and 
invention, either the product or the possession of 
this brute force? No, no, no! The struggle for 
the life of others, not selfishness, the co-operation 
of brothers, not the competition of beasts, have 
given the world its best things. Our common pos- 
sessions only have proven fittest to survive." 

And with tears in his tone he concluded, " It 
was to get out of all of us the beast which we see 
.in that man yonder that He who gave us the 



Golden Rule, died on the cross, and it makes a 
fellow's heart full to think of it! " 

THE REAL, ISSUE AT STAKE. 

This tragic, workaday putting of the extremes of 
the problem did but raise to a sensational interro- 
gation-point the fundamental issues really at 
stake in the calmest and most scientific discussion 
of economic competition. For did not this 
"stranger" only attempt to carry out, in nature 
and industry, this competitive theory to its ex- 
tremest, logical conclusion? Is there not involved 
the question of fact whether " the economic man " 
as depicted either by science or by this screed, is 
the " normal " and actual man? Do not both force 
upon us the query whether unrestricted competi- 
tion is the [law of nature or can be the law of 
progress? What was it lhat made this whole 
group of radical hearers, who were familiar with 
the extremes to which heated discussion may be 
carried, stop short of and stand back from the 
abyss into which the logic of this man pitilessly 
led him and in the very depths of which, with a 
heartlessness nothing less than demoniacal, he 
coldly and calmly made his final stand? Was it 
not the recoil of life from mere logic? Was it 
not the reason's challenge to the assertion that un- 
restricted competition is, or could be, a fact? Did 
not the human in us all utter a common protest 
against such blasphemy of the "normal man? 
Had any of us ever known any such man as he de- 
scribed or even such as political economy itself 
has persistently postulated? Was it not the re- 
bellion of the will against such a concept of 
" natural law " and of the abjectly helpless human 
subserviency to it? Did not the conscience gather 
its resentments to repudiate the preposterous idea 
of the right of mere might? Was not the innate 
religious sense of human relationship awed by 
this abrogation of Brotherhood in the name of 
Progress? Must not anyone with a memory or any 
knowledge of history ask himself whether counter- 
acting forces, ameliorating concessions and illogical 
mental reservations have not always been opera- 
tive to restrict " free competition "? And is it un- 
scientific to inquire whether these forces are not 
ethical and religious which are seen and felt and 
known to be not only the very constituent elements 
of natural relationship but also to be the saving 
clauses which make civilization possible under the 
so-called "competitive system "? 

THE OTHER EXTREME. 

No one can deny from the ethical and religious 
point of view, that the socialist voiced in part at 
least the common sense, the common faith and the 
common fellowship of men. But on the other 
hand, did he not go too far in the entire elimina- 
tion of the competitive principle from human life? 



1897.] 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



13 



If we grant, as perhaps we must, that the best and 
highest things are not the product of the struggle 
for self, must we not also admit that the average 
man needs the necessity of that struggle to spur 
him to make the most of himself? Can we with 
Arnold Toynbee, " recognize competition to be a 
thing neither good nor bad," and " look upon it as 
resembling a great physical force which cannot be 
destroyed but may be controlled and modified"? 
In any event, whether we seek to restrict its opera- 
tion short of the extreme destructivenessto common 
interests to which the individualist carried it, or 
strive to protect the individual from being again 
merged in the mass under some socialistic extreme, 
or search for the middle ground on which may be 
conserved the interest of both the individual and 
society, we are bound to acknowledge the re- 
entrance of ethics and religion into the economic 
domain of human relationship. 

This concrete test of the competive system 
brings our study of its ethical effects upon labor 
out of theory into the sphere of fact and personal 
life where it belongs, for there the brunt of the 
moral struggle is being borne. If, by simply rais- 
ing the question of the validity of the ethical and 
religious aspects of competition, we have secured 
from our readers recognition of the right to dis- 
cuss them, the purpose of this paper will have 
been fulfilled and the way opened for the study of 
the ethics of competition in our next issue. 

from Sociological Class IRooms. 

YALE STUDENTS IN NEW YORK. 



Prof. Blackman Takes His Class for a Journey of 
First-Hand Exploration. 



One often sees comments on the lack of interest 
in sociological studies in our theological semin- 
aries. Yet some of our best seminaries are devot- 
ing much attention to it, and some have endowed 
chairs of Christian Ethics. Professor William F. 
Blackman occupies such a chair in Yale Divinity 
School. The lectures for the past few months 
have been devoted largely to practical charities, 
and for illustration of these lectures the students 
have made special investigations in New Haven 
and other places. But Professor Blackman con- 
ceived the idea of bringing the students into per- 
sonal, practical touch with the methods of one of 
our great cities. Under the direction of Professor 
Blackman, and with the aid of Dr. Tallman, of the 
Charities Association of New York, on Thursday 
and Friday of last week the class visited New York 
for a tour of inspection. 

The programme for this unique trip was care- 
fully planned beforehand, and, under the guidance 
of Dr. Tallman and the Rev. Mr. Devins, with the 
co-operation of the various city officials, was suc- 
cessful and helpful beyond all expectations, and 
every opportunity was given the young men to see 
the best men and methods New York affords. The 



itinerary must be given very briefly, but it is very 
interesting. The class arrived in New York Thurs- 
day morning, and proceeded at once to the Chari- 
ties Building, where Dr. Tallman explained the 
plans for the two days. First, the men inspected 
the Galilee Mission of Calvary Church. Then 
Superintendent Leet escorted them to Blackwell's 
Island. 

A complete tour of the almshouses and hospitals 
was made under the leadership of Superintendent 
Terry. At noon he dined the class, and then the 
tour of the prison and the hospital was made. 
Returning to the city, Bellevue Hospital was in- 
spected. During the evening detectives were de- 
tailed to conduct the class over the Bowery. The 
men slept in "The Majestic," one of the best- 
known Bowery lodging-houses. Friday's highly 
interesting tour was as follows: First, the class 
visited Mr. Reynolds at the University Settlement 
on Delancey street. 

The men called upon Mayor Strong, and were 
introduced to the Mayor by Mr. Devins, who per- 
sonally conducted the whole day's tour. Mayor 
Strong greeted them kindly. Colonel Waring ex- 
plained his work and methods and expressed his 
hopes. Then Mr. Roosevelt was visited, and made 
a rousing speech, and Mr. Jacob Riis met the class 
in Mr. Roosevelt's office. Then the Young Men's 
Institute and the public baths were visited. Then,, 
after inspecting the new Mills lodging-house on 
Bleecker street, the men were dined by the Indus- 
trial Christian Alliance at the Bleecker street 
rooms. Here speeches were made by Mr. Mils- 
bury and Mr. W. R. George, of the George Junior 
Republic. 

The afternoon was spent in inspecting the new 
Grace Church parish houses and chapel on Four- 
teenth street. At evening the men gathered in the 
assembly-room of the Charities Society's Building, 
and were addressed by men eminent in work for 
the uplifting of the city. Dr. Tallman presided. 
Mr. E. L. Hunt told of the Students' Club of New 
York; Mr. Charles Loring Brace, of the work of 
the Children's Aid Society; Dr. E. T. Devine spoke 
of the Charity Organization Societies; Mr. N. S. 
Rosenau, of the Hebrew Charities; Dr. Schauffler, 
of City Missionary Work; Mr. Homer Folks, of 
the State Charities Aid Association; the Rev. Mr. 
Devins, of the East Side Federation, and Mr. Laid- 
law, of the Federation of Churches and Christian 
Workers. The Outlook. 



" Character cannot be talked into or taught into 
a child [or a man]; it must be lived into him." 

"O fathers, live close, live close to your boys! 
There need be no battle between you and them if 
you will but help them in their own battle for the 
right." 

All great ages have been ages of belief. I mean- 
when there was any extraordinary power of per, 
formance, when great national movements began, 
when arts appeared, when heroes existed, when 
poems were made, the human soul was in earnest 
Emerson. 

We are carried through many a hard thing by 
the very press and stimulus to our whole nature, 
summoned in its integrity to act or to endure. It 
is like the fifteen pounds to the square inch which 
we rest in, because we bear it on all the square 
inches. Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney. 



14 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



[March, 



WE DESIRE TO TREBLE 
OUR CIRCULATION 



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This is a club rate of 4O cents per copy, and will apply to any number of copies above six, 
sent to one address. 

BY SENDING US LISTS 

of church members, clubs, societies, or personal friends, in any number. We shall be glad to send 
sample copies to any persons upon application. Send us your church directory to-day. 

BY ADVERTISING. 

It is by cash receipts from advertising that we hope to make up the discrepancy between the low 
price of subscriptions and the cost of printing and delivering the paper. We will send rates upon 
application and allow a liberal commission upon desirable advertising secured for us. 

IN GENERAL 

By interesting yourself and friends in Chicago Commons, and the cause of social brotherhood 
for which it stands and which it tries to aid. For instance, why not write a couple of letters to-day 
to some good friends, telling them about it, and sending them your copy of the paper ? We will 
send you another copy for every one you distribute in this way. 



WHEN YOU THINK, 

That in these ways, and others that may occur to you, you can assure the permanency, stability and 
constant development of the paper ; that thus you can be of material assistance in arousing interest 
in the work of social reform and rejuvenation, not alone in the social settlement, but in churches, 
societies and among individuals widely scattered in many parts of the world ; 



YOU WILL GLADLY HELP. 



For sample copies, advertising rates and all information 
on the subject of the paper, address 



CHICAGO COMMONS, 




1897. J 



CHICAGO COMMONS 



literature anfc 38ibliOQrapb. 



IN THE MORNING'S PAPER. 

" Men say to me daily, when I ask them in passing, 
'anything in this morning's paper'." 'Oh, no, noth- 
ing at all.' Hut when I come to look at the paper 
with my own eyes, I am astonished at the misreport 
of my informants. Were there no other section in it 
than simply the police report, oftentimes I stand 
aghast at the revelations there made of human life 
and the human heart at its colossal guilt ami its 
colossal misery. Newspapers are evanescent, and are 
too rapidly recurrent, and people see nothing great 
in what is familiar." De Quincey. 



REFORM AND RADICAL PAPERS. 



List of American Labor and Other Publications Read 
by Workingmen. 



This note from the New York Independent of 
March 11 is interesting to us, not only for its refer- 
ence to CHICAGO COMMONS, but also for the good 
list of reform papers which it gives, and which 
may be of value to some of our readers: 

The following are the most important economic 
and trade journals in the United States that circu- 
late exclusively or largely among the wage-earners. 
Generally the names, as will be seen, indicate the 
character of the paper: CHICAGO COMMONS (de- 
voted to settlement work), Chicago, 111.; City and 
State (devoted to good government), Philadelphia, 
Pa.; Justice (single tax), Wilmington, Del.; The 
Utica Advocate (journal of labor), Utica, N. Y.; 
Troy Advocate (journal of labor), Troy, N. Y.; 
Direct Legislation Record, Newark, N. J.; Covey's 
Sound Money, Massilon, O.; Lucifer (anarchistic ten- 
dencies) Chicago, 111.; The Toledo Union (organ of 
the Central Labor Union), Toledo, O.; The Coming 
Nation (public ownership of land and monopolies)? 
Ruskin, Tenn.; Public Ownership, New York City; 
Eight-Hour Herald, Chicago, 111.; National Single 
Taxer, Minneapolis, Minn.; Voice of Labor, San 
Francisco, Cal.; American Federationist (official or- 
gan of the American Federation of Labor), Indian- 
apolis, Ind.; The People (Socialist), New York City; 
Twentieth Century (radical) New York City; Dawn 
(Christian Socialist), Rosedale, Mass.; American 
Fabian (Fabian Socialist), New York City; Com- 
monwealth (radical organ of sociology), New York 
City; Journal of Knights of Labor, Washington, D. 
C.; Monthly Journal of the International Associa- 
tion of Mechanics, Chicago, 111.; Saturday Critic 
(trade and labor organ), Oneonta, N. Y.; The Mo- 
torman and Conductor, Detroit, Mich.; Coast Sea- 
mail's Journal, San Francisco, Cal.; Locomotive and 
Firemen's Journal, Peoria, 111.; The Carpenter 
Philadelphia, Pa.; Typographical Journal, Indian- 
apolis, Ind.; The Tailor, Bloomington,!!!.; Painter's 



Journal, Lafayette, Ind.; The Retail Clerks' Na- 
tional Advocate, Chicago, 111.; The. Journal of the 
.Metal Polishers, Buffers, Platers and Brass. Workers' 
Union of North America, Detroit, Mich.; 7WW 
Journal, Watertown, N. Y.; Painters' Journal, Bal- 
timore, Md.; Blue Label Bulletin of the Cigar M,il,-- 
( /*' I /i/< rtmfio/Ktl Union, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Cigar 
M<il,< rs' Official Journal, Chicago, 111.; The Bakers' 
Journal, Brooklyn, N. Y.; The Garment Wi.-/.-< /-, 
New York City; The Granite Cutters? Journal, Bal- 
timore, Md.; United Mine Workers' Journal, Co- 
lumbus, O., and The Union Printer and 
Craftsman, New York City. 



THE LIQUOR PROBLEM. 



The first volume, of the series on "The Liquor 
Problem" to be published by the Committee of 
Fifty, is out, under the general title. It is by John 
Koren, special agent of the committee, and Dr. 
Frederick Howard Wines. Like the rest of the 
work of the Committee of Fifty this volume will 
involve no small surprise to the temperance work- 
ers of this country. Whatever may be thought of 
the specific statements on the Maine and other 
prohibition laws, of which this volume treats, it is 
certainly a fact that the expert investigation of this 
committee in all parts of this country and in many 
fields of study and observation, will go far toward 
modifying some of the popular ideas concerning 
the influence the liquor traffic, in reference to crime 
and poverty, and will remove a good portion of the 
emphasis from the personal and moral to the econ- 
omic and environmental aspects of the question. 
Every hint thus far given by the committee is to 
this effect. (Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston.) 



MUNICIPAL BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



A volume of the utmost interest and value to all 
interested in the subject of municipal reform is the 
admirable Bibliography of Municipal Affairs, pub- 
lished by the Committee on Municipal Administra- 
tion of the New York Reform Club. It lists not 
only the books upon the subject of municipal ad- 
ministration, but also many important magazine 
and periodical references. The references are 
classified by authors as well as subjects. (52 Wil- 
liam street, New York.) 



HAND-BOOK OF CHARITIES. 

The third edition of the Hand-book of Chicago 
Charities is just out, the editorial conduct of the 
work having been in the alert and industrious 
hands of Mr. John Visher, secretary of the Illinois 
Conference of Charities and Correction, by whose 
direction it is prepared. It is a well-bound volume 



16 



CHICAGO COMMONS 



[March. 



of 260 pages, and lists the various philanthropies 
of the city and state which hold membership in 
the conference and are regarded as worthy of pub- 
lic confidence and support. The volume will be of 
the greatest usefulness to all who have contact or 
correspondence with charitable institutions, or 
who have need to refer to such information for 
any purpose. Chicago, Charles H. Kerr & Co., 56 
Fifth avenue, 1897. Copyrighted by John Visher, 
1894. 



GOVERNMENT LABOR BULLETIN. 



In addition to the usual valuable departments of 
the Bulletin of the United States Labor Depart- 
ment, the March issue contains a striking paper by 
John Koren, special agent of the Committee of 
Fifty, on "The Padrone System and Padrone 
Banks," enlightening the (to the average Ameri- 
can) mystery of the relation of the Italian to the 
business sharks who bleed them. There is also an 
instructive article on "The Dutch Society for 
General Welfare," by John Howard Gore, Ph.D., 
of Columbia University. Labor Reports of Con- 
necticut, New York and Ohio are reviewed, as is 
also the Ninth Annual Report of the New York 
Board of Mediation and Arbitration. 



SPRING ECONOMIC CONFERENCE. 



Functions and Limitations of City Governments to 
be Discussed by Experts and Students. The Sec- 
ond Week of May Selected as the Time. 



The spring session of the Economic Conference 
under the auspices of Chicago Commons and 
Hull House will be held in the three or four days 
following Monday, May 10th. Correspondence is 
yet in progress with those who have been invited 
to participate, and it is still too soon for us to fulfil 
our promise and expectation and announce the pro- 
gramme. It may be said again that the topic of 
the conference will be "Municipal Functions 
Powers and Limitations of City Governments.'' 
Efforts are in progress to have upon the programme 
some of the leaders in municipal reform move- 
ments in the United States, some of the distin- 
guished mayors who have done valiant service in 
the cause of city betterment, and other distin- 
guished students of municipal affairs. 

The sessions will be held as before at the two 
settlements, unless the great interest should make 
other arrangements necessary. Those interested 
in the matter can be informed by mail upon their 
enclosure of postage to either settlement, and pro- 
grammes as soon as even partially complete will 
be announced in the daily papers, in CHICAGO 
COMMONS for April, aed in the Hull House Bulletin. 



" Branch out into your neighbor's home with its 
newborn babe and sometimes make your own chil- 
dren the sweet custodian and caretaker of it. Let 
each day do something or think something for it." 



Sifce OLigbt Sfeetcbes 




A SEVENTEENTH WARD HOME. 




(On the Veranda of the Children's Building.) By courtesy 
of the American Journal of Sociology. 



CHICAGO COMMONS. 



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