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Full text of "Common trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands"

COMMON TREES OF 
PUERTO RICO 

And the 

VIRGIN ISLANDS 



Elbert L. Little, Jr. 
Frank H. Wadsworth 






COMMON TREES OF If/ 
PUERTO RICO 

AND THE 

VIRGIN ISLANDS 



By 

ELBERT L. LITTLE, JR. 
Dendrologist, Division of Timber Management Research 
Forest Service, Washington, D.C. 

and 

FRANK H. WADSWORTH 

Director, Institute of Tropical Forestry 
Forest Service, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 



AGRICULTURE HANDBOOK NO. 249 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREST SERVICE 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20250 July 1964 



Library of Consress Catalos Card Number: Agr 64-50 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing OfBce 
Washington, n.C. 20402 - Price $4.25 



11 



CONTENTS 

Page 

List of tree species with descriptions and illustrations iv 

Introduction 1 

Previous work 2 

Preparation of this book 2 

Plan 3 

Illustrations 3 

Tree names 3 

Tree descriptions 4 

Wood and uses 5 

Other uses 5 

Propagation, growth, and other notes 5 

Distribution 5 

Related species 9 

Explanation of botanical terms 9 

Leaves 9 

Flower clusters 9 

Flowers 10 

Fruits - 10 

How to use this book in tree identification 10 

Statistical summary 11 

Acknowledgments 11 

Forests and forestry in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 12 

The virgin forests 12 

The forests of today 14 

Forest conservation 15 

Lit eratiu-e cited 18 

Special lists 19 

Poisonous trees 19 

Appearance and trunk 19 

Colored sap or latex 19 

Leaves 19 

Flowers 19 

Fruits 19 

Uses 19 

Planting lists 20 

Key to families 21 

Part 1. Leaves alternate, simple 22 

Part 2. Leaves alternate, compound 25 

Part 3. Leaves opposite, simple 26 

Part 4. Leaves opposite, compound 27 

Tree species, descriptions and illustrations 28 

Index of common and scientific names 529 



LIST OF TREE SPECIES WITH DESCRIPTIONS AND 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Page 

Tree-fern family (Cyatheaceae) 28 

1. Helerho gigante, tree-fern, Cyathe.a arborea (L.) J. E. Smith 28 

Yew family (Taxaceae) 30 

2. Caobilla, podoearp, Podocarpus coriaceus L. C. Rich 30 

Grass family (Gramineae) 32 

3. Bambii, common bamboo, Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. * 32 

Palm family (Palmae) 34 

4. Corozo, prickly-palm, Puerto Rico acrocomia, Acrocomia media O. F. Cook 34 

5. Palma de coyor, Aiphanes acanthophylla (Mart.) Burret 36 

6. Palma de coco, coconut, Cocos nucijera. L.* 38 

7. Palma de sierra, sierra palm, Euterpe globom Gaertn 40 

8. Palma de llu via, Gaussia. affenuafa (O. F. Cook) Beccari 42 

9. Palma real, royal palm, Puerto Rico royalpalm, Roystonea borinquena O. F. Cook 44 

10. Palma de sombrero, Puerto Rico palmetto, Sabal causiarum (O. F. Cook) Beccari 46 

Casuarina family (Casuarinaceae*) ' 48 

11. Casuarina, Australian beefwood, horsetail casuarina, Casuarina equisetif Ha L. * 48 

Pepper family (Piperaceae) 50 

12. Higuillo, Piper aduncum. L 50 

Chlorantlnis family (Chloranthaceae) 52 

13. Azafrdn , Hedyosmum arborescens Sw 52 

Willow family (Salicaceae*) 54 

14. Sauce, Humboldt willow, Salix humboldtiana Willd. * 54 

Elm family (LTlmaceae) 56 

15. Palo de cabrilla, West Indies trema, Trema lanwrcHaim (Roem. & Schult.) Blume 56 

16. Guacimilla, false jacocalalu, Florida trema, Trema micranfha (L.) Blume 58 

Mulberry family (Moraceae) 60 

17. Panapen, pana de pepitas, breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg* 60 

18. Jaca, jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. * 62 

19. Caucho, Central American rubber, castilla rubber, Castilla elastica Cervantes* 64 

20. Yagrumo hembra, trumpet-tree, Cecrojna peltata L 66 

21 . Palo de goma. India-rubber fig, Ficus elastica Nois. * 68 

22. Jagiiey bianco, shortleaf fig, Ficus laevigata Vahl 70 

23. Laurel de la India, India-laurel fig, Ficus retusa L.* 72 

24. Jagiiey Colorado, Ficus sintenisii Warb 74 

Buckwheat family (Polygonaceae) 76 

25. Uvilla, doveplum, Coccoloba dii^ersifolia Jacq 76 

26. Moralon, Coccoloba pnbescens L 78 

27. Ortegon, Coccoloba swartzii Meisn 80 

28. Uva de playa, seagrape, Coccoloba itvifera (L.) L 82 

29. Calambrena, chicory-grape, Coccoloba venosa L 84 

30. Triplaris, anttree, Triplaris americana L.* 86 

Four-o'clock family (Nyctaginaceae) 88 

3 1 . Corcho bobo, Pisonia albidu (Heimerl) Britton 88 

32. Corcho bianco, water mampoo, Pisonia subcordata Sw - 90 

33. Corcho, black mampoo, Torrubia jragrans (Dum.-Cours.) Standley 92 

Magnolia family (Magnoliaceae) 94 

34. Jagiiilla, Magnolia portoricensis Belle 94 

35. Laurel sabino, Magnolia splendens LTrban 96 

Annona family (Annonaceae) 98 

36. Guandbana cimarrona, wild soursop, Annona montana Maefadyen 98 

* Exotic, or introduced. Species (or families) with scientific names followed by an asterisk are not native in Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands. 

iv 



Annona family — Continued Page 

37. Guaniibana, soursop, Annona mnricata L.* 100 

38. Corazon, oustard-apple, Annona reticulata L.* 102 

39. Anon, sugar-apple, Annona squamosa L.* 104 

40. IlAn-ikn, ylano-ylang, Pananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thoms.* 106 

41 . Haya minna, Guatteria hlainii (Griseb.) Urban 108 

Laurel family (Lauraceae) _ 110 

42. Guajon, Beilschmiedia pendula (Svv.) Benth. & Hook, f 110 

43. Canelilla, Licaria saUcifolia (Svv.) Kosterm 112 

44. Palo de misanteco, Gulf licaria, Licaria triandra (Sw.) Kosterm 114 

45. Laurel avispillo, Jamaica nectandra, Nectandra coriacea (Sw.) Griseb 116 

46. Canelon, Ocotea cuneata (Griseb.) Urban 118 

47. Laurel espada, Ocotea florihunda (Sw.) Mez 120 

48. Laurel geo, Ocotea. leucoxylon (Sw.) Mez 122 

49. Nuez moscada, Ocotea moschata (Meisn.) Mez 124 

50. Nemocd, Ocotea spathulata Mez 126 

51. Aguacate, avocado, Persea americana Mill.* 128 

Hernandia family (Hernandiaceae) 130 

52. Mago, Hernandia sonora L 130 

Caper family (Capparidaceae) 132 

53. Burro pricto, Jamaica caper, Capparis cynophallophora L 132 

Horseradish-tree family (Moringaceae*) 134 

54. Kesedd, horseradish-tree, Aloringa oleijera Lam.* 134 

Brunellia family (Brunelliaceae) 136 

55. Palo bobo, Brunellia comocladijolia Humb. & Bonpl 136 

Cunonia family (Cunoniaceae) 138 

56. Oreganillo, Weinmannia pinnata lu 138 

Rose family (Rosaceae) __ 140 

57. Icaquillo, Hirtella rugosa Pers 140 

Legume family (Leguminosae) 142 

Mimosa subfamily (MimosoicJeae ; Mimosaceae) 142 

58. Aroma, sweet acacia, Acacia Jarnesiana (L.) Willd.* 142 

59. Perom'as, jumbie-bead, Adenanthera pavonina L.* 144 

60. Acacia amarilla, tibet, lebbek, Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth.* 146 

61. Albizia, t&W alhizia, Albizia procera (Ro.xb.) Benth.* 148 

62. Guam^, "sweetpea," Inga laurina (vSw.) Willd 150 

63. Guama venezolano, Inga qiiaternata Poepp. & Endl.* 152 

64. Guaba, Inga vera WiWd 154 

65. Zarcilla, tantan, leadtree, Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth 156 

66. Cojobana, Piptadenia peregrina (L.) Benth 158 

67. Cojoha., Pithecellobium arboreum (L.) L^rban 160 

68. Guamd americano, guamuchil, Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.* 162 

69. Saman, raintree, Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.* 164 

70. Bayahonda, mesquite, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC* 166 

Cassia subfamily (Caesalpinioideae ; Caesalpiniaceae) 168 

71. Mariposa, butterfly bauhinia, Bauhinia monandra Kurz* 168 

72. Canafistula, golden-shower. Cassia fistula L.* 170 

73. Casia rosada, pink cassia. Cassia javanica L.* 172 

74. Casia de Siam, Siamese cassia. Cassia siamea Lam.* 174 

75. Flamboydn, flamboyant-tree, Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf.*_ _ __ 176 

76. Algarrotjo, West-Indian-locust , courbaril, Hymenaea courbaril L 178 

77. Palo de rayo, Jerusalem-thorn, Parkinsonia aculeata L.* 180 

78. Flamboyan amarillo, yellow flamboyant, Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves* 182 

79. Cobana negra, Stahlia monosperma (Tul.) Urban 184 

80. Tamarindo, tamarind, Tamarindus indica h.* 186 

Pea subfamily (Lotoideae ; Fabaceae) 188 

81. Moca, cabbage angelin, Andira inermis (W. Wright) H. B. K 188 

82. Bucare enano, machette, Erythrina berteroana Urban* 190 

83. Bucare, swamp immortelle, Erythrina glauca Willd.* 192 

84. Bucayo gigante, mountain immortelle, Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O. F. Cook*.---- 194 

85. Mata-raton, mother-of-cocoa, GliricMia sepium (Jacq.) Steud.* 196 

86. Retama, Lonchocarpus latifolius (Willd.) H. B. K 198 

87. Palo de matos, Ormosia krugii Urban 200 



Pea subfamily — Continued Page 

88. Tachuelo, fustic, Pictetia aculeata (Vahl) Urban 202 

89. Pterocarpus, India padauk, Pterocarpus indicus Willd.* 204 

90. Palo de polio, swamp bloodwood, Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq 206 

9 1 . Baculo, agati, Seshan ia grandiflora (L.) Pers. *_ 208 

Coca family (Erythroxylaccae) 210 

92. Indio, Erythroxylon areolatum L 210 

Caltrop family (Zygophyllaceae) . 212 

93. Guayacan, common lignumvitae, Guaiacum officinale L 212 

94. Guayacan bianco, holywood lignumvitae, Guaiacum sanctum L 214 

Rue family (Rut accae) 216 

95. Tea, sea amyris, Amyris elemifera L 216 

96. Lim6n agrio, lime. Citrus aurantifolia (L.) Swingle* 218 

97. Naranja agria, sour orange, ( Strus aurantium L.* 220 

98. Limon de cabro, lemon, Citrus lirnon (L.) Burm. f.* 222 

99. Toronja, grapefruit, Citrus paradi si Macfadyen* 224 

100. China, sweet orange. Citrus sinensis Osbeck* 226 

101. Aceitillo, yellow-sanders, yellow-heart, Zanthoxylum flavum Vahl 228 

102. Espino rubial, white-prickle, Martinique prickly-ash, Zanthoxylum martinicense (Lam.) 

DC - - 230 

103. Palo rubio, vellow-prickle, yellow prickly-ash, Zanthoxylum monophyllum (Lam.) P. 

Wilson _ . _ 1 1 ' 232 

Ailanthus family (Simaroubaceae) 234 

104. Guarema, bitterbush, Picramnia pentandra Sw 234 

Bursera family (Burseraceae) 236 

105. Almacigo, turpentine-tree, gumbo-limbo, Bursera sim.aruba (L.) Sarg 236 

106. Tabonuco, Dacryodes excelsea Vahl 238 

107. Masa, Tetragastris balsamifera (Sw.) Kuntze 240 

Mahogany family (Meliaceae) 242 

108. Cedro hembra, Spanish-cedar, Cedrela odorata L 242 

109. Guaraguao, American muskwood, Guarea trichilioides h 244 

110. Alelaila, chinaberry, Melia azedarach L.* 246 

111. Caoba hondurena, Honduras mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King* 248 

112. Caoba dominicana, Dominican mahogany, West Indies mahogany, Swietenia mahagoni 

Jacq.* ■_ 250 

113. Tinacio, broomstick, Trichilia hirta L 252 

1 14. Gaeta, Trichilia pallida Sw 254 

Malpighia family (Malpighiaceae) 256 

115. Maricao, Byrsonima coriacea (Sw.) DC 256 

116. Maricao cimarrdn, Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) H. B. K 258 

Milkwort family (Polygalaceae) 260 

117. Violeta, violet-tree, Polygala cowellii (Britton) Blake 260 

Spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) 262 

118. Achiotillo, Alchornea latifolia Sw 262 

119. Palo de gallina, Alchorneopsis portoricensis Urban 264 

120. Sabindn, Croton poecilanthus Urban 266 

121 . Varital, Drypetes glauca Vahl 268 

122. Rascaso, Euphorbia petiolaris Sims 270 

1 23 . Yaiti, oysterwood , Gymnanthes lucida Sw 272 

124. Manzanillo, manchineel, Hippomane mancinellah 274 

125. Molinillo, sandbox, hura, Hui-a crepitans L 276 

126. Cedro macho, Hyeronima clusioides (Tul.) Muell.-Arg 278 

127. Grosella, Otaheite gooseberrv-tree, Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels* 280 

128. Millo, Phyllanthus nobilis (L. f .) MuelL-Arg 282 

129. Tabaiba, Sapium laurocerasus Desf 284 

Cashew family (Anacardiaceae) 286 

130. Pajuil, cashew, Anacardiiim occidentale L 286 

131. Mango, Mangifera indica L.* 288 

132. Papayo, Florida poisontree, Metopium toxiferum (L.) Krug & Urban 290 

133. Jobo de la India, ambarella, Spondias diilcis Parkinson* 292 

134. Jobo, hogplum, yellow mombin, Spondias mombin L 294 

135. Ciruela del pals, purple mombin, Spondias purpurea L.* 296 

vi 



Page 

Cvrilla family (Cyrillaceae) 298 

1 36. Palo Colorado, swamp cyrilla, Cyrilla racemiflora L 298 

Bladdernut family (Staphyleaceae) 300 

137. !>auco cimarr6n, Turpinia paniculata Vent 300 

Soapberry family (Sapindaceae) 302 

138. Giiara, Cupania americana L 302 

139. Negra lora, Matayba domin(iensis (DC.) Kadlk 304 

140. Quenepa, kinep, Spanisli-line, Alelicoccus hijiujatus Jacq.* 306 

141. Jaboiicillo, wingleaf soapberry, Sapindiis saponaria L 308 

142. Serrasucla, Thouinia portoricensis Radlk 310 

143. Ceboruquillo, Thouinia striata Radlk 312 

Sabia family (Sabiaceae) 314 

144. Aguacatillo, Meliosma herbertii Rolfe 314 

Buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae) _ 316 

14.5. Abeyiielo, coffee colubrina, Coluhrina arborescens (Mill.) Sarg 316 

146. Mabi, soldierwood, Colubrina reclinata (L'Her.) Brongii 318 

147. Bariaco, "ironwood," leadwood, Kruffiodendron jerreum. (Vahl) Urban 320 

148. Cascarroya, Sarcomphalus reticulatus (Vahl) Urban 322 

Elaeocarpus family (Elaeocarpaceae) 324 

149. Motillo, Sloanea berteriana Choisy 324 

Mallow family (Malvaceae) 326 

150. Emajagua, sea hibiscus. Hibiscus tiliaceus L.* 326 

151. Maga, Montezuma speciossima Sesse & Moc 328 

152. Emajagiiilla, otaheita, portiatree, Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland.* 330 

Bombax family (Bombacaceae) 332 

153. Ceiba, silk-cotton-tree, Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn 332 

154. Guano, balsa, Ochroma pyramidale (Cav.) Urban 334 

155. Garrocho, Quararibxa turbinata (Sw.) Poir 336 

Chocolate family (Sterculiaceae) 338 

156. Gu^cima, jacocalalu, Guazuma ulmijoliaham 338 

157. Anacagiiita, panama-tree, Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst.* 340 

158. Cacao, chocolate-tree, Theobroma cacao L.* 342 

Dillenia family (Dilleniaceae) 344 

159. Dilenia, India dillenia, Dillenia indica L.* 344 

Tea family (Theaceae) 346 

160. Maricao verde, Laplacea portoricensis (Krug & Urban) Dyer 346 

Mangosteen family (Gut tiferae) 348 

161 . Maria, santa-maria, Calophyllum brasiliense Camb 348 

162. CupelUo, Clusia krugiana Urban 350 

163. Cupey, wild-mammee, copey clusia, Clusia rosea Jacq 352 

164. Mamey, mammee-apple, Mammea americana L 354 

165. Palo de cruz, Bheedia portoricensis Urban 356 

Ana t to family (Bixaceae*) 358 

166. Achiote, anatto, Bixa orellana L.* 358 

Cochlospermum family (Cochlospermaceae*) 7-.--: '^^^ 

167. Rosa imperial, Brazilian-rose, cochlospermum, Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) 

Spreng.* 360 

Canella family (Canellaceae) 362 

168. Barbasco, canella, Canella winterana (L.) Gaertn 362 

Flacourtia family (Flacourtiaceae) 364 

169. Rabo rat6n, Casearia arborea (L. C. Rich.) Urban 364 

170. Tost ado, wild honey- tree, Casearia decandra Jacq 366 

171 . Palo bianco, wild-coffee, Casearia guianensis (Aubl.) Urban 368 

172. Cafeillo, Casearia sylvestris Sw 370 

173. Caracolillo, Homalium racemosum Jacq 372 

Papaya family (Caricaceae *) 374 

174. Lechosa, papaya, Carica papaya L.* 374 

Cactus family (Cactaceae) 376 

175. Sebucan, dildo, Cephalocereus royenii (L.) Britton & Rose 376 

176. Tuna de petate, pricklypear, Opuntia rubescens Salm-Dyck 378 

Mezereon family (Thymelaeaceae) 38o 

177. Majagua brava, Daphnopsis philippiana Krug & Urban 380 

vii 



Page 

Loosestrife family (Lythraceae) 382 

178. Reina de las flores, quecn-of-flowers, Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.* 382 

Mangrove family (Rhizophoraceae) 384 

179. Mangle Colorado, mangrove, Rhizophora mangle h 384 

Combretum family (Combret aceae) 386 

1 80. Granadillo, Buchenavia capitata (Vahl) Eichl 386 

181. tJcar, gregre, oxliorn bucida, Bucida huceras L 388 

182. Mangle bot6n, button-mangrove, Conocarpus erectus L 39O 

183. Mangle bianco, wliite-mangrove, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f 392 

1 84 . Almendra , Indian-almond , Term inalia catappa L. * 394 

Myrtle family (Myrtaceae) 396 

185. Limoncillo, Calyptranfhes krugii Kiaersk 396 

186. Eucalipto, beakpod eucalyptus. Eucalyptus robusta J. E. Smith* 398 

187. Guas^bara, Eugenia aeruginea DC 400 

188. Pomarrosa, rose-apple, Eugenia jamhos L.* 402 

189. Manzana malaya, Malay-apple, Eugenia malaccensis L.* 404 

190. Hoja menuda, spiceberry eugenia, Eugenia rhombea (Berg) Krug & Urban 406 

191. Guayabota, Eugenia stahlii (Kiaersk.) Krug & Urban 408 

192. Cieneguillo, Myrcia deflexa (Poir.) DC 410 

193. Hoja menuda, A/y/n'a sj}/en(/fns (J^w.) DC 412 

194. Malagueta, bay-rum-tree, Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore 414 

195. Guayaba, common guava, Psidium guajava L. * 416 

Melastome family (Melastomataceae) 418 

196. Jusillo, Calycogonium squamulosum Cogn 418 

197. Camasey peludo, Heterotrichum cymosum (Wendl.) Urban 420 

198. Camasey, Miconia prasina (Sw.) DC 422 

199. Verdiseco, Tetrazygia elaeagnoides (Sw.) DC 424 

Ginseng family (Araliaceae) 426 

200. Polio, Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne. & Planch 426 

201. Yagrumo macho, matchwood, Didymopanax mnrototoni (Aubl.) Decne. & Planch 428 

Myrsine family (M\Tsinaceae) 430 

202. Mameyuelo, Ardisia obovata Desv 430 

203. Mantequero, Rapanea Jerruginea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez 432 

204. B^dula, Guiana rapanea, Rapianea guianensis A\ih\ 434 

Sapodilla family (Sapotaceae) 436 

205. Lechecillo, Chrysophyllum argenteum Jacq 436 

206. Caimito, star-apple, Chrysophyllum cainito L 438 

207. Caimitilio de perro, satinleaf, Chrysophyllum olivi^orme L 440 

208. Sanguinaria, wild mespel, willow bustic, Dipholis salwijolia (L.) A. DC 442 

209. Ausubo, balata, Manilkara bidentata (A. DC.) Chev 444 

210. Nispero, sapodilla, Manilkara zapota (L.) v. Royen* 446 

211. Caimitilio , Micropholis chrysophylloides Pierre 448 

212. Caimitilio verde , Micropholis garciniaefolia Pierre 450 

213. JAcana, Pouteria multiflora (A. DC.)Eyma 452 

214. Tortugo amarillo, false-mastic, Sideroxylonfoetidissimum J ncq 454 

Sweetleaf family (Symplocaceae) 456 

215. Aceituna blanca, candlewood, Symplocos martinicensis Jacq 456 

Olive family (Oleaceae) 458 

216. Hueso bianco, Linociera domingensis (Lam.) Knobl 458 

Dogbane family (Apocynaceae) 460 

217. Alell, milktree", Plumeria alba L 460 

218. Frangipani, Plumeria rubra L.* 462 

219. Palo amargo, bitter-ash, Rauvolfia nitida Jacq 464 

Borage family (Bor agin aceae) 466 

220. Palo de vaca, pigeon-berry, Bourreria succulenta Jacq 466 

221. Capa prieto, capa, Cordia alliodora (Ruiz & Pav.) Oken 468 

222. Muneco, Cordia borinquensis Urban 470 

223. Capa Colorado, red manjack, Cordia nitida Vahl 472 

224. Moral, white manjack, Cordia sulcata DC 474 



Vlll 



Page 

Verbena family (Verbenaceae) 476 

225. Mangle prieto, black-mangrove, Avicennia nitida Jacq 476 

226. P^ndula dc sierra, Citharexylum caudatum L... 478 

227! Pendula, pasture fiddlewood, Florida fiddlewood, Citharexylum fruticosum L 480 

228. Capa bianco, Petitia domingensis Jacq 482 

229. Teca , teak, Tectona grandis L. f.*..-- 484 

230. Higuerillo, white fiddlewood, Vitex divaricata Sw. __ 486 

Nightshade family (Solanaceae) 488 

231. Tabac6n, Solanum rugosum Dunal 488 

Bignonia family (Bignoniaceae) 490 

232. Higiiero, calabash-tree, common calabash-tree, Crescentia cujete L 490 

233. Jacaranda, Jacaranda mimosifolia D. Don* — 492 

234. Tulipan africano, African tuhptree, Spathodea campanulata Beauv.* 494 

235. Roble cimarron, Tabebuia haemantha (Bert.) DC 496 

236. Roble bianco, "white-cedar," Tabebuia heternphylla (DC.) Britton 498 

237. Roble de sierra, Tabebuia rigida Urban 500 

238. Roble amarillo, ginger-thomas, Tecoma stans (L.) H. B. K 502 

Madder family (Rubiaceae) 504 

239. Quina, Antirhea obtusifolia Urban 504 

2'iO. CAie, coffee, CoJfeaarabicaL.* . 506 

241. Albarillo, Caribbean princewood, Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult 508 

242. Cafelllo, false-coffee, Faramea occidentalis (L.) A. Rich 510 

243. Jagua, gempA, Genipa americanah 512 

244. Palo de cucubano, "greenheart," roughleaf velvetseed, Guettarda scabra (L.) Vent 514 

245. Cafeillo, Ixora ferrea (Jacq.) Benth 516 

246 . Morinda , painkiller, Morinda citrifoUa L.* 518 

247. Tintillo, box-briar, Randia aculeata L.__ 520 

248. Juan tomas, Rondeletia portoricensis Krug & Urban 522 

249. Aquil6n, Terebraria resinosa (VaM) Sprngue 524 

Composite family (Compositae) 526 

250. Carruzo, Clibadium erosum (Sw.) DC 526 



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INTRODUCTION 



About 500 species of trees, from the giants of the 
luxuriant rain forests to the slirubby trees of dry 
areas and windswept mountain summits, are na- 
tive to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, both 
United States and British (tig. 1). In addition, 
several hundred tree species from otlier tropical 
lands around the world have been introduced into 
the islands because of sliowy flowers, liandsome 
foliage, dense shade, valuable timber, delicious 
fruits, or other values. 

Naturally, tliere have been many requests for a 
reference book on this subject. Information about 
most trees of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 
has not previously been assembled in nonteclmical 
form, and drawings of some have never been pub- 
lislied. Nor are teclmical botanical floras, forestry 
publications, and miscellaneous .sclent itic refer- 
ences on this subject generally available. 

Tliis booli describes in detail 250 of the com- 
moner and more important native and exotic tree 
species, those most lil^ely to be seen. Identifica- 
tion of eacli species is aided by a large drawing 
of tlie leaves, flowers, and fruit and a description 
that empliasizes the distinguishing characteristics. 
For furtlier identification, 130 additional, related 
species are mentioned briefly and compared with 
those illustrated. Thus, 380 species from forest 
giants down to small trees are included. 

Tlie primaiy purpose of this book, published 
also in Spanish (ii'i), is to answer for the people 
of tliese and nearby areas of the West Indies, both 
residents and tourists, the question : WHiat tree is 
this? Having answered that, it aims to give the 
more important and interesting facts about the 
tree. It should be helpful to university students, 
teachers of liigh schools, and instructors in youtli 
programs such as 4-H Clubs, Boy Scouts, and 
Girl Scouts. It should be a useful reference in 
extension and technical assistance programs, agri- 
cultural research, forestry, and for landowners, 
landscape architects, ancl gardeners. Foresters 
and forestry students in continental United States 
\yill find here the descriptions of many common 
timber trees of tropical America. 

For the rapidly increasing number of tourists 
from continental United States, this reference 
provides the tree names and answers questions. 
Public forests, both natural and managed, are 
easily accessible by paved highways. The Virgin 
Islands National Park contains large forest areas 
in St. John. Teacliers, students, and all interested 
in nature can use this field guide in identification. 

This reference will l)e useful over somewhat 
larger areas in tropical America because most of 
the tree species figured are widely distributed. It 



will be of value also in the other West Indies 
and in countries bordering the Caribbean Sea not 
liaving similar publications. 

Also this book will be helpful within continental 
United States, notably in southern Florida. More 
tlian half of the 250 species selected grow also in 
southern Florida. More than one-fourth, or 65, 
are in Check List of Native and Naturalized Trees 
of the United States (19) ; 42 as native, mostly 
in the Florida Keys or southern Florida main- 
land, and 23 as naturalized. Two more are 
shrubs in tlie United States, and the others are 
planted in southern Florida, although some in 
limited numbers. 

Because of their value and interest, 72 species 
of exotic or introduced trees mostly common 
tlirough tropical America have been included. 
While tlie remaining 178 species illustrated are 
native in Puerto Rico, only 28 are confined or 
endemic thei'e. According to their distribution, 
101 of these are found also in the Virgin Islands, 
wliicli have fewer tree species because of their 
smaller size and lower altitude; 148 are known in 
other West Indian islands; and 102 grow wild 
somewhere on the continent, such as in southern 
Florida, Mexico, Central America, or South 
America. 

Information presented in addition to that re- 
quired for identification assists the readers to know 
the tree better and to judge its suitability for tim- 
ber, shade, ornament, fruit, or other purposes. 
These notes include: (1) the size the tree at- 
tains at maturity; (2) whether evergreen or de- 
ciduous; (3) tlie normal shape of the crown; (4) 
the abundance, color, and fragrance of the flowers; 
(5) the kind of fruit and whether edible or 
poisonous; (6) the usual period of flowering and 
fruiting; (7) a brief description of the wood and 
its uses; (8) other uses of the tree and its prod- 
ucts; (9) notes on propagation, growth rate, and 
site adaptability if available; (10) where the tree 
grows within Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands; 
(11) the geographical distribution, including na- 
tive home if introduced; (12) other common 
names listed by country and language; and (13) 
related native tree species. 

It was not possible to include within one vol- 
ume an equal number of important though less 
common tree species. Several hundred additional 
tree species were recorded by Britton and Wilson 
(■5) as introduced, mo.stly in small numbers or 
experimentally, such as in nurseries, experimental 
forests, arboreta, and gardens. A second volume 
is planned to describe and illustrate the remaining 
native tree species and widely planted exotics. 



PREVIOUS WORK 

Prepariiitr tliis book has called for full use of 
the previous work of botauists and foresters and 
also for additional field investifjation. Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands, discovered by Colum- 
bus, settled early, and both small and accessible, 
were amonp the firet areas of tropical America to 
become well explored botanically. Principal pub- 
lications on the plants of these islands are listed in 
the bibliographies by Britton and Wilson (5) 
and Otero, Toro, and" Pagan (32), the latter con- 
taining also a historical sunnnary. 

The most valuable reference consulted is the de- 
scriptive flora of Puerto Rico and the A'irgin Is- 
lancls by Britton and AVilson (5), published in 
English in 1923-30. Earlier, in 1903-11, Urban 
(37) wrote a flora of Puerto Rico in Latin and 
German. In 1883-88 there was published in 
Puerto Rico an incomplete flora in Spanish by 
Stahl (.:J.5), afterwards reprinted in 1936-37. Th'e 
Virgin Islands have been the subject of other 
floras, the earliest by Hans West in 1793. Another 
flora of the Virgin Islands by Eggers {8<i) ap- 
peared in 1879. Britton (4) publis^ied a flora of 
the United States Virgin Islands in 1918, a year 
after their purchase from Demnark. 

Nearly a century ago, Jose Maria Fernandez (9, 
pp. 181-215) compiled a list of trees of Puerto 
Rico in his "Tratado de la Arboricultura Cubana," 
published in Havana in 1867. Entitled "Arbolado 
de Puerto-Rico," this annotated list contained 
about 175 trees arranged by Spanish common 
names with scientific names for about 100. Intro- 
duced, as well as native, species and several shrubs 
were mentioned. There were notes on size, occur- 
rence, wood including specific gravity, and uses 
and also lists for special purposes. 

Shortly after Puerto Rico became a part of the 
United States in 1898, studies of the forests began 
with a report by Hill (13) in 1899 which described 
16 important timbers. In 1903 the Luquillo Di- 
vision of the Caribbean National Forest, now the 
Luquillo Experimental Forest, was established 
from former Spanish crown lands by proclama- 
tion of President Theodore Roosevelt. A prelim- 
inary list of trees of the Luquillo region w<as pre- 
pared soon afterwards by Gilford (JO). Murphy 
(29), of the United States Forest Service, pub- 
lished a list of 292 tree species of Puerto Rico be- 
longing to 172 genera and 57 families, with notes 
on size, distribution, wood, and uses by W. D. 
Brush, Louis S. Murphy, and C. D. Mell. Hold- 
ridge and Munoz (16) described and illustrated 
seven poisonous trees in an article on the poisonous 
plants of Puerto Rico. In his manual on propaga- 
tion of trees and establishment of forest planta- 
tions, Gilormini (11) inserted a list of native and 
exotic trees and shrubs of Puerto Rico with both 
Spanish and scientific names. 

Much information about forest trees of Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands is contained in articles 



in The Caribbean Forester and other publications 
by the Institute of Tropical Forestry. Longwood 
(2'2, 23), of the United States Forest Service, made 
a special investigation of the woods of Puerto Rico 
and the Caribbean region, including about 70 spe- 
cies in this book. 

The agricultural experiment stations in Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands have made additional 
studies of trees. Wolcott (^0) tested the resistance 
of woods to attack by dry-wood termites. Winters 
and Almeyda (39) reported on the ornamental 
trees of Puerto Rico. Kennard and Wintere (18) 
described and illustrated the common fruit trees in 
their publication on fruits and nuts. Poisonous 
plants of the United States Virgin Islands, sev- 
eral being trees, were described and figured by 
Oakes and Butcher (30). 

Other important references are mentioned below 
and listed under Literature Cited. Additional 
botanical floras and tree publications of various 
tropical countries, as well as taxononiic mono- 
graphs, have provided useful information for this 
book. 

PREPARATION OF THIS BOOK 

Preparation of an illustrated popular reference 
on the trees of Puerto Rico was one of the first 
]irojects undertaken when, in 1939, the United 
States Forest Service began forest research in 
Puerto Rico with the establishment of the Tropical 
Forest Experiment Station, now Institute of Trop- 
ical Forestry, in Rio Piedras. Leslie R. Hold- 
ridge, who was in cha.rge of the project until the 
end of 1941, made Ijotanical collections of Puerto 
Rican trees and supervised the preparation of a 
few hundred drawings. He wrote two prelimi- 
nary volumes of "Trees of Puerto Rico" (lli, 15), 
published in 1942 in both English and Spanish, 
each volume containing drawings and descriptions 
of 50 tree species. These small editions were soon 
exhausted. It was intended to issue additional 
parts covering a total of about 600 native and ex- 
otic tree species to be followed by a revision printed 
in a single volume. However, further work was 
suspended during the war. Identifications of sev- 
eral luindred tree specimens collected mostly by 
Holdridge and Luis E. Gregory were made by the 
New York Botanical Garden. These specimens 
were the beginning of the Institute's herbarium. 

The present project on the trees of Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands was begun by the authors 
together in 1950. The junior author had assisted in 
the earlier project upon his arrival in Puerto Rico 
in 1942, while the senior author did some reference 
work in 1941. The ai'ea was expanded to include 
the nearby smaller Virgin Islands, both United 
States and British, which have fewer tree species 
and very few additions. 

The senior author as dendrologist made field 
trips in Puerto Rico in 1950, 1952, 1954, and 1955. 
The botanical descriptions were prepared mostly 



by him from trees and living material supple- 
mented by herbarium specimens. On field trips 
through Puerto Kico and on brief visits to Mona, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola, he 
collected about 1,200 numbers of herbarium speci- 
mens of trees. As a result, a few additional island 
records were obtained and one new tree species was 
named. An article on the trees of Mona Island 
(20) was based mainly on his two field trips there. 
In checking the identifications, he examined the 
collections from Puerto Kico and the Virgin 
Islands in the National Herbarium of the United 
States National Museum, Washington, D.C. Sets 
of specimens have been deposited there and in the 
herbarium of the Institute of Tropical Forestry 
and will be distributed to other herbaria. 

The junior author, Director of the Institute of 
Tropical Forestry, has conducted forestry investi- 
gations in Puerto Rico continuously since 1942 and 
has studied many of these tree species in the for- 
ests and experimental plots. He has prepared the 
chapter "Forests and Forestry in Puerto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands," checked the descriptions, and 
contributed notes on wood and uses. Also, he has 
compiled the data on propagation, growth rate, 
and site adaptability, and distribution by forest 
types. 

The manuscript was completed in 1955, then 
translated into Spanish for the Spanish edition, 
ancl has been slightly revised in 1962 before publi- 
cation. The notes on Puerto Rican woods have 
been expanded to include later investigations at 
the Institute of Tropical Forestry. Also, many 
common names recorded in recent floras of other 
countries have been added. 

PLAN 

The 250 common tree species of Puerto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands described and illustrated in this 
volume are grouped by plant families in the usual 
botanical arrangement adopted by Britton and 
Wilson (.5) and within each family alphabetically 
by scientific names. However, the three large sub- 
families of the legume family often accepted as 
separate families are kept apart. Sixty-eight 
plant families and 185 genera are represented. 

Illustrations 

Facing their respective descriptions, the line 
drawings show foliage and flowers and usually 
also the fruits. Most are natural size (or very 
slightly reduced), but some have been reduced to 
% and a few to 14 natural size as indicated. Near- 
ly all were made from fresh specimens in Puerto 
Rico. 

Tree Names 

The heading for the descriptive text of each 
species contains on the left the preferred common 
names in Spanish and English, on the right the 
accepted scientific name, and at top center the 



family names. An asterisk (*) after the scientific 
name means that the species (or family) is exotic, 
or introduced, and not native in Puerto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands. At the end of the text of each 
species are listed other common names in use and 
botanical synonyms, the other scientific names 
used formerly or sometimes now. These names 
appear also in the Index of Common and Scientific 
Names. English family names are derived from 
an impoi'tant example, while scientific or Latin 
family names terminate in "aceae" with few excep- 
tions. 

Preferred Common Thames 

Common names of trees often vary from place 
to place, some being applied to more than one un- 
related species, while other species may sometimes 
lack a distinctive local name. The authors have 
attempted (1) to record all names commonly ap- 
plied within this region to each species: (2) "to se- 
lect as a preferred name the one most widely em- 
ployed locally if not associated more commonly 
with another species; and (3) to suggest for 
species with no local common name one extensively 
used elsewhere. Since Spanish is the language of 
Puerto Rico, and English that of the Virgin 
Islands, two names are given for most trees pres- 
ent in both areas. 

The Spanish common name in the heading is 
that preferable for Puerto Rico, based chiefly upon 
prevalent usage. The selection has been made 
after consultation with local botanists and with 
foresters both of the Commonwealth Division of 
Forests, Fisheries, and Wildlife and of the Insti- 
tute of Tropical Forestry, United States Forest 
Service. Personnel of the Division who completed 
an island-wide forest inventory provided valuable 
information on usage. 

English common names in the heading include 
those found in the Virgin Islands or in widespread 
use elsewhere. These preferred names, many of 
which were listed by Britton and Wilson (5), 
were checked in the field with rural inhabitants 
on different islands. For the 65 species also native 
or naturalized in the United States, chiefly south- 
ern Florida, there is added the name accepted by 
the United States Forest Ser\dce in the Check 
List of Native and Naturalized Trees of the 
United States (19). For some less known species 
without local English names, those adopted else- 
where, such as in other West Indian islands, in 
Standardized Plant Names (-?7), or in commerce, 
have been accepted. Wliere two English common 
names are listed, the first is the local name in the 
Virgin Islands, and the second is either the Check 
List name adopted by the United States Forest 
Service and recommended for the United States 
or another name also widely employed. If no 
English name has been selected, the Spanish com- 
mon name may be suitable or the generic name 
may serve. 



Other Cotntnon 7\iaines 

For Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands many 
additional common names were obtained from 
local residents or taken from references, particu- 
larly Urban (37), Britton and Wilson (.5), and 
Otero, Toro, and Pagan (33) . Most of these have 
been verified, but several, apparently misapplied, 
have been omitted. As no Indian tribes have re- 
mained on Puerto Rico since the early Spanish 
settlement, there are now no separate aboriginal 
tree names. However, some Spanish names are of 
Carib Indian origin. Though tlie United States 
Virgin Islands belonged to Denmark until pur- 
chased by the United States in 1917, the tree names 
were English, and no Danish tree names are now 
recorded. 

Principal common names in use in the New 
World have been compiled from many floras and 
tree lists of different countries, and a few added 
from herbarium labels. These names often differ 
from country to country or from one island to an- 
other and may be in as many as five languages 
(Spanish, English, French, Dutch, and Portu- 
guese), besides some of American Indian origin. 
Variant spellings, aboriginal names, long, lists of 
local names within one country, and Old World 
names generally have been omitted. Other com- 
mon names have been grouped by language and 
countries in the following order: Puerto Rico, 
Virgin Islands, Spanish, other Spanish-speaking 
countries in West Indies, and from Mexico to 
South America; United States, English, British 
lands, and other English-speaking countries; 
French, Haiti, French lands; Dutcli West Indies 
and Surinam; and Brazil. Names in international 
commerce or lumber trade or so recommended are 
indicated. Some preferred names of Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands are repeated under other 
common names to show usage elsewhere. 

In the West Indian islands some tree names are 
not in the same language of the governing coun- 
try, which may have changed one or more times 
since colonization. Persons migrating from one 
island to another have brought with them names 
from different languages. Some common names 
are corruptions from other tongues, such as 
French words somewhat modified in British areas. 
Various names have become adopted fi'om Span- 
ish, English, French, and Dutch into creole dia- 
lects. Also, European colonists often gave to trop- 
ical American trees the well-known names of simi- 
lar though unrelated Old World species. 

Scientific 7s[ames 

Foresters, botanists, and other scientists use the 
scientific names in their technical writings and dis- 
cussions. Being in Latin or Latinized, scientific 
names are definite and uniform and regulated by 
botanists under the International Code of Botani- 
cal Nomenclature. Thus, the Latin name of a tree 
or other plant species in an international language 
is the same throughout the world. 



The scientific name of a species consists of two 
words : the generic name, which is capitalized, and 
the specific epithet. In some species, varieties are 
distinguished, being designated by a third word 
preceded by the abbreviation "var.'" References 
and technical ])ublications cite also the author or 
botanist wlio first named and described tlie species, 
usually abbreviated if common or long. Where 
the name lias been transferred from one genus or 
combination to another, the original author's name 
is placed in parenthesis and followed by a second 
autlior, who made tlie change. 

Botanical Synonyms 

As some species have borne more than one scien- 
tific name, any botanical synonyms common in use, 
particularly in the West Indies, are listed. For 
example, a species may have been described inde- 
])endenfly by different botanists, or two species 
may have been united following later study of ad- 
ditional s])ecimens. Also, there may be differences 
of opinion among specialists whether a variation 
merits recognition as a variety or separate species 
or needs no additional name. Included under 
botanical synonyms are those scientific names ac- 
cepted by Britton and Wilson (5) but afterwards 
clianged because of differences in codes of botani- 
cal nomenclature or in accordance with mono- 
graphic studies and conservative usage. 

Tree Descriptions 

The descrijitive text for each species begins with 
a summary of the main distinguishing characters, 
wjiich is followed by size and appearance and by 
botanical descriptions of leaves, flowers, and fruits, 
^leasurements of trees and their parts are given in 
the English system of feet and inches. In conver- 
sion to the metric system, which is more commonly 
used in tropical America, these equivalents may 
be noted : 1 foot is 0.3048 meter, 1 inch is 2.54 centi- 
meters, and Vs inch is approximately 3 millimeters. 

Main Distinguishing Characters 

The fii-st paragraph summarizes the outstand- 
ing features for easy recognition, particularly 
leaves, flowers, and fruits. Mention is made of 
other characters useful in identification, such as 
distinctive bark or presence of latex or colored 
sap. Introduced trees are noted and indicated 
by an asterisk after the scientific name. 

Size and Appearance 

In the second paragraph the approximate size 
is given as small (less than 30 feet tall), medium 
(from 30 to 70 feet tall), or large (more than 70 
feet tall). The average and maximum heights 
and trunk diameters represent mature trees in 
Puerto Rico, though larger trees may have existed 
in the virgin forests within the island or elsewhere. 
Trunk measurements are diameters at breast 
height (d.b.h.) or 41/2 feet. Trees are classed as 



everjrrpcn if in full leaf throujrh the year or de- 
ciduous if leafless or nearly so for a brief period, 
such as in the dry season of late winter. Hut- 
tresses, or eidarged narrow outgrowths at the base 
of the t runic of large trees continuous with lateral 
roots, are noted if jM-esent. Data on shape of 
crown, branching, and twigs are added for many 
species. Notes on bark include color of the sur- 
face and texture, whether smooth or rough, and if 
fissured (with many nai'row thin cracks) or fur- 
rowed (with broad deep grooves). As most trees 
have thin bark less than 1/2 inch in thickness, men- 
tion is made of thick barks. Color and taste (also 
odor if present) are given for the inner bark, that 
is, the living tissues expcsed by cutting beneath the 
surface, since these details often are helpful in 
field identihcation. 

Leaves, Flowers, and Fruits 

Because of their importance for identification, 
the leaves, flowers, and fruit are described in de- 
fail and with measurements for reference. How- 
ever, characters enqihasized in the first paragraph 
are not repeated below. Descrijifive terms are de- 
lined under the topic "P^xplanation of Botanical 
Terms"' (p. 9). 

Months or seasons of flowering and fruiting, as 
far as ktiown, have been compiled from various 
sources. For a few years personnel of the United 
States Forest Service made field observations of 
time of flowering and fruiting of many Puerto 
Ricau tree species, which were summarized in a 
card file. Herbarium specimens collected by per- 
sonnel of the Forest Service at different times of 
the year have contributed additional dates, as have 
tlie floras by Urban (37) and Stahl {35). Some 
tree species are cited as flowering and fruiting 
probably or nearly through the year. This state- 
ment means not that a particular tree bears flowers 
and fruits almost continually, but that on almost 
any date some trees may be found in bearing con- 
dition. An individual may have more than one 
blossoming period during the year. Generally 
flowering of trees is greatest from March to May, 
after the start of the spring rains. 

Wood and Uses 

The wood is described briefly, including notes 
on color of sapwood and heart wood, hardness, 
weight and specific gravity, and durability. These 
notes are chiefly from Puerto Rican specimens sup- 
plemented for some species by published descrip- 
tions from other rtreas. Detailed data on wood 
properties and uses have been condensed from the 
recent publications by Longwood {2i2, 23). The 
specific gravity values quoted to two decimal places 
were based on green volumes and are slightly lower 
than other values based on air-dry volumes. Rel- 
ative resistance of the wood to attack by ch-y-wood 
termites has been compiled from Wolcott (4^)- 
Uses of the wood are primarily those of Puerto 
Rico, but special and different uses elsewhere are 



mentioned. IVfost of the native woods are avail- 
able only in limited ([uantities, and none is suffi- 
ciently al)undant for export. Nevertheless, as 
Longwood i-eported, many of these woods could 
be utilized in additional ways. 

Other Uses 

Other purposes served by Puerto Rican trees 
are noted. Many kinds are planted for fruit, 
shade, and ornament. Others have bark that 
yields tannin, fibers, or dyes or have parts em- 
ployed in home medicines. Shade and ornamental 
frees of Puerto Rico have been li.sted by Winters 
and Almeyda {39) and by Martorell ("^4). The 
last has prepared also a list of trees that should not 
be planted because of insect pests or diseases, and 
these objections are incorporated here. Special 
mention has been made of the tree species intro- 
duced and hardy in subtropical parts of the United 
States, mainly southern Florida and southern Cal- 
ifornia, where they are cultivated for fruit, shade, 
and ornament. Sturrock and Menninger {36), 
Menninger (,^6', '27), Morton and Ledin {28), ancl 
Barrett {2) have published further information 
about these. Many trees are classed as honey 
plants by Ordetx {31) and others, because their 
flowers attract bees and secrete nectar in quantities. 

Propagation, Gro'wth, and Other Notes 

Brief notes on propagation, growth rate, and 
site adaptability of many forest and planted trees 
have been summarized from records of the United 
States Forest Service, and other miscellaneous 
notes of interest have been added. Further details 
and methods on propagation of trees in Puerto 
Rico are contained in the manual on that subject 
by Gilormini {11). Additional information on 
forest management of many Puerto Rican tree spe- 
cies may be found in various articles in The Carib- 
bean Forester. 

Distribution 

For each tree species the natural distribution or 
range is stated, both in Puerto Rico and the United 
States and British Virgin Islands and also beyond 
through the West Indies and continental tropical 
America. Introduced trees, often spreading from 
cultivation and becoming naturalized, are further 
designated by mention of their native home. 

Names of individual islands belonging to Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands where each species is 
known are recorded, mainly from the published 
ranges by Brifton and Wilson (-5) supplemented 
by the authors' field records. The first map (fig. 
1) shows names and locations of the principal 
islands. Largest of those under Puerto Rico are 
Mona on the west and Culebra and Vieques on the 
east. Other small islands of botanical intere.st 
noted by Britton and Wilson are Desecheo at the 
west, Caja de ]\Iuertos on the south, and Icacos 
near the di-y northeastern corner. 




« 



1) 

9 



O 



83 

a 
5 



IN 

a 
s 
o 



Occurrence in the Virfjin Islands is cited in the 
followin<r order: St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Jolm, 
Tortola, \"ir^iii (iorda, and Ane<iada. The first 
three are the United States Virgin Ishmds, while 
tile last three as well as several smaller compose 
the British Virgin Islands. 

Witliin Puerto Rico the distribution is recorded 
in greater detail by notes on abundance, altitudinal 
limits, and habitat or site. For many sjiecies are 
mentioned the forest regions or environments, or 
ecological regions or provinces. The natural dis- 
tribution of most native trees tends to be related 
to ecological regions defined by climate and soil. 
These eight regions, shown in figure 2, define cli- 
max forests of distinct types. They are described 
in detail under Forests and Forestry (p. 12) . 

Public Forests 

The public forests in Puerto Rico under Federal 
and Commonwealth administration, shown in fig- 
ure o, are widely distributed over the island and 
contain examples of most common tree species. 
These forests are accessible by highways or roads, 
and the personnel in charge can assist in locating 
and identifying the common trees. 

Occurrence of native tree species in the 15 public 
forests is summarized by alphabetical lists which 
indicate localities where examples can be found. 
Luquillo Experimental Forest, formerly the Car- 
ibbean National Forest, is administered by the 
United States Forest Service. The following 14 
public forests are under the Commonwealth Divi- 
sion of Forests, Fisheries, and Wildlife : Aguirre, 
Boqueron, Cambalache Experimental Forest, 
Carite, Ceiba, (luajataca, Giianica, Guilarte, 
Maricao, Rio Abajo, San Juan, Susua, Toro 
Negro, and Vega. 

Distribution tAaps 

One hundred small maps accompanying the 
drawings summarize the distribution of as many 
native species by municipalities within Puerto 
Rico, based upon the unpublished forest inventory 
by the Commonwealth in 1947-1952 and minor 
additions. Presence is shown by the number on 
a white background, in accordance with the num- 
bers of municipalities in figure 1 and the accom- 
panying legend. This survey covered 59 of the 75 
municipalities. The remaining 16 municipalities 
shown by diagonal shading were omitted because 
of their limited forested areas, as were two other 
municipalities on the islands of Culebra and 
Vieques. Also excluded were the public forests, 
where other surveys have been made, and the man- 
grove swamp forests almost wholly within the 
former. 

These incomplete maps show local distribution 
in much greater detail than would mai:)s based only 
upon botanical collections, in spite of certain limi- 
tations. Some species occur naturally in addi- 
tional municipalities containing the same foi-est 



environments or regions. Occurrence within a 
municipality, often limited by environment or al- 
titude, is not indicated. On sample plots the trees 
down to a minimum limit of 3.5 inches diameter 
at breast height (d.b.li.) or 41/4 feet were meas- 
ured and recorded. However, scattered, less com- 
mon, and cultivated species were not adequately 
note<l, and probably are present in some munici- 
palities adjacent to those mapped. Closely related 
species of a genus not easily distinguished in the 
field survey sometimes were grouped together and 
thus could not be mapped separately. 

Municipalities where an individual species is 
especially common, that is, among the 10 common- 
est species in number of trees according to the in- 
ventory, are listed by number in the text also. 

Distribution Outside Puerto Rico 

Ranges outside Puerto Rico are given for the 
islands of the West Indies in detail and also for 
continental tropical America. These ranges are 
based upon recent botanical floras, tree lists, and 
monographs supplemented by specimens in the 
National Herbarium of the United States National 
Museum. Distribution for many species now is 
somewhat better known than when summarized by 
Britton and Wilson (-I). Some species have a 
broad range through the Greater Antilles (Cuba, 
Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico) and Les- 
ser Antilles (Leeward and Windward Islands) to 
Grenada or Barbados and are present on nearly 
all the islands except the smallest or those lacking 
suitable habitats. Thus it has not seemed neces- 
sary to list all these islands. Nearly all Puerto 
Rican tree species native also in the island of His- 
paniola are present in both Haiti and the Domini- 
can Republic, which countries are not mentioned 
individually. For those species not ranging 
througli the Lesser Antilles to Grenada, the south- 
ernmost island of distribution is recorded. 

Islands near the Venezuelan coast of South 
America, including Trinidad and Tobago and 
Bonaire, Curasao, and Aruba of the Dutch West 
Indies (Windward Islands), have the flora of the 
South American mainland rather than the We.st 
Indies. Nearly all native Puerto Rican tree spe- 
cies also on these islands have a broad distribution 
in the Caribbean area, such as from Bahamas and 
Cuba to Trinidad and on the continent from 
Mexico through Central America to Venezuela or 
beyond. 

The distribution of those species native or natu- 
ralized in the United States is given by States, 
generally only southern Florida, though mention 
is made of introduced trees planted and hardy in 
southern Florida and southern California. South- 
ward on the continent the northernmost and 
southernmost countries of range limits are stated. 
Thus, a species recorded from Mexico to Peru and 
Brazil is native through the countries of Central 
America and northern South America. Some im- 
portant cultivated trees are widely distributed 



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nearly throughout the tropics, inchiding the Old 
World. 

Related Species 

All other native tree species of each genus are 
mentioned, usually under the first species of the 
genus or sometimes under a similar one, to aid in 
further identification. Preferred Spanish and 
English names are given where known, though 
some species probably bear the same names or onlj' 
those of the genus. Distinguishing characters for 
comparing related species with those figured have 
been compiled largely from Britten and Wilson 
(5). Distribution is given by islands. In the two 
largest tree genera, Evgenia with 2.5 native species 
and Miconia with 16, the other species have merely 
been listed. Keys for identification in these as 
well as the other genera were published by Britten 
and Wilson also. 

Where no related species are mentioned, all na- 
tive tree species of the genus, usually only one or 
two, are illustrated. However, introduced tree 
species, shrubs, and herbs have not been cited. Of 
course, some entire genera and 20 families, mostly 
with few species of small, less important trees, 
have been omitted. 

EXPLANATION OF BOTANICAL 
TERMS 

Botanical descriptions for the classification and 
identification on trees are based principally on dif- 
ferences of leaves, flowers, and fniits, and their 
parts, such as pre.sence or absence, number, ar- 
rangement, shape, size, and union or separation. 
To record these details, systematic botanists, or 
plant taxonomists, have a special terminology of 
technical words derived from Latin and Greek, 
defined and illustrated in botany textbooks and 
floras. In this book, nontechnical terms have been 
used wherever possible, though some technical 
terms have been inserted in parenthesis or adopted 
where there was no clearer equivalent. Principal 
terms used in this book are explained here, while 
manj^ are illustrated by the drawings. Thus, it 
has seemed unnecessary in include a glossary. 

Leaves 

These flat, green organs serving for food manu- 
facture are very useful in the identification of trees, 
usually present in quantities and of large size. 
The point on a twig where 1 or more leavefi are at- 
(aclied is the node. In arrangement on the twig, 
leaves attached singly or 1 at a node are aJternnte^ 
leaves borne in pairs or 2 at a node are opposite, 
and leaves inserted 3 or more at a node are whorled. 
Parts of a leaf are the leafstalk or petiole and the 
flat expanded part or bhide. In some species there 
are 2 (or 1) scales at the base of a leaf called 
ifipiilefi, usually shedding early but sometimes 
forming distinctive buds at the end of a twig. 

In number of blades a leaf with 1 blade is simple., 



while a compound leaf has usually several blades 
(rarely only 2) called leaflets, which may or may 
not have stalks. A leaflet is distinguished from a 
simple leaf by the absence of a bud at the base and 
by the shedding of the axis. Also, leaflets are in 
2 rows along the axi.s, while simple leaves may be 
similar but more often not in 2 rows on the twig. 
Compound leaves are pinnate or pinnately com- 
pound when the leaflets ai-e inserted along a com- 
mon axis and fl'/t/Zfr/Yf (or palmate) when attached 
together at the end of the petiole. If the axis has 
liranches a leaf may be twice pinnate or hipinnate 
or if branched again the leaf is three times pinnate 
or triplnnrife. Pinnate leaves may be even pinnate 
when the leaflets are paired and end in a pair, and 
odd pinnate wlien ending in a single leaflet. 

Several terms describe the shape of leaf blades. 
A linear leaf has a narrow grasslike blade with 
edges parallel, and an ohlong leaf is broader but 
with edges also nearly parallel. A lance-shaped or 
lanceolate leaf has the form of a lance, several 
times longer than broad, pointed at apex or tip 
end, and broadest near base, while the reverse 
shape is oblanceolate. An ovate leaf has an oval 
shape broadest toward the base, more or less as in 
an egg, while an ohovate leaf is the reverse, 
broadest toward apex. An elliptic leaf has an oval 
shape but broadest in the center. A circular leaf 
has the blade more or less in form of a circle, while 
a spafulate leaf is spoon-shaped. 

As to margin or edge a leaf blade may be 
toothed, lobed, without teeth, or rolled under. The 
a])ex and base of a leaf blade may be long-pointed, 
short-pointed, or rounded, or the base heart- 
siiaped, if with two rounded lobes. 

In venation or arrangement of the veins a leaf 
blade may be parallel-veined, if the veins are 
closely placed side by side or parallel; pinnate- 
reined, with a single main vein or midrib and lat- 
eral veins on both sides somewhat as in a feather; 
or palmate-veined, when several main veins arise 
at the base and spread like fingers in a hand. 

Flower Clusters 

The grouping of flowers and fruits in clusters 
(inflorescences) and their location and arrange- 
ment often provide characters useful in identifica- 
tion of trees. A flower cluster is terminal when it 
is at the apex or end of a twig and lateral when 
borne at the base of a leaf or on the side of a twig. 
The flowers may be produced singly, one by one. 
A spike is a flower cluster with elongated axis 
bearing stalkless flowers, while a raceme has an 
elongated axis with stalked flowers, and a panicle 
is a compound raceme with branched axis. An 
umbel has flowers on spreading stalks of equal 
length attached together at the apex of a larger 
stalk somewhat like an umbrella. A head bears 
stalkless flowers on the broad disklike apex of the 
axis. In a cyme the flower clu.ster is definite, with 
the main axis ending in the first flower and with 
other flowers borne on branches below. 



Flowers 

For classification and identification of trees and 
other flowering plants, the flowers and fruits, or 
reproductive organs, are the most important parts. 
They show the relationships better than the leaves 
and other vegetative organs, which are less con- 
stant and often vary greatly under difi'erent en- 
vironments. Tlie commoner plant families can be 
recognized by their characteristic flowers. It has 
seemed desirable, therefore, to describe the flower 
structure of each tree species in simple terms with 
measurements. 

The flower is a modified stem bearing four or 
fewer groups or circles of specialized leaves known 
as calyx, corolla, .stamens, and pistil (or pistils). 
The calyx, or outermost group, is composed of re- 
duced leaves generally green and called sepals, 
while the corolla consists of larger and usually col- 
ored parts known as petals. The corolla may be 
regular with equal petals or irregular with petals 
of unequal size and may be tuhiilar with the petals 
united into a tube. The stamens or male organs 
of the flower have a filament or stalk and an anther 
or enlarged, usually yellow, part which bears the 
pollen, or male elements. Sometimes, the stamens 
may be replaced by staminodes, which are nonfunc- 
tional or sterile stamens, usually small. 

In the center of the flower there is usually a 
single pistil or female organ (sometimes few to 
many) developed from one or moi-e specialized 
leaves. The pistil consists of three parts: the 
ovary or enlarged part at the base, the style or 
stalk above the ovary, and the stigma, the usually 
enlarged and often sticky end, which receives the 
pollen. The ovary contains 1 to many ovules, 
I'ounded whitish female elements. The mature 
ovary is the fruit, while the ovules become the 
seeds. 

In position with respect to the other flower parts, 
the ovary may be superior or infeHor. The su- 
perior ovary, the common type, is free or separate 
in the center of the flower and inserted inward 
from or above the other parts. The inferior ovary 
is located below the calyx, corolla, and the stamens, 
which appear to be inserted above. The structure 
of the ovary, including the number of cavities or 
cells from 1 to several and number and position of 
the ovules within, is important in classification of 
plant families. 

The receptacle is the enlarged base of the flower 
where the flower parts are inserted. Above the 
receptacle and inward from the corolla there is 
sometimes a dish or small part like a circle or ring, 
often glandular. The receptacle may form a basal 
tube or cup called the hypanthium. which may 
enclose the inferior ovary or sometimes surround 
the superior ovary and bear the other parts 
located above. 

Though usually possessing stamens and pistil 
and thus with both sexes or bi-^e.rual. flowers may 
be of one sex only or unisexual. A ?7iale flower has 
stamens but no pistil, and a female flower has a 



pistil but no stamens. A species with male and 
female flowers on the same plant is said to be mo- 
noecious, while one with male and female flowers 
on different plants, which are also male or female, 
is dioecious. In polygamous species flowers of one 
sex and bisexual flowers are borne on the same 
individual. 

Fruits 

Developing fi-om mature ovary, the fruit con- 
tains the seeds and sometimes other flower parts 
still attached. Present often for longer periods 
than flowers or also remaining under the trees 
after falling, the fnaits may be especially helpful 
in identification. Commonly the fruit originates 
from a single pistil and is simple. A fruit from 
several pistils in one flower is aggregate (for ex- 
ample, corazon or custard-apple), while one from 
several united flowers often partly from an en- 
larged fleshy stalk is multiple (for example, higo 
or fig) . 

Simple fruits are classed as dry or fleshy (juicy 
or succulent) . Some dry fruits do not open to re- 
lease the seeds (indehiscent), while others open 
(dehiscent) . The akene is a dry fruit not openmg 
and containing a single seed separate from the 
fruit wall. The nut is also 1-seeded with a thick 
hard shell. The pod or legume is a dry 1-celled 
fruit which splits open usually along 2 lines (for 
example, the legume family). The capsule is a 
dry fruit of 2 or more cells which opens on as 
many lines as cells. Fleshy fruits, which do not 
open, include the herry. which usually has several 
seeds, and the drupe, which has a central stone or 
hard part containing 1 or more seeds. 

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK IN TREE 
IDENTIFICATION 

Many trees can be identified by reference to the 
drawings, descriptions, and distribution notes. 
However, the illustrations alone may not empha- 
size differences among closely related species not 
figured. It is helpful to have for comparison the 
flowers and fruits in addition to foliage because 
many kinds of trees have leaves of similar shape. 
Often one tree can be found in blossom out of sea- 
son, perhaps at the edge of a fore.st, and old fruits 
may be located on dead branches or on the ground. 
A ruler and a hand lens are useful in examining 
the specimen and comparing it with the descrip- 
tion. 

If the local common name of a tree in Puerto 
Rico or the Virgin Islands is obtained, such as by 
asking residents, then the description, illustration, 
and scientific name can be found by consulting the 
page listed in the Index of Common and Scientific 
Names. Since common names in other countries 
and as many as five languages are included, the 
Index will be helpful in determining the same spe- 
cies elsewhere. 

To avoid errors, identification from a common 
name should always be verified by inspecting the 



10 



drawinjif and compariiifj the specimen with the 
main distinpuisliing cliaracters or, if needed, with 
tlie detailed description of leaves, flowers, and 
fruits. Otherwise, the use of the same common 
name for unrelated tree species in different places 
or misapplication of a name may lead to confusion. 

The List of Tree Species with Descriptions and 
Illustrations will also aid identification because it 
lists the species in the usual botanical arrange- 
ment with related trees together, alphabetically by 
scientific names under each plant family. If the 
family is recojjnized, names of the examples with 
pap:e numbers will be found in the List. Likewise, 
an unknown tree resemblinfi a known one should 
be sought in the same family. 

The Key to Families serves to place an iniknown 
tree in its plant family. This key includes the 68 
families of this book and 20 additional small fami- 
lies represented by only a few native tree species. 
Each family with two or more species illustrated 
contains a key to these species for further identifi- 
cation. 

The Special Lists may be helpful also in identi- 
fying trees with unusual characters or special uses. 

For trees not included, reference may be made 
to Britton and Wilson's (5) flora of Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands, which contains both keys 
to species and botanical descriptions. Also bo- 
tanical specimens of dried pressed twigs with 
leaves, flower.s, and fruits, and with field notes (lo- 
cality, altitude, date, common name, collector, 
whether wild or planted, size, abundance, etc.) 
may be forwarded to large herbaria or universi- 
ties for identification by specialists. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY 

The 250 species of common trees of Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands described and illus- 
trated here are classified into 185 genera and 68 
plant families. Of these, 72 species, 38 genera, 
and 6 families are exotic, or introduced. These 
genera and families are not represented also by 
native species of trees or smaller plants. For fur- 
ther identification the 130 additional, related tree 
species (including 10 introduced) of the same gen- 
era are mentioned briefly and compared with 
those illustrated. Thus, 380 tree species are in- 
cluded for identification. To account for all native 
tree s]iecies recorded by Britton and Wilson (5) in 
these genera, 22 additional species of Eugenia ancl 
15 of Mironin are listed. A second volume is 
planned to describe and illustrate the remaining 
native tree species and widely grown exotics in 
these and other genera and in 20 other families. 

Numbers of tree species accepted for an area will 
depend upon the definition of a tree or minimum 
size considered. Trees may be defined as woody 
plants having one erect perennial stem or trunk 
at least 3 inches (7.5 centimeters) in diameter at 
breast height (d.b.h. or at 41/2 feet or l.-l meters), 
a more or less definitely formed crown of foliage, 
and a height of at le;ist 12 to 15 feet (4 meters). 



Accordingly, some small trees often shrubby and 
not reaching sawlog size have been included. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

^ Credit is due various persons of the United 
States Forest Sei-vice, past and present, for their 
assistaiice in preparing this book and particularly 
to Leslie R. Holdridge, who initiated the project, 
made extensive botanical collections, supervised 
drawing of numerous illustrations (also making 
a few), and wrote the two preliminary volumes. 
In those volumes acknowledgment was made to 
assistance in the preparation of the material by 
personnel of Work Projects Administration Offi- 
cial Project No. 165-2-36-20. 

Most of the black and white drawings were pre- 
pared some years ago by several artists employed 
by the United States Forest Service and Work 
Projects Administration. Francisco Roena Santi- 
ago made more than 50 of these. In 1954 to com- 
plete this volume about 50 drawings were made by 
Edwin C. Rivera S. and 10 by Felix Rosado. Five 
others were prepared for a similar book on the 
common trees of Venezuela by the senior author. 
They are f'eiha- pentandm. TermirmUa cafappa, 
and Tecoma stems by Ruby Rice Little and Cono- 
carpus ererfiis and Aricennia nitida by Ellen de 
Jiirgenson. The drawing of Necfandra cormcea 
was made by Jane W. Roller. 

Assistance of the New York Botanical Garden 
in making determinations of the earlier botanical 
collections is appreciated. Acknowledgment is 
due the United States National Museum for the 
privilege of examining the large Puerto Rican 
and Virgin Islands collections in the National 
Herbarium. 

Foresters, rangers, and others of both the 
United States Forest Service and Commonwealth 
Division of Forests, Fisheries, and Wildlife have 
assisted the authors in field work and in checking 
the common names. The authors are deeply in- 
debted to Jose Marrero, of the Institute of Tropi- 
cal Forestry and coauthor of the Spanish edition 
(21), for his review of the manuscript and for his 
Spanish translation. Credit is due Franklin R. 
Longwood of the United States Forest Service, 
for the detailed data on about 60 Puerto Rican 
woods taken from his publications which appeared 
while this manuscript was awaiting publication. 

Distribution data by municipalities were com- 
piled from the forest inventory of Puerto Rico, 
which was conducted by the Commonwealth Divi- 
sion of Forests, Fisheries, and Wildlife under the 
direction of Benjamin R. Seda. From these rec- 
ords the distribution maps were made by Raul 
Ybarra C, of the Institute of Tropical Forestry. 

Alfonse Nelthropp, of Charlotte Amalie, St. 
Thomas, has contributed many common names 
used in the Virgin Islands. Roy O. Woodbury, 
of the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural 
Experiment Station, has checked and added to the 
list of species growing also in southern Florida. 



11 



FORESTS AND FORESTRY IN PUERTO RICO AND 
THE VIRGIN ISLANDS 



The trees native to Puerto Kico and the Virgin 
Islands, some 500 species, were found at the time 
of discovery in extoisive and luxuriant forests. 
Whereas such forests have subsequently all but dis- 
appeared, there is every reason to believe that at 
the time of Columbus' arrival the dominant vege- 
tation throughout the islands, with the possible 
exception of a few small marshes, was forest. The 
reports of early voyageurs (7, 8, 25) all describe 
the islands as forest covered. Furthermore, in 
other regions of similar climate and soil the vege- 
tation is forest wherever it has not been modified 
by man. The natural vegetation of Puerto Rico, 
including forests and plant successions, has been 
described by Gleason and Cook {12, 6) . 

THE VIRGIN FORESTS 

Description of the virgin forests of Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands can now be only very ap- 
proximate, since few relics remain in Puerto Rico 
and none in the Virgin Islands. Wlierever partial 
cutting or complete deforestation has once talcen 
place, even where forests are subsequently allowed 
to redevelop, the relative abundance of the differ- 
ent species suffers a marked change. The brief 
description here presented is based upon a study 
of a few remaining virgin forests in Puerto Rico 
(38) and upon published descriptions of similar 
forests in nearby islands, particularly those by 
Beard (3). 

The eight climax forest types or forest regions 
shown in figure 2 are described below with lists 
of the common trees. Reference is made primarily 
to Puerto Rico, and some species mentioned are 
not in the Virgin Islands. However, the general 
character of the vegetation there was apparently 
as here described. 

The more important differences in the natural 
vegetation of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 
reflect variations in topography, climate, and soil. 
The vegetation of the coastal plains was unlike 
that of the steeper upper slopes, and a still differ- 
ent type of forest clothed the uppermost peaks. 
Differences in tlie total amount and seasonal dis- 
tribution of precipitation produced extreme differ- 
ences between the forests of the eastern mountains 
of Puerto Rico and those of the southwest coast. 
Reduced moisture availability due to shallow soils, 
particularly in the limestone regions, is manifest 
in the gi'owth of trees on such areas. The contrasts 
among the various vegetative types are striking 
because of the extreme range of conditions with- 



in short distances. Elevations range from sea 
level to 4,398 feet, precipitation from 30 to 180 
inches annually, and soils from deep to very shal- 
low, and from fine clays to coarse sands. 

Along the wind-swept .seacoasts was a low scrub- 
by littoral woodland so narrow and so small in 
area that it is not shown in figure 2. Most of the 
trees in this woodland were small and of poor form 
due to extreme exposure to salt winds. On dry 
rocky slopes facing the southern or southwestern 
coasts, on Ai^gada, on Mona, and on other small 
outlyin<T islands the littoral woodland assumed the 
form of cactus scrub. In the more pi'otected loca- 
tions, particularly on tlie north coast of Puerto 
Rico, grew trees of good timber species such as 
maria {Calophylhnn bt-mlUense), ausubo (Manil- 
latra bidentata), roble (Tabebuia heterophyUa), 
and toi'tugo amarillo {SideroxyJon foetidissi- 
mum). One of the most prominent species near 
the shore was uva de playa {Coccoloba uvifera). 

Along the shores of protected bays, lagoons, and 
estuaries in an area too restricted to show in figure 
2 were dense stands of mangrove, tlie trees of only 
four species growing to a height of 60 feet or more. 
Five public forests bordering the coast, mapped in 
figure 3, still contain mangroves. In the water it- 
self was mangle Colorado {Rhizophora nmngJe). 
On the adjacent area normally subject to tidal 
flooding were mangle bianco (LaguncuJaria race- 
mom) and mangle negro {Avicenma nhlda). On 
the landward side was mangle boton {Coimcarpiis 
erect us). The strong durable timbers of mangle 
Colorado and mangle boton were much used for 
construction. 

On the coastal plain and lower slopes, up to an 
elevation of 500 feet or more in Puerto Rico, and 
to the tops of most mountains of the Virgin Islands 
grew a di-y forest which was largely evergreen but 
with some deciduous species, particularly in the 
drier coastal areas. At its best development, on 
the northern coastal plain of Puerto Rico, this 
forest attained 80 feet or more in height. Else- 
where, in the moist limestone region and on the 
south coast of Puerto Rico, and in the Virgin 
Islands, it was apparently shorter, from 40 to 60 
feet tall. This forest consisted of two tree stories, 
each composed of distinct species. The lower story 
constituted a forest within a forest and depended 
upon the upper canopy for its existence. The veg- 
etation varied in composition from place to place 
but it was everywhere a mixture of species. At 
least 200 tree sjjecies were present somewhere with- 
in the natural distribution of this forest. 



12 



Within the area described are four distinct forest 
regions or ecological provinces, each giving rise 
to a distinct type of forest. These regions or prov- 
inces, designated as moist coast, moist limestone, 
dry coast, and dry limestone, are shown in figiire 2. 

The more common or characteristic species of 
the moist coastal forest included the following: 



more hardy rejilace these. The trees of the dry 
limestone forest include : 



Acrocomia media 
Nectandra coriacea 
Hemandia sonora 
Hymenaea courbanl 
Andira inermis 
Pterocarpus officinalis 
Zanthoxylum 

mnrtinicense 
CaJophyllum 

hrasiJien.te 
Mammea americana 



Psidium guajava 
Manilkara Mdentata 
Sideroxylon 

foetidissimuin 
C itharexylum 

fr%iMcosum 
Petitia domingensis 
Tahehxda heterophylla 
Genipa americana 
Guettarda srahra 
Randia aculeata 



The moist limestone forest was similar to that 
along the coast and had many of the same species. 
The chief differences appear to be due to the drier 
soils on the well-drained limestone hills and the 
greater humidity in the protected areas between 
the hills, especially in the southern part of this 
area which is close to the central mountains. The 
tree species of the moist limestone forest include : 



Montezuma 

speciosissima 
Ochroma pyramidale 
Chisia rosea 
Bueida bucera.s 
Tetrazygia eleagnoides 
Dipholis salicifolia 
Sideroxylon 

foetidissimurn 
Guettarda scahra 
Tereiraria resinosa 
Randia aculeata 



Aiphanes 

acanthophyUa 
Gauss ia aftenuata 
CoccoJoha diversifolia 
Coccoloia pubescens 
Licaria salicifolia 
Zanthoxylum, 

fnarfinicense 
Bursera simaniba 
Cedrela odorata 
Hyeronima clusioides 
Sapiu7)i lauroce-rasus 
Thouinia striata 

On the southern, di-y side of Puerto Rico the 
more adverse moisture conditions excluded many 
of the tree species common on the north side. In 
their places grew a few other species especially 
adapted to such conditions. The tree species of 
the dry coastal forest include : 

Coccoloha venosa Polygala cowelUi 

Capparis cynophallo- Ceibo, pentandra 

phora Guasuma ulmifolia 

Stahlia monosperma Canella lointeranxi 

Lonxihocarpus domin- Bueida huceras 

gensis Rauvolfia nitida 

Pictetia aculeata Cordia nitida 

Erythroxylon areola- Citharexylum 

turn finiticosmn 
Guaiocum officinale 

In the limestone region of the south coast, as on 
the north coast, excessive soil drainage accentuates 
the dryness of the environment to a point that some 
species of trees cannot subsist. Others which are 



Pixonia alhida 
Capparis cynophallo- 

phora 
Pictetia acxdeata 
Guaiocum, officinale 
Guaiacum sanctum 
A my ins elemifera 
Bursera simaruha 
Gymnanthes htcida 



Thouinia portoricensis 
Coluhrina ar-borescens 
Satcomphalus reticula- 

fus 
Crphalocereus royenii 
Opuntia rubescens 
Bueida buceras 
Dipholis salicifolia 
Pliimeria alba 



The coastal forests of Puerto Rico and the Vir- 
gin Islands, unlike those of the other Greater 
Antilles, contained no mahogany (Svnetenia ma- 
hagoni). Widespread use of the wood and early 
introduction of the tiee to these islands has led to 
a general impression that this species is native. 
However, whereas the young trees develop abun- 
dantly in Puerto Rico beneath or near planted 
trees of this species, they are never encountered in 
native forest at any distance from .such trees. Had 
the s]3ecies been native, there would still be young 
trees throughout the coastal forests of the island 
without relation to the location of planted trees. 
It is extremely unlikely that it could ever have 
been exterminated, since aceitillo (Zanthoxylum 
flctvnm) , a tree in greater demand and with much 
weaker reproductive capacity than mahogany, is 
still to be found in remote forests. 

Typical mountain forests are confined to Puerto 
Rico, although a small i)atch of similar but unique 
forest is found on the top of Sage Mountain. Tor- 
tola. Between about 500 to 2,000 feet elevation in 
the eastern moiuitains, known as Luquillo Moun- 
tains, and to 3,000 feet in the central mountains or 
Central Cordillera, slightly higher on the south 
slope than on the north, was probably the most 
magnificent forest of Puerto Rico. Much of the 
original vegetation of this area is described as 
tropical moist forest ; in the wettest areas it is trop- 
ical rain forest. At its maximum development this 
forest reached 110 feet in height, with trees to 8 
feet in diameter. Three forests of distinct size and 
composition grew together here, each forming a 
separate story of vegetation. Throughout the 
range of this type of forest there were probably 
about 170 tree species. 

Within the mountain area are two forest regions 
or ecological provinces and corresponding distinct 
forest types. These provinces are designated as 
lower dordillera and lower Luquillo. It is seen 
in figure 2 that the lower Cordillera province in- 
clucles both the north and south lower slopes of 
the central mountains of Puerto Rico and the 
Sierra de Cayey and also the upper slopes of the 
disconnected "Sierra de Atalaya in the northwest. 
The Luquillo Mountains are separate both geo- 
graphically and ecologically from the Central 
Cordillera. 

The trees of the lower Cordillera forest include 
the following: 

13 



Cyathea arboreci 
Cecropia pelfafa 
Ocotea Icuco.ryJon 
Ocotea mo'^chata 
IllrteJJa nigosa 
In (I a laiinna 
Pit h.eceU6bium 

arborenm 
Andira inermis 
Ortnosia krugii 
Dacryodes excelsa 
CedreJa odorafa 
Gvarea triclilVi olden 
Byrsonhna corlacea 
Drypetes glauca 



Oit,pania americana 
Meliosma herbertii 
Casearia arhorea 
IJomnlhim racemosum 
B urhcrurvia capitata 
Myrcia defeoca 
D end 1^0 pan ax arioreufi 
Didymopanax 
morototoni 
Linociera doming en.s is 
C'ordin nlliodora 
Cordla horinquensis 
Cordia sulcata 
Vitex divaricata 
Tahebuia heterophylla 



The forest of the lower slopes of the Luqiiillo 
Mountains is similar in general appearance to that 
in the Cordillera, hvit because of greater precipi- 
tation and higher humidity it is somewhat more 
luxuriant, and several tree species are much more 
common here than elsewhere. The trees of the 
lower Luquillo province include the following: 

Cyathea arhorea Alchorneopsis portori- 
Cecropia peltata censis 

Beilschmiedia pendula Dry petes glauca 

Ocotea leucoxylon Sapium laurocerasus 

Ocotea moschata Cupania americana 

Hirtellarugosa Meliosma herbertii 

Inga laurina Sloanea berteriana 

Andira inermis Ochroma pyramidale 

Ormosia kr-ugii Casearia arhorea 

Dacryodes excelsa Buche?iavia capitata 

Tefragastris bahami- Myrcia deflexa 

fera Manilkara hidentata 

Guarea trichilioides Linociera domingensis 

Trichilia pallida Cordia- horinquensis 

Byrsonima coriacea Tabebuia heterophylJa 

The similar forest on the top of Sage Mountain, 
Tortola, does not exceed 60 feet in height, ap- 
parently because of a somewhat drier climate. It 
contains many species associated with this forest 
in Puerto Rico and is dominated almost exclu- 
sively by bulletwood {Manilkara hidentata). 

Farther up the slopes in Puerto Rico, extending 
to near the tops of the peaks, was a subtropical 
rain forest. Here the temperature is lower, and 
rainfall, ranging from 100 to possibly 200 inches 
annually, is so abundant as to produce swampy 
conditions and highly leached soils. The result 
was a comparatively poor forest about 60 feet tall 
and containing about 60 tree species. 

This upper mountain forest is distinct in the 
Cordillera and the Luquillo Mountains primarily 
because of more moist conditions in the latter. 
The common or characteristic tree species of the 
upper Cordillera forest include : 

Cyathea arborea Matayba. domingensis 

Euterpe glo-hosa Clusia hrmgiana 

Magnolia portoricensis Ccdycogonium -^ 

Guatteria hlainii sqimmulosum 
Ocotea spathulata 



Bnmellia Heterotrichum 

comocladi folia cymosum. 

Alchornea lati folia Micropholis 

Turpinia paniculata chrysophylloides 

In the upper Luquillo Mountains the forest is 
similar to that of the Cordillera, but there are in 
addition a number of species found only on the 
Luquillo Mountains. The common tree species of 
the upper Luquillo Forest include the following : 

Cyathea arhorea Eugenia horinquensis 

Euterpe glohosa Calycogonium 

Magnolia, splendens squamulosum 

Oetotea spathulata Heterotrichum 

Alchornea lati folia, cymosum 

Croton poecilanthus Micropholis 

Cyrilla racemi-flora chrysophylloides 

Matayba domingeTisis Micropholis 

Clusia krugiana garciniae folia 

Calyptranthes krugii Tahebuia rigida 

One of the most prominent species in these 
upper mountain forests is the sierra palm {Eu- 
terpe glohosa) which forms extensive, nearly pure 
stands on unstable soils. In the western part of 
the Cordillera and near El Yunque peak in the 
Luquillo Mountains grows Puerto Rico's only 
arborescent gymnosperm, caobilla {Podocarpus 
coriaceus) . 

On Puerto Rico's mountain peaks, above 2,500 
feet elevation, the forest is dwarfed to 20 feet or 
less in height. Little or no valuable timber is pres- 
ent in this forest, but tree species of interest in- 
clude Weinmannia pinnata and Brunellia como- 
cladifolia. 

THE FORESTS OF TODAY 

Within the total area of Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands, approximately 2,335,000 acres, 
there are now about 560,000 acres covei'ed by trees.' 
Of this about 280,000 acres are covered by forests 
or brush. Included here are an estimated 235,000 
acres in Puerto Rico and 45,000 acres in the Virgin 
Islands. Only about 8,000 acres, slightly more 
than 1 percent of the forests, are still in virgin 
condition. 

An estimated 198,000 acres, virtually all in 
Puerto Rico, are covered by coffee shade. Of this 
some 125,000 acres bear also coffee trees, the rest 
being shaded by trees but abandoned as planta- 
tions. Another 70,000 acres are woodland pas- 
tures, where the trees are more widely spaced but 
form a light shade. Of this area, 45,000 acres are 
in Puerto Rico and 25,000 acres in the Virgin 
Islands. Some 10,000 acres are in orchards, chiefly 
coconut groves. 



' The estimated areas in this chapter are based upon 
reports of the fuerto Rico Department of Agriculture and 
Commerce, the Puerto Rico Planning Board, the United 
States Census, and recent ofiicial reports on agriculture 
in the United States Virgin Islands. Data on the British 
Virgin Islands are rough approximations, based upon 
personal observations in the area. 



14 



It is thus seen that more than three-fourths of 
the hind surface of Puerto Rico and tlie Virsjin 
Islands is bare of trees. Far more than this has 
been deforested at one time or another. 

The cuttinfr of the forests, done partly to harvest 
their timber but more generally to clear land for 
farming, took place primarily in the 19th century. 
It eliminated tree growth from the more fertile 
and accessible lands. Tlie remaining trees are lo- 
cated chiefly on steep slopes, rocky mountain sum- 
mits, or where excessive shallowness, drj'ness, or 
wetness of the soil precludes economic farming. 
Thus the best developed forests have disappeared. 
Most of the forests remaining are those which re- 
appeared after farming was abandoned on these 
poor lands. 

The remaining forests are nearly all vei-y differ- 
ent from tliose found by the early voyageurs. The 
most valuable trees, both as to species and as to 
size, have been removed. Few trees exceed 12 
inches in diameter. Most of these are of species 
unused for purposes other than fuel, and thus of 
negligible value. These larger trees of inferior 
quality tend to suppress the deYelopment of any 
younger trees of more valuable species which may 
be growing beneath them. 

A number of the introduced exotic tree species 
have become naturalized in the forests of the 
islands, now appearing as though native. Com- 
mon naturalized species in the humid forests of 
Puerto Rico include pomarrosa {Eiigenw jamhos), 
emajagua {IHbiftciwi tiJiacevs), almendra (Ter- 
minalia catappa), bucayo gigante {Eryfhrina 
poeppigiana), and tulipan africano {Spafhodea 
caTTipanidnta) . On the dry southwestern coast of 
Puerto Rico bayahonda {Prosopis jullfora) has 
become naturalized in pastures. In the TTnited 
States Virgin Islands an outstanding naturalized 
tree in the forests (particularly in St. Croix) is 
Dominican mahogany {Sioiefenia mahagoni) and 
in pastures, tibet {Alhlzia leiiek). 

FOREST CONSERVATION 

The trees and forests of Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands are a valuable asset. The orna- 
mental value of trees around homes along the 
roadsides and in parks is apparent to all. Tree 
fruits provide valuable foods and important items 
of commerce. Forested areas in the mountains 
or along beaches offer peaceful shady environment 
for outdoor recreation and on each of the islands 
constitute important tourist attractions 

Not so apparent any more is the value of the 
forests for the timber they supply. The best 
trees have been cut long since, so this contribution 
from the forest is no longer what it was. The use 
of wood in construction and charcoal for cooking 
is declining in the face of substitute materials. 
However, the forests do continue to supply numer- 
ous products, such as posts, which are of utility 
in farming regions. 



The least obvious of the values of our forests 
is as important as any other, their capacity to con- 
serve soil and water resources. This protective 
benefit from forest is unexcelled by any other 
crop. The forest litter reduces surface runoff and 
erosion. The porous soil beneath forests retains 
its maximum capacity to absorb rain water — water 
which may then appear gradually through clear 
springs rather than in the form of muddy torrents. 

Tlie importance of the trees and forests of 
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is not so much 
a matter of their present contribution as it is a 
question of what they might contribute. Past cut- 
ting of trees and land clearing have reduced these 
resources to a fraction of their potential. In 
recognition of the possibility of enhancing local 
foi'est resources, several conservation measures 
have been taken. A brief history of this activity, 
confined largely to Puerto Rico, is presented here. 

There is little recoixl of actual accomplishments 
in forest conservation in Puerto Rico ])rior to 
1900. Sixteenth century Spanish laws, reflecting 
the scarcity of forests in Spain, were generally 
unrealistic for the completely forested island of 
Puerto Rico. Clearing of forests for farming was 
then needed, rather than preservation of the 
forests. 

Possibly the first indication of official interest 
in forest conservation within Pvierto Rico was a 
government circular of 1824 recommending that 
strips of trees be left along and at the source 
of streams {-U). The first appropriation of pub- 
lic funds for forestry in Puerto Rico is recorded 
for 1860 (33). Public forest reserves were estab- 
lished in 1876 (7), and a forest department existed 
in the colonial government during the rest of that 
centuiy. The extent and condition of the island's 
forest resources, as described at the end of the cen- 
tury, testify that conservation efforts to that time 
were not very effective. 

The first step toward forest conservation in 
Puerto Rico during the present century was the 
proclamation of the Luquillo Forest Reserve in 
1903. This area was surveyed in 1916 and proved 
to contain about 12,400 acres. The United States 
Forest Service appointed a supervisor to admin- 
ister this forest in 1917. In the same year the 
Puerto Rico Forest Service was established and by 
1920 was responsible for the protection of more 
than 26,000 acres of unalienated forest lands in the 
mangroves, at Guanica and Maricao, and on Mona 
Island. 

Forestry activities were materially expanded 
with the advent of the Civilian Conservation 
Corps in 1935. Since that time the area of Fed- 
eral forest lands has increased to about 28,000 
acres, and the Commonwealth now administers 
about another 50,000 acres. 

The public forests of Puerto Rico have been 
placed under protection, improved, and put to use. 
Boundaries have been identified and monumented, 
and roads and ranger stations have been built 



15 




•a 



■i 



8 



I 

S3 



I 



16 



within these forests. About 2,500,000 cubic feet 
of timber liave been removed from the forests in 
order to harvest mature trees and to eliminate in- 
ferior trees. About 7,500 acres of forest liave been 
impi'oved in tliis way. An additional 22,000 acres 
of deforested lands have been planted with trees. 
Seven recreation areas within these forests have 
been built for the use of the jKiblic. These im- 
provements represent a total investment of not less 
than $15,000,000. 

The Federal and Puerto Rican governments 
have cooperated in encouraging forestry on pri- 
vate lands as well. The Agricultural Extension 
Service of the University of Puerto Rico and the 
Federal Soil Conservation Service advise farmers 
on forestry techniques. Tlie Commonwealth Di- 
vision of Forests, Fisheries, and Wildlife (the suc- 
cessor to the Puerto Rico Forest Service) and the 
United States Forest Service cooperate in the pro- 
duction of forest tree nui-sery stock for distribu- 
tion to farmers. Tlie United States Forest Service 
has since 1939 conducted research in forest man- 
agement and utilization in Puerto Rico, and since 
1955 its primai-y function lias been forest research, 
carried out at the Institute of Tropical Forestry 
in Rio Piedras. 

The task of conserving and making productive 
Puerto Rico's forest lands (fig. 4) is far from 
completed. More than 500,000 acres within the 
island are not well suited to other than fore.st 
crops. Present public forest lands under protec- 
tion and management constitute only about 16 per- 
cent of this area. Almost none of tlie private 
lands are under forest management, and more 
than half of them are completely deforested. 
More serious still is that substantial areas of such 
land are subject to shifting cultivation, with at- 
tendant erosion and sedimentation of reservoirs 
downstream. The placing of Puerto Rico's forest 
lands under good management is a task requiring 
more research, extension, and, in some areas, pub- 
lic acquisition of lands. 



In the Virgin Islands a few old laws exist re- 
garding the protection of trees along streams, but 
in the course of time these islands, both the British 
and United States, became almost completely de- 
forested to the tops of the mountains. However, 
in the United States islands extensive secondary 
forests have developed with tlie decline in popula- 
tion and agriculture which took place in the past 
50 years. 

Possibly the outstanding early development 
which is of significance to forestry was the intro- 
duction of Dominican mahogany (Swiefenia ma- 
hagoni) into St. Thomas and St. Croix. This 
introduction, judging by the size of some of the 
older trees on St. Croix, must have been made at 
least 200 years ago. A planting in the hills south- 
west of Christ iansted, St. Croix, has given rise to 
natural regeneration of mahogany covering some 
200 adjacent acres, suggesting that this valuable 
species might be introduced into secondary forests 
elsewhere in the islands. 

A limited government program of tree plant- 
ing was carried out in St. Thomas in the early 
1930's, administered from Puerto Rico. Un- 
doubtedly some of the younger mahoganies on 
that island are a result. Nevertheless, this species 
is relatively unknown in St. John and Tortola. 

A new forest rv program is now underway in the 
Ignited States Virgin Islands, sponsored by the 
Federal Government through the Virgin Islands 
Corporation. Trees are being propagated for co- 
operative planting on private lands, a sawmill has 
been set up to utilize mature trees, and new species 
are being tested as to their adaptability to local 
growing conditions. Estate Thomas Experimental 
Forest was establislied on St. Croix in 1963. 

In the British Virgin Islands the Protection of 
Trees and Conservation of Soil and Water Ordi- 
nance of 1954 laid the basis for the protection of 
areas requiring tree growth as a protection for soil 
and water resources. That government contem- 
plates initial concentration on the protection of 
intermittent stream beds by tree planting. 



17 



LITERATURE CITED 



(1) Abbad y Lasierra, Inigo. 

1860. Histoiia geograflca. civil y natural de la isla de 
San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico. Imprenta y 
Liberia de Acosta Sau Juan. 508 pp. 

(2) Barrett. Mar.v F. 

1056. Common exotic trees of Soutli Florida (Dicoty- 
ledons). 414 pp., illus. Gainesville. 

(3) Beard, J. S. 

194f». The natural vegetation of the Windward and 
Leeward Islands. Oxford Forestry Mem. No. 21, 192 
pp., illus. 
(4» Britton, N. L. 

1018. The fl<ira of the American Virgin Islands. Brook- 
lyn Bot. Gard. Mem. 1 : 19-118. 

(5) and Wilson, Percy. 

1923-30. Descriptive flora — Spermatophyta. Botany of 
Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. N.Y. Acad. Scl., 
Sci. Surv. Porto Rico Virgin Islands, v. 5, 6. 

(6) Cook, Melville T., and Gleasou, Henry Allan. 

1928. Ecological survey of the flora of Porto Rico. 
Porto Kieo Dept. Agr. Jour. 12:1-139, illus. 

(7) Cuba. 

1907. Disposiciones vigentes relativas al servicio del 
Ramo de Montes en la Isla de Cuba. Havana. 

(8) Durland, William D. 

1929. Forest regeneration in Puerto Rico. Econ. Geog. 
5 : 3t!9-381. 

(8a) Eggers, H. F. A. 
1879. The flora of St. Croix and the Virgin Islands. 
I'.S. Xatl. Mus. Bui. 13, 133 pp. 

(9) Fernandez y Jimenez. Jo.sS Maria. 

1867. Tratado de la arboricultura cubana y Ueva 
agregada de la Isla de Pinos y Puerto-Rico. 225 pp. 
Habana. 

(10) Gifford, John C, 

1905. The Luquillo Forest Reserve, Porto Rico. U.S. 
Dept. Agr. Bur. Forestry Bui. 54, 52 pp., illus. 

(11) Gilormini, Josf A. 

1047. Manual para la propagacion de Arboles y el 
establecimiento de plantaciones forestales en Puerto 
Rico. Ed. 2, 109 pp., illus. Puerto Rico Dept. Agr. 
Com. Servicio Forestal. 

(12) Gleason, H. A., and Cook, Mel. T. 

1927. Plant ecology of Porto Rico. N.Y. Acad. Sci., Sci. 
Surv. Porto Rico Virgin Islands 7 : 1-173, illus. 

(13) Hill, Robert T. 

1899. Notes on the forest conditions of Porto Rico. 
U.S. Dept. Agr. Div. Forestry Bui. 25, 48 pp., illus. 

(14) Holdridge. L. R. 

1042-43. Arboles de Puerto Rico. U.S. Dept. Agr. Forest 
Serv. Trop. Forest Expt. Sta. Pub. 1, 2, illus. 

(15) 

1942. Trees of Puerto Rico. U.S. Dept. Agr. Forest 
Serv., Trop. Forest Expt. Sta. Pub. 1, 2. illus. 

(16) and Munoz MacCormick, Carlos. 

1939. Plantas venenosas ,v de pelos punzantes de Puerto 
Rico. Revista Agr. Puerto Rico 31 : 516-.522. illus. 

(17) Kel.sey. Harlan P., and Dayton, William A. 

1942. Standardized plant names. Ed. 2, 675 pp. Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

(18) Kennard, William C, and Winters. Harold F. 
1960. Some fruits and nuts for the tropics. U.S. Dept. 

Agr. Misc. Pub. 801, 135 pp., illus. 
(18a) Koenig, Nathan. 
19.53. A comprehensive agricultural program for Puerto 
Rico. U.S. Dept. Agr. 299 pp., illus. 

(19) Little, Elbert L., Jr. 

1953. Check list of native and naturalized trees of the 
United States (including Alaska). U.S. Dept. Agr., 
Agr. Handb. 41, 472 pp. 

(20) 

1955. Trees of Mona Island. Caribb. Forester 16 : 36-53, 
illus. 



(21) Little, Elbert L., Jr., Wadsworth, Frank H., and 
Marrero, .Jo.se. 

1064. Arboles comunes de Puerto Rico e Islas Vir- 
genes. Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, 
Puerto Rico. 

(22) Longwood, Franklin R. 

lOfil. I'uerto Rican woods; their machining, seasoning 
and related characteristics. U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. 
Handb. 205, 98 pp„ Illus. 

rsA) 

1962. Present and potential commercial timbers of the 
Caril)liean with special reference to the West Indies, 
the Gui.inas, and British Honduras. U.S. Dept. Agr., 
Agr. Handb. 207, 1()7 pp., illus. 

(24) Martorell, Luis F. 

19.53 (1954). ;,Que arbol sembrarg? Caribb. Forester 
14 : 152-160. 

(25) Melgare.jo. Juan. 

1014. Memoria y descrlpcion de la isla de San Juan de 
Pueito Rico en el ano 1582. Bol. Hist, de Puerto Rico 
1 : 75-91. 

(26) Menninger, Edwin A. 

19.58. What flowering tree is that? A handbook for 
the tropics. 1958 Ed. 176 pp., illus. Stuart, Fla, 

(27) 

1962. Flowering trees of the world for tropics and warm 
climates. 336 pp., illus. New York. 

(28) Morton, Julia F., and Ledin, R. Bruce. 

1952. 400 plants of south Florida. 134 pp., illus. 
Coral Gables, Fla. 
(20) Murphy, Louis S. 
1016. Forests of Porto Rico, past, present and future, 
and their physical and economic development. U.S. 
Dept. Agr. Bui. 3.54, 09 pp., illus. 

(30) Oakes, A. J., and Butcher, James O. 

1962. Poisonous and injurious plants of the U.S. Virgin 
Islands. U.S. Dept. Agr. Misc. Pub. 882, 97 pp., illus. 

(31) Ordetx Ro.s, Golzalo S. 

1952. Flora apicola de la America tropical. 334 pp., 
illus. La Habana, Cuba. 

(32) Otero, Josg I., Toro, Rafael A., and Pagan de Otero, 
Lydia. 

1945. Catdlogo de los nombres vulgares y cientificos de 
algunas plantas puertoriqueiias. Ed. 2. Puerto Rico 
Univ. Estacidn Expt. Agr. Bui. 37, 281 pp. 

(.33) Puerto Rico. 
1860-79. Presupuestos generales de ingresos y gastos 
coiresondientes a los anos econ6micos 18(30-1868 y 
1874-1879. San Juan. 

(34) Ramos, Francisco. 

1868. Prontuario de disposiciones oficiales del gnbierno 
superior de la isla de Puerto Rico. San Juan. 531 
pp. 

(35) Stahl, Agustin. 

1936-37. Estudios sobre la flora de Puerto Rico, fi pts. 
1883-88. Ed. 2, 3 v., portr. San Juan de Puerto Rico. 

(36) Sturrock. David, and Menninger, Edwin A. 

1946. Shade and ornamental trees for south Florida and 
Cuba. 172 pp., illus. Stuart, Fla. 

(37) Urban, Ignatius. 

190.3-11. Flora portoricensis. Symbolae Antillanae v. 
4, 771 pp.. portr. 

(38) Wadsworth. Frank H. 

1950. Notes on the climax forests of Puerto Rico and 
their destruction and con.servation prior to 1900. 
Caribb. Forester 11 : 38-47. 

(39) Winters, H. F., and Almeyda, N. 

1953 (1954). Ornamental trees in Puerto Rico. 
Caribb. Forester 14: 97-105. 

(40) Wolcott, George N. 

1950. An index to the termite-resistance of woods. 
Puerto Rico Univ. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bui. 85, 26 pp. 



18 



SPECIAL LISTS 



Common tree species of Puerto Eico and the 
Virgin Islands with some distinctive character, 
special feature, or use in common have been 
grouped together in various lists. These lists may 
be helpful in identification, in locating trees with 
useful products, and in selecting species for plant- 
ing. Only those trees outstanding for a particular 
character or use are included. To save space the 
tree species are cited by their numbers, and com- 
mon and scientific names may be found under 
"List of Tree Species with Descriptions and Illus- 
trations" (pp. iv-ix). The additional species men- 
tioned briefly but not illustrated have been omitted. 

POISONOUS TREES 

Poisonous trees with toxic fruits, seeds, or 
LEAVES.— 65, 66, 74, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 110, 124, 125, 
130, 141, 157, 168, 232. 

Poisonous trees with irritating sap. — 122, 123, 
124, 125, 129, 130, 132, 218. 

APPEARANCE AND TRUNK 

Giant trees (reaching 100 feet in height, 4 feet 
in trunk diameter).— 35, 69, 76, 84, 89, 90, 106, 108, 
109, 111, 112, 125, 136, 149, 153, 180, 209. 

Large buttresses.— 21, 31, 49, 84, 89, 90, 109, 
111, 134, 149, 153, 209. 

Prop roots (stilt roots).— 20, 21, 22, 162, 163, 
179. 

Unbranched stem. — 1, 3, 4-10 (palm family), 
174. 

Palms.— 4-10. 

Horizontal branching. — 3, 50, 69, 70, 73, 75, 
147, 153, 155, 156, 157, 163, 180, 181, 184, 209, 210, 
221, 222, 223, 224, 243. 

Spiny trunk or branches. — 4, 5, 58, 68, 70, 73, 
77, 83, 84, 88, 96, 102, 103, 125, 134, 153, 175, 176, 
181,247. 

Peeling, smooth, mottled bark. — 25, 28, 30, 42, 
93, 94, 105, 132, 194, 195. 

Mangroves (on silt shores).— 179, 182, 183, 225. 

COLORED SAP OR LATEX 

White or milky sap or latex. — 17, 18, 19, 21, 
22, 23, 24, 105, 106, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 129, 130, 
161, 174, 205-214 (sapodilla family), 217, 218, 219. 

Yellow or orange sap or latex. — 162-165 
(mangosteen family), 166. 

Keddish sap or latex.— 28, 89, 90, 91, 229. 

Blackish sap. — 132. 



LEAVES 

Very large leaves (more than 1 foot long, in- 
cluding compound leaves) .^1, 4-10 (palms), 17, 
19, 20, 26, 54, 59, 60, 61, 72, 75, 81, 87, 107, 108, 109, 
110, ;41, 149, 154, 157, 159, 167, 174, 201, 229, 233. 

Spiny leaves.— 4, 5, 77, 88, 102, 103. 

Leaves reduced to scales or none. — 11, 175, 176. 

Fragrant or aromatic lea\-es (with odor when 
crushed).— 13, 42-51 (laurel family), 95, 96-103 
(rue family), 105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 174, 185, 186, 
194, 221. 

FLOWERS 

White showy flowers. — 34, 35, 54, 60, 62, 63, 
64, 76, 91, 96-100 (citrus), 153, 154, 159, 160, 164, 
18S,«17, 218, 221, 240, 247. 

Yellow showy flowers. — 72, 74, 77, 78, 80, 88, 
89, 115, 150, 152, 167, 218, 238. 

Or.\nge showy flowers. — 75, 83, 84, 150, 234. 

Pink showy flowers.— 68, 69, 71, 73, 81, 82, 85, 
153, 166, 178, 236. 

Red showy FLO^vERS. — 30 (fruits), 75, 82, 84, 91, 
151, 189, 218, 234, 235, 237. 

Blui: or purple showy flowers. — 81, 86, 93, 
110, 117, 152, 166, 178, 189, 230, 233. 

Very fragrant floavers. — 34, 35, 40, 54, 58, 60, 
70, 73, 96-100 (citrus), 161, 164, 217, 218, 240. 

FRUITS 

Very large fruits (more than 6 inches long and 
4 inches broad or more than 1 foot long) . — 6, 17, 
18, 37, 75, 91, 164, 232. 

Fruit a beanlike pod. — 54, 58-91 (legume fam- 
ily) , 217, 218, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238. 

USES 

Timber trees.- 11, 20, 26, 34, 35, 42, 48, 49, 50, 
52, 60, 62, 64, 69, 70, 76, 79, 81, 87, 93, 101, 102, 105, 
106, 107, 108, 109, 111, 112, 115, 118, 126, 131, 134, 
139, 144, 149, 151, 153, 154, 161, 164, 173, 179, 180, 
181, 184, 186, 191, 196, 201, 209, 211, 212, 213, 214, 
221, 228, 229, 230, 236, 243. 

Medicinal trees (U.S. Pharmacopoeia or Dis- 
pensatory).— 72, 80, 93, 94, 97, 98, 100, 158, 168, 
194. 

Edible wild fruits.— 28, 29, 62, 64, 68, 69. 76, 
115, 116, 130, 134, 164, 175, 176, 188 (escaped) , 195, 
209, 213, 243. 

Edible other parts (stems, leaves, flowers, 
young fruits, seeds) . — 4, 7, 9, 17, 54, 91, 184. 



19 



PLANTING LISTS 

TlSEES GROWN IN FOREST PLANTATIONS. 11, 52, 

111, 112, 126, 161, 186, 209, 221, 228, 229, 230, 236. 

Trees for windbreaks.— 3, 11, 14, 28, 74, 112, 
131, 152, 161, 164, 188, 189, 234,236. 

Trees for shores (salt resistant ) . — 6, 11, 28, 150, 
152, 161, 163, 164, 181, 184, 214, 218. 

Trees for dry areas and poor sites. — 11, 54, 60, 
65, 70, 76, 77, 80, 93, 94, 112, 157, 161, 181, 194. 

Trees for wet areas.— 3, 11, 14, 17, 20, 111, 152, 
184, 186, 209. 

Trees for li\ ing fenceposts. — 14, 22, 54, 82, 83, 
85, 105, 125, 134, 135, 150, 152, 167.^ 

Cultivated fruit trees. — 6, 17, 18, 37, 38, 39, 
51, 80, 96-100 (citrus), 127, 130, 131, 133, 135, 140, 
158, 164, 174, 188, 189, 195, 206, 210, 243. 

Shade trees for coffee and cacao. — 62, 63, 64, 
81, 84, 200. 



Ornamental trees. — 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18, 
19, 20, 21, 23, 26, 28, 30, 39, 40, 52, 54, 57, 60, 62, 
63, 64, 07, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 81, 
82, 83, 85, 89, 91, 93, 94, 10.5, 110, 111, 112, 115, 117, 
131, 151, 152, 159, 161, 163, 164, 166, 167, 178, 181, 
184, 188, 189, 194, 199, 206, 209, 210, 218, 223, 227, 
229, 232, 233, 234, 236, 238, 246, 247. 

Ornamental trees also producing effective 
shade.— 17, 19, 21, 23, 60, 62, 63, 64, 68, 69, 73, 74, 
75, 76, 78, 80, 83, 84, 89, 105, 111, 131, 163, 164, 181, 
184, 188, 206, 209, 234. 

Ornamental trees also producing edible 
fruits.— 6, 17, 28, 39, 80, 131, 164, 166, 184, 188, 
206, 210. 

Ornamental trees also producing valuable 
timber.— 52, 60, 69, 81, 93, 94, 111, 112, 131, 161, 
164, 1 84, 189, 206, 209, 229, 236. 



20 



KEY TO FAMILIES 



A\1ien the plant family of a tree is not known, 
this key to the families of the trees of Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands aids identification. 
Eighty-eight plant families are included, all 75 
with native trees and also 13 others with common 
introduced trees. Of these, 68 families are repre- 
sented in this volume, 33 by a single species illus- 
trated, however. Additional keys to the remain- 
ing 218 of the 250 tree species ai-e in.serted in the 
text under all 35 families with 2 or more species 
illustrated. However, the related species com- 
pai-ed briefly and various genera of less common 
trees not mentioned in the text are not keyed. 

Some genera have been included in the key to 
families also. If a plant family has only 1 or 2 
genera of native trees, these generic names are 
cited after the family name. Also, several genera 
differing slightly from the main characters of 
their families have been inserted separately. 
However, this artificial key may not provide for 
a few odd genera and extreme variations. Intro- 
duced or exotic genera and families are indicated 
by an asterisk ( * ) . 

Keys are outlines or shortcuts for identifying 
trees or specimens by the process of elimination. 
Thus, trees are divided into two groups according 
to one or more pairs of contrasting characters. 
Each group is divided successively into two 
smaller groups until the name is reached. The 
name of a particular specimen is found through 
selection, one by one, of the group which fits and 
by elimination of the others. 
* In these indented keys, paired groups are desig- 
nated by the same letter, single and double, be- 
ginning" with "A" and "AA" at the left of the 
page and are equally indented by steps. The page 
number refers to the descriptive text, the be- 
ginning of the family or genus listed. The 20 
small families without page numbers are not men- 
tioned further or represented among the common 
trees described in this volume. 

An unpublished card key to families of West 
Indian trees by the senior author has served as the 
basis for this one. Nontechnical charactei-s and 
those readily observed have been emphasized. 
The descriptive terms are defined under the topic 
"Explanation of Botanical Tenns" (p. 9). 



One character used in the key, presence or ab- 
sence of stipules (one or two scales at the base 
of a leaf), may be difficult to determine because 
the stipules sometimes are minute or shed early. 
Stipules can be examined best in the bud and im- 
mature leaves near the stem tip. Upon shedding, 
the stipules leave a scar, which also may be minute. 

Vegetative characters, especially those of leaves, 
are placed first in the key. Some plant families of 
trees can be recognized or identified by certahi 
combinations of vegetative character alone. How- 
ever, many kinds of tropical trees have foliage of 
similar appearance. 

For positive identification of many families, the 
reproductive characters of flowers, fruits, and 
seeds are needed. Even when these are lacking, 
old fruits may be located on dead branches or on 
the ground, and one tree may be found flowering 
out of season. Some sterile specimens, those lack- 
ing flowei-s or fruits, can be identified to family 
by the vegetative characters beginning the key. 
If not, the key will eliminate many families. Then 
identification can be continued by consulting the 
text and drawings for the remaining families. 

The key to families is divided into four parts ac- 
cording to the arrangement or position of the 
leaves and the number of blades. Parts 1 and 2 
are for trees w-th alternate leaves, that is, attached 
smgly or 1 at a point on a twig (node). Parts 
3 and 4 are for trees with opposite leaves, that is, 
paired or 2 at a node, and also those with whorled 
leaves, 3 or more at a node. Parts 1 and 3 are for 
trees with simple leaves, with 1 blade, and Parts 

2 and 4, trees with compound leaves, divided into 

3 or more blades ( rarely only 2) . 

The first step in using this key to families is to 
place the unknown tree or speciment in one of the 
four groups listed below. Then continue the key 
under the part or group on the page cited. 

Part 1. Leaves alternate, simple (p. 22). 
Part 2. Leaves alternate, compound (p. 25). 
Part 3. Leaves opposite, simple (p. 26). 
Part 4. Leaves opposite, compound (p. 27). 



I 



21 



PART 1. LEAVES ALTERNATE, SIMPLE 

A, Leaves reduced to scales or none. 

B. Stems succulent, spiny — Cactus Family (Cactaceae), page 376. 
BB. Stems with slender twigs bearing minute scale leaves 1 at a node — Tamarisk Family (Tamaricaceae;* Tamarix*). 
AA. Leaves larger, with flat green blade. 

C. Leaves parallel-veined, stems unbranched (very slender branches in bamboo) . 

D. Leaves grasslike, divided into sheath and blade — Grass Family (Gramineae; Bamhusa*), page 32. 
DD. Leaves palmlike, fan-shaped, very large, with long petiole — Palm Family (Palmae), page 34. 
CO. Leaves with veins forming network or inconspicuous; stems becoming branched. 
E. Sap or latex colored. 
F. Sap whitish or milky. 

G. Stipules present (sometimes minute or shedding early, leaving scar) ; flowers unisexual. 

H. Female flowers with 2 or 1 style; nodes usually with rings — Mulberry Family (Moraceae), page 60. 
HH. Female flowers with 3 styles; nodes without rings — Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae), page 260. 
GG. Stipules absent. 

L Leaves palmately lobed; flowers mostly unisexual — Papaya Family (Caricaceae;* Carica*), page 374. 
II. Leaves not lobed; flowers bisexual. 

J. Corolla of 3-5 separate petals — Cashew Family (Anacardiaceae), page 28. 
JJ. Corolla tubular, of united petals. 

K. Stamens opposite corolla lobes; fruit a berry, borne singly — Sapodilla Family (Sapotaceae), page 436. 
KK. Stamens alternate with corolla lobes; fruits (drupes or follicles) usually paired, 2 from a flower — 
Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae), page 460. 
FF. Sap not whitish. 

L. Sap orange — Anatto Family (Bixaceae;* Bixa*), page 358. 
LL. Sap reddish — Coccoloba uvifera, page 82. 
EE. Sap watery. 

M. Nodes with rings. 
N. Stipules present. 

O. Stipules forming sheath around twig — Buckwheat Family (Polygonaceae), page 76. 
00. Stipules enclosing bud, soon shedding. 

P. Leaves pinnately veined, elliptic — Magnolia Family (Magnoliaceae; Magnolia), page 94. 
PP. Leaves palmately veined, with 7-11 main veins from base, nearly round. 

Q. Leaves heart-shaped, not lobed — Mallow Family (Malvaceae; Hibiscus), page 326. 
QQ. Leaves very large, umbrellalike, with 7-11 rounded lobes — Cecropia, page 66. 
NN. Stipules absent — Piperaceae {Piper), page 50. 
MM. Nodes without rings. 

R. Leaves in 2 rows along twig. 

S. Leaves with swelling where petiole joins blade — Elaeocarpus Family (Elaeocarpaeeae; Sloanea), page 324. 
SS. Leaves without swelling on petiole. 

T. Stipules absent; flowers with many pistils often uniting to form 1 large many-seeded fruit — Annona 
Family (Annonaceae), page 100. 
TT. Stipules present (sometimes minute or shedding early, leaving scar) ; flowers with 1 pistil. 
U. Flowers unisexual or mostly so, petals none. 

V. Leaves asymmetrical; styles 2; fruit 1-seeded — Elm Family (Ulmaceae; Celtis, Trenia), page 56. 
VV. Leaves symmetrical ; styles 3 ; fruit a few-seeded capsule — Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae) , page 260. 
UU. Flowers bisexual; petals usually present. 

W. Petals 5, hood-shaped (sometimes none); stamens 5, opposite petals and often within; fruit 
with 1-4 seeds — Buckthorn Family (Rhamnaceae), page 316. 
WW. Petals 3-7, broad (sometimes none); stamens 5 to many; fruit with few to many seeds. 
X. Style 1, ovary 1-celled — Flacourtia Family (Flacourtiaceae), page 364. 
XX. Styles 5, ovary 5-celled — Chocolate Family (Sterculiaceae), page 338. 
RR. Leaves in more than 2 rows along twig. 
y. Leaves with minute gland dots. 
Z. Leaves not aromatic. 

a. Gland dots both large and small — Myoporum Family (Myoporaceae; Bontia). 
aa. Gland dots uniformly small — Myrsine Family (Myrsinaceae), page 430. 

ZZ. Leaves aromatic, with distinctive odor and taste when crushed. 

b. Flowers with numerous stamens but no corolla; odor and taste of eucalyptus — Eucalyptus,* page 398. 
bb. Flowers with few stamens or if many, with petals. 

e. Stamens with anthers opening by' pores with lids; leaves mostly elliptic with side veins long and 
curved; odor and taste of spices — Laurel Family (Lauraceae), page 110. 
cc. Stamens with anthers splitting open lengthwise. 

d. Leaves with odor and taste of citrus; stamens large, separate — Rue Family (Rutaceae), page 218. 
dd. Leaves with peppery, stinging taste; stamens minute, united into a tube — Canella Family 
(Canellaceae; Canella), page 362. 
YY. Leaves without minute gland dots. 

e. Stipules present (sometimes minute or shedding early, leaving scar). 

f. Stipule a pointed scale above petiole, persistent— Coca Family (Erythroxylaceae; Erythroxylori) , 
page 210. 

22 



ff. Stipules outside petiole, 
g. Leaves lobed. 

h. Leaves with 2 rounded lobes at apex and 13 or 11 veins from heart-shaped base — Bauhinia, 
page 168. 
hh. Leaves deeply palmately lobed with mostly 5 long-pointed, finely toothed lobes — Cochlospermum 
Family (Cochlospermaceae;* Cochlospermum*) , page 360. 
gg. Loaves not lobed. 

i. Leaves long, very narrow, finely toothed — Willow Family (Salicaceae;* Salix*), page 54. 
ii. Leaves broad, mostly not toothed, 
j. Flowers minute, 
k. Flowers unisexual. 

1. Leaves with stinging hairs — Nettle Family (Urticaceae; Urera). 
11. Leaves without stinging hairs. 

m. Female flowers usually without petals, with 3 or 2 styles; fruit a drupe or capsule — 
Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae), page 260. 
mm. Female flowers with usually 4 petals, 4 stigmas; fruit a berry with 4 nutlets — Holly 
Family (Aquifoliaceae; Ilex). 
kk. Flowers bisexual. 

n. Ovary inferior — Ginseng Family (Araliaceae; Dendropanax), page 426. 
nn. Ovary superior — Bittersweet Family (Celastraceae). 
ij. Flowers larger, often showy. 

o. Fruits 2-5 from a flower, berrylike, black, borne on an enlarged red disk ; flowers yellow — 
Ochna Family (Ochnaceae; Ouratea). 
00. Fruit 1 from a flower. 

p. Leaves pinnately veined; flowers with cuplike base bearing sepals, 5 petals, and mostly 
manv separate stamens — Rose Family (Rosaceae), page 140. 
pp. Leaves" palmately veined (pinnately veined in Quararibaea, page 336), flowers with parts 
inserted at base, stamens many, united into a column around pistil, 
q. Flowers with unbranched style — Bombax Family (Bombacaceae), page 382. 
qq. Flowers with style having mostly 5 branches — Mallow Family (Malvaceae), page 326. 
ee. Stipules absent. 

r. Seed exposed on 2-lobed, red fleshy base; flowers and fruits not produced; leaves lance-shaped, very 

narrow, thick, without lateral veins — Yew Family (Taxaceae; Podocarpus), page 30. 
rr. Seeds enclosed in fruits maturing from flowers; leaves various. 
s. Ovarv inferior. 

t. Leaves palmately veined, petiole joining blade usually above base — Hernandia Family (Her- 

nandiaceae; Hernandia), page 130. 
tt. Leaves pinnately veined. 

u. Petals none or minute — Combretum Family (Combretaceae), page 386. 
uu. Petals present. 

V. Fruit a drupe less than K inch long, 1-seeded— Sweetleaf Family (Symplocaceae; Syjn- 
piocos), page 456. 
vv. Fruit larger, various, usually many-seeded — Lecythis Family (Lecythidaceae*) . 
ss. Ovary superior. 

w. Corolla of separate petals or absent. 
X. Flowers unisexual. 

y. Calyx a cylindrical tube with 4 lobes; corolla absent — Mezereon Family (Thymeleaceae; 
Daphnopsis) , page 380. 
yy. Calyx of mostlv separate sepals. 

z. Pistils 3, each forming a drupe with 1 curved seed — Moonseed Family (Menispermaceae; 
Hyperhaena). 

A. Styles 3 or 2; fruit a capsule or drupe — Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae), page 262. 
AA. Style 1, 3-forked; fruit of 3 winged keys — Thoxiinia portoricensis, page 310. 
XX. Flowers bisexual. 
B. Flowers minute. 

C. Flowers regular. . 

D. Flowers in long narrow racemes, white; fruit a minute capsule — Cyrilla li'amily 
(Cyrillaceae, Cyrilla), page 298. ^ ., ,., . ,, • 

DD. Flowers in panicles or single; fruit a drupe— Icacina Family (Icacinaceae; Mappia, 

OttOSchulzia) . ^ , ,„ , ■ nr ,■ n m ^ 

CC. Flowers irregular, with 5 unequal petals— Sabia Family (Sabiaceae, Mehosma), page 314 . 
BB. Flowers larger. 

E. Flowers regular. . . „ 

F. Pistils many, each with 1 style— Dillenia Family (DiUeniaceae, Dillenia*), page 344. 

FF. Pistil 1. " . ^., „ , „ , .., , . 

G. Flowers with 4 petals, 4 to many long stamens; pistil usually stalked, with short 
style or none — Caper Family (Capparidaceae; Capparis, Morisonia), page 132. 
GG. Flowers with 5 overlapping sepals, 5 petals, many stamens, and pistil with 2-5 
styles— Tea Family (Theaceae), page 346. 
EE. Flowers irregular, with usually 3 petals and 8 stamens united into a tube— .Milkwort 
Family (Polygalaceae; Poiygala, Badiera), page 260. 
WW. Corolla of united petals. 

H. Stamens separate and distinct. 

L Fruit a drupe — Olax Family (Olacaceae; Schoepfia, Ximenia). 
IL Fruit a capsule— Heath Family (Ericaceae; Lyonia). 



23 

687-921 0—64 3 ■' 



HH. Stamens inserted on corolla. 

J. Stamens 2-3 times as many as corolla lobes. 

K. Flowers unisexual (dioecious), styles 2-6; fruit fleshy, few-seeded — Ebony Family 
(Ebenaceae; Diospyros). 
KK. Flowers bisexual, style 1; fruit dry, 1-seeded — Snowbell Family (Styracaceae; Slyrax). 
JJ. Stamens as many as corolla lobes or fewer. 
L. Flowers regular. 

M. Style 1; fruit a berry — Nightshade Family (Solanaceae), page 488. 
MM. Styles 2 or divided into 4 forks; fruit a drupe or 1-4 nutlets — Borage Family (Bora- 
ginaceae), page 466. 
LL. Flowers irregular, large, with long corolla tube — Bignonia Family (Bignoniaceae; Enal- 
lagma). 



24 



PART 2. LEAVES ALTERNATE, COMPOUND 

A. Leaves pinnate, including bipinnate and tripinnate. 
B. Leaves bipinnate or tripinnate. 

C. Leaves fernlike, coiled at tip when growing, bearing spores in brown dots beneath; stems unbranched — Tree- 
fern Family (Cyatheaceae; Cyathea, Hemilelia), page 28. 
CC. Leaves not fernlike; stems becoming branched. 

D. Leaflets long-pointed, edges toothed — Melia* page 246. 
DD. Leaflets rounded or short-pointed at apex, edges not toothed. 

E. Fruit a pod (legume) with beanlike seeds — Legume Family (Leguminosae), page 142. 
EE. Fruit a long 3-angled capsule with winged seeds — Horseradish-tree Family (Moringaceae;* Moringa*), 
page 134. 
BB. Leaves once pinnate. 

F. Leaflets parallel- veined, leave.? palmlike, very large, with long petiole; stems unbranched — Palm Family (Pal- 
mae), page 34. 
FF. Leaflets with veins forming network or inconspicuous; stems becoming branched. 

G. Leaflets deeply divided into narrow segments, white hairy beneath; leaves fernlike, almost bipinnate — 
Protea Family (Proteaceae;* GrevUha*) . 
GG. Leaflets not deeply divided or lobed. 

H. Stipules usually present; fruit a pod (legume) with beanlike seeds — Legume Family (Leguminosae), page 142. 
HH. Stipules absent; fruits and seeds various. 
L Sap whitish or of other color, resinous. 

J. Flowers with 1 very short style, stamens twice as many as petals — Bursera Family (Burseraceae) , page 258. 
JJ. Flowers w-ith 3-5 stigmas or styles, stamens as many or twice as many as petals — Cashew Family 
(Anacardiaceae), page 286. 
IL Sap watery. 

K. Leaflets with minute gland dots, with citruslike odor when crushed — Rue Family (Rutaceae), page 220. 
KK. Leaflets without gland dots. 

L. Leaves with 13-19 lanceolate asymmetrical leaflets, sharply toothed, long-pointed; fruit a walnut- — 
Walnut Family (Juglandaceae, Juglans). 
LL. Leaves and fruit otherwise. 

M. Flowers with 2-5 pistils or 1 lobed pistil and with 2-5 styles or stigmas; bark and sap bitter — 
Ailanthus Family (Simaroubaceae), page 236. 
MM. Flowers with 1 pistil and 1 style. 

N. Flowers mostly unisexual, stamens 5-10, separate — -Soapberry Family (Sapindaceae), page 302. 
NN. Flowers bisexual, with mostly 8-10 stamens united into a tube (separate in Cedrela) — Ma- 
hogany Family (Meliaceae), page 244. 
A.\. Leaves digitate (palmate) or with 3 leaflets (trifoliolate). 

O. Leaflets with minute gland dots, with citruslike odor w^hen crushed — Rue Family (Rutaceae; Ainyris, Pilocarpus), 
page 220. 
00. Leaflets without gland dots. 
P. Leaflets 3. 

Q. Stipules usually present; fruit a pod (legume) with beanlike seeds — Erythrina, page 190. 
QQ. Stipules absent; fruit a drupe or winged key — Soapberry Family (Sapindaceae), page 302. 
PP. Leaflets 5 or more. 

R. Flowers minute; fruit a small, slightly fleshy berry, 2-seeded — Ginseng Family (Araliaceae; Didymopanax) , 

RR. Flowers large, with 5 whitish petals; fruit a large oblong capsule with hairy seeds — Bombax Family (Bomba- 
caceae; Ceiba), page 332. 



25 



PART 3. LEAVES OPPOSITE, SIMPLE 

A. Leaves reduced to scales or needles, opposite or whorled. 

B. Leaves consisting of minute scales 6-8 or more in a whorl on wiry green jointed twigs — ^Casuarina Family (Casu- 
arinaceae;* Casuarina*) , page 48. 
BB. Leaves of minute scales 2-3 at a node or long needles 2-5 in a bundle, resinous — Pine Family (Pinaceae;* Cupres- 
sus,* Pinus*) . 
AA. Leaves larger, with flat green blade, opposite or sometimes whorled. 
C. Sap or latex colored. 
D. Sap whitish or milk.v. 

E. Leaves 3-8 at a node, with petiole longer than the small, nearly round blade — Euphorhin, page 270. 

EE. Leaves 2-4 at a node, with short petiole and long- or short-pointed blade — Dogbane Family (Apocynaceae), 
page 460. 
DD. Sap not whitish. 

F. Sap yellow or orange (whitish in Calophi/llum) — Mangosteen Family (Guttiferae), page 348. 
FF. Sap of young leaves reddish — Tectona,* page 484. 

CC. Sap watery. 

G. Stipules present (sometimes minute or shedding early, leaving scar). 
H. Nodes with rings. 

I. Stipules forming sheath arounj:! twig or paired and persistent. 

J. Leaves toothed — Chloranthus Family (Chloranthaceae; Hedyosmum), page 52 
JJ. Leaves not toothed — Madder Family (Rubiaceae), page 504. 

II. Stipules not forming sheath, single, shedding early — Mangrove Family (Rhizophoraceae; Cassipourea 

Rkizophora), page 384. 
HH. Nodes without rings. 

K. Flowers small, inconspicuous. 

L. Petals 4 or 5, spreading; stamens alternate with petals — Bittersweet Family (Celastraceae). 
LL. Petals 5 (sometimes none;, hood-shaped; stamens opposite petals and often within — Buckthorn Family 
(Rhamnaceae), page 316. 
KK. Flowers larger, often showy; petals fringed, with narrow stalk. 

M. Petals 5; fruit a drupe — Malpighia Family (Malpighiaceae), page 256. 
MM. Petals mostly 6, sometimes 4 or 5; fruit a capsule — Loosestrife Family (Lythraceae; Ginoria, Lager- 
siroemia*), page 382. 
GG. Stipules absent. 

N. Leaves with 3-9 main veins from base, mostly eUiptic, side veins curved, many smaller veins straight and, 
parallel — Melastome Family (Melastomataceae), page 418. 
NN. Leaves with 1 main vein (midrib). 

O. Leaves coarsely toothed; flowers in a head — Composite Family (Gompositae; Clibadium, Eupatorium) , 
page 526. 
GO. Leaves not toothed or finely toothed; flowers not in heads. 
P. Petioles with 2 glands near blade — Laguncularia, page 392. 
PP. Petioles without glands. 
Q. Ovary inferior. 

R. Stamens 10, petals 5 — Mouriri (Melastomataceae). 
RR. Stamens numerous. 

S. Petals 4-5, rounded, mostly white; leaves with minute gland dots — Mvrtle Family (Myrtaceae), 
page 396. 
SS. Petals 5-7, large, rounded, wrinkled, stalked, scarlet or white — Pomegranate Family (Punicaceae;* 
Punica*). 
QQ. Ovary superior, stamens 10 or fewer, 

T. Corolla absent or of separate petals; flowers mostly unisexual. 
U. Stamens 2-10, separate or united. 

V. Ovary exposed, 2-celled; corolla when present of 4 narrow white petals — Olive Family (Olea- 
ceae), page 458. 
VV. Ovary enclosed in calyx tube, 1-celled; corolla absent — Four-o'Clock Family (Nyctaginaceae), 
page 88. 
UU. Stamens 8, in 2 sets of 4, inserted in calyx tube — Mezereon Familv (Thvmeleaceae; Daphnopsis), 
page 380. 
TT. Corolla of united petals; flowers bisexual. 

W. Leaves with minute gland dots, aromatic, with citruslike odor when crushed — Ravenia (Rutaceae) . 
WW. Leaves without gland dots, not aromatic. 

X. Flowers regular, with 5-lobed spreading, waxy, orange or white corolla; fruit a berry — Theo- 
phrasta Family (Theophrastaceae; Jaquinia). 
XX. Flowers irregular. 

Y. Corolla tube short; fruit a drupe or 1-4 nutlets — Verbena Family (Verbenaceae), page 476. 
YY. Corolla tube long; fruit a capsule with winged seeds or a berry — Bignonia Family (Big- 
noniaceae), page 490. 



26 



PART 4. LEAVES OPPOSITE, COMPOUND 

A. Leaves pinnate (bipinnate in Jacaranda, page 492). 
B. Nodes with rings. 

C. Leaflets all paired (even pinnate), 4-10, ol)lique or asymmetrical, not toothed — Caltrop Family (Zygophyllaceae; 
Guaiacum), page 212. 
CC. Leaflets of odd number (odd pinnate), symmetrical or nearly so, toothed. 

D. Leaf axis winged; leaflets rounded at apex — Cunonia Family (Cunoniaceae; Weinmannia), page 138. 
DD. Leaf axis not winged; leaflets pointed at apex. 

E. Leaflets 3-7, those at base deeply toothed and often divided into 3 lobes or leaflets — Honeysuckle Family 
(Caprifoliaceae; Sambucus). 
EE. Leaflets finely toothed, not lobed. 

F. Leaflets 5-11, elliptic or ovate, hairless or nearly so — Bladdernut Family (Staphyleaceae; Turpinia), 
page 300. 
FF. Leaflets 11-15, lance-shaped, densely hairy — Brunellia Family (Brunelliaceae; Brunellia), page 136. 
BB. Nodes without rings. 

G. Leaflets all paired (even pinnate), 2-8 — Matayba, page 304. 
GG. Leaflets of odd number (odd pinnate,). 

H. Leaves with minute gland dots, aromatic, with citruslike odor when crushed — Amyris, page 216. 
HH. Leaves without gland dots, not aromatic — Bignonia Family (Bignoniaceae), page 490. 
AA. Leaves digitate (palmate) or with 3 leaflets (trifoliolate). 

L Leaflets with minute gland dots, aromatic, with citruslike odor when crushed — Amyris, page 216. 
n. Leaflets without gland dots, not aromatic. 

J. Flowers with short corolla tube; fruit a drupe — Vitex, page 486. 
JJ. Flowers with long corolla tube; fruit a long narrow capsule with many winged seeds — Tabebuia, page 496. 



27 



TREE SPECIES, DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



TREE-FERN FAMILY (CYATHEACEAE) 
1. Helecho gigante, tree-fern Cyathea arborea (L.) J. E. Smith 



Tree-ferns, among the most beautiful plants of 
tropical mountains, are common in Puerto Rico. 
Tiiey are readily recognized as ferns by their lace- 
like fern leaves unrolling from a coil at the apex 
and by the absence of tlowers, fruits, and seeds, 
while their slender unbranched trunks, leafy only 
at the summit, qualify them as trees. 

This species, the commonest of 5 or 6 kinds of 
trunked ferns reaching tree size in Puerto Rico, 
is characterized by: (1) slender unbranched 
brown trunk, scaly but spineless, usually with 
large oval leaf scars in the upper part and bearing 
at apex a crown of about 10-18 large spreading 
leaves; (2) feathery (.3-pinnate) leaves mostly 
6-10 feet long, the thin blade clivided 3 times, 
ending in a long pointed tip curved downward; 
and (3) small brown ball-like masses less than 
i/ie inch in diameter, borne on the underside of 
some leaves and producing numerous powdery 
spores. 

A vei-y handsome small evergreen tree to 30 feet 
or more in height, with trunk 3-5 inches in diame- 
ter and stately crown of graceful leaves, ovate in 
general outline. This species is spineless through- 
out, though certain kinds have spiny trunks and 
leaf axes. There is no conspicuous bud, but usu- 
ally 1-4 young unrolling leaves, actually alternate 
though crowded. 

A mature leaf has a light brown axis scaly at 
base and many yellow-green secondary axes as 
much as 2 feet long, each bearing feathery taper- 
ing branches less than 6 inches long. The" numer- 
ous regularly arranged leaf segments are narrowly 
oblong, % inch or less in length, rounded at apex, 
and with the minutely wavy-toothed edges turned 
under. The thin segments are yellow green on 
both sides. A dead leaf soon falls, leaving a large 
oval scar. 

Some older leaves bear minute brown balls or 
beads (sori) in 2 rows on under surface of seg- 
ments, composed of numerous spore cases (spor- 
angia) which shed powdery masses of microscopic 
spores. Under favorable conditions spores, like 
seeds, develop into new plants. 

Trunks of giant ferns differ from those of most 
trees in several ways. The smoothish surface is 
brown and scaly, often covered below with masses 
of smaller plants, such as mosses, liverworts, and 
ferns, and with many small black roots projecting 
from the enlarged base. Not divided into bark 



and wood, the trunk does not grow in diameter. 
There is a hard black outer layer Vs i"ch or more 
in thickness and a central white soft pith contain- 
ing a ring of brown bundles which serve for con- 
duction and strength. 

Though not solid wood, the hard trunks are dur- 
able and resistant to decay and termites. Else- 
where, trunks of tree-ferns have served as posts, 
frameworks of houses, supports for vanilla plants 
and other orchids, and as water bars for drainage 
along mountain trails. The Carib Indians used 
the stems to preserve and carry fire, which can be 
maintained for hours without smoke or flames. 

These luxuriant ferns seem to thrive following 
opening of the areas and construction of mountam 
roads, often growing abundantly along the cut 
roadside banks. One of the most easily accessible 
areas for viewing these odd plants is along the 
highway crossing the Luquillo Mountains. 
Though very ornamental in their native moun- 
tains, tree-ferns seldom are cultivated in Puerto 
Rico. It is reported that small plants can be. trans- 
planted successfully and garden-grown in moist 
regions, even at sea level. 

In lower and upper mountain forests of Puerto 
Rico growing as a small understory tree and es- 
pecially common in open areas such as ravines, 
lianks, and roadsides. Also recorded from St. 
Thomas and Tortola, now probably rare on the 
latter and not observed there in 1954. 

PuiiLTC FORESTS. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Greater Antilles, St. Thomas, Tortola, 
and Lesser Antilles in Saba, St. Kitts, Nevis, 
Guadeloupe, Dominica, Montserrat, Martinique, 
St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada. Also in Trin- 
idad. Recorded as rare in lowlands of eastern 
Mexico. 

Other common names. — helecho arboreo, hel- 
echo, palmilla, camaron, camaroncillo (Puerto 
Rico) ; camaron, helecho arlx)l, palmera sin espinas 
(Cuba) ; tree-fern (English). 

Several species of trunked fenis of this and re- 
lated genera (HemifeUa and Alf<ophila) are native 
in mountain forests of Puerto Rico though uncom- 
mon to rare and usually not reaching tree size. A 
related large tree-feni with small spines on the 
trunk is Cyathea hritfoniana Maxon. Another 
large tree-fern with leaves only twice pinnate (2- 
pinnate) and with spines is C. pubescens Mett. 



28 




MS 



^t 




1. Helecho gigante, tree-fern 



Cyathea arborea (L.) J. E. Smith 



Lower leaf surface (above) and upper leaf surface (below), natural size. 



29 



YEW FAMILY (TAXACEAE) 



2. Caobilla, podocarp 

The only native conifer of Puerto Rico is this 
medium-sized tree of mountain forests. It is dis- 
tinguished by the crowded, very narrow, lance- 
shaped leaves 2i/^-6 inches long and less than 1,0 
inch wide, long-pointed, leathery, stifi', and with- 
out visible lateral veins. There are no true flowers 
or fruits, but the brown seeds %6 iii^h long are 
borne singly and exposed on an enlarged 2-lobed 
red juicy base. Pollen is produced on other or 
male trees (dioecious) in narrow yellow-green 
cones 1-11/4 inches long and 1/4 ii''<^li i" diameter. 

An evergreen tree becoming 30 feet high and 1 
foot or more in trunk diameter, with narrow to 
spi'eading crown. Bark is smoothish and scaly, 
becoming rough, fissured, shagg^', and peeling off 
in brown or gray strips about Vi inch thick. Inner 
bark is pink, tasteless or slightly bitter. Twigs are 
green and angled when young, becoming brown 
and round. 

The alternate leaves are narrowed and nearly 
stalkless at base, sometimes slightly curved or 
sickle-shaped, with edges straight and slightly 
turned under, the upper surface dark green and 
slightly shiny, and lower surface green to yellow 
gi"een. 

Male or pollen-bearing cones are single at base 
of leaves, stalkless and cylindrical, yellow green, 
turning brown after pollen is shed. Seeds are also 
single at leaf bases, naked, small and gray at time 
of pollination, brown, elliptic, and pointed at ma- 
turity. Each seed is attached to a base (recep- 
tacle) % inch long and broad, which is bright red 
but becoming dark red and which has a stalk 
1/4-% inch long. Pollen and seeds are produced 
nearly through the year. 



Podocarpus coriaceus L. C. Rich. 

The sapwood is whitish or pinkish, and the 
heartwoocl yellowish or brown. The wood is soft, 
moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.7), and easily 
worked. It is suitable for fine cabinetwork and 
furniture. However, in Puerto Rico the trees are 
usually small and of poor form and therefore yield 
little usable wood. 

In upper mountain forests of western Puerto 
Rico, almost confined to the Maricao Forest but 
also at Cerro Gordo near San German. Also rare 
and local as a shrub -4 feet high in the dwarf forest 
east of El Yunque summit in the Luquillo Moun- 
tains, eastern Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Luquillo, Maricao. 

Range. — Puerto Rico, Lesser Antilles on St. 
Kitts, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Mar- 
tinique, and St. Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. 

Other common names. — caoba del pais (Puerto 
Rico) ; podocarp, podocarpus (English, com- 
merce) ; weedee (Nevis) ; wild pitch pine (Mont- 
serrat) ; raisinier montagne (Dominica) ; wild 
pine (Trinidad); laurier-rose (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical synonym. — Nageia coriacea (L. C. 
Rich.) Kuntze. 

This coniferous or cone-bearing tree is classed 
with the gymnosperms, seed plants without true 
flowers or fruits but with exposed or naked seeds. 
Conifers, or softwoods, include some of the world's 
most valual)le timber trees, such as pines, Douglas- 
fir, spruces, firs, and cedars. Puerto Rico has three 
other native species of gymnosperms, dwarf 
shrubby cycads with enlarged underground stems 
and known as maranguey (genus Zamia). 



30 




2. Caobilla, podocarp 



Natural size. 



Podocarpus coriaceus L. C. Rich. 

31 



GRASS FAMILY (GRAMINEAE) 



3. Bambu, common bamboo 

Bamboos, giant introduced evergreen grasses 
with clustered, jointed hollow stems and feathery 
foliage, are so dift'erent that they are not likely to 
be confused with any other trees. Perhaps they 
are not trees at all, because they grow in clumps of 
several stems, like many shrubs, and do not have 
a single trunk from the base. Their large treelike 
size and usefulness justify their inclusion here. 

The first and l)y far the commonest of about 30 
exotic species of bamboo, this species was intro- 
duced into Puerto Rico more than a century ago 
and thus is sometimes incorrectly called native 
bamboo. It is diflicult to distinguish between 
some of the different species, as the flowers needed 
for positive identification are rarely produced. 
However, as a group bamboos are easily recog- 
nized by: (1) clusters of several to many slender, 
tapering, slightly curved stems 2—1 inches in diam- 
eter, dark green to orange, with swollen rings or 
joints 8-18 inches apart; (2) several verj^ slender 
branches spreading horizontally and regularly at 
the joints; and (3) grass leaves in 2 rows, consist- 
ing of basal sheath around the slender twig and 
long-pointed blade with many lateral veins paral- 
lel with midrib. 

In this species stems (culms) attain 30-.50 feet 
in height and toward the top diverge from the 
center. The smooth surface, green to dark green, 
becomes orange or yellow in age. From a distance 
the plant appears like a clump of giant ferns. 
The slender lateral branches, about 14 inch in di- 
ameter, are nearly horizontal and bear wirelike 
yellow-green twigs. Spines are absent in this 
species. A horticultural variety has variegated 
stems with yellow and green vertical stripes. 

The light green leaf sheaths are li/^-2i4 inches 
long, closely fitting the twig. Blades are 6-10 
inches long and %-l% inches wide, or as short as 
2 inches at base of twig, with rough edges, long- 
pointed at apex and short -pointed where narrowed 
and jointed into sheath. The upper surface of the 
flat thin blade is green and slightly shiny, the 
lower surface pale blue green. 

The large bamboos bloom only once. Generally, 
after a long period of many years of growth, many 
plants growing together flower simultaneously, 
produce seeds, and then die. Like most other 
grasses, bamboos have inconspicuous flowers 
usually light brown or straw colored. The flower 
cluster (panicle) of this species is composed of 
slender branches bearing bracted clusters of 3-15 
or more stalkless spikelets i/^-% inch long, oblong 
and pointed, each with several to many flowers 
(florets) about % inch long. The flower has 
2 narrow scales, 6 stamens with purple protruding 
anthers, and pistil, producing an oblong grain. 

Not divided into bark and wood, the stem is hol- 
low except at the nodes, lightweight, hard, and 



Bambusa vulgaris Schrad.* 

strong. It completes its height growth from the 
clustered roots at base in about 3 months, elongat- 
ing very rapidly as much as 8 inches daily. Nor 
does it expand in diameter after it is first formed. 

A new growing shoot at the outside of a clump 
is readily distinguished by the absence of branches 
and by the presence at each node or joint of a large 
leaf, with triangular spreading blade. These 
clasping leaves along the main axis have a very 
large gray-green sheath 6-12 inches long, extend- 
ing nearly to the next node and bearing many 
brown needlelike hairs that stick in the flesh when 
touched, and a short triangular pointed yellow- 
green blade 2-3 inches long and broad, also with a 
few brown hairs. Toward the apex of the elongat- 
ing stem the leaves are closer together and over- 
lapping. 

Bamboos of this and other species have many 
uses besides ornament and pasture shade. Their 
masses of intertwining roots and accumulations of 
leaf litter check erosion on roadside banks and 
slopes. Poles of various kinds for construction, 
fences, fenceposts, ladders, tool handles, flagpoles, 
and stakes are easily made from bamboo. The 
stems will serve as temporary water pipes after 
opening them on one side at each node and remov- 
ing the partitions. Short pieces are used as pots 
for seedlings to be transplanted later. Bamboo 
boai'ds can be prepared by slitting, splitting, and 
spreading ojien the stems, and the split pieces 
woven into baskets. Bamboo stems have been uti- 
lized in the manufacture of various articles, in- 
cluding furniture, lattices, fishing rods, picture 
frames, lampshades, mats, and flower vases. This 
is not the best bamboo because the stems are not 
resistant to damage by the bamboo powder-post 
beetle [Dhodermminutiis (F.) ) as are those of 
certain more recently introduced species. Also 
very susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. 

With outer scales removed, the tender growing 
tips of bamboo shoots can be eaten by boiling 
about one-half hour and changing the water once 
or twice to remove any bitter taste. There is no 
distinct flavor except "for a slight suggestion of 
young corn. Bamboo shoots are prepared in meat 
stews, salads, and other ways. 

This species is commonly planted throughout 
Puerto Rico in moist soil, .such as along streams and 
roadsides and for ornament because of the attrac- 
tive feathery foliage. Also in St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, and St. John. Spreading from cultiva- 
tion but not naturalized as it does not grow ordi- 
narily from seeds. However, in the Lesser Antilles 
natural vegetative propagation by breaking and 
rooting of the fragile short branches occurs. 



♦Exotic, or introduced. Species ( or families ) with scien- 
tific names followed by an asterisk are not native in Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands. 



32 




fe*^ 



;£i>«u 



3. Bambu, common bamboo 



Leafy twig (right), natural size. 



Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. 

33 



Range. — Native of tropical Asia but widely 
planted throughout the tropics. West Indies from 
Cuba to Trinidad, and from Mexico to South 
America. Also grown in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — bambua, caiia India 
(Puerto Rico) ; bambii (Spanish) ; cana brava, 



cafiambu, pito (Cuba); cafiaza (Panama); com- 
mon bamboo, feathery bamboo, bamboo (United 
States, English) ; bambou (French) ; bamboe 
(Dutch). 

Another generic name formerly employed is 
Bamhos. 



PALM FAMILY (PALMAE) 

Key to the 7 species illustrated (Nos. 4-10) 
A. Leaves pinnate. 

B. Spines on trunk and leaf axes. 

C. Leaf segments long-pointed ; trunk stout — 4. Acrocomia media. 

CO. Leaf segments ending in a broad jagged edge as if torn ; trunk .slender — 5. Aiphanes acanthophylla. 
BB. Spines absent. 

D. Leaf sheaths splitting open. 

E. Leaves many, 12-20 feet long ; fruit the familiar, large, edible coconut — 6. Cocos nucifera*. 
EE. Leaves several, .5-7 feet long ; fruits about i/^ inch in diameter. 

P. Leaf segments spreading flat along axis and not overlapping — 7. Euterpe gloiosa. 
FF. Leaf segments erect and spreading in 2 row.s on each side of axis — 8. Gaussia attenuata. 
DD. Leaf sheaths forming long column at apex of trunk — 9. Roystonea horinquena. 
AA. Leaves fan-shaped — 10. Sabal caiisiarum. 

4. Corozo, prickly palm, Puerto Rico acrocomia 

Corozo, a robust palm and 1 of the 2 Puerto 
Rican spiny species, is characterized by: (1) the 
stout straiglit trunk 8-12 inches in diameter at 
base but slightly enlarged and bulging above, bear- 
ing rings of long slender black spines; (2) long 
pinnate leaves 10-13 feet long with spiny axis and 
numerous tilted narrow long-pointed leaflets or 
segments as much as 2 feet long and only i/4-% 
inch wide; (3) flower clusters 3-5 feet long, with 
spiny stalk and branches bearing small pale yel- 
low stalkless flowers, many crowded male flowei's 
%e inch long, and in lower part of branches a few 
female flowers % inch long; and (4) yellow 
rounded dr\' fruits about 1% inches in diameter, 
containing 1 large edible seed. 

Easily distinguished from the other native 
robust species, palma real {Roystonea hor'mquena 
O. F. Cook), by the spiny trmik, the much 
rounder, denser, and more compact crown com- 
posed of many more leaves, the absence of the 
long columnar green leaf sheaths, and the absence 
of the unopened vertical leaf in the top. 

A medium-sized robust palm becoming 40 feet 
tall. The stout unbranched trunk is cylindrical 
or slightly enlarged above the base to as much as 
20 inches in diameter, tapering above and below. 
The gray trunk has a smooth surface with faint 
horizontal rings of leaf scars about 2-3 inches 
apart but is very spiny, especially in the upper 
part, often shedding some spines below. These 
black spines are 2-3 inches long, sometimes as 
much as 4-6 inches. At the apex the evergreen 
crown is composed of as many as 40 alternate 
leaves, erect, spreading, and drooping. 

The leaf segments are not crowded and arise 
from the axis tilted or at an angle, rather than flat, 
and curve downward. They are leathery, parallel- 
veined, and shiny above and dull blue green be- 
neath. Dead leaves hang down and fall oflp 
smoothly. 

The large drooping flower clusters (panicles) 



Acrocomia media O. F. Cook 

are subtended by 2 hairy, spiny sheaths (spathes), 
the outer 4-5 feet long, long-pointed, curved, and 
shading the axis of flowers, and the inner up to 2 
feet long. Male and female flowers are produced 
on the same branch (monoecious). Branches 4—8 
inches long bear crowded male flowers, which have 
3 small ovate sepals, a 3-lobed corolla, 6 stamens 
at top of corolla tube, and rudimentary pistil. 
Female flowers are scattered, 2-5 on lower part of 
a branch, rounded, with 3 small scalelike sepals, 
3 overlapping petals, and pistil with 3-celled 
ovary and 3 styles. 

The rounded fruit, which changes in color from 
green to yellow at maturity, has a minute point 
at apex, a firmly fibrous husk, and a bony inner 
layer with 3 pores near middle. The single seed 
1 inch long has whitish oily contents and is edible. 
Probably flowering and fruiting nearly through 
the year. 

The very hard wood from the outer part of the 
trunk has attractive black markings and has been 
used for flooring or cut into walking sticks. The 
hard-shelled seeds are edible, with flavor suggest- 
ing coconuts, and yield an oil. They are some- 
times carved into rings. The seed oil of a related 
species is extracted commercially. Tliough this 
palm has been suggested as an ornamental, the 
many spines are objectionable. 

Found in fields and woodlands in the coastal 
forest regions and in the moist limestone region. 
Also in St. Thomas. Introduced in St. Croix. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susiia. 

Range. — Restricted to Puerto Rico and St. 
Thomas. Introduced in St. Croix. 

Other common names. — palma de corozo 
(Puerto Rico) ; Puerto Rico acrocomia (English). 

Formerly included in Acrocomia aculeata 
(Jacq.) Lodd., a related species of the Lesser 
Antilles from Dominica and Martinque to 
Grenada. 



34 




4. Corozo, prickly palm, Puerto Rico acrocomia 

Fruits (lower left) and male flowers (lower right), natural size. 



Acrocomia media O. F. Coolt 



35 



PALM FAMILY (PALMAE) 



5. Palma de coyor 

This slender palm, 1 of the 2 native spiny species, 
is recognized by: (1) numerous slender flattened 
black spines or prickles 1/2-21/2 inches long on the 
slender trunk, the leaf bases and axis and infre- 
quently the under side of blades, and on the axes 
of flower clusters ; (2) about 10-12 erect to spread- 
ing pinnate leaves 10-12 feet long and 3 feet across, 
the leaflets or segments ending in a jagged edge as 
if torn ; (3) many small stalkless pale light yellow 
flowers, male and female, crowded on slender 
drooping branches of a very spiny curved axis 
3^1/2 feet long; and (4) very numerous bright red, 
cherrylike, fleshy fruits 1/2-% inch in diameter. 

A small to medium-sized palm to 40 feet high, 
evergreen, with slender, straight, erect, un- 
branched trunk 4-8 inches in diameter, not taper- 
ing. Only slightly enlarged at the base, which 
bears a mass of spiny prop roots. The light brown 
trunk has indistinct rings of old leaf scars 3 inches 
or less apart and bears rings of many flattened 
black spines 1-2 inches long, pointed downward a 
little. Spines on old trunks often are fewer or 
nearly absent. Inside the hard smooth surface 
of the trunk is a very thin brown layer; next, a 
thin layer of whitisli fibers, then a vei-y hard black 
woody ring 1/4 inch or more in width, and in the 
center the soft whitish pith with scattered woody 
fibers. 

Several alternate very large coarse leaves are at- 
tached 3 inches or less apart in a terminal cluster 
at apex of trunk. The stout spiny petiole about 
4 feet long, gray to green, is grooved above and 
enlarged at base, being attaclied more than half- 
way around the tnnik, but has no encircling sheath. 
The blade, about 7-8 feet long, is composed of 
many narrow leaflets or segments 2-21^ feet long 
and 21/^-31/2 inches wide, narrowest at base and 
widest at end. These alternate segments spread 
nearly horizontally on both sides of the keeled 
green axis. Toward apex the segments become 
shorter and in about the last 1 foot of blade are in 
1 piece not split apart. They ai-e leathery, paral- 
lel-veined, green and slightly shiny on upper sur- 
face and dull light green beneath. Slender flat- 



Aiphanes acanthophylla (Mart.) Burret 

tened black spines about 1 inch long are scattered 
along lower part of leaf axis, and a few are borne 
on under side of segments. Old dead leaves hang 
down vertically until they separate smoothly from 
the ti-mik. 

Curved drooping flower clusters (panicles) are 
3-41/2 feet long, borne singly inside base of old 
leaves. The densely spiny axis has 2 brownish 
spiny sheaths (spathes), the short outer one less 
than 1 foot long and 2-pointed, and the inner one 
long and narrow and very spiny, about as long as 
the axis and 21/4 inches wide. Many vei"y slender 
drooping branches about 9 inches long, light yel- 
low ancl spineless, bear very numerous stalkless 
light yellow or whitish male and female flowers 
(monoecious) ; the female flowers scattered along 
lower part of branch, 1 below 2 male flowers. 
Male flowers V^ inch across consist of 3 minute 
pointed sepals, 3 widely spreading pointed light 
yellow petals more than i/g inch long, fi widely 
.spreading light yellow stamens nearly as long as 
l^etals, and rudimentary pistil. Female flowers 
have 3 minute sepals, corolla with 3 pointed light 
yellow lobes Vs inch long, and whitish pistil less 
"than i/s inch long with 3-celled ovary and pointed 
style. 

Fruits are produced m great quantities, several 
on the lower part of each branch of the axis. They 
are slightly broader than long, whitish green when 
immature, turning to shiny bright red. The thin 
orange flesh is mealy and tasteless. The single 
brown seed is rounded, about Vie inch in diameter, 
its surface much pitted. Inside the hard shell is a 
white edible oily nutmeat, suggesting coconut in 
taste thouffh much smaller. Flowering and fruit- 
ing probably through the year. 

Found in the moist limestone forests of Puerto 
Rico. 

PuuLic FORESTS. — Cambalaclie, Rio Abajo. 

Range. — Known only from Puerto Rico. 

Other common names.^ — coyore, coyure, coyora 
(Puerto Rico) ; coyure ruffle-palm (English). 

Botanical synonym. — Bactris acanthophylla 
Mart. 



36 




5. PaLina de coyor 



Aiphanes acanthophyUa (Mart.) Burret 

Flowers (lower left) and fruits (lower right), natural size. 

37 



PALM FAMILY (PALMAE) 



6. Palma de coco, coconut 

Coconut, the graceful palm lining tropical 
shores and widely planted for fruit and ornament, 
is so well known that it has become a symbol of the 
tropics. Descriptive features are: (1) the slender 
often leaning trunk, enlarged at base, ringed above 
and 8-12 inches in diameter; (2) many pinnate 
leaves 12-20 feet long with basal sheath of coarse 
brown fibers, long petiole, and numerous very nar- 
row sliiny yellow-green segments spreading regu- 
larly in 1 plane on both sides of axis; (3) numer- 
ous whitish or pale yellow male and female flowers 
in bi'anched flower clusters at leaf bases; and 
(4) fiiiit the familiar coconut, egg-shaped or 
elliptic, consisting of a light brown fibrous husk 
8-12 inches long, a hard shell, and 1 vei-y large 
hollow seed with whitish, oily, edible flesh. 

Medium-sized palm, usually 30-60 feet high, 
sometimes taller. The slender trunk is enlarged 
to 16-20 inches in diameter at base, often slightly 
inclined there, and may be leaning as a result of 
the constant coastal breeze or after partial uproot- 
ing by a hurricane. The gray or brown trmik is 
slightly cracked. At apex is the relatively broad 
evergreen crown of alternate, erect, spreading, ajid 
drooping leaves. 

The basal sheath is nearly 2 feet high on sides of 
petiole, surrounds the axis, and breaks as the 
younger leaves expand. The stout yellowish 
slightly concave petiole is 3-5 feet long, and the 
blade 9-15 feet long and 3-5 feet wide. The lin- 
ear leaflets or segments are 2-3i/o feet long and 2 
inches wide, shorter toward apex, long-pointed, 
leathery, parallel-veined, shiny yellow green 
above, and dull light green beneath. The lowest, 
dead leaves hang down against the tnmk, eventu- 
ally shedding and forming a smooth ring scar. 

Flower clusters (panicles) 3-4 feet long rise 
from 2 long, narrow, long-pointed sheaths 
(spathes), the inner about 4 feet long, and bear 
many slightly fragrant stalkless flowers. A 
branch about 1 foot long has numerous small male 
flowers and near the base 1 much larger female 
flower, which opens later (monoecious). Male 
flowers %-iA inch long and broad have 3 small, 
pointed, whitish sepals % inch long, 3 oblong 
petals nearly i/^ inch long, 6 widely spreading sta- 
mens, and sterile pistil with 3 styles. Female 
flowers about I14 inch long and broad, rounded or 
3-angled, have 2 broad scales at base, 3 broad 
round sepals %-l inch long, 3 rounded whitish or 
light yellow rounded petals 1-11/4 inches long, and 
light green pistil II/4 inches long with 3-celled 
ovary and 3 minute stigmas. 

The coconut has a bluntly 3-angled husk %-li/^ 
inches thick, which does not split open. The ellip- 
tic or nearly round inner brown fruit with 3 round 
spots near one end is essentially a seed covered 
with the hairy hard outer shell. Inside is a 



Cocos nucifera L.* 

slightly sweet oily layer of stored food % inch 
tliick and a large central cavity containing a 
watery or milky liquid. This is one of the largest 
seeds known, surpassed only by the 1-seeded 
2-lobed fruit weighing up to 50 pounds of the 
double-coconut {Lodoicea rnaMivIca), a tall fan 
palm of Seychelles in the Indian Ocean. Flower- 
ing and fruiting continuously through the year. 

Ranking among the 10 most useful tree species 
to mankind in the world, coconut is the most im- 
portant of cultivated palms. The fruits are eaten 
raw, prejjared into candies, or shredded with pas- 
tries. When immature, the soft jellylike flesh can 
be eaten with a spoon. The watery liquid of green 
fruits and the milky juice of mature ones are pure, 
nutritious, cool, and refreshing drinks. Known 
as cocos de agua, these green fruits are sold on 
city streets. Under tlie name copra the dried 
wliite oily ]>art of ripe fruits is marketed in large 
quantities for the manufacture of soaps and coco- 
nut oil, tlie latter for preparing margarine and 
other foods and for cooking. Classed also as a 
honey plant. The sugary sap collected from cut 
unopened flower clusters is a fresh beverage 
Imown as toddy and a source of alcohol. 

The trunks serve for posts. Walking sticks 
have been made from the outer layer or ring of 
the trunk. The inner part is a very soft, light 
brown pith with scattered reddish-brown bundles. 

The leaves furnish thatch for roofs and shelters 
and liave been made into lattice screens and fences. 
Various articles, such as novelties, souvenirs, cups, 
and flower pots, are made from the husks and 
.shells. The shells have also been used for kitchen 
implements and for high-grade charcoal. In 
other regions of the world different parts of the 
plant serve many purposes. Coconut fiber, or 
coir, is made into mats, ropes, brooms, and 
brushes. 

Certainly coconuts are among the most impor- 
tant trees of Puerto Rico, with plantations or 
orcliards totaling nearly 10,000 acres, mostly along 
the sandy shores of the island and especially on 
the northern coast. The trees thrive also in the 
interior where soil moisture is ample and are 
hardy in dry climates if irrigated. In plantings 
for ornament the falling coconuts may be danger- 
ous. 

Commonly growing wild along sandy shores 
and planted as a fruit, ornamental, and shade tree 
near houses and along streets. Also in Mona, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Range. — Native land unknown but thought to 
be in Malayan or Indo-Facific region. Now thor- 
oughly naturalized on tropical shores of the world. 
Naturalized in southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, through West Indies, and from Mexico to 
South America. 



38 








6. Palma de coco, coconut 



68T-921 0—64 4 






Male flowers and one fennale flower (lower left), two-thirds natural size. 



Cocos nucifera L. 

39 



This palm has been cultivated so long, so widely 
disseminated l)y mankind, and so well naturalized 
on tropical shores that its origin is lost in an- 
tiquity. One belief, now discredited, was that its 
home was American. Columbus did not find it, 
and most early Spanish writers in the New World 
did not mention it. Nevertheless, within a cen- 
tury after Columbus this valuable palm an-ived in 
Puerto Rico. Joseph de Acosta (1539-1600), a 
Jesuit missionary in Peru from 1571 to 1587, in 
his book "Natural History of the Indies," pub- 
lished in 1590 after his return to Sjiain, stated that 
he saw a coconut growing in Puerto Eico. An- 
other Spanish traveler in Puerto Rico in 1599 



mentioned the milk of coconut as "cosmetic for the 
ladies." In some of the Antilles, however, the 
coconut apparently was not known until the fol- 
lowing century. As early as 1526, Oviedo men- 
tioned large stands, apparently native, on the 
Pacific coast at Burica Point, Costa Rica and 
Panama. 

Other common names. — coco, cocotero (Puerto 
Rico) ; palma de coco, palmera de coco, coco, 
cocotero, coco de agua (Spanish) ; coconut, coco- 
nut-palm (United States, English) ; coco, noix de 
coco, cocotier (French) ; coco, cocos, cocospalm, 
klapperboom (^ Dutch West Indies) ; coco da 
Bahia, coqueiro de Bahia, coco da India (Brazil). 



PALM FAMILY (PALMAE) 



7. Palma de sierra, sierra palm 

Palma de sierra, as its name indicates, is the 
pretty palm which forms the palm forests along 
upland streams on steep slopes and ridges of the 
higher peaks of Puerto Rico. It is characterized 
by: (1) the cylindrical slender erect trunk 4—8 
inches in diameter; (2) several pinnate leaves with 
sheaths about 114 feet long at base and blades 
about 6 feet long and 3-5 feet across with long 
narrow segments inserted horizontally on both 
sides of axis and not overlapping; (3) numerous 
small white male and female flowers in a once- 
branched, drooping, white stalked cluster 3 feet or 
less in leng-th. attached below the leaves; and (4) 
round shiny black fruits t^ inch in diameter and 
slightly fleshy. Prop roots covered with tubercles 
often are present at base. 

Small to medium-sized palm to 50 feet tall with 
slender tnmk of uniform diameter and thin nar- 
row evergreen crown of several alternate spread- 
ing leaves. The smooth gray or light brown trunk 
has horizontal rings. 

The green leaf sheaths clasp the trunk at base. 
The blade has numerous narrow linear leaflets or 
segments 20-36 inches long and 11/4-2 inches wide, 
long-pointed, leathery, parallel-veined, green to 
light green on both sides, spreading horizontally 
and at equal distances on both sides of axis. At 
apex the segments are shortened. A few dead 
leaves may hang down for a time before shedding 
and forming a smooth ring scar around the trunk. 
One to 4 new leaves are produced per year. 

The narrow flower cluster (panicle) about 3 feet 
long is borne Ijelow the leaves. By the time fruits 
mature the oldest leaves above have sJied, and the 
attachment of fruit cluster is 6 inches or more 
below base of lowest leaf sheath. There are 2 
spindle-sliaped long-pointed sheaths (spathes), 
the outer short and the inner long. The white 
branches of the axis are mostly less than 1 foot 
long, spreading out at right angles and afterwards 
nearly parallel with axis. The small white stalk- 
less flowers are male and female together (mono- 



Euterpe globosa Gaertn. 

ecious). Male flowers have 3 overlapping broad 
sepals, 3 oblong white petals about Yia "ich long 
meeting at edges in bud, 6 stamens with yellowish 
antliers, and a rudimentary pistil. Female flowers 
have 3 overlapping blunt sepals, 3 overlapping 
rounded white petals about ^ie inch long, and an 
oblong ovary. 

The fruit has a thin flesh and 1 brown rounded 
seed %f, inch long. Sepals and petals remain at- 
tached after fruits fall. In flower and fruit nearly 
all the year. 

In the higlier mountains, where this is the only 
native palm, tlie leaves or the leaf sheaths, called 
yaguas, are used for thatch. The outer stemwood 
is sometimes hewn into nari-ow boards for sheath- 
ing of rural buildings. A portion of the bud of 
this palm, known as palmillo, can be eaten as a 
salad. However, removal of the bud kills the tree. 
The edible part consists of the young inner leaf 
sheaths which form a white cylinder 2-3 feet long 
and 3— t inches in diameter. These white leaf 
bases, though tender, are almost tasteless as a salad 
unless seasoned. Except as a novelty for tourists, 
the palm bud is doubtfully preferable to cabbage. 
The fruits are an important food for the Puerto 
Rican pan-ot. 

In general these palms of the steep mountain 
slopes are beneficial in maintaining protective 
cover for the watershed and in preventing soil 
erosion. This species is now so little utilized, and 
its growth rate so slow (less than 12 inches in 
height per year), that it is being gradually re- 
placed by other more useful species in the public 
forests. It may be suitable for ornamental 
planting. 

Common to abundant and forming pure forests 
in the upper mountain forest region of Puerto 
Rico, descending in ravines into the lower moun- 
tain forests to about 1,500 feet. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Rio Abajo, Toro Negro. 



40 




7. Palma de sierra, sierra palm 



Fruits (lower right), natural size. 



Euterpe globosa Gaertn. 

41 



MuNICIPALinES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. — 

1, 5, 10, 13, 17, 19, 22, 27, 35, 36, 45, 52, 53, 54, 55, 
62, 64, 70, 73. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Lesser 
Antilles from Saba to Grenada, and Tobago. 

Other common names. — manacla, palma de 



manacla (Dominican Republic) ; palma boba, 
palma justa (Cuba) ; palmiste a chapelet, macou- 
touca (Haiti) ; palmiste-montagne (Guadeloupe, 
Dominica) ; palmiste franc, chou-palmiste, palm- 
iste lilaiic (Guadeloupe) ; mountain-palm (Lesser 
Antilles). 



PALM FAMILY (PALMAE) 



8. Palma de lluvia 



A graceful tall palm of rugged summits of lime- 
stone hills, distinguished by: (1) the slender, 
slightly tapering, smooth brown trunk with many 
prop roots at base; (2) 5-7 erect to spreading pin- 
nate leaves 4-6 feet long, with green sheatli 8-12 
inches long around trunk, and blade 2-21,2 feet 
across the many narrow long-pointed leaflets, 
which depart from the keeled axis at a small angle, 
apparently in 2 rows on each side, erect and 
sjjreading; (3) small stalkless orange and green 
male and female flowers scattered along slender 
branches of a curved axis about 3 feet long; and 
(4) numerous bright red or orange-red fleshy 
fruits almost % inch long, nearly round or sliglitly 
l^ear-shaped. 

A slender palm to 40 feet in lieight, sometimes 
taller, with tapering unbranched trunk often 
slightly leaning, 6-8 inches in diameter at base and 
only 3 inches in diameter at apex, evergreen. At 
the base of the trunk u]") to a height of 2 feet are 
light brown pro]) roots about li^ inches in diame- 
ter, bearing numerous short s]iinelike jirojections. 
The smooth brown trunk is ringed, with faint leaf 
scars 3 inches or less apart. It is relatively soft, 
composed of a very thin brown outer layer, a thin 
fibrous whitisli layer which is slightly bitter, an 
orange-brown woody ring aliout lA inch wide, and 
soft whitish jiith with scattered woody strands. 

The rather few large coarse leaves are alternate, 
their bases overlapping at intervals of 3 inches or 
less in a narrow terminal cluster at stem apex. At 
base of leaf are the green sheath opened on 1 side 
and a curved stout grooved petiole IV2 feet or less 
in length. The crowded, overlapping, narrow 
leaflets or segments are about 12-20 inches long 
and l-l^/i inches wide, becoming shorter toward 
apex, leathei-y, parallel-veined, green, and slightly 



Gaussia attenuata (O. F. Cook) Beccari 

shiny on both sides, attached obliquely to the green 
axis. After turning brown and sliedding the leaf- 
lets, the axis with leaf base falls, making a smooth 
scar. 

Many small flowers are borne stalkless and scat- 
tered along slender drooping green branches about 
6 inches long of the curved and drooping branclied 
cluster (panicle) arising inside sheath of older 
leaves. Female flowers about %6 inch across have 
3 minute broad sepals, 3 fleshy orange spreading 
petals more than Vm inch long, 6 minute whitish 
sterile stamens (staminodes), and pistil composed 
of green 3-angled 3-celled ovary more than \\^ 
incli long and broad, witli 3 stigmas at apex. Male 
flowers maturing earlier in the same flower clus- 
ter (monoecious) are slightly larger, with 3 sepals, 
3 petals less than 2 mm. long, 6 stamens nearly 2 
nun. long, and rudimentary pistil. 

Fruits change color from green to yellow, 
orange, and red at maturity. The single rounded 
brown seed is Vm inch or less in length. Flowering 
and fruiting jM-obably through the year, at least 
in l)oth Jiuie and December. 

Perhaps of value as an ornamental. 

This species is common on the rocky summits 
and clitl's of the moist limestone region and in the 
hills between San German and Lajas. As these 
palms are taller than other trees of the jagged hill- 
tops, clusters of palm leaves often rise above the 
forest canopy, conspicuous against the sky. From 
a distance the leaves appear suspended in midair, 
since the slender trunk is scarcely visible. 

Public forest. — Cambalache. 

Range. — Endemic to Puerto Rico. 

Other cojimon name. — Puerto Rico Hume- 
palm (English). 



42 




8. Palma de lliivia 



Gaussia attenuata (O. F. Cook) Beccari 

Female flowers (left) and fruits (right), two-thirds natural size. 

43 



PALM FAMILY (PALMAE) 



9. Palma real, royalpalm, Puerto Rico royalpalm 



Roystonea borinquena O. F. Cook 



Puerto Rico royalpalm or palma real is one of 
Puerto Rico's most characteristic trees, being a 
conspicuous feature of the countrysides and land- 
scapes and equally at home along city streets. 
Known to all, it is characterized by: (1) the stout 
erect trunk 1-2 feet in diameter, sliglitly enlarged 
and bulging at some distance above the base; (2) 
a light green narrow column of leaf sheaths about 
4 feet high at apex of trunk; (3) large pinnate 
leaves witli short petiole above sheatli and blade 
8-12 feet long composed of many narrow paired 
segments, and the unfolded youngest leaf project- 
ing as a narrow spire above the others; (4) small 
whitish flowers, male and female, borne in a spread- 
ing to drooping twice-branclied cluster 3-5 feet 
long below the leaves; and (5) light brown, ellip- 
tic, slightly fleshy fruits about I/2 i'lch long. 

This large robust palm becomes 30-60 feet tall. 
The gray smoothish trunk usually has a broad 
base, then is sliglitly narrowed aJid swollen for 
some distance above, and in tall specimens nar- 
rowed again toward the apex. There are faint 
rings of leaf scars at nodes. The evergreen crown 
is composed of 15 or fewer long, gracefully curved, 
spreading alternate leaves. The unfolded young- 
est leaf usually leans slightly toward the east, the 
direction of the prevailing wind, and thus serves 
to indicate the directions. 

The leaf blade has numerous leaflets or segments 
20-36 inches long and only %-l% inches wide, 
long-pointed, leathery, parallel-veined, green, in- 
serted on both sides of axis obliquely by 2's and in 
2 rows on each side, and usually curving downward 
rather than flat. Upon dying, the oldest leaf falls 
oft' promptly, separating smoothly from the trunk 
at base of .sheath. 

The flower cluster (panicle) arises below the leaf 
sheaths from a very large narrow bud formed by 
a dark brown boat-shaped sheath (spathe) 3-5 
feet long. Lateral branches 6-12 inches long from 
main branches 3 feet or more in length bear many 
stalkless flowers, male flowers opening and falling 
first, and toward base the female flower buds, gen- 
erally 1 between 2 male flowers (monoecious). 
Male flowers more than i/i inch high and nearly I/2 
inch across consist of 3 minute rounded whitish 
sepals less than \\q inch long, 3 blunt-pointed 
whitish petals 1,4 inch long, 6-9 spreading stamens 
with purple anthers, and rudimentary pistil. The 
smaller female flowers Vs inch long and broad 
have 3 broad whitish sepals less than i/jg inch long; 



tubular corolla % inch long with 3 pointed lobes 
and bearing 6 short sterile stamens (staminodes) 
inside; and pistil of yellow-green rounded ovary 
witli 3 short styles and stigmas on 1 side. 

The numerous fruits contain 1 light brown ellip- 
tic seed -yifi inch long, hard but oily. Flowering 
and fi'uiting perliaps through the year. 

Palma real is a stately ornamental widely 
planted to beautify streets, parks, and gardens 
throughout Puerto Rico. Boards hewn from the 
harder outer part of the trunks are widely used 
for siding and flooring in rural construction. 
However, they are very susceptible to attack by 
dry-wood termites. The leaves are also used fre- 
(luently in construction, less now than formerly. 
Fresh leaves are widely displayed locally f<n- re- 
ligious services on Palm Sunday. The dry blades 
serve as thatch for roofs of barns and houses, and 
the broad sheaths, known as yaguas, are spread 
out flat to make sides of buildings. The twisted 
young leaf segments are woven into chair seats 
and backs. An important honey plant, the flowers 
attract numerous bees. The fruits are a good food 
for hogs. 

Palma I'eal is connnon in forests, pastures, and 
river banks almost throughout the island from the 
wet north flank of El Yunque to the coa.stal man- 
groves and the dry valleys near Guanica. It is 
found in all but the upper mountains and the dry 
limestone regions. These palms probably have 
become more common following settlement, 
spreading in clearings, pastures, old fields, and 
fence rows. Also in \'ieques and St. Croix. 

PiniJc FOi{?:sTs. — Aguirre, Cambalache, Carite, 
(ruajataca, (luanica, Luqnillo, Maricao, San Juan, 
Susua, Vega. 

Range. — Restricted to Puerto Rico, Vieques, 
and St. Croix. Introduced at Mona. 

Other cojimon n.ames. — palma de yaguas, 
palma de costa (Puerto Rico) ; mountain-cabbage 
(St. Croix) ; Puerto Rico royalpalm, royalpalm 
(English). 

The generic name honors General Roy Stone 
(1835-1905), United States Army Engineer, who 
rendered outstanding service to Puerto Rico at 
the time of the Spanish- American War. Cuban 
royalpalm (Roi/sfonea regia (H. B. K.) O. F. 
Cook*), a related species from Cuba with tall 
trunk not swollen, has been planted also in Puerto 
Rico and the Virgin Islands and may have es- 
caped locally. 



U 




n. Palma real, royalpalm, Puerto Rico royalpahu Roystonea borinquena O. F. Cook 

Fruits (lower left) and male and female flowers (lower right), two-thirds natural size. 



45 



PALM FAMILY (PALMAE) 



10. Palma de sombrero, Puerto Rico palmetto 

Palma de sombrero is the only wild Puerto 
Rican palm with both fan-shaped leaves nnd a 
stout trunk. Its main distin,<ruishinsi: characters 
are: (1) the stout trunk 1-2 feet in diameter, with 
the split bases of old j)etioles hanging down against 
it; (2) large fan-shaped leaves witii very long 
petioles 3-8 feet long and pleated fan-shaped blue- 
green blades 3-6 feet in diameter, with a definite 
midrib curved downward slightly, deeply split 
from margin to middle into narrow segments al- 
ternating with threadlike fibers in notches; (3) 
many small whitish flowers %6 i'^fh long in slen- 
der, much branched, spreading clusters at leaf 
bases longer than petioles or sometimes exceeding 
the blades; and (4) rounded brown fruits %-V2 
inch in diameter and slightly fleshy. 

Small to medium-sized tree to 30 feet tall with 
stout unbranched smoothish trunk 11/2-21/2 feet 
thick at base and 1-2 feet in diameter, columnar or 
slightly tapering upward, and broad evergreen 
crown of many alternate spreading leaves. The 
trunk is light gray, smoothish or narrowly cracked, 
with rings and often with a few holes. 

The stout blue-green petiole, as long as the blade 
or longer, has a coarse brown basal sheath encir- 
cling the a.xis and later splitting apart. Concave 
above and decreasing in width above base from G 
to 2 inches, the petiole is prolonged as an axis or 
midrib (rachis) nearly half the length of the fan- 
shaped or palmately lobed blade. Segments of the 
blade are 1 14-214 inches wide and as much as 4 
feet long, stifi' and leathery, parallel-veined, dull 
blue green on both sides, each split into 2 long 
pointed strips, with a slender fiber or thread aris- 
ing from each notch. 

The flower clusters (panicles) are up to 8-10 
feet long. There are numerous brown sheaths 



Sabal causiarum (O. F. Cook) Beccari 

(spathes) 11,4-21/4 inches long,each bearing a small 
lateral cluster (panicle) 8 inches or less in length. 
The fi-agrant white stalkless flowers have a white 
3-toothed tul)ular calyx \x6 inch long, 3 naiTOW 
white petals more than % inch long, 6 spreading 
white stamens less than ^/^g inch long, united at 
base, and a narrow whitish pistil moi-e than i/g 
inch long with short 3-celled ovary and stout .style. 

The nmnerous smooth fruits (drupes) have thin 
flesh and 1 rounded lirown .seed % inch or less in 
diameter. Flowering and fruiting perhaps irregu- 
larly during the year. 

As the common names suggest, Puerto Rican 
st-aw hats are made from the young leaves of this 
]jalni, after curing, bleaching, and di-ying. The 
leaf fillers are employed also for baskets, mats, 
and luunmocks. The older leaves serve as thatch. 
Occasionally planted near homes for the leaves 
and for ornament. 

Found on coastal plains of northern, western, 
and southwestern Puerto Rico. Formerly grow- 
ing in groves on the plateau near Punta Borin- 
(juen in the extreme northwest. 

Raxok. — Apparently native only of Puerto 
Rico. 

Othkr comjion names. — palma de abanico, 
palma de cogollo, yarey (Puerto Rico) ; Puerto 
Rico hat-palm (English). 

Bermuda palmetto or bulltyre (Sahal bermu- 
ilana Bailey;* formerly referred to *S'. blackburni- 
anum Glazebrook), native of Bermuda, has been 
introduced on St. Croix and St. Thomas. It is dis- 
tinguished by the leaves, which are green rather 
than blue green, and by slightly larger blackish 
fruits about % inch in diameter. The leaves are 
used for the same purposes. 



46 




10. Palma de sombrero. Puerto Rico palmetto 



i<nl)aj rau^iarum (O. F. Cook) Beccari 



Flowers (lower left) and fruits (lower right), natural size. 



47 



CASUARINA FAMILY (CASUARINACEAE*) 
11. Casuarina, Australian beefwood, horsetail casuarina Casuarina equisetifoUa L.* 



A tiill sk^mler introduced tree witli a tliin crown, 
characterized by: (1) wiry, droopinjj;, dark (jreen, 
needle) ike twiji's about 1/32 i"*"!^ i'l diameter, jointed 
and grooved, with rings of minute grayish scale 
leaves about 1/4-% i"ch apart ; (-2) numerous small 
male and female flowers crowded in inconspicuous 
light brown clusters on the same tree (monoeci- 
ous), the male flowers in narrow cylindrical ter- 
minal clusters %-% inch long and as much as 
1/8 inch across the stamens, and female flowers in 
short-stalked lateral ball-like clusters less than i/g 
inch in diameter or Yie "i^'h across the spreading 
dark red styles; and (3) fruit a light brown 
warty conelike ball \'2 A i^i^li i» diameter. 

A rapidly growing medium-sized evergreen 
tree to 100 feet tall and l-iy2 feet in trunk diam- 
eter. The bark is light gray brown, smoothish on 
small trunks, becoming rough, furrowed and 
shaggy, and splitting into thin stri]is and flakes 
exposing a reddish-brown layer. Inner bark is 
reddish and bitter or astringent. The wiry droojv 
ing twigs !)-liS inches long are dark gi'een, becom- 
ing paler, and the older twigs gray brown and 
scaly. 

Leaves are less than V3., inch long, 6-8 in a 
ring (whorled) at a joint or node. The twigs 
remain green and function like leaves in food 
making and are shed gradually like leaves. 

Minute male flowers, crowded in rings among 
the grayish scales, consist of a protruding brown- 
ish stamen less than % inch long with 2 minute 
brown sepal scales at base. Female flowers lack 
sepals but have a pistil about ?i6 inch long with 
small ovary and threadlike dark red style. 

The nndtiple fruit, gray green when immature, 
is composed of points less than Vg inch long and 
broad, each developing from a flower. An indi- 
vidual fruit has 2 pointed scales that s]Dlit apart 
at maturity and release 1 winged light brown seed 
(akene) about I/4 inch long (300,000 per pound). 
Flowering and fruiting through the year. 

The sapwood is pinkish to light brown, the 
heartwood dark brown. The fine-textured wood is 
very hard, heav_y (specific gravity 0.81), and very 
susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. It is 
strong, tough, difficult to saw, but cracks and S]5lits, 
and is not durable in the ground. Rate of air- 
seasoning is moderate, and amount of degrade is 
considerable. Machining characteristics are as 
follows: planing and turning ai-e fair; and shap- 
ing, boring, mortising, sanding, and resistance to 



screw splitting are good. The wood is used in 
the round. Uses include fenceposts and poles, 
beams but not underground, oxcart tongues, char- 
coal and fuel. 

Elsewhere the bark has been employed in tan- 
ning, in medicine, and in the extraction of a red 
or blue-black dye. In southern Florida the fruits 
have been made into novelties and Christmas 
decorations. 

Often propagated by cuttings for street, park, 
ornamental, and windbi'eak plantings, it can also 
be trimmed into hedges. It is used for reforesta- 
tion because of its adaptability to degraded sites 
and lapid giowth. Natural regeneration is rare 
in Puerto Rico because ants consume nearly all 
the seeds, but in some tropical areas the plants 
spread rapidly. On protected sandy seacoasts, 
where this tree is best adapted in this region, di- 
ameter growth rates of 1 inch per year are not 
micommon. Because some trees have been de- 
stroyed by disease in Puerto Rico within recent 
years, plauting for shade or ornament may not te 
desirable. 

Planted in Puerto Rico, especially along the 
coa-sts and less commonly in the lower mountain 
regions. Also in Mona, St. Croix, St. Thomas, 
and St. John. 

R.\NGE. — Xative of tropical Asia and Austra- 
lasia but planted and naturalized in various tropi- 
cal and subtropical regions. Southern Florida 
including Florida Keys, Bermuda, through West 
Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad, and 
from Mexico to South America. 

Other common names. — pino australiano, pino 
de Australia, pino (Puerto Rico) ; weeping willow 
(Virgin Islands) ; pino, pino de Australia (Span- 
ish) ; cipres (Cuba, Mexico) ; sauce (Nicaragua) ; 
horsetail casuarina, beefwood, horsetail beefwood, 
horsetail-tree, Australian-pine (United States) : 
beefwood (Bahamas) ; casuarina, whistling-pine 
(Trinidad and Tobago) ; Christmas-tree (British 
Guiana); pin d"Au.stralie (Haiti); filao (French 
West Indies) ; casuarine (Dutch West Indies) : 
cazuarina (Brazil). 

Casuarina is not related to the true pines, which 
are not native in Puerto Rico. The common name 
pino, of course, is descriptive of the wiry green 
twigs, which resemble the needle leaves of pines. 
A few related species introduced from Australia 
are being tested experimentally in forest planta- 
tions. 



48 



Vn 



\ ^ \ \ \ \/ / / 
. X \ \ \ V\./ / 




w 



k 



'/ \ 



w \\\ \\\ vV'\\V\V\\\ \\ 
\V'>i \\\\ \\\\\\\N \ 

V\\ - ^^'\^' \\'A\ ''<^' ' 



\ 



\ 






\ 



11. Casuarina, Australian beefwood, horsetail casuarina 

Two-thirds natural size. 



Casuarina eguisetifoUa L. 



49 



PEPPER FAMILY (PIPERACEAE) 



12. Higuillo 

This almiulant small tree or shrub is easily rec- 
ognized by : (1) the yellow-green, slightly zigzag, 
finely hairy twigs with enlarged, ringed joints 
(nodes) ; (2) the narrowly elliptic, long-pointed, 
yellow-green leaves, unequal at base, slightly 
rough above, with long, slightly curved lateral 
veins, and aromatic or spicy when crushed: (3) 
the tiny flowers and fruits crowded in cordlike, 
curved, lateral axes 3-4 inches long and about Vs 
inch in diameter; and (4) the jieppery taste and 
odor of leaves, fruits, and seeds. 

An evergreen tree to '20 feet in height and 4 
inches in trunk diameter, often branching at or 
near base and with a spreading crown. The bark 
is smooth and gray. Inner bark is whitish and 
peppery or slightly bitter. 

The leaves are alternate, sometimes in 2 rows, 
with short ]ietioles Vs-Vt inch long. Leaf blades 
are 5-7 inches long and 1V2^3 inches bi'oad, the 
base rounded and about Vs inch longer on 1 side, 
the edges not toothed, thin, the lower surface pale 
and soft hairy. Under a lens, minute lighter dots 
are visible in the leaves when held against the 
light. 

The cordlike, curved flower clusters (spikes) 
are borne singly opposite a leaf, yellowish but 
turning to gray green in fruit. The very numer- 
ous flowei-s, each less than I/32 inch long, consist of 
4 stamens, pistil with 1-celled ovary and 3 stigmas, 
and 1 scale (bract). The fruits (drupes) are pale 
green, somewhat more than I/32 inch long, slightly 



Piper aduncum L. 

juicy, and contain 1 brown or black seed y^^ inch 
long. Flowering and fruiting throughout the 

The sapwood is wdiitish and hard and is little 
used, although larger trunks sometimes have been 
placed in the framework of country homes. Else- 
where the leaves, fiowei's, and roots have been em- 
])li)yed in home medicines and the peppery fruits 
in seasoning food. 

In forest openings, roadsides, pastures and aban- 
doned fields, often forming pure thickets in the 
uu)ist coast, moist limestone, and lower and upper 
motmtain regions of Puerto Kico. Also in Vieques. 

Public fokests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, 
Susiia, Toro Negi-o. 

Raxoe. — Greater Antilles, St. Vincent, Gre- 
nada, Barbados, and Trinidad and Tobago. Also 
from central Mexico to Peru and Brazil. 

Other common names. — higuillo hoja menuchi 
(Puerto Rico) ; cordoncillo (Spanish) ; anisillo, 
guayuyo, guayuyo bianco (Dominican Republic) ; 
platinillo de Cuba, canilla de muerte (Cuba) ; cor- 
doncillo bianco, biritac (Guatemala) ; cordoncillo 
bianco (Nicaragua) ; Spanish elder, Spanish ella, 
elder, ells, cows-foot (British Honduras) : sureau 
(Haiti) ; aperta ruao, matico falso (Brazil). 

Besides this species of small tree size, 8 shrubby 
species of this large tropical genus are recorded 
from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 



50 




12. Higuillo 



Natural size. 



Piper adtDicum 1j. 

51 



CHLORANTHUS FAMILY (CHLORANTHACEAE) 



13. Azafran 

This distinctive small tree or shrub of the east- 
ern mountains of Puerto Rico is readily identified 
l)y the following characters: (1) the leaves, twigs, 
and other parts are pleasantly fragrant when 
crushed; (-2) the opposite, elliptic, slightly fleshy, 
dark green leaves have finely saw-toothed edges, 
and the petioles of a pair are united at base into 
an enlarged sheath %-V2 i"ch long around twig; 
(3) stalkless small green flowers less than Vs '"ch 
long, male and female on ditierent trees (dioe- 
cious), the male flowers crowded in narrow clus- 
ters and the female flowers in groups of 2 or 3 sur- 
rounded by 3 scales along an axis; and (4) whitish 
watery fruits about % inch in diameter, with 3 
fleshy scales on outside. 

An evergreen tree to 20 feet high and 4 inches in 
trunk diameter or shrubby. The bark is brown, 
smoothish and thin, often covered with mosses and 
liverworts. Inner bark is light brown or pinkish, 
and with sjncy or bitter taste. The dark green 
fleshy twigs have enlarged ringed nodes and large 
pith and are brittle. 

Petioles are i/4-% inch long, the leaf blades 
13/4-5 inches long and %-2 inches broad, short- 
pointed at both ends, with the edges slightly 
turned under. 



Hedyosmum arborescens Sw. 

I'lower clusters are terminal and lateral. Male 
flowers are in a stalked cylindrical cluster (spike) 
34-1% inches long and Vie iuch or more in diame- 
ter, each flower consisting merely of 1 stamen less 
than i/g inch long and without calyx. The axis 
(spike) of female flowers is 1-2 inches long, the 
flowers composed of 3-angled inferior ovary less 
than i/g inch long covered by gre«n tubular base 
( hypanthium ) and bearing minute 3-toothed calyx 
at apex. 

Tlie fruits are composed mainly of the enlarged 
fleshy scales, enclosing 2 or 3 individual 3-angled 
fruits (drupelike) about Vg inch long, each from 
a separate flower and containing 1 brown seed. 
Flowering and fruiting nearly through the year. 

The light brown sapwood is hard and is not 
used. 

In openings in the forests in the upjier Luquillo 
and eastern upper Cordillera regions of Puerto 
Rico, ascending to near the summits of the peaks. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo. 

Range. — Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and Lesser 
Antilles from St. Kitts to St. Vincent. 

Otjier common names. — bois fragile, bois de 
I'eau, bois senti (Guadeloupe). 



52 




13. AzafrSn 



'Si 





1 



^' 



/ 



/_yL. 



\~\\ 



\ \ 



^v^ 



ncdynsnuiin arhorcxcrns Sw. 



Two-thirds natural size. 



53 



WILLOW FAMILY (SALICACEAE*) 



14. Sauce, Humboldt willow 

An exotic oniamental tree easily recoornized bj- : 
( 1 ) the very narrow columnar crown witli straight 
axis; (2) nearly erect branches; (3) slender yel- 
low-green twigs; and (4) the very narrow (lin- 
ear) , long-pointed, finely saw-toothed leaves. Ap- 
parently this species does not flower in Puerto 
Rico. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree attain- 
ing 20-60 feet in height and 8 inches in trunk 
diameter. The gray bark is rough and furrowed. 
Inner bark is pinkish and slightly liitter. The 
twigs are sometimes pinkish tinged. 

The alternate leaves have short slender green- 
ish or pinkish petioles about i-g inch long. At base 
there is a pair of broad, short-pointed, toothed, 
green scales (stipules) %-% inch long, clasping 
the twig. Leaf blades are 2-5 inches long and 
%6~% i'lch broad, short-pointed at base, with 
lateral veins inconspicuous, papery thin, and dull 
green on both sides. The foliage has a slight but 
distinctive odor. 

Wiere present, the flowers are male and female 
on different trees (dioecious) , crowded with woolly 
scales in narrow clusters (catkins) 11/4-21/4 inches 
long, terminal on short twigs. Male flowers con- 
sist of 4—7 stamens above a woolly scale, and fe- 
male fiowei-s with woolly scale at base have a pistil 
composed of 1-celled ovai-y and 2 stigmas. Seed 
capsules nearly %g inch long contain many small 
seeds with tufts of cottony haire. 



Salix humboldtiana Willd.' 

The sap wood is whitish, and the heart wood dull 
gray and reddish. The wood is soft, lightweight 
(specific gravit}' 0.4), and easy to work. It is not 
durable and is very susceptible to attack by dry- 
wood termites. The wood is used only for posts 
and fuel in Puerto Rico. Elsewhere it has been 
employed for boxes and in cabinetmaking, and 
the bark has served in medicine. Baskets and 
wicker furniture are made from the slender flexi- 
ble branches. 

The colunuiar form is grown as an ornamental, 
particularly in cemeteries and also in parks and 
gardens and in living fences. Also in St. Croix. 
The species is propagated from cuttings. 

Range. — Native from central Mexico south to 
Chile and Argentina. Planted also in southern 
Florida, Greater Antilles, and in Guadeloupe, 
Martinique, St. Vincent, and perhaps other Lesser 
Antilles. 

Other common n.\mes. — mimbre (Puerto 
Rico) ; sauce (Spanish) ; sauce Colorado, mimbre 
(Colombia); pajarobobo (Peru); sauce amargo, 
sauce chileno (Chile) ; sauce crioUo, sauce Colorado 
(Argentina) ; sauce criollo, sauce bianco (Uru- 
guay) ; Humboldt willow, willow (United States, 
Engish) : saule ( French) ; saule, peuplier (Guade- 
loupe) ; salgueiro, salso, chorao (Brazil). 

BoT.ANic.\L SYNONYM. — Salix chUejt^w auth., not 
S. chUensis Molina, a name of uncertain applica- 
tion. 



54 




14. Sauce. Humboldt willow 
687-921 0—64 5 



Natural size. 



f^alix humholdtiana Willfl. 

55 



ELM FAMILY (ULMACEAE) 



Key to the 2 si>ecies illustratecl (Nos. 15 and 16) 

A. Leaves less than 2 inches long, short-pointed, rough hairy on both surfaces — 15. Trema lamarckiana. 
AA. Leaves 3i/i-6 inches long, long-pointed, rough hairy above, soft hairy on veins beneath — 16. Trema micrantha. 



15. Palo de cabrilla, West Indies trema 

This shrub or small tree of openings in dry areas 
is characterized by: (1) a thin, very spreading 
crown of horizontal or slightly drooping branches; 
(2) small, lance-shaped leaves usually less than 2 
inches long, rough and hairy on both sides, thick 
and with the finely saw-toothed edges tm-ned 
under, with 3 main veins at base, and with network 
of veins sunken on upper surface and raised on 
lower surface ; (3) the leaves in a flat ari-angement 
in 2 rows; and (4) many small greenish flowers 
and pink fruits Vs '"cl^ i'l diameter clustered at 
bases of leaves. 

An evergreen shrub or ti'ee to 20 feet in height 
and 10 inches in trunk diameter. The smoothish 
light brown bark has many tiny warty dots (lenti- 
cels) and thin fissures. Inner bark is light brown 
or pinkish, fibrous, and slightly bitter. The slen- 
der twigs, green wlien young and becoming brown, 
are covered with minute, stiff, whitish hairs. 

The alternate leaves have short hairy petioles 



l/c 



14 iiich long. Leaf blades are mostly %-li/^ 



inches in length and ^4-^2 ^''^ch ni width, some- 
times to 31/2 inches long and l^/t inches broad, usu- 
ally short-pointed at apex, rounded or slightly 
oblique at base, green above and light gi-een 
beneath. 



Trema lamarckiana (Roem. & Schult.) Blume 

The hairy flower clusters (cymes) about % inch 
across bear several short-stalked hairy flowers less 
than Vs inch across, mostly male and female to- 
gether (monoecious). Male flowers have 5 sepals, 
5 stamens, and rudimentary pistil; female flowers 
have 5 sepals and pistil composed of ovai-y with 2 
stigmas. The fleshy fruits (drupes) contain 1 
brown seed Vjg inch long. Flowering and fi'uiting 
probably through most of the year. 

The liglit brown soft wood is seldom used in 
Puerto Rico. 

In open areas along the edges of forests and 
along roadsides in the southwestern part of the 
lower Conlillera region of Puerto Rico. 

PuiiMc FORESTS. — Maricao, Susi'ia. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bermuda, Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and 
Lesser Antilles from Saba to St. Vincent. 

Other common names. — cabrilla (Puerto 
Rico) ; jiiemizo de majagua, memizo cimarron, 
majagua, memiso (Dominican Republic) ; capuli 
cimarron, guasimilla (Cuba) ; West Indies trema 
(United States) ; Lamarck trema, pain-in-back 
(Bahamas) ; mahaut piment (Haiti) ; orme petites 
feuilles (French West Indies). 



56 



?!?;¥ 



SVT~ 



?;,' .'^PfeTSt 



:i^-fv 



^'A:&m 



"^mi&Mi 



$ 



^t^ 



fimw^m^^'m 




15. Palo de cabrilla, West Indies trema 



Natural size. 



Trema lamarckiana (Roem. & Sc-hult.) Blume 



57 



ELM FAMILY (ULMACEAE) 



16. Guacimilla, false jacocalalu, Florida trema 

This sinnll tree of open forests is recognized by : 
(1) open spreading crown with hoi'izontal and 
slightly drooping branches; (2) the lance-shaped 
leaves 3i/^-6 inches long, long-pointed at apex, the 
base with 3 main veins and slightly heart-shaped 
and oblifjue, with finely saw-toothed edges, rough 
hairy on upper surface and soft hairy on veins be- 
neath; (3) the leaves arranged flattened in -2 rows 
on green hairy twigs; and (-l) numerous small 
greenish flowers and round orange fruits Vg inch 
in diameter borne in lateral clusters at leaf bases. 

An evergreen tree to 40 feet high and 1 foot in 
trunk diameter. The light brown bark is smooth- 
ish with rows of warty dots (lenticels) or becom- 
ing slightly fissured. Inner bark is brownish or 
pinkish, almost tasteless or slightly bitter. 

The leaves are alternate on short petioles 14~% 
inch long with blades I-214 inches broad, slightly 
thickened, the upper surface green and the lower 
surface light green. 

Flower clusters (cymes) are lateral and 
branched, 1/^-% inch across, hairy, with numerous 
short-stalked small greenish flowers less than i/g 
incli long, mostly male and female together (mono- 
ecious). Male flowers about i/g inch across have 5 
pointed whitish-green sepals. 5 whitish stamens, 
and a sterile pistil. Female flowers are composed 
of 5 pointed whitish-green sepals and a pistil with 
green ovary and 2 whitish stigmas. The round 
fleshy fruits (drupes) contain 1 black seed more 
than i/ie inch long. Probably in flower and fruit 
nearly through the year. 



Trema micrantha (L.) Blume 

The wood is light brown, soft, lightweight (spe- 
cific gravity O.-i), and weak. Used only for posts 
and fuel in Puerto Rico. The strong fiber in the 
bark has been employed for cordage. 

In openings, clearings, woodlands and along 
roadsiiles in the lower Luquillo and moist coastal 
regions of eastern Puerto Rico. Also in St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

I'liiLic FORESTS. — Carite, Luquillo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Central and southern Florida and 
Florida Keys and throughout West Indies from 
Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago. Also from central 
Mexico to Argentina and Brazil. 

Other common names. — palo de cabra, cabra 
(Puerto Rico) ; memizo cimarron, memiso de pa- 
loma, memiso (Dominican Republic) ; guacimilla, 
gvuicimilla cimarrona, guacimilla boba, capuli cim- 
arron (Cuba) ; jaco de cuero, equipal (ilexico) : 
capulin (Central America) ; capulin negro (Hon- 
duras) ; capulin macho, capulin montes, capulin- 
cillo, churrusco (El Salvador) ; capulin bianco, 
juco, vara blanca (Costa Rica) ; capulin macho 
(Panama) ; berraco, raspador, majagua colorada, 
venaco (Colombia) ; masaquilla (Venezuela) ; 
tortolero, muchichilau (Ecuador) ; aisegerina, ata- 
dijo, yana-caspi (Peru) ; palo-polvora, afta colo- 
rada (Argentina) ; Florida trema (United 
States) ; Jamaican Jiettle-ti'ee (Jamaica) ; white 
capulin, wild bay-cedar (British Honduras) ; bois 
de sole (Haiti) ; ceriiiva (Brazil). 



58 




16. GuaclnuUa, false jacocalalu. norida trema 



Trona nilcrnntlifi (L.) Blume 



Natural size. 



59 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



Key to the S species illustrated (Nos. 18-24) 

A. Leaves deeply lobed, very large. 

B. Leaves umbrellalike, rciuuded with 7-11 rounded lobes: jietiole very long — 20. Cecropia peltata. 
BB. Leaves elliptic, with 7-11 long-pointed lobes ; petiole short — 17. Artocarpus altilis.* 

AA. Leaves not lobed. 

C. Leaves hairy, oblong, edges with tufts of hairs appearing like minute teeth — 19. Castilla elastica.* 
CC. Leaves hairless or nearly so, edges not toothed. 

D. Leaves elliptic or obovate, rounded at apex ; fruit very large, elliptic or rounded — 18. Artocarpus 
heterophylUis* 
DD. Leaves various, short- or long-pointed at apex ; fruit small, figlike. 

E. Leaves with 3 main veins from base, elliptic to diamond-shaped — 23. Ficus retusa* 
EE. Leaves with 1 main vein or midrib. 

F. Leaves with 6-10 lateral veins on each side of midrib — 22. Ficus laevigata. 
FF. Leaves with many straight, parallel, lateral veins. 

O. Leaves abruptly short-i)ointed at aitex. rounded at base, 4-12 inches long — 21. Ficus elastica.* 
GG. Leaves short-pointed at both ends, 1V4-3 inches long — 24. Ficus sintenisii. 



17. Panapen, pana de pepitas, breadfruit 

Breadfruit is a handsome tree planted for its 
edible fruits and attractive foliage. It is easily 
recocfnized by: (1) the very large, deeply 7-11- 
lobed, .shiny dark green leaves about li/o (l--^) 
feet long; (2) the milky juice that exudes from 
the bark when cut; and (3) the yellowish-green 
rounded or elliptic fruits 4-8 inches long. Two 
varieties are distinguished: panapen being the 
common seedless variety, and pana de pepitas the 
variety with seeds. 

A medium-sized spreading evergreen tree to 60 
feet high and 2 feet or more in trunk diameter, 
with relatively few stout branches. The brown 
bark is smooth, with warty dots (lenticels) . Inner 
bark is whitish and almost tasteless, with white, 
slightly bitter latex. The very stout twigs i^^-l 
incli in diameter are green and minutely hairy, 
with rings at nodes, and end in a large, pointed, 
finely hairy l)ud 5 inches or less in length, formed 
by a big scale (stipule) around the developing leaf. 

Ijeaves are alternate on very stout green petioles 
1-2 inches long. The leaf blades are elliptic in 
outline, 9-20 inches across, the pinnate lobes long- 
pointed, short-pointed at base, slightly thickened, 
the upper surface nearly hairless except along 
veins, and the lower surface lighter green and 
finely hairy at least on veins. The 2 varieties differ 
slightly in leaf shape and hairiness. Ivcaves of the 
seeded variation are less deeply lobed, have usually 
9 or 11 lobes instead of the 7 common in the seed- 
less variety, and are more hairy, bristly hairy on 
veins above and finely and roughly hairy on lower 
surface. 

Flowers are very numerous and minute, the 
male and female on the same tree (monoecious) in 
separate thick, fleshy clusters single at leaf bases 
on stalks about 2 inches long. The male cluster is 
a cylindrical or club-shaped soft mass about 5-12 
inches long and 1 inch in diameter, yellowish and 
turning brown. Male flowers Vj^, inch long, con- 
sisting of 2-lobed calyx and 1 stamen, are crowded 
on the outside. The female flower cluster is ellip- 
tic or rounded, about 21/0 inches long and li/o 
inches in diametei- oi- larger, light green. In tlie 



Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg* 

variety with seeds the female flowers are % inch 
long and Wq inch acros.s, composed of a tubular, 
conelike and pointed, hairy calyx projecting 14 
inch and pistil with a sunken 1-celled 1-ovuled 
ovary and 2-lol5ed style. The seedless variety has 
sterile female flowers projecting only about %2 
inch. 

The multiple fruits are covered with individual 
fruits and contain a whitish starchy pulp formed 
from the enlarged stalk (receptacle). In the 
.seeded variety the fruit surface is composed of 
greenish conical .spinelike projections, each from 
a single flower, and there are several large brown 
edible seeds. The seedless variety has a smoothish 
surface honeycombed with individual fruits about 
%Q inch across. Flowers and fruits are borne 
throughout the year. 

The sapwood is light yellow to yellowish brown, 
and the heartwood golden colored, sometimes 
flecked with orange. The wood is very soft, light- 
weight (.specific gravity 0.27), yet quite firm and 
strong for its weight. It is very susceptible to 
attack by dry- wood termites. There are numer- 
ous large pores but no growth rings. Rate of air- 
seasoning and amount of degrade are moderate. 
Machining characteristics are as follows: planing 
is fair; shaping, turning, boring, and mortising 
are very poor; sanding is poor; and resistance to 
screw splitting is excellent. 

The wood is little used in Puerto Rico except 
occasionally for interior partitions. Nevertheless, 
it is suitable for boxes, crates, light construction, 
and toys. Surf boards were made from the light 
wood in Hawaii. 

The trees are also attractive for ornament and 
shade. In periods of prolonged drought the 
leaves have been cut to provide forage for cattle. 
The sticky sap has been used in some places to 
catch birds. 

Fruits are gathered before maturity and roasted 
or boiled as a starchy vegetable, those of the seed- 
less variety lieing preferred. Or the young fruits 
can be sliced and fried. Also, the seeds are boiled 
or roasted. A dessert and preserves are sometimes 



60 




17. Panap^n, pana de pepitas, breadfruit 



One-third natural size. 



Artocarpus aUilis (Parkinson) Fosberg 



61 



made from the male flower clusters. Elsewhere 
the fruits have served for fattening hogs. 

This tree was introduced into the West Indies 
in 1793 from Tahiti of the South Sea Islands to 
provide cheap food for slaves. It was claimed 
that three or four mature trees could provide 
starchy food to su])port a man throughout the 
year. Captain "William Bligh in tlie ship Provi- 
dence chartered by the British (Tove.rnment 
brought plants to St. Vincent and Jamaica. This 
special expedition was undertai<en to transport 
potted plants of the seedless vai'iety tlie gi-eat dis- 
tance. An earlier attempt with a cargo of plants 
on board the ship Bounty failed owing to the 
famous mutiny against Captain Bligh in 1789. 
About the same time the French brought a few 
breadfruits to other islands of the "West Indies. 

Propagation is by root cuttings or layering and 
in the seeded variety l)v seeds, (irowth is rapid. 
"Widely cultivated around homes almost through- 
out Puerto Rico and occasionally escaping. Least 
common in tlie upper mountain and dry limestone 
regions. Also in Mona, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
Jolm, and Tortola. 

Ranxse. — Native in islands of the South Pacific 



Ocean. Grown throughout the tropics, the seeded 
variety sometimes escaping from cultivation. 
Planted tliroughout the West Indies and in con- 
tinental tropical America. Rare in southern 
I'lorida and fruiting only at Key West. 

Other toMMON names. — arbol de pan, palo de 
pan, pan, pana (Puerto Rico, Spanish) ; lavapen, 
mapen, bombilla, pichones (Puerto Rico) ; pana 
foiastera (seedless variety, Puerto Rico) ; castaua 
(seeded variety, Puerto Rico) ; buen pan, albopan, 
l^an de fruta (Dominican Republic) ; castaho del 
Mala])ar (seeded variety, Cuba) ; mazapan. fruta 
de i)an, pan de fruta, castaiia (Guatemala) ; maza- 
pan (Honduras) ; breadfruit (United States, Eng- 
lish) ; breadnut (seeded variety, English); cha- 
taigne (seeded variety, Trinidad) ; mazapan 
(British Honduras); arbre a pain, fruit a pain 
(French); arbre veritable (Haiti); cliataignier, 
chataignier du pays (seeded variety, French West 
Indies); jialu di frufi ]>an, broodboom (Dutch 
West Indies) ; broodboom (Surinam) ; fructa pao 
(Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — ^4 rfoearpus communi-^ 
J. R. & G. Forst., A. ineims (Tliunb.) L. f. 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



18. Jaca, jackfruit 



This cultivated relative of breadfruit is charac- 
terized by: (1) giant, elliptic, rounded or irregu- 
lar-shaped yellow-green fruits 1-2 feet long and 
i/o-l foot in diameter, covered with sharp conical 
points; (2) milkv juice in the bark; and (3) leaves 
conunonly elliptic or obovate, 4—6 inches long and 
2-3 inches broad, dark green and sliglitly shiny, 
thick and leathery. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree to 40 
feet in height and 1 foot in trunk diameter. The 
gray bark is smoothish, becoming rough, fur- 
rowed, and thick (1,4 inch). Inner bark is light 
In-own. gritty and almost tasteless, yielding taste- 
less latex. The twigs are gray, with raised 
rounded leaf scars, ending in a dark green, nar- 
row, pointed, minutely hairy scale (stipule) 14 
inch or more in length forming the bud. 

The leaves are alternate, witli stout petioles 
V2~% ii^ch long. Leaf blades vary in shape, some- 
times oblong or narrow and on young plants and 
shoots occasionally 2- or 3-lobed. 

Male and female flowers are in diil'erent flower 
clusters, enlarged and fleshy, on the same tree 
(monoecious). The male cluster on a stalk 2 
inches long is stoutly club-shaped, 2—4 inches long, 
yellowish green, and with odor like muskmelon, 
bearing very many crowded male flowers less than 
YiQ inch long, each consisting of a 2-lobed calyx 
and 1 stamen. Female flowers, very numerous in 
the elliptic or rounded female flower clusters, are 
more than %(; inch long, composed of tubular 
hairy calyx and pistil with 1-celled 1-ovuled ovary, 
slender style, and broader yellow stigma. 



Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.* 

The multiple fi'uits, weighing 20-40 pounds, 
have a hard outer covering of the enlarged female 
flowers, each with a sharp conical point % inch 
long and about i^ inch across at base. Within is a 
whitish fibrous pulp containing many seeds (80 to 
a pound), which are irregularly bean-shaped, 
whitish or light brown, li/i-lV2 inches long. In 
fruit nearly tiirough the year. 

The wood is yellowish, darkening to brown 
upon exposure, fairly hard and resistant, taking a 
good polish. Little used in Puerto Rico; else- 
where used in cabinetwork and carpentry. 

Occasionally planted in gardens, chiefly in the 
cities and towns of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands 
for ornament, shade, or the large edible fruits, 
though much less common than breadfruit. The 
fruits, which are eaten cooked as a starchy vege- 
table, have a peculiar flavor and are less palatable 
than breadfruits. 

Range. — Native of tropical Asia from India to 
Malaya and East Indies. Widely planted in tropi- 
cal regions, including southern Florida, West 
Indies, and continental tropical America. 

Other common names. — pana cimarrona 
(Puerto Rico); jaca (Spanish); ]>an de fruta, 
buen ]5an, albo])an (Dominican Republic) ; rima 
(Cuba) ; castano (Nicaragua) ; jaqueira, arbol de 
pan (Colombia) ; jackfruit, jack (United States, 
English) ; cartahar (British Guiana) ; jaquier 
(French) ; jaca (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — ArtocarpuJi integrifo- 
]his autli., not L. f., .4. integer auth., not (Tliuub.) 
Merr. 



62 




18. Jaea, jackfruit 



Natural size. 



Artocarpus heterophyUus Lam. 

63 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



19. Caucho, Central American rubber, castilla rubber 



Castilla elastica Cervantes* 



Caucho, including this and 2 related species 
planted sparingly in Puerto Rico, is easily recog- 
nized by: (1) the long, slightly drooping, stout, 
hairy twigs with 2 rows of large hairy oblong 
leaves 10-18 incjies long and 4— S inches broad, also 
drooping; and (2) abundant milky juice in the 
bark and twigs. The other species are separated 
mostly by flower and fruit characters. 

A large spreading evergreen tree becoming 70 
feet or more in height and 1-3 feet in trunk diam- 
eter, with buttresses forming at base of large 
trunks. Tiie ligiit brown bark is smoothish, with 
fine fissures, and thick, often having scars where 
cut with machetes by curious persons to see the 
latex drip. Inner bark is whitish and bitter with 
latex also bitter. The unbranched twigs are green 
when young but become brown, and have a long, 
narrow, green, hairy terminal bud 2-21^ inches 
long, formed by a many-ridged scale (stipule) that 
sheds, leaving a diagonal ring scar at each node. 

The alternate leaves are spreading from short 
stout hairy petioles 1,4 inch long. Leaf blades are 
oblong but broadest beyond the middle, short- 
pointed at apex and heart-shaped at base, the edges 
with tufts of hairs simulating minute teeth, thin, 
green and rough on upper surface, and light green 
and soft hairy beneath. 

Flowers are male and female on the same tree 
(monoecious) but in separate flattened headlike 
clusters bordered by rows of overlapping scales 
and borne along the twigs mostly back of the 
leaves. Male clusters are commonly 4 together, 
3.4-I inch across on stalks al)out 1 inch long, com- 
posed of male flowers with numerous crowded 
stamens less than % inch long and no calyx. Fe- 
male clusters are single, stalkless or nearly so, 
forming a greenish-yellow disk % inch across, and 
bordered by many broad, short-pointed, green, 
finely hairy, overlapping scales. The crowded 
female flowers are about 1/4 inch long, with fleshy, 
minutely hairy, greenish-yellow, tubular, angled 
calyx surroiniding and adhering to the white 
ovary, which has a yellow-green style and 2- or 
3-forked protruding stigma. 

The multiple fruit is a disk IV2-2 inclies in di- 
ameter and %-l inch thick, bordered by many 
green overlapping scales from the flower cluster 
and composed of many crowded individual fruits 



grown together. Each individual fruit is 14-% 
inch long and i/4-% inch across, blunt-pointed and 
half within tlie disk, composed of the fleshy, finely 
hairy calyx, changing color from yellow to green, 
orange, and red, very juicy, almost tasteless but 
slightly sour, soon fermenting and molding, and 
containing 1 white oblong seed %-i/4 inch long. 
Seeds 800 to a pound. Flowering chiefly in spring, 
and maturing fruits in summer. 

The wood is yellow brown, moderately soft, 
lightweight, and not durable. Used in Puerto 
Rico chiefly for fuel. 

With species distributed on the continent from 
Mexico to Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, 
CattfUJa. was formerly an important source of rub- 
ber, both from wild trees and plantations. Some 
rubber is still obtained from wild trees by cutting 
or tapping the bark and collecting the latex, which 
coagulates upon exposure. Cultivation in Trini- 
dad and Toliago was not commercially successful. 
Most rublier now comes from plantations of the 
unrelated Para rubber tree {flevea) native in 
Brazil. The Indians made mats for blankets and 
clothing by beating out the bark. 

Planted occasionally in Puerto Rico, sometimes 
as a roadside tree for shade and ornament. Found 
along the Arecibo-Utuado, Ciales-Villalba, and 
Maricao-Mayagiiez highways. Also grown at St. 
Thomas. It is a tree of openings in moist forests, 
probably light-requiring, and grows rapidly. 

R.AXGE. — S'ative of Mexico and Central America 
south to Colombia and Ecuador. In the AVest 
Indies introducetl into Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto 
Rico and St. Thomas, and Trinidad and Tobago. 
Rarely planted in southern Florida. 

Other co]\rMON names. — palo de goma, goma, 
cauchera (Puerto Rico) ; caucho (Spanish) ; tira- 
jala (Dominican Republic) ; arbol del hule 
(Mexico) ; hule, ule (Guatemala, Honduras) ; ule- 
ule, hule, mastate bianco (Panama) ; caucho negro 
(Colombia) ; castilla rubber, castilloa rubber, Cen- 
tral American rubber (English) ; rubber, ule 
(British Honduras). 

Botanical synonyms. — Cast'dJa lactifua O. F. 
Cook, C . pann?nen-ii.i O. F. Cook. 

The generic name, sometimes spelled Oa.sfilloa. 
honors Juan del Castillo (1744-93), Spanish 
pharmaci.st and economic explorer, who came to 
Mexico in 1787. 



64 




19. Caucho, Central American rubber, castilla rubber 

Two-thirds natural size. 



Cnntilla rlri>itira Cervantes 



65 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



20. Yagrumbo hembra, trumpet-tree 

One of the. most abundant trees in Pnerto Kico, 
this species is easil}' recognized by : (1) a very thin 
spreading crown of a few stont brandies arising 
high on the trnnk and curving upward; (2) the 
few very large thick unibrellalike (peltate) leaves 
with l)lades 1-21/2 feet across, composed of 7-11 
large lobes spreading at the end of a stont petiole 
almost as long; (.'5) the whitish or silvery under- 
surface of leaves readily seen when nptunied by 
a breeze; and (4) the newer branches liollow ex- 
cept for partitions at the nodes. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree to 70 feet high 
and 2 feet in trunk diameter, deciduous in areas 
witli a pronounced dry season. Sometimes de- 
veloping prop roots around the base. The gray 
bark is smootli and tliin, witli narrow rings and 
large leaf .scars at the nodes or joints 2— i inches 
apart. Inner bark is pinkish and slightly bitter, 
with watery latex. The smallest branches are ll^ 
inches in diameter, green and slightly liairy at 
apex, becoming gray, with rings at nodes. There 
is a giant bud covered by a large, pointed, reddish, 
hairy scale (stipule) 5-10 inches long. 

Leaves are alternate but clustered at ends of 
branches, each on a stout round green petiole 12-20 
inches long, enlarged at base. The leaf blades, 
rounded in outline, have 7-11 lobes and veins ra- 
diating from the end of the petiole (palmate), the 
lobes and sinuses rounded. Upper surface is 
green, slightly rougli. and hairless, and lower sui-- 
face with a dense coat of wiiitish hairs. 

Male and female flowers are on diffei-ent trees 
(dioecious) in paired fingerlike clusters at leaf 
bases. Male flower clusters have a stalk 2-3 inches 
long bearing aliout 15 narrowly cylindrical pale 
yellow branches (spikes) 2-3 Vo inches long and 
%6 inch in diameter, each on a stalk V^-Vo inch 
long. The very numerous, tiny, crowded male 
flowers are Vie inch long and narrow and have a 
tubular calyx and 2 stamens. 

Female flower clustere on stalks 2-3 inches long 
consist of 2-5 stalkless, thicker, cylindrical, gray 
branches (spikes). The minute female flowers 
more than Vjg inch long, sunken in the axis, are 
composed of a tubidar calyx enclosing ovary and 
style and an exposed finely branched stigma. At 
maturity the branches (multiple fruits) are 2i/4-i 
inches long and %-V2 inch in diameter, gray and 
slightly fleshy, dotted with many l-seedecl minute 
fruits (about" 2,200,000 to the pou'nd). The numer- 
ous l)rown seeds are more than t'lg inch long. In 
flower and fniit probably through the year. 

The wood is whitish, liglit weight (specific grav- 
ity 0.29), soft, weak, and lirittle, tjut tough for its 
weight. It is not durable and is very susceptible 
to attack by dry-wood tennites. Unlike the hollow 
branches, the main trunk is solid. The rate of air- 
seasoning is rapid, and amount of degrade is con- 



Cecropia peltata L. 

siderable. Machining characteristics are as fol- 
lows: planing and sanding are good; shaping and 
turning are fair; boring is very poor; mortising is 
poor; and resistance to screw splitting is excellent. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is used for manufac- 
ture of excelsior. Combined with cement, it is 
made into a type of insulation board for light in- 
terior construction and partitions. The wood 
should be a suitable substitute for balsa in manu- 
facture of toys, models, and other pi-oducts made 
from moderately heavy grades of balsa. Else- 
where the wood has been used for matchsticks, 
boxes and crates, interior boarding, and paper 
pulp. 

The liollow stems liave been used to make floats 
for fishnets and life ])reservers and, when split in 
two, have served as water troughs and guttei-s. 
Substitutes for cork stoppers have been whittled 
from the soft wood. In some countries the leaves, 
bark, aiul latex have been employed in local medi- 
cine. The fibrous bark of I'elated species was used 
by Indians for cordage and mats. It is reported 
that the wood ignites easily from friction and 
serves as tinder. 

Hollow branches of this and related species else- 
where are inhabited by small stinging ants which 
bore holes to reach the interior. Early naturalists 
obsei-ving this constant association imagined that 
(lie ants, as payment for the residence furnished, 
weie aggressive in diiving away insects or other 
natural enemies threatening the tree. However, 
in Puerto Rico ants are not associated with this 
species, and the trees thrive. 

Abundant in open areas and in forests both vir- 
gin and cutover. throughout Puerto Rico with the 
exce])tion of parts of the dry coastal and dry lime- 
stone regions. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. 
Tliomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

The trees propagate naturally and at first grow 
very ra]iidly (2-3 inches in diameter per year) but 
require nearly full sunlight. The seeds appar- 
ently germinate slowly. In Trinidad it was ob- 
ser\ed that bats eat quantities of the succulent 
fruits and are the chief agents of seed dispei-sal. 
Birds also (li.stribute the seeds. This weed tree 
commonly covers quickly all openings resulting 
from cutting of trees in the forest. Its open shade 
provides a good environment for the development 
of a new forest. 

PiTRLic FORESTS. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, 
Susi^ia, Toro Negro, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 1, 
5, 10, 14, 17, 19, 22, 23, 25, 27, 31, 34, 35, 36, 40, 43, 
45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 58, 59, 60, 62, 64, 70, 73, 74. 

Range. — Throughout West Indies from Cuba 
and .Tamaica to Trinidad and Tobago. Also fi-om 
Yucatan, Mexico, to Costa Rica and recorded in 



66 




20. Yagrrumbo henilira. tninipet-tree Ceeropia peJtata L. 

Leafy twig with male flower clusters (above), about one-third natural size; fruit clusters (lower right), two-thirds natural size. 



67 



ColonibiM, Venezuela, and Guianas. Planted as an 
ornamental in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — yagrumo, llagrumo, 
grayumo henibra (Puerto Rico) ; tnnnpet-wood 
(Virgin Islands) ; yaorumo, yagrumo hembra 
(Dominican Republic) ; yagruma, yagruma hem- 
bra (Cul)a) ; guarumo (Guatemala, Costa Rica, 
Colombia) ; igarata (Guatemala) ; trumpet -tree, 
trumpet-wood, pumpwood, snakewood (United 
States, English) ; sliield-shaped trumpet-ti-ee 
(United States) ; pop-a-gun (Barbados) ; bois 
canon (Trinidad) ; wanasoro, congo-pump (Brit- 



isli Guiana) ; bois trompette (Haiti, Guadeloupe) ; 
bois canon (Guadeloupe, Martinique) ;wildpapaw 
(Dutcli West Indies) ; bospapaja (Surinam). 

Botanical synonym. — Cecropla asperritna 
Pittier. 

English and French common names refer to the 
use of tlie hollow branches for tnnnpets or other 
musical instruments. Also, children sometimes 
make flutes from the hollow petioles. 

An unrehited tree of generally similar appear- 
ance is yagrumo macho {Didymopanax nioro- 
totoni (Aubl.) Decne. &P1.). 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



21. Palo de goma, India-rubber fig 

Occasionally planted in Puerto Rico for orna- 
ment and shade, this handsome spreading tree is 
characterized by: (1) an extensive superficial root 
system and numerous aerial roots about the trunk; 
(2) abundant milky juice or white latex; (?>) 
large, leathery, oblong or elliptic, sliiny green 
leaves 4-1:2 inches long and 2-1^ inches broad, tliick 
and stifl", abruptly short-pointed at apex, rounded 
at base, and with sides bent upward at midrib; (4) 
numerous straiglit, parallel, lateral veins very 
close together on each side of the midrib and near- 
ly at right angles to it; and (5) oblong greenish- 
yellow figlike fruits about V^ inch long, paired and 
stalkless at base of leaves. 

A medium-sized to large evergreen tree to 60 
feet in height and 3 feet in trunk diameter. In 
India, its native home, it becomes 100 feet tall with 
a giant fluted trunk, often buttressed at base and 
with long surface roots. The bark is light gray, 
smoothish with small horizontal ridges, and thick. 
Inner bark is reddish and bitter. The crown of 
long branches provides dense shade. The stout 
twigs have faint rings at the nodes. A large, 
showy, long-pointed, reddish sheath or scale 
(stipule) 1-2 inches or more in length forms the 
outside of the bud and covers each new leaf. 

The alternate leaves have stout petioles %-lV^ 
inches long. Leaf blades are lighter colored be- 
neath and much larger on young shoots than on 
others, not toothed on edges. There is a variation 
with yellow variegated leaves. 

The elliptic multiple fruits (syconia) are 
covered with a sheath when young that sheds, leav- 
ing a basal cup. There is a ring and slight pointed 
opening at apex. Many tiny male and female 
flowers (monoecious) and seeds are boi-ne inside 
the slightly fleshy fruits, which are eaten by birds 



Ficus elastica Nois.* 



and sometimes by children. Fruiting probably 
througli the year. 

The sap wood is whitish and moderately hard. 
The wood is little used in Puerto Rico. In native 
forests and extensive plantations of India this 
species was the original commercial source of rub- 
ber. However, India rubber has been replaced by 
Para rubber (Ilevea) from Brazil, which pro- 
duces higher yields and at an earlier age in planta- 
tions. 

Propagated by cuttings or layers and adapted to 
moist regions, where it grows rapidly. However, 
tlie many liorizontal roots on top of the ground 
may be objectionable in street planting. It is re- 
ported that the large heavy limbs are easily broken 
by wind. "Where native, the plants usually start as 
air plants (epiphytes) from seeds germinating on 
other trees, sending down aerial roots to the 
ground and afterwards strangling and killing the 
supporting trees. 

Planted for ornament and shade along streets 
and in parks and gardens in Puerto Rico and 
Virgin Islands. 

Range. — Native of tropical Asia from India to 
Malaya. Widely cultivated in tropical regions, 
sometimes escaping, and as a potted ornamental 
in temperate regions. Planted in southern Flor- 
ida, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, Guadeloupe, and Dutch West Indies. 
Also from Mexico to South America. 

Other common names. — caucho, higuera (Do- 
minican Republic) ; goma elastica, caucho (Cuba) ; 
amate, hule (El Salvador); caucho de la India 
(Colombia) ; India-rubber fig, India rubber-plant, 
India rubber-tree, rubber-plant (United States, 
English) ; caoutchouc (Haiti). 



68 




21. Palo de goma, India-rubber fig 



Natural size. 



Ficus elastica Nois. 



69 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



22. Jagiiey bianco, shortleaf fig 

Like the other wild and planted tree species of 
the same genus (Firus), the commonest of the 
jagiieyes or wild figs of Puerto Rico is recognized 
by: (i) milky juice, or white latex, which exudes 
copiously from cut or broken parts; (2) aerial 
roots often extending from branches to the 
ground; (3) prominent long-pointed buds at end 
of each twig, formed by a scale (stipule) which 
makes a ring scar; and (4) small fleshy figlike 
fi'uits paired or single at leaf bases, with minute 
flowers hidden inside. Jagiiey bianco is further 
distinguished by: (1) wliitish bark; and (2) 
leaves with relatively long slender ]ietioles •^4-2 
inches long and short-pointed elliptic to oblong 
blades IVo-fi inches long and %-'iYi inches broad, 
the 6-10 lateral veins on each side about 1/4 inch 
apart and nearly at right angles to midrib. 

A small to medium-sized spreading evergreen 
tree to 60 feet high and 21/2 feet in trunk diameter. 
The bark is smoothish, becoming slightly fissured. 
The inner bark is light brown, fibrous, and almost 
tasteless, the white latex also nearly tasteless. 
Twigs are greenish, turning to gray, have faint 
rings at nodes, and terminate in a long pointed 
green scale (stipule) %-% i'lc^i long- 

Blades of the alternate leaves vary greatly in 
size and shape and are alnniptly short-pointed at 
apex and rounded, short-pointed, or slightly heart- 
shaped at base, often a little thickened, hairless, 
and not toothed at edges. The upper surface is 
green to dark green, slightly shiny, with many tiny 
dots (raised on a dried leaf), and the lower sur- 
face is paler. 

As the flowers in this genus are not visible, it 
appears that the trees have fruits but no flowers. 
The figlike multiple fruit (syconium), actually a 
compound fruit, corresponds to an enlarged over- 
grown flower stalk bearing on the inner walls 
numerous tiny male and feuude flowers (monoe- 
cious) and the small seeds, each technically a fruit 
from a single flower. In this species the slightly 
fleshy rounded fruits about % '"''li i» diameter 
are borne on slender stalks %-% inch long. They 
are greenish, often brown dotted, turning reddish 
and brownish at maturity, and edible though taste- 
less. There are 2 scales Vie inch long joinecl at base 
and a small pore at apex. Fruits are borne 
through the year. 

The sapwood is whitish, and the heartwood light 
brown. The wood is fairly lightweight (specific 
gravity 0.40), soft and tough, and strong for its 
weight. Nevertheless, it is not durable and is very 
susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. The 
rate of air-seasoning is slow, and amount of de- 
grade is minor. Machining characteristics are as 
follows: planing and sanding are good; shaping, 
turning, boring, and mortising are poor; and re- 
sistance to screw splitting is excellent. The wood 
is u.secl for making guitars and for fuel. It is 



Ficus laevigata Vahl 

suitable for boxes, crates, interior construction, 
and light carpentry. 

The plants make excellent live fenceposts be- 
cause they i-oot so readily from cuttings. Grown 
as an ornamental and .shade tree in Puerto Rico 
and southern Florida. 

Young plants of this and some related species 
commonly .start as air plants (epiphytes) high on 
a fork of ancjther tree where birds have dispersed 
the seeds. After sending slender aerial roots to the 
ground, the vinelike plant grows rapidly. Its 
roots usually unite to form a trunk, sometimes 
strangling and killing the older tree. 

In forests, thickets, fence rows, and roadsides 
tliroughout Puerto Rico with the exception of the 
upper mountain regions. Also in ]\Iona, Icacos, 
Culebra, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, 
and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Cambalache, Carite, 
(iuajataca, (iuanica, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, 
Ri'o Abajo, San Juan, Susua, Toro Negro, Vega. 

Raxge. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys and througli West Indies from Bahamas and 
Cuba to Grenada and Barbados. 

Other cojemon x.vmes. — jagiiey, jagiiey macho, 
jagiieillo, jigiierillo (Puerto Rico) ; white fig (Vir- 
gin Islands); higuillo (Dominican Republic); 
jagiiey, jagiieicillo (Cuba) ; shortleaf fig, wild fig, 
wild banyan (United States) ; shortleaf wild fig 
(Bahamas) ; figuier (St. Lucia) ; figuier maudit, 
tiguier blanc. figuier banian (Guadeloupe) ; figuier 
maudit (Martinique). 

BoTANic.\L SYNOXYMS. — Ficus Jenfigino-sn Vahl, 
F. laevigata var. lenfiginosa (Vahl) Urban, F. 
populnea Willd., F. brevifolia Nutt., F. pop^ilnea 
var. hreinfoUn (Nutt.) Warb., F. laevigata var. 
brevifolia (Nutt.) Warb. 

This is a variable species of wide geographical 
range, composed of races within Puerto Rico and 
outside dirt'ering in size of leaves and fruits and 
in length of fruit stalks. Some taxonomists have 
distinguished 2 or 3 species and additional vari- 
eties. Recently, however, this species has been con- 
sidered a synonym of F. citnfolia Mill., inter- 
jireted as a species of broad geographic distribu- 
tion in tropical America from Florida south to 
Paraguay. 

Besides the 2 native and 2 introduced species of 
this genus of figs described and illustrated here, 
several others have been planted for shade and 
ornament. Another species of jagiiey or wild fig 
{FiruH trigonata L. ; synonyms F. crassinervia 
Desf., F. sialilii Warb.) native in Puerto Rico and 
Virgin Islands is characterized by stout, hairy- 
twigs, petioles y<>-\^y2 inches long, oblong or ovate 
leaf blades 3-6 Vo inches long and lV2-i inches 
broad, usually rounded at both ends, and rounded 
figlike fruits %— Ys inch in diameter, single or 
paired on stalks of Vg-^ inch. 



70 




22. Jagiiey bianco, shortleaf fig 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Fictis laevigata Vahl 



687-921 O — 64 6 



71 



On St. Croix still another species of jagliey or 
fig {Ficu,s ohtuHifoUa H. B. K.; synonym F. vr- 
baniana Warb.) is native and also jjlanted. It has 
larfje leaves with stout petioles IV^-?) inches long, 
ovate or elliptic blades 5-9 inches long, usually 



rounded at both ends, and rounded figlike fruits 
about % inch in diameter, finely hairy, usually 
paired, and almost stalkless M'ith scales % inch long 
at base. 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



2.3. Laurel de la India, India-laurel fig 

This large ornamental tree, planted in plazas in 
Puerto Rico, is distinguished by: (1) a short 
trunk and veiy dense globular crown; (2) small, 
dark green, sliglitly shiny, thick, leatliery, elliptic 
leaves iV2-'^ mriies long and %-!% inches broad, 
with 3 main veins from the base; (3) numerous 
aerial roots about the trunk or hanging hairlike 
from the lower branches; (4) milky juice or white 
latex which exudes from the bark or leaves when 
the tree is injured; and (5) small rounded figlike 
fruits about ^le inch in diameter, paired and stalk- 
less at leaf bases. 

An evergreen tree to 65 feet high and 3 feet in 
trunk diameter, the crown often broader than tall. 
Bark is smooth and gray. The inner bark is whit- 
ish and tasteless, but contains slightly bitter latex. 
Each gray twig ends in a long-pointed green scale 
(stipule) % inch or less in length, wliich forms 
the bud. 

The leaves are alternate on petioles 14-% inch 
long. Leaf blades are short-pointed at both ends, 
and often nearly diamond-shaped (rhomboidal), 
paler beneath. Tlie 2 lateral veins from the base 
continue near the toothless margin. 

The fleshy multiple fruits (syconia), with an in- 
conspicuous pointed opening at apex, are green, 
turning yellow or reddish at maturity. There are 
3 pointed, finely hairy scales (bracts) Vie i'^ch 
long at base. Inside the fruit are borne many tiny 
male and female flowers (monoecious) and seeds 
Fruiting probably through the year. 



Ficus retusa L.* 



The sapwood is whitish, and the heartwood is 
light brown. The wood is medium-weight, hard 
(specific gravity 0.5), has growtli rings, and is 
very susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. 

Planted in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 
for ornament and shade. Large specimens are to 
be found in and around San Juan and in the 
plazas of various towns, particularly in the south- 
eastern part of the island. The dense crowns are 
frequently trimmed into roimded shapes. Diffi- 
culties of propagation have prevented this rapidly 
growing tree from being planted more connnonly. 
Rooting of cuttings is uncertain but sometimes 
successful. Better results liave been obtained by 
air layering, or marcottage, in which a fairly large 
branch can be used. In some places this tree is 
considered objectionable because of its size, the 
litter of the numerous fruits, or because of a thrips 
insect which deforms the foliage and may irritate 
the eyes of persons beneath the tree. 

Range. — Native of India and Malaya but widely 
planted in tropica] i-egions. Southern Florida, 
Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, 
Lesser Antilles, Trinidad, and Curagao. Also 
from Mexico to Chile and Brazil. 

Other common names. — jagiiey (Puerto Rico) ; 
fig (Virgin Islands) ; laurel de la India (Span- 
ish) ; laurel, alamo exti'anjero (Mexico) ; pivijay 
(Colombia); India-laurel fig, Indian-laurel 
(United States, English). 

Botanical synonym. — Ficus nitida Thunb., 
not Blume. 



72 




23. Laurel de la India, India-laurel fig 



Fieus retusa L. 



Natural size. 



73 



MULBERRY FAMILY (MORACEAE) 



24. Jagiiey Colorado 

This jagiiey or wildfig is distinguished by: (1) 
small elliptic leaves only l%,-3 inches long and 
%-l^/4 inches broad, short-pointed at both ends, 
dull reddish when young; (2) many straight, par- 
allel, lateral veins less than Vi,; inch apAVt on each 
side of midrib and nearly at right angles to it ; (3) 
rounded figlike fruits less than l^ inch in diameter 
and on stal!<s about the same length, mostly paired 
or single at base of a leaf; and (4) milky juice or 
white latex. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree to 50 
feet high (recorded also to 65 feet) and 1 foot in 
trunk diameter, with spreading crown. Bark is 
light gray and smoothisli. The whitisii inner bark 
is almost tasteless and contains white latex. Slen- 
der brown twigs end in a long-jwinted green scale 
(stipule) 1/4-% inch long, which forms the bud. 

The alternate leaves have petioles V^^-Vo i'^''^ 
long. Leaf blades are thick and leathery, without 
teeth, dark green and slightly shiny on upper sur- 
face, and yellow green beneath. 

The figlike nuiltiple fruits (syconia) are pale 
green when immature, becoming pink tinged or 
reddish and have a slight ])ointed opening at ajjex 
and 2 rounded scales (bracts) Yiq inch long at 
base. Numerous minute male and female flowers 



Ficus sintenisii Warb. 

(monoecious) and seeds are formed inside the 
slightly fleshy fruit. Probably fruiting through 
the year. 

The sapwood is whitish and soft. The wood is 
soft, fairly lightweight (specific gi-avity 0.4), 
weak, and not durable. Used for fuel and posts. 
The broad, generally symmetrical dense crown 
makes this tre« potentially an ornamental. 

Commonest in the upper mountain and moist 
limestone regions of Puerto Hico, often growing 
near the summits of limestone hills. Less common 
in the lower mountain regions. 

PiniLic F0RE>sTs. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio 
Aba jo, Susua, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Known only from Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — jagiiey prieto, jagiiey, 
higuillo prieto (Puerto Rico). 

The specific name honors P. Sintenis, botanical 
explorer who made extensive plant collections on 
three field trips to Puerto Rico in 1885-87. This 
species recently has been united as a synonym of 
F. perforata L., interpreted as a species of broader 
range in Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and from 
Guatemala to Colombia. 



74 




24. Jagiiey Colorado 



Natural size. 



Ficiis sintenisil Warb. 



75 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY (POLYGONACEAE) 



Key to the 6 species illustrated ( Xos. 25-30) 
A. Leaves rounded or short-pointed at apex, without faint lines ; fruits fleshy, without wings. 
B. Leaves round or nearly so. 

C. Leaves very large, 1-1% feet in diameter, appearing wrinkled with lateral veins deeply sunken — 26. 
Coccoloba pubescens. 
CC. Leaves smaller, 2Vn-G inches long, flat. 

D. Leaves longer than broad; veins green, forming prominent network upon drying — 27. Coccoloba 
swartzii. 
DD. Leaves broader than long; midrib, larger veins, and young and old leaves often reddish — 28. 
Coccoloba nrifera. 
BB. Leaves elliptic, about twice as long as broad. 

E. Leaves leathery, broadest below middle, mostly rounded at both ends, with edges turned under — 25. 
Coccoloba diversifolia. 
EE. Leaves thin, usually broadest above middle, short- to long-pointed at apex and short-pointed to heart- 
shaped at base — 29. Coccoloba renosa. 
AA. Leaves long-pointed, oblong, with 2-5 faint lines on each side of and parallel with midrib; fruits dry, with 3 
showy pink wings — 30. Triplaris americana* 



25. Uvilla, doveplum 

Trees of this genus are recofrnized by the twigs 
ringed at the nodes with a membranous sheath 
(ocrea) at tlie base of the leaves. This species of 
limestone forests is characterized by : ( 1 ) the dis- 
tinctive smoothish mottled gray and brown bai'k, 
gray at first but peeling off in sliort thin flakes ex- 
posing brown beneath; (2) twigs ringed at nodes, 
with gray or brown membranous sheath (ocrea) 
14 incTi long at base of leaves; (3) elliptic to ovate 
leathery leaves 11/2-5 inches long and ^g-SVo inches 
wide, usually rounded at both ends and turned 
under at edges; (4) slender flower clusters with 
many short -.stalked spreading 5-paited whitish- 
green flowers 3/jg inch across; and (5) rounded 
or egg-shaped dark red or purplish fruits %-V2 
inch long, slightly fleshy and edible. 

An evergreen, usually small tree to 30 feet tall 
and 10 inches in trunk diameter, often with sev- 
eral slender trunks and crooked branches. Large 
trunks may be buttressed, fluted, or angled. The 
inner bark is light brown and astringent or bitter. 
Twigs are green when young, Ijecoming gray or 
sometimes brown, and bear alternate leaves. 

Petioles are ^4-% i'K'b long, light green. Blades 
are sometimes blunt-pointed at apex. The upper 
surface is dark green to gi-een and dull or often 
shiny, and lower surface is slightly paler dull 
green. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are terminal and 1%- 
(i inches long. Flowers are male and female on 
different trees (dioecious) and have short stalks 
Vs inch or less in length. Male flowers have a 
short basal tube (hypanthium) less than \\^ inch 
long; 5 spreading rounded whitish-green calyx 
lobes more than i-ig inch long; S white spreading 
stamens attached to tube ; and rudimentary whitish 
pistil with ovary and 3 short styles. Female 
flowers have basal tube, 5 calyx lol^es, minute non- 
functional stamens, and pistil with 1-celled ovary 
i/kj inch long and 3 spreading styles. 

The fruits consist of basal tube (hypanthium) 
with calyx lobes at the pointed apex, enclosing 1 



Coccoloba diversifolia Jacq. 

large brown seed (akene) i/4-% inch long. The 
sour and somewiiat astringent thin flesh is eaten 
by birds and children and prepared into jelly. 
With flowers or developing fruits nearly through 
the year. 

The whitish or light brown sapwood is hard. 
The wood is described as dark reddish brown, 
heavy (specific gravity 0.8), strong, and brittle. 
Employed in Puerto Rico mostly for posts and 
j)oles. Elsewhere reportedly used in cabinet- 
making. 

Popular for general planting and landscape 
work in southern Florida. Also a honey plant. 

In both the moist and dry limestone forest re- 
gions of Puerto Rico. Also in Mona, Vieques, and 
St. Croix. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, 
Guanica, Susua, Vega. 

MUNICIP.\LITIES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMOX. — 

7, 9, 11, 14, 24, 26, 28, 38, 44, 54, 55, 68, 75. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bahamas, Greater Antilles, St. Croix, and 
lesser Antilles. 

Other common names. — uverillo (Puerto 
Rico) ; uvilla, guayabon, uvilla de sierra, uva 
cimarrona (Dominican Republic) ; uvilla, guaya- 
canejo, uverillo, uva de paloma, fruta de paloma 
(Cuba) ; doveplum, pigeon-plum, pigeon seagrape 
(United States) ; pigeon-plum (Bahamas) ; raisin 
marron (Haiti). 

Formerly referred to Coccoloba Jau.ri folia Jacq., 
a species described from Venezuela. 

Besides the 5 species of this genus illustrated 
here, 6 others of mostly small trees are native in 
forests of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and 
are mentioned under related species. The 2 below 
are distinguished from that above by the more 
numerous female flowers 50 or more in along an 
axis instead of 10-20. Uvero de monte {Cocco- 
loba sintenkii Urban), known only from Puerto 
Rico, has oblong leathery leaves 5-8 inches long 



76 




25. Uvilla, doveplum 



Natural size. 



Coccoloba diversifolia Jacq. 
77 



and 31/^-5 inches wide, short-pointed at apex and 
heart-shaped at base, red flower chisters, and red 
flowers with stalks %6 inch or more in length. 

Coccoloha co.sfafa C. Wright (('. nipicola Ur- 
ban), rare in Puerto Kico but known also from 



Cuba and Hispaniola, has broadly ovate to elliptic 
or rounded leathery leaves mostly 2-7 inches long 
and 2-41/^ inches wide, blunt or rounded at apex, 
green flower clusters, and green flowers with stalks 
less than V^^ inch long. 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY (POLYGONACEAE) 



26. Moralon 



A distinctive medium-sized tree of moist moun- 
tain forests in centi'al and western Puerto Rico, 
easily recognized by: (1) very large nearly round 
leaves I-IV2 feet in diameter (often nearly 3 feet 
on rapidly growing sprouts), broader than long, 
heart-shaped and almost stalkless, thick, stitf, and 
leathery, appearing wrinkled with lateral veins 
dee]3ly sunken, and finely hairy beneatii; (2) stout 
twigs ringed and enlarged at nodes, bearing at 
base of leaf a sheath (ocrea), split into brown 
finely hairy rounded lobes about 1/4-^2 i"ch long 
and ai^pearing double; (3) numerous snioll light 
green flowers on short stalks along a stout terminal 
axis; and (4) rounded fruits Yie-V^ inch in 
diameter. 

An evergreen tree to 70 feet in height, the trinik 
becoming 2 feet or more in diameter and slightly 
buttressed when large, with si^reading crown com- 
posed of few branches and few leaves. Young 
trees and sprouts are erect and unbranched. The 
gray bark is smoothish and slightly fissured, the 
inner bark light brown and slightly bitter. The 
stout gray twigs have raised dots (lenticels) and 
are green and minutely hairy when young. Ter- 
minal buds are short, rounded, brown, and finely 
hairy. 

The alternate leaves have stout green petioles 
about % inch long, so short that the bases appear 
to be clas])ing. Blades are rounded at apex, not 
toothed at edges, above green and shiny and be- 
neath yellow green with the network of veins 
raised and i^rominent. Leaves of mature trees 
found in Hispaniola are reported to be much 
smaller, as short as 3-4 inches in length. 

The narrow flower cluster (raceme) 5-8 inches 
long consists of a slightly curved light green axis 
Vs^-I^ inch in diameter, minutely hairy, bearing 
flowers about s/^e inch across, usually 2 or 3 to- 
gether on slender light green stalks about % inch 
long. Flowers are male and female on ditl'erent 
trees (dioecious). The male flower consists of a 
light green cuplike liasal tube (hypanthium) i/m 
inch long and broad with 5 nearly round whitish- 
green calyx lobes Yiq long; 8 slender white stamens 



Coccoloba pubescens L. 

Vjg inch long united into a basal tube nearly as 
long; and rudimentary pistil composed of light 
green ovary i/jg inch long and 3 small whitish 
styles. Female flowers have basal tube, 5 calyx 
lobes, minute nonfunctional stamens, and pistil 
with ovary 14 g inch long and 3 styles. 

When fruiting, the axis curves downward from 
the weight of the many fruits which are green and 
pinkish tinged when immature, consisting of the 
enlarged basal tube (hypanthium) enclosing 1 
shiny brown 3-angled seed (akene) %,-, inch long. 

The sapwood is whitish, and the lieartwood red- 
dish brown with pores marked by dark gum. The 
very hard, heavy wood (s]^ecific gravity more than 
1.0) is durable and emjiloyed for construction and 
furniture. It is resistant to attack by dry-wood 
termites. 

As a slow-growing ornamental for sj^ecial plant- 
ings, this distinctive tree has been introduced spar- 
ingly in southern Florida and Cuba. 

In the moist limestone forest region and less 
commonly in the western half of the lower Cordil- 
lera region of Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Guajataca, Maricao, Rio 
Abajo. 

Raxge. — Hispaniola. Puerto Rico, Barbuda, 
Antigua, Montserrat, Xevis. Guadeloupe, Domini- 
ca, Martinique, St. Lucia, and Barbados. Planted 
in southern Florida and Cuba. 

Other common names. — hojaucha (Dominican 
Republic) ; grandleaf seagrape (United States) ; 
leather-coat-tree (Barbados) ; raisinier grandes- 
feuilles, bois rouge, moralon (French West 
Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Coccoloha grandifolia 
Jacq. 

A related rare species called ortegon {Coccoloha 
rugosa Desf.) is now known only from the south 
slope of the Luquillo Mountains but formerly was 
present also near San Juan. This small tree has 
the trunk unbranched or with very few branches, 
similar very large nearly round leaves 1-lV^ feet 
in diameter but hairless, and reddish flower clus- 
ters and fruits. 



78 





26. Moralon 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Coccoloia pubescena L. 
79 



27. Ortegon 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY (POLYGONACEAE) 

Coccoloba swartzii Meisn. 



Distinguisliing characters for this species usu- 
ally of mountain forests, include: (1) shiny green 
elliptic to broadly ovate to rounded leaf' blades 
generally thick and leathery, 2i/^-6 inches long and 
2-4 inches broad, on short stout green petioles; 

(2) twigs ringed at nodes with a green sheath 
(ocrea) %-% inch high at base of young leaves; 

(3) the terminal erect green flowering axis gener- 
ally stout and Vs-^e i'lcli in diameter, bearing 
many stalkless greenish 5-parted flowers singly 
and not crowded; and (4) slightly fleshy green to 
blackish egg-shaped fruit (akene) 5/^g inch long 
with calyx lobes at top. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree com- 
monly to 40 feet high and S inches in trunk diam- 
eter, but recorded to 50 feet in height and 3 feet 
in trunk diameter, with narrow or rounded crown. 
The bark is gray, smooth to slightly fissured, the 
brown or pinkish inner bark slightly bitter and 
gritty. The stout gray twigs are slightly crooked 
and bent at the ringed nodes. 

leaves are alternate on petioles %-% inch long. 
Blades are blunt-pointed or rounded at apex and 
rounded or sliglitly heart-shaped at Ixise, the edges 
not toothed, shiny green al)Ove and a little lighter 
green beneatli. ITpon drying the minute network 
of small veins becomes slightly raised and promi- 
nent on botli surfaces. 

The flower cluster (spike) is 4-12 inches long. 
Flowers are male and female on difl'erent trees 
(dioecious). The male flower 3/jy inch across has 
a cuplike scale at base and consists of basal tube 
( hypanthium) Vjg inch long with 5 widely spread- 
ing calyx lobes more than Wq inch long, 8 spread- 
ing stamens, and rudimentary pistil. In the fe- 
male flower tlie stamens are small, and the larger 
pistil has a 3-angled 1-celled ovary and 3 styles. 

The fruit is composed of tiie basal tube (hypan- 
thium) 1,4 incji long bearing at apex the 5 calyx 
lobes more than W^ inch long and enclosing a shiny 
dark brown seed %6 inch long. Recorded in flower 
and fruit from June to September. 



The sapwood is whitish and hard. The heavy 
wood (specific gravity 0.7) is used in Puerto Rico 
chiefly for posts. 

In the lower and upper mountain forest regions 
of Puerto Rico, ascending to dwarf forests of the 
summits. Also in moist lowlands of Puerto Rico, 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. John, and Virgin Gorda. 

Public forests. — ^Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Bahamas, Greater Antilles, St. Croix, 
St. John, Virgin Gorda, and Lesser Antilles from 
Saba to St. Lucia and Barbados. 

Other common names. — uvilla (Puerto Rico) ; 
uvillon (Cuba); tie-tongue (Bahamas). 

The common form known only from mountains 
of Puerto Rico and characterized by thick leaves 
and stout flowering axis has been distinguished 
also as a species {Coccoloba harm que naif! Britton; 
C. swartzii f. urhanii (Lindau) Howard). 

Three related species may be mentioned here. 
One called uvera (Coccoloba pyri folia Desf.), 
known only from Puerto Rico, has narrowly ovate 
leaves 2—1-1/2 inches long and 1-21/4 inches wide, 
short-pointed or blunt at apex, veins inconspicuous 
on Ijoth sides, and round fruits only %e inch in 
diameter. 

Uverillo {Coccoloba mix:-rosta-chya Willd. ; syn- 
onym C. obf lis! folia auth.. not Willd.) is a shrub 
or small tree widely distributed in the drier areas 
of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and also in 
Hispaniola. It has small, mostly oblong or ovate 
leaves 11/2-21/0 inches long and %-li/4 inches wide, 
the apex short-pointed, rounded, or notched, the 
base rounded, veins prominent and forming dense 
network on lioth sides, and black fruit 
not angled. 

Coccoloba l-rugii Lindau, another shrub or small 
tree of drier areas of Puerto Rico, Anegada, and 
elsewhere in the West Indies, has ovate leaves 1-2 
inches long and %-li/4 inches wide, rounded at 
apex and heart-shaped at base, veins inconspicuous 
on ujjj^er surface, and 3-angled fruit ^^g inch long. 



14 inch long 



80 




27. Ortegon 



Coccoloia swartzii Meisn. 



Two-thirds natural size. 



81 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY (POLYGONACEAE) 



28. Uva de playa, seagrape 

Usually limited to sandy and rocky seashores 
and coastal thickets, this familiar small tree or 
shrub is easily identified by: (1) the rounded or 
kidney-shaped thick and leathery leaves slightly 
broader than long, 3-6 inches long and 4-8 inches 
broad, heart-shaped at base, with short petiole and 
a reddish-brown membranous sheath (ocrea) 
%-% inch high around stem; (2) midrib, lai-ger 
veins, and young and very old leaves often red- 
dish; (3) the numerous small whitish or greenish- 
white flowers 3jg inch across in narrow terminal 
and lateral clusters 4—9 inches long; and (4) the 
drooping grapelike clusters of crowded purple 
fruits about % inch long, elliptic or egg-shaped, 
and edible. 

Varying greatly in size from a low prostrate 
shrub on wind-swept beaches to a small, straggly 
or wide spreading tree to 30 feet in height and 1 
foot in trunk diameter (rarely to 2V2 feet), ever- 
green, with rounded crown of few coarse branches 
and often branching near base. Sometimes a 
larger tree in protected or favorable sites. The 
smoothish thin bark is gi'ay, on large trunks peel- 
ing oif in small flakes and becoming mottled whit- 
ish, liglit gray, and light brown. Inner bark is 
light brown ancl bi( ter. The stout S]n-eading twigs 
are green and minutely hairy when young, becom- 
ing gray, with leaf sheaths and ring scars at nodes. 

The leaves are alternate on petioles 1/4-1/^ inch 
long. Tlie blades, often turned on edge vertically, 
have margins slightly curved under and are hair- 
less or nearly so. the up]3er surface green or blue 
green and the lower surface paler. 

Erect flower clusters (narrow racemes) 4-9 
inches long have numerous fragrant flowers on 
short stalks Vje-^/s inch long, male and female on 
different trees (dioecious). The male flower has 
n greenish-white basal tube (hypanthium) i/^g 
inch long and broad bearing 5 spreading rounded 
white calyx lobes more than i/jg inch long: 8 
stamens united at base; and rudimentary pistil. 
In the female flower the stamens ai-e small, and 
the larger pistil has a 1-celled ovary and 3 styles. 

The fruit has a thin fleshy covering (hypan- 
thium) with calyx at apex, sour or sweetish, and 
enclosing 1 elliptic seed (akene) % inch long. 
Flowering and fruiting through theVear. 

The sapwood is light bi-own, and the heartwood 
is reddish brown. The wood is hard, moderately 
heavy (specific gravity 0.7), and very susceptible 
to attack by dry-wood termites. It' takes a fine 
polish but is little used in Puerto Rico except for 
posts and fuel. Straight pieces sliould be suited 
for wood turning. Elsewhere, uses for furniture 
and cabinetwork have been reported. 



Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. 

The bark contains tannin, and the astringent 
roots and liark have been used in medicines else- 
where. West Indian or Jamaican kino, an astrin- 
gent red sap exuding or extracted from cut bark, 
formerly was in commerce for tanning and dyeing. 

Jelly and a winelike beverage can be prepared 
from the fruits, which also are eaten raw. 
Bunches of fruits in conelike packets formed by 
rolling the leaves have been sold on the streets. 
Early Spanish colonists sometimes used the fresh 
thick leaves as a substitute for paper, scratching 
messages with a pin or other sharp point. 

This is one of the first woody species to become 
established on sandy shores, being more hard}' in 
the.se exposed places and more tolerant of salt 
than most trees. For these reasons it is often 
planted as an ornamental or windbreak along the 
coast. Since jiropagation is from cuttings, female 
plants should be selected for fruits. Also fre- 
quently grown in southern Florida in landscaping 
and as a hedge trimmed to shape. A good honey 
plant. 

Very probably seagrape was the first land plant 
of America seen by Christopher Columbus, ac- 
cording to Nathaniel L. Britton. That authority, 
who visited San Salvador (AVatling) Island in 
1907, reported this to be the most conspicuous 
jdant nearest the ocean. However, that island ap- 
l)arently was not the first discovered. 

On nearly all sandy and rocky seashores and 
coastal thickets in Puerto Rico, Mona, Desecheo, 
Icacos, Culebra, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, 
St. John, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, and Anegada. 

R.\.NGE. — Widely distributed on tropical Ameri- 
can shores. From central and southern Florida, 
including Florida Keys, and Bermuda throughout 
West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad 
and Tobago, and Curacao and Aruba. On At- 
lantic coast of the continent from noi-thern Mexico 
to Colombia, Venezuela, and Guianas. 

Other combion names. — uva de mar, uvero 
(Puerto Rico) ; grape (Virgin Islands) ; uva de 
playa, uva, uvero (Spanish) ; uva de mar, uva 
caleta (Dominican Republic) ; uva caleta 
(Cuba): papaturro (Honduras, Costa Rica); 
papaturro extranjero (Nicaragua) ; seagrape 
(United States, English) ; seaside-grape 
(Jamaica, Trinidad, British Guiana) ; grape 
(British Honduras) ; raisin la mer (Haiti) ; raisin 
l)ord-de-mer, raisinier bord-de-mer (Guadeloupe, 
French Guiana) ; zeedreifi, dreifi, dreifi di laman, 
seagrape (Dutch West Indies) ; druif, zeedruif 
(Surinam). 



82 




28. L'ya de playa, sea-ape 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Coccolo'ba uvifera (L.) L. 



83 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY (POLYGONACEAE) 



29. Calambiena. chicoiy-sriape 

A small troo with odihlc fi'uii.s I'liaractorized by : 
(1) a veiT spioailiiiiT crown with noarly horizontal 
branches and leaves ih-oopinfj in "2 rows; (2) sliort- 
stallced leaves witii thin elliptic to obovate blade, 
usnally broadest above middle, the nnich sunken 
lateral veins nearly parallel but curved and joininu: 
near edjies and with membranous lonir-pointed 
sheath (ocrea) -"j^-^^ inch lona' surroumlinir twi^: 
but soon sheddiuii; (15) very slender erwt terminal 
and lateral flower clusters ;>-" inches lonir, with 
numerous short-stalked 5-parted frreenish-yellow 
flowei's more than iji inch across, the male and fe- 
male flowers on ditl'erent trees (dioecious) ; and 
(4) numerous showy fleshy white to pinkish fi-uits 
3,jg-i^ inch lonir, eii'<x-sha]nHl, consist ini;: of eilible 
lobed calyx, antl inside a shiny blackish seed 
(akene). 

A deciduous tree or shrub to ;U) feet hisxh and S 
inches in diameter. The brown bark is smoothish 
with raised dots (lenticels). the inner bark pink 
brown and sliirhtly bitter. Twijrs are ereen when 
younji, becomiuir li^iht brown with raised dots 
(lenticels). with remains of sheath or rinir :»t 
nodes, and lx>arini: alternate leaves. 

Petioles are i.i-ij inch lonir. brownish <rreen. 
After the basal slieath sheds, the base remains at- 
tached. Blades are SV'o-f* inches long and l^/o— I 
inches wide, or larsrer on rajiidly srrowine shoots. 
short- to long-pointed at apex and siradually nar- 
rowed to the short-pointed or sliirhtly heart-sha]ied 
base, the edjjes not toothed, the upper surface jxi-een 
and slisihtly shiny, and lower surface dull ixi-een 
with raised veins. 



Coccoloba venosa L. 

Mowers are bori\e along the axis (spikelike 
raceme), 1 to few above a scale on stalks about i/jg 
inch lonjr. Each flower has a "i-lobed membranous 
scale about Vio inch long at base. The male flower 
consists of a minute greenish-yellow basal tube 
( hypanthiimi) with i\ spreading calyx lobes about 
'iti '"I'll long, S stamens less than 'm inch long, 
and rudimentary pistil. The female flower has 
basal tube (hypanthinm) with 5 calyx lobes, sterile 
.stamens, and pistil with ;>-angled 1-celled ovary 
and ;5 styles. 

The fruit is broadly egg-shaped with fleshy calyx 
lobes, sweet and edible, surrounding the seed 
(akene) ij^ inch long. Recorded in flower from 
May to September and in fruit in October. 

The wood is whitish, hard, and little used. 

Ii\ the ilry coastal region of Puerto Kico. .Vlso 
in Mona, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. .lohn. 
and Tortola. 

Public forests. — (luanica, Susiia. 

K.ANGE. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, Lesser Antilles from St. Martin south to 
(iivnada, and Trinidad and Tobago. Reported 
from -lamaica nearly '200 years ago, perhaps in 
error. Also in Venezuela and introduced experi- 
mentally in Cuba. 

Otiikk co.mmox xamks. — false-grape, cherry- 
grape, trible-gra])e (Virgin Islands): guarapo 
(Dominican Republic): checker-grape (Grena- 
dines) : hoe-stick- wood (Barbados) : white-grape, 
small - leaf - grape (Trinidad) : sugary - grajje 
(Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Coccoloba nivea Jacq. 



84 




20. Calambrefia, chicory-grape 



Coccoloha venosa L. 



Two-thirds natural size. 



85 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY (POLYGONACEAE) 



30. Triplaris, anttree 

Tliis handsome exotic is easily recognized by: 
(1) its straight tall trunk and narrow columnar 
crown; (2) smooth mottled Ijrown and light gray 
bark peeling off in thin pieces or strips: (3) hollow 
twigs ringed at nodes and ending in a long, nar- 
row, pointed, pale greenish or j'ellowish bud 2-4 
inches long; (4) large oblong long-pointed leaves 
with many parallel nearly straight lateral veins 
and with 2-5 faint lines on each side of and paral- 
lel with midrib; (5) small greenish very hairy 
flowers, crowded in erect clusters, the male and 
female on diiTerent trees (dioecious) ; and (6) 
showy masses of large odd reddish fruits at the top 
of the crown, about 1% inch long, consisting of an 
elliptic base and 3 oblong pink wings like a small 
shuttlecock. 

A medium-sized to large evergreen tree becom- 
ing TO feet tall and 11,2 feet in trunk diameter, the 
trunk slightly angled or fluted. The bark, where 
peeled otf, exposes a light gray layer beneath. 
Imier bark is pinkish and astringent. The green 
to bi-own stout twigs are often slightly zigzag. 
The scale (stipule) covering the bud makes a ring 
scar around the twig upon falling. 

The leaves are alternate on stout, shoi-t, flattened 
petioles i/4-% inch long. Blades are mostly 9-14 
inches long and 2V'2-5 inches wide, sometimes only 
half as large, short-pointed at base, not toothed at 
edges. The faint lines parallel with midrib result 
from pressure in the bud when the blade is folded 
under. The upper surface is dull to shiny green 
and hairless or nearly so, and the lower surface 
slightly paler dull green and with scattered brown 
hairs on midrib. 

Flower clusters (spikes and racemes) are lateral 
at base of leaves, 2-8 inches long, densely light 
brown hairy, with flowers stalkless or short- 
stalked. Male flowers about %fi inch long have a 
funnel-shaped, tubular, 6-lobed, hairy calyx and 



Triplaris americana L.* 

9 spreading stamens. Female flowers have a tubu- 
lar 3-lobed calyx, 3 petals, and pistil with 3-angled 
ovary and 3 slender stjdes. 

The fruit consists of a basal elliptic swollen 
hairy calyx tulse % inch or more in length with 3 
reddish or pink-red. membranous, prominently 
veined wings U^-l^o inches long, formed fi'om 
calyx lobes. Inside are the 3 narrow petals and 
1 3-angled pointed shiny brown seed (akene). At 
maturity the fruit falls slowly like a parachute, 
si)iiniing rapidly. Flowering in spring from Feb- 
ruary to May and in fruit in May and June. 

The whitish sapwood is soft. The wood of this 
or related species is reportedly used for construc- 
tion where native. When cut for fuel, the trunks 
are replaced by sprouts. 

In the natural environment the hollow twigs are 
inhabited by ants, usually vicious or ferocious 
stinging ones. 

An ornamental in some cities of Puerto Rico, 
having been introduced about 1924 and distribu- 
ted a few years later. Also tested at St. Croix. 

Raxge. — NortheiTL South America, originally 
described from eastern Venezuela. Planted in 
southern Florida, Puerto Rico, and other tropical 
areas. 

Other coMsrox xa:\ie. — long-john anttree 
(English). 

There is some doubt about the specific name of 
the Puerto Rican trees. According to Britton and 
Wilson 3 species were introduced : Triphirix nmerl- 
enna L. from Central America though originally 
described from Venezuela, T. caracasana Cham, 
from Venezuela, and T. cumingiana Fisch. & Mey. 
from Panama. The Puerto Rican trees appear to 
be the same as those planted in the Canal Zone and 
Cul)a under the last named species, which origin- 
allv was described from Colombia. 



86 




30. Triplaris, anttree 

687-921 0—64 7 



One-half natural size. 



Triplaris americana L. 
87 



FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY (NYCTAGINACEAE) 



Key to the 3 species illustrated (Xos. 31-33) 

A. Leaves thin or slightly thickened, rounded or short-pointed at both ends, hairy at least when young; fruits dry, 
narrow, with 5 x-ows of rtotlike glands. 
B. Leaves about half as broad as long, the lower surface densely Hne hairy — 31. Pisonia albida. 
BB. Leaves nearly as broad as long, rusty bro^vn hairy when young but becoming hairless or nearly so — 32, 
Pisonia subcordata. 
AA. Leaves slightly thickened and succulent, short-pointed at both ends, hairless: fruits fleshy — 33. Torrubia fragrans. 



31. Corcho bobo 

This tree of dry areas is characterized by: (1) 
brittle twio;s; (2) opposite elliptic leaves 2-6 
inches lon<; and 1-3 inches broad, rounded or 
short-pointed at both ends, the tipper surface 
slightly shiny green and hairless, and the lower 
surface paler and densely fine hairy; (3) many 
flagrant small greenish flowers in terminal 
branched clusters when leaves are shed or form- 
ing; and (-i) numerous dark brown dry fruits % 
inch long and I'le inch in diameter, the upper half 
with 5 rows of raised glands and slightly sticky. 

A deciduous, usually small tree to 30 feet in 
height and fi-1'2 inches in trunk diameter with 
spreading crown, or shrubbj'. Base of trunk and 
roots are often enlarged, suggesting an elephant's 
foot with toes. The bark is whitish gray and 
smooth. Inner bark is yellow or light brown, 
gritty, and tasteless. Twigs are light green and 
finely hairy, Ijecoming light gray. 

The leaves have finely hairy, pale yellow peti- 
oles i/l~l^/4 inches long. The blades are thin or a 
little thickened and not toothed on edges. 

Flowers are male and female on different trees 
(dioecious) in terminal branched clusters (cymes) 
on a stalk about 1 inch long. Male flowers are 
short -stalked, consisting of greenish, finely hairy, 
5-toothed bell -shaped calyx % inch long and usu- 
ally 8 stamens about 1/4 inch long. Female flowers 



Pisonia albida (Heimerl) Britton 



in widelj' forking branched clusters have slender 
stalks 1/^-1/4 inch or more in length; the greenish, 
finely hairy, 5-toothed tubular calyx i ^ inch long, 
and pistil with 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary, style, and 
stigma. 

Fruits (akenes) are numerous in a spreading 
cluster of widely forking branches 2-3i/^ inches 
long and broad, the whole cluster breaking off to- 
gether. The tubular calyx remains outside of the 
very narrow dark brown 1-seeded fruit. Flower- 
ing when leafless or with new leaves, from Febru- 
ary to May, and maturing fruits in late spring. 

The sapwood is yellowish or whitish. The heart- 
wood is yellowish, coarse-textured, with silvery 
gum in the pores, and moderately soft. T'sed only 
as fuel wood in Puerto Eico. 

It is reported that the sticky fruit clusters fallen 
on the ground can cause death of young chickens 
that get tangled in them. 

In forests and thickets in the diy coast and lime- 
stone regions of southern and western Puerto Rico. 
Also common in Mona and in Caja de Muertos. 

PtTBLic FORESTS. — Guajataca, Guanica, Susiia. 

Range. — Hispauiola, Puerto Rico, Mona, and 
Caja de Muertos. 

On IKK COMMON NAMES. — corclio blaiico, corcho 
(Puerto Rico). 



88 




31. Corcho bobo 



Natural size. 



Pinonia alhida (Heimerl) Britton 

89 



FOUR'O'CLOCK FAMILY (NYCTAGINACEAE) 



32. Corcho bianco, water mampoo 

A medium-sized to large tree recognized by : ( 1 ) 
opposite, usually large, elliptio or nearly round 
leaves 2V2-8 (sometimes 10) inches long and nearly 
as broad, mostly rounded at apex and rounded or 
often a little heart-shaped at base; (2) gray 
smooth trunk and branches; (3) numerous green- 
ish flowers crowded in stalked ball-like clustei-s 
I-I14 inches in diameter, male and female on dif- 
ferent trees (dioecious) ; and (4) narrow dry fruits 
%-i/2 inch long and more than "],; inch in diameter, 
iO-angled, with 5 rows of dot I ike glands near 
apex. 

This deciduous tree l^ecomes 40-50 feet in height, 
with short, often thick trunk to 2-3 feet iii di- 
ameter, stout branches, and rounded crown. The 
twigs are green and finely rusty-brown hairy when 
young, becoming gray and stout. 

The leaves have stout round ]>etioles I-I14 inches 
long. Blades are without teeth on edges, rusty- 
brown hairy when young liut becoming hairless or 
nearly so, shiny yellow green above and beneath 
dull light green with pinkish main veins. 

Flowei-s appearing with new leaves generally in 
early spring but sometimes in summer. The ter- 
minal and lateral clusters of fragrant finely hairy- 
flowers have stalks 1-2 inches long. Male flowers 



Pisonia subcordata Sw. 

have bell-shaped, S-toothed calyx 1/4 inch long and 
8-10 longer stamens. Female flowers, less 
crowded, consist of tubular a-toothed calyx about 
Yg inch long and pistil with ovai-y, slender style, 
and much branched stigma. The 1-seeded fruits 
(akenes) are enclosed by the club-shaped or cy- 
lindrical calyx, gray green, maturing generally in 
spring. 

Wood is soft, whitish, lightweight (.specific 
gravity about 0.5), porous, and not durable. Used 
for net floats for fishing and as fuel wood in Puerto 
Rico and for boxes in Guadeloupe. 

In forests in the limestone and lower Cordillera 
regions of Puerto Rico. A race with very large 
thin leaves is found on limestone. Also in Icacos, 
('ulel)rita, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, Tortola, and Anegada. 

PiHLK' KoHESTS.— Guajataca, Maricao, Rio 
Aba jo. 

Range. — Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, and 
Lesser Antilles from Anguilla and St. Martin 
south to Guadeloupe and Martinique. 

Other common names. — corcho, palo bobo 
(Puerto Rico) ; mampoo, loblolly (Virgin Is- 
lands) ; mapou (St. Barthelemy) ; mapou gris 
(Guadeloupe) ; mappoo (Dutch West Indies). 



90 




32. Corcho bianco, water mampoo 



Natural size. 



Pisonia sithcordata Sw. 



91 



FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY (NYCT AGIN ACE AE) 
33. Corcho, black mampoo Torrubia fragrans (Dum.-Cours.) Standley 



A small to medium-sized tree characterized by : 
(1) op])osite, obovate or elliptic leaves, usually 
broadest above middle, 2-6 inches lonp; and 1-21/2 
inches broad, short-pointed at the apex and gradu- 
ally narrowed at base to a short petiole; and (2) 
clustered, cylindrical, fleshy, 1-seeded fruits V^-Vo 
inch long and %6 inch in diameter, red, turning 
black, covered by the calyx with 5 teeth at apex. 

An evergreen tree 20-40 feet high and to 20 
inches in trunk diameter, with rounded crown. 
Tlie bark is smootliish, gray or brown. Inner bark 
is light brown, slightly bitter. Twigs yellow gi-een 
when yovmg, becoming gray. 

The leaves have yellow-gi-een petioles i/fe-% 
inch long and slightly thickened and succulent 
blades, the edges not toothed, hairless, green or 
yellow green and slightly shiny above and paler 
beneath. 

Flowers are male and female on different trees 
(diiiecious), numerous in stalked, erect, mostly ter- 
minal, branched clustei-s (panicles) 3-4 inches 
long and li/j-'^ inches broad, short-stalked or 
stalkless, greenish, minutely hairy, slightly fra- 
grant. Male flowers have funnel-shaped a-toothed 
calyx ^jg inch long and 0-10 longer stamens. 
Female flowers consist of narrow tubular 5-toothed 
calyx l/g inch long and ])istil with ovary, slender 
style, and nmch branclied stigma. Flowers and 
fruits appear from early spring to summer. 



The sapwood is whitish and soft. The wood is 
little used in Puerto Rico and elsewliere has even 
been considered unsuitable for fuel. 

In forests of the moist coast, moist limestone, 
and lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico. Also 
Mona, Icacos, Culebra, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda. 

PtTBLic FORESTS. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Lu- 
quillo, Rio Abajo, Vega. 

Rang?:. — Almost throughout West Indies (ex- 
cept Bahamas) from Cuba and Jamaica to Gre- 
nada, Barbados, and Tobago, and in Bonaire, 
Curagao, and Ainiba. Also in northern South 
America from Colombia to Venezuela and 
Guianas. 

Other common names. — palo de corcho, maja- 
gua de mona, majagua, emajagua (Puerto Rico) ; 
perico, palo de perico (Dominican Republic); 
barrehorno (Cuba); estribo (Colombia); mapoo 
(St. Lucia, Grenadines) ; beefwood (Barbados) ; 
mapoo (St. Barthelemy). 

Botanical synonybi. — Fison'ia fragrans Dum.- 
Cours. 

A second sjiecies of this genus, known as ba- 
rrehorno {Tornihm discolor (Spreng.) Britton), 
is distinguished by the oblong or elliptic leaves 
rounded at apex and usually smaller, 1-21/2 inches 
long and 1/2-IV2 inches broad. This shrub or small 
tree is recorded from Puerto Rico and Desecheo. 



92 




33. Corcho, black mampoo 



Torrubia fragrant (Dum.-Cours. ) Standley 



Natural size. 



93 



MAGNOLIA FAMILY (MAGNOLIACEAE) 



Key to the 2 native species, both illustrated (Nos. 34-35) 

A. Leaves broadly elliptic to nearly round, abruptly short-pointed, hairless — 34. Magnolia portoricensis. 
AA. Leaves ovate or elliptic, short- or long-pointed, the lower surface silky gray green with fine hairs — 35. MagnoHa 
splendens. 



34. Jagiiilla 

This handsome tree of the central and western 
mountains of Puerto Rico is easily recognized by: 

( 1 ) showy, very fragrant, white flowers 2-5 inches 
across the 7 or 8 petals, borne singly and terminal : 

(2) leathery, liroadly elliptic to nearly round 
leaves 3-8 inches long and '2-6 inches l)road. 
abruptly short-pointed, bent upward on both sides 
of midrib, slightly shiny, dark green or green on 
upper surface and paler beneath giving the foliage 
a grayish cast; (3) hairless twigs ringed at the 
nodes; (4) foliage and bark with a spicy odor 
when crushed, as well as a spicy taste; and (5) 
long narrow terminal buds. 

A meditnn-sized to large evergreen tree attain- 
ing 70 feet in height and 3 feet in trunk diameter, 
with narrow crown. The gray bark is smoothish 
or slightly fissured, becoming rough on large 
trunks. Inner l)ark is light brown. The stout 
green twigs have terminal buds 2-3 inches long, 
green but becoming yellowish and tinged with 
brown, composed of a pair of scales (stipules) en- 
closing the new leaf and forming a ring scar when 
shed. 

The alternate leaves have green petioles V2~lVi 
inches long. Leaf blades have edges without 
teeth, are rounded at base, stifi', and hairless. 

The beautiful, large, spreading flowers have 3 
whitish-green sepals and 7 or 8 white petals, all 
about 1%-2V2 inches long, broad and rounded at 
apex, and slightly thickened. There are numer- 



Magnolia portoricensis Bello 

ous short-stalked stamens Vo inch long. Many 
pale yellow pistils I/4-V2 "''ch long, each with 1- 
celled ovary and curved style, are spirally ar- 
ranged on a central axis -Vt inch high. 

Fruits are elliptic, conelike, IV2-- inches long 
and 1 inch thick but slightly irregular in shape. 
Each ovary becomes a pod (follicle) and splits 
open to release 1 or 2 red triangular seeds, which 
remain attached by fine threads before falling. 
Flowering and fruiting nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is light brown. The heartwood 
when freshly cut is olive brown or yellowish green, 
later becoming brown. The wood is hard, heavy 
(specific gravity 0.7), fine-textured, and spicy 
fragrant, and is susceptible to attack by dry-wood 
termites. Under the name laurel sabino, the wood 
is employed for furniture, cabinetwork, and simi- 
lar purposes. 

In forests of upper Cordillera region of Puerto 
Rico. Most of the larger trees have been cut, ex- 
cept in the most inaccessible areas. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Maricao, 
Toro Negro. 

Mt'NICIPALITi- WHERE ESPECIAI,I,T COMMON. 19. 

Ranoe.- -Known only from mountains of Puerto 
Rico. 

Other common names. — burro mauricio, alciba, 
anonillo, ortegon (Puerto Rico) ; laurel sabino 
( wood, Puerto Rico) . 



94 





34. Ja^illa 



Natural size. 



Magnolia portoriceiiKis Bello 

95 



MAGNOLIA FAMILY (MAGNOLIACEAE) 



35. Laurel sabino 

Native only in tlie Luqiiillo Mountains of east- 
ern Puerto Rico, tliis large tree is characterized 
by : (1) yoiuig twigs and commonly the lower sur- 
faces of the leathery, o\ate or elliptic leaves silky 
or satiny gray green witli a dense coat of fine hairs 
giving a gray cast to the crown of the tree; (2) 
twigs ringed at the nodes: (3) prominent narrow 
long-pointed terminal buds; and (4) large, showy, 
fragrant, white flowers 3 inches across the 6 or 
more petals, single or 2 or 3 together at ends of 
twigs. 

An evergreen tree becoming 75 feet tall and to 
4 feet or more in trunk diameter, with narrow 
crown of dark green, spicy foliage. The trunk 
typically produces numbers of new shoots or suck- 
ers. Bark is gray, smoothish, slightly fissured or 
rough in age, the inner bark light brown, gritty, 
and slightly bitter. Twigs become green and 
nearly hairless, then brown. Terminal buds 2-31^ 
inches long are covered by a pair of united scales 
( stipules) , silky and gray green, enclosing the new 
leaf and forming a ring scar upon falling. 

The leaves are alternate on silky gray -green 
petioles %-l inch long. Leaf blades are 4—7 inches 
long and 2-3 inches broad, short- or long-pointed 
at apex and rounded or short-pointed at base, not 
toothed on edges, thick, and with the upper sur- 
face dark green and shiny. 

The flowers have 3 whitish-green sepals IV4 
inches long and 6 or more white spreading petals 
about 11/^ inches long, broad and rounded at apex. 
Stamens are numerous, about 1/4 inch long, short- 
stalked. The many pistils are % inch or less in 
length, with 1 -celled ovary and curved style, 
spirally arranged in a conelike center % inch long. 

The elliptic conelike fruits are about l^A inches 
long and % i^i'^b thick, greenish, with many pods 
( follicles) , each splitting open and containing usu- 
ally 2 triangular, red, fleshy seeds more than I/4 
inch long, attached by threads. Flowering mainly 
from April to September and maturing fruit from 
spring to winter. 

The heartwood is very attractive olive green 



Magnolia splendens Urban 

when freshly cut, later becoiuing brown, the sap- 
wood whitish. Growth rings and dark streaks 
add to the figure. The wood is moderately heavy 
(specific gravity 0.59), hard, moderately strong, 
with a characteristic spicy pungent odor. It is 
easy to work but susceptible to attack by dry-wood 
termites. Rate of air-seasoning is rapid, and 
amount of degrade is minor. Machining charac- 
teristics are as follows: planing and sanding are 
fair; and shaping, turning, boring, mortising, and 
resistance to screw splitting all are good. 

The wood is used almost entirely for furniture 
and cabinetwork. Local demand is greater than 
the limited supply. Other suitable uses are for 
veneer, plywood, millwork, turning, boat plank- 
ing, construction, and carpentry. 

The spicy leaves have served as a condiment. 
Possibly this species would be suitable as an 
ornamental. 

Laurel sabino is native to an area where tree 
growth is so slow that production of the timber 
is not economical. The average trunk diameter 
growth rate of 46 trees in the natural forest dur- 
ing a 5-year period was only 0.06 inch per year. 
The larger trees of the forest are undoubtedly 
many centuries old. This, plus the fact that propa- 
gation for planting elsewhere is difficult because 
most seeds apparently are sterile, greatly limits 
the future of this tree. The species will always 
be preserved within a formally established natu- 
ral area within the Luquillo Forest, and young 
trees are being encouraged wherever they appear 
naturally. Nevertheless, in most areas the old 
overmature trees are being salvaged more rapidly 
than they are being replaced by nature. 

Restricted to the upper Luquillo Mountains of 
Puerto Rico, mostly within the Luquillo Forest. 

Public forest. — Luquillo. 

Range. — Known only from eastern Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — Sabino, bella (Puerto 
Rico). 

Botanical synonym. — Talauma splendens (Ur- 
ban) McLaughlin. 



96 





35. Laurel sabino 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Magnolia splendens Urban 



97 



ANNONA FAMILY (ANNONACEAE) 



Key to the 6 species illustrated (Xos. 36-41) 

A. Frnlf 1 from a flower, from many pistils united. 

B. Leaves with tiny pockets on lower leaf surface where side veins join midrib : 
spines. 

C. Leaves broadest at middle; fruit with short, straight spines, inedible — 36. 
CC. Leaves broadest beyond middle ; fruit with long, curved spines, edible — 37. 

BB. Leaves without iiocl-cets ; fruits smooth, edilile. 

D. Fruit with networlv of lines on surface — 38. Annoiia rrticulata* 
DD. Fruit composed of many rounded tubercles — 39. Aiinona sqKamosa* 

AA. Fruits many from a flower, separate, inedible. 

E. Leaves ovate to oblong, long-pointed, thin: fruits with long stalks — tO. Cananga odorata.* 
EE. Leaves oblong, short-pointed or rounded at apex, leathery; fruits nearly stalkless — 11. Guattcria tlainii. 



fruits bearing many fleshy 

Annona montana. 
Annona muricata.* 



36. Guanabana cimarrona, wild soursop 

(Tu:tiial):ui;i cimarroiiu, a wild species with in- 
edible fruit, is characterized by : ( 1 ) short-stalked 
oblong or elliptic leaves ;]-7 inches long and 11/2-3 
inches wide, abruptly long-pointed at apex and 
rounded or short -pointed at base, alternate and in 
•2 rows; (2) tiny hairy pockets or pits on the lower 
leaf surfaces where the lateral veins join the mid- 
rib; (3) greenish broad flowers single or paired 
on older twigs, about 1-1% inches long, composed 
of 3 heart-shaped, broacl, short-pointed, thick 
fleshy outer petals; and (4) nearly round or egg- 
shaped green to yellowish fruit 'IV^--^ inches in di- 
ameter, with many short straight fleshy spines and 
yellowish inedil)le pulp. 

A small deciduous tree to -20 feet in height, with 
an irregular spreading crown. The gray or brown 
bark is smoothish, with raised dots (lenticels), be- 
coming slightly fissured and slightly rough. Inner 
bark is brown and tasteless. The twigs are brown. 

The petioles are i/i-% inch long. Blades are 
slightly thickened and leathery, the edges without 
teeth, shiny dark green above, and paler light 
green beneath. 

The stout flower stalks about % inch long are 
borne on older twigs. There are 3 broad, pointed, 
finely hairy sepals about %,5 inch long; 6 concave, 
fleshy, minutely hairy, greenish petals, the 3 outer 
petals about 1-1% inches long, meeting by their 
edges to form the bud, and the 3 inner petals 
rounded and stalked, about 1 inch long, less thick 
and overlapping; very numerous narrow stamens 
%6 inf*h long, crowded in a rounded mass ^'o ii^ch 
in diameter on the conical floral axis; and many 
narrow separate pistils %6 "ich long, crowded in 
a central mass. 

The aggregate fruit is composed of the numer- 
ous united pistils and is covered with many soft 
greenish spines about Vs inch long, each represent- 



Annona montana Macfadyen 

ing a style. There are many shiny brown oblong 
seeds about % inch long. Probably flowering and 
fruiting most of the year. 

The sapwood is light brown and soft. The wood 
is used only for fuel. Elsewhere, such as in south- 
ern Florida, the tree has been grown as a stock 
for budding other species. 

In forests of the dry coast and southern slopes 
of the Cordillera of Puerto Eico. Also in Vieques 
and St. Croix. 

Public forest. — Susua. 

Range. — Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 
Rico and St. Croix, Saba, St. Eustatius, Antigua, 
Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Trinidad. Also 
from Venezuela and (luianas to Brazil and Peru. 
Planted in southern Florida. 

Other common names.- -guanabana cimarrona, 
guanabana de perro (Dominican Re])ublic) ; 
guanabana cimarrona, guanabana de loma (Cuba) ; 
guanabana, turagua (Venezuela) ; guanabana 
(Peru) ; momitain soursop, wild soursop (United 
States, English) ; corossol zombi (Haiti) ; bos- 
zuurzak (Surinam) ; araticum ape (Brazil). 

A related native species is coyur or pond-apple 
(Annona glabra L.), called also corazon cimarron, 
a small tree of coastal swamps of Puerto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands and of wide distribution north 
to soutliern Florida. It is distinguished by the 
smooth, yellowish, egg-shaped fruits. The pale 
yellow pulp is almost tasteless but can be eaten. 
The wood, which is vei-y lightweight, has been 
used for floats of fishing nets and for bottle 
.stoppers. 

In addition to the 3 following species of culti- 
vated fruit trees, a few other species of this genus 
have been introduced experimentally as fruit trees. 
The generic name has been spelled Anona also. 



98 




36. Guandbana cimarrona. wild .si>ursf)i> 



Natural size. 



Annona montana Macfadyen 

99 



ANNONA FAMILY (ANNONACEAE) 



37. Guanabana, soursop 

Guanabana or soursop, a cultivated aud wild 
fruit tree, is best knowu by its edil)le si'eeii fleshy 
fruits 6-8 inches long and about 4 inclies broad, 
elliptic or e<rji; -shaped, with many curved fleshy 
spines. Other distin<ruisliing characters are : (1) 
the oblong or obovate leaves broadest beyond 
middle, short-pointed at both ends, slightly thick- 
ened and curved up on botli sides of midrib, shiny 
green above and paler beneath, with a strong scent 
when cruslied and alternate in -2 rows; (2) minute 
round pockets on the lower leaf surface where the 
side veins join the midrib; and (3) the large, 
fleshy, pale yellow or sulfur-colored flowers nearly 
1% inches long and broad, 3-angled from the 3 
heart-shaped concave outer petals, borne singly. 

A small evergreen tree attaining 20 feet in 
lieight and fi inches in trunk diameter. The bark 
is brown and smoothish, the pinkish imier bark 
tasteless. Twigs ai'e brown or gray, bearing mi- 
nute raised clots (lenticels). The short petioles 
are V8-% inch long, and leaf blades 2iA-(i inches 
long and 1-3 inches broad, the edges without 
teeth, and hairless or nearly so. 

Flowers are terminal or lateral, on stout green 
stalks 1/4-3/4 inch long, and have a strong pungent 
odor. There are 3 minute and inconspicuous 
broad green sepals % inch long; 3 pale yellow 
outer petals heart-shaped, pointed, concave, nearly 
•2 inches long and i/s i'^ch thick, fitting together at 
edges in bud and rough on outside, 3 smaller, pale 
yellow, rounded, concave, inner petals nearly 11^ 
inches long aud less thick; ami a hemispherical 
axis bearing very many crowded stamens 3/i6 inch 
long and numerous compacted narrow white pistils 
■^\r^ incli long with sticky stigmas. 

The large, aromatic, fleshy fruits (aggregate 
fruits) weighing as much as 2-5 pounds are com- 
posed of the numerous united pistils each ending 
in a fleshy spine or short base of a spine i/ig inch 



Annona muricata L.* 

or more in length, which grows from the style. 
The juicy, slightly sour, creamy white, edible pulp 
contains many shiny black or brown oblong seeds 
1/2"% i'lch long, each developing from a pistil. 
Flowering commonly from June to October, the 
fruit ripening mainly in the fall. 

The sai)wood is whitish, and the heartwood is 
brown. The wood is soft, lightweight (specific 
gravity 0.4), and not durable. The wood, little 
used in Puerto Rico, has served elsewhere for ox 
yokes. 

Valuable for the fruits, which are eaten fresh 
and used in making drinks, ice cream, and pre- 
serves. Immature fruits have been cooked as vege- 
tables. Leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds have been 
employed elsewhere in medicines. An insecticide 
for lice has been made from the leaves. Easily 
])ro])agated from seeds and rapidly growing. 

Planted for the fruits and wikl or naturalized 
in thickets, pastures, and along roads throughout 
Puerto Rico but commonest on the coast and the 
lower southern slopes of the Cordillera. Also in 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, 
and Virgin Gorda. 

Range. — Widely planted and naturalized in 
tropical regions of America and in western Africa. 
The native region perhaps is West Indies though 
not definitely known. Throughout West Indies 
except Bahamas and from Mexico to Brazil. Com- 
mon at Key West but infrequent on mainland of 
southern Florida. 

Otiiek COMMON NAMES. — guauabaua (Spanish) ; 
guanaba (Guatemala, El Salvador) ; catoche, 
catuche (Venezuela) ; soursop (English) ; corossol 
(Haiti, French West Indies) ; corossolier (French 
Guiana) ; sorsaka, zuurzak soursap (Dutch AVest 
Indies) ; zuurzak, (Surinam) ; graviola, guana- 
bano, coraQao de rainha (Brazil). 



100 




37. Guandbana, soursop 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Annona muricata L. 
101 



ANNONA FAMILY (ANNONACEAE) 



38. Corazon, custard-apple 

Corazon or custard-apple is a cultivated and es- 
caped fruit tree distiii<rnished by: (1) short-peti- 
oled lance-shaped to oblonjj leaves SiA-S inches 
lonfj and 1-2 inches wide, lone-pointed at apex 
and sliort-pointed at base, alternate and in 2 rows; 
(2) lifjht green narrow Howers %-l inch long, with 
3 narrowly oblong fleshy petals not opening 
widely, usually a few together in a drooping lat- 
eral cluster; and (3) rounded or heart-shaped 
smooth reddisli-brown fruit 3-5 inches in diam- 
eter, with a network of lines on surface, and with 
sweet, pale yellow, tallowlike, edible pulp. 

A small deciduous tre-e to 25 feet tall and to 1 
foot in trunk diameter, with a very spreading 
crown. Tlie gray or brown bark is smoothish, 
becoming shallowly furrowed. Inner bark is light 
brown, fibrous, and almost tasteless. Twigs are 
green and finely hairy when young, becoming 
brown or gray. 

Petioles are 1/4-% i"<*b long. The blades, not 
toothed at edges, are tliin, dull green above and 
slightly paler or gray green beneath, finely hairy 
when young. 

Flower chisters arise from a very short lateral 
twig but not at base of a leaf, the slender flower 
stalks about 1 inch long. Flowers have a strong 
fragrance. There are 3 broad, pointed, brownish 
liairy sepals less than i/s inch long; 3 narrow fleshy 
])etals 34-I inch long, less than 1/4 inch wide, and 
Vf< inch thick, minutely hairy, light green, the 
inside keeled and pale yellow with purplish or red- 
dish spot at base, turning brown and falling, and 
3 inner petals as minute ]>ointed scales less than 
Vs inch long; vei'v many tiny narrow whitish sta- 
mens less thaii y\c, inch long crowded together; 
and numerous tiny separate pistils Yiq inch long 
with liniry greenish ovai-ies and pale yellow 
slightly sticky stigmas in a conical central mass. 

The base of the fruit is sunken next to the stout 
stalk. The aggregate fruit, formed from many 
pistils, has a coarse network of rhomboidal or hex- 
agonal markings which show the individual ova- 
ries. The soft sweetish edible pulp adheres closely 
to the seeds. There are many oblong shiny dark 
brown seeds about 1/2 inch long. Recorded in 



Annona reticulata L* 

flower from June to September and in fruit from 
September to April. 

Sapwood is light brown. The lightweight weak 
wood is little used in Puerto Rico. Elsewhere ox 
yokes have been made from it. 

Though this species is widely cultivated as a 
fruit tree, other minor uses have been recorded. 
The i>ulp is used in home remedies. The powdered 
seeds serve as an insecticide to kill lice. A strong 
fiber can be obtained from the bark. The leaves 
and branches reportedly yield a blue or black dye 
and have been ejnployed in tanning. 

Extensively planted aroimd houses and spread- 
ing in roadsides, pastures, and forests, commonest 
ill the coastal regions of Puerto Rico. Also in 
\'ieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and 
Tortola. It is not known whether this species is 
native here. 

Puiujc FORESTS. — Aguirre, Boqueron, Camba- 
lache, Guajataca, Guanica, Luquillo, Rio Abajo, 
San Juan, Snsiia. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
11,38. 

Range. — Native of tropical America, apparently 
in West Indies and Central America, the botani- 
cal type specimen from Jamaica. Now widely cul- 
tivated as a fruit tree north to southern Florida 
and spreading or naturalized over tropical Amer- 
ica tlirough AVest Indies and from Mexico to Peru 
and Brazil. Introduced in the Old World tropics 
and becoming naturalized there. 

Other common names. — corazon (Spanish) ; 
mamon (Dominican Republic) ; mamon (Cuba) ; 
anoiia (Central America) ; anonillo, anona colo- 
rada (Guatemala) ; anona colorada (El Salva- 
dor) : anona de redecilla (Honduras, Nicaragua) ; 
anon, anonillo (Costa Rica) ; anon (Panama) ; 
anon pelon (Colombia) ; chirimoya (Venezuela) ; 
tustard-apple, bullock-heart (United States, Eng- 
lish) ; coeur de boeuf (Jamaica) ; cachiman coeur 
boeuf (Haiti) ; cachiman coeur-de-boenf (Guade- 
loupe) ; kasjoema, custard-apple (Dutch West In- 
dies) ; coracao de boi (Brazil). 

Connnon names in different languages describe 
the heart-shaped fruit. 



102 




38. Coraz6n, custard-apple 
687-921 O— 64 8 



Natural size. 



Annona reticulata L. 
103 



ANNONA FAMILY (ANNONACEAE) 



39. Anon, sugar-apple 

Anon or sufjar-apple, well known for its sweet- 
ish edible fruits, is a cultivated tree which also 
gi-ows spontaneously. Its distinj;;uishing charac- 
ters are: (1) twi<;s slijihtly zi<;zag, preen and 
densely hairy when young; (2) short-stalked 
hmce-shaped to oblonp leaves 2-51^ inches long 
and %-2 inches broad, alternate in 2 rows; (3) 
yellow-gi-een narrow flowers %-l inch long with 
3 narrowly oblong petals, usually a few in a lateral 
cluster; and (4) nearly round or heart-shaped yel- 
lowisli-green fruit 21/4— i inches in diameter, cov- 
ered with a whitish bloom but soon turning black- 
ish where rubbed and bruised, composed of numer- 
ous rounded tubercles or raised segments, with 
wliitish, sweet, juicy, custardlike or creamy pulp. 

A small deciduous tree attaining 10-20 feet in 
height, with broad open crown of irregularly 
spreading branches. The bark is brown, smooth- 
ish to sliglitly fissured into ]ilates. Inner bark is 
light yellow and slightly bitter. The twigs be- 
come brown with light brown dots (lenticels). 

The green hairy petioles are V^-Vo inch long. 
Blades are short- or long-pointed at apex and 
short-pointed or rounded at base, the sides some- 
times slightly unequal, the edges without teeth, 
inconspicuously hairy at least when young, mi- 
nutely dotted when examined with a lens, thin, dull 
green to dark green above, and beneath pale blue 
green and covered with a bloom. 

There are 1— i fragrant flowers on slender hairy 
stalks in short lateral clusters but not at base of 
a leaf. The 3 pointed green hairy sepals or calyx 
lobes are about y^^ inch long; the 3 thick and 
fleshy outer petals %-l inch long and 14 "^^h wide, 
yellow green, slightly hairy, tlie inside light yellow 
and keeled with a purplish or reddish spot at the 
tliin enlarged base, and 3 minute pointed scales as 
inner petals; very numerous crowded white sta- 
mens less than i/m incli long in a central mass; and 
many separate pistils Yiq inch long, with light 
green ovary and white styles, crowded on the raised 
axis. 



Annona squamosa L.* 

The aggregate fruit is formed from the numer- 
ous pistils of a flower, which are loosely united, 
soft, and more distinct than in other species of the 
genus. Each pistil forms a tubercle, mostly i/4-% 
inch long and 14-!/^ inch wide and a separate thin 
edible pulp, in which is imbedded 1 oblong shiny 
blackish or dark brown seed 1/4-% inch long. In 
flower and fruit nearly through the year. 

Tlie sapwood is light yellow. The heartwood is 
brownish. The wood is soft, lightweight, and 
weak. 

Tlie fruit pulp is eaten raw and may be used to 
prepare drinks or sherbet. The green fruits, seeds, 
and leaves have insecticidal properties. Else- 
where, the leaves, shoots, and roots have been used 
in local remedies. 

Planted in Puerto Rico for the edible fruits, 
spreading from cultivation in roadsides and val- 
leys and also in forests where possibly native. 
Commonest on the dry coast of Puerto Rico. Also 
in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, 
Tortola, and Virgin Gorda. Grown moi-e in the 
Virgin Islands than in Puerto Rico. 

Range. — Native of tropical America, but the 
original home uncertain. Named botanically from 
Jamaica. Now widely cultivated as a fruit tree 
and spontaneous or naturalized through the tropics 
of the world. Planted or naturalized in southern 
Florida, including Florida Keys, throughout West 
Indies, from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Old 
World. 

Other common names. — anon (Spanish) ; sara- 
muya, chirmoya (Guatemala) ; anona de Guate- 
mala (Nicaragua) ; anon domestico, anon de aziicar 
(Colombia) ; chirimoya (Ecuador) ; sugar-apple, 
sweetsop (United States, English) ; apple-bush 
(Grenadines) ; cachiman cannelle (Haiti) ; pomnie 
cannelle (Guadeloupe, French Guiana) ; scopappel 
(Dutch West Indies); kaneelappel (Surinam); 
at a, fruta de conde, pinha (Brazil) . 



104 




39. Anon, sugar-apple 



Natural size. 



Annona squamosa L. 



105 



ANNONA FAMILY (ANNONACEAE) 



40. Ilan-ilan, ylang-ylang 

This East Indian ornamental tree is identified 
by: (1) branches and twigs droopin<j and bearing 
leaves characteristieally in ;2 rows; (2) thin ovate 
to oblong leaves long-pointed at apex and rounded 
at base; (3) odd, strongly fragrant, large though 
inconspicuous, yellow or greenish-yellow flowers 
with very narrow and long-pointed drooping 
petals 3-5 inches long and only i/4-% inch broad, 
1-3 at base of a leaf; and (-1) distinctive fruit 
<'onsisting of 8-15 spreading, elliptic, fleshy, green 
to black berries mostly %-l inch long, resembling 
olives, spreading on stalks in a cluster 3-4 inclies 
across, all formed from 1 flower. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree attain- 
ing 40 feet in height and 1 foot in trunk diameter, 
with a spreading crown. Reported to become a 
large tree in its native home. The bark is light 
to dark brown and smoothish, becoming fissured 
and rougli. Inner bark is light brown, fibrous, and 
slightly bitter. Twigs are liglit green when young, 
becoming brown, with slight spicy taste. 

The light green ]:)etioles of the alternate leaves 
are V^-^s incli long. The thin blades are 3-8 
inches long and IVo-S inches wide, the edges with- 
out teeth, slightly shiny green above and dull light 
green beneath. 

Flowers are borne in profusion on long slender 
light green stalks 1-2 inches long scattered along 
the twigs at leaf bases. The calyx has 3 broad 
pointed yellow-green lobes i/i mch long, spreading 
and slightly turned back; the 6 slightly thickened 
straplike petals are green wheii young, turning to 
greenish yellow and yellow, the inner 3 reddish 
tinged at base inside; very numerous stamens less 
tlian 1/8 inch long, crowded into a triangtilar mass, 
pointed and becoming reddish tinged at apex; and 
8-15 separate green ])istils crowded in center, less 



Cananga odorata (Lam,) Hook. f. & Thorns.* 

than 14 inch long, the stigmas in a sticky mass. 

Several fruits developing from a flower have al- 
most tasteless flesh and usually 4 or 5 rounded flat 
light brown seeds i/4 ii^^h or more in diameter 
((),40() to a pound). In flower and fruit through 
most of the year. 

The sapwood is whitish. The soft wood is not 
durable. Wiere the trees are native, small canoes 
and drums have been made from the trunks. 

A valuable volatile oil, known as oil of ilang- 
ilang anil employed in perfumes, is the principal 
product of this tree. It is distilled from the flowers 
in the Phili])pines, East Indies, and India. The 
iiihaliitants of the East Indies anoint their heads 
and bodies with the oil or decorate themselves 
with garlands of the flowers. 

Occasionally planted as an ornamental and for 
its fragrance along the coast of Puerto Rico and 
the Virgin Islands (St. Thomas and perhaps 
others). 

Range. — Xative of the Malayan region, includ- 
ing southern India, Java, Philippines, Malay 
Archipelago, and tropical Pacific islands. Spar- 
ingly introduced in other tropical regions and 
spread from cultivation. Planted in Cuba, His- 
paniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, Guade- 
lope (recorded as naturalized), and perhaps others 
of "West Indies. Also in southern Florida, a rela- 
tively recent inti'oduction in Central America, and 
in South America. 

Other foMMON names. — ilang-ilang (Puerto 
Rico, Virgin Islands) ; ilan-ilan, ilang-ilang 
(Spanish) ; cadmia, cananga (Colombia) ; ylang- 
ylang (United States, English) ; ylang-ylang 
(Guadeloupe). 

BoTAxicAL SYNONYM. — Canangkvm odoratum 
(Lam.) Baill. 



106 




40. Ilan-llan, ylang-ylang 



Natural size. 



Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thorns. 

107 



ANNONA FAMILY (ANNONACEAE) 



41. Haya minga 

A tree of the higher mountains, haya minga is 
distinguished by: (1) small, leathery, dark green, 
oblong, fragrant leaves in 2 rows on slightly zigzag 
blackish twigs which frecjuently are almost hori- 
zontal; (2) the greenish-yellow flowers about 11/2 
inches across the 5 spreading fleshy petals and 
borne singly on long stalks at base of leaves; and 
(3) clusters of many elliptic berries about V2 ii^ch 
long and 14 iiit'b thick from 1 flower. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree becoming 20-40 
feet in height and 1-11/2 feet in trunk diameter, 
rarely larger. Sometimes the trunk is buttressed 
at base and often it is irregular in cross section, 
much thicker on 1 side. The bark is brown and 
rough, becoming dark and purplish black. Inner 
bark is pink with spicy taste. The twigs are mi- 
nutely hairy when young. 

Petioles of the alternate leaves are only Vg-l/i 
inch long. Blades ai'e li/^-3 inches long and %- 
lig inches wide, stiff, short-pointed or rounded at 
apex and short-pointed at base, slightly turned 
under at margins, and beneath yellow green with 
veins raised. 

The flowers have a slight fragrance. Flower 
stalks are %-li/o inches long. The calyx has 3 tri- 
angular lobes 3/je inch long turned backwards; the 
6 greenish-yellow, elliptic, finely hairy petals are 
^/^~% "icli long; there are numerous crowded 
small stamens less than y^g inch long in a circular 



Guatteria blainii (Griseb.) Urban 

mass 14 inch across; and a central group of many 
small pistils less than i/g inch long, each with a 
1-celled 1-ovuled ovary. 

The fruit is composed of a cluster of many near- 
ly stalkless, spreading, short-pointed berries, each 
containing 1 large shiny brown elliptic seed. 
Flowering and fruiting more than once during the 
year. 

The sapwood is light brown or whitish. The 
wood is hard and heavy (specific gravity 0.8). 
Formerly it was used for construction but now 
chiefly for posts, since few large trees remain. 

In forests of the upper Luquillo and Cordillera 
regions of Puerto Rico. 

PtBLic rouESTS. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Susiia, Toro Negro. 

R.\XGE. — Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. 

Other common n.\mes. — negra lora, haya 
(Puerto Rico); yaya (Dominican Republic); 
purio fangar, purio prieto, ceda (Cuba) ; laois noir 
(Haiti). 

Botanical synonym. — C a nan g a blainii 
(Griseb.) Britton. 

Haya blanca {Guatterkt earnhaea Urban; syno- 
nym Can-anga caribaea (Urban) Britton), a re- 
lated forest tree of the Luquillo region of Puerto 
Rico, has larger long-pointed leaves 3-81^ inches 
long and 11/4-234 inches wide. 



108 




41. Haya minga 



Natural size. 



Guatteria hlainii (Griseb.) Urban 

109 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



Key to the 10 species illustrated (Nos. 42-51) 



A. Fniit without a cup at base. 

R. Fruit elliptic, lilack. 1-1% inches long, inedible — 42. BeHschtnieitia pcndula. 
BB. Fruit pear-.shapeil or nearly round, yellow green, 4-5 inches long, edible (avocado) — 51. Persca americana* 
AA. Fruit with cup at base. 

C. I^eaves very narrow, lance-shaped — 43. Licaria salicifolia. 
CC. Leaves broader, mostly elliptic. 

D. Leaves broadest below or near middle, mostly long-pointed. 

E. Fruits many, round, about 'ii; inch in diameter, the <-up covered with warts; leaves often with 
scattered raised dots (galls) — IS. Orated Unroriilon. 
EE. Fruits few or several. V. inch or more in diameter : leaves without raised dots. 
F. Fruit cup aliout as long as broad. 

G. Fruit cup about % inch long and broad — 14. Licaria friandra. 
GG. Fruit cup about i'jr, inch long and broad — 1^>. Xrctanrlra coriacea. 
FF. Fruit cup very short, flat. Iiearing calyx lobe.^ turned back — 17. Ocotea floriiunda. 
DD. Leaves broadest beyond middle, short-pointed or rounded at apex. 

H. Leaves <-lnstere(l at nr n''ar ends of twigs. IVo-SVo inches long— .")0. Ocotea spathnlata. 
HH. Leaves borne singly. 3-7 inches long. 

I. Leaves with lower surface densely hairy, reddish brown when young but becoming gray — 46. 
Ocotea cuncata. 
II. Leaves shiny on both sides, hairless or nearly so, veins mostly reddish tinged near base — 49. 
Ocotea moschata. 



42. Guajon 

Distinsjuislied by: (1) spicy foliage, twigs, and 
bark ; (2) bark on large trunks peeling off and ex- 
posing rusty reddish-brown inner layers; (3) el- 
liptic, slightly leathery leaves often broadest be- 
yond middle, short-pointed at both ends, much 
perforated liy insects on many trees: (-i) greenish- 
yellow flowers about y^ inch long and broad, sev- 
eral in a loose, long-stalked, Ijranched, lateral 
cluster 3-5 inches long; and (5) the long elliptic 
black fruits l-lVi> inches long and i/> inch in di- 
ameter, witliout a cup at base, fleshy and 1-seeded, 
borne singly. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree attaining 75 feet 
in height and 214 feet in trunk diameter. The 
dark brown bark is smoothish and slightly fis- 
sured, about 1/4 "ich thick, the inner bark light 
brown. The twigs are green and minutely hairy 
when young. 

The alternate leaves have petioles %-% inch 
long. Leaf blades are 314-61/2 inches long and 
2-314 inches broad, hairless or nearly so at ma- 
turity, the edges not toothed, green on upper sur- 
face, and paler or covered with a bloom beneath. 

The flower clusters (panicles) have finely hairy 
branches bearing several sliort-stalked flowers. 
The greenish-yellow calyx is finely hairy and has 
(i lobes less than Y^q inch long; there are 9 stamens 
and additional sterile stamens (staminodes) ; and 
pistil of 1-celled, 1-ovuled ovary with short style. 



Beilschmiedia pendula (Sw.) Benth. & Hook. f. 

Fruits (bei'ries) are green, turning black at ma- 
turity, fleshy, with 1 large seed. As some common 
names suggest, they resemble small avocados and 
olives slightly. Flowering and fruiting from 
spring to fall. 

The sapwood is pale brown, and the heartwood 
is pinkish brown. The wood is moderately hard, 
strong, and heavy (specific gravity 0.54). It is 
very susceptible to damage by dry-wood termites. 
Rate of air-seasoning is slow, and amount of de- 
grade is minor. Machining characteri.stics are as 
follows: planing, shaping, sanding, and resistance 
to screw splitting are good ; turning and mortising 
are fair; and boring is poor. The wood is used for 
shipbuilding, general construction, flooring, furni- 
ture, cabinetmaking, and carpentry. 

It is reported that the fruits are eaten by hogs 
and other animals in Cuba. 

In lower Luquillo and Cordillera regions of 
Puerto Rico. Also in St. Thomas. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo. 

R.vNGE. — Greater Antilles, St. Thomas, and 
Lesser Antilles from St. Kitts to St. Vincent. 

Other commox n.\mes. — agiuicatillo, aguacate 
cimarr6n,cedro macho (Puerto Rico) ; aguacatillo, 
cigua amarilla (Dominican Republic) ; aceitu- 
nillo, aguacatillo, curavara, mulato (Cuba) ; slog- 
wood, slug-wood (Jamaica) ; laurier madame 
(Dominica). 

Botanical synonym. — Hufelandia pendul-a 
(Sw.) Nees. 



110 




42. Guajon 



Natural size. 



Beilschmiedia pendula (Sw. ) Benth. & Hook. f. 

Ill 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



43. Canelilla 

This species is readily distinguished from other 
trees of the hxurel family by the narrow leaves. 
Other characters for identification include: (1) 
spicy foliage, twigs, and bark; (2) narrow acute 
pointed crown on most trees; (3) lance-shaped 
leathery leaves, dark green or shiny green on upper 
surface, and graj' green and finely hairy beneath; 

(4) densely reddish-brown hairy young twigs; 

(5) small, whitish-gre«n hairy flowers more than 
Vig inch long and broad, several in short lateral 
clusters; and (6) blackish elliptic flesliy fruit % 
inch long and Yi inch broad, in a spreading gray 
cup almost i/4 J^c^^ long find broad, with double 
rim. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree to 50 
feet liigh with a straight trunk to 1 foot in di- 
ameter. The dark gray or reddish-brown smooth- 
ish bark has many small warts ( lenticels) and peels 
oif in large irregular flakes 1-6 inches long. Inner 
bark is light brown, spicy and bitter. Older twigs 
are slender, bi-own, and hairless. 

The alternate leaves have short reddish-brown 
hairy petioles V8-% inch long. Blades are l^/^-Ayo 
inches long and Vj-1 inch broad, long-pointed at 
apex and short -pointed at base, not toothed on 
edges, the upper surface becoming hairless, and the 



Licaria salicifolia (Sw.) Kosterm- 

lower surface remaining finely hairy with a net- 
work of many raised small veins. 

The small flower clusters (panicles) nt leaf bases 
liave several flowers on densely hairy branches. 
Calyx lias 6 hairy lobes less than i/ig inch long; 
there are 3 stamens with additional sterile stamens 
(staminodes) ; and pistil of 1-celled ovary and 
slender style. The elongate fleshy fruits (berries) 
have a single large seecl. Flowering and fruiting 
from latter part of February to September. 

The sapwood is light brown. The heavy wood 
(specific gravity 0.8) is used only for poles, posts, 
and fuel in Puerto Rico. 

In the moist limestone, dry coast, and lower 
Cordillera regions, chiefly in western Puerto Rico. 
Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Jolin, 
and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Gu- 
anica, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susua. 

Rance. — Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, and 
Lesser Antilles from Antigua to Martinique. 

Other common names. — canela, canela del pais, 
canelillo (Puerto Rico) ; bois chique, bois fourmi 
(Guadeloupe). 

BoT.\NiCAL synonym. — Acrodiclidtum salicifo- 
1 ill in (Sw.) Griseb. 



U2 




43. Canelilla 



Natural size. 



Licaria salicifolia (Sw.) Kosterm. 

113 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



44. Palo de misanteco, Gulf licaria 

Found lociilly in northern parts of Puerto Rico, 
this species is characterized by: (1) spicy foliage, 
twifis, and bark; (2) twigs reddish when youno;; 
(3) narrowly elliptic leaves, slightly thickened, 
many with a long tajjering point and short-pointed 
at base; (4) the small wliitish flowers more than 
^16 inch long and broad, many in branclied clus- 
ters 11/2"'^ inches long; and (5) the elli])tic green 
or dark blue fruits % incli or more in lengtli, in a 
large thick red cup about Yo inch long and broad 
with double rim or margin. 

A small evergreen tree to -SO feet high and 8 
inches in diameter with broad rounded crown. 
Tlie bark is dark brown and flaky or scaly. The 
slender twigs are finely hairy and with raised clots 
(lenticels). 

The leaves are alternate on petioles i/4-i/^ inch 
long. Blades are .'5-.5 inches long and 1-1% inches 
broad, the edges not toothed, shiny dark green 
above, paler beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are terminal and lat- 
eral, and have groups of small flowers on short, 
slender, haii-y stalks. The tubular calyx has 6 
lobes; the .I stamens are united into a fleshy hairy 
tube or column ; and the i^istil has a l-cellecl ovary, 
slender style, and protruding flattened stigma. 



Licaria triandra (Sw.) Kosterm. 

The fleshy fruits (berries) are few in a cluster 
and 1-seeded. The cup has a second rim about i/8 
inch below the edge and is warty. Recorded in 
flower in May and in fruit in ]\Iay and July. 

The wood is described as ash colored or greenish 
yellow, strong, and heavy (s]3ecific gi-avity 0.9). 
Used for posts in Puerto Rico. Re])orted as suit- 
able for interior construction and used for matches 
and matchboxes in Dominican Republic. 

This s]3ecies has been suggested as a shade tree 
for southern Florida and Cuba. 

In forests of the moist limestone region of 
Puerto Rico. Also in Vieques. 

Public forest. — Guajataca. 

Range. — Greater Antilles and Martinique. 
Also very rare in southern Florida. 

Other cojiMnx names. — misanteco, palo misan- 
teco (Puerto Rico) ; cigua prieta (Dominican Re- 
public) ; lebisa, leviza, laurel de loma, laurel 
bianco (Cuba) ; Gulf licaria. Gulf misanteca 
(United States) ; sweetwood (Jamaica) ; laurier 
jaune (Haiti). 

Botanical synonyms. — Misanteca triandra 
(Sw.) Mez, Acrodididhini fnandrum (Sw.) Lun- 
dell, A. jainairen.se Nees, Licaria jamaicensis 
(Nees) Kosterm. 



114 




44. ralo (le misanteco. Gulf licaria 



Natural size. 



Licaria triandra (Sw. ) Ko.sterni. 

115 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



45. Laurel avispillo, Jamaica nectandra 

This tree, is distino'iiished by: (1) spicy leaves, 
twips, and bark; (2) shiny green or dark green, 
leathery, narrowly elliptic leaves nsually short- 
pointed at both apex and base, pale beneath with 
a ]ironiinent network of veins on both surfaces; 
(3) small white flowers % inch or more across, 
6-lobed, many or several in lateral clusters with 
pink or red branches: and (4) round or elliptic 
blackish or dark blue fruits about l/2-% inch long, 
with red cup. 

A small evergreen tree attaining 20-30 feet in 
height and 6-12 inches in trunk diameter, with a 
narrow crown. The bark is gray and smoothish. 
Inner bark is light brown. The slender twigs are 
green and slightly hairy when young, turning 

ffi'ay- 

The leaves are alternate on short petioles 14-V2 
inch long. Leaf blades are 2-0 inches long and 
34-2I/2 inches broad, thickened and leathery (as 
the specific name indicates), often bent upward 
slightly on both sides of midrib, not toothed on 
edges. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are 1-4 inches long, 
bearing the fragrant flowers on slender stalks 
]/g-i4 incli long. The calyx has 6 widely spread- 
ing, white, finely hairy lobes Ms-%6 inch long; 
there are 9 wliite stamens; and i)istil with 1-celled 
ovary partly enclosed, style, and broader stigma. 
The fleshy fruits (berries) in drooping clusters 
have 1 reddish-brown seed. The cup is about 3/1,5 
inch long and broad. Flowering and fruiting 
probably irregularly through the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, the heartwood dark 
brown. Elsewhere the wood has been used in car- 
pentry and cabinetwork and for poles. 

Planted for shade in soutliern Florida and 
Cuba. Eeported to be a honey plant. It is said 
that cattle eat the fruits. 

Common in the moist limestone forest region 
of northern Puerto Rico. Also in Mona, Vieques, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 
PuHLic FORESTS. — Cauibalache, Guajataca. 
Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys and through West Indies from Bahamas and 
Cuba to Grenada and Tobago. Also in Mexico 
(Yucatan Peninsula), British Honduras, and 
Guatemala. 

Other common names. — avispillo, laurel, cigua, 
laurel cigua (Puerto Rico) ; pepper cillament 
(Virgin Islands) ; cigua blanca (Dominican Re- 
public) ; cigua, siguaraya, boniate, lebisa (Cuba) ; 
laurel (Mexico) : Jamaica nectandra, lancewood, 
Jamaica ocotea (United States) ; black torch, 
sweet torch wood (Bahamas); sweetwood, cap- 
berry sweetwood, small-leaved sweetwood (Ja- 
maica) ; laurier marbre (Grenada) ; sweetwood 



Nectandra coriacea (Sw.) Griseb. 

(British Honduras) ; laurier blanc (Haiti) ; bois 
doux negresse, bois violon, bois doux noir (Guade- 
loupe) ; sweetwood (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonyms. — Ocotea coriacea (Sw.) 
Bviiton, O. CO fesbyana (Michx.) Sarg. 

Five other species of this genus, known also as 
laurel, are native in moist forests of Puerto Rico, 
and 2 of these reported also from the Virgin 
Islands. Aguacatillo (Nectandra antillana. 
Meisn.), of soutliern and eastern Puerto Rico and 
St. Thomas, has oblong or broadly lance-shaped 
leaves 21/2-9 inches long and 1-3 inches wide, long- 
pointed at apex and short-pointed at base, hairless 
except on main vein beneath. 

Laurel canelon (Nectandra krugii Mez), of cen- 
tral and western mountains, has the twigs, petioles, 
l)ranches of flower clusters, and the flowers rusty 
hairy: leaves oblong or lance-shaped, 41/4-10 
inches long and 11,4-31/2 inches wide, long-pointed 
at apex and short-pointed or rounded at base, veins 
sunken in upper surface and prominent beneath, 
liairy beneath and also above when young. 

Laurel prieto (Nectandra memhranacea (Sw.) 
Griseb.), also called laurelillo, has young twigs 
rusty hairy and oblong to elliptic leaves 3-10 
inches long and 1-3 inclies wide, long-pointed at 
apex and short-pointed at base, veins sunken in 
upper surface and prominent beneath, hairless or 
sliirhtly hairy. This tree, included in "Puerto 
Rican Woods," was reported long ago from St. 
Tlirnnas and St. Croix also. 

Laurel roset a (Nectandra patens (Sw.) Griseb.) 
has leaves elliptic, 3-8 inches long and 114-8 inches 
wide, usually short -pointed at both ends, leathery 
and with prominent veins on both sides, and hair- 
less except sometimes witli tufts in vein angles be- 
neath ; and fruit oblong, nearly 1 inch long, white, 
with i-ed cup. 

Laurel amarillo (Nectandra sinterum Mez), also 
called laurel macho, has young twigs with short 
flattened hairs and lance-shaped to elliptic leaves 
2-8 inches long and 1-3 inches wide, long-pointed 
at apex, hairless, with few main veins. This tree, 
listed in "Puerto Rican Woods," was recorded long 
ago from St. Tliomas also. 

A similar tree known also as laurel avispillo 
(Phoehe elongata (Vahl) Nees) has been confused 
with Nectandra coriacea. This related medium- 
sized tree is common in the eastern mountains and 
northern foothills of Puerto Rico and found also 
in St. Croix. It has leaves only slightly shiny, 
witliout prominent network of veins, and smaller 
flowers less tlian i/^ inch across. The flesiiy round 
or elliptic blackish fruit 1/2-% inch long has a 
6-lobed cup formed from the calyx. 



116 




45. Laurel avispillo, Jamaica nectandra 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Nectandra coriacea (Sw.) Griseb. 

117 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



46. Canelon 

A distinct laurel reco^iized by: (1) dense, sym- 
metrical, narrow, conical crown ; (2) spicy le-aves, 
twigs, and bark; (3) the yoiinj; twigs, petioles, 
lower surface of young leaves, flower stalks, and 
flowers covered with dense, reddish-brown, rusty, 
or cinnamon-colored hairs; (4) the leathery obo- 
vate leaves, broadest near the abruptly short- 
pointed apex and gradually narrowed toward the 
long-pointed, short-stalked base; (5) the spread- 
ing yellowish flowers % inch across in lateral 
branched clusters; and (6) the elliptic fruits ^'s 
inch long and 14 inch in diameter, with large hem- 
ispheric double-margined cup. 

Medium-sized evergreen tree to 50 feet high and 
1 foot in trunk diameter with straight trunk. The 
bark is brown or gray, smoothisli and slightly 
warty, on large trunks becoming slightly furrowed, 
rough, and thick (V2 inch). Inner bark is brown, 
spicy and bitter. Young twigs are finely hairy 
and slightly angled, and older twigs are gray and 
hairless. 

The aromatic leaves ai'e alternate on short, stout 
])etioles Vs"^ hich long. Blades are 4—7 inches 
long and 2-31^ inches broad, thick, not toothed at 
edges. The upper surface is green or dark green 
and finely hairy or nearly hairless, and the lower 
surface densely and very finely hairy, reddish 
brown when j^oung but becoming gray. 

Flower clustei'S (panicles) are 3-6 inches long, 
narrow, with many slightly fragrant flowers on 
short hairy stalks. There are 6 spreading yellow- 
ish calyx lobes less than Vg hich long; 9 stamens; 
and pistil of partly enclosed 1 -celled ovary, style. 



Ocotea cuneata (Griseb.) Urban 

and flattened stigma. The fleshy fruit (berry) is 
l-.seeded. Flowering from May to September, with 
fruits nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is whitish and hard. The wood is 
suitable for construction, but most trees are used 
for posts. 

Forests of the western moist limestone and lower 
Cordillera regions of Puerto Rico. 

Public torests. — Guajataca, Maricao, Susua. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. 

Other commox names. — canela (Puerto Rico) ; 
sasafnis (Dominican Republic) ; canelon, canelillo, 
achetillo, bijote, vencedor (Cuba). 

In addition to the 5 species of this genus de- 
scribed here, 3 others known also as laurel are less 
common trees in Puerto Rican mountain forests. 
Palo santo {Ocotea foeniculacea Mez), from the 
Central Coi'dillera near Adjuntas, has elliptic 
leaves 2-31/0 inches long and l-lVo inches wide, 
short -pointed at both ends, stiff, shiny, and hair- 
less. 

Laurel de paloma {Ocotea portoricensis Mez), 
called also laurel avispillo and known only from 
Puerto Rico, has elliptic leaves 2^ inches long 
and %-li/^ inches wide, hairless, with callus-like 
thickenings in vein angles beneath, aiid has flow- 
ers male and female on separate trees (dioecious). 

Laurel canelon {Ocotea lortghtii (Meisn.) 
Mez), of the western Cordillera, has oblong or 
lance-shaped leaves 21,4-5 inches long and %-li/4 
inches wide, long-pointed, and densely rusty hairy 
beneath when young. 



118 



46. Canelon 



687-921 O — 64 9 



Natural size. 



Ocotea cuncata (Griseb.) Urban 

119 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



47. Laurel espada 

Characters distinjriiishing this species are: (1) 
long branches spreading outward from the trunk: 
(2) twigs, bark, and leaves spicy; (3) the bmce- 
sliaped or elliptic shiny dark green leaves 2-5i/^ 
inches long and i/4-2i^ inches broad, slightly 
leathery, with long-pointed blunt apex and short- 
pointed base; (4) midrib and main luteral veins 
commonly yellowish white; (5) branched clusters 
of many small greenish-white flowers y^ inch 
across in lateral branched clusters; a:id (6) 
rounded or elliptic black fruits V2 ii^ch long with 
very short, flat, double-margined cup bearing the 
calyx lobes turned back. 

Small to medium-sized evergreen tree to 60 feet 
tall and 1 foot in trunk diameter. The light brown 
bark is smoothish; the inner bark also light brown, 
gritty and spicy to the taste. Twigs are green, 
S])arsely hairy when young. 

The alternate leaves have petioles %-% inch 
long. I^af blades are not toothed on edges. The 
lower surface of some is dull light green and 
slightly hairy on midrib and veins. 

Flower clusters (panicles) at leaf bases are 1—4 
inches long, with finely haii-y branches. The 
short-stalked hairy flowers are male and female 
on ditl'erent trees (dioecious), the calyx with 6 



Ocotea floribunda (Sw.) Mez 

spreading greenish-white lobes less than % inch 
long. Male flowers have 9 stamens and a rudimen- 
tary pistil. Female flowers have small sterile 
stamens (staminodes) and pistil with 1-celled 
ovary partly enclosed, style, and broad flat stigma. 
The fleshy fruits (berries) have 1 rounded brown 
seed % inch in diameter. Flowering from October 
to December and maturing fruits from February 
to July. 

The wood is described as rose white, light- 
weight, and easily worked. It is used mostly for 
])osts and fuel and occasionally as lumber in farm 
buildings in Puerto Rico. In Cuba it is employed 
for interiors in rural construction. 

Forests of the lower mountain regions of Puerto 
Rico. Also in St. John and Tortola. 

Pi'HLic FORESTS. — Carite, Guajataca, Luquillo, 
Rio Abajo. 

Range. — (ireater Antilles, St. John, Tortola, 
Lesser Antilles from Guadeloupe to Grenada, and 
Trinidad. Also in Venezuela and Guianas. 

Otiiei; comjiox names. — laurel (Puerto Rico) : 
laurel, laurel bianco (Dominican Republic) ; boni- 
ato laurel, lebisa (Cuba) ; black sweetwood, black 
candlewood (Jamaica) ; laurier puant (Haiti) : 
bois doux (Guadeloupe). 



120 




47. Laurel espada 



Natural size. 



Ocotea floribunda (Sw.) Mez 
121 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



48. Laurel geo 

One of tlie commonest laurels, this species is 
characterized by: (1) spicy foliage, twigs, and 
bark; (2) a very dense rounded crown : (3) ellip- 
tic leathery leaves -i-O inches long and l^/^-Si/o 
inches broad, tlie apex short-, long-, or blunt- 
pointed, the base short-pointed or rounded, slight- 
ly shiny dark green on upper surface and paler 
beneath, often witli scattered raised dots, which 
are insect galls; (i) branched clusters of numer- 
ous small yellow flowers ^ig inch across near ends 
of twigs; and (5) very many round black fruits 
^16 inch in diameter, in a red or brown cup % inch 
long covered with liglit brown warts. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree to 50 
feet high and 10 inches in trunk diameter. The 
bark is brown or gray, smoothish or becoming 
slightly fissured. Inner bark is liglit brown, with 
bitter spicy taste. Twigs are green and finely 
hairy when young, becoming brown, slightly 
angled. 

The leaves are alternate on petioles %-% inch 
long. Blades are hairless or nearly so and not 
toothed on edges. Insect galls forming scattered 
raised dots on the upper leaf surface are sufficiently 
cliaracteristic of this species to serve in identifica- 
tion. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are i-Pi inches long, 
broad and much branched, single at leaf bases and 
appearing terminal, the branches green, angled, 
and finely hairy. The very many fragrant, almost 
stalkless flowers are male and female on dilTerent 
trees (dioecious), the calyx with fi spreading yel- 
low or pale yellow lobes more than l\,; inch long. 
Male flowers have 9 stamens and a rudimentary 
pistil. Female flowers have minute sterile sta- 
mens (staminodes) and pistil with 1-celled, 
1-ovuled ovary partly enclosed, style, and broader 
stigma. 

The fruits (berries) have thin flesh whicli is bit- 
ter and spicy, covering the neai-ly round seed about 
1/4 incli long. Flowering and fruiting irregularly 
through the year. 



Ocotea leucoxylon (Sw.) Mez 

The sapwood is pale yellowish brown or cream 
colored, and the heartwood uniform light golden 
brown without figure. The wood is moderately 
soft, lightweight (specific gravity 0.45), moder- 
ately strong, and easily worked. It is not durable 
and is susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. 
Rate of air-seasoning is moderate, and amount of 
degrade is considerable. Machining character- 
istics are as follows : planing, shaping, turning, 
mortising, and resistance to screw splitting are 
good ; and boring and sanding are fair. 

The wood is used mainly for posts but also in car- 
pentry and construction. It is suitable for inex- 
pensive grades of furniture and cabinetwork and 
for interior trim, general carpentry, light con- 
struction, boxes and crat«s, plywood, sheathing, 
and concrete forms. A general utility wood in 
Tobago. P^ormerly made into shingles in Jamaica. 

In Dominican Republic it is reported that the 
fruits are an important food for hogs. 

Widely distributed in forests of the moist coast, 
moist limestone, and lower mountain regions of 
Puerto Rico. Also in St. Thomas and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Susua, Toro 
Negro, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
:>;>, 62. 

Range. — Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles from 
Montserrat to Grenada, and Trinidad and Tobago. 

Other common names. — cacaillo, laurel, laurel 
geo-geo, geo, geo-geo (Puerto Rico) ; false avocado 
(St. Thomas) ; cigua laurel, cigua boba (Domini- 
can Republic) ; boniato, curabara, judio, hojancha. 
pataban de monte (Cuba) ; whitewood, loblolly 
sweetwood (Jamaica) ; duckwood, black-cedar 
(Trinidad and Tobago); laurier (Haiti); bois 
doux jaune, bois doux piment, laurier fine, laurier 
madame (Guadeloupe) ; laurier noir (Marti- 
nique). 



122 



//^ 



K^ 




A 




48. Laurel geo 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Ocotea lencoxylon (Sw.) Mez 
123 



49. Nuez moscada 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 

Ocotea moschata (Meisn.) Mez 



Known only from Puerto Eico, this aromatic 
tree is characterized by: (1) spicy foliag^e, twi^, 
and bark; (2) pronounced buttresses; (3) short- 
stalked, leathery, obovate or ellii^tic leaves mostly 
widest beyond the middle, blunt-]iointed or 
rounded at apex and short-pointed at base, shiny 
on both sides, dark preen on upper surface and yel- 
low green to brownish irreen beneath with raised 
veins on lower surface mostly tinjjed reddish near 
the base; (4) yellowish flowers about 14 iiich 
across, rusty-brown hairy, in lateral clusters 
shorter than the leaves; and (5) large elliptic 
fruits to IV4 inches in length, with hemispherical 
double-margined cup. 

A large evergreen tree to 80 feet in height and 
21/^ feet in trunk diameter, with a compact narrow 
crown and buttresses to 3 feet high and 2 feet 
broad. The brown bark is smoothish, becoming 
fissured and slightly rough. Inner bark is reddish 
brown, with slightly spicy odor and taste. The 
brown twigs are finely hairy when young. 

The alternate leaves have stout petioles V8-% 
inch long and blades 3-6 inches lon<r and 1^/^-31/2 
inclies broad, not toothed at edges. The upper sur- 
face is hairless and has slightly sunken veins, and 
the lower surface is hairless or nearly so. 

Short -stalked flowers are borne in branched 
clusters (panicles). Calyx has 6 hairy lobes more 
than i/g inch long; tliere are 9 stamens; and pistil 
has 1-celled ovary with style. The fleshy fruit 
(berry) contains 1 large seed. Flowering fi-om 



.spring to fall, the fruits maturing from winter to 
summer. 

The sapwood is yellowish to light brown, and 
the heartwood extremely variable, from medium 
brown to dark brown with irregular darker brown 
to black streaks or patches. The wood is hard and 
heavy (specific gravity 0.59) and has medium to 
fine texture. It takes a high polish but is very sus- 
ceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. Rate of 
air-seasoning is rapid, and amount of degrade is 
minor. Macliining characteristics are as follows: 
planing is fair; shaping, turning, boring, and re- 
sistance to screw splitting are good; and mortising 
and sanding are excellent. 

This attractive timber formerly was much used 
for cabinetwork. It is recommended for turning, 
furniture, cabinetmaking, and novelty items and 
should be suitable for light and heavy construc- 
tion, bridge timbers, heavy crating, and ^jacking 
boxes. The fruits are used for medicinal purposes. 

Forests of the lower mountain region of Puerto 
Rico, commonest in and near the transition to the 
upper mountain forests. 

Pn5Lic FORESTS. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Toro Negro. 

Range. — Known only from mountains of Puerto 
Rico. 

Other common names. — nemoca, nuez moscada 
cimarrona, nuez moscada macho, nuez moscada del 
pais (Puerto Rico). 



124 




49. Nuoz moscada 



One-half natural size. 



Ocotea moschata (Meisn.) Mez 

125 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



50. Nemoca 

This species of the eastern and central mountains 
is identified by: (1) branches forming distinct 
horizontal layers; (2) narrow buttresses at base of 
large trunks; (3) spicy leaves, twigs, and bark; 
(4) leaves clustered at or near ends of twigs, shiny 
and leathei'y, spoon-shaped (spatulate) or olx>- 
vate, IVo-Si/^ inches long and %-lV2 inches broad, 
widest beyond middle; (5) greenish-yellow, rusty 
hairy flowers about 1/4 inch broad, in lateral clus- 
ters shorter than the leaves; and (6) large round 
or elliptic fruits %-li/4 inches long with shallow 
double-margined cup. 

A small or medium-sized evergreen tree to 45 
feet high and li/4 feet in trunk diameter. The 
gray or brown bark is scaly, becoming thick and 
fissured on larger trunks. Inner bark is light 
brown and slightly spicy and bitter. 

Though crowded at ends of the brown twigs, the 
leaves are alternate. Petioles are short, only Vs-Vi 
inch long. The blades are blunt-pointed or 
rounded at apex and long-pointed at base, with 
edges turned undei'. Upper surface is dark green, 
with slightly sunken midrib and slightly raised 
lateral veins, and the green lower surface with 
raised veins. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are in the cluster of 
leaves, 1-2 inches long, branched and liairy, bear- 
ing several short -stalked flowers. The calyx has 
6 widely spreading hairy lotes about y^ inch long; 
there are 9 stamens; and pistil with 1 -celled ovary 
partly enclosed and style. 

The fleshy fruit (berry), green when immature, 
has 1 large seed and a bi-own cup %-V2 inch high. 
Flowering and fruiting perhaps irregularly 
through the year. 



Ocotea spathulata Mez 

Nemoca is the most unusual and perhaps the 
most attractively figured commercial wood of 
Puerto Rico. The uniform sapwood is yellowish 
brown near the outside and pinkish brown toward 
the wide interior. The highly variegated heart - 
wood ranges from light pinkish brown to yellow- 
ish brown and greenish brown and has dark brown 
to black stripes, spots, or irregular lines. The 
wood is hard, heavy (specific gravity 0.62), fine- 
textured, and sti'ong, but very susceptible to attack 
by dry-wood termites. It is moderately difficult 
to work but polishes satisfactorily. Rate of aii-- 
seasoning and amount of degrade are moderate. 
Machining characteristics are as follows: planing 
is fair; shaping, turning, boring, sanding, and re- 
sistance to screw splitting are good; and mortising 
is excellent. 

The wood is used for furniture, but few remain- 
ing trees are large enough to produce lumber of 
good size. It is suitable for furniture, cabinet- 
making, paneling, turnery, boat planking, farm 
implements, handles, heavy construction, and 
bridges. 

Forests of the upper Luquillo and upper Cor- 
dillera regions of Puerto Rico, ascending into the 
dwarf forests on summits of the peaks in Sierra de 
Luquillo and Sierra de Cayey. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Known only from Cuba and Puerto 
Rico. 

Other common n.\mes. — nemoca macho, nuez 
moscada macho, nemoca cimmarron, canelillo 
(Puerto Rico). 



126 




.jO. Xemoea 



Natural size. 



Ocotea spathulata Mez 
127 



LAUREL FAMILY (LAURACEAE) 



51. Aguacate, avocado 



Persea americana Mill.* 



Aguacate, the well-known fruit tree planted and 
sometimes ji-rowin<r as if wild, is characterized by : 
(1) shiny yellow-p:reen pear-shaped or nearly 
round fruits about 4-5 inches long and 3—4 inches 
in diameter, with oily green and yellow flesh and 

1 very large seed: (2) elliptic, slightly thickened 
leaves crowded near ends of twigs, slightly aro- 
matic when crushed, 31/^-7 inches long and 2-31/4 
inches broad, long- or short-pointed at apex and 
short-pointed at base; and (3) numerous greenish- 
yellow flowers about % inch across the 6 calyx 
lobes in many lateral branched clusters. 

A small to medium-sized deciduous tree attain- 
ing 15-30 feet in height and li/o feet in trunk di- 
ameter, with straight axis and symmetrical nar- 
row or rounded crown, old trees frequently lean- 
ing. The bark is brown or gray, slightly rough 
and fissure'd. Inner bark is orange brown, slightly 
spicy and gritty to the taste. Twigs are green, 
angular, and finely hairy, becoming brown. 

The leaves ai'e alternate on yellow-gi-een petioles 
1/2-1% inches long. Blades are without teeth on 
edges, the upper surface green to dark green, 
slightly shiny, hairless or nearly so, and the lower 
surface dull gray green, finely hairy on veins. 

The flower clusters (panicles) near ends of twigs 
and shorter than leaves bear finely haii-y flowers 
on short hairy stalks when trees are leafless or 
nearly so. There are 6 widely spreading, greenish- 
yellow, narrow, hairy sepals about %q inch long; 
!) greenish-yellow stamens more than Vs inch long 
and 3 smaller sterile stamens (staminodes) ; and 
whitish-green pistil with 1-celled 1-ovuled ovaiy 
and slender style. 

The heavy fruits (berries), borne singly, hang 
down and bend the twigs by their weight. Inside 
the thin leathery skin is the edible thick soft flesh 
somewhat like butter. The brown elliptic or egg- 
shaped seed is about 2-214 inches long and up to 

2 inches in diametei-. Flowering fi-om January to 
April or May and maturing fruits from late June 
to October. 

The sapwood is whitish and the heartwood light 
brown. The wood is moderately soft, heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 0.6), brittle, not durable, susceptible 
to attack by dry-wood termites, and seldom used. 



The nutritious fruits are eaten raw as a vege- 
table or salad, usually with salt added. They can 
be added to soups and in Brazil are made into ice 
cream. Hogs, other domestic animals, and wild 
animals are fond of the fruits. Connnercial oils, 
such as a substitute for olive oil and oil for the 
hair, have been extracted from the pulp, which is 
reported to have an oil content of about 14 percent. 
The seeds yield a reddish-brown dye for marking 
clothing. Some parts of the plant, such as leaves, 
seeds, fruit rind, and bark, have been employed in 
folk medicines. The fragrant flowers are attrac- 
tive to bees and make this tree a honey plant. 

Many races, varying in size, shape, color, and 
()uality of fruit and time of ripening, are in culti- 
vation. Propagation is from seed or, for the su- 
perior varieties, by budding. 

Planted nearly throughout Puerto Rico, most 
commonly on the coast and in the moist limestone 
and lower mountain regions. Also in Vieques, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

E.ANGE. — Native of tropical America, probably 
Mexico and Central America and not West Indies. 
Widely planted and escaping or naturalized in 
tropical and subtropical countries throughout the 
world, including southern Florida and Florida 
Keys (grown commercially also in southern Cali- 
fornia ) , throughout West Indies, and from Mexico 
to South America. 

Other common n.ames. — pear, apricot (Virgin 
Islands) ; aguacate (Spanish) ; palto, cura (Co- 
lombia); palta (Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Argen- 
tina) ; huii-a-palto (Peru) ; avocado, alligator- 
pear (United States, English) ; avocado-pear 
(Trinidad and Tobago) ; pear, butter-pear (Brit- 
ish Honduras) ; avocat, avocatier (French) ; 
zaboca (Haiti) ; awacati, advocaat, pear-tree 
(Dutch West Indies); advocaat (Surinam); 
abacate, abacateiro (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Persea persea (L.) 
Cockerell, P. gratissima Gaertn. f. 

A related species of the mountains of central and 
western Puerto Rico is known as canela {Persea 
l-rugii Mez) . This native tree has smaller elliptic 
leaves li/^^ inches long, hairy beneath, and much 
smaller rounded inedible fruits. 



128 




v/ 




51. Aguacate, avocado 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Persea americana Mill. 



129 



HERNANDIA FAMILY (HERNANDIACEAE) 



52. Mago 

This tree with handsome foliage is easily recog- 
nized by: (1) large, ovate, slightly shiny, dark 
green leaves with long petioles attached i/o-l inch 
above base of blade; (2) broad leaf blades 7-12 
inches long and 4-8 inches wide, long-pointed at 
apex and rounded at base with 5 main veins, 2 on 
each side of midrib; (3) inconspicuous greenish- 
white flowers finely gray hairy, less than 14 inch 
long, borne in long-stalked lateral clusters; and 
(■i) elliptic fruits 1-11/4 inches long inside a 
rounded, hollow, greenish-yellow, fleshy case about 
2 inches in diameter. 

A large evergreen tree becoming GO feet high 
and 2 feet in diameter, thick trunks with small 
buttresses. The light brown bai'k is smoothish, 
slightly fissured, with small corky warts. Inner 
bark is light brown, slightly mucilaginous and 
bitter. The stout twigs are green and minutely 
hairy. 

The leaves are alternate on light green, minutely 
hairy petioles 6-10 inches long, nearly as long as 
the blades. Surrounding the end of the petioles, 
the blades (peltate) ai'e without teeth on margin, 
slightly thickened, hairless or nearly so, and light 
green beneath. 

Flower clusters (cymes) are lateral, 5-8 inches 
long, 3-6 inches across, somewliat flattened, with 
light green, finely gray hairy branches. Several 
to many flowers are borne usually 3 together, 2 
male and 1 female (monoecious), above 4 gi'een- 
ish-white bracts 1/4-% inch long. Male flowers on 
stalks Yg, inch or more in length are nearly % 
inch long and broad, consisting of usually 6 slight- 
ly thickened greenish-white sepals more than 14 
inch long and 3 stamens each with 2 glandlike 
yellow sterile stamens (staminodes) at base. Fe- 
male flowers stalkless, nearly i/o inch long and % 
inch across, consist of a cuplike base Vs inch long 
around lower part of the inferior 1-celled ovary 
nearly 14 inch long, usually 8 slightly thickened 
greenish-white sepals 14 inch long in 2 sets of 4 
each, 4 glandlike yellow sterile stamens (stami- 
nodes), and curvecl style 14 inch long with large 
lobed stigma. 

The swollen case around the fruit (formed from 
the cuplike base) is about ^ie inch thick, has an 
opening about Vo inch in diameter, is sometimes 
tinged with red, and at maturity has a pleasant 
mellow odor like ripe apples. The single fruit 



Hernandia sonora L. 

(drupe) within is 34-I inch broad, hard, blackish, 
with usually S longitudinal ridges, and 1-seeded. 
Flowering and fruiting reported at various times 
during the year. 

Sapwoocl and heartwood are indistinguishable, 
both grayish white with faint olive-colored .streaks 
and numerous large darker pores. The wood is 
lirm. soft, liglitweight (s])ecific gravity 0.29), of 
low strength, and easily worked. It is very sus- 
cejitible to attack by dry-wood termites and other 
insects and to decay. Eate of air-seasoning is 
rapid, and amount of degrade is minor. Machin- 
ing characteristics are as follows: planing and 
sanding are poor; shaping, turning, boring, and 
mortising are very poor; and resistance to screw 
si)litting is excellent. Suitable uses are light 
boxes, crates, fi.shing floats, temporary boarding, 
interior construction, and as a substitute for heav- 
iei' grades of guano (balsa). However, scarcity 
limits the use in Puerto Rico. 

Occasionally planted in the trojiics and in sub- 
tropical Eui'ope as an ornamental. Easily propa- 
gated from seed and gi'ows fairly rapidly if not 
in dense shade. It is reported that the sap has been 
used as a depilatory, removing hairs from the face 
painlessly. 

In forests and along streams in the moist coastal 
region of Puerto Eico. Also infrequent in cultiva- 
tion as an ornamental and shade tree. Trees may 
be seen along the liighway to El Yunque south 
of Mameyes and on the road between Maricao 
and Mayagiiez. 

PrBLic roRE.ST. — Luquillo. 

E.\NGE. — Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Eico, and 
Lesser Antilles from St. Kitts to St. Vincent and 
Barl)ados. Also from Mexico to Costa Rica and 
from Colombia to Ecuador. Planted in other 
tropical and sul)tro])ical areas, including southern 
Florida. 

Other common n.\mes. — maga (Dominican Ee- 
jiublic) ; hoja tamal, mano de leon, tambor (Hon- 
duras) ; aguacatillo (Guatemala, Costa Eica) : 
jack-in-the-box (Barbados) . 

A closely related species (Hernandia guianensis 
.Vubl.) formerly not considered distinct is found 
from Trinidad and Venezuela to the Guianas and 
northern Brazil. It is called cocojoro in Vene- 
zuela, toporite in Trinidad, and jack-in-the-box in 
British Guiana. 



130 




52. Mago 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Hernandia sonora L. 

131 



CAPER FAMILY (CAPPARIDACEAE) 



53. Burro prieto, Jamaica caper 

Tliis small tree or shrub of coastal thickets is 
identified by: (1) minute brown scales on younj; 
twigs, petioles, under side of leaves, flower stalks, 
flowers, and fruits; (2) elliptic, slightly leathery 
leaves short-pointed at apex and base, shiny yellow 
green on upper sui'face and silvery brown beneath; 
(■i) purplish flowers about % inch across or 2 
inches across the long, spreading, brushlike sta- 
mens, borne in clustei-s at or near ends of twigs; 
and (4) long, narrowly cylindrical, light brown 
pods about 8 (4-12) inches long and Yie i'lc'i in 
diameter, hanging downward, exposing the bright 
red inner wall upon opening. 

An evergreen tree or shrub attaining 10-20 feet 
in height, with dense compact crown. The dark 
gray or brown bark is smooth and thin, becoming 
fissured. Inner bark is light brown, with spicy 
taste like horseradish. The slender twigs are sil- 
very brown and angled, becoming gray. 

The leaves are boi'ne singly (alternate) and have 
petioles i/i-i,4 i'lch long. Leaf blades are common- 
ly 2-4 inches long and %-li/4 inches broad, some- 
times much longer on young planfs or young 
shoots, the edges slightly turned under. Different 
races vary in leaf sizes and shape. 

Flower clusters (corymbs) ai'e lateral but ap- 
pearing terminal, about 2 inches long, with few to 
several fragrant flowers near end of an angled 
scalv brown stalk. Flower buds are slightly 4- 
angled. There are 4 pointed sepals % inch long, 
finely scaly on outside and hairy on inside; 4 el- 
liptic purplish petals I/2 inch long, finely scaly on 
outside; many purplish stamens II/4-IV' inches 
long, with yellow anthers, widely spreading but 
soon withering; and scaly, narrowly cylindrical, 
1-celled ovary %(j inch long including the flat 
stigma, at end of stalk about 1 inch long. 

The long-stalked pods, slightly narrowed be- 
tween the seeds, split open irregularly to expose 
the many elliptic shiny brown seeds i/j inch long. 
Dirt'erent trees in flower and fruit at various times 
throughout the year. 

The sapwood is light brown. The heartwood is 
described as yellow, tinged with red, hard, and 
heavy. Used only for posts and fuel in Puerto 
Rico. Elsewhere occasionally cultivated in parks 
and as a street tree. It is reported that the roots 
and leaves have been employed medicinally. 

In thickets, chiefly in the dry coastal region of 
Puerto Rico. Also in Mona, Desecheo, Icacos, 
Culebra, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and 
Tortola. 



Capparis cynophallophora L. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys and West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba 
through Lesser Antilles. Also in southern Mexico 
and Central America south to Panama. Cultivated 
outside the natural range. 

Other common names. — bejuco ingles, sapo 
(Puerto Rico) ; mostacilla, carbonero, ciguarayo, 
palo diablo (Cuba) ; olivo, frijol (Dominican Re- 
l)ublic) ; zic (Guatemala) ; endurece maiz (Nica- 
ragua ) ; Jamaica caper, capertree, zebrawood 
(United States) ; black-willow (Bahamas, Ja- 
maica) ; bois Senegal, bois caca, bois d'argent 
(Haiti) ; bois noir (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical synonym. — Capparais jamaicensis 
Jacq. 

Five more species of this genus are native in 
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Known as 
burro and caper, these shrubs or small trees are 
characteristic of thickets in the dry coastal re- 
gions. Linguam [Capparis indica (L.) Fa we. & 
Rendle) is the only other species with minute 
scales on the twigs, under side of leaves, and flow- 
ers. It difl'ers from the species described above in 
its flowers with short 4-lobed calyx only Vs inch 
long and petals hairy as well as scaly. 

The other 4 species have hairless leaves and lack 
the minute scales. Palinguan or limber caper 
(Capparis fexuosa. (L.) L.) has usually narrow, 
linear or elliptic leaves 2-41/^ inches long and 
%-2 inches broad, blunt or notched at apex, and 
rounded or narrowed at base. 

Sapo or rat -bean (Capparis hadiuca L.) has 
large elliptic or oblong leaves 4-12 inches long and 
iy2-^V2 inches wide, short-pointed at apex, and 
rounded at base, and small flowers less than V2 
inch long with the stamens no longer than the 
petals. 

The remaining 2 species have broader pods not 
narrowed between the seeds. Burro or broadleaf 
caper (Capparis coreolohifolia Mart.) has stiff, 
leathery, broadly elliptic leaves 2-4i^ inches long 
and U/i-S inches wide, rounded or notched at apex, 
and usually heart-shaped at base; and the fruit 
oblong, flattened, 4-7 inches long and II4 inches 
wide. 

Burro bianco (Capparis porforicensis Urban) 
has elliptic leaves 11/2-41/0 inches long and 1-2 
inches broad, rounded" or short-pointed at apex, 
short-pointed at base ; and the short elliptic fruit 
only 114-214 inches long and about % inch wide. 



132 




53. Burro prieto, Jamaica caper 



Natural size. 



Capparis cynophallophora L. 

133 



HORSERADISH^TREE FAMILY (MORINGACEAE*) 



54. Reseda, horseradish-tree 

This ornamental planted tree is characterized 
by: (1) featliery or fernlike foliage of 3-pinnately 
compound leaves 1-1 V^ f^^t long composed of nu- 
merous tliin elliptic leaflets 1/4-% inch long and 
1/8-% inch broad; (2) many showy fragrant wiiite 
flowers % inch or more across the 10 spreading 
sepals and petals, sliglitly irregidar, in lateral clus- 
ters 4-8 inches long; (:5) large, 3-angled, brown 
seed capsules 7-14 inches long and %-l inch broad, 
hanging down; and (4) roots with odor and taste 
of horeeradish. 

A small deciduous tree to 3i) feet liigh and to 10 
inches in trunl< diameter, with spreading brittle 
branches. Tlie whitish-gray bark is smooth'sh, 
fissured and warty or corky, becoming rough. The 
twigs are finely liairy and green, becoming brown. 

The alternate leaves have slender, finely haiiy, 
green and reddish-tinged axes, the lateral ones 
paired. L-^aflets are paired except for terminal 
one and liave minute stalks less than Vjo inch long. 
The blades are rounded or blunt-pointed at apex 
and sliort-pointed at liase, tlie edges not tootlied, 
green and almost hairless on upper surface, and 
paler and hairless beneath. 

Spreading or drooping flower clusters (pani- 
cles) have many minutely hairy flowere on slender 
hairy stalks. The basal cup (hypanthium) Vs 
incli long and liroad bears 5 unequal white sepals 
about 1/2 inch long; there are 5 unequal white petals 
%-% inch long; 5 stamens alternating witli 5 
smaller sterile stamens (staminodes) ; and pistil 
of l-cel!ed ovary and slender style. 

The seed capsules with longitudinal ridges split 
open along the 3 angles. There are many seeds 
about 1 inch long, composed of 3 wliitish papei-y 
wings around a dark brown rounded center 1/2 
inch or less across. Flowering and fruiting 
through most of the year. 

The soft wood is little used in Puerto Rico, but 
the thick soft roots are a spicy condiment. It is 
reported that the corky bai-k can be made into 
mats. Root extracts, bark, and gum exuding from 
the trinik have been employed in some places in 
medicines. 

Ben oil, elsewhere extracted commercially from 
tlie seeds of tliis and a related species, is a lubricant 
for watches and other fine mechanisms and a base 



Moringa oleifera Lam.* 

for perfumes and is said to be both edible and 
medicinal. In some localities the young pods, 
young leaves, and flowers are eaten cooked like 
stringbeans and greens. Leaves and twigs have 
been cut as fodder in India. The flowers are a 
source of honey. 

Grown chiefly as an ornamental and in fences 
and hedges. The plants are propagated by seeds 
and cuttings and coppice vigorously. Though 
spectacular for the abundant white flowers and 
long seed capsules, this irregiilarly shaped tree 
with weak, easily broken branches is not so attrac- 
tive when old. Moreover, in Puerto Rico it is very 
susceptible to attack by termites and for this rea- 
son not recommended as an ornamental. It is re- 
ported that this tree is the only tree in gardens of 
southern Florida that flowers every day of the 
year. 

Widely planted for ornament and along road- 
sides and escaping from cultivation in Puerto 
Rico, especially in the coastal regions. Also in 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and 
Virgin Gorda. 

Range. — Native of East Indies, southeastern 
Asia, and India, but now widely distributed 
through the tropics. Planted and escaped or na- 
turalized in southern Florida including Florida 
Keys (planted also in southern California) and 
throughout West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba 
to Trinidad and Tobago and Curacao. Also from 
Mexico to Peiai, Paraguay, and Brazil. 

Other common names. — ben, angela, jazmin 
francos (Puerto Rico) ; moringa, palo de abejas, 
libertad (Dominican Republic) ; paraiso f ranees 
palo jeringa, ben (Cuba) ; paraiso de Espana, 
paraiso (Central America) ; perlas, paraiso bianco 
(Guatemala) ; teberinto, terebinto (El Salvador) ; 
Jacinto (Panama) ; angela (Colombia) ; horse- 
radish-tree, drumstick-tree (United States, Eng- 
lish) ; maranga calalii (British Honduras) ; sai- 
jhan, St. John (British Guiana) ; benzolivier, ben 
oleifere (Haiti) ; maloko (Guadeloupe) ; ben- 
boom, salaster, orengga, moriengo, brenolli, or- 
selli (Dutch West Indies) ; peperwortelboom 
(Surinam). 

Botanical stnontms. — Moringa moringa (L.) 
Millsp., M. pterygoHpernia Gaertn. 



134 




54. Resedd, horseradisli-tree 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Moringa oleifera Lani. 



687-921 0—64 10 



135 



55. Palo bobo 



BRUNELLIA FAMILY (BRUNELLIACEAE) 

Brunellia comocladifolia Humb. & Bonpl. 



This distinctive small to medium-sized tree of 
mountain forests, the only West Indian represen- 
tative of its small family, is recognized by: (1) 
the opposite pinnate leaves; (2) 11-15 (sometimes 
to 23) oblong, lance-shaped, long-pointed leaflets 
2-5 inches long and 1-1 ^4 inches broad, with saw- 
toothed edges, also paired except at end; (3) stout 
greenish twigs with rings at nodes, finely rusty- 
brown hairy, as are the leaf axes and flower clus- 
ters. 

An evergreen tree attaining 15-25 feet in height 
and to 6 inches in trunk diameter, with thin, open, 
spreading crown. Bark on small trunks is smooth- 
ish and gray, Inner bark is light brown and 
slightly bitter. 

The leaves are 6-15 inches long. Leaflets are 
almost stalkless, rounded and oblique at base. The 
upper surface is green and almost hairless, and the 
lower surface gray green and finely hairy and with 
raised rusty-brown hairy veins. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are lateral, branched, 
and 2-5 inches long and broad. The mnnerous 
short-stalked small flowei-s about %6 inch long and 
broad are greenish yellow, some flowers containing 
both sexes and also male and female on diii'erent 



trees ( polygamous ) . The calyx is deeply divided, 
with 5 pointed lobes about i/g inch long, rusty- 



-12, 1/8-3/16 



brown hairy; corolla none; stamens 
inch long, inserted at base of a lobed disk ; pistils 
5, separate, \'^ inch long, hairy, each with 1-celled 
ovary, style, and stigma. 

The fruits are star-shaped, 14 inch across, of 5 
or fewer podlike parts (follicles) each about %6 
inch long, bristly, rasty-brown hairy, splitting 
open, and containing 1 or 2 brown seeds. Flowers 
are formed in spring and summer, and fruits ma- 
ture in summer. 

The wood is light brown, hard, and lightweight 
(specific gravity 0.3). Used only for fuel in 
Puei'to Rico. 

Forests of the upper Cordillera region of Puerto 
Rico, up to 4,000 feet elevation or higher. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Greater Antilles, Guadeloupe, and 
Venezuela and Colombia. 

Other common names. — cabra (Puerto Rico) ; 
guasima de pinares (Cuba) ; yuco rinon, berraco, 
jobo macho de tierra fria (Colombia) ; West- 
Indian-sumac (Jamaica), bois Mabel (Haiti). 



136 




55. Palo bobo 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Brunellia comocladifoUa Humb. & Boupl. 

137 



CUNONIA FAMILY (CUNONIACEAE) 



56. Oreganillo 

A small tree or shrub of dwarf forests at high 
elevations on mountain peaks, recognized by: 
(1) opposite pinnate leaves 3-6 inches long with 
broadly winged axis and usually 9-17 stalkless 
elliptic toothed leaflets, paired except for the ter- 
minal one; (2) paired rounded stipules about i/4 
inch long and broad, forming a rounded narrow 
bud but shedding early, leaving ringed scars at 
nodes; (3) numerous minute white flowers tinged 
with pink, in narrow erect latei-al clusters 2-31/^ 
inches long; and (4) many narrow 2-lobed brown 
seed capsules ^jq inch long. 

An evergi-een tree or shrub to 20 feet in height 
and 6 inches in trunk diameter. The dark brown 
bark is smoothish, inner bark light brown and bit- 
ter, and repoi'tedly exudes a resin. The brown 
twigs are densely bristly with yellow haii'S when 
young, becoming blackish. 

The leaves have a short hairy petiole. Leaflets 
are i/4-l inch long and V4-% hich broad, short- 
pointed at base, rounded at apex, with margins 
slightly turned under, stiff, above dark green with 
midrib and lateral veins sunken, and beneath light 
green with hairy midrib. 

The flowers are ?!,; inch long and broad across 
the stamens and are borne on short slender stalks 
along a hairy axis (raceme). There are 4 or 5 
minute pointed sepals, 4 or 5 white petals about Via 
inch long but falling early, 8 or 10 white stamens 
more than Vs inch long, and pistil less than Yg inch 



Weinmannia pinnata L. 

long with 2-celled ovary and 2 white styles. Seed 
capsules have sepals remaining at base and 2 
pointed styles at apex and contain minute hairy 
seeds. Flowering mainly from August to October. 

The sapwood is whitish, and heartwood reddish 
brown. The hard, heavy wood is not used in 
Puerto Rico. Elsewhere the bark has been em- 
ployed in tanning. 

In dwarf forests on mountain peaks in the upper 
Lucjuillo and upper Cordillera regions of Puerto 
Rico mostly above 3,000 feet elevation. 

PiRLic FORESTS. — Luquillo. Toro Xegro. 

Range. — Widely distributed in mountain for- 
ests at high elevations from southern Mexico to 
Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela. Also Greater An- 
tilles and Lesser Antilles from St. Kitts to St. 
Vincent. 

Other common names. — tamarindo de loma 
(Dominican Republic) : sabicii maranon, sabicii 
de pinares (Cuba) ; loro, lorito (Costa Rica) ; 
encinillo, arenillo (Colombia) ; saisai, curtidor 
(Venezuela) ; bastard brazilleto, wild brazilletto 
(Jamaica) ; bois tan rouge (Guadeloupe) ; bois 
sitHeur (Martinique). 

A variable, widely ranging species with varieties 
differing in hairiness, number of leaflets, and other 
characters. This is the only West Indian repre- 
sentative of its family and of a genus common in 
mountain forests at high elevations in the Andes 
of South America. 



138 




56. Oreganillo 



Natural size. 



Weinmannia pinnata L. 
139 



ROSE FAMILY (ROSACEAE) 



57. Icaquillo 

This small tree of mountain forests in Puerto 
Rico only is identified by : ( 1 ) ovate, long-pointed, 
shiny <ri-een, hairy leaves with veins much sunken 
in upper surface and raised beneath, spreading in 
2 rows on long, slender, sparsely branched, bristly 
hairy twigs; (2) pink and red flowers % inch long 
with 5 petals, a few or several in clusters almost 
hidden under the end leaves of a twig; and (3) 
dark red, elliptic, slightly flattened, 2-pointed, 
fleshy fruits 1/4-% inch long. 

An evergreen tree generally less than 20 feet 
high and o inches in ti'unk diameter. The bark 
is gray and smooth, inner bark brown and tasteless. 

The alternate leaves are stalkless or with very 
short hairy petioles less than Vs inch long. Leaf 
blades are 11/2-31/2 inches long and %-li/2 inches 
broad, rounded or slightly heart-shaped at base, 
with edges turned under, the upper surface bristly 
hairy on midrib, and the lower surface paler and 
bristly hairy on veins. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are terminal or lat- 
eral, IV2 inches or less in length, with few flowers 
on slender hairy stalks I/4-I/2 inch long. The haii-y 
basal tube (hyj^anthium) is about i/g inch long and 
broad; there are .) jiinkish hairy sepals %g inch 
long; 5 elliptic red ])etals more than I/4 inch long, 



Hirtella rugosa Pers. 

slightly spreading; 3 long red stamens % inch 
long; and pistil consisting of hairy 1-celled ovary 
laterally placed and slender style attached near 
base. 

The fruits (drupes) are flnely hairy, composed 
of thin, almost tasteless, juicy flesh and 1 brownish 
stone % inch long. Flowering and fruiting nearly 
throughout the year. 

The sapwood is light brown. The wood is hard, 
strong, and heavy (specific gravity 0.9), but be- 
cause of the small size of the trees is little used ex- 
cept for posts and fuel. 

An understory tree in forests of the lower moun- 
tain regions of Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao. Toro Negro. 

R.\NGE. — Mountains of Puerto Rico only. 

Other common names. — hicaquillo, j icaquillo, 
juanilla (Puerto Rico). 

The other native species of this genus (Hirtella 
triandra Sw.) is distinguished by the narrower, 
lance-shaped to elliptic leaves very long-pointed 
at apex and short-pointed or rounded at base, the 
veins not sunken. It is found in moist forests but 
not confined to the mountains. 



140 




57. Icaquillo 



Natural size. 



Hirtella rugosa Pers. 

141 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



Key to the 3 subfamilies 

A. Flowers regular, with 10 to many long, spreading stamens, separate or united at base; petals meeting by edges 
in bud: leaves bipinnate (pinnate in In(]n) — Mimosa Sul)family ( Mimosoideae ; Mimosaeeae), this page below. 
AA. Flowers irregular, with 10 or fewer stamens, often united ; petals overlapping in bud. 

B, Flowers only slightly irregular ; the 5 petals separate, the largest petal innermost in bud ; leaves pinnate or 
bipinnate, sometimes of 2 leaflets or simple — Cassia Subfamily ( Cae.salpinioideae : Caesalpiniaceae), 
page 16S. 
BB, Flowers very irregular, beanlike or butterfly-shaped; the 5 petals being the standard (largest and outermost 
in bud), 2 wings, and 2 slightly united forming the keel; leaves pinnate, sometimes of 3 leaflets — Pea Sub- 
family (Lotoideae; Fabaoeae), page 1S,S. 

MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



Key to the 13 species illustrated ( Nos. 58-70 



) 
A. Leaves pinnate, the leaflets in i)airs. 

B. Leaf axis winged ; leaflets hairy : pods nearly cylindrical, 4-angled — 64. Inga vera. 
BB. Leaf axis cylindrical, not winged : lt>aflets hairless or nearly no; pods flattened. 
C. Leaflets 4 (sometimes only 2) — 62. Inga laitrina. 
CC. Leaflets usually 6 or 8 (sometimes 4) — 63. Inga quaternata.* 
AA. Leaves bipinnate. 

T>. Leaflets very narrow, less than % inch wide, relatively long. 

E. Twigs with paired spines at nodes ; lateral axes (pinnae) 1-6. 

F. Lateral axes 1 or sometimes 2 pairs, each with 12-25 pairs of leaflets %-% inch long; spines brown 

or gray — 70. Proxapis juliflora* 
FF. Lateral axes 2-6 pairs, each with 15-25 pairs of leaflets Vs-%6 inch long; spines whitish — 58. Acacia 
farnesiana.* 
EB. Twigs not spiny ; lateral axes (pinnae) 3 to many pairs. 

G. Lateral axes no more than 10 pairs. 

H. Lateral axes 3-10 pairs, each with 10-20 pairs of gray-green leaflets %6-% inch long — 65. Leucaena 
glauca. 
HH. Lateral axes 8-10 pairs, each with 20-40 pairs of shiny, dark green leaflets % inch long — 67. 
PithecellobiKtn arboretim. 
GG. Lateral axes 2(l-3."> pairs, each with 30-100 pairs of minute leaflets % inch or less in length — 66. 
Piptadenia peregrina. 
DD. Leaflets more than % inch broad, less than 4 times as long as broad. 
I. Leaflets 2 pairs — GX. Pitlitcclhihium rtiilce.* 
II. Leaflets many, lateral axes (pinnae) 2-7 pairs. 

J. Leaflets slightly diamond-shaped, asymmetrical — 69. Pithecellobium satnan.* 
13. Leaflets oblong, rounded at apex. 

K. Leaflets oblique or asymmetrical at base. 

L. Lateral axes 2— i pairs, each with 4-9 pairs of leaflets %-l?4 inches long; the flat pods straw- 
colored, more than 1 inch broad — 60. Albizia lebbek.* 
LL. Lateral axes 4-7 pairs, each with t>-14 pairs of leaflets ; the flat pods rich red, turning to 
brown, less than % inch broad — 61. .Albi'ia proccra.* 
KK. Leaflets symmetrical, rounded at both ends, with tiny point at apex — 59. Adenanthera pavonina.* 



58. Aroma, sweet acacia 

A spiny shrub or small tree of dry areas, char- 
acterized by: (1) the conspicuous paired whitish 
spines (stipules) at nodes on the slijrhtly zigzag 
twigs; (2) twice pinnate (bipinnate) leaves 2-4: 
inches long, with 2-6 pairs of lateral axes (pin- 
nae), each with 10-25 pairs of naiTOw (linear or 
oblong) stalklessleafletsV8-%6 inch long; (3) very 
fragrant flowers in bright yellow balls (lieads) 
about 1/2 iiich across the numerous stamens, on 
lateral stalks; and (4) dark brown to blackish 
pods 11/2-3 inches long and %-y2 inch broad, 
straight or slightly curved, 1-3 on a stalk. 

A deciduous shrub usually less than 10 feet high 
or sometimes a small tree, much branched and 
spreading. The bark is dark brown and smooth- 
ish. The twig.s are dark brown with light colored 
dots (lenticels) and with paired .spines Vg-^ inch 
or more in length. 

Often the alternate leaves are crowded on short 
spur twigs and appear to be more than 1 at a 
node. The slender hairy axis bears a minute round 

142 



Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.* 

gland. The thin green leaflets sometimes as much 
asVie i'lch long are short-pointed at apex, rounded 
at base, and hairless or sometimes hairy around 
edges. 

Flower heads are borne 1-3 together on hairy 
stalks %-l% inches long and composed of numer- 
ous narrow flowers about 14 inch long ending in 
very many yellow threadlike stamens. The tubu- 
lar .5-toothed calyx is i/jg inch long; the tubular 
5-toothed corolla is Vg inch long; there are many 
threadlike stamens almost Y^ inch long; and pistil 
3/16 iiif'h long of narrow ovary and .slender style. 

The pods are thick and only slightly flattened 
and only a little narrowed between the seeds, 
contain sweetish pulp, and open late. There are 
several brown seeds, elliptic and slightly flattened, 
■%(; inch long. Kecorded in flower from November 
to February. The fruits remain attached after 
maturing. 

The sapwood is yellowish and the heartwood 
reddish brown. The wood is hard and heavy 




58. Aroma, sweet acacia 



Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. 



Natural size. 



143 



(specific gravity 0.8). Used only for fuel in 
Puerto Rico because of the small size but elsewhere 
serving for tool handles and farm implements. 

The shrubs are occasionally cultivated around 
houses and in gardens as ornamentals and in India 
foi- hedges. 

One of tlie jn-incipal products of this species is 
tlie perfume distilled from the flowers, known 
commercially as "cassie flowers."' In southern 
Europe tlie shrubs are cultivated for this purpose. 
Likewise, in tropical America the flowers, after 
drying in the shade, are placed between linens to 
perfume them or put in clothes cabinets. The 
flowers are visited by bees. The leaves and pods 
are browsed by livestock. The bark and astringent 
pods, which are high in tannin content, are used 
in tanning, and the pods also in making ink and a 
black dye. The flowers, green fruits, bark, roots, 
and leaves have also been employed in local reme- 
dies. Mucilage can be prepared from tlie gum 
which exudes from the trunk and which resembles 
gum arable, obtained from an African species of 
the same genus. The sticky juice of tlie pods has 
served to mend broken china. 

In thickets and forests in the dry coastal and 
dry limestone regions of Puerto Rico. Also occa- 
sionally planted in gardens. Also in Vieques, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin 
Gorda. 

Public forests. — Guanica, Maricao, Susiia. 

R.\XGE. — Widely distributed in tropical Amer- 
ica and spread by cultivation and naturalization. 
Southwestern border of United States (Texas, 
Arizona, and California) and Mexico to Chile and 
Argentina. Also through "West Indies from Ba- 
hamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and 
Curasao and Aruba. Naturalized in southeastern 
United States ( Florida to Louisiana) . Also natu- 
ralized in Old World tropics. 

This species spreads rapidly and may appear to 
be native in areas where it was brought in many 
years ago. In most of the West Indies perhaps 
introduced and naturalized. However, it has been 
accepted as native in Cuba. The type botanical 
specimen was collected in the Dominican Republic. 

Othek C0M3I0N N.vMEs. — caslia, cassia (Virgin 
Islands) ; aroma, aromo (Spanish) ; cambron (Do- 
minican Republic) ; aroma amarilla (Cuba) ; 



huisache, quisache, binorama, subinche (Mexico) ; 
espino bianco, espinal, subin (Guatemala) ; cachito 
de aromo, espmo, subin (Honduras) ; espino 
bianco, espino ruco (El Salvador) ; cachito de 
aromo (Nicaragua) ; pela, cuji cimarron, uiia de 
cabra (Colombia) ; cuji aromo, pauji (Venezuela) ; 
huaranga (Peru); espino bianco (Bolivia); es- 
pinillo (Uruguay, Argentina) ; sweet acacia, cas- 
sie, huisache (United States) ; aroma, cashia, 
opoponax (Bahamas) ; cassie-flower (Jamaica) ; 
cuntich, cashaw (British Honduras) ; casha, cassie 
(St. Barthelemy) ; acacia odorant (Guadeloupe) ; 
casha (Dutch West Indies) ; esponjeira (Brazil). 

Botanical synonym. — VachfllM fdmesiart/i 
(L.) Wight & Am. 

A few other species of acacia, characterized by 
twice pinnate leaves and mostly paired spines, are 
native or introduced trees and shrubs. Acacia 
nudosa or spineless acacia {Acaciu m.uricata (L.) 
Willd.) is a small tree with no spines, leaflets 8-16 
pairs on each axis, and many small whitish flowers 
along an axis. 

Suma-catechu {Anic/a mmia (Roxb.) Kurz*), 
an Old World tree introduced on St. Croix, has 
leaflets 10-40 pairs on each axis and small whitish 
flowers along an axis. 

The others have small yellow flowers in balls. 
Tamarindo silvestre or steel acacia (Acacm niacra- 
canfha Humb. & Bonpl. ; synonyms A. macracan- 
fholdex Bert., Poponux macraeanthoides (Bert.) 
Britton & Rose), of the Virgin Islands, has leaf- 
lets 15-40 pairs on each axis and pods somewhat 
flattened. 

Twisted acacia or cassia {Acacia tortuosa (L.) 
Willd.; synonym Poponctx tortuosa (L.) Britton 
& Rose), of the Virgin Islands, has leaflets 10-20 
jjairs on each axis and pods nearly cylindrical. 

Goma arabiga or gum-arabic (Acacia, nilotica 
(L.) Delile*), from Africa, is sometimes planted 
for ornament and is reported to be naturalized 
locally. It has 10-30 pairs of leaflets on each axis 
and narrow flattened pods narrowed between the 
seeds. 

Anegada acacia {Acacia anegadensis Britton; 
synonym Fishlochia avegadensis (Britton) Brit- 
ton & Rose), known only from the island of Ane- 
gada, has leaves with only 1 pair of lateral axes, 
each with 1 or 2 pairs of leaflets. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 

59. Peronias, jumbie-bead Adenanthera pavonina L* 



This introduced tree, locally naturalized, is iden- 
tified by: (1) the large twice pinnate (bipinnate) 
leaves 1-2 feet or more in length, composed of nu- 
merous oblong thin leaflets rounded at both ends 
and with a tiny point at apex; (2) the erect nar- 
row flower clusters 4-7 inches long, containing nu- 
merous crowded, small, pale yellow flowers 14 inch 
across; and (3) the shiny scarlet lens-shaped seeds 

144 



% inch in diameter and nearly i/4 irich thick, borne 
in pods 6-10 inches long. 

A medium-sized deciduous tre« to 40 feet high 
and 11/0 feet in trunk diameter, with spreading 
crown. The brown bark is smoothish with many 
small fissures. Inner bark is light brown. Twigs 
are stout and green. 




59. Peronias, junibie-bead 



One-half natural size. 



Adenanthera pavonina L. 

145 



The main axis of the alternate leaves is gfreen, 
tinged with brown, with 2-5 pairs of lateral axes 
(pinnae), and the latter eacli bearing 11-21 leaf- 
lets. The leaflets also are alternate on short stalks 
less than % i'^cli long and with blades %,-l% 
inches long and %-% inch broad, edges not 
toothed, minutely and verj' inconspicuously hairy 
on both sides, dull green on upper surface, and 
blue green beneath. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are lateral and ter- 
minal, slender and unbranched, with many small 
flowers on stalks about Ys inch long. The tiny 
light green calyx Vjg inch long is bell-shaped, 5- 
tootlied; the 5 spreading, narrow, pointed, petals 
i/g inch long; 10 stamens a little longer than petals, 
pale yellow with brown anthers; and pistil %g inch 
long with light green 1-celled ovary and slender 
style. 

The dark brown pods are V2-% inch broad, 
curved, somewhat fleshy, flattened between seeds, 
splitting into 2 parts and twisting upon opening. 
The several showy seeds (about 1,600 to a pound) 
adhere to the opened pods. Flowering usually 
from late summer to winter (August to January), 
the fruit maturing in fall and winter and remain- 
ing attached for some time. 

The sapwood is light brown and hard. Heart- 
wood is reddish. The wood is hard, heavy (specific 
gravity 0.6-0.8), strong, and durable. It is used 
as roundwood or fiiel. Elsewhere the wood has 
been employed in construction and cabinetwork 
and is the source of a red dye. 



This is a shade tree and ornamental in Puerto 
Rico. In Malaya grown as a shade tree for plan- 
tation crops. The shiny bright colored seeds after 
softening in boiling water serve as beads in neck- 
laces and novelties. 

Naturalized in the coastal and moist limestone 
regions of Puerto Eico. Also in St. Thomas, St. 
John, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Mari- 
cao, Rio Abajo, Vega. 

Range. — Native of tropical Asia, fii-st described 
from India. Planted and naturalized in other 
tropical regions including West Indies from Cuba 
and Jamaica to Trinidad and Tobago. Grown in 
southern Florida and California. Cultivated in 
Dutcli West Indies and South America fi'om 
Venezuela to Brazil but very rare in Central 
America. 

Other common names. — coralitos, coral, mato 
Colorado, palo de mato, peronias chatas (Puerto 
Rico) ; Circassian-bean, coquelicot (Virgin Is- 
lands) ; coralitos, peonia (Dominican Republic) ; 
coralin, coral, coralillo (Cuba) ; sandal beadtree, 
red sandalwood, Circassian-bean, Circassian-seed 
(United States) ; red sandalwood, Circassian-seed 
(Jamaica, Trinidad) ; I'eglise (Grenadines) ; 
jumbie-bead (Trinidad) ; buckbead (British Gui- 
ana) ; reglisse, arbre a reglisse, arbre a graines 
reglisse, corail vegetal (Guadeloupe) ; pau tento, 
tento Carolina (Brazil). 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 

60. Acacia amarilla, tibet, lebbek Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth.* 



A common introduced roadside tree of the drier 
areas, acacia amarilla is characterized by: (1) 
twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) 6-16 inches long, 
with 2-4 pairs of lateral axes and with many ob- 
long leaflets %~1% inches long and %-% inch 
broad, rounded at both ends and very oblique at 
base; (2) quantities of many fragrant cream- 
colored flowers clustered together at end of a lat- 
eral stalk in a rounded mass 2-3 inches across the 
many tlireadlike, spreading, whitish to yellow 
stamens tipped with light green; and (3) flat, 
broad, straw-colored pods 4-8 inches or more in 
length and I-IV2 inches broad, usually present in 
quantities. 

A medium-sized deciduous tree 20^0 feet high 
and to 114 feet in diameter or larger, with spread- 
ing crown of thin foliage. The gray bark is 
smoothish, becoming fissured or rough," the inner 
barlv pink and bitter. The twigs are greenish, be- 
coming gray or brown. 

The alternate leaves have a greenish or yellow- 
brown leaf axis bearing a small elliptic gland on 
upper side near base and 2-4 pairs of lateral axes 



(pinnae), each with 4-9 pairs of leaflets. Leaf- 
lets have very short stalks less than Yie inch long 
and thin blades, with the midrib not in center and 
sometimes a second prominent vein from base, the 
edges not toothed, dull green above, and beneath 
light green and sometimes minutely hairy. The 
terminal leaflets are broadest above middle 
(obovate). 

Rounded clusters (umbels or heads) of many 
spreading short-stalked narrow flowers are borne 
at the end of lateral stalks 1V2-4 inches long, 
singly or 2-4 together, each flower on a short slen- 
der hairy stalk almost V^ inch long. The indi- 
vidual flower II/4-I14 inches long to end of stamens 
has a tubular 5-toothed hairy calyx i/g inch long, 
narrow tubular white corolla Yi^ inch long includ- 
ing 5 pointed lobes hairy at end ; many threadlike 
spreading stamens united into a tube near base, 
whitish turning yellow, and light green toward 
tip; and pistil of narrow ovary and threadlike 
style. 

The seed pod, short-pointed at both ends, con- 
tains a row of several seeds and is swollen and de- 



146 




60. Acacia amarilla, tlbet, lebbek 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Albisia lehbek (L.) Benth. 



147 



pressed around each seed. The oblong' flattened 
brown seeds are % inch long'. Pods are produced 
in ijreat quantities, long: persistent on tlie branches, 
late in opening, remaining after the leaves are 
shed. Flowering from April to September and 
with fniits nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is whitisli, and the heart wood light 
yellowish brown to light brown. The wood is 
moderately hard, coarse-grained, strong, and fairly 
durable. It seasons well and worlcs and polishes 
easily. In Puerto Rico used only for fuel and 
posts. Elsewhere the wood has been employed for 
furniture, paneling, veneering, turnery, and gen- 
ei'al construction. The bariv has served in tanning, 
and a few parts of tlie tree in medicines. 

Propagated readily from seed, the trees grow 
well in diy areas, where they are sufficiently hardy 
to become naturalized. Reported to be tolerant 
of salt spray and suitable also near .seashores. 

Planted for shade and ornament along roadsides 
and aroinid hou.ses, and naturalized in pastures and 
on hillsides in the moist and dry coastal regions 
of Puerto Rico. Also in Culebra, Vieques, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

R.\NGE. — Native probably of tropical Asia in- 
cluding India and Burma but now widely planted 
and naturalized tln'ough the tropics. Southern 



Florida including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and 
throughout West Indies. Also from British Hon- 
duras through Central America and South 
America to Brazil. 

Other common names. — lengua de mujer, len- 
gua viperina, casia amarilla, acacia, aroma, amor 
platonico (Puerto Rico) ; woman's-tongue, tibet- 
tree (Virgin Islands) ; chacha (Dominican Repub- 
lic) ; algarrobo de olor, aroma francesa, forest ina, 
cabellos de angel, miisico (Cuba) ; acacia, canjuro 
(El Salvador) ; pisquin, muche, carbonero de som- 
brio, guarmuche, dormilon (Colombia) ; barba de 
caballero, saman (Venezuela) ; lebbek, lebbek al- 
bizia (United States) ; koko (United States, com- 
merce) ; tiljet-tree, woman's-tongue, siris-tree 
(English) ; black-ebony (Bermuda) ; singer-tree, 
wliistling-bean (Bahamas) ; shack-shack, West- 
Indies-ebony, East-Indian-walnut (Trinidad) ; 
tcha-tcha, bois noir (Haiti) ; vieille fille (Guade- 
loupe) ; barba di junkuman (Dutch West Indies) ; 
corac^ao de negro (Brazil). 

The peculiar rattling sound produced by the con- 
tinual movement of the dry pods in the wind is the 
origin of the common name of woman's-tongue 
(lengiia de mujer) and in Cuba the more pleasant 
one. miisico (musical). 

The generic name is spelled also Alhizzia. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



61. Albizia, tall albizia 

This exotic tree of relatively recent introduction 
i.c planted along roadsides and in gardens. It is 
identified by : (1) twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) 
1-2 feet long, witli many oblong leaflets reddish in 
color when firet produced, %-li/^ inches long and 
yi6-% iiich wide, short-pointed at both ends and 
vei-y oblique at base; (2) .showy flowers numerous 
in whitish balls with many spreading stamens 
about % inch across; and (3) thin flat pods 3-7 
inches long and nearly % inch broad, rich red but 
turning to brown, containing a central row of 
<>-12 elliptic flattened green-brown seeds about 14 
incji long. From acacia amarilla {Albizia lebbek 
(L.) Benth.*) it dift'ers in having smaller flowers 
and seed pods and in the larger number of lateral 
axes in the leaf, 4-7 pairs. 

A rapidlv growing deciduous tree becoming 
30-60 feet tall with 'straight trunk 1-2 feet in di- 
ameter, few branches, and spreading thin crown. 
The bark is smoothish, varying from very light 
brown to whitish or light greenish gray. Inner 
bark is soft and pinkish with a strong, peculiar, 
bitter, astringent, and irritating taste. The stout 
twigs are greenish brown, with many small longi- 
tudinal ridges. 

The yellow-green axis of the alternate leaves 
Itears an elliptic gland 14 inch long on upper side 
near the enlarged base and 4-7 pairs of slender 



Albizia procera (Roxb.) Benth.* 

lateral axes (pinnae). There are 6-14 pairs of 
leaflets with short stalks '/jc inch long on each lat- 
eral axis. The thin leaflet blades with the side 
nearer axis much broader, not toothed on edges, 
the upper surface dull green, and the lower surface 
pale gray green and inconspicuously hairy. 

Flowers are borne on several lateral axes (ra- 
cemes) 3-9 inches long near the end of a twig. 
An individual flower is stalkless and nearly % 
inch long, including the stamens, and has a gi-een- 
ish 5-toothed calyx tube about Vs inch long; a 
whitish narrow corolla nearly 14 inch long includ- 
ing tube and 5 pointed hairy lobes; many white 
threadlike spreading stamens about Vie inch long, 
united into a tube in lower part; and pistil with 
small narrow ovary and threadlike style. 

The pods, long-pointed at both ends, contain 
6-12 seeds and have an enlarged dark spot outside 
each seed. Later they split open along 1 side to 
expose the papery walls and release the seeds. At 
maturity the large masses of red pods against the 
green foliage are showy, and then the brown dead 
open pods remain on the tree for some time, until 
the whole twig bearing the pods is shed. These 
pods and fallen leaves make undesii-able litter in 
lawns and gardens. Recorded in flower in Augu.st 
and September and in fruit from January to June. 

The sapwood is whitish to light yellow, and 



148 




61. Albizia, tall albizia AlMzia proccra (Roxb.) Benth. 

Leaf, one-third natural size. Flowers (above) and pod (below), two-tliirds natural size. 



149 



heartwood is light brown to light chocolate brown. 
The wood is moderately hard and is resistant to 
attack by dry- wood termites. Used for shade and 
fuel. In India the wood has been employed for 
construction and agricultural implements. 

Introduced by the Commonwealth Forest Serv- 
ice in 1924 and sparingly planted in Puerto Rico, 
such as along roadsides for shade and fenceposts 
in the dry areas and in gardens. The propagation 
of this species for farm plantings was increased 
during the 1940's because it was considered a 
promising rapid-gi'owing fuelwood species for the 



coastal and lower moiuitain regions. The trees 
may be raised from seed or cuttings. However, 
most of the trees have suffered severely from a 
fungus disease which causes dieback or death. For 
this reason the species is no longer pi'opagated. 
Listed from St. Thomas moi'e than a century ago. 

Range. — Native of tropical Asia from India to 
China and to Australia. Apparently an uncom- 
mon introduced tree in the Amei'ican tropics. 
Sometimes planted in southern Florida. 

Other common najies. — acacia (Puerto Rico) ; 
tall albizia, white siris (English). 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 

62. Guama, "sweetpea" Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. 



Guania, which is commonly used for coiTee 
shade, is characterized by: (1) alternate pinnate 
hairless leaves with leaflets usually 2 jjairs (some- 
times 1 pair), green to dark green, elliptic or 
ovate, the outermost leaflets usually considerably 
larger than the first pair, slightly thickened, near- 
ly stalkless, and with a minute round gland on the 
wingless axis between each pair; (2) many white 
brushlike flowers with numerous spreading sta- 
mens and 1 inch across on an axis 3-6 inches long; 

(3) flat pods 21/2-41/^ inches long and 34-I14 inches 
thick, slightly curved and with raised border; and 

(4) whitish bark with prominent horizontal dark 
lines (lenticels). 

A medium-sized evergreen tree 50-70 feet high 
and 11/2 feet in trunk diameter, with a rounded 
dense crown of dark gi-een foliage. The inner 
bark is reddish and slightly bitter. The twigs are 
green when young, turning brown, with many 
raised dots (lenticels). 

Leaves are mostly 3-8 inches lone, the slender 
green axis 1—4 inches long. Leaflet blades are 
2-4 inches long and 1-2 inches wide, blunt- or 
short-pointed at apex, short -pointed and slightly 
oblique at base, slightly shiny above, pale green 
beneath, not toothed on edges. 

Flower clusters (spikes) are lateral or terminal, 
single or paired, many slightly fragrant stalkless 
flowers being borne on a slender axis. The in- 
dividual flower, about %-% inch long to end of 
the stamens, has a greenish tubular 5-toothed calyx 
less than % inch long; greenish funnel-shaped 
tubular 5-lobed corolla more than i/j inch long; 
many spreading white threadlike stamens %-% 
inch long, united into tube in lower part ; and 
pistil % inch long composed of slender ovai-y and 
threadlike style. Often the flower cluster is de- 
foriiied and much branched as in a witches'-bi-oom. 

The pods are Vs-^e inch thick, rounded at both 
ends, green when immature, turning bi-own, al- 
most without edible pulp around the several seeds, 
not splitting open. Flowering and fruiting 
through the year. 



The sapwood is whitish, and the attractive heart- 
wood pale reddish brown, often streaked with 
darker bi'own. The wood is moderately hard, 
moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.62), coarse- 
textured, strong, tough, and easily worked. It is 
very susceptible to decay and to attack by dry- 
wood termites. The rate of air-seasoning is rapid, 
and amount of degrade is moderate. Machining 
characteristics are as follows: planing, turning, 
boring, mortising, and resistance to screw splitting 
are good ; shaj)ing is fair; and sanding is excellent. 

The wood is suitable for furnitui-e, cabinetwork, 
too] handles, interior trim, general and heavy con- 
struction, crates, boxes, and flooring and has been 
recommended for veneer and plywood. However, 
in Puerto Rico it is seldom used except for fuel, 
charcoal, and fenceposts. 

The trees are planted extensively for coffee 
shade and elsewhere for shade for cacao also. 
This is an important honey plant. 

Forests and coffee plantations in the moist coast, 
moist limestone, the lower mountain, and the 
upper Cordillera regions of Puerto Rico. Also 
in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Jolm, 
Toi-tola, and Virgin Gorda. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaia- 
taca, Guanica, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio 
Abajo. Susua, Toro Negro, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
6, 47, 53, 59. 

Range. — West Indies from Hispaniola and 
Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands to Grenada and 
Barbados and Trinidad, and in northeastern Vene- 
zuela (Sucre). Also from western Mexico (Jalis- 
co and Ciuerrero) and Guatemala to Panama. 
Introduced into Cuba for coffee shade. 

Other common names. — Spanish-oak, pom- 
shock (Virgin Islands) ; jina (Dominican Repub- 
lic) ; guama de Puerto Rico (Cuba) ; palal (Guate- 
mala) ; cujinicuil, paternillo, chapernillo (El 
Salvador) ; guavo (Panama) ; sackysac (Trini- 
dad) ; Spanish-oak (Montserrat, Barbados) ; pois 
doux, pois doux blanc (Guadeloupe) ; pois doux 
(Martinique). 



150 





G2. Guama, "sweetfiea" 



687-921 0—64 11 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Inga laurina (Sw.) Willd. 
151 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



63. Guama venezolano 

A rapidly <jrowin<2; spreading tree with a dense 
crown, related to the native guaba and guama and 
introduced for coffee shade, characterized by: 
(1) alternate pinnate leaves with usually 3 or 4 
pairs (sometimes 2) of obovate to oblong, nearly 
hairless, stiif, slightly leathery leaflets, 21/2-6 
inches long, becoming larger toward apex, short- 
stalked, and with a round raised gland Yiq inch 
across on the wingless axis between each pair of 
leaflets; (2) the loose ball -like flower cluster about 
2 inches across the many spreading threadlike 
white stamens, the numerous individual flowers on 
stalks i/j-'^s iiifh long; and (3) fruit a flattened 
but thick pod 4-G inches long and 1-1% inches 
broad with raised border, and often a little curved. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree, reach- 
ing a height of 25 feet and trunk diameter of 3 
inches or more at age of about 5 years. Wlien 
older, attaining a height of 30 feet and a diameter 
of 10 inches. Bark brown, smooth at first, ridged 
slightly later. The inner bark is light brown and 
slightly bitter. The twigs are dark brown and 
finely hairy when young. 

Leaves are 7-12 inches long, with a brownish- 
green or brown axis 21-4-6 inches long, finely hairy, 
not winged, and ending in a point beyond last 
pair of leaflets. The leaflets have short stout stalks 
about I's inch long. Leaflet blades are 1-31/^ 
inches wide, mostly short-pointed at both ends and 
broadest above middle, not toothed, nearly hairless 
except on veins, above yellow green to green and 
slightly shiny, and beneath dull light green. 

Flower clusters (umbels) are borne at the end of 
a lateral stalk Vo-l inch long, usually 2 clusters at 
base of a leaf. The narrow tubular light green 
calyx of the slightly fragrant flowers is %6 iii^^i 
long, 5-toothed and finely hairy; the narrow tubu- 
lar whitish-green corolla about % inch long, 5- 
toothed, and finely hairy; the numerous white 
stamens are %~1 inch long including the tube 



Inga quaternata Poepp. & EndL* 

nearly half the length and spreading 34 i^ich 
across; and the pistil about yg inch long consists 
of narrow ovary and threadlike style. 

The pods are about i/^-% inch thick, mostly 
roundecl at both ends with a narrow point at apex 
and stalk at base, light green, turning brownish, 
becoming hairless, and do not split open. There 
are several oblong seeds about <% inch long in a 
thin white sweetish pulp. This whitish pulp is 
edible but too thin for the pods to be of commer- 
cial importance. Probably flowering and fruiting 
ii'regularly through the year. Flowers collected 
in July and August. 

The whitish sapwood is hard. The tree has 
been used only for coffee shade and fuel in Puerto 
Rico to date, mainly because of relatively recent 
introduction. 

Introduced about 1930 and distributed by the 
Puerto Rico Forest Service for coffee shade, this 
tree was at first thought to be immune to attack 
by hormiguilla, an insect pest on the related na- 
tive species. It has since proved susceptible; but 
as the tree is very adaptable, survives well, pro- 
vides a low shade at early age, and is very easily 
proj)agated, it probably will continue to be used 
for this purpose. Now found in coffee planta- 
tions in the upper and lower Cordillera regions 
and in the moist limestone region. 

Range. — Southern Mexico and Guatemala to 
Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil. 

Other common names. — bribri (Panama) ; 
shimbillo (Peru). 

Botanical synonyms. — Inga roussoviana Pit- 
tier, /. specioshsima Pittier. 

Besides the 2 native and 1 introduced species 
described here, a few other species of Inga have 
been planted for coffee shade. Guama peludo 
(Inga fastuosa Willd.*), from Venezuela, is easily 
recognized by the reddish-hairy twigs and large 
flat pods up to 12 inches long and 21/^ inches wide, 
also reddish hairy. 



152 




63. Giiain5 veiiezolano 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Iiiga qiiatt riuita Poepp. & Eiull. 

153 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



64. Guaba 



Gnabii, tlie commonest coffee shade tree and also 
native or naturalized in wet forests, is easily dis- 
tinp;uished by: (1) alternate pinnate hairy leaves 
with ?>-5 pairs of elliptic to oblong, stalkless, slight- 
ly droopnig leaflets on a winged axis bearing a 
minute round j'ellow-green gland between each 
pair; (2) lateral clusters of several large whitish 
flowers with long threadlike stamens 214-3 inches 
long and 3-3% inches across but soon wilting; (3) 
hairy pods 4—6 inches long and 1/0-% i"ch in diam- 
eter, nearly cylindrical Ijut 4-ribbed and with 2 
broad longitudinal grooves, and containing white 
sweetish edible pulp. 

Medium-sized evergreen tree becoming 4(V60 
feet tall and 1-1 V2 feet or more in trunk diameter 
(recorded to 3 feet), with very widely spreading 
crown of long branches and thin foliage. The 
bark is gray brown, smoothish but becoming finely 
fissured. Inner bark is pinkish to brown and 
slightly bitter. Twigs are brown and tend to zig- 
zag, with light colored dots (lenticels), and dense- 
ly brown hairy when young. 

The leaves 7-12 inches long are borne in 2 
spreading rows on a twig. The axis 21/2-7 inches 
long is brown hairy, with a green wing 1/4-% inch 
broad between each pair of leaflets. Leaflets are 
2-6 inches long and 1-2% inches wide, larger from 
base toward apex, long-pointed at apex and short- 
pointed at base, not toothed, thin and slightly con- 
vex, the upper surface green, lower surface light 
green, and both surfaces slightly hairy especially 
on veins, and also slightly shiny. 

Flowers do not open at the same time, but usu- 
ally only 1 or 2 daily in each cluster. At dawn the 
flower is fully expanded, but during the day the 
stamens and style wither. Flower clusters 
(spikes) are single or paired at base of a leaf, con- 
sisting of several stalkless flowers crowded near the 
end of a hairy green axis 1-21/4 inches long. An 
individual flower with stamens fully expanded is 
white and 21/2-3 inches long and 3-3i/^ inches 
across. A few hours later the flower is greenish, 
less than % inch long to end of corolla and s/ie 
inch across corolla lobes, with the twisted pale yel- 
low stamens drooping li/> inches or less below. 
The brownish-green finely hairy tubular calyx is 
cylindrical, Vig-M^ inch long, and 5-toothe-d, often 
splitting on 1 side; the greenish-yellow corolla 
densely brown hairy, composed of a narrow cylin- 
drical tube about % inch long and 5 spreading 
lobes i/s inch long; the numerous spreading white 
threadlike stamens are united into a tube inside 
corolla ; and the white pistil is more than 21^ inches 
long with narrow ovary and very slender style. 



Inga vera Willd. 

The pod is densely brown hairy and slightly 
curved, few-seeded, not splitting open, with calyx 
remaining at base. In flower and fruit through the 
year, but most fruits appearing in the fall. 

The sapwood is whitish, and heartwood pale 
brown to golden brown with longitudinal streaks 
or patches of darker brown often shaded with 
green or yellow. The wood is moderately hard, 
moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.59), strong, 
and tough. It is very susceptible to attack by dry- 
wood termites and other insects and to decay in 
contact with the ground. Kate of air-seasoning is 
rapid, and amount of degrade is moderate. Ma- 
chining characteristics are as follows: jjlaning, 
turning, boring, mortising, sanding, and resistance 
to screw splitting are good; and shaping is poor. 

The wood is used almost solely for posts, fuel, 
and charcoal. However, it is suitable for utility 
furniture, boxes, crates, light construction, and 
general carpentry. 

On lower slopes and along streams this tree 
grows vei-y rapidly, producing coffee shade within 
3 years and growing in trunk diameter at a rate 
sometimes exceeding 1 inch per year. Also a honey 
plant. 

Common in active and abandoned coffee planta- 
tions throughout Puerto Rico except in the upper 
mountain, dry coastal, and dry limestone forest 
regions. Commonest at the northern base of the 
lower Cordillera, lower Luquillo, and moist lime- 
stone regions. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guajataca, Guilarte, 
Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susua, and Toro 
Negro. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
1, 5, 6, 8, 19, 21, 27, 32, 35, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, 53, 58, 
61, 70, 73. 

Range. — Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. 
Also introduced in Cuba and Guadeloupe and per- 
haps elsewhere for coffee shade. 

Other common names. — guaba del pais, guaba 
nativa (Puerto Rico) ; guama (Dominican Repub- 
lic) ; guaba (Cuba) ; pois doux, pois sucrin, su- 
crier, sucrin (Haiti) ; pois doux, pois doux poilu 
(Guadeloupe) ; pois doux a paille (Guadeloupe, 
Martinique). 

Named from material collected in Jamaica, this 
species is the one upon which this large genus was 
based. It has been reported also from Mexico, 
Central America, and northern South America but 
not by authors of the most recent floras. 

Botanical synonym. — /nga inga (L.) Britton. 



154 




64. Guaba 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Inga vera Willd. 
155 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



65. Zarcilla, tantan, leadtree 

A small tree or shrub common along roadsides 
and in old fields in the dry areas, characterized by : 
(1) alternate twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) 4-8 
inches long, with 3-10 pairs of lateral axes (pin- 
nae), each with 10-20 pairs of stalkless narrowly 
oblong or lance-shaped gray-green leaflets ^6-% 
inch long and less than Vg inch wide; (2) flowers 
very numerous in whitish i-ound balls %-l inch 
across the spreading threadlike stamens; and (3) 
usually many clustered dark brown pods 4-6 inches 
long and %-% inch wide, flat and thin, with raised 
border. 

A rapidly growing deciduous spreading tree 
15-25 feet high and 2-4 inches in diameter or 
larger. The bark is gray or bi-o\\nish gray and 
smooth with many dots or warts (lenticels). In- 
ner bark is light green or light brown and slightly 
bitter. Twigs are gray green and finely hairy, be- 
coming brownish gray. 

The gray-green leaf a.xBS and lateral axes have 
swellings at bases. Leaflets are short-pointed at 
apex and oblique at the short-pointed base, thin, 
and gray green but slightly paler beneath. They 
fold upward together at night. 

The flower heads are borne on stalks %-li4 
inches long in terminal clusters (racemelike) at 
ends of twigs or lateral and composed of many 
narrow stalkless flowers in a whitish round ball 
about %-i/4 inch across corollas in bud stage. Each 
individual flower Yie inch or more in length has 
a tubular, gi"eenish-white hairy, 5-toothed calyx 
more than ' ig inch long; 5 narrow greenish-white 
hairy petals nearly %6 inch long; 10 threadlike 
white stamens about Yie "ich long; and slender- 
stalked pistil nearly 14 i"ch long with narrow 
green haiiy ovary and white style. 

The pods are narrowed into a stalk at base, short- 
pointecl at apex, and minutely haii-y. They hang 
down usually many in a cluster and split open on 
both sides at maturity. In a central row are many 
flattened, oblong, pointed, shiny brown seeds %b 
inch long (10,000 to a pound). Flowering and 
fruiting nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is light yellow. Heartwood is 
yellow brown to dark brown. The hard, heavy 
wood (specific gravity 0.7) is used for fuel in 
Puerto Rico. 

The seeds, after softening in boiling water, are 
jtrung as beads into necklaces, bracelets, decora- 
tions on hats, and curiosities for tourists in the Vir- 
gin Islands and other localities. In the Philip- 
pines the young pods have been cooked as a vege- 
table and the seeds prepared as a coffee substitute. 
The bark and roots reportedly have been employed 
in home remedies. Bees obtain pollen from the 
flowers. In the Virgin Islands branches from 
trees along roadsides freciuently are cut for live- 



Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. 

stock feed, especially in the dry season. 

The leaves and pods are poisonous to horses, 
donkeys, and mules and, when eaten, cause these 
animals to shed their hair, especially that of the 
mane and tail (or even hooves if browsing is pro- 
longed, it is reported). Hogs are similai'ly af- 
fected, losing the hair along the spine, and rabbits 
are poisoned also. However, cattle, goats, and 
sheep can bro^^■se the foliage without ill effects. 
The poison is concentrated in the seeds and young 
leaves. 

The trees are easily propagated from seeds or 
cuttings and coppice well. Like weeds they read- 
ily invade cleared lands and frequently form dense 
pure thickets. This species has been used in some 
countries for coffee shade, cacao shade, and hedges. 
Being hardy it can be planted in pastures, to be 
followed a:fterwards by timber trees. In some 
areas the trees have been managed for fuel or 
charcoal on a short rotation of 6 or 7 years between 
cuttings. In the Far East this legimie is grown to 
rebuild the soil and as a forage crop. 

In roadsides, abandoned pastures, and thickets, 
in the dry limestone and dry coastal regions of 
Puerto Rico. Also widespread in ]\Iona, Vieques, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Vir- 
gin Gorda. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Cambalache, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, ^Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susua, Vega. 

Municipalities aviiere especially common. — 
26, 38, 54, 55, 75. 

Range. — Throughout "West Indies from Ba- 
hamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and 
from southern Mexico to northern South America. 
Naturalized beyond the original range north to 
southern Texas and southern Florida (also planted 
in California) and in Bermuda and southward to 
Chile and Brazil. Also naturalized in the Old 
World tropics. 

Other common names. — tamarindillo, hedion- 
dilla, acacia, acacia palida (Puerto Rico) ; wild 
tamarind, wild taman (Virgin Islands) ; lino, 
granadino, granadillo bobo, lino criollo (Domini- 
can Republic) ; aroma blanca, aroma mansa, aroma 
l)()bn (Cuba); guaje, uaxim (Mexico); barba de 
leon (Guatemala); panelo (Colombia); leadtree, 
white popinac (United States) ; jumbie-bean, wild 
mimosa, acacia (Bermuda) ; jumbie-bean, jimbay, 
cowbiish (Bahamas) ; wild tamarind (Grenadines, 
Trinidad, British Honduras) ; shack-shack. West 
Indies mimosa (Trinidad); grains de lin pays 
(Haiti) ; bois-lolo, monval (St. Barthelemy, Gua- 
deloupe) ; macata (Guadeloupe); macata blanca 
(Martinique) ; tumbarabu, mimosa, tantan (Dutch 
West Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Leucaena le^icocephaln 
(Lam.) deWit. 



156 




65. Zarcilla, tautan, leadtree 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Leucaena glauca (L.) Beiith. 



157 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



66. Cojobana 

This small to medium-sized tree is characterized 
by: (1) feathery, twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) 
with minute narrow leaflets Vs inch or less in 
length; ('2) t^mall flowers numerous and crowded 
in wliitisli-yellow balls %-V2 'i^ch in diameter, 
several in stalked lateral clustei-s; (3) brown flat 
and thin pods 3-8 inches long and about % inch 
broad, slightly narrowed between the seeds, and 
finely scaly; and (4) very rough, gray, brown, or 
blackisli bark on larger trees, thick, deeply fur- 
rowed, and witli pi'ominent warts or irregular 
ridges. 

A deciduous tree becoming 20-40 feet high and 
8 inches or more in trunk diameter, generally much 
smaller, with thin widely spreading crown of at- 
tractive fine foliage. Outer bark is gi-ay or dark 
brown, with lines of growth, and inner bark light 
and dark brown streaked, soft, and bitter. The 
brown twigs are minutely hairy. 

The alternate leaves 6-^9 inches long have a light 
brown, finely hairy axis bearing 1 oval reddish 
gland near base and usually 2 near apex. There 
are about 20-35 pairs of lateral branches (pinnae),^ 
each with about 30-100 pairs of stalkless, nan-ow* 
(linear), slightly hairy leaflets, which are short- 
pointed at a]5ex and oblique at base, green above 
and paler beneath. Thus, each leaf has at least a 
few thousand leaflets. 

The flower clustei-s (heads) are lateral, several 
together on slender haii-y stalks %-l inch long 
and bearing numerous stalkless flowers. Each 
flower is more than Vi long when the stamens are 
fully expanded. The bell-shaped 5-toothed calyx 
is Vie inch long and minutely hairy; the white 
corolla i/s inch long, with tube and 5 short lobes, 
finely hairy on outside ; 10 stamens more than V4 



Piptadenia peregrina (L.) Benth. 

inch long; and the pistil has a 1-celled ovary with 
slender style about 14 inch long. 

The pods have raised edges and split into 2 
parts. There are several I'ounded, very thin, flat 
seeds nearly 1/0 '"ch in diameter. Flowering from 
March to June. Pods present most of tlie year. 

The sapwood is whitish to light brown, and the 
lieartwood dark brown or reddish brown. The 
wood is extremely hard, lieavy (specific gravity 
0.8), strong and durable, but difficult to work. 
Used chiefly for posts in Puerto Kico. The thick 
bark is rich in tannin and has been employed in 
tanneries of Venezuela. 

A narcotic snuff called "cojoba'" was prepared 
from the finely ground seeds by the Indians of 
Hispnniola and Venezuela and adjacent parts of 
Bi-azil. It was used in religious ceremonies. Re- 
cently this narcotic has been studied chemically 
and tested for possible medicinal applications. 

In woodlands and hillsides in the coastal and 
lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Maricao. 

Range. — Hisjianiola, Puerto Rico, Dominica, 
St. Vincent, Grenada, and Trinidad (doubtfully 
native). Reported from Jamaica, apparently in 
error. Also \'enezuela, British Guiana, and 
Brazil. 

Other fOMjroN names. — cojobillo, cojoba, co- 
jobo (Puerto Rico) ; cojoba (Dominican Repub- 
lic) ; yopo (Colombia) ; cojoba, niopa,niopo,yopo, 
curuba (Venezuela) ; savannah yoke, cohoba 
(Trinidad) ; bois galle, bois Tecorce, ceuf de poule 
(Haiti) ; parica (Brazil). 

Botanical synonym. — Niopa peregrina (L.) 
Britton & Rose. 



158 




66. CojSbana 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Piptadenia peregrina (L.) Benth. 

159 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



67. Cojoba 



This handsome tree with shiny, dark green, 
feathery foliage is further characterized by: (1) 
twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) with numerous 
small narrow leaflets about % inch long and less 
than l^ inch wide; (2) the many flowers in a 
whitish ball more than 1 inch in diameter across 
the stamens; and (3) the conspicuous red pods 
21/9-6 inches long and % inch in diameter, curved 
or coiled, splitting open, twisting, and exposing 
the several black elliptic seeds that hang on short 
threads. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree attain- 
ing 30-50 feet in height and 1 foot in trunk diam.- 
eter. The bai-k is gray and smoothish. Inner 
bark is whitish and bitter. The brown twigs are 
finely brown hairy when young. 

The leaves are alternate, 5-12 inches long, with 
greenish axes minutely brown hairy. The main 
axis has 8-16 pairs of lateral branches (pinnae), 
with a dot gland at base of each pair, each l)ranch 
bearing 20—40 pairs of stalkless leaflets. Leaf- 
lets are oblong or lance-shaped, short-pointed, 
oblique at base, thin, hairless, paler beneath. 

There are 1-3 flower clusters (heads) at base 
of a leaf or at a node back of leaves, on stalks 
11/0-3 inches long, containing numerous stalkless 
flowers. The bell-shaped 5-toothed calyx is about 
i/s inch long; the tubular whitish corolla nearly 
% inch long, including the 5 lobes; the many, very 
slender, whitish stamens are about % inch long, 
united into a tube below; and the pistil has a 
finely hairy 1-celled ovary with slender style. 

The pods are borne singly or sometimes paired. 
They are slightly roughened, minutely hairy, and 
narrowed between the seeds. The elliptic seeds 
change from shiny to dull black in color. Flower- 



Pithecellobium arboreum (L.) Urban 

ing in spring, the pods maturing in svmimer, and 
flowering and fruiting again in autumn. 

The sapwood is whitish and hard. Heartwood 
is dark red or reddish brown, sometimes figured or 
with darker streaks, resembling mahogany. The 
wood is heavy (specific gravity 0.7), strong, 
durable, and takes a fine polish. An excellent 
timber suited for heavy ancl interior construction, 
cabinetwork, furniture, posts, and crossties. Re- 
portedly employed at one time for bobbins in cot- 
ton mills. 

As an attractive ornamental and shade tree with 
commercial wood, this tree is worthy of more ex- 
tensive cultivation. Also a honey plant. 

Chiefly along streams and at the base of cliffs 
in the moist limestone region and ascending into 
the lower Cordillera region in western Puerto 
Rico. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Mari- 
cao, Rio Aba jo, Sustia, Vega. 

Range. — Cuba, Januiica, Hispaniola, and Puer- 
to Rico. Also in southern Mexico and Central 
America to Costa Rica. 

OxHiaj COMMON N.AMES. — cojobaua, cojobanilla, 
cajoba, tamarandillo (Puerto Rico) ; abey, abey 
heml)ra (Dominican Republic) ; moruro, moruro 
rojo, moruro prieto, sabicu, .sabicu moiiiro ( Cuba ) ; 
plumillo ((xuatemala) ; barba de jolote (Hon- 
duras) ; agiiijote (El Salvador) ; tamarindo (Costa 
Rica) ; wild tamarind, chabark (Jamaica) ; wild 
tamarind, black tamarind, red tamarind, zopilote, 
barba jolote (British Honduras) ; collier, poison 
lasinette (Haiti). 

Botanical synonyms. — Cojoba arborea (L.) 
Britton & Rose, Snmanea arborea (L.) Ricker. 

The generic name has been spelled also 
Pifhc'colobhim. 



160 










67. Cojoba 



Natural size. 



Pithecellotium arhoreum (L. ) Urban 

161 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



68. Guama americano, guamuchil 

This introduced tree, planted for shade and 
ornament along highways and streets and around 
houses is distinguished by: (1) usually a pair of 
slender sliarp spines (stipules) 1/16-% '"^h long 
at base of each leaf or sometimes spineless; (2) 
twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) with 2 lateral 
axes, each with 2 nearly stalkless oblong or ovate 
leaflets; (3) small creamy white flowers in many 
small ball-like heads % inch across in slender 
di'ooping terminal or lateral axes; and (-4) curved 
or coiled pink to brown pods 4-5 inches long, nar- 
rowed between the seeds, and splitting open on 
both sides to loosen several shiny black seeds 
mostly covered by pink or whitish pulp, which is 
edible. 

A small to medium-sized tree SO-HO feet in 
height and 1-2 feet in trunk diameter, or shrubby, 
with trunk and branches often crooked, and broad 
spreading crown. Nearly evergreen but shedding 
the old leaves as new ones appear. The bark is 
light gray, smoothish, becoming slightly rough 
and furrowed. The thick inner bark is light 
brown and bitter or astringent. Twigs are slender 
and droojiing, greenish and slightly hairy when 
young, becoming gray, covered with many small 
whitish dots (lenticels). 

The alternate leaves have a very slender green 
petiole V^-iyo inches long with minute round gland 
near apex and the 2 lateral axes (pinnae) only 
y^-Vi inch long. The 4 thin or slightly thickened 
leaflets are 1/0-2 inches long and %6~% inch wide, 
rounded at apex, the oblique base rounded or 
short-pointed, not toothed on edges, hairy or hair- 
less, dull iiale green above and light green beneath. 
Xew growth is ])ink or i-eddish. 

The flower clusters (heads) are short-stalked, 
each covered with whitish hairs and composed of 
about 20-30 densely hairy flowers. The flower has 
a tubular hairy Ti-toothed calyx about Vie inch 
long, a funnel-shaped tubular hairy 5-toothed 
corolla about i/g inch long, about 50 spreading long 
threadlike stamens united into a short tube at base, 
and pistil with hairy ovary and threadlike style. 

The pod is %-% inch wide, slightly flattened, 
and inconspicuously hairy. The flattened seeds 
(4.000 to a pound) are about % inch long and 
hang down inside the pulpy mass (aril) as much 
as 34 inch long. Recorded as flowering from Jan- 
uary to May and in fruit from February to July. 

Sapwood is yellowish, and heartwood yellowish 
or reddish brown. The wood is moderately soft. 



Pithcellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.* 

heavy, strong, and durable. It takes a high polish 
but is brittle and not easily M-orked. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is used only for posts 
and fuel, but elsewhere it is employed for general 
construction. The bark, which contains about 25 
percent tannin, is harvested in Mexico. It also 
yields a yellow dye and is an ingredient in home 
remedies. A mucilage can be made by dissolving 
in water the transparent deep reddish-brown gum 
which exudes from the trunk. 

This attractive species makes a good highway 
and street tree, especially in dry areas, growing 
rapidly and enduring drought, heat, and shade. 
It withstands close browsing and pruning and is 
suitable for fences and hedges also. Formerly it 
was a popular .street tree in southern Florida, 
where it was susceptible to hurricane damage and 
did not recover well. 

The thick, pink, sweetish acid pulp around the 
seeds can be eaten or prepared into a drink like 
lemonade. Livestock and wild animals browse on 
the pods under the trees. Also a honey plant. 

Along roads and in towns throughout Puerto 
Rico. Introduced also into St. Croix. 

Range. — Mexico (Lower California, Sonora, 
and Chihuahua southward) through Central 
America to Colombia and Venezuela. Introduced 
in southern Florida, Cuba, Jamaica. Puerto Rico, 
and St. Croix. Widely planted and naturalized 
in tropical regions, including the Old World. 

Other common names. — guamuche (Mexico, 
commerce) ; inga dulce (Cuba) ; guamuchil (Mex- 
ico) ; jaguay, shahuay. madre de flecha (Guate- 
mala) ; mongoUano, guachimol, espino, guayacan 
bianco (El Salvador) ; mochigiiiste (Costa Rica) ; 
gallinero, chininango, tiraco, chancan (Colombia) ; 
yacure, guamo bianco, guamacho (Venezuela) ; 
blackhead, apes-earring (United States) ; guamu- 
chil. Manila-tamarind, Madras-thorn (English) ; 
bread-and-cheese (British Guiana). 

This species was named and described botan- 
ically in 1795 from Coromandel, India, where it 
had been introduced. The specific name, meaning 
sweet, doubtless refers to the edible seed pulp. 

A related native shrub or small tree of coastal 
thickets is una de gato or catclaw blackhead 
{Fifhecellobium ungim-cafi (L.) Benth.), known 
also as rolon, escambron Colorado, and catclaw. 
This species with yellowish or pinkish flowers is 
native from southern Florida to northern South 
America. 



162 




68. Guamd aiuericauo. guamuchil 



Natural size. 



PithcelloMum dulce (Roxb.) Benth. 

163 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 



69. Saman, raintree 

This well-known beautiful shade tree reaches 
larp;e size botli in trunk diameter and in a A^ery 
broad arched crown. It is further identified by: 
(1) twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) with many 
nearly diamond-shaped leaflets %-lV2 inches long 
and %-% inch broad, the sides unequal, the outer 
leaflets considerably larger than the others, and 
the pairs of leaflets folding together at night and 
on cloudy days; (2) delicate flower heads 21/2 
inches across and IV2 inches high, a mass of nu- 
merous threadlike stamens pink in outer half and 
white in inner half; and (3) flattened bi-own or 
blackish pods 4-8 inches long, about %-% inch 
wide, and 14 ii^ch thick, straight or a little curved, 
with sweetish pulp, late in splitting open. 

An evergreen tree attaining 50-65 feet in height, 
with a relatively short stout trunk up to 4 feet in 
diameter. Crown of long, stout, horizontal 
branches is broader than tall, becoming 100 feet 
or more across. The gray bark is roujrh. furrowed 
into long thin plates or corky ridges. Inner bark 
is pink or light brown, bitter. The stout greenish 
twigs are minutely hairy. 

The alternate leaves are about 10-16 inches long. 
The axis and 2-6 pairs of branches (pinnae) are 
green and finely hairy with swelling at base of each 
and a gland dot on axis where branches join. 
Each branch (pinna) bears 6-16 paired stalkless 
leaflets with a gland dot between each pair. 
Branches toward apex are longer and with more 
leaflets. Leaflet blades are blunt and with a 
minute point at apex, short-pointed at base, the 
edges not toothed, slightly thickened, the upper 
surface shiny green and with veins raised a little, 
and the lower surface paler and finely hairy. 

Several flower clustei-s (heads or umbels) are 
lateral near end of a twig, each on a green hairy 
stalk 21,4-4 inches long and composed of many 
narrow tubular flowers, pinkish, tinged with gi-een, 
short -stalked. The narrow green calyx is tubular, 
about 14 iiicli long. 5-toothed, and finely hairy; the 
narrow pink and greenish-tinged corolla %-V^ 
inch long is also tubular, 5-lobed, and finely hairy ; 
the many stamens united in tube near base, have 
spreading, very long, threadlike filaments about 
IV2 inches long and dotlike anthers, soon wilting 
and shriveling ; and the pistil consisting of 1-celled 
light green ovary %,; inch long and a threadlike 
pinkish style I-I14 inches long. 

The hard seed pods have a raised border. They 
contain several oblong )-eddish-brown seeds about 
•yi6 inch long (about 2,500 to a pound). Flower- 
ing from spring to fall, fruiting from fall to 
winter. 

The sapwood is thin and yellowish, and the 
heartwood dark chocolate brown when freshly cut, 
becoming attractive light to golden brown with 

164 



Pithecellobium saman (Jacq.) Benth.* 

darker sti-eaks. The wood is soft, lightweight 
(sjiecific gravity 0.44), of medium to coarse tex- 
ture, and fairly strong. It is durable to very du- 
rable in respect to decay and resistant to di-y-wood 
termites. It takes a beautiful finish but is often 
cross-grained and difficult to work. The rate of 
air-seasoning is moderate, and amount of degrade 
is considerable. Machining characteristics are as 
follows: planing, mortising, sanding, and resist- 
ance to screw splitting are good; shaping and bor- 
ing are fair ; and turning is poor. 

Elsewhere the wood has been employed occa- 
sionally for furniture, interior trim, and general 
construction. It is suitable also for boxes and 
crates, veneer, plywood, and paneling. In Central 
America crass sections of thick trunks have served 
as wheels of ox carts. 

The trees in Puerto Rico are valued mainly for 
shade and beauty. The nutritious pods are rel- 
ished by cattle, hogs, and goats and have a flavor 
like licorice, which some persons like. A honey 
plant. In a few countries saman has been em- 
ployed as shade in plantations of coffee and cacao, 
though less at present than formerly. Because of 
their enormous growth the trees compete heavily 
for water and soil nutrients, injuring the shrubs. 

Easily propagated from seed and cuttings and 
of rapid growth. Cattle disseminate the seeds in 
pastures. A famox:s giant in Trinidad more than 
100 years old was measured as 8 feet in trunk di- 
ameter, 147 feet high, and 187 feet in spread. 
Sometimes trees become to]5heavy and dangerous 
along highways and near liouses. The many sur- 
face roots may also be objectionable. Perhaps bet- 
ter suited to dry rather than moist localities, being 
of smaller size in arid places. 

Cultivated along highways and streets and 
planted and naturalized as a pasture shade tree 
in both the moist and dry coastal regions and in 
the lower Cordillera region of Puerto Eico. Also 
in St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Range. — Native from Mexico (Yucatan Pen- 
insula) and Guatemala to Peru, Bolivia, and Bra- 
zil. Widely planted and naturalized elsewhere in 
continental tropical America from Mexico south- 
ward, throughout the West Indies (except Ba- 
hamas), and in Old World tropics. Gi-own also in 
southern Florida. 

Other common names. — donnilon, guango 
(Puerto Rico) ; licorice, giant tibet (Virgin Is- 
lands) ; saman (Spanish) ; algarrobo, algarrobo 
del pais (Cuba) ; algarrobo (Mexico, Guatemala) ; 
cenicero (Guatemala, El Savador, Costa Rica) ; 
carreto, zorra (El Salvador) ; samaguare, cam- 
paiio, genizaro (Colombia) ; lara, urero, carabali 
(Venezuela) ; huacamayo-chico (Peru) ; raintree, 
saman (English) ; guango (Jamaica) ; cow-tama- 




6S). Samfin, raintree 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Pithecellohium sanian (Jarq.) Benth. 



165 



rind (Grenadines, Trinidad) ; French tamarind, 
guango (British (xuiana) ; monlveypod (Hawaii) ; 
arbre a phiie (French) ; gouannegoul (Haiti) ; 
samana ( Guadeloupe ) . 

Botanical stnoxtms. — Samanea saman (Jacq.) 
Merrill, Enferolohium snman (Jacq.) Prain. 

The Spanish word "saman" and the specific name 
are from the South American aboriginal name. 
Several origins of the English word rainti-ee and 
its French equivalent have been given. Early 
travelei-s reported that the trees mysteriously pro- 



duced rain at night and would not sleep under- 
neath. Others observed the grass to be greener 
beneath the trees during droughts. Another ex- 
planation was that the rain was excreta of cicada 
insects inhabiting the trees. More plausible is 
that the leaflets close up at night and in cloudy 
and rainy weather, indicating the approach of rain 
and also letting rain fall through the crown to the 
grass beneath. The Spanish name dormilon re- 
fers also to the movements of the leaflets suggest- 
ing sleep at night. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

MIMOSA SUBFAMILY (MIMOSOIDEAE; MIMOSACEAE) 

70. Bayahonda, mesquite Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC* 



A small flat-topped spiny tree or shrub of di-y 
areas recognized by: (1) slightly zigzag green to 
brown twigs with paired stout brown or gray 
spines at the enlarged nodes; (2) leaves twice pin- 
nate (bipinnate) with 1 or sometimes 2 pairs of 
lateral axes (pinnae), each with 12-25 pairs of al- 
most stalkless narrow leaflets i/4-% i'^ch long; (3) 
many small pale yellow flowers about %6 inch 
long, crowded and almost stalkless in narrow 
drooping clusters 2-4 inches long; and (4) light 
yellowish-bi-own, flattened but thick pods 4—9 
inches long and %6-^/^ inch wide, and not splitting 
023en. 

Deciduous, 20-30 feet high, with a short crooked 
trunk to liA feet in diameter, and with broad 
crown of very thin spreading foliage. The gray 
or brown bark is rough and furrowed, thick and 
becoming slightly shaggy, the inner bark yellow- 
ish, fibrous, and slightly bitter. The spines (stip- 
ules) are 14-I inch or more in length. 

The leaves, mostly borne on very short twigs 
along larger ones, often are crowded though actu- 
ally alternate. They are 3-6 inclies long, with 
slender green leaf axes. Blades are narrow (lin- 
ear-oblong), Vie-Vs inch wide, rounded at both 
ends or minutely pointed at apex, slightly oblique 
at base, thin, and dull blue green on both sides. 

Flower clusters (spikes) are lateral, often on 
twigs back of leaves. Flower buds are yellow 
green. The greenish-yellow tubular calyx is less 
than y^g inch long, bell-shaped, and 5-toothed ; 
there are 5 narrow greenish-yellow petals i/g inch 
long, hairy on inside ; 10 spreading yellow-orange 
stamens with brown anthers, less than %6 inch 
long; and pistil %6 inch long with hairy light 
green ovary and slender whitish curved style. 

The pods are about %6 inch thick and slightly 
cui-ved or straight. The brown seeds I/4 inch long 
are imbedded in a whitisji slightly sweet pulp, 
which can be eaten. Flowering and fruiting 
through much of the year, chiefly in the summer 
and fall. 

The thin sapwood is light yellow, and the heart- 
wood yellowish to dark brown. The wood is mod- 

166 



erately hard, heavy (speciflc gravity 0.8), tough 
and strong, easy to work, resistant to decay, and 
durable in the ground but susceptible to attack by 
drywood termites. 

Used in Puerto Rico only for fenceposts and 
crossties. Elsewhere the wood has served for 
vehicle parts, rural carpentry, fui-niture, and 
formerly even paving blocks. It is a superior fuel 
and makes charcoal of high quality. An amber 
gum resembling gum arable exudes from the trunk 
and, when dissolved in water, becomes a mucilage. 
The bark has been employed in tanning. 

The nutritious pocls are browsed by livestock 
and eaten bj' children. Cattle are partly responsi- 
ble for the extensive invasion of pastures by this 
tree. Indians of Mexico and southwestern United 
States ground the pods into meal as a staple food 
for baking and for mixing with water as a bever- 
age. This is an important honey plant, and bees 
commonly are seen around the flowers, which are 
not fragrant. 

Naturalized in tliickets and dry forests in the 
dry limestone and dry coastal regions of southern 
Puerto Rico, commonly invading pastures. Oc- 
casionally planted for ornament. Also in Mona, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Guanica, Susiia. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
12, 38. 

Range. — Including its geographic varieties na- 
tive from southwestern United States (Texas to 
Kansas, Utah, and California) south through 
Mexico and Central America to Colombia and 
Venezuela and perhaps naturalized southward. 
Through West Indies, a])parently introduced and 
naturalized, from Bahamas and Cuba to Bar- 
bados and Trinidad and in Bonaire, Curagao, and 
Aruba. Also naturalized in Hawaii and Old 
World tropics. 

This species seems to be very much at home in 
Puerto Rico and other islands of the West Indies 
even though not native. The locality of the bo- 
tanical type specimen is Jamaica, though an 





70. Bayahonda, niesquite 



687-921 O — 64 12 





Two-thirds natural size. 



Prosopis juliflora (Sw. ) DC. 

167 



authority on tlie flora of .Taniaioa wrote, 2 centuries 
a^o that this species was introduced there from the 
continent. 

Otiikr cojurox xasies. — aroma americana 
(Puerto Rico) ; a]<rarroho ( Vir<rin Islands) ; baya- 
honda (Dominican Republic); mesquite, guata- 
pana, cambron, algarrobo del Brasil (Cuba) ; 
mezquite, catzimec, algarrobo (Mexico) ; nacascol 
(Guatemala) ; algarrobo (Honduras) ; carbon 
(El Salvador) ; acacia de Catarina (Nicaragua) ; 



aromo, manca-caballo (Panama) ; trupillo, manca- 
caballo (Colombia) ; cuji yaque, cuji negro, cuji 
carora, cuji, yacine (Venezuela) ; mesquite (United 
States, Bahamas) ; cashaw (Jamaica) ; mesquit- 
tree (Trinidad) ; bayahon, bayarone (Haiti) ; 
indju, qui, cuida, kuigi (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonyms. — N el turn a juliftora 
(Sw.) Raf., Prosopis chilensis auth., not P. cfiilen- 
•VM' (Mol.) Stuntz. The last is a closely related 
species of Chile and Argentina to Peru. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 

Key to the 10 species illustrated (Nos. 71-80) 
A. Leaves simple or of 2 leaflets. 

B. Leaves simple, with 2 rduiided lobes at aiiex — 71. liatihiiiia monandra* 
BB. Leaves of 2 leaflets, paired, long- or short-pointed at apex — 76. Hymcnaea courharil. 
AA. Leaves compound, of several to many leaflets. 
C. Leaves once pinnate. 

D. Leaflets mostly more than 2 inches long, ovate and broadest toward base. 

E. Leaflets with short, green stalks %-% inch long, without black dots — 72. Cassia fistula* 

EE. Leaflets with very short, red stalks Vie i^ch long, with scattered raised black dots on lower surface — 
79. Stahlia monospcrma. 
DD. Leaflets less than 2 inches long, mostly oblong, with edges nearly parallel. 

F. Leaflets symmetrical. 

G. Leaflets .short-pointed or rounded at apex — 73. Cassia javanica* 
GG. Leaflets rounded with bristle-tip at apex — 74. Cassia siamea.* 
FF. Leaflets oblique at base and slightly asymmetrical — 80. Tamarindus indica* 
CC. Leaves bipinnate. 

H. Leaves consisting of a spine and 1 or 2 pairs of dnwping yellow-green strips (lateral axes) % inch broad 
bearing numerous small leaflets %-%6 inch long, which shed early — 77. Parkinsonia acnleata* 
HH. Leaves regularly branched, not spiny, with 10-30 pairs of lateral axes (pinnae), each with numerous 
leaflets and featherlike. 
I. Leaflets less than % inch long ; young twigs and leaf axes greenish, finely hairy — 75. Delonix regia* 
II. Leaflets M>-% inch long ; young twigs and leaf axes with dense coat of reddish-brown hairs — ^78. 
Peltophorum inermc* 

Bauhinia monandra Kurz* 



71. Mariposa, butterfly bauhinia 

This cultivated ornamental small tree is easily 
recognized by: (1) the odd, somewhat rounded 
leaves divided about Vs their length into 2 rounded 
lobes slightly suggesting a cow's hoof and with 13 
or 11 radiating main veins from the heart-shaped 
base; (2) the very large and showy flowers 214-3 
inches across, with 5 slender-stalked, narrow, 
spoon-shaped pink petals dotted with red (1 petal 
mostly red) ; and (3) the flat pods about 8 inches 
long, 1 inch broad, and i/g inch thick, with a long 
narrow point at apex, twisting as they split open. 

A small evergreen tree or sometimes a slirub 
growing 10-30 feet high and to 1 foot in trunk 
diameter. The branches are widely spreading. 
Bark of small trunks is smootli with dots (lenti- 
cels) and whitish gray. Inner bark is whitish and 
tasteless. Young twigs are finely hairy. 

The alternate leaves have long hairy petioles 
1-2 inches long. I^eaf blades are mostly 2-4 inches 
long and 2— ii/^ inches broad or sometimes larger, 
with the edges not toothed and a short bristle Vs 
inch long between the 2 lobes, very thin, the upper 
surface light green and hairless, and the lower sur- 
face pale gray green and finely hairy. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are terminal and un- 
branched, with few male and bisexual flowers on 



green hairy stalks about 14 inch long (polyga- 
mous). The very narrow, tubular, stalklike, mi- 
nutely hairy basal tube (hypanthium) is I-I14 
inches long and only Yg inch broad; the calyx is 
%-l inch long, pointecl in bud, finely hairy, split- 
ting along 1 side as the flower opens; the 5 un- 
equal petals are 1^4-2 inches long; only 1 slender 
stamen I14 inches long and sterile stamens (stam- 
inodes) i-educed to scales about I/8 iricli long; 
and the very slender pistil with stalk about 1 inch 
long adhering to tube and lyo inches long beyond, 
witli a hairy 1-celled ovary and long curved style; 
in male flowers the pistil is rudimentary. 

The pods split open with force, twisting into 2 
parts and scattering the many seeds. The shiny 
black seeds are elliptic, flat, and % inch long. 
Flowering and fruiting nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is whitish and hard, and the heart- 
wood recorded as brown. Wood used only for 
fuel in Puerto K ico. One use reported in Jamaica 
is as a roadside "''once plant : after pollarding, the 
long pliable branches are arranged into the frame- 
work of a fence. 

Planted in Puerto Rico for the large ornamen- 
tal flowers suggestive of orchids or butterflies and 
the odd-shaped leaves. Escaped from cultivation 



168 



s 



I'm 



m 



'^m: 




'M 



f^v'.T^-- 



,c\ 



\ 



J 







J 



71. Mariposa, butterfly bauhinia 



Natural size. 



Bauhinia monandra Kurz 

169 



and naturalized in roadsides, thickets, and river 
hanks in the coastal, limestone, and lower moun- 
tain regions. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Raxoe. — Native of southeastern Asia, originally 
described from Burma. Planted and escaped or 
naturalized throughout the AVest Indies from Cuba 
and Jamaica to Barbados and Trinidad. Culti- 
vated in southern Florida. Also introduced in 
northern South America from French Guiana to 
Colombia, in El Salvador, and perhaps elsewhere. 

Other common names. — flamboyan bianco, se- 
plina, varital variable, alas de angel, baujinia 
(Puerto Rico) ; Napoleon's plume, poor man's 
orchid, bauhinia (A'irgin Islands) ; flamboyan ex- 
tranjero, flamboyan cubano, pata de vaca (Do- 
minican Republic) ; casco de mulo, pata de vaca 
(Cuba) ; urape (Venezuela) ; butterfly bauhinia, 
butterfly-ftower, pink baiihinia, pink orchidtree 



(United States) ; Jerusalem-date, butterfly-flower 
(Jamaica) ; deux jumelles, caractere des hommes 
(Haiti); vlinderbloem (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonyms. — Bauhinia. kapphri 
Sagot, Caspareopsis iiwiiand/'a (Kurz) Britton & 
Rose. 

The specific name refers to the odd single stamen 
which, however, is not restricted to this species. 
The 2-lobed leaf characteristic of the genus cor- 
responds to a leaf with 1 pair of leaflets partly 
united. 

A few related species of shrubs or snuill trees 
have been introduced as ornamentals. Palo de 
oi-quideas, poor man's orchid, or Buddhist bau- 
hinia (Bnvhinia rnriegafa L.*; synonym Phanera 
rin'icf/afa (L.) Benth.), has large variegated or- 
chidlike flowers with 5 stamens and the leaves di- 
vided to the middle into 2 lobes. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 



72. Canafistula, golden-shower 

This familiar planted tree occasionally escaping 
from cultivation is identified by : (1) the large even 
piiniate leaves 12-16 inches long, with 8-16 ]3aired, 
large, very thin, ovate leaflets o-6 inches long and 
l%-2% inches broad; (2) long drooping clusters 
of long-stalked, beautifid, golden yellow flowers 2 
inches across tlie 5 widely sju'eading petals; and 
(3) very long cylindrical blackish ]iods 15-24 
inches long and about % inch in diameter. 

A medium-sized deciduous tree reported to be- 
come 50 feet tall and IVo feet in trunk diameter, 
usually much smaller, with straight axis, horizon- 
tal and spreading branches, and an open crown of 
thin foliage. The bark is smooth and gray, becom- 
ing scaly and reddish brown. The dark green 
twigs are minutely hairy. 

The alternate leaves are composed of 8-16 leaf- 
lets with short stalks V8~^/4 ''i*^li 'oi^?- loosely ar- 
ranged along the slender, finely hairy, green axis. 
Leaflet blades are short-pointed at both ends, not 
toothed on edges, green and hairless on upper sur- 
face, and paler and minutely hairy beneath. 

The flower clusters (racemes), terminal and un- 
branched, S-2-i inches or more in length, bear sev- 
eral to many lax, slightly fragrant flowers on very 
slender, nearly horizontal, gi-een stalks 11/4-2 
inches long. There are 5 yellow-green finely hairy 
sepals %6 i'l^"!! long; 5 stalked nearly equal, bright 
yellow petals 1-11/4 inch long, elliptic and with 
vedns; 10 stamens, 3 of which have very long fila- 
ments, soon falling; and .slender, curved, minutely 
hairy, green pistil fi/o inch long with stalked, 
slender, 1-celled ovary and style. 

The pods, which hang downward, do not split 
open but have many cross walls, each containing 
a single seed embedded in dark brown sweetish 



Cassia fistula L.* 

pulp. The seeds are shiny, light brown, and flat- 
tened. Flowering and fruiting nearly through 
the year. 

The reddish wood is very hard, heavy (specific 
gravity 0.9), strong, and durable. Suited as a 
constiiiction wood and used also for cabinet and 
inlay work, farm implements, and posts. 

In Puerto Rico the trees are valued principally 
as ornamentals for the showy golden flowers. 
However, the trees are very susceptible to attack 
by scale insects. 

The drug cassia fistula, a mild laxative, is ob- 
tained from the sweetish pulp of the seed pods, 
which are sold in local markets for this purpose. 
The medicinal properties were known even by the 
ancient Egyptians. Flowers, seeds, and bark have 
been employed also in medicine, and the bark in 
tanning. 

Along highways and streets and around houses 
chiefly in the moist and dry coastal regions of 
Puerto Rico. Sometimes escaping and naturalized. 
Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. 
John. 

Range. — Native of tropical Asia. Widely cul- 
tivated and locally naturalized in the tropics in- 
cluding West Indies and continental tropical 
America. However, in many places it is less com- 
mon than related species known by the same com- 
mon names. Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles, and Trin- 
idad. A common ornamental in southern Florida 
and planted also in Bermuda. 

Other common names. — canafistula, cafiaf istola 
(Spanish) ; golden-shower, golden-shower senna, 
shower-of-gold, Indian laburnum, pudding-pipe- 



170 




72. Canafistula, golden-shower 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Cassia fistula L. 
171 



tree (United States, English) ; cassia-stick-tree 
(Jamaica) ; Indian laburnum, purj^ing cassia 
(Trinidad); casse (Haiti); canefice, caneficier, 
casse-habitant ((iiiadeloupe) . 

Caiiafistula cimarrona or pinkshower cassia 
{Cassia grandis L. f.) is a related tree species of 



southwestern Puerto Rico and elsewhere planted 
and locally naturalized. It has reddish or pur- 
plisli flowers and leaves less than 12 inches long 
with 14-40 oblong leaflets usually less than 2 inches 
long. Several native species of this genus are 
shnibs or herbs. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 



73. Casia rosada, pink cassia 

This cultivated ornamental and shade tree dif- 
fers from related species, such as cahafistula, in 
having a spreading arched crown and clustere of 
beautiful large fragrant flowers, bright jjink in- 
stead of yellow. The leaves are even pinnate, 
mostly 8-15 inches long, witli usually 16-20 (some- 
times as few as 10 or up to 30) paired oblong leaf- 
lets 11/^-214 inclies long and %-l inch broad. The 
very long, slender, cylindrical, dark brown pods 
are 16-20 inches long and % inch in diameter and 
do not split open. 

A medium-sized, generally deciduous, tree 40 
feet or more in heiglit and 1 foot or more in trunk 
diameter, tlie trunk occasionally with a few stout, 
dark gray, spine-tipped branches 2—4 inches long, 
and with widespread crown of thin foliage. The 
gray bark is smoothish and thin, with many thin 
fissures. Inner bark is light brown and slightly 
bitter. The long sliglitly drooping twigs are green 
and minutely hairy. 

The leaves are alternate, commonly spreading in 
2 rows. The leaflets are regularly aiTanged on 
short stalks \\c-, inch long, nearly equal in size, 
mostly in pairs along the slender, green, finely 
hairy a.xis. Leaflet blades are short-pointed or 
rounded at apex, and thin minutely and inconspic- 
uously hairy on botli sides, dull green above and 
gray green beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are lateral, 5-9 inches 
long and broad, containing many large rose- 
scented flowers about 2 inches aci-oss, each on a 
long, slender, dark red, finely hairy stalk l-ll/^ 
inches long and slightly curved upward. There 
are 5 concave, pointed, dark red, finely hairy .sepals 



Cassia javanica L.* 

1/4 inch long, greenish tinged inside ; 5 spreading 
oblong pink petals 1-11/4 inches long, short-stalked 
at base and rounded at apex, minutely haii-y, with 
reddish veins but the color of petals fading to 
wjiitish witli age; 10 yellow stamens, 3 about li^ 
inches long and with a swelling beyond middle, 
and 7 about V2 inch long; and 1 slender, curved, 
reddish pistil 114: inches long, consisting of staJk, 
narrow 1-celled ovary, style, and stigma. 

The pods, which hang downward, contain nu- 
merous rounded and flattened shiny brown seeds 
14, inch in diameter, each in a separate disklike 
pulpy compartment, 1,600 to a pound. Flowering 
mainly from May to July and occasionally 
through the summer and fall. 

The soft wood witli whitish sapwood is not gen- 
erally used in Puerto Rico. 

A fast-growing tree of relatively recent intro- 
duction to Puerto Rico but increasing in popu- 
larity and certain to become commoner. 

Planted along streets and in yards, chiefly in the 
larger cities of Puerto Rico. Also in Virgin 
Islands. 

Raxge. — Native from eastern Himalayas of 
India to Malaya. Planted for ornament in vari- 
ous tropical regions. Introduced in southern 
Florida. 

Other COMMON names. — acacia rosada (Puerto 
Rico) ; nodding cassia (Virgin Islands) ; pink 
cassia, apple-blossom cassia, apple-blossom senna, 
pink-and-white shower, Javanese cassia, joint- 
wood, jointwood senna (English). 

Botanical synonym. — Cassia nodosa Hamilt. 



172 




73. Casia rosada, pink cassia 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Cassia javanica L. 
173 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 

74. Casia de Siam, Siamese cassia Cassia siamea Lam.* 



This introduced tree commonly planted along 
highways and in windbreaks is characterized by : 
(1) a generally erect crown, not spreading like 
most similar species; (2) even pinnate leaves 9-13 
inches long, with 1-2--2-2 paired oblong or lance- 
shaped leaflets rounded at both ends and slightly 
shiny green above; (3) the erect large terminal 
clusters of numerous bright yellow flowers I14 
inches across the 5 rounded petals; and (4) the 
many long, narrow, flat, dark brown pods which 
split open to release the seeds. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree to 60 feet in 
height and 1 foot in trunk diameter or sometimes 
larger, with straight axis. The bark is gray or 
light brown, smoothish but becoming slightly fis- 
sured. Inner bark is light bi'own, gritty and taste- 
less. The twigs are greenish and minutely hairy 
when young, turning brown. 

The alternate leaves bear leaflets in pairs along 
the slender, grooved, green and reddish-tinged axis 
on short stalks i/g "i^h long. The leaflet blades 
are almost all the same size, I14-3 inches long and 
■V^~T^s i'T^li broad, with a tiny bristle tip, the edges 
without teetli, tliin, the upper surface almost hair- 
less, and the lower surface gray green with minute 
hairs. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are branched, 8-12 
inches long and 5 inches broad, with many, almost 
regular flowers on straight, yellow-green, finely 
hairy stalks l-li/i inches long. There are 5 con- 
cave, pointed, greenish-yellow, finely hairy sepals 
S'lR inch long; 5 spreading, nearly equal, yellow 
petals %-% inch long, short-stalked; 7 stamens of 
different lengths and 3 smaller sterile stamens ; and 
a pistil with pale green, minutely hairy, 1-celled 
ovary and curved style. 

The pods, so nmiierous that tliey sometimes give 
an initidy appearance to the tree, are 6-10 inches 
long, about 1/0 inch broad, and V^g inch thick, stiff, 
and often slightly curved. They split up the sides 
into 2 parts, releasing the many flat, shiny, dark 
brown seeds ^/iq inch long and 16,000 to a j^ound. 
In flower and fruit throughout tlie year. 

The sapwood is light brown and moderately 
hard. The heartwood is dark brown and streaked 
and hard. The wood, which is very susceptible to 



attack by dry-wood termites, is used locally as a 
good fuel and for posts. Elsewhere employed for 
construction, furniture, turnery, and similar pur- 
poses. Tannin has been extracted from the bark. 

In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands the 
principal uses of the trees a.re for ornament, shade, 
aiul windbreaks. They form good windbreaks be- 
cause they retain a deep closed crown. This 
s])ecies is a relatively recent introduction in Puerto 
Rico but now widespread as a result of distribu- 
tion of quantities of seedlings by the government. 
It was brought to Jamaica before 1837 and in 
( Guadeloupe has been planted as shade for coffee 
and cacao. The trees are propagated by seeds, 
grow very rapidly in full sunlight, and are suitable 
for fuel within a few years. However, they are 
very suscejjtible to attack by scale insects. 

The seeds, pods, and foliage are toxic to hogs 
and cause death quickly after being eaten. As 
hogs relish the poisonous leaves, farmers in 
Puerto Rico have suffered losses. Trees blown 
over or broken by storms increase the danger. 
Thus, swine and ]5erhaps other livestock should 
be kept away from these trees. 

Commonly planted along highways and streets 
and in parks and yards in both the moist and dry 
coastal regions, the moist limestone region, and in 
the lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico. Also 
common, especially in windbreaks, in St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, and St. John. 

Raxge. — Native of East Indies, Malaya, India, 
and Ceylon but spread by cultivation. First de- 
scribed from Siam, as the common and scientific 
names indicate. Widely planted through West 
Indies in Greater Antilles and many of Lesser 
Antilles to Trinidad and escaped and naturalized 
locally. Less common in southern Florida and 
from Guatemala to northern South America. 

Other commox names. — casia amarilla, casia, 
casia siamea (Puerto Rico) ; yellow cassia (Virgin 
Islands) ; flamboUan amarillo (Dominican Re- 
public) ; casia siamea (Cuba) ; Siamese senna, 
Siamese shower, kassod-tree (L'nited States); 
Siamese cassia, kassod-tree, Bombay blackwood 
(English) ; casse de Siam (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical s y n o n y m. — Sciacn.^sia siamea 
(Lam.) Britton. 



174 




74. Casia de Siam. Siamese cassia 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Cassia siamea Lam. 
175 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 



75. Flamboyan, flamboyant-tree 

Flamboyan, the widely spreading tree which 
forms arches of shade along Puerto Rico's high- 
ways and which is covered with brilliant masses of 
large orange-red flowers mostly from May to July 
or August, is known to all, visitors and residents 
alike. Even when the flame-colored blossoms are 
absent, the feathery foliage and the giant, flat, 
blackish or dark brown pods resembling machetes 
make identification easy. 

This small to medium-sized deciduous tree be- 
comes SO-SO feet high and '2 feet in trunk diam- 
eter, large trunks buttressed and angled toward 
base. The gray-brown bark is smoothish, some- 
times slightly cracked, and with many dots (lenti- 
cels). Inner bark is light brown and tasteless. 
Long, nearly horizontal branches form a broad 
flat-topped crown of thin foliage wider than the 
ti-ee"s height. The stout twigs are greenish and 
finely hairy when young, becoming brown. 

The alternate leaves are 8-20 inches long and 
twice pinnate (bipinnate) . Along the light green, 
slightly hairy a.xis are 10-25 pairs of slender 
featliery branches (pinnae) 2-5 inches long, each 
bearing' 12—10 pairs of very small oblong leaflets 
3/jg-% inch long and % inch wide. The numerous 
leaflets are stalkless, rounded at base and apex, 
not toothed, thin, very minutely hairy on both 
sides, green on upper surface and paler beneath. 

Several flower clusters (racemes) 6-10 inches 
long are borne laterally near the end of a twig, 
each with loosely arranged, slightly fragrant 
flowers. The flo^^ei-s are 4-5 inches across, on 
slender stalks 2-3 inches long. Calyx consists of 
5 pointed, finely hairy sepals about 1 inch long, 
green outside and reddish with yellow border with- 
in; 5 unequal petals 2-21/2 inches long and ^-l^/i 
inches wide, with a very long, slender, haiiy stalk, 
broadly spoon-shaped, rounded but broader than 
long, slightly wavy-margined or crisp, widely ex- 
tended and bending backwards liefore falling; 4 
petals are orange red or almost scarlet, while 1 
which is longer and narrower than the othei-s is 
whitish inside with red spots and streaks; the 10 
stamens about 1% inches long are slender and red, 
hairy toward base; and the pistil has a haii-y 1- 
celled ovary about Vo inch long and slender style 
about 1V4 inclies long. 

The pods are hard, 14-20 inches long, 2-214 
inches wide, and 14 inch thick, finally splitting into 
2 parts. There are many oblong mottled brown 
seeds about % inch long and i/4 hich broad, 
about 900 to tlie pound. The conspicuous pods 



Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf.* 

liang down and remain attached most of the year, 
even when the trees are leafless. 

The sapwood is light yellow, and the heartwood 
is yellowish brown to light brown. The wood is 
soft, heavy (specific gravity 0.8), coarse-grained, 
weak and brittle, and very susceptible to attack by 
dry-wood termites. The large pods as well as the 
wood are used for fuel. 

Widely planted along highways and streets and 
in parks and gardens of both moist and dry areas 
almost throughout Puerto Eico for the spectacular 
flowers and for the shade of the broad branches. 
Along highways the trees often are heavily pruned 
except for the leaning side forming the arch. Also 
a live fencepost. Sometimes escaping from culti- 
vation and becoming naturalized. Also in Mona, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Propagated easily from seed and of rapid 
growth. Since the wood is weak, trees are often 
broken by strong winds. x\fter the leaves are shed, 
the trees are less attractive \^ith their conspicuous 
pods remaining on the bare bi-anches and with the 
prominent timnels and nests of the termites which 
commonly attack this species. A caterpillar, or de- 
foliating insect, occasionally attacks the trees and 
elinunates the leaves completely. Another objec- 
tionable feature is the surface root system which 
sometimes breaks sidewalks and walls. Because 
of these undesirable characteristics some authori- 
ties classify flamboyan among the trees which 
should not be planted. 

Range. — Native of Madagascar. One of the 
most extensively planted ornamental trees in tropi- 
cal and subtropical regions throughout the world 
and locally escaping or naturalized. Southern 
Florida including Florida Keys, southern Cali- 
fornia (planted), Bermuda, and throughout "West 
Indies. Also from Mexico to Brazil. 

Other common names. — flamlx)yan rojo, flam- 
boyan Colorado (Puerto Rico) ; flamboyant, giant, 
giant-tree (Virgin Islands) ; flamboyan (Domini- 
can Republic, Colombia, Venezuela) ; framboyan, 
flamboyant (Cuba) ; arbol de fuego, tabuchin 
(Mexico) ; arbol del fuego, flor de fuego (Central 
America) ; acacia, framboyan, guacamayo (Guate- 
mala) ; guacamaya, poinciana (Honduras) ; gua- 
camaya (El Salvador) ; clavellino, flor de pavo 
(Colombia) ; flamboyant, josefina (Venezuela) ; 
flamboyant-tree (British Guiana) ; flamboyant, 
royal poinciana, flame-tree (United States, Eng- 
lish) ; flamboyant (French) ; flamboyant, July- 
tree (Dutch West Indies) ; flamboyant (Brazil). 

Botanical synonym. — Poinciana regia Bojer. 



176 




75. Flamboydn, flamboyant-tree 



Delonix regia (Bojer) Raf. 



Flower and bud, two-thirds natural size; leaf and fruit, one-third natural size. 



177 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 
76. Algarrobo, West-Indian-locust, courbaril Hymenaea courbaril L. 



This handsome large tree is characterized by: 
(1) compound leaves consisting of 2 almost stalk- 
less, very unequal-sided, oblong, shiny green leaf- 
lets 2— i inches long and %-lV2 inches broad, short- 
or long-pointed at apex and rounded at base, and 
sliglitly thickened or leathery; (2) the large 
spreading wliitish flowers about li/t inches across, 
nnnierous in erect terminal clusters with stout 
branches; and (3) the erect, large, oblong, rough, 
dark brown pods 2-4 inches long, about 1^/^-2 
inches wide, more than 1 incli thick, with edible 
pulp. 

A usually evergreen spreading forest tree to 65 
feet in heiglit and 4 feet in diameter or larger, 
sometimes with buttresses. Bark is smoothish and 
grav, becoming 1 inch or more in thickness. Inner 
bark is light pinkish brown. The stout branches 
form a rounded, widely spreading crown. The 
twigs are stout, brown, and much fissured. 

The alternate leaves have a petiole V2 inch long. 
Leaflet blades are shiny green to dark green on 
upper surface, dull yellow green and slightly 
lirownish tinged on lower surface, not toothed on 
edges, hairless, and show many lighter gland dots 
when examined with a lens against the light. 

The flower clusters (panicles) are about 4—6 
inches high and broad, and flattened. The bell- 
shaped, gray-green, finely hairy, thick basal tube 
(hyj^anthium) is 3/s inch long and broad ; there are 
5 slightly thickened, gray-green, haiiy sepals i/4-% 
inch long; the 5 thin wlute petals are elliptic, 
%-% inch long and a little unequal, covered with 
minute gland dots: the 10 .stamens II4 inches long 
iiave white filaments and red anthers; and the pis- 
til consists of a stalk projecting beyond the tube, 
a flattened 1-celled ovai-y less than % inch long, 
and a verv slender curved style 1 inch long. 

The pods are thick-walled, hard, contain pockets 
of gtnn, and do not open. There are few to .several 
oblong, flattened, dark red seeds about 1 inch long 
imbedded in the thick pale yellow pulp. This 
sweet and mealy or powdery pulp is edible, though 
it has an unpleasant odor, and mixed with water 
forms a drink. The large seeds weigh about 120 
to a pound. Flowering from early spring to fall, 
and pods remaining on the tree awhile after 
maturity. 

The thick sapwood is whitish to gray brown. 
Heartwood is dark or reddish brown, often with 
blackish streaks. The wood is very hard, heavy 
(specific gravity 0.7) , mostly medium textured and 
usually with interlocked grain. It is very strong, 
tough, durable, very resistant to attack' by dry- 
wood termites, and slightly difficult to work." Rate 
of air-seasoning is moderate and amount of de- 



grade is considerable. Machining characteristics 
are as follows: planing is fair; turning is excel- 
lent; shaping, boring, mortising, sanding, and re- 
sistance to screw splitting are good. 

An important American timber species produc- 
ing woocl of good quality but of limited quantity 
in Puerto Eico. Here classed as for furniture and 
sometimes compared with mahogany. Also used 
in carpentry, general construction, and for wheels 
and cogs. Elsewliere enqiloyed in shipbuilding 
and for railway crossties, posts, looms, cartwheels, 
and balls. The wood should be attractive as ve- 
neer, plywood, cabinetwork, interior trim, and 
turnery. 

The roots and trtmk yield a pale yellow or red- 
dish resinlike gum known commercially as South 
American copal. The gum exudes and forms hard 
hunps which l)ecome buried in the soil at the base 
of a tree. Sometimes as much as a barrel of gum 
has been found around the roots of a large tree or 
at the site of a former tree. The gum is used main- 
ly in varnish but also for incense and local medi- 
cines. A honey plant. 

Indians made canoes from the smooth hard thick 
bark by stripping in one piece the bark of a large 
tree, sewing the ends together, waterproofing the 
seams with gum or resin, and inserting wooden 
crosspieces. The bark has been used in medicines 
also. 

Efforts to use this species for reforestation in 
Puerto Rico have shown it to be unadapted to de- 
graded sites and generally of slow growth. Shade 
is required at first if the trees are to produce 
straight trunks. Trees underplanted in a forest 
near Rio Piedras attained heights ranging up to 
20 feet after 13 years. Plantings in the open, for 
shade and ornamental purjioses, produce attractive 
spreading trees more rapidly. This makes a good 
roadside shade tree, but locations near houses 
should be avoided because of the malodorous fruits. 

Scattered in forests, pastures, and along road- 
sides in the moist and dry coastal and limestone 
regions of Puerto Rico. Also in Vieques. St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

PruLic FORE.STs. — Cauibalaclie, Guajataca, Lu- 
([uillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susiia. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
25.30,32,42,59,69. 

Range. — Throughout "West Indies from Cuba 
and Jamaica to Trinidad and Tobago. Also from 
central Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, and 
French Guiana. Rarely planted in southern 
Florida. 

Otiiek common names. — West-Indian-locust, 
locust (Virgin Islands) ; algarrobo (Spanish) ; 



178 




76. Algarrobo, West-Indian-locust, courbaril 



Natural size. 



Bymenaea courharil L. 
179 



courbaril (commerce, English) ; curbaril, caguai- 
ran, algarrobo de las Antillas (Cuba) ; guapinol, 
cuapinoj, copinol (Mexico, Central America) ; 
guapinal, nazareno (Colombia) ; corobore (Vene- 
zuela) ; copal (Ecuador); courliaril (Peru); lo- 
cust (British AVest Indies, British Guiana) ; 
West-Indian-locust, stinking-toe (Jamaica); 
stinking-toe (Trinidad) ; locust, guapinol (British 
Hondui-as) ; courbaril, simiri, locust (British 
Guiana) ; courbaril (Guadeloupe, Martinque, 
French Guiana) ; locust (Dutch West Indies) ; 



rode locus, locus, loksi (Surinam) ; jutahy, jatoba 
(Brazil). 

The specific epithet is taken from an American 
Indian name, courbaril. Early Spanish settlers 
in the New World gave the name algarrobo to this 
and other trees of tlie legume family suggestive of 
the related Old AVorld carob tree with the same 
Spanish name {Ceratonia siliqua L.*). The lat- 
ter, introduced experimentally in St. Croix, has 
pinnate leaves witli 4r-10 elliptic leaflets and flat 
pods 4—12 inches long with edible pulp. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 

77. Palo de rayo, Jerusalem-thorn Parkinsonia aculeata L.* 



Small spiny tree characterized by: (1) smooth 
yellow-green or blue-green bark, branches, and 
twigs; (2) specialized leaves consisting of a ter- 
minal s])ine and 2 or 4 long yellow-green drooping 
strips bearing numerous small leaflets V8~%6 inch 
long which shed early; (3) showy golden-yellow 
flowers % inch or more across the 5 petals, in loose 
lateral clusters (racemes) 3-8 inches long; and 
(4) brown pod 2-4 inches long and V4 inch or more 
in diameter, narrowed between the seeds. 

Shrub or small tree 10-20 feet tall, often branch- 
ing near ground, with very open crown of spread- 
ing branches and very thin drooping foliage, green 
tliroughout the year, thougli appearing leafless 
after the leaflets fall. The bark is smootli and 
very thin, yellow green or blue green but becoming 
brown and fissured or scaly on large trunks. 
Inner bark is green and slightly bitter. The slen- 
der, slightly zigzag, green twigs are minutely 
hairy when young. They have paired .^hort spines 
(stipules) at nodes bordering the larger spine 
%-% inch or more in length, which ends the leaf 
axis. These spines may remain on the branches 
and trunk in groups of 3 or singly. 

The alternate leaves actually are twice pinnate 
(bipinnate), consisting of a very short main axis 
ending in a spine and 1 or 2 jjairs of drooping lat- 
eral axes 8-12 inclies long and i/s in^^'h broad, flat, 
and slightly thickened. Each clrooijing strip or 
streamer bears 20-30 pairs of thin, oblong, green, 
deciduous leaflets and functions as a leaf after the 
leaflets fall. 

Several sliglitly beanlike fragrant flowere are 
borne on slender stalks. There is a short calyx 
tube with 5 narrow yellow-brown lobes %6 inch 
long, turned downward ; 5 nearly round petals 
%-V2 inch long, yellow, tinged with orange, and 
hairy at base, tlie upper petal slightly larger, red- 
spotted, and turning red in withering; 10 stamens 
14 inch long with green filaments and brown 
anthers; and reddisli-tinged pistil 14 inch long 
with hairy 1-celled ovary and slender style. The 



long-pointed pods contain usually 2-5 oblong dark 
brown seeds % inch long ( 5,600 to a pound) . With 
flowers and pods throughout the year. 

The sapwood is yellowish and thick, and heart- 
wood light or reddish brown. The wood is mod- 
erately hard and heavy (specific gravity 0.6), and 
brittle, used locally only for fuel. 

Sometimes grown in fences and as a spiny living 
iiedge. The foliage and pods are browsed by live- 
stock. Elsewhei'e an infusion of the leaves has 
served in home medicines. 

Often planted as an ornamental along roads and 
escaping from cultivation or naturalized, chiefly 
in the clry coastal region of Puerto Rico. Also in 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Jolm, Tortola, 
and Virgin Gorda. 

Raxge. — Widely distributed in tropical Amer- 
ica, native of Texas, Arizona, and Mexico and pos- 
sibly elsewhere but cultivated, spreading, and 
becoming naturalized from soutliern United States 
(Florida and Georgia to Texas and California) 
south to Argentina and in the Old World tropics. 
Also throughout West Indies, probably intro- 
duced, and planted in Benimda. 

Other co5imon names. — flor de rayo, flor de 
mayo (Puerto Rico) ; lluvia de oro, acacia, acacia 
de los masones, cambron, siempre-viva (Dominican 
lvepul)lic) ; junco niarino, espinillo (Cuba) ; palo- 
\erde (Mexico) ; retama (Mexico to Colombia) ; 
sulfato, sulfatillo, palo de rayo (Guatemala) ; 
sulfato (El Salvador) ; acacia de agiiijote (Nica- 
ragua) ; yabo, sauce, sauce espino, goajiro (Colom- 
bia) ; espinillo, pauji, cuji extranjero (Vene- 
zuela) ; mataburro (Peru) ; cina-cina (Uruguay, 
Argentina) ; Jerusalem -thorn, horsebean, palo- 
verde, Mexican paloverde, retama (United 
States) ; Jerusalem-thorn (English) ; hoi-sebean 
(Bahamas) ; Jerusalem (British Guiana) ; madam 
naiz, madam yass (Haiti) ; arrete-boeuf (Guade- 
loupe, Martinique) ; boonchi strena, wonder-tree 
(Dutch West Indies) . 



180 




77. Palo de rayo, Jerusalem-thorn 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Parkinsonia aculeata L. 



181 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINLACEAE) 



78. Flamboyan amarillo, yellow flamboyant 

This handsome ornamental and shade tree, a 
relatively recent introduction to Pureto Rico, is 
characterized by: (1) the feathery or fernlike, 
twice pinnate leaves (bipinnate) 8-16 inches long, 
with inunerons paired small oblong leaflets i,'2-% 
inch long and Vi-% inch broad: (2) the dense 
coat of rusty or reddish-brown hairs on young 
twigs, leaf axes, branches of flower clusters, and 
flower buds; (3) nuxny showy rusty-yellow flowers 
with 5 rounded petals, in lai-ge clusters; and (4) 
conspicuous, broad, flat and winged pods, reddish 
but turning to dark reddish brown, 21/0-41/2 inclies 
long and 1-1% inches broad. 

A medium-sized to large evergreen tree 30-65 
feet in height and li/; feet or more in trunk diam- 
eter, graceful and with spreading branches and 
dense foliage. Most of the trees here are not old 
enough to liave reached large size, the maximum 
elsewhere being about 100 feet. Bark on small 
trees is smoothish, with dots and lines (lenticels), 
light gi'ay, becoming brown and furrowed. The 
inner bark is light brown and bitter. 

The alternate leaves consist of a main axis and 
14—30 paired lateral axes (pinnae), each bearing 
16-32 paired leaflets. Leaflets have very short 
stalks about Vgo inch long, are rounded and slightly 
notched at apex and rounded and oblique at base, 
the edges not toothed, thin, the upper surface green 
and hairless, and the lower surface paler and finely 
hairy. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are terminal and 
widely branched, nearly 1 foot long. The calyx 
of the fragrant flowers is more than % inch long, 
with short tube and 5 rusty-brown hairy lobes; 
the 5 nearly equal, stalked, rounded petals %-% 
inch long have wavy, finely toothed margins and 



Peltophorum inerme (Roxb.) Naves* 

are bright yellow with a brown hairy stripe on 
outside ; 10 stamens with orange anthers and fila- 
ments brown hairy at base; and pistil with a hairy 
1 -celled ovary, slender style, and broad flat stigma. 

The oblong pods are slaort-pointed at both ends, 
wing-margined, with 1^ flat seeds (5,600 to a 
pound), and do not split open. Flowering from 
spring to fall (April to September) and fruiting 
chiefly in the winter. 

The sapwood is whitish and hard. To the pres- 
ent the wood is used locally only for fuel. 

Grown for the ornamental flowers and attractive 
reddish fi'uits and as a street or shade tree in the 
larger cities in Puerto Rico and also in St. Thomas. 
Though a fairly new introduction, this species is 
increasing in popularity and being planted more 
extensively,.* 'Jtispropagated from seed and grows 
rapidly. The flowers attract bees. The trees are 
reported to be? shallow rooted and subject to dam- 
age by strong winds. 

Range. — Native in Ceylon, southern India, 
Malaya, East Indies, Philippines, and northern 
Australia. Widely cultivated through the tropics 
though apparently not yet introduced in many 
parts of the New World. Recorded as planted in 
southern Florida, Puerto Rico and St. Thomas, 
(xuadeloupe, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, 
Panama, Venezuela, and British Guiana. 

Other common names. — yellow flamboyant, 
yellow poinciana (English) ; peltophorum, zapa- 
te.ro (Trinidad); palissandre (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical synonyms. — Caesalpinia fer-rug'mea 
Decne., C . inennis Roxb., Peltophorum ferrugine- 
um (Decne.) Benth., P. roxbwghii (G. Don) 
Degener. 



182 




78. Elamboyan amarillo, yellow flamboyant 



6S7-921 0—64 13 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Pelfophorum incrme (Roxb.) Naves 

183 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 



79. Cobana negra 

This tree of coastal forests of southwestern and 
southeastern Rierto Rico is easily identified by : 
(1) the pinnately compound leaves with 6-12 op- 
posite lance-shaped to ovate leaflets li/j-Si-o inches 
lono; and i^^-li/i inches broad, on red stalks with 
scattered black raised dots (glands) on lower sur- 
face; (2) the clusters of pale yellow flowers about 
1-2 inch across the 5 petals; and (3) the odd, ellip- 
tic, thick and fleshy, red pods 2 inches or less in 
length, not splitting open. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree 25-50 feet in 
height and l-li/^ feet in trunk diameter. Usually 
small, because the large trees have been cut. Bark 
on small trunks is dark gray and smoothish, be- 
coming rough, much furrowed, and thick on large 
trunks. Inner bark is liglit l)rown and bitter. The 
twigs are brown and liairless, with raised gray 
dots (lenticels). 

The leaves are alternate, 4-7 inches long, with a 
yellow-brown axis and with stalks of individual 
leaflets i/^g inch long. Tveaflet blades are short- 
pointed at apex, i-ounded and slightly oblique at 
base, the edges slightly wavy, thickened and leath- 
ery, shiny on upper surface and dull l)eneath. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are terminal and lat- 
eral, 3-6 inches long, unbranched, and the flowers 
with short stalks i/i i'l'^b long. The funnel-shaped 
base (hypanthium) is about 1% inch long and 
broad; tliere are 5 slightly hairy sepals 14 inch 
long; 5 slightly hairy (papillose) petals %-i/^ 
inch long; 10 stamens; and pistil with 1-celled 
ovary and slender curved style. 



Stahlia monosperma (Tul.) Urban 

The pods are about 1% inches broad and % inch 
thick, with odor of ripe apples, light brown taste- 
less flesh, and 1 large seed. Flowering in spring 
and early summer (February to June) and matur- 
ing fruits in summer and fall. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
is dark brown. The wood is very hard, heavy, 
strong, durable, and resistant to attack by dry- 
wood termites. 

Suited for ftirnitTire, although considered hard 
for this purpose. Mostly used for construction in 
the past. Because of the demand of this valuable 
wood, large trees have become scarce. Perhaps 
this species could be planted both for shade and 
wood. 

Generally found in low areas and near man- 
grove in the dry-coastal region of Puerto Rico east 
to Ceiba. Also Vieques. 

Public fokest. — Boqueron. 

R.\xGE. — Formerly known only from Puerto 
Rico and Vieques but in recent years found also in 
eastern Dominican Republic near Macao. 

Other common names. — cobana, polisandro 
(Puerto Rico) ; coabanilla (Dominican Republic). 

BoT.\Nic.\L SYNONYM. — iSfaMul mriritima Bello. 

The generic name Sfuhlm honors Agustin 
Stahl (1842-1917), physician and botanist of 
Bavamcni, Puerto Rico, who wrote "Estudios 
sobre la Flora de Puerto Rico" (1883-88, second 
edition 1936-37), an unfinished publication on the 
plants of the island. This is the only species of the 



184 




7y. Cobana negra 



Natural size. 



Stahlia monospcrma (Tul.) Urban 

185 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



CASSIA SUBFAMILY (CAESALPINIOIDEAE; CAESALPINIACEAE) 



80. Tamarindo, tamarind 

This well-known handsome planted tree, whose, 
soiu- pods are used in a refreshinc; drink, is char- 
acterized by : ( 1 ) a generally dense crown of 
feathery, pinnate leaves 2^1/4 inches long, with 
10-18 pairs of oblong blue-green leafl?ts %-% inch 
long and Vs-Va inch broad; (2) showy flowers 
about 1 inch across, pale yellow tinged with red, 
several in tenninal and lateral clusters (racemes) 
11/2-6 inches long; and (3) the gray, rough, thick 
pods li/o-S inches long, containing dark brown 
edible pulp around the seeds. Showy when in full 
bloom, the flowei-s giving yellowish color to the 
tre«. 

A medium-sized tree to 40 feet high and with 
usually a short, tiimk to 3 feet in diameter or 
larger, with a rounded crown of dense fine foliage, 
except on very dry sites. The bark is rough, much 
fissured, gray or brown, and thick. Inner bark 
is brownish, gritty, and slightly bitter in taste. 
The twigs are green and minutely hairy when 
young, turning gray or brown. 

The leaves are alternate. Leaflets are almost 
stalkless and close together along a slender pale 
green axis, rounded at both ends and oblique at 
base, not toothed, thin, blue green above and 
slightly paler beneath, folding against axis at 
night. 

The flowers are slightly irregular shaped, deli- 
cate, and on .slender stalks. Flower buds are dark 
red. The narrow, pale green basal tube (liypan- 
thium) is %6 inch long; there are 4 pale yellow 
seiials % inch long; 3 pale yellow petals with red 
veins, keeled and broader toward the finely wavy 
apex, the 2 outer ones % inch long and central 
petal % inch long, 2 other petals reduced to min- 
ute scales; 3 greenish stamens Y_> inch long, united 
by filaments to middle, and 2 minute sterile sta- 
mens : and a green beanlike pistil % inch long with 
stalked 1-celled ovary and curved style. 

The heavy, often curved pods are about 1V2-4 
inches long, %-l inch wide, and %-% inch thick, 
slightly constricted between the seeds, with a 
l>rittle outer shell, and not splitting open. Usually 
3 or 4 flattened shiny brown seeds % inch long 
are imbedded in the dark brown, fibrous pulp, 
which is edible though very sour. Seeds 400 to a 
pound. Flowering mainly from spring to fall and 
fruiting from winter to spring. 



Tamarindus indica L.* 

The sapwood is light yellow and moderately 
soft, and the snuill heartwood dark purplish 
brown. The wood is described as very hard, 
heavy (specific gravity 0.9) , and takes a fine polish. 
It is strong and durable, although very susceptible 
to attack by dry-wood termites. 

The wood is used chiefly for fuel and is re- 
ported to generate great heat. In other places 
where the species is sufficiently common, the wood 
is employed for construction, tool handles, furni- 
ture, and articles in woodturning but is considered 
very difficult to work. Good charcoal for gun- 
powder formerly was manufactured from it. 

Candy and preserves, as well as the beverage, 
are prepared from the edible pods. The young 
tender sour fruits have been cooked for seasoning 
meats, and the young leaves and flowers reportedly 
consumed as food. Besides making the trees orna- 
mental, the flowers attract bees and are an im- 
portant source of honey. However, the litter of 
the pods is objectionable in street planting. In 
India the trees are planted on forest firebreaks be- 
cause the ground underneath usually is bare. 

The fruit pulp is employed in home medicine 
and formerly was official as the source of a laxative. 
It contains sugar as well as acetic, tartaric, and 
citric acids and is antiscorbutic. Decoctions from 
flowers, seeds, young leaves, and bark of the plant 
have been used medicinally also. A yellow dye 
has been obtained from the leaves. 

Planted in Puerto Rico mainly for the fruits 
and ornament and shade and occasionally natural- 
ized. Fairly common around houses, along roads, 
and on hillsides in the coastal regions, mainly on 
the dry coa.st. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

R.VNOE. — Native of the Old AVorld tropics but 
widely planted and naturalized in tropical and 
subtropical regions and introduced into the New 
World at a very early date. Cultivated and often 
naturalized throughout West Indies and from 
Mexico to Brazil. Planted also in southern 
Florida including Florida Keys and in Bermuda. 

Other common names. — taman, tamarindade 
(Virgin Islands) ; tamarindo (Spanish) ; tama- 
rind (United States, English); tamarin, tama- 
rinier, tamarindier (French) ; tamarijn, tamarind 
(Dutch West Indies); tamarinde (Surinam); 
tamarindo (Brazil). 



186 




80. Tamarindo, tamarind 



Natural size. 



Tamarindus indica L. 
187 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 

Key to the 11 species illustrateil ( Xos. 81-91) 
A. Leaves with 3 leaflets. 

B. Leaflets with 3 main veins from base, short-pointed at apex. 

('. Leaflets wedfje-.shaped. whitish sreen beneath: spines al)sent — S2. Eriithrina herteroana* 
CC. Leaflets broadly ovate, nearly straight at base; spines often scattered on twigs and branches — 84 
Ery Ihrina poipp iy tuna.* 
BR. Leaflets with 1 main vein, elliiitic to ovate, nmnded or short-pointed at botli ends, whitish green Ijeneath ; 
spines scattered on twigs and branches — 83. Erythrina glaiica* 
AA. Leaves pinnate. 

D. Leaflets rounded, %— ^ inch long and broad, with yellowish spiny or bristle tip: twigs spiny — 88. Pictetia 
acidcata. 
DD. Leaflets larger, longer than broad, not spiny : twigs not spiny. 

K. Leaflets paired. 10-31) pairs, oblong. %-lV2 inches long, rounded at both ends — 01. .SV.ffioni'a grandiflora* 
EE. Leaflets of odd number. 17 or fewer, ovaTe or elliiitic, larger, short-pointed at apex. 
F, Leaves less than 1 foot long. 

G. Leaflets paired except at end : sap watery. 

H. Leaflets 5-0. usually 7, with stout stalks Vs-% inch long — 86, Lonchocarpus latifoUus. 
HH, Leaflets 7-13 <ir more, with slender stalks. 

I. Leaflets slightly shiny green on upper surface. 2-5 inches long — 81. AiuUra inerniis. 
II. Leaflets dull green, mostly less than 2 inches long — 85, Gliricidia sepiutn.* 
GG. Leaflets all attached singly, not paired : sap dark red. 
J. Leaflets ovate — SO. Pirrocarpiis indiriis* 
J.J. Leaflets elliptic to oblong — 'M\. Ptrrorarpus offlcinalis. 
FF, Leaves very large, 1V2-3 feet long: leaflets 7 or (sometimes 5), large, 3-12 inches long, elliptic, with 
many parallel lateral veins slightly sunken — 87. Ormosia krugii. 



81. Moca, cabbage angelin 

This attfuctive tree is easily recognized in flower 
by the sliowy masses of pink to purple pea-shaped 
flowers yjfi inch long. Other distinguishing char- 
acters are: (1) the rough light gray bark, 
which has an unpleasant cabbagelike odor when 
cut; (2) alternate pinnate leaves with 7-13 oblong 
or elliptic short- or long-pointed, thin, slightly 
shiny green leaflets ; and (3) the distinctive stalked 
elliptic or egg-shaped green pod I-IV2 inches or 
more in length, containing 1 poisonous seexl and 
not splitting open. 

A medium-sized deciduous tree becoming 2(V50 
feet tall and 6-12 inches in trunk diameter, some- 
times larger, erect in the forest but in the open 
much branched and with dense rounded spreading 
crown. Tlie bark 14-% inch thick is much fis- 
sured and scaly. Inner bark is light brown, some- 
times with slightly bitter taste. The stout twigs 
are green and finely hairy when young, becoming 
brown or gray. 

The leaves 6-16 inches long have a gre©n axis 
enlarged at base, bearing there when young 2 nar- 
row pointed green to brown scales (stipules) 
Vg-Vo inch long. Leaflets, paired except at end, 
have short green stalks %-i/4 inch long and 2 
narrow pointed green scales Vie-^ inch long at 
base. The blades are 2-5 inches long and 1-2 
inches broad, rounded at base, not toothed at edges, 
turned up a little at midrib, pale and very slightly 
shiny or dull beneath, varying in color from yel- 
low green through green to brownish green. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are broad and much 
branched, 6-12 inches long, terminal or sometimes 
also lateral, the greenish branches finely hairy, 
bearing numerous almost stalkless flowers, which 

188 



Andira inermis (W. Wright) H. B. K. 

are dark red to deep pink in bud. The bell-shaped 
calyx tube is %g inch long and broad, minutely 
.5-toothed at the almost even top, pinkish tinged, 
finely haii-;v'; there are 5 usually pink petals '^g 
incli long, all narrowed and stalked at base, a broad 
rounded standard, 2 wings, and 2 keel petals; 10 
white stamens, 1 free and 9 united into a tube about 
% their length; and long-stalked pistil nearly i/^ 
inch long, including flattened light green hairy 
1 -celled ovary and cur\'ed slender white style. 

The thick pods (drupes) are slightly fleshy out- 
side and hard within, weighing about 20 to the 
pound. Recorded in flower in winter (January 
and February) and summer (May to September) 
and in fruit mainly from summer to December. 

Sapwood is light brown. The highly figured, 
decorative heartwood varies from yellowish brown 
to dark reddish brown with sharply contrasting 
bands of light and dark fibers. The wood is hard, 
fairly heavy (.specific gravity 0.63), coarse-tex- 
tured, easy to work, and finishes well. It is sus- 
ceptible to attack by dry-wood termites but re- 
ported to be durable in contact with the ground. 
Rate of air-seasoning and amount of degrade are 
moderate. Machining characteristics are as fol- 
lows: planing, turning, and sanding are excellent; 
shaping is fair; and boring, mortising, and resist- 
ance to screw splitting are good. 

Formerly and potentially for high-grade furni- 
ture and cabinetwork in Puerto Rico, the wood is 
now utilized chiefly for posts and poles because of 
the small dimensions available. Uses elsewhere 
are fancy turned articles including billiard-cue 
butts, umbrella handles, and canes, also heavy con- 
struction, bridge timbers, carpentry, vehicles, pil- 
ing, and boats. 



I 




81. Jloea eabltage angelin 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Andira inermis (W. Wright) H. B. K. 

189 



Planted occasionally for coffee shade. This spe- 
cies has been tested in i-eforestation in Puerto Rico 
but was al)andoned because of very slow growth. 
It also suffered heavy losses when field mice cut 
stems of many seedlings. Nevertheless, the adapt- 
ability of this species to a wide variety of sites and 
its capacity to ]n-oduce large cro))s of fruits which 
are dispersed by animals have made it one of the 
most widespread trees of Puerto Rico. 

The bark and seeds, reportedly poisonous and 
in large doses causing death, have been employed 
in other places as a vermifuge, purgative, and nar- 
cotic. It is said that smoke from the wood is in- 
jurious to the eyes. 

Handsome and very showy when in flower, this 
species has been planted for ornament and shade 
in some countries. As the flowers are much visited 
by honey bees, the tree is an excellent honey plant. 

Common in all regions of Puerto Rico except the 
upper mountains. Commonest on the lower south- 
ern slopes of the Cordillera. Found in woodlands, 
along roadsides, fence rows, river banks, and in 
pastures. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, 
St. John, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Cambalache, Carite, 
(iuaja*^aca, Guanica, (xuilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, 
Rio Aba jo, San Juan, Susua, Toro Negro, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
6, 8, 9, 23, 32, 42, U, 46, 47, 50, 53, 60, 61, 69, 70, 73. 

Range. — Through "West Indies from Cuba and 



Jamaica to Trinidad. Collected at Bahia Honda 
Key, Florida, and introduced in southern Florida. 
Also from central Mexico (Michoacan) south to 
Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, and in western tropical 
Africa. 

Other cosimon names. — moca blanca (Puerto 
Rico) ; dog-almond, dog-plum, false-mahogany 
(Virgin Islands) ; palo de burro (Dominican Re- 
public) ; yaba, yaba colorada, moca (Cuba) ; maca 
colorada, pacay, macayo, cuilimbuca, moca, yaba 
(Mexico) ; almendro (Central America) ; almen- 
dro cimarron, guacamayo (Guatemala) ; guaca- 
mayo (Honduras) ; almendro macho, almendro de 
rio, almendro montes, almendro real (El Salva- 
dor) ; cocii, carne asada (Costa Rica) ; cocii, pilon, 
arenillo, quira (Panama) ; congo, guayacan congo, 
palo de seca, majagua gallina, peloto (Colombia) ; 
pilon, chirai, trompillo (Venezuela) ; moton 
(Ecuador) ; angelim, angelim da varzea (Peru) ; 
ajunado (Bolivia) ; cabbage angelin, cabbage-bark 
(ITnited States) ; angelin (English, commerce) ; 
cabbage-bark (English) ; black-plum (Tobago) ; 
cornwood, carbon, chaperno (British Honduras) ; 
batseed, koraro (British Guiana) ; bois palmiste 
(Haiti) ; angelin, bois olive (Guadeloupe, Mar- 
tinique) ; angelin palmiste (Guadeloupe) ; reddie, 
rode kabbes (Surinam) ; angelim morcequeira 
(Brazil). . . 

Botanical SYNON'i'MS. — Andira jnmnwensis (W. 
AVright) Urban, Geoff roya Inermis W. Wright. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 

82. Bucare enano, machette Erythrina berteroana Urban* 



This small introduced tree used as a living fence 
is recognized by: (1) alternate leaves with 3 
wedge-shaped leaflets about as broad as long, 
short-pointed at apex and very broad at base, dull 
light green above, and whitish green beneath; (2) 
showy masses of coral pink to red flowei-s about 3 
inches long but very narrow, only 14 inch broad, 
resembling a machete or sword in shape, many 
borne in erect unbranched clusters; and (3) the 
dark brown pod 4-6 inches long, very long stalked 
and very long ))ointed. slightly flattened and much 
narrowed between the oblong seeds, which are 
bright orange red. From related species of the 
same genus in Puerto Rico, bucare enano is dis- 
tinguished by the absence of spines on twigs and 
trunks, though the trunk rarely may be spiny. (A 
spiny form occurs in Central America.) 

A deciduous small tree becoming 20-25 feet high 
and 1 foot in diameter, with branching trunk and 
broad spreading thin crown. The bark is brown, 
smoothish, slightly warty and becoming shallow 
furrowed. Inner bark is about I/2 inch thick, light 
yellow, slightly soft, and almost tasteless. The 



stout twigs are shiny green when young, becoming 

The leaves 6-14 inches long have light gi'een 
round petioles 3-6 inches lon<r, enlarged at base. 
Leaflet stalks are %-y2 inch long with minute 
green glands at base. Leaflet blades are 2-5 inches 
long and l%-5 inches wide, broadly ovate and 
often nearly diamond-shaped, not toothed on 
edges, thin, with 3 main veins from base. The 
leaflets often are turned upward on edge, exposing 
the lower surfaces, which ai'e covered with a whit- 
ish bloom. 

The attractive large flowers usually appear with 
the new leaves. An erect terminal flower cluster 
( raceme) 5-10 inches long bears many nearly hori- 
zontal short-stalked flowei-s successively shorter 
toward apex. The irregular flower has a tubular 
green calyx %-l inch long, opened on 1 side at 
apex and obscurely toothed ; corolla of 5 unequal 
petals, the coral-])ink to red standard 3 inches long 
and folded, and 4 veiT small petals %-yi6 inch 
long, 2 wings and 2 keel petals hidden inside; 10 
slightly unequal stamens about 2V2 inches long, 
united into a tube most of the length with the an- 



190 




82. Bucare enano, machette 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Erj/tliriiia bcrterouna Urban 



191 



thers protruding; and vei-y narrow finely hairy 
pistil 21/4 inches long with stalked ovai-y and nar- 
row style. 

The pod resembles a string of beads in its ellip- 
tic swellings aliout % inch across outside each seed 
and constrict ions between tliese seeds. The curved 
opened jiods wiili seeds attached remain on the tree 
after maturity. Several oblong seeds neai'ly % 
inch long are vei-y con.spicuous when exposed on 
tlie opened edges of the thin-walled pod. Flower- 
ing in winter and spring (January to April) and 
maturing fruit in spring (April-May). 

The wood is whitish, soft, liglitweight (specific 
gravity 0.3), and weak. It is seldom used for 
otlier than fuel in Puerto Rico. Elsewhere it has 
been employed as a substitute for cork and for 
carving toys and figures. 

Posts root readily, so the tree is a common live 
fencepost, chiefly in the moist coastal and lower 
Cordillera regions. Also in Virgin Islands. The 
plants are propagated also by cuttings. Besides 
living fence]30Sts and hedges, the trees liave beeJi 
grown as support for the vines in vanilla planta- 
tions. However, severe attacks by defoliating in- 
sects make the species undesirable for this pur- 
pose. Young bi-anches and leaves are a favorite 
food of rabbits. Cattle eat the young twigs and 
leaves. Because of the showy flowers this species 
is grown for ornament in atklition to shade and 
has been introduced into Florida. 

In Guatemala the flower buds, young leaves, and 
young twigs are cooked and eaten like string beans, 
though it is thought that eating quantities induces 
sleep and may be injurious. The poisonous seeds 
of this and other species have been strung into 
bracelets, necklaces, and novelties. Though per- 
haps toxic or narcotic, parts of the tree have been 



employed in home remedies. It is reported that 
the crushed branches serve as fish poison and that 
the bark yields a yellow dye. 

Range. — Southern Mexico and Guatemala to 
Panama and Colombia. Also in Cuba and His- 
paniola, ])erhaps introduced long ago, and natural- 
ized in Puerto Rico. Planted in southern Florida 
and Virgin Islands and in the Old World tropics. 

Other common names. — machete, bucayo enano, 
bucayo sin espiuas (Puerto Rico) ; machete (Vir- 
gin Islands) ; pihon (Dominican Republic) ; 
pinon de pito, pinon decerca, bucare (Cuba) ; pito, 
piton (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador) ; 
miche, machetillos, coralillo (Guatemala) ; ele- 
queme (Nicaragua) ; gallito, pernilla de casa 
(Panama) ; pito de peronilla, peronilla, peronio, 
mata caiman (Colombia) : coralbean (English) ; 
brucal (Haiti). 

Machete, a common name, is suggested by the 
flowers with standard petal shaped like a machete 
blade and the calyx forming the handle. The 
common name piiion de pito in Cuba refers to the 
use of the flowers by small boys in making whistles 
or flutes. The corolla placed in a hollow petiole 
serves as a reed. 

Besides the 3 species described and illus- 
trated here, 2 other species of bucare are native, 
and a few others have been introduced. Piiaon 
espinoso {Erythrina eggersii Krukoff & Moldenke ; 
synonym E. horrida Eggers, not DC), native only 
in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, is distin- 
guished by the spines on the veins of leaflets and 
by the narrow red flowers nearly 2 inches long. 

Another species, known as coraltre* or common 
coralbean {Erythrina coraUodendrutn L.), has 
leaves nearly spineless and narrow coral-red 
flowers 2-214 inches long. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 



83. Bucare, swamp immortelle 

This exotic tree, found in pastures and along 
roadsides in northeastern Puerto Rico, is charac- 
terized by : (1) scattered small spines on twigs and 
stout spines on branches and trunk, at least when 
young; (2) alternate leaves with 3 slightly leath- 
ery leaflets elliptic to ovate in shape, rounded or 
short-pointed at apex and ba.se, shiny yellow green 
to dark green above and whitish green and finely 
hairy beneath; (3) numerous clusters of large and 
broad, showy, pea-shaped, orange or salmon- 
colored flowers, several erect near the end of a 
drooping axis; and (4) flattened pod 6-10 inches 
long and % inch wide, and containing 3-12 brown- 
ish or blackish poisonous seeds. The whitish un- 
dersur faces of leaves make the tree recognizable at 
a distance. 

A deciduous tree 30-50 feet high and 2 feet in 
trunk diameter, sometimes larger, with broad 
crown of whitish-green foliage. The bark is light 



Erythrina glauca Willd.* 

brown, smoothish but becoming rough and shal- 
lowly furrowed. Small trunks have stout spines 
%-% inch high, a few spines or warts often per- 
sisting on large trunks. Inner bark is as much 
as 1 inch thick, light brown, soft, and almost taste- 
less or slightly bitter. The stout twigs are light 
green and finely hairy when young, becoming gi'ay, 
with scattered sharj) spines i/g inch or more in 
length and with raised leaf scars. 

The leaves are 8-12 inches long, the light green 
round petioles 2-i inches long, enlarged at base. 
Leaflets have stout stalks Ys inch long, with round 
green glands Vie inch in diameter at base. Leaflet 
blades are 2i/o-6 inches long and li/o-SV^ inches 
wide, not toothed on edges, in vertical position or 
folding together at night. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are 4-8 inches long, 
the finely hairy axis drooping and bearing erect 
flowers near the end on stout, dark red and green- 



192 




83. Bucare, swamp Immortelle 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Erythrina glauca Wllld. 



193 



ish-tinged stalks %-% inch long. The bell-shaped 
calyx about % inch long is dark red, tinged with 
green, irregularly 8-lol>ed, and finely hairy; there 
are 5 slightly thickened and succulent petals, the 
large obovate, folded, orange-red standard 214- 
2% inches long and stalked at base, 2 orange-red 
wings yellow at base and 1 inch long, and 2 united 
pale yellow keel petals li/o inches long; 10 stamens 
2-21/i inches long with brown antliers and pale yel- 
low-gre«n fleshy filaments, 9 united into a tube and 
1 separate; and curved pale yellow-green pistil 
about 2 inches long, with a stalived narrow hairy 
ovary and curved style. The distance across an 
open" flower may be as much as 4 inches but only 
% inch in the narrow dimension. The poison- 
ous seeds are about % inch long. Flowering in 
winter and early spring (Januai-y to March) and 
with mature fruit in spring. 

The heartwood is light yellow to yellowish 
brown and moderately soft. The lightweiglit 
wood is weak, not durable, and scarcely suitable 
for lumber. 

Trees have been planted in pastures and along 
roadsides and fences and are ornamental as well 
as shade trees. Uses in other countries include 
shade for cacao and coflPee and living fencepo-sts. 
Propagated by cuttings. 



Found near Bayamon, Eio Piedras, and Caguas, 
Puerto Rico. Also recorded from St. Thomas 
moi-e than a centui-}' ago but not now planted there. 

Kaxge. — Native probably from Guatemala to 
Pei-u, Bolivia, Brazil, and Venezuela, the original 
range extended by cultivation. Also introduced in 
West Indies in the Greater Antilles, Guadeloupe, 
Martinique, St. Vincent, and Trinidad and To- 
bago. Planted also in southern Florida, British 
Honduras, and in the Old World tropics. Wliere 
native, this species foniis pure forests character- 
istic of swamps and stream valleys. 

Othkr COMMON NA5IES. — bucayo (Puerto Rico) ; 
piiion f ranees, biicare, pinon del cauto (Cuba) ; 
guiliqueme (Honduras) ; ahuijote, ahuejcvte (El 
Salvador) ; poro (Costa Rica) ; gallito, pito, palo 
bobo, palo santo (Panama) ; cambulo, bucaro, can- 
tagallo, pisamo, pisamo calentado (Colombia) ; 
bucare, ceibo, anauco (Venezuela) ; palo prieto, 
madre de cacao (Ecuador) ; amasisa (Peru) ; bois 
immortelle (United States) ; swamp immortelle, 
bucare, bocare (Jamaica) ; bocare immortelle, 
water immortelle (Trinidad and Tobago) ; sand- 
coker, oronoque, cock-tree (British Guiana) ; bois 
immortel, immortel blanc (Guadeloupe, Martini- 
que) ; suiiia, assacu-rana (Brazil). 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 

84. Bucayo gigante, mountain immortelle Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O. F. Cook* 



This introduced shade tree of coffee plantations 
and I'oadsides may be recognized by : (1) beautiful 
masses of showy orange-red flowers in late winter, 
when the trees are leafless, the large pea-shaped 
flowers 114-2 inches long, erect on nearly horizon- 
tal axes; (2) the trunk and branches often with 
stout spines; (3) alternate leaves with 3 broadly 
ovate thin leaflets, short-pointed at apex and very 
broad pointed or nearly straight at base, gi-een on 
both sides; and (-4) straight, cylindrical, dark 
brown pod 5-10 inches or less in length and about 
% inch wide, long-stalked at base and long-pointed 
at both ends. 

A large deciduous tree attaining 30-70 feet in 
lieight and 2-4 feet in trunk diameter, with spread- 
ing crown. The bark is gi-eenish brown or gray 
brown, smoothish or slightly furrowed, warty or 
spiny. Inner bark is thick, becoming % inch or 
more in thickness, whitish, and si ightly bitter. The 
stout twigs are light green and minutely hairy 
when young, becoming greenish gray, with raised 
leaf scars, and often with scattered spines i/ig inch 
or more in length. 

Leaves are 8-12 inches long, including the light 
green finely hairy petioles 21/0-8 inches long. Leaf- 
lets have stalks i/t-% inch long with 2 green cup- 
like glands about i/g inch long at base of lateral 
leaflets and 2 more glands below terminal leaflet. 



The thin leaflet blades are 21/2-7 inches long and 
2-6 inches wide, or larger on rapidly growing 
shoots, not toothed at edges, with 3 main veins 
from base, green and dull or nearly so on upper 
surface, and slightly lighter dull green beneath. 

Horizontal flower clusters (racemes) 4-8 inches 
long bear a few open flowers, which fall soon after 
opening, and many narrow flower buds progres- 
sively smaller towai-d apex. Thus, the ground 
under a tree becomes orange i"ed too. The flowers 
are 11/2-2 inches long and about half as wide. The 
cup-shaped calyx is %6~% inch long, reddish at 
the top and gi-eenish below, not toothed ; 5 orange- 
red petals, the large orange standard 11/4-1^/4 
inches long, elliptic, keeled, short-pointed, and 
spreading, 2 short elliptic wings V2 inch long, 
orange red but yellow toward base, and 2 united 
keel petals 11/4-1^/4 inches long, orange red but yel- 
low toward base, enclosing the stamens; 10 sta- 
mens 114-11/4 inches long, 9 united into a light yel- 
low tube and 1 separate, the anthers brown; and 
narrow greenish pistil about II/2 inches long in- 
cluding stalked ovary and style. There is some 
variation in flower color, a few trees having pale 
yellow-orange blossoms and others rarely seen 
with scarlet petals. 

The pod contains several brown kidney-shaped 
beanlike seeds % inch long, which are poisonous. 



194 




84. Bucayo gigante, mountain immortelle 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O. F. Cook 



195 



In Puerto Rico floweriiifj usually from January to 
March, sometimes also in Anjiust, the fruits ma- 
turing- from February to May. 

The wood is whitish, soft, perishable, and little 
used in Puerto Rico. 

Formerly the trees were widely planted in 
Puerto Rico for coffee shade. Now, however, they 
are not recommended for that purpose. They 
fjrow to large size, larger than desirable for coffee 
.shade and thus may compete with the crop be- 
neath. The weak branches are easily broken by 
strong winds or hurricanes. The trees are grown 
also as ornamental and shade trees. 

Centuries ago this species was transported over 
the Amei-ican tropics from its home in lower slopes 
of the Andes as a shade tree for coffee and cacao 
plantations and pastures and for living fences. In 
some countries, especially in the Andes, this is still 
a popular coffee shade tree. 

The bark, twigs, and seeds of various species of 
this genus are more or less toxic. They have pro- 
vided drugs and medicines locally and have been 
employed also to stupefy fish. It is reported that 
the flowers of this species have been eaten in soup 
and salad. 

Chiefly in coffee plantations in the lower Cordil- 



lera and moist limestone regions of Puerto Rico. 
Also in St. Thomas. 

MUXICTPALITY AVHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. 73. 

Range. — Native probably from Venezuela to 
Panama, south to Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and 
Brazil. Now extensively planted and naturalized 
in tropical America north to Guatemala and intro- 
duced into the Greater Antilles, Guadeloupe, Mar- 
tinique, and Trinidad and Tobago. Cultivated 
also in the Old World tropics and recorded from 
southern Florida. 

Other common names. — bucare gigante, bucare, 
bucar, brucayo, palo de boya (Puerto Rico) ; bu- 
matell (St. Thomas) ; brucal, amapola, mapola 
(Dominican Republic) ; pinon de sombra, bucare 
(Cuba) ; pito extranjero (Guatemala, El Salva- 
dor) ; pisamo, saivo, cachimbo, cambulo, pito 
gigante (Colombia) ; bucare, ceibo (Venezuela) ; 
bombon (Ecuador) ; amasisa (Peru) ; saibo (Bo- 
livia) ; anauca (United States) ; mountain immor- 
telle, bois immortelle (Jamaica, Trinidad) ; 
anauca immortelle, cocoa-mamma, coffee-mamma 
(Trinidad) ; bois immortel (Haiti) ; bois immor- 
tel, immortel jaune (Guadeloupe) ; mulungu 
(Brazil). 

Botanical synonym. — Erythrina micropteryx 
Poepj}. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 



85. Mata-raton, mother-of-cocoa 

Mata-raton, a small introduced tree commonly 
planted in fence rows and for ornament, is dis- 
tinguished by: (1) odd pinnate leaves 6-16 inches 
long with 7-17 ovate, elliptic, or lance-shaped leaf- 
lets; (2) numerous showy whitish-pink or pur- 
plish-tinged pea-shaped flowers about % inch 
long in lateral clusters along old branches when 
leafless or along branches back of leaves; and (3) 
flat blackish pods 4-6 inches long. 

A small deciduous tree or shrub, becoming 25 
feet tall and 8 inches in tnnik diameter, with ir- 
regular spreading crown of thin foliage. The 
bark is gray or light brown, smoothish to slightly 
fissured. Inner bark is whitish and almost taste- 
less. Young twigs are light green and finely hairy, 
the older twigs light brown. 

The alternate leaves have slender yellow-green 
finely hairy axes. Leaflets, paired except the ter- 
minal one, have hairy stalks about %6 inch long. 
The thin leaflet blades are li^-2i4 inches long 
and %-li4 inches wide, short- to long-pointed at 
apex, rounded or short-pointed at base, not toothed 
at edges, dull green above, and gray green and 
slightly hairy beneath. 

The numerous lateral flower clusters (racemes) 
2-5 inches long are many flowei-ed. The attractive 
flowers have a slender green stalk and a bell- 
shaped light green calyx tinged with red, i/4 inch 

196 



Gliricidia septum (Jacq.) Steud.* 

long and broad, minutely 5-toothed at apex; the 
butterfly-shaped corolla about % inch long con- 
sists of 5 whitish-pink or purplish-tinged petals, 
the broad .standard turned back and yellowish near 
base, 2 oblong curved wings, and 2 united petals 
forming a keel ; 10 whitish stamens % inch long, 
9 united in a tube and 1 separate; and pistil % 
inch long, with stalked narrow red ovary and 
whitish bent style. 

The pods are yellow green when immature, turn- 
ing blackish, i/^-% inch wide, short-stalked at base 
and short-pointed at apex, splitting open at ma- 
turity. There are 3-8 flat, elliptic, shiny, blackish 
seeds % inch lon^ (2,000 to a pound). Flowering 
in winter and spring (December to May) , the fruit 
maturing from winter to summer. 

The sapwood is light brown and the heartwood 
dark brown, turning reddish brown on exposure. 
The wood is hard, heavy, strong, and considered 
durable in the ground as posts. It is used chiefly 
for this purpose in Puerto Rico because promptly 
set posts generally sprout and take root, lasting 
indefinitely. Elsewhere the wood has been em- 
ployed for railroad ties and heavy construction. 
Pretty and taking a good polish, it should be suit- 
able for furniture and small articles. 

This tree is a popular ornamental or hedge plant, 
being readily propagated from cuttings as well as 




85. Mata-rat6n, mother-of-cocoa 



Natural size. 



Oliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. 



197 



seed and growins; rapidly. However, an objection 
to furtlier planting of this species in Puerto Rico 
is that the foliage often is attacked by an aphid or 
plant louse. These tiny insects spread and multi- 
ply rapidly, secreting a sweet liquid which attracts 
ants and causes growth of a black fungus or sooty 
mold over the leaves. jNIany blackened leaves fall, 
and automobiles parked beneath the trees may be 
damaged by the liquid. 

As the common name ma.ta-rat6n (mouse killer) 
suggests, the toxic seeds, bai'k, leaves, and roots are 
used to poison rats, mice, and other rodents. 
Another use of the freshly crushed leaves is in 
poultices in home remedies. The leaves are re- 
ported to be nutritious for cattle and also to be 
poisonous for horses and dogs. The flowers, 
though not fragrant, are visited by bees and are 
a source of honey. In a few countries the flowers 
are fried or boiled and eaten. 

The names madre de cacao and mother-of-cocoa, 
applied to this species is some areas, indicate that 
the trees are grown also as shade trees in cacao 
plantations. Before the Spanish conquest, the 
Aztec Indians of Mexico had observed that cacao 
grew well under these trees, which they named 
cacahuanantl or mother of cacao. These trees 
have nodules on their roots containing nitrogen- 
fixing bacteria which enrich the soil. 

Another use of mata-raton is support for vanilla 
vines. In a few countries the trees, though not 
evergreen, have been planted for coffee shade. 



In Puerto Rico this species is common along 
roads, in fence rows and as an ornamental in the 
moist and dry coastal regions, the moist limestone 
region, and lower mountain regions. It may be 
naturalized locally. Also planted occasionally in 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, and Tortola. 

R.\NGE. — Native from Mexico to Colombia, 
Venezuela, and Guianas. Introduced and becom- 
ing naturalized in "West Indies from Cuba and 
Jamaica to Lesser Antilles, Trinidad, and Cura- 
sao. Planted also in southern Florida and in 
South America south to Brazil. Also introduced 
into the Old World tropics, including Africa and 
southern Asia and recorded as naturalized in the 
Philij^pine Islands. 

Other coimon names. — madre de cacao (Puer- 
to Rico) ; pea-tree (Virgin Islands) ; mata-raton, 
madre de cacao (Spanish) ; pinon de Cuba (Do- 
minican Republic) ; pinon amoroso, pinon florido, 
bien vestida, pifion violento (Cuba) ; cacahuan- 
anche, cocoite (Mexico) ; madera negra (Hon- 
duras, Costa Rica, Panama) ; madriado, madrial, 
cacaguance, cacagua (Honduras) ; palo de hierro, 
cacahuanance (El Salvador) ; madriado (Nicara- 
gua) ; bala, balo (Panama) ; St. Vincent plum, 
quick-stick (Jamaica) ; Nicaragua cocoa-shade, 
madura (Trinidad) ; quick-stick (British Gui- 
ana) ; lilas etranger (Haiti) ; gliricidia, gliceridia 
(Guadeloupe) ; yerba di tonka, mataraton, raton- 
era (Dutch "West Indies) . 

Botanical synonym. — Gliricidia maculata (H. 
B. K.) Steud. 



86. Retama 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 

PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 

Lonchocarpus latifolius (Willd.) H. B. K. 



This uncommon though widely distributed tree 
is characterized by: (1) alternate pinnate leaves 
with 5-9, usually 7, elliptic leaflets on thick stalks, 
2-6 inches long, pale light green and finely hairy 
beneath, paii-ed except at end; (2) numerous 
crowded purple pea-sliaped flowers %6 ii^^'^ loi^g 
in lateral clusters which usually are several to- 
gether near end of twigs; and (3) the distinctive 
light brown oblong flat pods IVo-i inches long and 
%-l inch wide, short-pointed at both ends, very 
thin and like parchment, 1-3-seeded but not split- 
ting open, often produced in large numbers and 
rather conspicuous. 

A small to medium-sized deciduous tree 15-30 
feet high and 4—8 inches in trunk diameter with 
spreading crown. The bark is gray to brown, 
smoothish, becoming slightly fissured. The light 
brown inner bark is slightly bitter. The brown 
twigs are finely hairy when young. 

The leaves are 7-14 inches long, with finely hairy 
green axis and leaflet stalks i/g-i^ inch long." Leaf- 
let blades are 11/4-2% inches wide, mostly short- 
pointed at apex but varying from blunt to long- 



pointed, rounded or short-pointed at base, the 
edges not toothed, thin or very slightly thickened, 
above green to dark green and hairless, and be- 
neath pale light green and finely hairy. 

Flower clusters (racemes or panicles) are 2-4V^ 
inches long at base of leaves, the axis usually finely 
brown hairy and the flower stalks about i/ie inch 
long, also hairy. The flowere have a bell-shaped 
5-toothed calyx i/g inch long, finely brown hairy ; 
dark reddish-purple to greenish-purple corolla of 
5 stalked petals about 14 inch long, the rounded 
standai-d notched at apex and finely brown hairy 
on outside, 2 oblong wings, and 2 elliptic slightly 
united keel petals; 10 stamens 1/4 inch long with 
filaments united; and pistil with narrow brown 
hairy ovary and bent style. 

The minutely hairy pod is thickened and darker 
brown around the flat seeds, which are brown, 
kidney-shaped, and vie incli long. Recorded in 
flower from March to June and in fruit nearly 
through the year. 

The sapwood is whitish and the heartwood red- 
dish. The wood is hard, heavy (specific gravity 



198 



\ 




/ 




tSi^. 



Retama 



687-921 O— 64 14 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Lonchocarpus latifoUus ( Willi) H. B. K. 

199 



0.6), strong, and reported to be durable. Used 
chiefly for fuel or feiiceposts in Puerto Rico. In 
Cuba the wood is employed for piling. 

Planted as an ornamental in .southern Florida 
and Cuba. Also a honey plant. The root and 
fruit reportedly have insecticidal properties. 

Alon<r streams and in youno; forests in the moist 
toastal, moist limestone, and lower mountain for- 
est reo;ions of Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Lu- 
quillo, Susiia. 

Range. — Throu<ih West Indies from Cuba and 
Jamaica to Grenada and Trinidad. Also from 
soutliern Mexico (Tabasco), Guatemala, and Brit- 
ish Honduras to Colombia, Venezuela, the Gui- 
anas, and Brazil. Introduced in southern Florida 
and Cuba. 

Other common n.\mes. — palo hediondo, fort- 
eventura, frenogeno, palo seco (Puerto Rico) ; 
guama de costa, frijolillo amarillo, guama macho 
(Cuba) ; mataboy (Guatemala) ; cincho (Hon- 



duras) ; puapaste, cuapaste (Nicara^a) ; coto 
(Costa Rica) ; acurutii, mahomo, jebe (Venezu- 
ela) ; savonette (St. Lucia) ; white savonette, 
savonette jaune (Trinidad) ; lancewood (United 
States) ; swamp doo^wood, dogwood (British 
Honduras) ; dogwood (Canal Zone) ; savonette 
grand bois, savonnette grandes feuilles, savon- 
nette riviere (Guadeloupe, Martinique). 

Two other species of this genus are native and a 
few otliers have been planted experimentally. 
Genogeno {Lorichocarpvs doinivgensis (Pers.) 
DC), of western and southern Puerto Rico, has 
leathery pods deeply narrowed between the seeds, 
long-pointed leaflets hairy beneath, and twigs 
finely hairy. 

Geno {Lo-nchocarpus gJaucifoUus Urban), 
known only from western Puerto Rico, has narrow 
leathery pods not or only slightly narrowed be- 
tween seeds, leaflets whitish beneath and notched 
at apex, and twigs hairless. 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 



87. Palo de matos 

A tree of mountain forests characterized by : (1) 
clean, light tan, smoothish bark; (2) young twigs 
finely brown haiiy; (3) very large pinnate leaves 
11/2-3 feet long, consisting of 7 or 9 (sometimes 5) 
stout-stalked, large, elliptic, dull green leaflets with 
abrupt minute point at rounded apex, paired ex- 
cept at end; (4) many pea-shaped dark ^aolet 
flowers % inch long in terminal or lateral clusters; 
and (5) brown pod IVo-^ inches long, deeply nar- 
rowed between the rounded se«ds, which are % 
inch in diameter and shiny scarlet red usually with 
1 or more black spots. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree 30-60 feet high 
and to 2 feet in tnmk diameter, with broad crown. 
The bark becomes scaly on large trees. Twigs 
are stout and greenish. Young leaves, branches 
of flower clusters, calyx, and pods are finely brown 
hairy. 

The alternate leaves have a stout green axis 
keeled above and swollen at base. The green leaf- 
let stalks are %-% inch long, longer on the ter- 
minal leaflet. Blades are 3-12 inches long and 
11/4-8 inches wide, the base rounded or short- 
pointed, not toothed on edges, strongly pinnately 
veined with many parallel lateral veins slightly 
sunken, slightly thickened, the upper surface dull 
green, and the lower surface paler and inconspicu- 
ouslv fine hairy, especially on the veins. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are 6-12 inches long, 
branched, and many-flowered. The short-stalked 
flower has a brown hairy bell-shaped calyx more 
than % inch long, including unequal pointed teeth ; 
5 dark violet petals about % inch long, including 
broad rounded standard spotted with white or yel- 



Ormosia krugii Urban 

low, 2 wings, and 2 keel petals; 10 separate and 
unequal stamens ; and pistil % inch long with flat- 
tened brown-hairy 1-celled ovary and slender 
curved style. 

The brown pods are %-% inch wide, slightly 
keeled, long-pointed at both ends, and with calyx 
remaining at base. There are 1-5 seeds, rounded 
but slightly flattened. Recorded in flower from 
September to November and in fruit from May to 
November. 

The sapwood is yellowish, and the heartwood a 
uniform salmon color with occasional darker 
streaks. The wood is somewhat coarse-textured, 
of medium weight (specific gravity 0.50), with in- 
distinct growth rings, and large open pores. It is 
very susceptible to damage by dry-wood termites. 
The rate of air-seasoning is slow, and amount of 
degrade is moderate. Machining characteristics 
are as follows: planing, shaping, sanding, and re- 
sistance to screw splitting are good; turning, bor- 
ing, and mortising are fair. 

The wood is used chiefly for fuel in Puerto Rico. 
However, it should be suitable for furniture, mill- 
work, construction, boxes, crates, and general 
carpentry. 

Because of the rapid growth and vigorous 
sprouting of the trees in secondary forests, efforts 
are being made to find a better use for the wood. 
Apparently the trees are shallow rooted and easily 
blown over, as many are leaning or prostrate. 
Possibly suited for shade or ornament. 

Found in secondary forests in the lower Luquillo 
and lower Cordillera forest regions of Puerto Rico. 



200 




87. Palo de matos 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Ormosia kriigii Urban 
201 



Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Toro Negro. 

Range. — Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Re- 
public), Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, and Dominica. 



Other common names. — matillo, mato, palo de 
peronias, peronia (Puerto Rico) ; peronia, palo de 
peronia (Dominican Republic) ; malcaconier (Do- 
minica). 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 



88. Tachuelo, fustic 

This small tree of dry areas is easily identified 
by: (1) spiny branches, usually several from the 
base; (2) odd pinnate leaves 21/0-41/2 inches long 
with 9-25 rounded or obovate leaflets %-% inch 
long and broad, almost stalkless, each bearing a 
yellowish spiny or bristle tip Vm-Vi inch long at 
apex; (3) quantities of showy, bright yellow, pea- 
shaped flowers 34-I inch long, several together in 
a lateral cluster; and (4) narrow flattened brown 
pod %-2 inches long and 14 inch wide, 2-6- 
jointecl. 

A deciduous tree or shrub 10-20 feet high and to 
8 inches in trunk diameter or larger. Formerly 
reported to 30 feet tall, but now rarely seen that 
size because most large individuals have been cut. 
Bark of shrubs is brown or gray and smooth with 
spines remaining, on larger trunks separating in 
large flakes. Inner bark is yellowish and slightly 
bitter. The slender twigs are brown or green and 
finely hairy when young. 

The alternate leaves have at base a pair of 
slender spines (stipules) %6-V2 inch long, brown- 
ish but gi-een when young, and a slender finely 
hairy axis. Leaflets are notched or nearly 
straight at the spiny tip, rounded or slightly 
notched at base, bent up on both sides of midrib 
and curved down at tip, not toothed on edges, 
slightly thickened, finely hairy when young but 
l)ecoming nearly hairless, and green and slightly 
shiny on both surfaces. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are 1^-3 inches long, 



Pictetia aculeata (Vahl) Urban 

with flowers on slender stalks. The bell-shaped 
green calyx 1/1-% inch long is unequally 5-toothed; 
there are 5 petals %-l inch long, narrowed into 
stalks at base, the bright yellow standard nearly 
round and curved backward, 2 bright yellow ob- 
long wings, and 2 pale yellow petals forming the 
keel; 10 stamens %-l inch long, 9 united into a 
tube and 1 separate; and greenish pistil consisting 
of stalked, narrow, hairy, 1-celled ovary and slen- 
der curved style. The slightly curved pod is fine- 
ly hairy and does not split open. Flowering and 
fruiting nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
dark brown. Resembling lignumvitae, the wood 
is extremely hard, hea\-y (specific gravity 0.8), 
and durable. Used in Puerto Rico only for fence- 
posts, since larger sizes are not now available, for- 
merly also for larger poles. 

Because of the numerous attractive yellow flow- 
ers which beautify the counti-yside, this species is 
suitable as an ornamental for dry areas. Some- 
times grown as a living fencepost. 

Coastal thickets and pastures in the dry coastal 
and dry limestone regions of Puerto Rico. Also 
in Culebra, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, and Anegada. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Guanica. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
21, 26, 28, 36, 55, 66, 75. 

Range. — Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands and 
reported from Hispaniola. 



202 




(t-^ 



Hit 



M 



W ! 



t^ 



W 



m. 



i 



R 



l^J 



W 




88. Tachuelo, fustic 



Natural size. 



Pictetia aculeata (Vahl) Urban 

203 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 



89. Pterocarpus, India padauk 

An introduced liandsome ornamental, shade, 
and timber tree, distinguished by: (1) a broad 
crown of lonj; drooping branches, some nearly 
touching the ground; (2) reddish latex sparingly 
produced in the cut bark ; (3) pinnate leaves alter- 
nate in 2 rows with usually 7-11 ovate, thin, shiny, 
green to yellow-green alternate leaflets, long- 
pointed at apex; (4) many showy, yellow pea- 
shaped flowers nearly % inch long, produced in 
lateral clusters; and (5) nearly round brown pod 
11/4-1 V^ inches in diameter, flattened and bordered 
by a broad thin wing, stalked at base and with 
pointed style at 1 side. 

A spreading medium-sized tree 50 feet high and 
1 foot in trunk diameter, or larger. Essentially 
evergreen but nearly leafless for a short period in 
spring when old leaves are falling and new leaves 
forming. The bark is light brown and finely fis- 
sured. Inner bark is light brown and reddish 
brown streaked, astringent, and yielding a small 
amount of red latex, sticky and bitter, when cut. 
Twigs are green when young, becoming light 
brown, hairless except at apex. 

The slightly drooping leaves about 9-16 inches 
long have a slender green axis enlarged at base, 
and tlie leaflets have stalks about 14 inch long. A 
few short leaves have only 3-5 leaflets. Leaflet 
blades are 21/4-5 inches long and li/4-2i/^ inches 
wide, the edges not toothed, turned up a little at 
midrib, shiny green to yellow green above and dull 
green beneath. 

The fragrant flowers are bonie on slender green 
stalks in clustere (racemes and panicles) 4-7 inches 
long. The sliglitly irregular bell-shaped green 
calyx is %6 i'^ch long, pointed at base and un- 
equally 5-toothed at apex, and minutely hairy ; the 
5 yellow petals %-% inch or less in length are 
stalked at base, becoming crinkled, the rounded 
standard % inch wide and rolled backward, 2 
wings, and 2 smaller paler keel petals barely 
united on sides; 10 stamens about % inch long, 



Pterocarpus indicus Willd.* 

united by the whitish filaments into 2 groups of 5 
each; and gi-een hairy pistil ^e inch long, consist- 
ing of stalked narrow ovary and tapering style. 

The winged pods have a roughened wrinkled en- 
largement near the center enclosing 1 or 2 small 
seeds but do not .split open. Flowering in June 
and July and maturing fruits in summer to Sep- 
tember. 

The reddish hard wood is an excellent timber in 
southern xVsia, known as padauk or Burma-rose- 
wood. It is listed among the most valuable timbers 
in the Philippines, where it is called narra. Uses 
include construction, furniture, musical instru- 
ments, and cart wheals. 

Lignum nephriticum (Latin for kidneywood) 
was the wood of this Philippine species and of kid- 
neywood (Eysenhm'dtin polystachya (Ortega) 
Sarg.) from Mexico. It was known throughout 
Europe from the 16th to early 18th centuries for 
its reputed diuretic properties but is no longer 
employed in medicine. However, infusions of the 
wood are fluorescent, and this odd response to light 
may have been associated with remedies. Cups 
made from the wood and chips of wood impart, to 
water a beautiful blue and yellow color, which 
changes in light and shadow. 

Classed among the finest, tropical shade trees, 
this species is occasionally planted in Puerto Rico 
for shade and ornament. Introduced by the 
United States Forest Service in 1924, it is still 
limited to a few streets and patios, chiefly in the 
metropolitan areas. A honey plant. 

Range. — Philippines to Java, Sumatra, south- 
ern China, Burma, and Andaman Isands of India 
and introduced in southern India. Planted else- 
where in the tropics for shade, such as in southern 
Florida, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Trinidad. 

Other comsion names. — India padauk, Burma- 
coast padauk, Burma-rosewood (English) ; ix)se- 
wood (Trinidad). 



204 




89. Pterocarpus, India padauk 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Pterocarpus indicus WiUd. 
205 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 
PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 



90. Palo de polio, swamp bloodwood 

Lai-fje tree of swamj) forests and stream borders 
in mountains, easily recognized by the enormous 
narrow planklike buttresses extending high up 
trunk and horizontally along roots and by the dai-k 
blood-red latex in bark. Other distinguishing 
characters are: (1) alternate pinnate leaves with 
5-9 elliptic to oblong long-pointed shiny green 
alternate leaflets; (2) clusters of yellow pea- 
shaped flowers V2~% incli long and broad; and 
(3) flat, irregularly rounded, dark brown winged 
pods 11/4-2 inches in diameter. 

An evergreen tree 50-90 feet tall and 2-3 feet 
in trunk diameter above buttresses. Trunks often 
are curved or crooked and fluted. Tlie very jn'omi- 
nent buttresses on large trees sometimes rise to 15 
feet in height and may be 2-5 feet wide at base, 
often extending outward along roots a distance 
of 10 feet. These buttresses, frequently 4 large 
ones to a tree with smaller ones between, and 
scarcely 1 inch wide, generally curve snakelike 
along the forest floor. Bark of trunk and but- 
tresses is smoothish light brown, becoming finely 
and thinly fissured and scaly. Inner bark is light 
brown, with dark blond-red streaks in inner part, 
slightly bitter, containing bitter latex. Twigs are 
green or reddish green, becoming brown. 

Leaves are 6-16 inches long, the axis reddish 
when young but turning brownish green, slender 
but enlarged at base and with 2 basal narrow 
pointed green scales (stipules), which shed eai'ly. 
Leaflets have stout green stalks %-%6 mch long 
and thin or only slightly thickened blades 2-6 
inches long and ly^^-iyo inches wide, rounded at 
base, not toothed on edges, shiny green above, and 
beneath a little lighter and shiny or dull. 

Flower clusters (panicles or racemes) are mostly 
21/4-6 inches long, lateral at base of leaves, with 
many loosely arranged short-stalked fragrant 
flowers, the branches finely hairy. The bell- 
shaped calyx 1/4 inch long has 5 unequal short - 
pointed teeth; 5 yellow petals about 14 inch long 
■with narrow stalklike bases, the broad rounded 
standard reddish tinged or dark red near base, or 
reported sometimes to be violet tinged, also 2 
wings, and 2 keel petals; 10 stamens about s/jg 
inch long, united into a tube about half their 
length; and pistil more than s/jg inch long, 
composed of long stalk, flattened 1-celled ovary, 
and short slender style. 

The pod, green when immature, turning to dark 
brown, is short-stalked with calyx at base, 11/^-2 
inches in diameter, oblique or asymmetrical, with 



Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. 

few prominent veins, with wing around edge 
broad on 1 side, not splitting open, 1-seeded. Re- 
corded in flower from February to September and 
in fruit from April to November. 

The sapwood is whitish to light yellow. The 
wood is lightweight (specific gravity 0.3), very 
soft, and weak. It stains easily in drying, is sub- 
ject to decay, and susceptible to attack by dry- 
wood termites. 

Tlie wood has been used in Puerto Rico for floats 
for fishnets. At one time pieces of the thin but- 
tresses served as pans in washing or panning for 
gold. The resin or gum, which soon solidifies 
from the latex, formerly was exported in large 
quantities from Colombia to Spain for medicinal 
use under the name sangre de drago as a hemo- 
static and also as an astringent. The trees have 
been planted for shade and ornament in southern 
Florida and Cuba and might be suitable for the 
same purposes in Puerto Rico. 

Growls in swamp forests, chiefly on ilie land- 
ward side of mangrove but also in swamps and 
along sti-eaml)anks in the lower Luquillo forest 
region up to about 1,500 feet elevation. Common 
in swampy areas on the southeast coast near 
Humacao. 

Public forests. — Luquillo, San Juan. 

Municipality where especi.vlly common. — 33. 

Range. — Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, 
Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinque, St. Lucia, St. 
Vincent, ancl Trinidad. Also in continental tropi- 
cal Amei-ica from southeastern Mexico (Yucatan) 
and British Honduras to Colombia, Ecuador, 
Venezuela, Guianas, and Brazil. Introduced in 
Cuba and southern Florida. 

Other common names. — sangre de drago (Puer- 
to Rico, Spanish) ; drago (Dominican Republic, 
commerce) ; sangregado (Guatemala, Nicaragua, 
Costa Rica) ; sangre, cowee (Honduras) ; chajada 
amarilla, .sangrillo (Costa Rica) ; bloodwood 
(Panama) ; sabroso (Colombia) ; sangrito, cacti, 
lagunei-o, mucutena (Venezuela) ; bambulo (Ecua- 
dor) ; swamp bloodwood (Trinidad) ; kaway, 
swamp kaway (British Honduras) ; bloodwood, 
corkwood (British Guiana) ; bois pale (Haiti) ; 
mangle medaille, paletuvier, sang dragon (Guade- 
loupe) ; moutouchi de savane (French Guiana) ; 
bebe, bebe hoedoe, watrabebe, waata gwe-gwe 
(Surinam) ; mututy (Brazil). 

Botanical synonym. — Pterocarpus draco L. 
(in part). 



206 




90. Palo de polio, swamp bloodwood 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. 



207 



LEGUME FAMILY (LEGUMINOSAE) 



PEA SUBFAMILY (LOTOIDEAE; FABACEAE) 



91. Baculo, agati 



An introduced ornamental, spreading from cul- 
tivation, this tree is distinguished by: (1) alter- 
nate, even pinnate leaves with 10-30 pairs of ob- 
long leaflets 34-IV2 inches long and V4-V2 inch 
wide, rounded at both ends, and very short- 
stalked; (2) giant white or bright red, flattened, 
pea-shaped flowers 21/2-4 inches long, 2-5 hanging 
in a stalked cluster at base of a leaf; and (3) light 
brown pods 12-18 inches long and only %6 inch 
wide, flattened but slightly i-angled, long-pointed 
at both ends, and stalked at base. 

Eapidly growing, short-lived, deciduous small 
tree attaining 15-25 feet in height and 6-12 inches 
in trunk diameter, with thin crown of few 
branches. The gray bark is 1/2 inch or more in 
thickness, rougli, and furrowed into thick plates. 
Inner bark is pink and slightly bitter. The young 
twigs are finely hairy. 

Tjeaves are 6-14 inches long, with finely hairy 
axes enlarged at base. Tlie leaflets have very short 
hairy stalks less than i/k; inch long and thin blades 
with apex round or minutely notched with very 
tiny point, with base romided but slightly unequal- 
sided, pale green, and nearly hairless except when 
young. 

Flower clusters (racemes) shorter than the 
leaves have 2-5 flowers with unpleasant odor, com- 
nionly white but red in one variety, which is illus- 
trated. The bud is somewhat curved. The large 
bell-shaped whitish calyx is nearly 1 inch long, 
slightly 2-lobed with 5 shallow teeth; the corolla 
of white or red fleshy petals 214^ inches long, 
stalked at base, the oblong spreading standard 
sliorter than tlie others and curved back. 2 curved 
M-ings, and 2 united curved keel petals; 10 curved 
stamens, 9 united into a tube and 1 separate ; and 
pistil of stalked very narrow ovary and slender 
style. The pods hang down and split open to re- 
lease many elliptic brown seeds %6 inch long. 
Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. 

The wood is whitish, soft, and lightweight. It 
is weak and seldom used. 



Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers,* 

In India and elsewhere in southern Asia uses 
have lieen found for other parts of the tree. The 
flowers, tender green pods, and young leaves are 
eaten, such as in salads, curries, soups, and fried. 
Leaves and young shoots are fed to cattle also. 
The bark yields a fiber, and gum with red and 
yellow coloring principles has been obtained from 
tlie pinkish white sap exuding from the cut trunk. 
Extracts of leaves and flowers and of the bark 
have been employed medicinally. 

Tlie name baculo (walking-stick) perhaps was 
suggested by the odd, very long and narrow pods. 
Other names, gallito and cresta de gallo (cocks- 
comb), are descriptive of the shape and color of 
the flowers in the red-flowered variation. Flower- 
ing when small and only 2 years old. 

Planted as an ornamental in gardens and escap- 
ing from cultivation in roadsides and thickets and 
perhaps naturalized locally in Puerto Rico, 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. 

Ranc.k. — Native from India to Ea,st Indies, 
Philii)pines, and northern Australia. Widely 
though sparingly distributed by cultivation and 
occasionally si>ontaneous or naturalized in south- 
ern Florida, through most of the West Indies from 
Bahamas and Cuba to St. Vincent and Trinidad, 
and from southern Mexico through most countries 
of Central America to South America. 

Ottier common names. — gallito, cresta de gallo, 
agati (Puerto Rico) ; jack-in-the-beanstalk (Vir- 
gin Islands) ; gallito (Dominican Republic) ; 
cresta de gallo, gallito bianco, gallito Colorado, 
zapaton bianco, zapaton rojo, paloma (Cuba) ; 
pico de flamenco (Mexico) ; choncho (El Salva- 
dor) ; cobreque (Nicaragua) ; gallito (Venezue- 
la) ; agati, agati sesbania, Australian corkwood- 
tree (United States) ; agati, flamingo-bill (Ba- 
hamas) ; pois vallier (Haiti) ; colibri vegetal, 
papillon, fleur-papillon (Guadeloupe) ; tiger- 
tongue (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Agati grandif.ora (L.) 
Desv. 

This genus is represented also by 3 native 
species of shrubs. The generic name formerly was 
spelled also Seshan. 



208 



:A.. 






I'm 



W: 



a 




91. Bdculo, agati 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Sesiania grandiftora (L.) Pers. 



209 



92. Indio 



COCA FAMILY (ERYTHROXYLACEAE) 

Erythroxylon areolatum L. 



A small tree or shrub of dry areas characterized 
by: (1) short-stalked elliptic leaves 1V2~3 inches 
long and %-liA inches broad, minutely notched 
at rounded apex and witli -2 faint lines nearly par- 
allel with midrib and more prominent on lower 
surface; (2) small whitish flowers ^/^q inch across, 
several togetlier in lateral clusters mostly before 
the leaves or at base of new leaves; and (3) fleshy 
red oblong fruits •yi6-% inch long, 1-seeded. 

A deciduous tree or shrub 8-20 feet high and 
2-0 inches in trunk diameter. The gray bark is 
fissured and scaly, inner bark red and slightly bit- 
ter. Twigs gray, the short lateral twigs often 
with old scales where leaves and flowers were 
boiTie. 

The leaves are alternate but sometimes close 
together on short lateral twigs. Petioles are %6~ 
1/4 inch long and slender, with a pointed scale 
(stipule) 1/8 inch long inside base. Blades are 
broadly short-pointed at base, not toothed on 
edges, with 2 faint lines nearly parallel with mid- 
rib but converging with it at both ends, thin, dull 
dark green above, and pale whitish green beneath. 

Several fragrant flowers develop from a lateral 
bud on twig, each on a slender stalk i/g-i/l inch 
long. There is a 5-toothed green calyx less than 
i/i6 inch long; 5 white rounded spreading petals 
1/8 inch long, each with a minute 2-lobed scale on 
inner side; 10 stamens Viq-Vs inch long, united in- 
to a tube in lower part; and pistil about y^ inch 
long with 3-celled green ovary and 3 styles. Some 
flowers have long stamens and short styles, while 
others have short stamens and long styles. Col- 
lected in flower in different months from October 
to June. The fruits (drupes) are green when im- 
mature but turn red and have thin flesh and 1 large 
seed. 



The sapwood is light brown and hard. Heart- 
wood is rich reddish brown (the generic name 
means red wood) or chocolate brown, with oily 
appearance, very fine-grained, and very liard. The 
wood is heavy, strong, and highly durable but 
available only in small sizes. 

It is reported that the leaves contain a small 
amount of cocaine. This drug is obtained from 
the leaves of coca {FJrythro.vyJon coca Lam.), a 
related species of the Andes of Peru and Bolivia. 

Characteristic of thickets and forests on hills 
from Ponce to Cabo Rojo, the dry coastal and dry 
limestone regions of Puerto Rico. Also in Mona 
and doubtfully recorded from St. Thomas. 

Public forests. — Guajataca, Guanica. 

Range. — West Indies in Bahamas, Cuba, Ja- 
maica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Mona. Also 
in southern Mexico (Tabasco to Yucatan), Guate- 
mala, El Salvador, British Honduras, and Hon- 
duras. Reported from northern South America, 
probably in error. 

Other common names. — palo de hierro, cocaina 
falsa, muerto, hieri-o negro (Puerto Rico) ; 
piragua, fruta de palonia, arabo (Dominican Re- 
public) ; arabo carbonero, arabo jiba, arabo real 
(Cuba); limoncillo (Guatemala); thin-leaf ery- 
throxylon (Baliamas) ; redwood (Jamaica); red- 
wood, ridge redwood, swamp redwood (British 
Honduras) ; poirier, arabo (Haiti). 

This genus is represented by 3 additional 
species of shrubs or small trees, and another species 
is a low shrub. Jiba {Erythioxylon hrevipes DC.) 
has nearly stalkless obovate leaves less than 1 inch 
long. Raton (E. roh/ndifoh'umJjunaTi) has simi- 
lar leaves with petioles Vg-Vi inch long. E. mfum. 
Cav. has oblong leaves 2i/2^ inches long, slightly 
thickened, with prominent network of veins. 



210 




92. Indio 



Natural size. 



Erythroxylon areolatum L. 
211 



CALTROP FAMILY (ZYGOPHYLLACEAE) 

Key to the 2 native species, both illustrated (Nos. 93-94) 

A. Leaflets mostly 4, sometimes 6; fruits mostly flattened, heart-shaiied at apex — 93. Oiiaiacum officinale. 
AA. Leaflets mostly 6-10; fruits deeply 5- or 4-angled or winged, pointed at apex — 94. Guaiacum sanctum. 



93. Guayacan, common lignumvitae 

A handsome small evei-f^-een tree with a dense 
rounded crown and dark jjreen foliai^e, easily rec- 
ognized by: (1) light brown bark smoothish and 
mottled, peeling off in thin scales; (2) opposite 
even pinnate leaves with mostly 4 or 6 stalkless, 
oblique, broadly elliptic or obovate leathery leaf- 
lets; (3) several to many deep to pale blue flowers 
with 5 petals minutely hairy on the outer surface, 
spreading starlike %-% inch across in showy ter- 
minal ancl lateral clusters shorter than the leaves; 
and (4) flattened orange-brown cai^sules % inch 
long and broad, heart-shaj^ed and slightly winged, 
attached at narrowed end. 

A tree 15-30 feet high, with a short trunk 4-18 
inches in diameter. The bark scales are 1-2 inches 
across and u])on falling expose smoothish gray- 
brown spots beneath. Inner bark is light brown 
and bitter. Tlie green twigs, turning to gray, have 
enlarged ringed nodes and are nuich branched and 
widely forking. 

Leaves are 1V2~3 inches long, with green axis 
and at base paired minute hairy scales (stipules) 
which shed early. Leaflets are %-2 inches long 
and %-lVi inches wide, roundecl or sometimes 
blunt-pointed at both base and apex, broadest on 
the side toward base of leaf, slightly thickened and 
often turned under at edges, hairless, and dark 
green or olive green on both sides, slightly shiny- 
above. The lowest pair of leaflets is at the base of 
axis beside the twig, while the pair of leaflets at 
apex is largest. 

Many pretty, faintly fragrant flowers are 
clustered together (nmbellike) on slender minute- 
ly hairy stalks %-l inch long. There are 5 broad 
rounded finely hairy sepals nearly 14 irich long; 
5 spreading deep to pale blue petals nearly Yj inch 
long, narrowed at base and rounded at apex, mi- 
nutely hairy on outer surface; 10 stamens about 
%6 inch long, with blue filaments and yellow 
anthers; and stalked pistil I/4 inch long, with flat- 
tened usually 2-celled ovary and pointed style. 

The flattened capsules minutely pointed at the 
heart-shaped apex are green when immature, turn- 
ing orange brown. They split open to discharge 
2 or 1 seed 1/2 inch long, brown with a red fleshy 
covering (aril). Flowering and fruiting from 
early spring to fall. 

The narrow sapwood is pale yellow. Heartwood 
is dark greenish brown or nearly black. Lignum- 
vitae is one of the heaviest commercial woods (spe- 
cific gravity about 1.2-1.3). It is extremely hard, 
of very fine uniform texture, with highly inter- 
locked grain, growth rings clearly defined, and 
characteristic oily feel caused by the unique resin 
content. The wood is difficult to season and work 
but takes a fine polish. The heartwood is very 

212 



Guaiacum officinale L. 

durable and very resistant to decay. It is very 
resistant to attack by dry-wood termites, but the 
sapwood is susceptible. 

The self-lubricating resinous wood is so valuable 
that it is sold by weight, though not now of com- 
mercial importance in Puerto Rico. It is famed 
for its special use in bearings and bushing blocks 
for propeller shafts of steamships. It serves also 
for pulley sheaves, deadeyes, and as a replacement 
for metal bearings in roller mills. Other uses in- 
clude handsaw guides, awning rollers, furniture 
casters, mallets, bowling balls, and turned nov- 
elties. 

Under the name lignumvitae (Latin for wood 
of life), the extract of this wood formerly was 
official in medicine as a stimulant and to increase 
perspiration. Earlier it was thought to be a cure 
for various diseases, having been introduced in 
Europe about 1508. Also employed medicinally 
was guaiac resin, which exudes from bark and sap- 
wood, reddish brown in color but changing to blue 
or blue green. 

The trees occasionally are planted as orna- 
mentals for the masses of blue flowers, which are 
rare in the tropics, and for the handsome dark 
green foliage. However, their growth is slow, so 
slow that forest plantings in Puerto Rico by the 
Forest Service have been discontinued in favor of 
other species. Bees visit the flowers. 

Forests, thickets, and pastures in the dry coastal 
and dry limestone regions of Puerto Rico from 
Guayama to Cabo Rojo. Also in Culebra, Vieques, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. Reported to 
be nearly exterminated on Virgin Islands except 
in cultivation. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

MuNflCIPALITIES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. 

12, 66. 

Ranoe. — West Indies from Bahamas and Great- 
er Antilles to Martinque in Tjcsser Antilles and in 
Bonaire, Curasao, and Aruba. Also in Panama, 
Colombia, Venezuela, and British Guiana. Plant- 
ed in southern Florida, Bermuda, Trinidad and 
Tobago, Surinam, and elsewhere in tropical 
America. 

Other common names. — guayaco (Puerto 
Rico) ; lignumvitae (Virgin Islands) ; guayacan 
(Spanish) ; palo santo (Cuba, Venezuela) ; guaya- 
can negro (Cuba) ; guayacan de playa, guayacan 
colombiano, guayaco (Colombia) ; lignumvitae, 
common lignumvitae (United States, English, 
commerce) ; gaiac (French, commerce) ; gai'ac 
franc, ga'ic male (Haiti) ; bois saint (Martinique) ; 
wayaca, pokhout (Dutch West Indies) ; guaiaco, 
pan santo (Brazil). 

The generic name is also spelled Guajacum. 




V 



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r^yA 




y 



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A^ 






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/:-: 




xt 




93. Guayacan, common lignumvitae 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Ouaiacum officinale L. 



213 



CALTROP FAMILY (2YGOPHYLLACEAE) 



94. Guayacan bianco, holywood lignumvitae 



Guaiacum sanctum L. 



A small tree of diy areas characterized by : 
(1) bark deeply fissured vertically; (2) opposite, 
even iiiiinate leaves with mostly 6-10 stalkless, 
oblique, elliptic or obovate leaflets ending in a mi- 
nute point, witli several veins from base; (3) blue 
flowers % inch across the 5 spreading hairless 
petals, usually a few in terminal clusters shorter 
tlian the leaves; and (4) yellowish or orange cap- 
sule % inch lonfr, deeply 5- or 4-angled or winged. 

An evergreen tree 15-30 feet high with sliort 
stout trunk S inclies or more in diameter, and dense 
round crown of spreading or drooping branches. 
The light gray bark is rough. Imier bark is light 
brown and slightly bitter. Sapwood is light yel- 
low and very hard. The light gray twigs are en- 
larged at nodes, slightly angled, and green and 
minutely hairy when young. 

Tlie leaves 21/2-31/2 inches long have paired mi- 
nute hairy scales (stipules) at base and a green 
minutely hairy axis. Leaflets are %-l inch long, 
%-3/4 inch wide, short-pointed at base, rounded 
and minutely pointed at apex, not toothed on 
edges, broadest above middle and on the side to- 
ward base of leaf, slightly thickened and leatheiy, 
hairless, and green on both sides. During the hot- 
test part of the day the paired leaflets often fold 
together. 

Flowers are borne on slender minutely hairy 
stalks %-l inch long attached between the upper- 
most pair of leaves. There are 5 blunt -pointed 
sliglitly hairy sepals 14 inch long; 5 blue petals 
%6-% inch long, narrowed at base and in part 
2-lobed at apex ; 10 stamens nearly i/j inch long ; 
and stalked pistil 14 inch long, the ovai-y with 5 
or 4 angles and cells and ending in pointed style. 

Seed capsules are % inch long and 14 inch across 
the angles, broadest near the short-pointed apex, 
containing dark brown or black seeds about % 
inch long, each with a scarlet fleshy covering 



(aril). Flowering and fruiting from spring to 
fan. 

Sapwood is light yellow and very hard, and 
heartwood becoming greenish or brown on expo- 
sure. The wood has clearly defined gro%\'th rings, 
is resinous with a characteristic odor, very hard, 
very heavy (specific gravity about 1.1), and very 
durable. It resembles the wood of common lig- 
numvitae {Gxiaiacum officinale Ij.) and has similar 
uses but is less valuable. Like its relative this 
species of lignumvitae formerly was official in med- 
icine for similar purj^oses. 

Sometimes planted as a handsome blue-flowered 
ornamental in Puerto Rico, southern Florida, and 
elsewhere. 

In thickets and forests in the dry coastal and dry 
limestone regions of Puerto Rico from Ponce to 
Cabo Rojo. Also in Mona. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

Range. — Florida Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, His- 
paniola, Puerto Rico, and Mona. Also in Mexico 
(Yucatan). Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicara- 
gua. Recorded from Bonaire, Curasao, and 
Aruba, perhaps in cultivation. Planted in south- 
ern Florida, Trinidad, and elsewhere in tropical 
America. (The botanical type specimen came 
from Puerto Rico.) 

Other common names. — guayacan de vera, 
guayacancillo (Puerto Rico) ; vera, guayacan- 
cillo (Dominican Republic, Cuba) ; guayacan 
bianco (Cuba) ; guayacan (Mexico, Guatemala, 
Nicaragua) ; palo santo (Mexico) ; holywood 
lignumvitae, roughbark lignumvitae, lignumvitae 
(United States) ; lignumvitae (English, com- 
merce) ; bois saint, gaiac blanc, gaiac femelle 
(Haiti) ; wayaka shimaron, beera, boeloebarie, wa- 
jakaa maatsjoe (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical stnontm. — Guaiacuvi guatemalense 
Planch. 



214 



■^ 



^ 



'/A 




jfci;— -rvv. 




94. GuayacS,n bianco, holywood lignumvitae 



Natural size. 



Guaiacum sanctum L. 



687-921 O— 64 15 



215 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 



Key to the 9 species illustrated (Nos. 95-103) 
A. Leaves opposite, with usually 3 (sometimes 1 or 5) long-pointed leaflets — 95. Amyris elemifera. 
AA. Leaves alternate. 
B. Leaves simple. 

C. Leaves elliptic, with many minute rounded teeth on margin, petiole usually jointed with blade; flowers 
large, white; fruit a rounded or elliptic juicy berry (citrus). 

D. Leaves small, l%-3 inches long; fruit elliptic l%-2yo inches long (lime) — 96. Citrus aurantifolia* 
DD. Leaves and fruit larger. 

E. Petiole broadly winged. 

F. Leaves mostly long-pointed at apex; fruit round, roughened, orange, bitter, inedible (sour 

orange) — 97. Citrus aurantium* 
FF. Leaves rounded at both ends (or blunt-pointed at apex) ; fruit round, smooth, large, pale 
yellow grapefruit — (Kt. Citrus paradisi* 
EE. Petiole almost wingless or narrowly winged. 

G. Petiole almost wingless ; fruit elliptic, blunt-pointed or tubercled at both ends, the surface 

often rough and wrinkled, yellow (lemon) — !KS. Citrus limon* 
GG. Petiole narrowly winged; fruit round, smooth, orange (sweet orange) — 100. Citrus sinensis* 
CC. Leaves with margin not toothed, sometimes slightly wavy, petiole not jointed with blade; flowers and 
fruit very small — 103. ZantlwxyUim monophyilum. 
BB. Leaves pinnate. 

H. Leaflets 5-9, elliptic, margin without teeth or very finely wavy; not spiny — 101. Zanthoxylum ftavum. 
HH. Leaflets 7-19, oblong to lance-shaped, margin very finely wavy ; spiny — 102. Zanthoxylum martinicense. 



95. Tea, sea amyris 



Amyris elemifera L. 



A small tree or shrub characterized by: (1) 
dense rounded crown of compact pale green foli- 
age; (2) opposite compound leaves with usually 3 
(sometimes 1 or 5) ovate or lance-shaped, long- 
pointed leaflets l-2i^ inches long and Y2-W2 
inches broad, slightly leathery, slightly shiny yel- 
low green, and with many gland dots; (3) many 
small, greenish-white, 4-parted, spreading flowers 
about %6 i'K^h across; (4) many small round black 
fruits about 14 inch in diameter; and (5) twigs, 
leaves, and fruits with slight citrus odor when 
crushed. 

An evergreen tree commonly 10-20 feet high and 
3-6 inches in trunk diameter. The bark is smooth- 
ish and gray, becoming rough with deep furrows 
and rectangular plates. Inner bark light brown, 
with slight citrus spicy taste. The twigs are yel- 
low green when young, becoming gray. 

The leaves are 2-4 inches long. The leaflets, on 
slender stalks Vg-V^ i'^cli long, are short-pointed 
or rounded at base, the edges without teeth or 
minutely wavy. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are terminal and lat- 
eral, much branched, li/^-2 inches long and broad. 
The short-stalked flowers have a minute 4-lobed 
calyx; 4 gland-dotted spreading petals; 8 sta- 
mens; and pistil of 1-celled ovary and broad 
stigma. The fruits (drupes) are covered with a 
bloom, gland-dotted, witli thin flesh and 1 brown 
seed. Flowering and fruiting irregularly during 
the year, recorded in flower from March to 
October. 

The sap wood is whitish, and the heartwood light 
yellow. The wood is very resinous with strong 
odor, very hard, fine-grained, heavy (specific grav- 
ity 1.0-1.1), and strong. It takes a good polish, is 
very durable, and definitely repellent to dry-wood 
termites. 



Used chiefly for posts in Puerto Rico. For- 
merly also employed for furniture and fuel. If 
available in quantities and larger size, the wood 
might be valuable. As common names in different 
languages indicate, torches are made from the 
resinous wood. The tree yields a fragrant resin. 

Widely distributed in thickets of the dry lime- 
stone and dry coastal regions of Puerto Rico. 
Also in Mona, Desecheo, Icacos, Culebra, Vieques, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Jolxn, and Anegada. 
On Mona the species is becoming less common 
owing to extensive browsing of its bark by goats. 

Public forests. — Guajataca, Guanica, Susiia. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
26, 28, 55, 75. 

Range. — Central and southern Florida includ- 
ing Florida Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, His- 
paniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, and 
Lesser Antilles from St. Martin to St. Vincent, 
Grenadines, and Grenada. Also Central America 
in Guatemala, British Honduras, Honduras, and 
El Salvador. Reported from Venezuela, appar- 
ently in error. 

Other common names. — cuabilla (Puerto 
Rico) ; candlewood, torchwood (Virgin Islands) ; 
guaconejo, ])alo de tea (Dominican Republic) ; 
cuabilla, cuaba decosta (Cuba) ; chilillo, pimienta, 
taray (Honduras) ; roldan, melon (El Salavdor) ; 
.sea amyris, torchwood, candlewood (United 
States) ; white torch (Bahamas) ; amyris-wood, 
torchwood (Jamaica) ; waiki-pine (British Hon- 
duras) ; bois chandelle (French) ; bois chandelle 
blanc, bois pini, bois flambeau (Guadeloupe). 

The Spanish name tea means torch. This is not 
the shrub called tea in English. 

Teilla (Amyris halsamifera L.), a related spe- 
cies of southwestern Puerto Rico, has 3-7 leaflets 
and larger elliptic fruits 14-V^ inch long. 



216 





95. Tea, sea amyris 



Natural size. 



Amyris elemifera L. 



217 



96. Limon agrio, lime 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 

Citrus aurantifolia (L.) Swingle* 



Several species of citrus (<jenus Citrus) native 
in southei'n Asia are cultivated for their well- 
known edil)le fruits. Characteristics for identifi- 
cation of tlie proup are: (1) aromatic, glandular 
evergreen slirubs and small trees with distinctive 
spicy odor and taste of crushed parts; (2) green 
twigs mostly with sharp brown-ti])ped green 
spines i/g-l inch long, single at base of leaves; 
(3) alternate leathery leaves, green to dark gi-een 
and mostly elliptic, with many minute rounded 
teeth on margin and lunnerous tiny gland dots vis- 
ible against tlie light; (-1) petiole jointed with 
blade (except in 1 species) and usually winged; 
(5) fragrant white (sometiuies purplish-tinged) 
flowers with 4-G spreading, slightly fleshy, gland- 
dotted petals %-2 inches across; and (G) rounded 
or elliptic yellow or orange fruits (berry or hes- 
peridiuin), green when immature, composed of an 
aromatic i)eeling, 8-15 cells with many pointed 
juicy sacs, and several to many whitish seeds. 

Lime is distinguished from the other kinds of 
citrus fruits by: (1) the small elliptic fruit II/2- 
21/^ inches long and 1-2 inches in diameter, ))ointed 
or rounded at apex, smooth, green but turning to 
greenish yellow, with thin peeling Vj,; inch thick, 
and with very sour green flesh; (2) small white 
flowers only I/2-I ineh across the -1 or 5 petals: and 
(3) small dull green, elliptic leaves commonly 
rounded or blunt-jiointed at apex and with nar- 
rowly winged jietioles. 

An evergreen aromatic and glandular shrub or 
small tree to 20 feet higii, with irregular branches. 
The brown bark is smoothish, inner bark pale yel- 
low and bitter. The green to dark green tw"ig.s, 
angled wlien young, have short sharp spines, us- 
ually Vs-% inch long, green and tipped with 
brown, solitary at base of the alternate leaves. 

The green petioles %-% inch long are jointed 
with blade. The small thick and leathery blade is 
11/0-3 inches long and %-134 inches wide, some- 
times to 4 inches long and 214 inches broad, round- 
ed at base, the edges with many minute rounded 
teeth, and with numerous tiny gland dots visible 
against the light. Upper surface is dull green, 
and lower surface is dull light green. 

Flowers, only slightly fragrant, are produced 
in clusters of 2-7 on short stalks at base of a leaf. 
The white saucer-shaped calyx is about %6 inch 
across and less than i/g inch high, with 4 or 5 
teeth; 4 or 5 white oblong gland-dotted petals 
about 1/2 inch long; 20-25 white stamens Vi inch 
long, separate at base, with yellow anthers; and 
pistil % inch long on a whitish disk, consisting 
of green rounded ovary with 9-12 cells, stout 
whitish style, and yellowish rounded stigma. 

The fruit (berry or hesperidium) has a few 
whitish elliptic pointed seeds about % inch long, 
with brownish-red caps at end. Flowering in 
spring to July, later than the other species of 

218 



citrus, and maturing fruit in summer and fall. 

The hard wood with whitish sapwood is little 
used locally. When pruned back, the plants make 
a good fence. Also a honey plant. 

The fruit is picked and shipped green. It is 
utilized extensively in refreshing drinks and for 
seasoning foods. ' The West Indian islands of 
Montserrat and Dominica produce quantities of 
lime fruits and lime juice for export. The fruit is 
the main source of citric acid for tlie dyeing indus- 
try and medicinal use, and lime oil "is extracted 
from the rind. The bottled juice, which is rich in 
vitamin C, has been carried on ships as a means 
of preventing scurvy. A tea or tonic has been 
prepared from the leaves. 

Cultivated and escaping or naturalized, chiefly 
at low elevations, in Puerto Rico and Mona, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Range. — Native of East Indian Archipelago but 
introduced into the New World more than 400 
years ago. Widely cultivated and naturalized in 
tropical and suI)tropical regions, including south- 
ern Florida and Florida Keys, West Indies, and 
from Mexico to South America. 

Other common names. — West Indian lime 
(Virgin Islands) ; lima (Spanish) ; lima boba 
(Dominican Republic) ; limon criollo, lima agria 
(Cuba); lima chica (Mexico); limon (Central 
America) ; lima agria (Venezuela) ; limon sutil 
(Ecuador) ; limon agrio (Pent) ; lime. West In- 
clian lime (English); lime-leaf-plant (Grena- 
dines) ; citron (Haiti) ; citron commun (Guade- 
loupe) ; lamunchi, lemoen (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Cifrxis lima Lunan. 

Sweet lime or limon dulce (citron doux in 
French) apparently is a variation or hybrid of 
lime or limon agrio and not botanically distinct, 
tliough it has been i-ecognized by some authors as 
a species (C/fn/s limefta Risso) . It has a rounded 
greenish-yellow fruit 2iv> inches in diameter, with 
whitish or greenish-tinged flesh which is slightly 
sweet or insipid. Sometimes planted as a fruit 
tree in Puerto Rico and elsewhere in tropical 
America, though not ranking highly among the 
citrus fruits because of the weak flavor. 

Besides the 5 citrus species described and illus- 
trated here, a few others are less frequently culti- 
vated. Mandarin orange, tangerine, or mandarina 
{Citrus reticuhita Blanco;* synonym C. noHTis 
auth., not Lour.) has orange rounded fruits 2-3 
inches in diameter, broader than long, with loose 
peel and easily separable segments. 

Pummelo, shaddock, or pomelo {Citrus grandis 
(L.) Osbeck*) has large yellow fruits round or 
slightly pear-shaped, 5-6 inches in diameter. 

Citron or cidra {Citrus mediea L.*), usually 
shrubby, has large yellow fniits oblong or elliptic, 
5-8 inches long, and about 2 inches in diameter, 
with very thick peel and small pulp. 




96. Limon agrio, lime 



Natural size. 



Citrus aurantifoUa (L.) Swingle 



219 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 
97. Naranja agria, sour orange 



Citrus aurantium L.* 



Sour orange differs from the other citrus fruits 
in: (1) the round orange or reddish-orange fruit 
21^-4'^ inches in diameter, often bi'oader than 
long, more or less roughened, with thick peeling, 
and hollow pulpy core, which is bitter and too sour 
to be edible; (2) strongly fi'agrant large white 
flowers with usually 5 petals; and (n) leaves ovate, 
more or less long-pointed at apex and tapering or 
rounded at base, the petioles with lu-oad wmgs 
%-% inch across. 

A small aromatic evergreen tree 15-30 feet high, 
with rounded crown. The bark is brown and 
smoothish, the inner bark light brown and bitter. 
Twigs green, angled when young, with sharp 
spines becoming 1 inch long. 

Leaves are alternate on petioles %-lV2 inches 
long. Blades are jointed with petiole, ovate, 21/^- 
51/^ inches long and l^'o—^ inches wide, with many 
minute rounded teeth at edges, a little leathery, 
with numerous tiny gland dots, above green and 
slightly shiny, and beneath pale light green. The 
leaves have a pleasant scent. 

There are 1 to few fragrant large white flowers 
at base of a leaf. Calyx is light green and 4-5- 
toothed; usually 5 narrowly oblong white gland- 
dotted petals about % inch long; 20-24 stamens 
united into tube in lower half; and pistil on a disk 
with 9-12-celled ovary, style, and rounded stigma. 

The fruit (berry or hesperidium) rind, 1/4-% 
inch thick, is bitter and aromatic, and the flesh has 
bitter walls. The whitish seeds are flattened, 
marked with I'idged lines, and about ^2 inch long 
(1,600 to a pound). Flowering throughout the 
year. 

Tlie heartwood is whitish to light yellow, hard 
and fine-grained, with prominent gi'owth rings. 
It is reported that the wood is like that of sweet 
orange or china (Citrus sinensi'i L.*) and perhaps 
is suitable for the same purposes. In Cuba tJie 
wood is used to make baseball bats. 



The peeling with pulp of this species is the prin- 
cipal source of orange marmalade and is sometimes 
candied and, when fresh, yields an essential oil. 
The juice serves for seasoning foods, such as soups 
and meats, and .sometimes as an orangeade drink 
when sweetened with sugar. A perfume, oil of 
neroli, is produced in southern Europe from the 
petals. In home medicines the juice is an anti- 
septic and hemostatic, and a decoction of the leaves 
induces sweating. The peel and its oil have been 
used medicinally as a source of vitamins. This 
is a honey plant also. 

Being resistant to the root rot disease of citnis 
fruits, this species is employed, especially in the 
United States, as the stock for budding the other 
species. 

Cultivated in Puerto Rico and spontaneous after 
planting and naturalized, chiefly in the lower 
mountain and moist limestone forest regions. A 
hybrid or variety of the Seville orange, which has 
sweet juice, is grown in Puerto Rico also. St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, and probably others of the Vir- 
gin Islands. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guajataca, Luquillo, 
Rio Abajo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Native of southeastern Asia. Widely 
planted and naturalized in tropical and subtropi- 
cal regions. Naturalized in southeastern United 
States (Georgia and Florida), Bermuda, through 
West Indies, and from Mexico to Argentina. 

Other common names. — naranja agi'ia, naranja 
acida (Spanish) ; naranja cajera (Venezuela) ; 
naranjo amargo (Argentina) ; sour orange, Seville 
oi-ange (United States, English) ; bitter orange 
(Bermuda, Jamaica) ; bigarade orange (Ja- 
maica) ; orange sure (Haiti) ; orange siire, orange 
amei-e, orange grosse-peau (Guadeloupe) ; bois 
d'oranger, naranga (French Guiana) ; laraha, 
laraha zier (Dutch West Indies) ; laranjada terra, 
laranja amarga (Brazil). 

Botanical .synonyms. — Citrus vulgaris Risso, 
C. higaradia Loisel. 



220 




97. Naranja agria, sour orange 



Natural size. 



Citrus aurantium L. 



221 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 



98. Limon de cabro, lemon 



Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. 



Lemon is separated from the other kinds of 
citrus fruits by: (1) the very sour yellow elliptic 
fruit 21/4-4 inches lonjr and li/^-3i/o inches in di- 
ameter, blunt-pointed or tuhercled at both ends, 
and the surface often rough and wrinkled; (2) 
flowers 11/4-2 inches broad with -i or 5 whitish 
petals purplish tino;ed on outside; and (3) leaves 
with apex pointed and with almost wingless 
petiole. 

A small aromatic evergreen tree attaining 10-20 
feet in lieight and 4 inches in trunk diameter or 
larger, the trunk slightly angled, with long irregu- 
lar spreading branches. The bark is brown or 
gray and smooth to finely fissured, the light brown 
inner bark slightly bitter. The green twigs usu- 
ally have a short stout spine at base of leaf. 

The alternate leaves have petioles 1/4--V2 i'lch 
long, jointed with blade. Blades are oblong to 
elliptic, 21/2^14 inches long and 11/4-21/4 inches 
wide, short- to long-pointed at apex and rounded 
at base, with many minute rounded teeth at edges, 
tliick and leathery, and with numerous gland dots. 
The upper surface is green or dark green and 
slightly shiny, and the lower surface chill light 
green. Young leaves are reddish. 

Flowers are single, paired, or few at base of a 
leaf, slightly fragrant, some bisexual and some 
male, the buds reddish or purplish tinged. There 
is a cuplike 4-5-toothed light green and purplish 
calyx about I/4 inch high and broad ; 4 or 5 slightly 
fleshy, gland-dotted petals % inch long, and 
curved back on the outer side; 20-40 stamens % 
inch long with fleshy white filaments slightly 
united at base and with yellow anthers; and pistil 
on basal disk with 7-li-celled ovary tapering to 
the stout style. 

The fruit (beri-y or hesperidium) has a thick 
peeling 1/4-% inch thick and veiy sour, pale yel- 
lowish flesh. Tlie elliptic whitish seeds about 
% inch long are pointed at 1 end. Flowering 



in spring and with fruit in summer and fall. 

The wood is light brown and hard. 

The juice is made into lemonade drinks, sweet- 
ened with sugar and serves to season foods. The 
fruit is more generally consumed in the United 
States than in Latin America. In home medicines 
the juice is antiseptic and arrests bleeding, a de- 
coction pi'oduces sweating, and the root has been 
employed also. The lime juice of the old sailing 
vessels, a preventative of scurvy, came partly from 
this species. I^emon oil, from the fruit peel, is offi- 
cial in tlie United States Pharmacopoeia as a 
flavoring agent. A honey plant. 

Formerly planted as a fruit tree and naturalized 
in Puerto Rico, chiefly in the lower mountain and 
moist limestone forest regions. Also in the Virgin 
Islands. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Maricao, 
Rio Abajo, Toro Negi'o. 

Range. — Perhaps from southeastern Asia, the 
origin uncertain and perhaps relatively recent, 
possibly hybrid. Now widely cultivated and natu- 
ralized in tropical and subtropical regions. Ber- 
muda, West Indies, and from southern Florida 
and southern California and Mexico to South 
America. It is rejjorted that this s]5ecies was first 
introduced into the New World at Hispaniola by 
Columbus in 1493. 

Other common names. — limon (Spanish) ; 
limon agrio (Dominican Republic, Mexico) ; limon 
frances, cidra (Cuba) ; limonero (Mexico, Colom- 
bia) ; limon real (Central America, Ecuador) ; 
limon comiin (Nicaragua) ; limon criollo, limon 
frances (Venezuela) ; lemon (United States, Eng- 
lish) ; limon (Fi'ench) ; citronnier, limon france 
(Haiti) ; lamoentsji, lamunchi dushi (Dutch West 
Indies) . 

Botanical synonym. — f'/ffus limonvm Risso. 
Formerly referred also to Citrus J/mon/a Osbeck, 
Canton lemon, which is a dilferent Chinese hybrid. 



222 




98. Lim6n de cabro, lemon 



Natural size. 



Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. 



223 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 



99. Toronja, grapefruit 

Grapefruit is recognized among the citiiis fruit 
trees by: (1) the large round fruit, which is pale 
yellow at maturity, 31/2-5 inches in diameter, 
smooth, with flesh usually light yellow, sometimes 
pink, the taste sweet and acid and bitter combined ; 
(2) fragrant large white flowers 1-1% inches 
across the 4 petals; and (3) leaves elliptic, rounded 
at both ends (or blunt-pointed at apex) and peti- 
ole usually broadly winged. 

A small aromatic evergreen tree becoming 15-20 
feet high and G inches in trunk diameter, some- 
times larger, with rounded spreading crown of reg- 
ular branches. The bark is smooth gray brown, 
inner l)ark light yellow and slightly bitter. The 
green twigs usually have short slender and flexible 
spines single at nodes, the leaves also alternate. 
Young twigs and leaves are hairless or nearly so. 

The petiole is 14-I inch long, the wing i4-i/^ 
inch wide. Blade is 3-6 inches long and l%-3 
inches wide, jointed to petiole, with many minute 
rounded teeth at edges, slightly leathery, and with 
numerous tiny gland dots, above shiny cUirk green, 
and beneatii dull light green. 

Flowers are solitary or 2-6 in a lateral cluster 
(raceme). The cup-shaped calyx is irregularly 
5-toothed, about Y^q inch high and 14 indi or more 
across; there are 4 oblong white fleshy petals % 
inch or more in length; 20-25 stamens united into 
tube in lower part ; and pistil on a disk with round 
11-14-celled ovary. 

The fruit (berry or hesperidium) has a whitish 
peeling ■%«-% inch thick. Walls of the flesh are 
bitter. The numerous whitish elliptic pointecl 
seeds are about 1/2 inch long. Flowering in the 
spring and fruiting in the fall, the mature fruits 
pereisting until May. 

The sapwood is whitish to light yellow, and the 
heartwood light yellow to yellowish brown. The 
hard, fine-grained wood with growth rings clearly 
defined is used chiefly for fuel. 

Grapefruit, a breakfast favorite, is marketed in 
Puerto Rico eitiier fresh or as canned sections or 
juice. The tree is an attractive ornamental and 
honey plant as well as fruit tree. 



Citrus paradisi Macfadyen* 

This is one of the commonest citrus species in 
Puerto Rico, being grown in plantations, chiefly 
in the moist coastal region. Formerly it was the 
most important fruit gi-own commercially on the 
island for shipment in fresh form to the United 
States. Now the plantations are mostly aban- 
doned because competition destroyed the export 
market. Scattered trees are to be found in the 
moist limestone and lower mountain regions. Also 
in the Virgin Islands. 

Range. — Apparently of relatively recent origin 
in cultivation in the West Indies and not found 
wild in Asia. Planted extensively in subtropical 
areas of southern United States in Florida, Texas, 
Arizona, and California. Also grown through 
West Indies, from Mexico to South America, and 
in the Old World tropics. 

Other common names. — toronja (Spanish) ; 
grapefruit (Central America) ; greifruta (Colom- 
bia) ; grapefruit (United States, English); cha- 
deque (Haiti) ; pamplemousse, grapef niit (Guade- 
loupe) ; gi-apefruit (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Citrus maxima (Burm.) 
Merr. var. uvicarpa Merr. & Lee. 

By some authoi-s the grapefruit is placed as a 
variety of pununelo, shaddock, or pomelo. Citrus 
grandis (L.) Osbeck* {C. maxima (Burm.) Merr., 
C. denimnna (L.) L.). The latter has larger 
thick-skinned fruits 5-6 inches in diameter or 
slightly pear-shaped, with the juicy particles large 
and easily separable, large rough yellowish seeds, 
larger leaves with broadly winged heart-shaped 
petioles, and very large flowers. 

It is thought that grapefniit originated in the 
West Indies as a mutation of pummelo or possible 
hybrid of that species with sweet orange. Ap- 
parently it was fii-st described in 1750 as the for- 
bidden fruit of Barbados. In 1814 the English 
name grapefruit first appeared in a Jamaican 
book, which attributed the derivation to the re- 
semblance in flavor to the grape. The species was 
named botanically from Jamaica in 1830. 



224 




99. Toronja, grapefruit 



Natural size. 



Citrus paradisi Macfadyen 



225 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 



100. China, sweet orange 

Sweet orange, or orange, the best known and 
most popular of the citrus fruits, is distinguished 
by : ( 1 ) the familiar, usually smooth orange roimd 
fruit, mostly 21/0-314 inches in diameter, with 
sweetish orange-colored flesh; (2) very fragrant 
white flowers with usually 5 petals about 11/4-11/4 
inches across; and (3) leaves oblong to elliptic or 
ovate, short-pointed or rounded at both ends, and 
with narrowly winged petiole. 

An evergreen small tree becoming 20-30 feet 
tall and 6-10 inches or more in trunk diameter, 
with rounded crown. The bark is brown and finely 
fissured, the inner bark yellowish and slightly bit- 
ter. The light green angled twigs usually have 1 
slender sharp spine i/g hich long at a node. 

The alternate leaves have a green petiole %-% 
inch long, jointed to the blade. The leaf blade is 
21/2-6 inches long and II/4-3I/2 inches wide, the 
edges usually with many minute rounded teeth, 
slightly leathery and with numerous tiny gland 
dots, above dark green to yellow green and slightly 
shiny, and beneath dull light green. 

Flowers are lateral, 1-6 at base of a leaf. There 
is a greenish-white broad saucer-shaped calyx % 
inch high and 5-toothed; usually 5 white elliptic 
petals 1/2-% inch long, gland-dotted and slightly 
fleshy, spreading and turned back; 20-25 white 
stamens I/2 inch long with brown anthers, united 
into ring at base; and on whitish disk a pistil % 
inch long with 10-13-celled yellow-green rounded 
ovary, slender style, and rounded stigma. 

The familiar sweetish orange fruit (beriy) has 
a smooth usually thin peeling less than 14 inch 
thick, orange at maturity (but the fruit is some- 
times consumed while still green), and solid center 
of orange-colored juicy flesh which is sweet or 
sometimes slightly sour. Seeds are white and 
wrinkled. The navel orange is a variety distin- 
guished by the fruit apex not completely covered 
by the outer rind but with additional small seg- 
ments or cells and usually is seedless. Flowering 
in spring and maturing fruits in the fall, but in 
some areas the fruits may persist on the trees into 
the following May. 



Citrus sinensis Osbeck* 

The wood is light yellow, hard, strong, and 
tough, and very susceptible to attack by dry-wood 
termites. Its uses includes canes and various small 
articles, such as manicure sticks. 

The orange, witli its high vitamin C content, is 
one of the most popular tropical fniits. Quanti- 
ties of the sweetish juice are canned in Puerto 
Eico for export. The peel yields an essential oil 
when pressed and sometimes is candied. Orange 
oil is official in the United States Phai'macopoefa 
as a flavoring agent. 

Grown extensively as a fruit tree in Puerto Rico, 
where it is one of the most important fruits and 
also a good honey plant. The trees are also orna- 
mental. Found throughout the island but chiefly 
in cofi'ee plantations in the lower Cordillera and 
moist limestone regions. Also in Mona, St. Croix, 
and St. Thomas, and probably othei-s of the Vir- 
gin Islands. Occasionally escaping from cultiva- 
tion or naturalized. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Toro 
Negro. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
5, 6, 8, 21, 32, 47, 61, 70, 73. 

Range. — Probably originally native of China, 
Vietnam, or other southeastern Asiatic regions 
but no longer known as truly wild. Widely culti- 
vated in tropical and subtropical regions, escaping, 
and becoming naturalized. Bermuda, throughout 
West Indies, and subtropical United States from 
Florida to California, south to Argentina. 

Other common names. — china dulce (Puerto 
Rico) ; naranja, naranja dulce (Spanish) ; naranja 
de China (Dominican Republic, Cuba, Nicara- 
gua) ; naranjo, naranjo comun, chino dulce (Vene- 
zuela) ; sweet orange, orange (United States, Eng- 
lish) ; orange douce (French) ; sinaasappels 
(Dutch AVest Indies). 

The scientifiic name and apparently also the 
Puerto Rican common name refer to the country 
of origin. Formerly known as Citrus aurantium 
L., a name now restricted to the sour orange. 



226 





100. China, sweet orange 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Citrus sinensis Osbeck 



227 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 



101. Aceitillo, yellow-sanders, yellowheart 



Zanthoxylum flavunt Vahl 



Formerly one of Puerto Rico's most valuable 
timbers, this now scarce tree is distin<ruished by: 
(1) the pinnate leaves with mostly 5-9 nearly 
stalkless elliptic leaflets rouiuled or short-pointed 
at a])ex and base, the edjres witliout teeth or very 
finely wavy, and with minute g'land dots; (2) 
trunk and twips not sjiiny as in related species; 
(.'5) small yellowish 5-parted spreading flowers i/i 
inch across; and (4) the dry fruits of 1 or 2 dark 
brown jjods i/i inch lonfr. 

A small to medium-sized deciduous tree 20-50 
feet high and S-lfi inches in trnnk diameter or a 
shi'ub. Tlie bark is smoothish, slightly fissured, 
light gray, and thin. Inner bark yellowish, with 
citrus spicy taste. The twigs are stout, gray, and 
finely gray hairy with minute star-shaped hairs 
when young. 

The leaves are alternate and 4-10 inches long. 
Leaflets are paired except for the end one, 1-;; 
inches long and V2-IV2 inches broad, tiiin, with 
minute star-shaped hairs when young but Ijecom- 
ing almost hairless, and slightly shiny gi-een at 
maturity. 

Tlie much branched flower clusters (panicles) 
are terminal and 2-5 inches long and broad. The 
many short-stalked fragrant flowers are male and 
female on difl'erent trees (dioecious). Sepals 5, 
minute, covered witli gray star-shaped haii"s, 
l^etals 5; male flowers with 5 stamens about as 
long as petals; and female flowers with pistil of 
mostly 2-lobed 2-celled ovary (or 1-3-celled) and 
mostly 2-lobed stigma. 

The fruits are of 1 or 2 stalked pods (follicles), 
splitting open and containing 1 nearly round shiny 
black .seed Vg i»ch long. Flowering mainly with 
the new leaves or from winter to summer and with 
fi'uit from s]>ring to fall. 

The sapwood is whitish to light yellow, and the 
heartwood yellow to yellowish brown. The wood 
is very hard, heavy (specific gravity 0.9), strong, 
fine-grained, with clearly defined growth rings, 
and with odor of coconuts or oil. It has a satiny 
luster, takes a fine polish, and is resistant to attack 
l)y dry-wood termites. 

This beautiful decorative wood has been prized 
for cabinetmaking, fine furniture, paneling, inlaid 
work, veneer, and turnery. Other uses are backs 
of hand mirrors and hairbrushes. Wood figured 
with wavy grain is converted into veneer for hand- 



.some furniture and paneling. It is reported that 
Puerto Rico formerly produced the finest West 
Indian satinwood, both in quality and color, but 
exjiorts ceased with exiiaustion of the supply. 
Logs of figured wood commanded very high prices 
by the cubic foot or by weight. Even the stumps 
and roots were removed and shipped from Puerto 
Rico as late as 1920. 

This species can be planted for shade as well as 
its fine wood. It is also a honey i)lant, the flowers 
attracting bees. 

Protected forests in the serpentine and dry and 
moist limestone regions of westei'n Puerto Rico, 
now rare. Planted experimentally in the Guaja- 
taca Foi-est, this species is proving slow growing. 
Trees 15 years old are scarcely 3 inches in diam- 
eter. Reported many years ago from Bordeaux 
Hills, St. John, and possibly now extinct there. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Gua- 
nica, Maricao. 

Ranoe. — ]>ower Florida Keys (nearly extinct), 
Bermuda, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, 
Puerto Rico, and Lesser Antilles from Anguilla to 
St. Lucia. Also recorded from Bonaire. 

Other common names. — espinillo (Dominican 
Republic) ; aceitillo (Cuba) ; yellowheart, satin- 
wood, yellowheart prickly-ash, yellow wood (Unit- 
ed States) ; West Indian satinwood, satinwood 
(English, commerce) ; Jamaican satinwood, yel- 
low-sanders (Jamaica) ; noyer, bois noyer (Gua- 
deloupe) ; kalabarie (Bonaire). 

Botanical synonym. — Fagara flava (Vahl) 
Krug & LTrban. 

This genus, whose name frequently is spelled 
Xanthoxylnm, has 2 additional native tree spex^ies 
and 2 of shrubs besides the 3 figured here. An- 
other species of espino rubial {Zanthoxylum cari- 
haeum Lam.; synonym Fagara caribaea (Lam.) 
Krug & Urban) in southern and westei-n Puerto 
Rico has pinnate leaves with 7-13 elliptic leaflets 
rounded at apex and with wavy-toothed margins. 

Alfiler {Zanthoxylum panctatum Vahl; syno- 
nym Fagara trifoliata Sw.) , a spiny shrub or small 
tree of southwestern Puerto Rico, Mona, and St. 
Croix, has pinnate leaves with obovate or elliptic 
leaflets, usually 3 or sometimes as many as 7 or 
even 19, with variable apex, and relatively few 
small S-jjarted flowers in lateral clusters. 



228 





101. Aceitillo, yellow-sanders, yellowheaxt 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Zanthoxylum flavum Vahl 



229 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 

102. Espino rubial, white-prickle, Martinique prickly-ash 

Zanthoxylum martinicense (Lam.) DC. 



This medium-sized tree is characterized by: 
(1) tlie very stout conical spines V^-l incli lon<j 
and broad on the smoothish liglit gmy trunk and 
usually smaller spines on the twigs; (2) the pin- 
nate leaves with 7-19 stalkless oblong to lance- 
shaped leaflets H/2-5 inches long and V2-'^V2 inches 
broad, very finely wavy margined, and with mi- 
nute glancl dots; (3) many small greenish-white 
5-parted flowers %(i inch long and broad; and 
(4) the dry fruits, deeply 5-parted, i/^ inch long 
and s/ju inch broad, dark brown. 

An evergreen tree becoming 20-65 feet in 
height and 18 inches in trunk diameter, with thin 
spreading crown. The bark is smoothish, light 
gray, about i/i inch thick, with spines on larger 
trees becoming 2 inches long and broad. Inner 
bark brown, with citrus spicy taste and also 
slightly gritty. The twigs are gray, stout, brittle, 
minutely bristly hairy when young, usually spiny 
with many stout gray spines Vie-^ inch long. 

The alternate leaves are 6-12 inches long, the 
axes and midribs finely haii-y and often spiny. 
The leaflets are short-pointed to i-ounded at apex, 
slightly oblique at base, thin, upper surface gi-een 
and hairless, lower surface paler and minutely 
hairy on veins. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are terminal and lat- 
eral, much branched, 2-6 inches long and broad, 
beai-ing many almost stalkless flowei-s, male and 
female on different trees (dioecious). There are 5 
minute sepals; 5 spreading petals; in male flowers 
5 stamens longer than petals; and in female flowers 
a pistil with deeply 5-lobed 5-celled ovary and 
5-lobed stigma. The fruits are deeply 5-parted, 
each part (follicle) sjditting open and with 1 
nearly round shiny black seed Vs inch long. Flow- 
ering and fruiting from spring to fall. 

The sapwood is whitish, and the heartwood light 
yellow to light yellowish browni. The wood is of 
medium weight (specific gravity 0.46), hard, of 
medium to fine texture, with growth rings clearly 



defined, but without distinctive figure. It is very 
susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites and 
other insects and is not durable where exposed. 
The rate of air-seasoning is rapid, but the amount 
of degrade is considerable. Machining character- 
istics are as follows : planing, shaping, boring, and 
mortising are fair; turning and sancling are poor; 
and resistance to screw sjilitting is good. 

Because of the small size of the remaining trees, 
the wood is seldom used. It is suitable for boxes, 
crates, general carpentry, low-grade furniture, 
light construction, concrete forms, and similar 
uses. 

This species requires overhead light and grows 
i-apidly. In Trinidad it spreads naturally and 
vigorously in clearings. It has been grown for 
shade in Cuba and southern Florida, though the 
spines may be objectionable for this purpose. 
Also a honey plant. 

Widely distributed in the coastal, limestone, and 
lower mountain forest regions of Puei'to Rico. 
Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, 
and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio 
Abajo, Susiia, Toro Negro, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
14, 20, ;30, 40, 42, 47, 68, 69. 

Range. — Throughout West Indies from Cuba 
and Jamaica to Trinidad and Tobago. 

Other common names. — cenizo, espino, espin- 
osa, ayua (Puerto Rico); pino macho (Domini- 
can Republic) ; ayiia, ayua amarilla, bayua 
(Cuba) ; jjrickly-yellow, yellow Hercules (Jamai- 
ca) ; Martinique prickly-ash (English) ; Pepine 
gomniier (St. Lucia); Tepine (Dominica); 
le))inet (Trinidad) ; yellow-prickle (Tobago) ; 
bois pine (Haiti) ; lepine jaune, lepuni jaune, 
lepineux jaune (Guadeloupe, Martinique) ; yel- 
low-prickle (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Fagara martinicensis 
Lam. 



230 





102. Espino rubial, white-priekle, Martinique prickly-ash 

Two-thirds natural size. 



Zanthoxylum martinicense (Lam.) DC. 



687-921 0—64 16 



231 



RUE FAMILY (RUTACEAE) 



103. Palo rubio, yellow-prickle, yellow prickly-ash 

Zanthoxylum monophyllum (Lam.) P. Wilson 



An aromatic small tree or shrub, generally with 
spiny twigs and trunk, further characterized by : 
(1) short-stalked simple leaves with elliptic blades 
11/4-4 inches long and 1^-2 inches broad, or some- 
times larger, usually short-pointed at both ends, 
with numerous minute gland dots, slightly spicy 
when crushed; (2) many small whitish 5-parted 
flowers about %6 i^^h across in terminal or lateral 
branching clusters 1-2 inches long; and (3) 1-3 
rounded light green fruits %6 inch long from a 
flower, each splitting open to release 1 rounded 
shiny black seed. The simple leaves (or single 
leaflets) easily distinguish this from other species 
of the genus, which have pinnate leaves. 

A deciduous tree attaining 15-25 feet in height, 
or shrubby, with spreading crown. The gray to 
brown bark is snioothish with vertical fissures, 
often bearing many stout pyramidal spines i/^-% 
inch high and 1 incli or more in vertical length 
along the trunk. Inner bark is deep yellow, with 
a bitter spicy taste. The green twigs, becoming 
brown, frequently have scattered stout spines i/g 
inch or more in length. 

The alternate leaves have slender petioles y^-Vz 
inch long. Blades are slightly thickened, the edges 
sometimes slightly wavy, hairless, green and 
slightly shiny above and paler beneath. 

Branches of the flower cluster (panicle) often 
are minutely hairy when young. Flowers appar- 
ently are mostly male and female on different trees 
(dioecious) . Female flowers have 5 minute pointed 
sepals, 5 narrow white petals less than i/g inch 
long, and pistil more than \\^ inch long with deep- 
ly 2- or 3-lobed, 2- or 3-celled ovary and 2 or 3 



styles. Male flowers have 5 stamens about as long 
as petals. From each female flower are formed 
1-3 rounded podlike fruits (follicles) longer than 
broad, each covered with tiny gland dots and 
1-seeded. 

The sapwood is light yellow and the heartwood 
dark brown. The wood is very hard, heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 0.76), tough, fine-textured, and has 
growth rings. It takes a good polish but is sel- 
doni used because of the small size of the trees. 

Distributed chiefly in western Puerto Rico in 
the coastal and limestone forest regions. Also in 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. 

Public forests. — Guanica, Susiia. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
12, 36, 38. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, and Lesser Antilles from Montserrat to 
St. Lucia and Barbados and in Trinidad, Bonaire, 
and Curasao. Also in Venezuela, Colombia, and 
Costa Rica. 

Other common names. — enrubio, espino, mapu- 
rito, espino rubial, espino bianco, carubio, rubia 
(Puerto Rico) ; yellow-prickly (Virgin Islands) ; 
pino macho (Dominican Republic) ; lagarto, la- 
garto negro, lagarto amarillo (Costa Rica) ; bosu, 
bosiia, concha de paneque, paneque (Venezuela) ; 
yellow prickly-ash (English) ; yellow harklis 
(Barbados); lepuni jaune, lepine jaune, bois 
noyer (Guadeloupe, Martinique) ; bossoea, kau- 
baati (Dutch West Indies). 

Botanical synonym. — Fagara monophylJa 
Lam. 



232 




103. Palo rubio, yellow-prickle, yellow prlckly-ash 



Natural size. 



Zanthoxplum monophyllum (Lam.) P. Wilson 

233 



AILANTHUS FAMILY (SIMAROUBACEAE) 
104. Guarema, bitterbush Picramnia pentandra Sw. 



A small slender tree or shnib characterized by : 
(1) the showy or ornamental red or scarlet fruits 
%-% in*^'b long, in grapelike terminal clusters, 
turning to black; (2) leaves with 5-9 elliptic to 
ovate, mostly long-pointed leaflets liA-5 inches 
long and 1-2 inches broad; (3) minute green and 
reddish-tinged 5-parted flowers % inch long and 
broad; and (4) the leaves, gray twigs, bark, fruits, 
and seeds very bitter. 

An evergreen ti-ee or shrub to 20 feet high and 
4 inches in trunk diameter. Bark on small trunks 
is gray and smooth. The inner bark is brown and 
bitter. Young twigs, vei-y young leaves, and 
flower stalks are covered with minute grayish 
pressed hairs. 

The alternate leaves are 5-12 inches long, the 
axis green or reddish tinged. The leaflets have 
short stalks y^ inch long and are short-pointed or 
sometimes oblique at base, not toothed at edges, 
slightly thickened, almost hairless at maturity, 
slightly shiny green on upper surface and some- 
what paler beneath. 

Male and female flowers are on different trees 
(dioecious) in branched terminal clusters (pani- 
cles) 3-7 inches long. The flowers have 5 narrow 
sepals and 5 narrow petals about Vie inch long. 
Male flowers have 5 stamens, and female flowers 
a pistil with 2- or 3-celled ovary and 2 or 3 stigmas. 



Berrylike fruits, borne on slender red stalks, are 
round to elliptic, %-% inch long, somewhat juicy 
inside, with 1-3 shiny brown seeds \i-% inch long. 
Flowers and fruits produced nearly through the 
year. 

The whitisli, hard, heavy wood is little used in 
Puerto Kico, because the trees are too small. 

The leaves and bark have been employed medic- 
inally in Cuba against fevers. In southern 
Florida and Cuba the small trees have been grown 
as hardy ornamentals. A honey plant. 

In secondary forests in the coastal and limestone 
regions of Puerto Eico. Also in Tortola and re- 
ported from St. Thomas. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guanica, Rio 
Abajo. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica ( ? ) , Hispaniola, 
Puerto Rico and Tortola, St. Martin, St. Barthe- 
lemy, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dom- 
inica, Martinique, St. Lucia, and Tobago. Also in 
Colombia and Venezuela. 

Other common names. — hueso (Puerto Rico) ; 
aguedita, palo de peje, palo de pez (Dominican 
Republic) ; aguedita, roble agalla, quina del pais 
(Cuba) ; bitterbush, Florida bitterbush (United 
States) ; doctor-bar (Tobago) ; bois poison, vail- 
lant gar^on (Haiti) ; bois poison, bois montagne 
(Guadeloupe) ; wild-coffee (Dutch West Indies). 



234 




104. Guarema, bitterbush 



Natural size. 



Picramnia pentandra Sw. 



235 



BURSERA FAMILY (BURSERACEAE) 



105-107) 
-105. Bursera simaruha. 



Key to the 3 native species, all illustrated (Nos. 
A. Leaflets asymmetrical at base, less than 3 inches long ; flowers 5-parted- 
AA. Leaflets symmetrical at base, '2V>-7 inches long. 

B. Leaflets short-pointed or rounded at both ends : flowers 3-parted — 106. Dacryodes excelsa. 
BB. Leaflets long-pointed at apex, short-pointed at base; flowers 4-parted — 107. Tetragastris balsamifera. 



105. Almacigo, turpentine-tree, gumbo-limbo 

Tliis spreadiiifj; aromatic tree is easily recog- 
nized by the siiiooth reddish-brown or copper- 
colored bark, which peels oft' in papery flakes and 
exposes the greenish-brown layer beneath. Other 
distinguishing characteristics are: (1) a grayish 
resin witli taste like turpentine which exudes from 
cuts in the bark; (2) tlie slightly pungent or tur- 
pentine odor of crushed leaves and fruits and cut 
twigs; (3) the pinnate leaves with 5 or 7 (some- 
times 3) oblong to ovate leaflets ly^-^ inches long, 
abruptly short-pointed at apex and broad and 
oblique at base, and (-1) the many small whitish or 
yellowish-green 5-parted flowers about %6 u^^h 
across. 

A medium-sized deciduous tree 20-40 feet high 
with relatively thick trunk 1-2 feet or more in di- 
ameter, large spreading crooked branches, and thin 
foliage. The bark is about V2 inch thick, tlie inner 
bark whitish or reddish, soft, and almost tasteless. 
Twigs are brownish green, becoming light brown. 

Leaves are alternate and 4—8 inches long. The 
leaflets are paired except for the end one, short- 
stalked, oblong to ovate, %-li/^ inches broad, 
slightly thickened, edges not toothed, mostly hair- 
less, green or dark green and slightly shiny above, 
and paler beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are terminal and lat- 
eral, branched and narrow, and 2-6 inches long. 
The flowers on slender, usually short stalks are 
mostly male and female on different trees or 
some flowers bisexual (polygamous). Calyx is 
5-toothed; petals 5; stamens 10; and pistil with 
3-celled ovary, short style, and 3-lobed stigma. 

The fruits (drupelike) are diamond-shaped, 
slightly 3-angled, pointed at both ends, about 1/2 
inch long and s/ig "^ch broad, dark pink, splitting 
into 3 parts, with usually one 3-angled whitish seed 
% inch long. Flowers and fruits appearing usual- 
ly in spring before or with the new leaves, some- 
times in summer. 

Both sapwood and heartwood are a imiform 
cream to light brown color, though turning bluish 
gray because of sap-staining. The wood is light- 
weight (specific gravity 0.29), fine-textured, soft, 
weak, with strong odor, the growth rings absent 
or indistinct. It is very susceptible to attack by 
dry-wood termites and other insects and is very 
perishable. Sap stain develops in freshly cut logs 
unless milled immediately and the lumber is 
dipped in an antistain solution before piling. Rate 
of air-seasoning is rapid, and amount of degrade is 
minor. Machining characteristics are as follows: 
planing and sanding are good ; shaping, turning, 

236 



Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. 

and mortising are very poor; boring is poor; and 
resistance to screw splitting is excellent. 

The wood is suited for boxes, crates, cement 
forms, interior carpentiy, light construction, fire- 
wood, and charcoal. Other products made else- 
where are matches, match boxes, toothpicks, and 
utility plywood. 

The aromatic resin known as Chibou, Cacliibou 
resin, or Gomart resin, has been employed in do- 
mestic medicines and as glue, varnish, coating for 
canoes, and incense. A tea substitute has been pre- 
pared from the leaves. 

The trees are used in Puerto Eico chiefly for liv- 
ing fenceposts, being easily propagated from cut- 
tings and posts. They are also planted along road- 
sides and in hedges and can serve also as living 
telegraph poles. Because of the attractive colored 
bark, the trees have been planted as ornamentals 
in dry soils of southern Florida, where they are 
also native. 

Xative to the soils derived from limestone in 
Puerto Rico but seen as a fence row and roadside 
tree in the coastal and lower mountain regions. 
Also in Mona, Desecheo, Icacos, Culebra, Vieques, 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. A 
few trees of this species in the thorn scrub at the 
eastern end of St. Croix are the easternmost trees 
in United States territory. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Cambalache, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susua, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 32, 36, 38, 
44,54,55,61,66,68,75. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys and almost tliroughout West Indies from 
Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and 
Curasao and Aruba. Also from Mexico to Colom- 
bia, Venezuela, and British Guiana. 

Other common names. — West-Indian-birch, 
gommier (Virgin Islands) ; almacigo (Spanish, 
commerce) ; indio desnudo (Spanish) ; almacigo 
bianco, almacigo Colorado (Dominican Republic) ; 
almacigo. almacigo Colorado (Cuba) ; mulato, palo 
mulato, chaca, palo retinto (Mexico) ; jiote, palo 
jiote (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salva- 
dor) ; chino, chinacahuite, palo chino, chaca, chic- 
chica, palo pulato (Guatemala) ; chinacuite, jene- 
quite, chino, palo chino, copon, palo mulato, torch- 
wood (Honduras) ; jinocuabo, jiiiicuite (Nica- 
ragua) ; jiiiote, carana, jiiiocuavo (Costa Rica) ; 
almacigo, carate (Panama) ; almacigo, caratero, 
guacimo, resbalo mono (Colombia) ; jobo pelon, 
carana, pellejo de indio, mara, cucheme, palo de 




105. Almficigo, turpentine-tree, gumbo-limbo 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Buraera simaruba (L.) Saxg. 



237 



incienso (Venezuela) ; giimbo-limbo (United 
States, commerce) ; gum-elemi, West-Indian-birch 
(United States) ; gmntree (Baliamas) ; red-bircli, 
West-Indian-birch, turpentine-tree, incense-tree, 
mastic-tree (Jamaica) ; gommier maudit (St. 
Lucia) ; gomme mombin (Grenada) ; birch-gum 
(Barbados); turpentine-tree (Grenadines); peel- 
ing-bark gommier, naked-Indian, Indien nue, dry- 
land gommier (Trinidad) ; naked-boy (Tobago) ; 
birch, red gombo-limbo, hukup, chaca, palo chine, 
palo jiote (British Honduras) ; chioue, gommier 



blanc (Haiti) ; gommier rouge (Guadeloupe, Mar- 
tinque) ; gommier, gommier barriere (Guade- 
loupe) ; paaloe sieja doesji, paaloe sieja maatsjoe, 
sieja blanko, gumtree, balsam-tree (Dutch West 
Indies). 

Botanical synonyms. — Bursera gummifera L., 
B. ovaUfoJla (Schlecht.) Engler, Elaphrivm 
sinmniha (L.) Kose. 

Tlie English name gumbo-limbo is a corniption 
of the Spanish name goma elemi meaning gum 
resin. 



BURSERA FAMILY (BURSERACEAE) 



106. Tabonuco 



Usually a very large erect tree, rising above the 
forest canopy and distinguished at a distance on 
the mountainsides by its size and dark green foli- 
age. Tabonuco is further recognized bj' : (1) the 
smooth whitish bark, peeling oif in thick flakes and 
exuding streaks of fragrant whitish resin from 
cuts; (2) the pinnate leaves with 5-7 elliptic leaf- 
lets 21/0-5 inches long and IVi-S inches broad, pro- 
ducing characteristic fragrance when crushed ; and 
(3) oblong fleshy brown fruits 1 inch long and V2 
inch broad. Because of its abundance, size, and 
good form, this was one of the most valuable trees 
of Puerto Kico's original mountain forests. 

Tabonuco reaches 100 feet or more in height, is 
evergreen, and has an elongated crown. Britton 
and Wilson in their flora called it "the most ma- 
jestic tree" of Puerto Eico. The trunk becomes 
3-5 feet or more in diameter and is slightly en- 
larged at the base, sometimes with short broad 
buttresses giving the appearance of an elephant's 
foot. The bark is thin (about I/4 inch thick) and 
reddish brown on rapid-gi'owing young trees. The 
resin, which is an amber liquid when fresh and be- 
comes white and hard after exposure to the air, 
is inflammable. The inner bark is brown, gritty, 
and has a turpentine taste. Twigs are brown and 
slightly warty. 

Leaves are alternate and 6-10 inches long. The 
short-stalked leaflets, paired except for the end 
one, ai-e elliptic, short-pointed or rounded at apex 
and base, not toothed on edges, slightly thickened, 
hairless, dark green on upper surface, and green 
beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are lateral and much 
branched, 3-8 inches long. The small greenish 
flowers about %6 inch across are male and female 
on different trees (dioecious). Calyx is cup- 
shaped, 3-toothed ; petals 3, less than Vs inch long, 
spreading; stamens 6, short, inserted at base of 
thick disk ; and pistil of female flowers with ovary, 
short style, and stigma. 

The fruit (drupe) resembles an olive and is 1- 
seeded. Flowering and fruiting nearly through 

238 



Dacryodes excelsa Vahl 

the year, but most fruits produced from July to 
October. 

The narrow sapwood is grayish, and the heart- 
wood uniform brown with pinkish cast when first 
cut, turning pinkish brown when seasoned and 
later lustrous brown when exposed. The wood 
is moderately heavy (specific gi-avity 0.53), mod- 
erately hard, tough, and strong, of fine to medium 
uniform texture, with roey and interlocked gi-ain 
and ripple marks, lacking growth rings, and with 
high luster. It is very susceptible to attack by 
dry-wood termites and is only slightly resistant 
to decay. Rate of air-seasoning is rapid, and 
amount of degrade is minor. Machining charac- 
teristics are as follows: planing, shaping, mor- 
tising, sanding, and resistance to screw splitting 
are good ; and turning and boring are fair. The 
wood cuts and saws easily but rapidly dulls saws 
and other tools. It stains well, finishes beauti- 
fully with varnish or lacquer, and resembles 
mahogany. 

Tabonuco has been utilized in Puerto Rico more 
because of its availability in quantity and in large 
sizes than because of its wood quality. It is ex- 
tensively used as a substitute for mahogany in 
furniture. Besides all types of furniture, it serves 
for cabinetwork, interior trim, general construc- 
tion, carpentrj', and vehicle and truck bodies. 
Elsewhere it is made into crates, boxes, shingles, 
and small boats. The wood should be suitable also 
for soft-drink cases, fruit and vegetable con- 
tainei-s, and decorative veneer. The Caribs of 
Dominica still hollow the trunks into dugout 
canoes, one of which was found washed on the 
eastern shore of Mona Island in 1953. The resin 
was formerly widely employed for torches, as in- 
cense in religious ceremonies, to calk boats, and for 
medicinal purposes. 

Because of the limitations of the wood, the dif- 
ficulty of successfully transplanting seedlings 
bare-rooted, and the mediocre growth rate of 
forest trees, efforts by the government to increase 
tabonuco artificially in the public forests have 
been abandoned. On the other hand, young trees 




106. Tabonuco 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Dacryodes excelsa Vahl 

239 



which appear naturally within the public forests 
in some places are beinfj protected and cared for. 

Formerly distributed widely in the lower Lu- 
quillo and lower Cordillera forests, where it was 
the dominant tree. Because this species does not 
readily reinvade open or cutover areas, it has dis- 
aitjieared from all but the least disturbed forests. 
Now chiefly limited to the i-emaining virgin or 
protected rain forest of the lower slopes of the 
Luquillo Mountains but also remaining in several 
smaller isolated areas in the lower Cordillera. 

Pi'BLiG FORESTS. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Tore Negro. 



Municipalities where especially common. — 
10, 27, 52, 58, 64, 70. 

Range. — Puerto Rico and Lesser Antilles from 
St. Kitts to Grenada. 

Other common names. — gommier blanc (Do- 
minica) ; candlewood (English) ; gommier (com- 
merce, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Grenada) ; 
grommier blanc, gommier montagne, bois cochon 
(Guadeloupe, Martinique) ; gommier, gommier a 
canot (Guadeloupe). 

BoT.vNicAL synonyms. — DocTyodes hexandra 
(Hamilt.) Griseb., PachyJoius hexandrus 
(Hamilt.) Engler. 



107. Masa 



BURSERA FAMILY (BURSERACEAE) 

Tetragastris balsamifera (Sw.) Kuntze 



This large tree is characterized by : (1) pinnate 
leaves with 5-9 (commonly 7) lanceolate to ellip- 
tic, abruptly short-pointed, dark green leaflets .'5-7 
inches long, in pairs except for end one, long- 
pointed at apex, short-pointed and symmetrical at 
the base, fragrant when crushed, and with promi- 
nent translucent venation; (2) several to many 
small, 4-lobed, whitish and greenish flowers about 
%Q inch long are borne in tei'minal and lateral 
clusters: and (3) rounded fruits %-l inch in di- 
ameter in grapelike clusters. 

An evergi-een tree attaining 50-80 feet in height 
and l-iyo fpet in trunk diameter. Bark smooth- 
ish, slightly fissured or flaky, and gray, the inner 
bark brown and bitter. Twigs stout, gray brown, 
finely hairy when young. 

The alternate leaves are 7-18 inches long. The 
leaflets have stalks Vi inch long (end one to 1 inch) 
and blades 3-7 inches long and li/i-2% inches 
broad, not toothed on edges, .slightly thickened, 
dark green and slightly shiny above, paler and 
with raised veins beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are terminal and lat- 
eral, branched, 2-7 inches long. The slightly fra- 
grant small flowers are male and female on differ- 
ent trees or some flowers containing both sexes 
(polygamous). Calyx is 4-lobed, greenish; co- 
rolla 4-lobed, whitish, brown tinged, the lobes not 
spreading; stamens 8; and pistil with 4-celled 
ovary, short style, and 4-lobed stigma. Fruits 
(drupes) are 2-4-celled, with 2 seeds in each cell. 
Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. 

The sapwood is whitish, becoming yellowish 
brown, while the heartwood is light reddish brown, 
becoming orange brown with darker streaks. The 
wood is heavy (specific gravity 0.63), hard, tough, 
strong, of uniformly fine texture, of irregular to 



very roey grain, with indistinct growth layers, 
and fragrant. Rate of air-seasoning is rapid, and 
amount of degrade is minoi'. Machining charac- 
teristics are as follows: planing and resistance to 
screw splitting are fair; shaping, turning, boring, 
and sanding are good ; and mortising is excellent. 
The wood is susceptible to attack by dry-wood ter- 
mites but generally durable to very durable in con- 
tact with the ground. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is used for furniture, 
cabinetwork, paneling, interior construction, and 
oai-s. It is .suitable also for millwork, light and 
heavy construction, and flooring. Now it is not 
sufficiently common in large sizes to be an impor- 
tant timber locally. However, the species regen- 
erates readily in the forest, gi'ows rapidly, and is 
of good form, and therefore may become import- 
ant. 

Found in little-disturbed forest in the lower 
mountain, moist limestone, and moist and dry 
coastal regions of Puerto Rico. Also St. Croix. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, Luquillo, Maricao, Eio Abajo, 
Susua, Toro Negro. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
14, 30, 49, 60. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, St. Croix, 
and Guadeloupe. Reported from Cuba, probably 
in error. 

Other common names. — palo de aceite (Puerto 
Rico) ; abey, amacey, abey hembra (Dominican Re- 
public) ; bois cochon (Haiti) ; gommier, gommier 
encens (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical synonyms. — Hedwigia balsamifera 
Sw., Tetragastris balsamifera var. lanceifolia 
Swart. 



240 





107. Masa 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Tetragastris balsamifera (Sw.) Kuntze 



241 



MAHOGANY FAMILY (MELIACEAE) 



Key to the 7 species illustrated (Nos. lOS-114) 
A. Leaves bipinnate, leaflets with toothed margins — 110. McUa azedaracft.* 
AA. Leaves pinnate ; leaflets not toothed. 

B. Leaflets all paired (even pinnate), a.symmetrlcal. 
C. Leaflets mostly many, 10 or more. 

D. Leaflets 10-16 (sometimes 30), veins not sunken; flowers and fruit 5-parted — 108. Cedrela odorata. 
DD. Leaflets 8-20, veins sunken ; flowers and fruit -l-parted — 109. Guarea trichilioides. 

CC. Leaflets 4-12. 

E. Leaflets 2%-6 inches long — 111. Swietenia macrophyUa* 
EE. Leaflets 1-2V2 inches long — 112. Swietenia mahagoni* 

BB. Leaflets of odd number (odd pinnate). 

F. Leaflets 7-21, symmetrical, about equal in size, veins slightly sunken — 113. Trichilia hirta. 
FF. Leaflets 3 or .% (.sometimes 7), asymmetrical, the end leaflet largest and lowest leaflets smallest; veins 
much sunken, causing a wrinkled appearance — 114. Trichilia pallida. 



108. Cedro hembra, Spanish-cedar 

This native tree with valuable aromatic wood is 
distinjTuished by : (1) the alternate, long, even pin- 
nate leaves 1-2 feet or more in lenfjth with 10-22 
paired lance-shaped, oblonjj, or ovate leaflets long- 
pointed at apex and oblique at the rounded or 
short-pointed base; (2) many narrow yellow-gi-een 
flowers i/i-% inch long, appearing tubular but 
with 5 narrow petals, in long loose spreading ter- 
minal clusters; (3) brown elliptic seed capsules 
about 1-13/4 inches long and % inch in diameter, 
splitting widely into 5 parts and releasing many 
long-winged seeds; and (4) the odor of garlic in 
flowens, crushed leaves, and cut twigs, and garlic 
taste in twigs and bark. 

A large deciduous tree 40-100 feet high and 1-3 
feet in trunk diameter, sometimes with slight but- 
tres.ses at base, and with large rounded or tall 
crown. The gray or brown bark is thick, becom- 
ing rougli and furrowed. Inner bark is light 
brown to pinkish with bitter taste of garlic. The 
stout gray-brown twigs have raised jjrown dots 
(lenticels) and large prominent rounded leaf scars. 

The leaves have a greenish-brown roimd axis 
bearing the leaflets on slender stalks Vs-% inch 
long. Leaflet blades are 2-6 inches long and 1-21^ 
inches wide, slightly curved, not toothed on edges, 
thin, hairless, green and slightly shiny on upper 
surface and dull green beneath. The lateral veins, 
which often are slightly sunken in upper surface, 
commonly are nearly parallel with midrib for a 
minute distance at base before forking at a wide 
angle. 

The flower clusters (panicles) 6-16 inches long 
bear many flowers on slender, usually hairless 
branches. Flowers have a calyx more than 14 g inch 
long in form of cup, irregularly toothed and split 
on 1 side, hairless; yellow-green corolla about 
5/1 6 inch long, appearing tubular but with 5 narrow 
oblong petals, minutely hairy on outside, united to 
the disk like a tube; 5 stamens with filaments at- 
tached on the narrow columnar disk, shorter than 
petals; and also on the disk the pistil i/g inch long 
including 5-celled ovary, style, and rounded 
stigma. 

242 



Cedrela odorata L. 

The woody seed capsule is rounded at both ends. 
It has a central 5-angled axis with broad apex, to 
which are attached many long-winged seeds % 
inch long, about 18,000 per pound. Flowering 
from June to August, the fruits maturing and 
remaining on the tree in fall and winter. 

Sa]iwood is whitish to light brown, the heart- 
wood light brown to reddish brown with promi- 
nent growth rings (semi-ring-porous). The wood 
resembles mahogany (caoba) but has the charac- 
teristic fragrant odor of S])anish-cedar (cedro) 
and a bitter taste. It is soft, lightweight (specific 
gravity 0.45), strong, easily worked, and takes a 
smooth polisli. It is durable, resistant to dry-wood 
termites, and not attacked by other insects. Rate 
of air-seasoning is rapid, and amount of degrade 
is minor. Machining characteristics are as fol- 
lows : planing, shaping, mortising, and sanding ai-e 
good ; turning is fair ; and boring is poor. 

Spanish-cedar or cedro (Cedrela) including 7 
or more species with similar woods is widely dis- 
tributed in the New World from West Indies and 
Mexico south to Argentina (except Chile). It is 
the most important timber for local use in tropical 
America, the lumber being used extensively for 
general construction, carpentry, and suitable for 
many other purposes. This fine cabinet wood is 
preferred for furniture, cabinetmaking, carpentry, 
doors and windows, interior trim, shelves, canned 
figures, etc. Being resistant to insects and aro- 
matic, the wood is a favorite for chests and ward- 
robes. Elsewhere it is used also for veneer, ply- 
wood, and boat parts. In the past, quantities were 
exported to the United States and other countries 
for cigarboxes, but now little is used for this pur- 
pose. Indians made dugout canoes from the 
trunks and paddles from the wood. The astringent 
bark has been employed in home remedies. 

This and related species are commonly grown 
in tropical America as handsome shade trees along 
streets and highways, in parks, and pastures, and 
in plantations of coffee and cacao. Also a honey 
plant. 

Because of the valuable wood the native trees of 
this species have been reduced to scattered remote 




108. Cedro hembra, Spanish-cedar 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Cedrela odorata L. 
243 



areas in Puerto Rico, chiefly in the moist limestone 
and lower Cordillera forest recjions. In the Cor- 
dillera restricted chiefly to steep rocky areas with 
soils in the Mucara (rroiip or in associated well- 
drained rocky soils. In a few experiments the 
native seed has not produced promising forest 
plantations. 

Seed from continental America formerly re- 
jrarded as a distinct species, cedro espahol 
or Mexican-cedar {Cedrela mfxicana M. J. 
Roem.), has also been tested in Puerto Rico. 
Thoufjh widely planted in the public forests for 
timber, most of the trees became chlorotic and died 
for reasons not understood. Nevertheless, a few 
trees grew very rapidly. The handsome shade trees 
commonly seen alonf? roadsides are from imported 
seed. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guajataca, Guilarte, 
IMaricao, Rio Abajo, Toro Neja'c 

Range. — Widely distributed in wet forests of 
low elevations in tropical America. Native ap- 
parently through West Indies in Greater Antilles 
and Lesser Antilles to Trinidad and Tobago, the 
range spread by cultivation. Also native in con- 
tinental tropical America from Mexico (Sinaloa 
and San Luis Potosi .southward)" to Ecuador, 
Peru, Brazil, and Guianas. Introduced into 
southern Florida and the Old World. 



Other common names. — cedro, cedro oloroso, 
cedro del pais, cedro hembra del pais, cedro mexi- 
cano, cedro espahol (Puerto Rico) ; cedro (Span- 
ish, commerce); cedro hembra (Dominican Re- 
public, Cuba); cedro macho (Cuba); cedro 
Colorado, culche (Mexico) ; cedro real (El Salva- 
dor) ; cedro amargo, cedro bianco, cedro dulce, 
cedro Colorado, cobano (Costa Rica); cedro 
amargo (Panama) ; cedro bianco, cedro oloroso, 
cedro caoba, cedro clavel (Colombia) ; cedro 
amargo, cedro amarillo (Venezuela) ; cedro de 
Castilla (Ecuador); cedro Colorado (Peru); 
Spanish-cedar, West -Indies-cedar, Mexican-cedar, 
Central-American-cedar, South-American - cedar 
(English); cigarbox - cedar, cigarbox cedrela 
(United States) ; cedar, Jamaican-cedar, Hon- 
duras-cedar (Jamaica) ; redcedar, acajou (Domin- 
ica, Trinidad) ; cigarbox-cedar, cedar (Trinidad) ; 
redcedar (Tobago); cedar (British Honduras); 
redcedar, cedar, kurana (British Guiana) ; acajou 
rouge (French) ; cedre, cedre espagnol (Haiti) ; 
acajou amer, acajou senti, acajou a muebles, acajou 
]iays (Guadeloui>e) ; acajou (Dutch AVest Indies) ; 
leli (Curacao) ; ceder (Surinam) ; acaju, cedro 
vermelho ( Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Cedrela sintenisii C. 
DC, C. mcxicana M. J. Roem. 



MAHOGANY FAMILY (MELIACEAE) 



109. Guaraguao, American muskwood 

Large tree of moist forests distinguished by : 
(1) a dense crown of large, alternate, even pinnate 
leaves with 8-20 or more paired, elliptic to oblong, 
glossy, dark green leaflets, with sunken veins giv- 
ing a slightly corrugated appearance ; (2) the apex 
of the woody leaf axis continuing to grow like a 
stem and forming new leaflets at tlie tip after the 
other leaflets are mature; (3) many 4-parted 
greenish-white flowers %-% inch a^'ross; and (4) 
the reddish-brown seed capsules home in narrow 
grapelike clusters, nearly round, %-% inch in di- 
ameter but narrowed at base, covered with many 
raised dots (lenticels), and splitting into 4 parts, 
with 4 or fewer reddish seeds. 

An evergreen tree of the forest canopy 40-75 
feet tall, with straight clear trunk (forked low in 
open grown trees) 1-3 feet in diameter, a few 
larger, becoming fluted when large, and with a 
widely spreading crown. The bark is rough, with 
many longitudinal fissures, brown with a reddish 
tinge, thick ( % inch or more) . Inner bark is pink- 
ish and slightly bitter. T\vigs are brown and 
stout, with many raised dots (lenticels). 

The leaves are 8-24 inches long on stout round 
brown woody axes. The leaflets, borne on short 
stalks Vs inch long, are 5-7 inches long and ly^- 
21/2 inches broad, short-pointed at apex and base, 

244 



Guarea trichilioides L. 

edges not toothed, slightly thickened, dark green 
on upper surface and paler lieneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are borne laterally, 
branched but narrow, 4-12 inches long. The nu- 
merous fragrant short-stalked flowei-s are spread- 
ing and minutely hairy. The calyx is 4-lobed; 
there are 4 haiij petals i/4 inch long; white stamen 
tulje 14 inch high with 8 anthers inside top; and 
pistil 3/jg inch high on a disk with 4-celled ovary, 
style, and stigma. The seeds are %-V2 inch long. 
Flowers and fruit are produced over most of the 
year. 

The sap wood is whitish to brownish, and the 
veiy attractive heartwood pinkish to red, turning 
light reddi.sh brown. The wood is of medium 
weight or moderately heavy (specific gravity 
0.51), hard, strong, tough, medium-textured, 
straight-grained, somewhat brittle, and aromatic 
when green though odorless when seasoned. Rate 
of air-seasoning is slow, and amount of degrade 
is moderate. Machining characteristics are as fol- 
lows: planing, .shaping, turning, mortising, and 
resistance to screw splitting are good; boring is 
fair; and sanding is excellent. The wood is re- 
sistant to attack by diy-wood termites and is dur- 
able in the ground. 

This pretty wood makes fine furniture and cabi- 
nets, since it resembles mahogany and Spanish- 




109. Guaraguao, American muskwood 



Natural size. 



Ouarea trichilioides L. 



245 



cedar and takes a high polish. It is used also for 
construction, carpentry, implements, and cooper- 
age. 

Planted as a hardy small shade tree in southern 
Florida. Elsewhere the leaves and roots have 
served in home medicines. 

This species is one of the commonest trees of 
moist forests and cofl'ee plantations of Puerto Rico. 
It regenerates abundantly and withstands forest 
shade. Trees which come up in coffee plantations 
are sometimes left until they can be harvested for 
their wood, although the shade is generally con- 
sidered too dense for cofl'ee culture. Test planta- 
tions established by the government show this 
species to be slower in growth than broadleaf ma- 
hogany, so the latter has been substituted where 
adapted. The trees are suitable for shade as well 
as wood. 

Distributed throughout the lower mountain, 
moist limestone, and moist coastal regions of 
Puerto Rico. Also St. Croix. 

PrBLic FORESTS. — Canibalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Toro 
Negro, Vega. 

MuNICIPAIjITTES where ESPECIALLY COMMON. — 5, 

6, 7, 21, 40, 42, 43, 47, 50, 53, 61, 70, 73. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico 
and St. Croix. Also in Trinidad and from Costa 



Rica and Panama south to Argentina and Brazil. 
Introduced in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — cabinna santa, ca- 
birma, cedro macho (Dominican Republic) ; 
yamao, yamagua (Cuba) ; carbonero, mami (Costa 
Rica) ; cedro macho (Panama, Colombia) ; trom- 
pillo (Colombia, A'enezuela, Bolivia) ; bilibili, 
mestizo, trompeto, zambo cedro (Colombia) ; 
cedro dulce, ceclron, cabimbo, shuparai (Vene- 
zuela) ; fruta de loro (Ecuador) ; latapi, latapi- 
caspi, atapio, requia (Peru) ; cedrillo (Argen- 
tina) ; American muskwood (United States) ; red- 
wood (Trinidad) ; karaba-balli, buck vomit (Brit- 
ish Guiana) ; bois rouge (Haiti) ; bois pistolet 
(Guadeloupe, Martinique) ; bois bale (French 
Guiana) ; doifiesirie (Surinam) ; gito, cedrohy, 
atauba (Brazil). 

Botanical synontm. — Guarea guara (Jacq.) 
P. Wilson. 

Guaraguaillo {Guarea rnmifora Vent.), known 
also as guaraguao macho, is the other native 
species of this genus. It is a small tree, common 
and widely distributed in mountain forests only 
in Puerto Rico. The pinnate leaves 2-7 inches 
long have 2-6 long-pointed oblong leaflets 3-8 
inches long with prominent veins on both sides. 
The few flowers borne in lateral clusters are pink. 



MAHOGANY FAMILY (MELIACEAE) 



110. Alelaila, chinaberry 

This popular introduced tree, planted for its 
showy clusters of pale purplish 5-parted spreading 
flowers and for the shade of its dense, dark green 
foliage, is further characterized by : ( 1 ) leaves 
twice pinnate (bipinnate), composed of many thin 
lance-shaped to ovate leaflets 1-2 inches long, 
which are long-pointed and saw-toothed on the 
edges (or some lobed) and which has a character- 
istic bitter taste and pungent odor when crushed ; 
and (2) the clustei-s of nearly round, yellow poi- 
sonous fruits about % inch in diameter, conspicu- 
ous when the tree is leafless. 

A small to medium-sized deciduous tree becom- 
ing 20-50 feet tall and 1-2 feet in trunk diameter, 
with crowded, abruptly spreading branches form- 
ing a hemispherical or flattened crown. The bark 
is dark or reddish brown, becoming furrowed. 
Inner bark is whitish, slightly bitter and as- 
tringent. The twigs are green and hairless or 
nearly so. 

The leaves are alternate and 8-16 inches or more 
in length and may be in part three times pinnate 
(tripinnate). The numerous short-stalked leaflets 
are borne in pairs along the slender green branches 
of the leaf axis but single at the ends. These 
leaflets are %-% inch broad, with the base short- 
pointed and mostly 1-sided. They are thin, hair- 



lUelia azedarach L.* 



less or nearly so, and dark green on the upper sur- 
face and paler below. 

Branched flower clusters (panicles) 1-10 inches 
long are laterally attached and long-stalked. The 
numerous showy fragrant flowers on slender stalks 
are about % inch long and %-% inch across. 
There are 5 greenish sepals Vie inch long; 5 pale 
purplish or lilac-colored petals % inch long, nar- 
row, spreading and slightly turned back; usually 
10 stamens on a narrow violet tube %6 hich long; 
a pale green pistil s/ig inch long with disk at base, 
3-6-celled ovary, and long style. 

The fruits or berries (clrupes) are smooth but 
becoming a little shriveled, and slightly fleshy but 
with hard stone containing 5 or fewer narrow dark 
brown seeds %« inch long. These fruits are bitter 
and have poisonous or narcotic properties. Flow- 
ering throughout the year in Puerto Rico, and the 
old slightly wrinkled yellow fruits generally 
present. 

The sapwood is yellowish white, and heart wood 
light brown to reddish brown and attractively 
marked. The wood is moderately soft, weak and 
brittle, and very susceptible to attack by dry-wood 
tennites. In Puerto Rico the wood is used for 
fuel. Uses of the wood elsewhere include tool 
handles, cabinets, furniture, and cigarboxes. 



246 



\\/v 



\^^ 



v^ 



iJrj^ 



H^^ 




:^"^^\i\.f- 



a^- 



110. Alelaila, chinaberry 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Melia azedarach L. 



687-921 0—64 17 



247 



Extensively planted for ornament and shade. 
This attractive tree is easily propagated from seed 
and cuttinjrs, sprouts from stumps, and jrrows rap- 
idly. However, it is short-lived; and the brittle 
linibs are ea.sily broken by the wind. 

This species is poisonous and has insecticidal 
properties, the leaves and dried fruits having- been 
used to protect stored clothing and other articles 
apainst insects. Various parts of the tree, includ- 
ing fruits, flowers, leaves, bark, and roots, have 
been employed medicinally in different countries. 
The berries are toxic to animals and have caused 
deaths of pigs. An oil suitable for illumination 
Avas extracted experimentally from the berries. 
The hard, angular, bony centers of the fruits, 
when removed by boiling, are dyed and strung as 
beads. In parts of Asia this is a sacred tree. 

In Puerto Rico planted and locally naturalized 
in the coastal and lower mountain regions. Com- 
monly planted and escaping in the Virgin Islands. 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Jolm, and 
Tortola. 



Raxoe. — Native of southern Asia, probably 
from Iran and Himalaya to China, but culti- 
vated and naturalized in tropical and subtropical 
countries over the world. Bermuda and through- 
out AVest Indies. Also fi-om southern United 
States and Mexico south to Argentina and Brazil. 

Hardy also in warm temperate regions, this 
tropical species is naturalized in southeastern 
United States and grows north to Virginia and 
Oklalioma and west to California. 

Other cojimon names. — lilaila, pasilla (Puerto 
Rico) : lilac (Virgin Islands) ; paraiso (Spanish) ; 
alilaila, Hla, lilayo, violeta (Dominican Republic) ; 
jaeinto (Panama); aleli (Venezuela); flor de 
paraiso (Peru); chinaberry, chinatree, pride-of- 
Cliina, pride-of-India, umbrella chinabeiry, um- 
brella-tree (United States) ; hoop-tre«, West-In- 
dian-lilac, bead-tree (Jamaica) ; chinaberry, West- 
Indian-lilac (Trinidad) ; paradise-tree (British 
Honduras) ; lilas (Haiti) ; lilas, lilas du pays 
(Guadeloupe) ; lilas des Indes (French Guiana) ; 
aleli, anesita, lilac (Dutch West Indies); cinna- 
momo (Brazil). 



MAHOGANY FAMILY (MELIACEAE) 



111. Caoba hondurena, Honduras mahogany 

Mahogany, the world's premier cabinet wood 
and probably the most valuable timber tree in trop- 
ical America, was not. originally known from 
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but 2 species 
have been widely planted. Honduras mahogany 
is recognized by : (1) usually dense crown of shiny 
green leaves, which are even pinnate and 8-16 
inches long with 6-12 paired, unequal-sided leaf- 
lets 21/2-6 inches long; and (2) erect egg-shaped 
or pear-shaped seed capsules 4i/^-7 inches long and 
about .3 inches in diameter, splitting upward from 
the base into 5 parts. Leaves and fruits are much 
larger than in West Indies mahogany (Sivietenm 
mahagoni Jacq.). 

A medium-sized to large deciduous tree 60 feet 
or more in height with clear, straight, erect trunk 
to 2 feet or more in diameter, becoming buttressed 
at base. The bark is rough, deeply fissured into 
flat scales, light brown, and about H inch thick, 
the inner bark dark reddish and bitter. The stout 
brown twigs have many raised dots (lenticels). 

The alternate leaves have a .slender round yel- 
low-green axis ending in a narrow dead point, 
bearing leaflets on short stalks less than 14 inch 
long. Blades are I-214 inches wide, elliptic to ob- 
long, short-pointed at base and abruptly long- 
pointed at apex, noticeably broader on side toward 
axis, not toothed on edges, slightly thickened or 
leathery, green to dark green and slightly shiny 
on upper sui-f ace, and paler beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) 4-6 inches or more in 
length at base of new leaves bear many small, 

248 



Swietenia macrophylla King* 

short-stalked, fragrant, greenish-yellow flowers 
nearly i/o inch across. The light green calyx Yiq 
inch high is .5-toothed; there are 5 oblong, slightly 
concave, greenish-yellow petals 14 i"ch long, 
greenish-yellow stamen tube nearly I/4 i'l^^h long, 
bearing inside apex 10 tiny brown stamens between 
as many teeth; and pistil %6 ii^^l^ lo'^S ^ith 
orange-red basal disk, light green rounded 5- 
celled ovary, style, and bi-oad flattened stigma. A 
few flowers have parts in 4's. 

The seed capsules are borne on long stout stalks, 
thick-walled and heavy, and the large, 5-angled 
axis remains on the tree. The numerous flat, long- 
winged, brown seeds are 3-31/2 inches long and %-l 
inch broad, about 900 to the pound. Flowers 
liorne in May and June, and seeds produced gen- 
erally in the late fall. 

The thin sapwood 1-2 inches wide is yellowish 
white. The heartwood is pinkish when freshly 
cut, later becoming light reddish brown with a 
golden luster. The wood is moderately light- 
weight (specific gi-avity 0.5-0.6), strong, of medi- 
um to fine unifonii texture, with interlocked grain 
and attractive figure, and growth layers indistinct. 
It is one of the easiest woods to work and takes an 
excellent polish. Rate of air-seasoning is rapid, 
and amount of degrade very minor except when 
tension wood is present. Machining characteris- 
tics are as follows: sanding is excellent; planing, 
shaping, turning, boring, mortising, and resistance 
to screw splitting are good. The heartwood is 
resistant to decay and generally is resistant to at- 




111. Caoba hondurena, Honduras mahogany 



One-half natural size. 



Stcietenia macropliyUa King 



249 



tack by cll•y-^YOod termites, but the sapwood is 
very susceptible to decay and insects. From West 
Indies mahoijany the wood difi'ers in being more 
open-grained, ligliter in weiglit, and softer. 

This is one of the conunonest woods for furni- 
ture manufacture and cabinetmaking in Puerto 
Rico, being imported in large quantities from Mex- 
ico as rough lumber. Limited amounts of small 
logs come from local plantations also. Other uses 
mostly elsewhere include face veneer, interior 
trim, paneling, burial caskets, interiors of boats 
and ships, turning, musical instruments, molds, 
dies, and patternmaking. 

This sjjecies is now much more important com- 
mercially than West Indies mahogany, because of 
its more extensive range in Central and South 
America and its delayed utilization. British Hon- 
duras was established as a colony for the prized 
timbers of mahogany and logwood. Timber ex- 
jiorted from other tropical American countries is 
often designated by the country of origin, for 
example, Brazilian mahogany. 

With straight tall trunk and few branches, this 
is a handsome street and shade tree in tropical 
countries, also producing valuable timber. The 
bark is high in tannin content. Also reported to 
be a honey plant. 

Planted extensively in the public forests of 
Puerto Rico and as a shade tree in patios and 
along roadsides in Puerto Rico and St. Croix and 
perhaps others of the Virgin Islands. One of the 
most promising species for forestry on well- 
drained deep soils in the lower mountain and moist 
limestone regions of Puerto Rico. It withstands 
shade, grows rapidly, and produces a tree of good 
form. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Luquillo, Slaricao, Rio Abajo, 
Suslia, Toro Negi'o. 



Range. — Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, 
Tabasco, and Yucatan Peninsula southward), At- 
lantic slope of Central America from British Hon- 
duras to Panama, and in Colombia, Venezuela, and 
portions of upper Amazon region in Peru, Bolivia, 
and Brazil. Until about 1923 it was not known 
from the Amazon region, where a large supply of 
timber occurs in the virgin forests. Introduced 
into southern Florida, Puerto Rico and Virgin Is- 
lands, Cuba, Trinidad and Tobago, India, and 
other tropical areas. 

Other common names. — caoba de Honduras 
(Puerto Rico) ; broadleaf mahogany, bigleaf ma- 
hogany. Central American mahogany (Virgin 
Islands); caoba, caoba hondureiia (Spanish); 
chacalte (Guatemala) ; caoba americana (Colom- 
bia) ; aguano (Peru) ; mahogany, Honduras ma- 
hogany, British Honduras mahogany, Venezuelan 
mahogany, Peruvian mahogany, Brazilian ma- 
hogany (United States, English, commerce) ; 
acajou Amerique (French, commerce) ; mahogany 
Honduras ((xuadeloupe, Martinique); acajou du 
Honduras (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical synonyms. — Snuetenia ravdolUl 
Pittier (caoba venezolana, Venzuelan mahogany), 
S. helizensis Lundell, 8. knd-ovii Gleasoji & Pan- 
shin, S. feftsmannr/. Harms. 

What is believed to l)e a natural hybrid between 
this and the following species {tSirietenia macro- 
phylla X mahagoni) is found in St. Croix. Wliere 
trees of the 2 species have been planted together, 
some of the seedlings are intermediate in appear- 
ance. The intermediate is known locally as me- 
diumleaf mahogany because the leaflet width is be- 
tween that of the parent species. In preliminary 
experiments the plants grow rapidly and appar- 
ently show hybrid vigor. Also, the wood is of high 
quality like that of the second species. 



MAHOGANY FAMILY (MELIACEAE) 
112. Caoba dominicana, Dominican mahogany, West Indies mahogany 



West Indies mahogany is commonly planted in 
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands though not 
native. This first-discovered species of mahog- 
any, the world's premier cabinet wood, is easily 
recognized by: (1) its distinctive leaves, alternate 
and even pinnate, 4-7 inches long, bearing 4-10 
paired shiny green leaflets, ovate to lance-.shaped, 
I-214 inches long and 1/2"% inch broad, long- 
pointed and very conspicuously unequal-sided; 
and (2) the odd, egg-shaped or pear-shaped, dark 
brown erect seed capsules Si^-o^ inches long and 
11/4-2 inches in diameter, hard and thick-walled, 
splitting upward from the base into 5 parts and 
releasing many flat long-winged seeds. 

A medium-sized to large deciduous tree with 
maximum size 40-60 feet in height and 3-41/2 feet 

250 



Swietenia mahagoni Jacq.* 

in trunk diameter. The trunk is usually short and 
has swollen or buttressed base when large, and 
produces a spreading, much-branched crown. 
Bark on small trees is smoothish, slightly fissured, 
and gray, becoming dark reddish brown and scaly 
on large trunks. The inner bark is pink and bit- 
ter. Young twigs are pale red, becoming brown- 
ish gray with many raised dots (lenticels). 

Leaflets are borne along a slender yellow-green 
axis on slender stalks less than 14 inch long. 
These leaflets have the inner or upper edge 
rounded at base but edges not toothed, are slightly 
thickened or leathery, shiny green above and paler 
beneath, and have a reddish-brown midrib. 

The flower clusters (panicles) are lateral, 2-6 
inches long, and branched. Several to many small 





112. Caoba domlnicana, Dominican mahogany, West Indies mahogany 

Two-thirds natural size. 



Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. 



251 



greenish-yellow flowers, 5-parted, spreadintr, and 
14 inch across, are borne on short stalks. There 
are 5 minute sepals, 5 whitish or yellow spreading 
petals i/s ill'"!"' long, 10 stamens inside a short tube 
i/s inch long, and i)isti] on a disk and composed of 
a 5-celled ovary, style, and flattened stigma. 

The fruits are borne on long stalks, and the 
large 5-angled axis remains attached. The light 
brown seeds are about 2-214 inches long and V2 
inch broad, approximately 3,200 to a pound. 
Flowers are borne mainly from March to July 
in Puerto Rico, and mature fruits are present 
chiefly in the winter. 

The sapwood is whitish or yellowish. The 
heartwood is reddish, pinkish, or yellowish when 
freshly cut, gradually turning dark rich reddish 
brown. The wood "is moderately hard, heavy 
(specific gravity 0.7-0.8), and strong. It is very 
resistant to decay and to attack by dry- wood ter- 
mites. 

The wood is used chiefly for furniture, cabinet- 
making, interior finish, and veneers, being easily 
worked and taking a beautiful polish. It formerly 
was employed in shipbuilding, construction, and 
for beams.' Roots and stumps of large trees are 
especially prized for their irregular wavy grain. 
Considered superior in quality and durability to 
the wood of Honduras mahogany. The astringent 
bitter bark has been used in medicine. 

Planted as a street and shade tree because of the 
attractive spherical crown and dense shade. Often 
grown in southern Florida where also native. Re- 
ported to be a honey plant. 

The oldest surviving use of mahogany by Euro- 
pean colonists is said to be in the cathedral at 
Santo Domingo (Ciudad Trujillo), Dominican 
Republic, completed in 1550. It contains much 
carved mahogany woodwork still in fine condition 
after more than four centuries in (he tropics and 
a rough-hewn mahogany cross bearing the date 
1514, the year construction was begun. The Do- 
minican Re]3ublic has selected the mahogany 
flower for its national emblem. 



West Indies mahogany was introduced into 
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands more than 200 
years ago. Fine old trees recently cut near Gua- 
yama on the south coast of Puerto Rico ranged 
up to 52 inches in trunk diameter, one near Ponce 
measured 50 inches, and some in St. Croix are 
more than 50 inches. A number of small plantings 
were made by Dr. Agustin Stahl near Aguadilla, 
Toa Alta, and Manati about 50 years ago. More 
extensive forest plantations have been established 
on both public and private lands within the past 
25 years. This species has proven better adapted 
to dry rocky sites than Honduras mahogany. 
Trees 20 years old near San Gennan averaged 5 
inches in diameter and 35 feet in height. The 
alnmdance of young trees developing beneath and 
near the plantations may be partly responsible for 
the popular misconception that the tree is native. 
Planted also in Mona, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Gua- 
nica, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susiia. 

RAXGE.-Xative in southern Florida including 
Florida Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, and His- 
paniola. Introduced in Puerto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, Bermuda, throughout Lesser Antilles, 
Trinidad and Tobago, and Curagao, south to 
South America and elsewhere in tropical regions, 
and naturalized locally. 

Othee common names. — caoba, caoba de Santo 
Domingo (Puerto Rico, Spanish) ; small-leaf ma- 
hogany, mahogany (Virgin Islands) ; caobilla 
(Cuba); West Indies mahogany, West Indian 
mahogany, mahogany (United States, English, 
commerce); madiera (Bahamas); Spanish ma- 
hogany ( St. Vincent, Trinidad and Tobago) ; 
acajou (Haiti) ; mahogany petites feuilles 
(Guadeloupe, Martinique) ; mahogany, mahogany 
du pays, acajou de Saint Domingue (Guade- 
loupe) ; mahok (Dutch West Indies) ; mahoni 
(Surinam). 



MAHOGANY FAMILY (MELIACEAE) 



113. Tinacio, broomstick 

A small tree or shrub of dry areas character- 
ized by: (1) a rounded crown of dense foliage; 
(2) alternate ]iinnate leaves with 7-21 lance- 
shaped to elliptic leaflets slightly oblique at base 
with sunken veins above; (3) several to many 
small greenish-white or pale yellow, 5-parted 
flowers about 3/j,. inch long and broad in branching 
clusters at leaf bases; and (4) rounded greenish- 
brown seed capsules %-i/2 inch in diameter, finely 
hairy, splitting widely into 3 parts and exposing 
usually 3 orange-red seeds. 

Deciduous, 15-20 feet high with trunk 4-6 inches 
in diameter, elsewhere a tree to 50 feet in height. 



Trichilia hirta L. 



The brown or gray bark is rough, fissured and 
scaly or furrowed, and the whitish inner bark is 
bitter. The twigs are green and finely hairy when 
young, becoming brownish. 

Leaves are 6-12 inches or more in length, the 
slender round green axis bearing leaflets on short 
lateral stalks yi6-'4 i'lch long. Leaflet blades are 
I-414 inches long and V^-'^V-i inches wide, bluntly 
long- or short-pointed at apex, the side toward 
apex of axis broader at the rounded or short- 
pointed base, not toothed at edges, thin, above 
slightly shiny green to dark green, aiid beneath 
paler and often slightly hairy. 



252 





113. Tinacio, broomstick 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Trichilia hirta L. 



253 



Tlie narrow flower clusters (panicles) li^-''' 
inches lonjr are near ends of twijrs. the individual 
flower stalks about Vs i»fh lou?; and jointed below 
niidd'p. The sliffhtly fragrant cup-shaped to 
spreading flowers have a liffht jjreen minute 
5-l.»bed calyx less tlian Vu; inch lono;; 5 greenish- 
white or pale yellow oblonp; petals ^Aq inch long; 
10 stamens Vs i"ch long, witli white liairy filaments 
flattened and united toward base; and on a yellow 
disk the light green pistil more than 1/8 i"ch long 
including rounded liairy 3-celled ovary, style, and 
rounded stigma. The elliptic seeds are %6 inch 
long, with fleshy coats. Flowering and fruiting 
over most of the year. 

The sapwood is light brown and heartwood red- 
dish brown with darker veins. The wood is de- 
scribed as resembling cedro {Cedrelo) in color, 
moderately lightweight (specific gravity 0.5). 
Heartwood vei-y resistant and sapwood resistant to 
attack by dry-wood termites. 

Used ' chiefly for posts and fuel in Puerto 
Rico. Broom handles have been made from young 
stems. In Venezuela oars or paddles (canaletes) 
were made from the wood, which was recom- 
mended as suitable for interior finish, furniture, 
implements, and plywood. Planted for shade and 
ornament in southern Florida. Also a honey plant. 

Open forests in the limestone and coastal 
(chiefly dry coast) regions of Puerto Rico. Also 
in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. 



Public forests. — Cambalache, Guanica, Susua. 

Range. — Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, and Grenadines and 
Grenada. Also from Mexico and Tres Marias Is- 
lands to Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Venezuela. 
Introduced in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — cabo de hacha, guaita, 
retamo, palo de anastasio (Puerto Rico) ; broom- 
wood (Virgin Islands) ; jojoban (Dominican Re- 
public) ; jubabiin, cabo de hacha (Cuba) ; cabo de 
hacha, garbancillo, jumay, mapahuite (Mexico) ; 
mapahuite, trompillo, cedrillo, cedro Colorado 
(Guatemala) ; ceclro espiuo (Honduras) ; cola de 
pavo, jocotillo, cedrillo (El Salvador) ; mata piojo 
(Nicaragua); canalete, cazabito, cedrillo, trom- 
pillo, pan de trigo (A^enezuela) ; pata de vaca (Co- 
lombia) ; gajigua (Ecuador) ; redcedar (British 
Honduras) ; mombin batard (Haiti) ; carrapeta 
(Brazil). 

Botanical synonym. — Trichilia spondioides 
Jacq. 

Bariaco (Trichilia friacantha Urban), called 
also guayabacon, the third representative of this 
genus, is known only from the dry southwestern 
part of Puerto Rico. This shrub or small tree is 
easily recognized by the spiny tips of the leaflets. 
The pinnate leaves have 3-7 obovate or wedge- 
shaped leaflets 1/2-1^/4 inches long and %-% inch 
wide, broadest at the spiny 3-toothed apex. 



MAHOGANY FAMILY (MELLACEAE) 



114. Gaeta 



Trichilia pallida Sw. 



A small tree, recognized by: (1) the alternate 
pinnate leaves with 3 or 5 (or 7) elliptic leaflets 
having veins sunken and prominent beneath, caus- 
ing a wrinkled appearance, the end leaflet largest 
and others paired and smaller toward base; (2) 
the few 4-])arted spreading greenish-white flowei-s 
almost 1/^ inch across; and (3) the nearly round 
seed capsules %-i/^ inch in diameter, light brown 
and finely hairy, with 1-3 bright orange-red seeds. 

Evergreen, commonly 15-30 feet high and 3-6 
inches in trunk diameter. Bark on small trunks is 
dark brown, smooth, with many horizontal dots 
and lines (lenticels), and the inner bark whitish 
and bitter. The twigs are light to dark brown, 
with raised dots (lenticels), hairy when young. 

The leaves are 4—9 inches long. The leaflets are 
short-stalked or almost stalkless, li/i>-6 inches long 
and %-21/i inches broad, siiort-pointed at apex 
and base, edges often slightly turned down, 
slightly thickened, dark green or green on upper 
surface and paler beneath. 

The small flower clusters (like umbels) are lat- 
eral at base of leaves, %-li/4 inches long and 
broad, with slender hairy branches. Flowers are 



finely hairy and slightly fragrant. Calyx is 
4-toothed ; petals 4, i/4 inch long, whitish, minutely 
hairy; stamens 8 on a cup-shaped stamen tube; 
and pistil with 3- or 2-celled ovary, style, and 
stigma. The few clustered seed capsules split 
widely into 3 or 2 parts, releasing elliptic seeds 
1/4 inch long. Flowering and fruiting nearly 
throughout the year (March to December). 

The wood is hard, heavy (specific gra\nty 0.7), 
and fine-textured, the sajnvood whitish. Though 
seldom used because of the small dimensions, the 
wood is very resistant to attack by dry-wood 
termites. 

Usually an understory tree in forests of the 
lower mountain and moist limestone regions of 
Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Susiia, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — ramoncillo, caracolillo 
(Puerto Rico) ; caracoli, palo amargo, almendro, 
almendrillo (Dominican Republic) ; siguaraya 
(Cuba) ; hois arada, dombou, Marie-Jeanne 
(Haiti). 



254 





114. Gaeta 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Trichilia pallida Sw. 



255 



MALPIGHIA FAMILY (MALPIGHIACEAE) 

Key to the 2 species illustrated (Nos. 115-116) 
A. Leaves thin, tuniing rich red upon drying, upper surface shiny, midrib lighter in color than blade — 115. Ryrsonima 
coriacea. 
AA. Leaves leathery, with prominent veins, upper surface slightly shiny, lower surface with larger veins often rusty-red 
hairy — 116. Byrsonima crassifolia. 



115. Maricao 

A medium-sized tree with a spreading crown, 
characterized by: (1) opposite elliptic to lance- 
shaped leaves 2-5 inches long and %-2 inches 
broad, short -pointed or rounded at apex and short- 
])ointed at l)ase, the midrib notably lighter in color 
than the thin blade, turning rich red upon drying, 
a few such leaves on most trees at all times; (2) 
young twigs and flower stalks covered with fine, 
rusty-red hairs; (3) flowers showy, yellow, i/2~% 
inch across with 5 rounded petals narrowed into 
long stalks ; and (4) the nearly round yellow fruits 
%-i/2 inch in diameter. 

An evergreen tree 30-60 feet tall and I-IV2 f^^t 
or more in trunk diameter. The bark is smoothish, 
gray, becoming slightly rough and warty and 
1/^-% inch thick. Inner bark is pinkish and bitter. 

Petioles are Vi~% inch long. The upper surface 
of the Ijlades is shiny green and hairless, the lower 
surface lighter green and often slightly hairy on 
midrib and near edges, which are not toothed. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are terminal, 2-4 
inches long. The many flowers are borne along 
the erect flower stalks %-V2 inch long and curved 
downward when young. The calyx % inch long is 
5-lobed with 10 oblong glands on outside ; 5 petals, 
yellow, widely spreading, 14 inch long, nearly 
round but narrowed into long stalks; 10 stamens; 
and pistil witli 3-celled ovary and 3 styles. The 
flowers are slightly fragrant and attract bees. The 
juicy fruits (drupes) are broader than long and 
with a large stone, edible, but with a bitter taste. 
Flowering and fruiting nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is gray to reddish brown, and the 
heartwood is reddish brown with a purplish cast 
and generally marked by darker stripes with a 
stippled effect. The wood is moderately hard, 
heavy (specific gravity 0.64), of fine texture and 
straight to slightly roey grain, and fairly strong 
but brittle. Its rate of air-seasoning and amount 
of degrade are moderate. Machining characteris- 
tics are as follows: planing, shaping, turning, and 
sanding are good ; boring and mortising are excel- 
lent ; and resistance to screw splitting is poor. Tlie 
wood is very susceptible to attack by dry-wood ter- 
mites and only slightly resistant to decay. 

Though few trees are large enough to produce 
lumber, the wood is recommended for fancy furni- 
ture and cabinetwork, turning, flooring, interior 
trim, and other decorative uses. It is suitable also 
for general carpentry, heavy construction, ply- 
wood, and veneer. Elsewhere it has been made into 
charcoal. The bark is employed in tanning. 

The trees are rather ornamental when in flower 
and suitable for shade but are seldom planted for 

256 



Byrsonima coriacea (Sw.) DC. 

these purposes. The seeds are slow to germinate, 
lying as long as a year on the forest floor before 
germination. Early growth is rapid. 

Common in secondary forests and frequently on 
lands degraded by farming in the lower mountain, 
moist coastal, and moist limestone regions of 
Puerto Rico. Also in St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guilarte, 
Luquillo, Maricao, Susiia, Toro Negro. 

IVIUNICIPALITIES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. 

29, 69. 

Range. — Through West Indies from Cuba and 
Jamaica to Trinidad and Tobago. Also from 
Guianas to Colombia and Panama and south to 
Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. 

Other common names. — doncella (Puerto 
Rico) ; peralejo (Dominican Republic) ; peralejo 
de pinar (Cuba) ; piginio (Colombia) ; manteco 
sabanero, manteco, manteco de agua, chaparro de 
chinche (Venezuela) ; hogberry, locust-tree (Ja- 
maica) ; indano,indano Colorado (Peru) ; mauricef 
(Dominica, Grenada) ; bois tan (St. Lucia) ; 
barka-locust, locust-berry (Barbados) ; serrette 
(Grenada, Trinidad) ; rosewood (Tobago) ; hicha 
(British Guiana) ; bois tan, mauricef (Guade- 
loupe, Martinique) ; hollyhock (Dutch West In- 
dies) ; holia, moeleri, sabana kwarie (Surinam) ; 
pau de cortume, pessegueiro bravo (Brazil). 

The West Indian tree has been placed in a vari- 
ety {Byrsonima coriacea (Sw.) DC. var. spicata 
(Cav.) Niedenzu) often accepted as a species (B. 
spicata (Cav.) DC). 

Besides the 2 illustrated here, 4 additional tree 
species of this genus known also as maricao are 
native in Puerto Rico. Palo de doncella (Byr- 
so7uma hicida DC; synonym B. cttneata (Turcz) 
P. Wils.) has small spoon-shaped or obovate leaves 
34-2 inches long and flowers with white to red 
petals. 

Two poorly known, doubtfully distinct, local 
species described from Guanajibo, near Mayaguez, 
have yellow petals turning red. They are Byrson- 
ima ophiticola Small, with obovate leaves less 
than 2 inches long, and B. horneana Britton & 
Small, with obovate leaves 11/0-31/2 inches long. 

A distinct species rare in dwarf forests and 
mountain forests of eastern and central Puerto 
Rico is almendrillo {Byrsonima. loadswortMi 
Little) . During the preparation of this book, this 
species was noted as new and was named in 1953. 
It has elliptic leaves mostly li/^-3 inches long, 
slightly thickened, with edges turned under, gray 
hairy beneath, and flowere with white petals turn- 
ing pink. 




115. Maricao 



Natural size. 



Byrsonima coriacea (Sw.) DC. 



257 



MALPIGHIA FAMILY (MALPIGHIACEAE) 



116. Maricao cimarron 



Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) H. B. K. 



This small crooked tree or shrub of dry forests 
is characterized by: (1) opposite, mostly elliptic 
leaves 21/2-5 inches long and 1-2 inches broad, 
short-pointed at apex and base, leathery and with 
jM-ominent veins; (2) the young twigs, flower 
stalks, ]ietioles, and very young leaves covered with 
hne, rusty-red hairs; (3) the flowers %-% inch 
across with 5 rounded yellow petals narrowed into 
long stalks, in terminal clusters on stalks which 
curve downward ; and (4) the nearly round yellow 
fruits 1/^ inch or less in diameter, sour but edible. 

A small evergreen tree or shrub attaining 15-25 
feet in height and 10 inches in trunk diameter, 
with open, wide spreading crown. The baik is 
gray to dark brown, becoming thick and very 
rough, with irregular large warts. The inner 
bark, more than % inch thick, is streaked with 
jiink and red, and is bitter. 

The leaves, with petioles %-% inch long, are 
variable in shape and size, edges not toothed, 
upper surface green, slightly shiny, and almost 
hairless at maturity, and lower .surface light green 
and wi(h larger veins rasty-red hairy or nearly 
hairless. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are 3-4 inches long. 
The many yellow flowers are borne along the erect 
rusty hairy axis on flower stalks %-V2 ii''ch long 
and curved downward, also rusty hairy. The 
calyx is pale yellow, rusty haii-y, %,; inch long, 
5-lobed with 10 oblong glands at base outside; the 
5 bright yellow petals widely spreading, i/4-% 
inch long, nearly round but narrowed into long 
stalks; 10 pale yellow stamens i/g inch long; ancl 
pale green pistil l/g inch long, including 3-celled 
ovary with 3 slender styles. The fruits (drupes) 
are juicy and have a large stone. Flowering and 
fruiting from spring to fall. 

The reddish-brown wood is hard, heavy (specific 
gravity 0.7), strong but brittle, and only moder- 
ately durable. Considered suited for construction, 
though generally too small, and in other places 
burned for charcoal. 



The fruits are eaten raw or cooked or prepared 
in a drink like lemonade and are consumed by 
hogs and other animals, domestic and wild. In 
Mexico and Central America the trees are planted 
for the fruits, which are larger and ditferent in ap- 
pearance. A light brown dye for cotton textiles is 
extracted from the fruit rind in Guatemala. Be- 
cause of their many golden flowers the plants are 
classed as ornamentals and have been introduced 
for this purpose in southern Florida. Also re- 
ported to be honey plants. The bark has been em- 
ployed for tanning and in home remedies. 

This species is found chiefly in open forests of 
the lower Cordillera forest regions in southwestern 
and western Puerto Rico. 

Public forest. — Susiia. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, St. 
Martin, Dominica, Barbados, Trinidad, and Cura- 
sao. Also from southern Mexico to Peru, Bolivia, 
Paraguay, Brazil, and (niianas. Planted in 
southern Florida. 

In some parts of its range, such as the savannas 
of Cuba and the llanos of Colombia and Venezuela, 
this tree is a common and characteristic shrubby 
tree on the grassy plains. Some authors have dis- 
tinguished varieties of this widely distributed spe- 
cies whose leaves vary in shape, size, and hairiness. 

Other commox names. — maricao verde, per- 
alejo, peralejo bianco (Puerto Rico) ; doncela 
(commerce) ; peralejo, maricao (Dominican Re- 
public) ; peralejo, peralejo de sabana (Cuba) ; 
nanche, nance, nance agrio, chi, changugo (Mex- 
ico) ; nance, nancite (Central America) ; chi, tapal 
(Guatemala) ; nancito, crabo (Honduras) ; nance 
verde (El Salvador) ; wild-cherry (Panama) ; 
chaparro, chaparro manteca, yuco, peraleja, noro 
(Colombia) ; chaparro manteco, chaparro de sa- 
bana, manteco, manteco merey, manero (Vene- 
zuela) ; savanna serrette (Trinidad) ; craboo, 
crapoo, wild craboo (British Honduras); huria 
(British Guiana) ; sabana kwari moeleidan, hori, 
.sabana mango (Surinam). 



258 




116. Marieao cimarron 



Natural size. 



Byrsonima crassifoUa (L.) H. B. K. 

259 



MILKWORT FAMILY (POLYGALACEAE) 



117. Violeta, violet-tree 

Native only in Puerto Rico, violeta is well 
known Ity the beautiful masses of violet-colored 
rtowers about ■^'_i inch across, slifrhtly pea-shaped, 
which cover the tree from February to March or 
April, (renerally wlien leatless. Other distinguish- 
ing chai-actersare: (1) the elliptic yellow-green 
leaves '2-5 inches long, slightly thickened and 
leathery, with a peculiar arrangement of many 
nearly parallel, slightlv raised, thin, lateral veins; 
and (2) fruit a flattened capsule IVi-li^ inches 
long, with L' rounded wings, 1 large and 1 small. 

A small to medium-sized deciduous tree 15-40 
feet tall with trunk 4-S inches in diameter, rarely 
to 65 feet in height and to '2 feet in diameter. The 
gi-ay bark is smoothish to slightly fissured, inner 
bark light brown and bitter. The slender, light 
green twigs are minutely hairy when young. 

The leaves are alternate on short petioles 1/47% 
inch long. Leaf blades are 1-2^2 inches wide, 
short-pointed to rounded at both ends, slightly 
turned under at edges, shiny above and dull be- 
neath. 

The flowers appear in profusion when the trees 
are leafless or before the old leaves are shed, borne 
on slender stalks in short lateral clusters (ra- 
cemes). Both calyx and corolla are violet. There 
are 3 small sepals Vs-^e i»ch long and 2 large 
elliptic sepals (wings) %6 i"ch long; usually 3 
unequal petals about %6 i"cli long, the central 
petal keeled and enclosing the stamen tube, and 
sometimes 2 additional petals i/g inch long; 8 
stamens nearly 1/4 inch long, united into a split 
whitish tube; and pistil consisting of green 



Polygala cowellii (Britton) Blake 

rounded 2-celled ovary i/ie inch long and curved 
style 5^8 inch long. 

The seed capsule has a large curved or rounded 
wing I14-IV2 inches long on 1 side and a small 
wing 1/2 inch long on the other and contains 1 or 
sometimes 2 hairy seeds s/ie "^^h long, maturing in 
March or April. 

The yellow or light brown wood is hard and is 
little used. 

The trees are worthy of cultivation as orna- 
mentals for the very showy flowei's. They are evi- 
dently slow growing. 

In forests of hillsides and arroyos, mostly in the 
southern coastal region but scattered also through 
the moist limestone and lower Cordillera regions 
of Puerto Rico. Rare on the limestone hills of the 
northern coast near Toa Baja, Vega Baja, and 
Arecibo. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

Range. — Known only from Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — arbol de violeta, palo 
de violeta, palo de tortuga. tortuguero (Puerto 
Rico) ; Puerto Rican violet-tree (English). 

Botanical synonym. — Phlebotaenia cowellii 
Britton. 

The scientific name honors John Francis Cowell 
(1852-1915), director of the Botanical Garden of 
Bufi'alo, New York, who aided in collecting at 
Coamo Springs the botanical specimens from 
which this species was described. 

Trees are unusual in this genus. The 4 other 
Puerto Rican species are herbs. 



260 







jfiHii 






Mm 



^vIM^^^^^^ 



mmmHmm: 













117. Violeta, violet-tree 



Natural size. 



Polygala cowellU (Britton) Blake 

261 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 



Key to the 12 si)ecies illustrated (Nos. 118-129) 
A. Leaves 3 or more at a node ; nodes with rings — 122. Euphorbia pet Maris. 
AA. Leaves alternate: nodes without rings. 
B. Leaves with 3 main veins from base. 

C. Leaves with coarsel.v saw-toothed edges and 2 straight lateral veins from rounded base — 118. Alchornea 

latlfoUa. 
CC. Leaves with incf)nsiiicuousl,v wavy-toothed edges and 2 curved veins from short-pointed base — 119. 
AlcJifirncopsis portoriccnsis. 
BB. Leaves with 1 main vein or midrib. 

D. Petiole more than 1 inch long ; leaves in more than 2 rows. 

E. Leaves with several lateral veins at acute angles to midrib. 

F. Leaves short-pointed at base, the edges not toothed ; tiny dotlike brown scales on twigs, petioles, 
and leaf blades. 
G. Leaves thick and leathery, short-pointed at both ends, petiole silvery brown — 120. Croton 
poccUanthus. 
OG. Leaves slightly thickenefl, rounded or blunt-pointed at both ends, ijetiole usually reddish 
tinged — 126. Hyrroiiima rlusioides. 
FF. leaves broad at liase. with toothe<l edges, without scales, mo,stly hairless. 

II. Leaves short-pointed at apex and rounde<l at base — 124. Flippomane mancinella. 
IIH. Leaves abruptly long-pointed at ai>ex and heart-shajied at ba.se — 12.5. Hura crepitans. 
EE. Leaves with many straight, parallel lateral veins almost at right angles to midrib — 129. Sapiiim 
tauroccrasus. 
DD. Petiole short, less than % inch long : leaves in 2 rows. 

I. Leaves broadest beyond middle, often with a few teeth toward apex — 123. Gymnanthes Incida. 
Leaves broadest below or near middle, without teeth. 

J. Leaves many along slender deciduous twigs and appearing to be pinnate, ovate. 1-3 inches long, 
on very short petioles Vs inch long — 127. Plnillantlnis acirlus.* 
.JJ. Leaves several, not api>earing to be pinnate. 2-0 inches long, on jietioles more than % inch long. 
K. Leaves widely spaced, lance-shaijed, slightly thickened, m^per surface slightly shiny — 121. 
Driipctcs (liiuira. 
KK. Leaves hanging down, elliptic, thin, upper surface dull green, lower surface pale whitish 
green — 128. Phyllanthus nobilis. 



II. 



118. Achiotillo 



Alchornea latifolia Sw. 



A widely distrilnited tree distinguished by : (1) 
reddish-brown smooth bark; (2) ]ono;-petioled 
large yellow-green elliptic leaves with coarsely 
saw-toothed edges and 2 prominent, long, straight 
lateral veins at the rounded base, and short- 
pointed at apex; (3) many small greenish or 
yellow - green stalkless flowers, the male on 
branclied lateral axes and the female on un- 
branched axes of different trees (dioecious) : and 
(4) seed capsules % inch in diameter, with 2 long 
styles, 2-seeded. 

A medium-sized evergreen spreading tree at- 
taining ?)()-,50 feet in height and IV2 feet in trunk 
diameter. The inner bark is whitish and slightly 
bitter. The brown twigs, greenish and with 
groups of tiny star-shaped hairs when young, have 
raised nearly round leaf scars. 

Tlie alternate leaves have petioles 114 -21/^ inches 
long and blades -l-TU (sometimes to 10) inches 
long and 21/2-41/2 inches broad, slightly thickened, 
and sliglitly shiny on upper surface. The base has 
2-4 small glands, and lower surface has minute 
tufts of hairs in vein angles and, when young, scat- 
tered small star-shaped liairs. 

The flower clusters (spikes) are 2-8 inches long, 
witli grou]is of tiny star-sliaped liairs on the slen- 
der axes. Male flowers ai-e few together, about Vg 
inch long and broad, with calyx splitting into 3 
or 4 lobes and with 8 or fewer stamens. Female 
flowers single or paired along a drooping axis have 
a 4-lobed calyx i/ig inch long and pistil with 



2-celled ovary less than Vs i'lch long and 2 long 
styles 14-% inch long. 

Seed capsules are nearly rouiul but slightly flat- 
tened, dark red when immatui-e but becoming dark 
brown, the 2 long brown styles breaking off. 
There are 2 red, tubercled seeds i^ inch long. 
Flowering and fruiting nearly through the year. 

The lieartwood is liglit brown, and the sapwood 
similar or wliitisji. Tiie wood is fairly .soft, moder- 
ately lightweigiit (specific gravity 0.39), moder- 
ately strong for its weight, of medium texture, 
with straight to slightly wavy grain, and without 
growth rings. Reddish-brown radial canals ap- 
pear on the surface as small holes. The rate of 
air-seasoning and amount of degrade are moder- 
ate. Machining characteristics are as follows: 
planing is good; shaping, turning, boring, and 
mortising are poor; sanding is very poor; and re- 
sistance to screw splitting is excellent. The wood 
is not durable and is very susceptible to attack by 
dry-wood termites and other insects. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is used for posts and 
fuel. It is suitable for kite sticks and other small 
bent jjarts, boxes, crates, toys, temporary cement 
forms, and utility veneer. With preservative 
treatment it would serve for light cari:)entry and 
some types of ^-xterior construction. 

This rapidly growing tree has been introduced 
for shade in southern Florida. 

Commonest in the mountain forests of Puerto 
Rico, including the upper mountain regions, but 



262 




118. AchiotiUo 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Alchornea latifolia Sw. 



6S7-921 0—64 18 



263 



also in the moist limestone and moist coastal re- 
gions. Growing mainly in openings in the forests 
and along roadsides where there is plenty of light. 
Also in Tortola. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Rio Abajo, Toro Negro. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
1, 4, 5, 10, 19, 22, 23, 35, 43, 52, 58, 64. 

Range. — Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 



Rico, and Tortola. Also from southern Mexico to 
Panama. Planted in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — palo de cotorra (Puerto 
Rico) ; aguacatillo (Dominican Republic, Cuba^ ; 
bacona, chote (Cuba) ; palo mu]er (Mexico) ; 
carreton, cajeton (Guatemala) ; canelito (Hon- 
duras) ; pochote, tambor (El Salvador) ; dove- 
wood (Jamaica) ; bois crapaud, bois vache 
(Haiti). 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 



119. Palo de gallina 



This small to medium-sized tree of mountain 
forests is recognized by : (1) thin, light or yellow- 
green, elliptic leaves with 3 prominent veins from 
base of blade, the midrib and 2 long and curved 
lateral veins, short-pointed at both ends, and with 
inconspicuously wavy-toothed edges; (2) numer- 
ous small greenish or yellow-green flowers borne 
on very short stalks along slender lateral axes 1-3 
together and 1-2 inches long, male and female on 
different trees (dioecious) ; and (3) brown seed 
capsules ^/je inch in diameter, 3-seeded. Distin- 
guished from achiotillo (A/chornea Jafifolia Sw.) 
by the smaller and narrower leaves with few lat- 
eral veins and with less prominent teeth and by the 
smaller seed capsules with 3 short styles. 

A generally erect evergreen tree 20-50 feet in 
height and to II/2 feet in trunk diameter. Bark on 
small tiiinks is smoothish, slightly fissured, and 
light gray. Inner bark is brownish, with gritty 
and slightly bitter taste. The light brown twigs 
are finely hairy when young. 

The alternate leaves have slender petioles %-li/4 
inches long and blades 3-51/2 inches long and 
l%-2% inches broad, slightly shiny. 



Alchorneopsis portoricensis Urban 

The flower clusters (narrow racemes) and flow- 
ers are minutely hairy. Male flowers 1-4 together 
have a calyx splitting into 3 or 4 lobes and have 
5-8 (usually 6) stamens. Female flowers have a 
4-lobed calyx and a pistil composed of a romided, 
finely hairy, 3-celled ovary and 3 short styles. The 
seed capsules have 3 whitish seeds i/g inch long, 
the surface with irregular ridges. Flowering and 
fruiting perhaps nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is soft and whitish, and the heart- 
wood is pale brown. The wood is moderately soft, 
lightweight (specific gravity 0.4—0.5), and perish- 
able. It does not plane well. Used occasionally 
for fuel. 

Forests of the upper and lower mountain regions 
in the eastern half of Puerto Rico. A light- 
demanding tree generally found in openings in the 
forest, and often in or beside swampy areas. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. 

Other common name. — palo de gallina (Do- 
minican Republic) . 



264 



^, 




<\ 





^; — 03 




119. Palo de gallina 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Alchorneopsis portoricensis Urban 

265 



120. Sabinon 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 

Croton poecilanthus Urban 



This tree with watery hitex, confined to the east- 
ern mountains of Puerto Rico, is distinguished by : 
(1) lower surface of leaves, ])etioles, youjig twips, 
flower stalks, flowers antl fruits silvery fjreen or 
brown, being covered with tiny round silvery- 
brown scales; (2) the leaves elliptic, thick and 
leathei-y, 3-7 inches long and 2-3 inches wide, 
short-pointed at both ends, the upper surface 
green to dark green, and slightly shiny; and (3) 
the many small silvery-brown male and female 
flowers almost stalkless on a terminal axis 3-7 
inches long. 

A small or medium-sized evergreen tree attain- 
ing 20^0 feet in height and 10 inches in trunk di- 
ameter, with irregular spreading crown. The 
bark is smoothish and minutely fissured or warty, 
gray or brown. Inner bark is pink, slightly bitter 
with a burning taste. Tiiere is a small amount of 
whitisli watery or nearly transparent latex. The 
leaves are alternate on jjetioles %-2 inches long, 
the blades not toothed on edges. 

The flower clusters (racemes) have all male 
flowers, or also a few female flowers at base., or all 
female flowers (monoecious). Male flowers % 
inch long and broad have a gray-green scaly calyx 
with 3 or 4 deep lobes %6 inch long, 5 wMtish 
scaly petals %6 inch long, and about 20 whitish 



spreading stamens. Female flowers about the 
same size have a cup-shaped, gray-green, scaly 
calyx %g inch long including the 5 short lobes, and 
pistil witli gray-green, scaly, 3-celled ovary and 3 
large whitish styles, deeply forked and appearing 
as 6, afterwards turning black and remaining at- 
tached to fruit. 

The seed capsules are nearly round but longer 
rlian broad, slightly 3-angled, about 1/2 in^li long. 
At maturity the capsule .separates into 3 brown 
parts, each falling from the axis and splitting open 
to release a brown seed % inch long. Flowering 
and fruiting nearly throughout the year. 

The sap wood is whitish, and the heart wood is 
light yellow. The wood is moderately hard and 
moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.6). It is 
used only for posts and fuel. 

An imderstory tree in the upper Luquillo forest 
region and extending down the slopes into swampy 
areas and along stream courees in the upper por- 
tion of the lower Luquillo region of Puerto Rico. 

Public fokest. — laiquillo. 

R.\NGE. — Known only from mountains of eastern 
Puerto Rico. 

The other native species of this genus include 10 
of shi'ubs and 2 of herbs. 



266 







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7. - 




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/ 




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y^;;,:. 


l^^fc 




^ 






-S^ 






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c^ 


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\ ^ 






\^ 


V 


'". 


^ 





J^. 



>■' .1 ,1 



y' 




120. Sabinon 



Natural size. 



Crotoii poecilanthus Urban 



267 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 



121. Varital 

A small to mediuiii-sized imderstory tree char- 
acterized by: (1) smooth whitish or light gray 
bark ; (2) broadly lance-shaped, dark green leaves, 
;U/2-6 inches long and W^-i inches broad, abruptly 
long- or short -pointed, usually widely spaced, in 
2 rows on horizontal or slightly drooping twigs; 
(3) small greenish flowers about %6 inch across 
and % inch high, 1 to several at base of leaves, 
the male and female flowers on different trees 
(dioecious) ; and (4) whitish elliptic fleshy fruits 
% inch long, borne along the branches at base 
of leaves. 

An evergreen tree commonly lt)-30 fe«t high 
and to 6 inches in trunk diameter, with spreading 
branches, reported to reach larger size. The bark 
has small warts (lenticels). The inner bark is 
light brown or orange and slightly bitter. Young 
twigs are green, minutely hairy, becoming gray. 

The alternate leaves have petioles %-% inch 
long and blades often oblique at base, a little 
thickened, not toothed on edges, slightly shiny 
on upper surface, and paler beneath. 

Male flowers on short, hairy stalks less than 1/4 
inch long have 4—5 yellow-green, minutely hairy, 
spreading sepals, 6-8 spreading stamens, and a 
broad lobed disk. Female flowers are single or 
paired on short hairy stalks about % inch long, 
with 4 greenish, slightly hairy sepals and pistil 



Drypetes glauca Vahl 

with hairy 1-celled ovary and broad stigma. The 
fruits (drupes) are finely hairy or hairless and 
1 -seeded. Flowering and fruiting from spring to 
fall. 

The sapwood is whitish and hard. The wood is 
used for charcoal and posts and in the Lesser 
Antilles for construction. 

Widely distributed in the lower mountain re- 
gions of Puerto Rico. Also reported long ago 
from St. Croix. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Lesser 
Antilles from St. Kitts to St. Vincent. ( Reported 
also from Jamaica, perhaps in error.) 

Other common names. — palo bianco, palo de 
aceituna, cafeillo (Puerto Rico) ; bois caie, cafe 
grand bois (Guadeloupe). 

Three additional species of this genus are trees 
or shrubs. Hueso {Drypetes alia Poit.), known 
also as palo de vaca and cafeillo, has smaller ellip- 
tic whitish fruits less than % inch long. Cueri- 
duroor Guianaplum (D. Jaterlfora (Sw.) Krug& 
Urban), native also as far as southern Florida, 
has rounded dark brown fruits i/4-y2 inch long. 
Encinilla (/>. ilici folia Krug & Urban), known 
only from northern Puerto Rico, has spiny toothed 
oblong leaves and elliptic fruits about % inch long. 



268 








121 Varital 



Natural size. 



Drypetes glauca Vahl 



269 



122. Rascaso 



SPURGE FAlvULY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 

Euphorbia petiolaris Sims 



A poisonous shrub or small tree of dry and 
coastal areas with very toxic and caustic whitish 
latex irritating to the skin and easily recognized 
by: (1) shiny brown bark peeling off in papery 
layers and very thin; (2) jointed twigs bearing 
3-8 leaves at the swollen nodes; (3) slender peti- 
oles mostly longer than the blades; (4) small, 
ovate or rounded, thin, green leaf blades about 
%-% inch long and broad but slightly wider than 
long, rounded or minutely notched at ajjex and 
nearly straight or romided at base. The plants 
should be known in order to be avoided. 

Deciduous and usually growing to 20 feet tall 
and 2^ inches in trunk diameter. The light brown 
inner bark, though almost tasteless, contains latex 
which is vei-y irritating to the mouth. Twigs are 
light green when young, becoming gray and then 
dark reddish brown. 

Petioles are 14-I inch long, reddish tinged, with 
glandular scales (stipules) at base. The blades 
have widely spreading lateral veins, are not toothed 
on edges, and are pale beneath. 

The inconspicuous minute male and female flow- 
ers both on the same plant (monoecious) are borne 
in a stalked green hemispheric cup (involucre) % 
inch long, which luis 5 yellowish petallike lobes 
each with a gland at base. The many male flowers 
within consist of a single yellow stamen less than 



1/16 inch long. 



The female flower is a single light 
gz-een pistil with stalked 3-angled 3-celled ovary 
and 3 spreading 2-forked styles. 

The smooth 3-angled capsule splits into 3 keeled 
))arts, each containing 1 egg-shaped white seed Vs 
incli long, pointed and pitted. Collected in flower 
in August and December. 

The wood is little used because of the small size 
of the tree and the poisonous or caustic latex. 

Common in thickets in the dry coastal and dry 
limestone regions of eastern, southern, and south- 
western Puerto Rico. Also in Mona, Culebra, 
Vieques, St. Croix ( ? ) , St. Thomas, St. John, Tor- 
tola, Virgin Gorda, and Anegada. 

Pttblic forest. — Guanica. 

Range. — South Caicos Island in Bahamas, His- 
paniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, St. Mar- 
tin, Martinique, and Guadeloupe, and Margarita 
(Venezuela). 

Other common names. — indio desnudo ( Puerto 
Rico) ; bi'oadleaf spurge (Bahamas) ; palo de 
leche, palo de yuca (Dominican Republic) ; bon 
gar^on (Haiti) ; black mageniel (St. Martin). 

Botanical synonym. — Aklema. petiolare ( Sims) 
Millsp. 

This is the only native tree species of its genus. 
About 20 related native species are herbs and 
shrubs, sometimes placed in segregate genera. 



270 




^''^ 



122. Raseaso 



Natural size. 



Euphorbia petiolaris Sims 



271 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 



123. Yaiti, oysterwood 

This poisonous small tree or shrub is character- 
ized by : ( 1 ) poisonous milky juice which may irri- 
tate the skin; (2) slightly thickened stiff shiny 
leaves reverse lance-shaped (oblanceolate) to near- 
ly spoon-shaped (spatulate), broadest beyond 
middle, rounded or blunt-pointed at apex and 
tapering and long-pointed at base, often with a 
few small teeth toward the apex; (3) scaly or 
flaky bark on older trees ; and (4) small yellowish- 
green lateral flowers, the male numerous along an 
axis (narrow raceme) i^^-l inch or more in length 
and usually 1 female flower at the base (monoeci- 
ous). 

An evergreen tree becoming 30 feet high and 8 
inches in trunk diameter, with a narrow crown. 
The bark is gray or brown, smoothish on young 
trees with many thin fissures. Inner bark is light 
brown and slightly bitter. The gray twigs, green 
when young, have many raised dots (lenticels). 

The alternate leaves have petioles I/4-V2 i'lch 
long and leathery blades l^A-Si^ inches long and 
14-I14 inches broad, green to dark green above 
and paler beneath. The edges are slightly turned 
under, and veins are slightly raised in a prominent 
network on the upper surface. 

The crowded male flowers are borne 3 above a 
scale (bract) on the axis, each minute (less than 
%2 inch long and broad) and consisting of a 
smaller scale and 2-4 stamens. Tliey are faintly 
fragrant and attract bees. There is 1 female 
flower (or none or sometimes 2) Vjg inch long at 
base of flower cluster, on a stalk Vs i^^'i long which 
lengthens greatly in fruit, and consisting of 3 
scales and a pistil composed of greenish 3-celled 
ovary and 3 styles. 

Brown seed capsules, borne on slender stalks 



Gymnanthea lucida Sw. 

1-2 inches long, are rounded but slightly 3-lobed 
and broader than long, about % inch in diameter. 
There are 3 or fewer brown seeds %q inch long. 
Flowering and fruiting from spring to fall. 

The sapwood is whitish or yellowish. The heart- 
wood is light olive, streaked with dark brown. 
Tile wood is very fine-gi'ained, very hard, very 
iieavy (speciflc gravity 1.1), takes a fine polish, 
and is durable. 

IT.sed in Puerto Rico for fenceposts, the gener- 
ally small size limiting its values. The wood 
has been made into various small novelties, includ- 
ing canes, handles, backs of brushes and mirrors, 
and ornamental articles shaped by woodturning. 

The white latex is reported to produce inflam- 
mation of the skin upon contact. It is said that 
smoke from burning wood is irritating to the eyes. 

Forests and thickets in both limestone regions 
of Puerto Rico. Also in Mona, Desecheo, Icacos, 
Culebra, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, 
and Virgin Gorda. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, 
Guanica. 

MuNiciP-VLrrv where especially common. — 9. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and northern 
lesser Antilles from St. Eustatius to Antigua and 
Guadeloupe. Also in southeastern Mexico 
(Yucatan), Guatemala, and British Honduras. 

Other common names. — ramon, tabaco (Puerto 
Rico) ; tabacon, palo de hueso (Dominican Repub- 
lic) ; yaiti, aite (Cuba) ; pij (Guatemala) ; oyster- 
wood, shiny oysterwood, crabwood (United 
States) ; crabwood (Bahamas, Jamaica) ; false 
lignumvitae (British Honduras); bois marbre 
(Haiti). 



272 




123. Yaitj, oysterwood 



Natural size. 



Cfymnanthea lucida Sw. 



273 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 



124. Manzanillo, manchineel 

The deadly manzanillo or manchineel is the most 
poisonous tree of Puerto Rico and the A^irgin Is- 
lands and ranks amona; the most famous poisonous 
plants in tropical America. The attractive palat- 
able fruits cause serious illness or even death when 
eaten, and the mili^y sap is injurious both exter- 
nally and internally. Growing along and near 
sanely seashore or sometimes inland, this tree is 
characterized by: (1) irritating milky sap in the 
leaves, twigs, and bark; (2) round, yellow-green 
or yellowisli fruits, tinged witii red, l-li/i> inches 
in diameter, resembling small apples or guavas 
(guayabas) but very toxic, often littering the 
beaches; and (-3) the long-istalked, shiny, leathei-y, 
yellow-green, elliptic leaves with minute wavy 
teeth on edges, the sides bent upward slightly at 
the yellowish midrib, and with a raised dot 
(gland) at base of midrib. 

An evergreen tree to 40 feet in height and 2 
feet in diameter, usually smaller, with widely 
forking branches and broad spreading crown. 
The bark is dark browii or gray, scaly or fissured 
or with warts, as much as 14 inch thick. Inner 
bark is light brown or whitish with bitter lasting 
irritating taste and witli poisonous white sap or 
latex. Tw'igs are green when young, liecoming 
brownish graj% and smooth. 

The alternate leaves liave round yellow-green 
petioles liA-2 inclies long. Tlie leaf blades are 
2-A: inches long and li4-2i/^ inches wide, short- 
pointed, roimded at l)ase, shiny on upper surface 
and dull and paler beneath. 

The inconspicuous greenish male and female 
flowers are borne stalkless along a glandular 
greenish terminal axis (spike) 2^ inches long 
(monoecious). Male flowers are in groups of 5- 
15 each, about Vj,; inch long, composed of calyx 
with 2 or 3 lobes and 2 or 3 stamens. Female 
flowers, 1, 2, or none at base of same axis, about 
Ys inch long and broad, consist of 3-lobed calyx 
and pistil with 6-8-celled ovary and 6-8 curved 
short brown styles. 

The stalkless fruits (drupes), single or paired 
but produced in quantities, appear lateral after 
forking and continued growth of twigs beyond. 
The sweet-scented fruit has a sunken spot at end 
and greenish-white mellow flesh which is palatable 
and not irritating to the taste though vei-y toxic. 
A hard stone encloses 6-8 dark brown seeds 14 
inch long. Flowering from spring to October, the 
fruits maturing almost a year later. 

The sapwood is light brown or yellowish, and 
the heartwood dark brown. The wood is fairly 
hard, mediumweight (specific gravity 0.5), and 
strong, taking a good polish. Though reported to 
be durable, it is very susceptible to attack by dry- 
wood termites. The wood has been emploj'ed for 
furniture, cabinetwork, interior finish, and con- 

274 



Hippomane mancinella L. 

struction. Though the poisonous sap adds dif- 
ficulties to logging and handling lumber, the trees 
can be girdled in advance or the bark can be burned 
otf or charred before felling. 

The caustic milky sap is particularly irritating 
to the eyes and mouth, causing prolonged pain. It 
also produces severe inflammations and blisters on 
the skin of some persons. However, in some places 
it has been employed in local medicines. Caribs 
poisoned their arrows with this toxic liquid. As 
smoke from burning parts of the tree causes in- 
flammation of the eyes, the wood should not be 
used for fuel. It is reported that rain water drip- 
])ing from the leaves is injurious. It has been 
claimed that a person who rested or slept under 
one of these trees would be injured, blinded, or 
even killed, but these exaggerated reports are 
erroneous. Classed as a honey plant, the honey re- 
])orted to be nontoxic. 

Early explorers, who discovered this tree along 
beaches, ate the attractive, aromatic, tempting 
fruits, wliich resembled wild apples or crab apples, 
with disastrous and sometimes fatal results. In 
1733, a royal ordinance prescribed destruction of 
all manzanillo trees at St. Barthelemy. However, 
as recently as 1940, during the late war, famished 
survivors of a sunken ship were poisoned by eating 
these fruits after landing their lifeboat on an un- 
inhabited beach there. Taken promptly to a hos- 
|)ital, they recovered after a few days. About 
ISs."), these fruits poisoned 54 Gernuin seamen at 
Cura(jao, causing the death of 5 and serious illness 
of the others. 

Two persons were hospitalized at St. Thomas in 
1954 after consuming these dangerous fruits. 
Prompt treatment includes causing vomiting and 
use of a stomach pump. 

Livestock have also been affected and should not 
be confined in areas with these trees. The fruits 
have poisoned hogs. Cattle have suffered skin 
irritation from contact with the plants. 

Perhaps the wide distribution along tropical 
shores, including small islands, resulted from dis- 
semination of the fruits by ocean currents. Near 
settlements the eradication of these dangerous 
trees has been undertaken, for example, in south- 
ern Florida. 

Fortunately this species is local and not very 
connnon in Puerto Rico. However, it is distrib- 
uted also through the Virgin Islands, being com- 
monest on St. Croix. 

The trees grow in coastal woods and thickets, 
sometimes singly, along and near sandy seashores 
and on rocky cliffs in both wet and dry areas 
around the islands. They are less common inland 
along streams. In the Virgin Islands they are 
found occasionally along i-oadsides, fences, and 
ditchbanks, in pastures and waste grounds, and 
around houses. Puerto Rico, Deseoheo, Mona, 




124. Manzanillo, manchineel 



Natural size. 



Eippomane mancinella L. 



275 



Icacos, Culebra, Vieques, St. Croix, St. John, St. 
Thomas, and Virgin Gorda. 

PiBLic FOREST. — Guiinica. 

Raxge. — Cliiefly along shores in southern Flor- 
ida including Florida Keys and throughout West 
Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and 
Tobago and in Bonaire, Curagao, and Aniba. 
Also Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Mexico and 
Central America to Colombia, Ecuador, and Vene- 
zuela. On Revillagigedo, Galapagos, and other 
islands. 

Othp:i; common names. — poison-guava, man- 
chioneel (Virgin Islands) ; manzanillo (Spanish, 
commerce) ; manzanillo de costa, pinipiniche 
(Cuba) ; manzanillo de playa (Costa Rica) ; man- 
zanillo de playa, limoncillo (Venezuela)' ; manchi- 
neel (United States, English) ; mancinillier 
(French) ; maximilier (Guacleloupe, Martinique) ; 
mangeniel, manzalinja, manzanilla (Dutch West 
Indies) . 



The English name manchineel is a corruption of 
the Spanish word manzanilla (little apple), from 
wiiich the Latin scientific name also is derived. 
This genus has only one species. 

Symptoms and t'l-eatment of manzanillo or man- 
chineel poisoning in the Grenadines have been 
summarized by Richai-d A. Howard^ as follows: 

"Serious nausea and diarrhea are usually followed by 
shock and by an appalling muscular weakness. Sloughing 
off of mucous membranes occurs within a day or two if 
even a small quantity of the fruit is eaten. The juice of 
the tree or the fruit in the eye will cause violent conjunc- 
tivitis and usually temporary blindness. Arrowroot is 
considered the best antidote for this poison in the Grena- 
dines. A suspension of arrowroot starch is given in lib- 
eral do.ses when the fruit has been eaten and poultices of 
arrowroot starch are applied to external burns from the 
juice of the manchineel." 



' Howard, Richard A. The vegetation of the Grenadines, 
Windward Islands, British West Indies. Harvard Univ. 
Gray Herbarium Contrib. 174, 129 pp., illus. 1952. 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 
125. Molinillo, sandbox, hura 



Hura crepitans L. 



This handsome large tree, with sap and seeds 
both poisonous, planted along highways and in 
pastures and wild, is recognized by: (1) a globu- 
lar crown of dense foliage; (2) the trunks and 
branches usually with many blackish spines %-% 
inch long on the smoothish light brown bark; (3) 
heart-shaped leaves with blades curved up at the 
midrib, 5-8 inches long and 4-5 inches broad, 
abruptly long-pointed, with or without teeth on 
edges, and with long round green petioles about 
as long as the blades: (4) copious watery or 
slightly whitish latex, which is very irritating and 
poisonous; and (5) the large dark brown seed 
capsule 21/2-31/2 inches in diameter and IVi-lVs 
inches high, grooved into about 15 sections. 

Deciduous or nearly so, to 80 feet in height, with 
straight trunk 2—1 feet or more in diameter. The 
thick bark forms a sheath around the base of each 
spine. Inner bark is light brown, irritating to the 
taste. 

The leaves are alternate on the stout green to 
brown twigs. Blades are .slightly thickened, dark 
green and slightly shiny above and paler beneath, 
in a variation hairy, especially on the veins be- 
neath. 

Male and female flowers are borne on the same 
tree (monoecious), the former numerous in a ter- 
minal crowded cluster (spike) 1-2 inches long and 
34 inch in diameter at the end of a slender green 
stalk 21/0-4 inches long and resembling a short ear 
of corn. Individual male flowers are %q inch long 
and Ys inch broad, dark red, consisting of a cup- 
like calyx and 8-20 stamens in 2 or 3 rings on the 
central column. Female flowers, also dark red. 



are single and lateral near ends of twigs, on stout 
stalks 1/2-I inch long, and include a cup-shaped 
calyx 14 inch long and broad and a pistil, the 
ovary of about 15 cells inside the calyx, a long 
tubular style %-l% inches long, and a prominent 
enlarged and flattened stigma i/o-li/i inches across, 
including about 15 narrow lobes. 

The seed capsule is flattened and sunken in the 
center. Wlien dry it splits and explodes violently 
with a loud noise, scattering the hard 1 -seeded 
sections at a distance. The brown seeds are 
rounded and flattened, %-l inch long and broad. 
Flowering from winter to summer, the fruit ma- 
turing in spring and summer. 

The sa]nvood is whitish to light yellow, and the 
heartwood is jiale yellowish brown, pale olive gray, 
or dark brown. The wood is moderately soft, mod- 
erately liffhtweight (specific gravity 0.38), brittle, 
fine-textured and often with interlocked grain. 
Air-seasoning is rapid but moderately difficult 
with warping. Tlie wood is very susceptible to at- 
tack by dry-wood termites and variable in dur- 
ability. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is used chiefly for 
fenceposts and fuel. Elsewhere it is used for gen- 
eral carpentiy, interior construction, boxes, crates, 
veneer, plyw'ood, furniture, joinery, and poles. 
Formerly, dugout canoes were hollowed from 
large trunks. 

The caustic, poisonous latex causes inflammation 
or eruption upon contact with the skin of some 
persons and is very irritating to the eyes, report- 
edly causing temporary blindness. It makes the 
tree unpopular with wood cutters. The juice has 



276 




125. Molinillo, sandbox, hura 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Hura crepitans L. 
277 



been used to stupefy fisli. The seeds are toxic to 
luunaiis and livestock and have been emplo^'ed in 
poisoning animals and in medicine, but such use is 
dangerous. When explodiiiir, the mature seed cap- 
sules may injure or frighten persons and livestock. 

In some tropical areas, including southern Flor- 
ida, the trees are planted for shade. However, the 
poisonous sap makes the trees objectionable around 
houses. Young trees gro^Y rapidly but require 
plenty of light. Windstorms damage the trees. 

Connnon as a roadside shade tree and living 
fence along the moist coast of Puerto Rico, mostly 
east of San Juan. Occasionally elsewhere on the 
island, planted and wild. Through the Virgin 
Islands scattered in moist forests and pastures and 
])lanted along fence rows and for shade. St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Range. — Through "West Indies from Cuba and 
Jamaica to Trinidad and Tobago and on the con- 
tinent from Costa Rica south to Peru, Bolivia, 
Brazil, and Guianas. Planted also in southern 
Florida and southern California, Bahamas, and 
Dutch West Indies. Cultivated and occasionally 
naturalized in Old World tropics. 

Otheh coMJiox NAMES. — javilla (Puerto Eico) ; 



monkey-pistol (Virgin Islands) ; habillo, habilla, 
jabillo, jabilla (Spanish) ; salvadera, haba 
(Cuba); tronador, nune (Panama); ceibo ama- 
rillo, ceiba de leche, acuapar, tronador, castaneto 
(Colombia) ; ceiba, ceiba blanca, ceiba habillo 
(Venezuela) ; catahua (Peru) ; ochoho (Bolivia) ; 
hura (commerce) ; hura, hura-wood, possumwood, 
sandbox, sandbox-tree (United States, English) ; 
monkey-pistol, possumtree (English) ; monkey 
dinner-bell (British Guiana); sablier (French); 
arbre au diable (Haiti); bois du (liable (Marti- 
nique) ; zandkokerboom, sandbox-tree (Dutch 
West Indies) ; possentrie (Surinam) ; assacu 
(Brazil, commerce) ; cataua, areeiro (Brazil). 

The English name sandbox and French name 
sablier refer to the early use of the hollowed out 
shell of immature seed capsules to hold sand, em- 
ployed in blotting ink before blotters came into 
use. Paper weights have been made by filling the 
capsides with lead, but the capsules may come 
apart on drying. 

A closely related species of jabillo (Hura poly- 
andra Baill.), differing in the white male flowers 
with more numerous stamens in a column %-% 
inch long, is native from Mexico to Costa Rica. 



126. Cedro macho 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 

Hyeronima clusioides (Tul.) Muell,-Arg. 



This medium-sized tree limited to Puerto Rico 
is characterized by: (1) a very uniform, dense, 
bright green crown, pyramidal on young trees; 

(2) twigs, petioles, branches of flower clusters, and 
flowers covered with tiny dotlike brown scales, 
which are less conspicuous on both leaf surfaces; 

(3) the elliptic leaves blunt-pointed or rounded at 
both ends with wavy and often recurved edges, 
slightly jointed and bent where the blade is at- 
tached to the usually reddish-tinged petiole; and 

(4) numerous minute yellowish-green flowers less 
than % inch long in lateral branched clusters, 
male and female on different trees (dioecious). 

Evergreen tree to 70 feet in height and 3 feet 
or more in trunk diameter. The bark varies from 
scaly to fissured and rough, from gray to dark 
brown, and becomes more than 14 inch thick. 
Inner bark is brown or reddish and slightly bitter. 
Twigs are light brown. 

The leaves are alternate on petioles Vi-'^Vi 
inches long and have slightly thickened blades 
214-5 inches long and 11/4-3 inches broad. The 
upper surface is green and slightly shiny, and the 
lower surface paler and with midrib often hairy. 

Flower clusters (panicles) 1-4 inches long bear 



flowers almost stalkless along the branches. Male 
flowers have a cup-shaped, 3-5-toothed scaly calyx, 
a hairy disk, and 3-5, usually 5, spreading sta- 
mens. Female flowers have a cup-shaped scaly 
calyx and a pistil with 2-celled ovary and 2 or 3 
2-forked styles. The nearly round fruits are less 
than i/g inch long, reddish to blackish, slightly 
fleshy, and 1 -seeded. Flowering mainly in summer 
and fall and in fruit from late summer to winter. 

The sapwood is light brown, the heartwood rich 
reddish brown. The wood is hard, heavy (specific 
gravity 0.8), finishes well, and takes a good polish. 
It is susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. 
The wood has been employed both for furniture 
and construction. It is considered heavy for the 
former use but is very attractive. 

Distributed in Puerto Rico chiefly in the moist 
limestone and western lower Cordillera regions. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Known only from Puerto Rico. 

The generic name also is spelled Hieronyma. 
Reports of this species from Jamaica and from 
Dominica to Trinidad refer to H. jamaicens'ts 
Urban and //. caiibaea Urban, respectively. 



278 




12(j. Cedro macho 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Hyeronima clusioides (Tul.) Muell.-Arg. 



687-921 O— 64 19 



279 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 
127. Grosella, Otaheite gooseberry-tree Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels* 



A small tree cultivated for its edible sour fruits. 
It is distinguished by: (1) the light yellow juicy 
berries %-% incli in diameter, somewhat rounded 
but broader than long and slightly 8- or 6-angled, 
suggesting a diminutive squash, hanging down in 
clusters from tlie branches; (2) the sim])le leaves 
alternate in 2 rows along slender deciduous twigs 
and appearing to be pinnate, ovate, 1-3 inches long 
and %-li/4 inches broad, short-pointed at apex 
and rounded at base, on short petioles Vs inch long; 
(3) stout twigs rougli from rounded raised twig 
scars; and (-1) flowers minute and reddish or pink, 
4-parted and Vs-^e i"ch across, usually clustered 
along slender axes back of leaves. 

A spreading deciduous tree attaining 20-30 feet 
in height and 6 inches in trunk diameter. The 
greenish-gray bark is fissured and slightly scaly. 
Inner bark is pink and almost tasteless. The con- 
spicuous persistent twigs are 1/2 ir^ch or more in 
diameter, brownisli gray, green and slender at 
apex. 

The leaves hang down from green or pinkish- 
tinged twigs 6-12 inche-s long which appear to be 
axes of pinnate leaves and which shed from the 
stout twigs like leaves. Blades are thin, green and 
slightly sliiny above, and beneath pale blue green 
with a bloom. At base of each leaf are 2 minute 
pointed scales (stipules). 

Flowers are bonie mostly on slender leafless axes 
(panicles) 2-5 inches long, several clustered to- 
gether on short stalks. Male and female flowers 
are mixed in the same clusters (monoecious) and 
have 4 spreading calyx lobes about 14 e ii^cli long 
but lack petals. There are 4 stamens also in male 
flowers, and in female flowers a pistil with 4- or 
3-celled ovary and 4 or 3 styles. 

Fruits hang down in clusters, several along a 
slender drooping axis. The fruit contains a 
brownish stone with few seeds. Flowering and 
fruiting nearly through the year, fruiting chiefly 
in April and August. 

The heartwood is reddish brown, moderately 
hard, fine-grained, of medium weight (specific 
gravity 0.6) , strong, tough, and fibrous. It is said 
to be durable and to take a good polish but, seldom 
being available, is little used. 



Widely planted in tropical regions for the juicy 
sour fruits, which can be eaten raw but usually 
are made into jelly, preserves, candy, and pickles. 
The root and seed have been used in medicines. 
Introduced into the West Indies in 1793. 

Cultivated and also spreading along i-oadsides 
and waste places, chiefly in the coastal regions of 
Puerto Eico. Also in St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, and Tortola. 

Range. — Native of tropical Asia and perhaps 
also East Indies but extensively introduced and 
spontaneous and sometimes naturalized in tropical 
regions. Southern Florida, through West Indies 
from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad, Mexico, 
Central America, and South America. 

Other commox names. — cereza amarilla, cerezo 
agrio, grosella blanca (Puerto Rico) ; grosella 
(Spanish) ; guinda, piniienta (El Salvador) ; gro- 
sella de Nicaragua (Nicaragua); cerezo agrio, 
cereza (Venezuela); Otaheite gooseberry -tree, 
Otaheite-gooseberry, star-gooseberiy , West-Indi- 
an-gooseberrj', gooseberry -tree, jimbling (United 
States, English) ; wild-plum (British Honduras) ; 
wild gooseberry (Briti.sh Guiana) ; sybilline 
(Haiti) ; surelle (St. Bartheleniy) ; ponime surelle 
(Guadeloupe) ; gooseberry (Dutch West Indies) ; 
goesberie (Surinam) ; roselle (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Phyllantlni.'i distichus 
(L.) Muell.-Arg., Cicca disticha L., C. acida (L.) 
Merr. 

This species is botanically uni-elated to the true 
gooseberry, which is a prickly bush {Rihes grossu- 
Itiria L., family Saxifragaceae) grown in tem- 
perate regions and having fruits with similar 
flavor. 

The genus sometimes divided into several, is 
represented also by 2 native tree species, 1 of which 
is illustrated here, and by 6 species of herbs and 
shrubs. Jagiierillo {PhyUanthuf: jtigJandifoUus 
Willd.; synonyms P. grandifolms auth., not L., 
Astrmndra grandifoJia auth.), known also as to- 
billo and gamo de costa, is a small tree with larger 
oblong or lance-shaped leaves 2-6 inches long. 



280 



127. Grosella, Otaheite gooseberry-tree 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels 



281 



128. Millo 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 

Phyllanthus nobilis (L. f.) Muell.-Arg. 



Millo is a small tree distineuislied by: (1) dark 
brown twigs witJi numerous conspicuous, raised, 
light brown, warty dots (lenticels), the alternate 
leaves hanging down in 2 rows; (2) thin narrowly 
elliptic leaves 2-5 inches long and ^A-l% inches 
In-oad, short- or long-pointed at both ends, above 
dull green or dark green and beneath pale whitish 
green; (3) tiny 4-parted green flowei-s, male and 
female on ditlerent trees (dioecious) in lateral 
clusters scattered along the twig; and (4) green- 
ish seed capsules %6 inch in diameter, rounded 
but broader than long, with 5 or 4 peculiar narrow 
2-forked styles remaining flattened on apex, 
slightly fleshy but splitting into 5 or 4 dark blue 
segments, each 2-seeded. 

A deciduous tree 25-40 feet high and to 8 inches 
in tnmk diameter, with irregular spreading crown. 
The bark is light gray, smoothish but becoming 
slightly fissured and scaly, exposing the brown 
bark beneath. Inner bark is pinkish and slightly 
bitter. 

The leaves have short thin petioles V^-Vi mch 
long and at base a pair of pointed scales (stipules) 
i/i6 inch long. 

The male flowei-s less than Vs hich across are 
borne on threadlike stalks about ^,\e-, inch long, 
many clustered together at a node, consisting of 4 
sepals less than i/ie inch long and 4 stamens of the 
same length. The small but larger female flowers 
have stalks 14-1/2 inch long, calyx nearly %& inch 
across the 4 lobes which are turned downward, 
and pistil of rounded 5- or 4-celled ovary i/jg i^ch 
in diameter \\\i\\ 5 or 4 styles united at base, bent 
downward, each with 2-forked stigma. The brown 
seeds are Vg inch long. Flowering and fruiting 
nearly thi-ough the year, chiefly in the spring and 
early summer. Often flowering when leafless. 



The light brown sap wood is hard. Heart wood 
is brownish, sometimes pinkish and heavy (spe- 
cific sravity 0.9) . The wood is used only for posts 
and fuel. 

"Widely distributed in thickets and the under- 
story of forests in the coastal, moist limestone, and 
lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico. Also in 
St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola, and recorded 
from St. Croix. 

PrRLic FORESTS. — Cambalaclie, Guajataca, Lu- 
fpiillo, Susna. 

Range. — Widely distrilnited in tropical Amer- 
ica. Through West Indies in Cuba, Jamaica, His- 
]5aniola. Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, Lesser 
Antilles from Saba to Grenada, and Trinidad. 
Also from Mexico to Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Gui- 
anas, and Venezuela. 

Other common names. — amortignado, palo de 
millo, higuillo, avispillo, siete-cueros, yuquillo 
(Puerto Rico) ; false gooseberry (Virgin Islands) ; 
palo amargo (Dominican Republic) ; gnaicaje, 
azulejo, lloron (Cuba) ; nistamal (El Salvador) ; 
carillo (Nicaragua) ; pinturero, yayo (Colombia) ; 
guarataro (Venezuela); chaquirillo (Ecuador); 
ucariviro (Peru) ; bastard hog-ben-y (Jamaica) ; 
clawberry, ramon macho (British Honduras) ; 
mille branches, bois diable, acomat batard (Guade- 
loupe) ; gooseberry (Dutch West Indies) ; boskof- 
fie ( Surinam ) . 

Botanical synonyms. — Margarifaria nohilis 
L. f., M. nohilis var. nntillana (A. Juss.) Stehle & 
Quentin, FJu/Uanthus antillamis (A. Jus.s.) 
Muell.-Arg., P. nobilix var. antillanus (A. Juss.) 
Muell.-Arg. 



282 




128. Millo 



Natural size. 



Phyllanthus noMlis (L. f.) Muell.-Arg. 



283 



SPURGE FAMILY (EUPHORBIACEAE) 



129. Tabaiba 

A mediuin-sized poisonous tree of moist forests 
confined to Puerto Rico, easily recognized by : (1) 
abundant irritating and poisonous milky juice; 
(2) the oblong or elliptic dark green leaves, 
slightly thickened and shiny, with many straight 
parallel lateral veins almost at right angles to mid- 
rib and 2 raised dotlike glands at upper end of 
petiole; and (3) the small yellowish-green flowere 
stalkless on narrow lateral axes %-2 inches long, 
mostly male with 1 or a few female flowei-s often 
present at base (monoecious). 

An evergreen tree 20-fiO feet high and to 2 feet 
in tiimk diameter, with a columnar crown. The 
light brown bark is smoothish or slightly fissui-ed 
and thin. Inner bark is whitish,- its thick white 
latex causing a lingering irritation in the mouth 
when tasted. The twigs are green, becoming 
brown or gi'ay. 

The alternate leaves have green petioles 1/4-1^,4 
inches long and blades mostly 21/2-6 inches long 
and 11.^-214 inches broad, sometimes to 8 inches 
long and 2% inches wide. They are abruptly 
short-pointed at apex and short-pointed or 
rounded at base, finely and inconspicuously 
toothed or almost without teeth, paler and slightly 
shiny on lower surface. 

Near the ends of twigs are located the green 
flower clustei-s (spikes). Male flowei-s, in groups 
of 3-9 above a broad romided scale, are about Vir 
inch long and broad, yellow green, and consist of 
a cup-shaped 2-toothed calyx and 2 stamens. Fe- 
male flowers when present at base of axis are 
borne singly and are long and narrow, V8~%6 ii^oh 
long, green, composed of a cup-shaped 3-lobed 
calyx and pistil with ovary and 3 styles. 

The seed capsules are nearly round or slightly 
3-angled, about % inch in diameter, green, turning 



Sapium laurocerasus Desf. 

brown, slightly fleshy but becoming di-y, with 3 
white seeds about I/4 inch long. Flowering and 
fruiting from spring to fall. 

The sapwood is wjiitish, and the heartwood light 
brown or light yellow. The wood is soft, light- 
weight (specific gravity 0.38), mostly fine-tex- 
tured except for many large pores, with grain fre- 
quently tightly interlocked, and without visible 
growth rings. Rate of air-seasoning and amount 
of degrade are moderate. Machining character- 
istics are as follows: planing is excellent ; shaping 
and turning are fair; boring and mortising are 
poor ; sanding is very poor ; and resistance to screw 
splitting is good. The wood is very susceptible to 
attack by dry-wood termites and other insects and 
to decay. Sap-staining fungi discolor freshly cut 
wood if it is neither dipped in fungicide nor dried 
promptly. 

Though cut occasionally for posts, the wood is 
unjropular l>ecause the caustic latex injures the 
skin. It is suitable for boxes, crates, interior con- 
struction, jiaper pulp, and plywood. Latex of re- 
lated South American species has been a minor 
source of rubber. 

In forests of the lower and upper mountain and 
moist limestone regions of Puerto Rico. Also re- 
ported long ago from St. John but not seen in 
flower there. Sterile specimens possibly of this 
species were collected at Tortola in 1954. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Ri'o Abajo, Toro Negi-o. 

Municipalities where espbciallt common. — 
1, 10, 35. 

Range. — Known definitely only from Puerto 
Rico. 

Other common names. — manzanillo, lechecillo 
(Puerto Rico). 



284 




129. Tabaiba 



Natural size. 



Bapium laurocerasus Desf. 



285 



CASHEW FAMILY (ANACARDLACEAE) 



Key to the 6 species illustrated (Nos. 130-135) 
A. Leaves simple. 

B. Leaves elliptic or obovate. roiinded at both ends or slightly notched at apex — 130. Anacardiiim occidentale. 
BB. Leaves lance-shai)ed, long-pointed at both end.s — 131. Mangifcra indica* 

AA. Leaves pinnate. 

C. Leaflets usually 5 (3-7), ovate, blunt-pointed or minutely notched at apex; sap poisonous to the touch — 132. 

Metopium toxiferum. 
CC. Leaflets 9-25. 

1). Leaflets mostly lance-shaped, long- or short-pointed at apex, with .short stalks about % inch long. 
E. Leaflets inconspicuously toothed — 133. Spotidias diilcis* 
BE. Leaflets not toothed — 134. Spondias nwmbiii. 
DD. Leaflets elliptic, rounded or short-pointed at apex, almost stalkless — 135. Spondias purpurea* 



130. Pajuil, cashew 

Known for its cashew nuts and fruits, this small 
tree of sandy areas on the north coast of Puerto 
Rico, sometimes planted, is identified by: (1) a 
dense irregular crown of obovate or elliptic, dull 
blue-green, leathery leaves 2i/o-6 inches long and 
13/4-3 inches broad, rounded at both ends or slight- 
ly notched at apex, with the edges turned under 
and with prominent sunken lateral veins nearly 
at right angles to the midrib; (2) many fragrant 
pinkish flowers about % incli long, with 5 very 
narrow petals, short-stalked and crowded toward 
ends of terminal branched clusters; and (3) the 
very odd fruits consisting of a shiny gray-brown 
kidney-shaped or bean-shaped nut (edible only 
when roasted), about 1-11/4 inches long on a yel- 
low or reddish, fruitlike, enlarged, pear-shaped 
stalk or false fruit about 13/4-3 inches long and 
13/4-2 inches broad, juicy and edible, thus appear- 
ing as if the nut grows outside the fruit. The nut 
shell contains a caustic poisonous oil which blisters 
or burns the skin. 

An evergi-een tree to 20 feet high and 6 inches 
in trunk diameter, or often shrubby. The light 
gray to brown bark is smoothish, becoming slightly 
fissured. The whitish to reddish-brown inner bark 
is thick, bitter, and a.stringent, and contains a 
milky juice, and larger trunks yield a gum. Twigs 
are yellow green and finely liairy when young, 
becoming light gray, stiff, and crooked. 

The alternate leaves have broad yellow-green 
petioles 1,4-^2 i'l^h long. Leaf blades slightly 
thickened, pale beneath. 

The widely spreading flower clusters (panicles) 
are 4—19 inches long and nearly as broad. Flowers 
are male and bisexual on the same tree (polyg- 
amous). Calyx is more than %f^ inch long, light 
green and finely hairy, narrowly 5-lobed nearly 
to ba.se; the 5 pinkish petals yellow green at first 
are %-V2 i'^ch long, long-pointed, spreading and 
curved backward, and miiuitely hairy ; 10 or fewer 
stamens, 1 much longer than the others, slightly 
united at base; and in bi.sexual flowers a pistil on 
a disk with 1-celled ovary and slender curved 
style on 1 side. 

The nuts, which are the true fruits, are attached 
at end, dry, and do not split open. Inside the 
poisonous shell is 1 large curved seed nearly 1 inch 
long, the edible cashew nut. As the nut matures, 

286 



Anacardium occidentale L. 

the stalk (receptacle) at base enlarges rapidly 
within a few days into a fleshy fruitlike structure 
broadest at apex, popularly known as the fruit. 
This thin-skinned edible cashew "fruit"" has light 
yellow spongy flesh, which is very juicy and pleas- 
antly acid and slightly astringent when eaten raw 
l)ut highly astringent when green. Flowering 
from February to May, the fruit maturing from 
Ajn-il to August. 

The wood is whitish, brownish, or pinkish, of 
medium hardness, mediumweight (specific gravity 
0.5), moderately strong, and easy to work but 
susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. 
Though little used in Puerto Rico, the wood has 
been employed elsewhere locally in construction 
and carpentry, including boatbuilding, yokes, 
hubs, etc., and for charcoal. The bark has served 
in tanning. Mucilage repellent to insects and var- 
nish liave been made from the gum, which is 
similar to gum arabic, and an indelible ink from 
the milky sap. 

The tree is valued primarilv for the inits and 
fruits. Roasted cashew nuts are an item of world 
commerce. In roasting, the poisonous oil of the 
shell is removed by heat, but the caustic fumes 
and drops of oil may blister the skin and inflame 
the eyes if care is not exercised. The "fruits" are 
eaten fresh or in preserves and have been em- 
ployed in preparation of wine and vinegar. 

Cardol oil, the poisonous, thick, black, very acrid 
oil of the shell of the nut, has been used medici- 
nally and to preserve book bindings, carved wood, 
and similar articles against insects. A nutritious 
oil similar to olive oil has been obtained from the 
seeds. The bark has been the source of medicines 
also. As the flowers are attractive to bees, this 
species has been classed also among the honey 
plants. 

Living fences have been made from the trees, 
which sometimes are grown for ornament. The 
l^lants mature at a very early age and are short- 
lived, flowering and fruiting as early as the second 
or third or sometimes the first year after sowing. 
Through the tropics the trees are grown in planta- 
tions for the nuts and "fruits," but they are semi- 
wild or naturalized in many regions. In the Vir- 
gin Islands the trees are uncommon but widely 
planted for shade and fruit, such as around houses, 




ISO. Pajuil, cashew 



Natural size. 



Anacardium occldentale L. 



287 



along roads, and in waste jxronnds. 

Limited to the moist coastal region of Puerto 
Rico, chiefly on the white sands between Bayamon 
and Aguadilla. Also in Culebra, Vieques, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin 
Gorda. 

R.\NGE. — Tliroughout West Indies, except Ba- 
hamas, from Cuba to Trinidad and Dutcji AVest 
Indies. Also from southern Mexico to Peru and 
Brazil, the range extended through cultivation 
and naturalization. Planted also in southern 
Florida. Cultivated and naturalized in Africa, 
India, and elsewhere in the Old World tropics. 

It has been suggested that Indians from South 



America may have brought this species to the West 
Indies in pre-Columbian times. 

Other cojimon n.\mes. — c a j u i 1, maraiion 
(Puerto Rico) ; maraiion (Spanish) ; cajuil (Do- 
minican Republic) ; jocote maraiion (Guatemala, 
Hondiiras, El Salvador) ; merey (Colombia, Ven- 
ezuela) : caju, casu (Peru) ; cashew, cashew-nut, 
casliew-apple (United States, English) ; acajou, 
noix d'acajou, pomme d'acajou, pommier d'acajou 
(French) ; pomme cajou (Guadeloupe) ; acajou a 
pomme, noix d'acajou (French Guiana) ; cashu, 
palu di cashu]>ete, kasjoe, cashew, cherry (Dutch 
West Indies) ; kasjoe, boschkasjoe, mereke, orvi 
(Surinam) ; caju, cajueiro (Brazil). 



CASHEW FAMILY (ANACARDIACEAE) 



131. Mango 



This popular introduced fruit and shade tree, 
bearing one of the finest tropical fruits, hardly re- 
quires description. It is characterized by: (1) a 
very dense round crown and stout trunk; (2) 
large, leathery, dark green, lance-shaped or nar- 
rowly oblong leaves long-pointed at both ends or 
short-pointed at base, drooping in conspicuous 
red-brown clusters when fii-st ]iroduced; (3) nu- 
merous small yellow-green to pink S-parted flow- 
ers about 1/4 inch across in large showy terminal 
clusters; and (4) the familiar large, elliptic, yel- 
low fruits with edible flesh and a large seed in a 
mass of fibers. 

A medium-sized to large evergreen tree attain- 
ing 20-05 feet in height witli trunk to 3 feet in 
diameter. The brown bark is smoothish, with 
many thin fissures, and thick, becoming darker, 
rough, and scaly or furrowed. Inner bark is light 
brown and bitter. A wliitish latex exudes from cut 
twigs, and a resin from cuts in the trunk. The 
stout twigs are pale green and hairless. 

The alternate leaves have petioles V^-'^Vi inches 
long and swollen at base. Leaf blades are 6-12 
inches long and 114-3 inches broad, curved up- 
ward from midrib and sometimes with edges a 
little wavy. 

Large branched flower clusters (panicles) are 
6-8 inches or more in length, with reddish hairy 
branches. The short-stalked finely haiiy fragrant 
flowers are partly male and partly bisexual (po- 
lygamous). The yellow-green calyx i/m inch long 
is deeply .5-lobed; there are 5 spreading petals 
more than i/s inch long, pink l)ut turning reddish ; 
5 stamens, 1 fertile and 4 shorter and sterile, borne 
on a disk; and some flowers have a pistil with 
1-celled ovarj' and slender lateral style. 

The large aromatic fruits (drupes) on hanging 
stalks are mostly 3^1/^ inches long, slightly nar- 
rowed toward apex and a little flattened, soft at 
maturity. The yellow flesh is thick and juicy, the 
seed 21/2-31/4 inches long, flattened, and weighing 
about an ounce. Flowering mainly in winter and 



Mangifera indica L.* 

spring (recorded from November to July) and 
maturing fruits mostly from May to September. 

The sapwood is cream colored or light brown, 
and tile heartwood pale yellow or brown and often 
with darker s])ots and irregidar lines. The wood 
is hai-d, moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.62), 
tougli, strong, and medium-textured and has 
straight to wavy grain, many large pores, and 
growth rings. Rate of air-seasoning is moderate, 
and amount of degrade minor. Machining char- 
acteristics are as follows: planing, shaping, and 
turning are fair; boring, mortising, and resistance 
to screw sjilitting are good; and sanding is poor. 
The wood works easily but with only fair results. 
It is susceptible to attack by di-y-wood termites. 

In Puerto Rico the wood has been used occasion- 
ally for meat chopping-blocks as well as for fuel. 
Elsewhere it has been employed for furniture, car- 
pentry, flooring, construction, boxes and crates, 
carts, plywood, and dry cooperage. Beautiful fur- 
niture has been made from a variety with streaked 
wood. 

Tliis is perliaps the most popular fruit through 
tropical America. Though usually eaten raw, 
mangos are also cooked or made into preserves or 
juice. Numerous improved varieties with larger 
and less fibrous fruits have been developed. These 
superior varieties, propagated vegetatively by 
budding or grafting, should replace the common 
unimproved fibrous mangos which are grown from 
seeds. 

Mango is an excellent hardy shade tree. It is 
also among the important honey plants, secreting 
quantities of ne-ctar, and the flowers reportedly 
are edible. Livestock eat the fruits. The seeds, 
flowers, bark, leaves, and resin have been em- 
ployed medicinally, and the bark and leaves yield 
a yellow dye. A few persons have skin sensitive 
to the sap, which produces a rash around the 
mouth and on the face. 

Widely planted as a fruit tree and shade tree 
around houses and along highways and commonly 



288 




131. Mango 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Mangifera indica L. 



289 



escapinp; from cultivation and naturalized almost 
throughout Puerto Rico with the exception of the 
mangrove, dry limestone, and upper mountain 
regions. Throiigh the Virgin Islands commonly 
planted and also spontaneous except in the drier 
areas. Mona, Culebra, Vieques, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

R.\xGE. — Native of tropical Asia probably from 
India east to Vietnam. Planted and escaped from 
cultivation tliroughout the tropics, including 
southern Florida and Florida Keys, West Indies, 
and from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Grown also 
in southern California. 



Though the exact date of introduction into the 
New World is uncertain, mango reportedly 
reached Mexico and Brazil before the end of the 
17th century. About 174'2 this fruit was first in- 
troduced into the West Indies at Barbados from 
Brazil and in 1782 reached Jamaica. It is thought 
that mangos have been cultivated by man for 4,000 
years. 

Other roMirox n.ames. — mango, mango (Span- 
ish) ; mango (United States, English) ; mangue, 
manguier (French) ; mangot, mangotine (Guade- 
loupe) ; manggo, manggaboom (Dutch); manja, 
kajanna manja, bobbie manja (Surinam) ; manga, 
mango, mangueira (Brazil). 



CASHEW FAMILY (ANACARDIACEAE) 
132. Papayo, Florida poisontree Metopium toxiferum (L.) Krug & Urban 



This small tree related to poison-ivy of the 
United States, with caustic sajj poisonous to the 
touch, is abundant in Mona but uncommon in 
Puerto Rico. It is characterized by: (1) smooth- 
isli light gray bark mottled with yellow to brown 
spots; (2) a broad rounded crown of widely 
spreading stout branches; (3) pinnate leaves with 
usually 5 (3-7) mostly ovate leathery leaflets 
blunt-pointed or sometimes minutely notched at 
a])ex and nearly straight at base on yellow-green 
axes and leaflet stalks; (4) many small 5-))artecl 
greenish flowers about %6 i'^ch across in branched 
lateral clusters; and (5) numerous elliptic or ob- 
long fruits %-J/2 inch long and 14 i'lch in diam- 
eter, green turning to orange brown at maturity. 

An evergreen tree 15-20 feet in height and 6-12 
inches in trmik diameter. The distinctive bark 
peels off in thin scales or flakes, exposing the yel- 
low to brown thin inner layer. Inner bark is pink- 
ish. The stout twigs are brown with many raised 
orange-brown dots (lenticels), finely haii-y when 
young. The poisonous watery sap turns black 
upon drying. 

The alternate leaves clustered near ends of twigs 
are 6-11 inches long and have leaflet stalks 14-I 
inch long. Leaflets are paired except the terminal 
one. Leaflet blades are V/j-Wi inches long and 
I-21/2 inches broad, not toothed at edges, above 
shiny green, and beneath yellow green and slightly 
shiny or dull. Some leaflets have scattered black 
dots composed in part of black dried sap at in- 
jured places. 

The slender, narrow flower clusters (panicles) 
at base of leaves are 6-10 inches long, bearing 
flowers on short stalks. Flowers are mostly male 
and female on different trees or partly bisexual 
(polygamous). There are 5 rounded sepals %2 
inch long, 5 yellow-green elliptic petals less than 
i/g inch long and with dark lines within, 5 stamens 
Vie inch long, and pistil (rudimentary in male 
flowers) on a disk, consisting of 1 -celled ovary, 
short style, and slightly 3-lobed stigma. 

290 



Fruits (drupes) retain the sepals at base and 
have 1 seed about i/4 i'lch long. Pigeons feed upon 
the great quantities of fruits on ]\Iona. Recorded 
with flowers in February and with fruits in sum- 
mer and fall. 

Sapwood is yellowish or light brown, and heart- 
wood dark brown streaked with red. The hard, 
heavy wood is easily worked, takes a fine polish, 
and is reported to be durable. It is little used in 
Puerto Rico but has served elsewhere for fence- 

])OStS. 

This species is of interest primarily as a poison- 
ous tree to be avoided and to be recognized in areas 
where found. The genus is closely related to that 
of the well-known poison-ivy and ]3oison-oak 
(Toncodf)uJi'on or RhuA) in the United States. 
The sap of all parts of the plant is irritating to 
the skin of many persons and often ])roduces a 
painful rash or swelling u]>on contact with leaves 
or twigs. For example, men clearing land where 
this tree grows have suffered inflammation of the 
skin. 

Sometimes the trees are seen as ornamentals in 
southern Florida, where they may have persisted 
from the original forest. A resinous gmn from the 
bark is said to have medicinal jiroperties. Also a 
honey plant. 

In" forests and thickets of the di-y limestone re- 
gion and rare in the moist limestone region of 
Puerto Rico. One of the commonest trees of 
Mona. Absent from Culebra, Vieques, and Virgin 
Islands. 

Public forest. — Cambalache (very rare). 

Raxoe. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, through Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola. Mona 
and Puerto Rico, and Anguilla in Leeward 
Islands. 

Other common xames. — almendron, c e d r o 
prieto (Puerto Rico) ; giiao de cost a (Cuba) ; 
Florida poisontree, poisonwood. West Indies 
poisontree (United States) : poisontree, poison- 
wood (Bahamas); mancenillier (Haiti). 




132. Papayo, Florida poisontree 



Natural size. 



Metopium toxiferum (L.) Krug & Urban 

291 



CASHEW FAMILY (ANACARDLACEAE) 
133. Jobo de la India, ambarella Spondias dulcis Parkinson* 



This exotic fruit tree is characterized by: (1) 
pinnate leaves 8-1-2 inches lontj witli 11-23 sliort- 
stalked, lance-sliapecl or oblonjj leaflets lyo-iYo 
inches long, thin and long-pointed, the edges in- 
conspiciioiislv toothed and turned under; (2) nu- 
merous small, fragrant, whitish, 5-parted flowers 
nearly l^ inch across in branched terminal clus- 
ters; and (3) large elliptic or rounded yellow 
fruits 2-4 inches long and 2 inches in diameter, 
sour and edible. 

A small to medium-sized deciduous tree reach- 
ing 20—10 feet in height and li/> feet in trunk di- 
ametei-, with few stout branches and stout twigs. 
The bark is smooth and greenish and exudes a res- 
inous juice. 

The leaves are alternate. Leaflets have stalks 
less than Vs inch long and blades paired except the 
terminal one, %-l inch broad, ?hort-pointed at 
base. 

The flower clusters (panicles) are 8-12 inches 
long, the flowers on stalks about Vie inch long. 
Flowers are male or female and bisexual on the 
same tree (polygamous). The small calyx is 
5-lobed; the 5 whitish petals less than Vs i'^ch long 
are spreading and bent downwards; there are 10 
stamens ; and the pistil on a disk has an ovary with 
5 styles. 

The thick-skinned fruits (drupes) are borne 
2-10 in a drooping cluster. They have a pleasant 
odor and flavor suggesting apples. The large few- 
seeded stone 1-11/^ inches long has stiff spinelike 
projections into the yellow juicy pulp. In fruit 
through most of the year. 



The sapwood is whitish to light yellow, and the 
heartwood is light brown. The wood is moder- 
ately soft, lightweight, and not durable. 

The fruits are made into preserves as ^vell as 
eaten fresh. Plants are propagated readily by 
cuttings. 

Grown for its fruits in Puerto Rico, chiefly in 
the coastal regions. Also in St. Croix, St. Thomas, 
and St. John. 

Eange. — Native of Society Islands in the South 
Pacific but planted in various tropical regions and 
relatively uncommon in the New World. Culti- 
vated in southern Florida, through West Indies 
from Cuba and Jamaica to Trinidad and Tobago, 
and from Guianas and Venezuela to Brazil. 

Though introduced into Jamaica as early as 
1782, this has not become a popular fruit tree in 
the West Indies. 

Other common names. — citara (Puerto Rico) ; 
pomme cythere (Virgin Islands) ; jobo de la India, 
manzana de ore (Dominican Republic) ; ciruela 
dulce, manzana de Otahiti, jobo de la India 
(Cuba) ; jobo de indio (Venezuela) ; manzana de 
oro (Ecuador) ; ambarella, golden-apple, vi-apple, 
Otaheite-apple (English) ; Otaheite-plum (Ja- 
maica) ; pomme cythere (French) ; mombin es- 
pagnol, robe (Haiti) ; prune cythere (Guadeloupe, 
Martinique) ; ponuiie de Cythere (Curasao, Suri- 
nam) ; fransi mope (Surinam) ; caja manga, im- 
buzeiro (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Spondias cytherea 
Sonner., S. dulcis Forst. f . 



292 




133. Jobo de la India, ambarella 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Spondias dulcia Parkinson 



293 



CASHEW FAMILY (ANACARDLACEAE) 



134. Jobo, hogplum, yellow mombin 

Jobo, which grows wild and is planted as a 
fence row tree and for its fruit, is recognized by : 
(1) numerous spinelike projections i/4~% "''ch 
long on the thick, corky bark of the trunk; (2) a 
very spreading yellow-green crown, usually with 
few nearly horizontal branches; (3) pinnate leaves 
8-16 inches or more in length with 9-19 asymmet- 
rical ovate or lance-shaped, short or long-pointed, 
thin leaflets; (4) numerous small, fragrant, yel- 
lowish-white, 5-parted flowers nearly I/4 inch 
across in showy branched terminal clusters; and 
(5) clusters of yellow, cylindrical, soft, juicy fruits 
11/4-114 inches long and %-l inch in diameter, 
edible though inferior. 

A small to medium-sizetl deciduous tree to 60 
feet in height and 2i/^ feet in trunk diameter. 
The whitish-brown or gray bark is smoothish ex- 
cept for numerous spinelike projections i/4-% inch 
high, becoming rough and furrowed. Inner bark 
is light pink and slightly bitter. A resin exudes 
from cuts. The stout twigs are hairless or finely 
hairy. 

The alternate leaves have slender and finely 
hairy axes. The leaflets are more or less paired 
except for the terminal one, on stalks Vs-Vi inch 
long. Leaflet blades are 2-4 inches long and 1-1% 
inches broad, short-pointed or rounded and oblique 
at base, the edges not toothed or slightly wavy, 
yellow-green on upper surface and paler beneath. 

The spreading flower clusters (panicles) are 6- 
12 inches or more in length, with flowers on short 
stalks 1/16 inch or more in length. Flowers are 
male or female and bisexual on the same tree 
(polygamous) . The minute hairy calyx is 5-lobed ; 
there are 5 yellowish-white petals nearly Vs inch 
long, spreading and curved back; 10 stamens; and 
pistil on a disk, composed of ovary and 4 styles. 

The pleasantly odorous f raits (drapes) have a 
thin yellow edible flesh with slightly sour pungent 
taste and a large few-seeded stone about 1 inch 
long. Flowering chiefly from winter to summer 
and maturing fruits from summer to winter. 

The sapwood is whitish or cream colored, and 
the heartwood similar when first cut but turning 
golden brown. Sap-staining fungi in seasoning 
often turn the wootl to a blue-gray color. The 
wood is soft., lightweight (specific gravity 0.41), 
with straight to slightly interlocked grain, coarse 
texture, and numerous pores. It is tough and 
strong for its weight. Rate of air-seasoning and 
amomit of degrade are moderate. Machining 
characteristics are as follows : planing is excellent; 
shaping, turning, boring, and mortising are poor ; 
sanding is fair; and resistance to screw splitting 
is good. The wood is perishable and very sus- 

294 



Spondias mombin L. 

ceptible to attack by dry-wood termites and other 
insects. 

In Puerto Rico the wood serves for fenceposts 
and fuel. It is used also for soft-drink cases, 
packing boxes, and matches. It will produce pulp 
for white paper and utility plywood and could be 
utilized for cheap furniture and light construction 
where protected. Other uses elsewhere are as a 
cork substitute and for charcoal, and the bark as 
an astringent. 

The trees are planted as living fenceposts and 
for shade and ornament, being readily propagated 
by cuttings and fast growing when not in deep 
shade. The fruits can be eaten, though inferior 
to the smaller fruits of puiple mombin (Spondias 
purjmrea L.), and serve to fatten hogs and cattle. 
A honey plant. 

Along roadsides and fence rows and in pastures 
and forests in the coastal, moist limestone, and 
lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico, perhaps 
naturalized rather than native. Also in St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Ptjbijc forests. — Aguirre, Cambalache, Carite, 
Guajataca, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, San 
Juan, Susua, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
8, 25, 30, 44. 

Range. — Throughout West Indies except Ba- 
hamas and from southern Mexico to Peru and 
Brazil, in part cultivated or naturalized. Planted 
in southern Florida. Also in Old World tropics, 
perhaps introduced. 

Other common names. — jobillo, jobo gusanero, 
jobo vano, jobo de perro (Puerto Rico) ; jobo 
(Spanish, commerce) ; ciraela amarilla (Domini- 
can Republic, Cuba, Mexico, Ecuador) ; jobo de 
puerco, joboban, ciruela (Dominican Republic) ; 
jobo hembra (Cuba) ; jocote jobo, jobo jocote 
(Guatemala) ; ciruela de monte, jocote (Hon- 
duras) ; jocote, jocote de jobo, ciruela de jobo, 
jocote montanero (Nicaragua) ; hogplum, wild- 
plum (Costa Rica, Panama) ; jobo bianco, jobo 
Colorado, jobo de castilla (Colombia) ; cuajo, 
guama zapatero (Venezuela) ; yellow mombin, 
hogplum (United States) ; hogplum (English) ; 
Bequia-plum (Bequia) ; hoba, hubu, plum-bush 
(British Guiana) ; mombin, monbin (French) ; 
mombin franc, myrobalane (Haiti) ; mombin 
fruits jaunes, prane mombin, prime Myrobolan 
(Guadeloupe) ; prunier mombin, monbinier 
(French Guiana) ; macaprein, hoba, yellow-plum 
(Dutch West Indies) ; mope (Surinam, com- 
merce) ; moppe, monbe, hooboo (Surinam) ; caja, 
caja-mirim, caja seira (Brazil). 

Botanical synontm. — Spondias lutea L. 




i»i5J 





134. Jobo, hogplum, yellow mombin 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Spondias mombin L. 



687-921 0—64 20 



295 



CASHEW FAMILY (ANACARDIACEAE) 



135. Ciruela del pais, purple mombin 

Occasionally planted in fence rows and for its 
edible fruits, this small tree, frequently with 
gnarled branches, is characterized by : (1) pinnate 
leaves 4—8 inches long witli 9-25 almost stalkless, 
elliptic, thin, yellow-green leaflets, %-lV^ inches 
long, rounded or short-pointed at apex, short- 
pointed and sliglitly oblique at base, with edges 
slightly wavy toothed; (2) small red or pnik 
5-parted flowers less than I/4 inch across, in lateral 
clustei-s; and (3) the yellow or purplish-red, cylin- 
drical, slightly sour, edible fruits 1-11/4 inches 
long. 

A small spreading deciduous tree to 30 feet 
high, with thick trunlc to 1 foot in diameter, or 
sometimes shiiibby. Tlie bark is brown or gray, 
smoothish, soft, and thick, becoming rough and 
warty on large trunks. Inner bark is whitish and 
brown streaked, soft, and astringent. The large 
branches are brittle and easily broken. The stout 
twigs are green with brown dots (lenticels), be- 
coming brown. 

The leaves ai-e alternate and with slender, 
angled, finely haii-y, yellow-green axes. Leaflet 
blades are more or less paired except for terminal 
one, 1/4-1 inch broad, nearly hairless, and dull or 
slightly shiny. 

The branched flower clusters (panicles) are 
short and finely hairy and bear few flowere on 
stalks about Vg inch long when the trees are leafless 
or nearly so. Flowers are male or female and bi- 
sexual on the same tree (polygamous). The mi- 
nute calyx is 5-lobed ; there are 5 petals about Vs 
inch long; 10 stamens; and pistil on a disk, with 
usually 5-celled ovary and 3 or 4 short styles. 

The short-stalked fruits (dnipes) have yellow, 
juicy and edible pulp and a large stone V2-% inch 
long, which is fibrous on the outside, and contain 
5 or fewer- seeds. Flowering in spring and matur- 
ing fruits in summer. 

The wood is wliitish, soft, lightweight, and 
brittle. It is seldom used, though elsewhere the 
ash has been employed in soapmaking. 

The fruits, which resemble plums (ciruelas) 
and have a similar flavor, are eaten raw or some- 
times cooked and produce wine and other alcoholic 
drinks. They serve also to fatten hogs and cattle. 



Spondias purpurea L.* 

In parts of Mexico and Central America this 
species is one of the most important fruits. The 
sour young shoots and leaves sometimes are eaten 
raw or cooked and are browsed by animals. 

Grown commonly as living fenceposts, tlie trees 
are easily propagated from cuttings and seeds. 
Tliey are luindsome with tlieir small flowers and 
showy fruits when leafless. Elsewhere the trees 
have been employed to support cultivated orchids. 

In fence rows, along highways, and near homes 
in the coastal regions, commonest and largest and 
in a narrow strip along the base of the southern 
side of the Cordillera of Puerto Eico. Probably 
naturalized rather than native. Also in St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, and St. John. 

Range. — Planted and naturalized tlu'oughout 
West Indies except Bahamas. Native of tropical 
continental America and widely distributed from 
central Mexico to Peru and Brazil, spread through 
cultivation. Planted in southern Florida. Also 
introduced into the Old World tropics. 

Other common names. — ciruela, jobillo, jobo 
f ranees (Puerto Rico) ; purple-plum (Virgin 
Islands) ; ciruela, ciruelo (Spanish) ; jobo, ciruela 
morada, ciruela sanjuanera (Dominican Repub- 
lic) ; ciruela colorada, ciruela campechana (Cuba) ; 
jocote (Mexico, Central America) ; jocote de 
invierno, jocote jobo, jobo, pitarrillo (El Salva- 
dor) ; jocote comiin (Nicaragua) ; jobito (Costa 
Rica) ; wild-plum (Costa Rica, Panama) ; hobo 
Colorado, ciruelo Colorado (Colombia) ; hobo, 
ciruela colorada (Ecuador); ajuela ciruelo 
(Peru); purple mombin, red mombin, hogplum, 
Spanish-plum (United States, English) ; Jamaica- 
plum (Trinidad); jobo (British Honduras); 
cirouelle (Haiti); prune d'Espagne, prune du 
Chili (Guadeloupe, Martinique) ; prune rouge, 
prune jaune, mombin rouge (Guacleloupe) ; noba, 
makka pruim, redplum, Jamacia-plum (Dutch 
AVest Indies) ; imbuzeiro, caja, ciroela (Brazil). 

BoTANic.VL SYNONYMS. — Spondios mombln L. 
(1759, not 1753), S. ciroueUa Tussac, S. purpurea 
L. forma luteci (Macfadyen) Fawcett & Rendle. 
The yellow-fruited form has been separated from 
the purple-fi-uited form by some authors as a 
species {S. ciroueUa Tussac) . 



296 




135. Ciruela del pais, purple mombln 



Natural size. 



Spondias purpurea L. 



297 



CYRILLA FAMILY (CYRILLACEAE) 



136. Palo Colorado, swamp cyrilla 

Palo Colorado, a large tree common in the higher 
mountains, is characterized by: (1) leathery, 
lance-shaped to narrowly elliptic leaves IV2-SV2 
inches long, blunt and minutely notched at apex, 
usually turning red before falling; (2) reddish- 
brown, smoothish thin bark on the large crooked 
and twisted trunks which splits otf in thin plates 
or scales, becoming whitish pink, spongy at base 
of ti'ee; (3) leaves confined chiefly to the top of 
a many-branched crown, which resembles a broom 
in appearance; and (-4) numerous crowded, small, 
white, 5-parted flowei-s % long in very narrow 
lateral flower clusters 3-6 inches long and only 
% inch broad. 

This evergreen tree generally becomes 50 feet 
high and 3 feet in diameter, rarely 60 feet in height 
and 6 feet in trunk diameter. On exposed moun- 
tain ridges and sununits it may be small or 
shrubby. The bark on small trunks does not have 
the reddish-brown color noted above but is gray 
to brown, smoothish and minutely fissured. The 
inner bark is reddish to brown and bitter. Young 
twigs are brown, turning gray. 

The alternate leaves have petioles %-i4 inch 
long. The leaf blades are variable in form and 
size, commonly %-l inch broad, sometimes smaller, 
pointed at base, with edges curved under. They 
are gi-een and shiny on upper surface and pale 
green on lower surface. 

One to 10 flower clusters (spikelike racemes) on 
a twig are located below most of the leaves. They 
bear numerous short-stalked flowers %^ inch 
across and spreading slightly. There are 5 short, 
pointed sepals; 5 pointed "petals Vs inch long, 
white or also tinged with pink; 5 stamens; and 
pistil with a 2-celled ovary, short style, and 2 
stigmas. 

The many small, dry, egg-shaped fruits 
(drupes) i/g inch long are pink to red and contain 
2 or 3 light brown seeds. Flowering and fruiting 
probably during most of the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the seasoned 
heartwood attractive dark reddish brown. This 
vei-y hard, moderately heavy wood (specific 
gravity approximately 0.53) has fine uniform tex- 
ture, heavily interlocked grain, and prominent an- 
nual growth rings. The rate of air-seasoning is 
very slow, but degrade is exceptionally severe, and 
shrinkage is very high. Because of severe warp- 
ing, air-dry lumber is unfit for most commercial 
uses. Machining characteristics are as follows: 



Cyrilla racemiflora L. 

planing and resistance to screw splitting are ex- 
cellent; shaping, turning, boring, and mortising 
are good; and sanding is fair. The wood is sus- 
ceptible to dry- wood termites. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is seldom used except 
for fuel, because of the great warping in season- 
ing. Also, the large, very old trunks are short, 
often crooked, and usually hollow. However, in 
Cuba the handsomelj' colored wood has been made 
into furniture. The spongy bark at the base of 
trunk is absorbent, pliable, and astringent and has 
been recommended as a styptic. 

Sometimes planted in the United States as an 
ornamental because of the graceful white flower 
clusters and showy autumnal coloration of the foli- 
age. The flowere produce dark honey, and in 
Cuba the hollow trunks serve as beehives. 

Widely distributed in the forests of the upper 
mountain regions of Puerto Rico, chiefly in the 
Luquillo Mountains. The wild pari'ots native only 
in the Luquillo Mountains nest in these hollow 
trees. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Maricao, 
Toro Negro. 

Range.— Southeastern United States (near 
coast from southeastern Virginia to Florida and 
southeastern Texas), Gi-eater Antilles, and Lesser 
Antilles in Guadeloupe, Martinique, and St. Vin- 
cent. Also in southern Mexico (Oaxaca) and 
British Hondiu-as and from Venezuela to Guianas 
and northern Brazil. 

According to its unusual northward distribu- 
tion, this species is one of the hardiest native trees 
of Puerto Rico in resistance to cold. Growing 
wild north to southeastern Virginia, it has been 
cultivated farther north in eastern United States 
to New England. Over most of the wide range a 
small tree or shrub of swamps and river banks but 
in the mountains of the Greater Antilles it be- 
comes a large tree. 

Other comjion names. — Colorado (Puerto 
Rico) ; granado, palo coloi-ado, sabina macho (Do- 
minican Republic); barril, clavellina, llorona, 
yanilla (Cuba) ; piojillo, piojito (Venezuela) ; 
swamp cyrilla, American cyrilla, leatherwood, 
southern leatherwood, titi, white titi (United 
States) ; bloodwood, beetwood (Jamaica) ; wari- 
miri (British Guiana) ; bois couche, olivier nion- 
tagne (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical synonym. — Cyrilla antillana Michx. 



298 




136. Palo Colorado, swamp eyrilla 




Natural size. 



Cyrilla racemiflora L. 

299 



BLADDERNUT FAMILY (STAPHYLEACEAE) 



137. Sauco cimarron 

This small or medium-sized tree is character- 
ized by: (1) opposite pinnat« leaves with 5-11 el- 
liptic or ovate leaflets also paired except for the 
terminal one, the edges minutely saw-toothed; (2) 
numerous small 5-pai-ted greenish-white flowers 
about 1/4 inch across in a large broad, branched, 
terminal cluster; and (3) nearly round or slightly 
3-lobed fruits Vo-^ inch in diameter, mostly on 
long, slender, spreading stalks. 

An evergreen tree commonly less than 30 feet 
high and 6 inches in trunk diameter with an open 
crown, hairless throughout except for young twigs 
and young leaves. The gray bark is much fissured 
and thin. Inner bark is brown and almost taste- 
less. The brown twigs are stout and slightly 
fissured. 

The leaves, 5-10 inches long, have a slender 
light green or pinkish-tinged axis, and the leaflets 
have short stalks 1/3-% inch long. Leaflet blades 
are li/^-4 inches long and y2-^% inches broad, 
mostly short-pointed at apex and rounded or 
short-pointed at base, the saw-toothed edges often 
wa^'y, thin or very slightly thickened, gi^een and 
often shiny on upper surface, light green beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are mostly 6-12 
inches long and nearly as broad and have long, 
slender, horizontally spreading, light green 
branches bearing many short-stalked fragrant 
flowers. The calyx consists of 5 light gi-een im- 
equal elliptic sepals less than i/g inch long, remain- 



Turpinia paniculata Vent. 

ing on fruit ; there are 5 white rounded petals more 
than % inch long; 5 whitish stamens i/g inch long; 
and pistil 14 inch long on a lobed disk with 3- 
lobed, 3-celled ovary and 3 united styles which 
often remain on the fiiiit as points or hooks. 

The rounded fruits are broader than long and 
slightly 3-angled, turning from green to brown, 
dry but not splitting open, 3-celled. There are 
3-6 shiny light brown elliptic seeds 14 inch long. 
Flowering chiefly in spring (Febi-uary to June), 
the fniits maturing in summer and fall (July to 
October) . 

The sapwood is whitish and hard. The heart- 
wood is moderately resistant to attack by dry- 
wood termites. Reported to be brittle, the wood 
is used only for fuel. 

Lower and upper mountain forests of Puerto 
Rico, ascending to summits of peaks. Also in 
Tortola. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guajataca, Guilarte, 
Luquillo, Maricao, Toro Negro. 

]\IUNICIP.\L1TY WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. 10. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and 
Tortola. Also from southern Mexico and Guate- 
mala to Panama. 

Other common names. — sauquillo, lilayo, eu- 
genio (Puerto Rico) ; cedro hembra (Dominican 
Republic) ; saiico cimarron, roble giiira, serrucho 
(Cuba) ; cedrillo (El Salvador) ; cajeta, tinta 
(Guatemala). 



300 




137. Saueo clmarr6n 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Turpinia paniculata Vent. 



301 



SOAPBERRY FAMILY (SAPINDACEAE) 

Key to the 6 species illustrated (Nos. 13S-143) 

A. Leaves simple, elliptic, the edges finely toothed — 142. Tliouinia portoricensis. 
AA. Leaves compound. 

B. Leaflets 3, elliptic or obovate, broadest beyond middle, short-pointed at both ends, toothed on edges — 143. 
Tliouinia striata. 
BB. Leaflets pinnate, 4 or more (sometimes only 2). 

C. Leaflets 4-S, not paired, with wavy-toothed edges, elliptic, those toward apex largest, rounded or notched 
at apex — 13S. Cupania ainericana. 
CC. Leaflets mostly paired, not toothed. 

D. Leaflets 2-8, rounded or blunt-ixiinted at apex, on slender reddish or dark brown axis; fruit a 
flattened seed capsule — 139. Matayba domiiKjcnsis. 
DD. Leaflets long- or short-pointed at both ends, on axis often winged; fruit round, fleshy. 

E. Leaflets 4, the pair at apex larger, fruit "/s-l^ inches in diameter, edible — 140. Melicoccus 
bijiigatus.* 
EE. Leaflets usually 6-12, sometimes only 1 at end : fruit %-l inch in diameter, yellow, inedible — 141. 
Sapiiitlus saponaria. 



138. Guara 



Cupania americana L. 



This tree is characterized by : (1 ) twigs and leaf 
axes brown hairy ; (2) pinnate leaves with 4-8 al- 
ternate elliptic or obovate leaflets, those toward 
apex largest, rounded or notched at apex, short- 
pointed at base, with wavy toothed edges, the up- 
per surface shiny green and hairy only on veins, 
and the lower surface paler and densely soft 
hairy; (3) numerous small whitish 5-parted flow- 
ers Vs ii^ch across, in mostly terminal branched 
clusters; and (4) the rounded seed capsules i/^-% 
inch long, bluntly 3-lobed, velvety -brown or rusty- 
brown hairy, splitting into 3 parts and exposing 3 
rounded shiny blackish seeds %6 i^ch long, each 
in an orange cup. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree attain- 
ing 20-50 feet in height and 10 inches in trunk 
diameter with a broadly spreading rounded crown. 
The gray bark is smoothish or becoming rough and 
fissured into plates. Inner bark is light brown and 
slightly bitter. The twigs are stout. 

The leaves are alternate, 5-10 inches long, with 
stout axes. Leaflets have short hairy stalks Yg-y^ 
inch long and blades 1 1/0-6 inches long and %-2% 
inches broad and slightly thickened. 

The flower clusters (panicles) 4-8 inches long 
have brown hairy branches. Flowers are male, 
female, and bisexual (polygamous). There are 5 
hairy sepals nearly i/g inch long; 5 hairy, narrow 
stalked petals about as long as sepals, each with 2 
scales on the outer edges ; 8 stamens on a disk ; and 
pistil composed of hairy 3-celled ovary with short 
style and 3 stigmas. 

Seed capsules commonly are many and crowded 
in terminal branched clusters, short-stalked at 



base, opening widely into 3 parts, retaining the 3 
seeds attached for some time. Flowering in winter 
and early spring (December to March) and ma- 
turing fruits in spring and summer. 

The wood is light brown and hard, of medimn 
weight (specific gravity 0.4). Very susceptible to 
attack by dry-wood termites. Used in Puerto Rico 
chiefly for posts and poles and elsewhere for con- 
struction and shipbuilding. 

This species has been suggested as an ornamental 
and shade tree. The seeds and leaves sometimes 
serve for medicinal puiposes. Also a honey plant. 

Forests, especially along streams, in the moist 
coast, moist limestone, and lower mountain regions 
of Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. —Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susiia, Vega. 

Range. — Greater Antilles and in Lesser Antilles 
only in Dominica, Martinique, and Barbados, and 
in Trinidad and Tobago. Also in Colombia and 
Venezuela. 

Other common names. — guara blanca (Puerto 
Rico) ; guarana, guara (Dominican Republic) ; 
guara, guara comiin, guarano, guarana macho, 
guarana hembra (Cuba) ; guacharaco (Colom- 
bia) ; guara, patillo. zapatero, cabimo, guamo 
guara, guamo matias (Venezuela) ; candlewood- 
tree (Barbados) ; maraquil (Trinidad) ; bois de 
satanier (Haiti). 

A closely related species of guara (Cupania 
triqii^fra A. Rich.) in Puerto Rico differs in hav- 
ing twigs and seed capsules with shorter yellow- 
brown hairs and the seed capsules sharply 3-angled 
and on longer stalks. 



302 




138. Guara 



Natural size. 



Cupania americana L. 



303 



139. Negra lora 



SOAPBERRY FAMILY (SAPINDACEAE) 

Matayba domingensis (DC.) Radlk. 



Tliis medium-sized tree of mountain forests is 
characterized by: (1) pinnate leaves with 2-8 
paired elliptic or lance-shaped stiff and leathery 
leaflets IVo-Wi inches long and 1/4-11/4 inches 
broad, on a slender reddish or dark brown axis, 
rounded or blunt -pointed at apex and short- 
pointed at base, the upper surface shiny green and 
with many slightly raised lateral veins, pale or 
with a brownish cast beneath; (2) minute 4- or 
5-parted flowei-s less than Yg inch long and broad, 
numerous in lateral branched flower clusters; and 
(3) odd, reverse heart-shaped (obcordate) dark 
brown or blackish seed capsules i/2-% inch long 
and broad, mostly flattened and less than %6 inch 
thick. 

An evergreen tree attaining 30-60 feet in height 
and 11/4 feet in trunk diameter, with a compact, 
slightly spreading crown. The bark is dark 
brown, smoothish, about I/4 inch thick, often spot- 
ted with an orange-red lichen. Inner bark is red- 
dish brown, bitter and gritty. The twigs are red- 
dish brown or dark brown, finely hairy when 
young. 

Some leaves are alternate and othere opposite, 
3-8 inches long. Leaflets have short stalks %-i/4 
inch long and blades with minute lighter dots, not 
toothed on edges. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are 1-4 inches long, 
with finely hairy branches. The numerous hairy 
flowers are male, female, and bisexual (polyga- 
mous). There are 4 or 5 pointed sepals, 4 or 5 
smaller petals, 8 stamens on a disk, and pistil 
with usually 2-celled ovary, style, and 2 stigmas. 

Seed capsules are slightly stalked, hard, com- 
monly 2-lobed and 2- or 1 -seeded, reported as also 
3-lobed. The shiny black seeds are %6 inch long 



and flat. Flowering and fruiting nearly through 
the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
uniform pinkish brown or reddish brown. The 
wood is attractive, very hard, heavy (specific 
gravity 0.70), strong, fine- textured, of usually ir- 
regidar and interlocked grain, and has a distinc- 
tive foul odor. The rate of air-seasoning is low, 
and amount of degrade is moderate. Machining 
characteristics are as follows : planing and resist- 
ance to screw splitting are fair; and shaping, turn- 
ing, boring, mortising, and sanding are good. The 
wood is moderately difficult to saw and dulls cut- 
ting edges. It is vei-y susceptible to damage by 
dry -wood termites and other insects and is not 
durable. 

Chief uses in Puerto Rico are posts and poles, 
though preservative treatment is recommended. 
The wood is suitable far furniture, cabinetwork, 
turnei-y, interior trim, flooring, handles, agricul- 
tural implements, vehicle bodies, and light and 
heavy construction. 

Forests of the transition zone between the lower 
and upper mountain regions of Puerto Rico. 

PiTBLic FORESTS. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — doncella, tea cima- 
rrona, raton, escoba (Puerto Rico) ; raton, guara 
(Dominican Republic) ; caraicillo, macurije 
(Cuba). 

A second species known as doncella (Matayba 
oppositifoUa (A.Rich.) Britton) has oblong leaf- 
lets short- or long-pointed at apex and the leaves 
opposite. It apparently is rare in mountain 
forests of Puerto Rico. 



304 




139. Negra lora 



Natural size. 



Matayha domingensia (DC.) Radlk. 



305 



SOAPBERRY FAMILY (SAPINDACEAE) 



140. Quenepa, kinep, Spanish-lime 

Quenepa is a familiar exotic tree planted for its 
edible f rait and shade. It is distinguished by : ( 1 ) 
erect form and a dense symmetrical globular crown 
of dull light gi-een foliage ; ( 2 ) pinnate leaves with 
4 paired elliptic leaflets 3-5 inches long and li/i- 
21^ inches broad, long- or short -pointed at both 
ends and slightly oblique at base, almost stalkless 
along an axis sometimes winged; and (3) small 
gi"eenish-white fragrant flowers about %6 ^^ch 
across, very numerous in terminal branched clus- 
tere; and (4) round or elliptic green fruits %-li/4 
inches in diameter with thni, sweet and acid, juicy 
flesh and 1 (sometimes 2) large seed. 

An evergreen tree becoming 40-60 feet high, 
with trunk 1-2 feet in diameter, slightly angled 
and fluted. The bark is gray and smoothish, the 
inner bark orange brown, gritty, and tasteless. 
Twigs are brown or gray, greenish when young. 

The alternate leaves are 6-8 inches long, with 
light green axis 21/2-3 inches long. Leaflets are 
thin, not toothed on edges, the pair at apex larger. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are 3-6 inches long 
and broad, with several to many narrow branches. 
Flowers are mostly male and female on different 
trees but partly of both sexes (polygamous), on 
spreading stalks i/i inch long. Calyx is deeply 4- 
or 5-lobed, the lobes more than i/ie ^^^('^ long; 
there are 4 or 5 rounded greenish-white petals 
about Yg inch long; 8-10 stamens on a disk; and 
pistil composed of 2- or 3-celled ovary with short 
style and 2- or 3-lobed stigma. 

Fruits (drupes), borne in clusters, are marketed 
for their thin flesh, which is gelatinous and slight- 
ly flbrous, yellowish to salmon colored, and sug- 
gestive of grapes. The pale yellow elliptic seeds 



Melicoccus bijugatus Jacq.* 

%-!% inches long are edible when roasted. 
Flowering in spring (April to June), the fraits 
maturing from June to September. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
light brown or pale yellow gray. The wood is of 
medium weight and fairly hard but reportedly not 
resistant to decay. Elsewhere it has been used in 
construction, interior work, and cabinets. 

Besides furnishing f iniit and shade, the trees are 
honey plants, their pleasantly scented flowers at- 
tracting bees. 

Planted as a frait and shade tree and along 
highways in Puerto Rico and escaping from culti- 
vation. Commonest in the dry coastal region. 
Also in Mona, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, 
and Tortola. 

Range. — Native of Colombia, Venezuela, and 
Guianas. Widely planted and escaping or na- 
turalizes! throughout West Indies from Bahamas 
and Cuba to Trinidad and Curasao. Cultivated 
also in southern Florida and California, Bermuda, 
Central America, Ecuador, and perhaps elsewhere 
in tropical America. Also introduced in Asia. 

Other common names. — genip, ginep (Virgin 
Islands) ; mamon (Spanish, commerce) ; mamon- 
cillo (Spanish) ; quenepa (Puerto Rico, Colom- 
bia) ; limoncillo, quenepa (Dominican Republic) ; 
escanjocote (Nicaragua) ; mamon de Cartagena 
(Costa Rica) ; Spanish-lime, genip, mamoncillo 
(United States) ; genip (English) ; chenet (Trini- 
dad ) ; quenepe ( Haiti ) ; quenette, quenettier, kene- 
pier (Guadeloupe) ; quenette (French Guiana) ; 
kenepa, kiimup-tree (Dut:Ch West Indies) ; knip- 
pen (Surinam). 

Botanical synonym. — Melicocca hijuga L. 



306 




140. Quenepa, kinep, Spanish-lime 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Melicoccus iijugatus Jacq. 



307 



SOAPBERRY FAMILY (SAPINDACEAE) 



141. Jaboncillo, wingleaf soapberry 

Small to medium-sized tree sometimes plajited 
for shade, characterized by: (1) pinnate leaves 
8-16 inches long, witli usually 6-12 paired elliptic 
to lance-shaped dull green leaflets, the green axis 
often with a wing V^^-Vi ii^ch wide; (2) very nu- 
merous small 5-parted whitish flowers %6 i'lch 
across in large branched lateral clustere 6-18 inches 
long; and (3) shiny brown ball-like berries %-l 
inch in diameter, borne singly or sometimes 2 or 3 
together, containing yellow, sticky, bitter, poison- 
ous flesh and 1 round black poisonous seed. 

An evergreen tree 20-60 feet high and 1 foot in 
trunk diameter, sometimes larger, with broad 
crown. The light gray or brown bai'k is smoothish 
and warty, becoming finely fissured and scaly. 
Inner bark is light orange brown, slightly bitter 
and astringent. The stout twigs are light gray 
with raised reddish-brown dots (lenticels), fiinely 
hairy when young. 

The alternate leaves have jjaired leaflets with or 
without a single terminal one. Leaflets are stalk- 
less or nearly so, 2i/^-6 inches long and l-2i/^ inches 
wide, mostly short-pointed at lx)th ends, often 
oblique and unequal-sided with side toward leaf 
apex much broader, thin, not toothed on edges, 
beneath slightly paler and sometimes soft hairy. 

The male flowers produced in great quantities 
seem to fall from the tree almost like rain and litter 
the ground beneath. Flowers are mostly male but 
some are female or bisexual (polygamous). In 
male flowere there are 5 spreading sepals about 
YiQ inch long, unequal, the outer 2 being smaller, 
whitish and tinged with green; 5 white hairy 
petals rounded and smaller than sepals; 8 light 
yellow stamens more than Vie inch long on a light 
green disk; and a minute brown nonfunctional 
pistil. Female flowei-s have besides the sepals and 
petals shoi'ter stamens and a greenish pistil more 
than i/ie inch long with 3-celled ovary and slender 
style. 

One or sometimes 2 or 3 fruits develop from a 
pistil, the abortive ones remaining as disklike ap- 
pendages at base. Inside the translucent yellow 
flesh is the poisonous seed %-Vo inch in diameter. 
Branches of the flower cluster (panicle) become 
hard and woody when the fruits mature. 

Sapwood is whitish, and heartwood yellow or 



Sapindus saponaria L. 

light brown. The wood is hard and heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 0.8), coarse-textured, and not durable 
when exposed. Used locally for posts and else- 
where employed in caqjentry. 

The common names refer to the use of the fleshy 
fruit as a substitute for soap. When cut up, the 
fleshy part, which contains about 30 percent sap- 
onin, produces suds abundantly in water. 

Crushed seeds serve as a fish poison when 
thrown into a stream. An insecticide has been 
made from gi-ound seeds, and medicinal oil ex- 
tracted also. Other uses of the seeds are as beads 
in necklaces, as marbles, and formerly as buttons. 
Infusions of the roots and leaves have been pre- 
pared for home remedies. A sliade tree and honey 
plant. 

In the dry coastal region of Puerto Rico, infre- 
quently planted for shade. Also in Vieques, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. 

PxjBLio FOREST. — Aguirre. 

Range. — Common and widely distributed in 
tropical America and spread farther through cul- 
tivation. Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys (gi-own also in California and Bermuda) 
and throughout West Indies from Bahamas and 
Cuba to Trinidad. Also from Mexico to Ecuador, 
Galapagos Islands, Pei-u, Argentina, Paraguay, 
and Brazil. Introduced into Old World tropics. 

Other common names.- — soapberry (Virgin 
Islands) ; jaboncillo (Spanish) ; palo amargo, 
chorote, niata de chivo (Dominican Republic) ; 
giiiril, huiril, jaboncillal (Guatemala) ; paeon 
(Honduras) ; paci'm (El Salvador) ; paeon, cuyus 
(Nicaragua); limoncillo (Panama); chumbino, 
chumbimbo, chocho (Colombia) ; paraparo, pepo 
(Venezuela) ; jurupe (Ecuador) ; .sulluco (Peru) ; 
jisotoiibo (Bolivia) ; yequiti, casita, palo-jabon 
(Argentina) ; wingleaf soapberry, soapberry 
(United States) ; soapberry (English) ; soapseed 
Trinidad) ; soap-tree, soapseed-tree, jabon-che 
(British Honduras) ; savonette pays, graine can- 
ique, bois savonette (Haiti) ; savonier, savonettier, 
savonette montagne, bois mausseux, savonette 
mousseuse (Guadeloupe) ; savonetapel (Curasao) ; 
sopo sirie (Surinam) ; saboeiro, saboneteiro 
(Brazil). 



308 




141. Jabonclllo, wingleaf soapberry 



Natural size. 



Sapindus saponaria L. 



309 



SOAPBERRY FAMILY (SAPINDACEAE) 



142. Serrasuela 

This small tree or shrub restricted to dry south- 
western Puerto Rico is distinguished by: (1) few 
slender spreading branches and witliout a definite 
crown; (2) leathery elliptic leaves simple (some- 
times compoiuid with 3 leaflets), rounded at apex 
and short-poLnted at base, the edges finely toothed, 
shmy gre«n above and jjale green and densely soft 
hairy with prominent veins beneath; (3) many 
small whitish flowers Yie inch across, 4- or 5- 
parted, in narrow branclied lateral clusters 1-21/4 
inches long; and (4) brown narrow key fiiiits V2~ 
% inch long, usually 3 attached together. This 
species is closely related to the next species, c«boru- 
quillo (Thouinla striata Radlk.), a large tree hav- 
ing compound leaves with 3 thinner leaflets and 
smaller flowere. Intermediate individuals have 
been found. 

A deciduous tree becoming 15 feet high and 3 
inches in trunk diameter. The gi"ay bark is rough, 
fissured and divided into thin scaly plates. Inner 
bark is brownish and slightly bitter. Twigs are 
brownish green, finely hairy when yoimg, becom- 
ing gray. 

The alternate leaves have finely brownish hairy 
petioles %-lV2 inches long. The blade is iisually 
simple and 2^ inches long and 1-2 inches wide, 
the upper surface nearly hairless except on veins. 
Sometimes there are 3 stalkless leaflets at end of 



Thouinia portoricensis Radlk. 

petiole, the 2 lateral leaflets much smaller, %~1V^ 
inches long. 

The densely hairy flower clusters (thyi-ses) are 
attached along the twigs, often at leaf bases. 
Flowers are male, female, and bisexual (polyg- 
amous), borne on short stalks less than Vs inch 
long. There are 4 or 5 greenish haii-y sepals more 
than i/ie inch long and rounded at apex; 4 or 6 
white petals less than % inch long; 8 stamens % 
inch long on a disk; and pistil i/g inch long with 
hairy 3-celled ovai-y of 3 nearly separate lobes and 
3-f orked style rising between lobes. 

The dry fruits (samaras), usually 3 developing 
from a flower, are finely hairy, enclosed 1 seed at 
base, and have a long narrow curved wing %e inch 
wide. Flowering and fruiting nearly through the 
year. 

The sapwood is light brown and hard. The 
wood is little used. 

Forests and thickets of the dry limestone region 
of southwestern Puerto Rico. 

Public forest. — ^Guanica. 

MuNICIPAHTIES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. 

28, 38, 54. 

Range. — Confined to southwestern Puerto Rico. 

Other common name. — quebracho (Puerto 
Rico). 

Botanical synonym. — Thyana portoricensis 
(Radlk.) Britton. 



310 




142. Serrasuela 



Natural size. 



Thouinia striata Radlk. 



687-921 a— 64 21 



311 



143. Ceboruquillo 



SOAPBERRY FAMILY (SAPINDACEAE) 

Thouinia striata Radlk. 



A small to medium-sized tree of Puerto Rico 
recognized by : ( 1 ) compound leaves with 3 elliptic 
or obovate leaflets, the middle leaflet largest, broad- 
est beyond middle, saw-toothed on edges, and 
short-pointed at apex and base, the lower surface 
soft hairy and with prominent veins; (2) small 
whitish flowers less than % inch long and broad, 
4-parted, numerous, and short-stalked in very nar- 
row clusters 1^^— 4 inches long and % inch wide at 
leaf bases; and (3) brown narrow winged key 
fruits %-% inch long, borne in 3's. 

An evergreen tree to 50 feet in height and 8 
inches in trunk diameter, with an erect crown. 
The bark is gray, rough, broken into thin rectan- 
gular scaly plates. Inner bark is light brown and 
slightly bitter. The brownish twigs are finely 
hairy, green when young. 

The alternate leaves are 4—8 inches long, with 
leaflets at the end of a minutely hairy petiole 
1/^-214 inches long, the leaflets with short stalks 
about i/g inch long. Leaflet blades are 2i/^-6 inches 
long and 1-3 inches broad, slightly thickened, the 
upper surface yellow green and hairless except on 
veins, the lower surface light green and densely 
soft hairy. 

The lateral flower clusters (panicles) commonly 



have 2 main finely hairy branches. Flowers are 
male, female, and bisexual (polygamous), borne 
on stalks less than i/g inch long. There are 4 
yellow-green hairy sepals less than i/m inch long; 
4 white narrow hairy petals more than ^g inch 
long, notched at apex; 8 stamens on a disk; and 
pistil composed of hairy 3-celled ovary and slen- 
der style 3-lobed at apex. 

The fruits (samaras) are dark brown at the nar- 
row base, slightly hairy, 1-seeded, with a long light 
brown wing i^ inch broad. Flowering and fruit- 
ing fi'om spring to fall. 

The sapwood is light brown. The wood is hard, 
tough, and heavy (specific gravity 0.9). It is used 
chiefly for ])OSts. 

Forests of the moist limestone and lower Cordil- 
lera regions in western Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Mari- 
cao, Rio Abajo, Susua. 

Municipalities where espeoiallt common. — 7, 
9, 23, 24, 31, 34, 68. 

Range. — Known only from Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — quiebra-hacha, que- 
bracha, serrasuela, guaba (Puerto Rico). 

Botanical synonym. — Thy ana striata (Radlk.) 
Britton. 



312 




143. Ceboruquillo 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Thouinia striata Radlk. 



313 



SABIA FAMILY (SABIACEAE) 



144. Aguacatillo 

A medium-sized tree of mountain forests char- 
acterized by: (1) petioles with an enhirgement at 
base and %-!% inches long; (2) dark green ellip- 
tic leaves mostly broadest beyond the middle, 3-8 
(sometimes 10) inches long and ly2-3l^ (some- 
times 4) inches wide, short-pointed or blunt at 
apex, short-pointed at base, edges not toothed ex- 
cept on young plants; (3) veiy numerous minute 
white 5-parted flowers less than % inch long and 
broad in much-branched clusters; and (4) few to 
many nearly round fniits %-% inch long, dark 
brown, violet, or black, and fleshy. 

An evergreen tree reaching 30-60 feet in height 
and 2 feet in trunk diameter. The bark is smooth- 
ish but slightly warty, gray, and thin, becoming 
fissured on large trunks. Inner bark is brownish 
and bitter. The gray twigs, hairless except when 
young, have scattered reddish-brown, corky warts 
(lenticels) Vs i"cli or less in length. 

The leaves are alternate, with the few lateral 
veins sunken, slightly shiny on both sides, and 
paler beneath. Young plants produce larger 
leaves. 

The branches! flower clusters (panicles) are ter- 
minal and lateral, 2-8 inches long and broad, and 
minutely hairy. The flowers have a few minute, 
luiiry, overlapping scales at base. There are 5 
rounded overlapping sepals i/ie inch long, with 
hairy border, remaining attached at base of fruit; 
petals 5, white, the out^r 3 larger and more than 
Vie inch long and 2 small narrow scales; 5 stamens 
opposite the petals and united with them at base, 
2 fertile stamens opposite the small petals and 3 
sterile (staminodes) ; and pistil with ovan', style, 
and 2 minute stigmas. 

Fniits (drapes) are light green when inomature, 
nearly round but longer than broad, have a large 
1 -seeded stone, and remain attached for sometime. 



Meliosma herbertii Rolfe 

Flowering and fruiting nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the attractive 
heartwood light brown with darker streaks and 
often an attractive orange overcast. The wood is 
moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.42), firm, 
tough, with moderately coarse texture, straight to 
frequently interloclced grain, and faint growth 
rings. It is low in durability and vei-y susceptible 
to attack by diy-wood termites. The rate of air- 
seasoning is moderate, but the amount of degi-ade 
is considerable. Machining characteristics are as 
follows : planing and resistance to screw splitting 
are excellent; .shaping, turning, boring, and mor- 
tising are poor; and sanding is good. 

Few trees become large enough for commercial 
timter. Uses elsewhere include construction and 
carpenti-y. Though difficult to work, the wood is 
suitable also for furniture, cabinetwork, paneling, 
interior trim, and boxes and crates. 

Forests of the lower mountain regions of Puerto 
Rico. Also in Tortola. 

PiTBLic FORESTS. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Toro Negro. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Tortola, 
and Lesser Antilles from St. Kitts to Grenada. 
Also in northeastern Venezuela. 

Other common names. — arroyo, cacaillo, cacao 
bobo (Puerto Rico) ; cacao cimarron, cacao bobo 
(Dominican Republic); gross grain (Grenada); 
bois violet, graines violettes, graines vertes 
(Guadeloupe) ; wild cocoa (Trinidad). 

Arroyo {Meliosma ohhisifoUa (Bello) Krug & 
Urban) is a related, less common tree species 
known only from mountain forests of Puerto Rico. 
It has leaves rounded at apex and smaller nearly 
round fruits about % inch in diameter. Other 
common names are cacaillo, cerrillo, ciralillo, and 
guayarote. 



314 



l&^'^-^ 




144. Aguaeatillo 



Meliosma heriertii Rolfe 



Two-thirds natural size. 



315 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY (RHAMNACEAE) 



Key to the 4 species illustrated (Nos. 145-148) 

A. Leaves with 1 main vein or midrib, edges not toothed : twigs not spiny. 

B. Leaves mostly short-pointed at apex, lateral veins curved and prolonged near margins. 

C. Leaves slightly thickened, the lower surface, petioles, and twigs with rusty brown hairs, especially 
when young — 14.5. Cohibriiia arborcscens. 
CC. Leaves thin, the lower surface pale green and minutely hairy — 146. Cohthrina reclinata. 
BB. Leaves rounded at both ends and slightly notchetl at apex, nearly hairless — 147. Erugiodendron ferreum. 
AA. Leaves with 3 main veins from base, edges often minutely toothed ; twigs with paired or single spines — 148. 
Sarcomphalus reticulatus. 



145. Abeyuelo, coffee colubrina 

This usually small tree is identified by: (1) 
rusty-brown hairs on young twigs, young leaves, 
veins or lower surface of mature leaves, petioles, 
and flower clusters; (2) slightly thickened elliptic 
leaves IV2-6 inches long and %-3 inches bi'oad, 
blunt- or short-pointed at apex and rounded at 
base, with the prominent lateral veins curved and 
prolonged near margins, the upper surface slight- 
ly shiny green and nearly hairless, and the lower 
sui'face lighter green and finely hairy; (3) small, 
spreading, 5-parted, greenish and rusty-brown 
hairy flowers ^ie-Vi "icli across in small lateral 
clusters; and (4) rounded dark brown or blackish 
seed capsules about V4 i'lch in diameter, 3-seeded. 

Commonly 10-15 feet high and 2 inches or less 
in trunk diameter but sometimes 25 feet or more in 
height, evergreen, with spreading crown. Bark 
of small trees is brown or gray, smoothish, and 
thin, peeling off in small thin flakes, on larger 
trimks becoming fissured. Inner bark is light 
brown or pink and slightly bitter. Older twigs 
are gray or reddish brown. 

Leaves are alternate in 2 rows and have petioles 
14-V2 incb long. Blades are li/^-6 inches long 
and %-3 inches broad, not toothed on edges. 

Trees planted in moist sites of Puerto Rico are 
so different in their more vigorous rapid growth 
that they scarcely seem to represent the same spe- 
cies. They become 40-50 feet in height and 6-10 
inches in trunk diameter, witli long stout nearly 
horizontal branches bearing 2 rows of large coarse 
leaves. These much larger leaves have stout peti- 
oles %-l inch long and blades 8-11 inches long 
and 4—6 inches wide. The flowers are similar, 
though the seed capsules may be slightly larger. 
The drawings illustrate both the typical and large- 
leaf forms. 

Flower clusters are V2 in<^h across or smaller, 
almost stalkless, with several, mostly sihort-stalked 
flowers. The short cuplike base (hypanthium) 
bears 5 spreading, pointed sepals more than Yiq 
inch long, greenish and on outside rusty-brown 
hairy, and 5 smaller narrow yellow petals folde<l 
ai-ound the 5 opposite stamens; and the pistil con- 
sists of 3-celled ovary covered by the broad disk, 
a style, and 3 stigmas. 



Colubrina arborcscens (Mill.) Sarg. 

Seed capsules, borne few to several together 
along twig mostly back of leaves, are nearly round 
or slightly 3-lobed, with cuplike base (hypan- 
thium) in lowest third to half, splitting into 3 
parts and separating from base. The shiny black 
seeds are V^-'^^ inch long. Flowering and fruiting 
probably irregularly from .spring to fall. 

The sap wood is whitish or light brown, the 
heartwood yellowish brown. The wood is hard, 
heavy (specific gravity 0.7), strong, and durable. 
Used chiefly for posts in Puerto Rico and formerly 
for piling because of resistance to decay in water. 
Elsewhere employed in construction where suffi- 
ciently large. 

Planted as a shade tree in southern Florida, 
Guatemala, and El Salvador. Recent forest plan- 
tations of this species in the Guilarte Forest con- 
tain rapid-growing trees of good form. The shiny 
seeds of this and related species have been made 
into necklaces and similar ornaments in Jamaica. 

Thickets and forests in the coastal and lime- 
stone regions, chiefly in the drier areas of Puerto 
Rico. Also in Mona, Icacos, Vieques, Ctilebra, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, Virgin 
Gorda, and Anegada. 

Public forests. — Boqueron, Cambalache, Gua- 
jataca, Guanica, Guilarte, Rio Abajo. 

MUNICIPALITT WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON, 49. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys and "West Indies from Bahamas and Cuba 
to Antigua and in Barbados. Also southern 
Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, and introduced 
in El Salvador. 

Other common names. — corazon de paloma, 
cuerno de buey (Dominican Republic) ; bijaguara, 
birijagua, fuego (Cuba) ; cascalata (Mexico) ; 
coxte, costex, guayabillo (Guatemala) ; chaquirio, 
chaquira (El Salvador) ; coffee colubrina, naked- 
wood, wild-coffee (United States) ; common snake- 
bark, bitters (Bahamas) ; greenheart, snake- wood, 
black velvet, wild ebony, mountain ebony (Ja- 
maica) ; blackbead-tree (Barbados) ; bois de fer, 
bois mabi, bois pel6, bois ferblanc (Haiti), 

Botanical synonyms. — Colubrina cohihrina 
(Jacq.) Millsp., C. ferruglnosa Brongn. 



316 




145. Abeyuelo, coffee colubrina 



Coluirina arborescens (Mill.) Sarg. 



Typical form (above) and large-leaf form (below), two-thirds natural size. 



317 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY (RHAMNACEAE) 



146. Mabi, soldierwood 

This small tree or shrub of dry areas is charac- 
terized by: (1) finely hairy brown twigs; (2) thin, 
elliptic leaves 1-3 inches long and V2-IV2 inches 
broad, short-pointed at apex and rounded at base, 
with the lateral veins curved and prolonged near 
margins, green and hairless on upper surface, and 
pale green and minutely hairy beneath; (3) the 
small, spreading greenish 5-parted flowers nearly 
%6 i'lch across, several in almost stalkless clusters 
at bases of leaves; and (4) the rounded, slightly 
3-angled, reddish-brown seed capsules 14 inch in 
diameter, 3-seeded. 

Evergreen, usually 10-15 feet high and less than 
4 inches in trunk diameter, with spreading crown 
of thin foliage. The orange-brown Ibark is 
smoothish on small trunks but becomes fissured, 
s])litting off in thin scales. Inner bark is light 
brown and bitter. The twigs are slender. 

The alternate leaves have haii-y petioles 1/4-1/2 
inch long. The blades coirmionly have 2 brown 
gland dots on the margin near base. 

Flower clusters about 14 inch across, hairy. 
Each flower has a short cuplike base (hypanthium) 
on which are borne 5 spreading, pointed, greenish 
sepals more than Vig inch long, hairy on outside, 
and 5 smaller, narrow, yellow petals folded around 
the 5 opposite stamens; the pistil has a 3-celled 
ovary covered by the broad disk but with style and 
3 stigmas protruding. 



Colubrina reclinata (L'Her.) Brongn. 

Seed capsules have a cuplike base (hypanthium) 
in lowest third and split apart fi-om the base to 
release the shiny brownish-black elliptic seeds %6 
inch long. In flower from July to November and 
in fruit from July to January. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
dark brown. The wood is hard, heavy (specific 
gravity 0.8), strong, and reported to be durable. 
It is used only for posts in Puerto Rico. 

From the bark is produced the popular fer- 
mented drink "mabi." Elsewhere decoctions from 
the bitter bark and the leaves have been used in 
local medicines. The plants have been grown as 
ornamentals in southern Florida. 

Thickets and woods in the dry coastal and dry 
limestone regions of southwestern Puerto Rico. 
Also in Culebra, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, 
Tortola, and Anegada. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and Lesser 
Antilles south to St. Vincent. Also in southern 
Mexico (Veracruz and Yucatan) and Guatemala. 

Other common names. — palo amargo, mabi 
(Dominican Republic) ; jayajabico, carbonero de 
costa, carbonero (Cuba) ; soldiei-wood, naked- wood 
(United States) ; smooth snake-bark (Bahamas) ; 
bois mabi, bois de fer (Haiti) ; bois mabi, mambee 
(Guadeloupe). 



318 




146. Mabd, soldierwood 



Natural size. 



Coluirina reclinata (L'H6r.) Brongn. 

319 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY (RHAMNACEAE) 



147. Bariaco, "ironwood," leadwood 

One of several similar species with small leaves, 
this small tree or shmb is characterized by: 
(1) densely leafy spreading branches in horizon- 
tal layers; (2) mostly opposite, nearly hairless, 
elliptic (sometimes ovate) leaves %.-2 inches long 
and V^-1V4 inches broad, rounded at both ends and 
slightly notched at apex, reddish when unmatm-e, 
later green or yellow green, shiny on upper sur- 
face and dull beneath; (3) yellow-green 5-parted 
flowers %6 i'lch across, a few in clustere Vi-V2 i"ch 
long at leaf bases; and (4) elliptic dark brown or 
black fruits i/4— % inch long. 

An evergreen tree or shrub commonly 10-15 feet 
high and 2-6 inches in tnuik diameter. The gray 
bark is smootliish or slightly fissured, becoming 
ridged and scaly on large trunks. Inner bark is 
reddish bi-own, slightly bitter. The slender twigs 
are minutely hairy, gray or light brown, the youiig 
green portions bearing the lateral flowers. Raised 
leaf scars and dots (lenticels) make the twigs 
slightly rough. 

The leaves have short, finely hairy petioles 
Vs-yie inch long and blades usually slightly tluck- 
ened, not toothed on edges. 

Flower clusters (cymes) have 5 or fewer flowers, 
each on a stalk about Vs inch long. The short cup- 
shaped base (hypanthium) is less than y^e long, 
bearing 5 spreading pointed yellow-green sepals 
Vie inch long and 5 stamens; the pistil ^g inch 
long bordered by the disk has ovary, short style, 
and 2 stigmas. Petals are lacking. The fruits 
(drupes) are 1-seeded. Flowering and fruiting at 
different times during the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
is orange brown to dark brown, streaked. The 
wood is exceedingly hard, exceedingly heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 1.3-1.4), very fine-textured, and very 



Krugiodendron ferreum (Vahl) Urban 

resistant to decay and to attack by dry-wood ter- 
mites. Because of the small size of local trees, 
the wood has little use in Puerto Rico except for 
posts. 

Used elsewhere for cabinetwork, veneer, cross- 
ties, and canes. The wood is one of the densest 
in the world, the heaviest of the native woods in 
the United States and perhaps also of Puerto 
Rico. 

Thickets and woods in the limestone regions of 
Puerto Rico, mostly in the southwest. Also Mona, 
Desecheo, Caja de Muertos, Icacos, Culebra, Vie- 
ques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and 
Anegada. 

Public forests. — Guajataca, Guanica. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bahamas, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles 
south to St. Vincent and Bequia, and in Bonaire 
and Curaciao. Also in southern Mexico, Guate- 
mala, British Honduras, and Honduras. 

Other common names. — espejuelo, palo de 
hieiTo, quiebra-hacha (Puerto Rico) ; ironwood, 
guatafer, bois de fer (Virgin Islands); quiebra- 
hacha, ciguamo, palo de hierro (Dominican Re- 
public) ; cocuyo, hueso de tortuga, coronel, carey 
de cost a, palo diablo, acero (Cuba) ; quiebra-hacha 
(Guatemala) ; leadwood, black-iron wood (United 
States) ; black-ironwood (Jamaica) ; axemaster, 
quebracho (British Honduras) ; bois de fer 
(Haiti, Guadeloupe) ; manggel cora, ironberry 
(Dutch West Indies). 

The generic name means Krug's tree. This 
genus of a single species was dedicated to Leopold 
Krug (1833-98), German consul in Puerto Rico, 
businessman, botanist, and patron of science, who 
studied the flora of the West Indies. 



320 




147. Bariaeo, "Ironwood," leadwood 



Natural size. 



Krugiodendron ferreum (Vahl) Urban 



321 



148. Cascarroya 



BUCKTHORN FAMILY (RHAMNACEAE) 

Sarcomphalus reticulatus (Vahl) Urban 



This small tree of dry forests is distinguished 
by: (1) small gi'ay or brown spines %-% inch 
long, paired or single at some nodes; (2) densely 
rusty hairy twigs; (3) mostly small, thickened, 
still' and brittle elliptic leaves 1-3 inches long and 
%-2 inches broad, rounded at both ends, with 3 
main veins from base, the lower surface with prom- 
inent network of raised veins and finely soft hairy ; 
(4) many small yellow-green 5-parted flowers %6 
inch across, finely and densely hairy, in branched 
clusters; and (5) elliptic brown fruits %-% inch 
long, with bi-own hairy base V-i hich across. 

An evergreen tree or shrub to 20 feet high and 
4 inclies in trunk diameter. The dark gray or 
brown bark is smoothish. Inner bark is dark red, 
gritty, and tasteless. The brown or gray twigs are 
angled when young. 

The alternate leaves have short hairy petioles 
about Ys inch long. Leaf blades are often slight- 
ly heart-shaped at base, with edges often minute- 
ly toothed and turned imder, the upper surface 
green to dark green, dull or a little shiny, finely 
hairy or becoming nearly hairless, with slightly 
sunken veins, and the lower surface light green. 

The flower clusters (panicles) are mostly ter- 
minal, 1/2-21/4 inches long, densely hairy, and bear 
many crowded, almost stalkless, slightly fragrant 
flowers less than Vs "ich long. The conical green 
haii-y base (hypanthium) y^g inch long bears 5 
spreading, pointed, yellow-green sepals Vie hich 
long, haii-y on outside, 5 minute long-stalked con- 
cave pale yellow petals Yiq inch long, and 5 sta- 
mens opposite the petals and the same length ; and 
within the yellow-green disk is the pistil Vie inch 



long composed of a green hairy 3-celled ovary and 
3 styles united below. 

The fruits (drupes), a few in a cluster, are 
slightly longer than broad, light green and turn- 
ing to brown, finely hairy or hairless. The large 
stone encloses 3 or fewer .shiny brown flattened 
seeds. Flowering and fruiting in summer. 

The wood is light brown or yellowish, hard, and 
heavy (specific gravity 0.9). Used in Puerto 
Rico for posts. 

In Dominican Republic hogs and goats eat the 
fruits. Reported to be a honey plant. 

Forests and thickets of the dry limestone re- 
gion of southwestern Puerto Rico. Also in Caja 
de Muertos, St. Croix, and Tortola. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, and Lesser Antilles at Barbuda and Long 
Island near Antigua. 

Other common names. — cacao rojo, azufaito, 
cascarilla, espejuelo (Puerto Rico) ; saona cimar- 
rona, saona de puerco, sopaipo (Dominican Repub- 
lic) ; coquemolle (Haiti). 

A related tree species (Sarcomphahis domin- 
ffen.'iis (Spreng.) Krug & Urban) has the twigs, 
leaves, and flowers all hairless. It is recorded from 
the British Virgin Islands, Vieques, and the north- 
eastern end of Puerto Rico. 

Another species (Sarcomphalus taylorii Brit- 
ton), a shrub or small tree of Mona Island and Ba- 
hamas, has obovate leaves less than 1 inch long, 
bright green on both sides, and notched or 
rounded at apex. 



322 




148. Cascarroya 



Natural size. 



Sarcomphalus reticulatus (Vahl) Urban 

323 



149. Motillo 



ELAEOCARPUS FAMILY (ELAEOCARPACEAE) 

Sloanea berteriana Choisy 



A large tree of mountain forests, recognized by : 

(1) the mostly large elliptic leaves 6-18 inches 
long and 3-S inclies broad, short-pointed at both 
ends and the petioles with a swelling at each end: 

(2) the pale yellow widely spreading flowers 
%-% inch across, 4- or 5-parted, several in lateral 
clusters; (3) the elliptic brown seed capsules II/4 
inches long, hard and thick-walled, splitting usu- 
ally into 4 parts and commonly present on ground 
under trees; and (4) pronounced buttresses at the 
base of the trunk. 

This evergreen tree becomes 100 feet tall, with 
a straight trunk 2-3 feet in diameter. The smooth- 
ish dark gray bark lias reddish-brown warts about 
14 inch long and broad. Inner bark is light 
brown, with slightly bitter gritty taste. The 
brown twigs are finely haii'>' when young. 

The alternate leaves have stout petioles i/2""3V2 
inches long, green turning brownish. Leaf blades 
vary gi'eatly in size and are thin or slightly thick- 
ened, without marginal teeth, nearly hairless, dark 
green and with slightly sunken veins on upper sur- 
face, and green beneath. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are unbranched, 2 
inches or less in length, with several flowers on 
slender, finely hairy stalks V2-% inch long. There 
are 4 or 5 pale yellow, pointed, finely haii-y sepals 
Vi-YiG inch long; no petals; numerous hairy sta- 
mens 1/4 inch or less in length, attached on a broad 
disk; and the hairy pistil I/4 inch long, consisting 
of 4- or sometimes 3-c«lled ovary, style, and 4 or 
sometimes 3 stigmas. 

The 4-])arted seed capsules, inconspicuously fine 
hairy, hard and with walls %6 inch thick, release 
a few rounded or elliptic seeds about 14 inch long. 
Flowering chiefly from spring to fall, with fruits 
nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is yellowish brown, and the heart- 
wootl multicolored, varying from yellow brown to 
pinkish brown or dark brown, sometimes with 



darker bi-own stripes. The wood is very hard, 
heavy (specific gravity 0.80) , strong, and medium- 
textured, and has gro\\1:h rings and irregular 
gi-ain. It is considered hard on tools, is classsed 
as durable, and is susceptible to attack by dry- 
wood termites. Its rate of air-seasoning and 
amount of degrade are moderate. Machining 
characteristics are as follows: planing, turning, 
mortising, and sanding are good ; shaping and bor- 
ing are excellent; and resistance to screw splitting 
is poor. 

In Puerto Rico the wood has been used sparing- 
ly for furniture and also in local construction and 
for crossties. Lacking attractiveness and unifonn 
color for furniture and cabinetwork, it is suitable 
for heavy construction, fann implement parts, 
handles, heavy-duty flooring, and boat parts. 

Forests of the lower mountain regions of Puerto 
Rico. A dominant tree m the rain forest, usually 
growing in the moist ra\'ines and becoming an 
emergent tree in the upper story of the forest. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Toro Negi'o. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and Lesser 
Antilles from St. Kitts to Martinique. 

Other common" names. — cacao motillo, cacaillo, 
cacao roseta, cacaotillo, roseta (Puerto Rico) ; ca- 
cao cimarron (Dominican Republic) ; petit coco, 
chataignier petit coco, cocoyer (Guadeloupe, 
Martinique). 

Another species (Sloanea amygdalina Griseb.) 
is rare in the mountain forest at Maricao Forest in 
the western Cordillera. This tree has smaller el- 
liptic leaves with blades 21/2-6 inches long, blunt 
or notched at apex, fewer flowei-s usually single or 
no more than 3 together, and smaller seed capsules 
%-l inch long, densely covered with short spines 
i/x6 inch long. It is native also in Hispaniola and 
Cuba but was not listed from Puerto Rico by Brit- 
ton and Wilson. 



324 





149. MotlUo 



Sloanea ierteriana Cholsy 



Two-thirds natural size. 



325 



MALLOW FAMILY (MALVACEAE) 



AA, 



Key to the 3 species illustrated (Nos. 150-152) 

Leaves with mostly 11 or 9 main veins from base ; petioles and lower leaf surfaces densely covered with whitish- 
gray star-shaped hairs ; flowers with yellow petals, turning orange and reddish with age — 150. Hibiscus 
tiliaceus.* 
Leaves with mostly 7 main veins from base, petioles and blades with scattered minute scales. 

B. Leaves abruptly long- or short -pointed at apex ; flowers with red petals — 1.51. Montezuma speciosissima. 
BB. Leaves long-pointed at apex; flowers with pale yellow petals, turning to purple — 152. Thespesia populnea.* 



150. Emajagua, sea hibiscus 



Hibiscus tiliaceus L* 



This small tree or shrub is characterized by: 
(1) long-pet ioled, heart-shaped and ne^arly round 
leaves 4-7 inches lonjj; and liroad, with mostly 11 
or 9 main veins from base, shiny yellow green and 
hairless on upper surface; (2) the yomig twigs, 
petioles, lower leaf surfaces, calyx, and seed cap- 
sules densely covered with whitish-gray star- 
shaped hairs; (3) widely spi-eading or prostrate 
crooked branches; (4) the large funnel-shaped 
yellow flowers 3-3^/^ inches long and broad, turn- 
ing orange and reddish with age; and (5) the ellip- 
tic, gray-green, hairy seed capsules 1-1^4 inches 
long, which split into 5 parts. 

An evergreen tree attaining 10-20 feet in height, 
with a short crooked trunk to 6 inches in diameter 
and a broad crown. The bark is gray and smooth, 
the thin inner bark fibrous. The twigs have rings 
at nodes and become brown and hairless in age. 

Leaves are alternate and have petioles 2-5 inches 
in length. Leaf blades are abruptly short- or long- 
pointed at apex and heart-shaped at base, with 
edges not toothed, and slightly thickened. There 
are 2 large short-pointed whitish haii-y scales 
(stipules) I-IV2 inches long at base of leaf, soon 
shedding and leaving a ring scar. 

A few flowers are borne in terminal branching 
clusters (panicles) or lateral near ends of twigs, 
each on a whitish hairy stalk %-2 inches long. At 
the base of a flower there is a gray-green hairy 
cup (involucre) 3,4 inch long with usually 9 or 10 
narrow pointed lobes. The calyx, also gray-green 
hairy, is I-I14 inches long, tubular with 5 narrow 
long-pointed lobes. Petals 5 (greenish tinged in 
dried specimens), 21/2-31/^ inches long, rounded 
but broader on 1 side, with star-shaped hairs on 
outside. Numerous stamens are on a column about 
2 inches long united with petals at base. The 
pistil consists of a densely hairy conical .5-celled 
ovary with long slender style and 5 broad stigmas. 

The long-pointed seed capsules split and break 
open the calyx and involucre which remain at- 
tached. There are many brownish-black seeds 
Vs-^/ie inch long. Flowering and fruiting through 
the year. 

The sapwood is whitish, and heartwood is dark 
greenish brown. The wood is moderately soft, 
porous, and moderately heavy (specific gravity 
0.6). Used chiefly for fuel, sometimes elsewhere 
for floats or as a cork substitute. 

An important use of the fibrous bark, which 
can be peeled off in long strips, is for cordage. Be- 



sides ropes, fish nets, mats, and coarse cloth for- 
merly were made from the bark, which even could 
be eaten in times of famine along with the roots 
and yoimg leaves. Also, the fiber has served for 
tying tobacco. The trees sprout from stumps and 
when cut back produce long vigorous shoots from 
which quantities of ropes can be made. Different 
parts of the tree have served in home medicines. 
Also a honey plant. 

Grown as an ornamental for the showy flowers. 
The plants are easily propagated by cuttings and 
are started in fence rows as living fenceposts. In 
coastal swamps near mangroves, leaning trunks 
and branches form roots in the mud and aid build- 
ing the land. 

Roadsides, thickets, and swampy areas in the 
lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico. Also in 
Mona, Vieques, St. Thomas, and St. John. (Re- 
corded long ago from St. Croix.) 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Rio Abajo, Toro Negro. 

R.\NGE. — Seashores throughout the tropics, 
probably of Old World origin and naturalized in 
America. Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bennuda, and through West Indies from 
Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago. Also 
from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. 

Other COMMON names. — majagua (Puerto Rico, 
Spanish) ; damajagua (Dominican Republic) ; 
majagua hembra (Cuba) ; majao (Honduras) ; 
algodoncillo, mahoe (Panama) ; sea hibiscus, lin- 
den hibiscus, tree hibiscus, mahoe (L^nited States) ; 
mahoe (English) ; seaside majoe (Jamaica, Trini- 
dad and Tobago) ; mahot (St. Vincent) ; blue 
moho, wild cotton (British Honduras) ; maho, 
kayuwa (British Guiana) ; cot on marron, mahaut 
franc (Haiti) ; bois flot, bois de liege, grand mahot, 
mahot gombo (Guadeloupe) ; bois flot (Marti- 
nique) ; pariti (French Guiana); maho 
(Surinam). 

BoT.\NicAL SYNONYM. — Paritium tiliaceum (L.) 
St.-Hil., Juss., & Camb. 

The Spanish common name majagua, of which 
the English name mahoe is a corruption, is an 
American Indian word applied in tropical Amer- 
ica to several unrelated trees with useful fibrous 
bark. 

Mahoe {HihiJicus elatus Sw.*) is a related large 
upland tree native in Cuba and Jamaica and intro- 
duced into Puerto Rico in experimental forest 
plantations. It has a tall straight trunk and 



326 




150. Bmajagua, sea hibiscus 



Hibiscus tiliaceus L. 



Two-thirds natural size. 



687-921 O — 64 22 



327 



larger flowers about 4 inches long and broad. 
The petals are dark red at base, changing in color 
from pink to yellow and red. 

This genus is represented also by 10 or more 
species of native and introduced shrubs and herbs, 



including the vegetable okra {Hihiseuft escidentus 
L.). Amapola or Chinese hibiscus (H. rosor- 
sinensis L.*) is a popular ornamental shrub with 
purple, rose, or white petals, introduced from 
tropical Asia. 



151. Maga 



MALLOW FAMILY (MALVACEAE) 

Montezuma speciosissima Sesse & Moc. 



Maga, a widely planted native tree is easily rec- 
ognized by its very large red spreading flowei-s 
.3-31/4 inches long and 3i/o-5 inches broad, with 5 
rounded overlapping petals. Though generally in 
flower, identification may be made also by: (1) the 
long-petioled heart-shaped leaves with blades 
41/0-9 inches long and 4— 61A inclies broad and usu- 
ally 7 main veins fi-om base; and (2) the nearly 
round pointed green fruit 11/4-2 inches in 
diameter. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree becoming 30-50 
feet tall and 6-18 inches in trimk diameter, for- 
merly larger. The gray or brown bark is rough 
and relatively thick (i.^ inch), deeply fuiTowed 
on large trunks. Inner bark is light brown, fi- 
brous, and slightly bitter. The stout, warty twigs 
are green when young, turning brown; young 
twigs and other green parts have scattered mi- 
nute brown scales. 

The alternate leaves have yellow-green petioles 
2-5 inches long. Leaf blades are abruptly long- or 
short-pointed at apex, heart-shaped at base, with 
edges not toothed, slightly thickened, green or 
yellow green above and paler beneath. 

Flowers are solitary at leaf bases on stout stalks 
4^51/2 inches long, longer than petioles. Though 
several are formed on a twig, only 1 flower opens 
at a time. The cup-shaped green calyx is about 
% inch long and broad, slightly thickened, shed- 
ding as a ring after flowering, with 3 narrow green 
scales (bracts) % inch long at base falling from 
the bud. The 5 very large petals are 3-31^ inches 
long and 2-3 inches broad, rounded but broader 
on 1 side, with minute star-shaped hairs on out- 
side. Stamens many, %q inch long, on a whitish 
column about 2% inches long united at base with 
petals and shedding with them. The pistil is com- 
posed of a slightly conical yellow-green ovary 
about % inch long and broad, 4- or 3-celled, slen- 
der white style 21/4 inches long, and 4 or 3 yellow 
united stigmas i/4-% inch long. 

The fruits are fleshy or leathery, not splitting 
open. There are a few brown seeds Vo inch long, 
averaging about 1,200 to the pound. They lose 
viability within a month. Flowering and fruiting 
throughout the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
is rich chocolate brown resembling old mahogany. 
The wood is rather hard, heavy (specific gravity 
0.7), fine-textured, vei-y durable, and very resist- 



ant to attack by dry-wood termites. A now scarce 
furniture woocl used also occasionally for turnery, 
musical instruments, posts, and poles. 

This tree was formerly widely planted along 
roadsides and for timber in the public forests. As 
it proved to be an alternate host of the pink boll- 
worm {Pecthhophora goss^piellu Saiuiders), its 
planting was discontinued in the cotton region. 
Subsequently, propagation of this species has near- 
ly terminated except for landscaping. Forest 
plantings stopped when it was found that trees 
which at first grew straight and rapidly later near- 
ly ceased growth, became excessively branchy, and 
produced numerous cankerlike defects on the 
trunk. Trees in plantations on good soils in the 
moist limestone region averaged 3.6 inches in di- 
ameter at an age of 9 years. Another objection to 
extensive planting even for the flowers is that the 
trees are very susceptible to a scale insect which 
deforms trunk and branches and sometimes causes 
death. In southern Florida and elsewhere the trees 
have been introduced for ornament and shade. 

This handsome tree is Puerto Rico's own and 
should be a candidate for adoption as the official 
tree. "When originally described, it was confused 
with Mexican collections by the same Spanish 
botanists, and the range was erroneously given as 
Mexico. The scarcely appropriate name for this 
genus of a single species confined to Puerto Rico 
honors Montezuma, Aztec ruler in Mexico at the 
time of the Spanish conquest in 1513, but the spe- 
cific name means very beautiful. 

Native in the moist limestone forest region of 
Puerto Rico. Extensively planted on the humid 
coast, lower Cordillera, and lower Luquillo forest 
regions. Cultivated also in St. Thomas. 

Public forests. — Wild and planted in Camba- 
lache, Guajataca, and Rio Abajo. Planted in 
Carite, Luquillo, and Toro Negro. 

MUNIOIPALITTES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. — 

49, 53. 

Range. — Native only in Puerto Rico. Planted 
in St. Thomas, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Ja- 
maica, southern Florida, and British Honduras, 
and perhaps elsewhere. 

Other common names. — maga colorada (Puerto 
Rico) ; purple haiti-haiti (St. Thomas) ; tulipan 
del Japon (^Dominican Republic). 

Botanical synonyms. — Thespesia grandif,ora 
DC, Montezuma grandi-flora (DC.) Urban, Maga 
gnxindi-fiora (DC.) Urban. 



328 




151. Maga 




Two-thirds natural size. 



Montezuma speciosisaima Sess6 & Moc. 

329 



MALLOW FAMILY (MALVACEAE) 
152. Emajagiiilla, otaheita, portiatree Tliespesia populnea (L.) Soland.* 



This tree or shnib of coastal woods, also planted 
for ornament and shade, is characterized by: (1) 
larjje bell-shaped flowers 2 inches lon<i and broad, 
with 5 overlapping petals, pale yellow but turning 
to purple, single at leaf bases; (2) dark gray, 
rounded but flattened, slightly 5-ridged, hard, dry 
fruits about li/4 inches or more in diameter and 
% inch high; (3) long-petioled, long-pointed, 
deeply lieart-shaped, darii green shiny leaves with 
blades 4-8 inclies long and ^i/o-^ inches broad, 
with usually 7 main veins from base; and (4) 
tough fibrous bark. 

An evergi-een tree to 30 feet in height and 8 
inches in trunk diameter witli dense crown, the 
long spreading lower branches of crowded plants 
forming dense thickets. Tlie bark is gray and 
slightly fissured, becoming thick and rough. Inner 
bark is yellowish and fibrous. The stout twigs are 
green and covei-ed with vei-y small brown .scales 
when young, becoming gray. Petioles, leaf blades, 
flower stalks, calyx, and fruits have scattered 
minute inconspicuous brovni scales also. 

The alternate leaves have petioles 2— i inches 
long. Leaf blades are slightly thickened and 
leathery, lighter beneath, not toothed on edges. 

Flowers lateral on a twig, opening 1 at a time, 
on stout stalks shorter than petioles, iA-2 inches 
long. The cup-shaped gi-een calyx is about % 
inch liigh and i^ inch across, remaining at base 
of fruit, with 3-5 narrow green scales (bracts) 1/2 
inch or more in length on outside, falling from the 
bud. The broad, rounded, oblique petals 2 inches 
or more in length are pale yellow, purplish at 
base and turning to purple, with minute star- 
sliaped hairs on outside. Stamens many, on a 
column 1 inch long joined to petals at base. The 
pistil has a 5-ce.lled ovary with slender style and 
5 broader stigmas. 

The fruits, which remain attached for some time 
but do not split open, contain several brown hairy 
seeds about % inch long and 1/4 inch broad. Flow- 
ering and fruiting from spring to fall. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
chocolate brown. The wood is moderately soft, 
medimnweight, durable, and takes a fine polish. 



It is classed as resistant to attack from dry-wood 
termites. Used in boatbuilding and for fuel and 
elsewhei'e in cabinetwork. 

Rope has been made from the tough fibrous 
bark. It is rej^iorted that the flowers are eaten as 
food and that the fruit is employed medicinally 
for the treatment of skin eruptions. 

Planted as a street tree and ornamental and liv- 
ing fencepost. However, this tree is a host of the 
cotton stainer, a red insect which stains the fibers 
of growing cotton, and is eradicated in West 
Indian islands where cotton is an important crop. 
For this reason, the elimination of this tree from 
cotton areas of Puerto Rico has been advocated, 
and further ])ropagation has been discouraged. 

Coastal woods and thickets along seashores and 
borders of mangrove in Puerto Rico. Also in 
Mona, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. 
John. 

Range. — Widely distributed on tropical shores, 
believed to be native in the Old World tropics and 
planted and naturalized elsewhere. Southern 
Florida including Florida Keys (planted also in 
California), Bermuda, and throughout West 
Indies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and 
Tobago. Also occasionally cultivated in continen- 
tal tropical America from southern Mexico (Yuca- 
tan) and British Honduras to Brazil and Chile. 

Other common names. — majagiiilla, frescura, 
jaqueca, palo de jaqueca, clamor, santa maria 
(Puerto Rico) ; haiti-haiti (Virgin Islands) ; 
alamo, alamo bianco (Dominican Republic) ; 
majagua de Florida (Cuba) ; frescura (Nicara- 
gua) ; demon, algodon de monte (Colombia) ; 
cremon (Venezuela) ; macoi (Chile) ; portiatree, 
seaside mahoe (United State) ; seaside mahoe 
(English) ; cork-tree, Spanish-cork (Bahamas) ; 
John- Bull-tree (Jamaica, Bequia) ; mahot bord- 
de-mer ( St. Lucia) ; tuliptree, mahault de Londres 
(Trinidad) ; Spanish-cork, cork-tree (British 
Honduras) ; beach maho, maho (British Guiana) ; 
gros mahaut (Haiti) ; catalpa (Guadeloupe) ; 
otaheita, palu santu (Dutch West Indies) ; bosch- 
katoen (Surinam). 



330 





''./•* 



m 





I 




/ 



eho 




152. Bmajagililla, otaheita, portiatxee 



Natural size. 



Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. 



331 



BOMBAX FAMILY (BOMBACACEAE) 



Key to the 3 native species, all illustrated (Nos. 153-155) 

A. Leaves digitate (palmate), with 5-S lance-shaped or oblong leaflets — 153. C'eiba pentandra. 
AA. Leaves simple. 

B. Leaves with 5-9 main veins from base — 154. Ochroma pyramidale. 
BB. Leaves with 1 main vein or midrib — 155. Qiiararibaea iurbinata. 



153. Ceiba, silk-cotton-tree 



Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. 



This giant tree, one of the lai'gest m tropical 
America, is easily recognized by the massive gray- 
green or gray smoothisli trunk ( spiny when small) 
which reaches an enormous size of 5-8 feet or more 
in diameter above the unusually large narrow but- 
tresses and by the very broad flat crown of hori- 
zontal branches. Other distinguishing character- 
istics are: (1) the palmately compound leaves 
(digitate) of 5-8 lance-shaped or oblong leaflets 
3-8 inches long, drooping from the end of a long 
petiole; (2) numerous spreading 5-parted whitish 
to pink flowers 11/4-11/2 inches long and broad ; and 
(3) oblong or elliptic seed capsules 3-6 inches or 
more in length and 2 inches in diameter, contain- 
ing many seeds and woolly hairs, the kapok of 
commerce. 

Ceiba is a rapidly growing deciduous tre« be- 
coming 80 feet or more in height. The buttresses, 
6-12 inches thick, extend horizontally out from 
the tnuik over the large roots as much as 10 feet 
and almost as high. Many stout conical spines 
i/g-l inch long are present on branches and small 
trunks but are. mostly absent on large tnuiks. The 
thick inner bark is light brown and almost taste- 
less. The thin crown is commonly broader than 
the height of tlie tree. Twigs are stout, green at 
tip, and becoming gray. 

Leaves are alternate, with slender green petioles 
3-9 inches long. The leaflets hang clown on short, 
stalks V8-% inch long and are 3-8 inches long and 
%-l% inches broad, short-pointed at base and 
apex, not toothed on edges, thin, above bright 
green to dark gre«n, and beneath dull green. 

Great quantities of flowers are produced in la- 
teral clusters near the ends of twigs in winter or 
early spring (December to February) though not 
every year, often while the tree is leafless. Flower 
stalks are l-li/^ inches long. The calyx is cup- 
shaped, about 1/2 inch long and broad, with 5-10 
shallow teeth. The 5 petals are about IV4 inches 
long, whitish to rose colored, and densely brown 
silky hairy on the outer surface. Five stamens, 
longer than the petals, are united into a column 
near the base. The pistil consists of 5-celled ovarj- , 
a long style curved near apex, and enlarged stigma. 

Seed capsules mature in spring and summer, 
splitting open along 5 lines. Many rounded black 
seeds less than % inch long (about 3,200 to a 
pound) are imbedded in a dense mass of gray 
woolly hairs. 

The wood is very light brown but nearly al- 
ways turned to blue gray by sap-staining fungi, 



the sapwood almost the same color and not readily 
distinguished. It is very soft, exceedingly light- 
weight (specific gravity 0.23), weak, coarse-tex- 
tured, and straight -grained. The rate of air-sea- 
soning and amount of degrade are moderate. The 
wood machines easily but not satisfactorily. Ma- 
chining characteristics are as follows: planing, 
sanding, and resistance to screw splitting are ex- 
cellent; shaping and boring are poor; turning is 
very poor; and mortising is fair. Logs and lum- 
ber are very susceptible to attack by insects and de- 
cay. However, blue-stain can be prevented by dip- 
ping the lumber in a fungicide solution soon after 
sawing. 

The wood is seldom used in Puerto Rico al- 
though sometimes has served for interior sheath- 
ing. It resembles heavier grades of balsa 
(guano) but is twice as strong and could be used 
similarly. It is suitable for boxes, slack cooper- 
age, toys, light construction, patternmaking, and 
utility-grade plywood. Because it is easily worked 
and in spite of lack of durability, the wood has 
been employed for tubs and basins. Indians made 
drums of the wood and hollowed out the trunks 
for dugout canoes of large size. 

Trees are occasionally planted for shade and 
ornament, and young cut branches or cuttings will 
root when planted. In many tropical towns a 
giant spreading ceiba occupies the center of the 
plaza. Classed as a valuable honey plant. It is 
repotted that the leaves are edible when cooked. 

Kapok, the woolly or silky hair from the seed 
pods, is an important product of this species. The 
harvest is mainly from planted trees in Java and 
the Philippines. A growing tree produces about 
600-900 seed capsules or 6-9 pounds of clean floss 
annually. This fiber is fine, lightweight, and elas- 
tic and does not become matted vmder pressure. 
Because of these characteristics and its insulating 
qualities, kapok is preferred for linings of sleep- 
ing bags and was a strategic material in the last 
war. Another use is for life preservers. In many 
places kapok has been used locally in stuffing pil- 
lows and mattresses, and commercial development 
has been su.crgested where the trees are sufficiently 
common. The fiber is brittle and inflammable and 
not suitable for spinning into threads. An oil 
suitable for making soap and illumination has been 
extracted from the seeds. 

Ceiba is .scattered and widely distributed in 
Puerto Rico along river banks and open hillsides 
on the coastal plain and in the lower mountain 



332 




153. Ceiba, silk-cotton-tree 



Ceiba pentandra (L. ) Gaertn. 



Two-thirds natural size. 



333 



regions and is commonest in the drier, southern 
areas. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, and Tortohi. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Lu- 
quillo, Eio Abajo, San Juan, Susua, Tore Negro, 
Vega. 

Range. — Nearly throughout West Indies from 
Cuba and Jamaica to Trinidad and Tobago. In- 
troduced in Bermuda and Bahamas and planted 
also in southern Florida and California. "Widely 
distributed from Mexico to Ecuador, Brazil, and 
Guianas. Also in tropical Africa and Asia. 

Other common names. — kapok (Virgin 
Islands) ; ceiba, ceibo (Spanish, commerce) ; 
pochote (Mexico, Central America) ; bongo, cot- 
ton-ti-ee (Panama) ; ceiba de lana, bonga, ceiba 
de Garzon (Colombia) ; silk-cotton-tree, kapok 



(English) ; cotton-tree (Bi-itish Honduras) ; 
kumaka (British Guiana) ; mapou (Haiti, Guade- 
loupe) ; fromager (commerce, Guadeloupe, Mar- 
tinique, French Guiana) ; bois coton, kapokier 
( French Guiana) ; katoenboom, katunbom, kapok- 
boom, silk-cotton-tree (Dutch West Indies) ; kan- 
kantrie, kaddo bakkoe (Surinam) ; sumauma, mai 
das arvores, cyyba, mocmayn (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Bonxbax pentandrwn 
h., Ceiba anfractuosa (DC.) Maza.. 

Some authors have separated the New World 
trees from those of the Old World as a variety or 
species {Ceiba penfandm (L.) Gaertn. var. cari- 
baea (DC.) Bakh., C. caribaea (DC.) A. Chev., C. 
occidentalis (Spreng.) Burkill). The Spanish 
and generic names are from an old Caribbean 
word which is said to mean boat. 



BOMBAX FAMILY (BOMBACACEAE) 



154. Guano, balsa 

Balsa, a very rapidly gi-owing tree known in 
Puerto Rico as guano, is easily recognized by : (1) 
an open crown of a few coai-se spreading branches ; 
(2) smooth pinkish-gray bark; (3) large, nearly 
round, heart-shaped leaves 8-16 inches long and 
broad with 7-9 main veins spreading from base 
(pahnately veined) and with long petioles; (l) 
the large, tubular bell-shaped, whitish and green- 
ish flowers 5 inches long, with 5 petals, borne 
singly; and (5) the odd dark brown cylindrical 
seed capsules 7-10 inches long and 1-1^/4 inches 
in diameter, covered with light brown wool after 
opening. 

A medium-sized to large evergi'een tree, becom- 
ing .50-80 feet in height and 21/2 feet in trunk 
diameter, witji slight Ijuttresses when large. Inner 
bark is fibrous, pinkish. % inch or less in thick- 
ness. The twigs are stout, 14 inch in diameter, 
greenish, rusty-brown haiiy when young, with 
large brownish leaf scars and thick pith. 

The alternate leaves have stout reddish-tinged 
petioles about as long as the blades and 2 broad 
I'ounded scales (stipules) ^2 i'^ch long at base. 
Leaf blades are short-pointed or slightly 3-pointed 
(sometimes 5-pointed), edges mostly without 
teeth, slightly thickened, green and hairless on 
upper surface and yellow gi'een with minute star- 
shaped hairs on lower surface. Young plants have 
very large leaves with blades as much as 2 feet 
long and broad. 

The flowers are formed on long stout stalks near 
ends of twigs. They are 3-4 inches broad, slightly 
fleshy, bearing minute star-shaped hairs. The 
thickened brownish-green calyx has a tube about 
2 inches long and 5 large spreading lobes IV2 
inches long, the 2 outer lobes narrow and pointed, 
2 lobes very broad and notched, and 1 broad on 1 
side. There are 5 whitish petals 5 inches long, 
broad and rounded at apex and narrow below. 
The stamen column about 5 inches long has an 
enlarged terminal pollen-bearing portion of many 
spirally twisted anthers and surrounds the pistil 

334 



Ochroma pyramidale (Cav.) Urban 

with its 5-celled, conical ovary, long style A^/o 
inches in length, and 5 spirally twisted stigmas. 

The seed capsules are 10-angled and grooved and 
split into 5 parts to expose a mass of tawny -brown, 
long, soft hairs, in which many small dark brown 
seeds % inch long are loosely imbedded. Flowers 
appearing from winter to summer, and fruits and 
seeds mature in spring and summer. 

Balsa is the lightest of commercial woods, weigh- 
ing less than cork. However, the Puerto Rican 
guano (specific gravity 0.22) is heavier than balsa 
of major commercial sources. The sapwood, the 
main source, is whitish, often with yellowish or 
pinkish hue, and the heartwood is pale brown or 
reddish tinged. The wood is very soft, weak, and 
has very coarse, straight, uniform grain. It is 
absorbent unless treated (frequently with paraf- 
fin), warps badly, and requires very sharp tools to 
work. Also it is perishable, decays and becomes 
discolored readily, and is very susceptible to attack 
by dry-wood termites. The rate of air-seasoning 
and amount of degrade are moderate. Machining 
characteristics are as follows: planing is good; 
shaping is poor; turning, boring, and mortising 
are very poor; sanding is fair; and resistance to 
screw splitting is excellent. 

Balsa wood was a strategic material in the Sec- 
ond Woi'ld War, being employed chiefly for life- 
rafts, lifebelts, and similar equipment, and in air- 
plane construction. The best grades were used in 
making British mosquito bombers. Nearly all the 
wartime supply came from Ecuador. In the First 
World War, 80,000 balsa floats were made for a 
submarine mine barrage 250 miles long in the 
North Sea. 

Peacetime uses elsewhere include insulation, 
toys, floats for fishnets, and lightweight boxes. 
Because of the insulating qualities, boxes of balsa 
have been used for shipping cold perishables with- 
out ice. The wood can serve as a substitute for 
cork. The Puerto Rican guano can be used in 
many ways like the heavier grades of balsa. It is 




154. Guano, balsa 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Ochroma pyramidale (Cav.) Urban 

335 



suitable for certain types of fruit and vegetable 
containers, novelties, toys, and temporary forms. 
The Spanish common name balsa, meaning raft 
and perhaps of aboriginal origin, is associated 
with the use of the buoyant logs by the Indians for 
rafts. 

The woolly or silky hairs of the seed capsules are 
employed for stuffing pillows and mattresses, be- 
ing similar to the kapok fibers of commerce ob- 
tained from the related tree, c«iba. It is reported 
that these fibers have been used also in felt hats. 
Ropes have been made from the fibrous bark, which 
also contains tannin. 

The trees are sometimes grown as ornamentals 
for the large leaves and large flowers, such as in 
southern Florida. 

Scattered in the moist coast, moist limestone, and 
lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico. Requir- 
ing full sunlight, it is confined to open areas, such 
as roadsides, clearings, and cutover forests, where 
the wind-borne seeds are widely distributed. Grer- 
mination is rapid, especially following fire. Trees 
attain mature size within 6-10 years, sometimes 
averaging 10 feet in height growth a year. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Luquillo, Rio Abajo, Susua. 

Range. — Widely distributed in tropical America 
with minor variations distinguished as species by 



BOMBAX FAMILY 



155. Garrocho 



This small tree is limited to deep shade of moist 
forests and characterized by : ( 1 ) straight erect 
trunk and axis with horizontal branches attached 
in circles of 5 or 4 together at the same point ; (2) 
elliptic leaves 3-9 inches long and 1^/^-4 inches 
broad, short-petioled, slightly thickened, strongly 
odorous when dry; (3) lateral whitish funnel- 
shaped flowers % inch long, mostly single and al- 
most stalkless at base of leaves; and (4) rounded, 
orange, fleshy fruits % inch in diameter. 

An evergreen tree becoming 20 feet in height 
and 6 inches in trunk diameter. The branches, at- 
tached in whorls about lV^-2 feet apart along the 
axis, are distinctive of this genus. The gray- 
brown bark is smoothish but finely warty. Inner 
bark is yellowish and slightly bitter. Twigs are 
brown, with faint rings where leaves are borne. 

The alternate leaves have petioles i/4-% inch 
long. Blades are short-pointed at both ends, with- 
out teeth on edges, dark green and slightly shiny 
with sunken lateral veins on upper surface and 
dull yellow green beneath. At base of young 
leaves is a pair of narrow pointed gray scales 
(stipules) %6 inch long, which slied early, leaving 
a ring scar. 

The flowers are attached on very short stalks 
along the twigs, bear minute star-shaped hairs, and 
have a peculiar odor. The narrow green calyx 
tube is %-V2 iiich long, slightly and irregularly 
2- or 3-lobed ; there are 5 spreading whitish petals 

336 



some authors. Greater Antilles and Lesser An- 
tilles from St. Kitts to Grenada, and Trinidad and 
Tobago. Also from southern Mexico to Ecuador, 
Pern, Bolivia, and Brazil. Planted also in south- 
ena Florida and Dutch West Indies. 

Other common names. — false cork-tree (Virgin 
Islands) ; balsa, palo de balsa, balso (Spanish) ; 
palo de lana, lana, lanero (Dominican Republic) ; 
lanero, ceibon botija (Cuba) ; corcho (Mexico) ; 
lana, cajeto, lanilla, guano, corcho, jujul (Guate- 
mala) ; guano, tambor (Honduras) ; algodon (El 
Salvador) ; gatillo (Nicaragua) ; lana, cottontree 
(Panama) ; tucumo, ceiba de lana, lana (Colom- 
bia) ; huampo, topa (Peru) ; balsa, balsa- wood 
(United States, English, commerce) ; corkwood, 
downtree, bombast mahoe (Jamaica) ; bois flot 
(St. Lucia, Dominica, Trinidad and Tobago) ; 
polak (British Honduras) ; coton fleurs, mahau- 
deme (Haiti) ; bois flot (Guadeloupe, Marti- 
nique) ; fromager mapou, bois liege, bois pripri, 
patte lapin, bois lievre (Guadeloupe) ; balsa 
(Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Ochroma J)icolor Row- 
lee, O. hoUvmna Rowlee, 0. grandifora Rowlee, 0. 
1-agop^is Sw., 0. lagopios var. hicolor (Rowlee) 
Standi. & Steyerm., O. limonensis Rowlee, 0. 
ohhi.sa Rowlee, 0. peniviava Johnst., O. tomentosa 
Willd., 0. velutina Rowlee. 

(BOMBACACEAE) 

Quararibaea turhinata (Sw.) Poir. 

more than ^o iiich long; stamen column % inch 
long, with many anthers clustered at apex; and 
pistil with 2- or 3-celled ovary, slender style, and 
enlarged stigma inside the stamen column. 

The rounded, orange fleshy fruits are slightly 
broader than long, with calyx remaining at base, 
and have 1 or 2 large seeds. Flowers are produced 
chiefly in spring (February to May), and fruits 
mature slightly later (February to July). 

The sapwood is whitish and hard. The wood is 
little used in Puerto Rico. Formerly the stems 
were used for goad sticks, as the Spanish common 
name indicates. Because of the peculiar branch- 
ing, small stems could serve as hatracks. 

An understory tree of the moist coast, moist 
limestone, and lower mountain regions of Puerto 
Rico. Also Vieques, St. Jolin, and St. Croix. Re- 
discovered in St. Croix in 1954, more than 150 
years after an earlier collection there. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Lu- 
quillo, Rio Abajo. 

Municipality avhere especially common. — 46. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Vieques, St. 
John, and St. Croix, and Lesser Antilles from St. 
Eustatius, St. Kitts, and Antigua to Grenada. 
Also recorded from Surinam. 

Other common names. — palo de garrocha, asu- 
billo (Puerto Rico) ; molinillo (Dominican Re- 
public) ; swizzle-stick-tree (Lesser Antilles) ; 
millerwood (St. Eustatius). 





155. Garrocho 



Two-thirds natural size. 



QuarariMea turMnata (Sw.) Poir. 

337 



CHOCOLATE FAMILY (STERCULL\CEAE) 



Key to the 3 si)ecles illustrated (Nos. 156-158) 

A. Leaves deeply 5-lobed, with 5 maiu veins from heart-shaped base ; petiole nearly as long as blade — 157. StercuUa 
apetala.* 
AA. Leaves not lobed. 

B. Leaves with 3 or sometimes 5 main veins from the oblique base, with edges finely saw-toothed — 156. Ouazuma 
tilmifoUa. 
BB. Leaves with 1 main vein or midrib, not toothed on edges — 158. Theoiroma cacao* 



156. Guacima, jacocalalu 

This tree is recoji;nizecl by: (1) long widely 
spreading branches, horizontal or slightly droop- 
ing, with the alternate leaves in 2 rows in a flat- 
tened arrangement; (2) bark becoming furrowed 
and rough or slightly shaggy; (3) young twigs 
covered with minute rusty-brown or light gray 
star-shaped hairs; (-1) the ovate to lance-shaped 
leaves 21^-5 inches long and 1-21/4 inches wide, 
long-pointed, finely saw-toothed, and witli 3 or 
sometimes 5 main veins from the rounded oblique 
base; (5) small brown-tinged yellow 5-parted 
flowers in clusters at base of leaves; and (6) fniit 
round to elliptic, hard, very warty, black, %-l 
inch long. 

A small to medium-sized tree to 50 feet high and 
2 feet in trunk diameter, with spreading roimded 
crown. The bark is gray or gray brown, 14 i^cli 
or more in thickness. Inner bark is light brown, 
fibrous, and slightly bitter. Evergreen except in 
areas with long diy seasons. The long slender 
twigs become dark brown. 

The slender petioles Y%-V2 ii^cli long are covered 
with minute rusty-brown or light gray star-shaped 
hairs. Leaf blades are thin, nearly hairless or 
sometimes densely hairy, green on upi^er surface 
and paler beneath. At night the leaves hang 
vertically. 

Branched flower clusters (panicles) are 1-2 
inches long at base of leaves and bear many small, 
slightly fragrant flowers on minutely hairy stalks. 
The spreading flowers are about % inch long and 
half as broad, consisting of a 2- or 3-lobed rusty- 
brown or light gray hairy calyx less than y^ inch 
long, turned back and then greenish, 5 yellow 
petals each witli a slender 2-forked appendage, and 
yellowish stamen column with about 15 antihers 
surrounding the pistil, composed of hairy light 
green 5-celled ovary, style, and 5 miited stigmas. 

The warty seed capsules, which mature in fall 
and winter, are 5-celled, open at the apex or irreg- 
ularly by pores, and contain many seeds % inch 
long. Flowering from spring to fall (March to 
October) and with fiiiits throughout the year. 

This is a variable species with differences in 
shape and amount of hairiness in the leaves and 
in shape and method of opening of seed capsules. 
Some botanists distinguish 2 species, both widely 
distributed with almost the same range and both 
occurring in Puerto Rico. Trees in moist areas 
have nearly hairless foliage with rusty-brown 



Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. 

hairs, while those in diy areas have densely light 
gray haiiy foliage and have been separated as a 
different species (G. tomentosa H. B. K.). 

Sapwood is light brown and heart.wood is pink- 
isli to brownish. The wood is moderately soft, 
lightweight to moderately heavy (specific gravity 
0.5), easily worked, and not durable. It is very 
susceptible to attack by dry- wood termites. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is used chiefly for posts. 
Various uses of the wood elsewhere include gen- 
eral carpentry, interior construction, furniture, 
barrel staves, boxes and crates, tool handles, gun- 
stocks, shoe lasts, violins, and charcoal for gun- 
powder. 

The trees sometimes serve as shade in pastures. 
Immature fruits and foliage are browsed by 
horses and cattle, especially in dry periods, and the 
fruits are fed to hogs. These mucilaginous green 
fruits, fresh or cooked, are edible, and it is re- 
ported that a beverage can be prepared by soak- 
ing the crusiied fruits in water. In some areas 
rope and twine are made from the tough fibrous 
bark and young stems. The flowers attract bees 
and are a source of honey. Different parts of the 
plant are employed in home medicines. 

This species is characteristic of openings, stream 
banks, clearings, and second growth of disturbed 
areas and is less common in forests. It requires 
light, grows rapidly, and is hardy in dry as well 
as moist areas. Thus, it has been classed as a 
weed tree. It is reported to be one of the com- 
monest and most widely distributed tree species in 
Cuba and one of the commonest plants of Central 
America. 

Along stream courses and in thickets, pastures, 
and forests in the coastal and lower mountain re- 
gions of Puerto Rico. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Cambalache, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, 
Susua. 

Municipalities wheke especially common.— 
8, 21, 66. 

Range. — Throughout West Indies (except Ba- 
hamas) from Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and 
cultivated in Dutch West Indies. Also from 
Mexico to Ecuador, Peru, northern Argentina, 
Paraguay, and Brazil. 

Other common names. — guacima, guacimo 
(Spanish) ; guacima cimarrona (Dominican Re- 
public) ; guacima de caballo (Cuba) ; tablote. 



338 





156. Guleima, jacocalalu 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Ouazuma ulmifolia Lam. 



339 



maja^a de toro (Mexico) ; tapaculo (Guatemala, 
El Salvador) ; caulote (Guatemala, Honduras, El 
Salvador, Colombia) ;contamal (Guatemala) ; chi- 
charron (El Salvador) ; guacimillo (Nicara^a) ; 
guacimo bianco (Costa Rica) ; guacimo de ternero 
(Panama) ; iumanasi, papaj'illo (Peru) ; coco 
(Bolivia) ; camba-aca, guazuma (Argentina) ; 
bastard-cedar (Jamaica, Trinidad) ; bois d'onne, 
West-Indian-elm (Trinidad); pigeon-wood (To- 
bago) ; bay-cedar, caulote, pixoy (British Hon- 



duras) ; bois d'orme, orme d'Amerique (French) ; 
bois de hetre, hetre gris, hetre vert, mahot-hetre 
(Guadeloupe) ; goeaazoema (Dutch West Indies) ; 
mutamba (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Gtmzuina gvMzuma 
(L.) Cockerell, G. tomentosa H. B. K., G. ulmi- 
folia var. tomentosa (H. B. K.) K. Schum. 

The common name jacocalalu, applied to this 
species in St. Thomas, is said to be an African 
word for an edible plant like spinach. 



CHOCOLATE FAMILY (STERCULLACEAE) 
157. Anacagiiita, panama-tree Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst.* 



This large and handsome, introduced shade tree 
is distinguished by: (1) a den.se broad spreading 
crown; (2) the abundant foliage of long-petioled, 
broad, deeply 5-lobed, pleated leaves with thick 
and leathery blades 8-12 inches long and wide; 
(3) large clusters of many bell-shaped yellowisli 
flowers tinged with red or purple, 5-lobed and 
about % inch long and % inch across; and (4) the 
large, dark brown, hard, dry fruits, each of 5 or 
fewer spreading pods 21/2-31/2 inches long, opening 
widely to release the large black seeds and covered 
within with stiff needlelike bristles, which pene- 
trate and irritate the skin. 

An evergreen tree to 50 feet high. The trunks 
are commonly 3 feet or more in diameter, develop- 
ing narrow prominent buttresses taller than broad. 
The bark is smooth and gray or brown. Inner 
bark is orange brown, gritty, and tasteless. Young 
twigs, flowers, and young leaves are thickly cov- 
ered with brown, mucli-branched or star-shaped 
hairs. Older twigs are stout and light gray, with 
large, nearly round leaf scars. 

The alternate leaves liave round yellow-green 
petioles 5-8 inches or more in length. Blades have 
5 main veins from the heart-shaped base (palm- 
ately lobed) , the lobes ovate and short-pointed, not 
toothed on edges. The green and slightly shiny 
upper surface becomes almost hairless, while the 
gray to brownish-green lower surface is densely 
woolly with minute star-shaped hairs. 

Branched flower clusters (panicles) about 8 
inches long are borne near the ends of twigs. The 
numerous flowers are partly male or female and 
partly bisexual (polygamous), with a 5-lobed 
calyx but have no petals. Stamens and pistil are 
borne at the end of a stalk 14-% inch long, with 
7-15 anthers on a very short tube, and the woolly 
pistil, when pi-esent, consisting of a 5-celled ovary 
i/s inch in diameter and a style of the same length 
but curved downward. There are 2-5 elliptic 



seeds % inch long in each pod (follicle), maturing 
usually in spring. Flowering in spring and oc- 
casionally in summer and fall. 

The sapwood is whitish, and the heartwood light 
brown to reddish brown. The wood is lightweight 
(specific gravity 0.30-.45), soft, spongy, fibrous, 
coarse-textured, and has growth rings. It works 
easily but discolors rapidly and is susceptible to 
decay. Possible uses are interior construction and 
packing boxes. Large trunks have been hollowed 
into dugout canoes elsewhere. 

The principal value of this species is for shade 
and ornament, since tlie wood is seldom used. It 
is reported that the edible seeds when ground can 
be made into a beverage and when roasted taste 
like peanuts. Pigs eat the seeds also. Flowers, 
leaves, and bark have been employed in home 
medicines. Also a honey plant. 

Individual trees have been planted for shade 
and ornament in various parts of Puerto Rico and 
in St. Thomas and perhaps others of the Virgin 
Islands, but the species is not native. This species 
is honored as the national tree of the Republic of 
Panama and as the origin of tliat country's name. 

Range. — Southern Mexico and Central America 
to Peru and Brazil. Naturalized in Jamaica and 
Trinidad. Planted in southern Florida, Cuba, 
Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, and 
elsewhere in the tropics. 

Other common names. — anacahuita (Domini- 
can Republic) ; chicha (commerce) ; anacagiiita, 
camanica (Cuba) ; bellota (Mexico, Guatemala) ; 
castano (Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador) ; 
panama (Central America) ; camajuru, camajon- 
duro (Colombia) ; camoruco, pata de danta, sun- 
sun, cacaito, cacaguillo (Venezuela) ; panama-tree 
(English) ; pistache des Indes (Haiti) . 

Botanical synonym. — Sterculia carthaginensis 
Cav. 



340 




v 



'% 




157. Anacaguita, panama-tree 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Bterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. 



341 



CHOCOLATE FAMILY (STERCULIACEAE) 



158. Cacao, chocolate-tree 

Cacao, the soiirte of cocoa and chocolate, is a 
small cultivated tree characterized by: (1) low 
spreading crown; (2) large elliptic or oblong 
leaves hanging downward, 8-14 inches long and 
2i/2^y2 inches broad, long-pointed, broadest above 
middle, and rounded at base; (3) many flowers in 
clusters along tnink, branches, and larger twigs, 
1 to several on slender pink stalks %-l inch long, 
oddly star-shaped, 5-parted, and spreading, % 
inch across, whitish, tinged with orange and pink ; 
and (4) the large oblong or egg-shaped, yellow or 
purplish, fleshy fruits 6-12 inches long and 3-4 
inches thick, pointed, ridged and grooved, and 
hanging downward from trunk. 

This evergreen tree, cultivated under larger 
shade trees, becomes 25 feet high and 6 inches in 
trunk diameter. The dark brown bark is fis- 
sured and rough, and inner bark is light brown 
and tasteless. The twigs are brown and minutely 
haii'y wlien young. 

The alternate leaves hang down from petioles 
1/4-1 inch long. Blades are slightly thickened, not 
toothed on edges, green or dark green on upper 
surface and paler beneath. 

Flowers have 5 narrow, pointed, widely spread- 
ing pink sepals i/4 "ich long; 5 ])etals i/4 inch long, 
hood-shaped at base, with a veiy narrow middle 
part bent backward, and spoon-shaped at apex ; 5 
short stamens united into a cup at base and with 
5 vei-y nari'ow lobes i/4 inch high ; and pistil com- 
posed of 5-celled ovary, style, and stigma. 

In the large 5-cellecl fruits are many large 
chocolate-colored or purplish seeds 1 inch or more 
in length and bitter tasting. There are about 200 



Theobroma cacao L* 

seeds to a pound. Flowering in summer and fall. 
Fruits mature chiefly in spring and summer. 

The light brown, hard wood is not used in Puer- 
to Rico. 

Cacao is planted widely in wet tropical regions 
for its seeds or "beans," from which cocoa and 
chocolate are prepared by grinding and roasting. 
It is one of the best known cultivated plants origi- 
nating in the New World. The Spanish Conquis- 
tadores found it already being cultivated by the 
Mexican Indians. Besides the main use in Mexico 
for preparing drinks, the seeds served the natives 
as money. Sweetened chocolate now is an im- 
portant ingredient of candies and desserts as well 
as a popular beverage. Cacao (cocoa) powder and 
synip from the seeds are official in the United 
States Pharmacopoeia, serving as a flavoring agent 
and concentrated nutriment. 

In active and abandoned coffee plantations, 
chiefly in the western part of the lower mountain 
regions of Puerto Rico. Cacao is planted to a 
limited extent also in St. Croix. 

Range. — Native of southern Mexico and Cen- 
tral America and spread by cultivation south to 
Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Introduced and planted 
throughout the West Indies, mostly on a small 
scale. ProjDagation worldwide in moist tropical 
regions. 

Other common names. — cacao (Spanish) ; 
cacao, cocoa, chocolate-tree (English) ; cacao, 
cacaoyer (French); cacao, cacateiro (Brazil). 
Several cultivated varieties have been given de- 
scriptive common names. 



342 




158. Cacao, chocolate-tree 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Theoiroma cacao L. 



687-921 O — 64- 23 



343 



DILLENIA FAMILY (DILLENIACEAE) 



159. Dilenia, India dillenia 

A showy exotic introduced in gardens as an 
ornamental shade tree, distinguished by: (1) the 
symmetrical, usually conical dense crown; (2) 
large oblong or oblanceolate shiny green leaves 
with saw-toothed edges and with many straight 
parallel lateral veins V4-% inch apart leaving mid- 
rib at an angle of about 45 degrees and each ending 
in a tooth; (3) beautiful very large white flowers, 
with yellow stamens, 8-9 inches across the 5 petals ; 
and (4) large, hard, light green fruits 5-8 inches 
in diameter, resembling a cabbage head, covered by 
very thick sepals. 

An evergreen tree attaining 50 feet in height 
with straight trunk to 1 foot in diameter, with 
large spreading branches arising a few together 
along the trunk. The brown bark is smoothish, 
with faint horizontal ring scars, and becoming 
slightly scaly. Inner bark is pinkish brown and 
bitter. The stout brownish-gray twigs have many 
broad leaf scars and at apex bear crowded alter- 
nate leaves and have pointed buds V^ inch long, 
covered with pointed gray silky hairy scales. 

The leaves have stout, light green, grooved 
petioles li/4-l% inches long. Blades are 6-15 
inches long and 214-6 inches wide, abruptly long- 
pointed at apex and narrowed toward the short- 
pointed base, often broadest above middle, above 
shiny green with midrib and lateral veins slightly 
sunken, and beneath lighter green with prominent 
lateral veins which are inconspicuously hairy. 

Flowers are borne singly near end of twig on a 
long stout stalk. There are 5 spreading light green 
sepals, concave and fleshy; 5 spreading obovate 
white petals about 4 inches long; very numerous 
curved bright yellow stamens in a globelike mass; 
and a central ring of about 16-18 crowded but 



Dillenia indica L.* 

nearly separate pistils (carpels), each 1-celled and 
bearing a white slender spreading stigma % ii^ch 
long, narrow, flat, and pointed, the stigmas spread- 
ing as rays in a circle. 

The heavy fiiiits hang down singly, only 1 at 
the end of a leafy twig. They are rounded but 
broader than long and slightly irregular, being 
shaped by the 5 rounded hard sepals which are 
more than 1 inch thick at base with whitish flesh, 
the outer 2 short and the inner 3 tightly overlap- 
ping. The sepals do not open but enclose tightly 
the aggregate fruit of crowded light brown ovaries 
about 3 inches across, each with thick soft sour 
walls and containing several light brown flattened 
seeds i^ inch long in transparent gelatinous flesh. 
Observed in flower in July and August and with 
fruits nearly through the year. 

The light brown sap wood is slightly soft. The 
wood is not used in Puerto Rico. 

In India the fruit is eaten, the entire fruit being 
made into jelly or a drink or sometimes cooked as 
a vegetable. The bulk consists of the very thick 
sepals, which have a very sour taste. The smaller 
juicy fruits inside are sour also. 

Planted in Puerto Rico as an ornamental and 
shade tree and experimentally in St. Thomas. 
Elsewhere in the tropics examples may be seen in 
botanical gardens. 

Range. — Native of tropical Asia from India to 
Malaya. Introduced into other tropical regions, 
sparingly in the New World, including southern 
Florida and southern California, Greater Antilles, 
and Central and South America. 

Other common names. — coca (Dominican Re- 
public) ; India dillenia, dillenia (United States). 



344 




159. Dllenia, India dlUenla 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Dillenia indica L. 
345 



TEA FAMILY (THEACEAE) 



160. Maricao verde 

This tree native only in Luquillo Mountains is 
distinguished by: (1) alternate elliptic leaves 
2-41/^ inches long and %-l% inches wide, rounded 
at apex and long-pointed at the vei-y short-stalked 
base, with slightly wavy-toothed edges, the lower 
surface with 2 faint lines parallel with midrib, and 
orange red when new ; ( 2 ) fragrant showy white 
flowers nearly 2 inches across the 6-9 petals, al- 
most stalkless and single at base of leaves; and (3) 
oblong dark brown capsule %-l inch long and 
%-V2 inch in diameter, 6-10-ridged, remaining at- 
tached after opening. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree to 40 feet in 
height and 11/2 feet in trunk diameter. Bark on 
old trunks is gray and fissured. The twigs are 
gray, finely hairy when young. The terminal bud 
is long and narrow and covered by a hairy scale 
(stipule). 

The dark green leaf blades are often broadest 
above middle, turned under a little at edges, only 
slightly thickened, and beneath with prominent 
veins and paler and sparsely hairy. 

The large flowers are very conspicuous and at- 
tractive, contrasting with the foliage. A flower 



Laplacea portoricensis (Krug & Urban) Dyer 

has 5 overlapping, unequal, rounded, leathery, 
finely hairy sepals %-V2 inch in diameter; 6-9 
bright white unequal obovate petals about % inch 
long, some notched, soon falling; more than 100 
unequal stamens i/i inch long with yellow anthers; 
and pistil more than %6 inch long with broad, 
rounded, hairy, 6-10-celled ovary and 5 or 6 styles. 

The finely hairy capsule splits open along the 
ridges to release many thin, narrow, winged, 
brown seeds nearly I/2 inch long. These old open 
capsules serve as an aid in identification. Ke- 
corded as flowering and with fruits in several 
months nearly through the year. 

This tree perhaps is worthy of trial as an orna- 
mental for its showy flowei-s. The wood is little 
used. 

Found only in the lower Luquillo forest region. 

PtTBLic FOREST. — Luquillo. 

Range. — Restricted to eastern Puerto Rico. 

OiTiER COMMON NAMES. — maricao, nifio de cota 
(Puerto Rico). 

Botanical synonyms. — Haemocharis portori- 
censk Krug & Urban, Wickstroemia portoricensis 
(Krug& Urban) Blake. 



346 




160. Maricao verde 



Natural size. 



Laplacea portoricensis (Krug& Urban) Dyer 

347 



MANGOSTEEN FAMILY (GUTTIFERAE) 

Key to the 5 species illustrated (Nos. 161-165) 

A. Leaves stiff, ending in long-pointed sharp spine — 165. Rheedia portoricensis. 
AA. Leaves rounded or notched at apex. 

B. Leaves thick, with many straight parallel lateral veins nearly at right angles to midrib. 

C. Lateral veins only about %2 inch apart; fruit nearly 1 inch in diameter, inedible — 161. Calophyllum 

hrasiUense. 
CC. Lateral veins more than Vi& inch apart; fruit 3-10 inches in diameter, edible (mamey)^164. Mammea 
americana. 
BB. Leaves very thick and fleshy, with lateral veins inconspicuous or scarcely visible. 

D. Leaves with rounded apex, the edges rolled under, seed capsules %-% inch in diameter — 162. Clusia 

krugiana. 
DD. Leaves with rounded or notched apex, the edges slightly turned under; seed capsules 2-2% inches in 
diameter — 163. Clusia rosea. 



161. Maria, santa-maria 

Maria, a native and widely planted tree for tim- 
ber, ornament, and shade, is identified by its dense 
crown with opposite stiff elliptic leaves 2i^-5 
inches long and 1 14-21/2 inches broad, dark green 
and slightly shiny on upper surface, with very 
many straight parallel lateral veins only about 1/32 
inch apart and nearly at right angles to midrib, 
and without smaller veins. Other distinguishing 
characteristics are: (1) numerous small fragrant 
white flowers %-i/2 inch broad in a lateral 
branched cluster 1-2 inches long; (2) the round, 
light brown, 1 -seeded fruits nearly 1 inch in di- 
ameter; and (3) the whitish latex produced in 
small quantities. 

A medium-sized evergreen tree 40-65 feet high, 
becoming larger, and up to 11/4 feet or more in di- 
ameter, with straight axis and usually a spreading 
crown. The bark is light gray and smooth or 
slightly fissured, becoming spotted with numerous 
dark protuberances on large trunks. Inner bark 
is whitish and bitter. The twigs are green, 4- 
angled, and minutely hairy when young, becoming 
gray. 

The petioles are 14-% inch long. Blades are 
rounded or minutely notched at apex, short- 
pointed at base, not toothed on edges, and slightly 
leathery. Some leaves have a rust, or fungus dis- 
ease, producing on the upper surface wartlike nar- 
row swellings Vie-Vi inch long, becoming brown, 
and corresponding sunken brown areas on lower 
surface. 

Flower clusters (racemes) at leaf bases or on 
twigs back of leaves are much shorter than the 
leaves and have several flowers on slender stalks. 
Flowers are male and bisexual on the same tree 
(polygamous). There are 4 white rounded and 
concave sepals, 2 about 1/4 inch long and 2 about 
half as long, widely spreading and turned back; 
petals commonly absent (or 1-^, smaller than the 
largest sepals and white) ; male flowers have about 
40-50 stamens in a prominent orange cluster more 
than 14 inch across and often a rudimentary pistil. 
Bisexual flowers have 8-12 stamens and a pistil 
consisting of round green ovary % inch in diam- 
eter, 1-celled with 1 ovule, short bent style, and 
flattened whitish stigma. 



Calophyllum brasiliense Camb. 

The fruit (drupe) has a hard, dry shell and con- 
tains 1 large rounded seed. Flowering chiefly in 
spring and summer, the f i-uit maturing from late 
spring to winter, mostly in the fall. 

The sapwood is light brown or whitish, and the 
heartwood varies from light pinkish to reddish 
brown, often with fine darker stripes. The wood 
is hard, moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.55), 
fairly strong, and coarse-textured, and frequently 
has interlocked grain. It is moderately durable 
in contact with the ground but is very susceptible 
to attack by dry-wood termites. Air-seasoning 
is slow and very difficult, and the amount of de- 
grade is considerable. Machining characteristics 
are as follows : planing is fair; shaping, mortising, 
sanding, and resistance to screw splitting are 
good; and turning and boring are poor. 

Maria is classed as a construction wood, but the 
small trees now available are chiefly for posts. 
The attractive wood resembles mahogany and can 
be used for many of the same purposes but is some- 
what more difficult to season and work. Else- 
where it is used for furniture, cabinetmaking, 
flooring, shingles, interior construction, shipbuild- 
ing, house framing, agricultural implements, han- 
dles, vehicles, structural timbers, poles, and cross- 
ties. 

The latex or resin from the trunk, called bal- 
samo de maria, has been employed medicinally. 
The fruits are reported to be good food for hogs, 
and an oil has been extracted from the seeds. 

The tree is widely planted for ornament and 
shade along highways. When young, its crown 
may be shaped into a hedge or other forms. The 
fruits are apparently distributed by bats with the 
result that dense clumps of seedlings sometimes 
develop directly beneath coconut palms along the 
coast.. Extensively planted in forest areas because 
of its adaptability to degraded soils and the ease 
with which it may be established by direct seed- 
ing. Seedlings do not survive transplanting well 
if lifted without a ball of earth. Almost the only 
valuable tree wliich grows well on the extremely 
laterite soils of the western mountains, where it 
attains 8 inches in diameter in 25 years. 



348 




161. Maria, santa-maria 



Natural size. 



Calophyllum hrasilienae Camb. 



349 



Introduced for ornament and shade in southern 
Florida, and in parts of the We-st Indies planted as 
shade for coffee and cacao and for windbreaks. 
In Grenada the trees are windbreaks for nutmeg 
plantations. 

Probably native only in the moist coastal and 
moist limestone forest regions of Puerto Rico. 
Now distributed as well throughout the lower 
Cordillera and lower Luquillo regions with a few 
trees on the dry coast. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, 
and St. Thomas. 

Public forests. — Native in Cambalache, Guaja- 
taca, Rio Abajo, and Vega. Introduced into 
Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Susua, and 
Toro Negro. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
17,34,62,74. 

Range. — This species with its geographic varie- 
ties also known as species is widely distributed 
through the West Indies and from Mexico to Peru, 
Boli\na, Brazil, and Guianas. The variety in 
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Caiophyllum. 
hrmiliense var. antUJamim (Britton) Standi., also 
classed as a species by some authors, ranges from 
Cuba and Jamaica through the Lesser Antilles to 



Grenada, is naturalized in Beraiuda, and is intro- 
duced in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — palo de maria, santa 
maria, aceite de maria (Puerto Rico) ; false- 
mamey (Virgin Islands) ; santa maria, maria 
(Spanish) ; baria, mara, palo maria (Dominican 
Republic) ; ocuje, ocuje Colorado (Cuba) ; barillo, 
mario, vario (El Salvador) ; cojon, cachicamo 
(Venezuela) ; jacare-iiba, lagarto-caspi bianco 
(Peru) ; santa-maria, Brazil beauty-leaf (United 
States) ; santa-maria (English, commerce) ; wild- 
mamee (Jamaica) ; came-marie, damage, dalemarie 
(Haiti) ; galba (Guadeloupe, Dominica, Marti- 
nique, St. Vincent) ; galba odorant, calaba 
(Guadeloupe) ; koelarie, mani kwaha, koerahara 
(Surinam) ; guanandi, olandi, landi (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms of Caiophyllum. hrasiliense 
var. antiUanmn (Britton) Standi. — Caiophyllum 
calaba Jacq., not L., C. antiUanum Britton, C. 
jacqidnii Fawc. & Rendle. 

The common name maria is said to be of Carib 
Indian origin rather than Spanish. A closely re- 
lated species (Caiophyllum lucidum Benth.) or 
variety known as galba occurs in Trinidad and 
Tobago, Venezuela, and British Guiana. 



162. Cupeillo 



MANGOSTEEN FAMILY (GUTTIFERAE) 

Clusia krugiana Urban 



This tree with orange or yellow latex is common 
in upi^er mountain forests of Puerto Rico. It is 
characterized by: (1) opposite, very thick, stiff 
and leathery, obovate dark green leaves, broade.st 
near the rounded apex, gradually narrowed toward 
an almost stalkless base, and with edges consider- 
ably rolled under; (2) terminal branched clusters 
of several to many spreading yellow flowers about 
1/4 inch across, male and female on different trees 
(dioecious) ; and (3) round green fleshy seed cap- 
sules %-% inch in diameter, splitting open and 
becoming 5-parted and star-shaped, exposing the 
orange pulp in which the light brown seeds are 
imbedded. 

A small to medium-sized evergi-een tree to 40 
feet high and 6-12 inches in ti-unk diameter, with 
a spreading crown of thick branches, sometimes 
with a few prop roots. The gray bark is smooth- 
ish, often covered with mosses, and within is pink- 
ish and slightly bitter, containing orange or yel- 
low latex. Twigs are stout and brownish, ringed 
at nodes. 

The stout broad petioles are only about % inch 
long. Blades are 2-5 inches long, 11/2-4 inches 
broad, with the veins inconspicuous or scarcely 
visible on both sides, dai-k green and often slightly 
shiny above, and pale yellow green beneath. 

The flower clusters (cymose) are li/4-2i/^ inches 
long, the fleshy branches paired, and flower stalks 
Vs-% inch long. There are 4 sepals about %6 inch 



long and 4 oblong yellow petals more than I/4 inch 
in length. Male flowers have many stamens s/ig 
inch long. Female flowers have pistil %e inch long 
with 5-celled ovary and 5 blackish stigmas on top. 

The round green fruit retains the calyx at base 
and 5 stigmas at apex and when split open is iy2 
inclies across the 5 lobes. Several light brown 
seeds % inch long are imbedded in orange pulp. 
Flowering and fruiting probably through the year. 

The light brown wood is hard and heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 0.9) . As the trunk is seldom straight, 
the wood is used mostly for fuel. 

Common in the dwarf forests on mountain sum- 
mits in the upper Luquillo and Cordillera forest 
regions in Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Maricao, 
Toro Negro. 

Range. — Puerto Rico and Hispaniola (Domini- 
can Republic). 

Cupey trepador (Clusia minor L.), a related 
shrub, small tree, or vine, has fleshy leaves with 
petioles %-% inch long, and clusters of few 
flowers with white to pink petals. 

Cupeillo de altura (Clusia gundlachii Stalil), 
or cupey de altura, a vinelike shrub or sometimes 
tree known only from Puerto Rico, has fleshy 
leaves with petioles 14-% inch long, clusters of 
many small flowers, and oblong fruits about % 
inch long. The fourth native species of this genus 
is described below. 



350 




/«&.J 



n) 




162. Cupeillo 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Cluaia krugiana Urban 

351 



MANGOSTEEN FAMILY (GUTTIFERAE) 



163. Cupey, wild-mammee, copey clusia 

A tree with yellow resinous latex easily recog- 
nized by : (1) vei-y broad spreading dense crowii; 
(2) opposite, veiy thick, stiff and leathei-y, obovate 
leaves, rounded or slightly notched at apex and 
gradually narrowed toward the short -pointed 
base; (3) showy, large, spreading, white flowers 
about 3 inches across the 6-8 obovate petals 
notched at apex, male and female on different trees 
(dioecious) ; and (4) nearly round fleshy seed cap- 
sules 2-21/2 inches in diameter, yellow green turn- 
ing brown" splitting into 7-9 parts and containing 
many yellow se«ds in orange-red pulp. 

Medium-sized evergreen tree to 60 feet high and 
2 feet in trunk diameter, usually with prop roots 
at base. Like jagiieyes or matapalos (Fici/s spp. ) , 
the trees often begin as air plants or epiphytes, 
the seed germinating in the fork of a tree and send- 
ing long aerial roots to the ground. In time these 
rapidly growing roots come together and encircle 
the host tree, finally forming a tnink around it 
and strangling and killing it. The gray bark is 
smoothish, slightly fissured and warty. Inner 
bark is pink brown and gritty, with yellow latex. 
The gi-een twigs are stout and ringed at nodes. 

Petioles are y^-l i'lch long, green, stout, flat- 
tened, and enlarged at base. Blades are 3-6 inches 
long and 2-41/2 inches wide, broadest beyond 
middle, the edges slightly turned under, fleshy and 
with lateral veins scarcely visible, green to dark 
green and slightly shiny above and dull yellow 
green beneath. 

Flowers are terminal, 1-3 at end of twig on 
stalks 1/2 inch or more in length and curved down- 
ward. The buds are white, tinged with pink, about 
% inch in diameter. There are 4-6 rounded con- 
cave sepals 1/^-% inch long, white and tinged with 
pink, and 6-8 white obovate fleshy petals about I14 
inches long. Female flowers have a brown ring or 
cup of sterile stamens and a pistil with 7-9-celled 
ovary and green resinous mass of 7-9 stigmas i/^ 
inch across. Male flowers have sepals, petals, and 
many stamens united in a ring, the inner ones in 
a resinous mass. 

The ball-like fruits are not edible and are con- 
sidered to be poisonous, though eaten by bats. 
They are broader than long, changing in color 
from yellow green to brown at maturity, retaining 
the sepals at base and flat blackish stigmas in a 
circle % inch across at apex. The seeds are %6 
inch long. In flower or fruit throughout the year. 

The heartwood is reddish brown, and the sap- 
wood lighter colored. The wood is hard, heavy 
(specific gravity 0.67), strong, of medium to fine 
texture, straight-grained, and without growth 
rings. It is moderately difficult to saw and ma- 



Clusia rosea Jacq. 

chine and is very susceptible to attack by dry- wood 
termites. The rate of air-seasoning and amount 
of degrade are moderate. Machining character- 
istics are as follows : planing and boring are fair ; 
and shaping, turning, mortising, sanding, and re- 
sistance to screw splitting are good. 

The wood is used mainly for fuel, fenceposts, 
rural construction, and crossties. It is suitable also 
for light and heavy construction, cheap furniture, 
farm implement parts, and tool handles. 

The yellow resinous latex of bark, fruit, and 
other parts of the tree hardens upon exposure and 
has been used variously, including calking the 
seams of boats in the Virgin Islands, as plaster, 
and in medicine. 

It is chronicled by Oviedo that the early Spanish 
conquistadores in the West Indies made playing 
cards of the thick leaves, drawing the figures and 
spots with a pin and shuffling these substitutes in 
their gambling games in the absence of regular 
cards. Another early use was for writing paper. 

By strangling and killing more valuable trees, 
this species may be classed as a forest pest. How- 
ever, the leathery leaves and large flowers make it 
an attractive ornamental. As the heavy foliage 
is salt tolerant, this tree is suitable for ornamental 
plantings on exposed ocean front properties. 

Common in forests on river banks and hillsides 
throughout Puerto Eico except in the upper moim- 
tain regions. Also in Mona, Desecheo, Vieques, 
Culebra, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola, and 
recorded long ago from St. Croix. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, Luquillo, Maricao, Susua, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
11,14,20,30,31,34,45,60,62,69. 

Range. — Nearly throughout West Indies from 
Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and 
Bonaire and Curagao. Very rare in Florida Keys 
but planted in southern Florida. Also from south- 
ern Mexico (Chiapas) to Colombia, Venezuela, and 
French Guiana. 

Other common names. — pitch-apple, wild-fig, 
strangler-flg, false-mamey (Virgin Islands) ; cu- 
pey, copey (Spanish) ; cape, gaque, cucharo (Co- 
lombia) ; copey, tampaco, chuchi copei (Venezu- 
ela) ; copey clusia, monkey-apple (United States) ; 
pitch-apple (Bahamas) ; balsam-tree, wild-fig (Ja- 
maica) ; monkey-goblet (St. Vincent) ; Scotch-at- 
torney, Scotchman, matapal (Trinidad) ; parrot- 
apple (Tobago); kufa (British Guiana); figuier 
maudit cimarron (Haiti) ; figuier maudit, figuier 
marron, abricotier maudit (Guadeloupe) ; aralie, 
aralie grande feuille (Martinique) ; dam machu^ 
cuchiu, kopijk (Dutch West Indies) . 



352 



y 



^A 



163. Cupey, wild-mammee, copey elusla 




Natural size. 



Clusia rosea Jacq. 

353 



MANGOSTEEN FAMILY (GUTTIFERAE) 



164. Mamey, mammee-apple 

Mamey, a handsome wild or planted fruit tree, 
is best known for its brown nearly round edible 
fruits 3-10 inches in diameter. Other characters 
are: (1) an erect trunk with very dense shiny 
green columnar crown; (2) bark containing pale 
yellow latex, which is evident where cut; (3) op- 
posite elliptic leaves 4-61/2 inches long and 2Vi- 
334 inches wide, thickened and leathery, glossy 
green to dark green above, and with numerous 
closely arranged, parallel lateral veins; and (4) 
large fragrant white flowers 11/4-2 inches across 
the usually 6 spreading petals, borne on twigs 
mostly back of leaves. 

An evergreen tree to 60 feet high and 2 feet in 
trunk diameter. The brown or gray bark is 
smoothish to slightly fissured, inner bark light 
brown or pinkish and bitter. Tlie stout twigs are 
green when young, turning brown. 

Petioles are y^-% inch long and stout. Blades 
are rounded at apex and rounded or short-pointed 
at base, turned under slightly at edges, with veins 
slightly sunken on upper surface, and yellow green 
beneath. The leaves have gland dots visible with 
a hand lens against the light. 

The flowers are single or a few together on stout 
stalks 1/4"% inch long, male and female and bi- 
sexual (polygamous). The flower bud is whitish 
green, turning brown, round to elliptic, 14-% long, 
splitting into 2 sepals about % inch long. There 
are 4-6, usually 6, obovate spreading white petals 
%-l inch long. Male flowers have in the center 
numerous small crowded yellow stamens 1/4 inch 
high and % "ich across, united at base. Female 
flowers have a pistil composed of 2- or 4-celled 
ovary with short style and usually broadly 2-lobed 
stigma. 

The fruit (berrylike) has a thick skin and finn 
bright yellow or reddish flesh with white sap. 
There are 2-4 very large oblong reddish-brown 
stones or seeds with rough fibrous surface. Ob- 
served in flower from May to October and with 
fruits during most of the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
reddish brown. The surface of this attractive 
wood often is flecked with small dark oily exuda- 
tions. It is hard, heavy (specific gravity 0.62), 
strong, medium-textured, and frequently has ir- 
regular and interlocked gi-ain. Air-seasoning is 
moderate in rate but very difficult, and the amount 
of degrade is considerable. Machining character- 
istics are as follows : planing, turning, boring, and 
mortising are good; shaping and resistance to 
screw sjjlitting are excellent ; and sanding is poor. 
The wood is very susceptible to attack by dry- 



Mammea americana L. 

wood tennites but is moderately durable in the 
ground. 

The scattered trees in Puerto Rico serve for 
fruit, fenceposts, and fuel. Elsewhere the wood 
is employed for some types of general construction 
and carpenti-y and for piling. 

The fruits are eaten raw or made into preserves 
and marmalades. The skin and flesh next to the 
seeds are bitter. In the French West Indies an 
aromatic liqueur, known as "eau de creole" or 
"creme de Creole," is distilled from the flowers. 
The gummy latex from the bark and the powdered 
seeds have been used as insecticides, to extract 
chiggers and insects from the skin, and to kill ticks 
and other parasites of dogs and other domestic 
animals. When twisted into the shape of a cone, 
the leaves serve as pots for planting tobacco seed- 
lings and protect the young plants from root- 
destroying insects. 

The large seeds are reported to be poisonous, 
though not eaten by livestock. They are highly 
toxic to certain types of insects, to fish, and to 
chicks. 

Planted in Puerto Eico and Virgin Islands (St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola) for the 
edible fruits and for shade and ornament. A com- 
mon tree along roadsides and fence rows. Appar- 
ently native to the moist coastal forest of Puerto 
Rico. 

MUNICIP.ALITIES WHERE ESPECI.ALLT COMMON. — 

31, 47. 

Range. — Native of West Indies. Spread by cul- 
tivation over tropical America in southern Flor- 
ida, Bermuda, West Indies from Bahamas and 
Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago, and Mexico south 
to Brazil and in the Old World tropics. 

Other common names. — mamee (Virgin Is- 
lands) ; mamey (Spanish) ; mamey de Santo Do- 
mingo, mamey amarillo (Cuba) ; zapote mamey, 
zapote de niho, zapote de Santo Domingo (Mex- 
ico) ; ruri (Nicaragua); mamey de Cartagena 
(Panama, Ecuador) ; mata-serrano (Ecuador) ; 
mamey, mammee-apple (United States, English) ; 
apricot (Dominica) ; abricot, abricotier (Haiti, 
Guadeloupe, Martinique) ; abricot des Antilles, 
abricot de Saint-Domingue, abricot pays (Gua- 
deloupe, Martinique) ; mamie, abricotier, abri- 
cotier d'Amerique (French Guiana) ; mami, 
mamaya (Dutch West Indies) ; mammi, mamie- 
boom, mamaja (Surinam) ; abrico do Para, abri- 
coteiro (Brazil). 

The generic name is derived from the native 
West Indian name. 



354 



■••*;s?;; 




•■*■.■■■-■. 



164. Mamey, mammee-apple 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Mammea americana L. 



355 



MANGOSTEEN FAMILY (GUTTIFERAE) 



165. Palo de cruz 

Palo de cruz is easily identified by its opposite, 
elliptic or obovate, shiny dark ojeen leaves which 
are small, thick and stiff, with sunken midrib, and 
curved downward from the long-pointed base to 
the long-pointed sharp spine Vs-Vi inch long. 
Other distinguishing chai-act eristics are: (1) reg- 
ular opposite branching of twigs at right angles 
from the axis; (2) pale yellow latex in inner bark, 
twigs, leaves, and fruits; (3) small, pale yellow, 
pinkish-tinged flowers about i/t hich across, sev- 
eral or 1 at leaf bases; and (4) bright yellow ellip- 
tic berry 1-11/4 inches long. 

Cormnonly a small tree to 20 feet high (formerly 
to 65 feet, according to earlier reports) and 4 
inches in tiiink diameter, evergreen, with naiTow 
crown of drooping or horizontal branches and 
dark green foliage. The bark is brown and smooth 
or slightly fissured. Inner bark is reddish, bitter, 
with pale yellow latex in innennost part. The 
twigs are green and slightly angled when young, 
becoming gray and enlarged at nodes. 

The leaves have short, erect petioles V4-V2 i^ich 
long and blades 1M>-314 inches long and %-2 
inches broad. Margins are turned under slightly, 
and the lower surface is light green. 

Lateral flowers on stalks about 1/4-% inch long 
are bisexual and male and female on the same or 
different trees (polygamous or dioecious). There 
are 2 yellow-green sepals i/ir, inch long; 4 pale 
yellow petals pinkish at base, Vs-Vt inch long; sta- 
mens about 7-10 (about 18 stamens around a broad 



Rheedia portoricensis Urban 

whitish disk in male flowers) ; and pistil with 
rounded pinkish 2-celled ovary less than % inch 
long and 2-lobed flat stigma (sometimes ovary is 
3-celled and stigma 3-lobed) . The fleshy fruits are 
pointed and contain usually 2 large seeds. Flow- 
ering and fruiting at different times during the 
year. 

The sapwood is very light brown, and the heart- 
wood light brown. The wood is very hard, heavy 
(specific gravity 0.9) , and very fine-textured. Be- 
cause of the small size of tliis tree its wood is used 
only for posts. 

Forests of the lower Luquillo Mountain region 
and thickets of the moist and dry coastal regions. 
Also in Vieques. A handsome small tree of pos- 
sible ornamental value. 

Public forests. — ^Carite, Luquillo, Susiia. 

Range. — Known only from Puerto Rico and 
Vieques. 

Other common name. — guayabacoa (Puerto 
Rico). 

Botanical synonym. — Rheedia actiminata 
(Spreng.) Planch. & Tr., not R. acuminata (Ruiz 
& Pa V. ) Planch. &Tr. 

The common name palo de cruz (tree of cross) 
refei-s to the branching of twigs at right angles to 
the straight axis in the shape of a cross. 

A second native species (Rheedia hessii Britton) 
known only from near Maricao apparently is rare. 
It has narrowly lance-shaped leaves less than 1 
inch lonff. 



356 




165. Palo de cniz 



Natural size. 



Rheedia portoricensis Urban 



357 



ANATTO FAMILY (BIXACEAE*) 



166. Achiote, anatto 

Achiote, or anatto, a small tree planted for the 
orange-red dye on the seeds, has become natural- 
ized. It is characterized by : (1) thin ovate leaves 
long-pointed at apex, heart-shaped at base, and 
long-petioled ; (2) large, showy, pinkish or pur- 
plish-tinged or whitish flowers li/^-2 inches across 
the 5 spreading petals, several or few in terminal 
clustere; (3) reddish-brown to dark brown, 
rounded seed capsules 1-1 V^ inches long, and broad, 
densely covered with soft prickles up to Vi "^cl^ 
long; (4) orange sap m the inner bark; and (5) 
twigs ringed at nodes. 

A small evergreen tree commonly less than 15 
feet high and 4 inches in triuik diameter. The 
bark is light brown and smoothish, with many 
warty dots (lenticels), or fissured. Inner bark is 
pinkish toward outside and orange within, and 
often slightly bitter. The twigs are green and 
with minute, rusty, reddish-brown scales, becom- 
ing dark brown. 

The alternate leaves have slender petioles 1-3 
inches long. Leaf blades are 314-714 inclies long 
and 21^-41/^ inches broad, thin, with minute scales 
when young but becoming hairless or remaining 
slightly scaly on lower surface, green or dark green 
on upper surface, and gray to brownish green 
beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are branched, and 
the fragrant flowers are on scaly stalks. Tliere are 
5 brownish-green sepals about % inch long, 
covered with reddish-bro%vn scales and soon fall- 
ing; 5 broad, rounded, pinkish or puii^lish-tinged 
or whitish petals about 1 inch long; numerous pur- 
plish stamens about % inch long; and pistil % 
inch long composed of bristly 1-celled ovary, style, 
and short 2-lobed stigma. 

Seed capsules are somewhat flattened and split 
into 2 parts. There are many angular seeds about 
%6 inch long, with bright orange-red fleshy seed 
coat. Flowering mainly in spring and maturing 
fruits chiefly in summer. 

The sapwood is whitish, and the heartwood 
is light brown or yellowish. The wood is soft, 



Bixa orellana L.* 

lightweight (specific gravity 0.4), porous, weak, 
and not durable. 

Commercially important for the orange-red dye 
called anatto. Extracted in the kitchen by boiling 
the seeds in cooking fat or oil, anatto is used to 
colar rice, margarine, butter, cheese, soups, and 
other foods but adds no flavor. It is a dye for oils, 
varnishes, and cosmetics also. Indians have 
painted their faces and bodies with this pigment, 
which also is reported to give relief from insects. 

The conspicuous pinkish flowers and prickly 
fruits also make this plant an attractive ornamen- 
tal, and the flowei-s are a source of honey. Kopes 
and twine have been made from the fibrous bark, 
and a ginn similar to gum arabic has been obtained 
from the branches. It is said that fire can be 
started by friction of two pieces of the soft wood. 
In some places the seeds and leaves have been em- 
ployed in domestic medicine. 

Grown around houses and occasionally natural- 
ized in nearby thickets on the coastal plains of 
Puerto Rico. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, and St. John. 

Range. — Native of continental tropical Amer- 
ica but spread by cultivation and now from Mexico 
to Argentina and Brazil. Widely planted and 
naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of 
the world. Through West Indies from Cuba and 
Jamaica to Barbados and Trinidad. Uncommon 
in cultivation in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — achote, bija (Puerto 
Rico) ; roucou (Virgin Islands) ; achiote, achote 
(Spanish); bija (Dominican Republic, Cuba, 
Venezuela) ; chaya, xayau (Guatemala) ; cuaja- 
chote (El Salvador) ; onoto, onotillo, caituco 
(Venezuela); shambu (Peru); unicu (Bolivia, 
Argentina) ; annato, annatto, anatto-tree (Eng- 
lish) ; roucou (Trinidad and Tobago) ; atta (Brit- 
ish Honduras) ; onoto (British Guiana) ; roucou, 
roucouyer (French) ; achiot (French Guiana) ; 
rucu, roucou (Dutch West Indies) ; roucou, koesoe- 
wee (Surinam) ; urucu, achiote (Brazil). 



358 




166. Achiote, anatto 



Natural size. 



Biwa orellana L. 



687-921 0—64 24 



359 



CXDCHLOSPERMUM FAMILY (COCHLOSPERMACEAE*) 



167. Rosa imperial, Brazilian-rose, cochlospermum 



This introduced, cultivated ornamental is dis- 
tinguished by : ( 1 ) quantities of large, showy, 
bright yellow roselike flowers 3^ inches across, 
borne in tenninal clusters usually when the trees 
are leafless; and (2) long-petioled, deeply pal- 
mately lobed leaves with usually 5 long-pointed 
toothed lobes. The double-flowered form with 
many petals grown in Puerto Rico does not mature 
fruits and seeds. 

A small to medium-sized deciduous tree to 25 
feet tall and 1 foot in trunk diameter, with rela- 
tively few stout branches. The bark is gray, 
smoothish and becoming slightly furrowed. Inner 
bark is brown streaked, hbrous, slightly bitter, 
and yields a gum. Twigs are green when yomig, 
becoming brown. 

The alternate leaves have petioles 3-7 inches in 
length, green and tinged with red, and a pair of 
minute threadlike stipules at base which soon 
shed. Leaf blades measure about 4-8 inches long 
and broad, are heart-shaped at base, and have us- 
ually 5 (rarely 3 or 7) spreading lobes, each with 
a prominent central vein and small teeth along the 
edges. Upper surface of the thin blades is gi-een 
to dark green and slightly shiny, and the lower 
surface lighter gray green, finely hairy to nearly 
hairless. 

Flowers are borne on long stalks in erect spread- 
ing terminal clusters (panicles), sometimes a few 
on shiiibby plants only 3-5 feet high. There are 
5 green to yellow-green sepals 1^-% inch long, the 
outer 2 pointed and smaller and the inner 3 
rounded and broader. In the double-flowered 
Puerto Rican form there are many widely spread- 
ing, rounded, elliptic, bright yellow petals 11/2-2 
inches long. Numerous spreading orange stamens 
%-% inch long with curved slender filaments and 
curved narrow anthers are in the center, but a 
functional pistil is lacking. Blooming mostly 
from Januai-y to March, during the drier part of 
the year. 

The more widespread single-flowered form not 
found in Puerto Rico has only 5 petals about 2 
inches long, notched at apex, and in the center of 
the many stamens a pistil consisting of a green 
rounded ovary Yiq inch in diameter, 5-carpeled, 
and a slender curved yellow style about li/4 inch 
long. On wild trees the large elliptic dark brown 
capsules about 3 inches long and 2 inches in diam- 
eter hang down from curved stalks. The incon- 
spicuously hairy, thin-walled capsules split into 



Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng.* 

5 parts, releasing many dark brown kidney-shaped 
seeds %e inch long, imbedded in masses of soft 
cottony white hairs. 

The whitish to light brown wood is soft, spongy, 
very lightweight, perishable, and of little use. 

Planted for ornament on the coastal plains of 
Puerto Rico and in the Virgin Islands, growing 
rapidly and best in dry areas. Reported to be a 
honey plant. The trees are propagated easily by 
cuttings. The more attractive double-flowered 
form in Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Dominica, and 
perhaps a few other islands of the West Indies is 
preferred for cultivation but apparently is little 
known elsewhere. Both the normal and double- 
flowered forms are grown in St. Thomas. Hedges 
and living fences can be formed by planting 
branches and pruning them back. 

Elsewhere, rope has been made from the fibrous 
bark, and the cotton around the seeds is used for 
stuffing pillows. A home remedy has been ex- 
tracted from wood and leaves. 

Range. — Continental tropical America from 
western Mexico through Central America and 
northern South America to Ecuador, Peru, Bo- 
livia, Brazil, Guianas, and Trinidad, chiefly in dry 
forests. Planted for ornament in the West Indies, 
such as in Cuba and Puerto Rico, and other tropi- 
cal areas and as far north as southern Florida and 
southern California. 

Other common names. — rosa china, emperatriz 
de la selva, rosa de Maximiliano (Puerto Rico) ; 
rose-of-Sharon (Virgin Islands) ; botija, palo bobo 
(Cuba) ; tecomasuche (Mexico, Guatemala, El 
Salvador) ; rosa amarilla, chuun, cocito, apomo 
panaco (Mexico) ; jicarillo (Honduras) ; cho, 
pochote, pumpo, pumpumjuche, tecomatillo 
(Guatemala); bombon, tecomasuchil (El Salva- 
dor) ; poroporo (Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, 
Colombia) ; bombon, catamericuche (Nicaragua) ; 
caniestolendas, bototo (Colombia, Venezuela) ; 
papayote (Colombia) ; bototillo, bototito, botulo 
(Eucador) ; huimba, quillo-sisa (Peru) ; cochlo- 
spennum, shellseed (English) ; rose-of-Peru 
(Dominica) ; wild-cotton, pochote (British Hon- 
duras) ; kanakuchiballi, wild-cotton (British 
Guiana) ; njoe fodoe (Surinam). 

Botanical synonyms. — MaxlTnilianea vitifolia 
(Willd.) Krug & Urban, Cochlospermum hihis- 
coid-es Kunth. 

The descriptive specific name, meaning "grape- 
leaf," recalls the similarity of the leaves to those of 
cultivated grapes. 



360 




167. Rosa imperial, Brazilian-rose, cochlospermum Cochlospermum vitifoUum (Willd.) Spreng. 

Two-thirds natural size. 



361 



CANELLA FAMILY (CANELLACEAE) 



168. Barbasco, canella 

This small tree characteristic of dry areas is 
identified by: (1) a dense crown of obovate or 
spoon-shaped, leathery shiny green leaves 11/4-3^/2 
inclies long and %-li/^ inches broad, rounded at 
apex and gradually narrowed toward base, aro- 
matic and with peppery stinging taste; (2) small 
dark red, purplish-tinged flowers 14 inch long 
and broad, several to many in terminal flat-topped 
clusters shorter than the leaves; (3) round red 
(or purplish-black) berries about % inch in diam- 
eter; and (4) aromatic, gray, smoothish, slightly 
warty bark with burning or stinging taste. 

An evergreen tree to 20 feet high and 5-8 inches 
in trunk diameter, or shrubby. The thin bark 
sometimes is fissured. Inner bark is whitish. The 
twigs are green at apex, becoming gray, with spicy 
taste. 

The alternate leaves are crowded near ends of 
twigs, with petioles Vs-i/i inch long. Leaf blades 
are broadest beyond middle, with edges slightly 
turned under, thickened, with few indistinct veins, 
minutely gland dotted, and paler beneath. 

Flower clusters (corymbs) are branched, about 
1 inch long and broad, with fragrant spreading 
flowers on stalks about % inch long. There are 3 
broad, rounded, blue-green sepals less than % inch 
long; 5 elliptic rounded fleshy petals %6 inch long, 
dark red but purplish on outside; about 20 red 
stamens united by filaments and anthers into a 
tube more than I/8 inch long; and pistil %6 inch 
long consisting of light gi-een 1-celled ovary with 
short style and very slightly 2-lobed stigma, pro- 
truding through stamen tube. Berries are fleshy, 
with a few black seeds %6 inch long. Flowering 
and fi-uiting probably irregularly through the 
year. 

The sapwood is olive brown, and the heartwood 
blackish. The wood is very hard and very heavy 
(specific gravity 0.9-1.0). In Puerto Rico it is 
seldom utilized except for posts because of the 



Canella icinterana (L.) Gaertn. 

small size of the trees. Uses elsewhere have been 
for plows, poles, and beams. 

Canella bark, the wild cinnamon bark of com- 
merce, has served in medicine though rarely at 
present as an aromatic stimulant and slight tonic 
and also as a condiment. The leaves have been 
employed similarly and as a fish poison. The ber- 
ries are reported to be hot like black pepper when 
gathered green and dried. Also a honey plant, 
the flowers being very rich in nectar. Though this 
usually is not regarded as a poisonous plant, the 
leaves and stems were toxic to poultry in feeding 
trials in St. Croix. 

Planted around houses in the Virgin Islands. 
In southern Florida this is a hardy ornamental 
shrub grown for the numerous bright red berries 
borne m spring. 

Thickets in the dry coastal and limestone re- 
gions of Puerto Rico and also at Cabezas de San 
Juan at the northeastern corner of the island. 
Also on Mona, Icacos, Vieques, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, St. John, and Anegada. 

Public forests. — Guanica, Maricao, Susua. 

Range. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico and 
Virgin Islands, and Lesser Antilles from St. Mar- 
tin and Barbuda to St. Lucia and Barbados. 

Other common names.— canela (Puerto Rico) ; 
wild cinnamon, caneel, pepper cinnamon, cilli- 
ment-bush (Virgin Islands) ; canela de la tierra, 
canelilla (Dominican Republic); ciirbana, pica- 
pica, malambo, canela blanca (Cuba) ; canella, cin- 
namon canella (United States) ; canella, wild cin- 
namon, white wood bark (English) ; cimiamon- 
bark (Bahamas) ; canelle poivree (Haiti) ; canel- 
lier blanc, canellier batard, bois canelle (Guade- 
loupe). 

Botanical synonyms. — Canella alba Murr., 
Winterana canella L. 



362 






]68. Bax-baseo, canella 



Natural size. 



Canella winterana (L.) Gaertn. 



363 



FLACOURTIA FAMILY (FLACOURTIACEAE) 



Key to the 5 species illustrated (Nos. 169-173) 

A. Flowers in short lateral clusters ; fruit a rounded or an elliptic seed capsule. 

B. Leaves many, evenly spaced on long slender twigs, appearing pinnate ; seed capsules ?i6 inch or less in 
diameter. 

C. Leaves with lower surface gray green, hairy ; edges toothed — 169. Casearia arborea. 
CC. Leaves green on both surfaces ; edges appearing as if without teeth — 172. Casearea sylvestris. 
BB. Leaves few ; seed capsules about % inch in diameter. 

T>. Leaves less than 3 inches long, hairless ; seed capsules round — 170. Casearea decandra. 
DD. Leaves 2V2-5V2 inches long, hairy on veins; seed capsules elliptic — 171. Casearia gtiianensis. 
AA. Flowers in long-stalked lateral clusters ; fruit of seed capsules resembling dried flowers with 6 or 7 large brown 
sepals attached — 173. Homalium racemosum. 



169. Rabo raton 

This very common small tree is distinguished 
by: (1) many crowded lance-shaped or narrowly 
oblong leaves flattened in 2 rows on long, slender, 
nearly horizontal or slightly drooping twigs; 
(2) the leaves long-pointed, finely saw-toothed, 
and the lower surface gray green and covered with 
minute hairs; and (3) small greenish-white bell- 
shaped flowers %Q inch long and broad and seed 
capsules %6 "^ch in diameter in clusters at leaf 
bases. 

An evergreen tree to 30 feet high and 6 (rarely 
10) inches in trunk diameter, or shrubby. The 
thin gray-brown bark is smoothish. Inner bark is 
light brown and slightly bitter. The twigs are 
finely hairy and brown, gi*e€n when young. 

The alternate leaves have short hairy petioles 
Vs inch long and thin blades li/2^ inches long and 
1/4-1 inch broad, short-pointed at base, shiny green 
and almost hairless on upper surface and densely 
gray-green hairy beneath. Many minute gland 
dots and lines can be seen when a leaf is examined 
with a hand lens against the light. 

Several to many small flowers are borne in lat- 
eral clusters (umbels) about i/4 inch across at bases 
of leaves, each on a short,, hairy, jointed stalk less 
than Vs inch long. The whitish or greenish-white, 
bell-sliaped flowers consist of the calyx with 5 
finely hairy, spreading lobes about i/g inch long; 
10 stamens attached to calyx and alternating with 
smaller hairy sterile stamens (staminodes) ; and 
pistil with 1-celled ovary with style and rounded 
stigma. Seed capsules become reddish and black- 
ish. Flowering and fruiting thi'ough the year. 



Casearia arborea (L. C. Rich.) Urban 

Sapwood is hard and brittle, very light brown. 
The tree is used chiefly for posts and fuel in Puerto 
Rico. 

Abundant and widely distributed along road- 
sides and in openings, thickets, and forests, in the 
lower mountain, moist limestone, and moist coastal 
regions of Puerto Rico. (Also reported long ago 
from St. Thomas, perhaps in error.) 

Public forests. — Carite, Guajataca, Guilarte, 
Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susua, Toro Negro. 

JNIUNICirALITIES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. 4, 

19, 20. 27, 29, 35, 40. 49, 51, 52, 53, &4. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico. 
Recorded from Honduras, British Honduras, and 
Costa Rica in Central America. Also in South 
America from Guianas to Brazil, Bolivia, and 
Peru. 

Other common names. — rabo junco (Puerto 
Rico) ; palo de yagua, palo salvaje, cascarita (Do- 
minican Republic) ; guaguasi, jique, guasimilla 
(Cuba) ; 11a j as (Peru). 

Two additional species of this genus are native 
in Puerto Rico besides the 4 illustrated here. 
Casearia aculeafa Jacq., a shrub or small tree of 
southern and western Puerto Rico, has elliptic 
leaves 1-2% inches long, usually hairy beneath and 
distinguished by spines %-li4 inches long, often 
branched, on the twigs. 

Talantron {Casearia bicolor Urban), appar- 
ently rare, is a tree species known only from the 
Cordillera near Utuado. It has narrow oblong 
leaves 3^i/^ inches long and 1-1% inches wide, 
short-pointed at apex and rounded at base. 



364 




169. Eabo rat6n 



Natural size. 



Casearia arborea (L. C. Rich.) Urban 

365 



FLACOURTIA FAMILY (FLACOURTIACEAE) 



170. Tostado, wild honey-tree 

This shrub or small tree is characterized by : (1) 
the small, yellow-green elliptic leaves less than 3 
inches long, finely saw-toothed, thin, and sliedding 
in winter; (2) the many small greenish- white 
flowers Vi inch across in clusters about % inch 
across at nodes when twigs are leafless; and (3) 
the round seed capsules % inch in diameter, pale 
yellow or brown, edible but almost tasteless. 

A deciduous shrub or small tree to 15 feet high 
and to 3 inches in trunk diameter, with spreading 
crown. The gray bark is smooth and thin, the 
inner bark light brown and tasteless. The slender 
hairless twigs are green when young, becoming 
brown. 

The alternate leaves have short petioles Vg-Vi 
inch long and thin blades 1^-3 inches long and 
%~Wi inches broad, long- or short- pointed at 
apex and short-pointed or rounded at base, green 
on both sides and slightly shiny above, hairless 
except for inconspicuous tufts of haii-s usually in 
vein angles beneath. 

Many finely hairy flowers are borne in lateral 
flower clusters (umbels) on slender stalks about 
%G inch long, jointed near base. The calyx is 
deeply divided into 5 narrow, finely haiiy, spread- 
ing lobes Vs inch long; 10 haiiy stamens attached 
near base of calyx are alternate with smaller hairy 
sterile stamens (staminodes) ; and pistil consist- 
ing of hairy 1 -celled ovary, slender hairy style, 
and rounded stigma. 



Casearia decandra Jacq. 

The fleshy seed capsules are single or sometimes 
paired on twigs back of the leaves and split into 3 
parts. There are 2-4 seeds in the orange-colored 
flesh. Flowering and fruiting at different times 
during the year. 

The light brown, hard sapwood perhaps is used 
as roundwood where the trees are of sufficient size. 

The fruits are edible, as the common name cerezo 
(cherry) indicates, but almost tasteless. An im- 
portant honey plant. 

Common and widely distributed in thickets and 
as an understory tree in moist coastal and lower 
mountain forests in Puerto Rico. Also in Vieques, 
St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda. 
(Reported long ago from St. Croix also.) 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Lu- 
quillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susua, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, throughout Lesser Antilles, Trinidad and 
Tobago, and Margarita. Also in Costa Rica and 
northern South America from Colombia and Vene- 
zuela to Brazil and Peru. 

Other common n.vmes.— palo bianco, cerezo, gia 
mausa, cotorrelillo (Puerto Rico) ; wild-cherry 
(Virgin Islands); machacomo, tapaculo (Vene- 
zuela) ; fortuga caspi, limoncaspi (Peru) ; jumbie- 
apple (Grenadines); wild-cherry (Barbados); 
pipewood, biscuitwood (Trinidad) ; bois jaune 
(Guadeloupe). 



366 




170. Tostado, wild honey-tree 



Natural size. 



Casearia decandra Jacq. 



367 



FLACOURTIA FAMILY (FLACOURTIACEAE) 



171. Palo bianco, wild-coifee 

This small tree is characterized by: (1) thin 
elliptic or obovate, light ji^reen leaves, abruptly 
short-pointed or rounded at apex, with toothed 
edges and sunken curved lateral veins, arranged 
in 2 rows on the twigs: (2) whitish or yellowish 
spreading flowers %6 inch across, several in clus- 
ters at leaf bases; and (3) the elliptic fruits nearly 
1/2 inch long, splitting into 3 parts. 

Evergreen shrub or small tree 15 feet high (re- 
ported to 30 feet) and 2 inches or more in trunk 
diameter, with spreading crown. The smooth thin 
bark is light gray or whitish, the inner bark light 
brown and slightly bitter. The twigs are green 
and finely hairy when young, becoming gray. 

The alternate leaves are borne in 2 rows on short 
gi-een petioles i/i inch long. Leaf blades are 2i/^- 
5V^ inches long and li^-2i/^ inches broad, often 
widest beyond middle, short- or long-pointed at 
base, hairless except on veins, the lower surface 
pale green and with raised vems. Numerous mi- 
nute gland dots and a few lines can be seen when a 
leaf is viewed with a hand lens against the light. 

Lateral flower clustere (umbels) are composed 
of several flowers on slender hairy stalks Vs-Vi 
inch long, which are jointed below middle. The 
whitish or yellowish calyx %6 inch long consists 
of 5 widely spreading, finely hairy lobes ; there are 
usually 8 stamens inserted near base of calyx and 
alternating with smaller hairy sterile stamens 



Casearia guianensis (Aubl.) Urban 

(staminodes) ; and pistil composed of 1-celled 
ovary, style, and rounded stigma. 

The elliptic seed capsules, commonly borne 
singly, are % inch or more in length, greenish, 
slightly fleshy. Flowering and fruiting probably 
through the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, hard, and heavy 
(specific gravity 0.7). Used only for fuel. 

Scattered in moist coastal and lower mountain 
regions in Puerto Rico. Also Vieques, St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, and St. John. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Luquillo, Rio 
Aba jo. 

Range. — Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles from 
Antigua to Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, and 
Margarita. Also in southern Mexico, Central 
America, and northern South America in Vene- 
zuela and Guianas. 

OxirER COMMON NAMES. — cafcillo, cafetillo 
(Puerto Rico) ; cafe cimarron, cafe de gallina, palo 
bianco (Dominican Republic) ; jia amarilla 
(Cuba) ; limoncillo (El Salvador) ; palo de la 
cruz (Panama) ; palo bianco (Colombia) ; punta 
de ral, palo amarillo, huesito, limoncillo (Vene- 
zuela) ; pipewood (Trinidad) ; kibihidan (British 
Guiana). 

Botanical synonym. — Casearia ramifiora Vahl. 



368 




171. Palo bianco, wild-coffee 



Natural size. 



Casearia guianensis (Aubl.) Urban 



369 



FLACOURTIA FAMILY (FLACOURTLACEAE) 



172. Cafeillo 

This rather common and widely distributed 
shrub or small tree is recognized by: (1) the 
shiny (jreen lance-shaped to ellij-tic leaves longer 
than 21/2 inclies, mostly long-pointed, thicker than 
those of related species, edges wavy and incon- 
spicuously toothed but appearing as if without 
teeth, hairless, in 2 rows in a flattened arrange- 
ment on long, unbranched twigs; (2) many minute 
greenish or yellowish-white flowers about % inch 
across, crowded on short stalks at leaf bases; and 
(3) rounded, red, fleshy seed capsules % inch or 
more in diameter, containing usually 3 brown 
seeds. 

Evergreen shrub or small tree 10-15 feet high 
and to 4 inches in trunk diameter, also recorded as 
up to 65 feet in height, with rounded spreading 
crown, sometimes several trunks, hairless through- 
out. The thin gray bark is smoothish with warty 
dots (lenticels). Imier bark is whitish and taste- 
less or slightly bitter. The long, slender, un- 
branched twigs commonly are horizontal or slight- 
ly drooping, green and afterwards becoming gray. 

Leaves are alternate on short gi-een petioles 14 
inch long. The blades vary in size as well as shape, 
214-7 inches long and 1-3 inches broad, mostly 
with a long narrow point at apex and short- 
pointed at base, the upper surface with sunken 
veins, and the lower surface light green. Wlien 
examined with a hand lens against the light, the 
leaves show numerous minute lighter gland dots 
and lines within the network of veins. 

Flower clusters (umbels) are lateral, about 14 
inch across, with numerous small greenish or yel- 
lowish-white flowers about % inch across on 
slender stalks of the same color, % inch long and 
jointed near middle. Each flower consists of usual- 
ly 5 spreading calyx lobes more than i/ig inch long; 
about 10 stamens insei-ted near base of calyx and 
alternating with sterile stamens (staminodes) ; 



Casearia sylvestris Sw. 

and pistil composed of green ovai-y with short style 
and 3-lobed stigma. The rounded, red, fleshy seed 
capsules split into 3 parts and have usually 3 brown 
seeds Vie inch long. Flowering a:id fruiting 
tlirougliout the year. 

Sapwood is light brown, heartwood dark brown. 
The wood is hard, heavy, strong, and tine-textui"ed. 
Classed as fuelwood. Suitable for small handles 
and elsewhere used in carpentry and for poles. 

A honey plant, the fi'agrant flowers attracting 
bees. 

Very common, especially in open areas, road- 
sides, and also in forest understory, in moist coastal 
and lower mountain regions in Puerto Rico. Also 
in Vieques, St. Ci'oix, St. Thomas, St. John, and 
Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Gua- 
jataca, Luquillo, Rio Abajo, Susua, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, throughout Lesser An- 
tilles, and Trinidad and Tobago. Also from 
southern Mexico to Peni, Argentina, Uruguay, 
and Brazil. Botanical varieties have been distin- 
guished in different areas. 

Other common names. — cafe silvestre, cafeillo 
cimarron, palo bianco (Puerto Rico) ; sarnilla, jia 
colorada, ]uba rompehueso (Cuba) ; guayabillo, 
palo de cotona (Mexico) ; corallilo, sacmuda 
(Guatemala); barredera (El Salvador); sombra 
de annado, sombra de conejo (Honduras) ; comida 
de culebra (Nicaragua) ; corta lingua (Panama) ; 
dondequiera, mahajo (Colombia) ; tortolito, gua- 
yabito, punteral, tacasito, pabito (Venezuela) ; 
avtvti-timbati, palo rajador, guazatumba, cambagui 
(Argentina); wild-coffee (Trinidad); wild-sage 
(British Honduras) ; pajielite (Haiti) ; crack-open 
(Saba) ; guassatunga (Brazil). 

Botanical synonym. — Casearia parvifiora 
auth., not (L.) Willd. 



370 




172. Cafeillo 



Natural size. 



Casearia sylvestris Sw. 



371 



FLACOURTIA FAMILY (FLACOURTIACEAE) 



173. Caracolillo 

A large tree characterized by : ( 1 ) elliptic leaves 
with wavy-toothed edges, abruptly short-pomted 
at apex and rounded or short-pointed at base, 
spreading in 2 rows ; (2) the lateral flower clusters 
2-6 inches long bearing few to many grayish or 
pale green, finely hairy, widely spreading flowers 
%-y2 inch across the 6 or 7 spreading petals; and 
(3) brown seed capsules resembling dried flowers 
with dead brown sepals attached. Large trees 
stand out because of their pale or light green foli- 
age and their white bark. 

An evergreen tree to 70 feet or more in height 
and 2 feet in trunk diameter, with narrow or 
spreading crown. The light gray to white bark 
is thin and smooth, becoming slightly fissured and 
scaly. Inner bark is light brown and bitter. The 
slender twigs are brown, green when young, hair- 
less or nearly so. 

The alternate leaves have short petioles %-% 
inch long. Leaf blades are variable in shape and 
size, 2-5 inches long and 1^/4-2 V2 inches broad, 
thin or slightly thickened, hairless or often with 
minute tufts in vein angles beneath, shiny green 
above and beneath dull green and slightly paler. 

The usually narrow flower clusters (racemes or 
panicles) are borne singly at leaf bases and vary 
greatly in length and in number of flowers. The 
slender, finely hairy axis has flowers on short 
stalks about Vie inch long or sometimes 3 on a 
branch less than 1/4 irich long. The calyx bonie 
on the tubular base (hypanthium) has 6 or 7 
widely spreading, pointed, hairy sepals Vg-Yie inch 
long; there are as many spreading petals %6 inch 
long, pointed, and hairy; numerous stamens in 
groups of mostly 4-6 opposite the petals and al- 
ternate with glands; and the pistil with hairy, 
half inferior ovary conical at both ends and with 
3 styles % inch long separate to base or partly 
united. 

The seed capsule and spreading sepals fall to- 



Homalium racemosum Jacq. 

gether. There is usually 1 rounded brown seed 
more than i/m inch long. Flowering and fruiting 
from spring to fall (April to September) . 

Tlie attractive golden yellow sapwood merges 
gradually into the grayish-brown to reddish-brown 
heartwood, frequently with irregular darker 
streaks and patches. The wood is very hard, 
very heavy (specific gi'avity 0.77), moderately 
strong, fine-textured, and with interlocked gi-ain. 
It is resistant to attack by dry-wood termites. 
Rate of air-seasoning and amount of degrade are 
moderate. Machining characteristics are as fol- 
lows: planing, shaping, turning, mortising, and 
sanding are good ; boring is excellent ; and resist- 
ance to screw splitting is very poor. 

The wood is used for general construction, al- 
though its hardness is a disadvantage. It is suit- 
able for tool handles, sporting and athletic goods, 
agricultural implements, boat parts, and heavy 
construction. 

Widely distributed in Puerto Rico in forests, 
thickets, and along streams, in the upper and lower 
mountain, the limestone, and coastal regions. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guanica, Guilarte, Luquillo, Rio Abajo, 
Susua, Toro Negro. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
24, 60. 

Range. — Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles 
fi'om St. Kitts to Guadeloupe and Martinique. 
Also from Mexico to Venezuela, Surinam, and 
northern Brazil. 

Other common names. — tostado, guajanilla, 
cereza (Puerto Rico) ; corazon de paloma (Domin- 
ican Republic) ; caramacate, marfil, granadillo de 
clavo, verdecito (Venezuela) ; bois de hetre, acoma 
blanc, acoma hetre, acoma franc (Guadeloupe) ; 
acomat (Martinique); bietahoedoe (Surinam). 

Botanical SYNO'sirMS.—HomaJiimi plelandrum 
Blake, H. heTtiistylimh Blake, H. leiogynum Blake. 



372 




173. CaracoUUo 



Natural size. 



Homalium racemosum Jacq. 



373 



PAPAYA FAMILY (CARICACEAE*) 



174. Lechosa, papaya 

Papaya, a familiar small tree with distinctive 
pungent odor, is widely grown for its delicious 
edible fruits and also is naturalized. It is easily 
recognized by: (1) usually unbranched, soft, suc- 
culent trunk with thin milky sap, bearing a clus- 
ter of alternate spreading leaves at apex ; (2) large 
long-petioled leaves with palmately 7- or 9-lobed 
blades, deeply cut into smaller long- or short- 
pointed lobes; (3) male and female flowers whitish 
or pale yellow, on different plants (dioecious), the 
narrow tubular male flowers 1-1 V2 inches long and 
numerous in branched clusters, and the larger fe- 
male flowers about 2 inches long, with 5 spreading 
petals and borne nearly stalkless, single or a few 
together at base of a leaf; and (4) fruit clustered 
around the trunk, usually 6-15 inches long, oblong, 
obovoid, or rounded, and short- pointed. 

A rapidly growing short-lived evergreen shrub 
or tree to 20 fe«t tall, with tnmk usually less than 
8 inches in diameter (rarely to 24 feet high and 16 
inches in diameter) and with a narrow crown. 
The bark is greenish or grayish brown to light 
gray, smooth, with ]3rominent broad to nearly 
horizontal leaf scars. The greenish or yellowish 
inner bark has a spicy or slightly bitter taste. Be- 
cause of the soft almost herbaceous stem and short, 
life of a few years, this species is also regarded as 
a giant perennial herb rather than a tree. 

Upper leaves are erect spreading and lower 
leaves drooping. The stout green petioles are 
16-24 inches or more in length, round and hollow. 
Leaf blades are rounded in outline, 8-24 inches in 
diameter, slightly thickened and fleshy, dull light 
green above and beneath pale whitish green and 
covered with a bloom. 

The slender lateral cluster (panicle) of many 
fragrant male flowers is 6-24 inches long or longer. 
A male flower has short 5-toothed calyx about Vie 
inch long; whitish corolla of narrow funnel- 
shaped tube about %-iy4 inches long and 5 widely 
spreading narrow oblong lobes more than 1/2 inch 
long and extending 1 inch or more across; 10 yel- 
lowish stamens inserted in throat of corolla tube, 
5 stalkless and 5 short-stalked; and rudimentary 
narrow pistil about % inch long. The short- 
stalked female flowers have 5-toothed gi-een calyx 
%6~% inch long, 5 twisted narrow lance-shaped 
fleshy pale yellow petals about 2 inches long, soon 
falling ; and pale yellow pistil %-li/4 inches long 
with large elliptic or round ovary, 1-celled with 5 
ridges covered with ovules, and 5 spreading stalk- 
less much-lobed stigmas. Rarely perfect flowers 
with both stamens and a pistil are produced 
(polygamous). 

Several to many short-stalked fruits (berries) 
hang down from the trunk of a female tree near 
its summit, turning from green to orange at ma- 
turity. The soft orange flesh 1-2 inches thick with 



Carica papaya L.* 

milky juice surrounds a large central cavity con- 
taining many rounded blackish seeds about %6 
inch in diameter, which are enclosed in a gelati- 
nous membrane (aril). There are about 8,000 
seeds to a pound. In flower and fruit probably 
through the year. 

The whitish or pale yellow wood is very soft, 
vei-y lightweight, and fleshy. There is a large 
white pith, and the center of the trunk is hollow 
except at nodes. The wood is not used. 

Papaya is one of the most popular tropical 
fruits. Races differ in size and shape of fruit. 
Like large melons, giant papayas may reach 18 
inches in length and weigh as much as 20 pounds, 
while the fruits of wild plants often are small, 
sometimes only 3 inches long, and bitter flavored. 
This esteemed melonlike fruit is served at the 
breakfast table or as a dessert, often flavored with 
juice of limes, but it is also made into preserves 
and sherbets. The juice is also extracted and 
canned. Green papayas can be cooked as a vege- 
table like squash. 

The milky latex or juice of the fruit, leaves, and 
other parts of the plant contains the enzyme 
papain (papaina) which, like pepsin, digests pro- 
teins and curdles milk. Thus, papayas when eaten 
aid in digestion of other foods. Tough meat is 
made tender by wrapping it in papaya leaves for 
a few hours, by washing in water containing the 
juice, or by rubbing the juice on. Or the leaves 
can be boiled with the meat, but if the time is too 
long or the juice too concentrated, the meat may 
fall apart in shreds. Though the tenderizing prop- 
erty of papaya leaves has long been common 
knowledge of tropical residents and known also to 
botanists, only in recent years have meat tenderiz- 
ers prepared from this plant become available 
commercially. 

Other applications of this enzyme are medici- 
nally to aid digestion in cases of dyspepsia and for 
clarifying beer. In some areas the seeds, juice, 
flowers, and leaves have served in home remedies. 
Also the leaves have been stewed as greens. The 
male flowers may be a source of honey. It is re- 
ported that the leaves have been employed in place 
of soap for washing delicate fabrics. Children 
make flutes from the hollow petioles. 

Many races vary in size and quality of fruit. 
The plants are also attractive ornamentals. 
Through the tropics they grow almost as weeds, 
bearing fruit the first year from seed and spread- 
ing along roadsides and in waste places. Plants 
are being heavily affected by diseases, especially 
viruses. 

Widely cultivated, escaping, and naturalized in 
Puerto Rico. Also on Mona, Vieques, St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

RANGE.^Native in tropical America, the origi- 



374 




174. Leehosa, papaya 



687-921 0—64 25 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Oarica papaya L. 
375 



nal home unknown. Widely cultivated and nat- 
uralized in southern Florida, Bennuda, through- 
out West Indies, from Mexico to Argentina and 
Brazil, and in the Old World tropics. 

Other common names. — papay, pawpaw (Vir- 
gin Islands) ; papaya (Spanish) ; fruta bomba 



(Cuba) ; melon zapote (Mexico) ; papayo calen- 
tano (Colombia) ; lechosa, papaya (Venezuela) ; 
papayo, mamon (Argentina) ; papaya, pawpaw, 
papaw (United States, English) ; papaye, papa- 
yer (French); papaya, papao, papay (Dutch 
West Indies) ; mamao, mamoeiro (Brazil). 



CACTUS FAMILY (CACTACEAE) 



Key to the 2 species illustrated (Nos. 175-176) 

A. Branches columnar, with 7-11 ridges and grooves : fruits round, spineless — 175. Cephalocereus royenii. 
AA. Branches flat, oblong joints or pads ; fruits pear-shaped, mostly spiny — 176. Opuntia ruiescens. 



175. Sebucan, dildo 

This tree cactus of dry areas is easily recognized 
by: (1) stout erect gray-green columnar branches 
2^4-4 inches in diameter with 7-11 ribs, or ridges, 
and grooves between the branches and trunk, not 
woody but soft and succulent; (2) absence of 
leaves, but with many clusters of several spreading 
needlelike yellow to gi^ay spines %-2i/4 inches in 
length along the ribs; (3) greenish, whitish or 
purplish-tinged, flowers 2 inches or more in length, 
tubular and fle.shy with many sepals and petals, 
borne singly and stalkless along ribs near apex; 
and (4) rounded but much flattened edible red 
berry up to 1 inch high and 2 inches in diameter, 
the surface smooth and spineless. 

A branched cactus 6-20 feet tall with trunk 4-12 
inches in diameter, commonly dividing at 1-2 feet 
above the base into several branches. As twigs 
and leaves are absent, there is no definite crown as 
in other trees. The trunk is reddish brown, 
smoothish except for rows of spines radiating in 
clustei"S and with very thin bark. The surface of 
the smooth grooves in the branches is covered with 
a bloom at least when young. 

The spines are in clusters, several radiating out 
from the central point of attachment (areole), 
which also bears inconspicuous whitish hairs. 
Near the rounded apex of branches the ribs bear 
tufts of longer white hairs about li/i inches in 
length, which are woolly and somewhat shaggy. 

The tubular fleshy flowers extend straight and 
nearly horizontal, opening at night. The flower 
has an inferior, smoothish, spineless rounded 
ovary about i/^ inch long, 1-celled; a funnelform 
greenish fleshy tube (hypanthium) with many 
overlapping oblong, rounded or pointed, whitish 
or purplish-tinged, fleshy sepals about % inch long 
and with about 10 whitish narrow pointed petals 
%-i/4 inch long within ; very many white stamens 
Vi~V2 iiich long attached at the throat and base of 
the tube ; and protruding white fleshy style almost 
2 inches long with many narrow stigma lobes. 



Cephalocereus royenii (L.) Britton & Rose 

The ovary develops into the fruit, while the re- 
maining flower parts shrivel and dry, remaining 
attached. The flattened berry contains red juicy 
flesh slightly sweet and edible and many small 
shiny black seeds less than i/jg inch long. Probably 
flowering irregularly through the year. 

The trunk is composed mostly of soft water- 
storing tissues, light green near the surface and 
yellowish within, juicy and slightly salty in taste. 
The soft wood is a light brown fibrous cylinder 
with large white rays. 

The tree cactus is remarkably well adapted to 
very dry conditions. The root system is broad and 
near the surface where water from light rains can 
be absorbed rapidly. The bulk of the plant is 
made up of water storage tissue, which retains 
water absorbed after rains for use over long dry 
periods. The surface area is greatly reduced 
through absence of leaves, and loss of water to the 
air (transpiration) is correspondingly checked. 
The branches have a very thick skin which also 
retards evaporation and, being green, at the same 
time cari-y on the processes of food manufacture 
( photosynthesis ) , normally functions of the green 
leaves. Further, the fonnidable spines protect 
the juicy stems from animal life. 

Scattered in dry forest on plains and hills at 
lower elevations in southern and southwestern 
Puerto Rico and rare at Cape San Juan in the di-y 
extreme northeastern corner. Also on Mona, 
Desecheo, Icacos, Culebraj and Vieques. Through 
Virgin Islands on St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, 
Tortola, Vii'gin Gorda, Anegada, and probably 
smaller islands. 

Public fokest. — Guanica. 

Range. — Mona, Puerto Rico and smaller adja- 
cent islands, Virgin Islands, and St. Kitts and 
Antigua in northern Lesser Antilles. 

Other common names. — pipe-organ cactus, 
cactus (Virgin Islands). 

Botanical synonyms. — Cereus royenii (L.) 
Mill., Pilocereus royenii (L.) Riimpl. 



376 




175. Sebucfin, dildo 



Cephalocereus royenii (L.) Britton & Rose 

End of branch with flower and fruit (upper right), two-thirds natural size. 



377 



CACTUS FAMILY (CACTACEAE) 



176. Tuna de petate, pricklypear 

Distinguishing characters of this large treelike 
cactus ai^e: (1) numerous spines, 1-6 together 
spreading in a cluster with a tuft of needlelike 
hairs at base, or spines sometimes absent; (i3) 
erect rounded fleshy spiny tiimk with bark pa- 
peiy or scaly, bearing as branches flat, oblong 
to obovate, dull gray-gi-een to dark green or red- 
dish-green joints or pads, 6-16 inches long, spiny 
and fleshy; (3) essentially leafless, the leaves be- 
ing minute gi'een fleshy scales located singly at 
base of clusters of spines; (4) orange, red, or 
yellow flowers •% indi across the many petals, 
borne on an oblong tubercled spiny green ovary 
11/^-2 inches long; and (5) red fleshy fruit a pear- 
shaped or rounded berry 2-3 inches long, spiny 
or spineless. A spineless form of this species oc- 
curs in Puerto Rico. 

A cactus 10-15 feet tall, with trunk ^6 inches 
in diameter, not jointed, erect and unbranched 
for a few feet. The reddish-brown trunk be- 
comes furrowed and flaky, retaining many gray 
spines 1-2 inches long in radiating clustere. 
There are several stout spiny branches ascending 
and ending in several spreading to horizontal 
flat si^iny joints. They continue or branch. 1-3 
at the end of an older joint. A definite crown 
of foliage is not present. 

The leaves are borne at a cushion (areole) of 
many small, needlelike, fine, stifi', brown hairs and 
cluster of spines which corresponds to a node. 
Though the leaves fall, the flashy joints are ever- 
green and function yearlong like leaves in food 
manufacture. There are 1-6 needlelike whitish 
spines 14-2 inches long, spreading from a center. 

Flowers are borne singly and stalkless on the 
terminal joints, 1-3 on the edges of a joint, located 
at the cushions of needle hairs. The largest part 
of the flower is the inferior tubercled and usually 
spiny gi-een ovary 11/2-2 inches long and 1% 
inches in diameter. The calyx is composed of 
many fleshy sepals. The petals are obovate, mi- 
nutely pointed, and spreading. There are very 
many stamens about half as long as the petals and 
a central style bearing the stigma with several 
rays. 



Opuntia rubescens Salm-Dyck 

The fruit is the enlarged ovary, usually spiny. 
There are many seeds less than 14 inch in diam- 
eter. Flowering and fruiting nearly through the 
year. 

Beneath the bark is liglit yellow, soft watery 
tissue, almost tasteless, and inside is the light yel- 
low, fibrous wood. 

As in certain other species of cacti, some fruits 
proliferate, that is, grow to form new flowers at 
the ends. Upon falling to the ground, these easily 
detached ovaries develop roots and grow into 
new plants around the parent, directly and veg- 
etative ly, rather than through seeds. Likewise, a 
joint on the soil can begin a new plant. Vegeta- 
tive propagation in this manner is more direct and 
more certain in dry areas than seed germination 
and establishment of small seedlings. 

Like the columnar tree cactus, tuna de petate or 
pricklypear is adapted to a hot and very dry cli- 
mate. It has a shallow root system, water storage 
tissue in the fleshy joints, reduced surface area, 
and reduced water loss (transpiration) . 

This species is often an undesirable plant where 
common. The spineless form has been introduced 
into cultivation in gardens in Puerto Rico. 

Scattered in dry forest on plains and hills at low 
elevation in southern and southwestern Puerto 
Rico and rare at Cape San Juan in the extreme 
northeastern corner. Also on Mona ( ? ) , Icacos, 
Culebra, and Vieques. Through Virgin Islands on 
St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and 
probably smaller islands. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

Range. — Mona ( ? ) , Puerto Rico and smaller ad- 
jacent islands, through Virgin Islands, and St. 
Martin to Guadeloupe in Lesser Antilles. 

Other common names. — tuna de yagua, tuna 
(Puerto Rico) ; tree cactus (Virgin Islands) ; 
petites raquettes (Guadeloupe). 

Botanical s t n o n t m. — Consolea rubescens 
(Salm-Dyck) Lemaire. 

This genus of pricklypears is represented by 6 
other native species not reaching tree size and by 
a few others introduced for ornament. 



378 




176. Tuna de i)etate, pricklypear 



Natural size. 



Opuntia ruieacens Salm-Dyck 



379 



ME2EREON FAMILY (THYMELAEACEAE) 



177. Majagua brava 

This small Puerto Kican tree with tough, fibrous 
bark is characterized by: (1) twigs forking into 
2 or sometimes 3 equal forks, reddish brown when 
yoimg and turning brown; (2) elliptic to obovate, 
leathei-y and slightly fleshy leaves short- or long- 
pointed at both ends, clustered together at ends of 
twigs and at nodes; (3) small fragrant white 
flowers, several at nodes in stalkless clusters 
(heacls) with hairy scales; and (4) elliptic white 
fleshy fruits %-V2 i"ch long, 1-seeded. 

An evergreen tree or shrub 10-20 feet high and 
2-4 inches in trunk diameter. The bark is gray, 
smooth or slightly fissured, and thin. Inner bark 
is whitish, almost tasteless. 

The leaves appear as if opposite or in clusters 
of 3 or 4 (whorled). They have petioles 1/3-% 
inch long and blades 21/4^ inches long and 1-21^ 
inches broad, commonly widest beyond middle, 
edges not toothed, slightly shiny on upper surface, 
and pale gi-een beneath. 

Flowers are male and female on different plants 
(dioecious). Male flowers have a white hairy 
calyx with narrow tube more than 1^4 "^ch long 
with 4 lobes less than Vs inch long, 8 stamens in 2 
sets of 4 each near mouth of tube, and rudimentai-y 
pistil. Female flowers are smaller, with a calyx 
about half as long as in male flowers, with tube 
and 4 lobes, and pistil with ovary and short style. 



Daphnopsis philippiana Krug & Urban 

The fleshy fruits are borne several together or 
only 1 at a node on very short stalks, green when 
immature but becoming white. The single brown 
seed is about i/4 inch long. Flowering and fruit- 
ing nearly through the year. 

The wood is whitish or yellowish, soft, and 
little used because of the small size of the tree. 
The bark has in the past been used for rope. 

Known only from the upper Luquillo and Cor- 
dillera forests of Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Restricted to mountains of Puerto 
Rico. 

Other common names. — emajagua de sierra, 
majagua quemadora, emajagua brava (Puerto 
Rico). 

This genus and family are represented by 2 
other tree species. Majagua de sierra or mahout 
{Daphnopsis americana (Mill.) J. R. Johnston; 
synonyms D. americana subsp. cariiaea- (Griseb.) 
Nevl., D. cariiaea Griseb.), of forests in Puerto 
Rico, Vieques, and the Virgin Islands and beyond, 
has slightly smaller flowers in small branched 
clusters at ends of twigs, and fruits only i^ inch 
long. The other (Z>. helleriana Urban), known 
only from 1 collection near Bayamon, has ob- 
long leaves rounded at apex and hairy beneath. 



380 






177. Majagua brava 



Natural size. 



Daphnopsis philippiana Krug & Urban 

381 



LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY (LYTHRACEAE) 
178. Reina de las flores, queen-of-flowers Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.* 



Planted for its numerous showy purple flowers, 
this exotic tree is identified by: (1) the large, 
loosely branched, terminal clustere 6-18 inches 
long bearing many beautiful lavender or pui-ple 
(or on some trees pink) flowers 2-21A inches across, 
with 6 rounded, crinkled and wavy-margined, 
spreading petals; (2) the gray-brown romided 
seed capsules %-li/4 inches in diameter, splitting 
into 6 parts and shedding many brown winged 
seeds V2-% inch long; and (3) the large elliptic 
leaves abruptly short-pointed at apex and short- 
pointed at base, opposite or alternate, appearing to 
be in 2 rows on the long, spreading twigs. 

A small cultivated tree 15-30 feet high, with 
trunk to 8 inches in diameter, or larger, and with 
rounded or widely spreading dense crown. Decid- 
uous only in dry climates. The bark is gray or 
light brown, smooth ish to slightly fissured and 
scaly. Inner bark is light brown and bitter to the 
taste. 

Leaves appear in 2 rows on the light green twigs 
as a result of bending of the short petioles 1/8-% 
inch long. Leaf blades are 5-12 inches long and 
2V2-5 inches broad, not toothed on edges, slightly 
thickened, green on upper surface and paler 
beneath. 

Flower clusters (panicles) have stout, finely 
hairy branches, with individual flower stalks 
Vi-Vz inch long. The vei'y showy flowere have a 
light green, cup-shaped. i2-ridged base (hypan- 
thium) % inch high and nearly i/^ inch broad, 
minutely hairy, bearing 6 light green, pointed, 
thickened, finely hairy sepals %e inch long and 
widely spreading, 6 stalked nearly round petals 
11/1 inches long, and numerous purplish stamens 
about % inch long. The pistil consists of a 6-celled 
ovai-y 3/jg inch in diameter, a slender purplish style 
about 1 inch long, becoming curved, and small 
rounded green stigma. 



The seed capsules are nearly round or elliptic, 
with dried hypanthium and sepals attached at 
base. The many seeds, about 39,000 to a pound, 
have a long, mostly narrow wing. Flowering 
from May through October, the fruit maturing 
from winter to summer. 

The light brown sapwood is hard. An impor- 
tant large timber tree in India, where the wood is 
preferred for small boats, shipbuilding, and pil- 
ing. In Puerto Rico the tree is grown in the open 
i:)rimarily for ornament and seldom produces a 
straight stem. 

Occasionally planted for ornament and shade, 
such as a street tree and in gardens, in Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands and sometimes escaping 
from cultivation. Commonly purplish flowered, 
but a variation with pinkish flowers is also grown. 

Range. — Native from India to southern China, 
Malay Peninsula, Philippines, East Indies, and 
northern Australia. Planted as an ornamental 
flowering tre« and escaping in many tropical lands. 
Grown in southern Florida and West Indies 
from Cuba and Jamaica (naturalized) to Puerto 
Rico and Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, 
and Trinidad and from Mexico to South America. 

Other common names. — tree crapemyrtle (Vir- 
gin Islands) ; astromelia, flor de la reina (Ven- 
ezuela) ; queen-of-flowers, queen-flower, pride-of- 
India, queen crapemyrtle (English) ; king-of- 
flowers (British Guiana) ; pyinma (commerce). 

Botanical synonym. — Lagerstroemia flos- 
reginae Retz. 

Astromelia or common crapemyrtle {Lager- 
stroemta indica L.*), a related shrub or small tree 
from Asia, is a popular ornamental. It has small 
elliptic leaves 1-2 inches long and showy masses of 
pink, white, or purple flowers less than li/^ inches 
across. 



382 




178. Reina de las flores, queen-of-flowers 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Lagerstroemia speciota (L.) Pers. 



383 



MANGROVE FAMILY (RHIZOPHORACEAE) 



179. Mangle Colorado, mangrove 

This common species on protected muddy sea- 
shores is easily recognized by the mass of peculiar, 
branching, curved and arching stilt roots, enabling 
the trees to spread in shallow salt and brackish 
water and form dense, impenetrable thickets at 
tide level. Other distinguishing characteristics 
are : ( 1 ) the conspicuous, naiTow, long, pointed, 
green terminal buds; (2) the opposite, elliptic, 
blunt-pointed, shiny green leaves, slightly leathery 
and fleshy, and yellow green beneath ; (3) the pale 
yellow flowers about % inch across with 4 widely 
spreading narrow and leathery sepals, usually 2-4 
in stalkecl lateral clusters; and (4) the unique dark 
brown fruits about 11/4 inches long and 1/2 }^p^ in 
diameter, remaining attached, each containing a 
growing seedling with long narrow podlike first 
root U]) to 1 foot long and hanging down. 

Commonly a small tree 15-25 feet or more in 
height, evergreen, with an erect trunk 8 inches or 
more in diameter. Formerly probably much 
larger. The bark is gray or gray brown, smooth, 
and thin on small trunks, becoming furrowed and 
thick on larger ones. Inner bark is reddish or 
pinkish, with slightly bitter and salty taste. The 
stout twigs are gray or brown, bearing several 
crowded leaves near apex. The bud is 1-2 inches 
long, covered with 2 green scales (stipules) around 
the pair of developing leaves and which make a 
ring scar on the twig upon shedding. 

The slightly flattened petioles are 1/2-% inch 
long. Leaf blades are 21/2-4 inches long and 1- 
21/2 inches broad, blunt-pointed at apex and short- 
pointed at base, the edges slightly rolled under. 

Flowers are 2-4 together on a forked green 
stalk altogether 11/2-8 inches long, slightly fra- 
grant. The bell-shaped pale yellow base (hy- 
panthiura) less than i/4 inch long bears 4 widely 
spreading narrow pale yellow sepals almost y^ 
inch long, leathery and persistent; there are 4 
narrow petals % inch long, curved downward, 
whitish but turning brown, white woolly or cot- 
tony on inner side; 8 stamens; and the pistil con- 
sists of a 2-celled ovary, mostly inferior but coni- 
cal at apex, with 2 ovules in each cell, slender style, 
and 2-lobecl stigma. 

The single seed germinates inside the conical 
fruit, forming a long narrow first root (radicle) 
green except for the brown enlarged and pointed 
end up to i/o inch in diameter. When about 1 
foot long, the heavy seedling falls and is usually 
carried by water before becoming fi.rnily rooted. 
Flowering and fruiting through the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, the heartwood 
reddish brown or dark brown. The wood is hard, 



Rhizophora mangle L. 

very heavy (specific gravity 0.9-1.2), durable in 
the soil but susceptible to attack by dry-wood 
termites. 

Used as roundwood, for posts and poles and 
excellent for fuel and charcoal. Elsewhere the 
wood in larger sizes has been employed also for 
marine piling and wharves, shipbuilding, and 
in cabinetwork. The bark is important commer- 
cially in tanning leather, and the leaves are rich 
in tannin also. A dye and medicines have been 
obtained from the bark. Fishermen in Puerto 
Rico preserve their lines with an extract from the 
roots. 

Mangrove forests on depositing shores aid in 
extending the shore line, holding the black mud 
in place and gradually advancing on the side to- 
ward the ocean. This species with its stilt roots 
growing in shallow water extends farther sea- 
ward than the 3 other species of mangroves. 

Common to abundant in mangrove swamp for- 
ests over large flat areas of silty or muddy shores 
in salt and brackish water around Puerto Rico. 
Forming pure stands on the sea side of such for- 
ests and mixed with other mangrove species far- 
ther inland. Also in Mona Vieques, St. Croix, 
St Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Anegada. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Boqueron, Ceiba, 
Guanica, San Juan. 

Range. — Shores of central and southern Florida 
including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and through- 
out West Indies (excep*^ Dominica) to Trinidad 
and Tobago and Dutch West Indies. Also on both 
coasts of continental tropical America from cen- 
tral Mexico south to Ecuador and northwestern 
Peru and to Brazil. Also in Galapagos Islands, 
Melanesia, and Polynesia. 

Other common names. — mangle, mangle zapa- 
tero, mangle de chifle (Puerto Rico) ; mangle 
(Virgin Islands) ; mangle, mangle Colorado 
(Spanish) ; mangle gateador, mangle caballero 
(Costa Rica) ; mangle salado (Panama) ; mangle 
rojo (Venezuela) ; mangle injerto (Ecuador) ; 
mangrove, red mangrove (United States, Eng- 
lish) ; black mangrove (British Guiana) ; man- 
glier, manglier rouge (Haiti) ; paletuvier rouge 
(French, commerce) ; manglier rouge, mangle 
rouge, mangle noir, manglier chandelle (Guade- 
loupe) ; mangel tan (Dutch West Indies) ; man- 
gro (Surinam) ; mangue sapateiro, mangue ver- 
melho (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Rhizophora mangle 
var. samoensis Hochr., R. sa7noensis (Hochr.) 
Salvoza. 



384 




179. Mangle Colorado, mangrove 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Rhizophora mangle L. 



385 



COMBRETUM FAMILY (COMBRETACEAE) 



Key to the 5 species illustrated (Nos. 180-184) 

A. Leaves mostly clustered at ends of twigs; petiole without glands, blade broadest beyond middle; upland trees. 
B. Leaves less than 3 inches long, green or yellow green. 

C. Twigs spineless ; fruit an elliptic pointed drupe about % inch long — 180. Buchenavia capitata. 
CC, Twigs often with paired spines ; fruits about V< inch long, with calyx at apex, some deformed as slender 
hornlike galls 2-3 inches long — 181. Bticida buceras. 
BB. Leaves 6-11 inches long, turning reddish before falling — 184. Terininalia catappa* 
AA. Leaves evenly spaced along twigs: petiole with 2 glands near the elliptic blade; trees of mangrove swamp forests. 
D. Leaves alternate, long-pointed at both ends — 182. Conocarpus erectus. 
DD. Leaves opposite, rounded at both ends — 183. Lagiincularia racemosa. 



180. Granadillo 

This large, spreading timber tree is character- 
ized by : ( 1 ) a striking thin crown composed of a 
few main, widely spreading nearly horizontal 
branches; (2) erect clusters of small reverse lance- 
shaped (oblanceolate) or spoon-shaped (spatu- 
late) yellow-green leaves crowded at ends of short 
erect twigs from horizontal branches; (3) many 
small greenish flowers about Vs inch across at the 
end of a lateral stalk, altogether 1-1 i/o inches long; 
and (3) elliptic greenish fruits %-% inch long 
and 14 inch in diameter, pointed at both ends and 
slightly 4- or 5-angled, single or paired. 

A tree growing to 60-80 feet tall and 2-i feet in 
trunk diameter, with straight trunk becoming but- 
tressed at base. Deciduous but with the new yel- 
lowish foliage appearing soon after leaf fall in 
most areas. The light brown bark is smoothish, 
with many small fissures. The inner bark is yel- 
lowish and bitter. The brown to gray twigs, finely 
rusty-brown hairy when young, have slender leaf- 
less areas and shorter stout spurs bearing leaves 
or leaf scars close together. 

The leaves are alternate, though clustered. Pet- 
ioles are %-% inch long. Leaf blades are 1^/4-3 
inches long, V2-IV2 inches broad, roiuided at apes 
and long-pointed at base, broadest beyond middle, 
the edges flat or rolled under, becoming thickened 
and leathery, hairless or nearly so when mature, 
shiny yellow green on upper surface and paler 
beneath. 

Flower clusters (spikes or heads) V^-^A iiich 
long on hairy stalks i^-l inch long are inconspicu- 
ous among the new leaves. The crowded, hairy 
flowers are both bisexual and male (polygamous). 
Tlie calyx is broadly cup-shaped, 5-toothed, Vie 
inch long, soon falling, and there are 10 stamens; 
and the pistil has an inferior hairy, 1-celled ovary. 

Fruits (drupes) borne on a stalk about 1 inch 
long resemble an olive, are slightly fleshy and bit- 
ter, and contain 1 large stone. Flowering mainly 
in winter and spring and maturing fruits through 
the year. 

The light yellow to golden-brown heartwood is 
not clearly separated from the pale yellow sap- 
wood. The attractive, good quality wood is mod- 
erately hard, moderately heavy (specific gravity 
0.61), and strong. It has high luster, roey or 



Buchenavia capitata (Vahl) Eichl. 

straight grain, medium texture, and growth rings 
marked by narrow bands of darker pores. The 
lumber air-seasons rapidly with only a very small 
amount of degrade. It finishes well and takes a 
high satiny polish. Machining characteristics are 
as follows : planing, shaping, turning, boring, mor- 
tising, sanding, and resistance to screw splitting 
are good. The heartwood, sometimes found among 
the timbers of old buildings, is resistant to attack 
by dry-wood termites and is fairly durable in the 
ground, but the sapwood is perishable. 

Though not widely used, the wood is highly rec- 
ommended for furniture and cabinetwork. It is 
suited also for construction, framing, flooring, ply- 
wood, decorative veneer, interior trim, boatbuild- 
ing, boxes and crates, and turnery. 

Planted as a shade tree in soutliem Florida, 
where it is reported to be hardy and suitable for 
dry soils and exposed sites. Classed also as an 
ornamental in Puerto Rico. Requires ample light 
for good growth. The bark is high in tannin. 

A prominent tree of the forest canopy chiefly in 
the lower mountain and moist limestone re- 
gions, descending in some places to the moist coast 
of Puerto Rico. Also in Tortola. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guajataca, Guilarte, 
Luquillo, Maricao, Susua, Toro A'egro. 

Municipalities where especially common. — 
4, 10, 11, 20, 22, 29, 35, 42, 43, 46, 47, 50, 53, 58, 61, 
68, 70, 73. 

Range. — Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto 
Rico and Tortola, Lesser Antilles, and Trinidad 
and Tobago. Also in Panama and South America 
from Venezuela to French Guiana, Brazil, and 
Bolivia. 

Other common names. — gri-gri, ciruelillo, 
guaraguao (Dominican Republic) ; jiicaro ama- 
rillo, jiicaro mastelero, jociuna, jucarillo (Cuba) ; 
amarillo boj, amarillo, chicharro (Venezuela) ; 
yellow olivier (Trinidad) ; yellow sanders (To- 
bago) ; wild olive (Jamaica) ; bois margot, bois 
gris-gris (Haiti) ; bois gli-gli, bois gri-gri, bois 
olivier (Guadeloupe) ; olivier gi-and bois, an- 
gouchi des sables (French Guiana) ; matakki, 
gemberhout, katoelima, toekoeli (Surinam). 

Botanical synonym. — Bucida capitata Vahl. 



386 



v./ 



f. 



^ 



<-^( \ < 



y 



J 



\ 



fM 





180. Granadillo 



Natural size. 



Buchenavia capitata (Vahl) Elchl. 



387 



COMBRETUM FAMILY (COMBRETACEAE) 



181. Ucar, gregre, oxhorn bucida 

A widely spreading timber and shade tree iden- 
tified by : (1) a broad symmetrical crown of nearly 
horizontal branches which generally droop near 
the ends; (2) paired gray spines 14-% inch long 
on the twigs of some trees; (3) elliptic leaves 1-3 
inches long and %-2 inches broad, clustered at 
ends of short erect twigs; (4) small, greenish- 
white or light brown flowers stalkless in lateral 
clusters 1-4 inches long; and (5) brownish, some- 
what conical fruits about 14 inch long with spread- 
ing calyx remaining at apex, but some fruits 
deformed as hornlike galls 2-3 inches long and 
more than Yg inch in diameter. 

Evergreen or deciduous medium-sized to large 
tree 30-60 feet high and to 3 feet in trunk diam- 
eter. The bark is brown, fissured and slightly 
rough or becoming thickened and scaly. Inner 
bark brown and slightly bitter. The gi'ay twigs, 
finely hairy when young, are widely forking, con- 
sisting of slender leafless portions and shorter 
stout, spurlike areas bearing leaves or mas.ses of 
leaf scars. 

The leaves are alternate on slightly hairy petioles 
1/4-%, inch long. Blades are rounded, short- 
pointed, or notched at apex and short-pointed at 
base, often widest beyond middle, the edges not 
toothed, slightly thickened, hairless or nearly so 
at maturity, green on upper surface and yellow 
green beneath. 

Flower clusters (spikes) are among the leaves, 
unbranched, and bear along the finely haiiy gray- 
green axis or at the end many stalkless flowers, 
which are 14,-% i"ch long and y^-Vo inch broad 
across the stamens. The base (hypanthium) is less 
than Yg inch long, gray green or light brownish, 
finely hairy; the bowl-shaped, greenish- white 
calyx is y^g inch long and %6 inch across, 5- 
toothed, and finely hairy; there are 10 widely 
spreading stamens Vs-V^ inch long; and the pistil 
with inferior 1-celled ovary and slender hairy 
style %6 inch long. 

The fruits (dnipes) are irregularly 5-angled, 
slightly fleshy or dry, narrowed lielow the calyx, 
minutely hairy, 1-seeded. Odd, hornlike galls 
caused by mites commonly develop from some 
fruits and become many times longer than normal 
size. Flowering and fruiting irregularly through 
the year. 

The sapwood is yellowish or light brown, and the 
attractive heartwood dark greeiiish brown with 
longitudinal stripes resulting from roey grain. 
The wood is very hard, very heavy (specific grav- 
ity 0.93), very strong, tough, and moderately fine- 



Bucida buceras L. 



textured. Rate of air-seasoning and amomit of de- 
grade are moderate. Machining characteristics 
are as follows: planing is fair; shaping and sand- 
ing are good; turning, boring, and mortising are 
excellent; but resistance to screw splitting is very 
poor. One of the heaviest available woods of 
Puerto Eico, it is difficult to work because of the 
high density and hardness. It is durable in con- 
tact with the ground, resistant to attack by dry- 
wood termites, and takes a fine polish. 

This valuable timber is used locally in carts, 
gates, fences, and rural construction. It is suita- 
ble also for heavy-duty flooring, workbenches, ma- 
chinery platforms, and heavy exterior construc- 
tion. Uses elsewhere include marine piling in 
nonteredo areas, crossties, house posts, bridge 
timbers, and charcoal. 

Formerly the bark was employed in tanning. 
Also planted as a shade and ornamental tree, 
especially in coastal and dry regions. Common in 
cultivation as a street tree in southern Florida. 

In forests of the moist and dry limestone regions 
and forests along coasts and streams near the sea 
in Puerto Rico. Also in Mona, Vieques, St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, and St. John. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Boqueron, Camba- 
lache, Guajataca, Guanica, Rio Abajo, San Juan, 
Susua. 

Municipalities where especi.^llt common. — 
12, 21, 24, 26, 28, 36, 38, 44, 54, 55, 66, 75. 

Range. — Upper Florida Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, 
Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin 
Islands, and Leeward Islands to Guadeloupe in 
Lesser Antilles. Also from southern Mexico to 
Panama and northern South America along the 
coasts of Colombia, Venezuela (including Mar- 
garita), and Guianas. 

Other common names. — guaraguao, gri-gri 
(Dominican Republic) ; jucaro, jucaro negro, 
jucarillo (Cuba) ; pucte (Mexico) ; bucida (Co- 
lombia) ; oxhorn bucida, black-olive (United 
States) ; black-olive (Bahamas, Jamaica) ; olive- 
bark-tree (Jamaica) ; bullet-tree, bullywood, 
bully-tree (British Honduras) ; bois gri-gri, gris- 
gris des montagnes, gue-gue (Haiti) ; bois gli-gli, 
bois gris-gris (Guadeloupe) ; grignon (French 
Guiana) . 

Botanical synonyms. — Buceras hucida Crantz, 
TerTii'malia huceras C. Wright. 

The scientific name and English common name 
oxhorn bucida are descriptive of the elongated 
fruit galls. 



388 




181. tJcar, gregre, oxhom bucida 



Natural size. 



Buoida huceras L. 



3«9 



COMBRETUM FAMILY (COMBRETACEAE) 



182. Mangle boton, button-mangrove 

Button-mangrove, a tree frequently shrubby in 
habit and usually on the landward side of tidal 
mangrove swamp forests, is distinguished as the 
only mangrove species with alternate leaves. It is 
further characterized by: (1) leathery and slight- 
ly fleshy, lance-shaped or elliptic leaves IVi-^ 
inches long and Vo-l^ inches broad, long-pointed 
at both ends, yellow green on both sides; (2) yel- 
low-green angled or winged twigs; (3) minute 
greenish fragi-ant flowers less than Yie i"ch across, 
crowded in balls less than % inch in diameter in 
terminal and lateral clusters; and (4) purplish- 
brown rounded conelike f I'uits Ys-Vo inch in diam- 
eter, composed of many scalelike single 1-seeded 
fruits about i/g inch long. 

A small evergreen tree to 20 feet in height and 
8 inches in trunk diameter, .sometimes larger or 
a low shrub, with spreading crown. Usually hair- 
less throughout, but one variation has silky or sil- 
very hairy foliage. The bark is gray or brown, 
becoming rough, furrowed, and thick. Inner bark 
is light brown and astringent and bitter. The 
twigs are yellow green when young, becoming 
brown, and with a prominent angle or wing below 
each leaf. 

The leaves have slightly winged, short petioles 
i/g-% inch long with 2 dotlikc glands. Leaf blades 
are not toothed on edges and usually have several 
dotlike glands near vein angles on lower surface. 

There are commonly several stalked balls or 
lieads of flowers in clusters mostly 1-3 inches long. 
Flowers are mostly bisexual, but some trees bear 
heads of male flowers. Bisexual flowers are more 
than Vio inch long, with hairy grayish 2-winged 
tubular base (hypanthium), cuplike green calyx 
with 5 lobes, 5-10 protruding stamens, and pistil 
of inferior ovary with slender style. Male flowers 
lack the tubular base (hypanthium) and pistil and 
have longer stamens. 

The dry individual fruits (drupes) are brown, 
2-winged, overlapping and separating at maturity. 
Flowering and fruiting probably through the 
year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
yellow brown. The wood is very hard, very 
heavy (specific gravity 1.0), strong, and fine- 
textured. It takes a fine polish and is said to be 
generally vei-y durable, although susceptible to at- 



Conocarpus erectus L. 

tack by dry-wood termites. The wood has been 
used for fenceposts, crossties, wood turning, and 
in boatbuilding. It burns slowly and makes good 
fuel and charcoal. 

The bark has served in tanning and medicine, 
and the leaves contain tannin also. Elsewhere, 
it is reported that plants can be propagated from 
cuttings as liviuir fenceposts. In southern Florida 
the variation with silky or silvei-y hairy foliage is 
grown as a handsome ornamental. Plants of this 
species will grow on dry land away from the sea- 
shores. 

Mangrove swamp forests on silty shores near 
salt and bi-ackish water, and sometimes also on 
rocky and sandy shores around Puerto Rico. Also 
in Mona, Icacos, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, 
St. John, Tortola, Virgin Gorda, and Anegada. 

PuiiLic FORESTS. — Aguirre, Boqueron, Ceiba, 
Guiinica, and San Juan. 

Range. — Shores of central and southern Florida 
including Florida Keys, Bermuda, nearly through- 
out West Indies (except Dominica) from Ba- 
hamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and 
Dutch West Indies. On both coasts of continental 
tropical America from Mexico south through Cen- 
tral America and northern South America to 
Ecuador and Galapagos Islands and to Brazil. 
Also in western ti'opical Africa. 

Other common names. — botoncillo (Puerto 
Rico) ; buttonwood (Virgin Islands) ; mangle 
boton (Spanish) ; botoncillo, mangle prieto (Do- 
minican Republic) ; yana (Cuba) ; mangle negro, 
mangle prieto (Mexico) ; botoncillo (El Salva- 
dor) ; marequito, mangle negro, mansrle marequita 
(Costa Rica) ; zaragosa, mangle pihuelo, mangle 
torcido (Panama) ; mangle negro, mangle garban- 
cillo (Colombia) ; botoncillo, mangle botoncillo, 
mangle lloroso (Venezuela) ; mangle jeli, jele 
(Ecuador); button-mangrove, buttonwood 
(United States, English) ; manglier (St. Lucia) ; 
buttonbush, botoncillo (British Honduras) ; man- 
gle, paletuvier (Haiti) ; paletuvier gris (Guade- 
loupe, Martinique) ; mangle gris, manglier gris, 
chene Guadeloupe (Guadeloupe) ; mangel, grijze 
mangel, mangel blancu, witte mangel (Dutch West 
Indies) ; mangue, mangue branco, mangue de 
botao (Brazil). 



390 




182. Mangle boton, button-maagrove 



Natural size. 



Conocarpiis erccUis L. 



687-921 O— 64— — 26 



391 



COMBRETUM FAMILY (COMBRETACEAE) 



183. Mangle bianco, white-mangrove 

One of the 4 species of mangrove swamp forests 
on brackish siUy seashores, mangle bianco is char- 
acterized by: (1) opposite, leathery and slightly 
fleshy, elliptic leaves l^-i inches long and 1-2 
inches broad, rounded at both ends, dull yellow 
green on both sides and borne on reddish petioles 
with 2 raised gland dots near apex; (2) gray- 
brown bark becoming rough and fissured; (3) 
many small bell-shaped whitish flowers about %6 
inch long, stalkless in terminal and lateral clusters 
1-4 inches long; and (4) clusters of velvety gray- 
green fruits %-% inch long, slightly pear-shaped 
(obovoid), flattened and with ridges. 

Commonly a small evergreen tree to 40 feet 
high and 1 foot in trunk diameter, sometimes 
larger. Many trees consist of a clump of stems 
which liave sprouted after cutting. The inner bark 
is light brown, bitter and astringent. Twigs are 
greenish or reddish brown when young but be- 
coming brown, hairless, and thickened at nodes. 

The leaves have stout petioles %-i/4 inch long. 
Leaf blades are without toothed edges, visible 
veins, or hairs. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are generally 
branched and spreading, the fragrant flowers 
mostly bisexual (or a few male). The minutely 
liairy, whitish tubular base (hypanthium) is less 
than % inch long and broad, bearing 2 minute 
scales (bracts), 5 spreading blunt-pointed whitish 
sepals less than i/^e inch long, and 5 rounded 
whitish petals i/ie inch long; there are 10 stamens; 
and pistil with inferior 1-celled ovary with 2 
ovules, slender style, and minutely 2-lobed stigma. 

The slightly fleshy fruit (drupe) is minutely 
hairy, gray green when immature and brownish at 
maturity, broadest near the apex, which has sepals 
remaining attached. It floats and is disseminated 
by water. There is 1 large seed which starts to en- 
large and sometimes begins germination withm the 
fruit on the tree or floating in the water. Flower- 
ing and fruiting nearly throughout the year. 



Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
yellowish brown. The wood is moderately heavy 
(specific gravity 0.6), hard, and strong, but not 
very durable. In Puerto Rico used mainly for 
posts, fuel, or charcoal, and sometimes for tool 
handles and similar objects. Elsewhere the wood 
has served also for construction. The bark con- 
tains tannin and has been employed in tanning and 
medicinally. 

A rapidly growing tree which may flower and 
fruit when less than 2 years old. Also a honey 
plant. 

The most widely distributed of the mangrove 
species in Puerto Rico. Grows along the silty 
shores of lagoons and estuaries near the coast. 
Also in Mona, Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. 
John, and Anegada. 

Public forests. — Aguirre, Boqueron, Ceiba, 
Guanica, San Juan. 

R.^NGE. — Shores of central and southern Florida 
including Florida Keys, Bermuda, and nearly 
throughout West Indies (excep!^ Dominica) from 
Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago and 
Dutch West Indies. On both coasts of continental 
tropical America from Mexico south to Ecuador 
and northwestern Peru and to Brazil. Also in 
western tropical Africa. 

Other common names.^ — mangle bobo (Puerto 
Rico) ; mangel (Virgin Islands) ; mangle bianco 
(Spanish) ; mangle amarillo, mangle prieto 
(Dominican Republic) ; pataban (Cuba) ; cin- 
cahuite (El Salvador) ; palo de sal, mangle mare- 
quita (Costa Rica) ; mangle amarillo (Vene- 
zuela) ; white-mangrove, white button wood 
(United States, English); gi'een turtle-bough 
(Bahamas); coil (British Guiana); mangle, 
manglier blanc (Haiti) ; paletuvier (French) ; 
mangle blanc, manglier blanc (Guadeloupe) ; 
akira (Surinam) ; mangue, mangue branco 
(Brazil). 



392 




183. Mangle bianco, wMte-mangrove 



Natural size. 



Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. 

393 



COMBRETUM FAMILY (COMBRETACEAE) 



184. Almendra, Indian-almond 

This familiar tree commonly planted for shade, 
ornament, and nuts is introduced, rather than 
native. It is characterized by: (1) horizontal 
branches in circles at different levels on the trunk; 
(2) large leathery leaves broadest toward apex 
(obovate), turning reddish before falling; (3) 
many small greenish-white flowers Yie^V-i i^^ch 
across in narrow lateral clusters; and (4) elliptic, 
slightly flattened greenish fruits about 2 inches 
long, each with a hard husk containing a large 
edible seed or nut. 

Usually a medium-sized tree, to 50 feet in height 
and 1 foot in trunk diameter, sometimes larger and 
with slight buttresses. It is evergreen except in 
areas with a marked dry season. The gray bark 
is smoothish and thin, becoming slightly fissured. 
Inner bark is pinkish brown, slightly bitter and 
astringent. Twigs are brown, finely hairy when 
young, slender but swollen at leaf scars and the 
nodes. 

The leaves are alternate but crowded together 
near ends of twigs and have stout, finely brown 
hairy petioles %-% inch long. Blades are 6-11 
inches long and 31/0-6 inches broad, abruptly 
short-pointed or rounded at apex and gradually 
narrowed toward the rounded base, not toothed on 
edges, slightly thickened, the upper surface shiny 
green or dark green and hairless, and the lower 
surface paler and often finely brown hairy. 

Flower clusters (narrow racemes) are 2-6 inches 
long, with numerous, mostly short-stalked, slightly 
fragrant flowers, mostly male and a few bisexual 
flowers near base (polv.<ramous). Both kinds have 
a greenish-white or liarht brown, hairv calyx with 
cup-shaped tube and 5 or 6 pointed, spreading 
lobes ViG lontr and bearing twice as many small sta- 
mens near base. In addition the bisexual or fe- 
male flowers, which are stalkless, have a slender 
style and a narrow basal tube (hypanthium) %e 
inch long, brownish green and finely hairy, resem- 
bling a stalk but containing the inferior 1-celled 
ovary. 

The fruits (drupes) are about 1 inch broad, 
poin<^ed. sliirhtlv flattened and with 1 or 2 nar- 
rowly winged edges, light brown at maturity. The 
thin outer layer is sliffhtlv sour and can be eaten. 
Inside the hard fibrous hu^k there is a light brown, 
thick, hard stone containing an oily seed or nut 
about V^ inches long and % inch broad, somewhat 
like the true almond. Flowering and fruiting 
nearly through the year. 

The heartwood is reddish brown with slightly 
darker stripes, and the sapwood liffhter in color. 
The wood is hard, moderately heavy (specific 
gravity 0.59), moderately strong, tough, medium- 
textured, and with irregular and often interlocked 



Terminalia catappa L.* 

grain. It is very susceptible to attack by dry-wood 
termites. Rate of air-seasoning is rapid, and 
amount of degrade is moderate. Machining char- 
acteristics are as follows: planing is vei-y poor; 
shaping, boring, and mortising are fair; turning is 
poor ; and sanding and resistance to screw splitting 
are good. 

Local uses are for posts and fuel. However, this 
attractive wood if carefully handled in machining 
would be suitable for millwork, furniture, veneer, 
and cabinetwork. Elsewhere it has been recom- 
mended for boatbuilding, general construction, 
bridge timbers, crossties, flooring, and boxes and 
crates. 

The bark, roots, astringent green fruits, and 
leaves contain tannin and have been used in tan- 
ning. A black dye serving for ink has been ob- 
tained from bark, fruits, and foliage also. An oil 
lias been extracted from the seeds. 

Planted chiefly for shade and ornament and for 
the edible seeds, and growing rapidly. One of the 
common roadside trees in Puerto Rico, attractive 
for its peculiar branching and the reddish-tinged 
old leaves. Trees are extensively planted along 
sandy seashores, being hardy and salt tolerant, 
though reportedly not resistant to hurricanes or 
storm winds. A thrips insect attacks the trees 
generally in autumn and winter, causing the leaves 
to turn yellowish or whitish and to fall and thus 
making the leafless trees less suitable for shade. 

Naturalized in Puerto Rico, especially on the 
sandy soils and dunes along the coasts, but exten- 
sively planted and escaping from cultivation in 
various places. Also in Mona, Vieques, St. Croix, 
St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda. 

R.vNc.E. — Native of East Indies and Oceanica 
and widely planted and naturalized in tropical 
reirions. Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bermuda, and throuerhout West Indies. 
Also from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. 

Other common n.vmes. — almendro (Puerto 
Rico, Spanish) ; almond, West-Indian-almond 
(Virgin Islands) ; almendro de la India (Domini- 
can Renublic, Cuba, Colombia) ; alcornoque 
(Costa Rica) ; almendron (Venezuela) ; almendro 
americano (Colombia) ; castana (Peru) ; Indian- 
almond, tropical-almond, West-Indian-almond 
(United States. English) ; almond (British West 
Indies. British Honduras. British Guiana) ; aman- 
dier des Indes. amandier tropical, zanmande 
(Haiti); amandier, amandier - pays (Guade- 
loupe) ; amandier de Cayenne (Guayana Fran- 
cesa) ; manguel, wilde amandel (Dutch West In- 
dies) ; amanda, amandelboom (Surinam) ; amen- 
doeira. chapeo de sol. guarda-sol, castaiiola 
(Brazil). 



394 






/^ 



184. Almendra, Indian-almond 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Terminalia catappa L. 



395 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



Key to the 11 siiecies illustrated (Nos. 185-195) 

A. Leaves alternate : corolla absent — 1S6. Eucalyptus robusta* 
AA. Leaves opposite ; corolla of 4 or 5 rounded petals. 
B. Leaves small, less than 2 inches long. 

C. Leaves rounded at ai^ex : the short petioles and young twigs reddish-brown hairy — 185. Calyptranthes 
krugii. 
CC. Leaves long-pointed at apex, hairless when mature. 

D. Leaves bluntly long-pointed, nearly diamond-shaped, dull green, thin, the few lateral veins incon- 
spicuous — 190. Eugenia rhombca. 
DD. Leaves ending in long narrow point, ovate or lance-shaped, shiny, slightly thickened, with many 
prominent side veins — 193. Myrcia splendens. 
BB. Leaves larger, more than 2 inches long. 

E. Leaves rounded at apex, thick and leathery. 

F. Leaves with many straight, parallel side veins, edges rolled under ; flowers many, very small — 194. 
Pimenta racemosa. 
FF. Leaves with few side veins ; flowers few, large — 191. Eugenia stahlii. 
EE. Leaves long- or short-pointed at apex. 
G. Leaves with side veins sunken. 

H. Leaves thick, stiff, upper surface shiny ; petioles and twigs densely reddish-brown hairy ; 
flowers and fruits many, small — 192. Myrcia dcltcxa. 
HH. Leaves slightly thickened, not stiff ; twigs and lower leaf surfaces finely hairy ; flowers few, 
large; fruit large, round edible (guava) — 195. Psidium guajava.* 
GG. Leaves with side veins not sunken. 

I. Flowers and fruits small, about % inch long and broad — 187. Eugenia aeruginea. 
II. Flowers large, more than 2 inches broad : fruits more than 1 inch long, edible. 
J. Flowers white : fruits rounded ( ro.se-apple) — 188. Eugenia jambos* 
J J. Flowers purplish red ; fruits pear-shaped (Malay-apple) — 189. Eugenia malaccensis* 



185. Limoncillo 

This shrub or small tree found only in the 
mountains of Puerto Rico is characterized by: 
(1) dark brown twigs, crowded, much branched 
and forking, wlten young densely rusty reddish- 
brown hairy; ('2) ojjposite small, obovate, slightly 
aromatic, leathery leaves almost stalkless, %-l 
inch long and %-% inch wide, rounded at apex 
and pointed at base, green to dark green above and 
pale light green beneath, with many minute 
gland dots; (3) each leaf covered until almost full 
size by 2 odd brownish scales (stipules), which 
split open at midrib on both sides; (4) white flow- 
ers 1,4-% inch across the many white stamens, 
single and stalkless at leaf bases; and (5) round 
beri-y I/4 i'lch in diameter, with ring at apex. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree 8-15 feet tall 
and 2-3 inches or more in trunk diameter, with 
narrow crown. The brown bark is smooth, within 
whitish or brownish and almost tasteless to slight- 
ly bitter. The slender forking twigs are slightly 
fissured. 

Tlie leaves have short reddish-brown hairy pe- 
tioles Vjg inch or less in length. The thickened 
stiff' blades are hairy when young, the edges 
turned under, slightly shiny above, and with in- 
conspicuous lateral veins. 

Flower buds are rounded and reddish-brown 
hairy. The flower, about % inch high, has a red- 
dish-brown hairy cuplike base (hypanthium) en- 
closing the inferior ovary and projecting beyond, 
bearing the calyx, which splits open as a lid at- 
tached on 1 side, 4 minute white petals less than 
'ie inch long, a ring of spreading white sta- 
mens 1/4 inch long, and a green style V4 inch long. 



Calyptranthes krugii Kiaersk. 

The fleshy fruit is covered with reddish-brown 
hairs and is greenish when immature. Collected 
in flower from June to October and with fruit in 
January. 

The sapwood is light brown and hard. The 
wood is not used because of the small size of the 
tree. 

In the upper mountain forests, including the 
dwarf forests of the summits of the Luquillo 
Mountains and also in the Central Cordillera. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Confined to eastern and central moun- 
tains of Puerto Rico. 

This genus is represented by 2 more species of 
small trees or shrubs in Puerto Rico and 3 others 
in the Virgin Islands. Flower characteristics of 
this genus include a cuplike base (hypanthium), 
which upon shedding leaves a ring scar at apex of 
the round berry fruit ; the calyx which splits open 
as a lid ; and corolla none or of 4 very small white 
petals. The English generic name lidflower, from 
the scientific name, refers to the calyx. 

Calyptranthes klaerskovii Krug & Urban, 
known only from foliage collected at Tortola, has 
obovate hairless leaves 1 inch or less in length with 
blunt or rounded apex and upper surface shiny. 

The other species have larger leaves 1-3 inches 
long. Limoncillo del monte (Calyptranthes sin- 
tenisii Kiaersk.), of moist forests in Puerto Rico 
and also in Plispaniola, has elliptic long-pointed 
leaves bright green and faintly shining above and 
beneath paler, dull, and sometimes slightly hairy; 
and fruit i/t inch or more in diameter. 

Pale lidflower (Calyptranthes paUens Griseb.), 
of St. Croix, St. Thomas, and Mona and wider dis- 



396 






185. Limoncillo 



Natural size. 



Valyptranthes krugii Kiaersk. 



397 



tribution from Guadeloupe to southern Florida, 
has elliptic long-pointed leaves shiny above and 
smaller fruit about %6 in<^i^ iu diameter. 

Calyptranthes portoricensis Britton, known 
only from near Maricao in Puerto Rico, has leaves 
rounded or short-pointed at apex and hairy be- 



neath when young; dense brown hairs on twigs, 
flower clusters, and fruits ; and fruit about %g inch 
in diameter. 

Calyptranthes thomasiana Berg, described from 
St. Thomas, has blunt-pointed oblong or obovate 
leaves 1-2 inches long. 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 
186. Eucalipto, beakpod eucalyptus Eucalyptus robusta J. E. Smith* 



This handsome introduced tree, occasionally 
planted in Puerto Rico, is characterized by: (1) 
generally very straight axis with thick furrowed 
bark and narrow to spreading crown of dark green 
foliage; (2) broadly lance-shaped leaves 4-8 
inches long and 11/4-21/2 inches broad, mostly 
slightly curved and unequal-sided from the short- 
pointed base, with a long tapering point, stiff and 
leathery, aromatic, with a peculiar spicy resinous 
odor (when crushed) and taste; (3) cream-col- 
ored flowers with very numerous stamens in a 
spreading mass I14 inches across, several borne 
laterally at the end of a flattened green stalk about 
1 inch long; and (4) cu])like dark green seed cap- 
sules 1/^-% inch long and % inch in diameter. 

A medimn-sized evergi'een tree to 90 feet in 
height and li/4 feet in trunk diameter. The bai-k 
on large trunks is gray on the surface, 1-1 14 inches 
thick, deeply furrowed, reddish brown beneath, 
fibrous and vei-y soft. The inner bark, about 14 
inch thick, is fibrous, whitish, and slightly bitter. 
Twigs are yellowish green and angled when young, 
becoming round and reddish brown. 

The alternate leaves have slightly flattened yel- 
lowish-green petioles 1-1 1/4 inches long. Blades 
have toothless edges and many fine, widely spread- 
ing, parallel lateral veins and are dark green on 
upper surface and only slightly paler beneath. 

Spreading clusters (umbels) of 10 or fewer 
short-stalked flowers are borne at leaf bases. 
Flower buds are 1 inch long and % inch broad, 
becoming pale yellow and tinged with green, with 
a long-pointed cap nearly I/2 inch long formed 
from calyx or corolla, which becomes detached 
from the' funnel-shaped base (hypanthium) about 
Yo inch long. The stamens, i/^ inch and less in 
length, with minute anthers, are attached on the 
rim of the hypanthium in a widely spreading mass 
about 11/4 inches across and soon shedding. The 
pistil is composed of inferior 3-5-celled ovary and 
straight stout style % inch long. 

Seed capsules, which remain on the tree for some 
time, have 3-.5 pores sunken below the rim, through 
which numerous minute brown seeds i/je inch long 
sift out. Nearly 2,000,000 seeds per pound. Flow- 
ering and fruiting from late summer to early 
spring (mostly from August to March). 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
salmon to light reddish brown, often mottled with 



brown streaks and patches. The wood is hard, 
moderately heavy (specific gravity 0.51), strong, 
brittle, stitF, elastic, coarse in texture, and fairly 
straight-grained with some interlocked grain. 
The rate of air-seasoning is moderate but with 
considerable degrade from warp with very great, 
imeven shrinkage. Machining characteristics are 
as follows: planing, shaping, turning, mortising, 
and sanding are good; boring is fair; and resist- 
ance to screw splitting is excellent. The wood is 
very susceptible to attack by dry- wood termites 
but is considered durable in the ground. 

Uses include undergroimd piling, utility poles, 
and fenceposts. This species is employed for gen- 
eral construction in Australia, especially in con- 
tact with the ground, and should be suitable for 
the same purpose in Puerto Rico. 

Suitable for shade and ornament and also a 
honey plant. An infusion of the leaves has been 
prepared for home remedies. 

This species grows very rapidly, 15-year-old 
trees attaining a diameter of 16 inches and a height 
of 90 feet. Natural regeneration in Puerto Rico 
is very rare. Growth is best in the upper and lower 
moimtain regions, above 1,500 feet elevation. As 
a street tree in California, this tree proved objec- 
tionable because the tops were easily broken by 
strong winds. Planted also in Florida. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Native of Australia but introduced in- 
to many tropical and subtropical lands including 
West Indies and from subtropical United States 
and Mexico south to Argentina and Brazil. 

Other common names.— eucalipto del alcanfor, 
eucalipto de pantano (Puerto Rico) ; eucalyptus 
(Virgin Islands); eucalipto comun, eucalipto 
achatado (Colombia) ; beakpod eucalyptus, eu- 
calyptus (United States) ; eucalyptus, eucalypt. 
swamp-mahogany, browngum (English). 

Botanical synontm. — Eucalyptus multiflora 
Poir. 

This species seems to be the best adapted of more 
than 30 species of Eucalyptus which have been in- 
troduced experimentally into Puerto Rico from 
their native home in Australia. Several are being 
tested by the United States Forest Service in 
plantations. 



398 




186. Eucalipto, beakpod eucalyptus 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Eucalyptus rohusta J. E. Smith 



399 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



187. Guasabara 

Gusabara, a tree of mountain forests, is distin- 
guished by : (1) light gray to whitish bark, slight- 
ly rough and separating in irregular fiakes; (2) 
opposite elliptic long-pointed leaves 21/4-41/2 
inches long and 11/2-21/4 inches broad, with minute 
gland dots; (3) whitish flowers nearly 1/2 inch 
across with 4 petals and many spreading stamens, 
in lateral clusters at base of leaves; and (4) 
blackish-purple berry %-% inch long, elliptic or 
rounded, with sepals at apex and reported to be 
edible. 

An evergreen tree 30-60 feet tall and 8-18 inches 
in trunk diameter. Inner bark is brown, woody, 
and slightly astringent and bitter. Twigs are 
light brown. 

The green petioles ai-e i/4-% inch long. Blades 
are mostly short-pointed at base, slightly leathery 
or thin, shiny green above and lighter green be- 
neath, and hairless or nearly so at maturity. 

Flower clusters (racemes) are 1-2 inches long, 
bearing several to many flowers on slender hairy 
stalks. Flower buds are greenish and hairy, with 
2 short xuiited scales or bracts at base. The flower 
has a greenish hairy cuplike base (hypanthium) 
less than % inch long, which encloses the inferior 
ovary and bears 4 gi'eenish rounded hairy sepals, 
2 more than i/g inch long and 2 much smaller, 4 
white petals about %6 inch long, many spreading 
stamens, and style %6 inch long. In flower and 
fruit nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is light bi-own. The wood is de- 
scribed as hard, strong, and heavy. It is little 
used except for posts and fuel. This species has 
been listed as suitable for shade and ornament. 

In lower momitain forests of Puerto Rico, as- 
cending to nearly 3,000 feet elevation in the Cen- 
tral Cordillera. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Dom- 
inica, Maitinique, St. Vincent, and Trinidad. Re- 
ported doubtfully from Jamaica nearly a century 
ago. 

Other common names. — guasara (Dominican 
Republic) ; comecara (Cuba) ; serrette guava 
(Trinidad) ; brignolle (Haiti). 



Eugenia aeruginea DC. 

Botanical stnontm. — Eugenia domingensis 
Berg. 

This genus, known in English as eugenia, is per- 
haps the largest in number of species of small trees 
or shinibs represented in Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands. The Spanish name hoja menuda 
and English name stopper are applied to many 
species. The group is characterized by flowers 
mostly few in lateral clusters among the leaves, by 
4 or 5 sepals which remain attached at the apex 
of the usually rounded berry fruit, and by 4 or 5 
white petals (red in an introduced species). 

Besides the 3 native and 2 introduced species de- 
scribed and illustrated here, Britton and Wilson 
(Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands 
6: 33-42. 1925) described 22 other native species 
and prepared a key for their identification. These 
species are listed below in alphabetical order by 
scientific name with any distinctive common 
names. Eugenia axillaris (Sw.) Willd., grajo, 
white-stopper eugenia; E. hellonis Krug& Urban; 
E. Mflora (L.) DC. (£". Z(z>iceaPoir.), pitangueira; 
E. hoqueronensis Britton ; E. iorinquensis Britton, 
guayabota ; E. confusa DC, cieneguillo, redberry 
eugenia; E. cordata (Sw.) DC; E. corozalensis 
Britton ; E. eggersii Kiaersk., guasabara ; E. flori- 
bunda West; E. fragrans (Sw.) Willd. (Anamo- 
mis fragrans (Sw.) Griseb.), guayabacon; E. lig- 
ustrina ( Sw. ) Willd., palo de muleta ; E. monticola 
(Sw.) DC, biriji ; E. myrtoides Poir. {E. huxifolia 
(Sw.) Willd.), anguilla, boxleaf eugenia; E. 
procera (Sw.) Poir. ; E. pseudopsidiitm Jacq., quie- 
brahaca ; E. serra.suela Krug & Urban, serrazuela ; 
E. sessiliflora Vahl ; E. sint&nisii Kiaersk., murta; 
E. steumrdsonii Britton; E. underwoodii Britton; 
E. xerophytica Britton. 

Cerezo de Cayena or pitanga {Eugenia uniflora 
L.*), also called Surinam -cherry, is planted for its 
fruit in St. Croix and St, Thomas and recorded 
as escaping from cultivation. It has ovate shiny 
dark green leaves 1-2 inches long, flowers mostly 
single on long stalks, and bright red edible fruits 
% inch in diameter. 



400 




187. Guas5bara 



Natural size. 



Eugenia aeruginea DC. 



401 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



188. Pomarrosa, rose-apple 

A naturalized tree with handsome foliage and 
edible fruits, rose-apple is distinguished by: (1) 
stems frequently very crooked and several from 
a single base; (2) a dense opaque dark crown; (3) 
opposite, shiny, dark green, lance-shaped, leathery 
leaves 31/4-8 inches long and %-l% inches broad, 
with minute gland dots visible against the light 
with a lens; (4) few large j'ellowish-white 4-pet- 
aled flowers in terminal clusters, 3-4 inches across 
the numerous widely spreading long stamens; and 
(5) fragrant ])ale yellowish or pinkish-tinged 
rounded or elliptic fruits about li/^-li/^ inches 
long, with 4 sepals at apex, the slightly sweet, 
edible flesh with odor and flavor like rose perfume. 

A small evergreen tree 15-30 feet tall and 4—8 
inches in trunk diameter, with a spi'eading crown. 
The brown bark is smoothish with nuiny small 
fissures. The inner bark is whitish or light brown 
and astringent. Twigs are dark bi-own, green 
when ycung. 

The short petioles are %6'~% irich in length. 
Leaf blades are very long-pointed at apex, short- 
pointed at base, not toothed on edges, and dull 
green beneath. Often the leaves are covered with 
a black sooty mold fungus which makes them ap- 
pear even darker. 

The flower cluster (corymb) has commonly 4 
or 5 flowers. An individual flower is mostly a 
brushlike mass of whitish stamens, which are 11/4-2 
inches long, with brown clot anthere. The conical 
pinkish-green tubular base (hypanthium) is about 
1,4 inch higli and wide, enclosing the ovai-y; there 
are 4 rounded broad sepals Vi inch long, persistent 
on the fruit; 4 rounded concave whitish petals 
about % inch long, faintly tinged with green, 
coarsely gland dotted; and pistil consisting of the 
inferior 2-celled ovary and persistent whitish 
slender style 1% inches long. 

Fruits (berries) have pale yellow firm flesh with 
little juice and usually 1 (sometimes 2) rounded 
brown seed % inch in diameter in a large cavity. 
About 180 seeds per ]>ound. Flowering and fruit- 
ing nearly through the year, though infrequently 
in summer. 

The dull lirown wood is hard and heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 0.7). Used chiefly as fuel. It is not 



Eugenia jambos L.* 

durable in the soil and is very susceptible to attack 
by dry-wood termites. Young branches have been 
tised for making coarse baskets and barrel hoops. 
In Cuba tobacco poles are made from the branches. 

Planted occasionally for ornament, primarily 
for the showy flowers and handsome foliage and 
sometimes for windbreaks and shade, rather than 
for the fruits, which are insipid and not popular. 
Sometimes the fruits ai'e prepared into jellies, pre- 
seT'ves, and salads. A good honey plant. Else- 
where the seeds and roots have been employed in 
home remedies. The trees reproduce naturally 
from seeds, and sprout vigorously when cut. The 
shade beneath pure thickets generally kills out all 
vegetation. 

In the lower mountain, moist coast, and moist 
limestone regions of Puerto Rico, locally abun- 
dant, spreading like a weed, and forming pure 
stands or dense thickets, especially along streams. 
Also in St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and Tor- 
tola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Guilarte, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Su- 
siia, Toro Negro, Vega. 

MrXICIPALITIES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON. — 

4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 29, 40, 43, 
45,49,51,52,59,60,62. 

R.VNGE. — Native of southeastern tropical Asia 
but now widely cultivated and naturalized 
through the tropics, including West Indies and 
continental tropical America from Mexico south 
to Brazil. Planted also in Florida and southern 
California and in Bermuda. 

Other common names. — plum-rose (Virgin Is- 
lands) ; porno (Dominican Republic) ; manzana 
rosa (Cuba) ; manzana rosa, manzana (Central 
America) ; pomarrosa, manzanita de rosa (Co- 
lombia) ; rose-apple (United States, English) ; 
ponnne rose, pommier rose (French) ; jambosier 
(French Guiana); plum-rose (Dutch West In- 
dies) ; pommeroos, appelroos (Surinam) ; jam- 
beiro, jambo amarello (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Jambos jambos (L.) 
Millsp., Jamhosa vulgaris DC., Syzygiuvi jambos 
(Li.) Alston, Caryophyllus jambos (L.) Stokes. 



402 




188. Pomarrosa, rose-apple 



Natural size. 



Eugenia jam^os L. 



403 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



189. Manzana malaya, Malay-apple 

Malay-apple, an exotic tree occasionally planted 
for ornament, shade, and windbreaks, is identified 
by: (1) an ei'ect stem and dense conical or colum- 
nar crown of dark green foliage; (2) opposite, 
large, oblong, mostly dark green, leathery leaves, 
short-stalked, with blades 7-12 inches long and 3-5 
inches broad, long-pointed at apex and short- 
pointed at base: (3) pretty purplish-red or rose- 
purple flowers composed of a mass of spreading 
stamens 2i/o-3 inches across, like pins in a pin cush- 
ion, several clustered together along twigs back of 
leaves and hidden in crown; and (4) red (some- 
times pink or whitish) pear-shaped fruits 2-3 
inches long and 1-2 inches in diameter, with 4 
sepals at apex and the white, slightly sour edible 
flesh witli applelike flavor. 
A small to medium-sized evergreen tree 15-40 feet 
tall and 3-8 inches in trunk diameter, or larger. 
The bark is light brown, smoothish to slightly fis- 
sured. Inner bark is brownish streaked and slight- 
ly astringent. The twigs are light brown, green 
when young, with slightly raised leaf scars. 

Petioles are i/2-% inch long, stout, green to 
brown. Leaf blades are slightly curved upward on 
both sides of midrib, the lateral veins slightly 
sunken and connected near margins, the upper sur- 
face dark green or green and usually slightly 
shiny, and the lower surface dull light green. 
Scattered minute gland dots are visible with a lens 
when the blade is held toward the light. 

Several to many odorless flowers are borne in 
clusters 4-5 inches across, almost stalkless on a 
short branched green lateral axis (cyme or pani- 
cle). The flower has a funnel-shaped, light pur- 
plish-green base (hypanthium) % inch long and 
ViQ inch wide at top, enclosing the ovai-y and ex- 
tending as a broad tube %6 inch beyond. There 
are 4 broad, rounded, thickened, persistent sepals 
Vs-^Ag inch long; 4 spreading, rounded, concave, 
purplish-red petals i/o inch long; the mass of sta- 
mens 1-11/4 inches long, purplish red with yellow 
dot anthei-s; and pistil composed of inferior 
2-celled ovary and persistent purplish-red straight 
style about I14 inches long. As the stamens fall, 
the ground under the tree becomes a purplish-red 
carpet. 

The berries have thin soft skin, crisp juicy flesh 
with pleasant flavor, and 1 large rounded light 



Eugenia malaccensis L* 

brown seed about % inch in diameter. Seeds re- 
corded as 1)6 to a pound. Flowering and fruiting 
nearly tlu'ougli the year. 

The sapwood is light brown. The wood is de- 
scribed as hard, tough, very heavy, but tending to 
warp, and difficult to work. The tree is not suf- 
ficiently common for its wood to be much used in 
Puerto Kico or the Virgin Islands. 

Widely cultivated elsewhere for the fruits, 
which are eaten raw or also cooked or preserved 
Or used for wine, and for ornament. One author 
places this among the most beautiful flowei-ing 
trees of the tropics. It is said that the slightly 
sour stamens can be prepared into salads. Easily 
propagated from seed and of moderately rapid 
grow til. 

Malay-apple was introduced into Jamaica in 
1793 from Tahiti by Captain Bligh of the British 
ship Providence. This, along with breadfruit, was 
one of several trees brought in to provide inexpen- 
sive food for the slaves. 

Limited chiefly to urban areas in Puerto Rico, 
planted around buildings but occasionally also for 
windbreaks in rural areas on the moist coast. 
Also in St. Croix. 

Raxge. — Native probably of IMalay Archipelago 
or Malay Peninsula. Widely planted through the 
tropics, including AVest Indies and continental 
tropical America. Uncommon in southern 
Florida. 

Other common names. — pomarrosa malaya, 
ohia (Puerto Rico) ; cajuilito suliman (Dominican 
Republic) ; pomarrosa de Malaca, pera (Cuba) ; 
maranon japones (El Salvador) ; manzana (Costa 
Rica) ; maraiion de Curasao, manzana de Faiti 
(Panama); pomarrosa de Malaca (Colombia); 
pomagas, pomagada (Venezuela) ; Malay-apple, 
ohia (United States, English) ; Otaheite-apple 
(Jamaica, British West Indies) ; pomerac, pomme 
malac (Trinidad); French - cashew (British 
Guiana) ; jamelac (French) ; pomme de Tahiti, 
pomme de Malaisie (Guadeloupe) ; pommerak 
(Surinam) ; jambeiro, jambo encarnado (Brazil). 

Botanical synonyms. — Jambasa tnalaccensis 
(L.) DC, Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merrill & 
Perry. 



404 




189. Manzana malaya, Malay-apple 



Natural size. 



Eugenia malaccensis L. 



405 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



190. Hoja menuda, spiceberry eugenia 

One of several known as hoja menuda, this 
species of dry areas of southwestern Puerto Rico 
is recognized by tlie small ovate drooping leaves 
nearly in the shape of a diamond (rhomb), as the 
scientific name indicates. Other distinguishing 
characters are: (1) opposite leaves iy4-2 inches 
long and %-li4 inches broad, bluntly long-pointed 
at apex and short-pointed at base, lateral veins 
inconspicuous, and with many gland clots includ- 
ing black dots on lower surface ; (2) few to several 
white flowers with 4 petals, i^ inch across the 
spreading stamens, in lateral clusters at leaf bases 
or back of leaves; and (3) rounded red to black 
berries %-% inch in diameter, broader than long, 
with sepals at apex. 

A small erect evergreen tree 20-25 feet high with 
trunk 2-8 inches in diameter, or shrubby. The 
brownish-gray bark is smooth, peeling off in flakes. 
Inner bark is light brown and slightly bitter. The 
slender whitish-gray twigs are often drooping. 

The petioles are brown yellow, or reddish tinged, 
Vs-Vi iiich long. Blades are slightly thickened, 
leathery, and stiff, not toothed on edges, dull dark 
green above and yellow green beneath. 

The flower cluster (umbel) without amain stalk 
is composed of flowers on slender spreading stalks 
14-% inch long. The flower has a short basal tube 



Eugenia rhombea (Berg) Krug & Urban 

(hypanthium) enclosing the inferior ovaiy, 4 
rounded sepals less than i/g inch long, 4 white 
rounded petals %6 u\c\\ long, many spreading 
stamens, and style. The fleshy 1-seeded fruits 
change color from red to black as tliey I'ipen. Ee- 
corded with flowers in July and with fruits in 
January and July. 

The light brown wood is very hard and heavy. 
Because of the small dimensions, it is used chiefly 
for posts, stakes, and fuel. The wood is not dur- 
able in the ground. 

In cutov-er dry forests and thickets in the dry 
limestone region of southwestern Puerto Rico. 
Also in Desecheo, Mona, Muertos, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, and St. John. 

Public forest. — Guanica. 

Raxge. — Lower Florida Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, 
Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto llico and Virgm 
Islands, and Lesser xlntilles from St. Martin to 
Guadeloupe. 

Other common names. — guayabilla de costa 
(Puerto Rico); arrayan (Dominican Republic); 
mije, guairaje (Cuba); spiceberry eugenia, red 
stopper, stopper (United States) ; red stoppef 
(Bahamas); rodwood (Barbuda); myrte, bois 
myrte (Haiti) ; merisier (St. Bartheleniy) ; meri- 
sier rouge (Guadeloupe). 



406 




190. Hoja menuda, spleeberry eugenia 



687-921 0—64^ /27 



Natural size. 



Eugenia rhombea (Berg) Krug & Urban 

407 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



191. Guayabota 

Known only from Puerto Eican mountains, this 
medium-sized tree is identified by: (1) erect dense 
columnar crown; ('2) light gray or whitish bark, 
scaling off in plates; (3) opposite, elliptic, thick 
and leathery leaves 21/2-31/2 inches long and li/4- 
21/9 inches broad, rounded or blunt-pointed at apex 
and short-pointed at base, with minute gland dots, 
and on short petioles 1/4-% inch long; (4) large 
spreading white -i-petaled flowers about 1 V2 inches 
across the numerous stamens, few at or near ends 
of twigs or singly at nodes; and (5) rounded ber- 
ries %-Ys inch in diameter, with 4 unequal sepals 
at apex, resembling small guayabas. 

An evei'green tree reaching 60 feet in height and 
more than 1 foot in trunk diameter. The stout 
twigs are light gray. Leaf blades have margins 
which may be slightly turned under, the upper 
surface green and slightly shiny, the lower surface 
paler. 

Flowers ai-e borne on stout, often flattened, 
stalks 1/2-11/4 inches long. The bell-shaped base 
(hypanthium) is nearly I/4. inch long and broad, 
with 4 persistent, rounded concave, yellow-green 
sepals, 2 nearly % inch long and 2 half as long; 
there are 4 spreading rovmded petals i/2-% inch 
long; numerous spreading stamens; and pistil 
with 2-celled inferior ovary and long style. 

The fleshy fruit, dark green when immature, is 
minutely warty on the surface, with 1 large irreg- 
ularly rounded brown seed. Flowering and fruit- 
ing nearly through the year except in spring. 



Eugenia stahlii (liiaersk.) Krug & Urban 

This attractive wood has pinkish-brown sap- 
wood, gray-brown heartwood, and growth rings 
marked by narrow darker bands. It is very hard, 
heavy (specific gravity 0.73), tough, strong, fine- 
textured, with irregular grain, and with mild 
pleasant odor. Rate of air-seasoning and amount 
of degrade are moderate. Machining character- 
istics are as follows: planing and mortising are 
good; shaping, turning, and boring are excellent; 
sanding is poor; and resistance to screw splitting is 
very poor. The wood has high but uniform 
shrinkage during seasoning and is moderately dif- 
ficult to work because of its hardness. It is very 
susceptible to attack by dry-wood tennites and is 
reported to be variable in decay resistance. 

Uses include general construction, crossties, ox- 
cart tongues, poles, and posts. The wood is suit- 
able also for furniture, cabinetwork, turnery, carv- 
ing, interior trim, tool handles, farm implements, 
and boatbuilding. 

Commonest in the transition zone between the 
lower and upper mountain forests of Puerto Rico, 
between 1,500 and 3,000 feet elevation. Appar- 
ently a slow-growing tree. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Toro Negro. 

Mt'NICIPALITIES WHERE ESPECIALLY COMMON.— 

13, 30, 44. 

Range. — Mountains of Puerto Rico only. 

Named for Agustin Stahl (1842-1917), Puerto 
Rican physician and botanist, who collected speci- 
mens of this species. 



408 



/ 




•i«\ 



■^ 



Y' 



/ ^ 



V 



^. — 



>■>: 





/' / 




191. Guayabota 






Natural size. 



Engenia stahUi (Kiaersk.) Knig & Urban 

409 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



192. Cieneguillo 

A small to medium-sized widely distributed 
tree, characterized by: (1) twigs, petioles, buds, 
and branches of flower clusters densely and finely 
reddish brown or light brown hairy; ('2) opposite, 
oblong to elliptic, long-pointed leaves with minute 
gland dots, thick and stiff and hanging downward, 
with lateral veins much sunken on the shiny upper 
surface; (3) masses of fragrant, delicate, small 
white fiowers with 5 petals and numerous spread- 
ing stamens % inch across; and (4) oval berry 
about 1/4 inch long with calyx at apex. 

An evergreen tree 10-30 "feet tall and to 6 inches 
in trunk diameter, with spreading crown. The 
gray bark is smoothish, becoming slightlj- cracked 
ancl fissured, and the trunk grooved. Inner bark 
is pinkish and bitter. 

Petioles are about i/4 inch long, and blades 
21/^-6 inches long and 1-2% inches wide, short- 
pointed at base, not flat but the sides bent up 
slightly from the sunken midrib and the apex 
bent downward, inconspicuously hairy on veins 
and lower surface. The upper surface is shiny 
yellow green to green with the lateral veins near- 
ly parallel to midrib, and the lower surface dull 
whitish green with lateral veins much raised. 
Older leaves and twigs often are partly covered 
by black masses of sooty mold fungus. 

Flower clusters (panicles) 2-4 inches long and 
broad are terminal and lateral, those at apex actu- 
ally at base of leaves and besicle the terminal bud, 
bearing many nearly stalkless flowers on the finely 
hairy branches. Flower buds are whitish and 
rounded, about i/g inch in diameter. The most 
conspicuous floral parts are the numerous thread- 
like curved stamens spreading more than % inch 
across, each about i/^ inch long and ending in a 
dotlike anther. The whitish hairy tubular base 
(hypanthium) i/jg 'i^di long encloses the inferior 
2-celled ovary and bears the other parts. There 
are 5 whitish hairy, rounded and widely spreading 
sepals about i^ inch long and 5 round white petals 
less than %6 '^^^^ ^O'^g) curved backward and near- 



Myrcia deflexa (Poir.) DC. 

ly hidden by the stamens. In the center of the 
stamens is a tiny white style. Flowering and 
fruiting nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is whitish and the heartwood red- 
dish. The wood is hard, heavy (specific gravity 
0.8) , and strong. It is made into stakes, posts, and 
handles. Elsewhere it is employed in construction, 
carpentry, and vehicles. 

A shade-enduring understoi-y tree of the lower 
mountain forests of Puerto Rico, in some places 
extending into the upper mountain region. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Lesser 
Antilles from Guadeloupe to Grenada, and Trini- 
dad. Also in Colombia, Venezuela, Guianas, and 
northern Brazil. 

Other comsion n.\mes. — aquey del chiquito 
(Dominican Republic) ; goyavier (Grenada) ; 
bresillette, petite-feuille, goyavier queue-de-rat 
( Guadeloupe ) . 

BoTAxic.vL SYNONYM. — Myrcio ferruginea Berg. 

This genus is represented by 4 more native spe- 
cies of small trees in addition to the 2 illustrated 
here. The group has flowers in terminal and lat- 
eral branched clusters ; calyx of 5 sepals which re- 
main attached at apex of round or elliptic berry 
fruit; and 5 white petals. Two species {Myrcia 
herberis DC. and M. paqanii Krug & Urban) were 
recorded from Puerto Rico long ago but have not 
been collected there in recent years. 

Limoncillodel monte {Myrcin citrifolia (Aubl.) 
Urban), of moist areas in Puerto Rico and the 
Virgin Islands, has ovate to oblong leaves %-2i/4 
inches long, blunt or short-pointed at apex, edges 
turned under, hairless or nearly so, and shiny, and 
round fruit 1/4-% inch in diameter. 

Guayabacon {Myrcia leptodada DC), of moist 
forests in Puerto Rico, has elliptic leaves 2-4 
inches long, with long-pointed apex, edges not 
turned under, and round fruit i^ inch in diameter. 



410 




192. CienegulUo 



Natural size 



Myrcia deflexa (Poir.) DC. 

411 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



193. Hoja menuda 

This small tree with opposite small leaves bear- 
ing minute gland dots is easily distinguished from 
others with tlie same common name by tlie very 
short-stallied leaves shiny green to darlv green, 
slightly thickened, with very long tapering point 
and numerous prominent, straight, nearly parallel 
lateral veins. Other characters are : (1) numerous 
small white flowers with 5 rounded petals, about 
% inch across the many spreading white stamens, 
in lateral and terminal clusters mostly 1-1 1/2 
inches long; and (2) elliptic or rounded blackish 
berries Vi-Yie inch long, with ring of sepals at 
apex. 

An evergreen tree to 30 feet high and 4 inches in 
trunk diameter or often a shrub. The brown or 
gray bark is rough, fissured, and flaky or divided 
into many small plates. Inner bark is brown or 
dark red and slightly astringent and bitter to the 
taste. The brown twigs are slender and finely 
hairy. 

Petioles are i/ie iridi or less in length and finely 
hairy. The thin blades are 1-3 inches long and 
1/^-1 inch wide, rounded or short-pointed at base, 
with sunken midrib, edges slightly turned under, 
beneath paler green and slightly shiny, hairy when 
young but nearly hairless at maturity. 

Flower clusters (panicles) have slender hairy 
branches. The fragrant flower has a hairy tubular 
base (hypanthium) i/ig inch long and broad, 
which encloses the inferior 2-celled ovary and 
bears the other parts; 5 minute blunt-pointed 



Myrcia splendens (Sw.) DC. 

hairy sepals, 5 white rounded petals nearly Vs inch 
long, hairy on outside; numerous white stamens 
nearly %6 inch long; and style more than Vs inch 
long. 

The fleshy fruits are green when immature, turn- 
ing to dark blue or blackish, and have thin flesh 
and 1 large seed. Elsewhere they are reported to 
be edible. Flowering and fruiting nearly through 
the year. 

The sapwood is light brown to reddish brown 
and hard. The hardwood is used for posts. 

Common in forests and openings in moist areas 
in the lower mountain regions of Puerto Rico. 
Also in St. Croix and Tortola and reported from 
St. Thomas. 

Public forests. — Luquillo, Carite, Maricao. 

Range. — Cuba, Jamaica (i), Hispaniola, Puer- 
to Rico, St. Croix, Tortola, Lesser Antilles from 
St. Martin to St. Vincent and Barbados, and 
Trinidad and Tobago. Also Colombia to Peru, 
Bolivia, and Brazil. 

Other common names. — rama menuda (Puerto 
Rico) ; birchberry, punchberry (Virgin Islands) ; 
arraijan, comecara, tinajero (Cuba) ; vidho caspi 
(Peru); black-birch (Montserrat) ; bois creole 
(St. Lucia) ; red rodwood (Barbados) ; wild 
guava (Trinidad) ; small-leaf (Tobago) ; ibbi- 
banaru (Britisli Guiana) ; petit merisier (Guade- 
loupe) ; merisier petites feuilles, ti feuilles, bois 
Creole (Martinique) ; Surinam-cheri'y (Dutch 
West Indies); meerilang (Surinam). 



412 




193. Hoja menuda 



Natural size. 



Myrcia splendens (S\v.) DC. 



413 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



194 Malagueta, bay-rum-tree 

The bay-rum-tree or malagiieta, including the 
variety ausii, is native and also cultivated both for 
the essential oil in its leaves and twigs and for 
ornament and shade. It is easily recognized by 
the strong pungent odor of the leaves when 
crushed. Other distinguishing characteristics are : 
(1) erect fonn with a dense columnar dark green 
crown; (2) smooth gray to light brown bark peel- 
ing off in thin strips exposing lighter gray shades 
beneath; (3) opposite, elliptic or obovate, mostly 
small, stiff and leathery leaves rounded at both 
ends or the apex notched or sometimes short- 
pointed, with minute gland dots, shiny dark green 
on upper surface and beneath paler or finely gray 
hairy, with midrib sunken and edges rolled under; 
(4) white flowers % inch or more across the 5 
petals, several to many in lateral and terminal 
branched clusters; and (5) the rounded or elliptic 
fleshy black (or finely gray haiiy) fruits %6-V2 
inch in diameter. 

This is a variable species with races differing in 
shape, size, color, and hairiness of leaves, shape 
and hairiness of fruit, and in amount and quality 
of oil. One variety called ausu {Pimenta race- 
mosa var. grisea (Kiaersk.) Fosberg) is char- 
acterized by finely gray or white hairy coats on 
under surface of leaves, young twigs, branches of 
flower clusters, and fruits. 

A small to medium-sized evergreen tree to 40 
feet high and 8 inches or more in trunk diameter, 
the trunk often slightly angled and grooved, or 
sometimes shrubby. Inner bark is pinkish and 
slightly bitter and astringent. The twigs are 
green or dark green, with gland dots, hairless ( or 
finely gray hairy), and angled when young, be- 
coming brown. 

The leaves have short, green, reddish-tinged 
petioles %-% inch long and blades 11/4-4 inches 
long and l-2i^ inches broad or larger (recorded to 
6 inches long), hairless to finely gray hairy 
beneath. 

The flower clusters (cymes) are 1-3 inches long 
and broad, gland-dotted, and bear fragrant gland- 
dotted flowers on short stalks. There is a light 
green tubular base (hypanthium) less than Vs i'^''^ 
long and broad, extending beyond ovary; 5 broad, 
spreading sepals less than %6 ii^ch long; 5 white 
rounded petals more than i/g inch long and widely 
spreading; numerous white stamens %6 inch long; 
and pistil composed of inferior 2-celled ovary and 
slender, slightly bent, white style %6 inch long. 

The berrylike fruits have sepals attached at apex 
and contain a few brown seeds more than Vs "i^h 
long. Flowering mainly in spring and summer 
(April to August) and maturing fruit in late sum- 
mer and fall (August to October). 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
brownish red or blackish and mottled. The wood 
is very hard, very heavy (specific gravity 0.9), 



Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore 

strong, tough, durable, and resistant to attack by 
dry-wood termites. Employed for posts and in 
carpentry, it is said to split readily and to be ex- 
cellent for fuel. 

The main product is myrcia oil (bay oil) ob- 
tained by distillation of the leaves and twigs and 
which is the important ingredient in bay rum, used 
in cosmetics and medicines. A yield of more than 
1 pound of bay oil has been extracted from 100 
jiounds of leaves. Bay rum was originally pre- 
pared by distilling the leaves in rum. Compound 
myrcia spirit (bay rum) is composed of bay oil, 
orange oil, pimenta oil, alcohol, and water. 

Confined chiefly to the dry slopes of the lower 
Cordillera region of southwestern Puerto Rico, 
but commercial plantations grow near Adjuntas, 
Patiilas, and Guayama. Also in Vieques, St. 
John, St. Thomas, and Toi-tola. Reported long 
ago from St. Croix and now planted there. In 
St. John large forests of this species under man- 
agement have produced oil of superior quality. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guajataca, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Susiia. 

Range. — Through West Indies from Cuba and 
Jamaica to Grenada and Tobago. Also in Vene- 
zuela and Guianas. Planted in southern Florida, 
Bermuda, Bahamas, and Trinidad, and in East 
Indies. 

Other common names. — ausii, limoncillo 
(Puerto Rico) ; wild cilliment, wild cinnamon, 
cinnamon (Virgin Islands) ; malagueta, ozila, 
caiielillo (Dominican Republic) ; pimienta de 
Tabasco (Cuba) ; bay-rum-tree. West Indian bay- 
berry (English) ; bayberry-tree, wild cinnamon, 
wild olive (Jamaica) ; cinnamon (Montserrat, 
Grenadines); bayleaf (Barbuda, Tobago); bois 
dTnde Frangais (Haiti) ; bois dTnde (Guade- 
loupe, Martinique, St. Lucia) ; bay boom 
(Surinam). 

Botanical synonyms. — Amomh caryophyllata 
(Jacq.) Krug & Urban, Pimenta acrls (Sw.) 
Kostel. 

Botanical variety. — ausu, Pimenta racemosa 
var. grisea (Kiaersk.) Fosberg (synonyms P. 
acris var. grisea Kiaersk., A7no7nis caryophyllata 
var. grisea (Kiaersk.) Krug & Urban, A. grisea 
( Kiaersk. ) Britton ) . 

The generic name Pimenta is taken from the 
Spanish name for allspice, pimienta {Pimsnta 
dioica (L.) Merr.*; synonyms P. officinalis Lindl., 
P. pimenta (L.) Cock.). This related species of 
Cuba, Jamaica, and continental tropical America 
is sometimes planted in Puerto Rico and the Vir- 
gin Islands. It has elliptic or oblong leaves 3-6 
inches long and many small white flowers about 
5/i6 inch across, with 4 petals. The dried green 
berries I/4 inch or less in diameter, with a flavor re- 
sembling a mixture of clove, cinnamon, and nut- 
meg (or all spices), are used as a condiment. 



414 




194. Malagueta, bay-nim-tree 



Natural size. 



Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore 

415 



MYRTLE FAMILY (MYRTACEAE) 



195. Guayaba, common guava 

Guayaba or guava is a well-known cultivated 
tree, because of the paste and jelly made from its 
fruits. It is characterized by: (1) shrubby form, 
the stems seldom straight; (2) smooth reddish- 
brown bark which is thin and scales off in thin 
sheets; (3) oblong or elliptic leaves with sunken 
veins and minute gland dots; (4) large white flow- 
ers about iy2 inches across the 4 or 5 large petals, 
mostly borne singly at leaf bases; and (5) rounded 
(sometimes j^ear-shaped) yellow edible fruits 
11/4-2 inches in diameter, with 4 or 5 sepals at 
apex. 

Generally a shrub or low, widely spreading ever- 
green tree 10-15 feet high and to 8 inches in diam- 
eter. Inner bark is brown and slightly bitter. 
Young twigs are 4-angled and slightly winged, 
hairy, and green, becoming brown. 

The leaves have short petioles i/g — Vi ii^^h long. 
Leaf blades are 2—4 inches long and 1-2 inches 
wide, short-pointed or rounded at both ends, 
slightly thickened and leathery, with edges a little 
turned under, the upper surface green or yellow 
green, slightly shiny, almost hairless at maturity, 
with the many pai-allel lateral veins sunken, and 
lower surface paler, finely hairy, and with lateral 
veins raised. 

The fragrant flowers are scattered on stalks %-l 
inch long at base of a leaf. The green finely hairy 
tubular base (hypanthium) % inch long and 
broad encloses the ovary and bears the other parts. 
There are 4 or 5 yellow-green, slightly thickened, 
finely hairy sepals %-% iii^h long; 4 or 5 elliptic 
rounded white petals %-% inch long; and very 
numerous brushlike spreading stamens with slen- 
der white filaments averaging I/2 iii<^h long; and 
pistil consisting of the inferior 4- or 5-celled ovary 
and slender white style y^e inch long. 

Cultivated varieties of this variable species 
difl'er in fruit characters. The fruits (berries) 
have a strong mellow odor at maturity. "Within 
the thin, yellow, slightly sour, edible outer layer 



Psidium guajava L.* 

are numerous yellow seeds more than i/g inch long 
in a juicy, pinkish or yellow pulp. Flowering and 
fruiting nearly throughout the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
brown or reddish. The hard, strong, heavy wood 
(specific gravity 0.8) has been used for handles 
and implements. 

Commonly cultivated as a fruit tree. The fruits 
are unusually rich in vitamin C. The outer layer 
of the fruit is preserved and canned commercially, 
as is the juice. Guava powder has been pi-epared 
from the dehydrated fruits also. Elsewhere the 
bark has been employed in tanning. Extracts 
from lea\'es, bark, roots, and buds have served in 
folk medicine. 

Forming thickets and spreading in pastures, 
chiefly on the coastal plains but also in the lower 
mountain regions of Puerto Rico. Also in Mona, 
Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. John, and 
Tortola. 

Range. — Native of tropical America probably 
from southern Mexico south to South America, the 
range greatly extended beyond through cultiva- 
tion. Planted and naturalized also in southern 
Florida including Florida Keys (grown also in 
California), Bermuda, and throughout West In- 
dies from Bahamas and Cuba to Trinidad, and 
south to Brazil. Cultivated in Dutch West Indies. 
Also introduced in tropical and subtropical 
regions of the Old World. 

Other common names. — ^guava (Virgin Is- 
lands) ; guayaba, guayava, guayabo (Spanish) ; 
guayaba perulera (Nicaragua) ; guayabo dulce 
(Colombia) ; araza-puita (Argentina) ; common 
guava, guava (United States) ; guava (English) ; 
wild guava (British Honduras) ; goyave, goyavier 
(French) ; goyavier a fruits (Guadeloupe) ; gu- 
yaba, goeajaaba, guava (Dutch West Indies) ; 
guave, goejaba (Surinam) ; goiaba, gobiabiera 
(Brazil). 



416 




195. Guayaba, common guava 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Psidium guajava L. 
417 



MELASTOME FAMILY (MELASTOMATACEAE) 



Key to the 4 species illustrated (Nos. 196-199) 

A. Leaves broadly ovate, with 7 main veins from base, reddish tinged above, bristly hairy ; petioles and twigs with 
sticky red hairs — 197. Hctcrotrichiim cymosum. 
AA. Leaves narrow, elliptic to lance-shaped, with 3 or .5 main veins from base, hairless or soft hairy. 

B. Leaves mostly rounded at apex ; minute brown scales on ijetioles, blades, and young twigs — 196. Caly- 
cogoniiim squamulosum. 
BB. Leaves long- or short-pointed at apes ; not scaly. 

C. Leaves green on both surfaces, hairless or nearly so, edges finely wavy-toothed — 198. Miconia prasina. 
CC. Leaves densely whitish hairy on lower surface ; petioles and young twigs light brown, finely scurfy hairy — 
199. Tetrazygia elaeagnoldes. 



196. Jusillo 

This medium-sized tree, confined to the moun- 
tains of Puerto Rico, is readily distinguished by : 
(1) the erect, twigs frequently with clusters of 
erect leaves on nearly horizontal branches; (2) the 
opposite, elliptic, thick, yellow-green leaves with 
3 main veins from base, the 2 lateral veins near the 
turned under edges; (3) young twigs, petioles, 
flower stalks, flowers and fruits covered with small 
brown scales; and (4) the flowers more than % 
inch long and broad and with 4 white petals, usu- 
ally 3 together on a short stalk at base of leaf. 

An evergreen tree 3O-.50 feet high and to 1 foot 
in trunk diameter, with spreading crown of nearly 
horizontal branches and erect, leafy, brown or 
gray twigs. The bark is brown or gray, smooth- 
ish or si ightly fissured, the inner bark also bi-own 
and almost tasteless. 

Petioles are 1/4-V2 i"ch long, and blades IVat^ 
inches long and iA-li/4 inches broad, the apex 
rounded or with a minute point, the base short- 
pointed. The upper surface is yellow green to 
green, slightly shiny, with inconspicuous minute 
dotlike scales, and with sunken midrib, and the 
lower surface paler yellow green aJid with minute 
brown scales. 

Flowers are borne at the end of a cui'ved, brown, 
scaly stalk about 14 ii^ch long. The tubular base 
(hypanthium) and tubular 4-lobed calyx, both 
scaly brown, together are about %6 inch long and 
broad, angled and slightly flattened in the bud; 
there are 4 spreading, white, reddish-tinged petals 
1/4 inch long; 8 stamens; and pistil with inferior 
i-celled ovary and slender style %6 inch long. 



Calycogonium squamulosum Cogn. 

The rounded berrylike fruit, with calyx remain- 
ing attached, is .scaly brown, %h inch in diameter. 
It contains numerous minute brown seeds about 
1/32 inch long. Flowering mainly in summer and 
fall (June to October), the fruit maturing in fall 
and winter. 

The sajjwood is bright yellow. The attractive 
hea.rtwood is pinkish brown to pale brown, with 
widely spaced black streaks. The wood is hard, 
lieavy (specific gravity 0.74) . strong, fine-textured, 
with generally straight grain, and without growth 
rings. Rate of air-seasoning and amount of de- 
grade are moderate. Machining characteristics 
are as follows : planing, sanding, and resistance 
to screw splitting are poor; and shaping, turning, 
boring, and mortising are good. The wood is very 
susceptible to attack by dry-wood termites. It is 
of doubtful durability in contact with the gi'ound, 
and old forest trees are frequently decayed. 

Uses are posts and poles, though preservative 
treatment is recommended. The wood seems suit- 
able also for furniture, patternmaking, veneer and 
plywood, farm implements, tool handles, heavy- 
duty flooring, turnery, boat parts, vehicles frames, 
heavy construction, and bridge timbers. 

In upper mountain forests in eastern and cen- 
tral Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilaxte, Luquillo, 
Toro Negro. 

Range. — Known only from Puerto Rico. 

Other commox names. — camasey jusillo, cama- 
sey negro ( Puerto Rico) . 



41« 





196. Jtisillo 



Natural size. 



Calycogonium squamulosum Cogn. 



419 



MELASTOME FAMILY (MELASTOMATACEAE) 



197. Camasey peludo 

This distinctive shrub or small tree limited to 
Puerto Kico is easily recognized by: (1) the 
straight, bristly, sticky (glandular), red hairs 
i/ig-i/g incli long (and also dense minute star- 
shaped hairs) on twigs, petioles, flower stalks, 
flowers, and fruits; (2) the opposite, long-pet ioled, 
bristly hairy, broadly ovate leaves reddish tinged 
above, with 7 veins from base; (3) large white 
flowei's % inch long and broad, with 6-8 spreading 
petals, several in terminal clusters; and (4) the 
edible, purplish, very juicy berries 14 inch ui 
diameter. 

An evergreen tree commonlj' less than 15 feet 
high and 3 inches in trunk diameter, sometimes 
larger, with spi-eading crown. The brownish-gray 
bark is smoothish and slightly fissured and thin. 
Inner bark is light brown and almost tasteless. 
The twigs are greenish and reddish tinged, becom- 
ing brown, with long straight red hairs. 

The leaves have petioles l^/^-SVo inches long, and 
thin but stiff blades 4-7 inches long and 3-41,^ 
inches wide (smaller below flowei-s), long-pointed 
with slightly heart-shaped or rounded base. The 
edges are finel}' toothed and with bristly haire, the 
upper surface is green and bristly hairj', and the 
loMNer surface yellow green. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are branched, 3-5 
inches long and broad. The very hairy tubular 



Heterotrichum cymosum (Wendl.) Urban 

base (hypanthium) encloses the inferior ovary 
more than Vs ii^ch in diameter and extends y^e 
inch above; the calyx tube is about y^ inch long 
and 1/4 inch across, widely spreading, with 6-8 
very narrow, very hairy, green lobes 1/4 inch long; 
there are 6-8 sjjreading white petals tinged with 
pink, almost i/o inch long; twice as many stamens 
as petals, pink, with yellow anthers; and pistil 
composed of inferior, several-celled ovary and 
slender, curved style Yie inch long. 

The berries, rounded witli a flattened spreading 
top of calyx tube and lobes remaining, are slightly 
sweet to the taste. There are numerous tiny light 
brown seeds. In flower and fruit nearly through 
the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, moderately hard, 
and medium weight (specific gravity 0.6) . Because 
of the small size and spreading form of the tree 
the wood is little used. 

Common and widely distributed in open areas, 
such as roadsides in the moimtain forest regions 
of Puerto Rico. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Rio Abajo, Toro Negro. 

Raxge. — Known only from Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — pelua, terciopelo, ca- 
masey de paloma (Puerto Rico). 



420 




197. Camasey peludo 



Natural size. 



Heterotrichum cymoaum (Wendl.) Urban 

421 



MELASTOME FAMILY (MELASTOMATACEAE) 



198. Camasey 

Camasey {Mieonia and related genera) is rep- 
resented by many species of snaall trees and shrubs 
in Puerto Rico. One of the commoner species, 
this is characterized by : ( 1 ) opposite, narrowly 
elliptic leaves finely wavy-toothed, green and 
slightly shiny on both sides, with 5 main veins, the 
2 pail's of lateral veins joined to the midrib at 
different points near base (5-nerved) ; (2) small 
whitisli flowers in large tenninal clusters with 
horizontal, paired, spreading branches; and (3) 
rounded purplish-blue berries yig inch in diameter. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree to 25 feet high 
and 4 inches in trunk diameter. The bark is 
smooth, gray, and thin, the inner bark yellowish 
brown and bitter. The stout gray-brown twigs are 
minutely hairy with star-shaped hairs when young 
and with faint rings at nodes. 

The leaves have winged or wingless petioles 
1/4-1 inch long and blades iVo-'J^V^ inches long and 
II/2-214 inches broad, the apex long-pointed and 
base short-pointed, slightly thickened, usually 
hail-less or nearly so at maturity. The veins are 
a little sunken on upper surface and raised on the 
lower surface, which is slightly lighter green. 

Flower clusters (panicles) are 3-6 inches long 
and 2—1: inches broad, with branches covered with 
minute star-shaped hairs, bearing many stalkless 
flowers 14 ii^ch long. The tubular base (hypan- 
thium) and slightly o-lobed calyx are less than i/g 
inch long, finely hairy; there are 5 small white 
petals more than W^ inch long; 10 spreading sta- 
mens with white filaments; and pistil composed of 
inferior ovary, slender style, and rounded stigma. 

The berries are slightly flattened, juicy, edible 
but slightly sour and almost tasteless. There are 
many brown seeds about I/30 inch long. In flower 
and fruit nearly through the year. 

The sapwood is light brown, and the heartwood 
is grayish brown. The hard, heavy wood (spe- 



Miconia prasina (Sw.) DC. 

cific gravity 0.7) is little used except as fuel. Not 
durable as a fencepost. 

Common in the moist coastal, moist limestone, 
and lower mountain forests in Puerto Rico. Also 
in Tortola. 

Public forests. — Carite, Luquillo, Rio Aba jo, 
Toro Negro. 

Range.— Common and widely distributed in 
tropical America. Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, 
Puerto Rico, and Tortola. I^esser Antilles in An- 
tigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and 
Grenada, and Trinidad and Margarita. Also 
from southern Mexico to Peru, Boliva, Paraguay, 
and Brazil. Botanical varieties are distinguished 
in dift'erent parts of the broad range. 

Other common names. — camasey bianco (Pu- 
erto Rico) ; granadillo bobo, cenizoso (Dominican 
Republic) ; mullaca Colorado, mullu caspi (Peru) ; 
sardine (Trinidad) ; waraia (British Guiana) ; 
santo, selele beletere, konorrepie, pint jo (Suri- 
nam) ; jacatirao, mondururu preto (Brazil). 

This genus has 15 additional native species of 
small trees or shrubs recorded from Puerto Rico 
and tiie Virgin Islands, found generally in moist 
areas and known commonly as camasey. Britton 
and Wilson (Botany of Porto Rico and the Vir- 
gin Islands 6: 6-11, 555. 1925) published botani- 
cal descriptions and a key for identification. 
These species are : Mieonia foveolata Cogn., M. im- 
petiolaria (Sw.) D. Don, M. laevigata (L.) DC, 
M. Janata (DC.) Triana, M. microcarpa DC, M. 
ottoHchulzii Urban & Ekman, M. pachyphylla 
Cogn., M. punctata (Desv.) D. Don, M. pycno- 
neura Urban, M. racemosa (Aubl.) DC, M. ruhi- 
ginosa (Bonpl.) DC, M. sintenisii Cogn., M. sub- 
corymbosa Britton, M. tetrandra (Sw.) D. Don, 
ancl M. thomasiana DC. 



422 




.'^ 





198. Camasey 



Natural size. 



Miconia prasina (Sw.) DC. 



687-921 0—64 28 



423 



MELASTOME FAMILY (MELASTOMATACEAE) 



199. Verdiseco 

This small tree is easily recognized by the erect 
conical crown which is grayish in appearance, the 
thick furrowed gray bark, and the opposite, most- 
ly small, lance-shaped leaves with 3 main veins 
from near base to apex and with the lower surface 
whitish and densely fine hairy. The spreading 4- 
petaled white flowers, %, inch broad and almost as 
long, are borne in short, few-flowered terminal 
clusters, and the fruit is a rounded berry nearly 
% inch in diameter, with calyx at apex. 

An evergreen tree 20-30 feet high and to 6 
inches in trunk diameter, with a crown of thin 
foliage. The inner bark is light brown and slight- 
ly sour to the taste. Young twigs, petioles, and 
branches of flower clusters are light brown, finely 
scurfy hairy. Older twigs are dark brown. 

inch long and blades 
inch broad, mostly 
short-pointed (sometimes blunt-pointed) at both 
apex and base, thickened, dark green and hairless 
on upper surface, and whitish, soft hairy beneath. 
There are many small parallel veins almost at 
right angles to midrib. 

Flower clusters (panicles) branched, 1-2 inches 
long, the few flowers short-stalked. The tubular 
base, (hypanthium) extends % inch above the in- 
ferior ovary about i/ie inch long, contracted, scaly 
hairy, with short, spreading calyx tube %6 i^ich in 
diameter, membranous at edge; 4 broad and 



Leaves have petioles Vi"^/^ 
1^/4-3 inches long and i/4-% 



Tetrazygia elaeagnoides (Sw.) DC. 

rounded petals % inch long, narrowed at base, 
white but fading to pink; 8 slender stamens V2 
inch long; and pistil with inferior 4-celled ovary 
and slender, slightly curved style more than lA 
inch long. The berry is broader than long and 4- 
lobed, fleshy and containing numerous minute, 
seeds. Flowering and fruiting probably through 
the year. 

The sapwood is light brown and hard. The tree 
is used chiefly for fenceposts. 

Hillsides and cutover lands in the moist lime- 
stone forest region in northern and western Puerto 
Rico. Also in Vieques, St. Croix, St. Thomas, 
St. .John, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, 
Vega. 

Municipality where especially common. — 11. 

Range. — Hispaniola and Puerto Rico and Vir- 
gin Islands. Also recorded from Montserrat and 
Martinique. 

Other common names. — camasey cenizo, cenizo, 
(Puerto Rico) ; kre-kre (Virgin Islands). 

Another species {Tetrazygia angustifoJia (Sw.) 
DC.) is a small tree or shrub through the Virgin 
Islands, common on St. .John, but absent from 
Puerto Rico. It has narrower lance-shaped leaves, 
clusters of many small flowers about i/4 inch long 
and broad, with yellowish or pink petals, and 
small blackish berry %6 i^^ch in diameter. 



424 




199. Verdiseco 



Natural size. 



Tetrazygia elaeagnoides (Sw.) DC. 

425 



GINSENG FAMILY (ARALIACEAE) 



Key to the 2 species illustrated (Xos. 200-201) 

A. Leaves simple — 200. Dendropanax arhoreiis. 
AA. Leaves digitate or palmately compound, with usually 10 or 11 leaflets— 201. Didymopanax morototoni. 



200. Polio 

A small to medium-sized tree characterized by : 
(1) mostly loniT-stalked (to 4 inches) elliptic to 
ovate leaves, dark green and slightly shiny above 
and light green beneath; (2) terminal compound 
flower clusters of numerous small, usually 5- 
parted, greenish-yellow flowers %6 ii^ch across on 
shorter stalks in ball-like clusters 1/2-% inch 
across, which are borne on long equal stalks along 
the main axis; and (3) fleshy rounded fruit 
(berry) about V^ inch in diameter, turning from 
whitish green to black at maturity. 

An evergreen tree to 40 feet or more in height 
and 1 foot in trunk diameter, with wide spreading 
rounded crown, hairless throughout. The bark is 
light gray, smooth or warty with raised dots 
(lenticels) or becoming slightly fissured. Inner 
bark is whitish and tasteless. Twigs are gi'een, 
turning to gray, slender or stout. 

Leaves are alternate, the green petioles mostly 
long but varying from very short to very long, 
14-4 inches. Blades are 2-8 inches long and II4- 
314 inches wide, short- to long-pointed at apex and 
shoi't -pointed to roiinded at base, thin to slightly 
thickened, not toothed on edges, the lateral veins 
often slightly sunken on upper surface. On young 
shoots the leaves are reported to be often 3-lobed. 

Flower clusters (raceme of umbels with com- 
pound umbel at apex) are 2-5 inches long and 2 
inches across, the branches about % inch long and 
flower stalks about y^ inch long, the axis and 
branches yellow green. Flower parts usually 5, 
sometimes 6 or 7, of each kind. A flower consists 
of a basal tube (hypanthium) about i/ig inch long 
and broad, partly enclosing the inferior 5-celled 
ovary and bearing the minute 5-toothed calyx, 5- 
pointed yellow petals more than i/jg inch long, 5 
erect stamens V^e inch long, and top of ovary with 
5 partly united styles. 

The fruits upon drying become 5-angled and 
contain 5 flattened seeds nearly I/4 inch long, ar- 
ranged starlike. The styles remain at apex of 



Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne. & Planch. 

fruit. Flowering and fruiting nearly through the 
year. 

The sapwood is whitish or yellowish brown. 
The moderately soft, moderately lightweight wood 
(s))ecific gravity 0.5) is little used. 

Elsewhere a decoction of the leaves and roots 
has been employed in home medicines. A honey 
plant. 

Widely distributed in the lower mountain and 
moist limestone regions of Puerto Rico, especially 
in the coffee plantations of the central and west- 
ern Cordillera. Also in St. Thomas and Tortola. 

PunLic FORESTS. — Caiubalache, Guajataca, Lu- 
quillo, jVIaricao, Rio Abajo, Susiia, Toro Negro. 

MlNICH'ALITIES WHERE ESPECIALLY O0MM0>f . — 6, 

35. 

Range. — Common and widespread in tropical 
America. Greater Antilles, St. Thomas, Tortola, 
St. Vincent. Grenada, and Trinidad. Mexico 
(Sinaloa to Tamaulipas and southward) to Co- 
lombia, Venezuela (including Margarita), Peru, 
and Bolivia. Also planted in southern Florida. 

Other common names. — palo de polio (Puerto 
Rico) ; ramon de costa, ramon de vaca, lengua de 
vaca, palo de burro (Dominican Republic) ; 
vibona, ramon de vaca, ramon de caballo, palo 
santo (Cuba) ; mano de oso, mano de leon, palo 
santo, palo de danta, palo guitaro (Mexico) ; 
mano de leon (El Salvador) ; vaquero (Panama) ; 
paina (Venezuela) ; galipee, angelica-tree (Ja- 
maica) ; bois negresse (Haiti). 

Botanical synonym. — Gilibertia arborea (L.) 
E. March. 

Gongoli (Dendropanax laririfolhts (E. March.) 
Decne. & Planch.), also called palo de polio negro, 
palo de cacliumba, palo de vaca, vibona, and 
vibora, is a related tree species known only from 
moist forests of Puerto Rico. It has the flower 
clusters si)reading and branched (umbels in 
umbel-like clusters), the stalks of the branches up 
to 11/^ inches long. 



426 




200. Polio 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Dendropanux arhoreiis (L.) Decne. & Planch. 



427 



GINSENG FAMILY (ARALIACEAE) 
201. Yagrumo macho, matchwood Didymopanax morototoni (Aubl.) Decne. & Planch. 

A striking tree easily recognized by its distinc- Flowering and fruiting nearly throughout the 
tive branching, crown, and leaves. The smooth, y^^i'- 
gray, ringed trunk, unbranched below, has a few- 
stout branches above, bearing in uppermost part a 
shallow crown like an umbrella formed by the ter- 
minal clusters of leaves. The veiy large leaves 
are palmately compound, with a long stout round 
petiole 2 feet or less in length and usually 10 or 11 
long-stalked oblong leaflets with blades 10-17 
inches long, long-pointed at apex, and beneath 
brown or greenish brown with a satiny coat of fine 
hail's. 

As the common name suggests, this species re- 
sembles yagrumo hembra (Cecropia peltata L.), 
a botanically unrelated tree. However, in yag- 
rumo hembra the leaves are not compound but 
merely palmately veined and palmately lobed with 
rounded lobes and they are whitish rather than 
brown beneath. 

An evergreen tree becoming 60 feet or more in 
height, with trunk 6-18 inches in diameter, in 
Puerto Eico usually medium-sized. The gray or 
light brown bark is smooth with many faint hori- 
zontal rings and large leaf scars about 3 inches 
apart. Inner bark is brownish and slightly bitter 
or spicy in taste. The twigs, petioles, under sur- 
face of leaflet blades, flower stalks, and flowers are 
minutely gray or brown hairy. The few twigs are 
very large and stout, about IV2 inches in diameter 
and finely brown hairy. 

Leaves are alternate but closely crowded, with 
sheath of 2 hairy pointed scales (stipules) I/4-V2 
inch long at base. At apes of the round green 
petiole are usually 10 or 11 spreading green leaflet 
stalks 214—4!/^ inches long. Leaflet blades are 4- 
7I/2 inches wide, and rounded or sometimes a little 
heart-shaped at base, the edges often a little wavy, 
slightly thickened and leathery, above green and 
hairless. Young leaflets are brown haii-^' on both 
surfaces. However, leaflets of young plants are 
green on both sides and rough hairy above, thin, 
sometimes saw-toothed on edges, and smaller, with 
shorter petiole and fewer leaflets (7 or more). 

Flower clusters (panicled umbels) are lateral, 
about 1-2 feet long and broad, with branches gi'ay 
and finely hairy. The very numerous flowers are 
grouped at ends of branches into numerous small 
rounded clusters (umbels) less than 14 inch across, 
on spreading flower stalks ^/i6-%6 irich long. The 
5-parted finely brownish and gray hairy flower 
about 3/jg inch across has a minute Ijasal tube (hy- 
panthium) less than Vje inch long enclosing the 
inferior 2-celled ovary and Ijearing the minute 5- 
toothed calyx, 5 white pointed petals more than 
1/^6 i'lch long, 5 stamens, and 2 styles. 

The fleshy fruit (berry) , gi-ay and covered with 
a bloom, is about 3/jg inch long, 14 bich broad, and 
a little flattened, with 2 styles at apex. It con- 
tains 2 oblong flattened brown seeds 3/ig inch long. 



The wood is pale brown or light brown through- 
out, soft, fairly lightweight (specific gravity 
0.3G), fine-textured, straight-grained, brittle, and 
has large pith. It is very susceptible to attack by 
dry-wood termites and other insects and to decay. 
The rate of air-seasoning is rapid, but the amovmt 
of degrade is considerable. Machining character- 
istics are as follows: planing, shaping, mortising, 
and sanding are good ; turning is very poor ; boring 
is poor; and resistance to screw splitting is ex- 
cellent. 

In Puerto Rico the wood is little used, though 
it is especially suitable for boxes and crates. 
Wliere the trees are more abundant and of larger 
size, uses include general carpentry, interior con- 
struction, and boxes. In Trinidacl and British 
Guiana the wood is made into matchsticks and 
matchboxes. Other possible uses are utility grade 
plywood, toys, pulp, and as a substitute for heavier 
grades of balsa. 

Of possible value as an ornamental, growing 
rapidly and requiring light. The leaves have 
served in home remedies in other places. 

Scattered in forests of the lower mountain moist 
coast and moist limestone regions of Puerto Rico. 
Also in St. Thomas, St. John, and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Carite, Guaja- 
taca, Luquillo, Maricao, Rio Abajo, Susua, Toro 
Negro, Vega. 

Municipalities where especially commox. — 
4, 6, 10, 19, 20, 22, 23, 27, 29, 30, 40, 43, 49, 51, 53, 
58, 59. 

Raxge. — Widespread in wet forests of tropical 
America. "West Indies in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puer- 
to Rico, St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, Guade- 
loupe, and Trinidad. Continental tropical Amer- 
ica from southeni Mexico (Oaxaca) to Bolivia, 
Argentina, Brazil, and Guianas. Also planted in 
southern Florida. 

Other common xames. — pana cimarrona (Puer- 
to Rico) ; morototo, mandioquiera (commerce) ; 
palo de sable, sablito, yagrumo macho (Domini- 
can Republic) ; zapaton, yagrumo macho, arriero, 
gaviliin, badana, cordoban. padero, papayon 
(Cuba) ; chancaro bianco, roble bianco (Mexico) ; 
Costilla de danto (Nicaragua) ; pava, pavilla, 
probado (Costa Rica) ; mangabe, gargoran, pava 
(Panama) ; yarumero, yagrume (Colombia) ; ya- 
grumo macho, orumo macho, sun-sun, higuerete, 
tinajero (Venezuela) ; sacha-uva, anonillo (Peru) ; 
guitarrero (Bolivia) ; ambay-guazu (Argentina) ; 
matchwood, jereton (Triniclad) ; mountain trum- 
pet (British Honduras) : karohoro, matchwood, 
morototo (British Guiana) ; arbre de Saint -Jean 
(French Guiana) : morototo, cassavehout, bigi 
boesie, papajahoedoe, kasabahoedoe (Surinam) ; 
morototo, mandioqueira, marupa, matatauba 
(Brazil). 



428 




201. Yagrumo macho, matchwood Didnmopanax morototoni (Aubl.) Decne. & Planch. 

Flowers, leaflet, and fruits, two-thirds natural size; immature leaf (lower right), reduced. 

429 



MYRSINE FAMILY (MYRSINACEAE) 

Key to the 3 species illustrated (Xos. 202-204) 

A. Leaves elliptic to obovate, with flattened or winged petiole ; flowers and fruits many in terminal clusters — 202. 
Ardisia oborata. 
AA. Leaves lance-shape<l or elliptic, clustered near ends of twigs, with slender petiole ; flowers and fruits many in 
almost stalkless clusters along twigs. 
B, Twigs rusty-brown hairy ; leaves slightly hairy beneath, lance-shaped, short-pointed — 203, Rapanea 
fcmiginca. 
BB. Twigs hairless; leaves hairless, elliptic, rounded or blunt-pointed — 204. Rapanea guianensis. 



202. Mameyuelo 



Ardisia obovata Desv. 



W-^ie 



This shrub or small tree is characterized by : (1) 
elliptic or obovate .slightly shiny leaves, leathery 
and slightly succuler.t, with inconspicuous veins, 
with minute gland dots on both sides, blmit-pointed 
or rounded at apex, often broadest above middle, 
and gradually narrowed at base to the broad or 
winged petiole ; (2) erect, terminal, much branched 
flower cluster 3-5 inches long and broad, with very 
many small greenish flowers % inch across, with 
tiny black dots; and (3) many black 1-seeded fruits 
%e inch in diameter. 

An evergreen shrub or small tree 10-20 feet high 
and to 4 inches in diameter, hairless throughout. 
The stout twigs are greenish when young, becom- 
ing light gray. Bark on small trunks is smoothish, 
gray, and thin, with pinkish, tasteless inner bark. 

The alternate leaves have flattened or winged 
petioles 1/4-% inch long. Blades are 2I2-5V2 
inches long and 1-2 inches broad, with edges slight- 
ly turned under, green on upper surface and paler 
beneath. 

The flower cluster (panicle) contains crowded, 
short -stalked flowers. Calyx is composed of 5 



rounded lobes 



Vie 



inch long; corolla with short 



tube and usually 5 elli]3tic lobes nearly %6 inch 
long, which are spreading or ttirned backwards 
and % inch across; 5 stamens inserted near base 
of corolla tube and opposite the lobes; and pistil 
with 1-celled ovary and short style. 



The numerous berries are round or slightly 
broader than long, with short point (style) at end, 
turning from green to red to blackish at maturity, 
with thin dark red flesh and 1 large round brown 
seed %6 iiich in diameter. Flowering and fruiting 
throughout the year. 

The sapwood is pinkish, and the heartwood is 
light reddish brown. The hard, heavy wood is 
used only for posts in Puerto Rico. 

In the moist and dry limestone forests at lower 
and middle elevations in Puerto Rico. An under- 
story tree or shrub. Also Vieques, St. Croix, St. 
Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda. 

Public forests. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Susiia. 

Range. — Bahamas (North Caicos only), His- 
paniola, Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, and Les- 
ser Antilles from Saba to St. Lucia. 

Other cojiMox names. — badula (Puerto Rico) ; 
Guadeloupe marlberry (Bahamas). 

Botanical synonyms. — Ardisia guadalupensis 
Duch., Icacorea guadahipensi.s (Duch.) Britton. 

Another species of mameyuelo {Ardisia glaiici- 
fora Urban; synonym Icacorea gJauHflora 
(Urban) Britton) is a small tree known only from 
mountain forests of Puerto Rico. It has larger, 
elliptic, thick, leathery leaves 4-8 inches long with 
I)rominent network of veins, and many larger 
flowers about 14 "^ch across. 



430 




202. Mameyuelo 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Ardiaia obovata Desv. 



431 



MYRSINE FAMILY (MYRSINACEAE) 



203. Mantequero 

This common small tree is distinguished by : (1) 
lance-shaped shiny green leaves numerous and 
crowded near ends of twigs, with minute gland 
dots on both sides; (2) long slender twigs, I'usty- 
brown hairy, greenish near apex but becoming 
brown; (3) many inconspicuous small yellow- 
green flowers almost stalkless in scaly lateral clus- 
ters mostly back of leaves; and (4) numerous 
round black fruits Vs inch or more in diameter, 
almost stalkless and crowded along the twigs for 
a few inches. 

Small evergreen tree 15-30 feet high and 3-6 
inches in trunk diameter, with ei"ect crown. The 
bark is smooth or slightly fissured, thin, and gray. 
Inner bark is whitish or light brown, tasteless or 
slightly astringent, with sticky sap. 

Leaves are altei-nate but close together, with 
finely hairy petioles Vi-^,4 i"*"!! long. Blades are 
11/2-4 incites long and V2-I inch broad, widest at 
middle or a little beyond, short-pointed at apex 
and tapering to the long-pointed base, slightly 
thickened, and with edges turned under. The 
lower surface is paler and usually slightly hairy. 

The spreading flowers about tg inch across are 
male and female on different trees or some flowei'S 
bisexual (polygamo-dioecious). Calyx is deeply 
5-lobed; the spreading corolla has 5 narrow, 
pointed lobes, yellow green with pink dots ; 5 stalk- 
less stamens on the corolla and opposite the lobes; 



Rapanea ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav.) Mez 

and pistil composed of 1-celled ovary with short, 
lobecl stigma. 

The berries change color from green to red to 
black at maturity and contain purplish flesh and 
1 round brown seed less than Yg inch long. Flower- 
ing and fruiting nearly through the year. 

The whitish sapwood, characterized by promi- 
nent white rays, is hard and heavy (specific grav- 
ity 0.7). The wood is used chiefly for fenceposts. 

In open moist forests in Puerto Rico from near 
sea level almost to the summit of Cerro Pimta, 
above 4,000 feet in altitude. Characteristic of 
openings, clearings, and edges of forests and prob- 
ably light requiring. 

Public forests. — Carite, Guilarte, Luquillo, 
Maricao, Toro Negro. 

Range. — Greater Antilles and throughout 
Lesser Antilles from Saba and St. Kitts to Gren- 
ada. Also from Mexico and Central America to 
Argentina, Uruguay, and Brazil. 

Other common names. — arrayan, arrayan bobo, 
biidula (Puerto Rico) ; hojita larga, palo de sabana 
(Dominican Republic) ; camagiiilla (Cuba) ; ama- 
tillo (El Salvador) ; manglillo (Panama) ; espa- 
dero (Colombia) ; manteco, manteco bianco, man- 
tequero, mantequito (Venezuela) ; canelon-puita 
(Argentina) ; bois plomb, bois savanne (Haiti) ; 
azeitona brava, azeitona do matto (Brazil). 



432 




203. Mantequero 



Natural size. 



Rapanea femiginea (Ruiz & Pav.)Mez 

433 



MYRSINE FAMILY (MYRSINACEAE) 



204. Badula, Guiana rapanea 

This small tree resembles its close relative man- 
teqiiero (Ri(panea femiginea (Ruiz&Pav.) Mez) 
but is hairless throughout and has broader leaves 
with mostly rounded apices and slightly larger 
flowers and fruits. It is characterized by : (1) the 
elliptic, slightly shiny, green leaves clustered at 
ends of twigs, with minute gland dots on both 
sides; (2) the long slender twigs, greenish when 
young, becoming liglit brown; (3) numerous small 
greenish flowers almost stalkless in scaly lateral 
clusters mostly back of leaves; and (4) many 
round blue-black fruits 3/ig inch in diameter 
crowded along the twigs for a few inches. 

A small evergreen tree to 25 feet high and 3-6 
inches in trunk diameter, with straight axis, open 
and narrow crown, and relatively few unbranched 
twigs. The thin gray bark is smooth or slightly 
fissured. Inner bark is reddish or brown, slightly 
bitter or almost tasteless. 

The leaves, alternate but close together, have 
petioles V^-Vi inch long. Blades are 2-i inches 
long, %-!% inches broad, widest at middle or be- 
yond, rounded or blunt-pointed at apex, pointed at 
base, slightly thickened, and with edges turned 
under. The lower surface is paler. 

Male and female flowers are on different trees 
or some flowers bisexual (polygamo-dioecious), 
greenish and more than %6 inch across. The small 
calyx is deeply 5-lobed, dotted with purple; the 



Rapanea guianensis Aubl. 

spreading corolla with 5 unequal pointed lobes dot- 
ted with purple: 5 stalkless stamens on the corolla 
and opposite the lobes; and pistil with 1-celled 
ovary and short-lobed stigma. The berries have 
thin flesh and 1 large brown seed more tlian i/g inch 
in diameter. Collected in flower in spring and 
with fruits in summer. 

The light brown, hard, strong wood is used 
chiefly for posts. 

In the moist and dry limestone forests in north- 
ern and western Puerto Rico. Also in Tortola. 

PuRLic FoitESTS. — Cambalache, Guajataca, Rio 
Aba jo, Susiia. 

R.A.NGE. — Central and southern Florida includ- 
ing Florida Keys, Bahamas, Greater Antilles, 
Tortola, Lesser Antilles from Guadeloupe to 
Grenada, and Trinidad and Tobago. Also in 
southern Mexico, British Honduras, Costa Rica, 
and South America from Colombia to Bolivia, Ar- 
gentina, Brazil, and Guianas. 

Othkr fOJiMox NAMES. — mamcyuclo (Domini- 
can Republic) ; camagiiilla (Cuba) ; chagualito 
(Colombia) ; manteco bianco, mameycillo, cucharo 
(Venezuela) ; canelon (Argentina, conunerce) ; 
Guiana rapanea, myrsine (United States) ; myr- 
sine (Baliamas) ; dakara (British Guiana) ; fuelle 
canelle (Haiti) ; dakai-a, konaparan, mannie 
botieie (Surinam). 



434 





204. Badiila, Guiana rapanea 



Rapanea guianensis Aubl. 



Natural size. 



435 



SAPODILLA FAMILY (SAPOTACEAE) 



Key to the 10 species illustrated (Nos. 205-214) 

A. Leaves with many straight, parallel side veins nearly at right angle to midrib. 
B. Leaves small, less than 314 inches long; fruits elliptic, inedible. 

C. Leaves abruptly short-pointed ; the lower surface reddish brown, finely silky hairy — 211. MicrophoUs 

chrysophylloides. 
CC. Leaves rounded or slightly notched at apex, green on both surfaces, becoming hairless or nearly so — 212. 
MicrophoUs garciniaefoUa. 
BB. Leaves more than 3 inches long ; fruits round, edible. 

D. Leaves rounded, blunt-pointed, or notched at apex ; fruits about 1 inch in diameter — 209. Manilkara 

bidentata. 
DD. Leaves short-pointed; fruits IV2-3 inches in diameter (sapodilla) — 210. Manilkara zapota.* 
AA. Leaves with several side veins at acute angle to midrib, mostly curved at end. 

B. Leaves mostly lance-shaped, long-pointed at both ends, the edges appearing finely wavy or wrinkled — 208. 
Dipholis salicifolia. 
EE. Leaves broader, mostly elliptic. 

P. Leaves with short petiole less than % inch long. 

G. Leaves elliptic, broadest near middle, less than 5 Inches long. 

H. Leaves with lower surfaces grayish or silvery green and often silky hairy — 205. Chrysophyllmn 
argenteum. 
HH. Leaves with lower surfaces reddish brown or golden silky hairy. 

I. Fruit round, several-seeded, 2-3 inches in diameter (star-apple) — 206. Chrysophyllum 
cainito. 
IL Fruit elliptic, 1-seeded, about % inch long — 207. ChrysophyUum oliviforme. 
GG. Leaves narrowly elliptic, broadest beyond middle, large, 5-16 inches long — 213. Pouteria multiftora. 
FF. Leaves with long slender petiole more than % inch long, often slightly winged toward ajwx ; midrib 
yellow — 214. Sideroxylon foetidissimum. 



205. Lechecillo 

This tree with milliy sap is characterized by: 
(1) a spreading low crown ; (2) elliptic or oblong 
leaves with lower surfaces slightly grayish or sil- 
very green and often silky hairy and with lateral 
veins straight and parallel, almost at right angles 
to midrib and regularly spaced Vs-Vi inch apart; 

(3) small greenish-yellow bell-shaped flowers 
about 3/jp inch long clustered at leaf bases; and 

(4) oval or rounded, dark blue, edible berries %- 
34 inch long. 

An evergreen, usually small tree 15-25 feet high 
and -1—8 inches in diameter. Bark on small trunks 
is smoothish or much fissured, light brown or gray, 
the inner bark pinkish and slightly bitter. Young 
twigs are greenish and finely hairy, becoming 
brown or gray. The bud composed of youngest 
leaves is brown and finely hairy. 

The alternate leaves have finely hairy petioles 
14-% inch long. Leaf blades are 2V2-5 inches long 
and 11/4-21/4 inches broad, mostly short-pointed at 
apex and short-pointed or rounded at base, a little 
thickened. The upper surface is green or dark 
green, slightly shiny, and hairless or nearly so. 
The specific name, meaning silvery, describes the 
lower leaf surface. 

Few to several flowers with a peculiar odor are 
borne together on slender hairy stalks about i/4 inch 
long. There are 5 rounded brownish-green sepals 
nearly i/g inch long, finely brown hairy; a tubular 
bell-shaped, greenish-yellow, finely hairy corolla 
%e inch long, with 5 or 6 small rounded lobes; 5 
or 6 small stamens on the corolla tube opposite 
the lobes; and pi.stil with hairy 6-8-celled ovary, 
short style, and minutely lobed stigma. The fruit 



Chrysophyllum argenteum Jacq. 

contains 1 large shiny brown seed. Flowering and 
fruiting probably through the year. 

The wood with light brown sapwood is reported 
to be hard, heavy, strong, tough, and durable. 
Used chiefly for posts in Puerto Rico. Elsewhere 
utilized in construction and carpentry. 

Moist limestone and lower mountain forests in 
Puerto Rico. Also in St. Thomas and Tortola. 

Public forests. — Guajataca, Luquillo, Rio 
Aba jo. 

Range. — Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, St. 
Thomas, Tortola, and nearly throughout Lesser 
Antilles to Trinidad and Tobago. Also in Vene- 
zuela. 

Other common names. — caimito verde (Puerto 
Rico) ; caimito bianco cimarron, caimitillo, caimi- 
to cocuyo, carabana (Dominican Republic) ; 
macanabo (Cuba) ; milky-iron (Montserrat) ; 
star-apple (Antigua, St. Vincent) ; balata chien 
(St. Lucia) ; wild kaimit (Trinidad) ; petit 
caimite, ti caimite (Haiti) ; bois glu, bois kaki, 
ca'imitier bois (Guadeloupe) ; bois bonis, petit 
bonis (Guadeloupe, Martinique). 

Botanical synonym. — ChrysophyUum gla- 
hnim Jacq. 

Two more species of this genus are native, in 
addition to the 3 illustrated here. Caimito de pe- 
rro {ChrysophyUum. paucifonim Lam.) is known 
only from dry areas of Puerto Rico, Vieques, St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. It differs from 
the species described above in the nearly hairless 
leaves shiny above, the flower with 5-celled ovary, 
and the sharp-pointed, oblong fruit %-% inch 
long. 



436 




205. Lechedllo 



Natural size. 



Chrysophyllum argenteum Jacq. 

437 



SAPODILLA FAMILY (SAPOTACEAE) 



206. Caimito, star-apple 

A handsome tree with milky sap, cultivated for 
its very sweet, edible, round fruits 2-3 inches in 
diameter, oreenish or purplish, and for shade. It 
is further identified by : ( 1 ) its spreading to droop- 
ing crown; and (2) pretty, reddish-brown or gold- 
en (copper-colored) silky hairy lower surfaces of 
the elliptic or oblong leaves. The snudl purplish- 
white or greenish flowers 14 ii^ch long are clustered 
at bases of leaves. 

Small to medium-sized evergreen tree 20-40 feet 
high and 2 feet in trunk duimeter, with dense 
crown. The bark is rough, much fissured, and 
brown. Young twigs, as well as the petioles, which 
are V2-% inch long, and the flower stalks, are red- 
dish-brown hairy. 

The alternate leaves have blades 3-5 inches long 
and II/2-214 inches broad, mostly abruptly short- 
pointed at apex, short -pointed at base, with edges 
not toothed, and slightly thickened. The upper 
surface is dark green, slightly shiny, and hairless. 

Flower clusters have numerous small flowers on 
slender hairy stalks I/4— '''s inch long. Calyx is com- 
posed of usually 6 rounded sepals Yiq inch ■long, 
reddish-brown hairy: the purplish-white corolla, 
also hairy, is nearly 14 inch long, tubular and 5-7- 
lobed: stamens on the corolla tube opposite the 
lobes; and pistil consisting of hairy 6-11-celled 
ovary with short style and as many small stigma 
lobes as cells. 



Chrysophyllum cainito L. 

The edible berry has a thick, glossy, leathery 
rind with gummy latex, white jellylike flesh, and 
several flattened brown seeds. The arrangement 
of cells and seeds like a star in the cut half fruit 
is the source of the English name star-apple. 
Flowering in summer and fall, the fruit matur- 
ing from late fall to summer. Said not to fruit 
in the Virgin Islands. 

The wood is reddish brown, hard, heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 0.7), strong, and durable. It is suit- 
able for construction. 

The principal value of this tree in Puerto Rico 
is its fruit and its attractive appearance as an 
ornamental and shade tree. 

Planted and escaping from cultivation in Puerto 
Rico and possibly native. Also grown in St. 
Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. 

Range. — Native in Greater Antilles, the range 
spread by cultivation through tropical America. 
Now widely planted in southei-n Florida, through 
West Indies from Cuba to Trinidad and Tobago 
and from southern Mexico to Brazil. 

Other coiiMox names. — cainit (Virgin Is- 
lands): caimito (Spanish); maduraverde, caimo, 
caimo morado (Colombia) ; star-apple, goldenleaf 
(English) : kaimit, caimite (Trinidad and Toba- 
go) ; caimite, caimitier (French) ; sterappel (Cu- 
rasao) ; sterappel, apra (Surinam) ; cainito 
(Brazil). 



438 



m 



' / 



V/-^ 





l.M<i 



206. Caimito, star-apple 



Two-thirds natural size. 



Chrysophyllntn caitiito L. 



687-921 O — 64 29 



439 



SAPODILLA FAMILY (SAPOTACEAE) 



207. Caimitillo de perro, satinleaf 

A small tree, with milky sap, resembling star- 
apple or caimito {ChrysophyUuni cahutol^.) and 
easily recognized by the similar elliptic leaves 
with lower surfaces pretty reddish brown (copper 
colored), finely satiny or silky hairy. It difl'ers in 
the smaller elliptic dark purple berry about % 
inch (to 11/4 inches) long with usually onlj- 1 
seed. Other distinguishing characters are: (1) 
young twigs, buds, petioles, flower stalks, and 
calyx finely reddish-brown hairy; and (2) the 
small tubular bell-shaped 5-lobed flowers %e inch 
long and broad, whitish green, a few together on 
short stalks at base of leaves. 

An evergreen tree 12-30 feet high with trunk to 
1 foot in diameter. Tlie gray-brown bark is rough 
and much fissured into iri'egular plates and thin 
scales. Inner bark is light pink and contains 
milky latex. The slender reddish-brown or rusty 
young twigs later become light gray. 

The alternate leaves have petioles 1/4--'/^ inch 
long. Blades are 11/4-3 inches long and %-l% 
inches wide, short-pointed at apex, rounded or 
short-pointed at base, slightly thickened, above 
shiny green witli inconspicuous veins and hairless 
except when young. 

There are a few flowers clustered together at 
the base of a leaf on slender reddish-brown hairy 
stalks 1/8-1/4 inch long. The calyx consists of .5 
rounded, reddish-brown hairy and greenish sepals 
more than y^e inch long; the whitish-green tubu- 
lar corolla ^le inch long with 5 rounded lobes and 
bearing 5 minute stamens at apex of tube opposite 
the lobes; and light green pistil Vg inch long with 
hairy 5-celled ovary, short style, and minutely 
5-lobed stigma. 



Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. 

The elliptic fleshy fruit resembles an olive, as 
the specific name indicates. It retains the calyx 
at base and has a minute style point at apex. The 
light purple to whitish flesh is sweetish and edible, 
but the skin is gummy or rubbery with milky sap. 
The large seed is shiny light brown. Collected in 
flower from July to October and with mature 
fruits in February. 

The light brown wood is hard, very heavy (spe- 
cific gravity 0.9), and strong. In Cuba it is used 
for construction, beams, and doors and windows. 

Planted in southern Florida as an ornamental 
for the beautiful foliage. Jelly can be prepared 
from the fruits. 

The moist limestone region of northern and 
western Puerto Rico. 

PtTBLic FORESTS. — Canibalaclie, Vega. 

R.\NGE. — Southern Florida including Florida 
Keys, Bahamas, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, 
Mona (possibly introduced) , and Puerto Rico. 

Other common names. — caimitillo, caimito de 
perro (Dominican Republic) ; caimitillo, caimito, 
caimito cimarron, macanabo (Cuba) ; satinleaf 
(United States) ; satinleaf, saffron-tree (Baha- 
mas) ; cai'mite marron (Haiti). 

A related species of caimitillo {ChrysophyJJum 
biroJor Poir. ; synonym C eggersii Pierre) is 
called also wild cainit and lechecillo. It has ellip- 
tic leaves with lower surfaces reddish brown and 
finely satiny or silky hairy when young but later 
nearly hairless. It differs from the above species 
in the flower with 5-9-celled ovary and in the fruit 
with 1 to few seeds. Besides Puerto Rico, it is 
found in St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John. 



440 




207. Caimitillo de perro, satinleaf 



Natural size. 



Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. 

441 



SAPODILLA FAMILY (SAPOTACEAE) 



208. Sanguinaria, wild mespel, willow bustic 

This small to medium-sized tree with white 
latex is recognized by: (1) lance-shaped or nar- 
rowly elliptic leaves, mostly widest at middle and 
long-pointed at both ends, the edges appearing 
finely wavy or wrinkled; (2) numerous small 
whitish-gi'een fragrant flowers, rounded and 
about 3i6 "^"^h long and broad, borne in crowded 
lateral clusters along tlie twigs mostly back of the 
leaves; and (3) many round black berries I/4 inch 
or more in diameter along the twigs. 

An evergreen tree 30-50 feet high and to 1-2 
feet in diameter. The brownish-gi\ay bark is 
smoothish and much fissured, becoming rough and 
flaky or scaly. Inner bark is pinkish and bitter. 
The slender twigs are brownish-gi'een hairy when 
young, becoming gray. 

The leaves are crowded but alternate on brown 
hairy or hairless petioles I/4-I/2 inch long. Leaf 
blades are 21A-4 inches long and %-li4 inches 
broad, slightly thickened, hairy when young, 
green and slightly shiny on upper surface and 
paler beneath. As the scientific name suggests, 
thev resemble willow leaves. 

Flower clusters are less than 1/4 inch across, with 
each flower on a brown hairy stalk less than % 
inch long. The calyx is composed of 5 nearly 
round, brown hairy sepals less than % inch long; 
the whitish funnel-shaped corolla has 5 rounded 
lobes each with 2 small lobes or appendages; 5 
stamens on the corolla tube opposite the lobes and 
alternating with 5 toothed a|)))endages (stami- 
nodes) ; and pistil with 5-celled ovary and slender 
style. 

The fruits mostly single back of the leaves are 
blunt-pointed, sticky inside, and contain usually 
1 brown seed less than %6 inch in diameter. 
Flowering chiefly in eai'ly spring and spring 
(January