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Full text of "Commonwealth of Massachusetts state building code"

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BOSTON 
PUBLIC 
LIBRARY 




Hole; 

Pages verified before binding - 29 Sept. 1979. 

The changes thru 19 Feb. 19 76 are at the end of the volume. They 
are not interfiled. See change 6E for additional note. 

This edition of the State Building Code was included in the first 
edition of the Code of Massachusetts Regulations as volume three. 
(Gov Uoc KFM2435.5.S4C6 vol. 3) Up'^dates to that volume were issued 
in the Massachusetts Register , except for change 6N as far as we can 
determine. 

This edition superceded by a new printing in the second edition of the 
Code of Massachusetts regulations , volume 18. This edition was in use 
from July 1978 to (or thru) July 1979. 



In July 1979 the publishing of the Code was turned over to the 
Building Officials Conference of American, Inc. and presumably 
their edition is now the official State edition. 

The first edition of the State Building Code was filed 1 July 1974 
and was published 15 August 1974. It was in use until the second 
edition. Some changes were published to the first edition and may 
be found at the end of that edition. 

Prior the. the first edition of the State Building Code each 

municipality in Massachusetts had various building codes suited to 

their own needs. The Boston Building Codes m ay be found on 

Gov Doc TH225.B72A4 (year). There may be earlier editions on other 

numbers. 

24 October 1979 



Copyright, I969, Building Officials Conference of America, Inc. 

Copyright, 1973, Building Officials and Code Administrators 
International, Inc. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/commonwealthofma1977mass 



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S/^tale^ ^^&iMAe. • ^oA&irv 02^33 



PAUL GUZZI 

SECRETARY OF 
THE COMMONWEALTH 



TO: Subscribers to The State Building Code Amendment Service 
FROM: The State Bookstore 
DATE: November 4, 1977 



The enclosed information is intended to make your Building Code easier to use. 
In this mailing you will find: 

1. A subscription service order blank for the new subscription 
year (October 1, 1977 to September 30, 1978). This year we will 
print all amendments single sided to make your code updating easier. 

2. An Amendment Checklist which explains how to make sure your 
code is up to date. It also has price information so you can 
order any missing amendments. 

3. An Amendment Reference Guide which will help you find out 
which Code sections are affected by particular amendments. An 
explanation of how to use the Amendment Reference Guide is attached. 

We hope this information will be helpful to you. If you have questions about 
your Subscription service or need to order amendments, please call the State 
Bookstore 727-2834 or write us at Room 116, State House, Boston, MA 02133 



ORDER BLANK & AMENDMENTS TO THE STATE BUILDING CODE 



/''Amend . 
LJ (Form 

* Amend . 
n (Form 

'^ Amend . 
\ \ (Form 

*Amend. 
r~1 (Form 

* Amend . 

EZl (Form 

* Amend . 

fj (Form 

* Amend . 

CJ (Form 

* Amend . 
( 1 (Form 

*Amend. 
r 1 (Form 

*Amend . 
1 I (Form 

* Amend . 

1 ] (Form 

^* Amend . 

□ (Form 

■-^ Amend . 
{ j (Form 



Filed on 
16-6A) 

Filed on 
16-6B) 

Filed on 
16-6C) 

Filed on 
16-6D) 

Filed on 
16-6E) 

Filed on 
16-6F) 

Filed on 
16-6G) 

Filed on 
16-6H) 

Filed on 
16-61) 

Filed on 
16-6J) 

Filed on 
16-6K) 

Filed on 
16-6L) 

Filed on 
16-6M) 



12/6/74 

12/6/7A 

12/6/74 

12/20/74 

4/11/75 

4/17/75 

5/19/75 

6/16/75 

7/1/75 

12/30/74 

10/30/75 

1/5/76 

1/6/76 



$2.35 plus .35 ship. 
.75 plus .25 ship. 
.55 plus .25 ship. 
. 30 plus . 14 ship. 
.15 plus .14 ship. 
.15 plus .14 ship. 
. 15 plus . 14 ship . 
.15 plus .14 ship. 
. 15 plus . 14 ship. 
.75 plus .25 ship. 
.15 plus .14 ship. 
.15 plus .14 ship. 
.15 plus .14 ship, 



l__^*Amend. Filed on 2/5/76 
i_J (Form 16-6N) 



* Amend. Filed on 
r~) (Form 16-60) 

*Amend. Filed on 
Q (Form 16-6P) 

.^*Amend. Filed on 

LJ (Form 16-6Q) 

*Amend. Filed on 
[3] (Form 16-6R) 

*Amend. Filed on 
(~] (Form 16-6S) 

^*Amend. Filed on 

M (Form 16-6T) 

^*Amend. Filed on 

LD (Form 16-6U) 

^_,^*Amend. Filed on 
□ (Form 16-6V) 

.*Amend. Filed on 

[-1 (Form 16-6W) 

^^^Arnend. Filed on 

r~] (Form 16-6X) 

*Amend. Filed on 
[2] (Form 16-6Y) 



<: 


.30 plus 


.14 


2/12/76 








.15 plus 


.14 


5/5/76 








.15 plus 


.14 


6/14/76 








.15 plus 


.14 


6/29/76 








.30 plus 


.28 


7/30/76 








.15 plus 


.14 


11/1/76 








.15 plus 


.14 


1/6/77 








.15 plus 


.14 


6/3/77 








.30 plus 


.14 


6/8/77 








.15 plus 


.14 


8/1/77 








.15 plus 


.14 


8/1/77 








.75 plus 


.25 



TOTAL COST FOR COMPLETE CODE WITH AMENDMENTS 



$14.25 plus $1.50 shipping 



Please check amendments desired. Remit the total amount by a check made payable to Comm- 
onwealth of Massachusetts. Mail this order sheet to: State Bookstore, Room 116, State 
House, Boston, MA 02133. 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



(Zip Code) 



AMENDMENT REFERENCE GUIDE 



Instructions for Use 



The Amendment Reference Guide will tell you whether a particular Code section 
has been amended and cites the particular amendment in which the changes are found. 
Amendments are cited by filing date and Secretary of State regulation numbers, both 
of which appear on the cover sheet of each amendment. 

To find out whether a particular Code section has been amended, check the decimal 
numbers identifying that section against the decimal numbers in the Amendment Reference 
Guide. 

1. If no decimal numbers for that section appear in the Amendment 
Reference Guide, you know that the Code was not amended between 
January 1, 1975 and November 4, 1977. 

2. If there is a corresponding decimal number, you can find the 
amended section by checking the filing date and Secretary of State 
Regulation number against the filing date and regulation numbers 
on the cover sheets of your amendments.' 

3. For example, you may be using Article 21 to determine require- 
ments for 1 and 2 family dwellings. You need to know whether 
Section 2100.10, (The requirements for means of egress in one and 
two family dwellings) , have been amended. A check of page 5 of 
the Amendment Reference Guide shows that Section 2100.10 was amend- 
ed by Secretary of State Regulation numbers 16-6E, 16-6Q, 16-6R 
and 16-6V filed on April 11, 1975, June 14, 1976, June 30, 1976 
and June 3, 1977. You would then read each of the amendments 

listed in the Reference Guide to determine current egress requirements. 



:M5 



BUILDING CODE AMENDMENT CHECKLIST AS OF NOVEMBER 4, 1977 



Please take a few minutes to examine this memo and the attachments, which explain 
how to make sure that your. State Building Code is up-to-date. These materials were 
developed by the State Building Code Commission in cooperation with the State Book- 
store to assure good service. 

1. First, check the title page to see which edition you own. 

If it is a first edition, your Code should contain the following 
five special amendments. If your code book is not identified as 
a first edition, this would not apply, since the 5 amendments cited 
below were incorporated as a part of all subsequent printings. 

Building Code Provisions for One and Two - Family 

Dwellings (Article 21) (Form 16-6A) $2; 35 

Rules and Regulations for Manufactured Buildings, 

Building Components, and Mobile Homes (16-6B) $ .75 

Earthquake Load Provisions (Form 16-6C) $ .55 

Schoolhouse Provisions (Form 16-6D) $ .30 

44 Xeroxed Pages of Code Amendments 

(now referenced as "Form 16-6J") $ .75 

2. Second, check your Code section-by-section, using the Reference 
Guide to be sure that you have all relevant amendments for each section. 
The Amendment Reference Guide is a listing of all code amendments on a 
section-by-section basis. It indicates the number of times a particular 
section has been amended and the dates of amendment. 

3. If there is a missing amendment, refer to the order blank for the 
price of the missing amendment (listed by filing date and form number.) 



STATE BUILDING CODE 



November 4, 1977 



AMENDMENT REFERENCE GUIDE 



S. 101.0 
16-6E 

April 11, 1975 

S. 107.8 

16-6H 

June 16, 1975 

Table 1-1 

16-60, 16-6V 

February 12, 1976 
June 3, 1977 

Table 1-1 Notes 

16-60, 16-6V 

February 12, 1976 
jmid 3, 1977 

S. 108.1 

16-6L 

January 5, 1976 

S. 108.2 
16-6L 

January 5, 1976 

S. 108.15 

16-6E, 16-6H, 16-60 
April 11, 1975 
June 16, 1975 
February 12, 1976 

S. 109.11 
16-6M, 16-6V 

January 5, 1976 

June 3, 1977 

S. 111.43 
16-61 

July 1, 1975 

S. 113.5 
16-6L, 16-6X 

January 5, 1976 
Aug. 1, 1977 (Editorial) 
S. 113.52 
16-6E, 16-6G 

April 11, 1975 

May 19, 1975 



S. 113.6 

16-6L 

January 5, 1976 

S. 113.61 

16-6L 

•January 5, 1976 

S. 114.1 



16-6L 

S. lu^e^lb-ex (Editorial) 

S. 114.8 ^"g- ^'^''^ 

16-6W 

June 8, 1977 

S. 122.12 

16-6U, 16-6W 

January 6, 1977 
June 8, 1977 

S. 127.32 

16-6R 

June 30, 1976 

Rules & Regs, for 
Licensing of 
Concrete Labs 

16-6R 

June 30, 1976 

Rules & Regs, for 

Native Lumber 
16-6R 

June 30, 1976 

S. 127.33 
16-6R 

June 30, 1976 

S. 130.0 
16-6E 

April 11, 1975 

S. 130.1 
16-6E 

April 11, 1975 

S. 130.2 
16-6E 

April 11, 1975 



S. 201.0 
16-6L, 16-6R 

January 5, 1976 
(Editorial) 

June 30, 1976 

S. 201.2 
16-60, 16-6Q 

February 5, 1976 
June 14, 1976 



S. 207.0 
16-6G 

May 19, 1975 

S. 209.2 
16-6G 

May 19, 1975 

Table 2-5 
16-6L 

January 5, 1976 
(Editorial) 

Table 2-5 Notes 
16-6N 

February 12, 1976 
(Editorial) 

Table 2-6 
16-6Q, 16-6V 

June 14, 1976 

June 3, 1977 

Table 2-6 Notes 
16-6Q, 16-6V 

June 14, 1976 

June 3, 1977 

S. 403.21 & Table 4-1 
16-6L - 

January 5, 1976 

S. 407.3 
16-6L 

January 5, 1976 

S. 407.31 
16-6L 

January 5, 1976 



Ill hill AMENDMENT 

REFERENCE GUIDE 



S. 413.1 
16-6S 

July 30, 1976 

S. 413.2 
16-6S 

July 30, 1976 

S. 413.21 



16-6S 

July 30, 1976 

S. 416.821 
16-6H 

June 16, 1975 

S. 416.822 
16-6H 

June 16, 1975 

S. 417.0 
16-6L 

January 5, 1976 
(Editorial) 

S. 417.2 
16-6N 

February 12, 1976 

(Editorial) 

S. 418.0 & 418.1 
16-6E 

April 11, 1975 

S. 420.11 
16-6U 

January 6, 1977 

S. 422.8 
16-6E 

April 11, 1975 

S. 424.51 
16-60 

February 12, 1976 
(Editorial) 



S. 426.0 
16-6R 

June 30, 1976 

*S. 427.0 
16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 
June 3, 1977 

S. 427.1 



16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.12 
16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 

DELETED June 3, 1977 

S. 427.13 

16-6E, i6-6V 

^April 11, 1975 
DELETED June 3, 1977 

S. 427.2 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.21 
16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.22 
16-6E, 16-6V 
April 11, 1975 
June 3, 1977 

S. 427.23 

16-6E, 16-6V 
April 11, 1975 
DELETED June 3, 1977 

S. 427.24 
16-6E, 16-6V 
April 11, 1975 
DELETED June 3, 1977 



S. 427.25 
16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 

DELETED June 3, 1977 

S. 427.26 
16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 

DELETED June 3, 1977 

S. 427.27 
16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 

DELETED June 3, 1977 

S. 427.3 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.31 

16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.32 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.33 

16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.4 

16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 
June 3, 1977 

S. 427.41 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.411 

16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.412 

16-6V 

June 3, 1977 



*The June 3, 1977 amendment repealed all of the previous code provisions deal- 
ing with Day Care Centers and substituted new provisions as reflected herein. 



ii/h/n 



AMENDMENT P. 3 
REFERENCE GUIDE 



S. 427.5 



June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.51 




16-6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.52 




16-6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.521 




16-6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.522 




16-6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.53 




16-6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.54 




16- 6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.54 




16-6V 

June 3i 


1977 


S. 427.55 




16- 6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.6 




16-6V 

June 3, 


1977 


S. 427.7 





S. 427.8 

16-6E, 16-6V 
April 11, 1975 
June 3, 1977 

S. 427.9 



S. 428.4 



16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 
June 3, 1977 

S. 427.10 
T^^^ 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.101 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.20 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 427.30 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 428.0 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 428.1 



16-6E, 16-6V 

April 11, 1975 
June 3, 1977 



16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 428.2 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 428.3 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 428.31 
16-6V 

June 3, 1977 



le 


)-6V 
June 3, 


1977 


s. 


428.41 

,-6v 

June 3, 


1977 


s. 

16 


428.5 
i-6V 
June 3, 


1977 


S. 
16 


460.25 
-6Q 
June 14 J 


, 1976 


S. 


460.251 




16 


-6Q 
June 14, 


. 1976 


S. 
TE 


460.31 

-6V 

June 3, 


1977 


s. 

16- 


503.3 

-6Q 
June 16, 


1975 


S. 


601.0 
-6l 
January 


5, 1976 


s. 

16- 


605.0 
-6W 
June 8, 


1977 


S. 
16- 


605.31 
■60 

February 12, 1976 
(Editorial) 


S. 


605.32 





16-6Q 

June 14, 1976 
(Editorial) 



Wlhlll AMENDMENT 

REFERENCE GUIDE 



Table 6-1 


S. 623.2 


S. 911.0 


16-6V 


16-6H 


16-6U 


June 3, 1977 


June 16, 1975 


January 6, 1977 

Table 9-3 


S. 607.4 


S. 624.2 


16-6Q June 14, 1976 


16-6S 


16-6H 


Section 9-Appendix A 


July 30, 1976 


June 16, 1975 

S. 718.53 


16-6X 


Table 6-2 


16-6L Jan. 5, 1976 


S. 922.3 


16-6S 


S. 816.31 


16-6L 


July 30, 1976 


16-6X 

S. 816.33L(16-6X) 


January 5, 1976 


S. 609.11 


S. 851.1 


S. 1011.2 


16-6L 


16-6F, 16-6P 


16-6V 


January 5, 1976 


April 17, 1975 


June 3, 1977 


(Editorial) 


May 5, 1976 


(Editorial) 


S. 609.12 


S. 851.11 


Art. 10 Ref. Standards 


16-6L 


16-6R 


16-60 


January 5, 1976 


June 30, 1976 


February 12, 1976 
(Editorial) 


S. 610.31 


S. 851.5 




lf)-6G 


16-6L 


S. 1200.0 


May 19, 1975 


January 5, 1976 


16-6L 

January 5, 1976 


S. 612.2 


S. 868.1 




16-6E 


;L6-6V 


S. 1201.0 


April 11, 1975 


June 3, 1977 


16-6N 


S. 612.41 


XEditorial) 

Art. 8 Ref. Standards 


February 5, 1976 


16-6H 


(Part B) 


"s. 1206.0 


June 16, 1975 


16-6S July 30, 1976 


16-6G 




S. 903. 61-62 


May 19, 1975 


S. 615.0 


16-6X 




16-6L 


S. 903.7-71-72 (16-6X) 


Table 12-1 


January 5, 1976 


S. 905.63 


(S. 1206.11)16-60 


S. 616.8 fEditorian 


16-60 




S. 621.0 Aug. 1, 1977 February 12. 1976 


May 19, 1975 


i6-bW 


(Editorial) 




June 8, 1977 




S. 1218.211 




S. 910.43 


16-6N,, 16-6R, 16-6T 


S. 623.1 


16-60 


February 5, 1976 


ib-6H 


February 12, 1976 


June 30, 1976 


June 16, 1975 


(Editorial) 


November 1, 1976 



iUhpl 



AMENDMENT 
REFERENCE GUIDE 



P. 5 



S. 1218.213 

16- 6V 

June 3, 1977 

S. 1218.215 
16-6L 

January 5, 197^ 
(Editorial) 

Table 12-4 

16-6N 

February 5, 1976 

Art. 12 Ref. Standards 
16- 6N, 16-6V 

February 5, 1976 

June 3, 1977 

Art. 18 Ref. Standards 
16-6U 

January 6, 1977 

S. 1901.0 
16-6E 

April 11, 1975 

S. 1905.11 
16-6G 

May 19, 1975 

S. 1905.2 
16-6G 

May 19, 1975 

S. 1908.0 
16-60 

February 12, 1976 
(Editorial") 

Rules & Regs, for Manuf. 
Bldgs., Bldg. Compon- 
ents & Mobile Homes 

16-6G, 16-6K, 16-6U 
May 19, 1975 
October 30, 1975 
January 6, 1977 



S. 210 0.10 16-6E 
16-60, 16-bR, 16-6V 
April 11, 1975 
June 14 „ 1976 
June 30, 1976 
June 3, 1977 

S. 2100.11 



16-6E, 16-6L, 16-68 
April 11, 1975 
January 5, 1976 
July 30, 1976 
(Editorial) 

S. 2100.13 
16-6G 

May 19, 1975 

Fie. 2100-1 
16-6G, 16-6(3 

May 19, 1975 

February 12, 1976 
(Editorial) 

S. 2100.15 
16-6L 

January 5, 1976 

S. 2100.18 
16-6N, 16-6T 

February 5, 1976 
November 1, 1976 

S. 21QQ.19 
16-6R 

June 30, 1976 

S. 2101.9 



16-60 ' 

February 12, 1976 
(Editorial) 

S. 2102.2 



S. 2104.2 
16-6R 

June 30, 1976 

S. 2104.5 
16-6G 

May 19, 1975 

S. 2105.2 
16- 6R 

June 30, 1976 

Fig. 2107-1 
16-60, 16-feU 

February 12, 1976 

(Editorial) 
January 6, 1977 

S. 2107.24 

16-6Q 

June 14, 1976 

S. 2107.25 

16-6Q 

June 14, 1976 

S. 2200.0 - 2206.1 

Article 22 Energy Conservation 

16-6Y 

August 1, 1977 

Reference Standards - Artlcle22 

16-6Y 

August 1, 1977 

Index 

16-6Q, 16-6U 
June 14, 1976 
' (Editorial) 
January 6, 1977 
(Editorial) 



16-6F, 16-6P, 16-6R 
April 17, 1975 
May 5, 1976 
June 30, 1976 



OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 
STATE HOUSE, BOSTON, MASS. 



nules and Regulations filed in this Office under the provisions of 
CHAPTER 30A as amended. 

THE STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION, Made by 
Authority of Chapter 802 of the Acts of 1972 
Filed by as amended and en tij:led the 

__COmONWEALm OFjlASSACHUSETTS_SmT^_ByiLMNG_C^^ 

-^" ^lllMng^^endments filed__u^^tg_an d including .T anuprj; Q^ 1 9 7 5 



Date Published. 



Chapter 233, sec. 75 

Printed copies of rules and regulations purporting to be issued by 
authority of any department, commission, board or Officer of the 
Commonwealth or any city or town having authority to adopt them, 
or printed copies of any ordinances or town by-laws, shall be ad- 
mitted without certification or attestations, but if this genuineness 
IS questioned, the court may require such certifications or attesta- 
tions thereof as it deems necessary. 



Attested as a true copy 
PAUL GUZZI 



1^ ^^^ 



SECRETARY OF THE COMMONWEALTH 



i.FRF.n C. IIoLr.ANt), State 1'urcimsing Agent, 
I, sum;. led (-..M I'd i ...n SS.()(J 




Pages verified before binding - 29 Sept. 1979. 

The changes thru 19 Feb. 1976 are at the end of the volume. They 
are not interfiled. See change 6E for additional note. 

This edition of the State Building Code was included in the first 
edition of the Code of Massachusetts Regulations as volume three. 
(Gov Uoc KFM2435.5.S4C6 vol, 3) Up'^dates to that volume were issued 
in the Massachusetts Register , except for change 6N as far as we can 
determine. 

This edition superceded by a new printing in the second edition of the 
Code of Massachusetts regulations , volume 18. This edition was in use 
from July 1978 to (or thru) July 1979. 

Gc\/: bCC. 



In July 1979 the publishing of the Code was turned over to the 
Building Officials Conference of American, Inc. and presumably 
their edition is now the official State edition. 

The first edition of the State Building Code was filed 1 July 1974 
and was published 15 August 1974, It was in use until the second 
edition. Some changes were published to the first edition and may 
be found at the end of that edition. 

Prior the the first edition of the State Building Code each 

municipality in Massachusetts had various building codes suited to 

their own needs. The Boston Building Codes m ay be found on 

Gov Doc TH225.B72A4 (year). There may be earlier editions on other 

numbers. 

24 October 1979 



Copyright, I969, Building Officials Conference of America, Inc. 

Copyright, 1973, Building Officials and Code Administrators 
International, Inc. 






THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 
STATE BUILDING CODE 



Michael S. Dukakis, Governor 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts 



William G. Flynn, Secretary- 
Executive Office of Communities and Development 



Second Edition 



The preparation of this document was financed in part through a 
grant from the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 
under the provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as 
amended. 




FOREWORD 



The promulgation of this Code is a major step forward in the 
formulation of a building regulatory system, which will have an 
impact on both the public and private sectors. 

This system will consist of the promulgation and maintenance 
of this statewide, mandatory uniform building code applicable to 
all buildings and structures; the establishment of a state mechanism 
for the approval of all new construction materials, devices and tech- 
niques; the establishment of a mechanisnn for state inspection and 
certification of manufactured buildings, building components and mo- 
bile homes; the training and certification of all building code officials; 
and the coordination of all state agencies having a direct or indirect 
bearing on this Code through the Technical Code Council whose func- 
tion is to prevent problems of overlapping jurisdictions and fragmenta- 
tion of administration. 

More significantly, however, this system places the state on rec- 
ord as a proponent of technological change in an industry whose im- 
pact is both profound and pervasive on every citizen of the Common- 
wealth. Through the implementation of this system, the State will 
fulfill a most important obligation -- that of promoting an improved 
quality of life in the most cost-efficient manner possible. 







ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The promulgation of the State Building Code and the establish- 
ment of the building regulatory system could not have been ac- 
complished without the passage of St. 1972, C. 802, which had 
received full bi-partisan support from Governor Francis W. Sargent, 
Senate President Kevin B. Harrington, Speaker of the House David M. 
Bartley, members of the General Court, as well as that of Richard E. 
McLaughlin, Secretary of the Executive Office of Public Safety. 



SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Building Officials and Code Administrators, Inc . 

A substantial portion of this Code has been copied with permis- 
sion of the copyright proprietors, from the BOCA Basic Building 
Code/ 1970, Fifth Edition (copyrighted by the Building Officials 
Conference of America, Inc.) and the BOCA Basic Building Code 
Accumulative Supplement 1973 (copyrighted by the Building Officials 
and Code Administrators International, Inc.). 

City of Boston Building Department 

Richard R. Thuma, Building Commissioner 

Technical Code Council 

Francis S. Harvey, P. E. 

JOINT COl-tMITTEE ON SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA 

Massachusetts Section, American Society of Civil Engineers; 

Boston Society of Civil Engineers 

Dr. Howard Simpson, Chairman Dr. Kenneth Leet 

Simpson, Gumpertz and Heger Northeastern University 

Charles A. J. Theodore Reverend Daniel Linehan 

State Building Code Commission Weston Observatory 

George H. Brattin Donald E. Reed 

Portland Cement Association Haley & Aldrich, inc. 

John Brennan Maurice A. Reidy, Jr. 

LeMessurier Associates, Inc. Maurice A. Reidy Engineers 

Gonzalo Castro Peter Riordan 

Geotechnical Engineers, Inc. Goldberg-Zoino & Associates 

Professor C. Allln Cornell Richard W. Souza 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Souza & True, Inc. 

Stanlflaw J. B. Gawllnski Professor Kentaro F. Tsutsuml 

Maurice A. Reidy Engineers Tufts University 

Department of Civil Engineering 
Professor Myle J. Hclley, Jr. 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Professor Merit P. V/hlte 

University of Massachusetts 
Clifford Kaye Department of Civil Engineering 

U, S. Geological Survey 

Professor Robert V. Whitman 
Dr. Edward B. Kinner Massachusetts Institute of Technology 



Haley 4 Aldrich, Inc. 



Dr. Othar Zaldastani 
Nichols Norton & Zaldastani 



MASSACHUSETTS 
STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Chairman: 



Vice Chairman: 



Charles A. J. Theodore Raymond Caravaty 

Registered Professional Engineer Registered Architect 
(Structural Engineer) 



Members 



Charles G. Cook, Jr. 
Inspector of Buildings (City) 

Pasquale DiGiulio 
Building Trades 

James R. Gilman 

Registered Professional Engineer 

(Mechanical Engineer) 

Sanford A, Kaplan 
Building Contractor 

Frederick L. Sanford, Jr. 
Inspector of Buildings (Town) 



Don Stull 
Building Owner 

Joseph G. Sneider 
State Fire Marshal 
Department of Public Safety 
Ex Officio Member 

John T. Loynd 

Acting Chief of Inspections 
Department of Public Safety 
Ex Officio Member 

William G. Flynn, Secretary 
Executive Office of Communities 
and Development 
Ex Officio Member 



Charles J. Dinezio 

Executive Director to 

State Building Code Commission 



Staffing 



Norton S. Remmer, P. E. 
Pauline E. Stanton 
Douglas W. Renick 
Paul J. Moriarty 
L. Pauline Thompson 
Linda Smith 
Anita Vincent 
Susan Daly 



Technical Director 

Code Development Specialist 

Building Code Administration Analyst 

Legal Counsel 

Statistician 

Senior Secretary 

Secretary 

Secretary 



SAMPLE FORM 



It is anticipated that the use of the Code will reveal the need for 
revisions. Recommendations for specific changes should be submitted on 
the form available from the State Building Code Commission (reference 
Appendix L) , 



CODE REVISION PROPOSAL FORM 



DATE: 



Building Code Section No. Code Change No. 

Proponent (Name) 

(Address) 



_Change subsection as follows. Delete subsection and 

substitute as follows. 



_Add new subsection as follows. Delete subsection - no 

substitution. 



PROPOSED CODE AMENDMENT: 



SUPPORTING STATEMENT (S) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ARTICLE 1 ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 1-1 

Section 

100.0 Scope 

101.0 Matters covered 

102.0 Ordinary repairs 

103.0 Installation of service equipment 

104.0 Maintenance 

105.0 Change in existing use 

106.0 Alterations and repairs 

107.0 Building department 

108.0 Duties and powers of the building official and 

the state inspector 
Table 1-1 Required minimum inspections and certification 

for specified use groups 

109.0 Rules and regulations 

110.0 Variances 

111.0 Inspection 

112.0 Right of entry 

113.0 Application for permit 

114.0 Permits 

115.0 Conditions of permit 

116.0 Demolition of buildings 

117.0 Removal of buildings 

118.0 Fees 

119.0 Fee computation 

120.0 Certificate of use and occupancy 

121.0 Posting buildings 

122.0 Violations 

123.0 Stop-work order 

124.0 Unsafe buildings - survey board 

125.0 Emergency measures 

126.0 Board of appeals 

127.0 Construction materials safety board 

128.0 Controlled construction 

129.0 Validity 

ARTICLE 2 DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 2-1 

Section 

200.0 Scope 

201.0 General Definitions 

202.0 Use group classification 

203.0 Use group A, high hazard buildings 

Table 2-1 Use group A, high hazard uses 

204.0 Use group B, storage buildings 

Table 2-2 Use group B-1, storage uses - moderate hazard 

Table 2-3 Use group B-2 , storage uses - low hazard 

205.0 Use group C, mercantile buildings 

206.0 Use group D, industrial buildings 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 2 (cont.) 



Section 

Table 2-4 Use group D, industrial uses 

207.0 Use group E, business buildings 

208.0 Use group F, assembly buildings 

209.0 Use group H, institutional buildings 

210.0 Use group L, residential buildings 

211.0 Use group M, miscellaneous uses 

212.0 Doubtful use classification 

213.0 Mixed use and occupancy 

214.0 Construction classification 

215.0 Type 1, fireproof construction 

216.0 Type 2, noncombustible construction 

217.0 Type 3, exterior masonry wall construction 

218.0 Type 4, frame construction 

Table 2-5 Fireresistance ratings of structural elements 
in hours 

Table 2-6 Height limitations (upper figure: stories and feet above 
grade) and area limitations (lower figure: area in 
square feet per floor per story) of buildings facing 
on one street or public space not less than thirty 
(30) feet wide 



ARTICLE 3 GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



3-1 



Section 

300.0 Scope 

301.0 Fire district subdivisions 

302.0 General fire district provisions 

303.0 Restrictions of fire district No. 1 

304.0 Restrictions of fire district No. 2 

305.0 Restrictions outside fire limits 

306.0 Existing buildings 

307.0 General area and height limitations 

Table 3-1 Percent reduction in the area limits of Table 2-6 

308.0 Area exceptions 

309.0 Unlimited areas 

310.0 Height exceptions 

311.0 Street encroachments 

312.0 Permissible street projections 

313.0 Permissible yard and court encroachments 

314.0 Special and temporary projections 

315.0 Awnings and canopies 

316.0 Subdivision of attic spaces 

317.0 Temporary structures 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 4 SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



4-1 



Section 

400.0 

401.0 

402.0 

403.0 

Table 



4-3 



4-1 



Table 4-2 



404.0 
405.0 
406.0 
Table 
407.0 
408.0 
409.0 
410.0 
411.0 
412.0 
413.0 
414.0 
415.0 
416.0 
417.0 
418.0 
419.0 
420.0 
421.0 
422.0 
423.0 
Table 
424.0 
425.0 
426.0 



4-4 



427.0 
460.0 



Scope 

Definitions 

Explosion Hazards 

Volatile Flammables 

Capacity of outside underground tanks for 

volatile flammable liquids 
Capacity of outside aboveground tanks for 

volatile flammable liquids 
Existing buildings 
Liquefied petroleum gases 
Pyroxylin plastics 

Exposure distance for pyroxylin storage buildings 
Use and storage of flammable film 
Use and storage of combustible fibers 
Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage 
Paint and spray booths 
Dry cleaning establishments 
Private garages 
Public garages 
Motor fuel service stations 
Motor vehicle repair shops 
Places of public assembly 
Public assembly other than theatres 
Amusement parks 
Stadiums and grandstands 
Tents and other temporary structures 
Radio and television towers 
Swimming pools 
Open parking structures 

Height and limitation for open parking structures 
Group residence in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Covered malls 
Nursing homes, rest homes, charitable homes for the 

aged, convalescent homes and hospitals 
Day care centers (H-2) 
Schoolhouse Buildings 
Reference standards for article 4 



ARTICLE 5 LIGHT AND VENTILATION 



5-1 



Section 

500.0 Scope 

501.0 Definitions 

502.0 Plans and specifications 

503.0 Standards of natural light 

504.0 Standards of natural ventilation 

505.0 Ventilation of institutional buildings for forced 

detention 

506.0 Existing buildings 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 5 (cont.) 



Section 

507.0 Standards of artificial light 

508.0 Standards of mechanical ventilation 

Fig. 5-1 Minimum outside air requirements for ventilation 

and air-conditioning 
509.0 Ventilation of special spaces 
510.0 Ventilation of shafts other than elevator and 

dumbwaiter hoistways 
511.0 Industrial buildings with unpierced enclosure walls 
512.0 Courts 

513.0 Obstruction of courts and yards 
514.0 Fire emergency ventilating system 
515.0 Fire ventilation of open wells 
516.0 Window cleaning safeguards 

Reference standards for article 5 



ARTICLE 6 MEANS OF EGRESS 



6-1 



Section 

600.0 Scope 

601.0 Definitions 

602.0 Plans and specifications 

603.0 Use and occupancy requirements 

604.0 Air-conditioned buildings 

605.0 Existing buildings 

606.0 Occupancy load 

Table 6-1 Floor area allowance per occupant 

607.0 Types and location of exitways 

Table 6-2 Maximum length of exitway access travel (feet) 

608.0 Capacity of exits 

Table 6-3 Capacity per unit egress width 

609.0 Number of exitways 

610.0 Exitway access passageways and corridors 

611.0 Grade passageways and lobbies used as an exitway 
element 

612 . Means of egress doorways 

613.0 Revolving exitway doors 

Table 6-4 Minimum clear doorway widths 

614.0 Horizontal exits 

615.0 Exitway ramps 

616.0 Interior exitway stairways 

Table 6-5 Door construction 

Table 6-6 Minimum standards for stairway and enclosure con- 
struction 

617.0 Access to roof 

618.0 Smokeproof stairway enclosure 

619.0 Exterior exitway stairways 

620.0 Moving exitway stairways 

621.0 Fire escapes 

622.0 Slidescapes 

623.0 Exitway signs and lights 

624.0 Exitway lights 

Reference standards for article 6 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ARTICLE 7 STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION LOADS AND STRESSES 7-1 

Section 

700.0 Scope 

701.0 Definition 

702.0 Design safe load 

703.0 Test safe load 

704.0 Design live load 

705.0 Design dead load 

706.0 Existing buildings 

707.0 Unit live loads 

Table 7-1 Minimum uniformly distributed live loads 

708.0 Concentrated loads 

Table 7-2 Concentrated loads 

709.0 Impact loads 

710.0 Special loads 

711.0 Roof loads 

Table 7-3 Minimum roof live loads 

712.0 Snow load 

713.0 Wind load 

714.0 Wind on vertical surfaces 

715.0 Wind load on roofs 

716.0 Wind loads on signs, tanks and radio towers, chimneys 

and other building appurtenances 

717.0 Overturning and sliding 

718.0 Earthquake load 

719.0 Combined loading 

720.0 Live load reduction 

721.0 Allowable working stresses 

722.0 Light weight metals 

723.0 Bearing value of soils 

Table 7-4 Presumptive bearing capacity of foundation materials 

724.0 Subsurface explorations 

725.0 Bearing test and settlement analyses 

726.0 Allowable foundation pressure 

727.0 Spread foundations 

728.0 Footing design 

* 729.0 Timber footings 

730.0 Steel grillages 

731.0 Unreinforced concrete footings 

732.0 Masonry unit footings 

733.0 Reinforced concrete footings 

734.0 Floating foundations 

735.0 Pile foundations 

736.0 Corrosion protection 

737.0 Allowable pile loads 

738.0 Timber piles 

739.0 Precast concrete piles 

740.0 Cast-in-place concrete piles 

741.0 Concrete filled pipe piles 

742.0 Concrete-filled pipe with steel core 
(drilled-in-caissons) 

* Repealed on December 30, 1974 



ARTICLE 7 (cont.) 7-1 

Section 

743.0 Structural steel piles 

744.0 Composite piles 

745,0 Special piles and caissons 

746.0 Lateral support 

747.0 Foundation piers 

748.0 Design requirements for floodplains and coastal high 

hazard areas 
Fig. 7-1 Map of design snow load 
Fig. 7-2a Design snow loads 
Fig. 7-2b Simple gable and hip roofs 
Fig. 7-2c Simple arch and curved roofs 
Fig. 7-3a Valley areas of two-span and multiple series sloped 

or curved roofs 
Fig. 7-3b Lower level of multi -level roofs (when upper roof is 

part of same building or on an adjacent building 

not more than 5 feet away) 
Fig. 7-4 Roofs subject to snow loads from sliding 
Fig. 7-5 Map of design wind load zones 
Fig. 7-6 Glass thickness 
Fig. 7-7 Penetration resistance requirements for medium and fine 

sands subjected to earthquakes for safety against 

liquefaction 
Fig. 7-8 Permissible thicknesses and depths of soils that are 

susceptible to liquefaction 
Fig. 7-9 Determination of soil factor S 

Reference standards for article 7 

ARTICLE 8 Part A MATERIAL AND TESTS . 8-1 

Section 

800.0 Scope 

801.0 Definitions 

802.0 Basic classification of construction materials 

803.0 Tests 

804.0 Conditions of acceptance 

805.0 Approvals 

806.0 Masonry construction units 

807.0 Brick units 

808.0 Structural clay tile units 

809.0 Glazed masonry units 

810.0 Concrete units 

811.0 Gypsum units 

812.0 Structural glass block units 

813.0 Architectural terra cotta 

814.0 Natural stone 

815.0 Case stone 

816.0 Mortar for masonry 

817.0 Concrete aggregates 

818.0 Readymix concrete 

819.0 Structural wood glues 

820.0 Interior lathing and plastering 

821.0 Exterior lathing and stucco 

822.0 Plastering materials 

823.0 Plaster bases 

824.0 Fiber boards 

825.0 plywood 

Qoa. n I.Tol 1 T-ir>ai-rl c anrl qVi pa thl n O 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ARTICLE 8 Part B STEEL, MASONRY, CONCRETE, GYPSUM AND LUMBER 
CONSTRUCTION 

Section 

827.0 Structural steel construction 

828.0 Formed steel construction 

829.0 Open web steel joists 

830.0 Reinforcing steel 

831.0 Cast steel construction 

832.0 Cast iron construction 

833.0 Special steels 

834.0 Light weight metal alloys 

835.0 Masonry wall construction 

836.0 Bonding of walls 

837.0 Lateral bracing of walls 

838.0 Chases and recesses in bearing walls 

839.0 Corbeled and projected masonry 

840.0 Bearing on hollow unit walls 

841.0 Plain concrete 

842.0 Reinforced concrete 

843.0 Structural cinder concrete 

844.0 Short span floor filling 

845.0 Concrete-filled pipe columns 

846.0 Pneumatic concrete 

847.0 Minimum concrete dimensions 

848.0 Reinforced Gypsum concrete 

849.0 Reinforced brickwork 

850.0 Reinforced hollow block construction 

851.0 Lumber and timber construction 

852.0 Hea-vy timber type construction 

853.0 Wood frame construction 

854.0 Stress skin panels 

855.0 Structural glued laminated timber and built-up 
wood construction 

ARTICLE 8 Part C BUILDING ENCLOSURES, WALLS AND WALL THICKNESS 



Section 

856.0 Enclosure walls 

857.0 Protection of wall openings 

Table 8-1 Requirements for glass panels subject to Impact loads 

858.0 Fire access panels 

859.0 Structural glass block walls 

860.0 Wall facings and veneers 

861.0 Structural glass veneers 

862.0 Thin stone and tile veneers 

863.0 Metal veneers 

864.0 Plastic veneers 

865.0 Thickness of solid masonry walls 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 8 Part C (cont.) 



Section 

866.0 Thickness of panel walls 

867.0 Thickness of parapet walls 

868.0 Foundation walls 

869.0 Retaining walls 

870.0 Isolated piers 

871.0 Waterproofing 

872.0 Ratproofing 

873.0 Protection against decay and termites 

874.0 Fire protection and firestopping 

875.0 Thermal insulating materials 

Reference standards for article 8 - Part A, B, C 

ARTICLE 9 FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 9-1 

Section 

900.0 Scope 

901.0 Definitions 

902.0 Fire hazard classification 

903.0 Fireresistance tests 

Table 9-1 Fire grading of use groups 

904.0 Flameresistance, tests 

Table 9-2 Flame-spread rating 

905.0 Special fireresistance requirements 

906.0 Enclosure walls 

907.0 Fire wall and party walls 

908.0 Fire wall openings 

909.0 Fire partitions 

910,0 Fireresistive partitions 

911.0 Vertical shafts and hoistways 

912.0 Wall lintels 

913.0 Beams and girders 

914.0 Columns 

915.0 Trusses 

916.0 Exterior opening protectives 

917.0 Fire doors 

918.0 Fire windows and shutters 

919.0 Wired glass 

920.0 Fireresistive requirements for plaster 

921.0 Firestopping 

922.0 Interior finish and trim 

Table 9-3 Interior finish requirements 

923.0 Application of interior finish 

924.0 Combustible materials permitted in floor construc- 
tion of Type 1 and Type 2 buildings 

925.0 Decorative material restrictions 

926.0 Exterior trim restrictions 

927.0 Roof structures 

928.0 Roof coverings 

Reference standards for article 9 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

ARTICLE 10 CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENT PIPES 10-1 

Section 

1000.0 Scope 

1001.0 Definitions 

1002.0 Plans and specifications 

1003.0 Performance test and acceptance criteria 

1004.0 Kinds of chimneys 

1005.0 Appliances requiring chimneys 

1006.0 Existing buildings 

1007.0 Factory-built chimneys 

1008.0 Masonry chimneys 

1009.0 Metal chimneys 

1010.0 Chimney connector (smokepipes) 

1011.0 Vent systems 

1012.0 Fireplaces 

1013.0 Cupola chimneys 

1014.0 Fuel-fired incinerator chimneys 

1015.0 Miscellaneous incinerator flues 

1016.0 Duct and pipe shafts 

1017.0 Construction of metal ducts and vents 

Tbl. 10-1 Metal duct and vent construction, other than dwellings 

Tbl. 10-2 Ducts for dwellings 

1018.0 Spark arrestors 

Reference standards for article 10 

ARTICLE 11 HEATING EQUIPMENT AND APPLIANCES - MOUNTING, CLEARANCES 

AND CONNECTIONS 11-1 

Section 

1100.0 Scope 

1101.0 Definitions 

1102.0 Plans and specifications 

1103.0 Boiler and unfired pressure vessels 

1104.0 Smoke abatement 

1105.0 Industrial heating appliance classification 

1106.0 Fireresistance requirements for heat appliance 

foundations 

1107.0 Mounting exceptions for heat appliances 

1108.0 Mounting exceptions for house heating appliances 

1109.0 Mounting exceptions for restaurant appliances 

1110.0 Mounting exceptions for domestic appliances 

1111.0 Side and top clearances 

1112.0 Clearance exceptions 
Tbl. 11-1 Reduced wall and ceiling clearances 

1113.0 Boiler rooms 

1114.0 Ash pits and bins 

1115.0 Steam and hot water pipes 

1116.0 Heating panels 

1117.0 Hot and cold air ducts 

1118.0 Warm air heating systems 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 11 (cont.) 



Section 

1119.0 

1120.0 

1121.0 

1122.0 

1123.0 

1124.0 

1125.0 

1126.0 

1127.0 

1128.0 

1129.0 

1130.0 

1131.0 

1132.0 

1133.0 

1134.0 

Tbl. 11- 

Tbl. 11- 
1135.0 



Central recirculating systems 

Flammable vapor systems 

Unit heaters 

Floor furnaces 

Industrial furnaces and power boilers 

Unfired pressure vessels 

Restaurant cooking appliances 

Hot water supply heaters 

Oil burners 

Drying rooms 

Non-fuel-fired incinerators 

Fuel-fired incinerators 

Miscellaneous refuse incinerators 

Refuse chutes 

Refuse vaults 

Blower and exhaust systems 

Thickness of steel sheet exhaust ducts in U.S 

standard gage 
Clearance of exhaust ducts in inches 
Dust , stock and refuse conveyor systems 
Reference standards for article 11 



ARTICLE 12 FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE-EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT 



12-1 



12- 
12- 



Section 
1200.0 

1201.0 

1202.0 

1203.0 

1204.0 

1205.0 

1206.0 

Tbl. 

Tbl. 

1207.0 

1208.0 

1209.0 

1210.0 

1211.0 

1212.0 

Tbl. 12- 

1213.0 

1214.0 

1215.0 

1216.0 

1217.0 

1218.0 



Scope 

Definitions 

Plans and specifications 

Acceptance tests 

Periodic inspections and tests 

Existing buildings and fire service equipment 

Wet standpipe requirements 

1 Conditions requiring standpipes 

2 Minimum standpipe size 
Standpipe water supplies 
Dry standpipe fire lines 
First-aid standpipe fire lines 
Horizontal fire lines 

Pier and wharf protection 
Automatic sprinkler systems 

3 Conditions requiring sprinklers 
Sprinkler water supplies 

Dry pipe automatic systems 

Non-automatic sprinkler systems 

Special fire protection 

Manual fire-extinguishing equipment 

Fire alarm systems 

Reference standards for article 12 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 13 PRECAUTIONS DURING BUILDING OPERATIONS 



13-1 



Section 

1300.0 Scope 

1301.0 Plans, specifications and special permits 

1302.0 Tests 

1303.0 Inspection 

1304.0 Existing buildings 

1305.0 Protection of public and workmen 

1306.0 Excavations 

1307.0 Regulation of lots 

1308.0 Retaining walls and partition fences 

1309.0 Storage of materials 

1310.0 Removal of waste material 

1311.0 Protection of adjoining property 

1312.0 Scaffolds 

1313.0 Stairways and ladders 

1314.0 Fire hazards 

1315.0 Disputes 



ARTICLE 14 SIGNS AND OUTDOOR DISPLAY STRUCTURES 



14-1 



Section 

1400.0 Scope 

1401.0 Definitions 

1402.0 Plans, specifications and permits 

1403.0 Exemptions 

1404.0 Unsafe and unlawful signs 

1405.0 Maintenance and inspection 

1406.0 Existing signs 

1407.0 Registration and identification 

1408.0 General requirements for all signs 

1409.0 Ground signs 

1410.0 Roof signs 

1411.0 Wall signs 

1412.0 Projecting signs 

1413.0 Marquee signs 

1414.0 Miscellaneous and temporary signs 

1415.0 Illuminated signs 

Reference standards for article 14 



ARTICLE 15 ELECTRICAL WIRING AND FIXTURES 



15-1 



ARTICLE 16 ELEVATOR, DUMBWAITER, ESCALATOR, AND MOVING 
WALK REGULATIONS 

ARTICLE 17 PLUMBING, DRAINAGE AND GAS PIPING 



16-1 
17-1 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 18 AIR CONDITIONING, REFRIGERATION AND MECHANICAL 
VENTILATION 



18-1 



Section 

1800.0 Scope 

1801.0 Definitions 

1802.0 Plans, specifications and permits 

1803.0 Tests 

1804.0 Inspections and certificates 

1805.0 Operation and Maintenance 

1806.0 Existing buildings and installations 

1807.0 Use of refrigerants 

1808.0 Heating and cooling equipment 

1809.0 Plumbing and water connections 

1810.0 Automatic fire doors and dampers 

1811.0 Inlet and outlet openings 

1812.0 Ducts, linings and coverings 

Reference standards for article 18 

ARTICLE 19 MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS, BUILDING COMPONENTS AND MOBILE 

HOMES 19-1 

Section 

1900.0 Scope 

1901.0 Definitions 

1902.0 Certification 

1903.0 Reciprocity 

1904.0 Inspection 

1905.0 Mobile homes 

1906.0 Manufactured buildings and building components 

other than mobile homes 

1907.0 Suspension and revocation of certification 

1908.0 Appeals procedure 

RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS, 
BUILDING COMPONENTS AND MOBILE HOMES 



ARTICLE 20 LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC CONSTRUCTION 



20-1 



Section 

2000.0 Scope 

2001.0 Definitions 

2002.0 Design and installation 

2003.0 Glazing of unprotected openings 

2004.0 Exterior wall panels 

Tbl. 20-1 Area limitation and separation requirements for 

plastic wall panels 
2005.0 Roof panels 
2006.0 Skylight assemblies 
2007.0 Light-diffusing systems 
2008.0 Partitions 
2009.0 Bathroom accessories 

Reference standards for article 20 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 21 BUILDING CODE PROVISIONS FOR ONE AND TWO-FAMILY 
DWELLINGS 



21-1 



Section 
2100.0 

Table 2100-1 
Figure 2100-1 
2101.0 
Table 2101-1 



Table 2101-2 



2102.0 

Figure 2102-1 
Figure 2102-2 
Table 2102-1 
Table 2102-2 

Table 2102-3 
Table 2102-4 

Table 2102-5 

Figure 2102-3 



2103.0 


Table 


2103-1 


Table 


2103-2 


Table 


2103-3 


Table 


2103-4 


Table 


2103-5 


Table 


2103-6 


Table 


2103-7 


Figure 2103-1 


Table 


2103-8 


2104.0 


Table 


2104-1 


Table 


2104-2 


Table 


2104-3 



Table 2104-4 



Table 2104-5 



Building Planning 

Glazing requirements 

Stair detail 

Foundations 

Minimum thickness and allowable depth of 

unbalanced fill for unreinforced masonry 

and concrete basement walls where unstable 

soil or ground water conditions do not exist 
Reinforcement required for basement walls subjected . 

to not more than 30 pounds per square foot 

equivalent fluid pressure 
Wall construction 
Structural framing details 
Wall framing details 

Fastener schedule for structural members 
Maximum allowable spans for headers supporting 

wood frame walls 
Plywood wall sheathing 
Allowable span for masonry walls between lateral 

supports 
Allowable span for masonry and steel lintels 

supporting masonry walls 
Anchorage requirements for masonry walls located 

where wind loads are less than 30 P. S. F. 
Wall covering 

Maximum spacing of supports for lath 
Maximum spacing of fasteners for support of lath 
Thickness of plaster 
Gypsum plaster proportions 
Portland cement plaster 
Application of gypsum wallboard 
Weather-resistant siding attachment 
Masonry veneered wall 
Allowable span for lintels supporting masonry 

veneer 
Floors 

Allowable spans for floor joists 
Allowable spans for floor joists 
Allowable span for girders supporting one floor 

only 
Allowable span for girders and required size of 

columns and footings to support roofs, interior 

bearing partitions and floors 
Allowable spans for plywood floor and roof sheathing 

continuous over two or more spans and face grain 

perpendicular to supports 



ARTICLE 21 (cont.) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Section 
Table 2104-6 



Table 2104-7 
Figure 2104-1 
2105.0 

Table 2105-1 
Table 2105-2 
Table 2105-3 
Table 2105-4 
Table 2105-5 
Table 2105-6 
Table 2105-7 
Table 2105-8 
Table 2105-9 
Table 2105-10 
Table 2105-11 
Table 2105-12 
Table 2105-13 
Table 2105-14 
Table 2105-15 
Table 2105-16 
Table 2105-17 
Table 2105-18 
Table 2105-19 
Table 2105-20 
Figure 2105-1 
2106.0 

Table 2106-1 
2107.0 

Figure 2107-1 
Table 2107-1 

2108.0 
2109.0 
Table 2109-1 

Table 2109-2 

2110.0 
Table 2110-1 

2111.0 
2112.0 

2113.0 
2114.0 
Table 2114-1 



Minimum thickness for plywood combination subfloor- 

underlajmient plywood continuous over two or more 

spans and face grain perpendicular to supports 
Minimum thickness of floor sheathing 
Floor construction details 
Roof-ceiling construction 
Allowable spans for ceiling joists 
Allowable spans for ceiling joists 
Allowable spans for ceiling joists 
Allowable spans for ceiling joists 
Allowable spans for low or high slope rafters 
Allowable span for low or high slope rafters 
Allowable span for low or high slope rafters 
Allowable spans for low or high slope rafters 
Allowable span for low or high slope rafters 
Allowable span for low or high slope rafters 
Allowable span for low slope rafters 
Allowable span for low slope rafters 
Allowable span for low slope rafters 
Allowable span for high slope rafters 
Allowable span for high slope rafters 
Allowable span for high slope rafters 
Allowable span for high slope rafters 
Allowable span for high slope rafters 
Allowable span for high slope rafters 
Required purlin size based on rafter span 
Roof and support framing 
Roof coverings 
Roof coverings 
Chimneys and fireplaces 
Fireplace construction details 
Minimum flue area for masonry chimneys connected 

to fireplaces 
Mechanical, definitions 
Equipment general 
Standard installation clearances heat-producing 

appliances 
Maximum reduced clearances (inches) with specified 

forms of protection 
Combustion air 
Appliance room combustion air requirements in cold 

climates (tight construction) 
Warm-air furnaces 
Vented decorative appliances, floor furnaces, vented 

wall furnaces and vented room heaters 
Venting of appliances 
Ducts 
Gages or metal ducts and plenums used for comfort 

heating or cooling for a dwelling unit 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 21 (cont.) 



Section 

Table 2114-2 Insulation of ducts 

Table 2114-3 Metal duct supports 

2115.0 Comfort cooling 

2116.0 Absorption units and absorption systems for 

comfort cooling and comfort heating 
2117.0 Fuel supply systems 

Reference standards for article 21 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

APPENDICES A-1 

APPENDIX A ACCREDITED AUTHORITATIVE AGENCIES 

APPENDIX B ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE 

APPENDIX C MATERIAL STANDARDS 

APPENDIX D STRUCTURAL UNIT TEST STANDARDS 

APPENDIX E STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY TEST STANDARDS 

APPENDIX F DURABILITY TEST STANDARDS 

APPENDIX G FIRE TEST AND FLAME SPREAD TEST STANDARDS 

APPENDIX H FIRE PROTECTION STANDARDS 

APPENDIX I UNIT DESIGN DEAD LOADS FOR STRUCTURAL DESIGN PURPOSES 

APPENDIX J UNIT WORKING STRESSES FOR ORDINARY MATERIALS 

APPENDIX K SPECIALIZED CODES 

APPENDIX L LIST OF AGENCIES AND DEPARTMENTS ON THE 
TECHNICAL CODE COUNCIL 



ARTICLE 1 



ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION 100.0 SCOPE 

100.1 TITLE: These regulations shall be known as the Conmonwealth 
of Massachusetts State Building Code hereinafter referred to as the 
Basic Code. In accordance with C. 802, of the Acts of 1972 as amend- 
ed, these regulations shall control; a) the construction, reconstruc- 
tion, alteration, repair, demolition, removal, inspection, issuance 
and revocation of permits or licenses, installation of equipment, 
classification and definition of any building or structure and use 

or occupancy of all buildings and structures and parts thereof or 
classes of buildings and structures and parts thereof; b) the 
rehabilitation and maintenance of existing buildings; c) the 
standards or requirements for materials to be used in connection 
therewith, including but not limited to provisions for safety, in- 
gress and egress, energy conservation and sanitary conditions; 
d) the establishment of reasonable fees for the issuance of licenses 
and permits in connection therewith; except as such matters are 
otherwise provided for in the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, 
or in the rules and regulations authorized for promulgation under 
the provisions of the Basic Code. 

100.2 APPLICATION OF REFERENCES: Unless otherwise specifically 
provided in the Basic Code, all references to article or section 
numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, 
shall be construed to refer to such article, section or provision 
of the Basic Code. 

100.3 CODE REMEDIAL: The Basic Code shall be construed to secure 
its expressed intent which is to insure public safety, health and 
welfare insofar as they are affected by building construction, 
through structural strength, adequate egress facilities, sanitary 
conditions, equipment, light and ventilation and fire safety; and 
in general, to secure safety to life and property and community 
from all hazards incident to the design, erection, repair, removal, 
demolition or use and occupancy of buildings, structures, or prem- 
ises. The intent of the Basic Code is also to effect the establish- 
ment of uniform standards and requirements for construction and 
construction materials, compatible with accepted standards of en- 
gineering and fire prevention practices and public safety; the 
adoption of modern technical methods, devices and improvements which 
may reduce the cost of construction without affecting the health, 
safety, and security of the occupants or users of buildings; the 
elimination of restrictive, obsolete, conflicting and unnecessary 
building regulations and requirements which may increase the cost 

of construction and maintenance over the life of the building, or 



1-1 



retard unnecessarily the use of new materials, or which may provide 
unwarranted preferential treatment of types of classes of materials, 
products or methods of construction without affecting the health, 
safety, and security of the occupants or users of buildings. 

100.4 SPECIALIZED CODES: Specialized codes, rules or regulations 
pertaining to building construction, reconstruction, alteration, 
repair, or demolition promulgated, and as amended from time to time, 
by the various authorized state agencies shall be incorporated in 
the Basic Code. The said specialized codes, rules or regulations 
include, but are not limited to, those listed in appendix K. 

100.5 TECHNICAL CODE COUNCIL: The Technical Code Council is com- 
prised of representatives from each of the state agencies having 
jurisdiction over the specialized codes including those cited in 
section 100.4, and listed in appendix K, and serves as an advi- 
sory board to the State Building Code Commission, herein referred 
to as the Commission, on matters related to uniformity of rules 
and regulations governing building construction and the establish- 
ment of uniform procedures relative to their administration and 
enforcement. Members of the Technical Code Council are listed in 
appendix L. 



SECTION 101.0 MATTERS COVERED 

The provisions of the Basic Code shall apply to all buildings and 
structures and their appurtenant constructions, including vaults, 
area and street projections and accessory additions; and shall apply 
with equal force to municipal, county, state, authorities established 
by the legislature and private buildings and structures; except where 
such buildings and structures are otherwise specifically provided for 
by statute. 

101.1 EXEMPTIONS: No building or structure shall be constructed, 
extended, repaired, removed, demolished, or altered in violation 
of these provisions, except for ordinary repairs as defined in 
section 102 . 

101.2 MATTERS NOT COVERED. 

101.21 PROPOSED BUILDINGS: Any requirement essential for struc- 
tural strength, adequate egress facilities, sanitary conditions, 
equipment, light and ventilation, and fire safety of a proposed 
building or structure at the plan review stage and which is not 
specifically covered by the Basic Code, shall be determined by 
the State Building Code Commission. 

101.22 EXISTING BUILDINGS AND BUILDINGS UNDER CONSTRUCTION: The 
building official shall determine any requirement which is not 
specifically covered by the Basic Code and which is essential for 



1-2 



structural strength, adequate egress facilities, sanitary conditions, 
equipment, light and ventilation, and fire safety of existing 
buildings and structures or buildings and structures under con- 
struction. The Commission and the Department of Public Safety shall 
be notified in writing within seven (7) working days of any action 
taken under this section. 

101.3 ZONING RESTRICTIONS: When the provisions herein specified 
for structural strength, adequate egress facilities, sanitary 
conditions, equipment, light and ventilation, and fire safety 
conflict with the local zoning by-laws or ordinances, the Basic 
Code shall control the erection or alteration of buildings. 



SECTION 102.0 ORDINARY REPAIRS 

Ordinary repairs to buildings and structures may be made without 
application or notice to the building official; but such repairs 
shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or 
portion thereof, the removal or cutting of any structural beam or 
bearing support, or the removal or change of any required means of 
egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the 
exitway requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition 
to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, 
water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent 
or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work 
affecting public health or general safety. 



SECTION 103.0 INSTALLATION OF SERVICE EQUIPMENT 

When the installation, extension, alteration or repair of an 
elevator, moving stairway, mechanical equipment, refrigeration, air 
conditioning or ventilating apparatus, plumbing, gas piping, 
electric wiring, heating system or any other equipment is specifi- 
cally controlled by the provisions of the Basic Code or the approved 
rules, it shall be unlawful to use such equipment until a certi- 
ficate of approval has been issued therefor by the building offi- 
cial or other municipal or state agency having jurisdiction. 



SECTION 104.0 MAINTENANCE 

All buildings and structures and all parts thereof shall be main- 
tained in a safe and sanitary condition. All service equipment, 
means of egress, devices and safeguards which are required by the 
Basic Code in a building or structure shall be maintained in good 
working order. Any requirement necessary for the safety of the 
occupants thereof, not specifically covered by the Basic Code shall 
be determined by the building official. 



1-3 



104.1 OWNER RESPONSIBILITY: The owner, as defined in article 2, 
or his designated agent shall be responsible for the safe and 
sanitary maintenance of the building or structure and its exit- 
way facilities at all times, unless otherwise specifically pro- 
vided in the Basic Code. 



SECTION 105.0 CHANGE IN EXISTING USE 

105.1 CONTINUATION OF EXISTING USE: The legal use and occupancy 
of any structure existing on January 1, 1975, or for which it had 
been heretofore approved, may be continued without change, except 
as may be specifically covered in the Basic Code or as may be 
deemed necessary by the building official for the general safety 
and welfare of the occupants and the public . 

105.2 CHANGE IN USE AND OCCUPANCY: It shall be unlawful to make 
any change in the use or occupancy of any structure or parts there- 
of without the building official having issued a certificate of 
use and occupancy indicating that such structure complies with 

the provisions of the Basic Code for the proposed new use or occu- 
pancy and that such change does not result in any greater hazard to 
public safety or welfare. 

105.3 PART CHANGE IN USE: If a portion of the building is changed 
in occupancy or to a new use group and that portion is separated 
from the remainder of the building with the required vertical and 
horizontal fire division complying with the fire grading in table 
9-1, then the construction involved in the change shall be made to 
conform to the requirements of the Basic Code for the new use and 
occupancy and the existing portion shall be made to comply with 
the exitway requirements of the Basic Code. 

105.4 REESTABLISHMENT OF A PRIOR USE: After an approved change 
of use has been made to a building or parts thereof, the reestab- 
lishment of a prior use that is not legal to a new building or 
parts thereof of the same type of construction, is prohibited unless 
all the applicable provisions of the Basic Code have been met. 



SECTION 106.0 ALTERATIONS & REPAIRS 

Except as provided in this section, existing buildings or struc- 
tures when altered or repaired as herein specified shall be made 
to conform to the full requirements of the Basic Code for new 
buildings : 

106.1 ALTERATIONS EXCEEDING FIFTY PERCENT: If alterations or 
repairs are made within any period of twelve (12) months, costing 
in excess of fifty (50) percent of the physical value of the build- 
ing; or 



1-4 



106.2 DAMAGES EXCEEDING FIFTY PERCENT: If the building is damaged by 
fire or any other cause to an extent in excess of fifty (50) percent of 
the physical value of the building before the damage was incurred. 

106.3 ALTERATION UNDER FIFTY PERCENT: If the cost of alterations or 
repairs described herein is between twenty-five (25) and fifty (50) 
percent of the physical value of the building, the building official 
shall determine to what degree the portions so altered or repaired shall 
be made to conform to the requirements for new buildings: 

106.4 ALTERATION UNDER TWENTY-FIVE PERCENT: If the cost of alterations 
or repairs described herein is twenty-five (25) percent or less of the 
physical value of the building, the building official shall permit the 
restoration of the building to its condition previous to damage or 
deterioration with the same kind of materials as those of which the 
building was constructed; provided that such construction does not 
endanger the general safety and public welfare and complies with the 
provisions of article 9 in respect to existing roofs. 

106.5 PHYSICAL VALUE: In applying the provisions of this section, the 
physical value of the building, at the option of the owner, shall be 
based on the assessed value of the building as recorded in the assessor's 
office of the municipality or on the basis of the current replacement 

cost of the building less physical deterioration, provided that satisfactory 
evidence of the current replacement cost less physical deterioration is 
submitted to the building official for his approval. 



SECTION 107.0 BUILDING DEPARTMENT 

107.1 BUILDING COMMISSIONER OR INSPECTOR OF BUILDINGS: The building 
department shall have an administrative chief responsible for the 
administration and enforcement of the Basic Code who shall be known as 
the building commissioner or inspector of buildings. 

107.11 LOCAL INSPECTOR: The local inspector shall assist the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings in the performance of his duties 
and shall also be responsible for the enforcement of the Basic Code. 

107.12 ALTERNATE INSPECTOR: An alternate inspector of buildings may be 
appointed to act in the disability of the inspector of buildings in case 
of illness, absence, or conflict of interest. The alternate inspector 
shall meet the qualifications of section 107.4. 

107.2 APPOINTMENT: The chief administrative officer of each city or 
town shall employ and designate an inspector of buildings or building 
commissioner, as well as such other local inspectors as are reasonably 
necessary. The inspector of buildings or building commissioner shall 
report directly and be solely responsible to the appointing authority. 



1-5 



107.3 OTHER PERSONNEL: The building commissioner or inspector 
of buildings may appoint such other personnel as shall be nec- 
essary for the administration of the Basic Code and as authorized 
by the appointing authority. 

107.4 QUALIFICATIONS OF THE BUILDING COMMISSIONER OR INSPECTOR 
OF BUILDINGS: Each building commissioner or inspector of build- 
ings shall have had at least five (5) years of experience in 
the supervicion of building construction or design or in the 
alternative a four-year undergraduate degree in a field related 
to building construction or design. In addition, such persons 
shall have had general knowledge of the accepted requirements 
for building construction, fire prevention, light, ventilation 
and safe exits; and a general knowledge of other equipment and 
material essential for safety, comfort, and convenience of the 
occupants of the building or structure; plus whatever require- 
ments of experience and knowledge that are deemed necessary 

by the mxinicipality. 

107.5 QUALIFICATIONS OF THE LOCAL INSPECTOR: Each local in- 
spector shall have had at least five (5) years of experience 
in the supervision of building construction or design or, in 
the alternative a two-year associate degree in a field related 
to building construction or design. In addition, such persons 
shall have a general knowledge of the quality and strength of 
building materials; a general knowledge of the accepted re- 
quirements for building construction; fire prevention, light, 
ventilation and safe exits; and materials essential for safety, 
comfort, and convenience of the occupants of a building or 
structure; plus whatever requirements of experience and knowl- 
edge that are deemed necessary by the municipality. 

107.6 CERTIFICATION: The Department of Community Affairs shall 
offer a certification program for building officials and shall 
issue a certificate to those who satisfactorily complete said 
program. 

107.6 TRAINING: The Department of Community Affairs shall 
offer a continuing educational program designed to assist all 
building officials and state inspectors in executing their 
responsibilities as defined herein. Regular attendance at 
these programs shall be required of all building officials and 
state inspectors and no building official or state inspector who 
attends such course of instruction shall lose any relghts rela- 
tive to compensation or vacation time. 

107.8 RESTRICTION ON EMPLOYLOYEES : No full-time building 
commissioner, inspector of buildings, or full-time local in- 
spector as defined herein shall be engaged in, or directly or 
indirectly connected with, the furnishing of labor, materials 
or appliances for the construction, alteration or maintenance 
of a building or structure, or the preparation of plans or of 



1-6 



specifications therefor, unless he is the owner of the building or 
structure; nor shall any officer or employee associated with the building 
department engage in any work which conflicts with his official duties 
or with the interests of the department. 

107.9 RELIEF FROM PERSONAL LIABILITY: Insofar as the law allows, 
while acting for the municipality, the building official, charged 
with the enforcement of the Basic Code shall not be deemed personally 
liable in the discharge of his official duties. 



SECTION 108.0 DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE BUILDING OFFICIAL AND 
THE STATE INSPECTOR 

108.1 THE BUILDING OFFICIAL: The building commissioner or inspector of 

buildings and the local inspector shall enforce all the provisions of 

the Basic Code and any other applicable state statutes, rules and regulations, 

or ordinances and by-laws, and act on any question relative to the mode 

or manner of construction, and the materials to be used in the construction, 

reconstruction, alteration, repair, demolition, removal, installation of 

equipment, and the location use, occupancy, and maintenance of all 

buildings and structures, including any building or structure owned by 

any authority, except as may otherwise be specifically provided for by 

statutory requirements or as herein provided. 

108.11 APPLICATIONS AND PERMITS: The building official shall receive 
applications and issue permits for the construction, reconstruction, 
alteration, repair, demolition, removal, and installation of equipment, 
and inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and 
enforce compliance with the Basic Code provisions. 

108.12 BUILDING NOTICES AND ORDERS: The building official shall issue 
all necessary notices or orders to remove illegal or unsafe conditions, 
to require the necessary safeguards during construction, to require 
adequate exitway facilities in new and existing buildings and structures, 
and to insure compliance with all the code requirements for the safety, 
health and general welfare of the public. 

108.13 NEW MATERIALS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION: The building official 
shall accept duly authenticated reports from the Commission on all new 
materials and methods of construction proposed for use which are not 
specifically provided for in the Basic Code. Wherever there is insufficient 
evidence that any material or method of construction conforms to the 
requirements of the Basic Code or there is insufficient evidence to 
substantiate claims for alternative materials or construction, the 
building official may require tests nieeting the functional requirements 

of the Basic Code, and such tests shall be conducted by a laboratory 
and/or personnel approved by the Commission. The costs of all such 
tests or other investigations required under these provisions shall be 
paid by the applicant. 



1-7 



108.131 TEST RESULTS: Copies of the results of all such tests shall be 
forwarded to the Commission within ten (10) days and shall be kept on 
file in the permanent records of the building department. 

108.132 RETESTING: The Commission may require tests to be repeated, if 
at any time there is reason to believe that material or construction no 
longer conforms to the requirements on which its approval was based. 

108.14 INSPECTIONS: The building official shall make all the required 
inspections, or he may accept reports of inspections from a qualified 
registered professional engineer or architect or others certified by the 
Commission, and all reports of such inspections shall be in writing; or 
the building official may engage such expert as he may deem necessary to 
report upon unusual technical issues that may arise. 

108.15 INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION - SPECIFIED USE GROUPS: The building 
official shall periodically inspect and certify buildings and structures 
or parts thereof in use groups F, H, L-1, and L-2, according to Table 1-1. 
No certificate of inspection as herein specified shall be issued until 

an inspection is made certifying that the building or structure, or parts 
thereof, complies with all the applicable requirements of the Basic 
Code, and until the fee is paid as specified on Table 1-1. A copy of 
said certificate shall be kept posted as specified in section 121.2. 

108.16 ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES: The building commissioner or inspector 
of buildings shall have the authority to formulate administrative pro- 
cedures necessary to uniformly administer and enforce the Basic Code, 
provided that such procedures do not conflict with the rules and regu- 
lations promulgated by the Commission in the Basic Code or pursuant 
thereto. 

108.17 DEPARTMENT RECORDS: The building official shall keep in a 
public place and open to public inspection during normal working hours 
official records of applications received, permits and certificates 
issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, variances grated, and 
notices and orders issued. File copies of all papers in connection with 
building operations shall be retained in the official records so long as 
the building or structure to which they relate remains in existence. 

108.18 REPORTS: The building official shall submit the following 
reports: 

a) to the Department of Community Affairs on a form provided by 
said department a report of the building permit activity for 
the month; 

b) to the chief administrative officer of the municipality a 
written statement of all permits and certificates issued, fees 
collected, inspections made, and notices and orders issued for 
the year; 



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(-4 



c) to the Commission and Department of Public Safety reports 
on decisions regarding the matters not covered as speci- 
fied in section 101.22; and 

d) to the assessors of the municipality reports on permits 
issued as specified in section 114.11. 

108.2 THE STATE INSPECTOR: In every city and town the Basic 
Code shall be enforced by the state inspector as to any struc- 
tures or buildings or parts thereof that are owned by the Com- 
monwealth or any departments, commissions, agencies, or authori- 
ties of the Commonwealth. The state inspector shall have as 
to such buildings and structures all the powers of a building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings. 

108.21 OTHER RESPONSIBILITIES: The state inspector may review 
any order or decision of the building official. He shall super- 
vise the enforcement of the Basic Code, make periodic reviews 

of all building inspection practices of the local building de- 
partment, make recommendations for improvements of such practices, 
and report in writing his findings to the building official. 

108.22 REVIEW BY THE COMMISSIONER: The Commissioner of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Public Safety shall 
establish districts which shall be supervised by a state inspec- 
tor of the Division of Inspection. The Commissioner may review, 
on his own initiative or on the application of any state inspec- 
tor, any action or refusal or failure of action by any building 
official the result of which does not comply with the uniform 
implementation of the Basic Code; and may reverse, modify or 
annul, in whole or in part, such action except with respect to 
the specialized codes, provided that no order or action of the 
Commissioner shall reverse, modify, annul, or contravene any 
order, action, determination, interpretation or any decision by 
the Commission or the State Building Code Appeals Board. 

108.23 REPORTS: The state inspector shall file with the Commis- 
sion reports of his periodic reviews and recommendations for 
improvements of building inspection practices. The format and 
due dates for these reports shall be determined by the Commission. 



SECTION 109.0 RULES AND REGULATIONS 

109.1 RULE MAKING AUTHORITY: Under authority granted by Chapter 
802, Acts of 1972, as amended, the Commission is empowered in 
the interest of public safety, health and general welfare, to 
adopt and promulgate rules and regulations to interpret and 
implement the provisions of the Basic Code to secure the intent 
thereof and to establish applicable requirements due to local 
climatic or other conditions. 



1-10 



109.11 LICENSING OF CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISORS: Effective January 1, 
1976, any individual directly supervising persons engaged in construc- 
tion, reconstruction, alterations, repairs, removal or demolition 
involving the structural elements of buildings and structures shall be 
licensed according to the rules and regulations promulgated by the 
Commission entitled "RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR LICENSING CONSTRUCTION 
SUPERVISORS." No city or town shall be prohibited from requiring such 
licensing of construction supervisors from January 1, 1975 through 
December 31, 1975. 

109.12 LICENSING OF LABORATORIES AND TEST PERSONNEL: The Commission 
shall issue rules and regulations for the licensing of individuals, 
laboratories, and firms responsible for the testing of materials, 
devices and methods of construction, as provided in section 127.1. 

109.13 MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS: The Commission shall issue rules and 
regulations pursuant to article 19 governing manufactured buildings and 
building components. 

109.14 MOBILE HOMES: The commission shall issue rules and regulations 
pursuant to article 19 governing mobile homes. 

109.2 ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE: In the absence of approved rules, 
the regulations, specifications and standards listed in the appropriate 
article or in the appendices shall be deemed to represent accepted 
engineering practice with respect to the material, equipment, system or 
method of construction therein specified. 

109.3 AMENDMENTS AND PROMULGATION OF RULES: Any person may propose 
amendments to the Basic Code. Public hearings shall be held in the city 
of Boston in May and October of each year, and at such other times and 
places as the Commission may determine, to consider petitions for such 
amendments. Amendments adopted by the Commission shall be binding and 
have the full force and effect of law in all cities and towns. 



SECTION 110.0 VARIANCES 

When there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out struc- 
tural or mechanical provisions of the Basic Code, the board of appeals 
may allow a variance or a modification from such provisions as applied 
for by the owner as provided in section 126.0, provided that the decision 
of the board shall not conflict with the general objectives of the Basic 
Code and its enabling legislation and provided that no decision shall be 
considered by any person or agency as a precedent for future decisions. 



1-11 



SECTION 111.0 INSPECTION 

111.1 PRELIMINARY INSPECTIONS: Before issuing a permit, the build- 
ing official may examine or cause to be examined all buildings, 
structures and sites for which an application has been filed for 

a permit to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, demolish 
or change the use thereof. 

111.2 NEW BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 

111.21 INSPECTION: The building official shall make all required 
inspections as specified in the provisions of the Basic Code and 
he shall conduct such inspections from time to time during and 
upon completion of the work for which he has issued a permit; and 
he shall maintain a record of all such examinations and inspec- 
tions and of all violations of the Basic Code. In conjunction 
with specific construction projects the building official may 
designate specific inspection points in the course of construc- 
tion that require the contractor or builder to give the building 
official twenty-four (24) hours notice prior to the time when those 
inspections need to be performed. The building official shall make 
the inspection within forty-eight (48) hours after such notification. 

111.3 MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS 

111.31 PLANT INSPECTION: Inspection of all manufactured build- 
ings, building components, and mobile homes at the plant shall 
be performed by a third party which shall be certified and ap- 
proved by the Commission and monitored by the Department of 
Public Safety as specified in article 19 and the rules and regu- 
lations pursuant thereto. 

111.32 SITE INSPECTION: Inspection of all manufactured build- 
ings, building components, and mobile homes at the installa- 
tion site shall be made by the building official as specified 
in article 19 and the rules and regulations pursuant thereto. 

111.4 EXISTING BUILDINGS. 

111.41 PERIODIC INSPECTIONS: The building commissioner or in- 
spector of buildings shall develop plans for the systematic 
periodic inspection of all existing buildings and structures 
and shall cause such buildings and structures to be periodically 

or otherwise inspected as specified in section 108.15 and section 121.4, 
for compliance with the Basic Code. 

111.42 CHANGES OF OCCUPANTS: Before any building or part thereof, 
except multi-family and one and two-family dwellings (use groups 
L-2 and L-3), is re-occupied, the building official shall be 
notified by the owner. The building may be inspected and when 

in compliance with the Basic Code the building official shall 
re-certify the building or structure. 



1-12 



111.43 CHANGES OF OCCUPANTS -DWELLING UNITS: When any dwelling unit is 
vacated, the building official shall be so notified by the owner before 
the unit is re-occupied within any twelve-month period. Upon the 
determination of the building official, said dwelling unit may be inspected 
to determine if said unit conforms to the Basic Code. A dwelling unit 
shall be inspected with three (3) working days from the date of notification 
or it shall be deemed to be approved for occupancy. Nothing in this 
section is intended to require an owner to so notify the building official 
where another vacancy occurs within a twelve-month period of a prior 
notification. 

111.5 FINAL INSPECTION: The owner or his authorized representative 
shall notify the building official upon completion of the building or 
structure or part thereof. Prior to the issuance of the certificate of 
use and occupancy required in section 120.0, a final inspection shall be 
made and all violations of the approved plans and permit shall be noted 
and the holder of the permit shall be notified of any discrepancies. 

111.6 INSPECTION SERVICES: The building official may accept the written 
report of inspections from a qualified registered professional engineer 
or architect or others certified by the Commission; and such inspection 
report shall specify but not be limited to any violation of the requirements 
of the Basic Code in respect to egress requirements, floor load, fire 
grading, occupancy load and use of the buildings. 



SECTION 112.0 RIGHT OF ENTRY 

In the discharge of his duties, the building official shall have the 
authority to enter at any reasonable hour any building, structure or 
premises in the municipality to enforce the provisions of the Basic 
Code. 

If any owner, occupant, or other person refuses impedes, inhibits, 
interferes with, restricts, or obstructs entry and free access to every 
part of the structure, operation or premise where inspection authorized 
by the Basic Code is sought, the building official, or state inspector 
may: 

a) seek in a court of competent jurisdiction a search warrant so 
as to apprise the owner, occupant or other person concerning 
the nature of the inspection and justification for it and may 
seek the assistance of police authorities in presenting said 
warrant and/or 

b) revoke or suspend any license, permit or other permission reg- 
ulated under the Basic Code where inspection of the structures, 
operation or premises is sought to determine compliance with 
the Basic Code. 

112.1 OFFICIAL BADGE: The Commission may adopt a badge of office for 
building officials which shall be displayed for the purpose of identification. 



1-13 



112.2 MUNICIPAL COOPERATION: The assistance and cooperation of police, 
fire, and health departments and all other municipal officials shall be 
available to the building official as required in the performance of his 
duties. 



SECTION 113.0 APPLICATION FOR PERMIT 

113.1 WHEN PERMIT IS REQUIRED: It shall be unlawful to construct, 
enlarge, alter, remove or demolish a building, or change the occupancy 
of a building from one use group to another; or to install or alter any 
equipment for which provision is made or the installation of which is 
regulated by the Basic Code, without first filing an application with 
the building official in writing and obtaining the required permit 
therefor; except that ordinary repairs as defined in section 102 which 
do not involve any violation of the Basic Code shall be exempt from this 
provision. 

113.2 FORM OF APPLICATION: The application for a permit shall be 
submitted in such form as the building official may prescribe and shall 
be accompanied by the required fee as prescribed in section 118.0. 

113.3 BY WHOM APPLICATION IS MADE: Application for a permit shall be 
made by the owner, as defined in article 2, of the building or structure. 
The full names and addresses of the owner, applicant, and of the responsible 
officers, if the owner is a corporate body, shall be stated in the 
application. 

113.4 DESCRIPTION OF WORK: The application shall contain a general 
description of the proposed work, its location, the use and occupancy of 
all parts of the building or structure and of all portions of the site 
or lot not covered by the building; and shall state whether or not fire 
extinguishing equipment, plumbing, water piping, gasfitting, heating or 
electrical work is involved, the estimated cost of such work including 
the general work, and such additional information as may be required by 
the building commissioner or inspector of buildings. The building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings may require the facts contained 
in each application to be certified by the applicant under oath. 

113.5 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS: The application for the permit shall 
be accompanied by not less than three (3) copies of specifications and 
of plans drawn to scale, with sufficient clarity and detail dimensions 
to show the nature and character of the work to be performed. When 
quality of materials is essential for conformity to the Basic Code, 
specific information shall be given to establish such quality; and in no 
case shall the code be cited or the term "legal" or its equivalent be 
used as a substitute for specific information. The building official 
may waive the requirement for filing plans when the work involved is of 
a minor nature. 

All plans filed with the building official shall include but not be 
limited to : 

a) the accurate locations and dimension of all means of egress from 
fire and an occupancy schedule of persons for all occupiable 
spaces. 



1-14 



b) the method and amount of ventilation and sanitation. 

c) the methods of fire stopping as required in this code. 

d) schedules and details indicating compliance of interior trim 
and finish with provisions of article 9. 



1-UA 



113.51 STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO CONTROL: In those structures subject 
to control as required in section 128.0, affidavits must be submitted 
with the permit application, that the individuals and testing labora- 
tories responsible for carrying out the duties of section 128.0 have 
been licensed and registered by the Commission through the provisions 
of sections 800.4, 800.41 and 800.42. 

113.6 PLOT PLAN: There shall also be filed a plot plan showing to 
scale the size and location of all the new construction and all exist- 
ing structures on the site, distances from lot lines and the establish- 
ed street grades; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an accurate 
boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the plot plan shall 
show all construction to be demolished and the location and size of 
all existing buildings and construction that are to remain on the site 
or plot. The plot plan shall not be changed except as specified in 
section 115.4. 

113.7 ENGINEERING DETAILS: The building official may require ade- 
quate details of structural, mechanical and electrical work, includ- 
ing computations, stress diagrams and other essential technical data 
to be filed. All such plans and computations shall bear the Mass- 
achusetts seal of registration of the qualified registered profes- 
sional engineer or architect . 

113.8 AMENDMENTS TO APPLICATION: Subject to the limitations of 
section 113.9, no amendments or revisions to a plan or other records 
accompanying the same may be made until the proposed changes have been 
filed with and approved by the building official; and such approved 
amendments shall be deemed part of the original application and shall 
be filed therewith. 

113.9 TIME LIMITATION OF APPLICATION: An application for a permit 
for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned six (6) 
months after date of filing, unless such application has been dili- 
gently prosecuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that 
for reasonable cause the building official may grant one or more 
extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding ninety (90) 
days each. 



SECTION 114.0 PERMITS 

114.1 ACTION ON APPLICATION: The building commissioner or inspec- 
tor of buildings shall examine or cause to be examined all applica- 
tions for permits and amendments thereto within thirty (30) days 
after filing. Before a permit is granted for the excavation or for 
the erection of any building or structure, a written statement shall 
be furnished by the owner from a town or city engineer as to the 
established grades. If the application or the plans do not conform 
to the requirements of the Basic Code or of all pertinent laws, he 
shall reject such application citing the specific sections of the 
Basic Code or pertinent law. If he is satisfied that the proposed 
work conforms to the requirements of the Basic Code and all pertinent 
law applicable thereto, he shall issue a permit. 



1-15 



114.11 REPORT TO ASSESSORS: The building official shall give to 
the assessors of the municipality written notice of the granting by 
him of permits for the construction of any buildings or for the 
removal or demolition or for any substantial alteration or addition 
thereto. Such notice shall be given within seven (7) days after 
the granting of each permit, and shall state the name of the person 
to whom the permit was granted and the location of the building to 
be constructed, altered, demolished or removed. 

114.2 EXPIRATION OF PERMIT: Any permit issued shall become invalid 
unless the work authorized by it shall have been commenced within 
six (6) months after its issuance in which case it shall be deemed 
abandoned, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended for 
a period of one (1) year after the time the work is commenced; pro- 
vided that, for cause, one or more extensions of time, for periods 
not exceeding ninety (90) days each, may be allowed in writing by 
the building commissioner or inspector of buildings. For purposes 
of this section, any permit issued shall not be considered invalid, 
if such suspension or abandonment is due to a court order prohibit- 
ing such work as authorized by such permit. Provided however, in 
the opinion of the building commissioner, inspector of buildings 

or state inspector, the person so prohibited by such court order, 
adequately defends such action before the court. 

114.3 PREVIOUS APPROVALS: Nothing in the Basic Code or the rules 
and regulations pursuant thereto shall affect any building permit 
lawfully issued, or any building or structure lawfully begun in 
conformance with such permit, before the effective date of the Basic 
Code in a city or town, provided, that work under such a permit is 
commenced within six months after its issue, and that such work, 
whether under such permit or otherwise lawfully begun, proceeds in 
good faith continuously to completion so far as is reasonably prac- 
ticable under the circumstances. 

114.4 SIGNATURE TO PERMIT: The building commissioner or inspector 
of buildings shall affix his signature to every permit. 

114.5 APPROVED PLANS: If approved by him the building commissioner 
or inspector of buildings or supervisor of plans of the Division of 
Inspection of the Department of Public Safety shall stamp and endorse 
in writing the plans submitted in accordance with section 113.5; two 
sets of such stamped and endorsed plans shall be retained and he shall 
not allow the removal of any such plans and specifications from the 
department except in his sole discretion for the purposes of examina- 
tion by another municipal or state department; the other set of plans 
shall be kept at the building site, open to inspection of the build- 
ing commissioner, inspector of buildings. Commissioner of the Depart- 
ment of Public Safety or their authorized representative, at all 
reasonable times. 

114.6 REVOCATION OF PERMITS: The building official may revoke a 
permit or approval issued under the provisions of the Basic Code in 
case any false statement or misrepresentation of fact in the appli- 
cation of the plans on which the permit or approval was based . 



1-16 



114.7 APPROVAL IN PART: When application for a permit to erect or 
add to a building or other structure has been filed, as required in 
section 113.5, and pending issuance of such permit, the building 
official may at his discretion issue a special permit for the foun- 
dations or any other part of a building or structure. The holder 
of such a special permit may proceed at his own risk without assur- 
ance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted. 

114.8 POSTING OF PERMIT: A copy of the building permit provided 
by the building department shall be kept in view and protected from 
the weather on the site of operations open to public inspection dur- 
ing the entire time of prosecution of the work and until the certi- 
ficate of occupancy shall have been issued. The building permit 
shall serve as an inspection record card to allow the building offi- 
cial conveniently to make entries thereon regarding inspection of 
the work. 

114.9 NOTICE OF START: At least twenty-four (24) hours' notice of 
start of work under a building permit shall be given to the building 
official. 



SECTION 115.0 CONDITIONS OF PERMIT 

115.1 COMPLIANCE WITH CODE: The permit shall be a license to pro- 
ceed with the work and shall not be construed as authority to violate, 
cancel or set aside any of the provisions of the Basic Code, except 

as specifically stipulated by modification or legally granted varia- 
tion in accordance with section 126.0. 

115.2 COMPLIANCE WITH PERMIT: All work shall conform to the stamp- 
ed or endorsed application and plans for which the permit has been 
issued and any approved amendments thereto. 

115.3 COMPLIANCE WITH PLOT PLAN: All new work shall be located 
strictly in accordance with the approved plot plan. 

115.4 CHANGE IN PLOT PLAN: No lot or plot shall be changed, in- 
creased or diminished in area from that shown on the official plot 
plan, as specified in section 113.6, unless a revised plan showing 
such changes accompanied by the necessary affidavit of owner or 
applicant shall have been filed and approved; except that such re- 
vised plot plan will not be required if the change is caused by 
reason of an official street opening, street widening or other pub- 
lic improvement . 



SECTION 116.0 DEMOLITION OF BUILDINGS 

116.1 SERVICE CONNECTIONS: Before a building can be demolished or 
removed, the owner or agent shall notify all utilities having ser- 
vice connections within the building such as water, electric, gas. 



1-17 



sewer and other connections. A permit to demolish or remove a build- 
ing shall not be issued until a release is obtained from the utili- 
ties, stating that their respective service connections and appur- 
tenant equipment, such as meters and regulators, have been removed 
or sealed and plugged in a safe manner . 



SECTION 117.0 REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS 

117.1 LOT REGULATION: When a building or structure has been demol- 
ished or removed and no building operation has been projected or 
approved, the vacant lot shall be filled with non-organic fill, grad- 
ed and maintained in conformity with adjacent grades. The lot shall 
be maintained free from the accumulation of rubbish and all other 
unsafe or hazardous conditions which endanger the life or health of 
the public; provisions shall be made to prevent the accumulation of 
water or damage to any foundations on the premises or the adjoining 
property; and the necessary retaining walls and fences shall be 
erected in accordance with the provisions of article 13. 



SECTION 118.0 FEES 

No permit shall be issued to begin work for new construction, al- 
teration, removal, demolition or other building operation until the 
fees prescribed by municipal ordinance or by-law shall have been paid 
to the city or town collector or other municipal agency authorized to 
collect such fees. 

118.1 SPECIAL FEES: The payment of the fee for the construction, 
alteration, removal or demolition and for all work done in connec- 
tion with or concurrently with the work contemplated by a building 
permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from 
the payment of other fees that may be prescribed by law or ordinance 
for water taps, sewer connections, electrical and plumbing permits, 
erection of signs and display structures, marquees or other appurte- 
nant structures, or fees for inspections, certificates of use and 
occupancy or other privileges or requirements, both within and with- 
out the jurisdiction of the building department. 



SECTION 119.0 FEE COMPUTATION 

The permit fees shall be computed according to the fee schedule 
and procedures adopted in the municipality. 



SECTION 120.0 CERTIFICATE OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

120,1 NEW BUILDINGS: No building hereafter erected shall be used 
or occupied in whole or in part until the certificate of use and 
occupancy shall have been issued by the building official. The 



1-18 



certificate shall not be issued until all the work has been completed 
in accordance with the provisions of the approved permits and of the 
applicable codes for which a permit is required, except as provided 
in section 120.4. 

120.2 BUILDINGS HEREAFTER ALTERED: No building hereafter enlarged, 
extended or altered to change the use group classification, the fire- 
grading, the maximum live load capacity, or the occupancy load capac- 
ity, in whole or in part, and no building hereafter altered for which 
a certificate of use and occupancy has not been heretofore issued, 
shall be occupied or used until the certificate shall have been issued 
by the building official, certifying that the work has been completed 
in accordance with the provisions of the approved permits and of the 
applicable codes for which a permit is required. Any use or occupancy, 
which was not discontinued during the work of alteration, shall be dis- 
continued within thirty (30) days after the completion of the altera- 
tion unless the required certificate is issued by the building offi- 
cial . 

120.3 EXISTING BUILDINGS: Upon written request from the owner of 

an existing building, the building official shall issue a certificate 
of use and occupancy, provided there are no violations of law or 
orders of the building official pending, and it is established after 
inspection and investigation that the alleged use of the building has 
heretofore existed. Nothing in the Basic Code shall require the re- 
moval, alteration or abandonment of, or prevent the continuance of 
the use and occupancy of a lawfully existing building, unless such 
use is deemed to endanger public safety and welfare. 

120.4 TEMPORARY OCCUPANCY: Upon the request of the holder of a 
permit, the building official may issue a temporary certificate of 
occupancy for a building or structure, or part thereof, before the 
entire work covered by the permit shall have been completed, pro- 
vided such portion or portions may be occupied safely prior to full 
completion of the building without endangering life or public wel- 
fare, and provided that the agencies having jurisdiction for permits 
issued under other applicable codes are notified of the decision to 
issue a temporary certificate. 

120.5 CONTENTS OF CERTIFICATE: The certificate shall certify com- 
pliance with the provisions of the Basic Code and the purpose for 
which the building or structure may be used in its several parts; 
and shall be issued by the building official within ten (10) days 
after final inspection, provided that the provisions of the approved 
permits and of the applicable codes for which permits are required 
have been met. For use groups A, B, C, D and E the certificate of use 
and occupancy shall specify; the use group, in accordance with the 
provisions of article 2, the fire grading as defined in article 2 

and table 9-1, the maximum live load on all floors as prescribed in 
article 7, the occupancy load in the building and all parts thereof 
as defined in article 2 and article 6, and any special stipulations 
and conditions of the building permit. 



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SECTION 121.0 POSTING BUILDINGS 

121.1 POSTED USE AND OCCUPANCY: A suitably designed placard ap- 
proved by the building official shall be posted by the owner on 
all floors of every building and structure and part thereof de- 
signed for high hazard, storage, mercantile, industrial or business 
use (use groups A, B, C, D, and E) as defined in article 2. Said 
placard shall be securely fastened to the building or structure in 
a readily visible place, stating: the use group, the fire grading, 
the live load and the occupancy load . 

121.2 POSTED OCCUPANCY LOAD: A suitably designed placard approved 
by the building official shall be posted by the owner of every build- 
ing and structure and part thereof designed for use as a place of 
public assembly or as an institutional building for harboring people 
for penal, correctional, educational, medical or other care of treat- 
ment, or as residential buildings used for hotels, lodging houses, 
boarding houses, dormitory buildings, multiple-family dwellings (use 
groups F, H, L-1 and L-2) . Said placard shall designate the maximum 
occupancy load. 

121.3 REPLACEMENT OF POSTED SIGNS: All posting signs shall be fur- 
nished by the owner and shall be of permanent design; they shall not 
be removed, or defaced and, if lost, removed or defaced, shall be 
immediately replaced. 

121.4 PERIODIC INSPECTION FOR POSTING: The building official shall 
periodically inspect all existing buildings and structures except 
one and two-family dwellings for compliance with the Basic Code in 
respect to posting; or he may accept the report of such inspections 
from a qualified registered engineer or architect or others certified 
by the Commission; and such inspections and reports shall specify 
any violation of the requirements of the Basic Code in respect to 
the posting of floor load, fire grading, occupancy load and use group 
of the building. 



SECTION 122.0 VIOLATIONS 

122.1 NOTICE OF VIOLATION: The building official shall serve a 
written notice of violation or order on the owner, as defined in 
article 2, or the person responsible when in violation of any of 
the provisions of the Basic Code. Such notice or order shall di- 
rect the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the 
abatement of the violation. 

122.12 NOTICE OR ORDERS - SERVICE AND CONTENT: Every notice or 
order authorized by the Basic Code shall be in writing, and shall 
be served on the person responsible: 



1-20 



a) personally, by any person authorized by the building official: 
or 

b) by any person authorized to serve civil process by leaving 
a copy of the order or notice at his last and usual place 
of abode; or 

c) by sending him a copy of the order by registered mail, return 
receipt requested, if he is within the Commonwealth; or 

d) if his last and usual place of abode is unkown or outside 
the Commonwealth, by posting a copy of the order or notice 
in a conspicuous place on or about the premises in violation 

and by publishing it for at least three (3) out of five (5) consecu- 
tive days in one or more newspapers of general circulation where- 
in the building or premises affected is situated. 

122.2 PROSECUTION OF VIOLATION: If the notice of violation is 
not complied with within thirty (30) days after service, unless 
otherwise provided in the Basic Code, the building official may 
institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity in a 
court of competent jurisdiction to restrain, correct or abate 
such violation or to require the removal or termination of the 
unlawful use of the building or structure in violation of the 
provisions of the Basic Code or of the order or direction made 
pursuant thereto; or 

122.3 VIOLATION PENALTIES: A person who shall violate a provision 
of the Basic Code shall be punishable by a fine of not more than 
one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for not more than 
one year, or both, for each violation. Each day during which any por- 
tion of a violation continues shall constitute a separate offense. 

122.4 ABATEMENT OF VIOLATION: The imposition of the penalties 
herein prescribed shall not preclude the building official from 
instituting appropriate action to prevent unlawful construction 
or to restrain, correct or abate a violation, or to prevent 
illegal occupancy of a building, structure or premises or to stop 
an illegal act, conduct, business or use of a building or structure 
in or about any premises. 



SECTION 123.0 STOP-WORK ORDER 

123.1 NOTICE TO OWNER: Upon notice from the building official 
that any work on a building or structure is being prosecuted con- 
trary to the provisions of the Basic Code or in an unsafe or dan- 
gerous manner, such work shall be immediately stopped. The stop- 
work order shall be in writing and shall be served on the owner, 
as defined in article 2, or on the person responsible as provided 
in section 122.12; and shall state the conditions under which work 



1-21 



may be resumed; provided, however, that in instances where immediate 
action is deemed necessary for public safety or in the public in- 
terest, the building official may require that work be stopped upon 
verbal order. 

123.11 POSTING: A stop-work notice shall be posted in a conspic- 
uous place on the job site and can only be removed by the building 
official. 

123.2 UNLAWFUL CONTINUANCE: Any person who shall continue any 
work in or about the job site after having been served with a 
stop-work order, except such work as he is directed to perform to 
remove a violation or unsafe conditions, shall be liable to pro- 
sectution as provided in section 122. 0._^ 



SECTION 124.0 UNSAFE BUILDINGS - SURVEY BOARD 

124.1 DUTIES OF BUILDING OFFICIAL - UNSAFE BUILDINGS: The build- 
ing official, immediately upon being informed by report or other- 
wise that a building or other structure or anything attached there- 
to or connected therewith is dangerous to life or limb or that any 
building in that city or town is unused, uninhabited or abandoned, 
and open to the weather, shall inspect the same; and he shall forth- 
with in writing notify the owner as provided in section 122.12, 

as defined in article 2, to remove it or make it safe if it appears 
to him to be dangerous , or to make it secure if it is unused , unin- 
habited or abandoned and open to the weather. If it appears that 
such structure would be especially unsafe in case of fire, it shall 
be deemed dangerous within the meaning hereof, and the building 
official may affix in a conspicuous place upon its exterior walls 
a notice of its dangerous condition, which shall not be removed 
or defaced without authority from him. 

124.2 REMOVAL OR MAKING STRUCTURE SAFE - PUTTING UP FENCE: Any 
person so notified shall be allowed until twelve o'clock noon 

of the day following the service of the notice in which to begin 
to remove such structure or make it safe, or to make it secure, 
and he shall employ sufficient labor speedily to make it safe 
or remove it or to make it secure; but if the public safety so 
requires and if the mayor or selectmen so order, the building 
official may immediately enter upon the premises with the necessary 
workmen and assistants and cause such unsafe structure to be made 
safe or demolished without delay and a proper fence put up for 
the protection of passersby, or to be made secure. 

124.3 FAILURE TO REMOVE OR MAKE STRUCTURE SAFE, SURVEY BOARD, 
SURVEY, REPORT: If an owner, as defined in article 2, of such un- 
safe structure refuses or neglects to comply with the require- 



1-22 



merits of such notice within the specified time limit, and such structure 
is not made safe or taken down as ordered, therein, a careful survey 
of the premises shall be made by a board consisting; in a city, of 
a city engineer, the head of the fire department, as such term is 
defined in Section 1 of Chapter 148 of the Massachusetts General Laws 
Annotated, as amended, and one disinterested person to be appointed 
by the building official; and, in a town, of a surveyor, the head 
of the fire department and one disinterested person to be appointed 
by a building official. In the absence of any of the above officers 
or individuals, the mayor or selectmen shall designate one or more 
officers or other suitable persons in place of the officers so named 
as members of said board . A written report of such survey shall be 
made, and a copy thereof served on such owner. 



SECTION 125.0 EMERGENCY MEASURES 

125.1 REMOVAL OF DANGEROUS OR ABANDONED STRUCTURES: If such survey 
report as outlined in section 124.0, declares such structure to be 
dangerous or to be unused, uninhabited or abandoned, and open to the 
weather, and if the owner, as defined in article 2, continues such 
refusal or neglect the building official shall cause it to be made 
safe or taken down or to be made secure, and, if the public safety 
so requires, said building official may at once enter the structure, 
the land on which it stands or the abutting land or buildings, with 
such assistance as he may require, and secure the same, and may remove 
and evict, under the pertinent provisions of Chapter 239 of the 
Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as amended or otherwise, 

any tenant or occupant thereof, and may erect such protection for 
the public by proper fence or otherwise as may be necessary, and for 
this purpose may close a public highway. In the case of such demolition, 
the said building official shall cause such lot to be levelled to 
conform with adjacent grades by a non-organic fill. The costs and 
charges incurred shall constitute a lien upon the land upon which 
the structure is located and shall be enforced in an action of contract, 
and such owner shall for every day's continuance of such refusal or 
neglect after being so notified, be punished by a fine in accordance 
with section 122.3. The provisions of the second paragraph of 
Section 3A of Chapter 139 of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated 
as amended, relative to liens for such debt and the collection of 
claims for such debt, shall apply to any debt referred to in this 
section, except that the said building official shall act hereunder 
in place of the mayor or board of selectmen. During the time such 
order is in effect, it shall be unlawful to use or occupy such structure 
or any portion thereof for any purpose. 

125.2 REMEDY OF PERSON ORDERED TO REMOVE A DANGEROUS STRUCTURE OR 
MAKE IT SAFE: An owner, as defined in article 2, aggrieved by such 
order may have the remedy prescribed by Section 2 of Chapter 139 of 
the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as amended; provided, that 
no provision of said Section 2 shall be construed so as to hinder, 
delay or prevent the building official acting and proceeding under 
section 125.1; and provided, further, that this section shall not 

1-23 



prevent the city or town from recovering the forfeiture provided in 
said section 125.1 from the date of the service of the original notice, 
unless the order is annulled by the jury. 



SECTION 126.0 BOARD OF APPEALS 

126.1 STATE BUILDING CODE APPEALS BOAED : Whoever is aggrieved by 
an interpretation, order, requirement, direction or failure to act 
under the Basic Code by any agency or official of the city, town or 
region, or agency or official of the State charged with the adminis- 
tration or enforcement of the Basic Code or any of its rules or regu- 
lations, excepting any specialized codes, may appeal directly to the 
State Building Code Appeals Board as provided in section 126. 

Whoever is aggrieved by an interpretation, order, requirement, 
direction or failure to act under the Basic Code by any agency or 
official of a city, town or region charged with the administration or 
enforcement of the Basic Code or any of its rules and regulations, 
excepting any specialized codes, may appeal directly to the State 
Building Code Appeals Board or may appeal first to a local or regional 
appeals board and then to the State Building Code Appeals Board as 
provided in section 126. 

In the event an appeal is taken directly to the State Building Code 
Appeals Board from an interpretation, order, requirement or direction, 
said appeal shall be filed as specified in section 126.31, with the 
State Building Code Appeals Board no later than forty-five (45) days 
after the service of notice thereof of the interpretation, order, 
requirement or direction. 

In the event the appeal is taken directly to the State Building Code 
Appeals Board for the failure to act, the appeal shall be taken no 
later than forty-five (45) days after a request to act has been made 
by the aggrieved person in writing and served to the appropriate 
building official or chief administrative officer of the state or 
local agency which fails to act. 

If the aggrieved person elects to appeal before the local or regional 
board, he shall not be allowed to enter such appeal with the State 
Building Code Appeals Board until such time as the said local or 
regional board renders a decision, unless the reason for appeal to 
the State Building Code Appeals Board is the failure of the local or 
regional board to act. 



126.2 MEMBERSHIP 

126.21 THREE MEMBER PANEL: The State Building Code Appeals Board 
(hereinafter referred to in section 126 as the Board) shall consist 
of the membership of the State Building Code Commission. The chairman 
of the Commission shall be chairman of the Board. The chairman of the 

1-24 



Board may designate any three (3) members of the Board to act as a 
three (3) member panel to hold any public hearing under section 126, 
and to hear testimony and take evidence. The chairman of the Board 
shall select one (1) of the three (3) members to act as chairman 
of the said three (3) member panel. If a three (3) member panel is so 
designated, the three (3) member panel shall act as the appeals board 
and render a decision as provided in section 126. 

126.22 CLERK: The Executive Secretary of the Commission shall desig- 
nate one (1) of the staff of the Coimnission to act as Clerk to the 
Board. The Clerk shall keep a detailed record of all decisions and 
appeals and a docket book on file with the name of each appeal properly 
indexed and the disposition of the appeal. Said docket book shall be 
open to public inspection at all times during normal business hours. 

126.23 QUORUM: A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum if 
the appeal is heard by the entire Board. If the appeal is heard by 

a three (3) member panel, two (2) members shall constitute a quorum. 

126.3 APPEALS PROCEDURE FOR STATE BUILDING CODE APPEALS BOARD 

126.31 ENTRY: Appeals shall be entered on forms provided by the 
Commission and shall be accompanied by an entry fee of fifty dollars 
($50) or such other amounts as may be determined by the Conmiission 
from time to time. 

The appeal shall be signed by the appellant or his attorney or 
agent and shall note the name and address of the person or agency in 
whose behalf the appeal is taken and the name of the person and 
address wherein service of notice for the appellant is to be made. 
The appeal shall also state in detail the interpretation, order, 
requirement, direction or failure to act which are the grounds of the 
appeal as well as the particular section or sections of the Basic 
Code which are involved in the appeal and the reasons the appellant 
advances supporting the appeal. 

A copy of the appeal shall be served in accordance with section 
122.12 by the appellant on the person or state, regional or local 
agency from whose action or inaction the appeal is taken, on or before 
entry of the appeal. A return of service under oath shall be filed 
with the Board forthwith by the appellant. 

126.32 STAY OF PROCEEDINGS: Entry of an appeal shall stay all pro- 
ceedings in furtherance of the action or failure to act appealed 
from, unless the state, regional or local agency or any person charged 
with the administration or enforcement of the Basic Code or any of its 
rules or regulations presents evidence and the Board or a three (3) mem- 
ber panel or a single member of the Board appointed by the chairman for 
said purpose, finds that upon the evidence presented a stay would 
involve imminent peril to life or property. In such an event, stay 

of all proceedings shall be waived or the Board or three (3) member panel 
or single member may order such other action necessary to preserve 
public safety. 

1-25 



Before waiving the stay of proceedings, the Board or three (3) member 
panel or single member of the Board appointed by the chairman for 
said purpose, shall hold a hearing and give the appellant and state, 
regional or local agency or any person claiming that a stay would 
involve imminent peril to life or property, notice in writing of the 
hearing not less than twenty-four (24) hours before said hearing. 

126.33 DOCUMENTS: Upon entry, the Clerk shall request in writing 
from the state, city, regional or town officer in charge of the 
matter on appeal, a copy of the record and all other papers and docu- 
ments relative to the appeal to be transmitted forthwith to the 
Board. Said state, city, regional or town officer shall upon receipt 
of the request of the board transmit forthwith all the papers and 
documents and a copy of the record relating to the matter on appeal. 

126.34 HEARINGS: The chairman of the Board shall fix a convenient 
time and place for a public hearing. Said hearings shall be held 

not later than thirty (30) days after the entry of such appeal, unless 
such time is extended by agreement with the appellant . Any such party 
may appear in person or by agent or attorney at such hearing. The 
chairman or clerk shall give notice of the time and place of said 
hearing to all parties to the hearing and to anyone else requesting 
notice in writing at least ten (10) days prior thereto. Failure to 
hold a public hearing within thirty (30) days shall not affect the 
validity of the appeal or any decision rendered. The board or three (3) 
member panel in its hearings conducted under this section shall not 
be bound by strict rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law or 
equity. 



126.4 DECISIONS 

126.41 VOTES REQUIRED: If the appeal is conducted by a three (3) member 
panel, then the concurrence of two (2) of the three (3) members holding 
the public hearing shall be required. If the appeal is conducted by 

the entire board, then a majority vote of those hearing the case shall 
be required. 

126.42 STANDARD: The board or a three (3) member panel may vary the 
application of any provision of this Code to any particular case when 

in the opinion of the board or a three (3) member panel, the enforcement 
of the Code would do manifest injustice, provided that the board or 
three-member panel finds that the decision to grant a variance shall 
not conflict with the general objectives set forth in Section 18 of 
Chapter 23B of the General Laws of the Commonwealth or with the 
general objectives of the Basic Code. 

126.43 TIME FOR DECISION: The board shall within thirty (30) days 
after such hearing, unless such time is extended by agreement of the 
parties, issue a decision or order reversing, affirming or modifying 
in whole or in part the order, interpretation, requirement, direction 
or failure to act which is the subject matter of the appeal. 



1-26 



Failure to render a decision within thirty (30) days shall not 
affect the validity of any such decision or appeal. 

Notice of and a copy of the decision shall be sent by the Clerk 
to all parties to the appeal and anyone requesting in writing a 
copy of the decision. 

126.44 CONTENTS OF DECISION: All decisions shall be in writing and 
state findings of fact, conclusions and reasons for decisions. Every 
decision shall indicate thereon the vote of each member and shall be 
signed by each member voting. No decision shall be considered by any 
person or agency as a precedent for future decisions. 

126.45 ADDITIONAL POWERS: The board or a three (3) member panel may 
impose in any decision, limitations both as to time and use, and a 
continuation of any use permitted may be conditioned upon compliance 
with future amendments to the Basic Code. 

126.5 ENFORCEMENT: Upon receipt of the decision of the Board or a 
three (3) member panel, the parties to the appeal shall take action 
forthwith to comply with the decision unless a later time is specified 
in the decision. 

126.6 APPEALS FROM STATE BUILDING CODE APPEALS BOARD: Any person 
aggrieved by a decision of the State Building Code Appeals Board may 
appeal to a court of law or equity in conformance with Chapter 30A, 
Section 14 of the General Laws. 

126.7 LOCAL OR REGIONAL BOARD OF APPEALS: Whoever is aggrieved by 
an interpretation, order, requirement, direction or failure to act 
under the Basic Code by any agency or official of a city, region or 
town charged with the administration or enforcement of the Basic Code 
or any of its rules and regulations may appeal first to the appeals 
board in that city, region or town and then to the State Building Code 
Appeals Board as provided in section 126. 

In the event an appeal is taken from an interpretation, order, 
requirement or direction, said appeal shall be filed with the local 
or regional appeal board no later than forty-five (45) days after the 
service of notice thereof of the interpretation, order, requirement 
or direction. 

In the event the appeal is taken for the failure to act, the appeal 
shall be taken no later than forty-five (45) days after a request to act 
has been made by the aggrieved person in writing and served to the 
appropriate building official or chief administrative officer of the 
city, regional or town agency which fails to act. 



126.8 LOCAL AND REGIONAL BOARD OF APPEALS 

126.81 MEMBERSHIP: Any building code board of appeals duly established 
by ordinance or by-law or otherwise in a city, region or town and in 



1-27 



existence on January 1, 1975, shall qualify as a local board of appeals 
under section 126 notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained 
herein. However, the procedure and rights for appeals for such board 
of appeals shall be governed by this Code. 

If a city, region or town has not duly established by ordinance 
or by-law or otherwise a local or regional building code appeals board 
by January 1, 1975, said city, region or town may establish a local or 
regional board of appeals, hereinafter referred to as the local board 
of appeals, consisting of five (5) members appointed by the chief 
administrative officer of the city, region or town: one (1) member ap- 
pointed for five (5) years, one (1) for four (4) years, one for three 
(3) years, one for two (2) years and one to serve for one (1) year; and 
thereafter each new member to serve for five (5) years or until his 
successor has been appointed. 

126.82 QUALIFICATIONS OF LOCAL BOARD MEMBERS: Each member of a local 
board of appeals established under section 126.81 shall have had at 
least five (5) years experience in the construction, alteration, 
repair and maintenance of building and building codes. At least one 
(1) member shall be a registered structural or civil professional 
engineer and one (1) member a licensed professional architect. 

126.83 CHAIRMAN OF LOCAL OR REGIONAL BOARD: The board shall select 
one (1) of its members to serve as chairman, and the building official 
shall designate a person from the department to serve as secretary to 
the board, who shall keep a detailed record of all proceedings on file 
in the said building department. 

126.84 ABSENCE OF MEMBERS: During the absence of a member of a local 
board of appeals for reason of disability or disqualification, the 
chief administrative officer of the city, region or town shall desig- 
nate a substitute who shall meet the qualifications as outlined in 
section 126.82. 

126.85 QUORUM: A quorum shall be three (3) members, but when five 
(5) qualified members are not present to consider a specific appeal, 
either the appellant or appellee may request a postponement of the 
hearing. 

126.86 PROCEDURES: Entry of appeals shall be governed by section 
126.31 excepting that the city, region or towns may set their own 
entry fee. 

Upon notice of entry of appeal the local building commissioner or 
inspector of buildings shall transmit a copy of the record and all 
the papers and documents to the local board of appeals. 

Entry of an appeal shall stay all proceedings in furtherance of 
the action or failure to act appealed from, unless the building com- 
missioner or inspector of buildings certifies in writing to the local 



1-28 



board of appeals that a stay would involve imminent peril to life or 
property. Notice in writing of such certification by the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings shall be given the appellant 
at least twenty-four (24) hours prior to the hearing. In such an 
event a hearing on such stay shall be given first priority and be the 
first matter heard by the local board of appeal at its next scheduled 
meeting. The hearing on the appeal shall be held as soon as possible 
thereafter in accordance with section 126.87. 

The local board of appeal may establish its own rules for procedure 
not established herein or not inconsistent with this Code or the 
enabling legislation creating a statewide building code. 

126.87 HEARINGS: All hearings shall be public and notice of said 
hearings shall be advertised in a newspaper of general circulation 
in the city, region or town in which the appeal is taken, at least 
ten (10) days before said hearing. Notice of the hearing, setting 
forth the date and time of said hearing shall be mailed by the local 
board of appeals to all parties and all those who requested notice 
in writing at least fourteen (14) days before said hearing. Said 
hearings shall be held not later than thirty (30) days after the 
entry of such appeal, unless such time is extended by agreement with 
the appellant. This section as it pertains to notice shall not apply 
to hearings on a stay as provided in section 126.86. 

126.88 DECISIONS OF LOCAL BOARDS: A concurring vote of a majority 

of all the members shall be required for any decision. The local appeals 
board may vary the application of this Code to any particular case when 
in its opinion the enforcement of this Code would do manifest injustice, 
provided that the decision of the board shall not conflict with the 
general objectives of the state building code or any of its enabling 
legislation. The local board of appeal may impose in any decision, 
limitations both as to time and use, and a continuation of any use 
permitted may be conditioned upon compliance with future amendments 
to the Basic Code. 

126.89 TIME FOR DECISION: The board shall within thirty (30) days 
after such hearing, unless such time is extended by agreement of the 
parties, issue a decision or order reversing, affirming or modifying 
in whole or in part the order, interpretation, requirement, direction 
or failure to act which is the subject matter of the appeal. 

Failure to render a decision within thirty (30) days shall not 
affect the validity of any such decision or appeal. 

Notice of and a copy of the decision shall be sent by the clerk to 
all parties to the appeal and to anyone requesting in writing a copy 
of the decision. 

126.90 CONTENTS OF DECISION: All decisions shall be in writing and 
state findings of fact, conclusions and reasons for the decisions. 



1-29 



Every decision shall indicate thereon the vote of each member and shall 
be signed by each member voting. Any decision shall not be considered 
by any person or agency as a precedent for future decisions. 

126.91 ENFORCEMENT OF DECISION: If said decision is approved by the 
State Building Code Appeals Board, all parties to the appeal shall take 
immediate action in accordance with the decision of the local board 
unless the person aggrieved by such decision appeals to the State Building 
Code Appeals Board as provided in section 126. 

126.92 COPY OF DECISION: A copy of any decision by a local board of 
appeals shall be transmitted to the State Building Code Appeals Board 
within ten (10) days after the rendering of such decision. If the State 
Building Code Appeals Board disapproves of the said decision of the 
local board, it may on its own motion, appeal from the local appeals 
board's decision according to section 126 and call for a hearing de 
novo . 

If the State Building Code Appeals Board does not notify the local 
board in writing within forty-five (45) days from the date of the local 
board's decision, the said decision shall be deemed approved; provided 
that the decision shall not conflict with the general objectives of the 
state building code and any of its enabling legislation. 

126.93 REVIEW: Any person, including the State Building Code Appeals 
Board, aggrieved by a decision of the local board of appeals, whether or 
not a previous party to the decision, or any municipal officer or 
official board of the municipality, may not later than forty-five (45) 
days after the mailing of the decision of the local board, apply to the 
State Building Code Appeals Board for a hearing de novo before the state 
board, in accordance with the regulations contained in section 126. 



SECTION 127.0 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SAFETY BOARD 

127.1 RULES AND REGULATIONS FOR LICENSING: The commission shall issue 
rules and regulations for the examination and licensing, and the revocation 
of licenses of individuals, laboratories and firms responsible for the 
inspection, control, testing and quality of materials, devices and 
methods of construction. Said rules and regulations shall require that 
all testing equipment and procedures shall comply with standards issued 
by the American Society for Testing and Materials, provided that such 
standards shall not conflict at any time with any rules and regulations 
established by and for the said commission. 

127.11 CONSTITUTION OF THE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SAFETY BOARD: There 
shall be a board under the control of the commission called the Construction 
Materials Safety Board, hereafter in section 127 called the board, which 
shall consist of nine (9) members, one (1) of whom shall be a member of 
the commission who shall be ex officio and a voting member of the 



1-30 



board, and eight (8) members to be appointed by the chairman of the 
commission: one of whom shall be a registered professional engineer who 
is a structural engineer; one of whom shall be a registered architect; 
one of whom shall be a representative of a Commercial Testing Labora- 
tory; one of whom shall be a representative of a Public Testing Labora- 
tory; two of whom shall be representatives from the construction in- 
dustry; one of whom shall be a member of a university faculty engaged in 
research and teaching in structural materials; and one of whom shall be 
a member of a university faculty engaged in research and teaching in the 
area of theoretical and applied mechanics. 

127.12 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SAFETY BOARD: The board will review 
applications for registration for licensing of individuals and lab- 
oratories responsible for the inspection, control and testing of con- 
struction materials and report to the State Building Code Commission 
their recommendations. The board will collect information and review 
cases where disciplinary action against an existing license, whether an 
individual, laboratory or firm, has been proposed, and make recommenda- 
tions to the State Building Code Commission. The commission will issue 
applications, receive payment of registration and licensing fees, and 
maintain records for the efficient dispatch of the duties of the board. 
The board shall submit to the commission reports from time to time as 
requested by the commission, but at least annually. 

127.2 TESTING AND EVALUATION GROUP: The State Building Code Commission 
shall establish and maintain a Testing and Evaluation Group, who will 
have the responsibility of administering and directing, under the super- 
vision of the commission, the testing and controls for evaluating 
individual applicants and laboratories wishing to become registered and 
licensed as required under section 128.9. 



127.3 ACTIVITIES REQUIRING LICENSES 

127.31 CONCRETE TESTING: On and after the first day of January 1975, 
no person shall engage in the activities of field testing, plant testing 
or field inspection of concrete unless such person is licensed to do so 
by the commission. Any person who violates the provisions of this 
section, any person who falsifies or counterfeits a license issued by 
the board, or any person who fraudulently issues or accepts such a 
license shall be punished as provided in section 122.0 of this Code. The 
commission shall require strict adherence to the standards of the 
American Society for Testing and Materials, Designation E-329, entitled 
"Recommended Practice for Inspection and Testing Agencies for Concrete 
and Steel as Used in Construction." 



128.0 CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION 

128.1 STRUCTURES SUBJECT TO CONTROL: Structures and/or parts thereof 
which fall within the categories below shall be subject to control as 
provided in this section: 



1-31 



CATEGORIES 

one-story structures with a story height of twenty-five (25) 
feet or more 

four (4) or more floors of framed construction 

more than two (2) levels of shored concrete framework 

piles, caissons, pressure-injected footings 

underpinnings 

temporary shoring or sheeting ten (10) feet or more in height 

masonry bearing walls four (4) stories or more in height 

structures using post-tensioned concrete 

four (4) stories or more of precast concrete 

retaining walls ten (10) feet or more in total height 

bridges, quays and wharfs. 

128.2 WAIVER OF STRUCTURAL PLANS: The examination of structural plans 
and specifications of structures and/or parts thereof which fall within 
the categories listed in section 128.1 may be waived by the building 
official when such plans and specifications are submitted by a qualified 
registered professional engineer. In such case they shall be accom- 
panied by an affidavit stating that the registered professional engineer 
has supervised the preparation of the structural design contract docu- 
ments, and that such documents conform to all provisions of this Code 
and legal rules adopted under its provisions. 

128.3 WAIVER OF STRUCTURAL FIELD EXAMINATION: If required by the 
building official, the detailed department field inspection of those 
parts of plans and specifications submitted under the provisions of 
section 128.2 shall be performed by a qualified registered profes- 
sional engineer. Such qualified registered professional engineer 
shall submit an affidavit stating that the structure shall be built 
under his observation or. that of his qualified designated represen- 
tative and in accordance with the approved contract documents and 
furthermore, that he will review and approve all working drawings 

for the construction. Such qualified registered professional engineer 
or representative shall certify that the construction is in sub- 
stantial accordance with the drawings and specifications submitted 
under sections 128.2 and 128.3. 

128.4 BUILDING OFFICIAL RESPONSIBILITY: Nothing contained in this 
section shall have the effect of waiving or limiting the building 



1-32 



official's authority to enforce the Code with respect to examination 
of plans and field inspections. 

128.5 REPORTS: The engineer retained under the provisions of section 
128.3 shall submit progress reports to the building official at least 
weekly. Such reports will terminate upon the completion of the work 
on the structural elements, submitted in the structural drawings 
subject to section 128.3 and the exterior enclosure of such structural 
elements. 

128.6 QUALIFICATIONS: The registered professional engineer shall be 
approved by the building official as qualified by experience in the 
specific field of construction involved in the building project under 
consideration . 

128.7 PERMIT PROCEDURE: Structures and parts thereof included in 
the listing of section 128.1 shall be subject to the pennit procedures 
of section 113.51. 

128.8 LICENSING OF CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISORS: Construction supervisors 
operating under the provisions of section 128.0 shall be subject to 
licensing according to the rules and regulations promulgated by the 
Commission as provided in section 109.11. 

128.9 LICENSING OF LABORATORIES AND TEST PERSONNEL: Laboratories 
and test personnel operating under the provisions of section 128.0 
shall be subject to licensing according to the rules and regulations 
promulgated by the Commission as provided in section 109.12. 



SECTION 129.0 VALIDITY 

The provisions of this Code are severable, and if any of its pro- 
visions shall be held unconstitutional or otherwise invalid by any 
court of competent jurisdiction, the decision of such court shall 
not affect or impair any of the remaining provisions. 



1-33 



ARTICLE 2 

DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 

SECTION 200.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the classification of 
all buildings as to use group and type of construction; and the def- 
inition of all terms relating thereto in the Commonwealth of Mass- 
achusetts. 

200.1 APPLICATION OF TERMS: The terms herein defined shall be used 
to interpret all the applicable provisions of the Basic Code. Defi- 
nitions of technical terms relating to specific structural and means 
of egress requirements and to the installation of mechanical, elec- 
trical and service equipment are included in the respective articles. 

200.2 APPLICATION OF OTHER LAWS: Nothing herein contained shall be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of the zoning by-law or ordinance of 
any municipality in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts insofar as those 
provisions deal exclusively with those powers of regulating zoning 
granted by the provisions of Chapter 40A and 41 of the Massachusetts 
General Laws Annotated, as amended. 

SECTION 201.0 GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms shall, for 
the purpose of the Basic Code, have the meaning indicated in this 
section. 

201.1 TENSE, GENDER AND NUMBER: Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words used in the masculine gender include the 
feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and 
the plural the singular. 

201.2 TERMS NOT DEFINED: Where terms are not defined, they shall 
have their ordinarily accepted meanings or such as the context may 
imply. Any terms relating to Elevators, Dumbwaiters and Escalators 
shall have their meaning as defined by Regulations ELV-1 and ELV-2 
of the Department of Public Safety of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts. Any terms relating to plumbing and electrical wiring shall 
have their terms as defined by the Regulations of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts pertaining to plumbing and electrical wiring. 

ABUT: to touch or be contingent. 

ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE: that which conforms to accepted prin- 
ciples, tests or standards of nationally recognized technical or 
scientific authorities. 

2-1 



ACCESSORY STRUCTURE: a building the use of which is incidental to 
that of the main building and which is located on the same lot. 

ACCESSORY USE: a use incidental to the principal use of a building 
as defined or limited by the provisions of the local zoning laws. 

ACCREDITED AUTHORITATIVE AGENCIES: (see appendix A). 

ADDITION: an extension or increase in floor area or height of a 
building or structure. 

AIR CONDITIONING: (see section 1801.0). 

AIR DUCT: (see section 1801.0). 

AIRPLANE HANGAR: (see section 401.0). 

AISLE: a clear and unobstructed passageway through a room. 

ALLEY: a secondary thoroughfare less than thirty (30) feet in width 
dedicated for the public use of vehicles and pedestrians affording 
access to abutting property. 

ALTERATION: change in or addition to a building which reduces the 
means of exit or fire resistance or changes its structural support, 
use or occupancy. 

ALTERNATE INSPECTOR: a person appointed to act in the absence of the 
inspector of buildings in case of illness, disability, or conflict 
of interest, (see section 107.12) 

AMUSEMENT DEVICE: a device or structure, open to the public, by which 
individuals are conveyed or moved in an unusual manner for diversion. 

APARTMENT: a dwelling unit as defined in this Code. 

APPROVED: approved by the Commission, the building official or other 
authority having jurisdiction. 

APPROVED COMBUSTIBLE PLASTIC: (see section 1401.0). 

APPROVED MATERIAL, EQUIPMENT AND METHODS: approved by the Commission 
or by an agency approved by the Commission. 

APPROVED PLASTIC: (see section 2001.0). 

APPROVED RULES: those rules approved by the State Building Code 
Commission unless otherwise specified. 

APPURTENANT STRUCTURE: a device or structure attached to the ex- 
terior or erected on the roof of a building designed to support 
service equipment or used in connection therewith, or for adver- 
tising or display purposes, or other similar uses. 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA: (see section 801.0). 

2-2 



AREA (BUILDING) : the maximum horizontally projected areas of the 
building at or above grade, exclusive of court and vent shafts. 

AREA (FLOOR) : the useable area of each story of a building or por- 
tion thereof, within surrounding exterior walls, (see section 601.0). 

AREAWAY: (form of construction). An uncovered subsurface space ad- 
jacent to a building. 

ASHLAR FACING: (see section 801.0). 

ASHLAR MASONRY: (see section 801.0) . 

ATTIC: the space between the ceiling beams of the top habitable story 
and the roof rafters. 

-HABITABLE ATTIC: a habitable attic is an attic which has a stairway 
as a means of access and egress and in which the ceiling area at a 
height of seven and one-third (7-1/3) feet above the attic floor is 
not more than one-third (1/3) the area of the floor next below. 

AUTOMATIC: a device or system which has the capability of providing 
a predetermined function when predetermined conditions exist. 

AUTOMATIC COLLAPSIBLE REVOLVING DOOR: (see section 601.0). 

AUTOMATIC FIRE ALARM SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0). 

AUTOMATIC FIRE DOOR: (see section 901.0). 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER HEAD: (see section 1201.0). 

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0). 

AUTOMATIC WATER SUPPLY SOURCE: (see section 1201.0). 

BASEMENT: a portion of the building partially underground, but hav- 
ing less than half its clear height below the grade plane (see cellar) . 

BASIC CODE: the State Building Code of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, also referred to as this Code. 

BAY: (Part of a structure). The space between two (2) adjacent piers 
or mullions or between £wo (2) adjacent lines of columns. 

BAY WINDOW: a window projecting beyond the wall line of the building 
and extending down to the foundations . 

BILLBOARD: (see section 1401.0). 

BOILER: (see section 1101.0). 

BRICK: (see section 801.0). 

2-3 



BUILDING: (see structure) A structure enclosed within exterior 
walls or firewalls, built, erected and framed of a combination 
of any materials, whether portable or fixed, having a roof, to 
form a structure for the shelter of persons, animals or property. 
For the purpose of this definition, "roof" shall include an 
awning or any similar covering, whether or not permanent in nature. 
The word "building" shall be construed where the context requires 
as though followed by the words "or part or parts thereof." 

BUILDING (EXISTING) : any structure erected or one for which a legal 
building permit has been issued prior to the adoption of the Basic 
Code. 

BUILDING COMMISSIONER: The administrative chief of the building 
department in a municipality who is charged with the adminis- 
tration and enforcement of the Basic Code. See also inspector of 
buildings. (see section 107.1) 

BUILDING COMPONENT: (see section 1901.0) 

BUILDING DEPARTMENT: The person, body, agency, department or office 
of any municipality charged with the administration and enforce- 
ment of the Basic Code. 

BUILDING OFFICIAL: The officer or other designated authority charged 
with the administration and enforcement of the Basic Code. Building 
official as used herein includes the building commissioner or the 
inspector of buildings and the local inspector. 

BUILDING LINE: The line established by law, beyond which a building 
shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law. 

BUILDING SERVICE EQUIPMENT: The mechanical, electrical and elevator 
equipment, including piping, wiring, fixtures and other accessories, 
which provide sanitation, lighting, heating, ventilation, fire- 
fighting and transportation facilities essential for the habitable 
occupancy of the building or structure for its designated use and 
occupancy. 

BUILDING SITE: The area occupied by a building or structure, in- 
cluding the yards and courts required for light and ventilation, 
and such areas that are prescribed for access to the street . 

BUILDING SYSTEM: (see section 1901.0) 

BUTTRESS: (see section 801.0) 

CELLAR: The portion of the building partially underground, having 
half or more than half of its clear height below the grade plane. 



2-4 



CENTRAL STATION SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

CERAMIC SURFACE UNIT: (see section 801.0) 

CERTIFICATE OF USE AND OCCUPANCY: The certificate issued by the 

building official which permits the use of a building in accordance 
with the approved plans and specifications and which certifies com- 
pliance with the provisions of law for the use and occupancy of the 
building in its several parts, together with any special stipula- 
tions or conditions of the building permit. 

CERTIFICATION: (see section 1901.0) 

CHANGE OF USE: An alteration by change of use in a building hereto- 
fore existing to a new use group which imposes other special provisions 
of law governing building construction, equipment or means of egress. 

CHIMNEY: (see section 1001.0) 

CHIMNEY CONNECTOR: (see section 1001.0) 

CLASSROOM: A room with desks or equivalent used for group instruction 
purposes for ten (10) or more students. For the purpose of the 
provisions contained in section 460.0, libraries, study halls, 
science laboratories, shops, domestic science rooms and typing rooms 
shall be considered classrooms for the number of students indicated 
in the occupancy schedule. 

CLAY MASONRY UNIT: (see section 801.0) 

CLOSED SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

COMBUSTIBLE: (see section 901.0) 

COMBUSTIBLE (MATERIAL): (see section 901.0) 

COLD-FORMED STEEL CONSTRUCTION: (see section 801.0) 

COMBINATION OF MUNICIPALITIES: Any two or more cities and/or towns 
who have agreed to combine in order to share costs necessary for 
the administration and enforcement of the Basic Code in the said 
cities and/or towns. 

COMBINATION SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

COMBUSTIBLE FIRE DAMPER: (see section 901.0) 

COMMENCED: Any physical action begun on the job site for the purposes 
of construction, for which a building permit is required. 

COMMISSION: (see State Building Code Commission) 

COMMON HALLWAY: (see section 601.0) 

COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE PROGRAM: (see section 1901.0) 

CONCRETE: (see section 801.0) 

2-5 



CONCRETE BRICK: (see section 801.0) 

CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT: (see section 801.0) 

CONFLAGRATION HAZARD: (see section 901.0) 

CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION: (see sections 128.0 and 701.0) 

CONTROLLED MATERIALS: (see sections 701.0 and 722.0) 

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT: The construction machinery, tools, derricks, 
hoists, scaffolds, platforms, runways, ladders and all material 
handling equipment safeguards and protective devices used in 
construction operations. 

CONSTRUCTION OPERATION: The erection, alteration, repair, renovation, 
demolition or removal of any building or structure; and the exca- 
vation, filling, grading and regulation of lots in connection 
therewith. 

CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR: Any individual directly supervising persons 
engaged in construction, reconstruction, alterations or repairs 
involving the structural elements of buildings and structures. 

CORRIDOR: (see passageway, section 601.0) 

COURT: (see section 501.0) 

CURB LEVEL: The elevation of the street curb as established in accor- 
dance with law. 

-BUILDING OR WALL HEIGHT: The elevation of the street grade opposite 
the center of the wall nearest to and facing the street lot line. 

-EXCAVATIONS: The elevation of the street grade nearest to the point 
of excavation. 

DAY CARE CENTER: Any facility operated on a regular basis whether 
known as a day nursery, nursery school, kindergarten, child play 
school, progressive school, child development center, or pre- 
school, or known under any other name, which receives children not 
of common parentage under seven (7) years of age or under sixteen 
(16) years of age if such children have special needs for non- 
residential custody and care during part or all of the day sep- 
arata from their parents. Day care center shall not include: 
any part of a public school system; any part of a private, 
organized educational system unless the services of such system 
are primarily limited to kindergarten, nursery or related pre- 
school services; a Sunday school conducted by a religious 



2-6 



institution; a facility operated by a religious organization where 
children are cared for during short periods of time while persons 
responsible for such children are attending religious services; 
a family day care home, as defined by section nine (9) of chapter 
28A of the MGLA as amended; an informal cooperative arrangement 
among neighbors or relatives; or the occasional care of children 
with or without compensation therefor. 

DELUGE SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

DISPLAY SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

DISPLAY SURFACE: (see section 1401.0) 

DOORWAY: The clear width of the opening protected by a door, subject 
to the width reduction provisions of this Code. 

DRAFT HOOD: (see section 1001.0) 

DRAFT REGULATOR: (see section 1001.0) 

DUCT: (see section 1001.0) 

DWELLINGS : 

-ONE-FAMILY DWELLING: A building containing one (1) dwelling unit 
with not more than three (3) lodgers or boarders. L-3 Use Group. 

-TWO-FAMILY DWELLING: A building containing two (2) dwelling units 
with not more than three (3) lodgers or boarders per dwelling unit. 
L-3 Use Group. 

-MULTI-FAMILY APARTMENT HOUSE: Any building or portion thereof used 
as a multiple dwelling for the purpose of providing three (3) or 
more separate dwelling units with shared means of egress. L-2 
Use Group. 

-BOARDING HOUSE, TOURIST HOME: A building arranged or used for 
lodging, with or without meals, by more than three (3) lodgers or 
boarders. L-1 Use Group. 

-LODGING HOUSE: Any building or portion thereof arranged or used for 
lodging by more than three (3) lodgers or boarders and where cooking 
or sanitary facilities may be provided. L-1 Use Group. 

-DORMITORY: A space in a unit where group sleeping accommodations are 
provided, with or without meals, for persons not members of the same 
family group, in one room, or in a series of closely associated 
rooms under joint occupancy and single management, as in college 
dormitories, fraternity houses, military barracks and ski lodges. 
Use Group L-1. 



2-7 



-HOTEL: Any building containing six (6) or more guest rooms intended 
or designed to be used, or which are used, rented or hired out to be 
occupied or which are occupied for sleeping purposes by guests. 
Use Group L-1. 

DWELLING UNIT: One or more rooms arranged for the use of one (1) or 
more individuals living together as a single housekeeping unit, 
with cooking, living, sanitary and sleeping facilities. 

ESCALATOR: (see section 601.0) 

EXISTING BUILDING: A building erected prior to the adoption of the 
Basic Code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued. 

EXITWAY: (see section 601.0) 

EXITWAY ACCESS: (see section 601.0) 

EXITWAY DISCHARGE: (see section 601.0) 

EXITWAY DISCHARGE COURT: (see section 401.0) 

EXTERIOR MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION: (see section 217.0) 

FIRE AREA: The floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls or exterior 
walls of a building to restrict the spread of fire. 

FIRE DAMPER: (see section 1801.0) 

FIRE DISTRICTS: The territories defined and limited by the provisions 
of the Basic Code for the restriction of types of construction. 

FIRE DIVISION: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE DOOR: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE DRILL: (see section 1201.0) 

FIRE GRADING: (see sections 202, 901, 902 and Table 9-1) 

FIRE HAZARD: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE LIMITS: (see section 301.0) 

FIRE PARTITION: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE PREVENTION: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE PROTECTION: (see section 901.0) 



2-8 



FIRE SAFETY: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE SEPARATION: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE TOWER: Smokeproof tower (see section 601.0) 

FIRE WALL: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE WINDOW: (see section 901.0) 

FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION: (see section 215.0) 

FIRERESISTANCE: (see section 901.0) 

FIRERESISTANCE RATING: (see section 901.0) 

FIRERESISTIVE PARTITION: (see section 901.0) 

FIRERETARDANT CONSTRUCTION: (see section 901.0) 

FIRERETARDANT LUMBER: (see section 901.0) 

FLAME SPREAD: (see section 901.0) 

FLAME SPREAD RATING: (see section 901.0) 

FLAMERESISTANCE: (see section 901.0) 

FLAMMABLE: (see section 401.0) 

FLAMMABLE FILM: (see section 401.0) 

FLEXIBLE TUBING: (see section 1001.0) 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS: (see section 601.0) 

FLOOR AREA, NET: (see section 601.0) 

FLOOR FILL: (see section 801.0) 

FLOOR FILLING: (see section 801.0) 

FLOOR FINISH: (see section 801.0) 

FLOOR FURNACE: (see section 1101.0) 

FLUE: (see section 1001.0) 

FORCED AND INDUCED DRAFT FUEL BURNING APPLIANCES: (see section 1001.0) 

FORMED STEEL: (see section 701.0) 

FOUNDATION WALL: (see section 701.0) 

2-9 



FOYER: (see section 401.0) 

FRAME CONSTRUCTION: (see section 218.0) 

FUEL OIL: (see section 401.0) 

GARAGE: (see section 401.0) 

GAS VENTS: (see section 1001.0) 

GRADE: A reference plane representing the average of finished ground 
level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. 

GRADE BEAM: A beam of masonry, reinforced concrete or structural steel 
incased in concrete at or below grade that receives the load from the 
superstructure and transmits it to the foundation. 

GRADE HALLWAY: (see section 601.0) 

GRANDSTAND: (see section 401.0) 

GROUND SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

GROUP RESIDENCE: (see section 433.1) 

HABITABLE ROOM: (see section 501.0) 

HALLWAY, GRADE: (see section 601.0-Grade hallway) 

HALLWAY, COMMON: (see section 601.0-Common hallway) 

HAZARD: (Low, moderate, high, see section 901.0). 

HEAD OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT: The chief executive officer of the fire 
department in a city, town or fire district having such an officer, 
otherwise the fire commissioner, board of fire commissioners or fire 
engineers, or commissioner of public safety; and in towns not having 
a fire department, the chief engineer, if any, otherwise the chairman 
of the board of selectmen. The words "head of the fire department" 
shall be construed, where the content allows, as though followed 
by the words "or person delegated by him." 

HEATING APPLIANCES: (see section 1101.0) 

HEIGHT, BUILDING: The vertical distance from the grade to the highest 
point of the roof. When a building faces more than one street the 
height shall be measured from the average of the grade at the center 
line of each street front. 

-COURT: The vertical distance from the lowest level of the court to 
the mean height of the top of the enclosing walls. 

-STORY: The vertical distance from top to top of two (2) successive 
tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost 
story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling 
joists, or, where there is no ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters. 



2-10 



-WALL: The vertical distance from the foundation wall or other 
immediate support of such wall to the top of the wall . 

HEREAFTER: After the time that the Basic Code becomes effective. 

HERETOFORE: Before the time that the Basic Code became effective. 

HIGH HAZARD USE: (see section 203.0) 

HIGH PRESSURE BOILER: (see section 1101.0) 

HOLLOW BRICK: (see section 801.0) 

HOOD: (see section 1001.0) 

HORIZONTAL EXIT: (see section 601.0) 

HORIZONTAL FIRE LINE: (see section 1201.0) 

INFLAMMABLE: (see Flammable, section 401.0) 

INSPECTOR OF BUILDINGS: The administrative chief of the building 
department in a municipality who is charged with the administration 
and enforcement of the Basic Code. See also building commissioner, 
(see section 107.1) 

INSTALLATION: (see section 1901.0) 

INTERIOR LOT LINE: Any lot line other than one adjoining a street 
or public space. 

KEROSENE: (see section 401.0) 

LABEL: (see section 1901.0) 

LIGHT GAUGE STEEL CONSTRUCTION: (see section 701.0) 

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM: (see section 2001.0) 

LIMIT CONTROL: (see section 1801.0) 

LINTEL: (see section 801.0) 

LOAD: (see section 701.0) 

LOBBY: (see section 401.0) 

LOCAL ENFORCEMENT AGENCY: (see section 1901.0) 

LOCAL INSPECTOR: A person in a municipality who assists the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings in the performance of his 
duties and is charged with the enforcement of the Basic Code, 
(see section 107.11) 



2-11 



LOT: A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

-CORNER LOT: One with two (2) adjacent sides abutting upon streets 
or other public spaces. 

-INTERIOR LOT: One which faces on one street or with opposite sides 
on two (2) streets. 

LOT LINE: A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or 
any public place. 

LOW HAZARD USE: (see section 204.2) 

LOW PRESSURE BOILER: (see section 1101.0) 

MANUAL FIRE-ALARM SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

MANUFACTURED BUILDING: (see section 1901.0) 

MARQUEE: (see section 1401.0) 

MARQUEE SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

MASONRY: (see section 801.0) 

MEANS OF EGRESS : A continuous and unobstructed path of travel from 
any point in a building or structure to a public space and consists 
of three (3) separate and distinct parts: (a) the exitway access, 
(b) the exitway, and (c) the exitway discharge; a means of egress 
comprises the vertical and horizontal means of travel and shall 
include intervening room spaces, doors, hallways, corridors, passage- 
ways, balconies, ramps, stairs, enclosures, lobbies, escalators, 
horizontal exits, courts and yards. 

MECHANICAL VENTILATION: (see section 1801.0) 

MECHANICAL WARM AIR FURNACE: (see section 1101.0) 

MEZZANINE: An intermediate floor between the floor and ceiling of any 
story, and covering less than thirty-three and one-third (33 1/3) 
percent of the floor area immediately below. 

MINIMUM HABITABLE ROOM HEIGHT: (see section 501.0) 

MINIMUM HABITABLE ROOM SIZE: (see section 501.0) 

MOBILE HOME: (see sections 401.0 and 1901.0) 

MOBILE HOME SYSTEM: (see section 1901.0) 

MODERATE HAZARD USE: (see section 204.1) 



2-12 



MORTAR: (see section 801.0) 

MOTEL: A hotel as defined in this Code. 

MOTOR FUEL SERVICE STATION: (Oil selling station, Gasoline service 
station, section 401.0) 

MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR SHOP: (see section 401.0) 

MOVING STAIRWAY: (see section 601.0) 

MUNICIPALITY: Any city or town in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
The word "municipality" shall be construed, where the context requires, 
as though followed by the words "or combination of municipalities." 

NOMINAL DIMENSION: (see section 801.0) 

NON-AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE BUILDING MATERIAL: (incombustible) (see section 901.0) 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: (see section 216.0) 

NOTICE: (see section 122.12) 

OCCUPANCY: The purpose for which a building, or part thereof, is used 
or intended to be used. 

OCCUPANCY LOAD: The number of individuals normally occupying the 
building or part thereof, or for which the exitway facilities have 
been designed . 

OCCUPANTS: Persons normally located within the building or structure 
or part thereof. 

OCCUPIABLE ROOM: (see section 501.0) 

OCCUPIED: As applied to a building, shall be construed as though 
followed by the words "or intended, arranged or designed to be 
occupied." 

ONE-SOURCE SPRINKLER SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

OPEN SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

ORDINARY MATERIALS: (see section 701.0 and 722.0) 

ORIEL WINDOW: A window projected beyond and suspended from the wall 
of the building or cantilevered therefrom. 



2-13 



OWNER: Every person who alone or jointly or severally with others 
(a) has legal title to any building or structure; or (b) has care, 
charge, or control of any building or structure in any capacity 
including but not limited to agent, executor, executrix, adminis- 
trator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate of the 
holder of legal title; or (c) lessee under a written letting agree- 
ment; or (d) mortgagee in possession; or (e) agent, trustee or 
other person appointed by the courts. Each such person is bound 
to comply with the provisions of the Basic Code. 

PANEL: (part of a structure). The section of a floor or wall comprised 
between the supporting frame of two (2) adjacent rows of columns and 
girders, or column bands of floor construction. 

PANEL WALL: (see wall-skeleton or panel) 

PARKING STRUCTURE, OPEN: (see section 401.0) 

PARTIAL SPRINKLER SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

PARTY WALL: (see section 901.0) 

PASSAGEWAY: (see section 601.0-grade hallway) 

PENTHOUSE: An enclosed structure above the roof of a building, other 
than a roof structure or bulkhead occupying not more than thirty- 
three and one-third (33 1/3) percent of the roof area. 

PERMIT: An official document or certificate issued by the authority 
having jurisdiction authorizing performance of a specified activity. 

PERSON: Every individual, partnership, corporation, firm, association, 
trustee or group, including a city, town, county, authority or other 
governmental unit, owning property or conducting any activity regu- 
lated by this Basic Code. 

PLACE OF ASSEMBLY: A room or space accommodating fifty (50) or more 
individuals for religious, recreational, educational, political, 
social or amusement purposes or for the consumption of food and 
drink, including all connected rooms or spaces with a common means 
of egress and entrance. 

PLACE OF OUTDOOR ASSEMBLY: Premises used or intended to be used for 
public gatherings of two hundred (200) or more individuals in other 
than buildings. 

PLASTIC GLAZING: (see section 2001.0) 

PLASTIC ROOF PANELS: (see section 2001.0) 



2-14 



PLASTIC WALL PANEL: (see section 2001.0) 

PLENUM CHAMBER: (see section 1801,0) 

POLE SIGNS: (see section 1401.0) 

POSTED USE AND OCCUPANCY: The posted classification of a building in 
respect to use, fire grading, floor load and occupancy load. 

POSTED SIGN: The tablet, card or plate which defines the use, occupancy, 
fire grading and floor loads of each story, floor or parts thereof for 
which the building or part thereof has been approved. 

POSTER PANEL: (see section 1401.0) 

PRESERVATIVE TREATED WOOD: (see section 801.0) 

PRIMARY MEMBER: (see section 701.0) 

PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER OR ARCHITECT: (see qualified registered profes- 
sional engineer or architect) 

PROJECTING SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

PROTECTED CONSTRUCTION: That in which all structural members are con- 
structed, chemically treated, covered or protected so that the 
individual unit or the combined assemblage of all such units has 
the required f ireresistance rating specified for its particular use 
or application in table 2-5, and includes protected-frame, protected- 
ordinary and protected-noncombustible construction. 

PUBLIC PARKING DECKS: (see section 401.0) 

PUBLIC SPACE: A legal open space on the premises, accessible to a 

public way or street, such as yards, courts or open spaces permanently 
devoted to public use which abuts the premises. 

PYROXYLIN PLASTIC: (see section 401.0) 

QUALIFIED REGISTERED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER OR ARCHITECT: A registered 
professional engineer who is qualified by his experience and training 
to perform the work for which he is responsible. 

RAISED PLATFORM: A raised portion of floor to be used for simple stage 
purposes that involves a minimum of fire hazard, so located that it 
extends not more than eighteen (18) feet behind the probable curtain 
line of the proscenium opening and of an area limited to seventeen and 
one-half (17.5) percent of the assembly room floor area of 1,550 
square feet, whichever is less. 

REFRIGERANT: (see section 1801.0) 

REFRIGERATION: (see section 1801.0) 

REINFORCED CONCRETE: (see section 801.0) 

REINFORCED THERMOSETTING PLASTIC: (see section 2001.0) 

2-15 



REMOVAL OF BUILDINGS: The moving of a building or structure from one 
site to another. 

REPAIR: The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing 
building for the purpose of its maintenance. 

REQUIRED: Shall be construed to be mandatory by provisions of the 
Basic Code. 

ROOF: The roof slab or deck with its supporting members, not including 
vertical supports. 

ROOF COVERING: The covering applied to the roof for weather resistance, 
f ireresistance or appearance. 

ROOF SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

ROOF STRUCTURE: An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part 
of a building. 

RUBBLE MASONRY: (see section 801.0) 

RUNWAY: (see section 1301.0) 

RUPTURE MEMBER: (see section 1801.0) 

SCAFFOLD: Any elevated platform which is used for supporting workmen, 
materials, or both. 

SCHOOLHOUSE: Any building or premise in which a regular course of public 
or private instruction is given to not less than ten (10) students 
at one time except for rooms in buildings separate from or attached 
to churches used for the primary purpose of religious instruction. 

SECONDARY MEMBER: (see section 701.0) 

SELF-CLOSING: (see section 601.0) 

SERVICE EQUIPMENT: (see building service equipment) 

SHALL: The term when used in the Basic Code shall be construed as 
mandatory. 

SHAFT: (see section 901.0) 

SLIDESCAPE: (see section 601.0) 

SLOW-BURNING PLASTIC: (see check test), (see section 2001.0) 

SMOKE DETECTOR: (see section 1801.0) 

SMOKEPIPE: (see section 1001.0) 

SMOKEPROOF TOWER: (fire tower, see section 601.0) 

SMOKESTACK: (see section 1001.0) 



SOLID MASONRY UNIT: (see section 801.0) 
SPACE HEATER: (see section 1101.0) 

SPECIALIZED CODE: All building codes, rules or regulations pertaining 
to building construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair or 
demolition promulgated by and under the authority of the various 
agencies which have been authorized from time to time by the General 
Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

SPRINKLER SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

SPRINKLERED: (see section 1201.0) 

STAGE: (see section AOl.O) 

STAIRWAY: (see section 601.0) 

STANDARD FIRE TEST: (see section 901.0) 

STANDPIPE: (see section 1201.0) 

STATE BUILDING CODE: The State Building Code and amendments and rules 
and regulations thereto as promulgated by the State Building Code 
Commission under sections sixteen (16), seventeen (17) and eighteen 
(18) of Chapter twenty-three (23)B of the Massachusetts General Laws 
Annotated as amended. 

STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION: The Massachusetts State Building Code 
Commission established by section sixteen (16) of chapter twenty- 
three (23) B of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as amended. 

STATE INSPECTOR: An employee of the Division of Inspection, State 
Department of Public Safety who is charged with administering and 
enforcing the Basic Code relative to any structure or building or 
parts thereof that are owned by the Commonwealth or any departments, 
commissions, agencies or authorities of the Commonwealth. The 
state inspector is also charged with supervising the enforcement 
of the Basic Code relative to all buildings and structures other 
than those owned by the Commonwealth. (see section 108.2) 

STEEL JOIST: (see section 701.0) 

STORY: That portion of a building included between the upper surface 
of a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next above. (see 
also mezzanine) 

STORY, FIRST: A story in which the finished floor is nearest to, and 
the ceiling of which is six (6) feet or more above the average grade 
of the sidewalk or ground adjoining. 



2-17 



STREET: A primary thoroughfare or highway thirty (30) feet or more in 
width as dedicated or devoted to public use by legal mapping use, or 
other lawful means. 

STREET LOT LINE: The lot line dividing a lot from a street or other 
public space. 

STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE: (see section 801.0) 

STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBER: (see section 701.0 and 801.0) 

STRUCTURE: A combination of materials assembled at a fixed location 
to give support or shelter, such as a building, framework, retaining 
wall, tent, reviewing stand, platform, bin, fence, sign, flagpole, 
recreational tramway, mast for radio antenna or the like. The word 
"structure" shall be construed, where the context requires, as 
though followed by the words "or part or parts thereof." 

SUPERVISED SPRINKLER SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

TECHNICAL CODE COUNCIL: (see section 100.5) 

TEMPORARY SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

THEATRE: A building or part thereof in which it is intended to make 
a business of the presentation of performances for the entertainment 
of spectators, which has a seating capacity of more than four hundred 
(400), with a stage which can be used for scenery and other appliances, 
(see section 208.1) 

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL: (see section 2001.0) 

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL: (see section 2001.0) 

TILE: (see section 801.0) 

TON OF REFRIGERATION: (see section 1801.0) 

TRAVEL TRAILERS: (see section 401.0) 

TWO-SOURCE SYSTEM: (see section 1201.0) 

UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSEL: (see section 1101.0) 

UNIT HEATER: (see section 1101.0) 

USE GROUP: The classification of a building or structure based on the 
purpose for which it is used. 

USE-USED: The purpose for which the building or structure is designed, 
used or intended to be used. 

VENT: (see section 1001.0) 



2-18 



VENT CONNECTOR: (see section 1001.0) 

VENT DUCT: (see section 1801.0) 

VENT PIPE (GAS): (see section 1001.0) 

VENT SYSTEM: (see section 1001.0) 

VENTILATION: (see section 1801.0) 

VERTICAL OPENING: An opening through a floor or roof. 

VOLATILE FLAMMABLE: (see section 401.0) 

WALL: (see also section 801.0 and section 901.0) 

-APRON WALL: That portion of a skeleton wall below the sill of a 
window. 

-BEARING WALL: A wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its 
own weight . 

-CURTIN WALL: A non-bearing enclosure wall not supported at each story, 

-DIVISION WALL: A wall used to divide the floor area of a building 
or structure into separate parts for fire protection, for different 
uses, for restricted occupancy, or for other purposes specified in 
the Basic Code. 

-NON-BEARING WALL: A wall which supports no vertical load other than 
its own weight. 

-PARAPET WALL: That part of any wall entirely above the roof line. 

-RETAINING WALL: A wall designed to prevent the lateral displacement 
of soil or other material. 

-SKELETON OR PANEL WALL: A non-bearing wall supported by each story 
on a skeleton frame. 

-SPANDREL WALL: That portion of a skeleton wall above the head of a 
window or door. 

WALL HEATER: (see section 1101.0) 

WALL SIGN: (see section 1401.0) 

WARM AIR FURNACE: (see section 1101.0) 

WATER CURTAIN: (see section 1201.0) 



2-19 



WINDER: (see section 601.0) 

WRITING: The term shall be construed to include handwriting, type- 
writing, printing, photo-offset or any other form of reproduction 
in legible sjrmbols or characters. 

YARD: (see section 501.0) 

ZONING: The reservation of certain specified areas within a community 
or city for building and structures, or use of land, for certain 
purposes with other limitations such as height, lot coverage and 
other stipulated requirements. 



SECTION 202.0 USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 

Every building, structure and space therein shall be classified with 
respect to use in one of the following use groups: group A, high 
hazard; group B, storage; group C, mercantile; group D, industrial; 
group E, business; group F, assembly; group H, institutional; group 
L, residential; and group M, miscellaneous buildings. 

202.1 FIRE GRADING OF BUILDINGS: All buildings and structures shall 
be graded in accordance with the degree of fire hazard of their use. 
Such fire hazard may be expressed in terms of hours and fractions of 
an hour, fire loading or rate of energy contribution, so long as the 
building official can adequately relate such fire hazard to the re- 
quirements of this code. In case of doubt the building official may 
accept an evaluation of fire hazard from a qualified registered pro- 
fessional engineer or architect. 

202.2 NEW USES: The building official shall establish by approved 
rules the degree of hazard involved and the fire grading of any use 
not specifically provided for in this Code, or may require the evalua- 
tions of such fire hazard by a qualified registered professional en- 
gineer or architect. 



SECTION 203.0 USE GROUP A, HIGH HAZARD BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be classified in 
the high hazard use group which are used for the storage, manufacture 
or processing of highly combustible or explosive products or materials 
which are likely to burn with extreme rapidity or which may produce 
poisonous fumes or explosions; for storage or manufacturing which in- 
volves highly corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalies, acids or other 
liquids or chemicals producing flame, fume, explosive, poisonous, ir- 
ritant or corrosive gases; and for the storage or processing of any 
materials producing explosive mixtures of dust or which result in the 
division of matter into fine particles subject to spontaneous ignition. 

203.1 LIST OF HIGH HAZARD USES: The processes, materials and manu- 
factures listed in table 2-1 are indicative of and shall be included 
among high hazard uses . 



2-20 



TABLE 2-1 - USE GROUP A, HIGH HAZARD USES 

Acetylene gas and gases under pressure of fifteen (15) pounds or 
more and in quantities of greater than twenty-five hundred (2500) 
cubic feet; including hydrogen, illuminating natural, ammonia, 
chlorine, phosgene, sulphur dioxide, methyl oxide and all gases 
subject to explosion, fume or toxic hazard. 

Artificial flowers and synthetic leather manufacture. 

Ammunition, explosives and fireworks manufacture. 

Celluloid and celluloid products. 

Cereal, feed, flour and grist mills. 

Cotton batting and cotton waste processes. 

Cotton dressmaking. 

Dry cleaning establishments using or storing more than three (3) 
gallons of gasoline or other hazardous liquids with a flash point 
under seventy-five (75) degrees F., or more than sixty (60) gal- 
lons of volatile flammable liquids with flash point between 
seventy-five (75) and one hundred and forty (140) degrees F., in a 
closed-up tester. 

Feather renovating. 

Fruit ripening processes. 

Grain elevators. 

Hydrogenation processes. 

Industries employing solids or substances which ignite or produce 
flammable gases on contact with water. 

Kerosene, fuel, lubricating, or any oil storage with a flash point 
under two hundred (200) degrees F. 

Match manufacture or storage. 

Metal enameling or japanning. 

Nitro-cellulose film exchanges and laboratories. 

Paint and varnish manufacture. 

Paint spraying or dipping, except as specified in sections 213.2 and 
302.3. 



2-21 



Petroleum manufacture. 

Processing of paper or cardboard in loose form. 

Pyroxylin products manufacture and storage. 

Rag sorting and storage. 

Refrigerating systems using high hazard refrigerants as defined in 
article 18. 

Shoddy mills. 

Shoe polish manufacture. 

Smoke houses (industrial) . 

Straw goods manufacture or broom corn storage. 

Sugar and starch pulverizing mills. 

Tar, pitch or resin processing. 

Tanneries with enameling or japanning. 

Waste paper sorting, shredding, storage or bailing. 

SECTION 204.0 USE GROUP B, STORAGE BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be classified 
in the storage use group which are used primarily for the storage 
of goods, wares or merchandise, except those that involve highly 
combustible or explosive products or materials; including among 
others, warehouses, storehouses and freight depots. 

204.1 LIST OF MODERATE HAZARD USES: Buildings used for storage of 
moderate hazard contents which are likely to bum with moderate 
rapidity but which do not produce either poisonous gases, fumes or 
explosives, including among others the materials listed in table 
2-2, shall be classified in the group B-1 storage use group. 

TABLE 2-2 - USE GROUP B-1, STORAGE USES - MODERATE HAZARD 

Bags, cloth, burlap and paper Linoleum 

Bamboo and rattan Livestock shelters 

Baskets Lumber yards 

Belting, canvas and leather Motor vehicle repair shops 

Books and paper in rolls or packs Petroleum warehouses for storage 

Boots and shoes of lubricating oils with a flash 

Button, including cloth-covered, point of three hundred (300) 

pearl or bone degrees F. or higher (See section 

905.3). 

2-22 



Cardboard and cardboard boxes Photo-engraving 

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel Public garages and stables 

Cordage Silk 

Furniture Soap 

Furs Sugar 

Glue, mucilage, paste and size Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 

Horn and combs, other than Upholstering and mattress manufacturing 

celluloid Wax candles 
Leather enameling or japanning 

204.2 LIST OF LOW HAZARD USES: Buildings used for the storage of 
noncombustible materials, and of low hazard wares that do not ordi- 
arily burn rapidly, shall be classified in the B-2 storage use group 
unless herein otherwise classified, including among others the ma- 
terials listed in table 2-3. 

TABLE 2-3 - USE GROUP B-2, STORAGE USES - LOW HAZARD 

Asbestos Ivory 

Chalk and crayons Metals 

Food products Porcelain and pottery 

Glass Talc and soapstones 



SECTION 205.0 USE GROUP C, MERCANTILE BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be classified in 
the mercantile use group which are used for display and sales purposes 
involving stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such pur- 
poses and accessible to the public; including among others retail 
stores, shops and salesrooms and markets. Highly combustible materials 
shall be limited to small quantities that do not constitute a high haz- 
ard. Where the hazard of the contents is greater than the normal fire 
hazard for such use, the building official may require an evaluation by 
a qualified registered professional engineer or architect and based on 
such evaluation the building commissioner or inspector of buildings may 
require compliance with the requirements of high hazard use groups as 
established by the provisions of article 4 and tables 2-5 and 2-6. 



SECTION 206.0 USE GROUP D, INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof in which occupants are 
engaged in performing work or labor in fabricating, assembling or pro- 
cessing of products or materials shall be classified in the industrial 
use group; including among other factories, assembling plants, indus- 
trial laboratories and all other industrial and manufacturing uses, ex- 
cept those involving highly combustible, flammable or explosive products 
and materials of the high hazard use group (use group A) . 

206.1 LIST OF INDUSTRIAL USES: The processes and manufacturers listed 
in table 2-4 shall be indicative of and include the uses permitted in 
use group D buildings. 

2-23 



TABLE 2-4 - USE GROUP D, INDUSTRIAL USES 

Bakeries Glass plants 

Boiler works Ice plants 

Breweries Leather and tanneries, excluding 

Canneries, including food products enameling or japanning 

Condensed and powdered milk Mlllwork and woodworking 

manufacture Sugar refineries 

Dry cleaning using other than Tenant factories, excluding ladies' 
volatile flammable liquids in dresses and other high hazard uses, 

cleaning or dyeing operations Textile mills, including canvas, 
or other than classified in cotton cloth, bagging, burlap, 
table 1 carpets and rags 

Electric light plants and power Upholstery and manufacturing shops 

houses Water-pumping plants 

Electrolytic reducing works 

206.2 SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL USES: All buildings and structures designed 
to house low hazard industrial processes , including among others the 
production and distribution of electric, gas or steam power and roll- 
ing mills and foundries, requiring large areas and unusual heights to 
accommodate craneways or special machinery and equipment shall be ex- 
empt from the height and area limitations of table 2-6 . 

206.21 CONSTRUCTION: Buildings and structures for such low hazard 
industrial uses shall comply with the requirements of section 309.0 
except as to height and when constructed of noncombustible (type 2-C) 
construction may have balconies and mezzanine floors which do not 
exceed two-thirds (2/3) the area of the main floor in any one tier. 

206.22 ENCLOSURE WALLS: The enclosure walls of buildings of such 
low hazard industrial uses shall be constructed of approved noncom- 
bustible and weather resisting materials and when located with a fire 
separation of less than thirty (30) feet from interior lot lines of 
any other building shall be protected or constructed to provide a 

f ireresistance rating of not less than two (2) hours. 

206.23 FIREFIGHTING AND EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT: Special use indus- 
trial buildings as herein defined shall comply with the requirements 
of article 12 for auxiliary fire extinguishing equipment; except that 
the provisions of section 309.0 for automatic sprinkler equipment in 
imlimited area buildings may be waived by the building official when 
such installations would be detrimental or dangerous to the specific 
use and occupancy. 



SECTION 207.0 USE GROUP E, BUSINESS BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be classified in 
the business use group which are used for the transaction of business, 
for the rendering of professional services or for other services that 
involve stocks of goods, wages or merchandise in limited quantities 
for use incidental to office uses or sample purposes; including among 
others offices, banks, civic administration activities, professional 



2-24 



services, testing and research laboratories, radio stations, telephone 
exchanges and other similar establishments. 



SECTION 208.0 USE GROUP F, ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be classified in 
the assembly use group which are used or designed for places of assembly 
as defined in the Basic Code. 

208.1 USE GROUP F-i - THEATRES. 

208.11 USE GROUP F-l-A STRUCTURES shall include all theatres and other 
buildings used primarily for theatrical or operatic performances and 
exhibitions, arranged with a raised stage, proscenium curtain, fixed or 
portable scenery or scenery loft, motion picture booth, mechanical 
appliances or other theatrical accessories and equipment and provided 
with fixed seats. 

208.12 USE GROUP F-l-B STRUCTURES shall include all theatres without a 
stage and equipped with fixed seats used for motion picture perfor- 
mances . 

208.2 USE GROUP F-2 STRUCTURES shall include all buildings and places 
of public assembly, without theatrical stage accessories, designed for 
use as dance halls, night clubs and for similar purposes including all 
rooms, lobbies and other spaces connected thereto with a common means of 
egress and entrance. 

208.3 USE GROUP F-3 STRUCTURES shall include all buildings with or 
without an auditorium in which persons assemble for amusement, enter- 
tainment or recreation, and incidental motion picture, dramatic, theatrical 
or educational presentations, lectures, or other similar purposes, 
without theatrical stage other than a raised platform; and principally 
used without permanent seating facilities, including art galleries, 
exhibition halls, museums, lecture halls, libraries, restaurants other 
than night clubs, and recreation centers; and buildings designed for 
other similar assembly purposes including passenger terminals. 

208.4 USE GROUP F-4 STRUCTURES shall include all buildings used as 
churches and for similar religious purposes. Also included are build- 
ings used for low density recreation such as swimming pools, tennis and 
skating and where there is accommodations of less than 100 spectators. 

208.5 USE GROUP F-5 STRUCTURES shall include grandstands, bleachers, 
coliseums, stadiums, drive-in theatres, tents and similar structures for 
outdoor assembly use and shall comply with the provisions of the Basic 
Code for special uses and occupancies, (see article 4). 

208.6 USE GROUP F-6 STRUCTURES shall include those buildings, struc- 
tures, premises and parts thereof in which a regular course of public or 
private instruction is given to not less than ten (10) individuals at 
one time. Schools or rooms used for religious instruction which are 
under the jurisdiction or administration of a church or other defined 
religious body are regulated under Use Group F-4. 

F-IB Schoolhouse Use: Schoolhouse structures or parts thereof used 
for F-IB assembly shall include all halls without a stage, except for 
a raised platform, equipped with fixed seats, and which may be used 

2-25 



for motion picture performances. 

F-3 Schoolhouse Use: Schoolhouse structures shall include all buildings 
with or without an auditorium in which persons assemble for amusement, 
entertainment or recreation, and incidential motion pictures, dramatic or ' 
educational presentations, lectures or similar purposes, without a 
stage other than a raised platform and principally used without per- 
manent seating facilities, including cafeterias and recreation centers; 
and buildings designed for other similar assembly purposes. 

H Schoolhouse Use: All schoolhouse buildings and structures or parts 
thereof shall be classified in the institutional use group in which 
people suffering from physical limitations are harbored for medical, 
other care or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or 
correctional purposes, or in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. 

H-1 Schoolhouse Use shall include all schoolhouse buildings designed 
for the detention of people under restraint, including among others 
jails, prisons, reformatories, institutions licensed under the State 
Department of Mental Health and similar uses. 

H-2 Schoolhouse Use shall include all schoolhouse buildings used for 
housing people suffering from physical limitations, including among 
others hospitals, sanitariums, infirmaries, orphanages, and institutions 
licensed under the State Department of Mental Health, and/or State 
Department of Public Welfare, and State Department of Education. 

208.7 USE GROUP F-7 STRUCTURES shall include those buildings, struc- 
tures, premises and parts thereof which are used to provide a place to 
assemble individuals for any use covered by Use Group F, but which i 
accoimnodate more than twenty (20) but less than fifty (50) people. Use 
Group F-7 structures shall be classified the same as Use Group E. 



SECTION 209.0 USE GROUP H, INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be classified in 
the institutional use group in which people suffering from physical 
limitations because of health or age are harbored for medical or other 
care or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or cor- 
rectional purposes, or in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. 

209.1 USE GROUP H-1 shall include all buildings designed for the detention 
of people under restraint including among others jails, prisons, reformatorii 
insane asylums and similar uses. 

209.2 USE GROUP H-2 shall include all buildings used for housing people 
suffering from physical limitations because of health or age, including 
among others day nurseries, hospitals, sanitariums, clinics, infirmaries, 
orphanages, homes for aged and infirm; and buildings designed for prosecutinj 
public or civic services and activities of emergency character, including 
among others fire houses, police stations and similar uses. 



SECTION 210.0 USE GROUP L, RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be classified in 



2-26 



the residential use group, in which families or households live or in 
which sleeping accommodations are provided for individuals with or 
without dining facilities, excluding those that are classified as 
institutional buildings. 

210.1 USE GROUP L-1: Use Group L-1 shall include buildings and spaces 
that are primarily occupied for the shelter and sleeping accommodation 
of individuals on a day-to-day or week-to-week basis. Such occupancies 
shall include hotels, lodging houses, boarding houses and similar 
occupancies. 



2-26A 



210.2 USE GROUP L-2: Use Group L-2 shall include buildings with 
three or more dwelling units and other uses intended for living and 
sleeping accomodations of families or individuals on a long-term 
basis, and which shall include all multiple family dwellings, apart- 
ment houses, and dormitories. 

210.3 USE GROUP L-3: Use Group L-3 shall include buildings occupied 
as one and two-family dwellings. Such buildings shall also include 
semi-detached houses which are vertically separated by fire divisions 
of the required use group fire grading, and have separate means of 
egress directly to the outside which are independent of any other 
dwelling unit. 

Mobile homes are defined and controlled under the provisions of 
article 19. 



SECTION 211.0 USE GROUP M, MISCELLANEOUS USES 

Structures and buildings of a temporary character and miscellaneous 
structures not classified in any specific use group shall be construc- 
ted, equipped and maintained to meet the requirements of the Basic 
Code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their 
use. Miscellaneous uses shall include all accessory buildings and 
structures used as private garages, sheds, fences and similar purposes. 



SECTION 212.0 DOUBTFUL USE CLASSIFICATION 

When a building or structure is proposed for a use not specifically 
provided for in the Basic Code or the classification of which is doubt- 
ful, such building or structure shall be included in the use group 
which it most nearly resembles in respect to the existing or proposed 
life and fire hazard and it shall be so classified by the building 
official. 



SECTION 213.0 MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

213.1 TWO OR MORE USES: When a building is occupied for two (2) or 
more uses not included in the same use group, one of the following 
shall apply: 

a) The provisions of the code applying to each use shall apply 
to such parts of the building as come within that use group; 
and if there are conflicting provisions, the requirements 
securing the greater public safety shall apply to the en- 
tire building, or 

b) The mixed uses shall be completely separated both horizontally 
and vertically by fire separation walls and floor-ceiling as- 
semblies having a fireresistance rating corresponding to the 
highest fire grading prescribed in table 9-1 for the separate 
uses. Each part of the building shall be separately classified 



2-27 



as to use. The most restrictive height and area limitations 
in this Code for the mixed uses shall apply to the entire 
building, or except as otherwise provided for in this Code, or 

c) The mixed uses shall be completely separated by fire walls 
having a f ireresistance rating corresponding to the highest 
fire grading prescribed in table 9-1 for the separate uses. 
Each group shall then comply with the provisions of this 
Code applicable to that group. 

213.2 INCIDENTAL USES: Where the higher hazard use is supplemental 
to the main use of the building and the area devoted to such use is 
constructed and segregated by fireresistive construction as required 
in article 4, the building shall be classified according to the main 
use. 

213.3 FIRE DIVISIONS: When mixed uses are completely sepairated hori- 
zontally and vertically from adjoining occupancies by fire divisions 
of the highest fire grading prescribed in table 9-1 for the separated 
uses, each part of the building shall be separately classified as to 
use. 



SECTION 214.0 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

All buildings, structures, rooms or spaces hereafter altered or 
erected shall for the purposes of this Code be classified in one (1) or 
a combination of the four (4) construction types herein defined: 
Type 1, Fireproof Construction; Type 2, Noncombustible Construction; 
Type 3, Exterior Masonry Wall Construction; and Type 4, Frame Con- 
struction. 

214.1 FALSE DESIGNATION: No building or space shall be designated 
a given type of construction unless it conforms to the minimum re- 
quirements for that type; and it shall be unlawful to post, or use, 
or designate, or advertise a building as of a given type of construc- 
tion unless it complies with the minimum code requirements for that 
type. 

214.2 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: When a superior type of construction is 
used than the minimum herein required for any specified use, height 
and area of the building, nothing in the Basic Code shall be construed 
to require full compliance with the specifications for the higher tj^e; 
but the designated construction classification of the building shall 
be that of the lesser requirement, unless all the requirements for 

the higher type are fulfilled. 

214.3 MIXED CONSTRUCTION: When two or more types of construction 
occur within the same structure which is occupied for only one use 
group classification, then any of the types of construction must be 
able to satisfy the requirements for the use group. If there is 
more than one use occupancy of the structure, then the construction 
must be able to satisfy the provisions of section 213.1. 



2-28 



SECTION 215.0 TYPE 1, FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of fireproof construction are those in which 
the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, and roofs, 
and the exitways are constructed and protected with approved noncombus- 
tible materials to afford the f ireresistance specified in table 2-5; 
except as otherwise specifically regulated by the provisions of article 
9. Fireproof buildings shall be further classified as types 1-A and 1-B. 

Fire-retardant treated wood may be used as specified in table 2-5 and 
section 903.8. 



SECTION 216.0 TYPE 2, NONCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of noncombustible construction are those 
in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, 
and roofs, and the exitways are constructed of approved noncombustible 
materials meeting the fireresistive requirements specified in table 
2-5, and as further regulated in article 9. Noncombustible buildings 
shall be further classified as types 2-A, 2-B, and 2-C. 

Fire-retardant treated wood may be used as specified in table 2-5 
and section 903.8. 



SECTION 217.0 TYPE 3, EXTERIOR MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of exterior masonry wall construction are 
those in which the exterior, fire and party walls are constructed of 
masonry or other approved noncombustible materials, of the required 
fireresistance and structural properties; and the floors, roofs, and 
interior framing are wholly or partly of wood or of metal or other 
approved construction; the fire and party walls are ground supported; 
except that girders and their supports carrying walls of masonry shall 
be protected to afford the same degree of fireresistance of the walls 
supported thereon; and all structural elements have the required fire- 
resistance rating specified in table 2-5. 

217.1 TYPE 3A: Buildings and structures of heavy timber construction 
are those in which fire resistance is attained by placing limitations 
on the minimum sizes of wood structural members and on minimum thick- 
ness and composition of wood floors and roofs; by the avoidance, or by 
the proper protection by firestopping or other acceptable means, of 
concealed spaces under floors and roofs; by the use of approved fast- 
enings, construction details, and adhesives for structural members; 
and by providing the required degree of fire resistance in exterior 
and interior walls. (See section 852.0 for construction details.) 

COLUMNS: Wood columns may be sawn or glued laminated and shall be 
not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in any dimension when 
supporting floor loads and not less than six (6) inches, nominal, 
in width and not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in depth when 
supporting roof and ceiling loads only. 



2-29 



FLOOR FRAMING: Beams and girders of wood may be sawn or glued lam- 
inated and shall be not less than six (6) inches, nominal, in 
width and not less than ten (10) inches, nominal, in depth. Framed 
or glued laminated arches which spring from the floor line and sup- 
port floor loads shall be not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, 
in any dimension. Framed timber trusses supporting floor loads 
shall have members of not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in 
any dimension. 

ROOF FRAMING: Framed or glued laminated arches for roof construction 
which spring from the floor line or from grade and do not support 
floor loads shall have members not less than six (6) inches, nominal, 
in width and not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in depth for 
the lower half of the height and not less than six (6) inches, nom- 
inal, in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued laminated arches 
for roof construction which spring from the top of walls or wall 
abutments, framed timber trusses, and other roof framing which do 
not support floor loads, shall have members not less than four (4) 
inches, nominal, in width and not less than six (6) inches, nominal, 
in depth. Spaced members may be composed of two (2) or more pieces 
not less than three (3) inches, nominal, in thickness when blocked 
solidly throughout their intervening spaces or when such spaces are 
tightly closed by a continuous wood cover plate of not less than 
two (2) inches, nominal in thickness, secured to the underside of 
the members. Splice plates shall be no less than three (3) inches, 
nominal in thickness. When protected by approved automatic sprink- 
lers under the roof deck, framing members shall be not less than 
three (3) inches, nominal, in width. 

FLOORING: Floors shall be without concealed spaces and shall be of 
sawn or glued laminated plank, splined, or tongue-and -groove, of 
not less than three (3) inches, nominal, in thickness covered with 
one (1) inch, nominal, dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid 
crosswise or diagonally, or one-half (h) inch pl3njood, or one-half 
(Js) inch particle board; or of planks not less than four (4) in- 
ches, nominal, in width, set on edge close together and well spiked, 
and covered with one (1) inch, nominal, dimension flooring, or one- 
half (h) inch plywood, or one-half (%) inch particle board. 

ROOF DECKING: Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and roof decks 
shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined or tongue-and-groove plank, 
not less than two (2) inches, nominal, in thickness, one and one- 
eighth (1-1/8) inches thick interior plywood (exterior glue) , or of 
planks not less than three (3) inches, nominal, in width, set on edge 
close together and laid as required for floors. Other tjrpes of deck- 
ing may be used if providing equivalent f ireresistance and structural 
properties. 

BEARING WALLS: Bearing portions of exterior and interior walls shall 
be of approved noncombustible material and shall have a f ireresistance 
rating of not less than two (2) hours. 



2-30 



NON-BEARING WALLS: Nonbearing portions of exterior walls shall be 
of approved noncombustible materials except as otherwise noted 
and; where a horizontal separation of less than twenty (20) feet 
is provided, nonbearing exterior walls shall have a fireresistance 
rating of not less than two (2) hours. Where a horizontal separa- 
tion of twenty (20) feet to thirty (30) feet is provided, non- 
bearing exterior walls shall have a fireresistance rating of not 
less than one (1) hour. Where a horizontal separation of thirty 
(30) feet or more is provided, no fireresistance rating is required. 
Where a horizontal separation of twenty (20) feet or more is pro- 
vided, wood columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes may 
be used externally. 

217.2 TYPE 3-B: Structures of type 3-B (ordinary protected) shall 
include all exterior masonry wall buildings in which the interior 
structural elements are wholly or partly of fire-protected wood of 
not less than two (2) inch nominal thickness, or of other approved 
protected combustible materials, or of metal protected and insulated 
to afford three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance rating where speci- 
fied in table 2-5. 

217.3 TYPE 3-C: Structures of type 3-C (ordinary unprotected) con- 
struction shall include all exterior masonry wall buildings in which 
the interior structural members are of wood of not less than two (2) 
inch nominal thickness or consist of other combustible or noncombus- 
tible materials with protection of less than three-quarter (3/4) 
hour fireresistance rating. 



SECTION 218.0 TYPE 4, FRAME CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures of frame construction are those in which 
the exterior walls, bearing walls, partitions, floor and roof con- 
struction are constructed wholly or partly of wood stud and joist 
assemblies with a minimum nominal dimension of two (2) inches, or 
of other approved combustible materials; with firestopping at all 
vertical and horizontal draft openings as regulated in section 874.0, 
and in which the structural elements have the required fireresistance 
ratings specified in table 2-5. Frame buildings shall be further 
classified as types 4-A and 4-B. 



2-31 





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NOTES APPLICABLE TO TABLE 2-5 



GENERAL 



For special high hazard uses involving a higher degree of fire se- 
verity and higher concentration of combustible contents, the firere- 
sistance requirements for structural elements shall be increased ac- 
cordingly. (See section 400). 



SPECIFIC 

Note a The fire separation or fire exposure in feet as herein limited 
applies to the distance from other buildings on the site, or from an 
interior lot line or from the opposite side of a street or other public 
space not less than thirty (30) feet wide to the building wall. (See 
Definitions, section 901). 

Note b Protected exteriors shall be required within the fire limits 
in type 2 construction as follows: high hazard uses, two (2) hour fire- 
resistance with fire separation up to eleven (11) feet. 

Note c One-story buildings of type 2-C construction which do not 
exceed three thousand (3000) square feet in area in all use groups 
except high hazard assembly and institutional shall be exempt from the 
protected exterior wall requirements of table 2-5. (See section 302.4.) 

Note d Party walls in type 4 buildings shall be as follows: one and 
two-family dwellings, three-quarter (3/4) hour fire resistance. (See 
section 907.3) Other uses, except F-6 , two (2) hours, but not less than 
the fire grading of the use group (See table 9-1). 

z Note e Stair enclosures in all buildings, other than one and two- 
family dwellings, which do not exceed three (3) stories or forty (40) 
feet in height with an occupancy load of less than forty (40) below and 
less than seventy-five (75) above the grade floor shall be of not less 
than three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance. In buildings of types 3 
or 4 construction, such three-quarter (3/4) hour enclosures may be of 
combustible construction as provided in section 618.92. 

Fire enclosures of exitways, exitway hallways, and stairways in 
schoolhouse buildings which do not exceed three (3) stories in height 
shall be of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance. 

Note f In all buildings, except F-6 use group, in which the roof 
framing may be unprotected, roof slabs and decking may be noncombustible 
without fire resistance rating except that in buildings not more than 
five (5) stories in height, roof decking may be of mill type construction 
or of any other materials providing equivalent f ireresistant and struc- 
tural properties. (See sections 217 and 915.) 

Note g In Type 3A construction members which are of material other 
than heavy timber shall have a f ireresistance rating of not less than 
three-quarter (3/4) hour. 

Note h Fire-Retardant Treated Wood, complying with section 903.72, 
may be used as provided in section 903.8. 



2-33 



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2-34 



NOTES TO TABLE 2-6 



GENERAL 



For all buildings, except F-6 of type 3B construction, which have more 
than twenty-five (25) percent of the building perimeter fronting on a 
street or other unoccupied space which is at least thirty (30) feet wide 
and has unrestricted accessibility for fire equipment and apparatus, the 
tabular area may be increased by two (2) percent for each one (1) percent 
of such perimeter excess above the twenty-five (25) percent. 

Example : Perimeter = 400 feet 

Accessible Perimeter = 300 feet 

1. 25% of 400 feet = 100 feet 

2. Excess of accessible perimeter 

accessible perimeter = 300 feet 

25% deduction = 100 feet 

Excess of accessible perimeter = 200 feet 

3. Percentage of excess = 200 x 100% = 50% 

400 

4. Increase allowable = 2 x 50% = 100% 

A one-hundred (100) percent increase in the tabular area is allowed, 
thus doubling the allowable area. 



SPECIFIC 

Note a In use groups B-1, B-2, C, D, E and F-4, the tabular areas may 
be increased two hundred (200) percent for one (1) story buildings and 
one hundred (100) percent for buildings over one (1) story in height 
when such buildings are equipped with automatic sprinkler systems not 
specifically required by law. (See section 308) . 

Note b Type 1 buildings permitted unlimited tabular heights and areas 
are not subject to special requirements that allow increased heights and 
areas for other types of construction. 

Note c In use groups B, C, D, E and F-3 , isolated buildings of other 
than frame construction may be of unlimited areas outside of the fire 
limits when not more than one (1) story or eighty-five (85) feet in 
height when complying with specific provisions of the Basic Code. (See 
section 309) . 

Note d In use groups B-1, B-2, C, D and E types 1, 2 and 3 construction 
may be increased one (1) story but not more than twenty (20) additional 
feet in height when equipped with automatic sprinkler systems not 
specifically required by law. (See section 310.2). 

Note e Church auditoriums of type 3-A construction may be erected to 
sixty-five (65) feet in height, and of type 4 construction to forty-five 
(45) feet in height. 

Note f For exceptions to height and area limitations of high hazard 
use buildings, see article 4 governing the specific use. For 



2-35 



other special f ireresistive requirements governing specific uses, see 
section 905. 

Note g For height and area exceptions covering public parking decks, 
see section 905.2. 

Note h For height and area exceptions covering petroleum bulk-storage 
buildings, see section 905.3. 

Note i For exceptions to height of multi-family dwellings of types 2- 
B and 3-B construction, see section 905.6 

Note j For one (1) story combustible fibre warehouses, see section 
408.3. 

Note k The tabular area of one (1) story school buildings of use 
group F-4 may be increased two hundred (200) percent provided every 
classroom has at least one door opening directly to the exterior of the 
building. Not less than one-half (%) of the required exitways from any 
assembly room included in such buildings shall also open directly to the 
exterior of the building. 

Note 1 For exception to area limitations for one (1) story buildings 
of type 2, 3-A and 3-B construction, see section 309.11. 

Note m The tabular area for 4A construction shall be limited to 6,300 
square feet for F-IB, F-3, and F-4 schoolhouse use and to 3,600 square 
feet for F-IA schoolhouse use. 

Note n The first story in the two (2) story portions of buildings of 
this type of construction shall be constructed of the next most fire- 
resistive type of construction, i.e., type 2B and 2C. For the purposes 
of this table, concrete filled steel tube columns shall be considered to 
have the equivalent of a three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance rating. 



2-36 



ARTICLE 3 

GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 

SECTION 300.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the division of the 
municipalities of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts into fire districts 
and the general limitations of height and area of all buildings here- 
after erected, and extensions to existing buildings hereafter altered or 
enlarged as affected by the fire and life hazard incident to type of 
construction, use group, density of development, exterior exposure and 
accessibility of buildings and structures to fire-fighting facilities 
and equipment. 

SECTION 301.0 FIRE DISTRICT SUBDIVISIONS 

For the purpose of control of use and construction of buildings, the 
building official may establish limiting districts designated Fire 
District No. 1, Fire District No. 2 and Outside Fire Limits under the 
legal procedure of the municipalities of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts for creating and establishing fire districts. 

NOTE A: NUMBER OF FIRE DISTRICTS. - The number of fire dis- 
tricts to be established will depend upon the prevailing char- 
acter of construction and typical development of the specific 
locality. In large cities, two (2) fire districts are gener- 
ally desirable while in cities of moderate size and in small 
political subdivisions, one fire district may be adequate to 
provide for the fire hazard inherent in concentrated commercial 
and manufacturing occupancies. The fire district should in- 
clude all those areas of the municipality in which buildings 
of business, mercantile, industrial, storage and other use 
groups of similar fire and conflagration hazard are concen- 
trated. If provision is made for only one fire district, the 
restrictions herein prescribed for Fire District No. 1 will 
be applicable to such district. 

301.1 FIRE DISTRICT NO. 1: Fire District No. 1 shall comprise the 
areas housing highly congested business, commercial, manufacturing and 
industrial uses or in which such uses are developing. 

301.2 FIRE DISTRICT NO. 2: Fire District No. 2 shall comprise the 
areas housing residential uses (use groups L-1 and L-2) , together with 
retail stores, business and amusement centers, or in which such uses are 
developing. 

301.3 OUTSIDE FIRE LIMITS: All other areas not included in Fire 
District Nos. 1 and 2 shall be designated as Outside Fire Limits. 



3-1 



SECTION 302.0 GENERAL FIRE DISTRICT PROVISIONS 

302.1 CHANGES IN DISTRICTS: Any changes in the boundaries of fire 
districts or changes of designation of any area from one fire dis- 
trict to another fire district shall be established by the local 
municipality. 

302.2 OVERLAPPING DISTRICTS: A building or structure located in 
more than one fire district shall be deemed to be in that one of the 
three districts which contains the major part of the building area; 
and in the event of equal distribution in two or more districts, the 
limitations of the most restricted district shall apply. 

302.3 HIGH HAZARD USES: Except as specifically approved by the 
municipal authorities, all buildings of high hazard use (use group 
A) shall be prohibited from location in Fire District No. 1. Paint 
spray, drying rooms and rooms for similar incidental uses not ex- 
ceeding one thousand (1000) square feet in area in industrial build- 
ings shall be permitted when enclosed in f ireresistive construction 
as specified in article 4 for special uses and occupancies and when 
segregated by fire divisions of the required fireresistance specified 
in table 9-1. 

302.31 PROTECTED EXTERIORS: All buildings of type 2 construction 
for high hazard uses (use group A) within the fire districts shall 
be constructed with walls of two (2) hours fireresistance when lo- 
cated within eleven (11) feet of interior lot lines or any buildings 
on the same lot. 

302.4 NONCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION EXEMPTIONS: One (1) story build- 
ings of type 2-C construction which do not exceed three thousand 
(3000) square feet in area in all use groups except high hazard, 
assembly and institutional shall be exempt from all protected ex- 
terior wall requirements . 

302.5 FRAME CONSTRUCTION: No building of frame construction (type 
4) shall be erected within the fire districts nor shall such build- 
ing or structure be moved from without to within, or from one lot to 
another with the fire districts, except as provided in sections 303 
and 304; and no building of otherwise lawful construction shall be 
extended in height or area within the fire districts by frame con- 
struction; except that one-and two-family frame dwellings may be ex- 
tended in area by not more than three hundred (300) square feet and 
to a height of not more than two and one-half (2h) stories nor more 
than thirty-five (35) feet. 

302.6 ROOF COVERINGS: All roof coverings shall be constructed of 
Class A, Class B or Class C roofings, complying with the provisions 
of article 9. 



SECTION 303.0 RESTRICTIONS OF FIRE DISTRICT NO. 1 

All buildings and structures, and all additions to existing build- 
ings and structures, hereafter erected within the boundaries of Fire 

3-2 



District No. 1 shall be of fireproof (type 1), protected noncombus- 
tible (types 2-A and 2-B) , heavy timber (tjrpe 3-A) , or ordinary pro- 
tected (type 3-B) construction as defined in article 2 and regulated 
in table 2-5; and shall be constructed within the height and area limi- 
tations of table 2-6; except as herein provided. 

Open parking structures may be constructed as permitted under 
section 905.2. 

303.1 FENCES: Fences not over six (6) feet in height may be erected 
of frame (type A) construction. 

303.2 STORM ENCLOSURES: Storm enclosures may be erected of frame 
construction not more than ten (10) feet in height and not more than 
three (3) feet wider than the entrance doors which they serve, provided 
they do not project more than six (6) feet beyond the building line. 

303.3 ACCESSORY BUILDINGS 

303.31 OUTBUILDINGS AND PARKING LOT OFFICES: Outbuildings and park- 
ing lot offices not more than ten (10) feet in height and one hundred 
(100) square feet in area may be erected of frame (type 4) construction 
when accessory to one- or two-family dwelling on the same lot or acces- 
sory to a lot approved for motor vehicle parking, when located not less 
than six (6) feet from the lot line or any other building. 

303.32 GREENHOUSES: Greenhouses and similar structures may be erected 
of frame (t3rpe 4) construction when accessory to a one- or two-family 
dwelling on the same lot and when located not less than six (6) feet 
from interior lot lines or any building. 

303.4 SHEDS: Sheds open on the long side not more than fifteen (15) 
feet in height nor more than five hundred (500) square feet in area 
may be erected of frame (type 4) construction when located not less 
than six (6) feet from the lot lines. 

303.5 BUILDERS' SHANTIES AND REVIEWING STANDS: Temporary builders' 
shanties erected in connection with approved building operations, 
platforms, reviewing stands, and other similar miscellaneous structures 
may be erected of frame (type 4) construction for a limited period of 
time as approved by the building official. 

303.6 PRIVATE GARAGES: Private garages not more than one (1) story 
nor more than fifteen (15) feet in height when accessory to a one- 
or two-family dwelling may be erected of protected frame (type 4-A) 
construction not more than seven hundred and fifty (750) square feet 
in area, or of frame (type 4-B) construction not more than five hun- 
dred (500) square feet in area, when located not less than six (6) 
feet from interior lot lines or any building. 

303.7 BINS, TANKS, TOWERS AND ROOF STRUCTURES 

303.71 TIMBER CONSTRUCTION: Coal and material bins, water towers, 
tank structures and trestles may be erected of mill type heavy timber 
construction with dimensions not less than required for type 3-A con- 
struction, not over thirty-five (35) feet in height, when located 

3-3 



thirty (30) feet from the interior lot lines or any building, except 
when located on lot lines along a railroad right of way or waterfront. 

303.72 STRUCTURES ON BUILDINGS: Aerial supports not more than twelve 
(12) feet in height, water tanks and flag poles may be erected of wood 
on buildings, not more than three (3) stories nor more than forty (40) 
feet in height, and drip bars in cooling towers may be constructed of 
wood. 

303.8 MOTOR FUEL SERVICE STATIONS: Gasoline service stations, and 
structures of similar business uses, not including high hazard uses, 
may be erected of unprotected noncombustible (type 2-C) construction 
within the height and area limits of use group E of table 2-6 pro- 
vided thay are located less than eleven (11) feet from the lot line 
or any building. 

303.9 BUS AND PASSENGER TERMINALS: Roofs over parking lots, bus and 
passenger terminals may be erected one story and not over twenty (20) 
feet in height and not more than eleven thousand (11,000) square feet 
in area of noncombustible (tj^e 2-C) construction or of heavy timber 
mill (type 3-A) construction. 

303.10 STORE FRONTS: Wood veneers of one (1) inch nominal thickness 
or exterior grade plywood not less than three-eighths (3/8) inch thick 
may be used on store fronts when facing public streets; provided the 
veneer does not exceed one (1) story in height and is applied to non- 
combustible backing or is furred not to exceed one and five-eighths 
(1-5/8) inch and firestopped in accordance with sections 874 and 912.2. 



SECTION 304.0 RESTRICTIONS OF FIRE DISTRICT NO. 2 

All buildings and structures hereafter erected within the bounda- 
ries of Fire District No. 2 shall be fireproof (tjrpe 1), noncombusti- 
ble (type 2) or exterior masonry wall (type 3) construction as regu- 
lated by table 2-5 and shall be constructed within the height and area 
limitations of table 2-6; except that all the variations permitted in 
Fire District No. 1 shall apply to permissible construction in Fire 
District No. 2 with the following additional exceptions: 

304.1 DWELLINGS: One and two-family dwellings (use group L-3) may 
be erected of protected frame (type 4-A) construction when not less 
than three (3) feet from interior lot lines and of unprotected frame 
(type 4-B) construction when not less than six (6) feet from interior 
lot lines within the height and area limitations of table 2-6. Roof 
coverings shall be of Class A, B or C roofings complying with the pro- 
visions of article 9. 

304.2 VERANDAS: Verandas, balconies, entrance porticos and similar 
appurtenant structures on dwellings, not exceeding ten (10) feet in 
depth nor projecting more than two (2) feet above the second story 
floor beams may be erected of frame (tjrpe 4-B) construction provided 
they do not extend nearer than five (5) feet to the lot line. When 
connected to a similar structure of an adjoining building, they sh£ill 
be separated therefrom by walls of two (2) hour fireresistance. 



3-4 



304.3 BOAT HOUSFS: Boat houses not more than two (2) stories nor 
more than thirty (30) feet in height nor more than one thousand 
(1000) square feet In area may be erected of frame (type 4-B) con- 
struction. 

304.4 EXTERIOR TRIM: Wood cornices and half timbering may be 
erected on residence (use group L) and business (use group C, D 
£.nd E) buildings; and existing openings in exterior walls of ma- 
sonry enclosed buildings (type 3-A, 3-B and 3-C) which are not re- 
quired for ventilation or access r)urposeS: may be filled in with 
-•-ood studs, metal lath and stucco or other approved construction 
cf eaual f ireresistance. 



SECTION 305.0 RESTRICTIONS OUTSIDE FIRE LIMITS 

Outside the fire limits, all types of construction exceut as 
iiereln specifically prohibited, or for which SDecial approval is 
required in connection with high hazard uses and occupancies in 
article 4, shall be permitted within the height and area limita- 
tions of table 2-6. 

305.1 LOT LINE SEPARATION: In frame construction an exterior wall 
erected less than six (6) feet from its adjacent lot line shall be 
cf three-quarter (3/^) hour fireresistive construction, including 
opening protectives except store front and window and door openings 
in one- and two-familv dwellings, out in no case shall such wall be 
located less than three (3) feet from interior lot lines. 

305.2 ROOF COVERINGS: Roof coverings shall conform to the fire- 
resistive requirements for Class A. B, C or non-rated roofings com- 
plying with the provisions of sections 903 and 928. 



SECTION 306.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 
306.1 ALTERATIONS 

306.11 LIMITATIONS: Nothing in these provisions shall be deemed 
to prohibit alterations within the limitations of section 106.0 
provided no unlawful change of use is involved. 

306.12 MINOR CHANGES: Changes, alterations or repairs to the in- 
terior of a building and to the front facing a street or other 
public space may be permitted provided such changes, in the opinion 
of the building official, do not increase the size, or the fire 
hazard of the building, or endanger the public safety and are not 
specifically prohibited by this Code. 

306.13 EXISTING PROJECTIONS: No change or enlargement shall be 
made to an existing part of a building now projecting beyond the 
street lot line or building line where such is established by law, 
except in conformity to the provisions of section 312 governing 
new construction. 

3-5 



306.2 INCREASE IN HEIGHT AND AREA: It shall be unlawful to in- 
crease the height or area of an existing building or structure unless 
it is of a type of construction permitted for new buildings of the 
increased height and area and use group within the fire district in 
which it is located and as regulated by table 2-6. 

306.3 EXISTING EXCESSIVE AREA: Any building heretofore lawfully 
approved which exceeds the maximum allowable area specified in table 
2-6 may be extended if the addition is separated from the existing 
building by an approved fire wall or fire division meeting the re- 
quirements of article 9 and table 2-5 and the additional area does 
not exceed the limits of table 2-6 for the specific use group and type 
of construction. 



307.0 GENERAL AREA AND HEIGHT LIMITATIONS 

All buildings, structures and parts thereof erected or altered 
shall be subject to the requirements of table 2-5 and table 2-6 for 
the appropriate type of construction and use groups classification 
involved subject to any specific modifications ana exceptions allowed 
in this code. 

307.1 AREA LIMIT: The area limitations specified in table 2-6 shall 
apply to all buildings fronting on a street, or public space not 
less than thirty (30) feet in width accessible to a public street. 

307.2 HEIGHT LIMIT: The height in feet and number of stories speci- 
fied in table 2-6 shall apply to all buildings and to all separate 
parts of a building enclosed within lawful fire walls complying with 
the provisions of article 9. 

307.3 MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS: Buildings more than one story in height 
shall be subject to the area requirements of the table 2-6 and modi- 
fied by the following table of factors: 











TABLE 3 


-1 














PERCENT REDUCTION 












IN 


THE AREA LIMITS 


OF TABLE 2-6 






No. 


of 
















Stories 


lA & IB 


2A 


2B 


2C 


3A & 3B 


3C 


4A & 4B 


1 




None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


2 




None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


None 


3 




None 


5% 


20% 


20% 


20% 


20% 


20% 


4 




None 


10% 


20% 


20% 


20% 


20% 




5 




None 


15% 


30% 




30% 






6 




None 


20% 


40% 




40% 






7 




None 


25% 


50% 










8 




None 


30% 


60% 










9 




None 


35% 


70% 










10 




None 















3-6 



SECTION 308.0 AREA EXCEPTIONS 

The provisions of this section shall modify the area limits of table 
2-6 as herein specified. Section 308.1 shall not apply to F-6 
use group buildings of type 3B construction. 

308.1 STREET FRONTAGE INCREASE: When a building or structure has more 
than twenty-five (25) percent of the building perimeter fronting on a 
street or other accessible unoccupied space not less than thirty (30) 
feet in width leading to a street, the tabular areas may be increased 
two (2) percent for each one (1) percent of such excess frontage. 

308.2 SPRINKLER INCREASE: When a building is equipped with an approved 
one (1) source automatic sprinkler system, unless such sprinkler system 
is required by the provisions of article 4 for structures of special use 
and occupancy, the tabular values may be increased by two hundred (200) 
percent for one (1) story buildings and one hundred (100) percent for 
buildings more than one (1) story in height. 

308.3 MAXIMUM TOTAL AREA: The maximum total area under the combined 
provisions of sections 308.1 and 308.2 shall not exceed three and one- 
half (3^) times the tabular area in table 2-6. 



SECTION 309.0 UNLIMITED AREAS 

309.1 ONE-STORY BUILDINGS: In other than frame construction, the area 
of all buildings of assembly (use group F-3) , business, industrial 
mercantile and storage use groups not including high hazard uses, which 
do not exceed one (1) story or eighty-five (85) feet in height shall not 
be limited outside the fire limits; provided the exitway facilities 
comply with the provisions of section 604, an automatic sprinkler system 
is provided complying with the provisions of section 1212.0 and the 
building is isolated as specified in section 309.2 except that a sprink- 
ler system shall not be required for buildings of type 2 or type 3A 
construction used exclusively for storage of noncombustible material not 
packed or crated in combustible material or as exempt by section 206.2 
for special industrial uses. 

309.11 SCHOOL BUILDINGS: School buildings, use group F-6, shall be 
subject to the provisions of Reference Standard F-6, Building Regu- 
lations for Schoolhouses , of the State Building Code Commission. 

309.2 FIRE SEPARATION: The minimum fire separation on any side of one 
(1) story buildings of unlimited area shall be determined by the type of 
construction and f ireresistance rating of the exterior wall adjacent 
thereto as herein specified: 



3-7 



Type of 
Construction 



Fireresistance 
Fireresistance rating of bear- 

Rating of Minimum ing & nonbearing Minimum 
Exterior Fire portions of Fire 
Bearing Walls Separation** exterior walls Separation 



2A 
2B 
2C 



2 hr. 

3/4 hr. 

hr. 



30 ft. 
40 ft. 
50 ft. 



2 hr.* 

3 hr.** 



30 ft. 
30 ft. 



3A 
3B 
3C 



2 hr. 
2 hr. 
2 hr. 



40 ft. 
40 ft. 
50 ft. 



3 hr.** 

3 hr.** 

4 hr.** 



30 ft. 
30 ft. 
30 ft. 



* All exterior wall openings shall be protected with one and one-half 
rated approved opening protectives. 

** All exterior wall openings shall be protected with three hour rated 
approved opening protectives. 

*** When the fire separation exceeds the herein specified minimum, the 
requirements of Table 2-5, Row 1 (Exterior Walls with Fire Separation of 
30 ft. or more: Bearing) shall apply. 



SECTION 310.0 HEIGHT EXCEPTIONS 

310.1 ROOF STRUCTURES: In applying the provisions of the Basic Code 
governing height limits, the following appurtenant structures shall 
not be included in the height of the building: roof tanks and their 
supports; ventilating, air conditioning and similar building service 
equipment; roof structures other than penthouses; chimneys and para- 
pet walls not exceeding four (4) feet in height; unless the aggregate 
area of such structures including penthouses, exceeds one-third (1/3) 
of the area of the roof of the building upon which they are erected. 

310.2 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS: Except in buildings where automatic 
sprinkler equipment is a requirement of article 4 or article 12 for 
special uses or occupancies, all structures of fireproof (type 1), 
noncombustible (type 2), and exterior masonry wall (type 3) con- 
struction, designed for business, industrial, mercantile, low or 
moderate hazard storage uses may be erected one (1) story or twenty 
(20) feet higher than specified in table 2-6 when equipped with an 
approved one-source automatic sprinkler system. 



311.0 STREET ENCROACHMENTS 

No part of any building hereafter erected and no additions to an 
existing building heretofore erected shall project beyond the lot 
lines or beyond the building line when such line is established by 



3-8 



the zoning law or any other statute controlling building construction, 
and irrespective of any other allowance for such encroachments, the 
following regulations shall apply: 

311.1 BELOW GRADE: No part of a building hereafter erected below 
grade that is necessary for structural support of the building shall 
project beyond the lot lines except that the footings of street walls 
or their supports located at least eight (8) feet below grade may pro- 
ject not more than twelve (12) inches beyond the street lot line. 

311.2 ABOVE GRADE: All projections hereafter permitted beyond the 
street lot line or the building lot line above grade shall be so con- 
structed as to be readily removable without endangering the safety of 
the building. 

311.3 PROJECTIONS NECESSARY FOR SAFETY: In any specific application, 
the building official may designate by approved rules such architec- 
tural features and accessories which are deemed desirable or necessary 
for the health or safety of the public and the extent to which they 
may project beyond the street lot line or the building line where 
such is established by statute, subject to all provisions and re- 
structions that may be otherwise prescribed by law, ordinance or 

rule of the authorities having jurisdiction over streets or public 
spaces. 

311.4 PERMIT REVOCABLE: Any permit granted or permission expressed 
or implied in the provisions of the Basic Code to construct a build- 
ing so as to project beyond the street lot line or building line 
shall be revocable by the municipality at will. 

311.5 EXISTING ENCROACHMENTS: Parts of existing buildings and struc- 
tures which already project beyond the street lot line or building 
line may be maintained as constructed until their removal is directed 
by the proper municipal authorities. 



SECTION 312.0 PERMISSIBLE STREET PROJECTIONS 

Subject to such provisions as may be otherwise prescribed by law 
or ordinance, or by rule of the municipal authorities having juris- 
diction over streets, highways, and public spaces, the following 
projections shall be permitted beyond the street lot line or the 
building line, as the case may be: 

312.1 MAIN CORNICES OR ROOF EAVES located at least twelve (12) feet 
above the curb level shall project not more than three (3) feet; 

312.2 BELT COURSES, LINTELS, SILLS, ARCHITRAVES, PEDIMENTS and simi- 
lar architectural decorations shall project not more than four (4) 
inches when less than ten (10) feet above the curb level, and not 
more than ten (10) Inches when ten (10) feet or more above the curb 
level; 



3-9 



312.3 ORNAMENTAL COLUMNS, OR PILASTERS including the bases and mold- 
ings which emphasize the main entrance of the building shall project 
not more than twelve (12) inches; 

312.4 ENTRANCE STEPS shall project not more than twelve (12) inches 
and shall be guarded by cheek pieces not less than three (3) feet 
high or shall be located between ornamental columns or pilasters; 

312.5 ORIEL WINDOWS with the lowest position at least ten (10) feet 
above the curb level shall project not more than two and one-half 
(2%) feet; 

312.6 BALCONIES located at least ten (10) feet above the curb level 
shall project not more than three (3) feet except that when the bal- 
cony is required in connection with a fire escape or exterior stair- 
way as an element of a means of egress, the projection may be increased, 
but not to exceed four (4) feet. 

312.7 AWNINGS AND MARQUEES. 

312.71 AWNINGS: Retractable or fixed awnings shall have clearances 
above the grade and shall be installed in accordance with the require- 
ments of section 315. 

312.72 MARQUEES: For the purpose of this section a marquee shall in- 
clude any object or decoration attached to or a part of sail marquee. 

PROJECTION AND CLEARANCE - The horizontal clearance between a mar- 
quee and the curb line shall be not less than two-thirds (2/3) of 
the distance from the property line to the curb shall be not less 
than ten (10) feet above the ground or pavement below. 

THICKNESS - The maximum height or thickness of a ma.-quee measured 
vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall not exceed 
three (3) feet when the marquee projects more than two-thirds (2/3) 
of the distance from the property line to the curb line and shall 
not exceed nine (9) feet when the marquee is less than two-thirds 
(2/3) of the distance from the property line to the curb line. 

ROOF CONSTRUCTION - The roof or any part thereof may be a skylight 
of approved plastics, or wired glass not less than one-fourth (h) 
inch thick with no single pane more than eighteen (18) inches wide. 
Every roof and skylight of a marquee shall be sloped to downspouts 
which shall conduct any drainage from the marquee in a manner not 
to spill over the sidewalk. 

LOCATION PROHIBITED - Every marquee shall be so located as not to 
interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe or to ob- 
struct the clear passage of stairways or exitway discharge from 
the building or the installation or maintenance of street lighting. 

CONSTRUCTION - A marquee shall be supported entirely from the build- 
ing and constructed of noncombustible material. Marquees shall be 
designed and constructed to withstand wind of other lateral loads 



3-10 



and live loads as required in article 7 of this Code. Structured 
members shall be protected to prevent deterioration as required 
by article 8. 

312.8 AWNING COVERS OR BOXES located at least eight (8) feet above 
the curb level shall project not more than three (3) feet. 



SECTION 313.0 PERMISSIBLE YARD AND COURT ENCROACHMENTS 

No part of any building or structure shall extend into side courts, 
inner courts or yards required for light and ventilation of habitable 
and occupiable rooms by the provisions of article 5, or of the zoning 
law or other statutes controlling building construction, except as 
hereinafter provided; but in no case shall the encroachment exceed 
twenty (20) per cent of the legal area of yard or court required for 
light and ventilation purposes. 

313.1 ROOF EAVES shall project not more than three (3) feet beyond 
the face of the wall. 

313.2 STEPS AND ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES: Steps, window sills, belt 
courses and similar architectural features, rain leaders and chimneys 
shall project not more than two (2) feet beyond the face of the wall. 

313.3 EXTERIOR STAIRWAYS AND FIRE ESCAPES: Outside stairways, smoke- 
proof tower balconies, fire escapes or other required elements of a 
means of egress shall project not more than four (4) feet beyond the 
face of the wall. 



SECTION 314.0 SPECIAL AND TEMPORARY PROJECTIONS 

314.1 ALLEY PROJECTIONS: The permissible projection beyond street 
lot lines shall apply in general to building projections into alley- 
ways except as may be modified by the local administrative authority 
having jurisdiction or by special deed restriction. 

314.2 SPECIAL PERMITS: When authorized by special permit, vestibules 
and storm doors may be erected for periods of time not exceeding seven 
(7) months in any one year, and shall project not more than three (3) 
feet nor more than one-fourth (h) the width of the sidewalk beyond the 
street lot line. Temporary entrance awnings may be erected with a 
minimum clearance of seven (7) feet to the lowest portion of the hood 
or awning when supported on removable steel or other approved noncom- 
bustible supports. 



SECTION 315.0 AWNINGS AND CANOPIES 

315.1 PERMIT: A permit shall be obtained from the building official 
for the erection, repair or replacement of any fixed awning, canopy 
or hood except as provided in section 315.11, and for any retractable 
awning located at the first story level and extending over the public 



3-11 



street or over any portion of a court or yard beside a building ser- 
ving as a passage from a required exitway discharge to a public street. 

315.11 EXEMPTION FROM PERMIT: No permit shall be required for the 
erection, repair or replacement of fixed or retractable awnings in- 
stalled on one- and two-family dwellings, unless they project over 
public property, or for retractable awnings installed above the first 
story or where the awning does not project ober the public street or 
over any court or yard serving as a passage from a required exitway 
to a public street. 

315.2 INSTALLATION OF AWNINGS. 

315.21 RETRACTABLE AWNINGS: There shall be a minimum clearance of 
seven (7) feet from the sidewalk to the lowest part of the framework 
or any fixed portion of any retractable awning, except that the bottom 
of the valance of canvas awnings may extend to six (6) feet nine (9) 
inches above the sidewalk. Retractable awnings shall be securely 
fastened to the building and shall not extend closer than twelve (12) 
inches from the curb line. They shall be equipped with a mechanism 

or device for raising and holding the awning in a retracted or closed 
position against the face of the building. 

315.22 FIXED OR PERMANENT AWNINGS: The clearance from the sidewalk 
to the lowest part of any fixed or permanent awning shall be the same 
as required in section 315.21 for retractable awnings. Fixed or per- 
manent awnings installed above the first story shall not project more 
than four (4) feet. 

315.3 CANOPIES: Canopies shall be constructed of a metal framework, 
with an approved covering, attached to the building at the inner end 
and supported at the outer end by not more than two (2) stanchions 
with braces anchored in an approved manner and placed not less than 
two (2) feet in from the curb line. The horizontal portion of the 
framework shall be not less than eight (8) feet nor more than twelve 
(12) feet above the sidewalk and the clearance between the covering 
or valance and the sidewalk shall be not less than seven (7) feet. 
The width of canopies shall not exceed eight (8) feet. 

315.4 SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF AWNINGS: Rigid awnings supported in 
whole or part by members resting on the ground and used for patio 
covers, car ports, summer houses or other similar uses shall comply 
with the requirements of section 315.5 for design and structure. Such 
structures shall be braced as required to provide rigidity. 

315.5 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION: Fixed awnings, canopies and similar 
structures shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or 
other lateral loads and live loads as required by article 7 of the 
Basic Code with due allowance for shape, open construction and simi- 
lar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural members 
shall be protected to prevent deterioration. 



3-12 



SECTION 316.0 SUBDIVISION OF ATTIC SPACES 

The attic spaces of all buildings, except where the roof and attic 
are of noncombustible or fireproof construction, shall be subdivided 
into areas not exceeding three thousand (3,000) square feet by means 
of approved fire stops. When doors or other openings are provided in 
such subdividing partitions, they shall be of noncombustible or simi- 
larly protected materials and the construction shall be tightly fitted 
around all ducts or other assemblies piercing such partitions. 



SECTION 317.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 

Pursuant to a variance granted by the local board of appeals under 
rhe provisions of section 126.0, the building official may issue a 
permit for temporary construction as approved by the board of appeals. 
Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but in no case 
2hall such temporary construction be permitted for more than one year. 

017.1 SPECIAI. APPROVAL: All temporary construction shall conform to 
structural strength, lire safety, means of egress, light, ventilation 
and sanitary requirements of this Code necessary to insure puolic 
health, safety and general welfare. 

:i7.2 TERMINATION OF APPROVAL: The building official is hereby au- 
thorized to cermmata such special approval and to order the demoli- 
-.icn of any such construction at his discretion, or as directed by 
'-.he decision of the local board of appeals. 



3-13 



ARTICLE 4 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 400.0 SCOPE 

In addition to the general requirements of the Basic Code governing 
the location, construction and equipment of all buildings and structures 
and the f ireresistive, height and area limitations of tables 2-5 and 2-6 
the provisions of this article shall control all buildings and structures 
designed for high hazard uses and occupancies which involve extreme fire, 
smoke, explosion or toxic gas risks, and places of assembly in which 
people congregate in large numbers and which are susceptible to panic 
incidental to crowds. Except as herein specifically provided, the 
applicable standards listed in the reference standards of this article 
shall be deemed to comply with the requirements of this article. 

Chemical plants, packing plants, grain elevators, refineries, flour 
mills and other special structures may be constructed in accordance 
vith the recognized practices and requirements of the specific industry. 
The building official may permit such variations from the requirements 
of the Basic Code which will secure reasonable and economical construc- 
tion with the necessary fire, life and property safeguards. In grant- 
ing such variations, due regard shall be given to the isolation of the 
structure and fire hazard from and to surrounding property. 

400.1 USES INVOLVING EXPLOSION HAZARDS: The provisions of this arti- 
cle shall apply to all uses involving the storage, manufacture, han- 
dling or filling of flammable and volatile solids, liquids or gases 
which generate combustible and explosive air-vapor mixtures and toxic 
gases including nitrocellulose film; pyroxylin plastics; grain and 
other combustible dusts and pulverized fuels; combustible fibers; 
pyroxylin lacquer-spraying operations; liquefied petroleum gases; 
alcohol, ether and gasoline; flammable dusts and residues resulting 
from fabrication, grinding and buffing operations, and all other ex- 
plosion hazard risks. 

400.2 SPECIAL HIGH HAZARDS: When the fire hazard potential exceeds 
that which would be considered within the range of fire loading accept- 
able for high hazard use, the requirements of table 2-5 may be increased 
to provide additional f ireresistance in proportion to the excess fire 
loading. Where high hazard uses exceed five (5) stories or sixty-five 
(65) feet in height, requirements in excess of those required by table 
2-5 may be specified in proportion to the anticipated additional fire 
hazard. 

400.3 MEANS OF EGRESS: The means of egress for buildings of hazardous 
uses and occupancies shall conform to the requirements of article 6, 
except as may be modified by more restrictive provisions of this arti- 
cle for specific uses. 

4-1 



400.4 HEATING AND VENTING: The requirements herein prescribed for 
the installation of heating and venting appliances and equipment for 
high hazard uses and occupancies shall be construed as supplemental to 
the provisions of article 5, 10, 11 and 18. 

400.5 LIGHT AND ELECTRIC WIRING: Whenever flash fires and explosion 
hazards are involved, all artificial lighting shall be restricted to 
incandescent electric lights or other approved lighting with keyless 
sockets and dust-tight, vapor-proof globes protected against mechanical 
injury. All wiring in vaults or compartments for the storage of highly 
flammable materials shall be in metal or other approved conduit com- 
plying with the provisions of the Massachusetts State Electrical Code. 

400.6 BOILER AND HAZARDOUS EQUIPMENT ROOMS: Boilers and other equip- 
ment or devices, including breechings which involve flame or spark pro- 
ducing apparatus shall not be exposed to fire or explosive-hazard gases, 
vapors or volatile flammable liquids. Such rooms and equipment shall 
be segregated by construction of not less than two (2) hour fireresis- 
tance except as may be required for specific uses, without openings in 
the enclosure walls and with means of direct ingress and egress from 
the exterior, or such equipment shall be located in accessory struc- 
tures segregated from the main building. 

400.7 FIRE-FIGHTING AND EXTINGUISHING EQUIPMENT: All buildings de- 
signed for specific hazardous uses shall be protected with approved 
automatic sprinkler systems or such other fire-extinguishing and aux- 
iliary equipment as herein provided and in accordance with the re- 
quirements of article 12. 

400.8 SEGREGATION OF STORAGE SPACES: All rooms and spaces used for 
the storage of volatile and flammable materials shall be separately 
enclosed and segregated with f ireresistive construction as herein 
required for specific uses and occupancies. 

400.9 RESTRICTED LOCATIONS: No high hazard use may be located with- 
in two hundred (200) feet of the nearest wall of a building classi- 
fied in a public assembly or institutional use group. 



SECTION 401.0 DEFINITIONS 

AIRPLANE HANGAR, PRIVATE: a hangar for the storage of four (4) or less 
single motor planes and in which no volatile or flammable oil is 
handled, stored or kept other than that contained in the fuel storage 
tank of the plane. 

-PUBLIC: a building for the storage, care or repair of private or 
commercial airplanes not included in the term "private airplane 
hangar." 



4-2 



EXITWAY DISCHARGE COURT: an exterior unoccupied space which is open 
to the sky for its entire area, located on the same lot with a 
theatre or other assembly building which it serves exclusively as 
an unobstructed passageway to the street or other public space. 

FLAMMABLE: Subject to easy ignition and rapid flaming combustion. 

FOYER: the enclosed space surrounding or in the rear of the audi- 
toritnn of a theatre or other place of assembly which is completely 
shut off from the auditorium and is used as an assembly or waiting 
space for the occupants. 

FUEL OIL: a liquid mixture or compound derived from petroleum which 
does not emit flammable vapor below a temperature of one hundred 
and twenty-five (125) degrees F. in a Tag closed-cup tester. 

GARAGE, PRIVATE: a garage for four (4) or less passenger motor 

vehicles with no provision for repairing or servicing such vehicles 
for profit. 

GARAGE, PUBLIC: a building or structure for the storage or parking 
of more than four (4) passenger motor vehicles, or more than one 
(1) commercial motor vehicle, and in which provision may be made 
for the dispensing of gasoline, oil or similar products for the 
servicing of such vehicles. Public garages shall be classified 
according to their specific use in one (1) of the following groups: 

-GROUP 1: a public garage in which provision is made for the care, 
storage, repair or painting of motor vehicles. 

-GROUP 2: a public garage used exclusively for passenger vehicles 
that will accommodate not more nine (9) passengers. 

GRANDSTAND: any structure, except movable seating and sectional 
benches, intended primarily to support individuals for the pur- 
poses of assembly, but shall not apply to the permanent seating 
in theatres, churches, auditoriums and similar buildings. 

KEROSENE: an oil or liquid product of petroleum which does not emit 
a flammable vapor below a temperature of one hundred and fifteen 
(115) degrees F. when tested in a Tag closed-cup tester. 

LOBBY: the enclosed vestibule between the principal entrance to the 
building and the doors to the main floor of the auditorium or as- 
sembly room of a theatre or place of assembly or to the main floor 
corridor of a business building. 

MOBILE HOME: a dwelling unit built on a chassis and containing com- 
plete electrical, plumbing and sanitary facilities, and designed to 
be installed on a temporary or permanent foundation for permanent 
living quarters. 



4-3 



MOTOR FUEL SERVICE STATION: a structure, building or premise or any 
portion thereof where a flanunable fluid is stored, housed or sold 
for supply to motor vehicles. 

MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR SHOP: a building, structure or enclosure in 
which the general business of repairing motor vehicles is con- 
ducted including a public garage, 

PARKING STRUCTURE, OPEN: a structure for the parking of passenger 
cars wherein two (2) or more sides of such structure are not less 
than fifty (50) percent open on each floor or level for fifty (50) 
percent of the distance from the floor to the ceiling and wherein 
no provision for the repairing of such vehicles is made. Such 
open parking structures are not classified as public garages, but 
shall comply with the requirements of section 905.2. 

PYROXYLIN PLASTIC: any nitro-cellulose product or compound soluble 
in a volatile, flammable liquid, including such substances as 
celluloid, pyroxylin, fiberloid and other cellulose nitrates (other 
than nitro-cellulose film) which are susceptible to explosion 
from rapid ignition of the gases emitted therefrom. 

STAGE: a partially enclosed portion of an assembly building which is 
designed or used for the presentation of plays, demonstrations, or 
other entertainment wherein scenery, drops, or other effects may 
be installed or used; and where the distance between the top of 
the proscenium opening and the ceiling of the sta^e is more than 
five (5) feet; and the stage extends seventeen (17) feet or more 
in back of the proscenium arch or there is a gridiron. 

TRAVEL TRAILER: a vehicular, portable structure built on a chassis 
and designed to be used for temporary occupancy for travel , recre- 
ational or vacation use; with the manufacturer's permanent identi- 
fication "Travel Trailer," thereon; and when factory equipped 
for the road, being of any length provided its gross weight does 
not exceed forty-five hundred (4500) pounds, or being of any 
weight provided its overall length does not exceed twenty-eight 
(28) feet. 



SECTION 402.0 EXPLOSION HAZARDS 

Every structure, room or space occupied for uses involving explo- 
sion hazards shall be equipped and vented with explosion relief 
systems and devices arranged for automatic release under predeter- 
mined increase in pressure as herein provided for specific uses or 
in accordance with approved engineering standards and practice. 

402.1 VENTING DEVICES: Venting devices to relieve the pressure re- 
sulting from explosive air-vapor mixtures shall consist of windows, 
sky-lights, vent flues or releasing roof or wall panels which dis- 
charge directly to the open air or to a public place or other unoc- 

4-4 



cupied space not less than twenty (20) feet in width on the same 
lot. Such releasing devices shall be so located that the dis- 
charge end shall be not less than ten (10) feet vertically and 
twenty (20) feet horizontally from window openings or means of 
egress facilities in the same or adjoining buildings or structures. 
The exhaust shall always be in the direction of least exposure and 
never into the interior of the building. 

402.2 AREA OF VENTS: The aggregate clear vent relief area shall 
be regulated by the type of construction of the building and shall 
be not less than herein prescribed: 

Heavy reinforced concrete 

frame 1 sq. ft. for 80 cubic feet of volume 

Light structural steel 

frame and ordinary 

construction 1 sq. ft. for 65 cubic feet of volume 

Light wood frame 

construction 1 sq. ft. for 50 cubic feet of volume 

In no case shall the combined area of open windows, pivoted sash 
or wall panels arranged to open under internal pressure be less 
than ten (10) percent of the area of the enclosure walls, with not 
less than fifty (50) percent of the opening arranged for automatic 
release. 

402.3 CONSTRUCTION OF VENTS: All explosion relief devices shall be 
of an approved type constructed of light weight, noncombustible and 
corrosion-resistive materials, and .the discharge end shall be pro- 
tected with approved screens of not more than three-quarter (3/4) 
inch mesh, arranged to blow out under relatively low pressures. 



SECTION 403.0 VOLATILE FLAMMABLES 
403.1 CONTROL OF USE. 

403.11 INSIDE STORAGE: Refer to FPR-4, FPR-8, and FPR-13 for re- 
quirements. 

403.12 HANDLING: Refer to FPR-4 for requirements. 

403.13 CONSTRUCTION OF ENCLOSURES: Process rooms shall be separated 
from other uses and occupancies by walls, floors and ceilings of not 
less than two (2) hours f ireresistance with one and one-half (Ih) 
hour fire doors or the approved labeled equivalent complying with 
article 9. The interior door openings shall be provided with 
non-combustible sills not less than six (6) inches high and the 

room shall be vented as required in section 402. Floors shall be 
waterproofed and drained to comply with section 871. 



4-5 



A03.14 FIRE PROTECTION: First aid fire appliances and automatic 
sprinklers or other extinguishing equipment shall be provided in 
accordance with article 12 and the standards listed in the reference 
standards of this article. 

403.2 MAIN STORAGE: Main storage system of volatile flammable liq- 
uids shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the ap- 
plicable standards listed in this article subject to the approval 
of the fire official. Any tank greater than ten thousand (10,000) 
gallons capacity shall be subject to the provisions of the Depart- 
ment of Public Safety Board of Boiler Rules. Such storage may be 
either outside underground, outside aboveground, inside underground, 
or outside storage house. No above ground bulk storage tank shall 
be located less than three hundred (300) feet from any assembly 
buildings (use group F) or institutional (use group H) uses. 

403.21 OUTSIDE UNDERGROUND SYSTEM: Outside tanks shall be buried 
underground below the basement level of adjacent buildings, with 
the top of the tanks not less than two (2) feet below grade or with 
a reinforced concrete or other approved structural cover not less 
than four (4) inches thick and a twelve (12) inch earth cover. The 
max 1 mum capacity of such tanks shall be limited by their location 
in respect to adjacent buildings which are not an essential part 
of the installation and adjacent lot lines as provided in table 
4-1. 

Table 4-1 - Capacity of Outside Underground Tanks 
for Volatile Flammable Liquids 

Fire separation in feet Quantity of storage in gallons 

50 Unlimited 

40 50, 000 

30 20,000 

25 12,000 

20 6,000 

10 3,000 

When within ten (10) feet of any building not an essential part of 
the installation, and the top of the tank is above the lowest floor 
of the building, the capacity of the tank shall be not more than five 
hundred and fifty (550) gallons. 

The capacity of storage of combustible liquids other than volatile 
flammable as herein defined shall be restricted to five (5) times 
the values specified In table 4-1. 



4-6 



403.22 OUTSIDE ABOVEGROUND SYSTEM: Above ground tanks shall be 
located only outside the fire limits; and the capacity, location, 
construction and exposures shall be subject to special approvals 

of the building official and the fire official; but in no case shall 
the fire separation be less than specified in table A-2. Tanks 
in excess of ten thousand (10,000) gallon capacity shall be subject 
to the Department of Public Safety Board of Boiler Rules. 

403.23 INSIDE UNDERGROUND SYSTEM: Inside underground tanks shall 
be located not less than two (2) feet below the level of the low- 
est floor of the building in which located or any other building 
within a radius of ten (10) feet of the tank. In no case shall 
such tanks be located under the sidewalk or beyond the building 
line. It shall be unlawful to cover any tanks from sight until 
after inspection and test and written approval of the building 
official. 



Table 4-2 - Capacity of Outside Aboveground Tanks 
for Volatile Flammable Liquids 

Fire seperation in feet Quantity of Storage in gallons 

50 50,000 

40 30, 000 

30 24,000 

20 12, 000 

The maximum limit of individual tank capacity shall be not more than five 
hundred and fifty (550) gallons and the entire system shall be subject to 
special approval of the building and fire officials. 

403.24 OUTSIDE STORAGE HOUSE: All outside storage houses shall be 
constructed of noncombustible (type 2) construction or better. No 
opening shall be permitted in the enclosure walls within eleven 
(11) feet of adjoining property lines or with a fire exposure of 
less than eleven (11) feet from any building or structure not part 
of the installation. 

403.25 SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS: The building official may require 
greater fire separations or he may limit storage capacities under 
severe exposure hazard conditions when necessary for public safety. 



SECTION 404.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

404.1 SPECIAL PERMIT FOR EXISTING USES: Any existing hazardous 
use which was heretofore authorized by a permit issued under the 
provisions of law or the regulations of the fire official may be 
continued by special permit provided the continuance of such use 
or occupancy does not endanger the public safety. 



4-7 



404.2 EXISTING USE PROHIBITED: No existing building of frame 
(type 4) construction which is more than two (2) stories in height 
or more than five thousand (5000) square feet in area shall be con- 
tinued in use or hereafter occupied for any use which represents 

an exceptional hazard with respect to fire or explosion. 

404.3 PLACES OF ASSEMBLY. 

404.31 CHANGE OF USE: No existing building or structure or part 
thereof shall be altered or converted into a place of assembly 
unless it complies with all provisions of this Code applicable to 
places of public assembly hereafter erected. 

404.32 EXISTING USE ALTERED: When an existing building or struc- 
ture heretofore used as a place of public assembly is altered and 
the cost of such alteration is more than fifty (50) percent of the 
physical value of the building as defined in section 106.5, all 
provisions of this Code relating to new places of public assembly 
shall be complied with. When the cost of such alteration is less 
than fifty (50) percent of the physical value of the building, 
such alterations shall comply as nearly as is practicable with 
the provisions of this Code which govern the arrangement and con- 
struction of seats, aisles, passageways, stage and appurtenant 
rooms, fire-fighting and extinguishing equipment and the adequacy 
of means of egress. 

404.33 INCREASE OF OCCUPANCY LOAD: Whenever the occupancy load 
of an existing place of public assembly is increased beyond the 
approved capacity of its exitways, the building or parts thereof 
shall be made to comply in all respects with the requirements for 
a new building hereafter erected for such public assembly use. 



SECTION 404.4 SWIMMING POOLS 

404.41 CHANGE OF USE: No existing pool used for swimming or 
bathing or accessory equipment of part thereof shall be altered 
or converted for any other use unless it complies with all pro- 
visions of this Code applicable to the use intended. 

404.42 CONTINUATION OF EXISTING USE: Existing swimming pools 
may be continued without change, provided the safety requirements 
are observed where required by the building official. 



SECTION 405.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES 

The provisions of this section shall apply to the design, con- 
struction, location, installation and operation of propane, butane 
and other petroleum gases, normally stored in the liquid state 



4-8 



under pressure for use in all buildings and structures. Refineries, 
tank farms and utility gas plants shall be subject to special ap- 
provals in accordance with accepted engineering practice as defined 
in the reference standards of this article. 

405.1 THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS REGULATIONS: The design, 
construction, location, installation and operation of facilities 
for propane, butane and other petroleum gases, normally stored 
in the liquid state under pressure for use in all buildings and 
structures shall be in conformance with the Massachusetts State 
Fire Prevention Regulations, FPR-5; the Department of Public 
Safety Board of Boiler Rules; and other standards listed in the 
reference standards of this article. 



SECTION 406.0 PYROXYLIN PLASTICS 

The provisions of this section, including the reference standards 
of this article shall regulate all buildings, structures and parts 
thereof used for the storage, handling or fabrication of pyroxylin 
plastics permitted by Massachusetts law whether as raw material, 
process, finished product or scrap. 

406.1 EXCEPTIONS: The provisions of this section shall not apply 
to the manufacture, use or storage of nitro-cellulose film or the 
incidental storage of articles manufactured from pyroxylin plastics 
offered for sale in mercantile buildings. (See section 205.) 

406.2 RESTRICTIONS: No permit for the storage or manufacture of 
pyroxylin plastics, except as specified in section 406.1, shall 
be issued for a building or structure hereafter erected, altered 
or used which is occupied or located as follows: 

406.21 PLACE OF ASSEMBLY: Within fifty (50) feet of the nearest 
wall of a school, theatre or other place of public assembly; 

406.22 RESIDENTIAL BUILDING: As a residential building, use groups 
L-1, L-2 or L-3; 

406.23 HIGH HAZARD USES: In quantities exceeding one thousand 
(1000) pounds in buildings where paints, varnishes or lacquers 

are manufactured, stored or kept for sale; or where matches, resin, 
oils, hemp, cotton or any explosives are stored or kept for sale; 

406.24 OTHER FLAMMABLE MATERIALS: Where drygoods, garments or 
other materials of a highly flammable nature are manufactured in 
any portion of the building above that used for nitro-cellulose 
products; 



4-9 



406.25 TENANT FACTORY BUILDING: In quantities exceeding one hun- 
dred (100) pounds in any tenant factory building (use Group D) in 
which more than five (5) people are employed or likely to congre- 
gate on one floor at any one time. 

406.3 INSIDE STORAGE: All pyroxylin raw material and products 
intended for use in further manufacture shall be stored as herein 
provided: 

406.31 CABINETS: Quantities of more than twenty-five (25) pounds 
and not more than five hundred (500) pounds shall be stored In 
approved cabinets constructed of noncombustible materials but in 
no case shall the total quantity of storage be more than one 
thousand (1000) pounds in any workroom or space enclosed in floors, 
walls and ceilings of not less than two (2) hours fireresistance; 

406.32 VAULTS: Quantities of more than one thousand (1000) poionds 
and not more than ten thousand (10,000) pounds shall be stored in 
vaults enclosed in floors, walls and ceilings of not less than 
four (4) hours fireresistance. The interior storage volume of the 
vault shall be not more than fifteen hundred (1500) cubic feet 

and the vault shall be constructed vapor and gastight in accordance 
with the approved rules, with one and one-half (Ih) hour vapor-tight 
fire doors or the approved labeled fire door assembly equivalent 
on each side of the door opening. The vault shall be drained and 
provided with scuppers. 

406.33 TOTE BOXES AND SCRAP CONTAINERS: During manufacture, 
pyroxylin materials and products not stored in finished stock 
rooms, cabinets or vaults shall be kept in approved covered non- 
combustible tote boxes. Scrap and other refuse material shall be 
collected in approved noncombustible containers in quantities not 
greater than three hundred and fifty (350) pounds and removed at 
frequent intervals as directed by the building official with the 
approval of the fire official; 

406.34 VENTILATION: Each separate compartment in storage vaults 
shall be vented directly to the outer air through flues complying 
with the requirements of article 10 for low temperature chimneys, 
or exterior metal smokestacks, or as otherwise provided in the 
approved rules. The vent shall discharge not less than four (4) 
feet above the roof of the building or on a street, court or other 
open space not less than fifty (50) feet distant from any other 
opening in adjoining walls which are not in the same plane, nor 
nearer than twenty-five (25) feet vertically or horizontally to 

an exterior stairway, fire escape or exitway discharge. The area 
of the vent shall be not less than one (1) square inch for each 
seven (7) pounds of pyroxylin stored; 



4-10 



406.35 STRUCTURAL STRENGTH: The floors, walls, roof and doors of 
all vaults, structures or buildings used for the storage or manu- 
facture of pyroxylin materials and products shall be designed to 
resist an inside pressure load of not less than three hundred (300) 
pounds per square foot; 

406.36 FIRE PROTECTION: Vaults located within buildings for the 
storage of raw pyroxylin shall be protected with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system capable of discharging one and sixty-six 
one-hundredths (1.66) gallons per minute per square feet over the 
area of the vault. 

406.4 ISOLATED STORAGE BUILDINGS: Pyroxylin products in quanti- 
ties greater than permitted for interior storage shall be housed 
in isolated storage buildings. Such buidings shall be used for no 
purpose other than packing, receiving, shipping and storage of 
pyroxylin plastics unless otherwise approved by the building official. 

406.41 CAPACITY: The maximum storage in any fire area enclosed 
in construction of four (4) hours fireresistance shall be not greater 
than one hundred thousand (100,000) pounds. The storage capacity 
of the building and its separation from lot lines and other build- 
ings on the same lot shall be limited as provided in table 4-3. 
When equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system comply- 
ing with the provisions of article 12 and as herein modified, the 
exposure distances may be decreased fifty (50) percent. Such sys- 
tems shall be provided with not less than one (1) automatic sprink- 
ler head for each thirty-two (32) square feet of protected area. 



Table 4-3 - Exposure Distance for Pyroxylin Storage Buildings 

Fire separation from lot line 

Maximum quantity stored in pounds or other buildings in feet 

1,000 40 

2,000 50 

3,000 60 

4,000 70 

5,000 80 

10,000 100 

20,000 125 

30,000 150 

40,000 160 

50, 000 180 

75,000 200 

100,000 225 

150,000 250 

300,000 300 



4-11 



406.5 FIRE PROTECTION, 

406.51 HEATING EQUIPMENT: All radiators, heating coils, piping 
and heating apparatus shall be protected with approved noncombust- 
ible mesh to maintain a clearance of six (6) inches of all pyroxylin 
products from such equipment. All piping and risers within six (6) 
feet of the floor shall be insulated with approved noncombustible 
covering unless protected with wire guards. 

406.52 LIGHTING CONTROL: All lighting shall comply with the pro- 
visions of section 400.5 and shall be controlled from panel boards 
located outside of storage compartments and vaults. 

406.53 STANDPIPES: First-aid standpipes shall be provided for 
each five thousand (5000) square feet of floor area equipped with 
one and one-half (l^s) inch hose, complying with article 12. 

406.54 AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS: All manufacturing and storage spaces 
and vaults where required shall be protected with an approved auto- 
matic sprinkler system as herein specified and with fire pails and 
portable fire extinguishers complying with article 12. 

406.55 SPECIAL PROTECTION: Special chemical extinguishers and 
other first aid fire appliances shall be provided around motors 
and other electrical equipment in accordance with the approved 
rules. 



SECTION 407.0 USE AND STORAGE OF FLAMMABLE FILM 

407.1 PERMIT REQUIRED: No permit for handling, use, storage or re- 
covery of flammable film shall be issued for any building located 

as specified in section 406.2; except that those restrictions shall 
not apply to the screening and projection rooms of theatres and 
other places of amusement or instruction. It shall be unlawful to 
store, stock or use any nitro-cellulose or other flammable film in 
quantities of more than two thousand (2000) feet in length or more 
than ten (10) pounds in weight unless approved by the fire official. 
All installations shall comply with the applicable standards listed 
in the reference standards of this article. 

407.2 STORAGE: Other than motion picture projection and rewind 
rooms, or as herein specifically exempted, all rooms in which flam- 
mable film is stored or handled shall be enclosed in not less than 
two (2) hour f ireresistive construction complying with the provisions 
of article 9. All film, except when in process or use, shall be 
kept in approved closed containers. 

407.21 CABINETS: Flammable film in amounts of twenty-five (25) 
to one thousand (1000) pounds shall be stored in approved noncom- 
bustible cabinets constructed and vented in accordance with the 
approved rules. No one cabinet shall contain more than three hvindred 
and seventy-five (375) pounds. All cabinets with a capacity of more 
than seventy-five (75) pounds shall be equipped with not less than one 
(1) automatic sprinkler head. 

4-12 



407.22 VAULTS: Flannnable film in amounts greater than one thousand 
(1000) pounds shall be kept in vaults constructed as provided in 
section 406; except that the interior storage volume shall not 
exceed seven hundred and fifty (750) cubic feet. 

407.23 ROOMS: Unexposed film may be stored in the original approv- 
ed shipping cases complying with the rules of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission in rooms equipped with an approved one-source 
sprinkler system complying with the provisions of section 406.36. 

407.24 VENTILATION: Storage rooms shall be ventilated as speci- 
fied in section 406.34 with the vents arranged to open automati- 
cally in the event of fire, in accordance with the approved rules. 

407.25 LIGHTING: Artificial illumination shall comply with section 
400.5 except that other approved forms of lights may be used in film 
studios. 

407.26 HEATING: All heating equipment and installations shall con- 
form to the requirements of section 406.51. The duct systems of 
warm air heating and air conditioning systems shall comply with 
article 18, and shall be protected with automatic fire dampers to 
cut off all rooms in which film is handled from all other rooms arid 
spaces in the building. The heating of film vaults shall be auto- 
matically controlled to a maximum temperature of seventy (70) de- 
grees F. 

407.27 FIRE PROTECTION: Approved automatic sprinkler systems 
shall be provided in all buildings and structures and parts there- 
of in which flammable film is stored or handled in amounts of more 
than fifty (50) pounds and as herein specifically required, except 
in projection booths and rewind rooms conforming to the requirements 
of section 407.3 and 407.4. 

407.3 PROJECTION ROOMS: Every room for the use and operation of 
motion picture projectors hereafter installed as an integral part 
of a building shall be enclosed in walls, floor and ceiling of 
approved noncombustible materials and construction, as herein pro- 
vided . 

407.31 CONSTRUCTION OF PROJECTION ROOMS: The size of the room 
shall be adequate to accommodate the apparatus and equipment and 
permit manual operation, but in no case less than forty-eight (48) 
square feet in area and seven (7) feet in height for one projector 
and twenty-four (24) square feet for each additional machine. The 
enclosure shall be constructed smoke and vapor-tight of not less 
than two (2) hour f ireresistance. Observation and projector 
openings shall in no case exceed twelve (12) inches in any dimen- 
sion and shall be equipped with automatic metal, or other approved 
noncombustible shutters capable of auxiliary manual operation from 
the outside. 



4-13 



407.32 MEANS OF EGRESS FROM PROJECTION ROOMS: At least two (2) 
means of egress shall be provided, equipped with three-quarter (3/4) 
hour self-closing fire doors, or their approved labeled equivalent, 
opening outwardly, not less than two and one-half (2J5) feet by six 
(6) feet in size, unless otherwise approved by the building official. 

407.33 VENTILATION OF PROJECTION ROOMS: Ventilation shall be pro- 
vided by an approved mechanical system of ventilation, exhausting 
either directly to the outdoors or through a noncombustible flue, 
which shall be used for no other purpose. The exhaust capacity 
shall be not less than fifteen (15) cubic feet nor more than fifty 
(50) cubic feet per minute for each arc lamp, plus two hundred (200) 
cubic feet per minute for the volvime of the room. The ventilation 
system may be extended to serve rewind rooms associated therewith, 
but shall not be connected in any way with ventilating or air con- 
ditioning systems serving other portions of the building. All ven- 
tilating flues shall be constructed and installed to comply with 
article 18. All fresh air intakes other than direct open air supply 
shall be protected with fire shutters arranged to operate automati- 
cally with the port shutters. 

407.34 LIGHTING CONTROL: Provision shall be made for control of 
the auditorium lighting and the emergency lighting systems of 
theatres from inside of the booth and from at least one other con- 
venient point in the building as required in section 416.8. 

407.35 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT: Separate compartments of similar con- 
struction to the projection booth shall be provided for storage bat- 
teries and motor generators, respectively. Ventilation shall be pro- 
vided for such compartments; ventilation for the motor compartment 
being Independent of any other system. The duct from such compart- 
ments leading to outdoors shall be constructed of approved acid- 
resisting noncombustible material. 

407.36 FILM CAPACITY: The film storage capacity of each projection 
or rewind room shall be not more than one hundred and twenty-five 
(125) pounds. 

407.4 REWIND AND AUXILIARY ROOMS: Rewinding of film shall be done 
in the booth in accordance with the approved standards or in a spe- 
cial rewind room not less than eighty (80) square feet in area con- 
structed as provided in this section for the projection room. Spe- 
cial auxiliary rooms may be provided for film storage of not more 
than one hundred and twenty-five (125) pounds capacity; but the 
total storage capacity of projection, rewind and auxiliary rooms 
shall be not more than two hundred and fifty (250) pounds. 

407.41 TOILET: A toilet room with approved toilet facilities shall be 
connected directly with the projection booth. 



4-14 



407.5 TRIAL EXHIBITION ROOMS: Preview rooms shall provide a seat- 
ing capacity of not more than one hundred (100) persons, with not 
less than two (2) approved means of egress complying with article 
6. Such rooms shall be enclosed In three-quarter (3/4) hour flre- 
reslstive partitions with self-closing fire doors or their approved 
labeled equivalent at the openings. All seats shall be permanently 
fixed in position and the arrangement shall comply with the require- 
ments of section 416.3. 

407.6 TEMPORARY MOTION PICTURE INSTALLATIONS: Temporary motion pic- 
ture installations shall require a building permit from the building 
official and shall be of approved construction. 

407.7 MOTION PICTURE STUDIOS. 

407.71 CONSTRUCTION: All buildings designed or used as motion pic- 
ture studios shall be protected with an approved two-source automatic 
sprinkler system complying with the provisions of article 12; except 
that the building official may exempt rooms designed for housing 
electrical equipment from this requirement when constructed of fire- 
proof (type 1) construction. 

407.72 SPECIAL ROOMS: Rooms and spaces used as carpenter and repair 
shops, dressing rooms, costume and property stage rooms shall be en- 
closed in floors, walls and ceilings of not less than two (2) hour 
fireresistive construction. 

407.73 TRIM, FINISH AND DECORATIVE HANGINGS: All permanently at- 
tached acoustic, insulating and light reflecting materials and tem- 
porary hangings on walls and ceilings shall comply with the require- 
ments of article 9. 

407.74 FILM STORAGE: All film shall be stored as required in sec- 
tion 407.2 and no surplus film shall be kept on the studio stage ex- 
cept loaded magazines in the cameras and sound recording apparatus. 
All extra loaded magazines shall be stored in a separate magazine 
room enclosed in two (2) hour fireresistive construction. 

407.8 FILM LABORATORIES: No film laboratories shall be conducted in 
other than fireproof (type-A) buildings or structures, equipped through- 
out with an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

407.9 FILM EXCHANGES: All film exchanges and depots shall be housed 
in buildings and structures of fireproof (type 1-A) construction 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system. All 
flammable film other than that in process of receipt, delivery or 
distribution shall be stored in vaults complying with the requirements 
of section 406.32. 



4-15 



SECTION 408.0 USE AND STORAGE OF COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS 

The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings and 
structures involving the storage or use of finely divided combustible 
vegetable or animal fibers and thin sheets or flakes of such materials 
involving a flash fire hazard, including among others cotton, excel- 
sior, hemp, sisal, jute, kapok and paper and cloth in the form of 
scrap and clippings in excess of one thousand (1000) pounds. All such 
uses shall be subject to the Massachusetts State Fire Prevention Regu- 
lations, FPR-13, and the following provisions: 

408.1 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS: All buildings designed for the 
storage of combustible fibers as herein described shall be constructed 
within the limits of height and area specified in table 2-6 for high 
hazard use (use group A) except as follows : 

408.11 SPECIAL LIMITS: No single storage room or space shall be 
more than twelve hundred and fifty (1250) square feet in area or more 
than twelve thousand five hundred (12,500) cubic feet in volume un- 
less of protected noncombustible (type 2-B) or better construction; 

408.12 FLOOR LOADS: The floors of all buildings designed for the 
storage of combustible fibers shall not be loaded in excess of one- 
half (h) the safe load capacity of the floor, nor shall such materials 
be piled to more than two-thirds (2/3) of the clear story height; 

408.13 SALVAGE DOORS: Every exterior wall shall be provided with a 
door to each storage compartment arranged for quick removal of the 
contents; 

408.14 WALL OPENINGS: All openings in outside walls shall be equipped 
with approved fire doors and fire windows complying with article 9; 

408.15 ROOF OPENINGS: All skylights, monitors and other roof open- 
ings shall be protected with galvanized wire or other approved cor- 
rosion-resistive screens with not less than thirty-six (36) meshes to 
the square inch or with wired glass in stationary frames; 

408.16 BOILER ROOMS: All power and heating boilers and furnaces 
shall be located in detached boiler houses or in a segregated boiler 
room enclosed in three (3) hour f ireresistive construction with direct 
entrance from the outside, except that rooms containing gas-fired 
heating equipment may have openings into the warehouse protected with 
one and one-half (1%) hour fire doors or their approved labeled equiva- 
lent. 

408.2 FIRE PROTECTION: Fire-extinguishing equipment shall be provided 
complying with article 12 consisting of casks, pails and portable chemi- 
cal extinguishers and standpipes. Where deemed necessary by the fire 
official, a system of outside hydrants and hose shall be provided. 



4-16 



408.3 OPEN STORAGE: Only temporary open storage of combustible 
fibers shall be permitted on the same premises with a fiber ware- 
house and shall be kept covered on top and sides with tarpaulins 
secured in place. Not more than seven thousand two hundred (7200) 
cubic feet of fiber shall be stored in the open; and fire-extinguish- 
ing equipment shall be provided as directed by the fire official. 

408.4 SPECIAL TREATMENTS: When combustible fibers are packed in 
special noncombustible containers or when packed in bales covered 
with wrappings to prevent ready ignition, or when treated by approved 
chemical dipping or spraying processes to eliminate the flash fire 
hazard, the restictions governing combustible fibers shall not apply. 



SECTION 409.0 COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS, GRAIN PROCESSING AND STORAGE 

The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings in which 
materials producing flammable dusts and particles which are readily 
ignitable and subject to explosion hazards are stored or handled, in- 
cluding among others, grain bleachers and elevators, malt houses, 
flour, feed or starch mills, wood flour manufacturing and manufacture 
and storage of pulverized fuel and similar uses. The applicable 
standards listed in the reference standards of this article, except 
as herein specifically required, shall be deemed to conform to the 
requirements of the Basic Code, 

409.1 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS. 

409.11 BUILDINGS: All such buildings and structures, unless herein 
otherwise specifically provided, shall be of fireproof (t3rpe 1), non- 
combustible (type 2) , or of laminated planks or lumber sizes quali- 
fied for heavy timber mill (type 3-A) construction, within the height 
and area limits of high hazard uses (use group A) of table 2-6, ex- 
cept that when erected of fireproof (type 1-A) construction, the height 
and area of grain elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, 
and when of heavy timber (type 3-A) construction, the structure may be 
erected to a height of sixty-five (65) feet; and except further that 

in isolated areas, the height of type 3-A structures may be increased 
to eighty-five (85) feet. 

409.12 GRINDING ROOMS: Every room or space for grinding or other 
operations producing flammable dust shall be enclosed with floors and 
walls of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance when the area is 
not more than three thousand (3000) square feet and of not less than 
four (4) hour fireresistance when the area is greater than three thou- 
sand (3000) square feet. 

409.13 CONVEYORS: All conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equip- 
ment passing through the enclosures of such rooms or spaces shall be 
constructed dirt and vapor tight, of approved noncombustible materials 
complying with Massachusetts State Electrical Code. 



4-17 



409.2 EXPLOSION RELIEF: Means for explosion relief shall be pro- 
vided as specified in section 402, or such spaces shall be equipped 
with the equivalent mechanical ventilation complying with article 18. 

409.3 GRAIN ELEVATORS: Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings 
for similar uses shall not be located within thirty (30) feet of in- 
terior lot lines or structures on the same lot, except when erected 
along a railroad right of way. 

409.4 COAL POCKETS: Coal pockets located less than thirty (30) feet 
from interior lot lines or structures on the same lot shall be con- 
structed of not less than protected noncombustible (type 2-A) construc- 
tion. When more than thirty (30) feet from interior lot lines, or 
erected along a railroad right of way, such structures may be built 

of lumber sizes qualifying for heavy timer or laminated construction, 
provided they are not more than sixty-five (65) feet in height. 



SECTION 410.0 PAINT AND SPRAY BOOTHS 

The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction, in- 
stallation and use of buildings and structures or parts thereof for 
the spraying of flammable paints, varnishes and lacquers or other 
flammable materials, mixtures or compounds used for painting, varnish- 
ing, staining of similar purposes. All such construction and equip- 
ment shall comply with the approved rules and the applicable standards 
listed in the reference standards of this article. 

410.1 LOCATION OF SPRAYING PROCESSES: Such processes shall be con- 
ducted in a spraying space, spray booth, spray room or shall be iso- 
lated in a detached building or as otherwise approved by the build- 
ing official in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

410.2 CONSTRUCTION. 

410.21 SPRAY SPACES: All spray spaces shall be ventilated with an 
approved exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flammable mist 
or vapors. When such spaces are not separately enclosed, noncombus- 
tible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the spread of fire. 

410.22 SPRAY BOOTHS: All spray booths shall be constructed of ap- 
proved noncombustible materials equipped with mechanical ventilating 
systems. 

410.23 SPRAY ROOMS: All spray rooms shall be enclosed in partitions 
of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance. Floors 
shall be waterproofed and drained in an approved manner . Floor drains 

to the building drainage system and the public sewer shall be prohibited, 



4-18 



410.24 STORAGE ROOMS: Spraying materials in quantities of not more 
than twenty (20) gallons may be stored in approved cabinets venti- 
lated at top and bottom, when in quantities of more than twenty (20) 
gallons and not more than one hundred (100) gallons, they may be 
stored in approved double-wall noncombustible cabinets vented direct- 
ly to the outer air; and all spraying materials in quantities of more 
than one hundred (100) gallons shall be stored in an enclosure of not 
less than two (2) hour fireresistance or in a separate exterior stor- 
age building. In no case shall such storage be in quantities of more 
than two hundred and fifty (250) gallons, except when stored in isolated 
storage buildings; and except further that not more than twenty-five (25) 
gallons of spraying material shall be stored in buildings in which 
exceptionally highly combustible materials are manufactured or stored. 

410.3 VENTILATION OF SPRAYING PROCESSES: The ventilation system 
shall comply with the provisions of section 402 and shall be adequate 
to exhaust all vapors, fumes and residue of spraying material directly 
to the outer air. Fresh air shall be admitted to the spraying spaces 
in an amount equal to the capacity of the fan in such manner as to 
avoid short-circuiting the path of air in the working space and to 
provide air movement with a velocity of not less than one hundred (100) 
feet per minute at the face of the spray booth. All ducts and vents 
shall be constructed and installed to comply with sections 1017 and 
1117 and article 18. Unless equipped with approved explosion-proof 
motors with nonferrous blade fans, the mechanical exhaust equipment 
shall be located outside of spray spaces. Make-up air shall be 
supplied from a point outside the spraying or dipping space such that 
it will be uncontaminated by the process exhaust fumes. 

410.31 VENTILATING: Ventilating ducts shall run directly to the 
outer air and be protected with a hood against the weather. Such 
ducts shall not terminate within ten (10) feet horizontally of any 
chimney outlet, or within twenty (20) feet of any exit or any open- 
ing in an adjoining wall. 

410.32 The exhaust system for any spraying, dipping or drying space 
shall not be connected to any other ventilating system or be dis- 
charged into a chimney or flue used for the purpose of conveying 
gases of combustion. 

410.4 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT: Artificial lighting and electric equip- 
ment shall comply with section 400.5. 

410.5 FIRE PROTECTION: Sprinkler heads shall be provided in all 
spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms and shall be in- 
stalled in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the 
standards listed in the reference section of article 12. Where 
buildings containing spray areas are not equipped with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler heads in booths and other 
spray areas and storage rooms may be supplied from the building water 
supply when approved by the building official, to comply with the 
provisions of section 1213 for partial sprinkler systems. 

4-19 



SECTION 411.0 DRY CLEANING ESTABLISHMENTS 

Before any dry cleaning plant is constructed or an existing plant 
is remodeled or altered, complete drawings shall be filed showing to 
scale the relative location of the dry cleaning area, the boiler room, 
finishing department, solvent storage tanks, pumps, washers, drying 
tumblers, extractors, filter traps, stills, piping and all other 
equipment involving the use of flammable liquid solvents. All dry 
cleaning by immersion and agitation shall be carried on in closed 
machines, installed and operated in accordance with the approved 
rules and the applicable standards listed in the reference standards 
of this article. 

411.1 CLASSIFICATION: For the purpose of the Basic Code, all dry 
cleaning and dry dyeing establishments shall be classified as fol- 
lows: 

411.11 HIGH HAZARD: All such establishments shall be classified as 
high hazard which employ gasoline or other solvents having a flash 
point below seventy-five (75) degrees F. (Tag. closed-cup) in quanti- 
ties of more than three (3) gallons, or more than sixty (60) gallons 
of flammable solvents with a flash point between seventy-five (75) 
and one hundred and forty (140) degrees F. (Tag. closed-cup). 

411.12 MODERATE HAZARD: All such establishments employing less than 
three (3) gallons of volatile flammables with a flash point of less 
than seventy-five (75) degrees F. or less than sixty (60) gallons of 
solvent with a flash point between seventy-five (75) and one hundred 

and forty (140) degrees F. (Tag. closed-cup) shall be classified as moder- 
ate hazard. 

411.13 LOW HAZARD: All such establishments using solvents of other 
than volatile flammable liquids or solvents with a flash point more 

than one hundred and forty (140) degrees F. (Tag. closed-cup) in cleaning 
and dyeing operations shall be classified as low hazard. 

411.2 CONSTRUCTION OF DRY CLEANING PLANTS 

411.21 HIGH HAZARD: The construction of new high hazard dry clean- 
ing plants, and the installation of high hazard dry cleaning estab- 
lishments in new locations shall be prohibited. 

411.22 MODERATE HAZARD: Moderate hazard dry cleaning plants as here- 
in defined may be located in buildings or structures of any type of 
construction other than frame (type 4) buildings subject to the fire 
district limitations of article 3 and the height and area limitations 
for high hazard buildings (use group A) of table 2-6. The room or 
space in which such operations are conducted shall be enclosed in not 
less than two (2) hour f ireresistive construction with not less than 
two (2) means of egress from each dry cleaning or dry dyeing room or 
space. 

4-20 



411.23 LOW HAZARD: Low hazard dry cleaning plants shall not be 
restricted as to t3T)e of building construction within the height 
and area limitations for use group E of table 2-6; except that such 
uses shall not be located in basements nor in a building used for 
public assembly (use group F) or institutional (use group H) pur- 
poses. 

411.24 ROOF CONSTRUCTION OF DRY CLEANING PLANTS: The roof over 
high hazard dry cleaning plants shall be flat without attic or con- 
cealed spaces and shall be provided with a pivot type skylight or 
other approved vent complying with section 402, arranged to release 
outwardly under explosion pressures. 

411.25 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION OF DRY CLEANING PLANTS: The floor finish 
in high hazard dry cleaning plants shall be constructed of impervious 
noncombustible materials with nonsparking surfaces. There shall be 
no openings, vaults or pits below the floor. 

411.26 EXTERIOR WALLS OF DRY CLEANING PLANTS: Exterior walls of 
high hazard dry cleaning plants having a fire separation of less than 
thirty (30) feet shall be solid masonry without openings, but in no 
case shall more than two (2) sides of the building be enclosed in 
blank walls. Opening protectives of exterior doors and windows shall 
have not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance or the la- 
beled equivalent construction, and the windows shall be pressure-re- 
leasing to comply with section 402. 

411.27 BASEMENTS OF DRY CLEANING PLANTS: The basements of all build- 
ings in which high or moderate hazard dry cleaning establishments are 
conducted shall be completely separated from the superstructure with 
unpierced floor construction of not less than two (2) hours firere- 
sistance. The access to such basements shall be from the exterior 
only. 

411.3 BOILER ROOM SEPARATION: Boiler rooms and heating equipment 
for moderate hazard dry cleaning plants shall be separated from dry- 
ing room, dry cleaning and dry dyeing rooms with unpierced walls of 
not less than two (2) hours fireresistance; or such boiler rooms 
shall be located in a separate building. 

411.4 VENTILATION: Mechanical ventilation systems in moderate 
hazard plants shall be adequate to effect ten (10) complete air 
changes per hour, low hazard dry cleaning establishments shall be 
provided with mechanical ventilation adequate to effect four (4) 
complete air changes per hour. Exhaust of all process fvnnes shall 
be directly to the outside air. 

411.5 SOLVENT STORAGE: All volatile flammable solvents with a flash 
point under seventy-five (75) degrees F. (Tag. closed-cup) shall be 
stored underground in accordance with the provisions of section 403. 
Interior aboveground storage shall be permitted for solvents with a 
flash point above seventy-five (75) F. (Tag. closed-cup) provided the ag- 

4-21 



gregate quantity of such solvent in use in the system and in storage 
is not more than five hundred and fifty (550) gallons and the capac- 
ity of any individual tank is not more than two hundred and seventy- 
five (275) gallons. 

411.6 ELECTRIC WIRING AND EQUIPMENT: All electrical equipment and 
wiring shall conform to the requirements of the Massachusetts State 
Electrical Code for hazardous locations; and the cylinders and shells 
of all washing machines, drying tumblers, drying cabinets, extractors, 
and all aboveground storage containers shall be grounded as therein 
required. 

411.7 FIRE PROTECTION: Every dry cleaning room and dry dyeing room 
employing high and moderate hazard solvents shall be protected with 
a fire-extinguishing system consisting of approved automatic sprink- 
lers, manually controlled steam-blankets, carbon dioxide flooding 
systems or other approved fire-extinguishing equipment. 



SECTION 412.0 PRIVATE GARAGES 

412.1 ATTACHED GARAGES. 

412.11 ONE AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS: Private garages, wherever 
attached or adjoining a one or two-family dwelling, shall have a 
fireresistance rating of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hours. 
The sills of any door communicating with the dwelling shall be 
raised at least four (4) inches above the garage floor. The doors 
shall be three-quarter (3/4) hour fire doors complying with article 
9 or one and three-quarter (1-3/4) inch solid core wood door. 

412.12 MOTELS AND MULTI-FAMILY DWELLINGS: Private garages located 
above or beneath motels and multi-family dwellings and in which no 
gasoline or oil is stored or handled shall be of protected construc- 
tion of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance. 

412.13 OTHER CONDITIONS: All private garages not falling within the 
purview of sections 412.11 and 412.12 attached to or located beneath 
a building shall comply with the requirements of section 413.13 for 
public garages. 

412.2 MEANS OF EGRESS: Where living quarters are located above a, 
private garage, required means of egress facilities shall be pro- 
tected from the garage area with three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresis- 
tive construction. 



SECTION 413.0 PUBLIC GARAGES 

Public garages shall comply with the applicable requirements of the 
following sections. The portions of such buildings and structures in 
which gasoline, oil and similar products are dispensed shall comply 



4-22 



with the requirements of section 414; the portions in which motor 
vehicles are repaired shall comply with section 415; and the por- 
tions in which paint spraying is done shall comply with the require- 
ments of section 410. All garages shall be subject to the provi- 
sions of FPR-4. 

413.1 CONSTRUCTION: All group one (1) public garages hereafter 
erected shall be classified as storage buildings, moderate hazard ^ 
(use group B-1) and all group two (2) public garages shall be classi- 
fied as storage buildings, low hazard (use group B-2) and shall 
be located on the grade floor and shall comply with the requirements 
of section 414 . 

413.11 SPECIAL HEIGHT LIMITATIONS: Public garage buildings shall 
comply with the height and area limitations of table 2-6 for the 
classification of the use as specified in section 413. Such 
heights may be increased one (1) additional story when the building 
is equipped with an approved sprinkler system. 

413.12 BASEMENTS: The first floor construction of public garages 
of all classifications and public hangars with basements shall be 
water and vapor proof . Where openings are provided in the floor 
they shall be protected by a curb or ramp not less than six (6) 
inches high above the floor to avoid the accumulation of explosive 
liquids or vapors and prevent them from spilling to the lower 
floor. There shall be not less than two (2) means of egress from 
such areas, one of which shall be directly to the outside indepen- 
dent of the exitways serving other areas of the building. 

413.13 MIXED OCCUPANCY: No public garage shall be located with- 
in or attached to a building occupied for any other use, unless 
separated from such use by walls or floors complying with table 
9-1 for fireresistance. Such fire division shall be continuous 
and unpierced by openings; except that door openings equipped with 
self-closing fire doors complying with article 9 shall be permitted. 
In buildings of single occupancy not excluding the area limitations 
of table 2-6 doors without fireresistance shall be permitted be- 
tween the garage area and salesroom or offices that are operated 

in connection with the garage. 

413.14 ROOF STORAGE OF MOTOR VEHICLES AND AIRPLANES: The roof of 
a public garage shall not be used for the parking or storage of 
motor vehicles unless the building is of construction type lA, IB, 
or 2A. When the roof of a building is used for parking or storage 
of motor vehicles, it shall be provided with a parapet wall or 
guard rail not less than three (3) feet six (6) inches in height 
and a wheel guard not less than six (6) inches in height, located 
so as to prevent any vehicle from striking the parapet wall or 
guard rail. The use of roofs for airplane storage and landing 
shall be subject to the approval of the Civil Aeronautics Authority. 

4-23 



413.15 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION AND DRAINAGE: Floors of public garages 
and airplane hangars shall be graded to drain through oil separa- 
tors or traps to avoid accumulation of explosive vapors in building 
drains or sewers as provided in the Massachusetts State Plumbing 
Code. The floor finish shall be of concrete or other approved non- 
absorbent noncombustible material. 

413.2 VENTILATION: All public garages and airplane hangars shall 
be provided with mechanical or natural ventilation adequate to 
prevent the accumulation of carbon monoxide or exhaust fumes in 
excess of one (1) part in ten thousand (10,000) (.01 percent) ex- 
plosive limit. The building official may require a test by a 
qualified testing laboratory to determine the adequacy. The cost 
of such test shall be borne by the owner. The building official 
may require certification of the adequacy of the system by a quali- 
fied registered professional engineer. 

413.21 BELOW GRADE: Public garages below grade shall be equipped 
with mechanical ventilation adequate to provide the ventilation re- 
quired under section 413.2. The ventilation system shall be oper- 
ated at all times the garage areas are occupied by human beings. 

413.22 REPAIR SHOPS OR ROOMS: Products of combustion from inter- 
nal combustion engines shall be collected directly from the exhaust 
and discharged directly to the outside air by means of a positive 
Induced draft. The discharge from such system shall be located 

so as not to create a hazard to adjoining properties, but not less 
than eight (8) feet above the adjacent ground level on the exterior 
of the building and shall discharge into a yard or court. When 
necessary to discharge across a walkway or private thoroughfare, 
the discharge opening shall be carried to a height of not less 
than twenty-five (25) feet above the ground level or to a distance 
four (4) Inches above the highest point of the wall of the building 
or structure on which it is located. 

413.23 PITS: No pits shall be installed in floors below the first; 
and pits in first and upper stories shall be provided with mechani- 
cal ventilation adequate to provide the ventilation required under 
section 413.2. The ventilation system shall be operated at all 
times the pits are occupied by human beings. 

413.3 SPECIAL HAZARDS: Any process conducted in conjunction with 
public garages involving volatile flammable solvents shall be seg- 
regated or located in a detached building or structure, except as 
provided in section 403 for the storage and handling of gasoline 
and other volatile flammables. The quantity of flammable liquids 
stored or handled in public garages other than in underground stor- 
age and in the tanks of motor vehicles shall be not more than five 
(5) gallons in approved safety cans. 



4-24 



413.4 HEATING AND PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT: Radiation and heating 
colls and pipes located within six (6) Inches of the floor shall 

be protected with wire mesh or other approved noncombustlble shields 
of adequate strength; and with asbestos or other Insulation on top 
of the equipment when located In partitions or near combustible 
racks or woodwork. 

413.5 BOILER ROOMS OF PUBLIC GARAGES: All heat generating plants 
other than approved direct fired heaters shall be located in sep- 
arate buildings or shall be separately enclosed within the struc- 
ture with solid, water and vapor tight masonry. All rooms housing 
boilers, stoves or other heating apparatus shall be cut off from 
all other parts of the building with four (4) hour f Irereslstlve 
construction with entrance from outside only, and no openings 
through the fire division other than those necessary for heating 
pipes or ducts. 

413.6 SPRINKLER REQUIREMENTS: For sprinkler requirements refer to 
article 12, table 12-3. 



SECTION 414.0 MOTOR FUEL SERVICE STATIONS 

414.1 CONSTRUCTION: Buildings and structures used for the storage 
and sale of motor fuel oils may be of all types of construction with- 
in the height and area limitations of table 2-6 for business (use 
group E) buildings and as modified by sections 303 and 304.0. The 
canopies and supports over pumps and service equipment when located 
less than twenty (20) feet from interior lot lines shall be con- 
structed of approved noncombustlble materials. 

414.11 OPENING PROTECTIVES: All permissible openings in walls with 
a fire separation of less than twenty (20) feet shall be protected 
with approved fire windows or fire doors complying with article 9, 
except doors in such walls to rest rooms. 

414.12 BASEMENTS: Motor fuel service stations shall have no cellars 
or basements; and when pits are provided they shall be vented as 
required in section 413.2. 

414.2 GASOLINE STORAGE: All volatile flammable liquid storage 
tanks shall be installed below ground and vented as specified in 
section 403. Such tanks shall be subject to the approval of the 
fire official and comply with the provisions of FPR-4. 



SECTION 415.0 MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR SHOPS 

All buildings and structures designed and used for repair and servlce- 
ing motor vehicles, motor boats, airplanes or other motor driven means 
of transportation shall be subject to the limitations of tables 2-5 and 
2-6 for moderate hazard storage (use group B-1) . Such buildings shall 
be used solely for that purpose. 

4-25 



415.1 ENCLOSURE WALLS: Exterior walls, when located within six (6) 
feet of interior lot lines or other buildings shall have no openings 
therein. 

415.2 VENTILATION: All rooms and spaces used for motor vehicle re- 
pair shop purposes shall be provided with an approved system of mechani- 
cal ventilation providing at least four (4) air changes per hour and 
meeting the requirements of section 413.2 and article 18. 

415.3 FIRE PREVENTION: No open gas flames except heating devices com- 
plying with section 413.5, torches, welding apparatus, or other equip- 
ment likely to create an open flame, or spark shall be located in a 
room or space in which flammable liquids or highly combustible materials 
are used or stored. 



SECTION 416.0 PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY 

The provisions of this section shall apply to all places of public 
assembly and all parts of buildings and structures classified in the 
use group F-1, theatres and in other places of public assembly, use 
groups F-2 , F-3, and F-4 , except as specifically exempted in section 
417. 

416.1 RESTRICTIONS. 

416.11 HIGH HAZARD USES: No place of public assembly shall be permit- 
ted in a building classified in the high hazard group (use group A) . 

416.12 FRAME CONSTRUCTION: No theatre with stage, fly gallery and 
rigging loft shall be permitted in a building of frame (type A) con- 
struction. 

416.13 LOCATION: All buildings used for assembly purposes shall front 
on at least one (1) street in which the main entrance and exitway dis- 
charge shall be located. The main exitway shall be adequate to accom- 
modate one-third (1/3) the total occupant load, but in any case, the 
capacity of the main exitway shall be adequate to provide for the total 
capacity of all exitway elements which lead to the main exitway. 

416.14 TRIM, FINISH AND DECORATIVE HANGINGS: All permanent acoustic, 
insulating and similar materials and temporary hangings shall comply 
with the flameresistance requirements of article 9. Moldings and 
decorations around the proscenium openings shall be constructed en- 
tirely of noncombustible material. 

416.15 EXISTING BUILDINGS: Nothing herein contained shall prohibit 
the alteration of a building heretofore occupied as a place of public 
assembly for such continued use provided the occupancy load is not 



4-26 



Increased and seats, aisles, passageways, balconies, stages, appurte- 
nant rooms and all special permanent equipment comply with the require- 
ments of this article. 

416.16 NEW BUILDINGS: No building not heretofore occupied as a place 
of public assembly shall hereafter be altered to be so occupied unless 
it is made to comply with all the provisions of this article. 

416.2 THEATRE MEANS OF EGRESS REQUIREMENTS. 

416.21 TYPES OF EXITWAYS: The required exltways from every tier or 
floor of a theatre shall consist of grade exitway discharge doors, in- 
terior or exterior stairways or horizontal exits which provide direct 
access to a street, an exitway discharge court, or unobstructed passage- 
way, hallway or lobby leading to a street or open public space. The 
number, location and construction of all means of egress facilities 
shall comply with the requirements of article 6 and the provisions of 
this section. 

416.22 NUMBER OF STAIRWAYS IN AUDITORIUM: Each tier above the main 
floor of a theatre or other auditorium shall be provided with at least 
two (2) interior enclosed stairways which shall be loacted on opposite 
sides of the structure with the following exception: stairs serving 
the first balcony only or mezzanine thereunder shall not require en- 
closures; however, such stairs shall discharge to a lobby on the main 
floor. Exitway stairways serving galleries above the balcony shall 
lead directly to the street or open public space as provided in sec- 
tion 416.21. 

416.23 EMERGENCY MEANS OF EGRESS FROM MAIN FLOOR OF AUDITORIUM: In 
addition to the main floor entrance and exitway, emergency exitway 
discharge doors shall be provided on both sides of the audltoritm 
which lead directly to a street, or through an exterior passageway to 
the street independent of other exltways, or to an exitway discharge 
court as defined in this Code. 

416.24 EMERGENCY MEANS OF EGRESS FROM BALCONIES AND GALLERIES: Emer- 
gency exltways shall be provided from both sides of each balcony and 
gallery with direct egress to the street, or to an Independent passage- 
way, or to an exitway discharge court. There shall be no communication 
from any portion of the building to the emergency exitway stairways ex- 
cept from the tier for which such exitway is exclusively Intended. 

416.25 EXITWAY DISCHARGE COURTS: All exitway discharge courts shall be 
not less than six (6) feet wide for the first six hundred (600) persons 
to be accommodated or fraction thereof, and shall be Increased one (1) 
foot In width for each additional two hundred and fifty (250) persons. 
Such courts shall extend sufficiently in length to Include the side and 
rear emergency exltways from the auditorium. 

416.26 HARDWARE: Refer to section 612.42 for requirements. 

4-27 



416.27 EXITWAY DOORWAY WIDTHS: The maximum width of single exitway 
doorways shall be forty-two (42) inches and the minimum width of 
double doorways shall be sixty-six (66) inches. 

416.28 "EXIT" LIGHTS: All exitway doors shall be marked with illum- 
inated "Exit" signs complying with section 624 which shall be kept 
lighted at all times during occupancy of the building. 

416.3 THEATRE SEATINGS . 

416.31 FIXED SEATS: In all theatres and similar places of assembly 
except churches, stadiums and reviewing stands, individual fixed seats 
shall be provided with an average width of not less than thirty-two 
(32) inches apart, back to back, measured horizontally. The clear 
unobstructed distance which can be provided for passage between rows 
of seats shall be twelve (12) inches. 

416.32 NUMBER OF SEATS: Aisles shall be provided so that not more 
than seven (7) seats intervene between any seat and the aisle or 
aisles, except that the number of seats in a row shall not be limited 
when self-raising seats are provided which leave an unobstructed pas- 
sage between rows of seats of not less than eighteen (18) inches in 
width leading to side aisle in which exitway doorways are located at 
not more than twenty-five (25) foot intervals to the exitway corridor 
or exitway discharge court. 

416.33 BOX SEATS: In boxes or loges with level floors, the seats 
need not be fastened when not more than fourteen (14) in number. 

416.34 WHEELCHAIR FACILITIES: Facilities shall be provided for the 
handicapped according to the provisions of the reference standards 
of this article. 

416.4 THEATRE AISLES. 

416.41 LONGITUDINAL AISLES: The width of longitudinal aisles at 
right angles to rows of seats and with seats on both sides of the 
aisle shall be not less than forty-two (42) inches. The width of 
the longitudinal aisles with banks of seats on one (1) side only 
shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches. 

416.42 CROSS AISLES: When there are twenty-seven (27) or more rows 
of seats on the main floor of theatres, cross aisles shall be pro- 
vided so that no block of seats shall have more than twenty-two (22) 
rows. The width of cross aisles shall be not less than the widest 
aisle with which they connect or the width of exitway which they 
serve; but no cross aisle shall be less than forty-two (42) inches 
wide, or when bordering on means of entrance not less than forty- 
eight (48) inches wide. In balconies and galleries of theatres, one 
or more cross aisles shall be provided when there are more than ten 
(10) rows of seats. 



4-28 



416.43 GRADIENT: Aisles shall not exceed a gradient of one and 
three-quarters (1-3/4) inches per foot except where subject to re- 
quirements for use of handicapped. No aisles or the main floor may 
be stepped. 

416.44 BALCONY STEPS: Steps may be provided in balconies and gal- 
leries only, and such steps shall extend the full width of the aisle 
with treads and risers complying with article 6, which shall be il- 
luminated by lights on both sides or by a step light or otherwise 

to insure an intensity of not less than one (1) foot candle. 

416.45 RAILINGS: Metal or other approved noncombustible railings 
shall be provided on balconies and galleries as herein prescribed : 

At the facia of boxes, balconies and galleries not less than thirty 
(30) inches in height; and not less than thirty-six (36) inches in 
height at the foot of steps; 

Along cross aisles not less than twenty-six (26) inches in height 

except where the backs of the seats along the front of the aisle 

project twenty-four (24) inches or more above the floor of the 
aisle; 

Where seatings are arranged in successive tiers, and the height of 
rise between platforms exceeds eighteen (18) inches, not less than 
twenty-six (26) inches in height along the entire row of se^its at 
the edge of the platform. 

416.5 THEATRE FOYERS. 

416.51 CAPACITY: In every theatre or similar place of public assembly, 
not including churches, for theatrical use with stage and scenery loft, 
a foyer or lobby shall be provided with a net floor area, exclusive 

of stairs or landings, of not less than one and one-half (l^g) square 
feet for each occupant having access thereto. The use of foyers and 
lobbies and other available spaces for harboring occupants until 
seats become available shall not encroach upon the clear floor area 
herein prescribed or upon the required clear width of front exitways . 

416.52 EGRESS: When the foyer is not directly connected to the 
public street through the main lobby, an unobstructed corridor or 
passage shall be provided which leads to and equals in minimum width 
the required width of main entrances and exitways. 

416.53 GRADIENT: The rear foyer shall be at the same level as the 
back of the auditorium and the exitways leading therefrom shall not 
have a steeper gradiwnt than one (1) foot in ten (10) feet. 

416.54 CONSTRUCTION: The partitions separating the foyer from the 
auditorium and other adjoining rooms and spaces of theatres shall 



4-29 



be constructed of not less than two (2) hour f ireresistance; except 
that opening protectives may be constructed of noncombustible ma- 
terials without f ireresistance rating. 

416.55 WAITING SPACES: Waiting spaces for harboring occupants shall 
be located only on the first or auditorium floor. Additional capacity 
of exitway shall be provided for the waiting space occupancy based on 
an allowance of three (3) square feet for each person. 

416.6 THEATRE STAGE CONSTRUCTION. 

416.61 STAGE ENCLOSURE WALLS: Every stage hereafter erected or al- 
tered for theatrical performances which is equipped with portable or 
fixed scenery, lights and mechanical appliances, shall be enclosed 
on all sides with solid walls of not less than four (4) hour fire- 
resistance, extending continuously from foundation to at least four (4) 
feet above the roof. There shall be no window opening in such walls 
within six (6) feet of an interior lot line; and all permissible win- 
dow openings shall be protected with three-quarter (3/4) hour fire 
windows complying with article 9. 

416.62 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: The entire stage, except that portion 
used for the working of scenery, traps, and other mechanical appa- 
ratus for the presentation of the scene, shall be not less than 
three (3) hour fireresistive construction. All openings through the 
stage floor shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap 
doors not less than three (3) inches in thickness or other materials 
of equal physical and fireresistive properties . 

416.63 ROOF AND RIGGING LOFT: The roof over the stage shall be of 
not less than three (3) hour fireresistive construction. The rigging 
loft, fly galleries and pin rails shall be constructed of approved 
noncombustible materials. 

416.64 FOOTLIGHTS AND STAGE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT: Footlights and 
border lights shall be installed in troughs constructed of noncom- 
bustible materials. All electrical equipment shall conform to the 
requirements of Massachusetts State Electrical Code, and the switch- 
board shall be readily accessible and protected from any potential 
damage . 

416.65 STAGE, MEANS OF EGRESS: There shall be provided at least 
one (1) approved means of egress from each side of the stage lead- 
ing to an approved discharge area. 

416.66 PROSCENIUM WALL: There shall be no other openings in the 
wall separating the stage from the auditorium except the main proscen- 
ium opening; two (2) doorways at the stage level, one (1) on each 
side thereof; and, where necessary, not more than two (2) doorways to 
the musicians' pit from the space below the stage floor. Each such 
doorway shall not exceed twenty-one (21) square feet in area and 

4-30 



shall be protected with approved automatic and self-closing fire 
door assemblies complying with article 9 with a combined fireresis- 
tance rating of three (3) hours or the approved labeled equivalent. 

416.67 PROSCENIUM CURTAIN: Where required, the proscenium opening 
shall be protected with an approved automatic f ireresistive and 
smoke-tight curtain, or its approved equivalent, designed to resist 
an air pressure of not less than ten (10) pounds per square foot 
normal to its surface, both inward and outward. The curtain shall 
withstand a one-half (%) hour fire test at a temperature of not less 
than seventeen hundred (1700) degrees F. without the passage of 
flame. The curtain shall be operated by an automatic heat-activated 
device to descend instantly and safely and to completely close the 
proscenium opening at a rate of temperature rise of fifteen (15) to 
twenty (20) degrees F. per minute, and by an auxiliary operating 
device to permit prompt and immediate manual closing of the proscenium 
opening . 

416.68 STAGE VENTILATION: Metal or other approved noncombustible 
ventilators, equipped with movable shutters or sash shall be pro- 
vided over the stage, constructed to open automatically and instantly 
by approved heat-activated devices, with an aggregate clear area of 
opening not less than one-eighth (1/8) the area of the stage. Sup- 
plemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the venti- 
lator . 

416.7 DRESSING AND APPURTENANT ROOMS. 

416.71 CONSTRUCTION: Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
work shops and store rooms and all compartments appurtenant to the 
stage shall be of fireproof (type 1) construction and shall be sep- 
arated from the stage and all other parts of the building by walls 
of not less than three (3) hour f ireresistance. No such rooms shall 
be placed immediately over or under the operating stage area. 

416.72 OPENING PROTECTIVES : No openings other than to trunk rooms 
and the necessary doorways at stage level shall connect such rooms 
with the stage and such openings shall be protected with one and 
one-half (1%) hour self-closing fire doors or the approved labeled 
equivalent complying with article 9. 

416.73 INTERIOR TRIM: All shelving and closets in dressing rooms, 
property rooms or storage rooms shall be constructed of flameresis- 
tant materials complying with article 9. 

416.74 DRESSING ROOM AND STAGE EXITWAYS : Each tier of dressing 
rooms shall be provided with at least two (2) means of egress, one 
of which shall lead directly to an exitway corridor , exitway dis- 
charge court or street. Exitway stairways from dressing and storage 
rooms may be unenclosed in the stage area behind the proscenium wall. 
At least one approved exitway shall be provided from each side of 
the stage and from each side of the space under the stage, and from 



4-31 



each fly gallery and from the gridiron to a street, exitway dis- 
charge court or passageway to a street. An iron ladder shall be 
provided from the gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof. 

416.8 LIGHTING. 

416.81 EXITWAYS : During occupancy all exitways in places of assem- 
bly shall be lighted to comply with the requirements of section 624. 

416.82 AUDITORIUMS: Aisles in auditoriums shall be provided with 
general illumination of not less than one-tenth (1/10) foot candles 
at the front row of seats and not less than two-tenths (2/10) foot 
candles at the last row of seats and the illumination shall be 
maintained throughout the showing of motion pictures or other pro- 
jections. 

416.821 FOYERS AND WAITING SPACES: Foyers and waiting spaces shall 
be artificially lighted by electrical means at all times during oc- 
cupancy of a place of assembly so as to provide all illumination 

of at least five (5) foot candles at the level of the floor and on 
the surface of all stairs, steps, ramps, and escalators within the 
foyers and waiting spaces. 

416.822 OPEN EXTERIOR SPACES: Yards or courts which serve as open 
exterior spaces shall be artificially lighted by electrical means 
at all times between sunset and sunrise during occupancy of a place 
of assembly so as to provide illumination of at least five (5) foot 
candles at the level of the floor over at least the required area. 

416.83 OTHER PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY: All areas and portions of 
buildings used as places of public assembly other than theatres 
shall be lighted by electric light to provide a general illumina- 
tion of not less than one (1) foot candle. 

416.84 CONTROL: The lighting of exitways, aisles and auditoriums 
shall be controlled from a location inaccessible to unauthorized 
persons. Supplementary control shall be provided as specified in 
section 407.34 in the motion picture projection room. 

416.85 EMERGENCY LIGHTING: In all theatre buildings and similar 
structures used for public assembly purposes, all exitways shall 
be lighted by means of electricity so arranged and controlled that 
the interruption of service on any other circuit inside the build- 
ing or structure will not interrupt the required exitway lighting, 
including corridors, stairways, foyers, and lobbies. 

416.9 FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT: Every theatre 
classified in the F-1 use group shall be equipped with fire-extin- 
guishing equipment complying with the requirements of article 12 
and as herein specified. 



4-32 



416.91 SPRINKLER SYSTEM: Approved automatic sprinkler systems com- 
plying with the provisions of sections 1212 and 1213 shall be pro- 
vided to protect all parts of the building except the auditorium, 
foyers and lobbies or in the immediate vicinity of automatic equip- 
ment or over dynamos and electric equipment. Such protection shall 
be provided over the stage, under the gridiron, under all fly gal- 
leries, in dressing rooms over the proscenium opening on the stage 
side, under the stage, in all basements, cellars, work rooms, store 
rooms, property rooms and in toilet, lounge, and smoking rooms. 

416.92 STANDPIPES: Standpipe fire lines complying with the provi- 
sions of sections 1206 and 1207 shall be provided with outlets and 
hose attachments one on each side of the auditorium in each tier; 
one in each mezzanine; one in each tier of dressing rooms; and 
protecting each property, store and work room. 

416.93 FIRST-AID STANDPIPES: First-aid standpipes complying with 
the provisions of section 1209 shall be provided on each side of 
the stage. Such standpipes shall be not less than two and one-half 
(2h) inches in diameter, equipped with one and one-half (l^s) inch 
hose and three-eighth (3/8) inch nozzles. 

416.94 HOSE OUTLETS: A sufficient quantity of hose shall be pro- 
vided, equipped with regulation fire department couplings, nozzle 
and hose spanner, to reach all areas as specified in article 12. 

416.95 FIRST-AID HAND EQUIPMENT: Approved portable two and one- 
half (2^2) gallon fire extinguishers shall be provided and located 
as follows: two (2) on each tier on floor of the stage; one (1) 
immediately outside of the motion picture projection room; one 
(1) in each dressing room; and one (1) in each work, utility and 
storage room. Fire axes and fire hooks shall also be provided as 
directed by the fire official; and all fire extinguishers and fire 
tools shall be securely mounted on walls in plain view and readily 
accessible. 



SECTION 417.0 PUBLIC ASSEMBLY OTHER THAN THEATRES 

Other places of public assembly including auditoriums, armories, 
bowling alleys, broadcasting studios, chapels, community houses, 
dance halls, gymnasiums, lecture halls, museums, exhibition halls, 
night ciubs, restaurants, rinks, roof gardens and similar occupan- 
cies and uses shall comply with the general exitway requirements 
of article 6 and the applicable requirements of section 416, except 
the provisions of sections 416.45 and 416.54 or as herein specifi- 
cally exempted. Places of public assembly which are equipped with 
a stage, movable scenery, scenery loft and dressing rooms shall 
comply with all the requirements of section 418, except use groups 
F-1 theatres. 



4-33 



417.1 NUMBER OF EXITWAYS : Every tier, floor level and story of places 
of public assembly other than theatres, shall be provided with the 
number of required exitways herein specified of not less than the 
required width complying with article 6 for the occupancy load. The 
required exitways shall be remote and independent of each other and 
located on opposite sides of the area served thereby. 

Minimum Number 
Occupancy Load Per Floor of Exitways 

Not more than 500 2 

501 to 900 3 

901 to 1800 4 

Over 1800 5 

417.2 AISLES WITH FIXED SEATS: All rows of seats shall be individually 
fixed or fixed in rigid units between longitudinal aisles complying with 
section 416.32 and 416.4 except as provided for chapels and churches in 
section 610.3. Where permitted, continuous fixed benches shall comply 
with the provisions of section 421.7. 

417.3 AISLES WITHOUT FIXED SEATS: Tables and chairs in all rooms and 
spaces for assembly use shall provide convenient access by unobstructed 
aisles not less than thirty-six (36) inches wide which lead to required 
exitways complying with article 6. Tables and chairs shall be so arranged 
that the distance from any chair at any table by way of a path between 
tables and chairs is not greater than eighteen (18) feet to an aisle 
leading to an exitway. The width of the path shall be at least eighteen 
(18) inches; except that it may be reduced by one (1) inch for each one 
(1) foot that the distance to the aisle is less than eighteen (18) feet, 
but may not be reduced to less than twelve (12) inches. Chairs, when 
placed with the front edge of the seat on a line with the edge of the 
table, shall not protrude into this path. Booths containing up to eight 
(8) seats may be used, provided they open directly on an aisle. 

417.4 KITCHEN AND SERVICE PANTRIES: Where kitchen and service pantries 
are provided, they shall be separately enclosed in partitions, floors 
and ceilings of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance, 
except for opening protectives; and no required element of exitway shall 
pass through such areas. 

417.5 BOWLING ALLEYS: The storage and use of all volatile flammable 
liquids shall comply with section 403 and the finishing rooms shall be 
separately enclosed in two (2) hour fireresistive construction with 
floor finish of concrete or other noncombustible, nonabsorbent material. 

417.6 SKATING RINKS: No skating rinks shall be located below the floor 
nearest grade. 

SECTION 418.0 AMUSEMENT PARKS 

All buildings and structures used as part of an amusement park shall 
be subject to the provisions of this Code as applicable. Unusual 
buildings, structures or devices which require a building permit by the 
provisions of this Code but are beyond the normal scope of applicability 
of this Code shall be subject to the provisions of section 128.0 and 
shall be considered to be within those categories of structures listed 
in section 128.1 as subject to control. 

4-34 



418.1 TEMPORARY AMUSEMENT FACILITIES AND DEVICES: Any moving struc- 
ture or structure with any moving parts, and any structure, which 
in the opinion of the local building official, may represent a poten- 
tial danger or hazard, shall have an affadavit submitted by a quali- 
fied registered professional engineer that the structure as designed 
and constructed is safe for its intended use and he shall provide 
certification that the structure has been inspected by a qualified 
registered professional engineer within six (6) months and meets all 
the requirements necessary to operate safely according to its design 
use. Furthermore, a qualified registered professional engineer shall 
be responsible for direction of the erection of such structures and 
shall certify that they have been erected in compliance with their 
design requirements. Any such structure, which is to accommodate 
human use in any way, shall be certified for the number of persons 
for which it is designed or as may be allowed by the local building 
official. 



SECTON 419.0 STADIUMS AND GRANDSTANDS 

Stadiiams and grandstands shall be constructed as required by this 
Code and in accordance with the approved rules and the Standard for 
Tents and Grandstands Used for Places of Assembly (NFPA 102) listed 
in the reference standards of this article. 

419.1 RAILS: Every ramp, stairway, deck and tier shall have an ap- 
proved protective railing or guard not less than three (3) feet six 
(6) inches high on all open sides when three (3) feet or more above 
grade level or above any other level occupied by the public. Front 
railings of grandstands when the foot rest is more than two (2) feet 
above the ground shall be not less than thirty-three (33) inches 
high. 

419.2 SPACES UNDERNEATH SEATS: Spaces underneath grandstand seats 
shall be kept free of all combustible and flammable materials and 
shall not be occupied or used for other than exltways; except that 
when enclosed in not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistive 
construction, the building official may approve the use of such spaces 
for other purposes that do not endanger the safety of the public. 



SECTION 420.0 TENTS AND OTHER TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 

Tents shall be constructed as required by this Code and in accord- 
ance with accepted engineering practice and the Standard for Tents, 
Grandstands and Air-Supported Structures Used for Places of Assembly 
(NFPA 102) listed in the reference standards of this article. 

420.1 CONDITIONS OF PERMIT AND LOCATION: Tents and other temporary 
structures may be erected for a period as determined by the building 
official. Such structures may not be erected within the fire district 



4-35 



for a period of more than twenty-four (24) hours unless such use is 
reviewed and approved by the fire official, and any such structure 
erected within the fire district shall be subject to any condition 
of use and protection as may be determined by the building official. 

420.2 TENT CONSTRUCTION: Tents and other temporary structures shall 
be of an approved type and shall have evidence submitted that the 
structure satisfies all structural and fire-safety requirements. 

420.3 COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS: No combustible materials shall be per- 
mitted under stands or seats at any time. Excessive vegetation shall 
not be allowed beneath the stands or seats. 



SECTION 421.0 RADIO AND TELEVISION TOWERS 

Commercial radio and television towers shall have complete structural 
drawings and specifications submitted by a qualified registered pro- 
fessional engineer, bearing his seal and signature. 



SECTION 422.0 SWIMMING POOLS 

422.1 GENERAL: Pools used for swimming or bathing shall be in con- 
formity with the requirements of this section; provided, however, 
these regulations shall not be applicable to any such pool less than 
twenty-four (24) inches deep or having a surface area less than two- 
hundred and fifiy (250) square feet. For purposes of this Code, pools 
are classified as private swimming pools or public swimming pools, as 
defined in section 422.2. 

422.2 CLASSIFICATION OF POOLS: Any pool intended to be used primarily 
for swimming and designated as being a private pool for the use only 

of the occupants of a one- or two-family dwelling shall be designated 
a private pool. Any pool intended to be used primarily for swimming 
which is not a private pool as defined above shall be classified as a 
public pool. 

422.3 PLANS AND PERMIT. 

422.31 PERMITS: No swimming pool subject to the provisions of this 
Code shall be constructed, installed, enlarged, or altered until a 
building permit has been obtained from the building official. 

422.32 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS: The application for the permit shall 
be accompanied by copies of the specifications and plans drawn to scale. 
The plans shall accurately show dimensions and construction of the pool 
including vertical elevations and sections showing depth in sufficient 
clarity to clearly indicate the nature of the structure and show all 
details necessary for conformance with the provisions of this Code. 

All plans for public pools must be submitted with the seal and signa- 
ture of a qualified registered professional engineer. 



4-36 



422.4 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION. 

422.41 GENERAL: Pools shall be constructed so as to be water tight and 
easily cleaned. They shall provide safe and easy means of egress. 

422.42 STRUCTURAL DESIGN: The pool structure shall be engineered and 
designed in conformance with the normal engineering practices and subject 
to all the provisions of this Code. 

422.43 WALL SLOPES: In public swimming pools, which are designed and 
constructed subject to the provisions of this Code, the side and end 
walls shall be vertical and shall have a safety ledge at the deep end of 
the pool, located at a level four (4) feet six (6) inches below the 
surface of the water. Safety ledges shall be four (4) inches wide. 

422.44 FLOOR SLOPES: In public pools, the slope of the floor on the 
shallow side of the transition point between shallow and deep water 
shall not be more than five (5) feet deep. 

422.45 SURFACE CLEANING: All swimming pools shall be provided with a 
recirculating skimming device or overflow gutters to remove scum and 
foreign matter from the surface of the water in conformance with Article 
VI of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Public Health 
Sanitary Code. 

422.46 WALKWAYS: All public swimming pools shall have walkways not 
less than four (4) feet in width extending entirely around the pool. 
Where curbs or sidewalks are used around any swimming pool, they shall 
have a nonslip surface for a width of not less than one (1) foot at the 
edge of the pool and shall be so arranged to prevent return of surface 
water to the pool. 

422.47 STEPS AND LADDERS: Steps or ladders may be used as approved 
means of egress from swimming pools. At least one (1) approved means of 
egress must be provided in any pool constructed subject to the provisions 
of this Code. Steps must be nonskid and have the following requirements: 
Width ten (10) inches minimum, area two hundred and forty (240) square 
inches minimum, risers twelve (12) inches maximum. 

In public pools, step holes inserted in the pool wall shall not be 
accepted as a required means of egress. All steps and ladders shall 
have handrails on both sides extending onto the deck surface adjacent to 
the pool. Handrails are not required in private pools where there are 
four steps or fewer. 

In public pools, approved means of egress must be provided for a 
maximum of seventy-five (75) feet of pool perimeter wherever the height 
from the bottom of the pool to the ledge or top of the wall exceeds 
twelve (12) inches. 

422.5 WATER SUPPLY, TREATMENT AND DRAINAGE SYSTEMS: All water supply, 
treatment and drainage systems shall conform to the requirements of 
Article VI of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Public 
Health Sanitary Code. 

4-37 



422.6 APPURTENANT STRUCTURES 

422.61 APPURTENANT STRUCTURES: All appurtenant structures, Installa- 
tions, and equipment; such as showers, dressing rooms, equipment houses 
or other buildings and structures, including plumbing, heating, and 
air conditioning, amongst others appurtenant to a swimming pool, shall 
comply with all applicable requirements of the Basic Code, the Massa- 
chusetts State Plumbing Code, the Massachusetts State Electrical Code, 
and Article VI of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of 
Public Health Sanitary Code. 

422.62 ACCESSORIES: All swimming pool accessories shall be designed, 
constructed, and installed so as not to be a safety hazard. Installa- 
tions or structures for diving purposes shall be properly anchored to 
insure stability, and properly designed and located for maximum safety. 

422.7 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS. 

422.71 ELECTRICAL SAFETY: The construction and installation of elec- 
trical wiring for equipment in or adjacent to swimming pools, to me- 
talic appurtenances in or within five (5) feet of the pool, and to 
auxiliary equipment such as pumps, filters, and similar equipment shall 
conform to article 680 of the Massachusetts State Electrical Code. 

422.72 EQUIPMENT INSTALLATIONS: Pumps, filters, and other mechanical 
and electrical equipment for public and semi-public swimming pools 
shall be enclosed in such a manner as to be accessible only to autho- 
rized persons and not to bathers. Construction and drainage shall be 
such as to avoid the entrance and accumulation of water in the vicinity 
of electrical equipment . 

422.8 GENERAL SAFETY REQUIREMENTS: Any public swimming pool shall ba 
enclosed by an impassible four (4) foot high fence with a self-latching 
gate or an equivalent enclosure or means of protection from access to 
the pool. 



SECTION 423.0 OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 

Opening parking structures shall be subject to the provisions of 
this section, Massachusetts State Fire Prevention Regulation, FPR-4 
and NFPA 88 such that those regulations which provide for the greatest 
public safety shall apply in any case. In addition, where applicable, 
sections 414, 415 and 410 of this Code shall apply. 

423.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: Open Structures for the parking of pas- 
senger motor vehicles shall be constructed of noncombustlble materials 
throughout, including structural framing, floors, roofs and walls. 

423.11 VEHICLE CAPACITY: Open passenger vehicle parking structures are 
those structures used for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles 
designed to carry not more than nine (9) persons. 



4-38 



423.12 RAMP TYPE STRUCTURES: Ramp type parking structures are 
those employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series 
of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of 
passenger automobiles under their own power to and from the street 
level . 

423.13 MECHANICAL TYPE PARKING STRUCTURES: Mechanical type parking 
structures employ specially designed parking machines, elevators, 
lifts, conveyors, moving cranes, dollies, or other devices for 
moving passenger vehicles to and from the street level. 

423.2 SEPARATIONS: Parking structures may be erected without 
enclosure walls with the following exception: when located within 
fifteen (15) feet of interior lot lines a noncombustible enclosure 
wall of two (2) hours fireresistance rating with no openings is 
required. 

423.3 MEANS OF EGRESS: Refer to section 609.3. 

423.4 BASEMENTS: Basements, if used for parking vehicles, shall be 
sprinklered in accordance with article 12, and shall comply with the 
ventilation requirements of section 415.12. 

423.5 HEIGHTS AND AREAS: Heights and areas of open parking structures 
shall not exceed the limits in the following table: 

TABLE 4-4 HEIGHT AND LIMITATION FOR OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 

Type of Construction Height Are a 



lA, IB, 2A Unlimited Unlimited 

2B 100' Unlimited 

2C 75' Unlimited 

423.51 HORIZONTAL DISTANCE: The horizontal distance from any point 
on any level to an exterior wall opening on a street, alley, court- 
yard, or any other permanent open space shall not exceed two hundred 
(200) feet. 

423.52 STREET FRONTAGE INCREASE: The areas of open parking structures 
shall be subject to the provisions of section 308.1. 

423.6 CURBS AND BUMPERS: Curbs or bumpers of noncombustible materials 
shall be provided at the perimeter of each parking tier. Such curbs 
or bumpers shall be at least twelve (12) inches high, substantially 
anchored, and so located that no part of any motor vehicle will 
contact a wall, partition or railing. 



4-39 



hl3.1 RAILINGS: Substantial railings or protective guards of non- 
combustible materials shall be provided at the perimeter of all park- 
ing tiers; except where exterior walls are provided, and around all 
interior floor openings. Such railings or guards shall be at least 
three (3) feet six (6) inches high, and shall be designed in accor- 
dance with the requirements of article 7. 

423.8 FLOOR OPENINGS: Floor openings shall be protected by enclosure 
barriers at least six (6) inches high. 



SECTION 424.0 GROUP RESIDENCE IN THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 

424.1 DEFINITION: A premise, licensed or operated by an agency of 
the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for the residential care in any 
single building of not more than twelve (12) unrelated persons between 
the ages of seven (7) and fifteen (15) inclusive, or up to twenty-five 
(25) unrelated persons sixteen (16) years of age or over, as may be 
approved by the licensing or operating state agency, who are capable of 
self-preservation. The use of such accommodations provided for a group 
residence as defined herein shall be considered the same as a normal 
single-family residence for the purpose of these regulations and shall 
not be construed as being similar to a boarding house, lodging house 

or dormitory. These provisions will apply to group residence uses 
providing accommodations for the care of not more than twenty-five (25) 
individuals. 

424.2 NEW AND EXISTING OCCUPANCIES: These regulations apply to exist- 
ing buildings, which are to be used as group residences as defined in 
section 424.1 of this Code, and to buildings and/or structures herein- 
after erected or altered, which are to be used as group residences as 
defined in section 424.1 of this Code. 

424.21 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS: Any existing building whose occupancy 
is altered for use as a group residency under the provisions of section 
424.0 shall have filed with the local building department a complete 
set of plans showing in detail all rooms, doors, corridors, windows, 
stairs and stairways, hazard vertical openings (section 424.51), and 
the location of all JEire detection equipment, alarms, and fire sup- 
pression equipment. 

424.3 HAZARD OF CONTENTS: Any household contents, which represent a 
fire hazard greater than that which could be expected of ordinary 
household furnishings, shall not be allowed. 

424.4 MEANS OF EGRESS: A means of egress shall be a continous path 
of travel from any point in a building to the open air outside at 
ground level. 

424.41 PRINCIPAL MEANS OF EGRESS: There shall be a principal means 
of egress normally used by the occupants to leave the building. Under 
fire conditions this exit would be the first choice for exiting. 



4-40 



klk.kl ESCAPE ROUTE: There shall be a back-up, or escape route, avail- 
able to each occupant from any occupied portion of the building to pre- 
clude any possibility of entrapment in the event that the principal 
means of egress is blocked by fire, smoke or structural collapse. This 
escape route shall be so determined as to minimize the likelihood that 
it can be deliberately compromised. 

424.43 TIME FOR EGRESS: The time taken to accomplish total evacuation 
of the building shall not exceed one (1) minute per floor, with a maxi- 
mum time of two and one-half (2%) minutes as determined by and to the 
satisfaction of the licensing agency in accordance with Section 9.1 of 
9 CHSR S. 51 Title 9 Code of Human Services Regulations, promulgated by 
the Executive Office of Human Services of the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts. 

424.44 REQUIREMENTS FOR EGRESS AND ESCAPE ROUTES: All main egress 
doors must swing in the anticipated direction of egress or escape 
where practicable. 

424.5 FIRE PROTECTION FEATURES. 

424.51 HAZARDOUS VERTICAL OPENINGS: Hazardous Vertical Openings such 
as laundry chutes, dumb waiters, heating plenums or combustible concealed 
spaces shall be enclosed or protected with a minimum of three-eights 
(3/8) inch gypsum sheet rock on the side of the expected exposure to 
delay the spread of fire and smoke. Automatic detection systems as 
specified in Section 6 shall be provided in each space. 

424.52 SMOKE SCREENS: For the purposes of this Code a solid bonded 
core smokestop wood door with an automatic closer will be acceptable 
as a divider in providing two noncrossing, independent, egress routes. 

424.53 INTERIOR FINISH: Only Class A and B Interior Finishes shall be 
permitted in the principal means of egress (to flame spread of seventy- 
five (75)). In the refinishing of any area, materials with a flame spread 
rating in excess of two hundred (200) are not allowed. 

424.6 ALARM DETECTION SYSTEM: An approved automatic fire/smoke detec- 
tor system and alarm system shall be provided. 

424.61 TYPES AND LOCATIONS OF DETECTORS: 

TYPE LOCATION 

Products of Combustion Principal means of egress on each 

floor. 

Smoke Detectors Living-Dining-Recreation Areas. 

Rate of Rise Detectors Boiler Room-Kitchen-Bedroom. 

Fixed Temperature Detectors Closets and vent shafts, and con- 
cealed spaces. 

4-41 



424.62 TYPES AND LOCATIONS OF ALAEMS : 

TYPE LOCATION 

Manual Sending Each exit of principal means of 

egress.* 

Manual Sending One outdoor alarm of a type ac- 

ceptable to local Fire Depart- 
ments; maximum two hundred (200) 
feet from building.* 

Automatic Connection to Manual From each detector. 



*To municipal fire department as 
well, wherein practicable. 

424.63 ALARM SOUNDING AND VISIBLE DEVICES: Alarm sounding devices shall 
be provided of such character and so distributed as to be effectively 
heard in every room above all other sounds. Visible alarm devices may be 
used only in conjunction with an approved back-up system, and where spe- 
cifically approved. 

Every alarm sounding device shall be distinctive in pitch and quality 
from all other sounding devices. 

424.64 MAINTENANCE AND SUPERVISION: Each detector (or system) and alarm 
shall be provided with a signal (either visible or audible) to indicate 
when it is not capable of functioning according to its designed purpose; 
and shall be periodically inspected and certified by the licensing agency. 
The entire electrical alarm and detector system circuit shall be designed 
so that the disruption of any part of the continuous circuit will set 

off an alarm. 

424.7 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT: Manually operated fire-fighting equipment 
such as hand extinguishers, shall be available to the custodian and other 
designated personnel. 

424.8 INSPECTION: Inspections shall be made frequently by authorized 
inspectors to insure conformance with this Code. The results of such 
inspections shall be reported to the licensing agency on a prepared 
checklist and signed by the authorized inspector. 

424.9 FINAL CERTIFICATION OF OCCUPANT: After preliminary certification 
by those qualified certifying personnel as specified in 9 CHSR S.51 Title 
9 Code of Human Services Regulations, Section 51, each occupant must be 
certified at regular intervals but not less than once every quarter at 
the place of proposed residency by the licensing agency. 



4-42 



SECTION 425.0 COVERED MALLS 

Covered malls shall be constructed in accordance with one of the follow- 
ing options: 

425.1 OPTION 1: The covered mall and all buildings connected thereto 
shall be treated as a single building and shall be subject to the pro- 
visions of this Code for the specific use group and type of construc- 
tion; 

425.2 OPTION 2: The mall may be considered to be an accessible unoccu- 
pied open space that separates the construction into one or more build- 
ings if the following requirements are met : 

a) the covered mall shall be at least thirty (30) feet in width. 

b) the least, unobstructed, horizontal dimension at any place in the 
covered mall shall be ten (10) feet. 

c) combustible kiosks or other similar structures shall not be loca- 
ted within the covered mall. 

d) kiosks or similar areas (temporary or permanent) located within the 
covered mall shall be provided with approved fire suppression and 
detection devices as required by the building official. 

e) the minimum horizontal separation between kiosks and similar areas 
and buildings connected to the covered mall shall be twenty (20 
feet. 

f) the covered mall shall be of noncombustible or type 3A construction. 

g) the covered mall and all buildings connected thereto shall be pro- 
vided throughout with an approved fire suppression system. The 
suppression system in the covered mall shall be independent of the 
suppression systems in the buildings connected to the covered mall. 

h) multi-level covered malls shall be sufficiently open, so that a 

hazardous condition occurring on one level will be readily visible 
to occupants on all levels. 

i) floor-ceiling assemblies and their supporting columns and beams 
within multi-level covered malls shall be of one (1) hour fire- 
resistive noncombustible construction. 

j) the covered mall shall be provided with break-out panels, skylights 
mechanical ventilation or other approved method of providing for 
ventilation of products of combustion in case of fire. 

k) one-half ih) of the required number of exitways from each tenant 
area shall lead to the outside by means other than through the 
covered mall. 



4-43 



Exception: Tenant areas less than twenty-five hundred (2500) 
square feet in area. 

1) exit signs and directional (exit) signs indicating the nonmall 
exitways shall be located so as to be easily visible from the 
mall-tenant area entrance. 

m) exitways from the covered mall shall be located so that the 
length of travel from any mall-tenant area entrance to the 
exitway shall not exceed two hundred (200) feet. 

n) standpipes and hose cabinets shall be provided at two hundred 
(200) foot intervals along the covered mall. 



SECTION 426.0 NURSING HOMES, REST HOMES, CHARITABLE HOMES FOR THE 
AGED, CONVALESCENT HOMES AND HOSPITALS. 



I 



Buildings in use group H-2 used as nursing homes, rest homes, charitable 
homes for the aged, convalescent homes and hospitals shall meet the 
provisions of NFPA 101 Life Safety Code, 1967, the applicable provisions 
of the Basic Code and the following provisions: 

426.1 MEANS OF EGRESS. 

426.11 CORRIDORS: Corridors shall terminate at stairwells or at doors 
to grade, except that subsidiary corridors off main corridors, restricted 
to service areas (linen closets, janitor closets, bathing areas, beauty 
or barber shops, storage, utility rooms, treatment or examining rooms or 
offices) may be dead-ended providing they do not extend farther than 
thirty (30) feet beyond the exit stair, door or corridor and serve a 
total occupant load of not more than ten (10) persons. 

426.12 PATIENT ROOM EGRESS: Two independent egresses shall be provided 
from each patient's room, one of which may be by communicating door or 
direct to the outside. 

426.13 WARD OR DORMITORY EGRESS: In wards or dormitories with six (6) 
or more occupants (patients or boarders) there shall be two (2) egresses, 
one of which shall be directly to the outside. 

426.14 COMMUNICATING DOORS: Communicating doors in patients' rooms and 
the direct-to-the-outside door from wards or dormitories may be omitted 
from type 1, 2A or 2B construction. 

426.15 STAIRWAYS: Stairs shall be a minimum of four (4) feet between 
walls or between walls and balustrades. 

426.16 EGRESS DOORS: All designated egress doors shall open in the 
direction of egress. Patient bedroom doors may swing in either direction, 
providing those swinging into a corridor are recessed and will protrude 
not more than five (5) inches into the corridor when opened ninety (90) 
degrees. 



4-44 



426.17 EGRESS DOOR WIDTHS: Egress doors to the outside shall be forty- 
four (44) inches in width. Doors from the patients' rooms to the corridor 
shall be three (3) feet eight (8) inches in width. Communicating doors 
between rooms shall be a minimum of two (2) feet eight (8) inches in 
width. 

426.2 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS: Nursing homes and convalescent homes 
shall be built only of type 1 and 2 construction. 

SECTION 427.0 DAY CARE CENTERS (H-2) 

Day care centers shall be subject to the applicable provisions of the 
Basic Code and the provisions of this section. Day care centers licensed 
by the Office of Children shall be subject to compliance with the rules 
and regulations of that authority. 

427.1 LOCATION 

427.11 HIGH HAZARD RESTRICTION: No day care centers may occupy the same 
building with or be within two hundred (200) feet of a high hazard 
occupancy. 

427.12 BASEMENT USE: A basement, as defined in the Basic Code, of a 
type 4B construction structure, may not be used for a day care center. 

427.2 MEANS OF EGRESS 

427.21 FEWER THAN THIRTY (30) CHILDREN: Where the basement is used as 
the day care center or part thereof, for fewer than thirty (30) children 
there shall be two exitways placed as remote from each other as possible. 
One such exitway shall be directly to the outside at grade level and 
shall require less than eight (8) feet of vertical travel to reach the 
exitway discharge. In such an exitway, where stairs are used, the 
stairway may not be enclosed if the vertical travel is less than four 

(4) feet. Otherwise, a two (2) hour enclosure is required for the 
stairway with a one and one-half (1%) hour self-closing fire door. 

427.22 THIRTY (30) OR MORE CHILDREN: Where the basement is used as the 
day care center or part thereof, for thirty (30) or more children, at 
least two (2) exitways, placed as remotely as possible from each other, 
shall be provided directly to the outside, one (1) of which shall discharge 
at ground level. 

427.23 EXITWAY REQUIREMENTS: Exitway other than those required by 
sections 427.21 and 427.22 shall lead to the primary floor for discharge. 
Stairways for such exitways shall have egress doors which are self- 
closing and one and one-half (Ih) hours f ireresistance rating. 

427.24 EGRESS ON FLOORS OTHER THAN BASEMENT: Each story shall be pro- 
vided with not less than two (2) means of egress properly located, and 
such additional approved egresses shall be located from the occupied 
spaces so that to reach an egress, it will not be necessary to pass 
through a common corridor or space. 

427.25 EGRESS FROM EACH ROOM: Two (2) approved egresses properly 
located shall be provided from each occupied room (one (1) of which may 
be by communicating door) leading to two (2) separate exits so arranged 
that to reach one it will not be necessary to pass through the common 
corridor or space. 



427.26 STAIRWAYS: All required egress stairways shall be enclosed with 
not less than one (1) hour f ireresistance rating and one (1) hour fire- 
resistance self-closing doors unless otherwise specified in this section. 

427.27 EGRESS LIGHTING: Egress lighting shall be provided as required 
by the building official and in conformance with article 6 , including 
requirements for emergency lighting. 

427.3 DOORWAYS: All exitway doorways shall be at least thirty-six (36) 
inches in width. All other doorways shall be at least thirty-two (32) 
inches in width. 

427.4 HANDRAILS: All required egress stairways shall be provided with 
double handrails on both sides, and these shall be continuous including 
all runs and platforms and shall be built as follows : 

a) the upper rail shall be installed at approximately thirty-three 
(33) inches high measured vertically at the face of the riser. 

b) the lower rail shall be installed at approximately twenty (20) 
inches high measured vertically at the face of the riser. 

427.5 HEATERS: Any heaters in spaces occupied by children shall be 
separated from the occupied space by partitions, guards, screens, or 
other means. Space and unit heaters using combustibles shall be pro- 
hibited. 

427.6 BOILER ROOMS: Boilers, furnaces or other fire units shall be en- 
closed as required in section 1113. No boiler room door shall open into 
an occupied area. 

427.7 FLOOR AND CEILING PROTECTION: When the occupied floor is above 
any usable space, the floor shall have a three-quarter (3/4) hour fire 
rating. 



4-46 



SECTION 460.0 SCHOOLHOUSE BUILDINGS 

The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings, 
structures and parts thereof which are classified as schoolhouse 
buildings as defined in article 2. 

460.1 ADMINISTRATIVE 

460.11 INCREASE IN BUILDING SIZE: If the building is increased 
in floor area or number of stories, the entire building shall be 
made to conform with these regulations in respect to means of 
egress, fire safety, light and ventilation with the following 
exceptions: a) Horizontal additions with fire divisions, and 
b) An increase in floor area of ten (10) percent or less for 
nonclassroom use- -are permitted provided compliance with the area 
limitations of Table 2-6 and of section 304 are maintained for 
the existing building. 

460.12 STATEMENT OF COMPLIANCE: All drawings submitted in com- 
pliance with section 113 shall be prepared by a registered archi- 
tect, a registered surveyor, and/or a registered professional 
engineer and shall bear their registration stamp. The first sheet 
of their respective drawings shall bear signed statements by them 
that the materials and construction indicated conforms to at least 
the requirements of this Code. 

460.2 SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 

460.21 WELDING 

460.211 Welding booths shall be constructed of noncombustible 
material and in a manner which will permit escape by slight pressure. 

460.212 In a multi-storied building, the floor and ceiling of a 
room where welding is being performed shall be of type 1 or type 2 
construction. 

460.213 Each shop where welding is performed shall have two (2) 
individual means of egress not less than three (3) feet wide leading 
to separate exits remote from each other. One of these means of 
egress shall be direct to the outside and shall be equipped with 

an outward swinging, panic equipped escape door. Doors for such 
shops shall be constructed of a fire resistant material or be 
metal clad. Doors shall be equipped with automatic door closers. 

460.214 Walls for shops shall be not less than two (2) hour 
noncombustible and constructed of solid masonry or of concrete 
blocks with metal wall reinforcement in alternate courses. 

460.22 GLASS 

460.221 Nonshattering glass, or guard rails or comparable protec- 
tion shall be used when glass is installed below a height of 
thirty-two (32) inches, except that nonshattering glass or double 



4-46A 



guard rails shall be provided below a height of forty-eight (48) 
inches in corridors or congregating areas. Guard rails shall be 
placed on the exterior if the adjacent outside area is paved. 

460.222 In control screens and smoke screens, glass shall be 
nonshattering and three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistant. 

460.223 Glass used in doors shall comply with the American Nation- 
al Standard known as Z97-1 (1966) except where required to be wire 
glass to achieve a degree of f ireresistance. This section shall 
also apply to sliding glass doors, storm doors, shower doors, 
bathtub enclosures and fixed glass panels adjacent to entrance 

and exit doors which because of their location, size and design 
may be mistaken as a means of ingress or egress. 

460.224 Each light of safety glazing material installed as required 
by section 460.223 shall be permanently labeled by means of etching, 
sandblasting or firing of ceramic material to identify the labeler, 
whether manufacturer, fabricator or installer, and the nominal 
thickness and the type of safety glazing material and the fact that 
said material meets the test requirements of section 856.37. 

460.23 SANITATION: Design total student population for calculating 
sanitation requirements shall be certified by the architect or 
owner. 

All sanitation requirements shall be those as specified in the 
applicable provisions of the Massachusetts State Plumbing Code, 

460.231 FACILITIES FOR HAOT)ICAPPED: Sanitation for the handi- 
capped shall conform to the Rules and Regulations of the Board 
to Facilitate the Use of Public Buildings by the Physically 
Handicapped, Form PHR-1, dated December 18, 1968. 

460.24 CEILING HEIGHT: Classrooms shall have an average height 
of eight (8) feet six (6) inches minimum under the beams or 
ceilings. In establishing the average, a minimum of seven (7) 
feet shall be used. 

460,3 LIGHT AND VENTILATION 

460.31 LIGHTING: All rooms, corridors, stairways and exits, 
including outside steps, shall be suitably lighted when in use. 

460.311 All classrooms used for students below grade 7, and a 
minimum of fifty (50) percent of all other classrooms shall be 
provided with natural lighting from transparent glass windows in 
outside walls. Colleges and universities are excepted from this 
requirement. 

460.312 Artificial lighting shall be so designed to provide 
minimum intensities "maintained" as listed below. Except where 
noted, illumination measurements shall be made in a horizontal 
plane thirty (30) inches above floor level. 



4-46B 



460.313 Classrooms, laboratories, study halls, libraries, offices, 
shops, combination-use rooms if used as study halls or libraries, 
and other instruction areas: 30-foot candles. 

460.314 Drafting rooms, sewing rooms and sight-saving classrooms: 
50-foot candles. 

460.315 Gymnasiums, lunchrooms, playrooms and multi-purpose rooms: 
20-foot candles. 

460.316 Auditoriums and corridors: 10-foot candles. 

460.317 Stairways: 10-foot candles, measured at the edge of the 
tread. 

460.318 Toilet rooms: 20-foot candles. 

460.319 Rooms designed for more than one (1) instructional purpose 
shall be illuminated at the highest level required for any of 

the activities they are designed to serve. 

460.32 LIGHTING FIXTURES: The lighting fixtures in assembly 
halls, gymnasiums, and rooms used for instruction or study shall 
be of a type which will provide proper illumination. Protection 
against accidental breakage shall be provided in any areas used 
for physical activities. 

460.33 VENTILATION: General mechanical means of ventilation shall 
be provided for all schoolrooms with a minimum capacity of twenty- 
four (24) cubic feet of standard air per minute for each occupant. 

460.331 The air supply shall be taken from a source as free from 
dust or other impurities as possible. There shall be at least six 
(6) feet between the air intake of any unit and any other exhaust 

outlet. 

460.332 OUTSIDE AIR: A minimum of ten (10) c.f.m. shall be fresh 
outdoor air. The volume of supply air shall be maintained constant 
by proper operation of the equipment and shall slightly pressurize 
the room. Provision shall be made for the removal of nine (9) 
c.f.m. of standard air per student in each room, through openings 
located at or near the floor or ceiling, vent ducts, etc., with 
proper means to control and regulate same. In determining the 
amount of outdoor air to be supplied to a given space, the amount 
required per student, together with enough to slightly pressurize 
the room and a proportionate amount of make-up air to contribute 

to any unsupplied but ventilated areas (corridors, toilet rooms, 
etc.) shall be used. 

460.333 STUDENT POPULATION: The design total student population 
of each area for calculating ventilation requirements in accord- 
ance with section 113.5 shall be certified by the architect and 
the owner. 



4-46C 



450.334 SPECIAL EXCEPTIONS TO VENTILATION REQUIREMENTS 

460.335 BUILDINGS NOT OCCUPIED: The ventilation system shall 
be kept in operation at all times during normal occupancy of the 
building or space so used. When a space is not occupied, its 
ventilation system may be shut down and its outside air supply 
closed, 

460.336 COLD WEATHER CONDITIONS: At outdoor air temperatures 
below thirty-five (35) degrees F,, the minimum outside air require- 
ments (508,2) may be reduced progressively to as low as zero (0) 
c.f,m, per occupant at a winter outdoor design temperature of zero 
(0) degrees or below. 

460.337 AIR CONDITIONED CLASSROOMS: Classrooms provided with air 
conditioning equipment designed to provide a maximum temperature 
of seventy-eight (78) degrees F. at a relative humidity not to ex- 
ceed fifty (50) percent when the outside temperature is at ninety- 
three (93) F.D.B. and seventy-five (75) degrees F.W.B. , the minimum 
outside air requirement of section 508.2 may be reduced to not less 
than five (5) cubic feet per minute per occupant during the cooling 
cycle. The air to be removed also shall be proportionately reduced. 

460.34 VENTILATION OF SPECIAL SPACES 

460.341 Lunchrooms, auditoriums, gymnasiums, and locker-shower 
rooms: In lunchrooms, auditoriums, gymnasiums, and locker-shower 
rooms, the supply of air shall be equivalent to one and one-half 
(1 1/2) cubic feet of standard air per minute per square foot of 
floor area, of which one-half (1/2) shall be fresh outdoor air. 
The removal of air shall provide a minimum of four (4) air changes 
per hour of three-quarter (3/4) cubic feet per minute per square 
foot of floor area, whichever is less. Where such rooms, except 
those used for lunchrooms, have a ceiling height exceeding fifteen 
(15) feet, with a minimum outside wall exposure of forty (40) per- 
cent, provisions for the removal of air may be reduced to two (2) 
air changes or three-quarter (3/4) cubic feet per minute per square 
foot of floor area, whichever is less. Removal of air from the 
gymnasiums may be partially taken through the locker and shower 
rooms, provided that this air is passed through a heating coil to 
raise the temperature of the air to seventy-five (75) degrees F. 

450.342 Kitchens: The kitchen areas shall be exhausted separately. 
The lunchrooms may be partially exhausted not more than thirty-three 
and one-third (33 1/3) percent through the kitchen exhaust system, 
provided that the lunchroom air is taken by ducts from near the 
floor level at the wall between the kitchen and lunchroom from the 
lunchroom side, or through grills near the floor. 

450.343 Coat room, wardrobe and locker ventilation: All coat 
rooms shall be ventilated through proper ducts provided for this 
purpose. 

460.344 Classrooms may be vented through wardrobes installed in 



4-46D 



classrooms, provided they are mechanically exhausted, 

460.345 Wardrobes shall be provided with permanent inlet open- 
ings at or near the floor, equivalent to an opening four (4) inches 
high and the full length of the wardrobe. 

460.346 In classrooms which have individual, independent mechanical 
exhausts or with the classroom exhaust grills located at the floor 
of the wardrobes, the wardrobes shall be provided with top and 
bottom openings. 

460.347 Lockers installed in corridors, locker rooms or other 
areas which are not mechanically ventilated shall have doors with 
top and bottom openings or grills. 

460.348 Chemistry, laboratories, welding shops and automotive 
shops ventilation: Every chemistry room shall be provided with 
one or more fume cabinets. In lieu thereof, metal vent hoods 
shall be placed over each experiment table. Every welding booth 
or work bench space shall be provided with a metal hood close to 
the work. Every paint spray booth or rooms shall be provided with 
a separate direct mechanical exhaust. Every automative shop shall 
be provided a special gasoline fume exhaust to remove air from the 
lowest part of the floor or pit, and if the floor is provided with 
a floor drain, the exhaust shall be from the trap thereof. 

If internal combustion engines are to be operated in the shops, 
approved gravity or mechanical muffler connections for exhaust 
of fumes direct to outside atmosphere shall be provided. All 
hoods, cabinets and exhausts shall be connected through suitable 
vent ducts to mechanical exhaust fans for removing the fumes and 
gases. Where necessary, there shall be bottom vents to provide 
a source of air. Proper shut-off dampers and manual controls 
shall be provided. 

These special vents and ducts shall be separated from and in 
addition to the required classroom ventilation. In areas where 
there may be noxious gases, one-half (1/2) the classroom exhausts 
may be placed on the upper wall. 

460.35 TOILET ROOM VENTILATION 

460.351 VENTILATION THROUGH WALL OPENINGS: Each water compart- 
ment or urinal shall be provided with a proper vent opening into 
a duct leading to an exhaust fan or a heated flue, provided that 
wall ventilation shall not be permitted for stall urinals. Each 
vent opening shall be provided with a substantial "lock type" 
register, the bottom of which shall be placed not less than twelve 
(12) inches from the floor nor more than four (4) feet above the 
floor. 

As alternative to compartment ventilation, toilet rooms may be 
provided with one (1) or more large substantial "lock type" 
registers on the fixture wall, the bottom of which may be placed 



4-46E 



approximately at the top of the compartment partitions. 

The exhaust fan shall have a capacity of sixty (60) cubic feet 
of air per minute for each water closet compartment vent, and in 
no case of less capacity than shall provide a change of air in the 
toilet room eight (8) times an hour. If the total number of com- 
partment vents connected to the duct leading to the exhaust fan 
or heated 'flue, rated at sixty (60) cubic feet per minute each, 
is not sufficient to accomplish an eight (8) minute air change in 
the toilet room, an additional vent opening from the room into the 
duct leading to the exhaust fan or heated flue shall be provided. 

460.352 DIRECT FIXTURE VENTILATION: When the ventilation of toilet 
rooms is effected through local vent openings on water closet and 
urinal fixtures, the exhaust therefrom shall be by means of a 
mechanical exhaust fan or fans. Each water closet so ventilated 
shall have an integral raised vent of not less than eight (8) 
square inches net area unobstructed by waterways or connections, 
which shall be connected to the fan inlet through a tight sheet 
metal duct having a minimum cross-sectional area of twenty (20) 
square inches, and enlarging in size eight (8) square inches for 
each fixture connected thereto. 

Stall urinals shall be ventilated by not less than two (2) inch 
inside diameter brass, copper or cast iron vent pipe beneath the 
fixture and connecting to the duct, having not less than two (2) 
inch tight connections to toilet room vent flues, or through a 
vent not less than two (2) inches from beneath an integral hood at 
top of the fixture. The ducts leading to the fan inlet shall be 
proportioned as in the preceding paragraph. 

The mechanical exhaust fan for fixture ventilation shall be 
rigidly constructed and quiet in operation, with a capacity of 
thirty-five (35) cubic feet of air per minute for each water 
closet and urinal fixture, and in no case of less capacity than 
will provide a change of air in toilet rooms of six (6) times an 
hour. If the total number of fixture vents connected to the duct 
leading to the fan rated thirty-five (35) cubic feet of air per 
minute for each fixture is not sufficient to accomplish a ten 
(10) minute air change in the toilet room, an additional vent 
opening from the room into the duct leading to the fan shall be 
provided. 

The vent duct shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 
fifty (50) square inches, and shall increase in area forty-two 
(42) square inches for each compartment vent connected thereto. 
This shall apply to heat-activated gravity systems only. 

460.353 Ventilation shall not be directly into a "utility space," 
so called, but the duct to which the vents shall be connected 

may be run in such space. 

460.354 Individual toilet rooms may be ventilated at the ceilings. 



E-46F 



460.355 TOILET ROOM VENT DUCTS: The ducts connecting the local 
vents from water closets, urinals, and compartments shall pitch 
up sharply from the fixtures and outlets to the toilet room vent- 
flue or fan inlet with a minimum rise of one (1) inch to each 
foot of run. 

460.356 SEPARATION OF TOILET ROOM VENTILATION: All toilet room 
ventilation systems shall be distinct and apart from all other 
ventilation. 

460.357 VENTILATING EQUIPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION DUCTS: The mechan- 
ical ventilation systems, equipment, and distributing ducts shall 
be installed in accordance with the provisions of articles 11 and 
18. 

460.36 EXISTING SCHOOLHOUSE BUILDINGS 

460.361 UNSAFE CONDITIONS: In all existing rooms or spaces in 
which the provisions for light and ventilation do not meet the 
requirements of this Code and which in the opinion of the building 
official are dangerous to the health and safety of the occupants, 
he shall order the required repairs or installation to render the 
building or structure in compliance with this Code. 

460.362 ALTERATIONS: No schoolhouse building shall hereafter be 
altered or rearranged so as to reduce either the size of a room or 
the fresh air supply or the amount of available natural light to 
less than that required for buildings hereafter erected; or to 
create an additional room unless made to conform to the require- 
ments of this Code. The building official may permit new rooms 

to be of the same height as existing rooms in the same story 
unless in his opinion greater provision of artificial light and 
ventilation is deemed necessary to insure healthful living 
conditions. 

460.4 INTERCOMMUNICATING FLOOR LEVELS 

Where necessary for the functional design of the building, any 
structure other than one classified in occupancy group H-2, may 
be permitted to have a maximum of three (3) communicating floor 
levels without enclosure or protection between such areas, pro- 
vided that there is compliance with all of the conditions pre- 
scribed within this section and subject to the approval of the 
building official. The entire area, including all communicating 
floor levels, shall be sufficiently open and unobstructed so that 
it may be reasonably assumed that the occupants of this area will 
be aware that a fire or other dangerous condition exists. The 
combined areas of the intercommunicating floor levels shall not 
exceed thirty thousand (30,000) square feet. 

460.41 ARRANGEMENT: The arrangement of any intercommunicating 
floor levels shall comply with the requirements of Table 2-6. 

460.42 GRADE: The lowest or next to the lowest level is a level 



A-46G 



accessible from the street, or from outside the building at grade, 
with floor level at main entrance not more than twenty-one (21) 
inches above nor more than twelve (12) inches below grade at said 
main entrance. 

460.43 EXITWAYS: Exitway capacity shall be sufficient to provide 
simultaneously for all the occupants of all communicating levels 
and areas. All communicating levels in the same fire area shall 
be considered as a single floor area for purposes of determination 
of required exitway capacity. Each floor level, considered separ- 
ately, shall have at least one-half (1/2) of its required exitway 
capcity provided by exitways leading directly out of that area 
without traversing another communicating floor level or being ex- 
posed to the spread of fire or smoke therefrom. 

460.44 ENCLOSING WALLS: The enclosing walls of the space created 
by the communicating floor levels shall have a f ireresistive 
rating of not less than that required for interior exitway stair- 
ways as specified in section 618, with approved fire doors or 
windows provided in openings therein, all so designed and installed 
as to provide a complete barrier to the spread of fire or smoke 
through such openings. 

406.5 MEANS OF EGRESS: For all areas, spaces or rooms with an 
occupancy load of ten (10) or more persons used for instructional 
or assembly purposes there shall be at least two independent means 
of egress leading to separate exits remote from each other, so 
arranged that to reach one it will not be necessary to pass through 
a common corridor or space. For the purpose of this section, a 
smoke screen barrier shall be construed as effectively dividing a 
corridor or space into independent areas. 

460.51 DEAD END CORRIDORS: The maximum length of travel of a 
dead end corridor for classroom buildings shall be thirty (30) 
feet with no more than one (1) classroom on each side of the 
corridor. 

460.52 AISLE AND CORRIDOR WIDTHS: Aisle and corridor widths shall 
be as provided for in section 610.3 with the following minimum 
total widths: 

460.521 Corridors with classrooms on both sides shall have a 
clear width of seventy-two (72) inches for four (4) and five (5) 
classrooms; eighty-four (84) inches for six (6) and seven (7) 
classrooms; and ninety-six (96) inches for eight (8) or more 
classrooms. 

460.522 Corridors with classrooms on one (1) side shall have a 
minimum clear width of seventy-two (72) inches. 

460.523 Corridors not over thirty (30) feet in length leading to 
no more than two (2) shops or non-classroom spaces, averaging not 
more than twenty-five (25) persons per room may be four (4) feet 
wide. 



4-46H 



460.524 Corridors of the lobby type serving as assembly areas 
in connection with cafeterias shall have a minimum clear width 
of ten (10) feet. 

460.525 Corridors providing side exits shall be a minimum clear 
width of four (4) feet to a minimum three (3) foot six (6) inch 
door, properly marked with exit signs in the main corridor. 

460.526 With lockers or coat-hanging spaces along one (1) wall 
of the above corridors add twelve (12) inches to the minimum 
clear width; along both walls, add twenty-four (24) inches to 
the minimum clear width. 

460.53 AISLE: When fixed seating is used, the aisle in classrooms 
shall be not less than the following widths: 

All clear aisles 1 foot 5 inches 

Wall aisles next to window 3 feet 

Other wall aisles 2 feet 6 inches 

460.54 REQUIRED MEANS OF EGRESS DOORWAYS 

460.541 Doors to shops having not more than thirty (30) pupils 
and doors to rooms formed by two (2) classrooms connected with a 
folding partition may swing in. 

460.542 All classroom doors may swing in either direction, pro- 
viding those swinging into a corridor are recessed and will protrude 
not more than five (5) inches into the corridor when fully open. 

460.543 CLASSROOM GRADE EXIT DOORS: A five (5) inch step is per- 
mitted where a classroom door opens to the outside, and where a 
designated exit is not protected from the weather; otherwise, 

the outside platform shall be approximately at floor level. 

460.55 STAIRWAYS 

460.551 VERTICAL RISE: The height of vertical rise shall not 
exceed nine (9) feet between landings and intermediate platforms 

460.552 MINIMUM DIMENSIONS: In addition to the provisions of 
section 616.4, treads and risers of required stairs shall be so 
proportioned that the sum of two (2) risers and a tread, exclusive 
of projection of nosing, is not less than twenty-four (24) inches 
nor more than twenty-five (25) inches. The height of risers shall 
not exceed seven and one-half (7 1/2) inches, and treads, exclusive 
of nosing, shall be not less than ten (10) inches wide. Every 
tread less than eleven (11) inches wide shall have a nosing, or 
effective projection, of approximately one (1) inch over the level 
immediately below that tread. The height of the riser shall not 
exceed six and one-half (6 1/2) inches and the width of the tread 
shall not be less than twelve (12) inches for all exterior entrance 
stairways. 



4-461 



460.553 SUPPLEMENTAL STAIRWAYS: Monumental stairs, either inside 
or outside, may be accepted as required exits if all requirements 
for exit stairs are complied with, including required enclosures 
and minimum width of tread, except that curved stairs may be 
accepted with a radius of twenty- five (25) feet or more at the 
inner edges. 

460.56 EXin\rAY SIGNS AND LIGHTS: Exitway signs and lights shall 
conform to the requirements of section 623 except for existing 
schoolhouses having means of egress signs reading "EXIT" in red 
letters at least five (5) inches high on a white background or 

in other approved distinguishable colors, illuminated by an 
electric light of not less than twenty-five (25) watts, visible 
from the exit approach and supplemented by directional signs in 
the access corridors indicating the direction and ways of egress. 
Such signs may be internally illuminated with an enclosing 
noncombustible case through ruby glass- The letters of internally 
illuminated signs shall not be less than four and one-half (4 1/2) 
inches high. 

460.57 MEANS OF EGRESS LIGHTING 

460.571 In auditoriums, multi-purpose rooms and gymnasiums, where 
used for assembly purposes, provisions shall be made for control 
of general artificial illumination from the rear of the room, the 
projection room (if any) and the probable location of a projector. 

460.572 EMERGENCY LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS: Emergency lighting 
shall be provided for all exits, corridors, passages and stairways. 
In addition, emergency lighting shall be required in all gym- 
nasiums, auditoriums, multi-purpose rooms, and rooms without 
natural lighting. Rooms less than four hundred (400) square feet 
of floor area without natural lighting used as service or storage 
areas will not require emergency lighting. Emergency lighting 
shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of sections 
624.4 and 624.41. 

460.6 FIRERESISTIVE PARTITIONS 

460.61 EXCEPTION: Fireproof Construction - In all buildings and 
structures of other than schoolhouse institutional (use group H) 
of fireproof (type 1), or of protected noncombustible (type 2) 
construction, space and office dividers, not including partitions, 
of a single thickness of wood or approved composite panels, and 
glass or other approved materials of similar combustible charac- 
teristics, may be used to subdivide rooms and spaces, provided 
they do not establish a public corridor or a private corridor 
serving an occupant load of fifty (50) or more and not exceeding 
ten thousand (10,000) square feet between fireresistive or fire 
partitions, fire walls and fireresistive floors. Larger areas 
may be subdivided with fireretardant wood or with materials of 
similar combustible characteristics when complying with section 
903.72, but not to exceed fifty (50) percent increase in area. 



460.62 LATCHES AKD ASTRAGALS: Latches and astragals for Class C 
doors in path of egress may be omitted in use Group F-3 and F-4 
occupancies if required to be self-closing. Frames shall be of 
steel or metal-covered wood of label construction. Doors shall 
be steel, metal-covered core and of label construction. 

460.63 FIRE DOORS 

460.631 SPECIAL SITUATIONS: Shop and chemistry laboratory doors 
shall be Class C doors. 

460.632 GLASS PANELS: Wired glass panels shall be permitted in 
fire doors within the limitations of section 919 and as herein 
specifically prescribed, 

460.633 Smoke barriers or screens shall consist of noncombustible 
partitions containing or not containing wire glass panels and/or 
smoke stop doors conforming to the following: Smoke stop doors 
shall be self-closing, swinging doors of metal, metal-covered, 
aluminum, or one and three-quarter (1 3/4) inch solid core wood 
with clear wire glass panels having an area of at least six 
hundred (600) square inches per door; except that in buildings not 
over two (2) stories high, smoke stop doors may be of one and 
three-eighths (1 3/8) inch solid core wood with clear wire glass 
panels, unless the doors are also used as horizontal exits in 
which case they shall comply with the provisions of section 917.21 
for Class B or Class C doors as the exitway may require. Smoke 
stop doors shall close the opening completely with only such 
clearance as is reasonably necessary for proper operation. Smoke 
stop doors shall normally be in the closed position, except that 
they may be left open if they are arranged to close automatically 
by an approved device meeting the requirements of section 612.44. 

460.634 WIRED GLASS: For schoolhouses, the maximum dimension of 
twelve (12) inches in section 919.2, the maximtrai twelve (12) inch 
height for Class B door in section 919.4, and the size limitation 
of section 919.5 shall not apply. 



4-46K 



Reference Standards - Article A 



ANSI PH22.31 
APHA 

Mass-DPS FPR 2 

Mass-DPS FPR 4 

Mass-DPS FPR 5 

Mass-DPS 

Mass-DPS FPR 6 

Mass-DPS FPR 13 

Mass-DPH Article VI 

NFPA Vol. 1 

NFPA 24 

NFPA 30 

NFPA 32 

NFPA 33 



NFPA 



34 



NFPA 40 
NFPA 42 



NFPA 



43 



Mass-DPS PHR-1 



1967 Motion Picture Safety Film 

1957 Swlnnnlng Pools and other Public Bathing 
Places, Recommended Practice for Design, 
Equipment and Operation 

1963 Dry-Cleaning and Dry-Dyeing, and the 
Keeping, Storage and Use of Cleaning 
and Dyeing Fluid in Connection Therewith 

1968 Construction and Maintenance of Buildings 
or Other Structures Used as Garages and 
the Related Storage, Keeping and Use of 
Gasoline 

1962 Construction, Location, Installation and 
Operation of Liquefied Petroleum Gas 
Systems, Gas Piping and Appliance Instal- 
lations in Buildings 

Board of Boiler Rules 

1948 Manufacturing and Handling of Plastics 

1965 Keeping, Storage, Manufacture or Sale in 
Limited Quantities of Flammable Fluids, 
Solids, or Gases 

1969 Minimum Standards for Swimming Pools 
1969-70 Flammable Liquids 

1973 Outside Protection (Yard Piping) 

1973 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code 

1972 Dry Cleaning Plants 

1973 Spray Finishing Using Flammable and Com- 
bustible Materials 

1966 Dip Tanks Containing Flammable or Com- 
bustible Liquids 

1967 Cellulose Nitrate Motion Picture Film 

1967 Pyroxylin Plastic in Factories, Storage, 
Handling and Use 

1967 Pyroxylin Plastic in Warehouses, Wholesale 
and Retail Store 

Rules and Regulations of the Board to 
Facilitate the Use of Public Buildings 
by the Physically Handicapped 



4-47 



NFPA 



NFPA 



NFPA 



NFPA 



NFPA 



NFPA 



58 



59 



60 



61A 



61B 



61C 



Reference Standards - Article 4 
1972 



1968 
1973 
1962 
1959 
1962 



Liquefied Petroleum Gases, Storage and 
Handling 

Liquefied Petroleum Gases at Utility Gas 
Plants 

Pulverized Fuel Systems, Installation and 
Operation of 

Starch Factories, Prevention of Dust 
Explosions in 

Terminal Elevators, Prevention of Dust 
Explosions 

Flour and Feed Mills, Allied Grain Storage 
Elevators, Prevention of Dust Explosions 

Industrial Plants, Fundamental Principles 
for Prevention of Dust Explosions in 

Country Grain Elevators, Prevention of 
Dust Ignitions in 

Explosion Venting Guide 

Garages 

Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems 

Life Safety Code 



NFPA 102 1972 Tents and Grandstands and Air-Supported 

Structures Used for Places of Assembly 

Smoke and Heat Venting Guide 

Underground Flammable and Combustible Liquid 
Tanks , Leakage From 

Dust Explosion Prevention in Plastic Industry 

Spice Grinding Plants, Prevention of Dust 
Ignitions in 

NFPA 657 1967 Confectionery Manufacturing Plants, Pre- 
vention of Dust Explosions in 

NFPA 701 1969 Flameresistant Textiles and Films, Standard 

Method of Tests for 



NFPA 


63 


1971 


NFPA 


64 


1959 


NFPA 


68 


1954 


NFPA 


88 


1968 


NFPA 


90A 


1973 


NFPA 


101 


1967,1971 
1973 



NFPA 


204 


1968 


NFPA 


329 


1965 


NFPA 


654 


1963 


NFPA 


656 


1959 



4-48 



ARTICLE 5 



LIGHT AND VENTILATION 



SECTION 500.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall govern the means of light and 
ventilation required in all habitable and occupiable spaces and rooms. 
Every building and structure hereafter erected and every building, 
room or space which is changed in use shall be constructed, arranged 
and equipped to conform to the requirements of this article and the 
applicable standards listed in the reference section of this article. 

500.1 OTHER REGULATIONS: Nothing in this article shall be construed 
to nullify the provisions of the local zoning by-laws or ordinances 
or subdivision controls promulgated under authority of Chapter 41, or 
Chapter 40A respectively of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated 
as amended. 

500.2 OTHER STANDARDS: Compliance with the applicable provisions of 
the standards listed in the reference section of this article shall be 
deemed to meet the requirements of this article, unless otherwise spe- 
cifically provided herein. 



SECTION 501.0 DEFINITIONS 

COURT: an open, uncovered unoccupied space partially or wholly sur- 
rounded by the walls of a structure. 

-ENCLOSED OR INNER: a court surrounded on all sides by the exterior 
walls of a structure or by such walls and an interior lot line. 

-OUTER COURT: a court having at least one side thereof opening on 
to a street, alley, or yard or other permanent open space. 

HABITABLE ROOM: a room or enclosed floor space arranged for living, 
eating, and sleeping purposes (not including bathrooms, water 
closet compartments, laundries, pantries, foyers, hallways and 
other accessory floor spaces) . 

HABITABLE ROOM, MINIMUM HEIGHT: a clear height from finished floor 
to finished ceiling of not less than seven and one-half (7^5) feet, 
except that in attics and top half-stories the height shall be not 
less than seven and one-third (7-1/3) feet over not less than one- 
third (1/3) the area of the floor when used for sleeping, study or 
similar activity. 

HABITABLE ROOM, MINIMUM SIZE: a room with a minimum dimension of 
seven (7) feet and a minimum area of seventy (70) square feet, 
between enclosing walls or partitions, exclusive of closet and 
storage spaces. 



5-1 



OCCUPIABLE ROOM: a room or enclosed space designed for human occu- 
pancy in which large numbers of individuals congregate for amuse- 
ment, educational, or similar purposes or in which occupants are 
engaged at labor; and which is equipped with means of egress, light, 
and ventilation facilities meeting the requirements of the Basic 
Code. 

VENTILATION. (See section 1801.0.) 

WIDTH. 

-INNER COURT: as applied to an inner court, means its least hori- 
zontal dimension. 

-OUTER COURT: as applied to an outer court, means the shortest 
horizontal dimension measured in a direction substantially par- 
allel with the principal open end of such court. 

YARD: an open unoccupied space on the same lot with a building ex- 
tending along the entire length of a street, or rear, or interior 
lot line. 



SECTION 502.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

Plans for all buildings and structures other than one and two-family 
and multi-family dwellings, which are designed for human occupancy shall 
designate the number of occupants to be accommodated in the various 
rooms and spaces and when means of artificial lighting and ventilation 
are required, the application shall include sufficient details and 
description of the mechanical system to be installed as herein required 
or as specified in article 18. 



SECTION 503.0 STANDARDS OF NATURAL LIGHT 

In the application of the provisions of this article, the standard of 
natural light for all habitable rooms, unless otherwise specifically 
required by the provisions of article 4 for special uses and occupancies, 
shall be based on two hundred and fifty (250) foot candles of illumination 
on the vertical plane adjacent to the exterior of the light transmitting 
device in the enclosure wall and shall be adequate to provide an average 
illumination of six (6) foot candles over the area of the room at a 
height of thirty (30) inches above the floor level. 

503.1 WINDOW AND SKYLIGHTS: All habitable rooms or spaces shall contain 
windows, skylights, monitors, glazed doors, transoms, glass block panels 
or other light transmitting media opening to the sky or on a public 
street, yard or court complying with the provisions of this article. 
The light transmitting properties and the area of the devices used shall 
be adequate to meet the minimum daylighting requirements specified 
herein. 



5-2 



503.2 WINDOW SIZE: Windows and exterior doors may be used as a 
natural means of light and when so used their aggregate glass area 
shall amount to not less than one-tenth (1/10) of the floor area 
served. 

503.3 INTENSITY OF ILLUMINATION: In all required exitways, except 
in one and two-family dwellings, and wherever natural lighting is 
not available, artificial lighting shall be provided to furnish 
not less than three (3) foot candles at the floor level of all re- 
quired exitways. 

503. A STAIRWAYS AND EXITWAYS IN RESIDENTIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 

503. Al WINDOWS: In all multi-family dwellings (use group L-2) and 
in institutional buildings for the care or treatment of people (use 
group H-2) required interior stairways shall be provided with win- 
dows to the outer air having a glass area of not less than ten (10) 
square feet which opens on a required street, alley, yard or court, 
or with the equivalent source of light for each story through which 
the stairway passes; and such additional artificial lighting to pro- 
vide the equivalent illumination at all times that the building is 
occupied as specified in section 62A.0. 

503. A2 SKYLIGHTS: When the building is not more than three (3) 
stories in height, a ventilating skylight of the required area may 
be used in lieu of windows. 

503. A3 HALLWAYS: Hallways shall have at least one window opening 
directly on a street or on a required yard or court in each story, 
located so that light penetrates the full length of the hallway, 
with additional windows for each change of direction of the hallway; 
or the equivalent artificial lighting shall be provided. Every re- 
cess or return with a depth or length which exceeds twice the width 
of the hall, and every corridor separately shut off by a door, shall 
be treated as a separate hall in applying the provisions of this 
section. 



SECTION 50A.0 STANDARDS OF NATURAL VENTILATION 

Natural Ventilation shall be from unobstructed windows, skylights, 
monitors, doors, louvres, jalousies, or other similar openings. Such 
openings shall be direct to the sky, public street, space, alley, park, 
highway or right of way, or upon a yard, court plaza, or space above 
a setback located on the same lot and which complies with the require- 
ments of Section 512. 

50A.1 AREA OF NATURAL VENTILATING OPENINGS: Natural ventilating 
openings from habitable spaces shall have a free area when open of 
at least 5 percent of the floor area of the space ventilated. The 



5-3 



occuplable spaces, the free openable area shall be the basis to de- 
termine the minimum requirements for supplementary mechanical venti- 
lation. Free openable area Is the cross-sectional area at plane of 
greatest restriction to air flow, exclusive of screening. 

504.2 VENTING OF SPECIAL SPACES 

504.21 ALCOVE ROOMS: When alcove rooms open without obstruction Into 
adjoining rooms, the required window openings to the outer air shall 
be based on the combined floor area of room and alcove. No such al- 
cove space shall be more than sixty (60) square feet In area and the 
opening to the adjoining room shall be not less than eighty (80) per 
cent of the superficial area of the dividing wall, unless provided 
with separate means of light and ventilation. 

504.22 ATTIC SPACES: All attic spaces and spaces between roofs and 
top floor ceilings shall be ventilated by not less than two (2) op- 
posite windows, louvres, or vents with a total clear area of opening 
not less than one-third (1/3) of one (1) per cent of the horizontally 
projected roof area. 

504.23 CRAWL SPACES: In buildings and structures constructed with- 
out basements. In which the first floor construction does not bear 
directly on the ground, a space shall be provided under the first floor 
not less than eighteen (18) Inches In depth; and such space shall be 
vented with screened openings having a clear area of not less than 
one-third (1/3) of one (1) per cent of the enclosed building area, 

or shall be provided with other means of ventilation approved by the 
building official. When floating mat foundations are provided In 
accordance with section 734.0, the requirement for ventilation 
shall not apply. 



SECTION 505.0 VENTILATION OF INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS FOR FORCED 
DETENTION 

In buildings of the Institutional use group used for enforced deten- 
tion, all rooms shall comply with the requirements of this article for 
light and ventilation. However, where necessary, alternate means of 
complying with these provisions may be approved, providing that It can 
be shown that they fulfill all the requirements of these provisions 
for light and ventilation as applicable. 



SECTION 506.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

506.1 UNSAFE CONDITION: In all existing rooms or spaces In which the 
provisions for light and ventilation do not meet the requirements of 
this article and which in the opinion of the building official are 
dangerous to the health and safety of the occupants, he shall order 
the required repairs or installations to render the building or struc- 
ture livable for the posted use and occupancy load. 



5-4 



506.2 ALTERATIONS: No building shall hereafter be altered or rear- 
ranged so as to reduce either the size of a room, or the fresh air 
supply, or the amount of available natural light to less than that 
required for buildings hereafter erected; or to create an additional 
room unless made to conform to the requirements of section 503. The 
building official may permit new rooms to be of the same height as 
existing rooms in the same story unless in his opinion greater provision 
of artificial light and ventilation is deemed necessary to insure 
healthful living conditions. 

506.3 UNCOVERED YARD AND COURT AREA: No building shall be hereafter 
enlarged, nor shall the lot on which it is located be diminished so 

as to decrease the required courts or yards to less than that prescribed 
in this article for the lighting and ventilation of new buildings. 



SECTION 507.0 STANDARDS OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT 

507.1 ARTIFICIAL LIGHT REQUIREMENTS: Adequate means for providing ar- 
tificial light shall be provided in every occupiable space in every 
building hereafter erected and in the portions of existing buildings 
where alterations are performed. 

507.2 MEANS OF EGRESS: Means of egress lighting shall comply with the 
requirements of article 6. 

507.3 PLACES OF ASSEMBLY: Artificial lighting shall be provided as 
required in articles 4 and 6. 

507.4 BATHROOMS AND TOILET ROOMS: Artificial lighting of bathroone 
and toilet rooms shall be provided to produce an average of three (3) 
foot candles thirty (30) inches above the floor. 



SECTION 508.0 STANDARDS OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION 

508.1 AREAS REQUIRING MECHANICAL VENTILATION: Mechanical ventilation 
shall be provided in all occupiable rooms or spaces where the require- 
ments for natural ventilation are not met; in all rooms or spaces, 
which because of the nature of their use or occupancy, involve the 
presence of dust, fumes, gases, vapors, or other noxious or injurious 
impurities, or substances which create a fire hazard; or where required 
by the provisions of section 509.0 or articles 4 and 6. 

508.2 OUTSIDE AIR: Where mechanical ventilation is required the mini- 
mum amount of outside air introduced into any room or enclosed space 
shall be at least equal to the amount required by Figure 5-1. 



5-5 



508.21 FIGURE 5-1 MINIMUM OUTSIDE AIR REQUIREMENTS FOR VENTILATION 

AND AIR CONDITIONING 
700 



600 



-' 


V 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


- 


\ 










- 


' 


, \ 


V 








- 


- 


\ 


\ 








- 


- 


\ 


\ 


X 






- 


- 


\ 






^ 




^A 


~l 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


r 



500 
400 
300 
200 
100 



4 8 12 16 20 24 28 

Minimum Outside Air, Cu. Ft. Per Person Per Min. 

508.22 CURVE A - VENTILATION ONLY: The values obtained from Curve 
A in Figure 5-1 represent the minimum volume of outside air required 
for adults quietly occupied. Where the space has mechanical cooling, 
the values of Curve A represent the minimum amount of air to be cir- 
culated . 

a) Values of Curve A shall be increased by twenty-five (25) per 
cent for areas in which the occupancies contain or involve: 

1) Grade school children 

2) Light smoking 

3) Food Service 

4) Other occupancies involving 
air contamination 

b) Values of Curve A shall be increased fifty (50) per cent for 
areas in which the occupancies contain or involve : 

1) Manual labor 

2) Sports 

3) Dancing 

4) Heavy smoking 

5) Other occupancies involving heavy 
air contamination 

c) Values of Curve A shall be increased by an appropriate amount 
to remove excess heat or moisture generated by equipment in 
the occupied area. 



5-6 



508.23 CURVE B - MECHANICAL COOLING: The values obtained from 
Curve B in Figure 5-1 represent the minimum volume of outdoor air 
required for adults quietly occupied where adequate control is 
maintained over temperature and humidity and where odor removal 
apparatus is used if smoking is permitted in the occupied area. 

a) Where only part of the above-mentioned controls are 
maintained, the values of Curve B must be increased 
in accordance with good engineering design and subject 
to the approval of the building official. 

508.3 MEANS OF EXHAUST: Exhaust may be accomplished by: 

a) Forcing leakage through openings communicating directly to 
the outdoor air. 

b) By drawing the vitiated air from spaces into the return 
duct of the system apparatus. When exhaust is to a return 
duct, the system apparatus shall be equipped to mix outdoor 
and return air under conditions which assure that the mini- 
mum amount of outdoor air will never be less than the sum 
of the minimum outdoor air ventilation requirements of all 
the spaces served by that system. 

c) By drawing air into a fan-powered exhaust system discharging 
directly to the outdoor air. 

508.4 MAKE-UP AIR: Sufficient air to replace the exhaust quantity 
shall be admitted to spaces which are under forcible exhaust by one 
or by any combination of the following methods: 

a) If permitted by this Code, by infiltration through louvres, 
registers, or other permanent openings in walls, doors, or 
partitions of adjoining spaces where air is supplied in 
sufficient excess to meet the requirements of both spaces. 

b) By infiltration through natural ventilation openings when the 
heating system is properly designed to permit such infiltra- 
tion without causing drafts objectionable to the occupants, 

c) By other methods acceptable to the building official, and in 
conformance with good engineering practice. 

d) If permitted by this Code, exhaust may be accomplished by 
forcing leakage through permanent openings to adjoining spaces 
from which air is removed by method (c) above, provided the 
total amount of ventilation of both spaces is not reduced to 
less than the amounts required by Figure 5-1 and provided the 
space is not of the type from which recirculation of air is 
prohibited. 



5-7 



508.5 RECIRCULATION: Portions of the fresh air supply required in 
this section may consist of recirculated air as stated herein, sub- 
ject to the prohibited use requirements of section 508.51 and the 
allowance for adsorption devices of section 508.6. 

508.51 PROHIBITED USE OF RECIRCULATED AIR: The use of the air from 
Kitchens, Lavatories, Toilet Rooms, Bathrooms, Rest Rooms, Laboratories 
and Garages for recirculation shall be prohibited. 

508.52 HABITABLE ROOMS: Recirculation of up to seventy-five (75) 
percent of the air supplied may be permitted in habitable rooms except 
kitchens, provided the air recirculated does not come from a plenum or 
system fed with air returned from habitable rooms in other dwelling 
units, or from stairways or common hallways. Recirculation of one- 
hundred (100) percent of the air supplied may be permitted if the sys- 
tem supplied only a single dwelling unit. 

508.53 WORK ROOMS: Recirculation of not more than seventy-five (75) 
percent of the air supplied may be permitted in work rooms, provided 
the air is free from harmful dusts, fumes, vapors, mists, or gases. 

NOTE: Recirculation of air removed by local exhaust systems is pro- 
hibited unless the contaminant is removed by an approved method to a 
safe limit of concentration. The amount of air supplied to replace 
all air exhausted by local exhaust ventilation systems shall be con- 
sidered as fresh air in the calculation of the requirements in section 
505.31 and 505.32 provided that the air supplied is free from contami- 
nation and is from an approved source. This provision also applies to 
cold air douches used in hot industries. 

508.54 RESTAURANTS AND DINING HALLS: Not more than fifty (50) percent 
of the air supplied to restaurants and dining halls shall be recirculated. 

508.55 OFFICES AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING: Not more than 
seventy-five (75) percent of the air supplied to offices and public 
and institutional buildings shall be recirculated. 

508.56 HOSPITALS AND MEDICAL CARE FACILITIES: Hospitals and Medical 
Care Facilities may employ recirculated air in compliance with the 
approved methods and systems of the reference section of this article. 

508.6 USE OF ADSORPTION DEVICES: If recirculation of air is permitted, 
the required outdoor air supply may be reduced to to fifty (50) percent, 
provided that an equivalent quantity of the recirculated air is passed 
through approved adsorption devices. The adsorption material, the 
material quantity and the means provided for maintaining the effective- 
ness of the absorption devices shall be acceptable to the building 
official and in conformance with good engineering practice. 



5-8 



a) Improper maintenance - Should absorption devices be improperly 
maintained in the opinion of the building official, he may 
order their removal. If the adsorption devices are removed, 
the ventilating system shall not be operated unless it will 
supply 100 percent of the outdoor air required by this section 
or section 508.0. 

b) Test records - The building owner shall continuously maintain 
a record showing the manufacturer's recommendation for fre- 
quency of tests, the method of making tests, and the results 
of periodic tests of the adsorption devices. Such tests shall 
be made and certified by an approved agency at least twice 
every six months. The records of such tests shall be maintain- 
ed for a period of at least two years, and shall be available 
for inspection by the building official. 



SECTION 509.0 VENTILATION OF SPECIAL SPACES 

509.1 KITCHENS: Kitchens shall be ventilated as follows: 

a) Kitchens located within dwelling units and having a floor area 
of greater than seventy (70) square feet shall have natural 
ventilation as prescribed in section 504.0. When the floor 
area is seventy (70) square feet or less the kitchen shall be 
ventilated by either of the following: 

1) Natural means complying with section 504.0. 

2) Mechanical means exhausting at least two (2) cfm 
of air per square foot of floor area. 

b) Kitchens, except those located within dwelling units, and any 
spaces where cooking of any kind is done, shall be ventilated 
by either of the following: 

1) Natural means complying with section 504.0 or 
mechanically air-cooled means complying with 
Figure 5-1 Section 508.21 and supplemented with 
auxiliary mechanical supply and exhaust ventila- 
tion adequate to remove the fumes and smoke from 
the cooking equipment when operating, in accor- 
dance with the provisions of article 18. 

2) Non-air-cooled mechanical means exhausting at 
least three (3) cfm of air per square foot of 
floor area, but in no case less than one-hundred 
and fifty (150) cfm. 



5-9 



c) Kitchens, snack bars, or pantries, where the operation consists 
of heating or warming previously prepared food that was cooked 
elsewhere, or where food is prepared in vending machines, may 
be ventilated by either or a combination of the following: 

1) Natural ventilation complying with section 504.0. 

2) Mechanical ventilation complying with section 508.0. 

d) Air shall be exhausted through ducts or chimneys constructed 
in accordance with the provisions of articles 10, 11 and 18. 

e) Make-up air shall be provided by one of the methods described 
in section 508.4. 

509.2 BATHROOMS AND TOILET ROOMS: Bathrooms and toilet rooms shall 
be ventilated as follows: 

a) When ventilated by natural means, the natural ventilation open- 
ings shall comply with section 504.0 except: 

1) In no case shall the net free area of the ventilation 
openings be less than one and one-half (1%) square feet. 

2) In occupancy groups H-1 and H-2, the ventilation open- 
ings may be to a vent shaft provided that the net free 
area of the opening is not less than three (3) square 
feet. The vent shaft cross-sectional area shall be 
equal to the sum of the required minimum ventilation 
openings plus one-fifth (1/5) square foot for every 
foot of height but not less than nine (9) square feet 
and open to the outer air at the top; or, the vent 
shaft may be open at the sides above the roof with 
louvres providing net free area equal to the area of 
the shaft. 

b) By individual vent shafts or ducts constructed of non-combustible 
materials with a minimum cross-sectional area of one (1) square 
foot plus one-third (1/3) square foot for each additional water 
closet or urinal above two in number. The upper termination of 
such ducts shall be equipped with a wind actuated ventilator cap 
with throat area equal to the duct area. 

c) When a bathroom or toilet room is not ventilated by a natural 
ventilation as required by this section, it shall be mechanically 
ventilated as follows: 

1) Rooms containing only one water closet or urinal shall 
be mechanically ventilated by an exhaust system capable 
of exhausting at least forty (40) cfm. 



5-10 



2) Rooms containing more than one water closet or 
urinal, and any auxiliary spaces such as those 
used in hand basins, slop sinks, and locker rooms, 
shall be mechanically ventilated by an independent 
exhaust system capable of exhausting at least forty 
(40) cubic feet of air per minute per water closet 
or urinal. The outdoor air supply shall conform 

to the requirements of section 508.0. 

3) Toilet exhaust systems shall be arranged to expel 
air directly to the outdoors. 

d) Make-up air shall be provided by one of the methods described 
in section 508.4. 

509.3 INSIDE LOCKER ROOMS: Inside locker rooms and dressing rooms 
for more than one person shall be ventilated at a rate of four changes 
of air per hour or as required by Section 508.22, whichever is greater. 

509.4 CORRIDORS: Corridors shall have ventilation provisions to 
supply outdoor air in conformance to whichever of the following is 
greater: 

a) For make-up of air exhausted to adjoining spaces. Provisions 
for make-up air supply shall conform to Section 508.4. 

b) Natural sources complying with Section 504.0 to provide venti- 
lating openings equivalent to at least two and one-half (2h) 
percent of the floor area. 

c) In occupancy groups H-1 , H-2 and L-2, mechanical supply of at 
least one-half (h) cubic foot of outdoor air per minute per 
square foot of floor area. 



SECTION 510.0 VENTILATION OF SHAFTS OTHER THAN ELEVATOR AND 
DUMBWAITER HOISTWAYS 

All enclosed vertical shafts extending through more than two (2) 
stories of every building or structure, except elevator or dumbwaiter 
hoistways, shall be automatically vented to the outer air as herein 
required or as specified in section 911.0. 

510.1 EXTENDING TO ROOF: Shaft enclosures extending to the roof shall 
be provided with a metal skylight constructed to comply with section 

927.2 or with windows of equivalent area or with other approved 
automatic means of removing hot air and gases. 

510.2 THERMOSTATIC CONTROL: The automatic operation of fire shutters, 
skylights and other vent relief devices may be controlled by fusible 
links designed to operate at a fixed temperature of not more than one 
hundred and sixty (160) degrees F., or by electric or pneumatic opera- 
tion under a rapid rise in temperature at a rate of fifteen (15) to 
twenty (20) degrees F. per minute or by other approved methods. 



5-11 



510.3 NOT EXTENDING TO ROOF: Shaft enclosures not extending to the 
roof shall be provided with gas and smoke relief vents or adequate 
mechanical means of ventilation in conformity to the provisions of 
section 911.4 and article 18. 



SECTION 511.0 INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS WITH UNPIERCED ENCLOSURE WALLS 

511.1 AIR CONDITIONING: When light and ventilation yards, courts or 
other required open spaces are not provided as herein specified, build- 
ings may be erected for industrial and commercial uses within the height 
and area limitations of article 3 and table 2-6 when such buildings and 
structures are equipped with approved artificial lighting, ventilating 
and air conditioning systems furnishing the equivalent light and venti- 
lation. The installation of all such systems shall comply with the pro- 
visions of article 18. 

511.2 FIRE PROTECTION: Buildings and structures without exterior win- 
dow openings in all stories which are provided with approved mechanical 
ventilating and air conditioning systems shall be equipped with the fire 
protection and fire-extinguishing media herein prescribed complying with 
the requirements of article 12; 

511.21 ACCESS PANELS: Fire Access Panels of the required size and 
location shall be installed in the enclosure walls as specified in 
section 858.0. 

511.22 FIRE ALARMS: Interior Fire Alarm signal systems shall be pro- 
vided and maintained as specified in article 12; 

511.23 SPRINKLERS: Two-Source Automatic Sprinkler systems with super- 
visory service and fire department connections shall be installed to 
comply with article 12; 

511.24 FIRE-VENTING: The building or structure shall be fire-vented 
as prescribed in section 514. 



SECTION 512.0 COURTS 

All courts required to serve rooms for light and ventilation purposes 
shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

512.1 WIDTH OF COURT. 

512.11 MINIMUM WIDTH: Every such court shall have a minimum width of 
three (3) inches for each foot of height or fraction thereof but not 
less than five (5) feet for outer courts and twice these values for 
inner courts. 



5-12 



512.12 IRREGULAR COURT WIDTH: In the case of irregular or gore- 
shaped courts, the required mini muni width of court may be deemed to 
be the average width, provided that no such court shall be less than 
five (5) feet at any point. 

512.2 AREA OF COURT: The cross-sectional area of a required court 
shall be not less than one and one-half (1^) times the square of its 
width; nor shall the length of any court be more than twice its width. 

512.3 ACCESS TO COURT: A door or other means of access shall be 
provided at the bottom of every court that is not otherwise conve- 
niently accessible for purposes of cleaning. 

512.4 AIR INTAKES TO COURT. 

512.41 INNER COURT: Every court serving one or more habitable rooms 
that does not open for its full height on one or more sides to a street 
or legal yard shall be connected at or near the bottom with a street or 
yard by a horizontal intake or passage of f ireresistive construction. 
Such intake or passage shall have a cross-sectional area of not less 
than twenty-one (21) square feet, and shall remain fully open at both 
ends and unobstructed for its full size and length, except that grilles 
of noncombustible construction complying with the approved rules may 

be permitted at the ends of the intake. 

512.42 FIRERESISTANCE: The walls, floors and ceiling of such intakes 
or passages shall have a f ireresistance rating of not less than two (2) 
hours in buildings of types 1, 2 or 3 construction and not less than 
three-quarter (3/4) hour in type 4 construction. 

512.5 COURT WALLS: When in the opinion of the building official, 
windows facing on courts do not receive adequate direct light by rea- 
son of peculiar arrangement or orientation, he may require the walls 
to be constructed of light colored masonry, or to be painted and main- 
tained a light color to furnish additional reflected light. 

512.6 COURT DRAINAGE: The bottom of every court shall be properly 
graded and drained to a public sewer or other approved disposal sys- 
tem complying with the Massachusetts State Plumbing Code; and shall 
be paved with concrete or other non-absorbent material when required 
by the building official. 



SECTION 513.0 OBSTRUCTION OF COURTS AND YARDS 

513.1 PERMISSIBLE PROJECTIONS: Every required court and yard shall 
remain unobstructed for its required area and full height, except for 
the projections permitted in section 313.0. In residential and 
institutional buildings, clothes poles, arbors, garden trellises and 
other such accessories shall not be prohibited in the open spaces at 
ground level. 



5-13 



SECTION 514.0 FIRE EMERGENCY VENTILATING SYSTEM 

In all buildings and structures herein required to have fire emer- 
gency ventilating systems, the common hallways shall be constructed 
with: 

a) vertical fire vent stacks and lateral fire vent ducts as here- 
in provided, or 

b) windows to the outer air, or 

c) mechanical ventilating or exhaust systems, or 

d) other equivalent approved means for dissipating smoke, heated 
air and toxic gases directly to the outer air in the event of 
fire. 

514.1 WHERE REQUIRED: Fire emergency ventilating systems shall be 
provided: 

a) in buildings used for H-1 and H-2 (institutional) use groups 
which : 

1) exceed three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height, 
and 

2) exceed ten thousand (10,000) square feet in floor area, 
and 

3) are occupied by more than fifty (50) persons above the 
first floor or have more than twenty-five (25) sleep- 
ing rooms above the first floor; 

b) in buildings used for L-1 and L-2 (hotel and apartment house) 
use groups which: 

1) same as 1 above, 

2) same as 2 above, 

3) same as 3 above. 

c) in all fully enclosed industrial building without provision of 
exterior openings for ventilation purposes. 

514.2 FIRE VENT DUCTS: When the common hallways and exit ways are 
not ventilated by windows opening directly to the outer air as re- 
quired in section 503, a system of collecting fire ducts shall be 
provided in each story of aggregate size to remove the smoke, hot air 
and noxious fumes or gases in event of fire. Each duct shall be not 
less than one (1) square foot in area located in the common hallways 
with screened openings complying with the approved rules, constructed 
as provided for hot air ducts in sections 1019 and 1119. 



5-14 



514.3 THERMOSTATIC OPERATION: When not connected to a vent stack 
the inlet openings on each story shall be controlled by automatic 
heat-operated devices as required in section 510.2 and in accordance 
with the approved rules. 

514.4 FIRE VENT STACKS: When the fire ducts do not discharge di- 
rectly to the outer air in each story, one or more fire vent stacks 
of adequate capacity shall be installed to accommodate the discharge 
from the fire duct system in any one floor or enclosed fire area, but 
in no case shall any individual stack be less than four (4) square 
feet in area, and all stacks shall terminate in an approved automatic 
cowl or ventilator outlet above the roof. 

514.5 LOCATION OF STACKS: The vent stack shall be located in as 
central a position as practicable with respect to the floor area 
vented thereby, preferably in the vicinity of vertical shafts, and 
shall extend continuously to the roof. 

514.6 VENT CONTROL OF STACKS: The vent control of the vertical 
stacks shall consist of approved noncombustible dampers, shutters, 
or glazed metal sash designed to open outwardly, located not less 
than twenty (20) feet distant from window openings or exitway doors 
in adjoining walls, and shall be equipped with a thermostatic unit 
arranged to open at a predetermined rate of temperature rise in 
accordance with the approved rules. Auxiliary mechanical means for 
manual operation of all vent controls shall be provided in an accessi- 
ble location designated by the building official. 

514.7 STACK CONSTRUCTION: The stack enclosure shall be constructed 
to be vapor and smoke tight with walls of not less than two (2) hours 
f ireresistance, with no openings other than the fire duct inlets and 
the top automatic ventilator outlet. 

514.8 MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEMS: When mechanical exhaust is required 
to operate the emergency ventilating system either in horizontal ducts 
or vertical vent stacks, the installation shall be thermostatically 
controlled and installed in accordance with the provisions of article 
18 and the approved rules. 



SECTION 515.0 FIRE VENTILATION OF OPEN WELLS 

Unenclosed well openings for moving stairways constructed in accor- 
dance with the provisions of ELV-2 and not accepted as a required ele- 
ment of an exitway shall be permitted in mercantile buildings when 
equipped with an approved two-source supervised automatic sprinkler 
system and protected on every floor pierced by the opening with an 
approved automatic exhaust system or by other approved methods as here- 
in required to prevent the passage of fire, smoke and gases to the 
story above. 

5-15 



515.1 EXHAUST SYSTEM: The approved automatic exhaust system may be 
a separate unit or integrated with an approved air conditioning sys- 
tem and shall be thermostatically controlled to operate simultaneous- 
ly with the detection of fire. 

515.11 CAPACITY OF EXHAUST SYSTEM: The exhaust system shall be of 
adequate capacity to create a down draft in the open well with suf- 
ficient velocity of flow over the entire area of the well opening 
under normal conditions of window and door openings in the building. 
In air conditioned buildings the system shall operate satisfactorily 
to the building official with the normal air conditioning fans shut 
off. 

515.2 WATER CURTAIN: An approved water curtain with baffles shall 
be located to form a continuous water barrier extending from floor 
to ceiling on all exposed sides of the well opening. Such water 
curtain shall be formed and operated automatically, either with open 
sprinklers or spray nozzles or with approved automatic sprinklers, 
or other approved thermostatically controlled devices. 

515.3 POWER CONTROL: The power lines to all parts of the exhaust 
system and fresh air intake shall be furnished from an independent 
power supply complying with article 15 and the reference standards 
of this article for the control of automatic fire pumps and blower 
and exhaust systems. 

515.4 AIR CONDITIONED BUILDINGS: The exhaust system herein required, 
when installed in an air conditioned building, shall be so arranged so 
to automatically stop the operation of the mechanical air conditioning 
and ventilating systems and close the dampers of the return air duct 
connection in the event of fire. 



SECTION 516.0 WINDOW CLEANING SAFEGUARDS 

All buildings and structures over fifty (50) feet or four (4) stories 
in height, in which the windows are cleaned from the outside, shall be 
provided with anchors or other approved safety devices shall be of ap- 
proved design, constructed of corrosion-resistive materials securely 
attached to the window frames or anchored in the enclosure walls of 
the building. Cast iron or cast bronze anchors shall be prohibited. 



5-16 



Reference Standards - Article 5 



USHEW HRA-74-A000 

Mass-DPH Article II 

ASHRAE 

ASHRAE 
ASHRAE 
Mass-DPS ELV-2 



General Standards of Construction 
and Equipment for Hospital and 
Medical Facilities 

1969 Minimum Standards of Fitness for 
Human Habitation 

1967 Guide and Data Book, Handbook of 
Fundamentals 

1968 Guide and Data Book, Applications 

1969 Guide and Data Book, Equipment 

1971 Board of Elevator Regulations: 

Elevator, Dumbwaiter, Escalator, 
and Moving Walk Regulations 



5-17 



ARTICLE 6 

MEANS OF EGRESS 

SECTION 600.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the design, construc- 
tion and arrangement of building elements required to insure safe 
means of egress from all buildings hereafter erected, and from all 
buildings thereafter altered to a new occupancy load, or manner of 
use, or inherent fire hazard. Existing buildings and uses shall be 
controlled by the provisions of section 605. 

600.1 MODIFICATION OF EXITWAY REQUIREMENTS: When strict compliance 
with the provisions of the Basic Code is not practical, the build- 
ing official may accept alternate means of egress which will ac- 
complish the same purpose, by the procedure established in article 1, 
section 101.22. 

600.2 MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS: It shall be unlawful to alter any build- 
ing or structure in any manner that will reduce the nimiber of exit- 
ways or the capacity of exitways below the requirements of this-> fcde 
for new buildings of the proposed use and occupancy. 

600.3 OTHER STANDARDS: Compliance with the applicable provisions 
of the standard listed at the end of this article shall be deemed 

to meet the requirements of this article, unless otherwise specific- 
ally provided herein. 

SECTION 601.0 DEFINITIONS 

AUTOMATIC FIRE DOOR: (see section 901.0) 

AUTOMATIC COLLAPSIBLE REVOLVING DOOR: a door which is designed, sup- 
ported and constructed so that the wings will release and fold back 
in the direction of egress under pressure exerted by persons under 
panic conditions, providing a legal passageway on both sides of the 
door pivot. 

COMMON HALLWAY: a common corridor or space separately enclosed which 
provides any of the following in any story: 

a) common access to the required exitways of the building, or 

b) common access for more than one (1) tenant, or 

c) common access for more than thirty (30) persons. 

DOORWAY: the clear width of the opening protected by a door, subject 
to the width reduction provisions of this Code. 

ESCALATOR: a moving stairway. 

6-1 



EXITWAY: that portion of a means of egress which is separated from 
all other spaces of a building or structure by construction or 
equipment as required in this Code to provide a protected, un- 
obstructed way of travel to the exitway discharge. 

EXITWAY ACCESS: exitway access is that portion of a means of egress 
which leads to an entrance to an exitway. 

EXITWAY DISCHARGE: that portion of a means of egress between termi- 
nation of an exitway and a public space with access to a public way 
or street. 

FIRE DOOR: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY: (see section 901.0) 

FIRE WINDOW: (see section 901.0) 

FLOOR AREA, GROSS: for the purpose of determining the number of per- 
sons for whom exits are to be provided, gross floor area shall be 
the floor area within the perimeter of the outside walls of the build- 
ing under consideration, with no deduction for hallways, stairs, 
closets, thickness of walls, columns, or other features. 

FLOOR AREA, NET: for the purpose of determining the number of persons 
for whom exits are to be provided, net floor area shall be the actual 
occupied area, not including accessory unoccupied areas or thickness 
of walls. 

GRADE HALLWAY, GRADE LOBBY, GRADE PASSAGEWAY: an enclosed hallway or 
corridor that is an element of an exitway, terminating at a street 
or an open space or court communicating with a street. 

HALLWAY, GRADE: (see grade hallway) 

HORIZONTAL EXIT: a way of passage from one building or fire area to 
an area of refuge in another building or fire area on approximately 
the same level, which affords safety from fire or smoke from the 
area of escape and areas communicating therewith. 

MEANS OF EGRESS: a continuous and unobstructed path of travel from any 
point in a building or structure to a public space and consists of 
three (3) separate and distinct parts: (a) the exitway access, (b) 
the exitway and (c) the exitway discharge; a means of egress comprises 
the vertical and horizontal means of travel and shall include inter- 
vening room spaces, doors, hallways, corridors, passageways, balcon- 
ies, ramps, stairs, enclosures, lobbies, escalators, horizontal exits, 
courts and yards. 

MOVING STAIRWAY: escalator. 

SELF-CLOSING: as applied to a fire door or other opening protective, 
means normally closed and equipped with an approved device which will 
insure closing after having been opened for use. 

6-2 



SLIDESCAPE: a straight or spiral chute erected on the Interior or 
exterior of a building which Is designed as a means of human eg- 
ress direct to the street or other public space. 

SMOKEPROOF TOWER (FIRE TOWER): an Interior enclosed stairway, with 
access from the floor area of the building either through outside 
balconies or ventilated vestibules opening on a street or yard or 
open court, and with a separately enclosed direct exitway leading 
directly to an exitway discharge at the street or grade floor. 

STAIRWAY: one or more flights of stairs and the necessary landings 
and platforms connecting them to form a continuous and uninterrupted 
passage from one floor to another. A flight of stairs, for the 
purposes of this article, must have three (3) or more risers. 

WINDER: a step in a winding stairway. 



SECTION 602.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

602.1 ARRANGEMENT OF EXITWAYS: The plans shall show in sufficient 
detail the location, construction, size and character of all exit- 
ways together with the arrangement of aisles, corridors, passage- 
ways and hallways leading thereto in compliance with the provisions 
of this Code. 

602.2 NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS: In other than one and two-family and 
multi-family dwellings, the plans and the application for permit shall 
designate the nimiber of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, 
and in all rooms and spaces when required by the building official. 
When not otherwise specified, the minimum number of occupants to be 
accommodated by the exltways shall be determined by the occupancy 
load prescribed In section 606. The posted occupancy load of the 
building shall be limited to that ntraiber. 



SECTION 603.0 USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 

603.1 NEW BUILDINGS: Every building and structure and part thereof 
hereafter erected shall have the required number of exltways comply- 
ing with the requirements of this Code. Exltways in combination 
with the exitway access and exitway discharge shall provide a safe 
and continuous means of egress to a street or to an open space with 
direct access across to a street. 

603.2 MIXED OCCUPANCY GROUPS: When a building is classified in more 
than one (1) occupancy group, in accordance with the provisions of 
article 2, the exitway requirements for the entire building shall be 
determined on the basis of the occupancy group having the strictest 
exitway requirements; or the exitway requirements for each building 
section shall be determined separately; or when places of assembly, 
night clubs and rooms and spaces for similar occupancies are provided 
in a building section, the exltways shall be adequate for the combined 
occupancy tributary thereto. 

6-3 



603.3 MULTIPLE TENANTS: When more than one (1) tenant occupies any 
one floor of a building or structure, each tenant shall be provided 
with direct access to approved exitways. 

603.4 BUILDING ACCESS FOR HANDICAPPED: All buildings and parts there- 
of classified in use groups C (Mercantile), D (Industrial), E (Business), 
F (Assembly), H (Institutional), L-1 and L-2 (Residential) shall have 

at least one primary entrance accessible to and usable by the handi- 
capped. Such entrance shall provide access to a level that makes ele- 
vators available in buildings where elevators are provided. Where ramps 
are used to comply with this requirement, they shall have a slope not 
greater than one (1) in ten (10) and comply with the other provisions 
of this article for access to the handicapped. 



SECTION 604.0 AIR-CONDITIONED BUILDINGS 

604.1 LOCATION OF STAIRWAYS: In all buildings, without exterior win- 
dow openings in all stories, that are artificially ventilated and air- 
conditioned as provided in section 511, the stairway element of required 
exitways shall be located as to be accessible to the fire department 
either through the access openings specified in section 858.0 or as 
otherwise approved in at least alternate stories of the building. 

604.2 EXHAUST DUCTS: No exhaust ducts or vents of air-conditioning 
systems shall discharge into stairway or elevator enclosures nor shall 
corridors serving as exitway access be used as the return exhaust from 
air-conditioned spaces through louvres or other devices in the doors 
or partitions enclosing such air-conditioned spaces; unless such pas- 
sageways are equipped with approved products of combustion detectors 

to automatically stop the supply and exhaust fans and close the louvres 
and unless such use is approved by the building official. 



SECTION 605.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

605.1 OWNER RESPONSIBILITY: The owner or lessee of every existing 
building and structure shall be responsible for the safety of all per- 
sons in or occupying such premises with respect to the adequacy of 
means of egress therefrom as required by this Code. 

605.2 UNSAFE MEANS OF EGRESS 

605.21 INADEQUATE EXITWAYS: In any existing building or structure, 
not now provided with exitway facilities as herein prescribed for new 
buildings and in which the exitways are deemed inadequate for safety 
by the building official, such additional provision shall be made for 
safe means of egress as he shall order. 

605.3 NO CHANGE IN USE: When there is no change in use group or oc- 
cupancy load, the minimum exitway requirements shall be as follows: 



6-4 



605.31 NEW EXITWAYS: If new or altered exitway facilities are in- 
stalled or construction, they shall comply with all the requirements 
for new buildings. 

605.32 EXISTING EXITWAYS: In all buildings (other than one and 
two-family dwellings) exceeding three (3) stories or forty (40) feet 
in height, or having more than seventy-five (75) occupants above or 
more than forty (40) occupants below grade floor, all existing en- 
closed stairways shall be enclosed with partitions and opening pro- 
tectives of two (2) hour f ireresistance rating complying with article 
9; doors shall be self-closing. Existing enclosures of substandard 

f ireresistive construction shall be covered on the stair side only 
with the component materials required for a two (2) hour fireresis- 
tive assembly. 

605.33 FIRE ESCAPES: In buildings not over five (5) stories or sixty- 
five (65) feet in height, fire escapes complying with the require- 
ments of section 621 may be accepted as a secondary means of egress 
when deemed adequate by the building official and when approved ac- 
cess to the street is provided from the termination of the fire escape. 

605.4 EXISTING USE CHANGED: In every building or structure in which 
there is a change from one use group to another with special require- 
ments, or when there is an increase in occupancy load, the exitway 
facilities serving the new use and occupancy shall be made to comply 
with all the provisions of this article for buildings hereafter erected. 



SECTION 606.0 OCCUPANCY LOAD 

606.1 DESIGN OCCUPANCY LOAD: In determining required exitway facil- 
ities, the number of occupants for whom exitway facilities shall be 
provided shall be established by the largest number computed as follows; 

606.11 The actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, 
floor, or building, as the case may be, is designed for; or, 

606.12 The number of occupants computed at the rate of one (1) oc- 
cupant per unit of area as prescribed in table 6-1; or, 

606.13 The number of occupants of any space as computed in section 
606.11 or 606.12 above plus the number of occupants similarly computed 
for all spaces that discharge through space in order to gain access to 
an exitway. 

606.2 MEZZANINE FLOORS: The occupancy load of a mezzanine floor 
discharging through a floor below shall be added to the main floor 
occupancy and the capacity of the exits shall be designed for the 
total occupancy load thus established. 

606.3 ROOFS: Roof areas occupied as roof gardens or for assembly, 
storage or other purposes shall be provided with exitway facilities 



6-5 



to accommodate the required occupancy load, but in no case shall there 
be less than two (2) approved means of egress for assembly uses from 
such roof areas. 

606.4 SPECIAL USES: For areas in other use groups not specified in the 
Basic Code, the building official shall establish the occupancy load to 
be assumed in the design. 

606.5 CONFLICTS: When there are special requirements for specific 
occupancies and uses in article 4 which differ from general requirements 
herein prescribed, such special provisions shall take precedence. 

TABLE 6-1 FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCE PER OCCUPANT 



USE FLOOR AREA IN SQUARE 
FEET PER OCCUPANT 

Areas without fixed seats 12 net 

Areas with fixed seats (theatres, bleachers, etc.)... 6 net (Note 1) 

Areas with fixed seats (restaurants, bars, etc.) 8 net 

Standing space 3 net 

Bowling alleys, allow five (5) persons for each alley, 

including fifteen (15) feet of runway, and for 

additional areas 10 net 

Business areas 100 gross 

Court rooms 40 net 

Day nurseries 35 net 

Educational (Note 2) 

Garages and open parking structures 250 gross 

Industrial areas 200 gross 

Institutional 

Sleeping areas: 

Single occupant room 125 net 

Multiple occupant room 90 net per 

occupant 

In-patient areas 240 gross 

Kitchens (non-residential) . 200 gross 

Locker rooms 20 gross 

Mercantile, basement and grade floor area 30 gross 

Areas on other floors 60 gross 

Schoolhouses (Note 3) 

Classrooms 20 net 

Shops and vocational 50 net 

Assembly (conference rooms, 

dining rooms, refreshment 

areas, exhibit rooms, gyms, 

lounges) 15 net 

Storage, shipping areas 100 gross 

Residential 200 gross 

Stages 

Performing areas 15 gross 

Other areas 50 gross 

Storage areas, mechanical equipment room 300 gross 



6-6 



Note 1: The occupant load for an assembly area having fixed seats 

shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed. 

Note 2: Standards for Educational uses are subject to the provisions 
of Reference Standard F-6, Building Regulations for School- 
houses, of the State Building Code Commission. 

Note 3: The capacity or occupant load permitted in a building or 

portion thereof may be increased above that specified if the 
necessary aisles and exits are provided subject to the approval 
of the building official. 

SECTION 607.0 TYPES AND LOCATION OF EXITWAYS 

All approved exitways, including doorways, passageways, corridors, 
hallways, interior stairways, exterior stairways, moving stairways, 
smokeproof towers, ramps, horizontal exits, bridges, balconies, fire 
escapes and combinations thereof shall be arranged and constructed as 
provided herein and in article 9 for fire enclosure requirements. 

607.1 ARRANGEMENT: All required exitways shall be so located as to be 
visible and readily accessible with unobstructed access thereto and so 
arranged as to lead directly to the street or to an area of refuge with 
supplemental means of egress that will not be obstructed or impaired by 
fire, smoke or other cause. 

607.2 SEPARATION OF EXITWAYS: Whenever more than one (1) exitway is 
required from any room, space or floor of a building, they shall be 
placed as remote from each other as practicable, and shall be arranged 
to provide direct access in separate directions from any point in the 
area served. 

607.3 LENGTH OF TRAVEL: All exitways shall be so located that the 
maximum length of exitway access travel, measured from the most remote 
point to an approved exitway along the natural and unobstructed line of 
travel shall not exceed the distances given in table 6-2; except that in 
buildings of residential, mercantile or institutional use groups where 
the area is subdivided into rooms or compartments, and the egress travel 
in the room or compartment is not greater than fifty (50)* feet, the 
distance shall be measured from the exitway access entrance to the 
nearest exitway. 

* May be increased to 100 feet, in use groups equipped 
with automatic sprinklers. 

607.4 FLOORS BELOW GRADE: In buildings of all use groups the per- 
missible length of exitway access travel on any floor more than one (1) 
story below grade shall not exceed seventy-five (75) feet. 



6-7 



TABLE 6-2 MAXIMUM LENGTH OF EXITWAY ACCESS TRAVEL (FEET) 



USE GROUP 



LENGTH 



LENGTH WITH FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEM 



High Hazard (A) . 


. 


75 


Storage (B) 


100 


150 


Mercantile (C) . . . 


100 


150 


Industrial (D) . , . 


150 


250 


Business (E) 


200 


300 


Assembly (F) 


150 


200 


Institutional (H) 


100 


200 


Residential (L) . . 


100 


150 



SECTION 608.0 CAPACITY OF EXITS 

608.1 UNIT OF EXIT WIDTH: The basic whole unit of clear exit width is 
twenty-two (22) inches and its whole multiples. The allowance for 
excess width of twelve (12) inches to twenty-one (21) inches is one-half 
(1/2) unit. (No credit given for excess width less than twelve (12) 
inches. 



22" to 33" = 1 unit 
44" to 55" = 2 units 
66" to 77" = 3 units 



33" to 43" = 1 1/2 units* 
56" to 65" = 2 1/2 units 
78" to 87" = 3 1/2 units 



*A door 40" in width = 2 units; a single door 33" to 39" = 
1 1/2 units; 40" to 44" = 2 units. 

608.2 DESIGN CAPACITY ALLOWANCE: Specific modifications: article 4 

Means of Computation: 

Design Capacity = units of egress width (608.1) x number of 

persons per unit egress width (table 6-3) . 

TABLE 6-3 CAPACITY PER UNIT EGRESS WIDTH 



Without Suppression 

System 
Number of Occupants 



With Suppression 

System 
Number of Occupants 





Stairways 


Doors 


and 


Stairways 


Doors and 


USE GROUP 


and Ramps 


Corrid 


ors 


and Ramps 


Corridors 


High Hazard (A) 


__ 


__ 




60 


100 


Storage (B) 


60 


100 




90 


150 


Mercantile (C) 


60 


100 




90 


150 


Industrial (D) 


60 


100 




90 


150 


Business (E) 


60 


100 




90 


150 


Assembly (F) 


75 


100 




113 


150 


Assembly (F-6) (Class- 












room areas) 












1 or 2 stories 


90 


100 




120 


150 


3 stories or more 


75 


100 




120 


150 


Institutional (H) 


22 


30 




33 


45 


Residential (L) 


75 


100 




113 


150 



6-8 



NOTE: The main exitway of a bowling alley shall be of sufficient 
capacity to accommodate fifty (50) percent of the total oc- 
cupant load, without regard to the number of aisles which 
it serves. 

SECTION 609.0 NUMBER OF EXITWAYS 

The following general requirements apply to buildings of all use 
groups. More restrictive requirements that may be provided in article 4 
for special uses and occupancies shall take precedence over the general 
provisions of this section. 

609.1 MINIMU>I NUMBER: Except in one and two-family dwellings, there 
shall be two (2) or more approved independent exitway s serving every 
floor area above and below the grade floor, one (1) of which shall be an 
interior enclosed stairway. Exitways in dwellings shall be so arranged 
that they may be reached without passing through another living unit. 

609.11 EXITWAYS IN RESIDENTIAL USE GROUPS: In all multi-family resi- 
dential use groups (L-2) , except as provided in section 609.12, each 
apartment shall have access to at least two (2) independent exits which 
are remote from each other; such exits shall be so arranged that to 
reach either exit it will not be necessary to pass through a public 
corridor which serves the other. 

609.12 EXITWAYS IN TYPE 1-A, 1-B, 2-A AND 2-B, L-2 USE GROUPS: In 
buildings of type 1-A, 1-B, 2-A and 2-B construction a single exitway 
shall be permitted for every room, or group of less than four (4) rooms 
used for residential occupancy on multi-family floors, provided that 
elevator lobbies on all floors except the ground floor are enclosed with 
self-closing fire doors, so that no entrance door of any room or apartment 
shall be more than fifty (50) feet from the nearest egress or segregating 
fire partition. Doors from elevator lobbies, doors in segregating fire 
partitions, and doors to stair enclosures, shall not be over two hundred 
(200) feet apart. Sleeping facilities shall be limited to not more than 
six (6) persons beyond the enclosed stairs. Rooms other than bedrooms 
connected with the same living unit may be permitted. 

609.2 BASEMENT RECREATION ROOMS: In residential buildings (use group 
L-1 and L-2), the basements of which are used as playrooms or for similar 
recreation purposes, with an occupancy load of twelve (12) or more, such 
areas and the exitway shall be enclosed with partitions and ceiling of 
not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistive construction. A 
direct secondary exit from the basement to streets, yards or courts 
leading to the street, shall be acceptable in lieu of the requirement 
for an enclosed stairway. 

609.3 OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES: Parking structures shall have at least 
two (2) or more exitways from each parking tier, except that where 
vehicles are mechanically parked, only one (1) exitway need be provided 
in structures not exceeding eighty-five (85) feet in height. The maximum 
distance from any point on a parking tier to an exitway at that tier 
shall be three hundred (300) feet. Ramps used for the movement of 
vehicles need not be enclosed and may be considered as required exitways 
in structures not exceeding eighty-five (85) feet in height where 

6-9 



vehicles are attendant parked and in other structures having not less 
than two (2) enclosed stairways. The construction of stairways, ramps 
and stairway enclosures shall comply with the applicable requirements of 
this Code; except that stairways in a structure where vehicles are 
attendant parked and the height of the structure does not exceed fifty 
(50) feet, or in structures not exceeding eighty-five (85) feet in 
height where vehicles are mechanically parked, only one (1) stairway 
need be enclosed. 



SECTION 610.0 EXITWAY ACCESS PASSAGEWAYS AND CORRIDORS 

610.1 ACCESS PASSAGEWAYS: Direct exitway access shall be provided to 
required exitways through continuous passageways, aisles or corridors, 
conveniently accessible to all occupants and maintained free of ob- 
struction. 

610.11 TURNSTILES AND GATES: Access through turnstiles, gates, rails 
or similar devices shall not be permitted unless such a device is equipped 
to readily swing in the exiting direction of travel under a total 
pressure of not more than fifteen (15) pounds. 

610.2 DEAD ENDS: Exitway access passageways and corridors in all 
stories which serve more than one (1) exitway shall provide direct 
connection to such exitways in opposite directions from any point in the 
corridor, insofar as practicable. In no case shall the length of a dead 
end corridor be more than twenty (20) feet except in type lA and IB the 
corridor length may be thirty (30) feet. 

610.3 WIDTHS: The unit exit width and occupancy allowance of aisles 
and corridors, unless otherwise provided for special uses and occupancies 
in article 4, shall be the same as for exitway stairways (table 6-3) 
with a minimum total width of forty-four (44) inches in buildings of the 
storage, business, industrial and assembly use groups; sixty (60) inches 
in mercantile and institutional buildings other than those used for the 
movement of beds which shall be ninety-six (96) inches; and seventy-two 
(72) inches in church schools; except that in churches and chapels, side 
aisles may be one-half (%) the width but in no case less than thirty-two 
(32) inches clear. 

610.4 OPENING PROTECTIVES: All door assemblies from rooms opening onto 
a common corridor, required by table 2-5 to be of three-quarter (3/4) 

f ireresistive construction, shall be equipped with approved automatic or 
self-closing: 

a) three-quarter (3/4) hour fire doors; or, 

b) one and three-quarter (1-3/4) inch thick solid core wood 
doors; or, 

c) their approved equivalent. 

All door assemblies from rooms opening onto a common corridor, required 
by table 2-5 to be of two (2) hour f ireresistive construction, shall be 
one and one-half (1%) hour fire doors. 



6-10 



SECTION 611.0 GRADE PASSAGEWAYS AND LOBBIES USED AS AN EXITWAY 
ELEMENT 

611.1 ENCLOSURES OF PASSAGEWAYS: Every required interior and exterior 
exitway element which does not adjoin a street shall be directly con- 
nected to the street or to an open court leading to the street by an 
enclosed passageway, hallway, lobby or other unobstructed exitway ele- 
ment constructed as provided in this section and in section 909.0. 

611.2 WIDTH AND HEIGHT: The effective width of the lobby or other 
enclosed passageway shall be not less than three-quarters (3/4) of the 
aggregate width of all required exitway stairways leading thereto and 
all required exitway doorways opening into the passageway. Such passage- 
way shall have a minimum width of forty-four (44) inches and a mini- 
mum clear ceiling height of eight (8) feet. 

611.3 MAXIMUM STAIRWAY LIMITATIONS: Not more than fifty (50) per- 
cent of required exitway capacity shall discharge through the same 
passageway. 

611.4 CONSTRUCTION: The enclosures of grade passageways and lobbies 
connecting required means of egress to the street shall be of the 
firerated construction required for exitways in table 2-5. All open- 
ings which are elements or components of a required means of egress 
shall comply with the requirements of article 9 relative to opening 
protectives. 

When there are accessory uses within the grade passageway or lobby 
a fire suppression system will be required. 



SECTION 612.0 MEANS OF EGRESS DOORWAYS 

The requirements of this section shall apply to all doorways serv- 
ing as a component or element of a means of egress; except this 
section shall not apply to doorways leading to or from required stair- 
ways (see sections 616.6, 618.5, and 619.3). 

612.1 NUMBER OF DOORWAYS: Every room with an occupancy load of more 
than fifty (50) or which exceeds one thousand five hundred (1500) 
square feet in area shall have at least two (2) egress doorways and 
the doors shall be hung to swing in the direction of exit travel with- 
out obstructing the required width of exitway. 

612.11 ENTRANCE AND EGRESS DOORWAYS: Where separate doors are pro- 
vided for entrance and egress use, the entrance door shall be clearly 
marked "ENTRANCE ONLY" in letters not less than six (6) inches in 
height and legible from both inside and outside; unless such doors 
are equipped with an emergency release bracket that will disengage 
the door operator and permit the door to swing outward under total 
pressure of not more than fifteen (15) pounds. Unless so equipped, 
doors swinging inward only shall not be accepted as part of the re- 
quired egress elements. When doors are operated by mechanical open- 
ing device they shall comply with the requirements of section 612.44. 



6-11 



612.2 SIZE OF DOORWAYS: The minimum width of single doorways shall be 
thirty-two (32) inches and the maximum width shall be forty-four (44) 
inches with the following exception: 

Access for the handicapped: In all buildings and parts 
thereof subject to the provisions of section 603.4 primary 
entrance and access doorways shall be thirty-six (36) in- 
ches or greater in width. 

When the doorway is subdivided into two (2) or more separate openings, 
the minimum clear width of each opening shall be at least thirty-two 
(32) inches, and each opening shall be computed separately in deter- 
mining the number of required units of exit width. 

The minimum clear width of single doorways in one and two-family dwell- 
ings and from retail stores and similar spaces on the grade floor to the 
street, when not required as access for the handicapped, shall be thirty 
(30) inches or greater in width. 

The height of doorways shall be at least six (6) feet eight (8) inches. 
In applying the provisions of this Code, the normal doorway opening with 
the allowance for door jambs as provided in section 612.21 shall be used 
for computing the required size doorways. 

612.21 DOORWAY WIDTH REDUCTION: Door jambs may project into required 
width of an exit door opening not more than one (1) inch for each full 
twenty-two (22) inch exit unit. 

612.3 LOCATION OF DOORS: The required doorways opening from a room or 
space within a building leading to an exitway access shall be located as 
remote as practicable from each other. 

The distance of exitway access travel from any point in a room or 
space to a required exitway door shall not exceed the limitations of 
section 607.3 and table 6-2. 

612.4 DOOR HARDWARE 

612.41 OPERATION: Locks and fastenings on egress doors shall be readily 
opened from the inner side without the use of keys. Draw bolts, hooks 
and other similar devices shall be prohibited. The locking device must 
be of a type that will be readily distinguishable as locked. These 
requirements shall apply in any case only during the normal hours of 
occupancy. 

612.411 LOCKS IN MULTI-FAMILY DWELLINGS: Requirements for locks in 
multi-family dwellings are subject to the provisions of section 3R of 
Chapter 143 of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, as amended. 

6-12 



612.42 PANIC PROOF: In rooms of use group F-2 (assembly) with an 
occupancy load of more than fifty (50) and in rooms of use groups F-1 
and F-3 (assembly) with an occupancy load of more than three hundred 
(300) , egress doors shall be equipped with approved panic proof latches 
or bolts which release under a pressure of fifteen (15) pounds. 

612.43 REMOTE CONTROL: In rooms of use group H-1 (institutional) 
occupied as places of detention, approved releasing devices with remote 
control shall be provided for emergency use. 

612.44 MECHANICAL OPERATIONS: Except as may be otherwise provided for 
openings in fire and fire division walls, all fire doors shall be 
self-closing and shall be closed during occupancy of the building or 
part thereof, except that fail safe electro-magnetic holders when 
activated by approved rate of temperature raise and approved smoke 
detection devices located on both sides of the opening and connected 

to the central fire alarm stations may be used on all exit and smoke 
screen doors in horizontal hallways, exitways and corridors but not on 
doors connected to stairwells. Where egress doors are arranged to be 
opened by mechanical devices of any kind, they shall be so constructed 
that the door may be opened manually and will release under a total 
load of not more than fifteen (15) pounds applied in the direction of 
exitway travel . 

612.5 DOOR CONSTRUCTION: All required egress doors that serve as an 
element of an exitway shall be self-closing or automatic fire doors with 
approved hardware, except for grade floor exitway discharge doors and 
revolving exitway doors as provided for in sections 612.51 and 613.0. 

612.51 GRADE EXITWAY DISCHARGE DOORS: Plate glass doors having one 
or more unframed edges may be used provided they are constructed of 
tempered glass not less than three-quarter (3/4) inches thick. Glass doors 
and adjacent lights which may, in the opinion of the building official, 
constitute a hazard by virtue of not being readily visible as a barrier, 
must be of approved safety glasing material. 

SECTION 613.0 REVOLVING EXITWAY DOORS 

613.1 LIMITATIONS OF USE 

613.11 WHERE PERMITTED: Except in places of use group F (assembly) 
with an occupancy load of more than two hundred (200) and in buildings 
of use group H (institutional) , approved automatic collapsible revolving 
doors when constructed and installed as herein provided shall be accepted 
in required exitway doorways from the first floor to the street but not 
to exceed fifty (50) percent of the total required grade floor exits. 

613.12 PROHIBITED CONSTRUCTION: Braces or other devices that prevent 
normal operation of the automatic releasing mechanism shall be prohibited. 

613.13 SUPPLEMENTAL EXITS: Approved swinging doors shall be provided 
to furnish one-half (%) the required exitway width in accordance with 
the provisions of this article. In any case, there shall be a minimum 

of two (2) approved swinging doors provided, one on each side and immediately 
adjacent to the revolving door. 

6-13 



613.2 WIDTH OF PASSAGE 

613.21 UNIT EXIT WIDTH: Automatic collapsible revolving doors ap- 
proved as an element of a required exltway shall provide a minimum 
clear unit exit width of passageway through the vestibule when the 
leaves are in a collapsed position. 

613.22 MINIMUM DIAMETER: The minimum diameter of approved revolv- 
ing doors shall be adequate to provide the required clear exit width 
when collapsed, but in no case less than six and one-half (6J5) feet 
in diameter. 

613.3 SPEED CONTROL: All approved automatic collapsible revolving 
doors shall be equipped with an approved speed control governor ad- 
justable to safe traffic speed, but in no case more than fifteen 
(15) nor less than ten (10) revolutions per minute. 

613.4 CONSTRUCTION: All approved automatic collapsible revolving 
doors shall be constructed as follows: 

613.41 OPERATING MECHANISM: The collapsing mechanism shall be con- 
structed of stainless steel or other approved corrosion-resistive 
materials; 

613.42 USE OF WOOD: Where not otherwise required by the provisions 
of article 9, the doors may be constructed of wood or other approved 
materials of similar combustible characteristics, providing the con- 
struction is at least equivalent to that of a solid core three-quarter 
(3/4) hour fire rated door construction; 

613.43 FLOOR COVERING: Approved mats of other floor coverings, com- 
plying with the provisions of article 9, not more than one-half ih) 
inch thick, may be installed within the enclosure when permanently 
secured to the structural flooring and finishing flush with the ad- 
jacent floor area; 

613.44 GLAZING: The doors shall be glazed with not less than seven 
thirty-seconds (7/32) inch plate glass. 

613.5 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE: The owner shall be responsible 
for the care, operation and maintenance of all revolving door in- 
stallations after such doors are placed in operation. The building 
official may from time to time, and shall annually between December 
first and March first, examine each revolving door within his juris- 
diction. If the buidling official finds that any revolving door 
fails to comply with the provisions of these regulations, he shall 
notify the owner of the changes which are necessary for compliance, 
and if the owner fails to make the necessary changes within thirty 
(30) days, shall order in writing the removal of the door. Periodic 
inspections shall be made by the person or firm responsible for the 
installation at intervals of not more than three (3) months and shall 
maintain all parts in proper working order. 



6-14 





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6-15 



SECTION 614.0 HORIZONTAL EXITS 

Horizontal exits as herein defined shall be accepted as an approved 
element of a required means of egress when complying with the require- 
ments of this article. The connection between the areas of refuge as 
herein specified may be accomplished by protected openings in a fire 
wall, by a vestibule, or by an open-air balcony or bridge. 

614.1 OPENING PROTECTIVES: One side of the opening in fire walls or 
fire divisions which are required to have a f ireresistance rating of 
two (2) hours or more shall be protected with a one and one-half (IH) 
hour self-closing fire door, swinging in the direction of exitway 
travel, and on the opposite side with an approved automatic fire door 
or water curtain. When serving as a dual element of a means of egress, 
there shall be adjacent openings with swinging fire doors opening in 
opposite directions. 

614.2 SIZE OF DOORS: Size of openings in fire walls shall comply 
with the provisions of section 908, but in no case shall the width 
of one opening used as a required exit be greater than eighty-eight 
(88) inches nor shall the area exceed eighty (80) square feet. 

614.3 AREA OF REFUGE: The areas connected by the horizontal exit shall 
be either public areas or spaces occupied by the same tenant and each 
such area of refuge shall be adequate to house the total occupancy load 
of both connected areas as provided in table 6-1. 

614.4 UNLOCKED DOORS: Horizontal exit doors shall be kept unlocked 
and unobstructed whenever the area on either side of the horizontal 
exit is occupied. 

614.5 EGRESS FROM AREA OF REFUGE 

614.51 STAIRWAY EXITWAY: There shall be at least one (1) interior 
enclosed stairway of smokeproof tower on each side of the horizontal 
exit and any fire area not having a stairway accessible thereto shall 
be considered as part of an adjoining section with such stairway; but 
in no case shall the length of travel between the horizontal exit and 
the required exitway exceed the requirements of section 607.3 and 
table 6-2. 

614.52 AUXILIARY ELEVATOR: When horizontal exits are provided in 
floors located twelve (12) or more stories above grade, the required 
stairway shall be supplemented by at least one (1) passenger elevator 
complying with section 621, maintained ready for use during normal 
occupancy of the building. 



SECTION 615.0 EXITWAY RAMPS 

Ramps with a gradient of not more than one (1) in ten (10) may be 
used as an exitway component and shall comply with all the applicable 
requirements of required interior stairways as to enclosure, capacity, 



6-16 



and limiting dimensions; except in existing buildings and where speci- 
fied in article 4 for special uses and occupancies, larger gradients 
may be permitted, but in no case greater than one and one-half (Ih) 
in ten (10) . For all slopes exceeding one (1) in ten (10) and wherever 
the use is such as to involve danger of slipping, the ramp shall be 
surfaced with approved non-slip materials. In no case shall ramps re- 
quired for the use of handicapped persons have a gradient of more than 
one (1) in ten (10). 

615.1 HANDRAILS: Ramps required for use by handicapped persons shall 
have a handrail on at least one side that is not less than thirty (30) 
inches nor more than thirty-three (33) inches in height measured from 
the surface of the ramp. Handrails shall be smooth and shall extend 
one (1) foot beyond the top and the botton of the ramps and return to 
walls or ports at the ends. 

615.2 LANDINGS: On ramps required for the use of handicapped persons, 
landings shall be provided at all ramp points of turning, entrance, 
exitway and doors at a minimum of thirty (30) foot intervals. All land- 
ings shall provide a clear distance of forty-two (42) inches from any 
door swinging to the ramp. Minimum landing length shall be forty-two 
(42) Inches and the bottom landing of any ramp or set of ramps and 
landings of a straight run shall be a minimum length of seventy-two 
(72) inches. 



SECTION 616.0 INTERIOR EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

616.1 CAPACITY OF EXITWAY STAIRS: The capacity of stairways and doors 
per unit of exit width shall be computed in accordance with section 608. 

616.2 MINIMUM DIMENSIONS 

616.21 WIDTH: All required interior stairways shall be at least forty- 
two (42) inches in width except that such width may be reduced to thirty- 
six (36) inches in buildings of use group L-3 (one and two-family dwel- 
lings) or in exitways from boiler rooms and similar service spaces not 
open to the public or in general use by employees. 

616.22 HEADROOM: The minimum headroom in all parts of the stair en- 
closure shall be not less than six and two-thirds (6-2/3) feet. 

616.23 RESTRICTIONS: No stairways shall reduce in width in the di- 
rection of exit travel. 

616.3 LANDINGS AND PLATFORMS 

616.31 WIDTH: The least dimension of landings and platforms shall be 
not less than the required width of stairway. 

616.32 VERTICAL RISE: In buildings of use group F (assembly) and use 
group H (institutional) occupancy, the height of vertical rise shall 
not exceed eight (8) feet between landings and intermediate platforms. 



6-17 







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6-18B 



In all other buildings, no stairway shall have a height of rise of 
more than fifteen (15) risers between landings, nor shall any single 
stairway have less than three (3) risers. 

616.4 TREADS AND RISERS 

616.41 MINIMUM DIMENSIONS: The height of risers and the width of 
treads in inches shall be as follows: 

1 7 

Use Group Maximum Risers Minimum Tread 

One and two-family dwellings 

(use group L-3) 

All stairs with closed risers 8-1/4 inches 9 inches 

Stairs with open risers 8-1/4 inches 9 inches 

Assembly and Institutional 7-1/2 inches 10 inches 

All others 8 inches 9 inches 

■'■The maximum allowable variation in the height of risers is + one- 
quarter (1/4) inches. 

^All treads shall have an effective nosing of one (1) inch to one 
and one-quarter (1-1/4) inches and shall be the same for the entire 
stairway. 

616.42 WINDERS: No winders shall be permitted in required exitway 
stairways except that in one and two-family dwellings and in orna- 
mental stairways not required as an element of an exitway, treads 
with a minimum width of four (4) inches and an average width of nine 
(9) inches may be permitted. 

616.5 STAIRWAY GUARDS AND HANDRAILS: Unless otherwise specifically 
provided for in this Code all stairways, except accessory stairways 
in one and two-family dwellings, shall have continuous guards and 
handrails on both sides, and in addition thereto, stairways required 
to be more than eighty-eight (88) inches in width shall have inter- 
mediate handrails dividing the stairway into portions not more than 
eighty-eight (88) inches wide. 

616.51 HANDRAIL DETAILS: 

a) handrails may project not more than three and one-half (SJg) 
inches into the required stair width. 

b) handrails shall be not less than thirty (30) inches nor more 
than thirty- three (33) inches, measured vertically, above the 
nosing of the treads. 

c) stairways provided for use by handicapped persons shall have 
handrails which shall extend eighteen (18) inches beyond the 
top and bottom step if a guard or wall exists. All handrails 
covered by this section shall be returned to walls or posts at 
the ends of the stairways. 

d) handrails shall be designed to support an applied load of two 
hundred (200) pounds in any direction at any point. 

6-19 



616.52 GUARD DETAILS: 

a) guards shall be not less than thirty (30) inches in height 
measured vertically above the nosing of the tread. 

b) guards shall be constructed so that the area in the plane of 
the guard from the top of the tread to the top of the guard 
is subdivided or filled in one of the following methods: 

1) a sufficient number of intermediate longitudinal rails 
constructed so that the clear distance between rails 
(measured at right angles to the rail) does not exceed 
ten (10) inches. The bottom rail shall be not more 
than ten (10) inches (measured vertically) from the 
tread nosing. 

2) balusters spaced not more than six (6) inches apart. 

3) panels of wire mesh, or expanded metal, or ornamental 
grills which provide protection equivalent to that pro- 
vided by the intermediate rails or balusters specified 
in the two preceeding paragraphs. 

4) walls. 

5) any combination of the foregoing. 

616.6 STAIR EXITWAY DOORS 

616.61 WIDTH: The clear width of every exitway doorway to or from 
a stairway shall be not less than the number of units of exit width 
required for the capacity of the stairway which services the floor 

or floor area from which the exitway door leads; but in no case shall 
such a doorway width be less than thirty-six (36) inches nominal in 
use group L-3 buildings (one and two-family dwellings) and forty-two 
(42) inches nominal width in use group E (business buildings) . 

616.62 DIRECTION OF SWING: All doors shall swing on a landing in 
the direction of exitway travel. When open, stair exitway doors shall 
not reduce the width of landings to less than the minimum required 
for its capacity and in no case to less than thirty-six (36) inches. 

616.63 DOOR CONSTRUCTION: All doorway opening protectives, inclu- 
ding the frames and hardware, shall be approved self-closing swing- 
ing fire doors complying with article 9 except in one and two-family 
dwellings where one and three-quarter (1-3/4) inch solid core wood 
doors are permitted. 

616.7 SPIRAL STAIRWAYS: Spiral stairways of noncombustible con- 
struction may be used as an element of a means of egress from mezza- 
nine areas not more than two hundred fifty (250) square feet in area 
nor more than one-third (1/3) the area of the floor below. The mini- 
mtan width shall be twenty- two (22) inches for the accommodation of 
not more than ten (10) persons. 

6-20 



616.8 SUPPLEMENTAL STAIRWAYS: Monumental, ornamental, or accessory 
stairways shall not be allowed without required enclosures in use 
groups D (Industrial), F (Assembly), and H (Institutional), and 
structures of type 3B, 3C, 4A, and 4B construction, unless specific- 
ally allowed in section 418.22. In all other structures, monumental, 
ornamental or accessory stairways extending from the grade floor to 
the basement or to the second floor, when not required as an element 
of exitway and not connecting more than two (2) adjoining stories, 
shall be allowed without enclosures. Monumental, ornamental or ac- 
cessory stairways shall be additional to and shall not obstruct or 
interfere with required exitways. 

616.9 STAIRWAY CONSTRUCTION: Unless herein otherwise provided, all 
required interior stairways shall be built entirely of noncombustible 
materials with solid risers, treads and landing platforms and all 
finish floor surfaces on non-slip noncombustible materials; except 
that wood handrails shall be permitted, complying with the require- 
ments of section 616.5. In one and two-family dwellings, open 
risers may be used. 

616.91 STRENGTH: All stairways, platforms, landings and exitways 

in other than one and two-family dwellings, shall be adequate to sup- 
port a live load of one hundred (100) pounds per square foot. 

616.92 MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR STAIRWAY AND ENCLOSURE CONSTRUCTION: 
Reference table 6-6. 



SECTION 617.0 ACCESS TO ROOF 

617.1 BY STAIRWAY: In buildings four (4) stories or more in height 
with roofs having a slope of less than twenty (20) degrees, access 

to the roof shall be provided by means of a stairway. Where the roof 
is used as a roof garden or for other habitable purposes, sufficient 
stairways shall extend to it to provide the necessary exitway facilities 
from the roof as required for such occupancy. 

617.2 ROOF ENCLOSURES: Stairways extending through roofs shall be 
enclosed in roof structures of fireresistive construction meeting the 
requirements of section 927. 



SECTION 618.0 SMOKEPROOF STAIRWAY ENCLOSURE 

618.1 WHERE REQUIRED: Al least one (1) of the required exitways shall 
be a smokeproof stairway enclosure in buildings over five (5) stories 
or over seventy (70) feet in height when one (1) of the following use 
groups: 



a) 


C (Mercantile) 


b) 


D (Industrial) 


c) 


E (Business) 


d) 


F-2, F-3, F-4, F-5, F-6 




than theatres) 


e) 


H (Institutional) 


f) 


L-1 (Hotel, dormitory) 



F-7 (Assembly buildings other 



6-21 



618.2 ACCESS: Exitway access to the stairway at each story shall 
be through a vestibule or balcony with an unobstructed width not 
less than the required stairvay width and a minimum dimension of 
seventy-two (72) inches in the direction of exit travel. 

618.3 DOOR OPENINGS: Door openings from interior spaces to the 
vestibule or balcony and from the vestibule or balcony to the stair- 
way shall be as required in section 612.2. The doors from interior 
spaces to the vestibule shall have a f ireresistance rating not less 
than one and one-half (1%) hours and shall comply with the require- 
ments of section 616.6 for stair exitway doors. The door from the 
vestibule to the stairway shall be not less than a one and three- 
quarter (1-3/4) inch solid wood door set in a steel frame. Wired 
glass may be used in the door not to exceed one hundred (100) square 
inches in area and set in a steel frame. Any door assembly must be 
fitted to ensure minimal air leakage. 

618.4 TERMINAL PASSAGEWAY: The smokeproof enclosure shall termin- 
ate at grade level and shall provide egress to the street indepen- 
dently of all other exitways. When grade passageways are used, they 
shall comply with the requirements of section 611, except that there 
shall be no openings therein other than the smokeproof enclosure and 
street exit doorways. The passageway walls shall be of four (4) hour 
f ireresistive construction and the floor and roof of three (3) hour 

f ireresistive construction. 

618.5 CONSTRUCTION: The construction of smokeproof enclosures shall 
be of walls with a four (4) hour fireresistive rating without openings 
other than the required doorways. The vestibule shall be considered 
to be an element of the exitway and shall be constructed in accordance 
with the fireresistive requirements of table 2-5. The balcony shall 
be constructed in accordance with the fireresistive requirements in 
table 2-5 for floor construction. 

The stairshaft vestibule or balcony shall be provided with emergency 
lighting from an approved independent power source to assure continued 
illumination in case of emergency. In buildings over seventy (70) feet 
in height, the emergency lighting system may be integrated with the 
emergency power system required for fire suppression systems as required 
in article 12. 

618.51 WINDOWS: All window openings in the exterior wall of the build- 
ing, facing on the yard or court within thirty (30) feet below or to the 
side of any access balcony or vestibule shall be protected with three- 
quarter (3/4) hour opening protectives complying with article 9. 

618.52 DOOR WIDTHS: Door openings from building to vestibules or 
balconies and to the stairways shall be not less than forty-four (44) 
inches wide. The doors shall be capable of being opened from both 
sides without a key, complying with all the requirements of section 

616.6 for exitway doors for stairways, except that the f ireresistance 
rating shall be not less than one and one-half (Ih) hours or the ap- 
proved labeled equivalent complying with article 9. 

6-22 



618.6 VENTILATION OF SMOKEPROOF STAIRWAY ENCLOSURES: Smokeproof 
stairway enclosures shall be ventilated with natural ventilation or 
mechanical ventilation meeting the requirements of section 618.7 or 
618.8. In buildings over seventy (70) feet in height, ventilation 
in exitway stairways must conform to the requirements of article 12. 

618.7 SMOKEPROOF STAIRWAY ENCLOSURES BY NATURAL VENTILATION: The 
balcony separating the smokeproof enclosure from the interior build- 
ing spaces shall have at least one (1) open side adjacent to a street, 
alley, or yard with four (4) feet high guard railings across the open 
side(s) . One open side of the balcony shall have a minimum open area 
of sixteen (16) square feet with no dimension less than thirty (30) 
inches. Doors must be located so as to be openable in any weather. 
There shall be no step between the balcony and the smokeproof stair- 
way enclosure. 

618.8 SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE BY MECHANICAL VENTILATION: The stairshaft 
and vestibule shall be provided with a mechanical ventilation system 
as specified herein that will be automatically activated on three (3) 
or more floors in case of emergency. Buildings over seventy (70) feet 
in height shall conform to the requirements for ventilation of arti- 
cle 12. 

618.81 OPERATION OF VENTILATING EQUIPMENT: Vestibule and stairshaft 
mechanical ventilation may be inactive or may operate at reduced lev- 
els for normal operations, but when the detectors referred to herein 
either fail or are activated, the vestibule and stairshaft mechanical 
ventilation system shall operate at the levels specified in sections 

618.82 and 618.83. The vestibule ventilation system shall be designed 
and activated in accordance with one of the following methods: 

Method 1) - TOTAL SYSTEM. Simultaneous operation of all vestibules. 
If the vestibule mechanical ventilation system is designed to pro- 
vide the ventilation in the vestibules on all floors simultaneously, 
a products-of-combustion detector shall be located outside each ves- 
tibule so designed that activation or failure of any one of the detec- 
tors will simultaneously activate the vestibule ventilation system on 
all floors. 

Method 2) - ZONED SYSTEM. Simultaneous operation of three or more 
vestibules. If the vestibule ventilation system is designed as one 
or more zones to provide the simultaneous ventilation in the vesti- 
bules for at least a three (3) floor zone, automatic supply and ex- 
haust dampers shall be provided in all vestibules in order to obtain 
the zoned control of the ventilation as follows: 

A smoke detector shall be located outside each vestibule so designed 
to open the supply and exhaust duct dampers in the vestibules within 
the affected zone three (3) or more floors, and to actuate the stair- 
shaft ventilation system in case any detector in the affected zone 
either fails or is activated. 

6-23 



618.82 VESTIBULE VENTILATION: The vestibule shall have an emergency 
ventilating system providing not less than one (1) air change per 
minute supply. The exhaust shall be one hundred fifty (150) percent 
of the supply. The supply shall be sufficient to maintain a pressure 
of 0.025 inches of water (0.0009 pounds per square inch) above am- 
bient with all doors closed. 

618.83 STAIRSHAFT VENTILATION: The stairshaft shall be provided with 
emergency mechanical supply and exhaust air. There shall be a minimum 
of one (1) air change per minute. The supply shall be sufficient to 
provide a minimum of 0.05 inches of water column pressure (0.00185 
pounds per square inch) above ambient with all doors closed. Supply 
air shall be introduced at the level of the grade exitway discharge. 

618.84 STANDBY POWER: Mechanical vestibule stairshaft ventilation 
systems and detector systems shall be powered by an approved self- 
contained generator designed to operate whenever there is a loss of 
power in the normal house current . The generator shall be located 

in a separate room of two (2) hour f ireresistive construction and shall 
have a minimum fuel supply to operate the equipment for two (2) hours. 
In buildings over seventy (70) feet high, refer to article 12 for re- 
quirements for standby power in fire suppression system. 

618.85 EMERGENCY LIGHTING: The vestibules and stairshaft shall be 
provided with emergency lighting. The standby generator which is in- 
stalled for the vestibule and stairshaft mechanical ventilation equip- 
ment may be used for the standby emergency lighting power supply. In 
buildings over seventy (70) feet high, refer to article 12 for require- 
ments for standby power in fire suppression systems . 

618.86 FIRE PROTECTION INDICATOR PANEL: A fire protection indicator 
panel may be required by the fire official and located as practical 
inside the entrance to the smokeproof tower stairshaft at grade. Said 
panel shall indicate the floor or floors having caused the alarm. Said 
panel shall have an overriding manual switch capable of deactivating 
the ventilation equipment. For buildings over seventy (70) feet in 
height, ref^r to article 12 for fire protection indicator panel re- 
quirements. 

618.87 FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTION: The fire protection indicator 
panel shall have a direct connection to the fire department facilities 
if required by the fire official. 

618.88 ACCEPTANCE AND TESTING: Before the foregoing equipment is ac- 
cepted by the building official , it shall be certified by a qualified 
registered professional engineer as being designed and capable of oper- 
ating in compliance with these requirements and the equipment shall be 
tested and certified by a qualified registered professionsal engineer 
that it is operating in compliance with the requirements of this section. 

618.89 BUILDING OWNERS' RESPONSIBILITY: The building owner shall have 
tested all the equipment referred to in these requirements at least once 
every ninety (90) days to ensure that all parts are in operable condition; 

6-24 



and he shall maintain a log attesting to the results. The log shall 
be available for inspection by the building official and the fire 
official. Once each year the system shall be inspected, tested and 
certified by a qualified registered professional engineer that it is in 
condition and capable of operating to meet these requirements. 



SECTION 619.0 EXTERIOR EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

619.1 AS REQUIRED EXITWAY: Exterior stairways conforming to the re- 
quirements for interior stairways in all respects, except as to en- 
closures and except as herein specifically modified, may be accepted 
as an element of a required means of egress in buildings not exceeding 
five (5) stories or sixty-five (65) feet in height for other than use 
group H (Institutional) provided there is at least one (1) additional 
stairway. 

Exterior stairways which are accepted as exitway elements in residen- 
tial buildings of use groups L-2 and L-3 shall be relieved from re- 
quirements for fire doors, but shall be provided with handrails and 
guards as required for interior stairs (section 616.5 and 616.52) and 
shall be protected from the weather as required in section 619.2. 

619.11 LOCATION AND ARRANGEMENT: Exterior stairways may be utilized 
where at least one (1) door from each tenant space opens onto a roofed- 
over open porch or balcony served by at least two (2) stairways so lo- 
cated as to provide a choice of independent, unobstructed means of 
egress directly to the grade. Such porches and stairways shall comply 
with the requirements for interior exitway stairways as specified in 
section 616.0. Porches and balconies shall not be less than four and 
one-half (4J5) feet in width. The stairways shall be located remotely 
from each other. The maximum travel distance from any tenant space 
to the nearest stairway shall be as specified in table 6-2. Porches 
and stairways shall be located at least ten (10) feet from adjacent 
property lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot unless 
openings in such buildings are protected by three-quarter (3/4) hour 
fireresistive doors or windows. 

619.2 GUARDS AND CANOPIES: Guards shall be provided on all exposed 
sides of required exterior stairways to a height of five (5) feet, 
constructed of wire or other noncombustible weather resisting mesh 
having a maximum opening of one and one-half (Ih) inches. The stair- 
way shall be protected by metal or other approved noncombustible 
material to the extent necessary to ensure that the stairway remains 
in a safe, unobstructed and easily accessible condition in any weather. 

619.3 OPENING PROTECTIVES 

619.31 DOORS: Except as specified in section 619.1 for residential 
buildings, access shall be provided at each story through a three- 
quarter (3/4) hour self-closing fire door of the required number of 
unit exit widths. 



6-25 



619.32 WINDOWS: In buildings more than three (3) stories in height, 
or with an occupancy load of more than seventy-five (75) above or 
more than forty (40) below grade, the openings below and within ten 
(10) feet horizontally of the stairway shall be protected with ap- 
proved three-quarter (3/4) hour automatic fire windows. 

619.4 LOCATION 

619.41 ACCESS TO STREET: All required exterior stairways shall be 
located so as to lead directly to a street or open space with direct 
access to a street; or when located on the rear of the building may 
lead through a passageway at grade complying with section 611. 

619.5 CONSTRUCTION: Exterior stairs shall be constructed entirely 
of steel or other approved noncombustible materials with pipe hand- 
rails on both sides of stairways and platforms. On buildings of type 
3 or type 4 construction, not more than three (3) stories in height, 
exterior stairways may be constructed of wood members not less than 
two (2) inches in thickness. 

619.6 CAPACITY: The capacity of exterior exitway stairways which 

are used as a required means of egress are determined by section 608.1. 



SECTION 620.0 MOVING EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

620.1 WHEN ACCEPTABLE: Moving stairways of the horizontal non-slip 
tread type moving in the direction of egress may be accepted as an ap- 
proved exitway element in buildings of all use groups except assembly 
and institutional uses, when constructed and approved in accordance 
with the requirements of this article and the provisions of ELV-2, 
elevator, dumbwaiter, escalator, and moving walk regulations, prom- 
ulgated by the Board of Elevator Regulations, of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, Department of Public Safety. When accepted as an ele- 
ment of a required means of egress, they shall be enclosed with fire- 
resistive partitions as specified in section 616. 

620.2 WIDTH: The width shall be not less than forty (40) inches be- 
tween guards and the moving tread shall be not less than thirty-six 
(36) inches in width, and fifteen and three-quarter (15-3/4) inches 
in depth. 

620.3 CAPACITY: The occupancy capacity shall be computed as provided 
in section 608 for exitway stairways. 

620.4 LANDINGS AND PLATFORMS: Landings and platforms shall be pro- 
vided at the top and bottom of each unit as required for interior 
exitway stairways. 

620.5 RAILINGS: Guards shall be surmounted with moving handrails 
traveling at the same speed as the stairway. 



6-26 



620.6 EGRESS: Means of egress to the street shall be provided as 
specified herein for interior stairways except that in mercantile 
buildings completely equipped with a two-source automatic sprinkler 
system moving stairways may be accepted for one-third (1/3) the total 
required exit capacity when discharging through the main grade floor 
area. 

620.7 CONSTRUCTION 

620.71 NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS: Only noncombustible materials shall 
be used in the construction of moving stairways accepted as a required 
means of egress except for step wheels, handrails, electrical equip- 
ment, and wood veneers not more than one twenty-eighth (1/28) inch 
thick directly attached to metal or other noncombustible backing with 
a nonvolatile and nonflammable cement. 

620.72 FIRERESISTANCE: The enclosure shall afford the f ireresistance 
required for approved interior exitway stairways as specified in sec- 
tion 616.9. 

620.73 HEIGHT OF TRAVEL PER UNIT: No single moving stairway unit shall 
have a vertical travel height of more than two (2) stories nor more than 
thirty-five (35) feet. 



SECTION 621.0 FIRE ESCAPES 

621.1 WHERE PERMITTED: Fire escapes shall be permitted only by spec- 
ial order of the building official, in existing buildings or struc- 
tures not exceeding five (5) stories or sixty-five (65) feet in height, 
and when more adequate exitway facilities cannot be provided. 

621.2 CONSTRUCTION: The fire escape shall be designed to support a 
live load of one hundred (100) pounds per square foot and shall be con- 
structed of steel or other approved noncombustible materials, except as 
specified in sections 621.24 and 621.25. All fire escapes of other 
than wood, and any wood fire escape three (3) stories or higher, must 
have drawings and specifications submitted by a qualified registered 
professional engineer with his seal and signature, which include sup- 
porting structures. 

621.21 DIMENSIONS: The width of the stairs shall be as specified in 
621.22, but in any case shall be at least twenty-two (22) inches wide. 
Risers will be not more than eight (8) inches in height and treads 
not less than eight (8) inches in depth. Landings shall be a mini- 
miam of forty (40) inches wide by thirty-six (36) inches long, located 
not more than eight (8) inches below the access window or door. 

621.22 CAPACITY: The capacity will provide for the intended occupancy 
load as designated by the building official and determined by section 
608.1, but in no case may the width be less than twenty-two (22) in- 
ches. The width will be adequate to provide for the number of occupants. 



6-27 



621.23 OPENING PROTECTIVES: Doors and windows along the fire escape 
shall be protected with three-quarter (3/4) hour opening protectives 
in other than residence buildings of use groups L-2 and L-3. 

621. 2A OUTSIDE FIRE LIMITS: On buildings not over three (3) stories 
nor more than forty (40) feet in height located outside the fire lim- 
its, accommodating not more than twenty (20) persons, fire escapes 
may be constructed of wood or other approved material of similar com- 
bustible characteristics. 

621.25 WITHIN FIRE LIMITS: Within Fire District No. 2, fire escapes 
may be constructed of wood not less than two (2) inches thick on 
buildings of type 3 or type 4 construction which are not more than 
three (3) stories in height. 



SECTION 622.0 SLIDESCAPES 

Slidescapes and safety chutes shall be permitted in buildings of the 
high hazard use group and in existing school and institutional build- 
ings as emergency means of egress when unusual conditions warrant, as 
approved by the building official. 

622.1 LOCATION: The arrangement and location of slidescapes shall 
conform to this article for means of egress and shall be designated 
by exit signs and lights as provided in section 624. 

622.2 CONSTRUCTION: All chutes shall be constructed of approved non- 
combustible materials with a pitch in the line of travel of not less 
than twenty-four (24) nor more than forty- two (42) degrees measured 

on the developed circumference of spiral chutes. Straight chutes 
shall be not less than twenty-four (24) inches and spiral chutes 
not less than twenty-eight (28) inches wide in the clear; nor more 
than forty-four (44) inches wide in any case. When erected on the 
interior of a building, they shall be enclosed as required in section 
616.9 for interior stairways with direct means of egress to the street 
or other public space. 

622.3 EXTENSION TO ROOF: Where constituting a supplemental means of 
egress from roofs, all slidescapes and chutes shall extend to the roof 
as required for exitway stairways in section 617. 



SECTION 623.0 EXITWAY SIGNS AND LIGHTS 

623.1 SIZE AND LOCATION: Except in one- and two-family dwellings 
(L-3) , and in exitways serving only three or fewer dwelling units in 
L-2 multi-family dwelling uses, all required exitways shall be pro- 
vided with exit signs sufficient in number to indicate at any 
point in the required exitway the approved direction of egress dis- 
charge. Such signs shall incorporate an approved symbol to ensure 
understanding by non-English reading people and, if so desired, the 



6-28 



word "EXIT," Such symbol and lettering shall be at least six (6) inches 
in height. Such signs shall have either red outlines on a white background 
or the reverse, and shall be made of noncombustible material. All required 
exit signs shall be illuminated in conformance with section 623.2. All 
types of exit signs must be approved for use in the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts by the State Building Code Commission. 

623.2 ILLUMINATION: Lighting of all required "EXIT" signs will be 
adequate and of a character to ensure that the signs can be easily read 
under normal conditions wherever the building or area served is occupied. 
The level of light provided on the exposed face of the sign shall be at 
least twenty-five (25) foot candles or the equivalent. 

623.21 POWER LEVELS: All "EXITWAY" signs shall be illuminated at all 
times when the building or area is occupied, by a power source which can 
be sustained at the required level for a period of at least the fire 
rating of the exitway at all times and provide power independent of the 
failure of any other circuit or source of power. Fire suppression 
systems incorporating an independent power source required by article 12 
may serve as the independent power source for exitway signs and lights. 



SECTION 624.0 EXITWAY LIGHTS 

624.1 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING: In all structures except one and two-family 
dwellings, all stairways, exitways and passageways appurtenant thereto 
shall be equipped with artificial lighting facilities to provide the 
intensity of illumination herein prescribed continuously during the time 
that conditions of occupancy of the building require that the exitways 
be available. All means of egress in other than one and two-family 
dwellings shall be equipped with artificial lighting facilities to 
provide the intensity of illumination herein prescribed continuously 
during the time that conditions of occupancy of the building require 
that the exitways be available. In schoolhouses switches controlling 
these facilities shall not be accessible to the public; a key switch 
shall be considered meeting this requirement. 

624.2 INTENSITY OF ILLUMINATION: The intensity of floor lighting shall 
be not less than three (3) foot candles measured at floor level and 
maintained everywhere along the required exitway. There shall be ade- 
quate overlap of illumination sources to ensure that no area will be 
left in darkness due to the failure of a light element. 

624.3 PLACES OF ASSEMBLY: In places of assembly for the exhibition of 
motion pictures or other projections by means of directed light, the 
illumination of floors of exitway access areas may be reduced during 
such period of projection to not less than one (1) foot candle. 

624.4 INDEPENDENT POWER SOURCE: Emergency lights shall be provided 
with a power system ensuring continuous lighting at all times required 
in section 624.1 and incorporating a power source which can be sustained 
at the level specified in section 624.2 for a period of at least one and 
one-half (1^) hours, or as required by section 623.21 for cases in 
excess of one and one-half (1^) hours, and provide power at all times 
and independently of the failure of any other circuit or source of 
power. The independent power source may be the same required by article 
12 for fire suppression systems. 



fi-?q 



624.41 POWER LEVELS: The power system shall be designed to ensure 
that whenever the voltage of the normal service falls below fifty (50) 
percent of nominal lamp voltage, emergency lighting service is in- 
stantly transferred to the independent power source. The service may 
be transferred back to the normal supply when that supply can provide 
at least eighty (80) percent of the nominal lamp voltage. 

624.5 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS: The building official may require 
that all plans and specifications for emergency lighting be submitted 
by a registered professional engineer qualified by background in the 
design of such electrical circuits, and such plans and specifications 
shall have the seal and signature of the registered professional en- 
gineer certifying that the required systems are in compliance with the 
requirements of this Code. 



6-30 



Reference Standards - Article 6 

NFPA 101 1967 Life Safety Code 

NFPA 101 1967 Life Safety Code 

NFPA 101 1973 Life Safety Code 



6-31 



ARTICLE 7 



STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION 
LOADS AND STRESSES 



SECTION 700.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the structural design of 
all buildings and structures and their foundations hereafter erected to 
insure adequate strength of all parts thereof for the safe support of 
all superimposed live and special loads in addition to their own dead 
load, without exceeding the allowable stresses or design capabilities 
prescribed in this Code or by accepted engineering practice. 



SECTION 701.0 DEFINITIONS 

CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION: the construction of a building or structure or 
a specific part thereof which has been designated and erected under the 
supervision of a licensed or registered engineer or architect using con- 
trolled materials as herein defined in compliance with accepted engi- 
neering practice under the procedure of section 128.0. 

CONTROLLED MATERIALS: materials which are certified by an accredited 
authoritative agency as meeting accepted engineering standards for 
quality and as provided in sections 722 and 800. 

FORMED STEEL CONSTRUCTION: that type of construction used in floor and 
roof systems consisting of integrated units of sheet or strip steel 
plates which are shaped into parallel steel ribs or beams with a con- 
tinuous connecting flange deck; generally attached to and supported on 
the pi*imary or secondary members of a structural steel or reinforced 
concrete frame. 

FOUNDATION WALL: a wall below the floor nearest grade serving as a sup- 
port for a wall, pier, column or other structural part of a building. 

LIGHT GAGE STEEL CONSTRUCTION: that type of construction in which the 
structural frame consists of studs, floor joists, arch ribs, rafters, 
steel decks and other structural elements which are composed and 
fabricated of cold-formed sheet or strip steel members less than three- 
sixteenths (3/16) inch thick. 



7-1 



LOAD 

-DEAD LOAD: the weight of all permanent construction including walls, 
floors, roofs, partitions, stairways and of fixed service equipment. 

-DURATION OF LOAD: the period of continuous application of a given 
load, or the aggregate of periods of intermittent application of 
the same load. 

-EARTHQUAKE LOAD: the assumed lateral load acting in any horizontal 
direction on the structural frame due to the kinetic action of earth- 
quakes. 

-IMPACT LOAD: the load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, 
craneways, vehicles, and other similar forces and kinetic loads. 

-LATERAL SOIL LOAD: the lateral pressure in pounds per square foot due 
to the weight of the adjacent soil, including due allowance for hydro- 
static pressure. 

-LIVE LOAD: the weight superimposed by the use and occupancy of the 
building, not including the wind load, earthquake load, or dead load. 

-WIND LOAD: the lateral pressure on the building or structure in 
pounds per square foot due to wind blowing in any direction. 

ORDINARY MATERIALS: materials which do not conform to the require- 
ments of the Basic Code for controlled materials. 

PRIMARY MEMBER: any member of the structural frame of a building or 
structure used as a column; grillage beam; or to support masonry 
walls and partitions; including trusses, isolated lintels spanning 
an opening of eight (8) feet or more; and any other member required 
to brace a column of a truss. 

SECONDARY MEMBER: any member of the structural framework other than 
a primary member including filling-in beams of floor systems. 

STEEL JOIST: any secondary steel member of a building or structure 
made of hot or cold-formed solid or open-web sections, or riveted or 
welded bar, strip or sheet steel members or slotted and expanded or 
otherwise deformed rolled sections. 

STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBER: any primary or secondary member of a build- 
ing or structure consisting of a rolled steel structural shape other 
than formed steel, light gage steel or steel joist members. 



SECTION 702.0 DESIGN SAFE LOAD 

702.1 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: The safe load for any structural member or 
system of construction shall be determined by accepted engineering an- 
alysis except as provided in sections 703 and 803 for tests of assemblies 
not capable of analysis. 

7-2 



702.2 CHECK TESTS: When there is reasonable doubt as to the design 
capacity of any structural unit or assembly, the building official 
may require that tests be made of such unit or assembly under the 
supervision of a qualified registered professional engineer. Such 
tests shall be made by an approved testing facility and personnel, 
and the procedures and results of such tests shall be signed and 
stamped by the said designated qualified registered professional 
engineer . 



SECTION 703.0 TEST SAFE LOAD 

703.1 WHEN REQUIRED: When not capable of being accurately analyzed, 
any system of construction or structural unit and its connections 
shall be subjected to tests prescribed in article 8 or in the test 
standards of this article or article 8, or to such other tests which 
may be certified by a qualified registered professional engineer as 
being acceptable for providing the information required. Any tests 
performed shall be conducted as required by the provisions of section 

702.2 for testing. 

703.2 TEST LOAD: The test load shall be subject to the provisions 
of section 804.1 and where applicable, deflections shall be limited 
as provided in section 804.2. 



SECTION 704.0 DESIGN LIVE LOAD 

704.1 REQUIRED LIVE LOAD: The live loads to be assumed in the 
design of buildings and structures shall be the greatest load produced 
by the intended use and occupancy, but in no case less than the 
minimum uniformly distributed unit loads required in section 707 for 
specific uses. 

704.2 LOADS NOT SPECIFIED: The building official shall approve the 
live load for any use not specif icially provided for in Table 7-1. 



SECTION 705.0 DESIGN DEAD LOAD 

705.1 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS: In estimating dead load for the 
purposes of structural design, the actual weights of materials shall 
be used, but in no case less than the unit dead loads prescribed in 
the reference standards of this article. 

705.2 SERVICE EQUIPMENT: The weight of all building service equip- 
ment including plumbing stacks, heating and air conditioning equipment 
and similar fixtures shall be included in the dead load supported by 
the structural frame. 

7-3 



705.3 PARTITION LOAD: In office and other buildings, in which sub- 
dividing partitions may be subsequently erected, rearranged or relocated, 
provision shall be made to support the actual weight of such partitions 
where they occur, or for an equivalent uniform load, which shall be 
assumed not less than twenty (20) pounds per square foot of floor area, 
in addition to the specified uniformly distributed live load. Provision 
for partitions weight shall be made whether or not partitions are shown 
on the plans, unless the specified live load exceeds eighty (80) pounds 
per square foot. 



SECTION 706.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

In the reconstruction, repair, extension or alteration of existing 
buildings, the allowable working stresses used in design shall be as 
follows: 

706.1 BUILDING EXTENDED: When an existing building is altered by an 
extension in height or area, all existing structural parts affected by 
the addition shall be strengthened where necessary and all new structural 
parts shall be designed to meet the requirements for buildings hereafter 
erected. 

706.2 BUILDING REPAIRED: When repairs are made to the structural 
portion of an existing building, and the uncovered structural portions 
are found unsound, such parts shall be made to conform to the require- 
ments for buildings hereafter erected. 

706.3 EXISTING LIVE LOAD: When an existing building heretofore approved 
is altered or repaired within the limitations prescribed in sections 

106.3 or 106.4, the structure may be designed for the loads and stresses 
applicable at the time of erection, provided the public safety is not 
endangered thereby. 

706.4 POSTED LIVE LOAD: Any existing building heretofore approved, in 
which there is no change in use to a new use group requiring greater 
floor loads, may be posted for the originally approved live loads, 
provided the building is structurally safe in all its parts and adequate 
for its existing use, and the public safety is not endangered thereby. 



SECTION 707.0 UNIT LIVE LOADS 

The plans for all buildings and structures intended for other than 
residential uses shall specify the live and partition loads for which 
each floor or part thereof has been designed. 

707.1 UNIFORM LIVE LOAD: The minimum uniformly distributed live load 
in pounds per square foot shall be as .provided in Table 7-1 and for all 
concentrated loads wherever they occur as provided in section 708. 

7-4 



TABLE 7-1 MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 



OCCUPANCY OR USE 



LIVE LOAD (PSF) 



Apartments (see Residential) 

Armories and drill rooms 150 

Assembly halls and other places of assembly: 

Fixed seats 60 

Movable seats 100 

Platforms (assembly) 100 

Balcony (exterior) 100 

One- and two-family residences only and not exceeding 

100 sq. ft. 60 

Bowling Alleys, poolrooms, and similar recreational areas 75 

Cornices 60 

Corridors : 

First Floor 100 

Other Floors, same as occupancy served except as 
indicated 

Court Rooms 100 

Dance halls and ballrooms 100 

Dining rooms and restaurants 100 

Dwellings (see Residential) 

Elevator Machine Room 150 

Fire escapes 100 

On multi- or single-family residential buildings only 40 

Garages (passenger cars only) 50 

For trucks and buses use AASHTO (1) land loads (see 
table 7-2 for concentrated load requirements 

Grandstands (see Reviewing stands) 

Gymnasiums, main floors and balconies 100 

Hospitals 

Operating rooms, laboratories 60 

Private rooms 40 

Wards 40 

Corridors, above first floor 80 

Hotels (see Residential) 

Libraries: 

Reading rooms 60 

Stack rooms (books & shelving at 65 pcf) but not 

less than 150 

Corridors, above first floor 80 

Manufacturing : 

Light 125 

Heavy 250 

Marquees 75 

Office Buildings: 

Offices 50 

Lobbies 100 

Corridors, above first floor 80 

File and computer rooms require heavier loads based 
upon anticipated occupancy 



7-5 



TABLE 7-1 



OCCUPANCY USE LIVE LOAD (PSF) 



Open parking structures (passenger cars only) 50 

Penal institutions: 

Cell blocks 40 

Corridors 100 

Residential: 

Multi-family houses: 

Private apartments 40 

Public rooms 100 

Corridors 80 

Dwellings : 

First Floor 40 

Second floor and habitable attics 30 

Uninhabitable attics (2) 20 

Hotels: 

Guest rooms 40 

Public rooms 100 

Corridors serving public rooms 100 

Corridors 80 

Reviewing stands and bleachers (3) 100 

Schoolhouses: 

Classrooms 50 

Corridors 100 

Flexible and open plan areas 100 

Sidewalks, vehicular driveways, and yards, subject to 

trucking 250 

Skating rinks 100 

Stairs and exitways 100 

Storage warehouse: 

Light 125 

Heavy 250 

Stores: 
Retail: 

First floor, rooms 100 

Upper floors 75 

Wholesale 125 

Theatres: 

Aisles, corridors and lobbies 100 

Orchestra floors 60 

Balconies 60 

Stage floors 150 

Yards and terraces, pedestrians 100 



7-6 



TABLE 7-1 
NOTES : 

1) American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 

2) Live load need be applied to joists or to bottom chords of 
trusses or trussed rafters only in those portions of attic 
space having a clear height of forty-two (42) inches or more 
between joist and rafter in conventional rafter construction; 
and between bottom chord and any other member in trussed or 
trussed rafter construction. However, joists or the bottom 
chords or trusses or trussed rafters shall be designed to 
sustain the imposed dead load or ten pounds per square foot 
(10 psf) whichever be greater, uniformly distributed over 
the entire span. 

3) For detailed recommendations, see the Standard for Tents, Grand- 
stands and Air-Supported Structures Used for Places of Assem- 
bly, NFPA 102, 1971. 

4) Deflections for floors in areas of public assembly shall be 
limited to 1/360 the span. 



7-7 



707.2 POSTING OF LIVE LOADS: In every building or other structure or 
part thereof, used for mechanical, business, industrial or storage 
purposes, the design and partition loads shall be marked on plates of 
approved design which shall be supplied and securely affixed by the 
owner of the building in a conspicuous place in each space to which they 
relate. Any plates lost, removed or defaced shall be replaced by the 
owner. 

SECTION 708.0 CONCENTRATED LOADS 

Floors of buildings used as specified in Table 7-2 shall be designed 
to support the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed in Table 7-1 
or the following concentrated loads in pounds, whichever produces the 
greater stresses. Unless otherwise specified, the indicated concen- 
tration shall be assumed to occupy an area of two and one-half (2 1/2) 
feet square and shall be so located as to produce the maximum stress 
conditions in the structural members. 

Floors of schoolhouses used as specified in Table 7-2 shall be designed 
to support the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed in Table 7-1 
following concentrated loads in pounds whichever produces the greater 
stresses. Unless otherwise specified, the indicated concentration shall 
be assumed to occupy an area of two and one-half (2-1/2) feet square, 
and shall be so located as to produce the maximum stress conditions in 
the structural members; except that in steel joist construction, bridged 
in accordance with the requirements of section 829, the specified 
concentration shall be assumed as distributed over three (3) of the 
secondary members and each individual joist shall be capable of sustaining 
a concentrated load of eight hundred (800) pounds at the panel point. 

TABLE 7-2 CONCENTRATED LOADS 

LOCATION POUNDS 



Elevator machine room grating (on area of 4 square inches) 300 
Finish light floor plate construction (on area of 1 square 

inch) 200 

Garages (1) 

Manufacturing and Storage Buildings (2) 

Office Floors 2000 

Scuttles, skylight ribs and accessible ceilings 200 

Sidewalks 8000 

Stair treads (on area of 4 square inches at center of tread) 300 



Note 1: Floors in garages or portions of buildings used for storage of 
motor vehicles shall be designed for the uniformly distributed 
live loads of Table 7-1 or for the following concentrated 
loads: 

a) for passenger cars accommodating not more than nine (9) 
passengers, two thousand (2000) pounds acting on an area 
of twenty (20) square inches; 

b) mechanical parking structures without slab or deck, 
passenger cars only, fifteen hundred (1500) pounds 
per wheel; 

7-8 



c) for trucks or buses, maximum wheel load on an area of 
twenty (20) square inches. 

Note 2: For buildings in which mechanical material handling equipment 
will be utilized, the structural floor slab shall be designed 
for the actual concentrated loads. 



SECTION 709.0 IMPACT LOADS 

The live loads specified in section 707 shall be assumed to include 
adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions. Provision shall be 
made in the structural design for special uses and loads which involve 
vibration and impact forces. 

709.1 ELEVATORS: All moving elevator loads shall be increased one 
hundred (100) percent for impact and the structural supports shall be 
designed within the limits of deflection as specified in the Department 
of Public Safety, Board of Elevator Regulations ELV-2. 

709.2 MACHINERY: For the purpose of design, the weight of machinery 
and moving loads shall be increased as follows, to allow for impact: 



TYPE OF MACHINERY PERCENTAGE 



Elevator Machinery 100 

Light machinery, shaft or motor driven 20 

Reciprocating machinery or power driven units 50 

Hangers for floors or balconies 33 

These percentages shall be increased when so recommended by the manufacturer. 

709.3 CRANEWAYS: All craneways shall have their design loads increased 
for impact as follows : 

a) a vertical force equal to twenty-five (25) percent of the 
maximum wheel load; 

b) a lateral force equal to twenty (20) percent of the weight 
of the trolley and lifted load only, applied one-half (1/2) 
at the top of each rail; and 

c) a longitudinal force of ten (10) percent of the maximum 
wheel loads of the crane applied at top of rail. 

709.4 ASSEMBLY STRUCTURES: Grandstands, stadiums and similar assembly 
structures shall be designed to resist a horizontal swaying load applied 
parallel to the rows of seats, in addition to any wind loads, of not 
less than twenty-four (24) pounds per lineal foot of seats per row; and 

of not less than ten (10) pounds per lineal foot of seats applied transversely. 

7-9 



SECTION 710.0 SPECIAL LOADS 

Provisions shall be made for all special loads herein prescribed and 
all other special loads to which the building or structure may be sub- 
jected. In addition to the requirements of section 711, the following 
requirements shall also apply. 

710.1 BELOW GRADE: All retaining walls and other walls below grade 
shall be designed to resist lateral soil pressures with due allowance 
for hydrostatic pressure and for all superimposed vertical loads. 

710.2 HYDROSTATIC UPLIFT: All foundation slabs and other footings 
subjected to water pressure shall be designed to resist a uniformly 
distributed uplift equal to the full hydrostatic pressure. 

710.3 RAILINGS: Railings around stairwells, balconies and other floor 
openings, both exterior and interior, shall be designed to resist a load 
of at least two hundred (200) pounds applied in any direction at any 
point of the top rail, and also a vertical and a horizontal thrust of 
fifty (50) pounds per lineal foot applied at the top railing. The 
concentrated load and distributed loads need not be assumed to act 
concurrently. Railings and guards of grandstands and similar assembly 
structures shall be capable of resisting a lateral force of fifty (50) 
pounds per lineal foot and sustaining a vertical load of one hundred 
(100) pounds per lineal foot. 

710.4 CONSTRUCTION LOADS AND ERECTION STRESSES: Provision shall be 
made for temporary construction and wind loads which may occur during 
the erection of the building; and all structural members and connections 
shall be designed and erected so as to prevent overstressing during 
construction. 

710.5 The following requirements shall apply only to schoolhouses: 

710.51 TEMPERATURE LOADS: The design of enclosed buildings more than 
two hundred fifty (250) feet in plan dimension shall provide for the 
forces and/or movements resulting from an assumed expansion corresponding 
to a change in temperatures of 40° F. For exterior exposed frames, arches 
or shells regardless of plan dimensions, the design shall provide for the 
forces and/or movements resulting from an assumed expansion and contraction 
corresponding to an increase or decrease in temperature of 50° F. 
For determining required anchorage for piping, the forces shall be determine 
on the basis of temperature variations for the specific service conditions. 
Friction forces in expansion bearings shall be considered. 

SECTION 711.0 ROOF LOADS 

The structural supports of roofs shall be designed to resist wind and 
where applicable, snow and earthquake loads in addition to the dead load 
of the construction and the appropriate live loads specified in Table 7-1. 

711.1 SNOW LOAD as provided in section 712.0. 

711.12 WIND LOAD as provided in section 715.0. 

711.13 EARTHQUAKE LOAD as provided in section 718.0. 

711.2 MINIMUM ROOF LOADS: Ordinary roofs, either flat, pitched or 
curved, shall be designed for the live loads as specified in Table 7-3. 

7-10 



TABLE 7-3 MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS* 



ROOF SLOPE 



TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA 
in SQUARE FEET for ANY 
STRUCTURAL MEMBER 



to 200 



201 to 600 Over 600 



Flat or rise less than 4 
inches per foot 
Arch or dome with rise 
less than 1/8 of span 



20 



16 



12 



Rise 4 inches per foot to less 

than 12 inches per foot 16 

Arch or dome with rise 1/8 of 

span to less than 3/8 of span 



14 



12 



Rise 12 inches per foot and 

greater 

Arch or dome with rise 3/8 of 

span or greater 



12 



12 



12 



*In pound-force per square foot of horizontal projection. 



711.3 OVERHANGING EAVES: In other than one and two-family dwellings 
and except where framing of overhang is a continuation of the roof 
framing, overhanging eaves, cornices and other roof projections shall 
be designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live load of sixty 
(60) pounds per square foot. 

711.4 PONDING: Roofs shall be designed for the maximum possible 
depth of water that may be ponded thereon as determined by the relative 
levels of roof deck and overflow weirs, scuppers, edges or serviceable 
drains in combination with the deflected structural elements. 



711.5 SPECIAL PURPOSE ROOFS: When used for incidental promenade 
purposes, roofs shall be designed for a minimum live load of sixty 
(60) pounds per square foot; and one hundred (100) pounds per square 
foot when designed for roof gardens or assembly uses. 

7-11 



711.51 LANDSCAPED ROOFS: Where roofs are to be landscaped, the design 
live load shall be the sum of the appropriate uniform live load and the 
landscaping load shall be considered as a dead load and shall be 
computed on the basis of saturation of the soil. 



SECTION 712.0 SNOW LOAD 

The basic snow loads to be assumed in the design of buildings or 
other structures are given in figure 7-1 of the reference standards 
of this article. 

712.1 DESIGN SNOW LOAD: The map snow loads of figure 7-1 shall be 
used as the basis for deriving design snow loads for all buildings. 
Where exceptional conditions can be cited as applying to a particular 
region, the snow load requirements may be altered by the building 
official upon approval by the State Building Code Commission. 

712.2 ROOF SNOW LOADS: The minimum snow loads for the design of 
ordinary and multiple series roofs, either flat, pitched or curved, 
shall be determined from figures 7-2a, 7-2b, 7-2c, 7-3a, 7-3b, 7-4 
as applicable. The analysis incorporating snow loading shall be 
based on the conditions providing the most unfavorable loading result. 



SECTION 713.0 WIND LOAD 

The structural frame of all buildings, signs, tanks or other exposed 
structures or parts of structures shall be designed to resist the 
horizontal pressures due to wind in any direction, both inwardly and 
outwardly, allowing for suction on the leeward side, as provided in 
sections 714 to 716 inclusive. 



7-12 



713.1 TORSIONAL RESISTANCE: The structural frame of all buildings 
and structures subjected to wind or other lateral loads shall be 
designed to resist the torsional moment due to eccentricity of the 
resultant load with respect to the center of rigidity of the structure. 



SECTION 714.0 WIND ON VERTICAL SURFACES 

The total wind pressures on vertical surfaces of ordinary buildings 
and structures to be considered in the design of primary members shall 
be in conformity with the following tables : 



Exposure A 

Height (ft.) Zone 1 



Pressure P 
Zone 2 



Zone 3 



Zone 4 



Less than 30 10 



10 



10 



12 



30 


10 


50 


10 


100 


12 


150 


14 


200 


16 


250 


18 


300 


20 


350 


22 


400 


23 


450 


25 


500 


26 


550 


27 


600 


28 


650 


29 


700 


30 


750 


31 


800 


32 


Exposure A: 


Cent* 


Exposure B 




Less than 30 


10 


30 


13 


50 


16 


100 


19 


150 


22 


200 


23 


250 


26 


300 


27 



10 
12 
16 
18 
21 
23 
26 
28 
30 
31 
33 
35 
36 
38 
40 
41 
42 



12 
14 
19 
23 
27 
30 
33 
35 
38 
40 
42 
44 
46 
47 
50 
52 
54 



14 
17 
23 
27 
34 
36 
40 
44 
46 
49 
52 
55 
58 
59 
62 
65 
66 



Centers of large cities and very rough, hilly terrain. 



Pressure P 

13 
17 
19 
25 
28 
31 
34 
36 



17 
21 
25 
31 
36 
40 
43 
45 



21 
26 
31 
39 
44 
50 
53 
56 



7-13 



Exposure B 

Height (ft.) Zone 1 



Pressure P 
Zone 2 



Zone 3 



Zone 4 



350 


28 


400 


30 


450 


31 


500 


32 


550 


34 


600 


35 


650 


36 


700 


37 


750 


38 


800 


39 


Exposure B: 


Subu: 



38 
40 
41 
43 
44 
45 
47 
48 
50 
51 



48 
51 
52 
55 
56 
57 
60 
61 
62 
64 



59 
63 
65 
66 
68 
71 
74 
75 
76 
80 



Suburban areas, towns, city outskirts, wooded areas and 
rolling terrain. 



Exposure C 




Less than 30 


14 


30 


21 


50 


23 


100 


30 


150 


33 


200 


34 


250 


35 


300 


36 


350 


38 


400 


39 


450 


40 


500 


41 


550 


42 


600 


43 


650 


44 


700 


45 


750 


46 


800 


46 


Exposure C: 


Flat 



Pressure P 




20 


26 


27 


35 


31 


40 


36 


45 


39 


51 


43 


53 


47 


56 


48 


58 


49 


61 


51 


62 


52 


63 


53 


65 


54 


67 


55 


69 


56 


70 


57 


71 


58 


72 


59 


73 



34 
43 
50 
57 
62 
66 
68 
72 
75 
76 
79 
80 
83 
85 
86 
87 
88 
90 



Flat open country, open flat coastal belts and grasslands. 



Zone 1 consists of the Counties of Berkshire, Franklin, Hampshire 
and Hampden. 

Zone 2 consists of the County of Worcester. 

Zone 3 consists of the Counties of Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, 
Plymouth and Bristol . 

Zone 4 consists of the Counties of Essex, Barnstable, Dukes and 
Nantucket . 



7-14 



714.1 DISTRIBUTION OF WIND FORCES: The total wind pressure (section 
714.0) shall be distributed between opposite walls, two-thirds (2/3) as 
normal pressure on the windward side and one-third (1/3) as normal 
outward suction on the leeward side. 

714.2 EXTERIOR SECONDARY WALL FRAMING AND WALL PANELS: Internal wind 
pressure or suction of thirty (30) percent of the prescribed pressures 
in section 714.1 shall be assumed to occur simultaneously with the 
external pressures in section 714.3 and 714.4. 

714.3 AN EXTERNAL PRESSURE or suction to be considered in the design of 
secondary wall framing and wall panels and sheathing and their con- 
nections shall be one and one-half (1 1/2) times those in accordance 
with section 714.0 except at corners of all walls. 

714.4 AT CORNERS OF ALL WALLS, the external suction to be considered in 
the design of secondary wall framing and wall panels and sheathing and 
their connections shall be two (2) times those in accordance with 
section 714.0. The suction shall be assumed to act on a vertical strip 
of width one-tenth (1/10) the least width of the building. 

714.5 ROOFS OVER NON- ENCLOSED STRUCTURES: Roofs over non-enclosed 
structures shall be designed to resist wind loads in accordance with 
standard engineering practice and the reference standards of this 
article. 

715.0 WIND LOAD ON ROOFS 

The external wind pressures and suctions specified in sections 715.1 
and 715.2 shall be considered in the design of primary roof framing and 
trusses. 

External wind pressures and suctions to be considered in the design 
of secondary roof framing, purlins, roof panels and sheathing and their 
connections shall be one and one-half (1 1/2) times those determined in 
accordance with those sections. Internal pressures to be considered in 
the design of secondary roof framing and roof panels and sheathing and 
their connections shall be those specified in section 714.2 for wall 
elements. 

715.1 PITCHED ROOFS: External wind forces on roofs, assumed to be 
acting upon primary roof framing members shall be not less than the 
following-listed fractions of the values specified in section 714.0, and 
shall be based on the average height of the roof eave above grade, the 
slope of the roof at the location under consideration and the ratio of 
sidewall height to building width. 



7-15 



EXTERNAL WIND PRESSURE ON ROOFS 





FLAT 
ROOFS 


WINDWARD 


SLOPE OF ROOFS 




LEEWARD SLOPE 


Ratio of 
Sidewall 
Height to 
Building 
Width 


LESS THAN 
1:12 


1:12 to 
4.05:12 


405:12 

to 

6:12 


6:12 to 
12:12 


ALL SLOPES 


0.2 
0.4 
0.6 
0.8 
1.0 or more 


-.60 
-.60 
-.60 
-.60 
-.60 


-.60 
-.60 
-.60 
-.60 
-.60 


-.06 
-.33 
-.49 
-.57 
-.60 


.12 

.01 

-.20 

-.30 

-.39 


.19 

.09 

-.06 

-.18 

-.28 


-.50 
-.50 
-.50 
-.50 
-.50 



For all roof surfaces having a slope greater than 12:12 the same 
wind forces as for vertical surfaces shall be assumed. 



715.2 CURVED ROOFS: The external wind forces assumed to be acting 
upon the primary framing members in the windward quarter of curved 
roofs shall be not less than the wind pressure specified in section 
714.0 multiplied by the rise-to-span ratio of the entire roof arch, 
and shall be considered as acting as an inward acting pressure. An 
external suction of not less than seven-tenths (7/10) of the pressure 
specified in section 714.0 shall be assumed to be acting upon the 
center half of all arch roofs and an external suction of not less 
than six-tenths (6/10) of such pressures shall be assumed to be acting 
upon the leeward quarter of all such roofs. All wind pressures acting 
upon curved roofs shall be considered as acting normal to the chord 

of the curved section under consideration. 

715.3 TEST DETERMINATION: With the approval of the building official, 
wind force on a building may be based on shape coefficients obtained 
from wind tunnel tests of models or by other approved methods. Such 
shape coefficients shall include the full effect of openings in wall 
or roof surfaces. In such cases the velocity pressure "q" to be 

used at any height shall be taken as .77 P. 

715.4 ANCHORAGE: Roof framing shall be anchored to wall framing and 
the walls to foundations so as to resist wind uplift and sliding in 
excess of seventy-five (75) percent of the dead load resistance. 

715.5 UPLIFT ON EAVES: Overhanging eaves, cornices and other local 
projections shall be designed and constructed to withstand an 
upward pressure of 1.5 P. 



7-16 



SECTION 716.0 WIND LOADS ON SIGNS, TANK AND RADIO TOWERS, CHIMNEYS 
AND OTHER BUILDING APPURTENANCES 

Minimum wind pressures to be used in the design of these and other 
building appurtenances .shall be determined using the value of P as 
specified in section 714.0. 

716.1 SIGNS AND TOWERS: The wind pressure on ground signs and towers 
other than radio and television towers, and their supports or portions 
thereof having seventy-five (75) percent or more of solid surface shall 
be assumed at 1.2 P and having less than seventy-five (75) percent of 
solid surface shall be 1,6 P of net exposed area of the structure 
normal to the direction of the wind. 

716.2 ROOF STRUCTURES: The wind pressure on roof signs, tank towers, 
stacks, chimney and other exposed roof structures with plane surfaces 
shall be assumed at 1.6 P applied to the net projected area of the 
structure normal to the direction of the wind except as provided in 
sections 716.3 and 716.4. 

716.3 SHIELDING EFFECT: No shielding effect of one element by another 
shall be considered when the distance between them exceeds four (4) 
times the projected smallest dimension of the windward element. 

716.4 EFFECT OF SHAPE: The wind pressure on circular tanks, stacks 
or other circular structures shall be assiamed at 0.7 P applied to the 
projected area; and for hexagonal or octagonal structures, 1,0 P. 

716.41 SPECIAL SHAPES: For special shaped structures such as spheres, 
guys, cables, solid girders, the design wind pressure shall be deter- 
mined as provided for in section 715.3. 



SECTION 717.0 OVERTURNING AND SLIDING 

The overturning moment due to the wind load on all structures shall 
not exceed seventy-five (75) percent of the moment of stability resulting 
from the dead load of the building, unless the building or structure is 
anchored to resist the excess overturning moment and the excess horizontal 
shear over sliding friction. 



7-17 



SECTION 718,0 EARTHQUAKE LOAD 

Provisions of section 718 reflect informed judgments regarding the 
probable intensities of future earthquake ground motions in this 
region, and their associated probabilities of occurrence. The 
objective of these provisions is to protect life safety by limiting 
structural failure. 

718.1 GENERAL 

a) every building or structure and every portion thereof shall 
be designed and constructed to resist stresses produced by 
lateral forces as provided in this section, except detached 
one and two-family dwellings and minor accessory buildings. 
Stresses shall be calculated as the effect of a force applied 
horizontally at each floor or roof level or to building parts 
above the foundation. The force shall be assumed to come 
from any horizontal direction. 

b) every building or structure and every portion designed and 
constructed to resist stresses produced by lateral forces 
as provided in this section shall be constructed and in- 
spected in accordance with the rules and regulations prom- 
ulgated by the State Building Code Commission. 

718.2 DEFINITIONS: The following definitions apply only to the 
provisions of this section. 

BOX SYSTEM: a structural system where the vertical load is carried 
by bearing walls and structural framing and where the lateral 
stability and lateral force resisting system consists of shear 
walls or braced frames. 

BRACED FRAME: a vertical truss or its equivalent which is pro- 
vided to resist lateral forces in which the members are subjected 
primarily to axial stresses. 

CLASS A SOIL: includes all the classes of soil and rock enumerated 
in section 723.4. 

CLASS A SOIL SITE: 

a) a site composed exclusively of Class A soil, or 

b) a site where Class A soil overlies or includes Class B soil, 
provided that the depth below foundation level to the upper- 
most Class B soil and the cumulative thickness of Class B 
soil meet the criteria in Figure 7-9. 

CLASS B SOIL: includes all classes of soil not qualifying as 
Class A soil. 

CLASS B SOIL SITE: any site which does not meet the criteria for 
Class A soil site. 

7-17A 



DUAL BRACING SYSTEM: consists of a moment resisting space frame 
and shear walls which meet the following design criteria: 

a) the space frame and shear walls shall resist the total lateral 
force in accordance with their relative rigidities considering 
the interaction of the shear walls and space frame. 

b) the shear walls acting independently of the resisting portions 
of .the space frame shall resist the total lateral force. 

c) the resisting space frame shall have the capacity to resist 
not less than twenty-five (25) percent of the total lateral 
force. 

FOUNDATION LEVEL: the lowest of any of the following: 

a) the bottom of any spread or combined footing or foundation 
mat; 

b) the bottom of any pile cap; 

c) the top of any pier or caisson. 

LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM: that part of the structural system 
to which the total lateral forces prescribed in section 718.4 are 
assigned. 

LIQUEFACTION: a term used to describe a group of phenomena 

occurring in saturated cohesionless sandy and silty soils con- 
sisting of a large decrease in effective stress (total stress 
minus pore pressure) accompanied by large deformations under 
either static or cyclic loading. The term cyclic mobility should 
also be included within the scope of the definition of liquefac- 
tion. 

MOMENT-RESISTING SPACE FRAME: a space frame designed to carry all 
vertical loads and in which the members and joints are capable 
of resisting design lateral forces by bending moments. 

SHEAR WALL: a wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to 
the wall. 

SPACE FRAME: a three-dimensional structural system composed of 
interconnected members, other than bearing walls, designed to 
function as a complete self-contained laterally stable unit with 
or without the aid of horizontal diaphragms or floor bracing 
systems. 

718.3 SYMBOLS AND NOTATIONS: The following symbols and notations 
apply only to the provisions of this section: 

C = Numerical coefficient for base shear as specified in section 
719.4. 

7-17B 



Cp = Numerical coefficient as specified in section 718.4 and as 
set forth in Table 7-3b. 

D = The dimension of the building in feet in a direction parallel 
to the applied forces. 

D = The plan dimension of the vertical lateral force resisting 
system in feet. 

Fx = Lateral force applied to level i, n, or x, respectively. 

Fp = Lateral force on the part of the structure and in the direc- 
tion under consideration. 

Fj. = That portion of V considered concentrated at the top of the 
structure, at the level n. The remaining portion of the 
total base shear V shall be distributed over the height of 
the structure including level n according to Formula (18-5). 

hx = Height in feet above the base to level i, n, or x, respectively. 

K = Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 7-3A. 

Lev- 
el i = Level of the structure referred to by the subscript i. 

Lev- 
el n = That level which is uppermost in the main portion of the 
structure. 

Lev- 
el j; = That level which is under design consideration. 

M = Overturning moment at the base of the building or structure. 

Itp = The overturning moment at level x. 

N = Total number of stories above exterior grade. 

T = Fundamental period of vibration of the building or structure 
in seconds in the direction under consideration. 

V = Total lateral load or shear at the base. 

V = F^ + ^ F^ 
i = 1 

where t = 1 designates first level above the base. 

W = Total dead load including the partition loading where appli- 
cable. 

EXCEPTION: W shall be equal to the total deal load plus 

7-17C 



twenty-five (25) percent of the floor live load in storage 
and warehouse occupancies; the snow load shall also be 
included. 

w^ = That portion of W which is located at or is assigend to level 
w^ i or X respectively. 

Wp = The weight of a part or portion of a structure. 

Yt = Total unit weight. 

718.4 MINIMUM EARTHQUAKE FORCES FOR STRUCTURES: The provisions 
of this section are applicable only to buildings and structures 
meeting the requirements of section 718.5. All other buildings 
and structures shall be designed in accordance with section 718.7. 

718.41 TOTAL LATERAL FORCE: Every structure shall be designed 
and constructed to withstand minimum total lateral seismic forces 
assumed to act nonconcurrently in the direction of each of the 
main axes of the structure in accordance with the following formula: 

V = 1/3 KCSW 

a) C FACTOR 

The value of C shall be determined in accordance with the 
following formula: 

For all one and two-story buildings or structures the value 
of C shall be not less than 0.10. For other buildings the 
maximum value of C need not exceed 0. 10. 

EXCEPTIONS : 

1) C exceeds 0.10 where indicated in Table 7-3b. 

2) Buildings or structures which have highly irregular 
shapes, large differences in lateral resistance or 
stiffness between different stories or other unusual 
structural features affecting seismic response shall 
be designed in accordance with section 718.7. 

T is the fundamental period of vibration of the structure in 
seconds in the direction under consideration. Properly 
substantiated technical data for establishing the period T 
may be submitted. In the absence of such data, the value for 
T for buildings shall be determined by the following formula: 

0.05h„ 



7-17D 



EXCEPTION: In all buildings in which the lateral force 
resisting system consists of a moment-resisting space frame 
which resists one hundred (100) percent of the required 
lateral forces and which frame is not enclosed by or 
adjoined by more rigid elements which would tend to prevent 
the frame from resisting lateral forces: 



0.10 N 



b) K FACTOR 



All buildings shall be designed with a horizontal force factor 
K = 1 except buildings which have a lateral force resisting 
system listed in Table 7-3A. 

TABLE 7-3A HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR "K" FOR BUILDINGS 
OR OTHER STRUCTURES 1 



TYPE OF ARRANGEMENT OF RESISTING ELEMENTS 


VALUE 
OF K 


Buildings with a box system as defined in section 
718.2 


1.33 


Buildings with a dual bracing system as defined in 
section 718.2 


0.80 


Buildings with a momemt resisting space frame designed 
to resist the total required lateral force 


0.67 


Elevated tanks plus full contents, on four or more 
cross-braced legs and not supported by a building^ 


3.003 


Structures other than buildings and other than those 
set forth in Table 7-3b 


2.00 



Note 1: Where wind load would produce higher stresses, this load 
shall be used in lieu of the loads resulting from earth- 
quake forces. 

Note 2: The minimum value of "KC" shall be 0.12 and the maximum 
value of "KC" need not exceed 0.25. 

Note 3: The tower shall be designed for an accidental torsion of 

five (5) percent as specified in section 718.43. Elevated 
tanks which are supported by buildings or do not conform 
to type or arrangement of supporting elements as described 



7-17E 



NOTES FOR TABLE 7-3A (continued) 

above shall be designed in accordance with section 718.45 
using "Cp" =2. 

c) S FACTOR 

For a Class A soil site, S = 1. For a Class B soil site, 
S = 1.5. Intermediate values of S may be used, if justified 
by -the results of adequate studies by a qualified registered 
professional engineer. 

718.42 DISTRIBUTION OF LATERAL FORCE 

a) VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION 

The total lateral force V shall be distributed in the height 
of the structure in the following manner: 



Ft = .004V \^ D, 

F. need not exceed 0.15 V and may be considered as for 
values fhyi] of 3 or less, and 



(k) 



(V - Ft) wx^x 
•^ n 

^ w^h^ 
i = 1 

EXCEPTION: One and two-story buildings shall have uniform 
distribution. 

At each level designated as x, the force F^ shall be applied 
over the area of the building in accordance with the mass 
distribution on that level. 

b) HORIZONTAL DISTRIBUTION 

Total shear in any horizontal plane shall be distributed to 
the various elements of the lateral force resisting system 
in proportion to their rigidities considering the rigidity 
of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm. 

718.43 HORIZONTAL TORSIONAL MOMENTS: Provisions shall be made for 
the increase in shear resulting from the horizontal torsion due to 
an eccentricity between the center of mass and the center of rigidity. 
Negative torsional shears shall be neglected. Where the vertical 
resisting elements depend on diaphragm action for shear distribution 
at any level, the shear-resisting elements shall be capable of 
resisting a torsional moment assumed to be equivalent to the story 
shear acting with an eccentricity of not less than five (5) percent 

7-17F 



of the maximum building dimension at that level. 

718.44 OVERTURNING: Every building or structure shall be designed 
to resist the overturning effects caused by the wind forces and 
related requirements specified in section 717.0 or the earthquake 
forces specified in this section, whichever governs. 

At any level the incremental changes of the design overturning 
moment, in the story under consideration, shall be distributed to 
the various resisting elements in the same proportions as the 
distribution of the shears in the resisting system. Where other 
vertical members are provided which are capable of partially 
resisting the overturning moments, a redistribution may be made 
to these members if framing members of sufficient strength and 
stiffness to transmit the required loads are provided. 

Where a vertical resisting element is discontinuous, the over- 
turning moment carried by the lowest story of that element shall 
be carried down as loads to the foundation. 

718.45 LATERAL FORCE ON PARTS OR PORTIONS OF BUILDINGS OR OTHER 
STRUCTURES: Parts or portions of buildings or structures and their 
anchorage shall be designed for lateral forces in accordance with 
the following formula: 

Fp = l/3CpWp 

The values of Cp are set forth in Table 7-3b unless a greater 
value is required by the basic seismic formula V = 1/3 KCSW. 
The distribution of these forces shall be according to the gravity 
loads pertaining thereto. 



7-17G 



TABLE 7-3B HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR "C" FOR PARTS OR 
PORTIONS OF BUILDINGS OR OTHER STRUCTURES 



PART OR PORTION OF BUILDINGS 


DIRECTION 
OF FORCE 


VALUE OF 

Cp 


Exterior bearing and nonbearing walls, 
interior bearing walls and partitions, 
interior nonbearing walls and parti- 
tions over 10 feet in height, mason- 
ry or concrete fences over 6 feet 
in height 


Normal to 

flat 

surface 


0.20 


Cantilever parapet and other cantilever 
walls, except retaining walls 


Normal to 

flat 

surface 


1.00 


Exterior and interior ornamentations 
and appendages 


Any 
direction 


1.00 


When connected to, part of, or housed 
within a building: towers, tanks, 
towers and tanks plus contents, 
storage racks over 6 feet in 
height plus contents, chimneys, 
smokestacks and penthouses 


Any 
direction 


0.20l> 2 


When resting on the ground, tank plus 
effective mass of its contents 


Any 
direction 


0.10 


Floors and roofs acting as diaphragms^ 


Any 
direction 


0.10 


Connections for exterior panels or for 
elements complying with section 
718.64 


Any 
direction 


2.00 


Connections for prefabricated struc- 
tural elements other than walls, with 
force applied at center of gravity 
of assembly^ 


Any 
horizontal 
direction 


0.30 



7-17H 



NOTES FOR TABLE 7-3B 

Note 1: When located in the upper portion of any building where 

the "h^/D" ratio is five- to-one (5/1) or greater the value 
shall be increased by fifty (50) percent. 

Note 2: "Wp" for storage racks shall be the weight of the racks 
plus contents. The value of "Cp" for racks over two (2) 
storage support levels in height shall be .16 for the 
levels below the top two levels. 

Note 3: For purposes of determining the lateral force, a minimum 
ceiling weight of five (5) pounds per square foot shall 
be used. 

Note 4: Floors and roofs acting as diaphragms shall be designed 
for a minimum value of "Cp" of ten (10) percent applied 
to loads tributary from tnat story unless a greater value 
of "Cp" is required by the basic seismic formula 
V = 1/3 KCSW. 

Note 5: The "Wp" shall be equal to the total load plus twenty-five 
(25) percent of the floor live load in storage and ware- 
house occupancies. 



7-171 



718.46 LATERAL FORCE ON FOUNDATIONS: Provision shall be made 
for transmission of the base shear, acting in any direction, be- 
tween structure and soil or rock, by means of 

a) lateral soil pressure against foundation walls, footings, 
grade beams and pipe caps; 

b) lateral soil pressure against piles, piers, or caissons; 

c) batter piles, or; 

d) side or bottom friction on walls or footings, or; 

e) combinations of the foregoing. 

Lateral pressure may not be more than one-third (1/3) the passive 
pressure. Bottom friction may not be relied upon where a building 
overlies Class B soil and is supported upon piles, piers or caissons. 
Even if not relied upon to transmit the base shear, foundation walls 
shall comply with the provisions of section 718.68. 

718.5 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 

718.51 CONCRETE: Design and construction of earthquake resisting 
reinforced concrete framing members and their connections shall con- 
form to the provisions of section 842.1 and of reference standard 
ACI 318-71 (except Appendix A), and to the special requirements of 
this section. 

a) FLEXURAL MEMBERS OF MOMENT RESISTING SPACE FRAMES 

Web reinforcement shall be required throughout the length of 
each flexural member. The minimum area of such web reinforce- 
ment shall be 0.15 percent of the product of the width of the 
web and the spacing of the web reinforcement along the longitudinal 
axis of the member. 

Where stirrups are used as web reinforcement, the first stirrup 
shall be located two (2) inches from the face of the support 
and the next six (6) stirrups shall be spaced not over one- 
fourth (1/4) of the depth of the member. 

Lapped splices located in a region of tension or reversing 
stress shall be confined by at least two stirrups at each 
splice. 

b) COLUMNS OF MOMENT RESISTING SPACE FRAMES 

The spacing of ties at the ends of tied columns shall not ex- 
ceed four (4) inches for a distance equal to the maximum 
column dimension but not less than one-sixth (1/6) of the 
clear height of the column, nor less than eighteen (18) inches, 
■from the face of the joint. The first such tie shall be 
located two (2) inches from the face of the joint. Joints 

7-17J 



of exterior and comer columns shall be confined by lateral 
reinforcement through the joint. Such lateral reinforcement 
shall consist of spirals or ties as required at the ends of 
columns. 

c) EARTHQUAKE RESISTING SHEAR WALLS AND BRACED FRAMES 

Shear walls and braced frames shall be designed by the strength 
design method except that the alternate design method of re- 
ference standard ACI 318-71 may be used, provided that the 
factor of safety in shear is equivalent to that achieved with 
the strength design method. The formulas for required strength 
U, as provided in reference standard ACI 318-71, shall be modi- 
fied to: 

U = 1.4 (D + L) + 1.4E 

U = 0.9D + 1.4E 

except that 2.E shall be used in the calculation of shear 
stresses in shear walls of buildings without a moment resist- 
ing space frame capable of carrying all vertical loads and 
lateral forces. 

1) SHEAR WALLS 

a) Special vertical boundary elements shall be provided 
at the edges of concrete shear walls in buildings with 
a dual bracing system as defined in section 718.2. 
These elements shall be composed of concrete encased 
structural steel elements of A36, A440, A441, A572 
(except Grades 60 and 65) or A588 Grades A, B, or C, 

or shall be concrete reinforced as required for columns 
with special transverse reinforcement as desribed in Item 
3) below for the full length of the element. The 
boundary vertical elements and such other similar 
vertical elements as may be required shall be designed 
to carry all the vertical stresses resulting from 
the wall loads in addition to tributary dead and live 
loads and from the design lateral forces. Horizontal 
reinforcing in the walls shall be fully anchored to 
the vertical elements. 

b) Similar confinement of horizontal and vertical boundaries 
at wall openings also shall be provided unless it can 

be demonstrated that the unit compressive stresses 
at the opening have a load factor two (2) times that 
given by the formulae in this subsection for required 
strength U. 

c) Wall reinforcement required to resist wall shear shall 

7-17K 



be terminated with not less than a ninety (90) de- 
gree bend plus a twelve (12) bar diameter extension 
beyond the boundary reinforcing at vertical and hori- 
zontal end faces of wall sections. Wall reinforce- 
ment terminating in boundary columns shall be fully 
anchored into the boundary elements. 

2) BRACED FRAMES 

a) Reinforced concrete members of braced frames subject 
primarily to axial stresses shall have transverse 
reinforcement as specified in 3) below through the 
full length of the member. Tension members shall 
additionally meet the requirements for compressive 
members. 

b) In buildings without a moment resisting space frame 
capable of carrying all vertical loads and the total 
required lateral force, all members in braced frames 
shall be designed for 1.25 times the force determined 
in accordance with section 718.4. Connections for 
these members are not permitted the thirty-three (33) 
percent stress increase for earthquake. 

3) TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT 

Where transverse reinforcement is required by the pro- 
visions of this section, the amount of such reinforce- 
ment shall be not less than that specified below. 

The volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement shall be 
not less than that specified for reinforced concrete 
columns, nor less than 

0.12 f /f 

c yh 

Rectangular hoop reinforcement shall be spaced not more 
than four (4) inches apart and shall have a total cross- 
sectional area not less than the greater of 

A =0.30 s h f /f (A /A -1) 
sh h c c yh g ch 



A ,=0.12 s,h f /f , 
sh h c c yh 

Single or overlapping hoops may be provided to meet this 
requirement. 

Supplementary cross ties of the same size and spacing 
as hoops using 135-degree minimum hooks engaging the 
periphery hoop and secured to a longitudinal bar may 



7-17L 



be used. Supplementary cross ties or legs of overlapp- 
ing hoops shall be spaced not more than fourteen (14) 
inches on center transversely. 

718.52 STEEL: Design and construction of earthquake resisting 
steel framing members and their connections shall conform to the 
provisions of section 827 and of reference standard AISC 1969 and 
to the special requirements of this section. 

a) MOMENT-RESISTING SPACE FRAMES 

1) GENERAL 

Design and construction of steel framing in moment-resist- 
ing space frames shall conform to the provisions of sec- 
tion 827.0 and the requirements of this section. 

2) DEFINITIONS 

a) JOINTS: The joint is the entire assemblage at 
the intersections of the members. 

b) CONNECTIONS: The connection consists of only those 
elements that connect the member to the joint. 

3) CONNECTIONS 

Each beam or girder moment connection to a column shall 
be capable of developing in the beam the full plastic 
capacity of the beam or girder. 

EXCEPTION: The connection need not develop the full 
plastic capacity of the beam or girder if it can be 
shown that adequately ductile joint displacement 
is provided with a lesser connection. 

4) LOCAL BUCKLING 

Members in which hinges will form during inelastic dis- 
placement of the frames shall comply with the require- 
ment for "plastic design sections". 

5) SLENDERNESS RATIOS 

The effective length "kl" used in determining the s lender - 
ness ratio of an axially loaded compression member in the 
moment-resisting space frame depends on its own bending 
stiffness for the lateral stability of the building, 
even if bracing or shear walls are provided. 

6) NONDESTRUCTIVE WELDING TESTING 

Welded connections between primary members of the moment- 
resisting space frame shall be tested by nondestructive 

7-17M 



methods for compliance with the Code and job specifica- 
tions. A program for this testing shall be established 
by the person responsible for structural design. As a 
minimum, this program shall include the following: 

a) All complete penetration groove .welds contained in 
joints and splices shall be tested one hundred (100) 
percent either by ultrasonic testing or by radiography. 

EXCEPTION: The nondestructive testing rate for an 
individual welder may be reduced to twenty-five 
(25) percent subject to the concurrence of the 
design engineer of record, provided the reject 
rate is demonstrated to be five (5) percent or 
less of the welds tested for the welder. A sampl- 
ing of at least forty (40) completed welds shall 
be made for such reduction evaluation. Reject 
rate is defined as the number of welds containing 
rejectable defects divided by the number of welds 
completed. For evaluating the reject rate of con- 
tinuous welds over three (3) feet in length, each 
twelve (12) inch increment shall be considered as 
one weld. For evaluating the reject rate for continu- 
ous welds greater than one (1) inch thick, each 
six (6) inches of length shall be considered one 
(1) weld. 

b) Partial penetration groove welds when used in column 
splices shall be tested either by ultrasonic testing 
or radiography as required by the design engineer of 
record. 

b) BRACED FRAMES 

1) All members in braced frames of K=1.0 and K=1.33 build- 
ings shall be designed for 1.25 times the force determined 
in accordance with section 718.4. Connections for these 
members are not permitted the thirty-three (33) percent 
stress increase for earthquake. 

718.53 MASONRY: Masonry shall be subject to the provisions and 
reference standards of Article 8. 

718.54 TIMBER: Design and construction of earthquake resisting 
timber structures shall conform to the provisions of section 

851 supplemented by the reference standards of Article 8 pertain- 
ing to Liomber and Construction and the Timber Construction Manual 
(second Edition 1974) by the American Institute of Timber Construc- 
tion, and to the requirements of this section. 

a) DIAPHRAGMS 

Linnber and plywood diaphragms may be used to resist wind 
or horizontal earthquake forces. 

7-17N 



Design of diaphragms shall conform to the accepted engineer- 
ing practice as presented in the Timber Construction Manual. 

b) Axial and shear forces produced in wood members by wind or 
earthquake shall be transferred by positive connections 
and adequate anchorage. Uplift or horizontal displacement 
of seated connections shall be prevented by positive anchors. 
Toenailing or nails subject to withdrawal are not acceptable 
for connections resisting such forces or displacements. 

Sheathing materials may be used as tension ties provided the 
tension force does not provide cross-grain bending or cross- 
grain tension in the peripheral members or other framing 
members to which the sheathing connects. 

718.55 PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION: All structural elements with- 
in the structure which are considered to resist seismic forces or 
movement and/or are connected so as to participate with the struc- 
tural system shall be designed in accordance with the provisions 
of this Code in accordance with "Accepted Engineering Practice 
Standards" (ACI 318-71 for Precast Concrete). Connections shall 
accommodate all design forces and movement without loss of load 
carrying capacity of the interconnected members and shall conform 
to section 718.57. 

718.56 OTHER MATERIALS OR METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION: Materials other 
than concrete, steel, clay masonry, concrete block masonry and wood 
and structural systems other than structural steel, reinforced 
concrete, reinforced masonry, wood frame or heavy timber shall not 
be relied on to resist lateral forces and deformations in building 
structures unless it can be demonstrated to the building official 
that the structure can safely withstand lateral distortion eight 

(8) times that computed for the lateral forces specified in sec- 
tion 718.4. The building official shall require drawings and cal- 
culations submitted by a registered professional engineer to verify 
the requirements of this provision. 

718.57 CONNECTIONS 

a) Connections with transfer forces between members which 
resist seismic forces in flexure shall be designed for 
the required forces and also shall either: 

1) Develop the full plastic moment of the member 

OR 

2) Be capable of deforming to form a reversible plastic 
hinge. 

b) Members v^ich are part of the lateral force resisting 
system and resist seismic motion by direct axial force 
shall have connections designed to develop the axial 
capacities of the members. 

7-170 



c) Connections of structural members, which are not part of 
the lateral force resisting system, to supporting members 
shall be designed to resist the required seismic forces 
without reliance on frictional forces. 

d) Column splices, base plate anchors and other types of 
connections that act primarily in bearing shall be designed 
to resist the required forces, and also shall be capable 

of resisting the forces resulting from the full seismic 
loading combined with two-thirds (2/3) of the dead load 
forces acting concurrently. 

e) Connections between diaphragms and resisting shear walls 
and bracing shall be designed for twice the computed force. 

718.5 OTHER DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 

718.61 LATERAL FORCE RESISTING SYSTEM: Rigid elements that are 
assumed not to be part of the lateral force resisting system may 
be incorporated into buildings provided that their effect on the 
action of the system is considered and provided for in the design. 

718.62 MOMENT RESISTING SPACE FRAMES: Moment resisting space 
frames may be enclosed by or adjoined by more rigid elements which 
would tend to prevent the space frame from resisting lateral 
forces where it can be shown that the action or failure of the 
more rigid elements will not impair the vertical and lateral load 
resisting ability of the space frame. 

718.63 BUILDING SEPARATIONS: All portions of structures shall 
be designed and constructed to act as an integral unit in resist- 
ing horizontal forces unless separated structurally by a distance 
sufficient to avoid contact under deflection from seismic action 
or wind forces. 

718.64 SETBACKS: Buildings having setbacks wherein the plan 
dimension of the tower in each direction is at least seventy-five 
(75) percent of the corresponding plan dimension of the lower 
part may be considered as a uniform building without setbacks 
for the purpose of determining seismic forces. 

For other conditions of setbacks the tower shall be designed 
as a separate building using the larger of the seismic coefficients 
at the base of the tower determined by considering the tower as 
either a separate building for its own height or as part of the 
overall structure. The resulting total shear from the tower shall 
be applied at the top of the lower part of the building which shall 
be otherwise considered separately for its own height. 

EXCEPTION: Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to pro- 
hibit the submission of properly substantiated technical data 
for establishing the lateral design forces by a dynamic analysis 
in accordance with section 718.7 

7-17P 



718.65 COMBINED VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL FORCES: In computing 
the effect of seismic force in combination with vertical loads, 
gravity load stresses induced in members by dead load plus de- 
sign live load, except roof live load, shall be considered. 

718.66 EXTERIOR ELEMENTS: Precast, nonbearing, non-shear wall 
panels, parapets, or other elements which are attached to, or en- 
close the exterior, shall accommodate movements of the structure 
resulting from lateral forces or temperature changes. The concrete 
panels or other elements shall be supported by means of poured-in- 
place concrete or by mechanical fasteners in accordance with the 
following provisions: 

a) Connections and panel joints shall allow for a relative 
movement between stories of not less than two (2) times 
story drift caused by wind or seismic forces; or one 
quarter (1/4) inch whichever is greater. 

b) Connections shall have sufficient ductility and rotation 
capacity so as to preclude fracture of the concrete or 
brittle failures at or near welds. Inserts in concrete 
shall be attached to, or hooked around reinforcing steel, 

or otherwise terminated so as to effectively transfer forces 
to the reinforcing steel. 

c) Connections to permit movement in the plane of the panel for 
story drift may be properly designed sliding connections using 
slotted or oversize holes or may be connections which permit 
movement by bending of steel. 

718.67 MINOR ALTERATIONS: Minor structural alterations may be made 
in existing buildings and other structures, but the resistance to 
lateral forces shall be not less than that before such alterations 
were made, unless the building as altered meets the requirements 

of this section of the Code. 

718.68 DRIFT: Lateral deflections or drift of a story relative 
to its adjacent stories shall be considered in accordance with 
accepted practice. Lateral deflection of diaphragms shall be 
considered in addition to the deflection of vertical bracing 
elements. 

Rigid elements that are assumed not to be part of the lateral 
force resisting system may be incorporated into buildings provided 
that the effect of the action of the system is considered and 
provided for in the design. In addition, the effects of the drift 
on such rigid elements themselves and on their attachment to the 
building structure shall be considered. 

718.69 INTERCONNECTIONS OF FOUNDATIONS: Pile, pier and caisson 
caps shall be interconnected by ties when the caps overlie Class 

B soil. Each tie shall carry by tension or compression a horizontal 
force equal to ten (10) percent of the larger pile, pier or caisson 
cap loading, unless it can be demonstrated that equivalent restraint 

7-17Q 



can be provided by other means. At sites where footings are under- 
lain at shallow depths by cohesionless granular soils, the blow 
counts of which only slightly exceed the criteria given in Figure 
7-10, adequate consideration shall be given to the lateral and 
vertical movements of footings that may occur during the design 
earthquake specified in section 718.7. 

718.70 RETAINING WALLS: Retaining walls shall be designed to re- 
sist at least the superimposed effects of the total static lateral 
soil pressure, excluding the pressure caused by any temporary sur- 
charge, plus an earthquake force of 0.045r^H2 (Horizontal backfill 
surface). Surcharges which are applied over extended periods of 
time shall be included in the total static lateral soil pressure 
and their earthquake lateral force shall be computed and added 

to the force of .0U5y ^^ . The earthquake force from the backfill 
shall be distributed as an inverse triangle over the height of the 
wall. The point of application of the earthquake force from an ex- 
tended duration surcharge shall be determined on an individual case 
basis. If the backfill consists of loose saturated granular soil, 
consideration shall be given to the potential liquefaction of the 
backfill during the seismic loading. 

718.71 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS: Any building or structure is deemed to 
have complied with the provisions of section 718 if a qualified 
registered engineer determines that there is negligible risk to 
life safety if the building or structure experiences an earthquake 
with a peak acceleration of 0.12g and a frequency content similar 

to that implied by the appropriate response spectrum in Figure 7-10. 
A copy of the studies upon which the determination may be based 
upon shall be filed with the building official. Such a determina- 
tion may be based upon 

a) a dynamic analysis, based upon generally acceptable procedures, 
together with evidence that the building or structure can 
safely withstand the computed displacements and distortions; 

b) a comparison of the building or structure with similar build- 
ings or structures having similar foundations and subsoil con- 
ditions, that have withstood a similar actual earthquake; or 

c) other accepted procedures. 



7-17R 




s.s - NoiiVHanaDDV ivaxoads 



7-17S 



SECTION 719.0 COMBINED LOADING 

The structural frame of all buildings shall be investigated for 
the combined effect of lateral and vertical loading and the individual 
members of the frame shall be proportioned as follows: 

719.1 WITH EARTHQUAKE: For combined stresses due to earthquake load 
together with dead, live and snow loads, the allowable working stress 
for the structural material may be Increased thirty-three and one- 
third (33 1/3) percent. 

719.2 WITH WIND: For combined stresses due to wind load together 
with dead, live and snow loads, the allowable working stress for the 
structural material may be increased thirty-three and one-third (33 1/3) 
percent . 

719.3 MINIMUM SECTION: The section determined for the combined 
loadings herein specified shall be compared with that required for 
dead, live and snow loads only, and the section of greatest strength 
shall determine that to be used in the structure. 



SECTION 720.0 LIVE LOAD REDUCTION 

In all buildings and structures except places of assembly, the 
design live loads may be reduced on columns, piers, walls, trusses, 
girders and foundations as herein specified; but in no case shall a 
reduction be applied to the roof live load. 

720.1 LIVE LOADS 100 POUNDS OR LESS: For live loads of one hundred 
(100) pounds or less per square foot, the design live load on any 
member supporting one hundred fifty (150) square feet or more may 

be reduced at the rate of eight-hundredths (0.08) percent per square 
foot of area supported by the members; except that no reduction 
shall be made for areas to be occupied as places of public assembly. 
The reduction shall exceed neither R as determined by the following 
formula, nor sixty (60) percent: 

R = 23 (1 + D/L) 

R = reduction in percent 

D = dead load per square foot of an area supported by the member 

L = design live load per square foot of area supported by the member. 

720.2 LIVE LOADS MORE THAN 100 POUNDS: For live loads exceeding 
one hundred (100) pounds per square foot, no reduction shall be made, 
except that the design live loads on columns may be reduced twenty 
(20) percent. 



7-18 



SECTION 721.0 ALLOWABLE WORKING STRESSES 

721.1 CONTROLLED MATERIALS: All structures controlled by the provisions 
of section 128.0, and all other materials subject to control in the 
building regulatory system, shall be identified as to manufacture, 
grade, and whatever other specifications as may be necessary to con- 
form with the requirements for design and analysis of such controlled 
structures or materials. 

721.2 ORDINARY MATERIALS: The use of ordinary materials without 
selection and without controlled design and supervision, or when the 
material is not identified as to strength and stress grade, shall be 
limited to the average unit working stresses prescribed in the 
reference standards of this article. 

721.3 NEW MATERIALS: For materials which are not specifically pro- 
vided for in the Basic Code, the working stresses shall be established 
by tests as provided in sections 703 and 803. 



SECTION 722.0 LIGHT WEIGHT METALS 

Aluminum and other light weight metals and their alloys may be 
used in the design and construction of buildings and structures only 
after special approval of the building official, subject to the 
determination of the physical properties by tests as prescribed in 
article 8 and in accordance with the provisions of section 834, and 
provided that plans and calculations are submitted by a registered 
professional engineer or architect. 



SECTION 723.0 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 

All applications for permits for the construction of new buildings 
or structures, and for the alteration of a permanent structure which 
require changes in foundation loads and distribution, shall be 
accompanied by a statement describing soil in all bearing strata, 
including sufficient records and data to establish their character, 
nature and load bearing capacity. Such records shall be certified 
by a qualified registered professional engineer or architect. 

723.1 SATISFACTORY FOUNDATION MATERIALS: Satisfactory bearing strata 
to provide structural support shall be considered to include the 
following, provided they are of a standard consistent with engineering 
applications: natural strata of rock, gravel, sand, inorganic silt, 
inorganic clay, or combinations of these materials. Compacted fills 
when designed and placed under the supervision of a qualified registered 
professional engineer or architect and certified by him as meeting the 
design requirements, may be accepted by the building official. Other 
conditions of unsatisfactory bearing materials which are altered under 

7-19 



the supervision of a qualified registered professional engineer or arch- 
tect and certified by him as meeting the design requirments may be 
accepted by the building official. Sites involving medium and fine 
sands, inorganic silt and compacted fills are subject to the additional 
special requirements in section 723.3. 

723.11 LOADING INTERACTION: Wherever bearing strata are subject to 
interaction from other loadings or strata reactions, such conditions 
shall be incorporated in the evaluation of the design bearing capacity 
of the support strata. 

723.12 BEARING CAPACITY FOR LIGHT WEIGHT STRUCTURES: Light weight 
structures and accessory structures such as garages and sheds may be 
founded on normally unacceptable bearing strata, providing such material 
is certified by a qualified registered professional engineer or architect 
as being satisfactory for the intended use. 

723.13 PROTECTION OF BEARING STRATA: Bearing strata which may be 
adversely affected by conditions within the structure, such as evapora- 
tion and shrinkage due to excess heat, shall be adequately protected. 

723.2 BEARING VALUES: The maximum pressure on soils under foundations 
shall not exceed values specified in table 7-4, except when determined 
in accordance with the provisions of section 725.0 or when modified by 
specific sections of this article. 

TABLE 7-4 PRESUMPTIVE BEARING CAPACITY OF FOUNDATION MATERIALS 



CLASS OF MATERIAL** TONS PER SQUARE FOOT* 



1. Massive crystalline bedrock including 
granite, diorite, gneiss, trap rock, and 

dolomite (hard limestone) 60 

2. Foliated rock including limestone, schist 

and slate in sound condition 40 

3. Sedimentary rock including hard shales, 
sandstones, and thoroughly cemented 

conglomerates 20 

4. Soft or broken bedrock" (excluding shale) 

and soft limestone 20 

5. Compacted, partially cemented gravels, 

and sand and hardpan overlying rock 10 

6. Gravel, well-graded sand and gravel mixtures 6 

7. Loose gravel, compact coarse sand 4 

8. Loose coarse sand and sand and gravel 

mixtures and compact fine sand (confined) 2 

7-20 



TABLE 7-4 (cont.) 



9. Loose medium sand (confined) 1 

10. Loose fine sand (+) 

(+) 

11. Hard clay 4 

12. Medium stiff clay, stiff varved silt 2 (t) 

13. Soft clay, soft broken shale 1 (t) 

14. Soft inorganic silt, preloaded material, 
shattered shale, or any natural deposit of 

unusual character not provided for herein (+) 



(+) 



15. Disturbed bed varved silt 



16. Compacted granular fill + 

(2-5+) 



* The allowable bearing pressure given in this section, or when 
determined in accordance with the provisions of section 727 
will assure that the soils will be stressed within limits that lie 
safely below their strength. However, such allowable bearing 
pressure for Classes 9 to 12, inclusive, do not assure that the 
settlements will be within the tolerable limits for a given 
structure. 

t Alternatively, the allowable bearing pressure shall be computed 
from the unconfined compressive strength of undisturbed samples, 
and shall be taken as 1.50 times that strength for round and 
square footings, and 1.25 times that strenth for footings with 
length-width ratios of greater than four (4) ; for intermediate 
ratios interpolation may be used. 

+ Value to be fixed by the building official in accordance with 
+ sections 725.0 and 726.0. 

** The allowable bearing pressure may be increased by one-third (1/3). 

723.21 CLASSIFICATION OF BEARING MATERIALS: The terms used in this 
section shall be interpreted in accordance with generally accepted 
engineering nomenclature. In addition, the following more specific 
definitions are used for bearing materials in the area: 

a) ROCKS 

SHALE: a soft, fine-grained sedimentary rock. 

SLATE: a hard, fine-grained metamorphic rock of sedimentary 
origin. 

CONGLOMERATE: a hard, well-cemented metamorphic rock consisting 

7-21 



of fragments ranging from sand to gravel and cobbles set in 
a fine-grained matrix (locally known as Puddingstone) . 

b) GRANULAR MATERIALS 

GRAVEL: a mixture of mineral grains at least seventy (70) percent 
(by weight) of which is retained on a No. 4 mesh sieve and 
possessing no dry strength. 

SAND: a mixture of mineral grains at least seventy (70) percent 
(by weight) of which passes a No. 4 mesh sieve and which contains 
not more than fifteen (15) percent (by weight) passing a No. 
200 mesh sieve. 

COARSE SAND: a sand at least fifty (50) percent (by weight) of 
which is retained on a No. 20 mesh sieve. 

MEDIUM SAND: a sand at least fifty (50) percent (by weight) of 
which passes a No. 20 mesh sieve and at least fifty (50) 
percent (by weight) is retained on a No. 60 mesh sieve. 

FINE SAND: a sand at least fifty (50) percent (by weight) of 
which passes a No. 60 mesh sieve. 

WELL-GRADED SAND AND GRAVEL: a mixture of mineral grains which 
contains between twenty-five (25) percent and seventy (70) 
percent (by weight) passing a No. 4 mesh sieve, between ten 
(10) and forty (40) percent (by weight) passing a No. 20 mesh 
sieve, and containing not more than eight (8) percent (by 
weight) passing a No. 200 mesh sieve. 

c) COHESIVE MATERIALS 

GLACIAL TILL: a very dense, heterogeneous mixture ranging from 
very fine material to coarse gravel and boulders and generally 
lying over bedrock. It can be identified from geological 
evidence and from the very high penetration resistance encoun- 
tered in earth boring and sampling operations. 

CLAY: a fine-grained, inorganic soil possessing sufficient 
dry strength to form hard lumps which cannot readily be pul- 
verized by the fingers. 

HARD CLAY: an inorganic clay requiring picking for removal, 
a fresh sample of which cannot be molded by pressure of the 
fingers. 

MEDIUM CLAY: an inorganic clay which can be removed by spading, 
a fresh sample of which can be molded by a substantial pressure 
of the fingers. 

SOFT CLAY: an inorganic clay, a fresh sample of which can be 
molded with slight pressure of the fingers. 

7-21A 



INORGANIC SILT: a fine-grained inorganic soil consisting chiefly 
of grains which will pass a No. 200 mesh sieve and possessing 
sufficient dry strength to form lumps which can easily be 
pulverized with the fingers. 

NOTE: Dry strength is determined by drying a wet pat of soil 
and breaking it with the fingers. 

d) COMPACTED GRANULAR FILL: a fill consisting of gravel, sand- 

gravel mixtures, coarse or medium sand, crushed stone, or slag, 
containing not more than eight (8) percent (by weight) passing 
a No. 200 mesh sieve and having no plasticity, shall be con- 
sidered satisfactory bearing material when compacted in nine 
(9) inch thick layers, measured before compaction, with adjust- 
ment of water content as necessary to achieve required compaction 
by applying to each layer a minimum of four (4) coverages 
of one of the following: 

1) a vibratory roller with a steel drum with minimum weight 
of two (2) tons with a speed not exceeding one and one- 
half (1 1/2) miles per hour; 

2) a rubber-tired roller having four (4) wheel abreast and 
weighted to a total load of not less than thirty-five (35) 
tons; 

3) with the treads of a crawler type tractor with total load 
of not less than thirty-five (35) tons; 

4) other types of materials, compaction equipment, and 
procedures as may be approved by the building official 

on the basis of sufficient evidence that they will achieve 
compacted fills having satisfactory properties. 

The building official will require a competent inspector, 
qualified by experience and training and satisfactory to him, 
to be on the project at all times while fill is being placed 
and compacted. The inspector shall make an accurate record 
of the type of material used, including grain-size curves, 
thickness of lifts, type of compacting equipment and number of 
coverages, the use of water and other pertinent data. 

Whenever the building official or the inspector questions 
the suitability of a material, or the degree of compaction 
achieved, bearing tests shall be performed on the compacted 
material in accordance with the requirements of section 725.0. 
A copy of all these records and test data shall be filed with 
the building official. 

e) PRELOADED MATERIALS 

1) The building official may allow the use of certain otherwise 
unsatisfacoty natural soils and uncompacted fills for the 
support of one (1) story structures, after these materials 
have been preloaded to effective stresses not less than one 
hundred and fifty (150) percent of the effective stresses 
which will be induced by the structure. 

7-21B 



2) The building official may require the loading and unloading 
of a sufficiently large area, conducted under the direction 
of a competent engineer, approved by the building official, 
who shall submit a report containing a program which will 
allow sufficient time for adequate consolidation of the 
material, and an analysis of the preloaded material and of 
the probable settlements of the structure. 

723.3 LIQUEFACTION: The earthquake liquefaction potential of saturated 
medium and fine sands shall be evaluated on the basis of figures 7-7 and 
7-8. If the standard penetration resistances, N, in all strata of 
medium and fine sand lie above the applicable curve in figure 7-7, the 
sands at the site shall not be considered subject to liquefaction. If 
strata not meeting the above criterion exist, but if the total thickness 
of these non-complying strata and the depth to the top of the uppermost 
of the non-complying stratum meet the requirements in figure 7-8 the 
site shall also be satisfactory from the standpoint of liquefaction. 

For pressure-injected footings, the ten (10) foot thickness of soil 
immediately below the bottom of the driven shaft shall not be considered 
subject to liquefaction. 

Compacted granular fills shall not be considered subject to lique- 
faction provided they are systematically compacted to at least ninety- 
three (93) percent of maximum dry density as determined in accordance 
with laboratory test designation ASTM D1557, or a relative density of at 
least sixty (60) percent in the case of granular soil having less than 
ten (10) percent by weight passing the No. 200 sieve. 

For sites not meeting the above criteria, and for sites involving 
saturated inorganic non-plastic silts, studies by a qualified registered 
professional engineer shall be made to determine that the structure 
loads can be safety supported. Such studies might include: 

a) detailed investigations to establish that the soils at the site 
are actually not subect to liquefaction during the design earth- 
quake as specified in section 718.7. 

b) providing foundations that will not fail if liquefaction occurs. 

c) replacing or densifying the liquefaction susceptible soils such 
that liquefaction will not occur. 

723.4 CLASS A AND CLASS B SOILS: For purposes of determining earth- 
quake forces as specified in sections 718.4 and 718.7 Class A soil 
includes the following classes from Table 7-4: massive igneous rocks 
and conglomerate; slate, shale in sound conditions, glacial till; 
gravel or well-graded sand and gravel, if dense to very dense; coarse 
sand, if dense to very dense; medium sand, if dense to very dense; fine 
sand, if dense to very dense; medium and hard clay; and compacted granular 
fill provided that fill soils are systematically compacted throughout 
under the continuous inspection by a qualified registered professional 
engineer. 



7-21C 



SECTION 724.0 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS 

724.1 TOERE REQUIRED: Borings, tests, drill holes, core borings or any 
combination shall be required for all structures except the following 
unless specifically required by the building official; 

a) one and two-family dwellings and their accessory buildings. 

b) structures less than 35,000 cubic feet in gross volume. 

The borings or tests shall be adequate in number of depth and so 
located to accurately define the nature of any subsurface material 
necessary for the support of the structure. 

When it is proposed to support the structure directly on bedrock, the 
building official shall require rock cores or core borings to be made 
into the rock, or shall require other evidence satisfactory to prove 
that the structure shall be adequately founded on bedrock. 

724.2 SOIL SAMPLES AND BORINGS REPORTS: Samples of the strata penetra- 
ted in test borings or test pits, representing the natural disposition 
and conditions at the site, shall be available for examination of the 
building official. Wash or bucket samples shall not be accepted. 
Duplicate copies of the results obtained from all completed and uncom- 
pleted borings plotted to a true relative elevation and to scale and of 
all test results or other pertinent soil data shall be filed with the 
building official. 

SECTION 725.0 BEARING TEST AND SETTLEMENT ANALYSES 

Whenever the allowable bearing pressure on bearing materials, or the 
load bearing capacity of single piles or groups of piles is in doubt, 
the building official may require load tests and/or settlement analyses 
to be made at the expense of the applicant and the results analyzed 
under the direction of a qualified registered professional engineer. 



7-21D 



725.1 APPROVAL OF TEST METHOD: The apparatus and procedure used shall 
be approved by the building official before they are used. A complete 
record of the test results together with a soil profile shall be filed 
by the qualified registered professional engineer who shall have a 
fully-qualified representative on the site during all test operations. 

725.2 LOADING EQUIPMENT: The load shall be applied by direct weight or 
by means of a recently-calibrated jack. Each load shall be maintained 
constant for the required period with an accuracy of plus or minus three 
(3) percent. 

725.21 AREA: For bearing materials of classes 1 to 5 inclusive, the 
load area shall be not less than one (1) square foot and for other 
classes, not less than four (4) square feet. 

725.3 LOADING PROCEDURE: The application of the test load shall be in 
steps equal to not more than one-half (h) the contemplated design load, 
to at least twice the contemplated design load, except as provided in 
section 725.7. The unloading shall be in at least two (2) steps: to 
the design load and then to zero (0) load. During the loading cycle the 
contemplated design load and twice the contemplated design load shall be 
maintained constant for at least twenty-four (24) hours and until the 
rate of settlement or rebound does not exceed two hundredths (.02) of an 
inch per twenty-four hours. The load for all other load steps including 
the zero (0) load at the end of the test shall be maintained constant 
for a period of not less than four (4) hours. Sufficient readings for 
each load step shall be made to define properly the time-deflection 
curve . 

725.4 MEASUREMENTS: Observation of vertical movement shall be made so 
that the data will accurately define the progress of vertical displace- 
ment during the test. 

725.5 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SOIL BEARING TESTS: Bearing tests 
shall be applied at the elevations of the proposed bearing surfaces of 
the structure; except that the load may be applied directly on the 
surface of compacted granular material, class 14. The excavation 
immediately surrounding an area to be tested shall be made no deeper 
than one (1) foot above the plane of application of the test. The test 
plate shall be placed with uniform bearing. For the duration of the 
test, the material surrounding the test area shall be protected ef- 
fectively against evaporation and frost action. 

725.6 DETERMINATION OF DESIGN LOAD: The proposed design load shall be 
allowed provided that the requirements of section 725 are fulfilled and 
the settlements under the design load and twice the design load do not 
exceed three-eighths (3/8) of an inch and one (I) inch, respectively. 

725.7 ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PILE LOAD TESTS: A single pile shall 
be load tested to not less than twice the design load. When two (2) or 
more piles are to be tested as a group, the total load shall be not less 
than one and one-half (1%) times the design load for the group. 

Provided that the load-settlement curve shows no sign of failure and pro- 
vided that the permanent settlement of the top of the pile after removal 

7-22 



of all load at the completion of the test does not exceed one-half (%) 
inch, the maximum design load shall be the load allowed in this part for 
the type of pile or one-half (h) of the maximum applied load, whichever 
is less. 

Whenever the soil conditions are such that substantial driving resist- 
ance and/or significant support of the pile test load is derived from 
soil strata overlying the intended bearing stratum this support shall be 
removed or the results of the pile test shall be analyzed so as to 
evaluate the actual support furnished by the bearing stratum. 

725.8 APPLICATION OF PILE LOAD TEST RESULTS: The results of the load 
test can be applied to other piles within the area of substantially 
similar sub-soil conditions as that for the test pile; and providing the 
performance of the test pile has been satisfactory and the remaining 
piles are of the same type, shape and size as the test pile; and are 
installed using the same methods and equipment and are driven into the 
same bearing strata as the load tested pile to an equal or greater 
penetration resistance. 

725.9 SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS: Whenever a structure is to be supported by 
medium or soft clay (materials of classes 11 and 12) or other materials 
which may be subject to settlement or consolidation, the settlements of 
the structure and of neighboring structures due to consolidation shall 
be given careful consideration, particularly if the subsurface material 
or the loading is subject to extensive variation. The building official 
may require a settlement analysis to be made by a qualified registered 
professional engineer in case the live and dead loads of the structure, 
as specified in this article, minus the weight of the excavated material, 
induce a maximum stress greater than three hundred (300) pounds per 
square foot at midheight of the underlying soft clay layer. 

725.91 SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS COMPUTATIONS: The settlement analysis will 
be based on a computation of the new increase in stress that will be 
induced by the structure and realistically appraised live loads, after 
deducting the weight of excavated material under which the clay was 
fully consolidated. The effects of fill loads within the building area 
or fill and other loads adjacent to the building shall be included in 
the settlement analysis. The appraisal of the live loads may be based 
on surveys of actual live loads of existing buildings with similar 
occupancy. The soil compressibility shall be determined by a qualified 
registered professional engineer and approved by the building official. 



SECTION 726.0 ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION PRESSURE 

The maximum allowable pressures on foundation materials shall be in 
accordance with section 723.0 and as modified herein. 

7-23 



726.1 ROCK FOUNDATIONS: Where subsurface explorations at the project 
site indicate variations or doubtful characteristics in the structure of 
the rock upon which it is proposed to construct foundations, a sufficient 
number of borings shall be made to a depth of not less than ten (10) 
feet below the level of the footings to provide assurance of the sound- 
ness of the foundation bed and its bearing capacity. 

726.2 BEARING PRESSURE ON ROCK: The tabulated bearing pressures for 
rocks of Classes 1 and 3, inclusive, shall apply where the loaded area 
is on the surface of sound rock. Where the loaded area is below such 
surface these values may be increased ten (10) percent for each foot of 
additional depth, but shall not exceed three (3) times the tabulated 
values. 

726.3 BEARING PRESSURES FOR CLASSES 4 TO 9, INCLUSIVE: The allowable 
bearing pressures for materials of Classes 4 to 9, inclusive, may exceed 
the tabulated values by five (5) percent for each foot of depth of the 
loaded area below the minimum required in section 727 but shall not 
exceed twice the tabulated values. For areas of foundations smaller 
than three (3) feet in least lateral dimension, the allowable design 
bearing pressures shall be one-third (1/3) of the allowable bearing 
pressures multiplied by the least lateral dimension in feet. 

726.4 BEARING PRESSURES ON CLAY: The tabulated bearing pressures for 
Classes 10 to 12, inclusive, shall apply only to pressures directly 
under individual footings, walls, and piers; and in case structures are 
founded on or are underlain by deposits of these classes, the total load 
over the area of any one bay or other major portion of the structure, 
minus the weight of all materials removed, divided by the area, shall 
not exceed one-half (%) the tabulated bearing pressures. 

726.5 VERTICAL PRESSURES: The computed vertical pressure at any level 
beneath a foundation shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressures 
for the material at that level. Computation of the vertical pressure in 
the bearing materials at any depth below a foundation shall be made on 
the assumption that the load is spread uniformly at an angle of sixty 
(60) degrees with the horizontal; but the area considered as supporting 
the load shall not extend beyond the intersection of sixty (60) degree 
planes of adjacent foundations. 

726.6 DISTURBANCE OF BEARING MATERIALS: Whenever the bearing materials 
are disturbed from any cause, for example, by the inward or upward flow 
of water and/or by construction activities, the extent of the disturbance 
shall be evaluated by a registered professional engineer and appropriate 
remedial measures taken, satisfactory to the building official. 

SECTION 727.0 SPREAD FOUNDATIONS 

Except when erected upon sound bedrock or when protected from frost, 
foundation walls, piers and other permanent supports of all buildings 
and structures shall extend a minimum of four (4) feet below finished 
grade; except as provided in section 727.21. Spread footings of adequate 
size shall be provided when necessary to properly distribute the load 
within the allowable bearing pressure of the soil. 

7-23A 



727.1 DEPTH OF SPREAD FOUNDATIONS: The bottom surface of any footing 
resting on material of classes 4 to 15, inclusive, shall be at least 
eighteen (18) inches below the lowest ground surface or the surface of a 
floor slab bearing directly on the soil immediately adjacent to the 
footing. 

727.2 LIGHT STRUCTURES: One-story structures without masonry walls and 
not exceeding eight hundred (800) square feet in area may be founded on 
a layer of satisfactory bearing material not less than three (3) feet 
thick, which is underlain by highly compressible material, provided that 
the stresses induced in the unsatisfactory material by the live and dead 
loads of the structure and the weight of any new fill, within or adjacent 
to the building area, will not exceed two hundred and fifty (250) pounds 
per square foot. 

727.21 GRADE BEAMS: Grade beams of all structures may extend not more 
than two (2) feet below the adjoining surface exposed to natural freezing 
if the underlying soil to a depth of at least four (4) feet beneath the 
surface, and extending at least four (4) feet outside the building is 
sand, gravel, cinders, or other granular materials containing nor more 
than five (5) percent (by weight) passing a No. 200 mesh sieve. 

727.22 ISOLATED FOOTINGS: Footings on granular soil of classes 5 to 16 
inclusive in table 7-4 shall be so located that the line drawn between 
the lower edges of adjoining footings shall not have a steeper slope 

than thirty (30) degrees with the vertical, unless the material supporting 
the higher footing is braced or retained or otherwise laterally supported 
in an approved manner . 



SECTION 728.0 FOOTING DESIGN 

728.1 DESIGN LOADS: The loads to be used in computing the pressure 
upon bearing materials directly underlying foundations shall be the live 
and dead loads of the structure, as specified in section 820 including 
the weight of the foundations and of any immediately overlying material, 
but deducting from the resulting pressure per square foot the total 
weight of a one (1) square foot column of soil, including the water in 
its voids, which extends from the lowest immediately adjacent surface of 
the soil to the bottom of the footing, pier or mat. Foundations shall 

be constructed so as to resist the maximum probable hydrostatic pressures. 

728.2 PRESSURE DUE TO LATERAL LOADS: Where the pressure on the bearing 
material due to wind or other lateral loads is less than one-third (1/3) 
of that due to dead and live loads, it may be neglected in the founda- 
tion design. Where this ratio exceeds one-third (1/3), foundations 
shall be so proportioned that the pressure due to combined dead, live, 
wind loads, and other lateral loads shall not exceed the allowable 
bearing pressures by more than one-third (1/3). 



7-24 



728.3 EARTHQUAKE LOADS: Special provision shall be made in the founda- 
tion design to comply with the provisions of section 718. 

728.4 VIBRATORY LOADS: Where machinery or other vibrations may be 
transmitted through the foundations, consideration shall be given in the 
design of the footings to prevent detrimental disturbances of the soil. 

728.5 ECCENTRIC LOADS: Eccentricity of loadings in foundations shall 
be fully investigated, and the maximum pressure on the basis of straight- 
line distribution shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressures. 

SECTION 729.0 TIMBER FOOTINGS (DELETED) 

SECTION 730.0 STEEL GRILLAGES 

Structural steel grillage foundations shall have at least six (6) 
inches of concrete cover below the bottom of the steel and shall have at 
least four (4) inches of concrete cover above the steel and between the 
sides of the steel and the adjacent soil. 



SECTION 731.0 UNREINFORCED CONCRETE FOOTINGS 

731.1 CONCRETE STRENGTH: Concrete in unreinforced foundation footings 
shall be so proportioned as to develop an ultimate compressive strength 
of not less than two thousand (2,000) pounds per square inch at twenty- 
eight (28) days. 

731.2 PLACEMENT: No concrete for foundations shall be poured through 
water. When placed under or in the presence of water, the concrete 
shall be deposited by approved and properly operated equipment which 
insures minimum segregation of the mix and negligible turbulence of the 
water. 

731.3 DIMENSIONS: In unreinforced concrete footings, the edge thick- 
ness shall be not less than twelve (12) inches for footings on soil or 
rock; except for wood frame buildings up to two (2) stories in height, 
these thicknesses may be reduced to eight (8) inches. 

731.4 PROTECTION: Concrete footings shall be protected from freezing 
during construction and for a period of not less than five (5) days 
thereafter, and in no case shall water be allowed to flow through the 
deposited concrete. 



SECTION 732.0 MASONRY UNIT FOOTINGS 

732.1 DIMENSIONS: Masonry unit footings shall be laid in type M or S 
mortar complying with section 816 and the depth shall be not less 

7-25 



than twice the projection beyond the wall, pier or column; and the 
width shall be not less than eight (8) inches wider than the wall 
supported thereon. 

732.2 OFFSETS: The maximum offset of each course in brick foundation 

walls stepped up from the footings shall be one and one-half (1 1/2) 

inches if laid in single courses, and three (3) inches if laid in 
double courses. 



SECTION 733.0 REINFORCED CONCRETE FOOTINGS 

733.1 DESIGN: Reinforced concrete foundations shall comply with 
section 842 and the applicable reference standards therein listed 
for the design of reinforced concrete. 

733.2 PILE CAPS: The minimum distance from the edge of the cap to 
the nearest pile surface shall be six (6) inches and there shall be 
at least two (2) inches of concrete between the top of the pile and 
the steel reinforcement of the cap. The pile caps shall extend not 
less than three (3) inches below the pile cutoff. 

733.3 PROTECTION: When the concrete is deposited directly against 
the ground, the reinforcement shall have a minimum cover of three 
(3) inches, at all other surfaces of foundation concrete, the rein- 
forcement shall have a minimum cover of two (2) inches. 



SECTION 734.0 FLOATING FOUNDATIONS 

The design of floating foundations shall include a settlement 
analysis in accordance with the provisions of section 725.9. 



SECTION 735.0 PILE FOUNDATIONS 

735.1 SITE INVESTIGATION: In addition to the provisions of section 
724.0, the building site shall be investigated for all conditions 
which might promote deterioration of pile foundations, and approved 
protective measures meeting the requirements of section 736.0 shall 
be taken to prevent corrosion or other destructive action from 
deleterious conditions. 

735.2 SPACING: The minimum center-to-center spacing of piles shall 
be not less than twice the average diameter of a round pile, nor less 
than one and three-quarter (1 3/4) times the diagonal dimension of a 
rectangular pile. When driven to or penetrating into rock, the 
spacing shall be not less than twenty-four inches . When receiving 
principal support from end-bearing on materials other than rock or 
through frictional resistance, the spacing shall be not less than 
thirty (30) inches. 



7-26 



735.3 WALLS: All piles in wall foundations shall be staggered about 
the center line of the wall at a minimum distance of one-half (1/2) 
the top diameter therefrom. A foundation wall restrained laterally 
so as to ensure stability both during and after construction may be 
supported by a single row of piles. 

735.4 ISOLATED COLUMNS: An isolated column when supported by piles 
shall rest upon not less than three (3) piles, at least one (1) of 
which is offset; except that for one (1) story buildings an isolated 
column may rest upon two (2) piles when its axis is not more than 

one and one-half (1 1/2) inches off the line connecting the centers of the 
two (2) piles; or upon a single pile when other than wood or wood- 
composite piles are used and its axis is not more than one and one- 
half (1 1/2) inches off the center of the pile, provided the top of 
the pile is laterally supported. 

735.5 MINIMUM DIMENSIONS: Piles of uniform cross section shall have 
a minimum outside nominal dimension of ten (10) inches except as pro- 
vided in section 739.2. Tapered concrete piles shall have a minimum 
butt diameter at cutoff of twelve (12) inches and a diameter of not 
less than eight (8) inches measured one (1) foot above the tip. 

735.6 SPLICES: Splices shall be avoided insofar as practicable. 
Where used, splices shall be such that the resultant vertical and 
lateral loads at the splices are adequately transmitted. Splices 
shall be so constructed as to provide and maintain true alignment 
and position of the component parts of the pile during installation 
and subsequent thereto. The ends of each section of steel pipe or 
other steel elements shall be cut perpendicular to the axis and 
bearing surfaces shall be true-fitted with milled or ground faces 

or by flame cutting or other approved method. Splices shall develop 
one hundred (100) percent of the strength of pile section in what- 
ever state of stress. 

735.7 JETTING: Jetted piles shall be driven to the required load 
resistance as determined by the application of the approved pile 
driving formula in section 737.21, after the flow of jet water has 
stopped. 

735.8 PRECAUTIONS: When piles have been damaged in driving, or 
driven in locations and alignment other than those indicated on the 
plans, or that have capacities less than required by the design, 
the affected pile groups and pile caps shall be investigated and 

if necessary, the pile groups or pile caps shall be redesigned or 
additional piles shall be driven to replace the defective piles. 
Piles shall be driven to embedment in the supporting stratum, as 
determined by borings. 

735.9 PILE HEAVE: Adequate provision shall be made to observe pile 
heave, and where heaving of one-half (1/2) inch or more occurs, 
corrective measures shall be taken to ensure that the pile is 
adequate for its design use. 

7-27 



735.10 RECORDS: The owner shall engage a competent inspector, quali- 
fied by experience and training and satisfactory to the building 
official to be present at all times while piles are being driven 
and to inspect all work in connection with the piles . The inspector 
shall make an accurate record of the material and the principal dimen- 
sions of each pile, of the weight and fall of the ram, the type, size, 
and make of hammer, the number of blows per minute, the energy per 
blow, the number of blows per inch for the last six (6) inches of 
driving, together with the grades at point and cutoff. A copy of 
these records shall be filed in the office of the building official. 



SECTION 736.0 CORROSION PROTECTION 

Where boring records, previous experience, or site investigations 
indicate any condition which might promote deterioration or possible 
deleterious action on pile materials due to soil constituents, changing 
water levels or other causes, such pile materials shall be adequately 
protected as stated herein. 

736.1 PRESERVATIVE TREATMENTS: The preservative treatment of timber 
piles shall comply with the provisions of section 738.0 and the 
reference standards of this article. 

736.2 STEEL AND STEEL-CONCRETE PILES: At locations where steel and 
steel-concrete piles will be in contact with any material which is 
corrosive to the steel, one of the following procedures shall be used 
for protection, or any other method which will satisfy the requirements 
of the building official: 

a) remove all objectionable material. 

b) effectively protect the steel surface from pile cutoff grade 
to a grade fifteen (15) feet below the bottom of the objec- 
tionable material by means of : 

1) cathodic protection as approved by the building official; or 

2) an approved encasement of not less than three (3) inches 
of dense concrete; or 

.3) an effective protective coating subject to the approval 
of the building official; or 

4) providing an excess thickness of one-eighth (1/8) inch 
beyond design requirements on all exposed surfaces. 



SECTION 737.0 ALLOWABLE PILE LOADS 

The allowable load on piles shall be determined by the applicable 
formulas complying with accepted engineering practice and as stated 

7-28 



herein. The maximum load capacity shall be limited by the supporting 
capacity as obtained from bearing upon or embedment in bearing materials 
as defined in sections 723 and 726, but in no case shall the load 
exceed the capacity of the pile designed in accordance with the pro- 
visions of section 737.1 and the requirements of article 8 for the 
construction materials involved. 

737.1 LATERAL SUPPORT OF AXIALLY LOADED PILES: The length of a pile 
below the ground surface shall be considered as a plain column with 
continuous lateral support. The length above the ground surface shall 
be designed as an unsupported column in accordance with the provisions 
of section 746. 

737.2 DETERMINATION OF ALLOWABLE LOAD: In the absence of capacities 
based on load tests, except for the type of piles covered in sections 
740.2 and 742.0, the load on a single pile shall not exceed the higher 
of the two (2) values determined in accordance with sections 737.2 
and 737.22, nor the maximum loads on piles as provided in section 
737.23. 

737.21 DRIVING FORMULA: 

a) Where the design load capacity of the pile does not exceed 
fifty (50) tons, the allowable load may be computed by means 
of the following driving formula: 



R = 2E/(S + C) 



where 



R = allowable pile load in pounds 

E = energy per blow in foot pounds 

S = penetration of last blow or average penetration of 

last few blows experienced in inches 
C = Constant equal to 1.0 for drop hammer and 0.1 for 

steam or air hammer. 

b) When the design load capacity of a pile exceeds fifty (50) 
tons the required driving resistance shall be increased 
above that required by the driving foirmula in section 737.21a, 
based on load tests or past experience under similar conditions, 

c) The value of "s" must be determined with the hammer operating 
at one hundred (100) percent of the rated number of blows per 
minute for which the hammer is designed. 

d) Any driving resistance developed in strata overlying the 
bearing material shall be discounted. 

e) If the driving of the pile has been interruped for more than 
one (1) hour, the value of "s" shall not be determined until 

7-29 



the pile is driven at least an additional twelve (12) inches, 
except when it encounters refusal on or in a material of 
classes 1 to 5 inclusive. 

f) When the constant tapered portion of a pile, including a timber 
pile, is driven through a layer of gravel, sand or hard clay 
(classes 6 to 10 inclusive, and class 14) exceeding five (5) 
feet in thickness, and through an underlying soft stratum, the 
bearing capacity shall not be determined in accordance with the 
driving formula, unless jetting is used during the entire 
driving of the tapered portion of the pile through the layer 
of gravel, sand, hard clay or class 14 material, or unless a 
hole is pre-excavated through said layer for each pile. 

737.22 FRICTION FORMULA IN CLAY: The allowable load on a pile stopped 
in inorganic clay may be based on a friction value of five hundred (500) 
pounds per square foot of embedded pile surface for a design load not 

to exceed twenty-two (22) tons, or on a friction value determined from 
pile load tests. The embedded length shall be the length of the pile 
below the surface of the inorganic clay, or below the surface of 
immediately-overlying satisfactory bearing material. The area of 
embedded pile surface shall be computed by multiplying the embedded 
length by the perimeter of the smallest circle or polygon that can be 
circumscribed around the average section of the embedded length of 
the pile. The method of determining the allowable load described in 
this paragraph shall not be used for a pile in which the drive-pipe 
is withdrawn or for piles which are driven through the clay to or 
into firmer bearing materials. 

In case these piles are in clusters the allowable load shall be 
computed for the smaller of the following two (2) areas: (1) the 
sum of the embedded pile surfaces of individual piles; (2) the area 
obtained by multiplying the perimeter of the polygon circumscribing 
the cluster at the surface of the satisfactory bearing material by 
the average embedded length of pile. 

737.23 JACKED PILES: The allowable load on a single pile installed 
by jacking shall not exceed one-half (1/2) the load applied to the 
pile at the completion of jacking, provided that the final load is 
kept constant for a period of four (4) hours and that the settlement 
during that period does not exceed one-twentieth (1/20) of an inch. 

737.3 NEGATIVE FRICTION: Where a pile or a group of piles is placed 
in subsiding fill or soil, the effect of the downward frictional forces 
shall be given consideration in the design. 

737.4 LIMITING LOAD: Where weaker materials underlie the bearing 
material into which the piles are driven, the allowable pile load 
shall be limited by the provision that the vertical pressures in such 
underlying materials produced by the loads on all piles in a foundation 
shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressures of such materials as 

7-30 



established by analysis, applying accepted principles of soil mechanics. 
Piles or pile groups shall be assumed to transfer their loads to the 
underlying materials by spreading the load uniformly at an angle of 
sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal, starting at a polygon circum- 
scribing the piles at the top of the satisfactory bearing material in 
which they are embedded; but the area considered as supporting the load 
shall not extend beyond the intersection of the sixty (60) degree planes 
of adjacent piles or pile groups. 

737.41 PILE LOAD LIMITATION: The allowable load on a pile shall not be 
limited to the load obtained by multiplying its point area by the allowable 
bearing pressure given in section 723.0. 

737.42 LIQUEFACTION DURING EARTHQUAKE: The requirements of section 
723.3 shall be considered in the design of pile foundations. If pile 
tips lie above soil which does not meet the criteria in figures 7-7 and 
7-8, special studies shall be made by a qualified registered professional 
engineer or architect to ensure safety during the design earthquake 
specified in section 718.7. 

SECTION 738.0 TIMBER PILES 

738.1 SPECIES: Piles shall be of type I species, type II species or 
other species approved for such use by the building official. 

a) type I species shall include southern yellow pine, oak, 
Douglas fir and other woods of similar strength and physical 
characteristics . 

b) type II species shall include Norway pine, spruce and other 
woods of similar strength and physical characteristics. 

738.2 QUALITY REQUIREMENTS: The quality of all round timber piles 
shall at least conform to class A and B, round timber piles listed in 
the reference standards of this article. 

Round timber piles shall be cut above the ground swell, have a continuous 
taper from the point of butt measurement to the tip and be free from 
decay, red heart or insect attack. All knots and limbs shall be trimmed 
or smoothly cut flush with the surface of the pile or swell surrounding 
the knot. A straight line from the center of the butt to the center of 
the tip shall lie entirely within the body of the pile. The axis of a 
wood pile shall not deviate from a straight line more than one (1) inch 
for each ten (10) feet of length. Short crooks shall not deviate more 
than two and one-half (2 1/2) inches in five (5) feet. Spiral grain 
shall not exceed one-half (1/2) of a complete twist in any twenty (20) 
feet of length; unsound or cluster knots are prohibited and splits and 
shakes are limited. 

738.3 MINIMUM DIMENSIONS: 

a) piles shall be of adequate size to resist the applied loads 
without having to endure compressive stress parallel with 
the grain in excess of the following: 

1) six hundred (600) pounds per square inch for type I species 
of wood or four hundred twenty-five (425) pounds per square 



7-31 



inch for type II species of wood on the pile cross section 
located at the surface of the bearing stratum for piles 
driven into materials of classes 6 through 10. 

2) three hundred sixty (360) pounds per square inch for type I 
species of wood or two hundred fifty-five (255) pounds per 
square inch for type II species of wood on the pile cross 
section at the tips of piles driven to bearing on materials 
of classes 1 through 5. 

b) the piles shall measure at least six (6) inches in diameter at 
the tip and at least ten (10) inches in diameter at the cutoff, 
with these measurements being taken under the bark. 

c) all piles shall be driven in one (1) piece except as provided 
in section 744.0 for composite piles. 

738.4 CUTOFF: The tops of all timber piles shall be cut off in a 
horizontal plane; and if not treated by an approved preservative process, 
the cutoff shall be below mean low water level or lowest ground water 
level, and shall be subject to the building official's approval. He may 
require the oxsnier to install and maintain in good condition at least one 
(1) ground water observation well within the building, which shall be 
accessible to the building official. 

738.5 TREATED PILES: Timber piles pressure- treated with creosote or 
creosote-coal-tar solution, and conforming to the requirements of this 
section, may be cut off above permanent ground water level when used for 
the support of buildings not exceeding two (2) stories in height. 

738.51 TREATMENT: Creosoted wood piles of southern yellow pine, 
Douglas fir, red oak or Norway pine shall be creosoted under pressure in 
accordance with the reference standards of this article to a final net 
retention of not less than twenty (20) pounds per cubic foot of creosote 
for piles exposed to sea water and not less than twelve (12) pounds of 
creosote per cubic foot for piles for other normal exposure. The tops of 
such piles at cutoff shall be given three (3) coats of hot creosote, 
followed by a coat of coal-tar pitch; and the cutoff shall be made in 
sound wood and be encased not less than three (3) inches in the concrete 
pile cap. 

738.52 CERTIFICATION: Before any treated piles are driven, the building 
official shall be furnished with certification by a licensed testing 
laboratory, certifying that piles were free of decay, were properly 
peeled and otherwise prepared before treatment; and that the method of 
treatment, the chemical composition and the amount of retention of the 
preservative conform to the requirements of this section. 

738.6 MAXIMUM LOAD ON WOOD PILES: The load on a wood pile shall not 
exceed the allowable load specified in section 737. For timber piles 
driven into material of classes 6 through 10, the area at the surface 

7-32 



of the bearing stratum shall be used to compute the allowable load. 
The maximum load on a timber pile shall not exceed thirty-five (35) 
tons. 

738.7 PRECAUTIONS IN DRIVING: To avoid damage to the pile, the size 
of the hammer shall be such that the driving energy in foot-pounds 
per blow shall not exceed numerically the point diameter of the pile 
in inches multiplied by fifteen hundred (1500) . The total driving 
energy in foot-pounds for six (6) inches of penetration shall for all 
types of hammers be numerically no greater than the point diameter in 
inches times thirty-two thousand (32,000) for type I species of wood 
or times twenty-two thousand (22,000) for type II species of wood. 
For the last inch of penetration, the energy in foot-pounds shall not 
exceed numerically the point diameter in inches multiplied by six 
thousand (6,000). In any case, driving shall be stopped immediately 
when abrupt high resistance to penetration is encountered. Any sudden 
decrease in driving resistance shall be investigated with regard to 
the possibility of breakage of the pile; and if such sudden decrease 
in driving resistance cannot be correlated to boring data, and if the 
pile cannot be removed for inspection, it shall be considered adequate 
reason for rejection of the pile. 



SECTION 739.0 PRECAST CONCRETE PILES 

739.1 CONCRETE STRENGTH: No precast concrete pile shall be driven 
before the concrete has attained a compressive strength of not less 
than four thousand (4,000) pounds per square inch based on tests of 
cylinders cast from the same batches and cured under the same con- 
ditions as the pile concrete. These piles shall be so proportioned, 
cast, cured, handled and driven as to resist without significant 
cracking the stresses induced by handling and driving as well as by 
loads. 

739.2 DESIGN: The piles shall be designed and reinforced in accor- 
dance with the applicable reinforced concrete regulations cited in 
section 842.0. If for any reason the pile is injured, or the rein- 
forcement is exposed, its use shall be condemned. The lateral 
reinforcement at both ends of the pile shall be spaced sufficiently 
close to resist impact stresses due to driving and in no case more 
than three (3) inches on center. When driven to or into bearing 
materials of classes 1 to 5 inclusive, or through materials containing 
boulders, they shall have metal tips of approved design. The minimum 
lateral dimension of a precast concrete pile shall be ten (10) inches. 

739.3 LIMITATION OF LOAD: The load on a precast concrete pile shall 
not exceed the allowable load specified in section 737 nor twenty- 
five (25) percent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength of the concrete, 
but not exceeding twelve hundred (1200) pounds per square inch. For 
prestressed concrete piles twenty-five (25) percent of the effective 
prestress in the concrete after losses shall be deducted from twenty- 



7-33 



five (25) percent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength or twelve 
hundred (1200) pounds, whichever is less, in computing the maximum pile 
load. 

739.4 PROTECTION: A minimum covering of two (2) inches of concrete 
shall be provided over all reinforcements, except that for piles to be 
exposed to sea water and other severe environments, a three (3) inch 
protective covering shall be furnished in the zone of such exposure. 

739.5 MINIMUM SPACING: The minimum spacing center-to-center of precast 
concrete piles shall be two and one-half (2 1/2) times the square root 
of the cross-sectional area at the butt. 

739.6 SPLICES: One splice shall be permitted in precast concrete 
piles. 



SECTION 740.0 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILES 

In this section a distinction is made between poured-concrete piles 
and compacted-concrete piles. A poured-concrete pile is formed by 
pouring concrete into a driven casing that is permanently installed in 
the ground. A compacted-concrete pile is formed by placing concrete 
having a zero (0) slump, in small batches, and compacting each batch. 
All cast-in-place concrete piles shall be so made and placed as to 
ensure the exclusion of all foreign matter and to secure a well-formed 
unit of full cross-section. The minimum strength of concrete for cast- 
in-place piles shall be three thousand (3000) pounds per square inch. 
While placing the concrete the casing or drive-pipe shall contain not 
more than three (3) inches of water. 

740.1 POURED CONCRETE PILES 

740.11 DESIGN: The shape of the pile may be cylindrical, or conical, 
or a combination thereof, or it may be a succession of cylinders of 
equal length, with the change in diameter of adjoining cylinders not 
exceeding one (1) inch. 

740.12 LOADING: The load on poured-concrete piles shall not exceed the 
allowable load specified in 737 nor twenty-five (25) percent of the 
twenty-eight (28) day strength of the concrete, but not exceeding eleven 
hundred (1100) pounds per square inch, when applied to the cross-sectional 
area computed on the following bases: 

a) For metal-cased piles driven to and into materials of classes 
1 to 4 inclusive, using the diameter measured one (1) foot 
above the point, except that when the rock is immediately 
overlain by a bearing stratum consisting of one (1) or a 
combination of bearing materials of classes 5, 6 and 7, 
using the diameter at the surface of the bearing stratum. 

7-34 



b) For metal-cased piles, driven through compressible materials 
including classes 11, 12, 13 and 15 and into a bearing stratum 
consisting of one (1) or a combination of bearing materials of 
classes 5 to 10 inclusive, using the diameter at the surface 
of the bearing stratum. 

740.13 INSTALLATION: Immediately before filling with concrete, the 
inside of the casing shall be thoroughly cleaned to the bottom and 
subjected to a visual examination. The casing shall be subject to the 
following limitations: 

a) the diameter shall not vary more than twenty (20) percent 
from the specified value; 

b) the point of the casing shall not deviate more than ten (10) 
percent of the length of the pile from the design alignment; 
and 

c) the casing shall not deviate by more than four (4) percent of 
the length of the casing from the straight line connecting the 
mid-points of the ends of the casing. Any other condition 
which may affect the design performance shall be duly noted 
and evaluated subject to the requirements of the building 
official. No casing or drive-pipe shall be filled with concrete 
until all casings or drive-pipes within a radius of seven (7) 
feet, or within the heave range, whichever is greater, have 
been driven to the required resistance. 

740.2 COMPACTED CONCRETE PILES 

740.21 LOADING: The load on compacted concrete piles shall be limited 
by the provisions of section 737.41 except that the circumscribing 
polygon shall start at the junction of the shaft and the enlarged base, 
and the bearing area shall be taken at planes six (6) feet or more below 
said junction; and the allowable load on a compacted concrete pile 
shall not exceed one hundred twenty (120) tons. 

740.22 INSTALLATION: The installation of such piles shall fulfill the 
following-listed requirements: 

a) The drive-pipe used for installing the piles shall be not less 
than twenty (20) inches outside diameter for piles which have 
an allowable load of eighty-five (85) tons or greater, and not 
less than sixteen (16) inches outside diameter for piles which 
have an allowable load of less than eighty-five (85) tons. 

For loads less than fifty (50) tons, smaller drive casings 
may be used subject to the approval of the building official. 

b) The enlarged base of the pile shall be formed on or in bearing 
materials of classes 1 to 9 inclusive. The class 9 material 
(fine sand) shall have a maximum of six (6) percent by weight 

7-35 



finer than the No. 200 mesh sieve and shall be non-plastic. 

c) The concrete in the base shall have a minimum compressive 
strength at twenty-eight (28) days of four thousand (4,000) 
pounds per square inch, shall be of zero (0) slump, and 
shall be placed in batches not to exceed five (5) cubic feet 
in volume. 

d) The last batch of concrete shall be driven into the enlarged 
base with not less than twenty-five (25) blows, each of not 
less than one hundred and forty thousand (140,000) foot pounds. 
For lower allowable loads , the required number of blows on 

the last batch shall vary in proportion to the allowable load. 
On the basis of test data, and subject to approval by the 
building official, the hammer blow energy may be reduced, in 
which case the number of blows on the last batch shall vary 
inversely with the energy delivered per blow. 

e) During injection of the last five (5) cubic feet the level of 
concrete in the drive casing shall be not more than six (6) 
inches above the bottom of the casing. 

f) As the drive-pipe is being withdrawn, not less than two (2) 
blows of at least forty thousand (40,000) foot-pounds each 
shall be applied to compact each batch of concrete in an 
uncased shaft. 

g) An uncased shaft shall not be formed through inorganic clay 
or inorganic silt unless a hole is made through such soil by 

a non-displacement method, at least equal to the inside diameter 
of the drive-pipe unless the individual piles are located more 
than nine (9) feet apart and outside the heave range. Com- 
pacted concrete piles shall have cased shafts when spaced 
closer than nine (9) feet apart and when installed through 
inorganic clay or inorganic silt . 

h) An uncased shaft shall not be formed through peat or other 
organic soils. 

i) The permanent metal casing shall be fastened to the enlarged 
base in such a manner that the two (2) will not separate. The 
concrete may be placed in the metal casing in the same manner 
as for poured-concrete piles. No metal casing shall be filled 
with concrete until after all piles within a radius of at least 
nine (9) feet have been driven. The stresses in metal-cased 
shafts shall not exceed eleven hundred (1100) pounds per 
square inch on the concrete, and in addition, nine-thousand 
five hundred (9,500) pounds per square inch on the steel 
casing, provided that its wall thickness is at least two- 
tenths (2/10) of an inch. When required by soil conditions, 
allowance shall be made for corrosion as specified in 
section 738. 

7-36 



740.23 SPACING: The center-to-center spacing of piles shall be not 
less than three (3) times the shaft diameter and not less than three 
and one-half (3 1/2) feet. 



SECTION 741.0 CONCRETE-FILLED PIPE PILES 

741.1 INSTALLATION: Immediately before filling with concrete, the 
inside of the casing shall be thorough cleaned to the bottom and 
subjected to a visual inspection. The casing shall be subject to 
the following limitations: 

a) the diameter shall not vary more than twenty (20) percent 
from the specified value; 

b) the point of the casing shall not deviate more than ten (10) 
percent of the length of the pile from the design alignment; 
and 

c) the casing shall not deviate by more than six (6) percent of 
the length of the casing from the straight line connecting 
the mid-points of the ends of the casing. Any other condition 
which may affect the design performance shall be duly noted 
and evaluated subject to the requirements of the building 
official. Concrete shall not be placed through water; except 
that the building official may approve the use of a properly 
operated tremie or pumped concrete in still water, provided 
the pipe is proven to be free of other material. 

741.2 STEEL PIPE: All steel pipe shall conform to the applicable 
standards listed in the reference standards of this article for 
welded and seamless steel pipe and tubes, and for hot-rolled carbon 
steel sheets. The yield point used in the design of steel casings 
shall be that of the fabricated element as determined by test. 

741.3 DESIGN: The load on concrete-filled pipe piles shall not 
exceed the allowable load determined in accordance with section 737.0, 
nor a load computed on the basis of stress in concrete at twenty-five 
(25) percent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength, but not exceeding 
eleven hundred (1100) pounds per square inch, and stress in the steel 
at nine thousand (9,000) pounds per square inch; nor shall the load 
carried by the steel on this basis exceed one-half (1/2) the total 
load on the pile. 

741.4 MINIMUM THICKNESS: The minimum wall thickness of all load- 
bearing pipe, tubes and shells shall be one-tenth (1/10) inches. 
When required by soil conditions, allowance shall be made for cor- 
rosion as specified in section 736. 

741.5 SPLICES: All splices of the steel section shall be welded to 
one hundred (100) percent of the strength of the pipe and otherwise 
shall comply with section 735.6 and shall be designed to insure true 

7-37 



alignment of the pipe and uniform transmission of load from one (1) 
pipe length to another. 



SECTION 7 A 2.0 CONCRETE-FILLED PIPE WITH STEEL CORE 
(DRILLED-IN-CAISSONS) 

742.1 CONSTRUCTION: These units shall consist of a shaft section 
of concrete-filled pipe extended to and firmly seated in bedrock 
of classes 1 or 2 with an uncased socket drilled into the bedrock 
which is filled with cement grout. The steel core shall be centered 
in the shaft and shall extend through the cement grout to the bottom 
of the socket. 

742.2 STEEL SHELL: The steel shell shall be seamless or welded 
steel pipe with a minimum yield point of thirty-three thousand 
(33,000) pounds per square inch, fitted with an approved cutting shoe 
and structural cap, or with other approved means of transmitting the 
superstructure load. The minimtim diameter for drilled caissons shall 
be twenty-four (24) inches and minimum shell thickness five-sixteenths 
(5/16) inches. Steel shall be protected under the conditions specified 
in section 738. Splices shall be welded to develop one hundred (100) 
percent of the strength of the pipe. 

742.3 CONCRETE FILL: The concrete fill of caissons shall be con- 
trolled concrete with a minimum compressive strength of four thousand 
(4,000) pounds per square inch at twenty-eight (28) days. It shall 
be so placed that it shall fill completely the space between the 
steel core and the pipe. In case the socket cannot be kept free 
from inflow of water, the pipe shall be filled to its top with clean 
water before placing the cement grout. The details of the design 

and installation, including the cleaning and inspection of the socket, 
the placement of concrete under water or in the dry, the method of 
centering the steel core, and all other phases of the work shall be 
submitted to the building official for approval. 

742.4 ROCK SOCKET: A socket, approximately the inside diameter of 
the pipe, shall be made in bedrock of classes 1 or 2 to a depth that 
will assure load transfer when computed for a bearing on the bottom 
surface of the socket in accordance with sections 725 and 728 acting 
together with a bond stress on the perimeter surface of the socket 
of one hundred (100) pounds per square inch. Before placement of 
concrete the socket and pipe shall be thoroughly cleaned and the rock 
inspected by a qualified registered professional engineer. 

742.5 STEEL CORE: The steel core shall consist of a structural 
steel member. The mating ends of the sections shall be spliced so 
to safely withstand the stresses to which they may be subjected. 
The minimum clearance between structural core and shell shall be 
two (2) inches. When such cores are installed in more than one (1) 
length, they shall be assembled to develop the full compressive 
strength of the section. 

7-38 



742.6 DRIVING PRECAUTIONS: No drilled caissons shall be driven more 
than two (2) percent of the length out of plumb. 

742.7 SPACING: The minimum center-to-center spacing shall be not 
less than two and one-half (2 1/2) times the outside diameter of the 
steel shell. 

742.8 ALLOWABLE LOAD: The load on concrete-filled pipe piles with 
steel cores shall not exceed the allowable load determined in accor- 
dance with the provisions of section 744.4 nor that computed on the 
basis of eleven hundred (1100) pounds per square inch on the area of 
the concrete plus nine thousand (9,000) pounds per square inch on th( 
net area of the steel pipe plus sixteen thousand (16,000) pounds per 
square inch on the area of the steel core. 



SECTION 743.0 STRUCTURAL STEEL PILES 

743.1 STEEL: Steel sections may be of any type of steel permitted 
by the provisions of the reference standards of this article. 

a) Rolled structural steel piles shall be of H form, with flange 
projection not exceeding fourteen (14) times the minimvim 
thickness of metal in either flange or web and with total 
flange width at least eighty-five (85) percent of the depth 
of the section. No section shall have a nominal thickness of 
metal less than four-tenths (4/10) inch, nor a nominal depth 
in the direction of the web of less than eight (8) inches. 

b) The use of built-up sections or sections of other than H 

form will be permitted if the several components of the section 
are adequately connected to develop the strength of the adjacent 
components and if the ratio of width to thickness of the com- 
ponent parts does not exceed the values for conventional H 
sections. 

c) The tips of all steel H piles having a thickness of metal less 
than five-tenths (5/10) inches which are driven to end bearing 
on rock of class 1 through 3 by an impact hammer, shall be 
reinforced. The installation of all steel H piles by impact 
hammer to end bearing on rock of classes 1 through 3 shall be 
conducted so as to terminate driving directly when the pile 
reaches refusal on the rock surface. 

d) Structural caps shall be rigidly attached to the pile section 
and shall be designed to transfer the full load into the piles; 
except that when the pile extends into the footing sufficiently 
to develop the full load by bond, or to permit the use of 
mechanical devices to develop the full load by shear, structural 
caps shall not be required. 

743.2 SPLICES: If piles are spliced, the splice shall develop one 
hundred (100) percent of the strength of the section. 

7-39 



743.3 PROTECTION: Structural steel piles shall be protected under the 
conditions specified in section 736 or due allowance shall be made for 
corrosion as therein specified. 

743.4 ALLOWABLE LOAD: The load on such piles shall not exceed the 
allowable load determined in accordance with section 737, nor a load 
based on stress of eleven thousand (11,000) pounds per square inch on 
the cross-section. 



SECTION 744.0 COMPOSITE PILES 

744.1 DESIGN: A composite pile shall consist of a combination of not 
more than two (2) of any of the different types of piles provided for in 
this part. The pile shall fulfill the requirements for each type, and 
in addition the provisions of this section. The requirements of section 
740.13 shall apply to the entire length of a pipe-shell composite pile. 

744.2 LIMITATION OF LOAD: The allowable load on composite piles shall 
be that allowed for the weaker of the two (2) sections. For wood-com- 
posite piles the allowable load shall not exceed eighty (80) percent of 
that allowed for the wood section alone. Wood-shell composite piles 
shall not be used for support of buildings exceeding two (2) stories in 
height. 

744.3 SPLICES: Splices between concrete sections and steel or wood 
sections shall be designed to prevent separation of the sections both 
before and after the concrete portion has set, and to insure the align- 
ment and transmission of the total pile load. Splices shall be designed 
to resist uplift due to upheaval during driving of adjacent piles and 
shall develop the full compressive strength and not less than fifty (50) 
percent of the strength in tension and bending of the weaker section. 

744.4 SPACING: The center-to-center spacing shall be governed by the 
larger of the spacings required in this part for the types composing the 
pile. 



SECTION 745.0 SPECIAL PILES AND CAISSONS 

Types of piles or caissons not specifically covered by the provisions 
of this Code may be permitted subject to the approval of the building 
official, provided sufficient test data, design and construction infor- 
mation are filed by a qualified registered professional engineer certi- 
fying that the pile or caisson installation is adequate to fulfill the 
design requirements. 



SECTION 746.0 LATERAL SUPPORT 

746.1 SURROUNDING MATERIALS: Any soil other than water or fluid soil 
including strata of soil not meeting the criterion in figure 7-7, 
shall be deemed to afford sufficient lateral support to permit the 



7-40 



design of any type of pile as a short column. When piles are driven 
through soil which will be removed subsequent at the completion of the 
foundation, the resistance offered by such material shall not be con- 
sidered to contribute to the lateral supporting capacity. 

746.2 COLUMN ACTION: The portion of a pile or pier that is not later- 
ally supported shall be designed as a column in accordance with section 
842 and taking into consideration the conditions of end fixity. 



SECTION 747.0 FOUNDATION PIERS 

A foundation pier is here defined as a structural member which 
extends to a satisfactory bearing material, and which may be constructed 
in an excavation that afterwards is backfilled by an approved method, or 
by filling the excavation with concrete, or which may be built by 
sinking an open or pneumatic caisson. 

747.1 MANNER OF CONSTRUCTION: The manner of construction shall be by 
non-displacement methods and shall permit inspection of the bearing 
material in place. 

747.2 BASE ENLARGEMENT: The bases of foundation piers may be enlarged 
by spread footings, pedestals or belled bottoms. 

747.21 BELLED BASES: Bell-shaped bases shall have a minimum edge 
thickness of four (4) inches. The bell roof shall slope not less than 
sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal unless the base is designed in 
accordance with section 841 or 842. 

747.3 DESIGN OF PIERS: Foundation piers may be designed as concrete 
columns with continuous lateral support. The unit compressive stress in 
the concrete at the least cross section shall not exceed twenty-five 
(25) percent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength of the concrete nor 
eleven hundred (1100) pounds per square inch. 

747.31 When the center of the cross section of a foundation pier at any 
level deviates from the resultant of all forces more than one-sixtieth 
(1/60) of its height, or more than one-tenth of its diameter, it shall 
be reinforced as provided in section 842. The restraining effect of the 
surrounding soil may be taken into account. 

747.4 PLACEMENT: With approval of the building official, concrete may 
be placed through still water by means of a properly operated tremie or^ 
pumped concrete. 

747.5 INSPECTION: The owner shall engage a competent inspector, 
qualified by experience and training and satisfactory to the building 
official, to be present at all times while foundation piers are being 
installed, to inspect and approve the bearing soil and the placing of 
the concrete. The inspector shall make a record of the type of 



7-41 



bearing soil upon which the pier rests, of the dimensions of the pier, 
and of the class of concrete used in its construction. A copy of these 
records shall be filed in the office of the building official. 



SECTION 748.0 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR FLOODPLAINS AND COASTAL HIGH 
HAZARD AREAS 

748.1 STRUCTURAL REQUIREMENTS: Where a structure is located in an area 
designated by the authority having jurisdiction as a floodplain area or 
coastal high hazard area, such a structure shall be designed to retain 
its structural integrity and stability for the anticipated flood con- 
ditions and to minimize flood damage. Any such structure, including one 
and two-family dwellings, shall have plans submitted by a registered 
professional engineer or architect showing only those provisions neces- 
sary in the construction of the structure to meet the following perfor- 
mance requirements: 

a) structures shall be anchored to prevent movement or collapse. 

b) approved flood resistant materials and equipment shall be used. 

c) coastal high hazard area structures must be anchored to piles 
and have space below lowest floor free of construction. 

d) non-residential structures built with any occupiable space below 
the level designated by the authority having jurisdiction as the 
one hundred (100) year flood level, shall be designed to be 
floodproof . 

748.2 ELEVATION OF STRUCTURES IN FLOODPLAINS: The building official 
shall maintain for public inspection and furnish upon request a record 
of elevations in relation to mean sea level, of the lowest floor (in- 
cluding cellar as defined in the Basic Code) of all new or substantially 
altered structures located in the special flood hazard areas. Where the 
lowest floor is below grade on one or more sides, the elevation of the 
floor immediately above shall also be provided. 



7-42 










■ ';-x 
Y' \ ■ 

■' , .-.,""■ ' . "m^^s' "'. : r-.:' >-"1 ""H 






■1 ^ ^^^i:^ 




< 
o 



o 

z 



CO 



o 
o 

iij 
a: 
< 

3 
O 
</) 



Ijj 
Q. 

(O 
O 

z 

3 
O 
Q. 



7-43 



ANGLE 



SIMPLE FLAT AND SHED ROOFS 



ANGLE 


SLOPE 


DESIGN SNOW LOAD (lbs/ft^) 


MAP SNOW LOAD (lbs/ft^) 


25 


30 


35 


0-20 

20-30 

30-40 

40-50 

50-60 

60-70 

70-90 


FLAT TO 4/12 
4/12 TO 7/12 
7/12 TO 10/12 
10/12 TO 14/12 
14/12 TO 20/12 
20/12 TO 33/12 
33/12 TO VERTICAL 


25 
25 
20 
15 
10 
5 



30 
30 
24 
18 
12 
6 



35 
35 
28 
21 
14 
7 




FIGURE 7-2a 
DESIGN SNOW LOADS 



7-44 



CASE I 



CASE II 



FOR ANGLES > 20 
USE CASES I & II 




SIMPLE GABLE AND HIP ROOFS 



ANGLE 


SLOPE 


CASE I 


CASE II 


MAP SNOW LOAD (lbs/ft*") 


25 


30 


35 


25 


30 


35 1 


DESIGN SNOW LOAD (lbs/ft^) [ 


0-20 


FLAT to 4/12 


25 


30 


35 


N/A 


N/A 


N/A 


20 -30 


4/12 to 7/12 


25 


30 


35 


25 


30 


35 


30 - 40 


7/12 to 10/12 


20 


24 


28 


25 


30 


35 


40 - 50 


10/12 to 14/12 


15 


18 


21 


20 


23 


26 


50 - 60 


14/12 to 20/12 


10 


12 


14 


12 


15 


18 


60 - 70 


20/12 to 33/12 


5 


6 


7 


8 


11 


14 


70 - 90 


33/12 to vertical 





















FIGURE 7 -2b 



7-44A 



i___ 



SIMPLE ARCH AND CURVED ROOFS 



CASE I 



I 



t USE MAP SNOW LOAD 



CASE II 




1/2 p- 



USE 2 X MAP SNOW LOAD 



FOR Jl 4 _L 
I 10 

FOR h. > J_ 

i \0 



USE CASE I ONLY 



USE CASE I AND II 



FIGURE 7-2c 



7-44B 



CASE I 



\0' 'C^<.2o' 

CASE I 
CASE II 



CASE I 
CASE II 
CASE III 



^ ^ >k- - 




/ 


m 


I 








' 


. 



MAP SNOW LOAD 



0.5 X MAP 
SNOW LOAD 



CASE II 



« — >[ 



H ^/2. 



1.5 X MAP SNOW LOAD 



0.5 X MAP 
SNOW LOAD 



> 



CASE III 

VALLEY AREAS OF TWO- SPAN 
AND MULTIPLE SERIES SLOPED OR CURVED ROOFS 



ANGLE 


SLOPE 


CASE I 




MAP SNOW LOAD (Ibs/f t^ ) 


25 


30 


35 




DESIGN SNOW LOAD (lbs/ft2) 




to 10 


FLAT to 2/12 


25 


30 


35 




10 to 20 


2/12 to 4.5/12 


25 


30 


35 




20 to 30 


4.5/12 to 7/12 


25 


30 


35 




30 to 40 


7/12 to 10/12 


25 


30 


35 




40 to 50 


10/12 to 14/12 


20 


24 


28 




50 to 60 


14/12 to 20/12 


10 


12 


14 




60 to 70 


20/12 to 33/12 


5 


6 


7 




70 to 90 


33/12 to vertical 














FIGURE 7 -3a 



7-45 



6S' 



DESIGN 
SNOW LOAD 



^,Wc 


2h 




~H 







DESIGN SNOW LOAD 



iO h 



H f 



LOWER LEVEL OF MULTI-LEVEL ROOFS 

(WHEN UPPER ROOF IS PART OF SAME BUILDING OR 

ON AN ADJACENT BUILDING NOT MORE THAN 5 FEET AWAY) 



MAP SNOW LOADS (lbs/ft^) 25 


30 


35 


W 
IN FEET 


H 
IN FEET 


DESIGN SNOW LOAD (lbs/ft^) 


- 1.5 


25 


30 


35 


10 


1.5 - 2.0 


30 


30 


35 


10 


2.0 - 2.5 


38 


38 


38 


10 


2.5 - 3.0 


45 


45 


45 


10 


3.0 - 3.5 


53 


53 


53 


10 


3.5 - 4.0 


60 


60 


60 


10 


4.0 - 4.5 


70 


70 


70 


10 


4.5 - 5.0 


75 


75 


75 


10 


5.0 - 6.0 


75 


90 


90 


W = 2h 


6.0 - 15.0 


75 


90 


105 


W = 2h 


15.0 


75 


90 


105 


30 



FIGURE 7 -3b 



7-45A 



Design for: 



UPPER ROOF LOAD AS REQUIRED FOR LOADS 
APPLICABLE TO SINGLE -LEVEL ROOFS 



PLUS 

LOWER ROOF LOAD AS REQUIRED FOR LOADS 
APPLICABLE TO MULTI -LEVEL ROOFS 

PLUS 




507o OF UPPER ROOF LOAD CONSIDERED AS 
LOADED ONTO LOWER ROOF DUE TO SLIDING 



LOAD FROM 
SLIDING SNOW 




DRIFT LOAD 



MAP SNOW LOAD 



ROOFS SUBJECT TO SNOW LOAD 
FROM SLIDING 

FIGURE 7-4 



7-46 










.>^/ 






CO 

liJ 

z 
o 

N 

O 
< 
O 



o 

iLl 

o 



g|S 



7-47 



Required Nominal Thickness of Glass 




10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

Modified Design Wind Load (Pounds per Square Foot) 



This chart is based on minimum thicknesses allowed in Federal 
Specification DD-G-451b 

Design Factor - 2.5 figure 7-6 



7-48 



standard Penetration Resistance 
blows/ft 



10 



20 



30 






20 



40 



60 



80 - 



100 





o\ 


\ 














1 1 
Not Susceptible 
to Liquefaction 




2C 














40\ 








Susceptible 


\ 








■ to Li 


quefac 


tion 




\ 






Def 


60 

/ 

)th to 

und wa 
eet 


\I 


\\ 






gro 
inf 


ter \\ 


\\ 










1 


1 

















FIGURE 7-7 

Penetration Resistance Requirements for 

Medium and Fine Sands Subjected to Earthquakes for 

Safety Against Liquefaction 



7-48A 



> C/3 



60^ 


C 


•■-( 


•rl 


4-1 


l-l 


P- 


CO 


0) 


(U 


u 


pa 


ca 




3 


C 


w 


o 


1 


•H 


C 


jj 


o 


cd 


•H 


15 


4J 


c 


U 


1 


t8 


n 


IH 


fi^ 


0) 




3 


;? 


cr 


o 


•H 


1—1 


H-1 


<u 




fQ 


U-l 




o 


^ 




4-1 


a 


a 


o 


Q) 


H 


o 





6C 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



Permissible 


^ 


^ 






A 


y 






/ 


/ 

Not Pern 
1 


aissibl 


Hi 


/ 



































10 



20 



3G 



40 



50 



Thickness of Liquefaction-Susceptible Soils, ft 

FIGURE 7-8 

Permissible thicknesses and depths of 
soils that are susceptible to lique- 
faction. 



7-48B 



160 



14C _ 



120 



100 



80 



60 



40 



20 





s A 




^^^^ 


-— - 








Clas 








Soil 

S= 


Site 

1 y 


















Class 

Soil S 

S=l. 












/ 




13 

ite 
5 










/ 
















/ 
















/ 
















/ 

















20 40 60 80 100 120 14C 160 

Thickness of Class B Soil, ft 

FIGURE 7-9 
Determination of Soil Factor S 



7-48C 



Reference Standards - Article 7 



AASHO 



ASCE 



ASTM 



ASTM 



Paper No. 
3269 



A252 



D25 



1965 Standard Specifications for 
Highway Bridges 

1961 Wind Forces on Structures — 1961 
Transactions of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, 
Vol. 126, Part II 

1971 Specification for Welded and 
Seamless Steel Pipe Piles 

1970 Standard Specification for 
Round Timber Piles 



AWPA 



CI 



1972 Standard for the Preservation Treat- 
ment of all Timber Products by 
Pressure Processes 



AWPA 



AWPA 



C3 



M2 



1972 Standard for the Preservative Treat- 
ment of Piles by Pressure Processes 

1967 Standard for Inspection of Treated 
Timber Products 



AWPA 



M4 



1962 



Standard for the Care of Pressure- 
Treated Wood Products 



ANSI 



A58.1 



1972 Building Code Requirements for 

Minimum Design Loads in Buildings 
and Other Structures 



7-49 



ARTICLE 8-PART A 



MATERIAL AND TESTS 



SECTION 800.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall govern the quality, workmanship 
and requirements for all materials and methods and the minimum speci- 
fications for enclosure walls and wall thickness hereafter used in the 
construction of buildings and structures. All materials and methods of 
construction shall be subject to the approval of the State Building Code 
Commission and shall follow those requirements of accepted engineering 
practice and material and test standards as specified in the reference 
standards of this article as approved by the State Building Code Commis- 
sion. 

800.1 ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE: The quality, use and installation 
of all materials and devices, and the methods of building construction 
shall be controlled by the standards of accepted engineering practice as 
approved by the State Building Code Commission and listed in the refer- 
ences of this article. 

800.2 MATERIAL AND TESTS: All materials, devices, methods of con- 
struction, and tests shall be subject to the approval and control of the 
State Building Code Commission for use in the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts. 

800.3 USED MATERIALS: The use of all second-hand materials which meet 
the minimtom requirements of the Basic Code for new materials shall be 
permitted. 

800.4 CONTROL OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS: The use of construction 
materials in all structures covered by section 128.0, and all personnel 
and laboratories involved in the control, inspection and testing of such 
structures shall be subject to the rules and regulations of the State 
Building Code Commission administered through their provisions and under 
their direction by the Construction Materials Safety Board. 

800.41 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SAFETY BOARD: The Board will review 
applications for registration for licensing of individuals and labo- 
ratories responsible for inspection, control and testing of construction 
material, and report to the State Building Code Commission their recom- 
mendations. The Board will collect information and review cases where 
disciplinary action against an existing license, whether an individual, 
laboratory or firm, has been proposed and make recommendations to the 
State Building Code Commission. The Commission will issue applications, 
receive pajmient of registration and licensing fees, and maintain records 
for the efficient dispatch of the duties of the Board. The Board shall 
submit to the Commission reports from time to time as requested by the 
Commission, but at least annually. 

8-1 



800.42 TESTING AND EVALUATION GROUP: The State Building Code Commis- 
sion shall establish and maintain a Testing and Evaluation Group, who 
will have the responsibility of administering and directing, under the 
supervision of the Commission, the testing and controls for evaluating 
individual applicants and laboratories wishing to become registered 
and licensed as required under section 128.9. 



SECTION 801.0 DEFINITIONS 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA: plain or ornamental hard-burned plastic 
clay units, larger in size than brick, with glazed or unglazed ce- 
ramic finish. 

ASHLAR FACING: facing of solid rectangular units larger in size than 
brick of burned clay or shale, natural or cast stone, with sawed, 
dressed and squared beds and mortar joints. 

ASHLAR MASONRY: masonry composed of bonded, rectangular units, lar- 
ger in size than brick, with sawed, dressed or squared beds and mor- 
tar joints. 

BRICK: a solid masonry unit of clay or shale, usually formed into a 
rectangular prism while plastic and burned or fired in a kiln. 

BUTTRESS: a projecting part of a masonry wall built Integrally there- 
with to furnish lateral stability which is supported on proper 
foundations. 

CALCIUM- SILICATE BRICK (sand lime brick) : a building unit made of 
sand and lime. 

CERAMIC SURFACE UNIT: (see tile). 

CLAY MASONRY UNIT: a building unit larger in size than a brick com- 
posed of burned clay, shale, fireclay or mixtures thereof. 

COLD-FORMED STEEL CONSTRUCTION: that type of construction made up 
entirely, or in part, of steel structural members cold-formed to 
shape from sheet or strip steel such as roof deck, floor and wall 
panels, studs, floor joists, roof joists and other structural ele- 
ments . 

CONCRETE: a mixture of cement, aggregates and water, of such propor- 
tions and manipulation as to meet specific requirements. 

CONCRETE BRICK: a solid masonry unit having a shape approximating a 
rectangular prism and composed of inert aggregate particles embedded 
in a hardened cementitious matrix. 

CONCRETE MASONRY UNIT: a building or unit or block larger in size than 
twelve (12) by four (4) by four (4) Inches made of cement and suitable 
aggregates . 



8-2 



FLOOR FILL: the fill between the structural floor arch or slab and 
the finished flooring : 

FLOOR FILLING: the type of short-span floor construction in fire- 
proof and f ireresistive buildings installed between structural 
steel framing to serve as a combination structural floor slab or 
arch and fireproof protection of the framing. 

FLOOR FINISH: the finish placed on top of the floor arch, slab or 
other structural floor element. 

HOLLOW BRICK: a masonry unit of clay or shale whose net cross-sec- 
tional area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is not 
less than sixty (60) percent or more than seventy-five (75) percent 
of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. 

HOLLOW MASONRY UNIT: a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area 
in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than seventy- 
five (75) percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the 
same plane . 

MASONRY: a built-up construction or combination of building units or 
materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other 
approved units bonded together with mortar; or monolithic concrete. 
Reinforced concrete is not classed as masonry. 

MORTAR: a plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine 
aggregates and water used to bond masonry or other structural units. 

NOMINAL DIMENSIONS. 

-LUMBER: a dimension that may vary from actual dimensions as pro- 
vided in American Lumber Standard listed in the references stand- 
ards of this article. 

-MASONRY: a dimension that may vary from actual masonry dimensions 
by the thickness of a mortar joint but not to exceed one-half (h) 
inch . 

PRESERVATIVE TREATED WOOD: wood treated by a recognized pressure im- 
pregnation process to increase its durability. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE: concrete in which reinforcement other than that 
provided for shrinkage or temperature changes is combined in such 
manner that the two materials act together in resisting forces. 

RUBBLE 

-COURSED RUBBLE: masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting 
approximately on level beds and well bonded . 



8-3 



-RANDOM RUBBLE: masonry composed of roughly- shaped stones laid with- 
out regularity of coursing but well bonded and fitted together to 
form well defined joints. 

-ROUGH OR ORDINARY RUBBLE: masonry composed of unsquared field stones 
laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded. 

-RUBBLE MASONRY: masonry composed of roughly shaped stones. 

SOLID MASONRY: masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contig- 
uously with the joints between the units filled with mortar, or con- 
sisting of plain concrete. 

SOLID MASONRY UNIT: a masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
every plane parallel to the bearing surface is seventy-five (75) per- 
cent or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same 
plane. 

STEEL JOIST: any secondary steel member of a building or structure 
made of hot or cold-formed solid or open-web sections, or riveted or 
welded bar, strip or sheet steel members or slotted and expanded or 
otherwise deformed rolled sections. 

STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE: a hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, 
shale, fireclay or mixtures thereof and having parallel cells. 

STRUCTURAL STEEL MEMBER: any primary or secondary member of a building 
or structure consisting of a rolled steel structural shape other than 
formed steel, light gage steel or steel joist members. 

TILE: a ceramic surface unit, usually relatively thin in relation to 
facial area, made from clay or a mixture of clay and other ceramic 
materials, called the body of the tile, having either "glazed" or 
"unglazed" face and fired above red heat in the course of manufac- 
ture to a temperature sufficiently high to produce specific physical . 
properties and characteristics. 

WALL: (see also sections 201.0 and 901.0.) 

-CAVITY WALL: a wall built of masonry units or of plain concrete, or 
a combination of these materials, arranged to provide an air space 
within the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall 
are tied together with metal ties. 

-COMPOSITE WALL: a wall built of a combination of two (2) or more 
masonry units of different materials bonded together, one forming 
the back-up and the other facing elements. 

-FACED WALL: a wall in which the masonry facing and backing are so 
bonded as to exert common action under load. 



8-4 



-HOLLOW WALL: a wall built of masonry units so arranged as to pro- 
vide an air space within the wall, and in which the facing and 
backing of the wall are bonded together with masonry units. 

-VENEERED WALL: a wall having a facing of masonry or other weather- 
resisting noncombustible materials securely attached to the backing, 
but not so bonded as to exert common action under load. 



SECTION 802.0 BASIC CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 

All materials and methods used in the design and construction of 
buildings and structures shall be classified as controlled materials 
and ordinary materials as defined in sections 721.1 and 722.2. The 
design and construction shall be based on the assumptions, limitations 
and methods of stress determination of recognized design procedures. 



SECTION 803.0 TESTS 

All structural units and assemblies shall be tested as approved by 
the State Building Code Commission and in accordance with those ap- 
proved standards listed in the references of this article. 

803.1 STRENGTH TESTS: To determine the safe uniformly distributed 
working load, when not capable of design by accepted engineering analy- 
sis, or to check the adequacy of the structural design of an assembly 
when there is reasonable doubt as to its strength or stability, every 
system of construction, sub-assembly or assembled unit and its connec- 
tions shall be subjected to strength tests prescribed in the Basic Code, 
or to such other tests as approved by the State Building Code Commission, 
that simulate the loads and conditions of application that the completed 
structure will be subjected to in normal use. 

803.11 STRENGTH TESTS FOR GLASS: The working strength of glass for 
any location in which it is required to withstand specific loads shall 
be determined as provided in the reference standards of this article. 

803.2 DURABILITY AND ENDURANCE TESTS: Whenever specific conditions in 

a particular case warrant, and such information is otherwise unavailable, 
the building official may require a specific material to be subject to 
sustained and repetitive loading to determine its resistance to fatigue, 
and to tests for durability and weather resistance. 

803.3 MAINTENANCE TEST: When reasonable doubt exists as to the quality 
of approved materials, or excessive variation exists in the quality or 
standards of materials, the building official may require verification 

of quality standards before approving further use. The building official 
may also submit such approved materials to the State Building Code Com- 
mission for review of approval. 



8-5 



803.4 PROOF TESTING: Whenever there is sufficient evidence that the 
stability or structural safety of a completed building or structure 
or part thereof will not meet approved engineering or other standards 
cited in this code, the building official may require a load test of 
the building unit or portions of the structure in question under the 
supervision of a qualified registered professional engineer or archi- 
tect. Such existing structure or part thereof shall be subjected to 
a superimposed load equal to two (2) times the design live load, or 
to a load causing a stress equal to eighty (80) percent of the yield 
point in the most highly stressed element. The test load shall be 
left in place for a period of twenty-four (24) hours. If during the 
test, or upon removal of the test load, the structure shows evidence 
of failure, the building official shall order the reinforcement or 
modifications deemed necessary to insure adequacy of the structure 
for the rated capacity; or in lieu thereof, he may specify a reduced 
working load to which the structure shall be limited. The structure 
shall be considered to have successfully met the test requirements if 
the total deflection does not exceed the theoretical deflection com- 
puted by accepted engineering formulae. When the total deflection is 
greater than such theoretical value, the structure shall be considered 
safe for the design load, if it recovers seventy-five (75) percent of 
the maximum deflection within twenty-four (24) hours after removal of 
the test load. 

803.5 TESTS OF SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES: Tests of service equip- 
ment and devices are covered in the sections appropriate to their use. 

803.6 FIRE TESTS: In the determination of flash points, combustibility, 
flameresistance and f ireresistance of construction materials and methods, 
all tests shall be conducted in conformity to section 903 and 904 and the 
applicable standards listed in appendices G and H. 

803.7 PREFABRICATED CONSTRUCTION TESTS. Prefabricated assemblies or 
sub-assemblies not capable of design by accepted engineering analysis, 
shall meet all the requirements and tests for at-site construction. The 
floor panels and other prefabricated units shall be assembled to form an 
integrated test specimen constructed as in practice, of not less than 
three (3) units in width with two (2) longitudinal joints; and when de- 
signed on the assumption of a simple span, such units shall be tested 
with flat end supports. 

803.8 TEST SPECIMENS: The selection and construction of all test speci- 
mens and the details of test procedure herein required shall conform to 
the recognized test procedures as approved by the State Building Code 
Commission according to the reference standards of this article. All 
test specimens and constructions shall be truly representative of the 
materials, workmanship and details to be normally applied in practice. 
When structural or f ireresistive properties of the material are depen- 
dent upon adequate curing, the age of the specimen shall be not less 
than seven (7) nor more than twenty-eight (28) days, unless otherwise 
approved by the State Building Code Commission. 



8-6 



803.9 CONDUCT OF LOAD TESTS: Load tests, when required, shall be per- 
formed under the supervision of a qualified registered professional en- 
gineer or architect. A thorough analysis of the conditions of loading 
shall be made to ensure that the results reflect an accurate evaluation 
of the existing stresses. 



SECTION 804.0 CONDITIONS OF ACCEPTANCE 

When the strength or deflection of a member or assembly cannot be ac- 
curately determined by analysis, its evaluation may be based on the re- 
sults of physical tests as established in these provisions. This section 
shall apply only to members and assemblies which have not been incorpor- 
ated into a structure. In-place construction shall be evaluated by the 
provisions of section 803.4. 

804.1 TEST LOAD FACTOR: 

a) The test specimen shall sustain for a period of twenty-four (24) 
hours, without visible damage other than hairline cracks, its own 
weight, plus a superimposed test load equal to the dead load to 
be added at the site plus one hundred fifty (150) percent of the 
design live load . 

b) After completion of the test required by section 804.1. a. and re- 
moval of all superimposed loads, the recovery of deflection within 
twenty-four (24) hours shall be at least seventy-five (75) percent 
of the deflection due to the superimposed loads. 

c) The test specimen shall sustain without collapse its own weight, 
plus a superimposed test load equal to fifty (50) percent of its 
weight plus one hundred fifty (150) percent of the dead load to 
be added at the site, plus two hundred fifty (250) percent of the 
design live load . 

804.2 WORKING LOAD DEFLECTION: The deflection properties of the member 
of assembly under working loads shall conform to the applicable require- 
ments of this Code and the reference standards, as well as to any special 
requirements of the job specifications. Such deflections may be predicted 
on the basis of short-time tests, plus a suitable allowance, approved by 
the building official, for the effects of shrinkage, creep, and relaxation. 

804.3 WALL AND PARTITION ASSEMBLIES : Bearing wall and partition assem- 
blies shall sustain the load test both with and without window framing. 

804.4 CONCENTRATED LOAD TESTS: When not capable of design all floor con- 
structions in the use classification groups specified in table 7-2 shall 
be subjected to the concentrated loads therein prescribed when such load- 
ing exceeds in stress effect the uniformly distributed load specified for 
such uses in table 7-1; 



8-7 



804.5 PUNCTURE PENETRATION TESTS: All finish floor constructions in 
which light gage metal or other thin materials are used as the struc- 
tural floor shall withstand the application of a two hundred (200) 
pound concentrated load applied to the top surface on an area of one 
(1) square inch at any point or points of the construction designated 
by the building official. 



SECTION 805.0 APPROVALS 

805.1 APPROVAL: All materials devices, methods of construction and 
tests shall be subject to the approval and control of the State Build- 
ing Code Commission for use in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

805.2 HERETOFORE APPROVED MATERIALS: The use of any material already 
fabricated or of any construction already erected, which conformed to 
requirements or approvals heretofore in effect, shall be permitted to 
continue, if not detrimental to life, health or safety of the public. 



SECTION 806.0 MASONRY CONSTRUCTION UNITS 

806.1 IDENTIFICATION: The materials which are recognized as being ac- 
ceptable as masonry for the purposes of this Code are as follows: Brick, 
Structural Clay Tile, Glazed Masonry Units, Concrete Units, Gypsum Units, 
Structural Glass Block Units, Architectural Terra Cotta, Natural Stone, 
Cast Stone, Mortar for Masonry. A material designated to be used as 
masonry not so included by this article, shall be subject to approval 
and classification by the State Building Code Commission. 

806.2 NOMINAL DIMENSIONS: Dimensions and thickness specified in the 
Basic Code are nominal dimensions; actual dimensions may vary from the 
prescribed minimum in accordance with accepted tolerances in the build- 
ing industry. 

806.3 SECOND-HAND UNITS: Brick and other second-hand masonry units may 
be reused subject to the approval of the building official as to quality, 
condition and compliance with the requirements for new masonry xinlts. 
The unit shall be good, whole, sound material, free from cracks and 
other defects that would interfere with its proper laying or use; and 
shall be cleaned free from old mortar before reuse. 



SECTION 807.0 BRICK UNITS 

All clay, shale and sand-lime brick shall be selected of the appropriate 
grade specified In the reference standards of this article. The minimum 
grade permitted for brick la coata&t with the ground aad subject to wat»r, 
frost and freezing action shall be grade SW; when subject to frost without 
danger of water saturation, grade MW; and when not subject to weathering 
or when used as back-up in exterior walls or for interior construction, 
grade NW. Underburned clay brick shall not be used in Isolated brick 
piers, nor in a bearing wall which is more than forty (40) feet in height. 
Brick for fire protection, flreresistlve walls or fire stopping shall be 
of grade MW or better. 

8-8 



SECTION 808.0 STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE UNITS 

808.1 LOAD BEARING WALL TILE: Structural clay load bearing wall 
tile shall be classified for physical quality as grade LBX or grade 
LB and shall be in conformance with the reference standards of this 
article. 

808.2 FLOOR TILE: Structural clay floor tile shall be classified 
for physical quality as grade FTl or grade FT2 and shall conform to 
the reference standards of this article. 

808.21 ARCHES: Structural clay floor tile used in floor and roof 
arches shall be at least grade FT2 . 

808.3 FIREPROOFING AND NON-LOAD BEARING PARTITION TILE: Structural 
clay non-load bearing tile, used for partitions, f ireproof ing, and 
furring shall be classified as grade NB and shall conform to the ref- 
erence standards of this article. 

808.31 FIRERESISTANCE : Structural clay tile in fire resistive con- 
struction shall be of grade NB or better, and shall conform to the 
requirements of Table 2-5. 

808.4 EXPOSURE: Any structural clay tile exposed to the weather 
shall be at least of grade LBX. 



SECTION 809.0 GLAZED MASONRY UNITS 

Structural clay load-bearing facing tile, facing brick, and other 
solid masonry units made from clay, shale, fire-clay, or mixtures 
thereof having a finish consisting of a ceramic glaze shall be in 
conformance with the reference standards of this article. 



SECTION 810.0 CONCRETE UNITS 

Concrete units as classified in this Code shall include concrete 
bricks, solid load bearing units, hollow load bearing units and hollow 
non-load bearing units of concrete made from Portland cement, water 
and suitable aggregates, such as sand gravel, crushed stone, bitumi- 
nous or anthracite cinders, expanded clay or shale and blast furnace 
slag. The materials shall conform to the specific reference standards 
herein noted except that cinder aggregate for concrete blocks shall 
contain not more than twenty (20) percent of combustible matter. 

810.1 HOLLOW LOAD BEARING UNITS: Hollow load bearing concrete units 
shall conform to the reference standards of this article and when used 
unprotected below grade or unprotected against the weather by stucco, 
brick or other approved facings or veneers shall be grade U; when used 
protected below grade or protected exterior subject to frost action, 
grade P or better; for interior and protected exterior use not subject 
to frost action, grade G or better. 



8-9 



810.2 HOLLOW NON-LOAD BEARING UNITS: Hollow non-load bearing con- 
crete units shall conform to the reference standards of this article 
and may be used in non-load bearing interior partitions and non-load 
bearing exterior walls where effectively protected from the weather. 

810.3 SOLID LOAD BEARING UNITS: Solid load bearing units shall con- 
form to the reference standards of this article and when used unpro- 
tected below grade or unprotected against the weather by stucco, 
brick or other approved facings or veneers shall be grade U; when 
used protected below grade or protected exterior subject to frost 
action, grade P or better; for interior and protected exterior use 
not subject to frost action, grade G or better. 

810.4 CONCRETE BRICK: Concrete brick shall conform to the reference 
standards of this article and when exposed to severe frost action 
shall be grade U; when exposed to moderate frost action shall be grade 
P or better; and when used in backup or interior masonry, or where 
effectively protected against moisture penetration, grade G or better. 

810.5 CONCRETE FIREPROOFING AND FURRING UNITS: Concrete units may 

be used for fireproofing or furring when graded for weathering accord- 
ing to this section except that the exterior use of hollow non-load 
bearing units shall not be permitted for fireproofing purposes. All 
non-load bearing units shall be clearly marked to distinguish them 
from load bearing units. 

810.6 CONCRETE FLOOR TILE 

810.61 STRUCTURAL FILLERS: Structural concrete filler-block or tile 
when included in strength calculations in ribbed floor construction 
shall have webs and shells not less than one (1) inch thick and shall 
develop an average compressive strength on the net area not less than 
that of the rib concrete. 

810.62 OTHER FILLERS: Removable tile and permanent fillers which are 
not included in strength calculations shall be of adequate strength to 
insure integrity of the unit and safety in handling as approved by the 
building official. 



SECTION 811.0 GYPSUM UNITS 

A gypsum building unit in the form of tile or block for use in non- 
load bearing construction in the interior of buildings and for the pro- 
tection of columns, elevator shafts, etc., against fire shall conform 
to the reference standards of this article. 

811.1 USE: Gypsum tile or block shall not be used in load bearing 
masonry, in masonry exposed to weather or soil, nor in masonry expos- 
ed to frequent or continuous wetting. Gypsum partition tile or block 
shall not be used for partitions to receive Portland cement plaster, 
ceramic tile, marble or structural glass wainscots unless self -fur- 
ring metal lath is placed over the gjrpsum tile. 

8-10 



SECTION 812.0 STRUCTUEAL GLASS BLOCK UNITS 

Solid or hollow approved structural glass blocks shall not be used 
in fire walls, party walls or fire-division walls, or for load-bear- 
ing construction. All mortar-bearing surfaces of the block shall be 
precoated or prepared to insure adhesion between mortar and glass. 



SECTION 813.0 ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

All approved architectural terra cotta units shall be formed with a 
strong, homogeneous body of hard-burned, weather-resisting clay which 
gives off a sharp, metallic ring when struck and shall meet the 
strength and durability requirements of accepted engineering practice. 
All units shall be formed to engage securely with and anchor to the 
structural frame or masonry wall, and shall conform to the reference 
standards of this article. 



SECTION 814.0 NATURAL STONE 

Natural stone for masonry shall be sound and free from loose or 
friable inclusions; and shall meet the strength, f ireresistance, 
durability and impact resistance for the intended use in accordance 
with accepted engineering practice. 



SECTION 815.0 CAST STONE 

All approved cast stone shall be fabricated of concrete or other 
approved materials of required strength, durability and f ireresis- 
tance for the intended use and shall conform to the reference stan- 
dards of this article. 



SECTION 816.0 MORTAR FOR MASONRY 

816.1 MATERIALS: All Portland, natural and masonry cements, quick- 
lime and hydrated lime for use in masonry mortar and concrete shall 
meet the minimum strength and durability requirements of the standards 
listed in the references of this article. 

816.2 MORTAR TYPES AND PROPORTIONS: Mortar for masonry construction 
shall conform to one (1) of the following tjrpes and shall be mixed to 
a consistent workability in the specified proportions measured by vol- 
ume with clean fresh water free from harmful amounts of acids, alkalis, 
oils or organic materials ; and with approved aggregates composed of 
hard, strong, durable mineral particles well-graded from fine to coarse, 
free from injurious amounts of acid, alkalis, oils, saline, organic and 



8-11 



other deleterious substances in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. Masonry mortars shall have a flow after suction of not 
less than seventy (70) percent and shall conform to the reference 
standards of this article. 

MORTAR PROPORTIONS (Parts By Volume) 









Hydrated 


. Lime 




Damp 


Mortar 


Portland 


Masonry 


or L; 


Lme 


Putty 




Loose 


Type 


Cement 


Cement 


Min. 




Max. 




Aggregate 


M 


1 


_ 


_ 




h 








1 


1 


- 




- 






S 


1 


_ 


h 




h 






h 


1 


~ 




~ 


not 


less than 25s anc 



not more than 3 times the 
1^^ sum of the volumes of the 
- cements and limes used. 



\h 



2h 



816.3 TYPES OF MORTAR PERMITTED: 
of the following types : 



Unit masonry shall be laid in mortar 



TYPE OF MASONRY 



TYPES OF MORTAR PERMITTED 



Masonry in contact with earth 

Grouted and filled cell masonry 

Masonry above grade or interior masonry: 

Piers of solid units 

Piers of hollow units 

Walls of solid units 

Walls of hollow units 

Cavity walls and masonry bonded hollow 
walls 

Design wind pressure exceeds 20 psf 
Design wind pressure 20 psf or less 
Glass block masonry 

Nonloadb earing partitions and fireproofing 
Gypsvim partition tile or block 
Fire brick 
Linings of existing masonry, above or 

below grade 
Masonry other than above 



M or S 






M or S 






M, S or 


N 


' 


M or S 






M, S, N 


or 





M, S or 


N 




M or S 






M, S or 


N 




S or N 






M, S, N 


, 


or Gyp Slim 


Gypsum 






Refractory 


air-setting mortar 


M or S 






M, S or 


N 





8-12 



816.4 SPECIAL MORTARS: other special masonry mortars in place of 
the mortar types listed in section 816.2 may be approved provided 
they develop the minimum compressive strengths specified for the 
respective mortars they replace. The strength classification of a 
special mortar or special mix inay be determined by compressive 
strength tests with the materiijs and in the proportions representa- 
tive of those to be used in actual practice. In no case shall the 
allowable unit working stresses in the masonry be more than one-fourth 
(h,) the average ultimate compressive strength of the assembled test 
samples. 

816.5 GYPSUM MORTAR: Gypsum mortar shall be composed of one (1) 
part of unfibered calcined neat gypsum to not more than three (3) 
parts sand by weight. Only gypsum mortar shall be used with gypsum 
tile and block units. Gypsum shall conform to the reference stan- 
dards of this article. 

816.6 MORTARS FOR CERAMIC WALL AKD FLOOR TILE: Mortars for install- 
ing ceramic wall and floor tile shall be of the following composition 
measured by volume : 

Walls: Scratch coat 1 cement: 1/3 hydrated lime: 4 sand 
Setting bed and 1 cement: 1/2 hydrated lime": '4 sand 
Leveling coat 

Floors: Setting bed 1 cement: 5 sand 

Ceilings: Scratch coat 1 cement: 1/2 hydrated lime: 3 sand 
and setting bed 

or other mortars of comparable adhesive strength and durability, in 
accordance with the reference standards of this article. 

816.61 DRY-SET PORTLAND CEMENT MORTARS: Dry-set Portland cement 
mortars to be used in the installation of ceramic tile shall be in 
accordance with standard specification for dry-set Portland cement 
mortar listed in the reference standards of this article. 

816.7 ORGANIC ADHESIVES: Organic adhesives to be used in installing 
ceramic tile shall have a shear bond strength in accordance with com- 
mercial standard for adhesives for installations of clay tile listed 
in the reference standards of this article. 



SECTION 817.0 CONCRETE AGGREGATES 

817.1 AGGREGATE QUALITY: Concrete aggregates shall conform to the 
reference standards of this article for organic impurities, soundness, 
mortar strength, durability, weather resistance, fire resistance, and 
wearing qualities. 



8-13 



817.2 FIRERESISTANCE: Coarse aggregate in concrete shall be rated 
in respect to the fireresistance of concrete made therewith on the 
basis of performance in fire test on building elements such as columns, 
floors, partitions and wall conducted in accordance with standard fire 
test specifications applicable to such test. Protective coverings of 
encasements of concrete for steel in f ireresistive construction shall 
likewise be selected on the basis of performance in applicable stan- 
dard fire tests. All concrete constructions shall meet the require- 
ments of article 9 as regulated by the provisions of table 2-5. 

817.21 GRADE 1 CONCRETE: Grade 1 concrete shall mean concrete made 
with aggregates such as blast-furnace slag, burned clays, and calcar- 
eous, igneous, and most silicate crushed stones and gravels and shales, 
as well as any other aggregates performing as required by the Basic 
Code for the appropriate construction when tested in accordance with 
standard methods of fire tests of building construction and materials 
listed in the reference standards of article 9. 

817.22 GRADE 2 CONCRETE: Grade 2 concrete shall mean concrete made 
with aggregates such as cinders and crushed stones and gravels com- 
posed essentially of quartz and quartzite cherts as well as any other 
aggregates performing as required by the Basic Code for the appropriate 
construction when tested in accordance with standard methods of fire 
tests of building construction and materials listed in the reference 
standards of article 9. 

817.3 SIZE OF AGGREGATES: Fine aggregates shall conform to the ref- 
erence standards of this article and shall be well-graded from fine 
to coarse. Coarse aggregates shall not exceed one-fifth (1/5) of the 
narrowest dimensions between sides of the form nor three-quarters (3/4) 
of the minimum clear spacing between reinforcing bars and shall conform 
to the reference standards of this article. 

817.4 SPECIAL AGGREGATES: Special aggregates, including among others, 
perlite, vermiculite and other processed mica, pumice, lava, tufa, vol- 
canic glass, slag, coke, expanded clay and shale used in concrete and 
plaster construction shall meet all requirements of the approved rules 
and shall be classified in their respective f ireresistant grades as 
determined by test. When used for fire protection purposes only, the 
building official may waive mortar strength requirements for such ag- 
gregates providing the concrete is shown by test to have adequate 
strength for the intended use. 



SECTION 818.0 READY-MIX CONCRETE 

818.1 CONTROL: Ready-mix concrete for use in ordinary or in controlled 
materials procedure shall conform to section 842 for reinforced concrete 
and to the applicable standards listed in the reference standards of this 
article. 



8-14 



818.2 TRANSPORTATION: Ready-mixed concrete shall be transported in 
approved conveyances which insure delivery of the concrete at the site 
in a plastic, workable and unhardened state. The maximum amount of 
concrete hauled in an agitator shall not exceed the approved rating 

of the conveyance; and the period of delivery shall not exceed the 
time in which loss of plasticity may occur and generally not more than 
one and one-half (l^s) hours after the mixing of cement and water. 

818.3 ORDINARY MATERIALS PROCEDURE: When ready-mix is used under the 
ordinary materials procedure, either the cement content in bags per 
yard of concrete together with the maximum permissible slump shall be 
specified. The cement factor and water cement ratio shall conform to 
the provisions of the reference standards of this article. 



SECTION 819.0 STRUCTURAL WOOD GLUES 

819.1 QUALITY OF GLUE: Glues used in structural assemblies of built- 
up or laminated lumber sections shall develop the full strength of the 
wood, shall not produce decomposition or deleterious chemical reaction 
in the wood structure, shall not be attractive to vermin and shall 
conform to the reference standards of this article. 

819.2 MANUFACTURERS' REQUIREMENTS: Approved structural glues shall 
be handled, mixed and applied as prescribed by the manufacturer and 
the gluing shall be done only in accordance with the timber construc- 
tion standards listed in the reference standards of this article. 

819.3 TYPES OF GLUE: Structural glues shall be classified as dry 
use and wet use in conformance with the reference standards of this 
article. 



SECTION 820.0 INTERIOR LATHING AND PLASTERING 

All interior lathing and plastering shall conform to the standards 
of accepted engineering practice for lathing, furring and accessories 
and gypsum and Portland cement plastering listed in the reference 
standards of this article except as may otherwise be provided in this 
article for specific materials. 

820.1 INSTALLATION 

820.11 INSPECTION: The building official shall be notified not less 
than twenty-four (24) hours in advance of all plastering work, and no 
plaster shall be applied until after the lathing or other plaster base 
has been inspected and approved by him. 

820.12 WEATHER PROTECTION: When plastering work is in progress, the 
building or structure shall be temporarily enclosed and in freezing 
weather the enclosure shall be heated to protect the plaster from in- 
jury. 

8-15 



SECTION 821.0 EXTERIOR LATHING AND STUCCO 

All exterior lathing, plastering and stucco work shall be installed 
of Portland cement or other approved mortar, as provided in the ref- 
erence standards of this article or as provided in this Code for 
specific materials. 

821.1 REINFORCEMENT: All stucco work shall be reinforced with ap- 
proved metal lath or wire fabric except when applied directly to a 
masonry or concrete base, or when installed on a masonry base which 
is protected with bituminous surfacing. 

821.2 MINIMUM WEIGHT: Metal lath, expanded metal and wire reinforc- 
ing fabric shall weigh not less than the following: 



Minimum 

Type of Reinforcement U.S. Gage 

Metal lath 

Expanded metal - 

Woven wire 18 

Woven wire 17 

Woven wire 16 

Welded wire 18 

Welded wire 17 

Welded wire 16 



Maximum 
Mesh Inches 



Minimum Weight 
Pounds per Square Yard 



- 




3.4 


- 




1.8 


1 




1.74 


I's 




1.41 


2 




1.47 


4 sq. 


in. 


0.67 


4 sq. 


in. 


0.82 


4 sq. 


in. 


1.10 



821.3 CORROSION RESISTANCE: All metal lath and stucco reinforcing 
fabric shall be protected with a zinc, or other approved rust-resistive 
coating or rust-inhibitive paint, or shall be manufactured from approv- 
ed corrosion-resistive alloys. 

821.4 SHEATHING: Except in back-plastered construction, the studs 
shall be covered with approved sheathing complying with section 855; 
or not less than No. 18 U.S. gage galvanized wire shall be stretched 
horizontally at six (6) inch centers and shall be covered with not 
less than fourteen (14) pound waterproof felt or paper before apply- 
ing the reinforced stucco; or an approved paper-backed wire fabric 
may be used of not less than No. 14 U.S. gage galvanized wire with 
stiffening ribs not more than five (5) inches on centers to which is 
attached a double layer of fibrous waterproof backing. The mesh open- 
ing shall not exceed two by two (2x2) inches. 

821.5 BACK PLASTERED CONSTRUCTION; In back-plastered construction, 
when spacing of studs exceeds sixteen (16) inches, approved horizon- 
tol noncombustlble cross-furring at not more than sixteen (16) inch 
centers shall be first applied; unless approved stiffened lath is 
used and the frame is adequately stiffened as provided in section 855. 



8-16 



821.6 APPLICATION ON MASONRY BASE: When applied directly to masonry 
or monolithic concrete, the surfaces shall be roughened, hacked or 
bush-hammered to provide bond, or a preparatory dash coat of Portland 
cement grout shall be applied. The dash coat shall be kept damp for 
at least two (2) days after application and before applying succeeding 
stucco coats. 

821.7 PROTECTION. 

821.71 FROM FREEZING: At all times during application and for a 
period of not less than forty-eight (48) hours after application of 
each coat, provision shall be made to keep stucco work above fifty 
(50) degrees F. 

821.72 FROM MOISTURE: Stucco shall be kept a sufficient height above 
ground surfaces as provided in section 855 and all sills, coping and 
projecting courses shall be flashed and provided with drips as therein 
specified. 

821.73 FROM RAPID DRYING: Stucco shall be protected from heat, sun, 

and wind for the first forty-eight (48) hours to prevent premature drying. 



SECTION 822.0 PLASTERING MATERIALS 

All sand, quick-lime, hydrated lime, hair binder, gypsum, keene and 
Portland cements, pozzuolanic cements and aggregates and other materials 
used in plastering shall be stored, protected and applied in accordance 
with the reference standards of this article. 

822.1 SPECIAL CEMENTS AND PLASTERS: Approved cements used in plaster- 
ing may have admixtures of approved plasticity agents added in the manu- 
facturing process or when mixing plaster at the site in the approved 
proportions. All premixed special plasters, cements and aggregates 
shall be packaged and identified with the approved label. 

822.2 LIME PLASTER: Lime and hydrated lime plasters for use in base 
and finish coats shall be applied in accordance with the reference stan- 
dards of this article and the manufacturers' specifications. 

822.3 GYPSUM PLASTER: All gypsum plaster shall comply with the ref- 
erence standards of this article. 

822.4 GYPSUM PLASTERS WITH SPECIAL AGGREGATES: When gypsum is used 
with manufactured aggregates in place of natural sand for plaster, the 
mixture shall be proportioned and applied in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's recommendations and the reference standards of this article. 



SECTION 823.0 PLASTER BASES 

823.1 FIBER BOARDS: Approved fiber boards used as plaster bases shall 
comply with section 824. The surface of such boards shall be of a rough, 

8-17 



fibrous texture to insure mechanical and suction bond; and the boards 
shall meet the bond and strength tests specified in the reference 
standards of this article. 

823.2 GYPSUM LATH: Except when greater thickness is required for 
fireresistance under the provisions of article 9, or as herein speci- 
fied, gypsum lath used for plastering shall be not less than three- 
eighths (3/8) inches thick and shall comply with the reference standards 
of this article. 

823.3 PERFORATED GYPSUM LATH: Where required to provide specified 
time-temperature performance, perforated gypsum lath shall be not less 
than three-eighths (3/8) inches thick. The openings shall be equiva- 
lent to three-quarter (3/4) inch diameter holes for each sixteen (16) 
square inches of lath surface; or the lath shall be perforated as deter- 
mined by full size tests for load, strength and fireresistance ratings. 

823.4 METAL LATH: The dimensions and sizes of expanded, ribbed and 
sheet metal lath shall comply with the reference standards of this article; 
and shall be fabricated from not less than No. 30 U.S. gage steel sheets. 
It shall be manufactured from copperbearing steel, coated with rust- 
inhibitive paint after cutting, or cut from zinc-coated steel sheets. 

823.5 WIRE LATH: All types of wire lath shall comply with the refer- 
ence standards of this article; and shall be fabricated from woven or 
welded wire of not less than No. 19 W & M gage with not more than two 
and one-half (Ih) meshes to the inch. Woven or welded wire reinforce- 
ment shall be coated with zinc or rust-inhibitive paint. 

823.6 PAPER-BACKED LATH: Expanded metal or wire lath backed with in- 
tegral approved paper shall be fabricated from the minimum gages and 
weights specified in sections 823.4 and 823.5. 

823.7 COMBUSTIBLE LATH: Wood lath shall be erected horizontally on 
walls and partitions and ceiling lath shall run in one direction only; 
but in neither case shall it extend through cross-partitions from room 
to room. Wood lath shall be not less than one (1) inch wide nor less 
than five-sixteenths (5/16) inches thick and shall comply with all the 
requirements of accepted engineering practice. The lath joints shall 
be staggered so that not more than seven (7) laths occur in any one 
continuous break. 



SECTION 824.0 FIBER BOARDS 

Insulating boards manufactured with wood or other vegetable fibers 
used as building boards for sheathing, roof decks, plaster bases, in- 
terior wall and ceiling finish, roof insulation or sound deadening, 
shall be vermin proof, resistant to rot-producing fungi and water- 
repellent and shall meet the strength and durability tests specified 
in the reference standards listed in this article. 



8-18 



824.1 JOINTING: To insure tight-fitting assemblies, edges shall be 
manufactured square or shiplapped, beveled, tongue-and-grooved or U- 
jointed; and shall be installed in accordance with the reference 
standards of this article. 

824.2 PLASTER BASE: When used as a plaster base, fiber boards shall 
be permitted in f ireresistive construction complying with the test 
provisions of article 9, except where specifically prohibited in fire- 
proof (type 1) and noncombustible (type 2) construction. 

824.3 ROOF INSULATION: When used as roof insulation in all t3rpes of 
construction, fiber boards shall be protected with an approved type of 
roof covering. 

824.4 WALL INSULATION: When installed and firestopped to comply with 
article 9, fiber boards may be used for wall insulation in all types 
of construction. In firewall and fire division construction, unless 
treated to be noncombustible, the boards shall be cemented directly 

to the masonry or other combustible veneer anchored to the base with- 
out intervening air spaces. 

824.5 DRY WALL CONSTRUCTION: Where f ireresistance ratings are required, 
provisions shall be made for interlocking, lapping or otherwise protec- 
ting the joints between adjacent boards to insure smoke and flame tight- 
ness. 

824.6 INSULATING ROOF DECK: When used as roof decking in open beam 
construction fiber board insulating roof deck shall have a minimum nom- 
inal thickness not less than one (1) inch. 



SECTION 825.0 PLYWOOD 

825.1 QUALITY: All plywood when used structurally shall meet the per- 
formance standards and all other requirements of the reference standards 
of this article for the type, grade and identification index or species 
group of plywood involved, and shall be so identified by an approved 
agency. Working stresses shall conform to the standards of accepted 
engineering practice in conformance with the reference standards of this 
article. 

825.2 TYPES: Plywood for interior use may be either of the moisture 
resistant or exterior type; plywood for exterior use shall be of the 
exterior waterproof type. Exterior plywood may be applied directly to 
the framing as a siding, provided it has a nominal thickness of three- 
eighths (3/8) inch. Joints shall occur over framing members, unless 
wood or plywood sheathing is used or joints are lapped horizontally a 
minimum of one and one-half (1%) inches or otherwise made waterproof 
to the satisfaction of the building official. If plywood is used as 
lapped siding without sheathing, the wall framing to which it is at- 
tached shall be diagonally braced. 



8-19 



825.3 SPANS: The maximum spans for plywood roof sheathing and sub- 
flooring shall be limited by the allowable stresses and deflections 
for the design live load but shall have not less than the identifi- 
cation index listed in the reference standards of this article, pro- 
vided it is continuous over two (2) or more spans and laid with face 
grain perpendicular to the supports. 

825.31 VERTICAL MAXIMUM STUD SPACING: Stud spacing for vertical 
sheathing and for use in stress-skin panel or other prefabricated 
constructions shall be determined by accepted engineering analysis 

or by the tests prescribed for prefabricated assemblies in section 803. 

825.32 The allowable span for plywood combination subfloor underlay- 
ment shall conform to the reference standards of this article. 



SECTION 826.0 WALLBOARDS AND SHEATHING 

826.1 SHEATHING: Sheathing of particleboard, gypsum, processed fiber 
and other approved materials shall conform to the reference standards 
of this article. When used in frame construction, they shall meet 
requirements of section 855.1 and 855.2. When required to meet fire- 
resistance ratings, the assembled construction shall comply with table 
2-5 for structural elements and article 9 for trim and finishes. 

826.2 WALLBOARDS: Wall board of particleboard, gypsum, processed fiber 
and other approved materials shall conform to the reference standards of 
this article. When required to meet f ireresistance ratings, the assembled 
construction shall comply with table 2-5 for structured elements and 
article 9 for trim and finishes . 



8-20 



ARTICLE 8 - PART B 



STEEL, MASONRY, CONCRETE, 
GYPSUM AND LUMBER CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 827.0 STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

Structural steel construction used in all buildings and structures 
shall be fabricated from materials of uniform quality, free from de- 
fects that would vitiate the strength or stability of the structure. 
Workmanship, design, fabrication, transportation and erection shall 
conform to accepted engineering practice as defined by the reference 
standards of this article. 

827.1 PLANS: Design plans drawn to appropriate scale show the size, 
section and relative locations of all structural members with floor 
levels, column centers and all offsets fully dimensioned; and the 
design loads shall be clearly indicated for all parts of the building 
or structure. 

827.2 IDENTIFICATION: Structural steel that is required to have a 
minimum yield point greater than thirty-six thousand (36,000) pounds 
per square inch shall at all times in the fabricator's plant, be 
marked, segregated, or otherwise handled so that the separate alloys 
and tempers are positively identified, and after completion of fabri- 
cation, shall be marked to identify the alloy and temper. Such mark- 
ings shall be affixed to completed members and assemblies or to boxed 
or bundled shipments of multiple units prior to shipment from the 
fabricator's plant. 

827.3 SHOP DRAWINGS: Shop drawings, giving complete information nec- 
essary for the fabrication of the component parts of the structure, 
including the types of material, the location, type and size of all 
rivets, bolts and welds, shall be prepared in advance of the actual 
fabrication. They shall clearly distinguish between shop and field 
rivets, bolts and welds. Shop drawings shall be made in conformity 
with the best modern practice and with due regard to safety, speed 
and economy in fabrication and erection. 

827.4 WELDING: All welded construction shall be designed by quali- 
fied registered professional engineers and shall be supervised by 
qualified registered professional engineers and qualified technicians 
licensed and registered by the State Building Code Commission. Welds 
shall be made by welders, tackers, and welding operators who are li- 
censed and registered by the State Building Code Commission to per- 
form the type of work required, as prescribed in the reference stan- 
dards of this article. 

827.5 PAINTING: All painting shall comply with the specifications for 
design, fabrication and erection of structural steel for buildings listed 
in the reference standards of this article. 

8-21 



SECTION 828.0 FORMED STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

828.1 DESIGN: The design of all light gage and formed steel members 
and assembled wall, floor and roof panels, used alone or in combina- 
tion with other structural members, or with component materials, shall 
be based on allowable unit stresses and maximum deflections in conform- 
ance with the reference standards of this article. 

828.2 SECONDARY STRUCTURAL SYSTEM: Formed steel floor, wall and roof 
systems may be designed and constructed to resist all vertical and hori- 
zontal moments and shears resulting from lateral forces. Such members, 
when designed to transmit horizontal shears due to wind or other lateral 
forces, shall be connected to the supporting structure so as to adequate- 
ly resist all primary and secondary stresses. When concrete topping or 
other approved decking is installed in a manner to insure composite ac- 
tion of the assembly, the strength of the composite member may be in- 
cluded in the calculations. 

828.3 PROTECTION. 

828.31 SHOP COAT: All individual structural members and assembled panels 
of light gage and formed steel construction, except where fabricated of 
approved corrosion-resistive metallic steel or of steel having a corro- 
sion-resistive or other approved coating, shall be protected against 
corrosion with an acceptable shop coat of paint, enamel, or other ap- 
proved protection. 

828.32 FIELD COAT: After erection where directly exposed to the 
weather, except when encased in concrete made of non-corrosive aggre- 
gates, or where fabricated of approved corrosion-resistive steel, or 

of galvanized or otherwise adequately protected steel, individual struc- 
tural members and assembled panels of light gage and formed steel con- 
struction shall be given an additional coat of acceptable protection. 

828.33 SIDING: Exposed siding or sheathing shall be fabricated of 
approved corrosion-resistive steel or otherwise protected at the ground 
level for sufficient height above grade as determined by the depth of 
average snowfall in the locality, but in no case for a height of less 
than eight (8) inches. 

828.34 PROTECTION AT EXTERIOR WALLS: Floor or roof construction which 
extends into an exterior wall shall be adequately waterproofed and pro- 
tected from the weather to prevent corrosion. 

828.4 TESTS: When not capable of design by accepted engineering analy- 
sis, the building official shall require tests of the individual or as- 
sembled structural units and their connections as prescribed in sections 
803 and 804. At least three (3) specimens truly representative of the 
construction to be used in practice shall be subjected to the prescribed 
test and the mean of the results shall determine the safe working value; 
provided that any individual test varying more than ten (10) percent from 
the mean value shall cause rejection of the series. 

8-22 



SECTION 829.0 OPEN WEB STEEL JOISTS 

Steel joists may be used as secondary members in floor and roof con- 
struction, other than around stairwells, shafts and other floor open- 
ings. The materials, design and construction methods shall conform 
with the reference standards of this article. 

829.1 DESIGN. 

829.11 LOADS AND STRESSES: Connections of all members shall be de- 
signed with the minimum possible eccentricity and all secondary stresses 
shall be included with primary stresses in the design. In buildings 
subject to heavy concentrations or moving loads, the construction 
shall be designed to resist the vertical and lateral components of 

such loads in addition to the live and dead loads specified in ar- 
ticle 7. 

829.12 PARTITIONS: The joists shall be designed to support the dead 
load of partitions wherever they occur in addition to all other imposed 
dead and live loads. 

829.2 PROTECTION: Painting of steel joists shall be in accordance 
with the requirements of section 828 for formed steel construction; 
or the joist shall be dipped in an approved hot asphalt, or shall be 
protected by painting, dipping or spraying with approved cold asphalt 
at the place of manufacture. 

829.3 HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS: When the main structural frame 
is designed to resist all horizontal and vertical moments and shears 
due to lateral forces, and the secondary system consists of steel 
joists which are attached to the supporting beams and girders of the 
frame as specified in the standards, steel joist construction of the 
required fireresistance may be used in all buildings within th^ height 
limits of table 2-6 . 

829.4 TESTS: When not subject to accepted engineering analysis as 
regulated by the standard for steel joist construction, the assembly 
shall meet the load test requirements specified in sections 803 and 804. 



SECTION 830.0 REINFORCING STEEL 

Metal reinforcement for reinforced concrete, reinforced gjrpsum, con- 
crete, reinforced brickwork and reinforced hollow block construction 
shall comply with the reference standards of this article. 

830.1 IDENTIFICATION: All reinforcing bars shall be rolled with raised 
symbols or letters impressed on the metal identifying the manufacturing 
mill. When required by the building official, the grade of material 
shall be identified by satisfactory mill tests. All bundles or rolls 
of cold-drawn steel wire reinforcement and of one-quarter (h) inch 
rounds shall be securely tagged to identify the manufacturer and the 
grade of steel. 

8-23 



830.2 HIGH YIELD STEELS: When the yield point of reinforcing bar 
steel is fifty thousand (50,000) pounds per square inch or more, 
the building official shall approve tension stresses in bending and 
compression stresses in vertical column reinforcement not more than 
forty (40) percent of the minimum yield point, and in conformity with 
the reference standards of this article. Such stresses shall be not 
more than thirty-thousand (30,000) pounds per square inch except when 
pre-stressed reinforcement is used. 

830.3 COLUMN REINFORCEMENT 

830.31 STRUCTURAL STEEL SECTIONS: The allowable unit stress on 
structural steel column sections shall conform with the provisions 
of the reference standards of this article. 

830.32 CAST IRON SECTIONS: All cast iron used as reinforcement in 
combination with concrete shall be of pit-cast water pipe grade com- 
plying with the reference standards of this article; and the allow- 
able unit stress shall be not more than ten thousand (10,000) pounds 
per square inch. 

830.4 TESTS: When unidentified reinforcement is approved for use 
under ordinary material procedure, not less than three (3) tension 
and three (3) bending tests shall be made on representative speci- 
mens of the reinforcement from each shipment and grade of reinforcing 
steel proposed for use in the work. 



SECTION 831.0 CAST STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

831.1 MATERIALS: Carbon steel casting for building construction 
shall be cast from open hearth or basic oxygen steel conforming to 
the requirements of the reference standards of this article. All 
castings shall be free from injurious blow holes or other defects 
which would impair the structural strength. 

831.2 HIGHER STRENGTH CAST STEEL: Higher strength cast steel may 
be used when approved under controlled material procedures . 

831.3 WELDING CAST STEEL: Cast steel designed for use in welding 
shall be of weldable grade complying with the approved rules. 



SECTION 832.0 CAST IRON CONSTRUCTION 

832.1 MATERIALS: Cast iron for building construction shall be a 
good foundry mixture providing clean, tough, gray iron, free from 
serious blow holes, cinder spots and cold shuts; conforming to the 
reference standards of this article. 



8-24 



832.2 LIMITATIONS OF USE: Cast iron columns shall not be used where 
subject to eccentric loads which produce a net tension in the section, 
nor in any part of a structural frame which is required to resist 
stress due to wind. Cast iron columns shall not be used in the pri- 
mary structural frames of buildings whose height exceeds one hundred 
(100) feet or twice the width at the ground level. Cast iron shall 
not be used for columns required to have four (4) hour f ireresistive 
protection. Cast iron columns supporting a floor shall not be longer 
than seventy (70) times the least radius of gyration or twenty-four 
(24) times the outside diameter or least side. Cast iron columns 
supporting roof loads only shall not be longer than ninety-six (96) 
times the least radius of gyration or thirty (30) times the outside 
diameter or least side; cast iron columns shall not be smaller than 
six (6) inches in outside diameter or side. 

832.3 MULTI-STORY COLUMNS: Cores of superimposed columns shall be 
of the same dimensions above and below a splice. When a column of 
smaller diameter is superimposed over one of larger diameter, the 
larger column shall be tapered down to the smaller diameter over a 
length of not less than six (6) inches. 

832.4 THICKNESS OF METAL: The minimum thickness of cast iron shall 
be not less than herein specified : 

832.41 COLUMNS: In columns, the metal shall be not less than one- 
twelfth (1/12) the smallest dimension of the cross-section and in no 
case less than three-quarter (3/4) inch. 

832.42 BASES AND BRACKETS: In bases and flanges, the metal shall be 
not less than one (1) inch thick reinforced with fillets and brackets; 

832.43 LINTELS: In lintels, the metal shall be not less than three- 
quarter (3/4) inches thick and shall be limited to use on spans of 
not more than six (6) feet. 

832.5 INSPECTION: No cast iron column shall be erected in place be- 
fore it has been inspected and approved by the building official. 

The use of any cast iron column in which blow holes or imperfections 
reduce the effective area of the cross-section more than ten (10) per- 
cent shall be prohibited. Where required by the building official, 
three-eighth (3/8) inch round inspection holes shall be drilled in the 
section to expose the thickness of metal for inspection purposes. 



SECTION 833.0 SPECIAL STEELS 

833.1 IDENTIFICATION: Silicon, nickel and other corrosion-resistive 
alloy and high strength steels with minimum yield points in excess of 
thirty-six thousand (36,000) used in the design and construction of 
buildings and structures shall conform to the standards of accepted 
engineering practice. Every such special steel shall be marked or 
otherwise identified to clearly distinguish it from all other classes 
of steel. 

8-25 



833.2 DESIGN AND WORKMANSHIP: Design and fabrication methods shall 
conform to the requirements of the approved rules. 

SECTION 834.0 LIGHT WEIGHT METAL ALLOYS 

Aluminum and other approved light weight metals and alloys shall be 
used for structural purposes in buildings and structures in accordance 
with the reference standards of this article. 

SECTION 835.0 MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION 

835.1 DESIGN: All masonry construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this article governing quality of materials and manner of 
construction; and shall be of adequate strength and proportions to 
support all superimposed loads within working stresses prescribed in 
the Basic Code and the reference standards of this article. 

835.2 Wetting of Brick: Brick (clay or shale) shall be wetted when 
laid unless their gain in weight resulting from partial immersion 
flatwise in one-eighth (1/8) inch of water for one (1) minute is less 
than twenty-five thousandths (0.025) ounce per square inch of immersed 
area. 

835.3 PRECAUTIONS AGAINST FREEZING: All masonry shall be protected 
against freezing for not less than forty-eight (48) hours after in- 
stallation; and shall not be constructed below twenty-eight (28) de- 
grees F. on rising temperatures or below thirty-six (36) degrees F. 
on falling temperatures, without temporary heated enclosures or with- 
out heating materials or other precautions necessary to prevent freez- 
ing. No frozen materials shall be used nor shall frozen masonry be 
built upon. 

835.4 INCORPORATION OF COMBUSTIBLES: No lumber or other combustible 
materials, except nailing blocks and ornamental timber to an extent 
permitted by the chasing restrictions of section 838 and the provi- 
sions of section 900.2 shall be incorporated in masonry walls, except 
as approved for combustible aggregates or component materials after 
fire test. 



SECTION 836.0 BONDING OF WALLS 

Walls of solid, composite and hollow masonry and cavity and other 
hollow walls shall be bonded in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. 

836.1 RUBBLE STONE WALLS: All stones in rubble masonry shall be 
laid on their natural bed and the walls shall be bonded with not less 
than one (1) through bond stone for each nine (9) superficial square 
feet of area. 



8-26 



836.2 BUTTRESSES AND PIERS: All buttresses shall be bonded into the 
wall by a masonry bond. The piers and buttresses shall have suffi- 
cient strength and stability with sufficient bonding or anchorage 
between the walls and the supports to resist wind pressure and suction. 

836.3 INTERSECTION WALLS AND PARTITIONS: Masonry walls and parti- 
tions shall be securely anchored or bonded at points where they in- 
tersect by one (1) of the following methods: 

a) walls may be bonded by laying at least fifty (50) percent of 
the units at the intersection in true masonry bond with alter- 
nate units having a bearing of not less than three (3) inches 
upon the unit below, or they may be anchored with not less 
than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch corrosion-resistant metal 
wire ties or joint reinforcement at vertical intervals not to 
exceed two (2) feet, or by other equivalent approved anchorage. 

b) where walls are carried up separately the intersection shall 
be toothed or blocked with eight (8) inch maximum offsets and 
shall be provided with approved metal anchors at vertical in- 
tervals of not more than four (4) feet or, when approved, 
blocking may be eliminated and rigid steel anchors shall be 
provided, spaced not more than two (2) feet apart vertically. 

c) interior nonloadbearing walls may be bonded or anchored as re- 
quired by 1 or 2 above or they may be anchored at their inter- 
section, at vertical intervals of not more than two (2) feet, 
with at least twenty-two (22) gage corrosion-resistant corru- 
gated metal ties seven-eights (7/8) inch in width, or other 
equivalent approved method of anchorage . 

836.4 ERECTING PRECAUTIONS: Where hollow walls decrease in thick- 
ness, a course of solid masonry or of concrete-filled units, or a 
continuous bearing plate shall be interposed between the thicker and 
thinner sections. No wall shall be built up more than twenty-five 
(25) feet in advance of other walls of the same building or structure 
unless supported independently at each floor; and all walls shall be 
temporarily braced during erection. 



SECTION 837.0 LATERAL BRACING OF WALLS 

All masonry walls shall be laterally supported by horizontal brac- 
ing of floor and roof framing or vertical bracing of columns, buttres- 
ses or crosswalls at vertical or horizontal intervals. All masonry 
walls shall be subject to the provisions of the reference standards 
of this article. Where applicable, masonry walls shall be subject to 
control as specified in Section 128.0. All such structures shall en- 
sure that provision is made to transfer wind pressures and other 
lateral forces to the foundation. 



8-27 



SECTION 838.0 CHASES AND RECESSES IN BEARING WALLS 

838.1 WHERE PERMITTED: Chases and recesses shall be prohibited in 
any wall less than twelve (12) inches thick or in the required area 
of piers and buttresses; except that eight (8) inch walls where per- 
mitted in residential buildings and the apron under window openings 
may be chased not more than four (4) inches in depth. Vertical chases 
adjacent to bearings of beams or lintels, vertical chases wider than 
twelve (12) inches and all horizontal chases shall be proportioned 

on the basis of stress analysis and such calculations shall be sub- 
mitted by a qualified registered professional engineer or architect. 

838.2 MAXIMUM SIZE: The maximum permitted depth of a chase in any 
wall shall be not more than one-third (1/3) the wall thickness, and 
the maximum length of a horizontal chase or the maximvun horizontal 
projection of a diagonal chase shall not exceed four (4) feet except 
as provided in section 838.5; and except further that the length of 
the apron below window sills in all walls may equal the width of the 
window opening; and such aprons in eight (8) inch walls may be chased 
not more than four (4) inches in depth when waterproofed. The aggre- 
gate area of recesses and chases in any wall shall be not more than 
one-fourth (1/4) of the area of the face of the wall in any one story. 

838.3 FIRERESISTIVE LIMITATIONS: It shall be unlawful to have chases 
or recesses which reduce the thickness of material below the minimum 
specified in article 9 for fire walls, fire divisions, fire partitions 
or required fire-protective covering of structural members. 

838.4 HOLLOW WALLS: When chases and recesses are permitted in hollow 
walls and walls constructed of hollow blocks or tile, they shall be 
built-in with the wall. It shall be unlawful to cut chases in such 
walls after erection. 

838.5 CONTINUOUS CHASES: Horizontal chases for the bearing of re- 
inforced concrete floor and roof slabs may be continuous, provided 
anchors are installed above and below the floor construction to re- 
sist the bending and uplift in the wall due to flexure of the slab. 



SECTION 839.0 CORBELED AND PROJECTED MASONRY 

839.1 LIMITATIONS: No wall less than twelve (12) inches thick shall 
be corbeled except to support firestopping around floor framing; and 
except that eight (8) inch foundation walls may be corbeled to sup- 
port brick-veneer frame and ten (10) inch cavity walls as provided 
in section 871. The maximum total horizontal projection of corbels 
shall be not more than one-half (1/2) the thickness of the wall. The 
maximum projection of one (1) unit shall neither exceed one-half (h) 
the depth of the unit nor one-third (1/3) its width at right angles 
to the face which is offset. 



8-28 



839.2 HOLLOW WALLS: Corbeling of hollow masonry or masonry built 
of hollow units shall be supported on at least one full course of 
solid masonry. 

839.3 MOLDED CORNICES: Unless structural support and anchorage is 
provided to resist the overturning moment, the center of gravity of 
all projecting masonry or molded cornices shall lie within the middle 
third of the supporting wall. Terra cotta and metal cornices shall 
be provided with a structural frame of approved noncombustible ma- 
terial anchored in an approved manner . 

840.0 BEARING ON HOLLOW UNIT WALLS 

840.1 BEARING DETAILS: Concentrated loads shall be supported upon 

a solid construction of solid masonry, concrete, or masonry of hollow 
units with cells filled with mortar, grout, or concrete and of suffi- 
cient height to distribute safely the loads to the wall, pilaster, or 
column, or other adequate provisions shall be made to distribute the 
loads . 

840.11 JOIST BEARING: Solid construction for support under joists 
shall be at least two and one-quarter (2h) inches in height, and 
joists supported on such construction shall ej^tend into the masonry 
at least three (3) inches. 

840.12 BEAM BEARING: Solid construction for support under beams, 
girders, or other concentrated loads shall be at least four (4) inches 
in height and the bearing of beams shall extend into the masonry at 
least three (3) inches. 

840.2 CLOSURE TILE: All open cells in tiles or blocks at wall ends 
and at openings shall be filled solidly with concrete for a length 
of not less than twelve (12) inches, or reversed closure tile shall 
be used. 



SECTION 841.0 PLAIN CONCRETE 

Plain concrete is concrete cast in place and not required to be re- 
inforced for structural purposes except with respect to shrinkage and 
temperature. Such concrete shall be subject to the reference stan- 
dards of this article and, where applicable, subject to control by 
section 128.0. 

841.1 LIMITATIONS: Plain concrete in loadbearing masonry or where 
exposed to soil or where used for f ireresistive purposes, shall be of 
such proportions as to have a strength of at least fifteen hundred 
(1500) pounds per square inch and where exposed to wetting or freez- 
ing at least two thousand (2,000) pounds per square inch. 



8-29 



SECTION 842.0 REINFORCED CONCRETE 

842.1 Concrete materials, design, construction, inspection and 
testing involved in structures and parts thereof included in the 
categories of section 128.1 shall be subject to the control provi- 
sions of section 128.0 and shall conform to the reference standards 
of this article. In addition, any other structures or parts thereof, 
required by the building official to be subject to section 128.0 
shall be subject to the same control as outlined in that section. 

842.2 EMBEDDED MECHANICAL FACILITIES: Plumbing and heating piping 
and electrical conduits may be embedded in reinforced concrete floor 
and wall construction and in column fireproofing as provided in sec- 
tion 914.3. Piping for radiant heating purposes may be embedded in 
the structural floor or wall slabs, or may be installed in a separate 
concrete layer placed in addition to the required fireproof covering, 
as approved by the building official. In any case, the required area 
of reinforcement shall be provided in addition to such piping; and 
the conduits, pipes or other embedded mechanical facilities shall be 
so placed as to leave the strength and f ireresistance of the construc- 
tion undiminished. 



SECTION 843.0 STRUCTURAL CINDER CONCRETE 

843.1 AGGREGATES: Approved cinder aggregates where permitted for 
use in structural and fireproofing concretes shall consist of clean, 
well burned cinders, containing a maximum of thirty-five (35) percent 
of unburned carbon and not more than one and one-half (l^g) percent of 
sulphur nor more than a total of five (5) percent of volatile materials. 

843.2 CINDER CONCRETE PROPORTIONS: Structural cinder concrete shall 
be mixed in the proportions of one (1) part Portland cement and not 
more than seven (7) parts of fine and coarse aggregate measures sep- 
arately with a compressive strength of not less than eight hundred 
(800) pounds per square inch at twenty-eight (28) days' age. 



SECTION 844.0 SHORT SPAN FLOOR FILLING 

For spans not exceeding ten (10) feet between steel flanges, the safe 
supporting capacity of concrete floor and roof slabs built as fireproof 
floor filling between steel beams shall be determined by the provisions 
of the reference standards of this article or in accordance with the 
approved rules for stone and light weight aggregate concrete and other 
approved fireresistive floor filling. 



8-30 



SECTION 845.0 CONCRETE-FILLED PIPE COLUMNS 

Concrete-filled pipe columns shall be manufactured from standard 
extra strong, or double extra strong steel pipe and tubing, filled 
with concrete. 

845.1 DESIGN: The safe supporting capacity of concrete-filled pipe 
columns shall be computed in accordance with good engineering prac- 
tice or determined by test. Where computed, the calculations and de- 
sign shall be submitted by a qualified registered professional engi- 
neer or architect with his seal and signature. Where determined by 
test, such testing shall be done by an approved licensed registered 
facility. 

845.11 CONCRETE: The concrete shall be designed in accordance with 
the reference standards of this article and shall be placed to ensure 
complete filling without voids. 

845.2 CONNECTIONS: All caps, base-plates and connections shall be 
of approved types and shall be positively attached to the shell and 
anchored to the concrete core. Welding of brackets without mechani- 
cal anchorage shall be prohibited. When the pipe is slotted to ac- 
commodate webs of brackets or other connections, the integrity of the 
shell shall be restored by welding to insure hooping action of the 
composite section. 

845.3 REINFORCEMENT: To increase the safe load supporting capacity 
of concrete-filled pipe columns, the steel reinforcement shall be in 
the form of rods, structural shapes or pipe embedded in the concrete 
core with sufficient clearance to insure the composite action in the 
section, but not nearer than one (1) inch to the exterior steel shell. 
All strucutral shapes used as reinforcement shall be milled to insure 
bearing on cap and base plates. 

845.4 FIRERESISTIVE PROTECTION; Pipe columns shall be of such size 
or so protected as to develop the required f irereslstance ratings 
specified in table 2-5. When an outer steel shell is used to enclose 
the fireproof covering, it shall not be included in the calculations 
for strength of the column section. 



SECTION 846.0 PNEUMATIC CONCRETE 

Construction methods for mortar or concrete deposited pneumatically 
(shotcrete) shall conform to the reference standards of this article. 
Such mortar or concrete deposited pneumatically shall be applied only 
with the approval of the building official and shall be protected and 
cured to prevent the temperature falling below fifty (50) degrees F. 
or from loss of moisture at the surface. Reinforcement for pneumatic 
mortar shall be adequate to meet structural requirements and shall con- 
sist of round bars or mesh not less than No. 12 U.S. gage in diameter, 
spaced not less than two (2) nor more than four (4) inches either way, 
with a gross area of not less than two-tenths (0.2) percent of the 
cross-sectional area of the mortar layer. 

8-31 



846.1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: Pneumatically placed concrete shall 
consist of a mixture of fine aggregate and cement pneumatically 
applied by suitable mechanism, and to which water is added immedi- 
ately prior to discharge from the applicator. Except as specified 
in the following sections, pneumatically placed concrete shall con- 
form to the requirements of the Basic Code for reinforced concrete. 

846.11 PROPORTIONS: The proportion of cement to aggregate, in loose 
dry volume, shall not be less than one (1) to four and one-half {^h) - 

846.12 WATER: The water content at the time of discharge, including 
moisture in the aggregate, shall not exceed three and one-half (3%) 
gallons per sack of cement. 

846.13 MIXING: The cement and aggregate shall be thoroughly mixed 
prior to the addition of water. At the time of mixing the aggregate 
shall contain not less than three (3) percent moisture. 

846.2 REBOUND: Any rebound or accumulated loose aggregate shall be 
removed from the surfaces to be covered prior to placing the initial 
or any succeeding layers of pneumatically placed concrete. Rebound 
may be reused if it conforms to the requirements for aggregate, pro- 
vided the amount of rebound material used shall not exceed twenty- 
five (25) percent of the total aggregate in any batch. 

846.3 JOINTS: Unfinished work shall not be allowed to stand for 
more than thirty (30) minutes unless all edges are sloped to a thin 
edge. Before placing addtional material adjacent to previously ap- 
plied work, these sloping edges shall be cleaned and wetted. 

846.4 DAMAGE: Any pneumatically placed concrete which subsides after 
placement shall be removed . 



SECTION 847.0 MINIMUM CONCRETE DIMENSIONS 

The protection of reinforced concrete structural elements in build- 
ings of fireproof (types 1-A and 1-B) construction shall be adequate 
to meet the fire and strength tests of the Basic Code; but in no case 
less than the minimum dimensions established by the standards of ac- 
cepted engineering practice. Any floor finish not placed monolithic- 
ally with floor slabs, shall not be included in the calculations for 
structural strength, unless calculations submitted by a registered 
professional engineer or architect are submitted to justify incorpora- 
tion of the floor finish as part of the structural element. 



SECTION 848.0 REINFORCED GYPSUM CONCRETE 

Reinforced gypsum concrete for use in buildings and structures shall 
consist of a mixture of calcined gypsum and water, with or without the 



8-32 



addition of wood chips, shavings, fiber or other approved aggregates. 
The wood aggregates and gypsum shall be pre-mixed at the mill, re- 
quiring only the addition of water at the job or site. The manufac- 
ture, design and construction shall comply with the requirements of 
the standards of accepted engineering practice listed in the refer- 
ence standards of this article. 

848.1 LIMITATIONS OF USE: Gypsum concrete shall not be used where 
exposed directly to the weather or where subject to frequent or con- 
tinuous wetting. To prevent saturation or freezing, protection from 
the weather and from contact with moisture shall be furnished during 
shipment and storage of prefabricated units, and after erection or 
pouring at the site. 



SECTION 849.0 REINFORCED BRICKWORK 

All systems of brick masonry reinforced with steel in grouted mor- 
tar joints for use in the design and construction of buildings and 
structures shall conform to the requirements of this section and the 
standards of accepted engineering practice listed in the reference 
standards of this article. Reinforced brickwork shall be used only 
when design specifications are submitted by a registered professional 
engineer or architect and, where applicable, shall be subject to the 
control of section 128.0. 

849.1 DESIGN: The formulae and assumptions used in the design or 
reinforced masonry shall be those contained in the reference standards 
of this article. 



SECTION 850.0 REINFORCED HOLLOW BLOCK CONSTRUCTION 

Walls constructed of hollow block or other hollow unit masonry and 
reinforced with steel rods grouted solidly into the cells shall be 
designed and constructed in accordance with reference standards of 
this article; and plans and specifications shall be submitted by a 
registered professional engineer or architect. When applicable, the 
control of section 128.0 shall apply. 



SECTION 851.0 LUMBER AND TIMBER CONSTRUCTION 

851.1 DESIGN: Structural lumber and timber and its fastenings shall 
be adequately designed and assembled to safely sustain all Imposed 
loads. When stress-grade lumber is used and properly identified and 
controlled, working stresses may be in accordance with the accepted 
engineering practice standards listed in the reference standards of 
this article. All lumber used for load supporting purposes shall be 



8-33 



identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading inspection agency 
approved by the State Building Code Commission. Grading practices 
and the identification shall be in accordance with rules published 
by an agency approved by the Commission. In lieu of a grade mark 
on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade 
issued by an approved lumber grading or inspection agency may be 
accepted by the building official for precut, remanufactured, or 
rough sawn lumber; also for sizes larger than three (3) inches nomi- 
nal thickness. 

851.2 MINIMUM DIMENSIONS. 

851.21 SIZES OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS: All lumber sizes specified in 
the Basic Code are nominal sizes. Nominal sizes may be shown on the 
plans . Computations to determine the required size of members shall 
be based on the net dimensions (actual sizes) . 

851.22 STRUCTURAL POSTS: All isolated structural posts shall have a 
minimum dimension of four (4) inches. 

851.3 FABRICATION. 

851.31 CONNECTIONS: All connections shall be fabricated with ap- 
proved timber connectors, bolts, lag screws, spikes, nails or gluing 
or other approved connecting devices in accordance with accepted en- 
gineering practice. Bolted connections shall be snugged up tightly 
without crushing wood fibers under the washers. All nailed connec- 
tions shall meet the minimum requirements of the reference standards 
of this article. 

851.32 CAMBERING: Trusses and long span girders shall be designed 
with sufficient camber or other provision shall be made to compensate 
for excessive deflection. 

851.33 CUTTING AND NOTCHING: It shall be unlawful to notch, cut or 
pierce wood beams, joists, rafters or studs in excess of the limita- 
tions herein specified unless proven safe by structural analysis, or 
suitably reinforced to transmit all calculated loads. Notches in the 
top or bottom of joists shall not exceed one-sixth (1/6) the depth of 
the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third (1/3) of 
the span. Notches located closer to the supports than three (3) 
times the depth of the member shall not exceed one-fifth (1/5) the 
depth. Holes bored or cut into joists for piping or electrical cables 
shall not be closer than two (2) inches to the top or bottom of the 
joist and the diameter of the hole shall not exceed one-third (1/3) 
the depth of the joist. In studs of bearing walls or partitions, 
notches or bored holes made to receive piping, electrical conduit, 

air conditioning or heating duct work or for other fabricating purposes 
shall not be cut or bored more than one-third (1/3) the depth of the 
stud. When the stud is cut or bored in excess of one-third (1/3) 
its depth it shall be reinforced to be equal in load carrying capac- 
ity to a stud notched not more than one-third (1/3) its depth. 



8-34 



851.4 TRIMMER AND HEADER BEAMS: When determined necessary by stress 
analysis , trimmer and header beams shall be hung in approved metal or 
other approved noncombustible stirrups or hangers, unless supported on 
a masonry wall or girder. All such beams shall be spiked together. 

851.5 BEARING AND ANCHORAGE ON GIRDERS: All members framing into 
girders shall be anchored or tied to secure continuity. The ends of 
all wood beams or joists resting on girders shall bear not less than 
four (4) inches or shall be supported in approved metal stirrups, hangers 
or on wood clips or ribbon strips. Beams framing from opposite sides 
shall lap at least six (6) inches and be bolted or spiked together; and 
when framing end to end, they shall be secured together by metal ties, 
straps or dogs. 

851.6 MAINTENANCE: All connections in the joints of timber trusses 
and structural frames shall be inspected periodically and bolts and 
other connectors shall be maintained tight. 



SECTION 852.0 HEAVY TIMBER TYPE CONSTRUCTION 

852.1 WOOD: All structural wood members sawn or glued laminated used 
in heavy timber type construction shall be stress-grade timbers identi- 
fied as to grade strength by approved manufacturing, testing, or inspec- 
tion agencies or bureaus. All structural timber members shall have the 
minimum dimensions specified in section 217.1 for type 3-A construction. 

852.2 OTHER STRUCTURAL MATERIALS: Structural steel or reinforced con- 
crete members may be substitued for timber in any part of the structural 
frame, protected to develop the required f ireresistance specified in 
table 2-5, but not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance. 
Structural members supporting walls shall be protected to afford the 
same f ireresistance rating as the wall supported. 

852.3 COLUMNS: Columns shall be continuous or superimposed throughout 
all stories by means of reinforced concrete or metal caps with brackets, 

or shall be connected by properly designed steel or iron caps, with pintles 
and base plates, or be timber splice plates affixed to the columns by means 
of metal connectors housed within the contact faces, or by other approved 
methods. Girder or trusses supporting columns shall have at least three- 
quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance. 

852.4 FLOORS: The planks shall be laid so that no continuous line of 
joints will occur except at points of support and so that they are not 
spiked to supporting girders. Flooring shall not extend closer than one- 
half (}i) inch to walls to provide an expansion joint, but the joint shall 
be covered at top or bottom to avoid flue action. 

852.5 BEAMS AND GIRDERS. 

852.51 WALL AND GIRDER SUPPORTS: Wall plate boxes of self-releasing 
type or approved hangers shall be provided where beams and girders enter 



8-35 



masonry. An air space of one-half (h) inch shall be provided at the 
top, end and sides of the member unless approved durable or treated 
wood is used. Where intermediate beams are used to support a floor, 
they shall rest on top of the girders, or shall be supported by led- 
gers or blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they 
may be supported by approved metal hangers into which the ends of the 
beams shall be closely fitted. Wood beams and girders supported by 
walls required to have a f ireresistance rating of two (2) hours or 
more shall have not less than four (4) inches of solid masonry be- 
tween their ends and the outside face of the wall and between adjacent 
beams. Adequate roof anchorage shall be provided. 

852,52 COLUMN CONNECTIONS: Where intermediate beams are used to support 
a floor, they shall rest on top of the girders, or shall be supported by 
ledgers or blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they 
may be supported by approved metal hangers into which the ends of the 
beams shall be closely fitted. 



SECTION 853.0 WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION 

The exterior walls, interior partitions, floors and roofs of wood frame 
construction shall be designed, braced and constructed to develop adequate 
strength and rigidity to resist all vertical and lateral forces due to 
both dead and live loads without exceeding the stresses allowed in this 
section for the various grades and species of wood. Standard balloon, 
braced, platform, and post and beam types of construction shall be ac- 
ceptable framing methods . Sizes of wood members stated in this section 
are nominal sizes, materials, design, and construction methods shall meet 
the requirements in those applicable sections of the reference standards 
of this article. 

853.1 WOOD-STUD FRAME. 

853.11 BEARING WALLS: Posts and studs in bearing walls and partitions 
shall be designed as columns , with due allowance for lateral support 
furnished by sheathing, intermediate bracing, horizontal bridging, wall 
coverings and the floor and roof assemblies. The walls shall be fabri- 
cated in such a manner as to provide adequate support for the material 
used to enclose the building and to provide for transfer of all lateral 
loads to the foundation, in accordance with section 804.3. 

853.12 NON-BEARING WALLS: Studs in non-bearing walls and partitions 
shall not be spaced more than forty-eight (48) inches on centers unless 
otherwise approved after test as an integrated assembly, and may be 
erected with the long dimension parallel to the wall. 

853.13 BRACING: In buildings more than one(l) story in height and where 
necessary for strength in one (1) story buildings, the corner posts shall 
be the equivalent of not less than three (3) pieces of two (2) by four 
(4) inch studs, braced by not less than one (1) piece of one (1) by 



8-36 



four (4) inch continuous diagonal brace let into the studs. Bracing 
may be omitted when diagonal wood sheathing or plywood panels are used, 
or other sheathing specified in section 853.2 is applied vertically in 
panels of not less than four (4) feet by eight (8) feet in area with 
approved nailing complying with the reference standards of this article. 
Ledger or ribbon boards used in support joists shall be not less than 
one (1) by four (4) inches in size, cut into and securely nailed to 
each stud. 

853.14 MORTISE AND TENON FRAMING: Where mortise and tenon framing is 
used, the vertical members of the frame shall be not less than four 
(4) by six (6) inches in size and shall be designed as a column. 

853.15 MULTIPLE STORIES: When the frame is more than one (1) story 
in height and studs and posts are not continuous from sill to roof, 
the members shall be secured together with approved clips, splices 
or other connections to insure a continuous, well integrated struc- 
ture. Sheet metal clamps, ties or clips shall be formed of galvan- 
ized steel or other approved corrosion-resistive materials equivalent 
to No. 20 U.S. gage steel sheets for two (2) inch framing members and 
not less than No. 18 U.S. gage for three (3) inch structural members. 
For four (4) inch and larger members, column splices and beam and gir- 
der supports shall comply with section 854. 

853.16 FRAMING OVER OPENINGS: Headers, double joists, trusses or 
other approved assemblies of adequate size to transfer all superimposed 
loads to the vertical member shall be provided over all window and 
door openings in bearing walls and partitions. 

853.2 WALL SHEATHING: Except as provided in section 853.3 for weather 
boarding or when stucco- construction complying with section 821.5 is 
used, all enclosed buildings shall be sheathed with one of the materials 
of the following nominal thickness or any other material of equal strength 
and durability approved by the building official. 

Reinforced cement mortar 1 inch 

Wood sheathing 5/8 inch 

Particleboard 3/8 inch 

Plywood 5/16 inch 

Gypsum sheathing 1/2 inch 

Fiber boards 1/2 inch 

853.21 PAPER-BACKED LATH SHEATHING: In one- and two-family dwellings 
and one (1) story commercial buildings with brick or similar veneers 
the sheathing may consist of a layer of paper-backed lath complying 
with section 821.4 with a one (1) inch intermediate space which shall 
be mortar filled as each course of veneering is applied. 

853.3 EXTERIOR WEATHER BOARDING, VENEERS AND CONDENSATION: To secure 
weather-tightness in framed walls and other unoccupied spaces, the ex- 
terior walls shall be faced with an approved weather-resisting covering 



3-37 



properly attached to resist wind and rain. The cellular spaces shall 
be so ventilated as not to vitiate the firestopping at roof, attic and 
roof levels or shall be provided with interior non-corrodible vapor -type 
barriers complying with the approved rules; or other means shall be used 
to avoid condensation and leakage of moisture. The following materials 
shall be acceptable as approved weather coverings of the nominal thick- 
ness specified: 

Brick masonry veneers 2 inches 

Stone veneers 2 inches 

Clay tile veneers 1/4 to 1 inch 

Stucco or exterior plaster 3/4 inch 

Precast stone facing 5/8 inch 

Wood siding (without sheathing) 1/2 inch 

Wood siding (with sheathing) 3/8 inch 

Protected fiber board siding . 1/2 inch 

Wood shingles 3/8 inch 

Exterior plywood (without sheathing) .... See sec. 825.2 

Exterior plywood (with sheathing) 5/16 inch 

Asbestos shingles 5/32 inch 

Al.uminum Cement boards 1/8 inch 

Aluminum clapboard siding 024 inch 

Formed steel siding 29 gage 

Hardboard siding 1/4 inch 

853.31 MASONRY VENEERS: See section 860.0. 

853.32 METAL VENEERS: See section 860.0. 

853.33 HEIGHT OF VENEERS: See section 860.0. 

853.34 NAILING: All weatherboard ing and wall and roof coverings shall 
be securely nailed with aluminum, copper, zinc, zinc-coated or other ap- 
proved corrosion-resistive nails in accordance with the nailing schedule 
in the reference standards of this article, or the approved manufacturer's 
standards. 

Shingles and other weather coverings shall be attached with appro- 
priate standard shingle nails to furring strips securely nailed to 
studs, or with approved mechanically-bonding nails except when sheath- 
ing is wood not less than one (1) inch nominal thickness or plywood 
not less than five-sixteenths (5/16) inch thick. 

Wood shingles or shakes attached with approved corrosion-resistive 
annular grooved nails may be applied over fiberboard shingle backer 
and fiberboard sheathing when the installation is in accordance with 
the approved manufacturer's standards. Wood shingles or shakes and 
asbestos shingles or siding may be nailed directly to nail base fiber- 
board sheathing not less than one-half (h) inch nominal thickness with 
approved corrosion-resistive annular grooved nails when the installa- 
tion is in accordance with the approved manufacturer's standards. 

8-38 



853.4 FOUNDATION ANCHORAGE: When required to resist wind uplift, 
walls sills shall be anchored to the foundation walls or piers at 
corners and at intermediate intervals of not more than eight (8) 
feet with one-half (%) inch bolts. The bolts shall be imbedded in 
the masonry foundation to a depth of not less than eight (8) inches 
in placed concrete, and not less than fifteen (15) inches in unit 
masonry. Sill plates shall be at least equivalent to a two (2) by 
six (6) inch member. 

853.5 AT-GRADE PROTECTION. 

853.51 WOOD FRAMING: All exterior wood framework of buildings whether 
structural or non load-bearing shall be supported on approved founda- 
tion walls at least eight (8) inches above the finished grade. 

853.52 METAL SIDING: Exposed metal siding or sheathing shall be pro- 
tected from corrosion at the ground level by supporting the foundation 
channel at sufficient height above grade on the concrete apron or other 
approved water-resisting foundation. 

853.6 FLOORS. 

853.61 BRIDGING: Except as hereinafter noted, in all floor, attic and 
roof framing, there shall be not less than one (1) line of bridging for 
each eight (8) feet of span. The bridging shall consist of not less 
than one (1) by three (3) inch lumber, double-nailed at each end, or of 
equivalent metal bracing of equal rigidity. A line of bridging shall 
also be required at supports where adequate lateral support is not other- 
wise provided . 

Midspan bridging is not required for floor, attic or roof framing in 
one- and two-family dwellings (use group L-3) and multi-family dwellings 
(use group L-2) except when the joist depth exceeds twelve (12) inches 
nominal and/or when the minimum uniformly distributed live load exceeds 
forty (40) pounds per square foot. 

853.62 FLOORING: The flooring of wood frame construction shall be of 
adequate strength and stiffness to support required loads and, where 
necessary for strength and for lateral support of the building, sub- 
flooring shall be provided. 

853.7 ROOFS. 

853.71 TYPES OF DECKING AND SHEATHING: Roof deck sheathing shall consist 
of not less than one (1) inch boards or plywood of the thickness specified 
in section 825.3, or other approved materials of equivalent strength and 
rigidity. When open-deck sheathing is used on pitched roofs, it shall 
consist of not less than one (1) by four (4) inch roofers spaced not more 
than six (6) inches on centers or material of equivalent strength and 
rigidity. 



8-39 



853.72 WOOD SHINGLES: Wood shingles and handsplit shakes comply- 
ing with the reference standards of this article may be used for 
roof covering where permitted in section 928.3, and may be install- 
ed on tight decking or on spaced roof boards. 

853.8 FLASHING: Approved corrosion-resistive flashing shall be pro- 
vided at top and sides of all exterior window and door openings in 
such manner as to be leakproof . Similar flashings shall be installed 
at the intersection of chimneys or other masonry construction with 
frame or stucco walls, with projecting lips on both sides under 
stucco copings; under and at the ends of masonry, wood or metal cop- 
ings and sills; continuously above all projecting wood trim; at wall 
and roof intersections; under built-in gutters; at junction of chim- 
neys and roofs; in all roof valleys and around all roof openings. 
When veneers of natural or artificial stone are used, fourteen (14) 
pound felt or paper shall be attached to the sheathing with flashing 
wherever necessary to prevent moisture penetration behind the veneer. 



853.9 INTERIOR FINISH: In all habitable spaces, interior wall and 
partition surfaces shall be finished with materials which do not ex- 
ceed the combustible limitations of section 904.0 and are of adequate 
strength to resist a horizontal force of not less than five (5) pounds 
per square foot . 



SECTION 854.0 STRESS SKIN PANELS 

854.1 INTEGRATED ASSEMBLIES: Approved panels or other integrated 
assemblies fabricated of dimension lumber with wood stress-coverings 
glued thereto, or consisting of structural units of metal -covered or 
molded plywood or other approved plastics, formed and molded into 
prefabricated load-bearing members shall be permitted for use in floors, 
roofs, walls, partitions and ceilings when designed in accordance with 
the reference standards of this article or meeting the test require- 
ments of sections 803, 804, and 805. 

854.2 SPLICES: Splices and connections between panels shall be weath- 
ertight and of sufficient strength to resist two and one-half (2h) 
times the design live load to which they will be subjected in normal 
use. The fastenings of covering assemblies to structural studs, ribs 
or joists shall provide rigidity equivalent to approved gluing. Nail- 
ing shall not be acceptable for that purpose. 

854.3 MOLDED PLYWOOD UNITS: Structural units of plywood or other 
approved plastics of similar combustible characteristics formed and 
molded into prefabricated load-bearing members shall conform to the 
approved rules and shall be identified by the approved label. The 
design shall be based on accepted engineering analysis confirmed by 
the tests prescribed in sections 803 and 804. 



8-40 



SECTION 855.0 STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER AND BUILT-UP WOOD 
CONSTRUCTION 

Buildings and structures may be designed and erected of glued lam- 
inated structural members or of composite members of plywood and di- 
mension lumber. 

855.1 STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER: Structural glued lamina- 
ted timber elements shall be manufactured in conformity with the 
provisions of the reference standards of this article. 

855.2 GLUED LUMBER MEMBERS: Built-up beam and column sections con- 
sisting of one or more webs with glued lumber flanges and stiffeners, 
shall be designed in accordance with approved engineering analysis. 

855.21 GLUING SURFACES: In glued lumber constructions, the surfaces 
to be glued shall be clean, plane and sound to provide a controlled 
glue line. The surfaces shall be free of wax, grease, oil or any 
other release agents to ensure full strength bonding. 



8-41 



ARTICLE 8 - PART C 



BUILDING ENCLOSURES, WALLS AND 
WALL THICKNESS 



SECTION 856.0 ENCLOSURE WALLS: All buildings, except as may be pro- 
vided for miscellaneous structures designed for special uses, shall 
be enclosed on all sides with independent or party walls of frame, 
masonry or other approved construction. Such walls shall be con- 
structed to afford the f ireresistance specified in table 2-5 and as 
required in the Basic Code for location, use and type of construction. 

856.1 EXTERIOR WALL POCKETS: In exterior walls of all buildings 
and structures, wall pockets or crevices in which moisture may ac- 
cumulate shall be avoided or protected with adequate caps or drips, 
or other approved means shall be provided to prevent water damage. 

856.2 EXCEPTIONS: The provisions of this article shall not be deemed 
to prohibit the omission of exterior walls for all or part of a story 
of a building in accordance with the provisions of section 906.1. 

856.3 GLASS PANELS. 

856.31 CONDITIONS OF USE: Glass, where used in exterior walls and 
for doors shall be subject to the provisions of this section. Glass 
subject to the requirements of human impact shall be identified by a 
permanent marking on each piece of glass so used. 

856.32 SUPPORT FOR GLASS PANELS: Glass shall be firmly held in place, 
and the supports designed to resist any wind or impact load to which it 
may be subject. Where unusual conditions of support exist, they shall 
be designed and specified by a registered professional engineer or 
architect. 

856.33 GLASS REQUIREMENTS: Unless otherwise stated herein, glass 
shall meet the requirements of the reference standards of this article 
for the applicable type, size, thickness and quality. 

856.34 THICKNESS OF GLASS: Thicknesses of glass panels shall be 
chosen as provided in section 803.11. 

856.35 DEFLECTION OF SUPPORT: The deflection of members supporting 
glass panels under the design wind load shall not exceed L/175 where 
L is the span of the supporting member . In no case shall such de- 
flection exceed three-quarters (3/4) inch. 

856.36 JALOUSIES: In jalousie windows and doors regular plate, float, 
sheet or rolled glass thickness shall be not less than three-sixteenths 
(3/16) inch; glass length shall not be more than forty-eight (48) in- 
ches; glass edges shall be smooth. Other types of glass may be used 
subject to the approval of the building official. 

8-42 



856.37 PANELS SUBJECT TO HUMAN IMPACT LOADS: Glass in prime and 
storm doors, interior doors, fixed glass panels that may be mistaken 
for means of egress or ingress, or in similar locations wherein one 
or more of the following criteria apply, shall meet the requirements 
set forth in table 8-1, or by comparative tests, shall be proven to 
produce equivalent performance: 

a) Openings are located in regularly occupied spaces. 

b) Lowest point of panel is less than eighteen (18) inches 
above finished floor. 

c) Minimum dimension of panel is larger than eighteen (18) inches. 



SECTION 857.0 PROTECTION OF WALL OPENINGS 



857.1 FIRE-PROTECTED OPENINGS: Openings in exterior walls when re- 
quired to be fire-protected shall comply with the provisions of ar- 
ticle 9. 

TABLE 8-1 
REQUIREMENTS FOR GLASS PANELS SUBJECT TO IMPACT LOADS 



Glass Type 



Individual 
Opening Area 



Requirements 



Regular plate, sheet or 
rolled (annealed) 



Over 6 Not less than 3/16 inch 
square feet thick. Must be protected 

by a push-bar or protective 
grille firmly attached on 
each exposed side, if not 
divided by a muntin. 



Regular plate, sheet or Over 6 
rolled (annealed) surface square feet 
sandblasted, etched, or 
otherwise depreciated 



Not less than 7/32 inch 
thick. Must be protected by 
a push-bar or protective 
grille attached on each 
exposed side. 



Regular plate, sheet or Over 6 
rolled (annealed) obscure square feet 



Not less than 3/16 inch 
thick. Must be protected by 
a push-bar or grille firmly 
attached on each exposed side. 



Laminated 



Over 6 Not less than 1/4 inch thick, 
square feet Shall pass impact test require- 
ments of reference standard 
RS 8-75. 



Full-tempered 



Over 6 
square feet 



Shall pass impact test require- 
ments of reference standard RS 8- 



Wired 



Over 6 Not less than 7/32 inch thick, 
square feet Shall pass impact test requiremem 
of reference standard RS 8-75 . a 



All unframed glass doors 
(swinging) 



Shall be fully-tempered glass and 
pass impact test requirements of 
reference standard RS 8-75. 



8-43 



NOTES: 

1) Glass less than single strength (SS) in thickness shall not 
be used. 

2) If short dimension is larger than twenty-four (24) inches, 
glass must be double strength (DS) or thicker. 

857.2 AREA OF OPENINGS: All openings facing on a street, yard, 
court, or public space which are required for light and ventila- 
tion shall comply with the provisions of article 5. 

857.3 STRUCTURAL STRENGTH. 

857.31 AGAINST WIND FORCES: In all buildings required to resist 
wind pressure under the provisions of article 7, exterior window 
openings shall be designed to resist the specified factored wind 
load. 

857.32 SASH OR FRAMES: The glass, or other approved glazing material 
shall be of adequate thickness or shall be provided with steel frames 
or otherwise reinforced to resist the wind loads specified in article 

7 blowing both inwardly and outwardly. 



SECTION 858.0 FIRE ACCESS PANELS 

Completely enclosed buildings, without exterior openings in the en- 
closure walls, or without ready access for the purpose of fighting 
fire, shall be provided with access panels as required herein. Ac- 
cess panels shall be not less than thirty-two (32) inches by forty- 
eight (48) inches in size. 

858.1 MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS: In all exterior walls of the building 
required to have thirty (30) foot wide open space adjacent thereto 
(see sections 307.1 and 308.1), each floor below a height of sev- 
enty (70) feet shall be provided with access panels spaced not more 
than fifty (50) feet apart in each story. 

858.2 SINGLE-STORY BUILDINGS: In one (1) story buildings not more 
than seventy (70) feet in height: 

a) roof vents shall be provided, spaced not more than one 
hundred twenty-five (125) feet apart; and 

b) grade level doors, or fire access panels shall be provided 
spaced not more than one hundred twenty-five (125) feet 
apart in all exterior walls of the building required to 
have thirty (30) foot wide open space adjacent thereto 
(see sections 

858.3 CONSTRUCTION OF ACCESS PANELS: Construction access panels 

a) shall have a sill height of not more than thirty-six (36) 
inches; and 

8-44 



b) shall be readily identifiable from the outside; and 

c) shall be readily openable from the outside or shall be 
glazed with plain flat glass. 

858.4 LOCATION: Wherever practicable, one access opening in each 
story shall provide access to a stairway, or where there is no stair- 
way at the exterior wall, one access opening in each story shall be 
located as close as practicable to a stairway. 

858.5 EXEMPTIONS: The provisions of this article shall not apply 
to any story that is completely protected by an automatic sprinkler 
system conforming to the construction requirements of article 12. 



SECTION 859.0 STRUCTURAL GLASS BLOCK WALLS 

859.1 EXTERIOR WALL PANELS: The maximum dimensions of glass block 
wall panels in exterior walls when used singly or in multiples form- 
ing continuous bands of structural glass blocks between structural 
supports shall be twenty-five (25) feet in length and twenty (20) 
feet in height between structural supports and expansion joints; and 
the area of each individual panel shall be not more than two hundred 
and fifty (250) square feet. Intermediate structural supports shall 
be provided to support the dead load of the wall and all other super- 
imposed loads. When individual panels are more than one hundred and 
forty-four (144) square feet in area a supplementary stiffener shall 
be provided behind the panels, anchored thereto and to the structural 
supports. 

859.2 JOINT MATERIALS: Glass blocks shall be laid up in type S or 
N mortar with approved galvanized or other noncorrosive metal wall 
ties in the horizontal mortar joints of exterior panels. The sills 
of glass block panels shall be coated with approved asphaltic emul- 
sion, or other elastic waterproofing material previous to laying the 
first mortar course and the perimeter of the panels shall be caulked 
to a depth of not less than one-half (h) inch with nonhardening caulk- 
ing compound on both faces; or other approved expansion joints shall 
be provided. When laid up in joint materials other than mortars here- 
in defined, no single panel shall be more than one hundred (100) square 
feet in area nor more than ten (10) feet in either length or height. 

859.3 WIND AND EARTHQUAKE LOADS: Exterior wall panels shall be held 
in place in the wall opening to resist both the internal and external 
pressures due to wind and earthquake loads specified in sections 713.0 
and 719.0. 

859.4 INTERIOR WALL PANELS: Structural glass blocks shall not be 
used in fire walls or party walls or for load-bearing construction. 
Such blocks shall be erected with mortar in metal frames or rein- 
forcement as provided in this section for exterior walls or other 
approved joint materials, except that wood strip framing may be used 
in partitions not required to be f ireresistive. 



8-45 



859.5 FIRERESISTANCE RA.TING: Nothing herein contained shall be 
construed to prohibit the use of glass blocks in an opening pro- 
tective assembly or nonbearing partition or wall when required to 
afford a specific f ireresistance, provided approval of the build- 
ing official is secured after satisfactory time-temperature per- 
formance under the prescribed test procedure of article 9. 

859.6 ACCESS PANELS: Access panels shall be provided in exterior 
glass block walls for the fire department use to comply with sec- 
tion 858.0 



SECTION 860.0 WALL FACINGS AND VENEERS 

860.1 BACKING SURFACES FOR VENEERS: Veneers for other than frame 
buildings, shall be attached only to substantial, rigid, noncombus- 
tible surfaces which are plumb, straight and of true plane; and no 
wood backing surfaces shall be used except in frame construction. 
The backing shall provide sufficient rigidity, stability and weather 
resistance; and the veneer shall be installed and anchored as re- 
quired in the Basic Code for the specific material. 

860.2 VENEER THICKNESS: No materials used for nonbearing veneers on 
masonry walls shall have less than the following thickness : 

Ceramic veneer (architectural terra cotta - 

anchored type) 1 inch 

Brick 2 inches 

Stone (natural) 2 inches 

Stone (cast artificial) 1-1/2 inches 

Clay tile (structural) 1-3/4 inches 

Clay tile (flat slab) 1/4 to 1 inch 

Marble slabs 1 inch 

Precast stone facing 5/8 inch 

Structural glass 11/32 inch 

Aluminum clapboard siding 024 inch 

Metal (approved corrosion-resistive) 28 U.S. Gage 

Masonry or other approved noncombustible materials used as facing 
on bearing walls or partitions shall not be considered to have struc- 
tural value and shall be excluded in the determination of required 
wall thickness. 

860.3 MASONRY VENEERS: Veneers of unit masonry shall be attached 
to the wood frame with at least twenty-two (22) gage corrosion- 
resistive, corrugated metal ties not less than seven-eighths (7/8) 
inch in width at vertical intervals of not more than sixteen (16) 
inches and horizontal intervals of not more than thirty-two (32) 
inches . 

860.4 METAL VENEERS: Veneers of metal shall be fabricated from ap- 
proved corrosion-resistive materials or shall be protected front and 
back with porcelain enamel or shall be otherwise treated to render 
the metal resistant to corrosion. Such veneers shall be not less 
than No. 29 gage in thickness mounted on wood or metal furring strips 
or approved sheathing on the frame construction. 

8-46 



860.5 HEIGHT OF VENEERS: The height and length of veneer areas 
shall be unlimited, except as required to control expansion and 
contraction. When attached to wood frame structures as provided 
in section 860.3, the veneer shall be supported on footings or 
foundation walls. 

860.6 VENEER OR MASONRY: Veneer attached to masonry or concrete 
backing shall not be limited in height other than by compressive 
stresses. Veneer shall be securely attached to the masonry or con- 
crete in an approved manner. 



SECTION 861.0 STRUCTURAL GLASS VENEERS 

861.1 DIMENSIONS: The minimum thickness of glass veneer shall be 
eleven thirty-seconds (11/32) inch and the area of individual panels 
shall not exceed ten (10) square feet, with a maximum length of four 
(4) feet. The edge of each unit shall be ground square with a slight 
arris; and all exposed, external corners and angles shall be rounded 
to a radius of not more than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch. 

861.2 CONSTRUCTION. 

861.21 BACKING SURFACE: The glass veneer shall be set in mastic 
cement on a float coat of one (1) inch thick cement mortar reinforced 
with wire lath attached to noncombustible furring spaced not more 
than twelve (12) inches on centers. 

861.22 SUPPORT OF VENEER: The base course of glass units shall be 
supported on a corrosion-resistive metal frame anchored to the back- 
ing and caulked with a waterproof compound at grade. 

861.3 REINFORCEMENT: Metal reinforcing of cold formed corrosion- 
resistive angles of not less than No. 16 U.S. gage or other approved 
reinforcement shall be provided in all horizontal joints anchored 
into the masonry wall with expansion or toggle bolts. 

861.4 EXPANSION JOINTS: Expansion joints shall be provided at ends 
and intermediate sections caulked with an approved waterproofing com- 
pound as required by the approved rules. Where necessary for water- 
tightness, exposed edges shall be protected with corrosion-resistive 
metal or other approved noncombustible flashing. 

861.5 OTHER LOADS: No signs, awning brackets or other loads shall 
be hung directly from glass veneers, but shall be supported on fram- 
ing anchored to or otherwise supported by the masonry wall, free 
from contact with glass. 



SECTION 862.0 THIN STONE AND TILE VENEERS 

862.1 SIZE OF UNITS: In localities subject to frost and freezing 
temperatures, tile and terra cotta units shall be frost-proof and 
shall not be more than two hundred and eighty-eight (288) square in- 
ches in area; and where not subject to frost action, the size of the 
tile may be increased not more than fifty (50) percent in area. 

8-47 



862.2 CONSTRUCTION: One (1) inch thick marble, granite, terra cotta, 
and similar materials; or ceramic tile facing one-quarter (h) to one 
(1) inch in thickness shall be set in accordance with the applicable 
standards listed in the reference section of this article. 



SECTION 863.0 METAL VENEERS 

863.1 MATERIALS: Veneers of metal shall be fabricated from approved 
corrosion-resistive alloys, or shall be covered front and back with 
approved porcelain enamel, or otherwise treated to render the metal 
resistant to corrosion. 

863.2 CONSTRUCTION: The metal veneer shall be securely attached to 
the masonry or supported on approved metal framing protected by paint- 
ing, galvanizing or other approved protection, or on wood studs and 
furring strips, treated with an approved preservative process. 

863.3 WATERPROOFING: All joints and edges exposed to the weather 
shall be caulked with approved durable waterproofing material or by 
other approved means to prevent penetration of moisture. 

863.4 GROUNDING METAL VENEERS: Grounding of metal veneers on all 
buildings shall comply with the requirements of the Massachusetts 
State Electrical Code. 



SECTION 864.0 PLASTIC VENEERS 

Veneers of approved weather-resisting non-combustible plastics shall 
be erected and anchored on a foundation coat, waterproofed or other- 
wise protected from moisture adsorption and sealed with a coat of 
mastic or other approved waterproof coating in accordance with the 
approved rules. 



SECTION 865.0 THICKNESS OF SOLID MASONRY WALLS 

All masonry walls shall be of a thickness conforming to the refer- 
ence standards of this article and subject to the maximum stresses, 
combined or direct as provided in this Code or in the reference 
standards . 



SECTION 866.0 THICKNESS OF PANEL WALLS 

866.1 SOLID PANEL WALLS: Panel, apron or spandrel walls as defined in 
the Basic Code supported at vertical intervals not exceeding thirteen 
(13) feet in height, shall not be limited in thickness, provided they 
meet the f ireresistive requirements of article 9 and table 2-5, and 
are constructed of approved noncombustible weather-resisting materials 
of adequate strength to resist the wind loads specified in sections 
713 and 714. 



8-48 



866.2 HOLLOW PANEL WALLS: Unless constructed of the materials and 
thickness specified by the accepted engineering standards for masonry, 
hollow panel walls shall be tested and approved in the assembled unit 
as constructed in normal practice to develop the required fireresis- 
tance ratings specified in table 2-5 for exposure on both faces. 

866.3 WEATHER RESISTANCE: When the construction as tested and ap- 
proved for f ireresistance does not possess the required weather re- 
sistance, it shall be covered on the exterior with approved corrosion- 
resistive metal facings or other approved noncombustible weather- 
resisting veneers. 

866.4 ANCHORAGE: All panel walls shall be anchored to the structural 
frame to insure adequate lateral support and resistance to wind and 

to earthquake forces where subject to seismic disturbances. 



SECTION 867.0 THICKNESS OF PARAPET WALLS 

All masonry exterior walls shall be constructed with parapet walls 
extending not less than two (2) feet above the roof, except in one- 
and two-family dwellings and structures where the roof overhangs 
the wall, or in places where such walls are capped with cornices 
or gutters; and except as required for fire walls in section 907 
or as herein specifically provided. 

867.1 MINIMUM THICKNESS AND HEIGHT: Parapet walls shall be of the 
same thickness as the wall below; but in no case shall the required 
thickness exceed twelve (12) inches, nor shall the height be more 
than four (4) times the thickness unless laterally supported by non- 
combustible bracing or buttresses. 

867.2 PARTY WALLS WITH FLAT ROOFS: Parapet walls erected between 
two (2) structures in residential use groups, with flat roofs not 
more than forty (40) feet in height, need not extend more than six 

(6) inches above the roof. 

867.3 PARTY WALLS WITH PITCHED ROOFS: Party walls in buildings and 
structures in residential use groups, the roofs of which slope at an 
angle of thirty (30) degrees or more from the horizontal, may stop at 
the level of the top of the roof boards, provided no combustible ma- 
terial passes through the wall, and the junction of roof and walls is 
completely weatherproof ed and firestopped. 

867.4 COPING: The top of all parapet walls exposed to the weather 
shall be coped with approved noncombustible and weather-resisting 
materials , 



SECTION 868.0 FOUNDATION WALLS 

868.1 DESIGN: Foundation walls shall be designed to resist frost ac- 
tion and to support safely all vertical and lateral loads as provided 
in article 7 and shall extend to a minimum depth of four (4) feet below 
grade. The maximum stresses due to combined load shall be within the 

8-49 



868.1 DESIGN: Foundation walls shall be designed to resist frost 
action and to support safely all vertical and lateral loads as provided 
in article 7 and shall extend to a minimum depth of four (4) feet below 
grade. The maximum stresses due to combined load shall be within the 
values specified for the materials used in the construction. Unless 
properly reinforced, tensile stresses shall not exceed those permitted 
in plain masonry. 

868.2 MINIMUM THICKNESS: The thickness of foundation wall shall be not 
less than the thickness of the wall supported and the minimum thickness 
shall be limited for the various materials of construction as herein 
specified. Eight (8) inch foundation walls shall be permitted under 
brick-veneered frame and under ten (10) inch cavity walls when the total 
height of wall supported including gables is not more than twenty (20) 
feet; 

868.21 REINFORCED CONCRETE: When reinforced concrete is required to 
resist all stresses, foundation walls shall be not less than eight (8) 
inches thick. 

868.22 HOLLOW AND SOLID MASONRY AND MASS CONCRETE: The thickness of 
masonry foundation walls shall not be less than shown in the following 
table for the type of foundation and superstructure construction used. 
The combined height of eight (8) inch foundation wall and the wall 
supported shall not exceed thirty-five (35) feet. 

THICKNESS OF FOUNDATION WALLS 



Foundation Wall 
Construction 



Maximum Depth Below Grade (feet) 
Note 1.2 



Type 


Thickness 
(inches) 


Frame 


Masonry 
Veneer 


Masonry 


Hollow 
masonry 


8 
10 
12 


4 (6) 

5 (7) 

7 


4.5 
5.5 
7 


(6) 
(7) 


5 (7) 

6 (7) 
7 


Solid 
masonry 


8 
10 
12 


5 (7) 

6 (7) 
7 


5.5 

6 

7 


(7) 
(7) 


6 (7) 
6.5(7) 

7 


Mass 
concrete 


8 


7 


7 




7 



Note 1. Depth below grade may be increased up to those shown in 
parentheses where such increase is warranted by soil conditions and 
local experience and is required by the building official. 

Note 2. Where height of unbalanced fill (height of finish grade above 
basement floor or inside grade) exceeds seven (7) feet, foundation wall 
thickness shall be determined by structural analysis as required in 
section 869.1. 



8-50 



868.23 HOLLOW UNIT WALLS: Foundation walls of approved hollow 
masonry units shall be provided with not less than four (4) inches 
of solid masonry at girder bearings or shall be strengthened with 
buttresses; 

868.24 RUBBLE STONE: Foundation walls of rough or random rubble 
stone shall be not less than sixteen (16) inches thick; 

868.25 BONDING: All foundation walls shall be bonded as required 
for superstructure walls in section 836. 

868.3 INCREASED THICKNESS WITH DEPTH: When any foundation wall, 
other than a wall that is designed as a retaining wall, extends more 
than twelve (12) feet below the top of the first floor beams, the 
thickness of the wall shall be Increased four (4) inches for each 
additional twelve (12) feet or fraction thereof in depth. 

868.4 CORBELS ON EIGHT INCH WALLS: Where an eight (8) inch wall is 
corbeled, the top corbel course shall be a full header course of head- 
ers at least six (6) inches in length, extending not higher than the 
bottom of the floor framing. The maximum projection of one (1) unit 
shall neither exceed one-half (Jj) the depth of the unit nor one-third 
(1/3) its width at right angles to the face which is offset. 

868.5 LATERAL STABILITY: Foundation walls of buildings and struc- 
tures which serve as retaining walls shall conform to the applicable 
requirements of section 869 or shall be strengthened with buttresses 
or additional wall thickness to resist lateral soil and hydrostatic 
pressure when subjected thereto. 



SECTION 869.0 RETAINING WALLS 

Walls built to retain or support the lateral pressure of earth or 
water or other superimposed loads shall be designed and constructed 
of approved masonry, reinforced concrete, steel piling or other ap- 
proved materials within the allowable stresses of accepted engineer- 
ing practice. 

869.1 DESIGN: Retaining walls shall be designed to resist the pres- 
sure of the retained material including both dead and live load sur- 
charges to which they may be subjected, and to insure stability 
against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water 
uplift. Retaining walls meeting the requirements of section 128.1 
shall be subject to control as provided in section 128.0. 

869.2 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE: Unless drainage is provided, the hydro- 
static head of water pressure shall be assumed equal to the height of 
the wall . 

869.3 COPING: All masonry retaining walls other than reinforced 
concrete walls shall be protected with an approved coping. 



8-51 



SECTION 870.0 ISOLATED PIERS 

Isolated masonry piers shall be bonded as required for solid walls 
of the same thickness and shall be provided with adequate means for 
distributing the load on the top of the pier. 



SECTION 871.0 WATERPROOFING 

The exterior structural elements of all buildings herein specified 
shall be waterproofed in accordance with the approved rules. 

871.1 STEEL FRAME: Exterior steel columns and girders before embed- 
ment in masonry of the required fireresistance specified in table 2-5 
shall be protected from moisture by approved waterproofing material, 
a parging coat of cement mortar or by a minimum of eight (8) inches 
of weather-tight masonry. 

871.2 CHASES: The backs and sides of all chases in exterior walls 
with less than eight (8) inches of approved masonry to the exterior 
surface shall be insulated and waterproofed. 

871.3 FOUNDATIONS: Exterior wall below grade and the cellar floors 
of all buildings for institutional and residential uses (use groups 
H and I) enclosing habitable or occupiable rooms or spaces below 
grade shall be made watertight, and when necessary shall be reinforc- 
ed to withstand water pressure as prescribed in sections 710 and 
869. The basement walls of buildings in the residential use groups 
and the walls of all habitable and occupiable rooms and spaces below 
grade shall be protected with not less than one-coat application of 
approved waterproofing paint, or a one-half Oi) inch parging coat of 
Portland cement mortar or other approved dampproof covering. 

871.4 TYPES OF WATERPROOFING: The processes and methods used to 
render building, structures or parts thereof watertight as herein re- 
quired shall comply with accepted engineering practice covering types 
of waterproofing. 



SECTION 872.0 RATPROOFING 

All buildings and strucutres and the walls enclosing habitable or 
occupiable rooms and spaces in which persons live, sleep or work; or 
in which feed, food or foodstuffs are stored, prepared, processed, 
served or sold shall be constructed rat and vermin-proof in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this section. 

872.1 GRADE PROTECTION. 

8-52 



872.11 APRON: When required for protection against rodents, all 
exterior walls at and near grade shall be constructed or assembled 
of component materials, or chemically or otherwise treated to render 
the construction rat or vermin-proof. When not provided with a con- 
tinuous masonry foundation wall, a masonry or reinforced concrete 
apron, not less than four (4) inches in thickness or of other approv- 
ed noncombustible, water-resisting and rat-proofing material of re- 
quired strength, shall be installed around the entire perimeter of 
the building. 

872.12 HEIGHT OF APRON: The apron shall extend sufficiently above 
grade to provide for the average snow fall in the locality, but not 
less than eight (8) inches above, nor less than twenty-four (24) 
inches below grade level; and, if serving as a foundation bearing 
wall, to sufficiently greater depth to assure protection from frost 
action as required in section 727. When the superstructure walls 
are not constructed of masonry, the spaces between studs shall be 
filled to a height of two (2) feet above grade with concrete or other 
material indestructible by rats. 

872.2 GRADE FLOORS: Where continuous concrete grade floor slabs are 
provided, no open spaces shall be left between slab and walls, and 
all openings in the slab shall be protected. 

872.3 OPENING PROTECTION. 

872.31 WALL OPENINGS: Openings in the apron required for ventila- 
tion or other purposes shall be guarded with corrosion-resistive 
rodent-proof shields of not less than No. 22 U.S. gage perforated 
steel sheets, or No. 20 B & S gage aliuninum or No. 16 U.S. gage ex- 
panded metal or wire mesh screens, with no more than one-half (h) 
inch mesh openings. 

872.32 SLAB OPENINGS: Access opening in grade floor slabs shall be 
protected with concrete, masonry, metal or other corrosion-resistive 
noncombustible covers of adequate strength to support the floor loads. 

872.33 PIPES AND CONDUITS: All openings for pipe, conduit, cable 
and similar purposes at or near grade shall have snugly-fitted col- 
lars to eliminate all open spaces. 



SECTION 873.0 PROTECTION AGAINST DECAY AND TERMITES 

The expression "approval" as used in the following statements means 
approval in accordance with the procedure established by the Basic 
Code. 

873.1 WHERE CONDITIONS ARE FAVORABLE TO DECAY. 

873.11 WOOD IN CONTACT WITH THE GROUND: All wood in contact with 
the ground and supporting permanent structures shall be approved 
treated wood. 

8-53 



873.12 UNTREATED WOOD: Untreated wood may be used where entirely 
below ground water level or continuously submerged in fresh water 
and may be used in contact with the ground for detached accessory 
buildings not intended for human occupancy, for temporary structures 
and for fences . 

873.2 WOOD JOISTS OR THE BOTTOM OF WOOD STRUCTURAL FLOORS: When 
wood joists or the bottom of wood structural floors without joists 
are closer than eighteen (18) inches, or wood girders are closer than 
twelve (12) inches, to exposed ground located within the periphery of 
the building over crawl spaces or unexcavated areas , they shall be 
approved durable or treated wood. Ventilation shall be provided as 
required in section 508.0. 

873.3 SILLS: All sills which rest on concrete or masonry exterior 
walls and are less than six (6) inches from exposed earth shall be 
of approved durable or treated wood. 

873.31 SLEEPERS AND SILLS: Sleepers and sills on a concrete or 
masonry slab which is in direct contact with earth shall be of ap- 
proved durable or treated wood . 

873.32 POSTS OR COLUMNS: Posts or columns in cellars shall be sup- 
ported by piers projecting at least two (2) inches above the finish 
floor and separated therefrom by an approved impervious barrier ex- 
cept when approved durable or treated wood is used. Posts or columns 
used in damp locations below grade shall be of approved durable or 
treated wood. 

873.33 WALL POCKETS: Ends of wood girders entering masonry or con- 
crete walls shall be provided with a one-half (%) inch air space on 
top, sides and end unless approved durable or treated wood is used. 

873.34 CLEARANCE BETWEEN WOOD SIDING: Clearance between wood siding 
and earth on the exterior of a building shall be not less than six (6) 
inches . 

873.4 WOOD USED IN A RETAINING WALL: Wood used in a retaining wall 
shall be approved durable or treated wood except as follows : 

a) when the wall is not more than two (2) feet in height and is 
located on the property line. 

b) when the wall is not more than four (4) feet in height and is 
separated from the property line by a minimum distance equal 
to the height of the wall . 

c) a retaining wall of durable wood shall not exceed six (6) feet 
in height . A wood retaining wall shall be separated from any 
permanent building by a minimum distance equal to the height 
of the wall . 



8-54 



873.5 WHERE APPROVED DURABLE OR TREATED WOODS ARE REQUIRED: Where 
approved durable or treated woods are required in this Code, the 
building official may require identification by an approved mark or 
certificate of inspection. 

873.6 PRESSURE TREATMENT: Where pressure treatment of wood members 
is required by the Basic Code, preservatives and methods of treatment 
shall conform to the standards for pressure treatment and preserving 
of lumber listed in the reference standards of this article. 



SECTION 874.0 FIRE PROTECTION AND FIRESTOPPING 

To prevent the free passage of flame through concealed spaces or 
openings in event of fire, provision shall be made to trim all com- 
bustible framing away from sources of heat, to provide effective fire 
barriers against the spread of fire between all subdivisions and all 
stories of the building, to provide adequate fire separation against 
exterior exposure, and to firestop all vertical and horizontal draft 
openings as specified herein. 

874.1 BEAM SEPARATION IN ORDINARY CONSTRUCTION (types 3-B and 3-C) : 
All wood and other combustible floor, roof and other structural mem- 
bers framing into masonry walls shall be cut to a bevel of three (3) 
inches in the depth and shall project not more than four (4) inches 
into the wall; and the distance between embedded ends of adjacent 
beams or joists entering into the wall from opposite sides shall be 
not less than four (4) inches. 

874.2 GIRDER SEPARATION IN HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION (type 3-A) : 
Wood girders framing into walls shall have at least (8) inches of 
masonry between their ends and the outside face of walls and at 
least eight (8) inches of masonry between adjacent beams entering 
the wall from opposite sides. The girders shall be fire-cut, sup- 
ported in pockets or in self-releasing metal boxes, or otherwise 
supported to minimize destruction of the wall in the event of fire. 

874.3 FLUES AND CHIMNEYS: Combustible framing shall be trimmed not 
less than two (2) inches away from all flues, chimneys and fireplaces, 
and six (6) inches away from flue openings. 

874.4 FIREPLACES: Hearths of noncombustible construction and fire- 
boards, mantels and other combustible trim shall comply with section 
1012 governing fireplace construction. 

874.5 CONCEALED ROOF SPACES: Concealed roof spaces enclosed by com- 
bustible ceiling and roof construction shall be subdivided into areas 
of not more than three thousand (3000) square feet as provided in 
section 316. 



8-55 



874.6 EXTERIOR CORNICES: Exterior cornices where permitted of com- 
bustible construction in section 926, or when erected with combustible 
frames shall be f irestopped at maximum intervals of twenty (20) feet . 
If noncontinuous, they shall have closed ends, with at least four (4) 
inches separation between adjoining sections. 

874.7 WALL FURRING: In masonry wall construction (types 3-A, 3-B, 
and 3-C) and in frame construction (types 4-A and 4-B) where walls 
are furred, the space between the inside of the furring and the face 
of the wall for the full depth of the combustible floor or roof joists 
shall be f irestopped. 

874.8 COMBUSTIBLE TRIM AND FINISH: The space behind combustible 
trim and finish where permitted under the Basic Code and all other 
hollow spaces where permitted in f ireresistive construction shall be 
back-filled with noncombustible materials or firestopped as required 
in section 921.0. 

874.9 FIRESTOPPING: Firestopping meeting the requirements of sec- 
tion 921 shall be provided in stud walls and partitions at each floor 
level and between the ceiling of the top story and roof space; in 
all furred spaces of frame walls and studded off spaces of masonry 
walls at maximum intervals of eight (8) feet; at the top and bottom 
and at least once in the middle of each run of stairs ; in concealed 
wall pockets for sliding doors; at openings for pipes, belts, shaft- 
ing, chutes and conveyors passing through combustible floors or par- 
titions with close-fitting noncombustible caps or metal shutters or 
other approved noncombusitble means; and in all other locations that 
would permit the free travel of flame . 



SECTION 875.0 THERMAL INSULATING MATERIALS 

Insulating batts, blankets, fills or similar types of materials, 
including vapor barriers and breather papers or other coverings, 
which are a part of the insulation, incorporated in construction 
elements shall be installed and used in a manner that will not inc- 
crease the fire hazard characteristics of the building or any part 
thereof. 

875.1 INSTALLATION IN TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 CONSTRUCTION: Such materi- 
als when exposed as installed in building of fireproof or noncombust- 
ible (types 1 or 2) construction shall qualify as noncombustible 
materials when tested in accordance with section 904. 

875.2 INSTALLATION IN TYPE 3 AND TYPE 4 CONSTRUCTION: Such materi- 
als, when exposed as installed in attic spaces in buildings of ordin- 
ary or frame (types 3 or 4) construction may be of noncombustible or 
approved combustible material when tested in accordance with section 
904. 

8-56 



875.3 FACINGS AND COVERINGS: Vapor barriers, breather papers or 
other coverings of insulating materials, when installed adjacent to 
or not more than one and one-half (1%) inches from the unexpected 
surface of ceiling or sidewall interior finish, or when installed 
in completely enclosed wall, ceiling joist or rafter spaces, fire- 
stopped as required in section 874.0 are not required to have a 
flameresistance rating. 



8-57 



AC I 

AITC 

ANSI 
ANSI 
ANSI 
ANSI 

ANSI 

ANSI 
ANSI 

ANSI 

ANSI 

ANSI 

ASTM 
ASTM 



ASTM 



Reference Standards - Article 8 Part A 
318 1971 Building Code Requirements for Rein- 
forced Concrete 

103-65 1965 Standard for Structural Glued-Lamlna- 
ted Timber 

A 42.1 1964 Specifications for Gypsum Plastering 

A 42.2 1971 Specifications for Portland Cement Stucco 

A 42.3 1971 Specifications for Portland Cement Plastering 

A 42.4 1967 Specifications for Interior Lathing and 
Furring 

A 42.5 1960 Standard Specifications for Lime-Cement 
Stucco 

A 97.1 1965 Specif cations for Gypsum Wallboard Finishes 

A 108.5 1967 Tile, Ceramic, Installed in Dry-Set Port- 
land Cement Mortar 

A 118.1 1972 Standard Specifications for Dry-Set Port- 
land Cement Mortar 

A 118.3 1969 Standard Specifications for Epoxy, Chemical 
Resistant, Water Cleanable Tile-Setting and 
Grouting 

Z 97.1 1972 United States Standard Performance Specifi- 
cations and Methods of Test for Transparent 
Safety Glazing Material Used in Buildings 

1968 Specifications for Quicklime for Structural 
Purposes 

1968 Specifications for Normal Finishing Hydrated 
Lime 

Specifications for Natural Cement 

Specifications for G3rpsum 

Specifications for Gypsum Plasters 

Specifications for Concrete Aggregates 

Specifications for Structural Clay Load 
Bearing Wall Tiles 

1970 Specifications for Inorganic Aggregates for 
Use in Gj^sum Plaster 



C 5 



C 6 



ASTM 


C 10 


1970a 


ASTM 


C 22 


1950 


ASTM 


C 28 


1968 


ASTM 


C 33 


1971a 


ASTM 


C 34 


1970 



C 35 



8-58 



ASTM 


C 36 


1970 


ASTM 


C 37 


1969 


ASTM 


C 52 


1972 



Reference Standards - Article 8 Part A 

1970,1973 Specifications for Gjrpsum Wallboard 



Specifications for Gypsum Lath 

Specifications for Gypsum Partition 
Tile or Block 



ASTM C 55 1971 Specifications for Concrete Building 

Brick 

ASTM C 56 1971 Specifications for Structural Clay 

Non-Load Bearing Tile 

ASTM C 57 1957 Specifications for Structural Clay 

Floor Tile 

ASTM C 61 1964 Specifications for Keene's Cement 

ASTM C 62 1969 Specifications for Building Brick (Solid 

Masonry Units Made From Clay or Shale) 

ASTM C 73 1972 Specifications for Sand-lime Building 

Brick 



ASTM 


C 79 


1967 


ASTM 


C 90 


1970 


ASTM 


C 91 


1971 


ASTM 


C 94 


1971 


ASTM 


C 126 


1971 



Specifications for G3rpsum Sheathing Board 

Specifications for Hollow Load Bearing 
Concrete Masonry Units 

Specifications for Masonry Cement 

1971,1972 Specifications for Ready-Mixed Concrete 

Specifications for Ceramic Glazed Struc- 
tural Clay Facing Tile, Facing Brick, 
and Solid Masonry Units 

ASTM C 129 1971 Specifications for Hollow Non-Load 

Bearing Concrete Masonry Units 

ASTM C 144 1970 Specifications for Aggregate for Masonry 

Mortar 

ASTM C 145 1971 Specifications for Solid Load Bearing 

Concrete Masonry Units 

ASTM C 150 1972 Specifications for Portland Cement 

ASTM C 206 1968 Specifications for Special Finishing 

Hydrated Lime 

ASTM C 207 1968 Specifications for Hydrated Lime for 

Masonry Purposes 



8-59 



Reference Standards - Article 8 Part A 



ASTM C 208 1966 



ASTM 



ASTM 



C 216 1971 



C 270 1971 



Specifications for Structural Insulating 
Board Made From Vegetable Fibers 

Specifications for Brick, Facing (Solid 
Masonry Units Made From Clay of Shale) 

Specifications for Mortar for Unit Mas- 
onry (Tentative) 



ASTM 



C 330 1969 



Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates 
for Structural Concrete (Tentative) 



ASTM 



C 331 1969 



Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates 
for Concrete Masonry Units (tentative) 



ASTM C 332 1966 Specifications for Lightweight Aggregates 

for Insulating Concrete 

ASTM C 476 1971 Specifications for Mortar and Grout for 

Reinforced Masonry 

ASTM C 595 1968 Specifications for Blended Hydraulic 

Cements 



ASTM 



C 652 1970 



Federal DD-G-00451b 
Specifi- D.F. 2.5 
cation 



Specifications for Hollow Brick (Solid 
Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale) 

Glass Thickness Specifications 



USDC 



CS 181 1952 



U.S. Product 
Standard PS-1 



Adhesive-Water Resistant Organic, for 
Installation of Clay Tile 

Specifications for Plywood 



Vermiculite 
Institute 



1963 Standard Specifications for Vermiculite 
Plastering 



8-60 



Reference Standards - Article 8 Part A 

1.0 GLASS DESIGN CRITERIA - The required nominal thickness of glass 
shall be determined from the chart within this reference standard. 
The modified design wind load to be used for entering the chart shall 
be determined by dividing the appropriate general design wind load 
of section 713.0 by the relative resistance value for the glass type 
involved. For this purpose, the relative resistances to wind load 
for equal thicknesses of glass shall be assumed as follows: 

2.0 GLASS TYPE RELATIVE RESISTANCE 

Regular Plate or Sheet 1.0 

Laminated 0.6 

Wired Glass 0.5 

Heat Strengthened 2.0 

Fully-Tempered 4.0 

Rough-Rolled Plate 1.0 

Sandblasted 0.4 

Factory Fabricated Double Glazing 
(Use only the thickness of 
the thinner of the two lights) 1.5 



8-61 



Reference Standards - Article 8 Part B 



ACI 

ACI 
ACI 

AISC 
AISI 



ASTM 



318 

506 
525 



1971 

1966 
1963 

1969 
1968 



AITC 


PS 56-73 


1973 


AITC 


200-73 


1973 


AA 




1969 


APA 




1967 



A 27 



1971 



ASTM 


A 48 


1971 


ASTM 


A 148 


1971 


ASTM 


A 377 


1966 


ASTM 


C 31 


1966 


ASTM 


C 143 


1966 


ASTM 


C 172 


1968 


ASTM 


D 2277 


1972 


AWS 


Dl.0-69 


1969 


NCMA 




1971 



Building Code Requirements for Rein- 
forced Concrete 

Recommended Practice for Shotcreting 

Minimum Requirements for Thin-Section 
Precast Concrete Construction 

Specification for the Design, Fabrication, 
and Erection of Structural Steel for 
Buildings 

Specification for the Design of Cold- 
Formed Steel Structural Members 

Structural Glued-Laminated Lumber 

Inspection Manual 

Aluminum Construction Manual 

Design and Fabrication of Flat Plywood 
Stressed Skin Panels 

Specifications for Mi Id -To -Medium Strength 
Carbon-Steel Castings for General Application 

Specifications for Gray Iron Castings 

Specifications for High-Strength Steel 
Castings for Structural Purposes 

Specifications for Cast Iron Pressure Pipe 

Making and Curing Concrete Compression and 
Flexure Test Specimens in the Field 

Test for Slump of Portland Cement Concrete 

Sampling Fresh Concrete 

Specifications for Fiberboard Nail-Base 
Sheathing (Tentative) 

Code for Welding in Building Construction 

Specification for the Design and Construction 
of Load Bearing Concrete Masonry. Where con- 
flict arises between this reference standard 
and the Basic Code, the more stringent re- 
quirements of the two shall apply. 



8-62 



Reference Standards - Article 8 Part B 



NFoPA 



1970 



Maximum Spans for Joists and Rafters 
in Residential Construction 



NFoPA 
NFoPA 

BIA 



SJI-AISC 



SJI-AISC 



1970 Wood Structural Design Data 

1973 National Design Specification for Stress- 
Grade Lumber and its Fastenings. 

1969 Structural Clay Products Institute Rec- 
ommended Building Code Requirements for 
Engineered Brick Masonry. Where conflict 
arises between this reference standard 
and the Basic Code, the more stringent 
requirements of the two shall apply. 

1972 Standard Specifications and Load Tables 
for Open Web Steel Joists, J-Series and 
H-Series 

1972 Standard Specifications and Load Tables 
for Long-Span Steel Joists, LJ-Series 
and LH-Series 



ANSI A59.1 1954 



USDC CS 31 1952 



Specifications for Reinforced Gypsvmi 
Concrete 

Wood Shingles (Red Cedar, Tidewater, Red 
Cjrpress and California Redwood) 



8-63 



AC I 



Reference Standards - Article 8 Part C 
525 1963 



Minimum Requirements for Thln-Sectlon 
Precast Concrete Construction 



AWPA C 1 1972 Standard for the Preservative Treatment 

of all Timber Products by Pressure 
Processes 



AWPA 

AWPA 

AWPA 

AWPA 

AWPA 

AWPA 

ANSI 
ANSI 

ANSI 

ANSI 

ANSI 

ANSI 

ANSI 



C 2 



C 3 



C 4 



C 9 



M 2 



M 4 



1972 



1972 



1972 



1972 



1962 



1962 



A 94.1 1961 

A 94.2 1961 

A 94.3 1961 

A 108.1 1967 

A 108.2 1967 

A 108.3 1967 

A 108.5 1967 



Standard for the Preservative Treatment 
of Lumber, Timbers, Bridge Ties and Mine 
Ties by Pressure Processes 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment 
of Piles by Pressure Processes 

Standard for Preservative Treatment of 
Poles by Pressure Processes 

Standard for the Preservative Treatment 
of Plywood by Pressure Processes 

Standard Instructions for the Inspection 
of Preservative Treatment of Wood 

Standard for the Case of Pressure-Treated 
Wood Products 

Specifications for Interior Marble 

Specifications for Thin Exterior Marble 
Veneer (Two Inches and Less in Thiclcness) 

Specifications for Thin Exterior Marble 
in Curtain or Panel Walls 

Specifications for (Including Requirements 
of Related Divisions) Installation of 
Glazed Ceramic Wall Tile in Cement Mortars 

Specifications for (Including Requirements 
of Related Divisions) Installation of 
Ceramic Mosaic Tile in Cement Mortars 

Specifications (Including Requirements of 
Related Divisions) for Installation of 
Quarry Tile and Pavers in Cement Mortars 

Specifications for Installation of Ceramic 
Tile with Dry-Set Portland Cement Mortar 



8-64 



Recommended Nailing Schedule 



Building Element 



Stud to sole plate 

Stud to cap plate 

Double studs 

Corner studs 

Sole plate to joist or 

blocking 

Double cap plate 

Cap plate laps 

Ribbon strip - 6" or less 
Ribbon strip - 6" or more 

Roof rafter to plate 

Roof rafter to ridge 

Jack rafter to hip 

Floor joists to studs .... 

(No ceiling joists) . 
Floor joists to studs .... 

(With ceiling joists) 
Floor joists to sill or 

girder 8d common 

Ledger strip , 16d common 

Ceiling joists to plate 16d common 

Ceiling joists to parallel 

rafters 16d common 

Ceiling joists (laps over 

partition) 16d common 

Collar beam lOd common 

Bridging to joists 8d common 

Diagonal brace (to stud and 

plate) 8d common 

Tail beams to headers 20d common 

(When failing permitted) 
Header beams to trimmers .... 20d common 

(When nailing permitted) 
1" roof decking 8d common 

(6" or less in width) 
1" roof decking 8d common 

(over 6" in width) 
1" sub-flooring (6" or less) . . 8d common 
1" sub-flooring (8" or more) . . 8d common 

2" sub-flooring 16d common 

1" wall sheathing (8" or less 

in width) 8d common 

Plywood roof and wall 

sheathing 6d common 

(1/2 or less 

(5/8" or greater) 8d common 



Nai] 


L Size 




Number and 


and 


type 




location 


8d 


common 


4 


Toe-nail 


16d 


common 


2 


Toe-nail 


lOd 


common 


12 


"o.c. Direct 


16d 


common 


24 


"o.c. Direct 


16d 


common 


16 


"o.c. 


16d 


common 


16 


"o.c. Direct 


16d 


common 


2 


Direct 


lOd 


common 


2 


each Direct bearing 


lOd 


common 


3 


each Direct bearing 


8d 


common 


3 


Toe-nail 


16d 


common 


2 


Toe-nail 


lOd 


common 


3 


Toe-nail 


lOd 


common 


5 


Direct or 


lOd 


common 


3 


Direct 


lOd 


common 


2 


Direct 



3 Toe-nail 

3 each Direct joist 

3 Toe-nail 

3 Direct 

3 Direct 

3 Direct 

2 each Direct end 

2 each Direct bearing 
1 each End 

4 sq. ft. floor area 

1 each End 

8 sq. ft. floor area 

2 each Direct rafter 

3 each Direct rafter 

2 each Direct joist 

3 each Direct joist 
2 each Direct joist 

2 each Direct stud 

6"o.c. Direct edges and 

12 "o.c. intermediate 

6"o.c. Direct edges and 

12 "o.c. intermediate 



8-65 



Recommended Nailing Schedule 



Building Element 



Nail Size 
and type 



Number and 
location 



(5/16", 3/8" or 1/2")... 16 ga. galvanized 4"o.c. edges 

wire staples, 3/8" and 8"o.c. 
minimum crown; intermediate 
length of 1" plus 
plywood thickness 

(5/8") Same as immedi- 2-l/2"o.c. edges 

ately above and 5"o.c. inter- 
mediate 
Plywood subflooring: 

(1/2") 6d common or 6"o.c. Direct 

6d annular oredges and 10"o.c. 
spiral thread intermediate 

(5/8", 3/4") 8d common or 6"o.c. Direct 

6d annular or edges and 10"o.c. 
spiral thread intermediate 

(1", 1-1/8") lOd common or 6"o.c. Direct 

8d ring shank or edges and 6"o.c. 
8d annular or intermediate 
spiral thread 

(1/2") 16 ga . galvanized 4"o .c . edges and 

wire staples 7"o.c. intermediate 

(5/8") 3/8" minimum 2-l/2"o.c. edges and 

crown, 1-5/8" 4"o.c. intermediate 
length 
Built up girders and beams .. 20d common 32"o.c. Direct 
Continuous header to stud ... 8d common 4 Toenail 
Continuous header-two pieces. 16d common 16"o.c. Direct 
1/2" Fiberboard sheathing ... 1-1/2" galvanized 3"o.c. exterior edge 

roofing nail or 6"o.c. intermediate 
6d common nail or 
16 gage staple, 
1-1/8" long with 
minimum crown of 
7/16" 
25/32" Fiberboard sheathing.. 1-3/4" galvanized 3"o.c. exterior edge, 

roofing nail or 6"o.c. intermediate 
8d common nail or 
16 gage staple, 
1-1/2" long with 
minimum crown of 
7/16" 

Gypsum sheathing 12 gage 1-1/4" 4"o.c. on edge, 

large head 8"o.c. intermediate 
corrosion-resistive 

Shingles-wood No . 14 B&S 2 each bearing 

corrosion-resistive 
Weather boarding 8d corrosion- 2 each bearing 



8-66 



PLYWOOD ROOF SHEATHING 

DOUGLAS FIR, WESTERN LARCH, SOUTHERN PINE 

AND 

GROUP 1 SHEATHING GRADES WESTERN SOFTWOOD PLYWOOD 







Roof 




Floor 


Panel 


Maximum Sp. 


an 








Identification 


(Inches) 




Load 


(psf) 




Index (2) 










Maximiim 


(roof span 


Edges 


Edges 


Total 


Live 


Span (5) 


"/floor span") 


Blocked (3) 


Unblocked 


Load 


Load 


(Inches) 


12/0 


12 


12 


130 


100 





16/0 


16 


16 


75 


55 





20/0 


20 


20 


55 


45 


d 


24/0 


24(6) 


24 


60 


45 





30/12 


30 


26 


55 


40 


12(7) 


32/16 


32 


28 


50(4) 


40 


16(8) 


36/16 


36 


30 


50(4) 


35(4) 


16(8) 


42/20 


42 


32 


45(4) 


35(4) 


20(8) 


48/24 


48 


36 


40(4) 


40 


24 



1. These values apply for Structural I and II, Standard Sheathing 
and C-C grades only. Spans shall be limited to values shown 
because of possible effect of concentrated loads. 

2. Identification index appears on all panels in the construction 
grades listed in footnote (1) . 

3. Edges may be blocked with lumber or other approved type of 
edge support . 

4. For roof live load of forty (40) psf or total load of fifty-five 
(55) psf, decrease spans by thirteen (13) percent or use panel 
with next greater identification index. 

5. Plywood edges shall have approved tongue-and -groove joints or shall 
be supported with blocking, unless one-fourth (1/4) inch minimum 
thickness underlayment is installed, or finish floor is twenty- 
five thirty-seconds (25/32) inch wood strip. Allowable uniform 
load based on deflection of one three-sixtieth (1/360) of span is 
one hundred (100) psf. 

6. 1/2 inch Structural I, when continuous over one (1) support, may 
be laid with face grain parallel to supports provided all panel 
edges are blocked or other approved type edge support is provided, 
the spacing of the supports does not exceed twenty-four (24) in- 
ches on center, and the live load does not exceed thirty (30) 
pounds per square foot. For other grades, a thickness of five- 
eighths (5/8) is required. 

7. May be sixteen (16) inches, if twenty-five thirty-seconds (25/32) 
inch wood strip flooring is installed at right angles to joists. 

8-67 



8. May be twenty-four (24) inches if twenty-five thirty-seconds 
(25/32) inch wood strip flooring is installed at right angles 
to joists. 



PLYWOOD COMBINATION SUBFLOOR-UNDERLAYMENT 

ALLOWABLE SPAN FOR PLYWOOD COMBINATION 
SUBFLOOR-UNDERLAYMENT (1) 

Plywood Continuous over Two (2) or More Spans 
and Face Grain Perpendicular to Supports 

Species Groups Maximum Spacing of Joists (Inches) 

16 20 24 



1 


1/2 


5/8 


3/4 


2,3 


5/8 


3/4 


7/8 


4 


3/4 


7/8 


1 



1 - Applicable to Underlayment grade, C-C (Plugged) and all grades 
of sanded exterior type plywood . Spans limited to values shown be- 
cause of possible effect of concentrated loads. Allowable uniform 
load based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 psf . Plywood edges 
shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported 
with blocking, unless one-fourth (1/4) inch minimum thickness under- 
layment is installed, or finish floor is twenty-five thirty-seconds 
(25/32) inch wood strip. If wood strips are perpendicular to supports, 
thicknesses shown for sixteen (16) inch and twenty (20) inch spans 
may be used on twenty-four (24) inch span. 



8-68 



ARTICLE 9 

FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 

SECTION 900.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall govern the use and assembly 
of all materials of construction with respect to f ireresistance , 
flame spread resistance, and smoke and toxic fume limitation. The 
provisions shall also control the location and function of integral 
structural and fire protective elements of building, and provide for 
the installation of safeguards against the spread of fire within build- 
ings and between buildings . 

900.1 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS: The requirements of this article shall 
constitute the minimum functional performance standards for fire-pro- 
tection purposes; and shall not be deemed to decrease or waive any 
strength provisions or in any other manner decrease the requirements 
of the Basic Code in respect to structural safety. 

900.2 USE OF COMBUSTIBLES: All materials and forms of construction 
that develop the f ireresistance required by this Code shall be accept- 
able for fireproof ing and structural purposes; except that the use of 
combustible component materials in structural units or structural as- 
semblies shall be limited to type 3 and type 4 construction as follows: 

900.21 COMBUSTIBLE COMPONENTS: Combustible aggregates may be incor- 
porated in concrete mixtures approved for f ireresistive construction 
as provided in section 811 and 848 for gypsum concrete, in section 843 
for cinder concrete and any other approved component material or ad- 
mixture may be used in assemblies that meet the f ireresistive test 
requirements of the Basic Code; and wood nailing strips or any other 
material of similar combustible characteristics may be embedded in 
concrete and masonry construction for securing trim and finish. 

900.22 FILLER UNITS: When not included in strength calculations, 
filler units that contain component combustible materials may be used 
in all fireresistive floor construction provided the complete assembly 
meets the required fire test performance. 

900.3 REINFORCED CONCRETE: All reinforced concrete mixtures which 
meet the requirements of section 817 for concrete aggregates and the 
provisions of this article for time-temperature performance shall be 
accepted in fireresistive construction and shall be classified in ac- 
cordance with the degree of f ireresistance required in article 2 and 
in tables 2-5 and 2-6. 

SECTION 901.0 DEFINITIONS 

AUTOMATIC FIRE DOOR: a fire door or other opening protective so con- 
structed and arranged so that if open, it shall close when subjected to: 

9-1 



a) a predetermined temperature, or 

b) a predetermined rate of temperature rise, or 

c) smoke or other products of combustion. 

COMBUSTIBLE FIRE DAMPER: a damper arranged to seal off air flow auto- 
matically through part of an air duct system, so as to restrict the 
passage of heat. The fire damper may also be used as a smoke damper 
if the location lends itself to the dual purpose. 

COMBUSTIBLE (MATERIAL) : a combustible (material) is a material which 
cannot be classified as noncombustible in accordance with that defi- 
nition. 

CONFLAGRATION HAZARD: the fire risk involved in the spread of fire by 
exterior exposure to and from adjoining buildings and structures. 

FIRE DAMPER: a damper arranged to seal off air flow automatically 
through part of an air duct system, so as to restrict the passage 
of heat. The fire damper may also be used as a smoke damper if 
location lends itself to the dual purpose. 

FIRE DIVISION: the interior means of separation of one part of a 
floor area from another part together with f ireresistive floor con- 
struction to form a complete barrier between adjoining or super- 
imposed floor areas in the same building or structure. 

FIRE DOOR: a door and its assembly, so constructed and assembled in 
place as to give protection against the passage of fire. 

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY: the assembly of a fire door and its accessories, 
including all hardware and closing devices and their anchors; and 
the door frame, when required, and its anchors. 

FIRE GRADING: the posted fire hazard classification of a building or 
structure in hours or fractions of an hour as established for its 
use group and occupancy in table 9-1. 

FIRE HAZARD: the potential degree of fire severity existing in the 
use and occupancy of a building and classified as high, moderate 
or low; 

-HIGH: all uses which involve the storage, sale, manufacture or 
processing of highly combustible, volatile flammable or explosive 
products which are likely to burn with extreme rapidity and pro- 
duce large volumes of smoke, poisonous fumes, gases or explosions 
in the event of fire. 

-MODERATE : all uses which involve the storage , sale , manufacture 
or processing of materials which are likely to burn with moderate 
rapidity and a considerable volume of smoke, but which do not pro- 
duce either poisonous fumes or explosions in the event of fire. 

-LOW: all uses which involve the storage, sale or manufacture of 
materials that do not ordinarily burn rapidly, nor produce excessive 
smoke, poisonous fumes, or explosions in the event of fire. 

9-2 



FIRE PARTITION: a partition which subdivides a story of a building 
to provide an area of refuge or to restrict the spread of fire. 

FIRE PREVENTION: the preventive measures which provide for the safe 
conduct and operation of hazardous processes, storage of highly 
combustible and flammable materials, conduct of fire drills, and 
the maintenance of fire detecting and fire-extinguishing service 
equipment and good housekeeping conditions. 

FIRE PROTECTION: the provision of safeguards in construction and of 
exit facilities; and the installation of fire alarm, fire-detecting 
and fire-extinguishing service equipment to reduce the fire risk 
and the conflagration hazard. 

FIRERESISTANCE: that property of materials or their assemblies which 
prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or 
flames under conditions of use. 

FIRERESISTANCE RATING: the time in hours or fractions thereof that 
materials or their assemblies will resist fire exposure as deter- 
mined by fire tests conducted in compliance with recognized stan- 
dards. 

FIRERESISTIVE PARTITION: a partition other than a fire partition which 
is required to subdivide the floor area of a f ireresistive building 
for the purpose of restricting the spread of fire. 

FIRERETARDANT CONSTRUCTION: fabricated units or assemblies of units 
of construction which have a f ireresistance rating of not less than 
one-third (1/3) hour. 

FIRERETARDANT LUMBER: wood so treated by a recognized impregnation 
process as to reduce its combustibility. 

FIRE SAFETY: the measure of protection of a building or structure 
against interior and exposure fire hazards through f ireresistive 
construction and the provision of safe exitways and fire-detecting 
and extinguishing equipment. 

FIRE SEPARATION (EXTERIOR FIRE EXPOSURE) : the distance in feet mea- 
sured from any other building on the site, or from an interior lot 
line, or from the opposite side of a street or other public space 
to the building. 

FIRE WALL: a wall having adequate f ireresistance and structural sta- 
bility under fire conditions to accomplish the purpose of completely 
subdividing a building or of completely separating adjoining build- 
ings to resist the spread of fire. 

FIRE WINDOW: a window constructed and glazed to give protection 
against the passage of fire. 



9-3 



FLAMERESISTANCE: the property of materials or combinations of com- 
ponent materials which resists the spread of flame as determined 
by the f lameresistance tests specified in the Basic Code. 

FLAME SPREAD: the propagation of flame over a surface. 

FLAME SPREAD RATING: the measurement of flame spread on the surface 
of materials or their assemblies as determined by tests conducted 
in compliance with recognized standards. 

NONCOMBUSTIBLE : (INCOMBUSTIBLE) This is a general, relative term. 
Its precise meaning is defined in the Basic Code for specific ap- 
plications. 

PARTY WALL: a fire wall, used or adapted for joint service between 
two buildings, which may fall on an interior lot line or which may 
be used to separate adjoining one and/or two-family dwellings on 
the same lot. 

SELF-CLOSING: a fire door or other opening protective which is nor- 
mally closed and equipped with an approved device to insure closing 
after having been opened for use. 

SHAFT: a vertical opening or passage through two or more floors of a 
building or through floors and roof . 

-COVERED: an interior enclosed space extending through one (1) or 
more stories of a building, connecting a series of two (2) or more 
openings in successive floors, or floors and roof, and covered at 
the top. 

-OPEN: an exterior, enclosed space extending through one or more 
stories of a building, enclosed with walls of the required weather 
and f ireresistance for exterior walls, and open to the sky at the 
top. 

STANDARD FIRE TEST: the standard controlled furnace test formulated 
under the procedure of the American Society for Testing Materials 
and designated ASTM E119 as listed in the reference standards of 
this article. 



SECTION 902.0 FIRE HAZARD CLASSIFICATION 

The degree of fire hazard of buildings and structures for each spe- 
cific use group as defined by the fire grading in Table 9-1 shall de- 
termine the requirements for fire walls, fire divisions and the segre- 
gation of mixed uses as prescribed in section 213 and all structural 
members supporting such elements, unless otherwise provided in this 
Code. 



9-4 



902.1 UNCLASSIFIED USES: The building official shall determine the 
fire hazard classification of a building or structure designed for a 
use not specifically provided in table 9-1 in accordance with the fire 
characteristics and potential fire hazard of the use group which it 
most nearly resembles; or its designation shall be fixed by the ap- 
proved rules . 



SECTION 903.0 FIRERESISTANCE TESTS 

All fire tests of building materials and construction shall be con- 
ducted in accordance with the standard fire test procedure; except 
that the hosestream test therein prescribed for one (1) hour construc- 
tion shall be required for all assemblies and constructions approved 
for a fireresistance rating of three-quarter (3/4) hours. 



TABLE 9-1 - FIRE GRADING OF USE GROUPS 

Fire grading 

Class Use Group in hours 

A High hazard 4 

B-1 Storage - Moderate hazard 3 

B-2 Storage - Low hazard 2 

C Mercantile 3 

D Industrial 3 

E Business 2 

F-1 Assembly - Theatres 3 

F-2 Assembly - Night Clubs 3 
F-3 Assembly - Recreation centers, lecture 

halls, terminals, restaurants 2 

F-4 Assembly - Churches, schools 1% 

H-1 Institutional - Restrained occupants 3 

H-2 Institutional - Incapacitated occupants 2 

L-1 Residential - Hotels 2 

L-2 Residential - Multi-family dwellings Ih 

L-3 Residential - 1 and 2 family dwellings 3/4 



903.1 STRUCTURAL BUILDING ASSEMBLIES: Built-up masonry units and com- 
posite assemblies of structural materials including walls, partitions, 
columns, girders, beams and slabs and assemblies of slabs and beams or 
other combinations of structural units for use in floor and roof con- 
struction shall be regulated by the fireresistance ratings of table 2-5. 
All floor and ceiling assemblies shall extend to and be tight against 
the exterior wall. Approved firestopping providing equivalent fire- 
resistance shall be used to close off any separation between the floor 
and exterior wall . 

903.2 COLUMN, BEAM AND GIRDER PROTECTION: To evaluate column, beam 
and girder protection for structural units when the fireproofing is not 
a structural part of the element, in lieu of full size tests of loaded 



9-5 



specimens, the structural sections encased in the material proposed 
for use as insulation and fire protection may be subjected to the 
standard test procedure without load. 

903.3 ROOF COVERINGS. 

903.31 SIZE OF SPECIMEN: Roof coverings shall be tested in a complete 
assembly of roof deck and roof covering constructed and applied as in 
practice with a panel area of not less than twelve (12) square feet and 
no dimension less than thirty-two (32) inches. 

903.32 TEST PROCEDURE: The tests shall be conducted to determine 
ability to resist ignition, duration of flaming and susceptibility 
to fire spread. 

903.4 CLASSIFICATION OF ROOF COVERINGS: Roof coverings shall be clas- 
sified as A, B or C on the basis of their resistance to exterior fire 
exposure as listed or tested in accordance with reference standard of 
this article. 

903.41 CLASS A ROOFINGS shall be effective against severe fire exposure 
and shall be permitted for use on fireproof (type 1) , noncombustible 
(type 2) and heavy timber mill (type 3-A) buildings and structures; 

903.42 CLASS B ROOFINGS shall be effective against moderate fire ex- 
posure and shall be permitted as the minimum for use on fireproof 
(type 1) buildings and structures; 

904.43 CLASS C ROOFINGS shall be effective against light fire exposure 
and shall be permitted as the minimum for use on noncombustible (type 
2) , masonry enclosed (type 3) and protected frame (type 4-A) buildings 
and structures; 

903.44 NON-RATED ROOFINGS shall be limited to use in areas outside 
of the fire limits where the exterior fire exposure hazard is reduced 
by required fire separations as provided in section 928.3 and on 
frame (type 4-B) construction. 

903.5 OPENING PROTECTIVES . 

903.51 STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY: Opening protectives, including frames, 
self-closing devices, and hardware, shall be classfied as to fire- 
protection rating and shall be installed , maintained and operated in 
accordance with the provisions of the reference standards of this 
article. All opening protectives shall bear the identification of 

an approved testing laboratory or agency certifying to the perfor- 
mance rating thereof. 

903.52 SMOKE AND FLAME BARRIER: Tests of door and window assemblies 
shall be considered unsuccessful unless the assembly prevents the 
passage of smoke or flames in considerable volume and remains se- 
curely in the opening during the fire exposure and following the 
hose stream test. 



9-6 



903.53 LABELED FIRE DOORS: Opening protective assemblies including 
the frames, hardware and operation which comply with the standards 
and accepted practice, including shop inspection, of approved test- 
ing authorities shall be deemed to meet the requirements of the 
Basic Code for their recommended and approved locations and use as 
listed in section 917. 

903.54 DOOR OPENINGS MORE THAN 120 SQUARE FEET: Labeled fire doors 
for openings which are more than one hundred and twenty (120) square 
feet in area may be approved as conforming to all the standard con- 
struction requirements of tested and approved fire door assemblies 
except as to size. 

903.55 LABELED FIRE WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS: Fire window assemblies 
and shutters which comply with Section 918 and the standards and ac- 
cepted practice of approved testing agencies shall be deemed to meet 
the requirements for their recommended and required locations under 
the Basic Code. 

903.56 LABELED FIRE DAMPERS: Only fire dampers which have been tested, 
listed and labeled by an approved testing agency shall be deemed to 
meet the requirement of this Code for the recommended locations and 

use as listed in section 1810.1. 

903.6 COMBUSTIBILITY TESTS: Where the behavior of materials under 
exposure to fire is specified in the Basic Code the characteristics of 
materials shall be determined by the following tests and criteria: 

903.61 NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS: A noncombustible material is one 
which, in the form in which it is used, meets any of the following 
requirements : 

a) materials which pass the test procedure for defining non- 
combustibility of elementary materials listed in the ref- 
erence standards of this article when exposed to a furnace 
temperature of thirteen hundred eighty-two (1382) degrees 
F. for a period of five (5) minutes, and do not cause a 
temperature rise of the surface or interior thermocouples 
in excess of fifty-four (54) degrees F. above the furnace 
air temperature at the beginning of the test and which do 
not flame after an exposure of thirty (30) seconds. 

b) materials having a structural base of noncombustible material 
as defined in paragraph 1, with a surfacing not more than 
one-eighth (1/8) inch thick which has a flamespread rating 
not greater than fifty (50) when tested in accordance with 
the method of test for surface burning characteristics of 
building materials listed in the reference standards of 

this article. 

c) materials other than defined in paragraphs 1 and 2, having a 
flamespread rating not greater than twenty-five (25) without 
evidence of continued progressive combustion, and of such 
composition that surfaces that would be exposed by cutting 



9-7 



through the material in any way would not have a flamespread 
rating greater than twenty-five (25) when tested in accordance 
with the method of test for surface burning characteristics 
of building materials listed in the reference standards of 
this article. 

903.62 FIRE-RETARDANT TREATED WOOD TESTS: Where permitted for use 
as a structural element, Fire-Retardant Treated Wood shall be tested 
in accordance with the standard method of test for surface burning 
characteristics of building materials (tunnel test) listed in the 
reference standards of this article, and shall show a flame spread 
rating not greater than twenty-five (25) when exposed for a period 
of not less than thirty (30) minutes, with no evidence of signifi- 
cant progressive combustion. The material shall bear the identifi- 
cation of an accredited authoritative testing agency showing the per- 
formance rating thereof. 

903.7 FIRERETARDANT TREATED WOOD: Wood that has been pressure-treated 
with fireretardant chemicals in accordance with the reference standards 
of this article may be used in type 1 and 2 constructions for non- 
bearing partitions, structural elements, roof framing and sheathing 
as indicated by note (h) of table 2-5 provided that the assembly in 
which such material is used shall produce the required f ireresistance 
when tested in accordance with the reference standards of this article. 

903.71 LIMITATIONS: Fireretardant treated wood may not be used where 
exposed to the weather or in interior spaces where the relative humid- 
ity is normally eighty (80) percent or more. There shall be no fabri- 
cation of the material after treatment, such as cutting, shaping or 
grooving for splines or ring connectors so as to expose untreated sur- 
faces, except that the material may be cut to length, shaped, or grooved 
if the exposed surfaces or edges are tightly butted against other mater- 
ial that is noncombustible or that is fireretardant treated, so that no 
untreated wood is left exposed to danger of ignition. Holes may be 
bored or cut for plumbing or heating pipes and for electric outlets 
only if the openings are covered with tightly fitted noncombustible 
escutcheons or cover plates. The allowable working stresses of the 
material shall be ninety (90) percent of the allowable stresses for 
untreated lumber of like classification. 



SECTION 904.0 FLAMERESISTANCE TESTS 

All materials which are required to restrict the spread of flame or 
to be flameresistant under the provisions of the Basic Code, including 
but not limited to interior finish materials, fireretardant treated 
wood, tents and tarpaulins, and interior hangings and decorations, shall 
meet the requirements for their respective use and classifications as 
determined by the applicable test procedures listed in the reference 
standards of this article. 

904.1 INTERIOR FINISH MATERIALS: All materials used for interior 
finish shall be classified within the classifications listed in table 
9-2. Interior finish materials shall be tested in accordance with 

9-8 



one of the methods of test for surface burning characteristics of 
building materials in the reference standards of this article. For 
class D material, the flame from the test specimen shall not reach 
the angle frame at any point in five (5) minutes or less when tested 
under the federal specification. 



TABLE 9-2 - FLAME-SPREAD RA.TING 

Surface Burning 
Class Federal specification Characteristics Test 
of material test (Tunnel test) 

I A to 25 

II B or C 26 to 75 

III D (5 min. limit) 76 to 200 

IV Note a 201 to 500 



904.2 INTERIOR HANGINGS AND DECORATIONS: Refer to Chapter 148 of 
the General Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for buildings 
subject to those regulations. 

904.21 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA: Where required to be f lameresistive 
under the provisions of the Basic Code, all materials specified or 
required for artistic enhancement or use for decorations, draperies, 
curtains, scenery and hangings shall comply with this section for 
noncombustible or fireretardant materials; or if treated to be flame- 
resistant shall not generate smoke or gases more than those given off 
by untreated wood or paper burning under comparable conditions when 
tested in the vertical flame test listed in the reference standards 
of this article. 



SECTION 905.0 SPECIAL FIRERESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS 

In buildings or parts thereof of the occupancies and types of con- 
struction herein specified, the general f ireresistive requirements 
of table 2-5 and the height and area limitations of table 2-6 shall 
be subject to the following exceptions and modifications, and to 
Massachusetts Department of Public Safety, Board of Fire Prevention 
Regulations FPR-4. 

905.1 PUBLIC GARAGES: All existing buildings and structures altered 
or converted for use to a garage, motor vehicle repair shop or gaso- 
line service station, more than one (1) story in height, unless of 
fireproof (type 1) construction, or heavy timber (type 3-A) construc- 
tion, shall have the partitions, columns and girders and all floor 
and roof construction protected and insulated with noncombustible 
materials or assemblies of component materials having a f ireresistance 
rating of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hours; except that exis- 
ting roof trusses shall be exempt from all fireproofing requirements. 



9-9 



905.2 OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES. 

905.21 HEIGHTS AND AREAS: Heights and areas of open parking structures 
shall not exceed the limits in the following table: 



HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATION FOR OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 



Type of Height Area 

Construction 

1-A, I-B, 2-A Unlimited Unlimited 

2-B 100' ~ Unlimited 

2-C 75' Unlimited 

The area of structures wherein more than twenty-five (25) percent of 
the perimeter has frontage on street or other open space leading to a 
street each of which is not less than thirty (30) feet wide may be 
installed in accordance with section 308.1 in types 2-B and 2-C construc- 
tion, the area may be unlimited. The above limits of height permit 
parking on the roof. 

905.3 PETROLEUM BULK STORAGE BUILDINGS: Warehouses for the bulk 
storage of not more than fifty thousand (50,000) gallons of lubricating 
oils with a flash point of not less than three hundred (300) degrees F. 
in approved sealed containers may be erected outside the fire limits 

of masonry wall (type 3) construction not more than five thousand 
(5000) square feet in area and not more than one (1) story or twenty 
(20) feet in height; or to proportionate areas in other types of 
construction as regulated by table 2-6. Not more than one motor vehicle 
may be stored in such buildings unless separately enclosed with a fire 
division of two (2) hours f ireresistance. 

905.4 PACKING AND SHIPPING ROOMS: Every packing or shipping room 
located on or below a floor occupied for mercantile uses shall be 
separated therefrom by fire divisions of not less than the f ireresistance 
of the type of construction of the building but in no case less than 
three-quarter (3/4) hours f ireresistance. 

905.5 TRUCK LOADING AND SHIPPING AREAS: Truck loading and shipping 
areas shall be permitted within any business building provided such 
areas are enclosed in construction of not less than the f ireresistance 
of the type of construction of the building but in no case less than 
three-quarter (3/4) hours; and direct access is provided therefrom to 
the street. Where applicable, conformance with Department of Public 
Safety, Board of Fire Prevention Regulations FPR-4 and 11 is required. 

905.6 RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS. 



9-10 



905.61 PROTECTED ORDINARY CONSTRUCTION: Multi-family dwellings (use 
group L-2) of protected ordinary (type 3-B) construction may be in- 
creased to six (6) stories or seventy-five (75) feet in height when 
the first floor above the basement or cellar is constructed of not 
less than three (3) hour f ireresistive construction, the floor area 
is subdivided by two (2) hour fire walls into fire areas of not more 
than three thousand (3000) square feet, and the common exitway, public 
hallways and exitways are enclosed in two (2) hour f ireresistive con- 
struction. 

905.62 PROTECTED NONCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: When of three-quarter 
(3/4) hour protected noncombustible (type 2-B) construction, multi- 
family dwellings (use group L-2) may be increased to nine (9) stories 
or one hundred (100) feet in height when separated not less than fifty 
(50) feet from any other building on the lot and from interior lot 
lines, the exitways are segregated in a fire area enclosed in a contin- 
uous fire wall of two (2) hour f ireresistance and the first floor is 
not less than one and one half (l^s) hours f ireresistive construction. 

905.63 RETAIL BUSINESS USE: The first floor of buildings of unprotec- 
ted noncombustible (type 2-C) , masonry wall (type 3-C) or frame (type 
4-B) construction may be occupied for retail store use, provided the 
ceilings and enclosure walls are protected to afford three-quarter 
(3/4) hour f ireresistance and the exitways from the residence floors 
are separately enclosed in accordance with the requirements of sec- 
tion 909.5 and article 6. 

905.7 GRADE FLOOR PROTECTION. 

905.71 NON-FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION: In all buildings other than one- 
and two-family dwellings (use group L-3) and other than fireproof 
(types 1-A and 1-B) construction with habitable or occupiable stories 
or basements below grade, the ceilings, partitions and supports below 
the grade floor shall be protected with noncombustible materials or 
assemblies of component materials having a f ireresistance rating of 
not less than three-quarter (3/4) hours or shall be of heavy mill 
(type 3-A) construction, or shall be equipped with automatic sprink- 
lers; but in no case less than the required f ireresistance of the use 
group and type of construction required by tables 2-5 and 2-6. 

905.72 PROTECTED NONCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: In all buildings of 
one and one-half (1%) hour protected noncombustible (type 2-A) con- 
struction, more than four (4) stories or fifty (50) feet in height, 
in other than residential use groups, the floor above the basement 

or cellar shall be constructed with a f ireresistance of not less than 
two (2) hours. 

905.73 ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS: One- and two-family dwellings 
(use group L-3) , not more than two (2) stories and attic or thirty- 
five (35) feet in height, shall be exempt from the requirements of 
this section. 



9-11 



905.74 BASEMENT ASSEMBLY USES: No dance hall, skating rink or simi- 
lar places of public assembly for amusement, entertainment, instruction, 
or service of food or refreshment shall be located in stories or rooms 
below grade unless the floor construction above and below is of not 
less than one and one-half (Ih) hour f ireresistance. 



SECTION 906.0 ENCLOSURE WALLS 

All exterior masonry and other enclosure walls shall comply with 
the structural provisions of articles 7 and 8 and with the fireresis- 
tance requirements of table 2-5 as regulated by the location and type 
of construction. 

906.1 EXCEPTIONS: The provisions of the Basic Code shall not be deemed 
to prohibit the omission of enclosure walls for all or part of a story 
when required for special uses and occupancies; except that when so 
omitted, the open areas shall be separated from the rest of the area 
and from the upper and lower stories of the building by wall and floor 
construction of the f ireresistance required in table 2-5; and except 

as otherwise specifically permitted in the Basic Code, the piers, col- 
umns and other structural supports within the open portion shall be 
constructed with the f ireresistance required for exterior bearing 
walls in table 2-5. 

906.2 FIRE CANOPIES: All fire canopies required by section 918.51 
shall be. constructed of noncombustible materials extending out at least 
two (2) feet horizontally from the wall and at least as long as the 
width of the lower opening and constructed to provide a f ireresistance 
rating required for the exterior wall. 

906.3 PARAPETS. - Parapets shall be provided on all exterior walls 

of buildings of construction types 3A, 3B, 3C that have roof construc- 
tion of combustible materials, shall be at least two (2) feet high, 
shall be of materials and assembly having at least the f ireresistance 
rating of the wall below and shall otherwise conform to the require- 
ments of section 867.0. Exceptions where parapets need not be pro- 
vided on the exterior walls shall be made for the following buildings: 

906.31 One (1) story buildings less than twenty-two (22) feet high; 
or 

906.32 A building whose roof has a pitch of more than twenty (20) 
degrees to the horizontal and whose overhang, fascia, cornice or gut- 
ter is of noncombustible construction, or if of combustible construc- 
tion, is separated from the roof and ceiling construction by construc- 
tion having the f ireresistance rating required for the exterior wall 
of the building. Combustible members, including roof sheathing, shall 
not extend through this construction, but shall have at least four (4) 
inches of solid noncombustible material below, at the sides, and at 
the ends of such members; or 



9-12 



906.33 A building is provided with a fire canopy, or not more than 
two (2) feet below the roof level, continuous around that portion of 
the wall that is without a parapet, constructed as required by sec- 
tion 906.3; or 

906.34 A building whose roof has a class A roof covering, and any 
overhangs, cornices, or gutters are constructed as required by sec- 
tion 906.32 above. 



SECTION 907.0 FIRE WALLS AND PARTY WALLS 

Fire walls, party walls and other fire division walls shall be con- 
structed of noncombustible materials or form of construction of the 
required strength and f ireresistance rating specified in table 2-5 
for the type of construction but not less than the fire grading of 
the use group in table 9-1. The construction shall comply with all 
the structural provisions for bearing and non-bearing walls of this 
Code. 

907.1 SOLID BRICK: In other than frame buildings, when constructed 
of solid brick masonry, the wall thickness shall conform to the re- 
quirements of section 867.0; except that in all buildings more than 
twenty-five (25) feet in height used for moderate hazard storage 
(use group B-1) and all high hazard uses (use group A) , no part of an 
unplastered masonry fire wall shall be less than twelve (12) inches 
thick. 

907.2 REINFORCED CONCRETE: When constructed of reinforced concrete, 
the wall thickness shall be not less than six (6) inches for the upper- 
most twenty-five (25) feet or portion thereof measured down from the 
top of the wall; except that in buildings more than twenty-five (25) 
feet in height used for storage of moderate fire hazard (use group B-1) 
and high hazard (use group A) , no part of an unplastered reinforced 
concrete fire wall shall be less than eight (8) inches thick. 

907.3 FRAME DWELLINGS: In one- and two-family dwellings (use group 
L-3) , of frame (type 4) construction, party walls shall be not less 
than three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistive construction and shall 
extend through intersecting walls of frame construction to the out- 
side of all combustible wall and roof sheathing. 

907.4 OTHER FRAME BUILDINGS: In frame buildings, in use groups other 
than one- and two-family dwellings, all party and fire walls shall be 
not less than two (2) hour f ireresistive construction, but in no case 
less than the equivalent fire grading of the use group as specified 

in table 9-1. 

907.5 CUTTING FIRE WALLS: Chases or recesses shall not be cut into 
fire divisions so as to reduce their thickness below that required for 
all f ireresistance rating, except that no chases, recesses or pockets 
for insertion of structural members subsequent to erection shall be 
cut in walls of eight (8) inches or less in thickness. 



9-13 



907.6 HOLLOW FIRE WALLS: When combustible members frame into hol- 
low fire walls or fire walls of hollow units, all hollow spaces 
shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for 
a distance of not less than four (4) inches above, below and be- 
tween the structural members, with noncombustible materials approv- 
ed for firestopping in section 921. 

907.7 COMBUSTIBLE INSULATION: The building official may permit 
the application of cork or fiber board or other combustible insula- 
tion if laid up without intervening air spaces and cemented or 
attached directly to the face of the fire wall and protected on the 
exposed surface as provided in section 824. 

907.8 CONTINUITY OF FIRE WALLS AND FIRE DIVISIONS: Fire walls and 
other vertical fire divisions shall be continuous between foundation 
roof, or horizontal fire divisions and through any concealed space 
in floor or roof construction. Horizontal fire divisions shall be 
continuous between exterior walls and/or vertical fire divisions. 

907.81 When roof construction is combustible on both sides of a 
vertical fire division, the division shall extend through the roof 
construction to a height of at least four (4) inches above the high 
point at the roof framing. Decking shall tightly butt the fire di- 
vision. Above the decking of roofs that are flatter than twenty 
(20) degrees to the horizontal blocking shall be constructed to 
form cants on both sides of the fire division with slopes not steep- 
er than 1:4. Combustible decking shall not extend over the top of 
the fire division. 

907.82 Except as required in 907.83 below, when roof construction 
is noncombustible on one (1) or both sides of a vertical fire di- 
vision, the vertical fire division may terminate at the underside 
of the noncombustible roof construction provided the junction of 
the wall and roof construction is made smoke tight. 

907.83 When a vertical fire division is required by table 9-1 to 

have a f ireresistance rating of three (3) hours or greater, and the roof 
construction has a fireresistance rating of less than two (2) hours, the 
fire division shall extend above the roof construction to form a 
parapet at least three (3) feet high. 

907.84 Fire walls and fire divisions shall be so constructed that the 
removal or collapse of construction on one side will not endanger the 
support of construction on the other side. 

907.85 Fire walls and fire divisions shall be made smoke-tight at 
their junction with exterior walls. 

907.9 OFFSET FIRE WALLS: If fire walls are offset at intermediate 
floor levels in fire-protected skeleton frame construction, the off- 
set floor construction and the intermediate wall supports shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials with a fireresistance rating 
not less than that required for the fire wall. 

907.10 ONE AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS: The requirements for the 
means of separation of single-family dwellings or two-family dwell- 
ings are as follows: 

9-14 



a) TWO-FAMILY DWELLING: Superimposed dwelling units - when one 
dwelling unit of a two-family dwelling is located wholly or 
partly above the other dwelling unit, the two dwelling units 
shall be completely separated by fire division walls and floor- 
ceiling assemblies of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hour 

f ireresistive construction. 

b) TWO-FAMILY DWELLING: Side by side dwelling units - when ad- 
jacent dwelling units of a two-family dwelling are attached 

by a common wall , said wall shall be a fire division wall hav- 
ing a minimum of three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance rat- 
ing that shall serve to completely separate the dwelling units. 

c) MULTIPLE, SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLINGS: Side by side - when multi- 
ple, single-family dwellings (use group L-3) are attached by 

a common wall, said wall shall be a party wall, having a mini- 
mum three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance rating. Said wall 
shall extend from the foundation to the underside of the roof 
sheathing and to the inside of the exterior wall sheathing. 

d) MULTIPLE, TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS: Side by side - when multiple, 
two-family dwellings (use group L-3) are attached by a common 
wall, said wall shall be a party wall, having a minimum three- 
quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance rating. Said wall shall ex- 
tend from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheath- 
ing and to the inside of the exterior wall sheathing. 



SECTION 908.0 FIRE WALL OPENINGS 

Openings in fire walls shall not exceed the limits in size and area 
herein prescribed and the opening protectives shall conform to the 
provisions of sections 903, 904 and 917. 

908.1 SIZE OF OPENING: Except in sprinklered buildings, no open- 
ing through a fire wall shall exceed one hundred and twenty (120) 
square feet in area, and aggregate width of all openings at any 
floor level shall not exceed twenty-five (25) percent of the length 
of the wall . 

908.2 FIRST STORY EXCEPTIONS: In buildings of all types of con- 
struction, when the entire areas on both sides of a fire wall are 
protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system complying with 
article 12 , openings designed for the passage of trucks may be con- 
structed not more than two hundred and forty (240) square feet in 
area with a minimum distance of three (3) feet between adjoining 
openings. Such openings shall be protected with approved automatic 
opening protectives of three (3) hour fire resistance and provided 
with an approved water curtain for such openings in addition to all 
other requirements. 



9-15 



908.3 OPENING PROTECTIVES : Every opening in a fire wall shall be 
protected on both sides with an approved automatic protective as- 
sembly as herein required , or the approved labeled equivalent , ex- 
cept horizontal exit openings . 

Heat-actuated hold-open devices used on an automatic fire assembly 
providing three (3) hour f ireresistance rating shall be installed, 
one on each side of the wall at ceiling height where the ceiling is 
more than three (3) feet above the opening. 

Fire assemblies protecting openings required to have one and one- 
half (Ih) , one (1) or three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance shall 
be protected in a similar manner or by a single fusible link incor- 
porated in the closing device. 



SECTION 909.0 FIRE PARTITIONS 

909.1 CONSTRUCTION: Fire partitions required for the enclosure of 
exitways and areas of refuge shall be constructed of approved masonry, 
reinforced concrete or other approved noncombustible materials having 
the minimum f ireresistance prescribed by table 2-5; except that par- 
titions constructed of combustible materials to provide the required 

f ireresistance may be accepted for use in exitways of building of 
t3rpes 3 and 4 construction as regulated by table 2-5 and the provi- 
sions of section 618.9. 

909.2 BEARING PARTITIONS: When fire partitions are used as bearing 
walls, they shall comply with all the structural provisions of arti- 
cle 8, governing height and thickness. 

909.3 CONTINUITY: When fire partitions around vertical shafts are 
not continuous from floor to floor, the offset in the floor construc- 
tion shall be of construction with a f ireresistance rating not less 
than that of the partition construction, nor less than that of the 
fire grading defined in table 9-1 for the specific use group. 

909.4 OPENINGS. 

909.41 SIZE: No other openings shall be permitted in fire partitions 
except exitway doors, and the aggregate permissible width of such door- 
ways shall not exceed twenty-five (25) percent of the length of the 
wall , nor shall the maximum area of any individual opening exceed 
forty-eight (48) square feet. 

909.42 PROTECTIVES: All opening protectives in fire partitions in 
other than one- and two-family dwellings shall comply with the pro- 
visions of sections 903 and 918 for construction, except as provided 
in table 6-6 for buildings not more than three (3) stories in height. 

909.5 COMBUSTIBLE STAIR ENCLOSURES. 



9-16 



909.51 CONSTRUCTION: Stair enclosures constructed of approved com- 
bustible assemblies protected with component materials to afford the 
required f ireresistance ratings shall be continuous through combust- 
ible floor construction and shall provide an unbroken fire barrier 
in combination with protected floors, ceilings, and fire doors, sep- 
arating the exitways from the unprotected floors, ceilings and fire 
doors, separating the exitways from the unprotected areas of the 
building. Such enclosures shall be firestopped to comply with sec- 
tions 874.9 and 921. 

909.52 OPENINGS FOR LIGHTING: Openings for the purpose of provid- 
ing light in such enclosures may be protected with wired glass with 
single panes not more than three hundred and sixty (360) square inches 
in area and a total area in one story of not more than seven hundred 
and twenty (720) square inches. Such light panels shall comply with 
the provisions of section 919 and shall be contained in stationary 
sash and frames of steel or other approved noncombustible materials. 



SECTION 910.0 FIRERESISTIVE PARTITIONS 

910.1 CONSTRUCTION: All permanent partitions designated as fire- 
resistive for subdividing purposes other than providing required 
areas of refuge shall be constructed of noncombustible materials 
when designed for use in buildings and structures of fireproof or 
noncombustible (types 1 and 2) construction, except as provided in 
section 910.4. 

910.2 SUPPORTS: All f ireresistive partitions shall extend from the 
top of the fireresistive floor below to the f ireresistive ceiling 
above, and shall be securely attached thereto. They shall be sup- 
ported on fireproof ed steel or reinforced concrete construction; 
except that the supporting beams and girders of fireresistive parti- 
tions constructed of combustible materials shall be protected with 
component materials or assemblies to afford the required fireresis- 
tance of the partitions supported. All hollow vertical spaces shall 
be firestopped at every floor level as required in sections 874.0 
and 921. 

910.3 OPENINGS: Door openings shall not exceed one hundred and 
twenty (120) square feet in area and where required to be fire pro- 
tected, they shall comply with the provisions of sections 903.0 and 
917. 

910.4 EXCEPTIONS. 

910.41 NONFIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION: In buildings and structures of 
masonry enclosed (type 3) and frame (type 4) construction, protected 
wood studs or other combustible assemblies constructed with component 
materials to afford the required f ireresistance specified in table 
2-5 shall be approved for enclosures of exitways where permitted in 
table 6-6 and for all nonbearing partitions. 



9-17 



910.43 FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION: In all buildings and structures or 
other than institutional (use group H) and residential (use groups 
L-1 and L-2) of fireproof (type 1) or of protected noncombustible 
(type 2) constructions, partitions of a single thickness of wood or 
approved composite panels, and glass or other approved materials of 
similar combustible characteristics, may be used to subdivide rooms 
or spaces into offices, entries, or other similar compartments, pro- 
vided they do not establish a common corridor serving an occupant 
load of fifty (50) or more in areas occupied by a single tenant and 
not exceeding five thousand (5,000) square feet between f ireresistive 
or fire partitions, fire walls, and f ireresistive floors. Larger 
areas may be subdivided with f ireretardant wood or with materials 
of similar combustible characteristics when complying with section 
903.62 but not to exceed fifty (50) percent increase in area. 



SECTION 911.0 VERTICAL SHAFTS AND HOISTWAYS 

The provisions of this section shall apply to all vertical shaft 
enclosures, except as provided for stairway enclosures in section 
618, flue enclosures in section 1009, incinerator chutes in sections 
1014 and 1015 duct shafts in sections 1016 and 1017 , and pipe shafts 
in section 1115 . 

911.1 OPEN SHAFT ENCLOSURES: The enclosing wall of shafts that are 
open to the outer air at the top shall be constructed of materials 
specified in article 8 for exterior walls of buildings and structures 
of the required f ireresistance specified in table 2-5. 

911.2 COVERED SHAFT ENCLOSURES: The enclosing walls and the top of 
interior covered shafts shall be constructed of approved masonry, re- 
inforced concrete or other approved construction with a f ireresistance 
rating of not less than two (2) hours, except as provided in section 
911.3. 

911.3 SHAFTS IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: In one- and two-family dwell- 
ings of other than fireproof or noncombustible construction, shafts 
may be supported on and constructed of combustible materials or as- 
semblies having a fireresistance rating of not less than three-quarter 
(3/4) hours, and shall extend not less than three (3) feet above the 
roof with a ventilating skylight of noncombustible construction as 
specified in section 928. 

911.4 TOP ENCLOSURE. 

911.41 NOT EXTENDING TO ROOF: A shaft that does not extend into 
the top story of the building shall be enclosed with top construc- 
tion of the same strength and fireresistance as the floors of the 
building or structure in which it occurs, but in no case less than 
that of the fireresistance rating of the shaft enclosure. Such shafts 
shall be provided with noncombustible vents for the relief of smoke 
and gasses in the event of fire, with an area not less than ten (10) 
percent of the shaft area. 



9-18 



911.42 EXTENDING TO ROOF: All shafts that extend to the roof of 
the building shall be covered at the top with a thermostatically 
controlled skylight of not less than twenty-five (25) percent of 
the area of the shaftway, constructed in accordance with the re- 
quirements of section 928. The automatic operation of the sky- 
light may be controlled by fusible links designed to operate at a 
fixed temperature of not more than one hundred and sixty (160) de- 
grees F. or by electric or pneumatic operation under a rapid rise 
in temperature at a rate of fifteen (15) to twenty (20) degrees F. 
per minute or by other approved methods. 

911.43 ALTERNATE SHAFT VENTILATION: The skylight herein required 
may be replaced by a window of equivalent area in the side of the 
shaft, provided the sill of such window is not less than two (2) 
feet above the adjoining roof and is equipped with an automatic vent 
opening, does not face on an interior lot line or within ten (10) 
feet thereof, and is not located within twenty (20) feet of an open- 
ing in adjacent walls. 

911.5 BOTTOM ENCLOSURE: All shafts that do not extend to the bot- 
tom of the building or structure shall be enclosed at the lowest 
level with construction of the same strength and f ireresistance as 
the lowest floor through which it passes , but in no case with a 

f ireresistance rating less than that of the shaft enclosure. 

911.6 EXISTING SHAFTWAYS : In all existing shaftways of buildings 
of assembly (use groups F-1 , F-2 , F-3 and F-4) , institutional (use 
groups H-1 and H-2) and residential (use groups L-1 and L-2) classi- 
fications, which are not already enclosed as herein required, the 
building official shall direct such construction as he may deem 
necessary to insure the safety of the occupants, 

911.7 SHAFT OPENING: No openings other than necessary for the pur- 
pose of the shaftway shall be constructed in shaft enclosures; and 
all openings shall be protected with approved fire doors or fire 
shutters complying with the provisions of sections 917, 918, 919. 



SECTION 912.0 WALL LINTELS 

912.1 FIRE PROTECTION. Lintels over openings wider than four (4) 
feet in masonry walls, other than in walls of masonry veneer on 
wood frame structures, shall be fire protected as required by sec- 
tion 913 for structural members, when the full load over the open- 
ing is not relieved by a masonry arch of required strength. The 
members of an assembled metal lintel that support only outer face 
masonry that is securely bonded or anchored to backing, need not be 
fire protected as required for structural members supporting masonry. 



9-19 



912,2 STONE LINTELS: Except when otherwise approved by the build- 
ing official in controlled material procedure, the use of stone lin- 
tels on spans exceeding four (4) feet shall be prohibited unless 
supplemented by fireproofed structural members or masonry arches of 
the required strength to support the superimposed wall load. 



SECTION 913.0 BEAMS AND GIRDERS 

All beams and girders shall be protected with noncombustible ma- 
terials or assemblies of component materials to afford the fire-re- 
sistance specified in table 2-5 and as herein modified. 

913.1 PROTECTION OF BEAMS AND GIRDERS: Beams and girders that are 
required to be fire protected, and that support only one (1) floor 

or a roof, and/or a nonbearing wall not more than one (1) story high, 
shall be individually encased on all sides with materials having the 
required fireresistance rating; or shall be protected by a ceiling 
as specified in section 913.2 having the required fireresistance 
rating; or shall be protected by a combination of both a ceiling 
and individual encasement which, together, provide the required 
fireresistance rating. Beams and girders that are required to be 
fire protected, and that support more than one (1) floor or a 
nonbearing wall, more than one (1) story high, or a bearing wall, 
shall be individually encased on all sides for their entire length 
or height with materials having the required fireresistance rating. 
Similar individual encasement shall be provided for all structural 
elements supporting stairway enclosures. 

913.11 Ceilings that contribute to the required fireresistance 
rating of a floor or roof assembly shall be continuous between 
exterior walls, vertical fire divisions, or vertical partitions having 
at least the same fireresistance rating as the ceiling. 

913.2 CEILING FIXTURES: Ceilings required to have a fireresistance 
rating may be pierced to accommodate noncombustible electric outlet 
boxes or recessed lighting fixtures, if the aggregate area of such 
openings does not exceed sixteen (16) square inches in each ninety 
(90) square feet of ceiling area and the electrical outlet boxes or 
recessed lighting fixtures are constructed of steel at least .022 
inches thick and sealed tightly at the ceiling. Noncombustible 
pipes, ducts, and additional or larger electrical or other service 
facilities may pierce ceilings that are required to have a fireresistance 
rating only when the type of ceiling to be used has been tested with 
such types of facilities installed in place and the proportionate 

area of openings for such facilities to be installed in the ceiling 
does not exceed the proportionate area of such openings in the 
assembly tested, and provided no opening is larger than that in the 
assembly tested. Protection for such openings shall be the same as 
provided in the test. Duct openings installed in accordance with 
the foregoing shall be protected by fire dampers complying with the 
requirements of article 18. 

9-20 



913.3 FIRESTOPPING OF CEILING SPACES: Floor or roof assemblies re- 
quired to have a firesistance rating shall have any concealed spaces 
therein firestopped as outlined below: 

913.31 FIRESTOPPING OF NON-COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: The concealed 
space above f ireresistive ceilings shall be firestopped into areas 
not exceeding three thousand (3,000) square feet with materials list- 
ed in section 921.0 for the full height of the concealed space. Access 
to each such concealed space may be through one (1) or more openings 
not exceeding nine (9) square feet and protected by self -enclosing 
protectives having the fire protection rating required by table 2-5. 
Firestopping shall not be required where the structural members with- 
in the concealed space are individually protected with materials hav- 
ing the required f ireresistance rating, or where the ceiling is not 
an essential part of the f ireresistance assembly. Firestopping shall 
not be required where a concealed space is sprinklered in accordance 
with the construction requirements of article 12. Concealed spaces 
over boiler rooms and under roofs may be ventialated to the outer 
air. 

913.4 FIRESTOPPING OF WOOD JOIST CONSTRUCTION: Where the ceilings 
are suspended below wood joist floor construction, the space between 
the ceiling and the floor above shall be firestopped in areas of not 
more than one thousand (1000) square feet with materials meeting the 
requirements of section 921. 

913.5 WALL SUPPORTS: Structural members which support walls shall 
be protected in conformance with section 913.1 to afford not less 
than the required f ireresistance of the wall construction supported 
thereon. 

913.6 EXTERIOR EXPOSED BEAMS AND GIRDERS: Beams and girders exposed 
to the outdoors on building that do not exceed two (2) stories or 
thirty (30) feet in height, which are required by table 2-5 to have 

a f ireresistance rating not exceeding one (1) hour need not be pro- 
tected on any face of the member that has an exterior separation of 
thirty (30) feet or more, provided the outdoor area within the thirty 
(30) foot separation distance is not used for storage of materials, 
or for motor vehicle parking. 

913.7 BEAMS AND GIRDERS IN CAVITY WALLS: Where beams and girders 
occur within exterior cavity walls, portions of such structural mem- 
bers facing the exterior need not be individually fire protected if 
the outer wythe of the cavity wall provides the required fireresis- 
tance rating and is located not more than two and one-half (Ih.) 
inches from such structural members, and if all surfaces of the 
structural members are fire protected from the interior of the build- 
ing by materials having the required f ireresistance rating. 

913.8 EMBEDMENTS AND ENCLOSURES: Pipes, wires, conduits, ducts, 
or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the required 
fire protection of a structural member that is required to be in- 
dividually encased; except that pipes, wires, and conduits may be 



9-21 



installed in the space between the required fire protection and the 
structural member protected, provided that where such facilities 
pierce the required fire protection, the area of the penetrations 
does not exceed two (2) percent of the area of the fire protection, 
on any one (1) face, the penetrations are closed off with close- 
fitting metal escutheons or plates and the concealed space shall be 
fire-stopped at each story in accordance with the provisions of sec- 
tion 913.3. 

9.3.9 IMPACT PROTECTION: Where the fire protective covering of a 
structural member is subject to impact damage from moving vehicles, 
the handling of merchandise, or other activity, the fire protective 
covering shall be protected by corner guards or by a substantial 
jacket of metal or other noncombustible material to a height adequate 
to provide full protection. Where applicable, such protection shall 
be designed in accordance with the requirements of section 710. 



SECTION 914.0 COLUMNS 

All steel, iron and other approved metal colxnnns and reinforcement 
in concrete columns shall be protected with noncombustible materials 
or assemblies of component materials to afford the fireresistance 
specified in table 2-5 and as herein modified. Columns that are re- 
quired to be fire protected, and that support only one floor or a 
roof, and/or a non-bearing wall not more than one (1) story high, 
shall be individually encased on all sides with materials having the 
required fireresistance rating; or shall be protected by a ceiling 
as specified in section 913.2 having the required fireresistance 
rating; or shall be protected by a combination of both a ceiling and 
individual encasement which, together, provide the required firere- 
sistance rating. Columns that are required to be fire protected, 
and that support more than one (1) floor or support a bearing wall 
or non-bearing wall more than one (1) story high, shall be individually 
encased on all sides for their entire length or height with materials 
having the required fireresistance rating; (or shall be protected 
by a combination of both a ceiling and individual encasement which, 
together, provide the required fireresistance rating.) 

914.1 EXTERIOR COLUMNS: Columns located in exterior walls or along 
the outer lines of a building or structure shall be fireprotected 

as required by this section and shall be protected agains corrosion 
by cement parging, waterproofing, or other approved methods comply- 
ing with section 871. 

914.2 COLUMNS IN CAVITY WALLS: Where columns occur within exterior 
cavity walls, portions of such structural members facing the exterior 
need not be individually fire protected if the outer wythe of the 
cavity wall provides the required fireresistance rating and is located 
not more than two and one half (2h) inches from such structural members, 
and if all surfaces of the structural members are fire protected from 
the interior of the building by materials having the required fire- 
resistance rating. 

9-22 



914.3 EMBEDDED MECHANICAL FACILITIES: Plumbing and heating pipes 
and vent ducts and similar service equipment shall be installed out- 
side of the required protective column covering; except that plumb- 
ing pipes, wires, conduits and cables may be embedded in the required 
fireproof protection when they occupy not more than one-quarter (h) 
of the fireproofed surface of a rectangular column face nor more 
than one-quarter (M) of the perimeter of a round column. 

914.4 MECHANICAL PROTECTION: Where the fire protective covering of 
a structural member is subject to impact damage from moving vehicles, 
the handling of merchandise, or other activity, the fire protective 
covering shall be protected by corner guards or by a substantial 
jacket of metal or other noncombustible material, to a height adequate 
to provide full protection. Where applicable, such protection shall 
be designed in accordance with the requirements of section 710. 

914.5 EXTERIOR EXPOSED COLUMNS: Columns exposed to the outdoors on 
buildings that do not exceed two (2) stories or thirty (30) feet in 
height, which are required by table 2-5 to have a f ireresistance rat- 
ing not exceeding one (1) hour need not be protected on any face of 
the member that has an exterior separation of thirty (30) feet or 
more, provided the outdoor area within the thirty (30) foot separa- 
tion distance is not used for storage of materials, or for motor 
vehicle parking. The interior faces of exterior columns shall be 
protected and insulated as otherwise required. 

914.6 ANCHORS, BANDS AND TIES. 

914.61 CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT: Concrete fire protection on struc- 
tural metal columns shall be reinforced and anchored by wire mesh, 
metal caging, metal clips or spirally wound wire of approved types. 
Wire fabric shall be not less than No. 12 U.S. gage, four (4) by 
four (4) inch mesh or its equivalent; spirally wound wire shall be 
not less than No. 10 U.S. gage with not over four (4) inch pitch or 
equivalent heavier wire at a maximum pitch of eight (8) inches. 

914.62 GYPSUM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT: Poured-in-place gypsum fire 
protection shall be reinforced and anchored by wire fabric of not 
less than No. 16 U.S. gage, two (2) by two (2) inch mesh or No. 14 
U.S. gage, four (4) by four (4) inch mesh. 

914.63 MASONRY UNIT TIES: Block and tile fireproof ing units shall 
be securely anchored or bounded by wall ties, metal mesh or metal 
u-clips in the horizontal joints, or by outside tie wires not less 
than No. 16 U.S. gage with at least one (1) tie around every block 
course; or shall consist of special masonry units designed to furnish 
positive anchorage to the strucural member and to each other. 

914.64 EXPOSED TIES: When outside tie wires are used, they shall be 
protected by not less than one-half (^s) inch of cement mortar, or 
gypsum plaster or the equivalent f ireresistive covering. 



9-23 



914.7 REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS: The thickness of protection re- 
quired outside of reinforcing steel in concrete columns shall be pro- 
portioned by test to meet the fireresistive requirements of table 2- 
5 base on the fireresistive classification of concrete aggregates. 



SECTION 915.0 TRUSSES 

All trusses shall be protected with noncombustible materials or 
assemblies of component materials to afford the f ireresistance speci- 
fied in Table 2-5 and as herein modified. 

915.1 PROTECTION OF TRUSSES: Trusses that are required to be fire 
protected, and that support only one floor or a roof, and/or a non- 
bearing wall not more than one (1) story high, shall be individually 
encased on all sides with materials having the required f ireresistance 
rating; or shall be protected by a ceiling as specified in section 

913.2 having the required f ireresistance rating; or shall be pro- 
tected by a combination of both a ceiling and individual encasement 
which, together, provide the required f ireresistance rating. Trusses 
that are required to be fire protected, and that support more than 
one story high, shall be individually encased on all sides for their 
entire length or height with materials having the required f ireresis- 
tance rating. With the use of a continuous ceiling of the specified 
f ireresistance rating, the enclosed truss space shall have an access 
doorway with maximum dimensions of three (3) by three (3) feet, 
equipped with an opening protective of the same f ireresistance rat- 
ing as the required truss protection. When the trusses or the roof 
decking are permitted to be constructed of combustible materials, 

the space above the required fireresistive ceiling shall be sub- 
divided into maximum areas of three thousand (3,000) square feet as 
required for attic spaces in section 316. 

915.2 ONE STORY BUILDING: In all one (1) story buildings required 
to be of fireresistive construction, no protection shall be required 
for the members of roof trusses, purlins or roof beams when the 
height to the lowest chord is twenty (20) feet or more from the floor. 

915.3 ROOFS LESS THAN 20 FEET HIGH: In multi-story buildings of 
tjrpes of construction in which fire protected coverings of the struc- 
tural framework are required by table 2-5 and the provisions of the 
Basic Code, the fire protection of individual members of the roof 
truss may be omitted when the clear height of the lower chord of the 
truss is more than fifteen (15) and less than twenty (20) feet above 
the floor, gallery or balcony immediately below and a three-quarter 
(3/4) hour continuous ceiling is installed. 

915.4 ROOFS 20 FEET OR HIGHER: When every part of the structural 
framework is twenty (20) feet or more above the floor immediately 
below, all fire protection of the structural members may be omitted, 
including the protection of roof beams and purlins. 



9-24 



915.5 ROOF SLABS AND ARCHES: Where the omission of fire protection 
from roof trusses and purlins is permitted, the horizontal or sloping 
roofs in fireproof (type 1) and noncombustible (type 2) constructions, 
immediately above such trusses, shall be constructed of noncombustible 
materials of the required strength without a specified f ireresistance 
rating, or of mill type construction in buildings not over five (5) 
stories or sixty-five (65) feet in height. 



SECTION 916.0 EXTERIOR OPENING PROTECTIVES 

Where specified herein, the exterior openings of all buildings and 
structures more than three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height, 
other than churches (use group F-4), residential buildings (use groups 
L-2 and L-3) and buildings of frame (type 4) construction, shall have 
approved fire windows, shutters, curtains, doors or other approved 
opening protectives meeting the requirements of the Basic Code and the 
provisions of article 4 for special uses and occupancies. 

916.1 HORIZONTAL EXPOSURE: Approved protectives shall be provided in 
every opening facing a street thirty (30) feet or less in width, or 
within thirty (30) feet horizontally in a direct line not in the same 
plane of any unprotected noncombustible (type 2-C) , unprotected frame 
(type 4-B) structure, or within thirty (30) feet horizontally of any 
opening in another building of any type of construction. 

916.2 VERTICAL EXPOSURE: Approved protectives shall be provided in 
every opening which is less than fifty (50) feet vertically above the 
roof of an adjoining structure within a horizontal distance of thirty 
(30) feet of the wall in which the opening is located, unless such roof 
construction affords a f ireresistance of not less than one and one-half 
(1%) hours. 

916.3 INTERIOR LOT LINE EXPOSURE: Opening protectives shall be pro- 
vided in every permissible wall opening in buildings of high hazard (use 
group A) within eleven (11) feet of an interior lot line; in buildings 
of moderate hazard (use group B-1) within six (6) feet of such lot 
lines; and in wall openings of frame buildings which are erected within 
six (6) feet of interior lot lines, except for store fronts and window 
and door openings in dwellings of use group L-2 and L-3. 

916.4 FIRST STORY OPENINGS: The required f ireresistive opening pro- 
tectives may be omitted in first story openings facing on a street or 
other public space not less than thirty (30) feet wide, when not ex- 
tending more than twenty-five (25) feet above grade. 

916.5 NON-AUTOMATIC PROTECTIVES: Required protective assemblies in 
exterior openings, unless self-closing or provided with approved auto- 
matic closing devices, operative from either side, shall be closed at 
the end of business hours and at all times when not required for light 
and ventilation under the provisions of article 5. 

916.6 COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS: Exterior windows and doors, including 
their frames and glazing, that are not required by this Code to have a 
fire-protection rating, may be of combustible materials. 

9-25 



SECTION 917.0 FIRE DOORS 

917.1 FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLIES: Approved fire door assemblies as defined 
in this Code shall be constructed of any material or assembly of com- 
ponent materials which meet the test requirements of section 903 and 904 
and the f ireresistance rating herein required. 

FIRERESISTANCE 
Location Rating in Hours 

Fire walls and fire divisions of 3 or more 

hour construction 3 

Fire walls and fire divisions of 2 hour 

construction 1-1/2 

Shaft enclosures and elevator hoistways of 

2 hour construction 1-1/2 

Stairway and exitway enclosures of 1 hour or 

less except fire towers and grade passageways 3/4 

Doors in exitways of residential and business use building not more 
than three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height with an occupancy 
load of not more than forty (40) below or seventy (70) above grade and 
doors from hotel rooms (occupancy group L-1) and from hospital rooms 
(occupancy group H-2), to corridors providing access to an exitway may 
be of noncombustible construction or of one and three-quarter (13/4) 
inch bonded solid-core wood doors. 

Doors in Schoohouse Use Group F-3 and F-4 occupancy except as herein 
otherwise provided for may be of one and three-quarter (1-3/4) inch 
solid-core wood doors. PljTwood face veneers not more than one twenty- 
eighth (1/28) inch thick shall be permitted on such doors. 

917.2 LABELED PROTECTIVE ASSEMBLIES: Labeled protective assemblies 
meeting the requirements of section 903.53 and 903.55, and the reference 
standards of this article, including shop inspection, shall be approved 
for use in the following typical and special situations: 

917.21 TYPICAL SITUATIONS: 

- CLASS A DOORS: fire wall openings in accordance with section 908. 

- CLASS B DOORS: vertical shafts and openings in fire partitions 
in accordance with sections 909. and 911. 

- CLASS C DOORS: openings in corridor, room and f ireresistive par 
titions in accordance with section 910. 

In all schoolhouse uses other than F-3 and F-4, openings in 
corridors, rooms and f ireresistive partitions shall conform to the 
requirements of section 910. 

- CLASS D DOORS AND WINDOWS: openings in exterior walls in exposing 
and exposed buildings of high hazard use (use group A) in accor- 
dance with article 4 and along exterior stairways in accordance 
with section 621. 

- CLASS E DOORS AND WINDOWS: openings in exterior walls and along 
fire escapes except where class D protectives are requiredzin 
accordance with section 624. 

9-26 



917.22 SPECIAL SITUATIONS: Approved labeled opening protective as- 
semblies shall be accepted as complying with the required time-tem- 
perature performance ratings specified in the Basic Code including 
the following special situations: 

- CLASS A DOORS: high pressure boiler room walls in accordance 
with sections 618 and 1113. 

Volatile flammables, film, pyroxylin products and fur storage 
vaults in accordance with sections 403, 406, and 407. 

Grinding and grain processing rooms in accordance with section 409. 

Paint and flammable storage rooms in accordance with section 410. 

Dry cleaning rooms of high and moderate hazard in accordance 
with section 411. 

Proscenium walls of theatres in accordance with section 416. 

Transformer room walls in accordance with Massachusetts Elec- 
trical Code. 

- CLASS B DOORS: motion picture studios in accordance with sec- 
tion 407. 

Dressing rooms in accordance with section 416. 
Show rooms in public garages in accordance with section 413. 
Theatre exits and property rooms in accordance with section 416. 
Fire and smokeproof towers in accordance with section 620. 
Horizontal exits in accordance with sections 616 and 908. 

- CLASS C DOORS: projection and trial exhibition rooms in accor- 
dance with section 407. 

Paint spray rooms in accordance with section 410. 

Service stations and repair shops in accordance with sections 414 
and 415. 

Kitchen and service pantries in places of assembly in accor- 
dance with section 417. 

Corridor rooms and all fireresistive partitions in accordance 
with section 910. 

- CLASS D DOORS: attached garages in accordance with sections 412 
and 917. Switchboard rooms where required in the Basic Code. 

917.3 MULTIPLE DOORS. 

917.31 FIRE WALLS: Two (2) doors of one and one-half (1%) hour 
fireresistance each, installed on opposite sides of the same opening, 
shall be deemed equivalent in fireresistance to one three (3) hour 
door. 

917.32 FIRE PARTITIONS: Two (2) doors of three-quarter (3/4) hour 
fireresistance each, installed on opposite sides of same opening 
shall be deemed equivalent in fireresistance to a one and one-half 
(l^s) hour fire door. 



9-27 



917.4 GLASS PANELS: Wire glass panels shall be permitted in fire 
doors within the limitations of section 919. 

917.5 ALTERNATE CLOSING DEVICES: Except as may be otherwise pro- 
vided for openings in fire and fire division walls, all fire doors 
shall be self-closing and shall be closed during occupancy of the 
building or part thereof; except that the building official may 
accept the use of rate of rise heat actuated devices meeting the re- 
quirements of the approved rules on doors that are normally required 
to be open for ventilation or other specified purposes when the safety 
of the occupants is not endangered thereby. 



SECTION 918.0 FIRE WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS 

918.1 FIRERESISTANCE RATING: Approved assemblies of fire window 
and fire shutters shall meet the test requirements of sections 903 
and 904, or shall be approved labeled assemblies meeting the require- 
ments of section 903.55. 

Steel window frame assemblies of one-eights (1/8) inch minimum 
solid section or of not less than No. 18 U.S. gage formed sheet 
steel members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter- 
locking or welding and having provision for glazing with one-quarter 
(1/4) inch wired glass as required in section 919.0, when securely 
installed in the building construction and glazed with one-quarter 
(1/4) inch wired glass, shall be deemed to meet the requirements for 
a three-quarter (3/4) hour fire window assembly. 

918.2 WINDOW MULLIONS: All metal mullions which exceed a nominal 
height of twelve (12) feet shall be protected with insulating ma- 
terials to afford the same f ireresistance as required for the wall 
construction in which the protective is located. 

918.3 SWINGING FIRE SHUTTERS: When fire shutters of the swinging 
type are used in exterior openings , not less than one (1) row in 
every three (3) vertical rows shall be arranged to be readily opened 
from the outside and shall be identified by distinguishing marks or 
letters not less than six (6) inches high. 

918.4 ROLLING FIRE SHUTTERS: When fire shutters of the rolling type 
are used, they shall be of approved counterbalanced construction that 
can be readily opened from the outside. 

918.5 VERTICAL SEPARATION OF WINDOWS. 

918.51 WHERE REQUIRED: In all buildings and structures designed 
for storage, mercantile, industrial and business uses (use groups A, 
B, C, D and E) , exceeding three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in 
height, openings located vertically above one another in exterior 
walls which are required to have a f ireresistance rating of more 

9-28 



than three-quarter (3/4) hours shall be separated by apron or span- 
drel walls not less than three (3) feet in height extending between 
the top of any opening and the bottom of the opening next above. 

918.52 FIRERESISTANCE RATING: The apron or spandrel walls shall 
be constructed with the same fireresistance required for the ex- 
terior wall in which located as specified in table 2-5, except that 
when such required rating exceeds three-quarter (3/4) hours, approved 
wired glass construction in fixed noncombustible sash and frames not 
exceeding one-third (1/3) of the area of such apron or spandrel may 
be located therein, and except further that in exterior nonbearing 
enclosure walls which are not required to be of more than three-quarter 
(3/4) hour fireresistance, the provisions of this section in respect 
to apron or spandrel walls shall not apply. 



SECTION 919.0 WIRED GLASS 

Wired glass in approved opening protective assemblies shall be not 
less than one-quarter (1/4) inch thick and shall be limited in area 
and location as herein required. 

919.1 FIRE WALL PROTECTIVES: Wired glass in fire doors located in 
fire walls shall be prohibited, except when serving as horizontal 
exits, the self-closing swinging door may be provided with a vision 
panel of not more than one hundred (100) square inches with no dimen- 
sion exceeding twelve (12) inches. 

919.2 FIRE PARTITION PROTECTIVES: Wired glass vision panels may be 
used in fire doors of one and one-half (1%) hour fireresistance rat- 
ing intended for use in fire partitions; but in no case shall the 
glass panels be more than one hundred (100) square inches in area 
with no dimension exceeding twelve (12) inches. 

919.3 FIRERESISTIVE PARTITION PROTECTIVES: Wired glass panels in 
three-quarter (3/4) hour fire doors shall not exceed a total exposed 
area of one thousand two hundred and ninety-six (1296) square inches; 
except as provided in section 917.32. 

919.4 WIRED GLASS IN LABELED DOORS AND WINDOWS: One-quarter (1/4) 
inch wired glass may be used in approved labeled opening protectives 
with the following maximum sizes: 

LIMITING SIZE OF WIRED GLASS PANELS 



in 

Class A door per opening 

Class B door per opening 

Class C door per light 

Class D door per light 

Class E door per light 

Class E window per light 

Class F window per light 



Area 


Height 


Width 


square inches 


in inches 


in inches 











100 


12 


12 


1296 


.... 


• • • • 











720 


54 


44 


720 


54 


54 


2916 


54 


54 



9-29 



919.5 EXITWAY PROTECTIVES: Unless specifically required in article 
4 to be solid in such locations where unusually hazardous conditions 
prevail, fire doors in elevator and stairway shaft enclosures may be 
equipped with vision panels which shall be so located as to furnish 
clear vision of the passageway or appraoch to the elevator or stair- 
way. Such vision panels shall not exceed the size limitations spec- 
ified for class B doors. 



SECTION 920.0 FIRERESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR PLASTER 

920.1 THICKNESS OF PLASTER: The required thickness of f ireresistive 
plaster protection shall be determined by the prescribed fire tests 
for the specified use and type of construction and in accordance 
with the provisions of section 820 for interior plastering and sec- 
tion 821 for exterior plastering. The thickness in all cases shall 
be measured from the face of the plaster base when applied to fiber 
board, wood, or gypsum lath and from the back of metal lath. 

920.2 PLASTER EQUIVALENTS: For f ireresistive purposes, one-half 
(h) inch of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed equivalent to 
three-quarter (3/4) inches of one (1) to three (3) sanded gypsum 
or one (1) inch Portland cement plaster. 

920.3 NONCOMBUSTIBLE FURRING: In fireproof (type 1) and noncom- 
bustible (type 2) construction, plaster shall be applied directly 

on masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and furring. 

920.4 DOUBLE REINFORCEMENT: Except in solid plaster partitions, or 
when otherwise determined by the prescribed fire tests, plaster pro- 
tections more than one (1) inch in thickness shall be reinforced 
with an additional layer of approved lath imbedded at least three 
quarter (3/4) inch from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

920.5 PLASTER ALTERNATES FOR CONCRETE: In reinforced concrete con- 
struction, gypsum or Portland cement plaster may be substituted for 
one-half (%) inch of the required poured concrete protection, except 
that a minimum thickness of three-eighth (3/8) inches of poured con- 
crete shall be provided in all reinforced concrete floors and one 
(1) inch in reinforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster 
finish and the concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with 
section 821.6. 



SECTION 921.0 FIRESTOPPING 

921.1 WHERE REQUIRED: Firestopping shall be designed and construc- 
ted to close all concealed draft openings and to form effectual fire 
barriers against the spread of fire between stories of every building 
and in all open structural spaces therein, including the following 
locations: for the subdivision of attic spaces in section 316.0, for 
combustible wall, partition and floor framing in section 874.0 for 
ceiling spaces in section 913 ; for open spaces behind acoustical and 

9-30 



other finishes in section 923; for floor sleeper spaces in section 
924; for pipe, duct and flue openings in section 1117 and for fire 
dampers and curtains in section 1810. 

921.2 FIRESTOPPING MATERIALS: All firestopping shall consist of 
noncombustible materials including asbestos, brick, terra cotta, 
concrete, fibrous glass, gypsum, mineral wool, rock wool, steel, 
iron, metal lath and cement or gypsum plaster, formed steel of not 
less than No. 20 U.S. gage, or other approved noncombustible mater- 
ials, securely fastened in place; except that firestops of two (2) 
thicknesses of one (1) inch lumber with broken lap joints or of two 
(2) inch lumber installed with tight joints shall be permitted in 
open spaces of wood framing. 

921.3 INSPECTION OF FIRESTOPPING: No firestopping shall be concealed 
or covered from view until inspected and approved by the building 
official. 



SECTION 922.0 INTERIOR FINISH AND TRIM 

922.1 FLOORS AND FLOOR COVERINGS: Finish floors and floor coverings 
shall be exempt from the requirements of this section provided , how- 
ever, that in any case where the building official finds a floor sur- 
face of unusual hazard the floor surface shall be considered a part 
of the interior finish for the purpose of this code. 

TABLE 9-3 - INTERIOR FINISH REQUIREMENTS 







Required 


Corridors 








Vert 


ical 


Providing 


Rooms or 






Ex it ways and 


Ex it way 


Enclosed 




Use Groups 


Passageways 


Access 


Spaces (a) 


A 


High Hazard 




I 


II 


III 


B-1 


Storage-Moderate Ha; 


jard 


I 


II 


III 


B-2 


Storage-Low Hazard 




I 


II 


III 


C 


Mercantile Walls 












Ceilings 




I 


II 


11(e) 


D 


Industrial 




I 


II 


III 


E 


Business 




I 


II 


III 


F-1 


Assembly- Theatres 




I 


I 


11(b) 


F-2 


Assembly-Night Clubi 


3 


I 


I 


11(b) 


F-3 


Assembly-Halls , Termi- 










nals, Restaurants 




I 


I, 1(e) 


11(b) 


F-4 


Assembly-Churches , 












Schools 




1 


I 


11(b) 


H-1 


Institutional-Restrained 


I 


I 


1(c) 


H-2 


Institutional-Inca- 












pacitated 




I 


II 


1(c) 


L-1 


Residential-Hotels 




I 


II 


III 


L-2 


Residential-Multi- 












family Dwellings 




I 


II 


III 


L-3 


Residential-1 and 2- 


- 










Family Dwellings 




IV(f) 


IV(f) 


IV 



9-31 



NOTE a. - Requirements for rooms or enclosed spaces are based upon 
spaces enclosed in partitions of the building or structure, and where 
fireresistance is required for the structural elements the enclosing 
partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions 
which do not comply with this shall not be considered as enclosing 
spaces and the rooms or spaces on both sides thereof shall be count- 
ed as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms or 
enclosed spaces, the specific use or occupancy thereof shall be the 
governing factor, regardless of the occupancy group classification 
of the building or structure. When approved full sprinkler protec- 
tion is provided, the interior finish of class II or III materials 
may be used in place of class I or II materials respectively, where 
required in the table, except in exitways. 

NOTE b. - Class III interior finish materials may be used in places 
of assembly with a capacity of 300 persons or less except for use 
group F-6. 

NOTE c. - Class III interior finish materials may be used in admin- 
istrative areas. Class II interior finish materials may be used in 
individual rooms of not over 4 persons capacity. Provisions in Note 
"a" allowing a change in interior finish classes when sprinkler pro- 
tection shall not apply. 

NOTE d. - Class III interior finish materials may be used for wain- 
scoting of paneling for not more than one thousand (1000) square feet 
of applied surface area in the grade lobby when applied directly to 
a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombus- 
tible base and fire-stopped as required by section 923. 

NOTE e. - Class III interior finish materials may be used in mer- 
cantile occupancies of 3,000 square feet or less gross area, used for 
sales purposes on the street floor only. (balcony permitted) . 

NOTE f . - Class IV finish having a flame spread rating not greater 
than five hundred (500) is permitted in one- and two-family dwellings, 
except that material of no greater flame spread than class III finish 
shall be used in exitways from the upper story of a two-family dwelling. 

922.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS: 

a) The classification of interior finish materials specified in 
section 922.2 (b) shall be that of the basic material used, 
without regard to subsequently applied paint or wallpaper. 
However, the building official shall revise the classifica- 
tion of the basic material when such finishes , in his opinion 
are of such characteristics or thickness or so applied as to 
affect materially the flame spread characteristics. This re- 
vised classification shall be that corresponding to the rating 
of the combination of the basic material together with the ap- 
plied finish. 



9-32 



b) Interior finish materials shall be grouped in classes accord- 
ing to their flame spread and related characteristics as given 
in table 9-2. 

c) Smoke: Notwithstanding the flame spread classification of sec- 
tions 922.2 (a) and 922.2 (b) , any material shown by test to have 
a life hazard greater than that indicated by the flame spread 
classification owing to the amount of character of smoke gen- 
erated, shall be included in the group appropriate to this ac- 
tual hazard as determined by the enforcing authority. 

d) Fire Retardant Paints: (1) In existing buildings, the required 
flame spread classification of interior surfaces may be secured 
by applying approved fire retardant paints of solutions to 
existing interior surfaces having a higher flame spread rating 
than permitted. "Approved" shall mean a paint or solution 
tested by Underwriters' Laboratories in accordance with ASTM 
E-84-61 (NFPA No. 255 dated May, 1961) and rated with flame 
spread classifications in accordance with the requirements set 
forth, and applied in accordance with manufacturer's specifi- 
cations to achieve these ratings. (2) Fire retardant paints 

or solutions shall be renewed at such intervals as necessary 
to maintain the necessary fire retardant properties. Durability 
and serviceability of paint shall meet the washability and 
leeching standards established by Federal Specification (D.O.D.) 
TT-P-0026b dated August 24, 1961. 

e) Trim and Other Incidental Finish: Interior finish not in ex- 
cess of ten (10) percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling 
areas of any room or space may be Class III materials in oc- 
cupancies where interior finish of lower flame spread rating 
is required. 

f) In mill type construction, heavy timber structural members 
shall be exempt and no treatment of such heavy timbers mem- 
bers will be permitted that would increase the flame rating 
of the natural untreated timber. 

g) Interior Finish and Trim Requirements by Use Occupancy: In- 
terior finish material shall be used in accordance with require- 
ments for individual classes of occupancy specified in sections 
202 thru 213. Wherever the use of any class of interior finish 
is specified, the use of a higher class shall be permitted; e.g. 
where Class II is specified. Class I may be used. 

h) Automatic Sprinklers: Where a complete standard system of auto- 
matic sprinklers is installed, interior finish with flame spread 
rating one class lower than that specified in table 9-2 may be 
used; e.g. where Class II is normally specified, an interior 
finish with flame spread rating not over Class III may be used. 

9-33 



prescribed for the various occupancy groups listed in Table 9-3 
when tested in accordance with the requirements of Section 904. 

922.4 INTERIOR TRIM: Baseboards, chair rails, mouldings, trim 
around openings and other interior trim not more than twelve (12) 
inches in width, may be of Class I, II or III materials except trim 
around fire windows and fire doors shall comply with the requirements 
of section 917 and section 918 and except that only Class I or II 
materials shall be used for interior trim where interior finish is 
restricted to Class I material. 

Class IV trim having a flamespread rating not greater than five 
hundred (500) shall be allowed for trim only where Class IV material 
is permitted for interior finish. 



SECTION 923.0 APPLICATION OF INTERIOR FINISH 

Where interior finish is regulated by the requirements of the Basic 
Code, interior finish materials shall be applied or otherwise fastened 
in such a manner that they will not readily become detached when sub- 
jected to room temperatures of two hundred (200) degrees F. or less 
for thirty (30) minutes, or otherwise become loose through changes 
in the setting medium from the effects of time or conditions of oc- 
cupancy . 

923.1 APPLICATION TO STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS: Interior finish materials 
applied to walls, ceilings or structural elements of a building or 
structure which are required to be f ireresistive or to be constructed 

of noncombustible component materials, shall be applied directly against 
the exposed surface of such structural elements, or to furring strips 
attached to such surfaces with all concealed spaces created thereby 
firestopped where in excess of ten (10) square feet in area or eight 
(8) feet in any dimension. 

923.2 FURRED CONSTRUCTION: Where walls, ceilings or other struc- 
tural elements are required to be f ireresistive or to be constructed 
of noncombustible component materials and interior finish is set out 
or dropped distances greater than one and three-quarter (1 3/4) Inches 
from the surface of such elements, only material of which both faces 
qualify as Class I shall be used, unless the finish material Is pro- 
tected on both sides by automatic sprinklers (see note (a) to Table 
9-3) or is attached to a noncombustible backing complying with sec- 
tion 923.5 or to furring strips applied directly to such backing as 
provided in section 923.1. 

923.3 HEAVY TIMBER CONSTRUCTION: Interior finish materials may be 
applied directly to the wood members and decking of heavy timber 
(type 3A) construction, where permitted, or to furring strips applied 
to such members or wood decking as provided in section 923.1. 

923.4 CLASS II AND III MATERIAL: Interior finish materials, other 
than Class I material, which are less than one-quarter (1/4) inch 
in thickness shall be applied directly against a noncombustible 
backing unless the tests under which such material has been 

9-34 



classified were made with the materials suspended from the non- 
combustible backing. 

923.5 NONCOMBUSTIBLE BACKING: Noncombustible backing for interior 
finish materials shall be a continuous surface with permanently 
tight joints, equal in area to the area of the finish, and extending 
completely behind such finish in all directions; and may be of any 
materials meeting the requirements of the Basic Code for noncom- 
bustible classification of material under section 903.61 or of fire- 
retardant treated wood. When the noncombustible backing does not 
constitute an integral part of the structural elements or system, 
it shall be attached directly to the structural elements or to furring 
strips as required for the application of finish according to section 
923.1, or may be suspended from the structural members at any distance 
provided concealed spaces created thereby shall be firestopped in 
accordance with the applicable requirements of the Basic Code. 
Where Class III interior finish is applied to a continuous noncom- 
bustible backing beneath wood joist construction, the allowable area 
for firestopping required in section 913.4 may be increased to three 
thousand (3,000) square feet. 

SECTION 924.0 COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS PERMITTED IN FLOOR CONSTRUCTION 
OF TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 BUILDINGS 

Except as provided in section 618.0 for stairs and section 
for theatres and similar places of public assembly (Use Groups F-1 
and F-2) , the use of combustible materials in or on floors of type 1 
and type 2 buildings shall be herein specified. 

924.1 SLEEPERS, BUCKS AND GROUNDS: Floor sleepers, bucks, nailing 
blocks and ground may be constructed of combustible materials, pro- 
vided the space between the f ireresistive floor construction and 
the flooring is solidly filled with noncombustible materials; or 
the space under the flooring shall be firestopped in areas of not 
more than one hundred (100) square feet, provided no such open spaces 
shall extend under or through permanent partitions or walls. 

924.2 FLOORING ON SLEEPERS: Wood finish floorings may be attached 
directly to the embedded or firestopped wood sleepers. 

924.3 FLOORING ON FIRERESISTIVE ARCHES: Wood finish flooring, and 
wearing surfaces of other approved materials including cork, rubber 
composition, linoleum, asphalt and composition tile and other materials 
of similar combustible characteristics one-half (1/2) inch or less 
thick shall be permitted when cemented directly to the top surface 

of approved f ireresistive construction or cemented directly to a 
subfloor of wood backed up solidly with noncombustible materials. 
Combustible insulating boards not more than one-half (1/2) inch 
thick may be used for sound deadening or heat insulating when attached 
directly to a noncombustible floor assembly or to wood subflooring 
which is backed up solidly with f ireresistive construction and 
covered with approved finish flooring. 

9-35 



SECTION 925.0 DECORATIVE MATERIAL RESTRICTIONS 

In places of public assembly, all draperies, hangings and other 
decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall be non- 
combustible or flameresistant meeting the requirements of section 
904 as herein specified: 

925.1 NONCOMBUSTIBLE: The permissible amount of noncombustible 
decorative hangings shall not be limited. 

925.2 FLAMERESISTANT: The permissible amount of flameresistant 
decorative hangings shall not exceed ten (10) percent of the total 
wall and ceiling area. 



SECTION 926.0 EXTERIOR TRIM RESTRICTIONS 

926.1 GUTTERS AND LEADERS: All gutters and leaders hereafter 
placed on buildings and structures other than frame (tjrpe 4) build- 
ings, one and two-family dwellings and private garages and similar 
accessory buildings shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. 

926.2 ARCHITECTURAL TRIM. 

926.21 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS: All architectural trim, such as 
cornices and other exterior architectural elements, attached to the 
exterior walls of buildings of types 1 and 2 construction shall be 
constructed of approved noncombustible materials and shall be secured 
to the wall with metal or other approved noncombustible brackets; 
except that outside the fire limits, such trim may be of frame con- 
struction when the building does not exceed three (3) stories or forty 
(40) feet in height. Such trim may be of frame construction on all 
buildings of types 3 and 4 construction. 

926.22 LOCATION: When architectural trim, as described in section 
926.21, is located along the top of exterior walls, it must be com- 
pletely backed up by the exterior wall and shall not extend over the 
top of exterior walls. 

926.23 FIRESTOPPING: Continuous exterior architectural trim con- 
structed of combustible materials shall be firestopped as required 
in section 874. 

926.3 COMBUSTIBLE HALF TIMBERING: In buildings of masonry enclosed 
(type 3) construction that do not exceed three (3) stories or forty 
(40) feet in height, exterior half -timbering and similar architectural 
decorations may be constructed of wood or other equivalent combustible 
materials, provided such trim is backed up solidly with approved non- 
combustible materials. 

926.4 BALCONIES: All balconies attached to or supported by build- 
ings of types 1 and 2 construction shall be constructed of noncom- 
bustible materials. Balconies attached to or supported by buildings 

9-36 



of type 3 and A construction may be of unproteced noncombustible 
materials or frame construction. Balconies of frame construction 
shall afford the f ireresistance rating required by table 2-5 for 
floor construction and the aggregate length shall not exceed fifty 
(50) percent of the building perimeter on each floor. 

926.5 BAY AND ORIEL WINDOWS: All bay and oriel windows attached 
to or supported by walls other than frame construction shall be of 
noncombustible construction, framed with brackets of steel, concrete 
or other approved noncombustible materials, unless specifically ex- 
empted by section 303. 

926.6 EXISTING COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: Any existing cornices or 
other exterior architectural element constructed of wood or similar 
combustible materials may be repaired with the same material to the 
extend of fifty (50) percent of its area in any one year if the 
public safety is not thereby endangered. 

926.7 WOOD VENEERS: Inside the fire limits wood veneers are per- 
mitted in accordance with section 303.10. 



SECTION 927.0 ROOF STRUCTURES 

All construction, other than aerial supports, clothes dryers and 
similar structures less than twelve (12) feet high, water tanks and 
cooling towers as hereinafter provided and flag poles, erected above 
the roof of any part of any building or structure located within the 
fire limits or of any building or structure more than forty (40) 
feet in height outside the fire limits shall be constructed of non- 
combustible materials. 

927.1 SCUTTLES. 

927.11 SIZE: Unless provided with other approved means of access 
to the roof, every building and structure more than three (3) 
stories or 40 feet in height, except dwellings with peak roofs and 
all other buildings having roofs with a pitch greater than twenty 
(20) degrees, shall have an access trap door not less than two (2) 
by three (3) feet in area, securely attached or anchored to the 
roof framing, with ladder leading thereto from the top story. 

927.12 CONSTRUCTION: The trap door or scuttle shall be of fire- 
resistive construction in fireproof (types 1-A and 1-B) , and non- 
combustible (types 2-A, 2-B and 2-C) buildings; and of approved non- 
combustible materials, or of wood covered on top and edges with sheet 
metal in masonry enclosed (type 3) and protected frame (type-4) build- 
ings. 

927.2 SKYLIGHTS. 



9-37 



927.21 SASH AND FRAMES: Skylights which are inclined more than 
thirty (30) degrees from the vertical hereafter constructed on all 
buildings and structures except frame (type 4-B) buildings and all 
skylights on fireproof and noncombustible (types 1 and 2) buildings 
shall have the sash and frames thereof constructed of metal or other 
approved noncombustible materials. In foundries or buildings where 
acid fumes, deleterious to metal are incidental to the use of the 
building, treated wood or other approved noncorrosive materials 
shall be permitted. 

927.22 GLASS — WIRED OR PLAIN: Skylights shall be glazed with 
wired glass or of approved glass block construction conforming to 
sections 812 and 859, except that skylights placed over shafts and 
stair enclosures and skylights used for emergency heat and smoke 
ventings shall be glazed with plain glass not over one-eighth (1/8) 
inch thick. No single panel of wired glass in skylights shall ex- 
ceed seven hundred and twenty (720) square inches in area or forty- 
eight (48) inches in any dimension. Light transmitting plastic may 
be used as specified in section 2006.0. 

927.23 SCREENS: Plain glass skylights shall be protected by sub- 
stantial corrosion-resistive metal or other approved noncombustible 
screens having a mesh not less than three-quarter (3/4) by three- 
quarter (3/4) inches nor larger than one (1) by one (1) inches, 
constructed of not lighter than No. 12B and S gage wires. The 
screen shall be erected at a distance of not less than four (4) nor 
more than ten (10) inches above all glazed portions of the skylight 
and shall project on all sides for a distance of not less than the 
height of the screen above the glass. A similar screen shall be 
placed below the skylight to afford protection to the occupants of 
the building. The provisions for wired glass or screen protection 
shall not apply to glass block skylights or to greenhouse construc- 
tion. 

927.3 PENTHOUSE. 

927.31 ADDITIONAL STORY: Penthouses occupying more than one-third 
(1/3) of the roof area shall be considered a story of the building 
and the enclosure shall conform to the requirements for exterior 
walls of the building type as regulated by table 2-5 and article 8. 

927.32 RECESSED WALLS: When the exterior wall of a penthouse is 
recessed five (5) feet or more from the exterior wall of the next 
lower story which is required to have a greater f ireresistance, it 
may be constructed with a f ireresistance rating of not less than 
one and one-half (1%) hours, covered on the outside with noncom- 
bustible, waterproof material and supported on protected steel or 
reinforced concrete construction. 

927.33 DOORS, FRAMES AND SASH: Doors, frames and window sash ex- 
cept where otherwise specifically required to be fireproof or fire- 
resistive under the Basic Code, shall be constructed the same as 
other similar elements in the building or structure. 

9-38 



927.4 OTHER ROOF STRUCTURES: Roof structures other than penthouses 
as defined in article 2 shall comply with the following provisions: 

927.41 NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS: Unless constructed of masonry or 
reinforced concrete in accordance with article 8, roof structures 
erected on buildings and structures of fireproof and noncombustible 
(types 1 and 2) construction shall be enclosed in walls of noncombus- 
tible materials having a f ireresistance rating of not less than three- 
quarter (3/4) hours protected with weather-resistive roof and wall 
coverings complying with section 928.0. 

927.42 COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS: Roof structures erected on the roof 
of masonry enclosed buildings (type 3) and protected frame (type 
4-A) may be constructed of combustible materials protected to afford 
a three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance rating covered on the out- 
side with approved roofing materials. 

927.5 MANSARDS AND SLOPING ROOFS: Steep roofs having a slope of 
more than sixty (60) degrees to the horizontal shall be constructed 
of material having the same f ireresistance rating as required for 
an exterior nonbearing wall of the building of which it is a part. 
When the slope is sixty (60) degrees or less to the horizontal, the 
sloping roof shall be constructed as required for the roof of the 
building. Where the back of a false mansard is exposed to the out- 
doors, the back shall be covered with noncombustible material or 
with roof coverings as required for the roof of the building. 

927.6 DORMER WINDOWS: Roofs of dormers shall be of the same type 
of construction and have roof covering of the same class as required 
for the roof of the building on which they are located. The walls 
of dormers shall be constructed of materials having the same fire- 
resistance rating as required for nonbearing exterior walls of the 
building on which they are located; except that in buildings of con- 
struction types 3A, 33, 3C and 4A, the walls may be constructed of 
combustible framing provided that the outside face of the framing 

is protected with noncombustible sheathing and the aggregate area 
of all such dormer walls, including openings therein, does not ex- 
ceed twenty (20) percent of the roof area. 

927.7 WATER TANKS. 

927.71 SUPPORTS: Water tanks having a capacity of more than five 
hundred (500) gallons placed in or on a building for the storage of 
potable water supplies and for use in the building services includ- 
ing air conditioning and fire prevention purposes, shall be supported 
on masonry, reinforced concrete, steel or other approved noncombus- 
tible framing or on timber conforming to heavy timber mill construc- 
tion (type 3-A) ; provided that when such supports are located within 
the building, they shall be fire-protected as required for fireproof 
(type 1-A) construction. 



9-39 



911.11 EMERGENCY DISCHARGE: A pipe or outlet shall be located in 
the bottom, or in the side close to the bottom, or the tank shall 
be fitted with a quick-opening valve to enable the contents to be 
discharged in an emergency to a suitable drain complying with the 
Massachusetts State Plumbing Code. 

927.73 LOCATION: No tank shall be located over or near a stairway 
or elevator shaft unless a solid roof or floor deck of the necessary 
strength is constructed underneath the tank. 

927.74 TANK COVER: All unenclosed roof tanks exposed to the weather 
shall have approved covers sloping toward the outer edges. 

927.75 HOOP AND STRAP PROTECTION: When metal hoops are used in the 
construction of wood tanks, they shall be protected with acceptable 
corrosion-resistive coatings or shall be manufactured from approved 
corrosion-resistive alloys. 

927.8 COOLING TOWERS: 

927.81 LOCATED IN FIRE DISTRICTS: Within Fire District Nos. 1 and 

2, cooling towers erected on the roofs of buildings shall be construc- 
ted of noncombustible materials, except that drip bars may be of wood. 

927.82 LOCATED OUTSIDE FIRE DISTRICTS: Outside the fire limits, cool- 
ing towers may be constructed of wood or other approved materials of 
similar combustible characteristics; except that when the base of the 
tower is more than fifty-five (55) feet above grade and the tower is 
located on a building, the drip bars only may be fabricated of combus- 
tible materials as herein provided. 

927.9 MISCELLANEOUS ROOF STRUCTURES: Except as herein specifically 
provided, all towers, spires, dormers or cupolas shall be erected of 
the type of construction and f ireresistance rating required for the 
building to which they are accessory as regulated by tables 2-5 and 
2-6; except that when the height of such appurtenant structures ex- 
ceeds eighty-five (85) feet above grade or when the area at any hori- 
zontal section of the tower, spire, dormer or cupola exceeds two hun- 
dred (200) square feet or when it is used for any purpose other than 
as a belfry or architectural embellishment, the structure and its sup- 
ports shall be of fireproof (type 1) construction or noncombustible 
(type 2) construction. Radio and television towers and antennae shall 
be constructed to comply with section 421.0. 



SECTION 928.0 ROOF COVERINGS 

All approved roof coverings shall be classified as A, B, or C on the 
basis of their resistance to fire exposure as listed in the reference 
standards of this article. 

928.1 EXISTING ROOFS: The repair of existing roofs shall comply with 
the provisions of section 106 but in no case shall more than twenty-five 
(25) per cent of the roof covering of any building be replaced in a 

9-40 



period of twelve (12) months unless the entire roof covering is made 
to conform to the requirements for new roofing. 

928.2 WITHIN THE FIRE LIMITS: Within the limits of Fire District 
Nos. 1 and 2, all roof coverings shall be of asbestos, brick, con- 
crete, metal, slate, tile, prepared asphalt felt or laminated felt 
roofing finished with asphalt, slag, gravel or similar noncombus- 
tible, moisture-resistant materials or approved combinations of 
materials, complying with the requirements of section 903.4 for 
class A, B, or C roof coverings or their approved equivalent. 

928.3 OUTSIDE FIRE LIMITS: Roof coverings which are classfied as 
non-rated roofing under section 903.4 and the approved rules including 
wood shingles and handsplit shakes as specified in section 853.72 
shall be deemed to meet the requirements for use on all one- and two- 
family dwellings of frame (type 4-B) construction, not exceeding two 
(2) stories or thirty-five (35) feet in height and four thousand (4000) 
square feet in area when the distance of the building from any other 
building is not less than twelve (12) feet; and on private garages 

or airplane hangars and structures for similar accessory uses out- 
side the fire limits and in Fire District No. 2, located on the same 
lot with a dwelling, not exceeding one (1) story or twenty-five (25) 
feet in height and twenty-five hundred (2500) square feet in area and 
with a fire separation of not less than twelve (12) feet; and on stor- 
age buildings of moderate or low fire hazard (use groups B-1 and B-2) 
not exceeding one (1) story or twenty-five (25) feet in height and 
six thousand (6000) square feet in area when separated not less than 
twenty (20) feet from any other building. 

928.4 ROOF DECKING AND SHEATHING. 

928.41 COMBUSTIBLE DECKING: Unless attached directly to noncombus- 
tible framework, all roof coverings shall be applied to a closely fit- 
ted deck; except as provided in section 853.72 for wood shingles and 
hand sp 1 i t shake s . 

928.42 FIRE AND PARTY WALL RESTRICTIONS: No wood planking, sheath- 
ing, or other combustible decking when used in roof construction shall 
extend through or over any party wall or fire wall or across any lot 
line. 

928.5 ROOF INSULATION: The use of cork, fiber board and other com- 
bustible roof insulation shall be permitted provided it is covered 
with approved roof coverings directly applied thereto. 

928.6 GROUNDING OF METAL ROOFS: Whenever, because of hazard resulting 
from electrical equipment or apparatus located thereon, or because of 
proximity to power lines, or for any other reason, it is deemed neces- 
sary by the building official, metal roofs shall be grounded by bond- 
ing together each course strip and the bonding conductor or conductors 
shall be extended to and attached in an approved manner to the ground- 
ing electrode used to ground the electrical system within the building 
on which such metal roofing is applied . The conductors used to bond 



9-41 



courses or strips of metal roofing together, or any conductor extended 
for grounding to the grounding electrode, shall have no greater elec- 
trical system within the building. 

928.61 ALTERNATE METHODS OF GROUNDING METAL ROOFING: Alternate meth- 
ods of grounding metal roofing may be used provided they are at least 
equal in performance to the methods prescribed herein, and further 
provided that such desired method is first submitted to and approved 
by the building official. 



9-42 



Reference 
AIA 1968 

ASTM E 84 1970 



ASTM E 108 



ASTM E 119 



ASTM E 136 



ASTM E 152 



ASTM E 163 



AWPA C 20 



AWPA C 27 



1965 



1970 



1970 



NFPA No. 80 1973 
NFPA No. 701 1969 



U.S. No. 191 1968 

Federal 

Test Method Standard 

ULI Standard Test 1960 
Method , Sub- 
ject 723 

ULI Standard Sub- 1965 
ject 10 (a) 

ULI Standard 555 1970 

Federal Specification 

SSA 00118 C 1960 



NFPA 703 
FMED 



Standards - Article 9 

Fireresistance Ratings 

Standard Method of Test for Surface 
Burning Characteristics of Building 
Materials 



1970 Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Roof 
Coverings 

1973 Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Build- 
ing Construction and Materials 

1965 Method of Test for Determining Noncombus- 
tibility of Elementary Materials 

1972 Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Door 
Assemblies 



Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Window 
Assemblies 

Structural Lumber - Fireretardant Treat- 
ment by Pressure Processes 

Plywood - Fireretardant Treatment by 
Pressure Processes 

Installation of Fire Doors and Windows 

Standard Methods of Fire Tests for Flame- 
resistant Textiles and Films 

Method 5190 Textile Test - Burning Rate 
of Cloth; 30 degree angle 



Test Method for Fire Hazard Classifica- 
tion of Building Materials 

Tin-Clad Fire Doors and Shutters 

Fire Dampers 



Flameresistance Tests - Acoustical Units, 
Prefabricated 



1971 Fireretardant Treatment of Building Materials 

Prevention and Spread of Fire Approved Fire 
Protection Equipment and Building Materials 



9-43 



ARTICLE 10 

CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENT PIPES 

SECTION 1000.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the design and construc- 
tions of all chimneys and vents hereafter erected or altered in all 
buildings and structures. 

1000.1 OTHER STANDARDS: Unless otherwise specifically provided here- 
in, conformity to the applicable standards for chimney construction 
and gas vents shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this Code. 

1000.11 COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS REQUIREMENTS: Gas vents re- 
quired for appliances or equipment using fuel gases of any kind such 
as natural gas, manufactured gas, undiluted liquified petroleum gases, 
liquified petroleum gas-air mixtures, or mixtures of any of these 
gases shall comply with the requirements of the Massachusetts Code 
for Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping, established under 
Chapter 737, Acts of 1960. 

1000.2 MINOR REPAIRS: Minor repairs for the purpose of maintenance 
and upkeep which do not increase the capacity of heating apparatus or 
appliances or which do not involve structural changes in the permanent 
chimney and gas vents of a building may be made without a permit. 

SECTION 1001.0 DEFINITIONS 

CHIMNEY: A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more pas- 
sageways, (see section 1005.0). 

-FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEYS: a chimney that is factory-made, listed by 
an accredited authoritative testing agency, for venting gas appli- 
ances, gas incinerators, and solid or liquid fuel burning appliances. 

-MASONRY CHIMNEY: a field constructed chimney built in accordance 
with nationally recognized codes or standards. 

-METAL CHIMNEY: a chimney made of metal of adequate thickness, (see 
section 1009.0) galvanized or painted unless suitably corrosion- 
resistant, properly welded or riveted and built in accordance with 
nationally recognized codes or standards. 

-CHIMNEY CONNECTOR: a pipe or breaching which connects the heating 
appliance to the chimney. 

DRAFT HOOD: a device placed in and made part of the vent connector 
from an appliance, or in the appliance itself, which is designed to 
(1) insure the ready escape of the products of combustion in the event 
of no draft, back-draft or stoppage beyond the draft hood; (2) prevent 
a back-draft from entering the appliances; (3) neutralize the effect 
of stack action of the chimney flue upon the operations of the appliance. 

10-1 



DRAFT REGULATOR: a device which functions to maintain a desired draft 
in the appliance by automatically reducing the draft to the desired 
value. 

DUCT: a tube, pipe conduit or continuous enclosed passageway used 
for conveying of air, gases or vapors. 

FLEXIBLE TUBING: a gas conduit other than that formed by a continu- 
ous one-piece metal tube. 

FORCED AND INDUCED DRAFT FUEL BURNING APPLIANCES: fuel burning ap- 
pliances listed as exhausting low temperature fuel gases and listed 
for use with type L venting systems, 

GAS VENTS: type B. Listed factory-made gas vents for venting listed 
or approved appliances, equipped to burn only gas, except those spe- 
cifically listed for use with chimneys only. 

GAS VENTS: type B-W. Listed factory-made gas vents for venting listed 
or approved gasfired vented recessed heaters. 

GAS VENTS: type C. Vents constructed of sheet copper not less than 
No. 24 U.S. standard gage or galvanized steel of not less than No. 
20 U.S. standard gage, or other approved noncombustible corrosion- 
resistant materials. 

GAS VENTS: type L. Low-Temperature, Venting Systems. A venting sys- 
tem consisting of listed factory made piping and fittings for use 
with fuel burning appliances listed as exhausting low temperature 
flue gases and approved for use with a type L venting system. 

HOOD: a canopy or similar device connected to a duct for the removal 
of heat, fumes or gases. 

METAL CHIMNEY (smokestack) (see chimney) 

VENT: a passageway, vertical or nearly so, for removing vent gases 
to the outer air. 

VENT CONNECTOR: (vent connector pipe.) that portion of the vent sys- 
tem which connects the gas appliance to the gas vent or chimney. 

VENT SYSTEM: the gas vent or chimney and vent connector, if used, 

assembled to form a continuous unobstructed passageway from the gas 

appliance to the outside atmosphere for the purpose of removing vent 
gases. 



SECTION 1002.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

The structural plans and specifications shall describe in sufficient 
detail, the location, size and construction of all chimneys, gas vents 
and ducts and their connections to boilers, furnaces and fireplaces. 
The thickness and character of all insulation materials, clearances 
from walls, partitions and ceilings and proximity of heating devices 



10-2 



and equipment to wall openings and exitways shall be clearly shovm and 
described. 

1002.1 METHODS OF VENTING: Chimney or gas vent systems shall be so 
engineered and constructed as to develop a positive flow adequate 

to remove all flue gases to the outside atmosphere. 

1002.2 ENGINEERED VENT SYSTEM: The requirements specified in the 
following sections: 1003.0 through 1012.0 shall not necessarily 
govern where standard engineering methods have been used to design 
the chimney or vent system. 



SECTION 1003.0 PERFORMANCE TEST AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 

The building official may require a test or tests of any chimney 
or gas vent to insure fire safety and the removal of smoke products 
of combustion. 

1003.1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA: The system shall be accepted if the 
following three (3) conditions are fulfilled: 

1) there shall be no continuous spillage at the draft hood when 
any one or combination of appliances connected to the system 
is in operation; 

2) temperature on adjacent combustible surfaces shall not be 
raised more than the limits acceptable to approved testing 
agency ; and 

3) condensation shall not be developed in a way that would 
cause deterioration of the vent or drip from joints or 
bottom end of vent. 

1003.11 APPROVED INSTALLATIONS: Factory-built chimneys and gas 
vents which have been tested and approved by an approved testing 
agency shall be accepted as complying with the requirements of item 
2 of section 1003.1 when installed in accordance with their speci- 
fied clearances. 



SECTION 1004.0 KINDS OF CHIMNEYS 

CHIMNEYS AS USED IN THIS ARTICLE SHALL BE CLASSIFIED AS: 

1) factory-built chimney. 

2) masonry chimneys. 

3) metal chimneys (smokestacks) . 

SECTION 1005.0 APPLIANCES REQUIRING CHIMNEYS 

All heating appliances shall be connected to chimneys which conform 
to the provisions of this article. Chimneys shall be used for venting 
the following types of appliances : 

10-3 



1) incinerators, except as noted in section 1005.1; 

2) appliances which may be converted readily to use solid or 
liquid fuels; 

3) combination gas-oil burning appliances; 

4) appliances listed for use with chimneys only; 

5) oil-fired appliances and equipment except as exempted in 
section 1011. 

1005.1 EXCEPTION: Metal pipe not less than No. 20 U.S. standard gage 
galvanized steel or other equivalent noncombustible corrosion-resistant 
material may be used for venting incinerators installed in locations 
such as open sheds, breezeways , or carports, provided the metal pipe 
is exposed and readily examinable for its full length and suitable 
clearances are maintained . 



SECTION 1006.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1006.1 RAISING EXISTING CHIMNEYS: Whenever a building is hereafter 
erected, enlarged or increased in height so that a wall along an ex- 
terior lot line, or within three (3) feet thereof, extends above the 
top of an existing chimney or gas vent of an adjoining existing build- 
ing, the owner of the building so erected, enlarged or increased in 
height shall carry up at his own expense, with the consent of the ad- 
joining property owner, either independently, or in his own building, 
all chimneys connected to liquid or solid fuel burning appliances. 

Gas vents within six (6) feet of any portion of the wall of such ad- 
joining building shall be extended two (2) feet above the roof or 
parapet of the adjoining building. 

1006.2 SIZE OF EXTENDED CHIMNEYS: The construction of an extended 
chimney shall conform to the requirements of this article for new 
chimneys, but in no case shall the internal area of such extension 
be less than that of the existing chimney. 

1006.3 NOTICE OF ADJOINING OWNER: It shall be the duty of the owner 
of the building which is erected, enlarged or increased in height to 
notify in writing and to secure the consent of the owner of existing 
chimneys affected, at least ten (10) days before starting such work. 

1006.4 EXISTING CHIMNEYS: No existing chimney, except one which does 
not endanger the fire safety of a building or structure and is accept- 
able to the building official, shall be continued in use unless it con- 
forms to all requirements of this article for new chimneys. 

1006.5 CLEANOUTS AND MAINTENANCE: Whenever a new chimney is completed 
or an existing chimney is altered, it shall be cleaned and left smooth 
on the inside. If the chimney is constructed of masonry or tile the 
interior mortar joints must be left smooth and flush. Cleanouts or 
other approved devices shall be provided at the base of all chimneys 

to enable the passageways to be maintained and cleaned. 



10-4 



SECTION 1007.0 FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEYS 

1007.1 FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEYS: Factory-built chimneys that have been 
tested and certified by an approved agency shall be installed in accor- 
dance with the clearance and details of their approval and the manu- 
facturer's instructions. 



SECTION 1008.0 MASONRY CHIMNEY 

1008.1 CLASSIFICATION: For the purpose of determining the require- 
ments for the construction of a masonry chimney, chimneys shall be 
classified according to the following subsections. 

1008.11 LOW TEMPERATURE: Chimneys constructed to safely remove prod- 
ucts of combustion having a temperature not more than one thousand 
(1000) degrees F., and for use only with residential heating appli- 
ances, low temperature heat producing appliances and low-heat indus- 
trial appliances, shall be classified as low temperature chimneys. 

1008.12 MEDIUM TEMPERATURE: Chimneys constructed to safely remove 
products of combustion having a temperature not more than two thou- 
sand (2000) degrees F., and for use with medium-heat or low-heat 
industrial appliances, shall be classified as medium temperature 
chimneys . 

1008.13 HIGH TEMPERATURE: Chimneys constructed to safely remove prod- 
ucts of combustion having temperatures over two thousand (2000) degrees 
F., and for use with high-heat, or other industrial appliances, shall 
be classified as high temperature chimneys. 

1008.2 MASONRY CHIMNEY CONSTRUCTION. 

1008.21 MASONRY CHIMNEYS: Masonry chimneys for solid and liquid fuel- 
fired equipment and appliances shall be constructed of masonry, rein- 
forced concrete, or other approved noncombustible materials; and may 
be erected as free standing or as constituting an integral part of a 
wall, or may be enclosed within a structure without constituting a com- 
ponent part thereof. In every case a chimney shall be wholly supported 
on fireresistive construction or on approved foundations complying with 
article 7 and shall not be designed to support any direct load other 
than its own weight. 

1008.3 LOW TEMPERATURE CHIMNEYS. 

1008.31 SOLID MASONRY: When constructed of solid masonry, the walls 
shall be not less than eight (8) inches thick, except as herein pro- 
vided in dwellings and small business buildings. 

1008.32 REINFORCED CONCRETE: When constructed of reinforced concrete 
the walls shall be not less than six (6) inches thick, except as pro- 
vided for dwellings. 



10-5 



1008.33 DWELLINGS: In residential buildings (use groups L-2 and 
L-3) , the walls of a chimney in which the area of the flue is not 
more than two hundred (200) square inches may be of solid masonry 
or reinforced concrete not less than four (4) inches thick when 
provided with a fire clay lining. 

1008.34 LINING: Low temperature masonry chimneys with less than 
eight (8) inch walls shall be lined with an approved flue lining that 
conforms to the requirements of this section and the outside face of 
interior walls shall be smoothly parged or stuccoed so as to be gas 
tight, or the flue walls within the building shall be eight (8) in- 
ches thick. 

1008.35 FLUE LINING MATERIALS: Flue linings shall be made of fire 
clay or other approved refractory materials other than shale, capable 
of withstanding the action of flue gases and of resisting the temper- 
atures to which they are subjected but not less than two thousand 
(2000) degrees F. without softening or cracking. The thickness of 
the shell of flue linings shall be not less than five-eighth (5/8) 
inches . 

1008.36 FLUE LINING CONSTRUCTION: Flue linings shall be constructed 

in advance of the chimney and shall start from a point less than eighteen 
(18) inches below the inlet of the smokepipe or throat of a fireplace. 
The lining shall be constructed as nearly vertical as possible and shall 
extend not less than four (4) inches above the top or cap of the flue. 

1008.4 MEDIUM TEMPERATURE CHIMNEYS. 

1008.41 SOLID MASONRY: When constructed of solid masonry, the walls 
shall be not less than eight (8) inches thick and shall be lined as 
provided in this section. 

1008.42 REINFORCED CONCRETE: When constructed of reinforced concrete 
the walls shall be not less than six (6) inches thick with approved 
lining. 

1008.43 LINING: Medium temperature masonry chimneys shall be lined 
with not less than four and one-half (4^5) inches of fire brick laid 
up in fire clay mortar from at least two (2) feet below to not less 
than twenty-five (25) feet above inlet opening to the chimney; or the 
walls shall be of double-wall construction with an Intervening air 
space of not less than two (2) inches. 

1008.5 HIGH TEMPERATURE CHIMNEYS: All high temperature masonry chim- 
neys shall be built with double masonry or double reinforced concrete 
walls, each of the same thickness required for medium temperature chim- 
meys, with an intervening air space of not less than two (2) inches; 

or of a single wall with an interior wall of double-wall construction 
shall be of fire brick at least four and one-half (^h) inches thick 
laid in fire clay or approved high temperature cement mortar; and the 
interior metal chimney shall be lined as specified in section 1009.5 



10-6 



1008.6 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. 

1008.61 CHIMNEY HEIGHT: All chimneys shall extend at least three (3) 
feet above the adjacent roof, and at least two (2) feet above any roof 
ridge within ten (10) feet thereof. If the height above the roof is 
more than four (4) times the minimum dimension, the chimney shall be 
braced and anchored to the roof framing. 

1008.62 CHIMNEY CAPS: All masonry chimneys shall be capped with con- 
crete, terra cotta tile or other approved noncombustible weatherproof 
material; or a sloped wash shall be provided from the outside of the 
chimney to the projecting lining specified in section 1008.36. 

1008.63 CHIMNEY SUPPORTS: All masonry chimneys shall rest on a foun- 
dation located on permanently undisturbed soil or shall be supported 
on fireresistive construction; and no such chimney shall rest on or be 
hung or otherwise supported from combustible floor or wall construction 
except as provided in section 1007.0 No masonry chimney shall be cor- 
beled from hollow or cavity wall construction, nor from a wall built to 
hollow masonry units; and the corbeling of chimneys shall conform to the 
requirements of section 839.1. Masonry chimneys erected outside of frame 
dwellings shall be anchored to the stud walls at each floor level or at 
vertical intervals of not more than ten (10) feet. 

1008.64 CLEARANCES: Combustible framing shall be trimmed away from 

all flues and chimneys, and no combustible material shall be placed within 
two (2) inches of any chimney, nor within six (6) inches of any inlet 
opening to such chimney. Finished flooring shall have not less than 
one-half (h) inch clearance from the chimney walls. 

1008.65 SIZE: The passageway within the chimney shall be ascertained 
to be open to the exterior and shall be of adequate size to remove all 
the products of combustion of the appliances attached thereto. 

1008.66 THICKNESS AND SHAPE: For chimneys larger than one hundred and 
twenty (120) square inches, except as specified in section 1008.33, the 
walls shall be not less than eight (8) inches thick in any case. No 
change in the size or shape of a chimney shall be made within six (6) 
inches of the roof framing through which it passes. 



SECTION 1009.0 METAL CHIMNEYS 
1009.1 THICKNESS OF METAL. 

1009.11 EXTERIOR METAL CHIMNEYS: Exterior metal chimneys shall be of 
adequate thickness to resist all wind stresses specified in article 7 
but shall be not less than one-eighth (1/8) inch thick for diameters 
up to three (3) feet, three-sixteenths (3/16) inch thick for diameters 
up to four (4) feet and not less than one-quarter (k) inch thick for 
larger diameters . 

1009.12 INTERIOR METAL CHIMNEYS: Interior metal chimneys shall be con- 
structed of metal not less than No. 16 U.S. gage for areas not more than 
one hundred and fifty-five (155) square inches; No. 14 U.S. gage for 



10-7 



areas not more than two hundred (200) square inches; No. 12 U.S. gage 

for areas not more than two hundred and fifty-five (255) square inches; 

and not less than No. 10 U.S. gage for greater areas. | 

1009.2 CONSTRUCTION: All metal chimneys shall be riveted or welded 
construction and all exterior metal chimneys shall be securely guyed, 
braced, anchored and supported. They shall be galvanized, painted 
with an approved paint, or constructed of approved corrosion-resistive 
alloys . 

1009.3 OPENING: A cleanout shall be provided at the base of every 
metal chimney. 

1009.4 METAL CHIMNEY FOUNDATION: A metal chimney erected on the ex- 
terior of a building or structure shall be supported on an independent 
substantial masonry or reinforced concrete foundation. Interior metal 
chimneys may be supported on fireproof (type 1-A) construction at in- 
termediate levels. 

1009.5 HIGH TEMPERATURE LINING: When metal or masonry chimneys are 
used to remove high temperature combustion gases they shall be lined 
with four and one-half i^h) inches of fire brick laid in fire clay 
mortar. Such lining shall extend at least twenty-five (25) feet above 
the smokepipe entrance . 

1009.6 HEIGHT OF METAL CHIMNEY: All metal chimneys shall extend to 
a height of not less than four (4) feet above any roof within twenty- 
five (25) feet, or any roof ridge within ten (10) feet horizontally 
thereof, except as provided in section 1014 for high temperature chimneys. 

1009.7 METAL CHIMNEY CLEARANCES: Every metal chimney or part thereof 
erected on the exterior of a building, shall have a clearance from a 
wall of frame or combustible construction of not less than twenty-four 
(24) inches and of not less than four (4) inches if the wall is of non- 
combustible construction. No such stack shall be located less than twenty-fou 
(24) inches in any direction from a wall opening or required exitway, 

or fire escape. 

1009.8 INTERIOR METAL CHIMNEY ENCLOSURES: Every interior metal chimney 
or part thereof, erected within a multi-story building shall be enclosed 
with walls of not less than three (3) hours f ireresistance in all stories 
above that in which the appliance served thereby is located. Where the 
metal chimney passes through a combustible roof, it shall be guarded by 

a galvanized metal or other approved noncombustible, ventilating thimble 
that extends at least nine (9) inches below and above the roof construc- 
tion. The thimbles shall be of a size to provide clearance on all sides 
of the metal chimney of not less than six (6) inches for low heat appli- 
ance and not less than eighteen (18) inches for medium and high heat ap- 
pliances as defined in article 11, unless the metal chimney is insulated 
and protected to prevent a temperature of more than two hundred and fifty 
(250) degrees F. on the exterior surface. 



10-8 



1009.9 PROHIBITED LOCATION: No interior metal chimney shall be car- 
ried up inside a ventilating duct unless such ducts are constructed 
as required by this article for metal chimneys; and only when such 
duct is used solely for venting the room or space in which the appliance 
served by the metal chimney is located. Metal chimneys shall not be 
installed in air supply ducts. 



SECTION 1010.0 CHIMNEY CONNECTOR (SMOKEPIPES) 

The chimney connector from every heating appliance, except for vent 
connectors from gas-fired appliances, shall connect to a chimney con- 
forming to the provision of article 10. 

1010.1 CHIMNEY CONNECTORS: Chimney connectors shall be constructed 
of galvanized iron, or other approved noncombustible, corrosion-re- 
sistive materials having a melt point of not less than two thousand 
(2000) degrees F. No other pipe shall be used as a chimney connector. 

1010.2 THICKNESS OF METAL: The minimum thickness of metal for chim- 
ney connectors shall comply with the requirements of section 1017 for 
vent construction. 

1010.3 LENGTH OF CHIMNEY CONNECTOR: All chimney connectors shall be 
as short and as straight as possible consistent with their use and the 
required draft conditions. No chimney connector shall pass through a 
floor or ceiling construction. 

1010.4 CHIMNEY CONNECTION: In entering a passageway in a masonry or 
metal chimney, the chimney connector shall be installed above the ex- 
treme bottom to avoid stoppage. Means shall be employed which will 
prevent the chimney connector from entering so far as to restrict the 
space between its end and the opposite wall of the chimney. The chim- 
ney connector shall be firmly attached or inserted into a thimble or 
slip joint to prevent it from falling out. All connections shall fit 
tightly. Chimney connections to any one passageway shall be limited 
to one floor, except as provided in section 1002.2. 

1010.5 NUMBER OF CHIMNEY CONNECTORS: Two (2) or more chimney con- 
nectors may be joined to a single connection provided that the chim- 
ney connectors are on one floor level and the passageway is of suf- 
ficient size to serve all of the appliances thus connected. 

1010.6 CHIMNEY CONNECTOR CLEARANCES. 

1010.61 FROM COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: Unless a chimney connector 
is covered on the exterior with at least one (1) inch of approved 
insulating noncombustible material, the following clearances shall 
be maintained from all combustible material or construction: 

Diameter Clearance 

Inches Inches 

0-12 12 

12-36 20 

More than 36 36 

10-9 



1010.62 REDUCED CLEARANCES: The clearances specified herein may be 
reduced one-half (h) when an approved metal or other approved noncom- 
bustible enclosing shell is installed so as to provide a continuous 
one (1) inch ventilated air space around the chimney connector with 
access openings for inspecting purposes; or the exposed combustible 
construction shall be protected with metal or other noncombustible 
materials as provided in section 1112. In no case shall the chimney 
connector of a medium or high heat appliance pass through any wall or 
partition of combustible construction. 

1010.7 LOW HEAT CHIMNEY CONNECTOR CLEARANCE: Chimney connectors from 
a low heat appliance may pass through combustible walls or partitions 
when protected at the point of passage by approved thimbles, fire-stopped 
with noncombustible material; or when such partition is constructed to 
afford a f ireresistance of not less than three-quarter (3/4) hours for 

a distance corresponding to the required clearance in section 1010.6 
with noncombustible materials. 

1010.8 CONNECTIONS TO INCINERATOR CHIMNEY: The chimney connector of a 
heating appliance shall not be connected to the flue of an incinerator 
which has a rubbish chute identical with the flue. 



SECTION 1011.0 VENT SYSTEMS 

For the purpose of determining vent requirements, oil-fired appliances 
shall be classified as "listed" or "unlisted". A listed appliance is 
one that is shown in a list published by an approved testing agency, 
qualified and equipped for experimental testing of such appliances, and 
maintaining an adequate periodic inspection of current production of 
listed models and whose listing states either that the appliance or 
accessory complies with nationally recognized safety requirements or 
has been tested and found safe for use in a specific manner. Compli- 
ance may be detennined by the presence on the appliance or accessory 
of a label of the testing agency stating that the appliance or acces- 
sory complies with nationally recognized safety requirements. An un- 
listed appliance or accessory is one that is not shown on such a list 
or does not bear such a label. In cases where no applicable standard 
has been developed for a given class of appliance or accessory, approval 
of the authority having jurisdiction should be obtained before the appli- 
ance or accessory is installed. 

1011.1 APPLIANCES REQUIRED TO BE VENTED: Appliances of the following 
types shall be connected to a listed venting system or provided with 
other means for exhausting the flue gases to the outside atmosphere: 

a) central heating appliances, including steam and hot water 
boilers, warm air furnaces, floor furnaces, and vented 
recessed heaters; 

b) duct furnaces and self-contained unit heaters; 

c) all water heaters; 

d) room heaters listed for vented use only as required in 
section 1011.2; 

10-10 



e) appliances equipped with gas conversion burners; 

f ) appliances which have draft hoods supplied by the appliance 
manufacturer ; 

g) unlisted appliances. 

1011.2 EXEMPTION: Connections to vent systems shall not be required 
for electric, gas and industrial appliances of such size or character 
that the absence of such connection does not constitute a hazard to 
the fire safety of the building or its occupants. The following ap- 
pliances are not required to be vented: 

a) listed gas ranges; 

b) built-in domestic cooking units listed and marked as unvented 
units; 

c) listed hot plates and listed laundry stoves; 

d) listed domestic clothes dryers; 

e) listed gas refrigerators; 

f) counter appliances; 

g) other appliances listed for unvented use and not provided 
with flue collars; 

h) specialized equipment of limited input such as laboratory 
burners or gas lights. 

When any or all of the appliances listed in items 5, 6, 7, and 8 
above are installed so that the aggregate input rating exceeds thirty 
(30) B.T.U. per hour per cubic foot of room or space in which they 
are installed, one or more of them shall be vent-connected or pro- 
vided with approved means for exhausting the vent gases to the out- 
side atmosphere so that the aggregate input rating of the remaining 
unvented appliances does not exceed thirty (30) B.T.U. per hour per 
cubic foot of room or space in which they are installed. Where the 
room or space in which they are installed is directly connected to 
another room or space by a doorway, arch, or other opening of com- 
parable size, which cannot be closed, the volume of such adjacent 
room or space may be included in the calculations. 

1011.3 TYPES OF VENTS. 

1011.31 TYPE L LOW-TEMPERA.TURE VENTING SYSTEMS: Type L low-tempera- 
ture venting systems shall be used only with fuel burning appliances 
listed as exhausting low-temperature flue gases and listed for use 
with Type L low-temperature venting systems. Type L low-temperature 
venting systems shall be installed in accordance with the terms of 
their listing and manufacturer's instructions. 

1011.32 VENTILATING HOODS: Ventilating hoods and exhaust systems 
may be used to vent commercial appliances. 

1011.33 CHIMNEYS: Chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with 
the requirement of article 10. 

1011.34 EXISTING CHIMNEYS: Where an existing masonry chimney is 
unlined and where local experience indicates that vent gas condensate 
will be a problem , an approved liner or another vent shall be installed. 



10-11 



Where inspection reveals that an existing chimney is not safe for 
the intended application it shall be rebuilt to confonn to the re- 
quirement of this code, or relined with a suitable liner or replaced 
with a gas vent or chimney suitable for the appliances to be attached. 

1011.35 CLEANOUTS: Cleanouts shall be of such construction that 
they will remain tightly closed when not in use. Tee fittings used 
as cleanouts or condensate drains shall have tight fitting caps to 
prevent entrance of air into the chimney or gas vent at that point. 

1011.4 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS. 

1011.41 SIZE OF VENTS: The gas vent or chimney when connected to a 
single appliance shall not be less than the size of the draft hood 
outlet. 

When more than one appliance is connected to a gas vent or chimney, 
the area shall be not less than the area of the largest vent connec- 
tor plus fifty (50) percent of the areas of additional vent connectors. 

In lieu of the above, the gas vent or chimney may be sized in accor- 
dance with section 1002.2. / 

Any shape gas vent may be used provided its venting capacity is 
equal to the capacity of round pipe for which it is substituted and 
the minimum internal dimension of the gas vent is not less than two 
(2) inches. 

1011.42 GAS VENT TERMINATION: The gas vent or chimney shall extend 
high enough above the building or other neighboring obstruction so 
that wind from any direction will not create a positive pressure in 
the vicinity of the gas vent or chimney termination. Except as pro- 
vided in section 1008.61, gas vents or chimneys shall extend at least 
two (2) feet above the highest point where they pass through a roof 
of a building and at least two (2) feet higher than any portion of a 
building within ten (10) feet; provided the following conditions are 
met: 

a) no gas vent or chimney shall terminate less than four (4) 

feet in vertical height above the highest connected appliance 
draft hood outlet or flue collar. 

1011.43 EXCEPTION: A listed gas vent equipped with a listed or 
approved top may be terminated below the peak of a pitched roof in 
accordance with the terms of the listing or approval. 

1011.44 TOP ASSEMBLY: Gas vents and factory-built chimneys shall 
extend above the roof surface and through the flashing and shall 
terminate in a top or roof assembly with a venting capacity not less 
than that of the vent. The top shall prevent rain and debris from 
entering the vent. 



10-12 



1011.45 SUPPORT OF GAS VENTS: All portions of gas vents and chim- 
neys shall be adequately supported for weight and design of materials 
employed. Listed gas vents and factory-built chimneys shall be sup- 
ported and spaced in accordance with their listings and manufacturer's 
instructions and section 1007, 1008 and 1009. 

1011.46 OUTSIDE GAS VENTS. 

1011.47 MATERIALS: Outside gas vents and chimneys shall not be used 
in exposed locations except when permitted by the building official. 
When they are permitted to be used, the material shall possess high 
insulation qualities or be adequately insulated. 

1011.48 CONDENSATE DRAIN: Where local experience with gas vent ma- 
terials indicates that the condensate may be a problem, a capped tee 
and drain pipe shall be installed at the base of the riser to drain 
off condensate. 

1011.5 PROHIBITED INSTALLATIONS. 

1011.51 PROHIBITED TERMINATION: Natural draft vents extending through 
outside walls shall not terminate below eaves adjacent to such walls or 
parapets. 

1011.52 UNVENTED ROOM HEATERS PROHIBITED: Unvented room heaters are 
prohibited in accordance with Chapter 688 of the Acts of 1962 of the 
General Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 



SECTION 1012.0 FIREPLACES 

1012.1 CONSTRUCTION: The back and jambs of fireplaces shall be con- 
structed of solid masonry or reinforced concrete not less than eight 
(8) inches thick, with a lining of fire brick, soapstone, cast iron 

or other approved noncombustible material not less than two (2) inches 
thick. Such lining may be omitted when the solid masonry or reinforced 
concrete is not less than twelve (12) inches thick, or the equivalent 
insulation is provided integrally in approved heating equipment or 
firing devices installed in the fireplaces. In one- and two-family 
dwellings (use group L-3) , when approved steel fireplace units which 
are equipped with an air circulating chamber are installed integrally 
with the fireplace construction, the back and jambs of the fireplace 
construction, the back and jambs of the fireplace may be reduced to 
four (4) inches of approved masonry. 

1012.2 HEARTH: Every fireplace shall be constructed with a hearth of 
brick, stone, tile or other noncombustible material. For fireplaces 
with an opening of less than six (6) square feet the hearth shall ex- 
tend not less than sixteen (16) inches in front and not less than eight 
(8) inches on each side of the fireplace opening. For fireplaces with 
an opening of six (6) square feet or more the hearth shall extend not 
less than twenty (20) inches in front and not less than twelve (12) 
inches on each side of the fireplace opening. Such hearths shall be 
supported on trimmer arches of brick, stone, tile or concrete not less 



10-13 



than four (4) inches thick, or other equally strong and f ireresistive 
materials. All combustible forms or centering shall be removed after 
completion of the supporting construction. 

1012.3 FIREPLACE DAMPER: Every fireplace shall be equipped with an 
approved damper. 

1012.4 FIREPLACE CLEARANCES. 

1012.41 FLOOR FRAMING: All header and trimmer beams of combustible 
floor construction shall be located at least four (4) inches from the 
face of chimneys and backs of fireplaces and the spaces shall be fire- 
stopped with approved noncombustible materials. 

1012.42 COMBUSTIBLE TRIM: Wood or other combustible material shall 
not be installed on or about a fireplace less than six (6) inches from 
the fireplace opening; and combustible materials, located within the 
twelve (12) inch boundary of the opening shall not project more than 
one-eighth (1/8) inch from the face of the masonry for each one (1) 
inch distance from the opening. 

1012.5 FIREPLACE HEATERS: No heater shall be placed in a fireplace 
unless it conforms to the requirements of article 11 for such device 
and is provided with a flue; except an electric heater which is ex- 
empted from vent requirements under the provisions of section 1011. 

1012.6 IMITATION FIREPLACES: The depth of an imitation fireplace or 
recess for heating equipment shall not be more than six (6) inches, 
unless such recess meets all the construction requirements for fire- 
places. The surfaces of the recess shall be of masonry or f ireresis- 
tive plaster and all combustible materials shall have the clearances 
or shall be fire-protected as specified herein. No flue other than 

an approved gas vent shall be installed within such imitation fireplaces. 



SECTION 1013.0 CUPOLA CHIMNEYS 

1013.1 HEIGHT OF CUPOLAS: A chimney or a metal smokestack for a cupola 
furnace, blast furnace or similar high heat industrial device shall ex- 
tend not less than twenty-five (25) feet above any roof within a radius 
of fifty (50) feet and shall be covered on the top with heavy wire net- 
ting or other spark arrester as provided in section 1018 . 

1013.2 CUPOLA CLEARANCES: No combustible material shall be erected or 
placed within three (3) feet of any cupola or other high temperature 
chimney . 



SECTION 1014.0 FUEL-FIRED INCINERATOR CHIMNEYS 

Chimneys for fuel-fired incinerators shall be constructed of at least 
four (4) inches of clay or shale brick masonry which is lined with not 



10-14 



less than four and one-half (^h) inches of firebrick for at least 
forty (40) feet above the roof of the combustion chamber; and be- 
yond the forty (40) foot level shall be enclosed with not less than 
eight (8) inches of clay or brick masonry. 



SECTION 1015.0 MISCELLANEOUS INCINERATOR FLUES 

1015.1 FLUE ENCLOSURES: All incinerator flues not provided for in 
sections 1015 and 1016, including flues for rubbish and waste material 
incinerators, shall be enclosed with not less than eight (8) inches of 
clay or shale brick masonry, unless otherwise approved by the build- 
ing official. 

1015.2 CONNECTION TO CHIMNEYS AND STACKS: Nothing in this article 
shall prohibit the connection of an incinerator by means of an ap- 
proved breeching to a smokestack or chimney flue which serves a heat 
appliance; provided the cross-sectional area of such stack or flue is 
at least four (4) times that of the incinerator breeching and such 
stack or flue and the connection meet the requirements of this ar- 
ticle for incinerator flues. 



SECTION 1016.0 DUCT AND PIPE SHAFTS 

In all buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings, vertical 
ducts or pipes arranged in groups of two or more which extend through 
two (2) or more stories and occupy an area of more than one (1) square 
foot shall be enclosed in construction of not less than three-quarter 
(3/4) hour fireresistance to comply with section 911. 

SECTION 1017.0 CONSTRUCTION OF METAL DUCTS AND VENTS 

All metal vents, ducts and duct systems required under the provisions 
of articles 10 and 11 for heating systems and equipment, and under the 
provisions of articles 5 and 18 for ventilating and air-conditioning 
systems shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the re- 
quirements of this Code and accepted engineering practice. 

1017.1 MATERIAL: Ducts and vents shall be constructed of aluminum, 
copper, monel metal, galvanized steel, cement-asbestos or other ap- 
proved, noncombustible, corrosion-resistive materials of adequate 
strength, durability and for the temperatures involved; and the seams 
shall be securely welded or riveted and made substantially air and 
gas tight. 

1017.2 THICKNESS OF METAL: The weight and thickness of material, 
type of joints, connections, bracing and other structural features 
shall conform to the approved rules ; but shall be at least equiva- 
lent to the minimum thickness prescribed in table 10-1 . Aluminum 
shall be of not less than No. 26 B & S gage, copper of not less than 
16 ounce sheets, galvanized iron and monel metal of not less than 
No. 28 U.S. gage, except as provided for one- and two-family dwell- 
ings in table 10-2 . 

10-15 



TABLE 10-1 - METAL DUCT AND VENT CONSTRUCTION, OTHER THAN DWELLINGS 



Minimum thickness 



Galvanized Steel Aluminum 
Diameter, or diagonal of rectan- U. S. gage B & S gage 
gular ducts, dimension in inches number number 



Up to 12 28 

12 - 20 26 

20-30 24 

30-48 22 

48-60 20 

60-90 18 

90 and over 16 



26 
24 
22 
20 
18 
16 
14 



1017.3 ONE AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS. 

1017.31 MATERIAL: Warm air supply ducts in heating and air-condi- 
tioning systems of one and two-family dwellings shall be constructed 
of aluminum, copper, galvanized steel, as specified in table 10-2, 
or other approved noncombustible materials of equal strength and 
durability. 

1017.32 SUPPORTS: All ducts shall be securely supported by metal 
or other approved noncombustible straps, hangers, lugs and brackets. 

TABLE 10-2 - DUCTS FOR DWELLINGS 



Diameter, or diagonal 
of rectangular ducts , 
dimensions in inches 



Minimum thickness and weight 
Tin Galvanized 
weight per steel Aluminum 

square U. S. gage B & S gage 
in pounds number number 



Up to 12 IC 107 

12-18 IX 135 

18 and over IX 135 



30 


26 


28 


26 


26 


24 



1017.33 CLEARANCES: Horizontal runs of such ducts shall be located 
not less than one (1) inch from adjacent combustible construction un- 
less insulated or protected as required in section 1017.4; and ducts 
in vertical partitions or concealed ceiling spaces shall be insulated 
in all cases with not less than twelve (12) pound asbestos paper 
with five-sixteenths (5/16) inch intermediate air space or protected 
with one-quarter 0%) inch air-cell asbestos or equivalent. 



10-16 



1017.4 HIGH TEMPERATURE DUCTS. 

1017.41 CONSTRUCTION: A single metal duct for a high temperature sys- 
tem which is enclosed in a combustible partition, or in a concealed 
ceiling space shall be of double construction with a continuous inter- 
vening air space of not less than one (1) inch; or the duct shall be 
covered on the exterior with approved noncombustible, insulating ma- 
terials not less than one-fourth (h) of an inch thick of air-cell as- 
bestos or its equivalent. Approved asbestos cement ducts, not less 
than one-quarter (h) inch thick, shall be insulated by an air-space 

of not less than one-eighth (1/8) inch. When not insulated, clear- 
ances shall comply with section 1011. 

1017.42 EXCEPTION: When sufficiently insulated to prevent more than 
two hundred and fifty (250) degrees F. temperature on the exterior, 
the clearances herein specified shall not be required. 

1017.5 DUCT LINING: The lining of high temperature ducts shall be of 
approved noncombustible materials. 

1017.6 COLD AIR DUCTS: The construction of cold air ducts shall comply 
with all the provisions governing warm air supply ducts except as to 
heat insulation. 

1017.7 FIRESTOPPING: Whenever the passage of ducts in walls, floors 
or partitions requires the removal of firestopping, the surrounding 
spaces shall be completely filled with approved noncombustible mater- 
ials; and the required clearance shall be maintained by a metal thimble 
which is filled with approved noncombustible insulating materials, or 
closed at both ends with metal collars. 

1017.8 DUCTS FROM WARM AIR FURNACES: The clearances of a metal duct 
from combustible materials for a distance of six (6) feet from warm 
air furnaces shall comply with section 1112. A duct which enters a 
floor, wall or partition of combustible construction within six (6) 
feet from the furnace shall change direction through an angle of ninety 
(90) degrees or more before it enters such floor, wall or shaft and 
shall be enclosed with approved fireresistive assemblies as required 

in section 1016 for duct shafts. 

1017.9 FIRE-CLAY VENTS: Where prohibited for use with gas-fired ap- 
pliances, fire-clay vents shall have a thickness of not less than one- 
half Qi) inch for an internal diameter of six (6) inches or less and 
three-quarter (3/4) inch for an internal diameter of more than six (6) 
inches. The joints shall be made gastight with caulked bell and spigot, 
sheet metal sleeves or galvanized iron bands of not less than No. 26 
U.S. gage, all thoroughly cemented and secured in place with high tem- 
perature cement mortar. 



10-17 



SECTION 1018.0 SPARK ARRESTORS 

All chimneys, stacks and flues including incinerator stacks, which 
emit sparks that create a fire hazard, shall be provided with a spark 
arrestor of approved noncombustible construction in which the maximum 
size of mesh shall not exceed three-quarter (3/4) inches. The total 
area of spark arrestors shall be not less than four (4) times the flue 
area. 



10-18 



Reference Standards - Article 10 



ASTM 


C106 


1967 


ASTM 


C178 


1958 


ASTM 


C270 


1971 


ASTM 


C279 


1954 


ASTM 


C315 


1972 


ASTM 


C401 


1968 


ANSI 


A131.1 


1971 


NFPA 


211 


1972 


ULI 


103 


1964 


ULI 


641 


1965 


ANSI 


A62.4 


1947 


ANSI 


Z21.12 


1937 



Refractories for Incineraotrs 

Air Setting Refractory Mortar 

Mortar for Unit Masonry 

Chemical-Resistant Masonry Units 

Clay Flue Linings 

Castable Refractories 

Factory-Built Chimneys 

Chimneys, Fireplaces and Venting 
Systems 

Factory-Built Chimneys 

Testing Standards for Low Temperature 
Type L Venting Systems 

Sizes of Flue Linings 

Listing Requirements for Draft Hoods 



10-19 



ARTICLE 11 



HEATING EQUIPMENT AND APPLIANCES- 
MOUNTING, CLEARANCES AND CONNECTIONS 



SECTION 1100.0 SCOPE 

The provisions of this article shall control the construction, in- 
spection and maintenance of all heating, blower and exhaust systems 
in all buildings and structures in respect to structural strength, 
fire safety and operation. 

1100.1 ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE: All such systems and equip- 
ment constructed, installed and maintained in accordance with the 
applicable standards listed in the reference standards of this ar- 
ticle shall be deemed to conform to the provisions of this code. 

1100.11 COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS REGULATIONS: All installa- 
tions of gas appliances must comply with the Massachusetts Code for 
Installation of Gas Appliances and Gas Piping established under Chap- 
ter 737, Acts of 1960. The construction, installation and operation 
of oil burning equipment is subject to the provisions of FPR-3, es- 
tablished in accordance with Chapter 148, Section 10 of the M.G.L.A, 
as amended. The construction, installation, testing and inspection 
of boilers, air tanks, ammonia compressor valves, and refrigeration 
and air-conditioning systems of five (5) tons or more capacity are 
subject to the Rules and Regulations issued by the Board of Boiler 
Rules under authority of Chapter 146 of the M.G.L.A., as amended. 

1100.2 COOPERATING AGENCIES: Nothing herein contained shall be 
deemed to nullify the provisions of other legal statutes or regu- 
lations of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts governing the opera- 
tion and maintenance of boilers and other heating appliances and 
equipment . 

1100.3 LABELED HEATING AND COOKING APPLIANCES: Approved oil-fired 
warm air furnaces, floor furnaces, unit heaters, domestic incinera- 
tors, cooking and heating stoves and ranges and other heating equip- 
ment, inspected and approved by approved agencies shall be accepted 
by the building official when installed with the reduced clearance 
and details of installation therein recommended provided they meet 
the requirements of this code for fire protection. 

1100.4 CLEARANCE FROM COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: All heating and 
cooking appliances shall be installed with adequate clearances from 
combustible construction or shall be provided with integral insula- 
tion of the appliance of fire-protection of the structural members 
so that continued or intermittent operation shall not raise the tem- 
perature on the surface of combustible floors, walls or partitions 
above two hundred and fifty (250) degrees F. 

11-1 



SECTION 1101.0 DEFINITIONS 

BOILER: a heating appliance intended to supply hot water or steam 
for space and heating, processing or power purposes. 

FLOOR FURNACE: a self-contained furnace suspended from the floor 
of the space which is being heated, with means of observing the 
flame and lighting the furnace from such space. 

LOW PRESSURE BOILER: a steel or cast iron boiler in which the maxi- 
mum allowable gage working pressure is limited to fifteen (15) 
pounds per square inch for steam and thirty (30) pounds per square 
inch for hot water. 

HEATING APPLIANCE: any device designed or constructed for the gen- 
eration of heat from solid, liquid or gaseous fuel or electricity. 

HIGH PRESSURE BOILER: a boiler in which steam or other vapor to be 
used externally to itself , is generated at a pressure of more than 
fifteen (15) pounds per square inch gage. 

SPACE HEATER (ROOM HEATER) : an above-the-f loor device for direct 
heating of the space in and adjacent to that in which the device 
is located without external heating pipes or ducts. 

UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSEL: a closed metal vessel which contains air, 
steam, gas or liquid pressure in excess of fifty (50) pounds per 
square inch gage which is supplied from an external source. 

UNIT HEATER: an appliance which consists of an integral combination 
of heating element and fan within a common enclosure and which is 
located within or adjacent to the space to be heated. 

WALL HEATER: a unit heater which is supported from or recessed in 
the wall of the room or space to be heated . 

WARM AIR FURNACE: a solid, liquid or gas-fired appliance for heat- 
ing air to be distributed with or without duct systems to the space 
to be heated. 

MECHANICAL WARM AIR FURNACE: a warm air furnace equipped with a fan 
to circulate the air. 



SECTION 1102.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

Plans and specifications for the installation, repair, extension 
or removal of any heating appliance herein defined or of a heating, 
blower or exhaust system shall be submitted to the building official 
and a permit shall be secured prior to the commencement of any in- 
stallation, except as herein provided. 

1102.1 MATTER COVERED: The plans and specifications shall show in 
sufficient detail all pertinent features and clearances of the ap- 
pliances and systems including size and type of apparatus, construction 

11-2 



of flue, stack or chinmey, stack connections, kind of fuel, method of 
operation and the method preventing the emission with the products of 
combustion of solids and gases detrimental to health. 

1102.2 PERMIT: Upon approval of the plans, a permit shall be secured 
from the building official before any work Is started on the Instal- 
lation; and the permit or a copy thereof shall be posted at the site 
at all times during the course of Installation. 



SECTION 1103.0 BOILERS AND UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS 

1103.1 COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS REGULATIONS: All boilers and 
unflred pressure vessels shall be subject to the provisions of Chap- 
ter 146 of the M.G.L.A., as amended. 

1104.0 SMOKE ABATEMENT: All furnaces and heating appliances fired 
with solid or liquid fuels which are subject to the provisions of 
section 1102, Including all rubbish burners and Incinerators, shall 
be so designed that they will not discharge under normal conditions 
of operation excessive smoke, soot, cinders, flyash or other mater- 
ials which are deleterious to the safety or health of the public. 
Under any circumstances, any combustion device intended for use as 
specified in this section must conform to the applicable standards 
of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts relative to control of emissions 
and air quality standards. 



SECTION 1105.0 INDUSTRIAL HEATING APPLIANCE CLASSIFICATION 

1105.1 LOW HEAT APPLIANCES: A steam boiler which operates at fifty 
(50) pounds per square inch or less gage pressure; or a steam boiler 
of less than ten (10) boiler horse power, regardless of operating 
pressure; or any equipment otherwise classified as a medium heat ap- 
pliance, but not larger than one hundred (100) cubic feet in size, 
in which the products of combustion at the point of entrance to the 
flue under normal operating conditions have a temperature of six 
hundred (600) degrees F. or less shall be calsslfied as a low heat 
appliance. 

Low heat appliances shall include among others: 

Baking Ovens Forge Furnaces (Solid fuel-fired) 

Candy Furnaces Gypsum Kilns 

Coffee Ovens Lead Melting Furnaces 

Core Ovens Parafflne Furnaces 

Fertilizer Ovens Resin Melting Furnaces 
Zinc Amalgamating Furnaces 

1105.2 MEDIUM HEAT APPLIANCES: A steam boiler which operates at fifty 
(50) pounds or more per square inch gage pressure; or a steam boiler 

of over ten (10) boiler horse power regardless of operating pressure, 
or any heat appliance, in which the products of combustion at the 
point of entrance to the flue have a temperature of between six hvin- 
dred (600) degrees and one thousand (1000) degrees F. under normal 



11-3 



operating conditions shall be classified as a medium heat appliance. 
Medium heat appliances shall include among others : 

Alabaster Gypsum Kilns Gas Producers 

Annealing Furnaces Hardening Furnaces 

Charcoal Furnaces Lime Kilns 

Feed Dryers (direct fired) Linseed Oil Boiling 

Fertilizer Dryers (direct Pulp Dryers (direct fired) 

fired) Wood Distilling Furnaces 

Galvanizing Furnaces Wood Gas Retorts 

1105.3 HIGH HEAT APPLIANCES: Any appliance rated at higher horse- 
power or operating at higher temperatures or pressures than a low or 
medium heat appliance shall be classified as a high heat appliance. 
High heat appliances shall include among others: 

Bessemer Retorts Cupolas 

Blast, Billet and Bloom and Glass Kilns and Furnaces 

Open Hearth Furnaces Porcelain Baking and Glazing Kilns 

Brass Furnaces Reverberatory Furnaces 

Cement, Brick and Tile Kilns Welding Furnaces 

Coal and Water Gas Retorts Wood Carbonizing Furnaces 



SECTION 1106.0 FIRE RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT APPLIANCE 
FOUNDATIONS 

Unless specifically exempted in section 1109 , all floor-mounted in- 
dustrial heat appliances shall be mounted on the ground, or on a foun- 
dation of the following specified f ireresistive construction with 
the required noncombustible insulated flooring or finish. No com- 
bustible material shall be permitted against the underside of the 
appliance or under the foundation unless specifically exempted. 
Such construction and insulation shall extend not less than the spec- 
ified distances from the sides of the appliance. The f ireresistive 
floor and its finish shall have equal heat insulation value as the 
protection herein required or such protection shall cover the entire 
surface under the appliance. The installation of heating appliances 
which operate at higher temperatures or pressures and industrial 
power or process boilers and furnaces shall be governed by accepted 
engineering practice. 

1106.1 LOW HEAT APPLIANCES: Under a low heat appliance, the floor 
shall be of masonry or other noncombustible construction which affords 
not less than two (2) hour f ireresistance and shall extend not less 
than twelve (12) inches beyond the appliance on all sides. When solid 
fuel is used, the floor on the firing side or where the ashes are re- 
moved shall be protected for at least eighteen (18) inches with not 
less than one-quarter 0%) inch asbestos lumber covered with No. 24 
U.S. gage sheet metal, or its approved equivalent. 



11-4 



1106.2 MEDIUM HEAT APPLIANCES: Under a medium heat appliance, 
the floor shall be of masonry or other noncombustible construc- 
tion which affords not less than three (3) hours f ireresistance 
and shall extend not less than three (3) feet beyond the appliance 
on all sides. When solid fuel is used, the fireresistive floor 
shall extend not less than eight (8) feet at the front or side 
from which the appliance is fired or the ashes are removed and 
shall be protected with not less than No. 24 U.S. gage sheet metal. 

1106.3 HIGH HEAT APPLIANCES: Under a high heat appliance, the 
floor shall be of masonry or other noncombustible construction which 
affords not less than four (4) hours f ireresistance and shall extend 
not less than ten (10) feet beyond the appliance and not less than 
thirty (30) feet at the front or side where hot products are removed 
and shall be protected with not less than No. 24 U.S. gage sheet metal. 



SECTION 1107.0 MOUNTING EXCEPTIONS FOR HEAT APPLIANCES 

When heat appliances are approved for installation on combustible 
construction they shall be mounted in accordance with the conditions 
of the approval and within the limitations of this section. 

1107.1 TWENTY-FOUR INCH CLEARANCE: When medium heat appliances are 
mounted on legs which provide an open ventilated space of not less 
than twenty-four (24) inches in height under the base and the appli- 
ance is arranged to prevent flame or hot gases from coming into con- 
tact with the base, the supporting floor shall be protected with four 
(4) inches of hollow clay or concrete tile covered with sheet metal 
of not less than twenty-four (24) U.S. gage. The masonry tile course 
shall be laid with ends unsealed and joints matched so as to provide 
through circulation of air. 

1107.2 EIGHTEEN INCH CLEARANCE: When low heat appliances are mounted 
on legs which provide an open ventilated space of not less than 
eighteen (18) inches in height under the base, and one or more metal 
baffles are furnished between the burners and the floor and the ap- 
pliance is arranged to prevent flame or hot gases from coming in con- 
tact with the base, the supporting floor shall be insulated with not 
less than one-quarter {h) inch asbestos mill board covered with No. 

24 U.S. gage steel sheets under the appliance, projecting not less 
than eighteen (18) inches from the sides of the appliance where fired 
and where hot products of combustion are removed. 

1107.3 EIGHT INCH CLEARANCE: When low heat appliances are mounted 
on legs which provide an open ventilated space of eight (8) inches 
in height under the base, and the appliance is arranged to prevent 
flame or hot gases from coming into contact with the base, the sup- 
porting floor shall be protected with not less than three-eighths 
(3/8) inch asbestos mill board covered with not less than No. 24 
U.S. gage sheet metal; and said protection shall project at least 
six (6) inches beyond all sides of the appliance and eighteen (18) 
inches therefrom on firing sides and where hot products of combus- 
tion are removed. 



11-5 



1107.4 FOUR INCH CLEARANCE: When low heat appliances are mounted 
on legs which provide an open ventilated space of not less than four 
(4) inches in height under the base, and the appliance is so arranged 
as to prevent the flame or hot gases from coming in contact with the 
base, the supporting floor shall be protected with four (4) inches 

of hollow clay or concrete tile covered with sheet metal of not less 
than No. 24 U.S. gage. The masonry tile course shall be laid as pro- 
vided in section 1109.1. 

1107.5 DOUBLE TILE BASE PROTECTION: When low heat appliances are not 
mounted on legs, the supporting floor shall be protected with two (2) 
courses of four (4) inch hollow clay or concrete tile covered with a 
three-sixteenth (3/16) inch steel plate. The tile courses shall be 
laid at right angles to each other, with the ends unsealed and joints 
matched in such manner as to provide a free circulation of air through 
the hollow masonry. On the firing side or where hot products of com- 
bustion are removed, the mounting and protection shall extend not less 
than eighteen (18) inches from the side of the appliance. 

1107.6 WATER-COOLED BASE: A low heat boiler with a water-cooled base, 
which has a grate area of less than three (3) square feet or one in 
which the combustion chamber is located not less than twelve (12) in- 
ches above the floor, may rest directly on a sheet metal base of not 
less than No. 14 U.S. gage steel without heat insulation on combus- 
tible construction. 



SECTION 1108.0 MOUNTING EXCEPTIONS FOR HOUSE HEATING APPLIANCES 

Boilers and furnaces used for heating buildings and structures in- 
cluding low pressure steam and hot water boilers, warm air furnaces 
and floor mounted direct-fired unit heaters shall be installed in 
accordance with accepted engineering standards listed in the ref- 
erence standards of this article within the limitations of this code 
governing fire protection and fire safety. Mounting of such heating 
equipment shall conform with section 1108 for low heat appliances 
except as follows : 

1108.1 FOUR INCH CLEARANCE: When heating boilers and furnaces that 
are mounted on legs which provide an open ventilated space of not 
less than four (4) inches in height under the base, the floor shall 
be protected with not less than one-quarter (hi) inch mill board cov- 
ered with sheet metal of not less than No. 24 U.S. gage which shall 
extend not less than six (6) inches beyond the appliances and not 
less than eighteen (18) inches where ashes are removed; 

1108.2 TILE MASONRY MOUNTING: When heating boilers and furnaces are 
not mounted on legs, the floor shall be protected with hollow clay or 
concrete tile masonry not less than four (4) inches in thickness com- 
plying with section 1109.4, extending not less than eighteen (18) 
inches for ash removal; 



11-6 



1108.3 WATER BASE TYPE: All floor insulation herein required may 
be omitted under heating boilers of the water-cooled base type when 
the water jacket extends under all of the ash pit and fire box or 
under the entire fire chamber when there is no ash pit. 

1108.4 MECHANICAL WASM AIR FURNACES: All floor insulation herein 
required may be omitted under mechanical warm air furnaces when the 
fire chamber provides a completely ventilated air space of not less 
than eighteen (18) inches in height beneath the firing chamber and 
at least one (1) metal baffle is provided between firing chamber 
and floor. 

1108.5 ONE AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS: The mounting and clearances 
herein defined may be modified for heating installations in one- and 
two-family dwellings as required under the specific provisions in 
this code for gas boilers, warm air furnaces, floor furnaces, unit 
and space heaters. 



SECTION 1109.0 MOUNTING EXCEPTIONS FOR RESTAURANT APPLIANCES 

Floor mounted restaurant type cooking appliances including ranges, 
ovens, boilers and similar heating appliances designed for use in 
hotel and restaurant kitchens shall conform to section 1108 for low 
heat appliances except as follows: 

1109.1 EIGHTEEN INCH CLEARANCE: When restaurant type appliances 
are mounted on legs which provide an open ventilated space of not 
less than eighteen (18) inches in height under the base or which 
have no burners, oven or broiler within eighteen (18) inches of 
the floor, no special floor protection shall be required provided 
there is at least one (1) metal baffle between burners and floor; 

1109.2 EIGHT INCH CLEARANCE: When restaurant type appliances are 
mounted on legs which provide an open ventilated space of not less 
than eight (8) inches in height under the base, the floor shall be 
protected as provided in section 1107.3; 

1109.3 FOUR INCH CLEARANCE: When restuarant type appliances are 
mounted on legs which provide an open ventilated space of not less 
than four (4) inches in height under the base, the floor shall be 
protected as required in section 1107.4; 

1109.4 DOUBLE TILE MOUNTING: When restaurant type appliances are 
not mounted on legs, the floor under the appliance shall be protec- 
ted as required in section 1107.5 with a double tile base. 



SECTION 1110.0 MOUNTING EXCEPTIONS FOR DOMESTIC APPLIANCES 

Domestic type floor mounted heating and cooking appliances includ- 
ing stoves, ranges, space heaters, steam and hot water radiators and 
water heaters, shall conform to section 1108 for low heat appliances 
except as follows: 

11-7 



1110.1 EIGHTEEN INCH CLEARANCE: When domestic heating and cooking 
appliances are mounted on legs which provide an open ventilated 
space not less than eighteen (18) inches in height under the base 

or which have no burners, oven or broiler within eighteen (18) inches 
of the floor, no special floor protection shall be required provided 
there is at least one (1) metal baffle between the comers and the 
floor; 

1110.2 FOUR INCH CLEARANCE: When domestic heating and cooking ap- 
pliances are mounted on legs which provide an open ventilated space 
not less than four (4) inches in height under the base, the floor 
shall be protected with sheet metal of not less than No. 24 U.S. gage 
or other approved noncombustible material. When solid fuel-fired, 
the protection shall not extend not less than eighteen (18) inches 

on sides where ashes are removed. 

1110.3 TILE MASONRY MOUNTING: When domestic heating and cooking ap- 
pliances are not mounted on legs, the floor shall be protected as re- 
quired in section 1109.4. 



SECTION 1111.0 SIDE AND TOP CLEARANCES 

Clearances shall be provided from wood and Cither combustible con- 
struction in walls, ceilings and partitions adjacent to heating ap- 
pliance and equipment as follows : 

1111.1 LOW HEAT APPLIANCES: A low heat appliance shall be installed 

to provide a clearance from combustible material of not less than eighteen 
(18) inches at the top, sides and rear and of not less than four (4) 
feet at the front; 

1111.2 MEDIUM HEAT APPLIANCES: A medium heat appliance shall be in- 
stalled to provide a clearance from combustible material of not less 
than three (3) feet at the sides and rear, of not less than four (4) 
feet at the top, and of not less than eight (8) feet at the front or 
sides where hot products of combustion are removed; 

1111.3 HIGH HEAT APPLIANCES: A high heat appliance shall be installed 
to provide a clearance from combustible material of not less than ten 
(10) feet at the sides and rear, of not less than fifteen (15) feet at 
the top, and of not less than thirty (30) feet at the front or sides 
where hot products of combustion are removed. 



SECTION 1112.0 CLEARANCE EXCEPTIONS 

The building official may approve the installation of heating appli- 
ances with lesser clearances than specified in section 1113 within the 
limitations herein provided; and such variations shall be cited in the 
conditions of approval together with the reason therefor. Heating ap- 
pliances labeled by authoritative testing agencies which are approved 
for installation with lessor requirements than herein provided may be 
installed in accordance with the conditions of such approvals. 

11-8 



1112.1 CLEARANCE VARIATIONS: House heating appliances, domestic 
type ranges and space heaters may be installed with modified clear- 
ances as herein specified from combustible materials: 

Clearance in Inches 
Side and Smoke- 
Top Rear Front pipe 



Heating boilers and furnaces when water 

or masonry jacketed 6 

When jacketed with Ih" asbestos cement. 9 
Mechanical warm air with 250o F. temp- 

ature limit control 6 

Domestic ranges and stoves 36 

Ranges and stove with fire clay lining 24 

Space heaters 36 

Water heaters 12 



6 


48 


18 


6 


48 


18 


6 


48 


18 


18 


36 


18 


18 


24 


18 


18 


36 


18 


12 


12 


18 



1112.2 GAS-FIRED EQUIPMENT: The front clearance for boilers and 
furnaces which are gas-fired may be reduced to eighteen (18) inches. 
Gas-fired ranges and steam or hot water radiators may be reduced to 
six (6) inch front, side and rear clearances. Vent pipes for gas- 
fired appliances shall conform to section 1011. 

1112.3 FIRE PROTECTION: The clearances from combustible materials 
or construction for all types of heating appliances, systems, pipes, 
flues, and vents which contain hot gases may be decreased from those 
required elsewhere in this code when the exposed construction is pro- 
tected with noncombustible materials to afford the f ireresistances 
specified in table 11-1, or the equivalent protection is secured by 
an approved arrangement of plates and baffles . 

TABLE 11-1 - REDUCED WALL AND CEILING CLEARANCES 



Fireresistance of 
protected construction 



Fraction of specifed clearances 
Top Sides and rear 



1/3-hour seven-eighths five-eighths 

1/2-hour three-quarters one-half 

3/4-hour five-eighths three-eighths 

1-hour one-half one-quarter 



1112.4 MASONRY ENCLOSURES: When appliances of low or medium heat 
capacity are insulated on the exterior with approved masonry, the 
clearances from combustible materials or construction may be reduced 
to two-thirds (2/3) of the specified clearances. 



11-9 



SECTION 1113.0 BOILER ROOMS 

1113.1 ENCLOSURES: Except in one and two-family dwellings and as 
specifically required for industrial furnaces and accessory equipment 
or for high hazard uses in article 4, all heating boilers installed 
in a building or structure shall be located in a separate room or 
compartment completely enclosed by floors, walls and ceilings of the 
required f ireresistance; but in no case shall the enclosure of boiler 
rooms have less than two (2) hour f ireresistance for high pressure 
boilers and not less than three-quarter (3/4) hours for low pressure 
boilers. 

1113.2 HIGH HAZARD USES: When required by the provisions of article 
4, all boiler rooms connected with high hazard use groups and special 
occupancies, including uses involving explosion hazards in section 
400.6, dry cleaning plants in section 411.3 and storage or public 
garages in section 413.5 shall be separately enclosed with entrance 
from the outside of the building only; or shall be located in segre- 
gated accessory structures with walls, floors and roofs of fireproof 
or noncombustible construction. 

1113.3 BOILER ROOM EXITWAYS: Primary and emergency exitways from all 
boiler rooms shall be provided to comply with section 616.2. 

1113.4 AIR SUPPLY FOR COMBUSTION. 

1113.41 SOLID AND LIQUID FUELS: All rooms and spaces in which boilers, 
furnaces and other gas and electric-fired heating appliances are located 
shall be provided with sufficient fresh air supply to insure proper com- 
bustion. The direct connection of air inlets to ashpits or combustion 
chambers of boilers or furnaces shall be prohibited. Such air supply in- 
lets for solid or liquid fuel-fired equipment shall have a net area of 
not less than one (1) square inch for each five thousand (5000) B.T.U. 

of input rating or fraction thereof. 

1113.42 GAS-FIRED EQUIPMENT: For gas-fired equipment located in en- 
closed spaces, openings shall be provided near floor and ceiling of the 
enclosing wall or partition of not less than one (1) square inch net 
clear area for each one thousand (1000) B.T.U. input per hour when ade- 
quate air supply cannot be provided from adjacent spaces within the 
building. Openings to the outer air shall be installed and protected 
with approved corrosion-resistive screens with not larger than one-half 
Qi) inch mesh. 

1113.5 BOILER ROOM VENTILATION: Boiler rooms which contain a medium 
or high heat appliance shall be provided with gravity or mechanical 
ventilation complying with articles 5 and 18 to prevent the accumu- 
lation of hot air over or near the appliance. All other rooms con- 
taining heating appliances shall be provided with gravity or mechan- 
ical ventilation. 

1113.6 BOILER ROOM LOCATION: Boiler rooms shall not be located im- 
mediately below exitways; nor shall any space heater, floor furnace or 
other similar equipment be located in any aisle or passageway used as 
an element of a required means of egress from the building or structure. 

11-10 



1113.7 ONE AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS: In one and two-family dwell- 
ings, central heating warm air or floor furnaces may be located in 
utility rooms in the basement or first floor provided the appliances 
are mounted on noncombustible floor construction of not less than 
three-quarter (3/4) hour f ireresistance, insulated on top with not 
less than one-quarter (}i,) inch asbestos mill board, covered with No. 
24 U.S. gage metal or the equivalent. The enclosure of utility rooms 
on the first floor shall be of noncombustible construction with clear- 
ances and ventilation as herein provided. Heating furnaces shall not 
be installed in attics except of an approved type complying with the 
mounting and clearance provisions of this article and equipped with 
type B vents. 



SECTION 1114.0 ASH PITS AND BINS 

1114.1 ASH PIT ENCLOSURES: Ash pits and bins shall be constructed of 
masonry or concrete with walls not less than six (6) inches thick, or 
of steel or other approved noncombustible materials or combinations 
thereof as herein provided. 

1114.2 FLOORS AND ROOFS: The floor and roof of such pits and bins 
shall be of approved two (2) hour fireresistive construction; and the 
ceilings of rooms which contain uncovered ash pits shall be constructed 
of two (2) hour f ireresistance; except that roofs over ash pits may be 
constructed of approved noncombustible materials. 

1114.3 OPENING PROTECTIVES: All openings to ash storage bins shall be 
protected with tightly fitted approved sheet metal doors with metal 
frames and bucks securely anchored to the walls and roof. 



SECTION 1115.0 STEAM AND HOT WATER PIPES 

1115.1 CLEARANCES: Unless otherwise specifically provided in article 
4 for special uses and occupancies, all high pressure steam pipes shall 
have a minimum clearance of one (1) inch from all combustible materials; 
and when such pipes pass through combustible floors or partitions, the 
openings shall be protected by metal or other approved noncombustible 
sleeves; and vertical risers arranged in groups extending through two 
(2) or more stories shall be enclosed in a shaft of fireresistive con- 
struction as specified in section 1016. The clearance of low pressure 
steam and hot water piping in walls, floors, and ceilings of combustible 
construction shall be not less than one-half (}{) inch. 

1115.2 FLOOR SLEEVES: When heating pipes pass through floors which may 
be subject to serious flooding, metal sleeves shall be installed to a 
height of at least six (6) inches above the finished floor surface and 
shall be provided with perforated cap plates. 

1115.3 FIRESTOPPING: When heating pipes pass through floors and par- 
titions, the open sleeve space shall be filled with noncombustible 
materials. 



11-11 



1115.4 INSULATION: All coverings or insulation used on steam and 
hot water pipes shall be of approved noncombustible materials; and 
where such pipes pass through stock shelving or are in close prox- 
imity to other combustible materials, the insulation shall be not 
less than one (1) inch thick. 

1115.5 FREEZING TEMPERATURES: All concealed heating pipes located 
in exterior walls shall be protected against freezing in accordance 
with the approved rules. 

1115.6 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION: All heating pipes shall be in- 
stalled to provide for all expansion and contraction movements due 
to temperature changes. 

1115.7 HOT WATER LINE EXCEPTIONS: Hot water lines which are equipped 
with approved automatic temperature control devices which prevent a 
temperature of the circulating water in excess of one hundred and sev- 
enty (170) degrees F. shall be exempt from the requirements of section 
1117. 



SECTION 1116.0 HEATING PANELS 

Air chambers or spaces in walls, partitions or ceilings used as heat 
exchangers in warm air heating systems shall be used only with automatic 
temperature limit controls that cannot be set at more than two hundred 
(200) degrees F. Such spaces shall be entirely enclosed with noncom- 
bustible material with noncombustible interior linings. Where hung or 
supported from the wall or floor construction, the bases, hangers and 
other supports shall be of steel or other approved noncombustible 
materials. 



SECTION 1117.0 HOT AND COLD AIR DUCTS 

1117.1 HOT AIR DUCTS: Hot air ducts for both low and high temperature 
systems shall be constructed entirely of noncombustible material equiva- 
lent in structural strength to the materials specified in tables 10-1 and 
10-2 of section 1017. All vision panels for inspection purposes shall be 
constructed of wired glass or tightly fitted and secured metal panels. 

1117.2 COLD AIR DUCTS: Cold air ducts shall comply with all the provi- 
sions governing hot air supply ducts except in respect to the require- 
ments for heat insulation and clearance from combustible construction. 

1117.3 FLOOR OPENINGS: Where warm air ducts pass through combustible 
floors, the surrounding space shall be tightly fitted with asbestos 
cement or other noncombustible insulating material. Where such ducts 
enter combustible floors, walls or partitions within six (6) feet of 
the heating furnace, a five-sixteenth (5/16) inch clearance shall be 
provided around the duct for the entire six (6) foot length. Where 
required firestopping is removed from walls, floors and partitions by 
the passage of ducts, the surrounding space shall be completely filled 
with asbestos, mineral wool or other noncombustible materials. 



11-12 



1117.4 INTEGRAL DUCTS AND PLENUMS: When hot air ducts form an integral 
part of the structure, the duct walls shall be constructed of not less 
than one-half (h) hour f ireresistance except as provided for herein; 

1117.41 The attic space, if unoccupiable and of incombustible construction, 
may be used as supply or return air plenums provided the system is 
mechanical and all return air registers are provided with automatic 
incombustible dampers or with rate of rise thermostats and/or smoke 
detectors in the ceiling space or return air chamber of the mechanical 
unit that would shut down the unit or insolate (seal off) the space. In 

no case shall the plenum be continuous over exitway corridors, passage- 
ways or stairways. 

1117.42 The spaces within the envelope of noncombustible roof and floor 
construction may be used as plenums provided that: 

a) the ratio of the area of ceiling penetrations to ceiling area 
does not violate that permitted for the required fire rating of 
the assembly. 

b) the integrity of the firestopping and fire separations is not 
destroyed. 

c) all electric wiring conforms with section 300-22 of the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts Electrical Code. 

d) the ceiling material shall not be subject to deterioration or 
deformation from long exposure to temperatures of 250° F. , 

or from conditions of high humidity, excessive moisture and 
mildew. 

e) the ceiling material shall be supported by noncombustible 
materials having a melting point above 1400° F. 

f) the air entering shall not exceed 250° F. 

g) adequate provisions to prevent deterioration of structural 
components from condensation shall be made. 

1117.5 INSULATION: Only noncombustible exterior coverings shall be 
used on ducts carrying air at a temperature of more than two hundred 
(200) degrees F. and on the interior of ducts when required. 

1117.6 CLEARANCES: Clearances of hot air metal ducts from unprotected 
combustible construction shall be not less than one (1) inch unless the 
duct is insulated with not less than one-half (%) inch of approved 
noncombustible materials or the exposed construction is protected to 
afford not less than one-half (h) hour f ireresistance. 

1117.7 AIR RECIRCULATION: No return duct of a mechanical warm air 
system shall be permitted from a kitchen, bathroom or garage or other 
place in which flammable or noxious vapors may be present; nor shall the 
recirculation of air from one dwelling unit to another dwelling unit be 
permitted. 

1117.8 AIR FILTERS. 



11-13 



1117.81 CONSTRUCTION: Air filters shall be of a f lameresistive type 
which do not give off large volumes of smoke or other objectionable 
products of combustion in the event of fire. Air filters shall be 
kept clean in accordance with the approved rules. 

1117.82 FILTER COATINGS: Liquid adhesive coatings used on filters 
shall have a flash point not less than three hundred and fifty (350) 
degrees F. in an open cup tester. 

1117.9 AIR CONDITIONING: The construction and installation of fire 
doors, dampers, fresh air inlets, emergency controls and fire-ex- 
tinguishing equipment and outlets for air conditioning, ventilating and 
heating systems in other than one and two-family dwellings shall comply 
with the provisions of article 18. 



SECTION 1118.0 WARM AIR HEATING SYSTEMS 

1118.1 CLASSIFICATION: Warm air heating systems in one and two-family 
dwellings shall be classified as follows; 

1118.11 LOW TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS: Low temperature systems shall include 
all systems which use low pressure steam or hot water for heating the 
air and those systems which have automatically fired warm air furnaces 
equipped with fans to circulate the air. The operation shall be con- 
trolled by automatic limit temperature controls that cannot be set 
higher than two hundred (200) degrees F.; 

1118.12 HIGH TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS: High temperature systems shall 
include all gravity warm air hand-fired and automatically controlled 
systems in which the temperature limit controls can be set above 
two hundred (200) degrees F.; and any other system that does not 
conform to the requirements for low temperature systems. 



11-13A 



1118.2 FURNACE CONTROLS OF LOW TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS. 

1118.21 AUTOMATIC SHUT-OFF: The furnaces of an automatically-fired low 
temperature system which is equipped with an air-circulating fan shall 
be provided with an approved automatic control of the fuel supply 
whenever the temperature of the air in the furnace bonnet or at the main 
supply duct exceeds two hundred (200) degrees F. 

1118.22 OVER-RUN CONTROL: When the furnace is stoker-fired, it shall 
be equipped with an automatic over-run control to operate the fan when 
the air in the furnace bonnet or at the main supply duct reaches a 
temperature of two hundred (200) degrees F. after the stoker and fan 
have shut down in normal operation. 

1118.3 FURNACE CONTROLS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE SYSTEMS: A high tempera- 
ture system which has an automatic fuel supply controlled by thermostat 
shall have the same controls as a low temperature system; except that 
the temperature setting may permit a maximum of two hundred and fifty 
(250) degrees F. 

1118.4 WARM AIR FURNACES. 

1118.41 MOUNTING AND CLEARANCES: The mounting of warm air heating 
furnaces shall comply with section 1110 and clearances with section 
1114. Top clearances shall be measured from the top of the furnace 
bonnet or the warm air plenum chamber, whichever is higher. 

1118.42 GRAVITY SYSTEMS: Gravity warm air furnaces shall be encased in 
a double metal casing with intervening air space extending from the top 
of the casing down to the bottom of the fire-box. The top of the bonnet 
shall be insulated with not less than three (3) inches of sand or the 
equivalent in magnesia, asbestos or other approved noncombustible 
material. Gravity furnaces shall be equipped with automatic controls to 
shut off the fuel supply when the temperature of the warm air pipe at 
any point within twenty-four (24) inches of the furnace exceeds two 
hundred and fifty (250) degrees F. 

1118.5 REGISTERS. 

1118.51 COMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION: When a register is located in a 
floor or wall of combustible construction, the register box shall be 
covered with twelve (12) pound asbestos paper and a clear space of not 
less than five-sixteenth (5/16) inch shall be left between the sides of 
the box and any combustible material. 

1118.52 OVER-HEAD FURNACE REGISTER: When a register is installed in 
the floor over the furnace, the register box shall be of double construc- 
tion, with an intervening air space of not less than four (4) inches, 
except when the warm air duct is surrounded by a cold air passage. 

11-14 



1118.53 NON- AUTOMATIC SYSTEM: A system which is not automatically 
fired and which is not equipped with an approved temperature limit 
control shall be provided with dampers and shutters which are not 
capable of shutting off more than eighty (80) per cent of the total 
duct area; or in lieu thereof, one register or grille shall be in- 
stalled without a closeable shutter, and the duct leading thereto 
shall be installed without a damper . 

1118.54 RETURN AIR CONNECTIONS: Registers on more than one floor 
shall not be connected to the same vertical duct stack for return air 
to the heater. 



SECTION 1119.0 CENTRAL RECIRCULATING SYSTEMS 

1119.1 AIR SUPPLY: A central fan heating system of the recirculating 
type for use in structures with large open areas such as garages and 
airplane hangers, shall provide a positive air recirculation of at 
least one (1) cubic foot per minute when the average ceiling height 

is fifteen (15) feet or less; and with greater heights the air recir- 
culation shall be increased proportionately; but in no case shall less 
than five (5) per cent of the air moved by the fan be taken directly 
from outside the building. 

1119.2 AIR DUCT: Air ducts for fresh air shall be installed without 
dampers and shall be fully open at all times. 



SECTION 1120.0 FLAMMABLE VAPOR SYSTEMS 

1120.1 EXHAUST OUTLET: A duct designed to remove flammable vapors 
from a room of a building or structure under the requirements of sec- 
tion 403 shall lead as directly as possible to the outside air and the 
outlets shall be kept not less than ten (10) feet clear from combus- 
tible construction or finish. 

1120.2 LOCATION OF DUCTS: Flammable vapor ducts shall not be incor- 
porated in a wall except to pass directly through it. Such ducts shall 
never be located in a fire wall or a fire division wall. 

1120.3 TRANSMISSION OF POWER: The motive power for fans located within 
the room from which flammable vapors are removed shall be transmitted 
from an outside source through a shaft operating in a bushed shaft hole, 
unless otherwise approved by the building official. 



SECTION 1121.0 UNIT HEATERS 

1121.1 CLEARANCES: Steam and hot water heaters shall be installed to 
provide clearances from combustible material of not less than one (1) 
inch to all heated portions thereof, including the steam and hot water 
supply piping. 



11-15 



1121.2 SUPPORTS: All ceiling type direct-fired unit heaters shall 
be substantially supported by metal hangers, brackets or other ap- 
proved noncombustible supports with the clearances specified for low 
heat appliances in sections 1113 and 1114. 

1121.3 WALL HEATERS: A wall heater shall not be located in a wall 
of combustible construction unless approved by the building official 
and shall be installed in accordance with the conditions of such 
approval . 

1121.4 FIREPLACE HEATERS: Unit gas-fired heaters, labeled for use 
in fireplace recesses, shall not be used elsewhere. 

1121.5 ROOM HEATERS: The installation or use of unlisted electric 
room heaters is prohibited. The installation or use of unlisted or 
unvented gas, oil or other fuel burning room heaters is prohibited. 



SECTION 1122.0 FLOOR FURNACES 

1122.1 LOCATION: A floor furnace shall be located so as to be readily 
accessible and shall not be installed in the floor of any corridor, 
aisle or passageway, nor in any exitway in a place of public assembly; 
nor shall any but a gas-fired floor furnace be installed above the first 
story of a building, and then only when the furnace assembly projects 
below the floor into a non-habitable space, enclosed in two (2) hour 
fireresistive walls, with clearances of at least six (6) inches on all 
sides and bottom, except as provided for one and two-family dwellings 

in section 1124.5 

1122.2 ENCLOSURES: Enclosures of floor furnaces shall be constructed 
entirely of noncombustible materials with a f irereslstance rating of 
not less than three-quarter (3/4) hours, provided with suitable means 
for combustion-air intake which furnishes adequate direct air supply to 
insure proper combustion complying with section 1115.42 and with means 
of access for purposes of servicing the furnace. 

1122.3 FURNACE SUPPORTS: Floor furnaces shall be installed only in 
floors of noncombustible construction of not less than two (2) hours 
f irereslstance, except as provided for one and two-family dwellings 
in section 1124.5 with the following clearances: 

1122.31 PIT CLEARANCES: Such floor furnaces, when other than gas- 
fired shall be mounted independently of the floor, grille with the 
following clearances: six (6) inches at the bottom and twelve (12) 
inches at the sides, except that the clearance on the control side 
shall be not less than eighteen (18) inches; 

1122.32 PIT WATERPROOFING: When there is likelihood of water rising 
above the bottom clearance, the pit shall be constructed with an ap- 
proved watertight enclosure with the sides extending not less than 
four (4) inches above the ground level. 



11-16 



1122.33 PIT ACCESS OPENINGS: The access foundation wall opening or 
floor trap door shall be at least eighteen by twenty-four (18x2A) in- 
ches in size; and the under floor passage to the furnace shall be at 
least twenty-four by twenty-four (24x24) inches in cross-section. 

1122.4 FURNACE CLEARANCES: Floor furnace clearances shall comply 
with section 1112 and flue and vent clearances with section 1011. 

1122.5 ONE AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS: Furnace enclosures may be con- 
structed of noncombustible materials with a f ireresistance of not less 
than three-quarter (3/4) hours and a minimum clearance of six (6) in- 
ches at sides and bottom for servicing. Means shall be provided for 
supporting the furnace when the floor grille is removed. 

1122.6 PRESSURE REGULATOR: The outlet duct temperatures shall be not 
greater than two hundred and fifty (250) degrees F. unless such instal- 
lation is specifically approved by the building official; and in gas- 
fired furnaces, a gas pressure regulator shall be provided so that the 
gas input does not exceed the manufacturer's rating. 



SECTION 1123.0 INDUSTRIAL FURNACES AND POWER BOILERS 

Industrial furnaces and power boilers shall be designed and installed 
to provide fire and structural safety based on their character, size, 
temperature and explosion hazard in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice and within the limitations of this code for high heat appliances. 

1123.1 FOUNDATIONS OF FURNACES: Foundations for high heat boilers, 
furnaces and other appliances shall be isolated and insulated from 
floor slabs, foundations and footings of the building. The founda- 
tion bed shall be properly insulated to avoid disintegration or other 
structural injury of the foundation due to high temperatures. 

1123.2 STRUCTURAL INSULATION. 

1123.21 STRUCTURAL FRAME: The furnace setting and supports shall not 
be located in direct contact with unprotected structural steel or re- 
inforced concrete framing, but shall be insulated or separated there- 
from by a clearance of not less than six (6) inches. 

1123.22 HEAT INSULATION: Steel or reinforced concrete framing adja- 
cent to a boiler or furnace in industrial plants and subject to temp- 
erature in excess of seven hundred and fifty (750) degrees F. shall be 
protected with fireproofing of not less than four (4) hour fireresis- 
tance, or the design stress shall be reduced to provide structual 
safety. 

1123.3 AIR SUPPLY: Sufficient air supply for combustion shall be pro- 
vided in conformity to section 1115. 

11-17 



1123.4 STATE APPROVAL: Thermal energy utilization units and ap- 
purtenances having an energy' input capacity of at least one hundred 
million BTU (100,000,000) per hour require the written approval of 
plans and specifications by the Massachusetts Department of Public 
Health in accordance with rules and regulations promulgated in ac- 
cordance with section 142B, Chapter 111, of M.G.L.A., as amended. 



SECTION 1124.0 UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS 

All unfired pressure vessels shall comply with the construction, 
clearance and fire protection requirements of this article for high 
pressure boilers designed for the generation of steam or power and 
with the boiler code standards listed in the references of this 
article. 

1124.1 INSPECTION: An owner or user shall not permit the operation 
or use of an unfired pressure vessel until such installation has been 
inspected for structural strength and safety and a certificate of 
operation has been secured from the authorized agency. 

1124.2 CERTIFICATE: The certificate of approval shall state the 
maximum pressure which may be maintained in the vessel. 

1124.3 IDENTIFICATION LABEL: Every approved unfired pressure ves- 
sel shall be assigned a serial number for the purpose of identifica- 
tion, which shall be stamped or otherwise permanently and prominently 
indicated thereon and recorded in the building department. 



SECTION 1125.0 RESTAURANT COOKING APPLIANCES 

All ranges, ovens, broilers and other miscellaneous low heat appli- 
ances of the types designed for floor mounting in hotel and restaurant 
kitchens shall comply with the provisions of sections 1109 and 1112 
for low heat appliances and as herein provided. 

1125.1 VENTILATING HOODS: Unless enclosed and vented in an approved 
manner, a range, candy kettle, cruller furnace, appliance for the fry- 
ing of bakery and confectionery products and any similar apparatus 
generating hot and noxious smoke and gases shall be provided with a 
ventilating hood and ducts to remove such smoke, gases and vapors di- 
rectly to the outer air. 

1125.2 CONSTRUCTION: Hoods and their ducts shall be constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials with tight joints and the width and 
length of the hood shall be not less than that of the appliance served. 

1125.21 HEIGHT: The hood shall be installed not more than seven (7) 
feet above the floor and shall completely cover the appliance served 
with not less than eighteen (18) inch clearances to combustible material 
unless the construction is protected as specified in section 1114.3. 



11-18 



1125.22 FLUE CONNECTION: The hood or duct from a restaurant range 
or similar appliance shall connect directly to an approved masonry 
flue or metal smokestack complying with article 10. Connections to 
any other ventilating system shall be prohibited. 

1125.3 VENTS: The vent of a floor-mounted restaurant type cooking 
appliance installed under a hood may discharge into the space under 
the hood, providing the vent extends through or beyond any grease 
screen installed in the hood. 

1125.4 FILTERS AND SCREENS: The exhaust duct shall be equipped with 
filters or screens which are readily accessible for removal and clean- 
ing to prevent grease from accumulating in the smoke flue, chimney or 
smokestack to which it is connected. 



SECTION 1126.0 HOT WATER SUPPLY HEATERS 

All range boilers, hot water heaters and storage tanks shall be 
equipped with temperature limit controls and pressure relief valves 
as herein required and shall conform to the applicable accepted engi- 
neering practice standards listed in the reference section of this 
article. 

1126.1 AUTOMATIC HOT WATER SUPPLY: Automatic or remote control igni- 
tion equipment on domestic hot water heating devices using liquid fuel 
shall be installed only in connection with a burner equipped with a 
safety pilot or other approved device arrange to automatically shut 
off the fuel supply to the main burners if the pilot flame is extin- 
guished. All water heaters with an automatic remote-control pilot, 

or with means of lighting other than a manual method, shall be equipped 
with approved down draft diverters on the flue pipe from the heater 
arranged to prevent extinguishment of the pilot or heating flame. 

1126.2 DIRECT-FIRED GAGE EQUIPMENT: Approved relief valves and pres- 
sure gages shall be installed in all direct-fired cast iron water heaters 
with cored sections, and in all heaters with a check valve located be- 
tween the water meter and the heater or tank. 

1126.3 PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES: The rate of discharge of pressure 
valves shall limit the pressure to rise to ten (10) per cent of the 
pressure at which the valve is set to open for any given heat input. 

1126.4 TEMPERATURE RELIEF VALVES: Temperature relief valves shall 
be capable of discharging sufficient hot water at two hundred and ten 
(210) degrees F. without any further rise in temperature. 

1126.5 VACUUM RELIEF VALVES: All copper tanks shall be equipped with 
approved vacuum relief valves. 

1126.6 RELIEF OUTLET WASTES: The size of relief outlet waste valves 
shall be less than the cross-sectional area of the valve discharge 
outlet. No pressure, temperature or other type relief valve shall 
discharge directly to the building drainage system. 



11-19 



1126.7 PROHIBITED USES: No solid or liquid fuel or gas-fired water 
heaters shall be installed in bathrooms, bedrooms, or other habitable 
spaces or in any space with a volume of less than three hundred (300) 
cubic feet unless such space contains adequate provision for ventila- 
tion, clearances, and combustion air; nor shall vent pipes designed 
for use with gas appliances be used with solid or liquid fuel-fired 
equipment except as provided for alternate flue construction. 



SECTION 1127.0 OIL BURNERS 

1127.1 REGULATIONS OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS: Oil burners 
and related equipment are subject to the Rules and Regulations prom- 
ulgated in FPR-3, made in accordance with the provisions of Section 
10, of Chapter 148 of the M.G.L.A., as amended. Wnvented room heaters 
are regulated by section 1011.52. 



SECTION 1128.0 DRYING ROOMS 

A drying room or dry kiln installed within a building shall be con- 
structed entirely of approved noncombustible materials or assemblies 
of such materials with the required f ireresistance rating based on the 
fire hazard of the contents and the process as regulated by the approved 
rules or as required in article 4 for special uses. 

1128.1 PIPING CLEARANCE: All overhead heating pipes shall have a clear- 
ance of not less than two (2) inches from combustible contents of the 
dryer . 

1128.2 INSULATION: When the operating temperature of the dryer is one 
hundred and seventy-five (175) degrees F. or more, metal enclosures 
shall be insulated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 
twelve (12) inches of air space, or the metal walls shall be lined with 
one-quarter (h) inch asbestos mill board or other approved equal insu- 
lation. 

1128.3 FIRE PROTECTION: Drying rooms designed for high hazard mater- 
ials and processes, including dry cleaning and other special uses pro- 
vided for in article 4, shall be protected by approved automatic sprink- 
ler or fog systems, manually controlled steam smothering systems, or 
other approved fire-extinguishing equipment conforming to the provisions 
of article 12. 



SECTION 1129.0 NON-FUEL-FIRED INCINERATORS 

Non-Fuel-Fired Incinerators are prohibited by the regulations published 
by the Department of Public Health in accordance with Section 142D of 
Chapter 111 of the M.G.L.A., as amended. 



SECTION 1130.0 FUEL-FIRED INCINERATORS 

All fuel-fired incinerators shall conform to the requirements of this 
section. 

11-20 



1130.1 COMBUSTION CHAMBER: 

1130.11 NINE SQUARE FEET GRATE AREA: The combustion chamber for in- 
cinerators with a capacity of less than two hundred and fifty (250) 
pounds refuse per hour or grate area not more than nine (9) square 
feet shall be constructed of eight (8) inches of approved masonry 
which is lined with four and one-half (4%) inches of fire brick laid 
in fire clay mortar. 

1130.12 OVER NINE SQUARE FEET GRATE AREA: When the capacity exceeds 
two hundred and fifty (250) pounds of refuse per hour or grate area 
more than nine (9) square feet, the combustion chamber shall be con- 
structed of eight (8) inches of approved masonry which is lined with 
nine (9) inches of fire brick laid in fire clay mortar. 

1130.13 STEEL ENCLOSURE: The exterior four (4) inches of masonry on 
the unfired side may be replaced by a steel plate casing not less than 
three-sixteenth (3/16) inches thick. 

1130.2 STRUCTURAL REINFORCEMENT: The walls of the combustion chamber 
shall be strongly braced and stayed with structural steel shapes, or 
reinforced concrete or other approved reinforcement. 

1130.3 LOCATION: Combustion chambers and waste material bins or con- 
tainers shall be located in a room or compartment devoted to no other 
purpose; or they may be located in the same room with the boiler or 
heating plant. Such room shall be separated from the rest of the build- 
ing by floors, walls and ceilings of not less than two (2) hours fire- 
resistance with approved one and one-half (1^5) hour fire doors or the 
approved labeled equivalent in all openings complying with article 9. 

1130.4 INCINERATOR SMOKEPIPES. 

1130.41 THICKNESS OF METAL: Flue connections and breechings shall be 
constructed of not less than No. 16 U.S. gage sheet metal when less 
than twelve (12) inches and No. 12 U.S. gage metal when more than 
twelve (12) inches in diameter or largest dimension. 

1130.42 LINING: When the breeching is between twelve (12) and 
eighteen (18) inches in diameter, it shall be lined with not less 
than two and one-half (,2h) inches of fire brick; and when it is 
over eighteen (18) inches in diameter, it shall be lined with not 
less than four and one-half (^h) inches of fire brick laid in fire 
clay mortar. 

1130.43 COMBINED BREECHINGS: When an incinerator breeching combines 
with a smokepipe from another appliance, such connection shall also 
be lined as required for a direct incinerator flue connection; except 
that when the cross-sectional area of the combined connection is not 
less than four (4) times the area of the incinerator breeching, the 
lining may be omitted. 



11-21 



1130.5 CLEARANCE OF INCINERATOR SMOKEPIPES: A flue connection or 
breeching shall have a clearance on all sides from combustible ma- 
terials or construction of not less than thirty-six (36) inches, 
except as provided in section 1114.3. 



SECTION 1131.0 MISCELLANEOUS REFUSE INCINERATORS 

1131.1 INTEGRAL CONSTRUCTION: When constructed as an integral part 
of a building, incinerators for the reduction of garbage, refuse or 
other waste materials shall be installed in accordance with the 
provisions of section 1134.0. 

1131.2 PORTABLE EQUIPMENT: Incinerators that do not form an inte- 
gral part of the building construction shall comply with the provi- 
sions of sections 1105, 1106 and 1123 for low or medium heat indus- 
trial furnaces. The chimneys and smokepipes shall comply with the 
requirements of sections 1005, 1009 and 1010 for low and medium tem- 
perature flues and smokestacks. 



SECTION 1132.0 REFUSE CHUTES 

1132.1 CHUTE DISCHARGE: A refuse chute shall not feed directly to 
the combustion chamber of an incinerator, but shall discharge into an 
enclosed room or bin separated from the incinerator room by ceiling 
and walls of not less than two (2) hours f ireresistance, unless other- 
wise approved by the building official. 

1132.2 CHUTE ENCLOSURES: Refuse chutes shall be enclosed with walls 
of masonry of not less than two (2) hour f ireresistance rating for in- 
terior chutes and of noncombustible (type 2) construction for exterior 
chutes. All chutes shall be support