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Full text of "Commonwealth of Massachusetts state building code"

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/commonwealthofma1980mass 



Commonwealth of Massachusetts 



State Building Code 



Fourth Edition 



JSHED BY THE OFFICE OF THE MASsMlUSEf ^S ^^^M0W&M 
MICHAEL J CONNOLLY, SECRETARY / , /; 



The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

SECRETARY OF STATE 



REGULATION FILING AND PUBLICATION 



L REGULATION CHAPTER NUMBER AND HEADING: 

780 CMR: THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

2. NAME OF AGENCY: 

STATE BOARD OF BUILDING REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 

3. THIS DOCUMENT IS REPRINTED FROM THE CODE OF MASSACHUSETTS REGULATIONS 
AND CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING: 

THIS IS THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE AS ADOPTED 
BY THE STATE BOARD OF BUILDING REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 
AND ON FILE WITH THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE. 



UNDER THE PROVISIONS OF MASSACHUSETTS GENERAL LAWS, CHAPTER 30A, SECTION 6 
AND CHAPTER 233, SECTION 75 THIS DOCUMENT MAY BE USED AS EVIDENCE OF THE 
ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS ON FILE WITH THE STATE SECRETARY. 



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COMPILED AS IN FULL FORCE AND EFFECT 9/30/82 



$24.00 



A TRUE COPY, ATTES 



MICHAEL JOSEPH CONNOLLY; 




SECRETARY OF STATE 



6 




The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

Office of the Secretary of State 
State Bookstore 

Michael Joseph Connolly, Secretary 



NOTICE 



WE REMIND YOU THAT THIS CODE, AS WELL AS ALL OTHER CODES, IS SUBJECT 
TO CHANGE BY AMENDMENT. THESE AMENDMENTS ARE EFFECTIVE WHEN PUBLISHED 
IN THE WEEKLY MASSACHUSETTS REGISTER AND ARE PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY 
THE SECRETARY AS REPLACEMENT PAGES TO THE CODE. THE SECRETARY WILL 
PUBLISH A NOTICE ABOUT THE AVAILABILITY OF THESE REPLACEMENT PAGES 
IN THE CENTRAL REGISTER . THIS ANNOUNCEMENT WILL APPEAR IN THE CENTRAL 
REGISTER PUBLISHED THE LAST WEEK OF JANUARY, APRIL, JULY AND OCTOBER. 
THE CENTRAL REGISTER IS AVAILABLE IN PUBLIC LIBRARIES AS WELL AS BY 
YEARLY SUBSCRIPTION. 




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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SPECIAL ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The following committees and organizations contributed toward the 
development of specific sections of the Massachusetts State Building 
Code: 



The Advisory Committep on Historic Buildings for developing 
the Basic Code provisions for historic buildings, the first 
in the nation, and for the basic work they performed on the 
Code provisions for existing buildings. 

The Advisory Committee on Code Provisions for the Reuse of 
Existing Buildings (Appendix S) for committee members. 

The National Bureau of Standards, Office of Building Standards 
and Code Services, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 

National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards, 
481 Carlisle Drive, Herndon, Virginia. 

International conference of Building Officials, 5360 South 
Workman Mill Road, Whittier, California. 

Southern Building Code Congress, International, 900 Montclair 
Road, Birmingham, Alabama. 

Association of Major Cities Building Officials, 1970 Chain 
Bridge Road, McLean, Virginia. 

National Association of Housing and Redevelopment Officials, 
2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 



A substantial portion of this Code has been copied from the BOCA 
Basic Building Code/1978, Seventh Edition, Copyright 1978, Building 
Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. All rights 
reserved. For further information write BOCA International, Inc. 
17926 South Halsted Street, Homewood, Illinois, 60430. 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 1 ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 

Section 

100. Scope 

101. Applicability 

102. Ordinary repairs 

103. Installation of service equipment 

104. Maintenance 

105. Change in existing use 

106. Alterations and repairs 

107. Building department 

108. Duties and powers of the building official and state inspector 

109. Rules and regulations 

110. Approval 

111. Inspection 

112. Right of entry 

113. Application for permit 

114. Permits 

115. Conditions of permit 

116. Demolition of structures 

117. Moving structures 

118. Fees 

119. Certification of use and occupancy 

120. Posting structures 

121. Violations 

122. Stop-work order 

123. Unsafe structures 

124. Emergency measures 

125. Reserved 

126. Controlled construction 

128. Construction materials safety board 

129. Activities requiring licenses 

130. Fire prevention-Fire protection board 
131. 

139. Reserved 

140. Validity 

Article 2 DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 

200. General 

201. General definitions 

202. Use group classification 

203. Use group A, assembly buildings 

204. Use group B, business buildings 

205. Use group F, factory and industrial buildings 

206. Use group H, high hazard buildings 

207. Use group I, institutional buildings 

208. Use group M, mercantile buildings 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 2 - continued 

Section 

209. Use group R, residential buildings 

210. Use group S, storage buildings 

211. Use group T, temporary and miscellaneous uses 

212. Doubtful use classification 

213. Mixed use and occupancy 

214. Construction classification 

215. Type 1, fireproof construction 

216. Type 2, noncombustible construction 

217. Type 3, exterior masonry wall construction 

218. Type 4, frame construction 

Article 3 GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 

300. General 

301 . Fire limits 

302. Restriction within the fire limits 

303. Restrictions outside fire limits 

304. Existing buildings 

305. General area and height limitations 

306. Area exceptions 

307. Unlimited areas 

308. Height exceptions 

309. Street encroachments 

310. Permissible street projections 

311. Permissible yard and court encroachments 

312. Special and temporary projections 

313. Awnings and canopies 

314. Temporary structures 

315. Accessibility for the physically handicapped 

Article 4 SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 

400. General 

401. Explosion hazards 

402. Volatile flammables 

403. Fire prevention codes 

404. Special permits and certificates of fitness 

405. Existing buildings 

406. Liquefied petroleum gases 

407. Pyroxylin plastics 

408. Use and storage of flammable film 

409. Use and storage of combustible fibers 

410. Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage 

411. Paint spraying and spray booths 

412. Dry cleaning establishments 

413. Private garages 

414. Public garages 

415. Motor fuel service stations 

416. Motor vehicle repair shops 

417. Places of public assembly 

418. Public assembly other than theaters 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 4 - continued 

Section 

419. Amusement parks 

420. Stadiums and grandstands 

421. Drive in motion picture theatres 

422. Tents, air-supported structures and other temporary structures 

423. Parking lots 

424. Group residence 

425. Motels 

426. Radio and television towers 

427. Radio and television antennae 

428. Swimming pools 

429. Open parking structures 

430. Fallout shelters 

431. High rise buildings 

432. Covered malls 

433. Nursing homes, rest homes, charitable homes for the aged, con- 
valescent homes and hospitals 

434. Day care centers 

435. Summer camps for children 

436. Historic buildings 

437. Open wells 

Article 5 LIGHT, VENTILATION AND SOUND TRANSMISSION CONTROL 

500. General 

501. Plans and specifications 

502. Standards of natural light 

503. Standards of natural ventilation 

504. Artificial light and ventilation 

505. Existing buildings 

506. Natural lighting and ventilation of rooms 

507. Lighting and venting of special spaces 

508. Basements and cellars 

509. Business and work rooms 

510. Assembly rooms 

511. Rooms of institutional buildings 

512. Bath and toilet rooms 

513. Stairways and exitways 

514. Required fresh air supply 

515. Ventilation of shafts other than elevator and dumbwaiter hoistways 

516. Courts 

517. Rear yards 

518. Obstruction of courts and yards 

519. Fire emergency ventilating system 

520. Reserved 

521. Window cleaning safeguards 

522. Sound transmission control in residential buildings 

Article 6 MEANS OF EGRESS 

600. General 

601. Plans and specifications 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 6 - continued 

Section 

602. Use and occupancy requirements 

603. Air-conditioned buildings 

604. Existing buildings 

605. Maintenance of exitways 

606. Occupancy load 

607. Types and location of exitways 

608. Capacity of exits 

609. Number of exitways 

610. Exitway access passageways and corridors 

611. Grade passageways and lobbies used as an exitway element 

612. Means of egress doorways 

613. Revolving doors 

614. Horizontal exits 

615. Egress ramps 

616. Interior exitway stairways 

617. Access to roof 

618. Smokeproof enclosures 

619. Exterior exitway stairways 

620. Moving exitway stairways 

621 . Fire escapes 

622. Slidescapes 

623. Exit signs and lights 

624. Means of egress lighting 

625. Hazards to means of egress 

Article 7 STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION LOADS AND STRESSES 

700. General 

701 . Design safe load 

702. Test safe load 

703. Design live load 

704. Design dead load 

705. Existing buildings 

706. Uniformly distributed live load 

707. Concentrated loads 

708. Impact loads 

709. Special loads 

710. Roof loads 

711 . Snow load 

712. Wind load 

713. Wind load on structures as a whole, and on vertical surfaces of 
enclosed or partially enclosed structures 

714. Wind load on roofs 

715. Special configurations, shapes and considerations for wind 
forces 

716. Earthquake load 

717. Combination of loads 

718. Live load reduction 

719. Strength criteria 

720. Bearing value of soils 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 7 - continued 

Section 

721. Subsurface explorations 

722. Bearing tests, pile loads tests and settlement analyses 

723. Allowable foundation pressure 

724. Depth of footings 

725. Footing design 

726. Timber footings, wood foundations 

727. Steel grillages 

728. Concrete footings 

729. Masonry unit footings 

730. Floating foundations 

731. Foundation piers 

732. Pile foundations 

733. Corrosion protection 

734. Allowable pile loads 

735. Timber piles 

736. Precast concrete piles 

737. Cast-in-place concrete piles 

738. Concrete-filled pile and tapered tubular piles 

739. Concrete-filled pipe and steel core caissons 

740. Structural steel piles 

741 . Composite piles 

742. Special piles and caissons 

743. Lateral support 

744. Design requirements for floodplains and coastal high hazard areas 

Article 8 Part A MATERIALS AND TESTS 



800. 


General 




801. 


Basic classification of construction 


materials 


802. 


Tests 




803. 


Conditions of acceptance 




804. 


Approvals 




805. 


Masonry construction units 




806. 


Brick units 




807. 


Structural clay tile units 




808. 


Glazed clay masonry units 




809. 


Concrete units 




810. 


Gypsum units 




811. 


Structural glass block units 




812. 


Architectural terra cotta 




813. 


Natural stone 




814. 


Cast stone 




815. 


Mortar for masonry 




816. 


Concrete aggregates 




817. 


Ready-mix concrete 




818. 


Structural wood glues 




819. 


Interior lathing and plastering 




820. 


Exterior lathing and stucco 




821. 


Plastering materials 




822. 


Plaster bases 




823. 


Fiber boards 




824. 


Plywood 




825. 


Wall boards and sheathing 





780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
Article 8 Part B STEEL MASONRY, CONCRETE, GYPSUM AND LUMBER CONSTRUCTION 

Section 

826. Structural steel construction 

827. Formed steel construction 

828. Steel joist construction 

829. Reinforcing steel 

830. Cast steel construction 

831. Deleted 

832. Special steels 

833. Light weight metal alloys 

834. Masonry wall construction 

835. Bonding of walls 

836. Lateral bracing of walls 

837. Chases and recesses in bearing walls 

838. Corbeled and projected masonry 

839. Bearing on hollow unit walls 

840. Plain concrete 

841. Reinforced concrete 

842. Deleted 

843. Deleted 

844. Deleted 

845. Deleted 

846. Concrete-filled pipe columns 

847. Pneumatic concrete 

848. Minimum concrete dimensions 

849. Reinforced gypsum concrete 

850. Engineered unreinforced masonry 

851. Reinforced masonry 

852. Lumber and timber construction 

853. Heavy timber type construction 

854. Wood frame construction 

855. Stress skin panels 

856. Structural glued laminated timber and built-up wood construction 

Article 8 Part C BUILDING ENCLOSURES, WALLS AND WALL THICKNESS 

857. Enclosure walls 

858. Protection of wall openings 

859. Fire access panels 

860. Structural glass block walls 

861. Wall facings and veneers , 

862. Structural glass veneers 

863. Thin stone and tile veneers 

864. Metal veneers 

865. Plastic veneers 

866. Thickness of solid masonry walls 

867. Thickness of panel walls 

868. Deleted 

869. Foundation walls 

870. Retaining walls 

871. Deleted 

872. Waterproofing and floodproofing 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 8 - continued 

Section 

873. Deleted 

874. Protection against decay and termites 

875. Delete, add Reserved 

876. Thermal insulating materials 

Article 9 FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 

900. General 

901. Plans and specifications 

902. Fire hazard classification 

903. Fireresi stance tests 

904. Flameresi stance tests 

905. Special fireresi stive requirements 

906. Exterior walls 

907. Fire walls and party walls 

908. Fire wall openings 

909. Fire separation walls 

910. Vertical shafts 

911. Fireresistance of structural members 

912. Fireresistance rated floor/ roof-ceiling assemblies 

913. Roof construction 

914. Exterior opening protectives 

915. Fire doors 

916. Fire windows and shutters 

917. Wired glass 

918. Fireresistive requirements for plaster 

919. Firestopping and draftstopping 

920. Interior wall and ceiling finish, floor coverings and trim 

921. Application of interior finish 

922. Combustible materials permitted in floor construction of Type 1 
and Type 2 buildings 

923. Decorative material restrictions 

924. Exterior trim restrictions 

925. Roof structures 

926. Roof coverings 

Article 10 CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENT PIPES 

1000. General 

1001. Plans and specifications 

1002. Performance test and acceptance criteria 

1003. Chimneys 

1004. Appliances requiring chimneys 

1005. Existing buildings 

1006. Vent systems 

1007. Fireplaces 

1008. Incinerators 

1009. Construction of metal ducts and vents 

1010. Spark arrestors 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 11 MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS 

Section 

1100. General 

1101. Plans and specifications 

1102. Inspections and tests 

1103. Existing buildings 

1104. Fees 

1105. Boiler rooms 

1106. Drying rooms 

1107. Refuse chutes 

1108. Refuse vaults 

1109. Dust, stock and refuse conveyor systems 

1110. Solid fuel burning heating appliances 

Article 12 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

1200. General 

1201. Plans and specifications 

1202. Fire suppression systems 

1203. Suppression system selection 

1204. Water sprinkler systems 

1205. Limited area sprinkler systems 

1206. Water spray fixed systems 

1207. Foam extinguishing systems 

1208. Carbon dioxide estinguishing systems 

1209. Halogenated fire extinguishing systems 

1210. Dry chemical extinguishing systems 

1211. Standpipe systems 

1212. Standpipes for buildings under construction or demolition 

1213. Fire department connections 

1214. Water supply and other extinguishing supply media 

1215. Yard hydrants 

1216. Automatic fire systems 

1217. Manual fire alarm systems (pull stations) 

1218. Supervision 

Article 13 PRECAUTIONS DURING BUILDING OPERATIONS 

1300. General 

1301. Plans, specifications and special permits 

1302. Tests 

1303. Inspection 

1304. Maintenance ' 

1305. Existing buildings 

1306. Protection of public and workmen 

1307. Excavations 

1308. Regulations of lots 

1309. Retaining walls and partition fences 

1310. Storage of materials 

1311. Removal of waste material 

1312. Protection of adjoining property 

1313. Protection of floor and wall openings 

1314. Scaffolds 

1315. Hoists 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
Article 13 - continued 

Section 

1316. Stairways and ladders 

1317. Lighting 

1318. Fire hazards 

1319. Health hazards 

1320. Welding safety precautions 

1321. Deleted 

1322. Disputes 

Article 14 SIGNS 

1400. General 

1401. Plans, specifications and permits 

1402. Exemptions 

1403. Unsafe and unlawful signs 

1404. Existing signs 

1405. Maintenance and inspection 

1406. Bonds and liability insurance 

1407. General requirements for all signs 

1408. Ground signs 

1409. Roof signs 

1410. Wall signs 

1411. Projecting signs 

1412. Marquee signs 

1413. Miscellaneous and temporary signs 

1414. Illuminated signs 

1415. Portable signs 

Article 15 ELECTRICAL WIRING AND EQUIPMENT 

Article 16 ELEVATOR DUMBWAITER AND CONVEYOR EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION AND 
MAINTENANCE 

Article 17 PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 

Article 18 MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS, BUILDING COMPONENTS AND MOBILE HOMES 

1800. General 

1801. Approval 

1802. Certification 

1803. Reciprocity 

1804. Assurance inspection 

1805. Responsibility of the building official 

1806. Suspension and revocation of certification 

Article 19 LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC CONSTRUCTION 

1900. General 

1901. Design and installation 

1902. Glazing of unprotected openings 

1903. Exterior panel walls 

1904. Roof panels 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 19 - continued 

Section 

1905. Skylight assemblies 

1906. Light-diffusing systems 

1907. Partitions 

1908. Bathroom accessories 

1909. Awnings and similar structures 

1910. Greenhouses 

Article 20 ENERGY CONSERVATION 

2000. General 

2001. Administrative 

2002. Existing buildings 

2003. Plans and specifications 

2004. Materials and equipment 

2005. Design conditions 

2006. Building insulation 

2007. Vapor barriers 

2008. Component design 

2009. Exterior envelope requirements 

2010. Mechanical systems 

2011. Electrical power distribution 

2012. Lighting power limits 

2013. Building design by system analysis 

2014. Buildings utilizing solar, geothermal , wind or other non- 
depletable energy sources as alternative design 

2015. Lighting power limits for existing buildings 

Article 21 ONE AND TWO FAMILY DWELLING 

2107. Roof coverings 

2108. Chimneys, fireplaces and connector pipes 

2109. Solid fuel burning heating appliances 

2110. Mechanical equipment general 

2111 . Combustion air 

2112. Warm-air furnaces 

2113. Vented decorative appliances, floor furnaces, vented wall fur- 
naces and vented room heaters 

2114. Venting of appliances 

2115. Ducts 

2116. Comfort cooling 

2117. Absorption units and absorption systems for comfort cooling 
and comfort heating 

2118. Fuel supply systems 

2119. Energy conservation by component design 

2120. Building insulation 

2121. Ventilation 

2122. Vapor barriers 

2123. U-values of building components 

2124. Air leakage for all buildings 

2125. System design heating/cooling capacity 

2126. Controls 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
Article 21 - continued 

Section 

2127. Balancing 

2128. Duct insulation 

2129. Pipe insulation 
Reference Standards 

Index to Tables and Figures 
General Index 

Article 22 REPAIR, ALTERATION, ADDITION AND CHANGE OF USE OF EXISTING 
BUILDINGS 

2200. Scope 

2201. Definitions 

2202. Implementation 

2203. Requirements for continuation of the same use group or change 
to a use group of equal or lesser hazard index 

2204. Requirements for change in use group to one hazard index 
greater 

2205. Requirement for change in use group to two or more hazard in- 
dices greater 

2206. Compliance alternatives 

2207. Energy provisions for existing buildings 

2208. Other Code Sections pertaining to repair alteration or change 
of use of existing buildings 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Article 1 

ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION 100.0 SCOPE 

100.1 Title: These regulations shall be known as the Common- 
wealth of Massachusetts State Building Code hereinafter re- 
ferred to as "this code." 

100.2 Scope: These regulations, in accordance with Chapter 
802 of the Acts of 1972 as amended, shall control: a) the con- 
struction, reconstruction, alteration, repair, demolition, re- 
moval, inspection, issuance and revocation of permits or 
licenses, installation of eguipment, classification and definition 
of any building or structure and use or occupancy of all build- 
ings and structures and parts thereof or classes of buildings 
and structures and parts thereof; b) the rehabilitation and 
maintenance of existing buildings; c) the standards or reguire- 
ments for materials to be used in connection therewith, includ- 
ing but not limited to provisions for safety, ingress and egress, 
energy conservation and sanitary conditions; d) the establish- 
ment of reasonable fees for the issuance of licenses and permits 
in connection therewith; except as such matters are otherwise 
provided for in the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, or 
in the rules and regulations authorized for promulgation under 
the provisions of this code. 

100.3 Application of reference: Unless otherwise specifically 
provided in this code, all references to article or section num- 
bers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, 
shall be construed to refer to such article, section or provision 
of this code. 

100.4 Code remedial: This code shall be construed to secure 
its expressed intent which is to insure public safety, health 
and welfare insofar as they are affected by building construc- 
tion through structural strength, adeguate egress facilities, 
sanitary conditions, equipment, light and ventilation and fire 
safety; and, in general, to secure safety to life and property. 

100.5 Specialized codes: Specialized codes, rules or regula- 
tions pertaining to building construction, reconstruction, alter- 
ation, repair, or demolition promulgated, and as amended, from 
time to time, by the various authorized state agencies shall be 
incorporated in this code. The said specialized codes, rules or 
regulations include, but are not limited to, those listed in 
Appendix P. 

100.5.1 Technical Code Council: The Technical Code Council 
is comprised of representatives from each of the state agencies 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



having jurisdiction over the specialized codes including those 
listed in Appendix P, and serves as an advisory board to the 
State Building Code Commission, herein referred to as the 
Commission, on matters related to uniformity of rules and reg- 
ulations governing building construction and the establishment 
of uniform procedures relative to their administration and en- 
forcement. Members of the Technical Code Council are listed in 
Appendix R. 



SECTION 101.0 APPLICABILITY 

101.1 General: The provisions of this code shall apply to all 
matters affecting or relating to buildings and structures; and 
shall apply with equal force to municipal, county, state author- 
ities of or established by the legislature and private buildings 
and structures, except where such buildings and structures are 
otherwise specifically provided for by statute. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unless specifically provided otherwise in this code, all exist- 
ing buildings and structures shall meet and shall be pre- 
sumed to meet, the provisions of the applicable laws, codes, 
rules or regulations, by-laws or ordinances in effect at the 
time such building or structure was erected or substantially 
altered . 

2. In cases where applicable codes, rules or regulations, by- 
laws or ordinances were not in use at the time of such 
erection or substantial alteration, the provisions of Section 
104.0 of this code shall apply. 

3. In cases where the provisions of this code are less stringent 
than the applicable codes, rules or regulations, by-laws or 
ordinances in force at the time of such erection or sub- 
stantial alteration, the applicable provisions of this code shall 
apply* providing such application of these provisions does 
not result in danger to the public as determined by the 
building official. 

101.2 Zoning restrictions: When the provisions herein speci- 
fied for structural strength, adequate egress facilities, sanitary 
conditions, equipment, light and ventilation, and fire safety 
conflict with the local zoning by-laws or ordinances, this code 
shall control the erection or alteration of buildings. 

101.3 Matters not covered: Any requirements essential for 
structural, fire or sanitary safety of an existing or proposed 
building or structure, or essential for the safety of the occu- 
pants thereof, and which is not specifically covered by this 
code, shall be determined by the building official. The State 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Building Code Commission and the Department of Public Safety 
shall be notified in writing within seven (7) working days of 
any action taken under this section. 



SECTION 102.0 ORDINARY REPAIRS 

102.1 General: Except as provided in Section 113.1, a permit 
shall not be required for ordinary repairs to buildings and 
structures . 



SECTION 103.0 INSTALLATION OF SERVICE EQUIPMENT 

103.1 General: When the installation, extension, alteration or 
repair of an elevator, moving stairway, mechanical equipment, 
refrigeration, air conditioning or ventilating apparatus, plumb- 
ing, gas piping, electric wiring, heating system or any other 
equipment is specifically controlled by the provisions of this 
code or the approved rules, it shall be unlawful to use such 
equipment until a certificate of approval has been issued there- 
for by the building official or other agency having jurisdiction. 



SECTION 104.0 MAINTENANCE 

104.1 General: All buildings and structures and all parts 
thereof, both existing and new, shall be maintained in a safe 
and sanitary condition. All service equipment, means of 
egress, devices and safeguards which are required by this code 
in a building or structure, or which were required by a pre- 
vious statute in a building or structure, when erected, altered 
or repaired, shall be maintained in good working order. 

104.2 Owner responsibility: The owner, as defined in 
Article 2, shall be responsible for the safe and sanitary main- 
tenance of the building or structure and its exitway facilities at 
all times, unless otherwise specifically provided in this code. 



SECTION 105.0 CHANGE IN EXISTING USE 

105.1 Continuation of existing use: The legal use and occu- 
pancy of any existing structure for which it had been hereto- 
fore approved, may be continued without change, except as may 
be specifically covered in this code or as may be deemed nec- 
essary by the building official for the general safety and wel- 
fare of the occupants and the public. 

105.2 Change of existing use: Any change in the use and 
occupancy of any existing building or structure shall comply 
with Article 22. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 106.0 ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS 

106.1 Application: Except as provided in this code, existing 
buildings or structures when altered or repaired shall be made 
to conform to Article 22. 



SECTION 107.0 BUILDING DEPARTMENT 

107.1 Appointment: The chief administrative officer of each 
city or town shall employ and designate an inspector of build- 
ings or building commissioner, as well as such other local in- 
spectors as are reasonably necessary. The inspector of build- 
ings or building commissioner shall report directly and be solely 
responsible to the appointing authority. 

107.2 Building commissioner or inspector of buildings: The 
building department shall have an administrative chief respon- 
sible for the administration and enforcement of this code who 
shall be known as the building commissioner or inspector of 
buildings . 

107.2.1 Local Inspector: The local inspector shall assist the 
building commissioner or inspector of buildings in the perfor- 
mance of his duties and shall also be responsible for the en- 
forcement of this code. 

107.2.2 Alternate inspector: An alternate inspector of build- 
ings may be appointed to act in the disability of the inspector 
of buildings in case of illness, absence, or conflict of interest. 
The alternate inspector shall meet the gualifications of 
Section 107.3. 

107.3 Qualifications of the building commissioner or inspector 
of buildings: Each building commissioner or inspector of build- 
ings shall have had at least five (5) years of experience in the 
supervision of building construction or design or in the alter- 
native a four-year undergraduate degree in a field related to 
building construction or design. In addition, such persons 
shall have had general knowledge of the accepted requirements 
for building construction, fire prevention, light, ventilation and 
safe egress; as well as a general knowledge of other equipment 
and materials essential for safety, comfort, and convenience of 
the occupants of a building or structure; plus whatever other 
requirements of experience and knowledge that are deemed 
necessary by the municipality. 

107.4 Qualifications of the local inspector: Each local inspector 
shall have had at least five (5) years of experience in the 
supervision of building construction or design or in the alterna- 
tive a two-year associate degree in a field related to building 
construction or design. In addition, such persons shall have a 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



general knowledge of the accepted requirements for building 
construction, fire prevention, light, ventilation and safe 
egress; as well as a general knowledge of other equipment and 
materials essential for safety, comfort, and convenience of the 
occupants of a building or structure; plus whatever other re- 
quirements of experience and knowledge that are deemed 
necessary by the municipality. 

107.5 Restriction on employees: No full-time building com- 
missioner, inspector of buildings, or full-time local inspector as 
defined herein shall be engaged in, or directly or indirectly 
connected with, the furnishing of labor, materials or appliances 
for the construction, alteration or maintenance of a building or 
structure, or the preparation of plans or of specifications 
therefor within the city, town or region for which he is 
appointed, unless he is the owner of the building or structure; 
nor shall any officer or employee associated with the building 
department engage in any work which conflicts with his official 
duties or with the interests of the department. 

107.6 Relief from personal liability: Insofar as the law allows, 
while acting for the municipality, the building official, charged 
with the enforcement of this code shall not be deemed person- 
ally liable in the discharge of his official duties. 



SECTION 108.0 DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE 
BUILDING OFFICIAL AND STATE INSPECTOR 

108.1 The local building official: The building commissioner or 
inspector of buildings and the local inspector shall enforce all 
the provisions of this code and any other applicable state 
statutes, rules and regulations, or ordinances and by-laws, and 
act on any question relative to the mode or manner of construc- 
tion, and the materials to be used in the construction, recon- 
struction, alteration, repair, demolition, removal, installation of 
equipment, and the location, use, occupancy, and maintenance 
of all buildings and structures, including any building or struc- 
ture owned by any authority established by the legislature but 
not owned by the Commonwealth. 

108.2 Applications and permits: The building official shall re- 
ceive applications and inspect the premises for which permits 
have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of 
this code. 

108.3 Building notices and orders: The building official shall 
issue all necessary notices or orders to remove illegal or unsafe 
conditions, to require the necessary safeguards during con- 
struction, to require adequate egress facilities in new and 
existing buildings and structures, and to insure compliance with 
all the code requirements for the safety, health and general 
welfare of the public. 



9/1/80 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



108.4 Credentials: The building official or his authorized 
representative shall carry proper credentials of his respective 
office for the purpose of inspecting any and all buildings, 
structures and premises in the performance of his duties under 
this code. 

108.5 Inspections: The building official shall make all the re- 
quired inspections or may accept reports of inspections from a 
qualified registered professional engineer or architect or others 
certified by the Commission, and all reports of such inspections 
shall be in writing; or the building official may engage such 
experts as he may deem necessary to report upon unusual tech- 
nical issues that may arise. 

108.5.1 Inspection and certification, specified use groups: 
The building official shall periodically inspect and certify build- 
ings and structures or parts thereof in accordance with 
Table 108. A building or structure shall not be occupied or 
continue to be occupied without the posting of a valid certifi- 
cate of inspection where required by Table 108. A certificate 
of inspection as herein specified shall not be issued until an 
inspection is made certifying that the building or structure or 
parts thereof complies with all the applicable requirements of 
this code, and until the fee is paid as specified in Table 108. 
Municipalities may waive only in their entirety the fees as speci- 
fied in Table 108 for buildings and structures or parts thereof. 
Municipalities may increase the fees specified in Table 108 or 
may waive only in their entirety the fees as specified in said 
Table 108 for buildings and structures or parts thereof. 

Exception: Municipalities may revise or modify, or waive in 
part those fees for buildings and structures or parts thereof 
owned by the municipality, county or political subdivision 
thereof and for buildings and structures or parts thereof 
used solely for religious purposes. 

108.6 Administrative procedures: The building commissioner or 
inspector of buildings shall have the authority to formulate ad- 
ministrative procedures necessary to uniformly administer and 
enforce this code provided that such procedures do not conflict 
with the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission. 



2/1/si (Supplement 3/31/81) 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 




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6/1/81 (Supplement 6/30/81) 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Notes applicable to Table 108 

General: 

The maximum certification period specified in Table 108 is 
intended to provide administrative flexibility. For those 
buildings and structures or parts thereof allowing more than a 
one (1) year maximum certification period, the building official 
may determine the length of validity of the certificate issued. 
For example, a building in the R-2 use group could be issued a 
certificate valid for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 years. The total amount of 
fees charged for a certificate or certificates issued during the 
maximum certification period can exceed the fee listed or refer- 
enced in column 4 of Table 108. For example, if the building 
official issues a certificate valid for two (2) years for a building 
in the R-2 use group, the fee charged would be two-fifths (2/5) 
times the fee per maximum certification period as determined for 
the building in question using the formula in note f below. 

Note a. For all buildings or structures, or parts thereof, in 
the A-3+ use group, the fee to be charged for the maximum 
certification period of one (1) year is $75 for accommodations 
for up to five thousand (5,000) persons, plus $15 for the 
accommodations for each additional one thousand (1,000) persons 
or fraction thereof. 

Note b. For all buildings or structures, or parts thereof, 
in A-5 use group, the fee to be charged for the maximum cer- 
tification period of one (1) year is $40 for seating accommoda- 
tions for up to five thousand (5,000) persons, plus $8 for the 
accommodation for each additional one thousand (1,000) persons 
or fraction thereof. 

Note c. For all buildings and structures, or parts thereof, 
in the 1-1 use group, the fee to be charged for the maximum 
certification period of two (2) years is $75 for each structure 
containing up to one hundred (100) beds, plus a $2 charge for 
each additional ten (10) beds or fraction thereof over the initial 
one hundred (100) beds. 

Note d. For hospitals, nursing homes, sanitariums, and 
orphanages in the 1-2 use group, the fee to be charged for the 
maximum certification period of two (2) years is $75 for each 
structure containing up to one hundred (100) beds, plus a $2 
charge for each additional ten (10) beds or fraction thereof over 
the initial one hundred (100) beds. All other buildings or 
structures or parts thereof in the 1-2 use group classification 
shall be charged a fee of $75 for a two (2) year maximum certi- 
fication period. 



2/1/81 (Supplement 3/31/81) 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Note e. For all buildings and structures or parts thereof in 
the R-l use group, the fee to be charged for the maximum 
certification period of one (1) year shall be $40 for up to five 
(5) units plus $2 per unit for all over five (5) units. A unit 
shall be defined as follows: 

two (2) hotel guest rooms; 
two (2) lodging house guest rooms; 
two (2) boarding house guest rooms; or 
four (4) dormitory beds 

Note f. For all buildings and structures or parts thereof in 
the R-2 use group, the fee to be charged for the maximum 
certification period of five (5) years shall be $75, plus $2 per 
dwelling unit, except three (3) family dwelling units shall be 
exempt from such fees. 

Note g. For purposes of determining the required number 
of inspections, the maximum certification period, and the fees, 
as specified in Table 108, dormitories are included in the R-l 
use group classification rather than the R-2. 

Note h. Summer camps for children in use group R-2 shall 
be inspected and certified annually prior to the beginning of 
each season. The annual fee shall be $15 for the first twenty- 
five (25) residential units: $8 for each additional twenty-five 
(25) residential units; and $15 for each assembly building or 
use. (A residential unit for this purpose shall be defined as 
four (4) beds.) 

108.7 Department records: The building official shall keep in 
a public place and open to public inspection during normal 
working hours official records of applications received, permits 
and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, 
variances granted, and notices and orders issued. File copies 
of all papers in connection with building operations shall be re- 
tained in the official records so long as the building or struc- 
ture to which they relate remains in existence. 

108.8 Reports: The building official shall submit the following 
reports : 

1. to the Department of Community Affairs on a form pro- 
vided by said department a report of the building permit 
activity for the month; 

2. to the chief administrative officer of the municipality a 
written statement of all permits and certificates issued, 
fees collected, inspections made, and notices and orders 
issued for the year; 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



3. to the Commission and Department of Public Safety re- 
ports on decisions regarding the matters not covered as 
specified in Section 101.3; and 

4. to the assessors of the municipality reports on permits 
issued as specified in Section 114.2. 

108.9 The state inspector: In every city and town this code 
shall be enforced by the state inspector as to any structures or 
buildings or parts thereof that are owned by the Commonwealth 
or any departments, commissions, agencies, or authorities of 
the Commonwealth. The state inspector shall have as to such 
buildings and structures all the powers of a building commis- 
sioner or inspector of buildings. All buildings and structures 
owned by any authority established by the legislature shall be 
regulated in accordance with Section 108.1 of this code. 

108.9.1 Other responsibilities: The state inspector shall make 
periodic reviews of all local building inspection practices, pro- 
vide technical assistance and advice to the local building 
officials in the implementation of this code, and report in writ- 
ing his findings to the building officials. 

108.9.2 Review by the commissioner: The Commissioner of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Department of Public Safety 
shall establish districts which shall be supervised by a state 
inspector of the Division of Inspection. The Commissioner may 
review, on his own initiative or on the application of any state 
inspector, any action or refusal or failure of action by any 
building official the result of which does not comply with the 
uniform implementation of this code; and may reverse, modify or 
annul, in whole or in part, such action except with respect to 
the specialized codes, provided that an order or action of the 
Commissioner shall not reverse, modify, annul, or contravene 
any order, action, determination, interpretation or any decision 
by the Commission or the State Building Code Appeals Board. 

108.9.3 Reports: The state inspector shall file with the 
Commission reports of his periodic reviews and recommendations 
for improvements of building inspection practices. The format 
and due dates for these reports shall be determined by the 
Commission. 



SECTION 109.0 RULES AND REGULATIONS 

109.1 Rule making authority: Under authority granted by 
Chapter 802, Acts of 1972, as amended, the Commission is em- 
powered in the interest of public safety, health and general 
welfare, to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations, and to 
interpret and implement the provisions of this code to secure 
the intent thereof. 



9/1/80 10 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



109.1.1 Licensing of Construction Supervisors ; 

Except for those structures governed by Construction Control 
in Section 127.0, effective September 1, 1982 no individual 
shall be engaged in directly supervising persons engaged in 
construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair, removal or 
demolition involving the structural elements of buildings and 
structures, unless he or she is licensed in accordance with 
the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission as 
listed in Appendix Q, entitled Rules and Regulations for Li- 
censing Construction Supervisors. 

Exception: Any Home Owner performing work for which a 
building permit is required shall be exempt from the pro- 
visions of this section; provided that if a Home Owner en- 
gages a person(s) for hire to do such work, that such 
Home Owner shall act as supervisor. 

For purposes of this section only, a "Home Owner" is de- 
fined as follows: 

Person(s) who owns a parcel of land on which he/she re- 
sides or intends to reside, on which there is, or is inten- 
ded to be, a dwelling of six or less units, attached or 
detached structures accessory to such use and/or farm 
structures. A person who constructs more than one home 
in a two-year period shall not be considered a home owner. 

109.1.1.1 No municipality shall be prohibited from requiring 
a license for those individuals engaged in directly supervising 
persons engaged in construction, reconstruction, alteration, 
repair, removal or demolition in those categories of building 
and structures for which the commission is not requiring a 
license, provided that those municipalities which have estab- 
lished licensing requirements for construction supervisors 
prior to January 1, 1975, may maintain their existing licen- 
sing requirements. 

109.1.2 Licensing of laboratories and test personnel: The Com- 
mission shall issue rules and regulations for the examination and 
licensing, and the revocation of licenses of individuals, labor- 
atories and firms responsible for the inspection and/or testing 
of materials, devices and methods of construction, in accordance 
with the Rules and Regulations for Concrete Testing Personnel 
and the Rules and Regulations for Licensing of Concrete Test- 
ing Laboratories referenced in Appendix Q. 



109.1.3 Manufactured buildings: The Commission shall issue 
rules and regulations pursuant to Article 18 governing manu- 
factured buildings and building components referenced in Ap- 
pendix Q. 



109.1.4 Mobile homes: The Commission shall issue rules and 
regulations pursuant to Article 18 governing mobile homes ref- 
erenced in Appendix Q. 



9/30/82 11 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



109.2 Amendments and promulgation of rules: Any person may 
propose amendments to this code. Public hearings shall be held 
in the city of Boston in May and October of each year, and at 
such other times and places as the Commission may determine, 
to consider petitions for such amendments. Amendments adop- 
ted by the Commission shall be binding and have the full force 
and effect in all cities and towns. 



SECTION 110.0 APPROVAL 

110.1 Approved materials and equipment: All materials, equip- 
ment, devices, systems or methods of construction shall be sub- 
ject to the following approvals required by this section. 

110.2 Accepted engineering practice: If not otherwise speci- 
fied in this code, the regulations, specifications and standards 
listed in the appropriate appendices shall be deemed to repre- 
sent accepted engineering practice with respect to the material, 
equipment, device, system or method of construction therein spe- 
cified . 

110.3 New materials and methods of construction: The provi- 
sions of this code are not intended to prevent the use of any 
material, system or method of construction not specifically pre- 
scribed by this code. The building official shall accept appro- 
vals of the Commission on all new materials, systems or methods 
of construction proposed for use which are not specifically pro- 
vided for in this code. 

110.4 Used materials and equipment: Used materials, equip- 
ment and devices which meet the minimum requirements of this 
code for new materials, equipment and devices shall be permit- 
ted; however, the building official may require satisfactory 
proof that such materials, equipment and devices have been 
reconditioned, tested, and/or placed in good and proper work- 
ing condition prior to approval. 

110.5 Research and investigations: Wherever there is insuffic- 
ient evidence that any material, system or method of construc- 
tion conforms to the requirements of this code or there is in- 
sufficient evidence to substantiate claims for alternative mater- 
ials, systems or methods of construction, the building official 
may require tests meeting the functional requirements of this 
code (see Sections 800.0, 802.0, and 803.0) and such test shall 
be conducted by a laboratory and/or personnel approved by the 
Commission. The costs of all such tests or other investigations 
required under these provisions shall be paid by the applicant. 

110.5.1 Test results: Copies of the results of all such tests 
shall be forwarded to the Commission within ten (10) days and 
shall be kept on file in the permanent records of the building 
department. 



4/9/81 (Supplement 6/30/81) 12 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

110.5.2 Retesting: The Commission may require tests to be 
repeated, if at any time there is reason to believe that material 
or construction no longer conforms to the requirements on 
which its approval was based. 

110.6 Variances/modifications: When there are practical diffi- 
culties involved in carrying out structural or mechanical pro- 
visions of this code, the Board of Appeals may allow a variance 
or a modification from such provisions as applied for by the 
owner as provided in Section 126.0, provided that the decision 
of the Board shall not conflict with the general objectives of 
this code and its enabling legislation and provided that no de- 
cision shall be considered by any person or agency as a prece- 
dent for future decisions. 

SECTION 111.0 INSPECTION 

111.1 Preliminary inspection: Before issuing a permit, the 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
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4/9/81 (Supplement 6/30/81) 12.2 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



building official may examine or cause to be examined all build- 
ings, structures and sites for which an application has been 
filed for a permit to construct, reconstruct, alter, repair, re- 
move, demolish or change the use thereof. 

111.2 Inspection: The building official shall make all required 
inspections as specified in the provisions of this code and he 
shall conduct such inspections from time to time during and 
upon completion of the work for which he has issued a permit; 
and he shall maintain a record of all such examinations and in- 
spections and of all violations of this code. In conjunction with 
specific construction projects, the building official may desig- 
nate specific inspection points in the course of construction that 
require the contractor or builder to give the building official 
twenty-four (24) hours notice prior to the time when those in- 
spections need to be performed. The building official shall 
make the inspection within forty-eight (48) hours after such 
notification . 

111.2.1 Inspection services: The building official may accept 
the written report of inspections from a qualified registered 
professional engineer or architect or others certified by the 
Commission; and such inspection report shall specify but not be 
limited to any violation of the requirements of this code in re- 
spect to egress requirements, floor load, fire grading, occu- 
pancy load and use of the buildings or structures. 

111.3 Final inspection: The owner or his authorized represen- 
tative shall notify the building official upon completion of the 
building or structure or part thereof. Prior to the issuance of 
the certificate of use and occupancy required in Section 119.0, 
a final inspection shall be made and all violations of the 
approved plans and permit shall be noted and the holder of the 
permit shall be notified of any discrepancies. 

111.4 Manufactured Buildings 

111.4.1 Plant inspection: Inspection of all manufactured build- 
ings and building components at the plant shall be performed 
by a third party which shall be certified and approved by the 
Commission and monitored as specified in Article 18 and the 
rules and regulations pursuant thereto. 

111.4.2 Site inspection: Inspection of all manufactured build- 
ings, building components, and mobile homes at the installation 
site shall be made by the building official as specified in 
Article 18 and the rules and regulations pursuant thereto. 

111.5 Existing Buildings 

111.5.1 Periodic Inspections: The building commissioner or in- 
spector of buildings shall develop plans for the systematic per- 
iodic inspection of all existing buildings and structures and 



9/1/80 13 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



shall cause such buildings and structures to be periodically or 
otherwise inspected as specified in Section 108.5.1 and 
Section 120.4, for compliance with this code. 



SECTION 112.0 RIGHT OF ENTRY 

112.1 General: In the discharge of his duties, the building 
official shall have the authority to enter at any reasonable hour 
any building, structure or premises in the municipality to en- 
force the provisions of this code. 

If any owner, occupant, or other person refuses, impedes, 
inhibits, intereferes with, restricts, or obstructs entry and 
free access to every part of the structure, operation or 
premises where inspection authorized by this code is sought, 
the building official, or state inspector may: 

1. seek in a court of competent jurisdiction a search warrant 
so as to apprise the owner, occupant or other person 
concerning the nature of the inspection and justification 
for it and may seek the assistance of police authorities in 
presenting said warrant; and/or 

2. revoke or suspend any permit, license, certificate or other 
permission regulated under this code where inspection of 
the structures, operation or premises is sought to deter- 
mine compliance with this code. 

112.2 Office badge: The Commission may adopt a badge of 
office for building officials which shall be displayed for the 
purpose of identification. 

112.3 Jurisdictional cooperation: The assistance and cooper- 
ation of police, fire, and health departments and all other 
officials shall be available to the building official as required in 
the performance of his duties. 



SECTION 113.0 APPLICATION FOR PERMIT 

113.1 When permit is required: It shall be unlawful to con- 
struct, reconstruct, alter, repair, remove or demolish a 
structure; or to change the use or occupancy of a building or 
structure; or to install or alter any equipment for which pro- 
vision is made or the installation of which is regulated by this 
code without first filing a written application with the building 
official and obtaining the required permit therefor. 

Exception: Ordinary repairs as defined in Section 201.0. 

113.2 Form of application: The application for a permit shall 
be submitted in such form as the building official may prescribe 



9/1/80 14 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



and shall be accompanied by the required fee as prescribed in 
Section 118.0. 

113.3 By whom application is made: Application for a permit 
shall be made by the owner of the building or structure. The 
full names and addresses of the owner, applicant, and of the 
responsible officers, if the owner is a corporate body, shall be 
stated in the application. 

113.4 Description of work: The application shall contain a 
general description of the proposed work, its location, the use 
and occupancy of all parts of the building or structure and of 
all portions of the site or lot not covered by the building; and 
shall state whether or not fire extinguishing equipment, plumb- 
ing, water piping, gasfitting, heating or electrical work is in- 
volved, the estimated cost of such work including the general 
work , and such additional information as may be required by 
the building commissioner or inspector of buildings. The build- 
ing commissioner or inspector of buildings may require the facts 
contained in each application to be certified by the applicant 
under oath. 

113.5 Plans and specifications: The application for the permit 
shall be accompanied by not less than three (3) copies of spec- 
ifications and of plans drawn to scale, with sufficient clarity 
and detail dimensions to show the nature and character of the 
work to be performed. When quality of materials is essential 
for conformity to this code, specific information shall be given 
to establish such quality; and the code shall not be cited nor 
the term "legal" or its equivalent be used as a substitute for 
specific information . The building official may waive the _ re- 
quirement for filing plans when the work involved is of a minor 
nature . 

When such application for a permit must comply with the pro- 
visions of Article 4 or Article 12 of this code, the building 
official shall cause one (1) such set of plans and specifications 
received by him to be forwarded simultaneously to the head of 
the fire department for his file and approval of the items spec- 
ified in Section 1200.0 as they relate to the applicable sections 
of Article 4 and Article 12. The head of the fire department 
shall within ten (10) working days from the date of receipt by 
him approve or disapprove such plans and specifications. Upon 
request by the head of the fire department, the building official 
may grant one (1) or more extensions for such review, pro- 
viding, however, that the total review by said head of the fire 
department shall not exceed thirty (30) calendar days. If such 
approval, disapproval or request for an extension of time shall 
not be received by the building official within said ten (10) 
working days, the building official may deem the plans and 
specifications to be in full compliance with the applicable sec- 
tions of Article 4 and Article 12 and, therefore, approved by 
the head of the fire department. 



9/1/80 15 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



All plans filed with- the building official shall include but not 
be limited to: 

1. the accurate locations and dimension of all means of egress 
from fire and an occupancy schedule of persons for all 
occupiable spaces; 

2. the method and amount of ventilation and sanitation; 

3. the methods of firestopping as required in this code; and 

4. schedules and details indicating compliance of interior trim 
and finish with provisions of Article 9. 

113.5.1 Structures subject to control: In those structures 
subject to control as required in Section 127.0, affidavits must 
be submitted with the permit application that the individuals 
and testing laboratories responsible for carrying out the duties 
specified in Section 127.0 have been licensed by the Commission. 

113.5.2 Architects' and engineers' seals: Unless otherwise 
provided in this code, all plans and specifications for buildings 
and structures containing more than thirty-five thousand 
(35,000) cubic feet of enclosed space shall bear the Massachu- 
setts seal of registration of a qualified registered professional 
engineer or architect. 

Plans and specifications, plats and records whenever re- 
quired to be stamped with the seal of a registered professional 
engineer or architect shall be signed by the registrant named 
thereon. The use of a facsimile signature stamp shall not be 
deemed to comply with this section. 

113.6 Site plan: There shall also be filed prior to a permit 
being granted for the excavation or for the erection of any 
building or structure a site plan showing to scale the size and 
location of all new construction and all existing structures on 
the site, distances from lot lines, the established street grades 
if they exist (verified by the town or city) and proposed 
finished grades. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall 
show all construction to be demolished and the location and size 
of all existing structures and construction that are to remain on 
the site or plot. The site plan shall not be changed except as 
specified in Sections 113.8 and 115.3. 

113.7 Engineering details: The building official may require 
adequate details of structural, mechanical and electrical work, 
including computations, stress diagrams and other essential 
technical data, prepared by a registered professional engineer 
qualified by experience in the specific field of construction, to 
be filed. All such plans and computations shall bear the Massa- 
chusetts seal of registration and signature of the qualified reg- 
istered professional engineer or architect. 



9/1/80 16 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



113.8 Amendments to application: Subject to the limitations of 
Section 113.9, amendments or revisions to a plan or other 
records accompanying the same may not be made until the pro- 
posed changes have been filed with and approved by the 
building official; and such approved amendments shall be 
deemed part of the original application and shall be filed 
therewith . 

113.9 Time limitation of application: An application for a per- 
mit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been 
abandoned six (6) months after date of filing, unless such 
application has been diligently prosecuted or a permit has been 
issued; except that for reasonable cause the building official 
may grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods 
not exceeding ninety (90) days each. 



SECTION 114.0 PERMITS 

114.1 Action on application: The building commissioner or in- 
spector of buildings shall examine or cause to be examined all 
applications for permits and amendments thereto within thirty 
(30) days after filing. If the application or the plans do not 
conform to the requirements of Section 113.0 or other related 
sections of this code or of all pertinent laws, he shall reject 
such application in writing citing the specific sections of this 
code or pertinent law. If he is satisfied that the proposed 
work conforms to the requirements of this code and all perti- 
nent law applicable thereto, he shall issue a permit. 

114.2 Report to assessors: The building official shall give to 
the assessors of the municipality written notice of the granting 
by him of permits for the construction of any buildings or 
structures, or for the removal or demolition, or for any sub- 
stantial alteration or addition thereto. Such notice shall be 
given within seven (7) days after the granting of each permit, 
and shall state the name of the person to whom the permit was 
granted and the location of the building or structure to be con- 
structed, reconstructed, altered, demolished or removed. 

114.3 Expiration of permit: Any permit issued shall be deemed 
abandoned and invalid unless the work authorized by it shall 
have been commenced within six (6) months after its issuance; 
however, for cause, one or more extensions of time, for periods 
not exceeding six (6) months each, may be granted in 
writing by the building commissioner or inspector of buildings. 
Work under such a permit in the opinion of the building com- 
missioner or inspector of buildings, must proceed in good faith 
continuously to completion so far as is reasonably practicable 
under the circumstances. 

For purposes of this section, any permit issued shall not be 
considered invalid if such abandonment or suspension of work is 



9/1/80 17 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



due to a court order prohibiting such work as authorized by 
such permit; provided, however, in the opinion of the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings, the person so prohibited 
by such court order, adequately defends such action before the 
court. 

114.4 Previous approvals: Nothing in this code or the rules 
and regulations pursuant thereto shall affect any building per- 
mit lawfully issued, or any building or structure lawfully begun 
in conformance with such permit, before the effective date of 
this code or any amendments thereto. 

114.5 Signature to permit: The building commissioner or in- 
spector of buildings shall attach his signature to every permit, 
or he may authorize a subordinate to affix such signature 
thereto . 

114.6 Approved plans: If approved by him, the building com- 
missioner or inspector of buildings or his authorized subordi- 
nate shall stamp and endorse in writing the plans submitted in 
accordance with Section 113.5; one (1) set of such stamped and 
endorsed plans shall be retained; the other set of plans shall 
be kept at the building site, open to the inspection of the 
building commissioner, inspector of buildings, or his authorized 
subordinate, at all reasonable times. 

114.7 Revocation of permits: The building commissioner or in- 
spector of buildings may revoke a permit or approval issued 
under the provisions of this code in case of any false statement 
or misrepresentation of fact in the application or the plans on 
which the permit or approval was based. 

114.8 Approval in part: When application for a permit to erect 
or add to a building or structure has been filed, as required in 
Section 113.5 and pending issuance of such permit, the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings may, at his discretion, 
issue a special permit for the foundations or any other part of 
a building or structure. The holder of such a special permit 
may proceed at his own risk without assurance that a permit for 
the entire structure will be granted. 

114.9 Posting of permit: A copy of the building permit pro- 
vided by the building department shall be kept in view and pro- 
tected from the weather on the site of operation during the 
entire time the work is under execution and until the certificate 
of use and occupancy shall have been issued. The building 
permit shall serve as an inspection record card to allow the 
building official conveniently to make entries thereon regarding 
inspection of the work. 

114.10 Notice of start: At least twenty-four (24) hours' notice 
of start of work under a building permit shall be given to the 
building official. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 115.0 CONDITIONS OF PERMIT 

115.1 Compliance with code: The permit shall be a license to 
proceed with the work and shall not be construed as authority 
to violate, cancel or set aside any of the provisions of this 
code, except as specifically stipulated by modification or legally 
granted variation in accordance with Section 126.0. 

115.2 Compliance with permit: All work shall conform to the 
stamped or endorsed application and plans for which the permit 
has been issued and any approved amendments thereto. 

115.3 Change in site plan: A lot or site shall not be changed, 
increased or diminished in area from that shown on the official 
site plan, as specified in Section 113.6, unless a revised plan 
showing such changes accompanied by the necessary affidavit of 
owner or applicant shall have been filed and approved. 

Exception: A revised site plan will not be required if the 
change is caused by reason of an official street opening, 
street widening or other public improvement. 



SECTION 116.0 DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURES 

116.1 Service connections: Before a building or structure can 
be demolished or removed, the owner or agent shall notify all 
utilities having service connections within the building or struc- 
ture, such as; water, electric, gas, sewer and other connec- 
tions. A permit to demolish or remove a building or structure 
shall not be issued until a release is obtained from the utilities, 
stating that their respective service connections and appurten- 
ant equipment, such as; meters and regulators have been re- 
moved or sealed and plugged in a safe manner. 

116.2 Lot regulation: When a building or structure has been 
demolished or removed and a building operation has not been 
projected or approved, the vacant lot shall be filled with non- 
organic fill, graded and maintained in conformity with adjacent 
grades. The lot shall be maintained free from the accumulation 
of rubbish and all other unsafe or hazardous conditions which 
endanger the life or health of the public; provisions shall be 
made to prevent the accumulation of water or damage to any 
foundations on the premises or the adjoining property; and the 
necessary retaining walls and fences shall be erected in accord- 
ance with the provisions of Article 13. 



SECTION 117.0 MOVED STRUCTURES 

117.1 General: Buildings and structures moved into or within 
the jurisdiction shall comply with the provisions of this code. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 118.0 FEES 

118.1 General: A permit shall not be issued to begin work for 
new construction, alteration, removal, demolition or other build- 
ing operation until the fees prescribed by municipal ordinance 
or by-law shall have been paid to the city or town collector or 
other municipal agency authorized to collect such fees. 

118.2 Special fees: The payment of the fee for the construc- 
tion, alteration, removal or demolition and for all work done in 
connection with or concurrently with the work contemplated by 
a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that may be prescribed 
by law or ordinance for water taps, sewer connections, elec- 
trical and plumbing permits, erection of signs and display 
structures, marquees or other appurtenant structures, or fees 
for inspections, certificates of use and occupancy or other priv- 
ileges or requirements, both within and without the jurisdiction 
of the building department. 



SECTION 119.0 CERTIFICATE OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

119.1 New buildings and structures: A building or structure 
hereafter shall not be used or occupied in whole or in part 
until the certificate of use and occupancy shall have been 
issued by the building commissioner or inspector of buildings 
or, when applicable, the state inspector. The certificate shall 
not be issued until all the work has been completed in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the approved permits and of the 
applicable codes for which a permit is required, except as pro- 
vided in Section 119.4. 

119.2 Buildings or structures hereafter altered: A building or 
structure, in whole or in part, altered to change from one use 
group to another; to a different use within the same use group; 
the fire-grading; the maximum live load capacity; the occupancy 
load capacity; or a building or structure hereafter altered for 
which a certificate of use and occupancy has not been hereto- 
fore issued, shall not be occupied or used until the certificate 
shall have been issued certifying that the work has been com- 
pleted in accordance with the provisions of the approved per- 
mits and of the applicable codes for which a permit is required. 
Any use or occupancy, which was not discontinued during the 
work of alteration, shall be discontinued within thirty (30) days 
after the completion of the alteration unless the required certif- 
icate is issued. 

119.3 Existing buildings or structures: If a certificate of use 
and occupancy has not been issued, upon written request from 
the owner of an existing building or structure, a certificate of 
use and occupancy shall be issued, provided there are no 
violations of law or orders of the building official pending, and 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



it is established after inspection and investigation that the 
alleged use of the building or structure has heretofore existed. 
Nothing in this code shall require the removal, alteration or 
abandonment of, or prevent the continuance of the use and 
occupancy of a lawfully existing building or structure, unless 
such use is deemed to endanger public safety and welfare. 

119.4 Temporary occupancy: Upon the request of the holder 
of a permit, a temporary certificate of occupancy for a building 
or structure or part thereof may be issued before the entire 
work covered by the permit shall have been completed, pro- 
vided such portion or portions may be occupied safely prior to 
full completion of the building or structure without endangering 
life or public welfare, and provided that the agencies having 
jurisdiction for permits issued under other applicable codes are 
notified of the decision to issue a temporary certificate. 

119.5 Contents of certificate: The certificate shall certify 
compliance with the provisions of this code and the purpose for 
which the building or structure may be used in its several 
parts; and shall be issued within ten (10) days after final in- 
spection, provided that the provisions of the approved permits 
and of the applicable codes for which permits are required have 
been met. The certificate of use and occupancy shall specify: 
the use group in accordance with the provisions of Article 2, 
the fire grading as defined in Article 2 and Table 902, the 
maximum live load on all floors as prescribed in Article 7, the 
occupancy load in the building and all parts thereof as defined 
in Article 2 and Article 6, and any special stipulations and con- 
ditions of the building permit. 



SECTION 120.0 POSTING STRUCTURES 

120.1 Posted use and occupancy: A suitably designed placard 
approved by the building official shall be posted by the owner 
on all floors of every building and structure and part thereof 
designed for high hazard, storage, mercantile, factory and in- 
dustrial or business use (use groups H, S, M, F and B) as de- 
fined in Article 2. Said placard shall be securely fastened to 
the building or structure in a readily visible place, stating: 
the use group, the fire grading, the live load and the occu- 
pancy load. 

120.2 Posted occupancy load: A suitably designed placard 
approved by the building official shall be posted by the owner 
in every room where practicable of every building and structure 
and part thereof designed for use as a place of public assembly 
or as an institutional building for harboring people for penal, 
correctional, educational, medical or other care or treatment, or 
as residential buildings used for hotels, lodging houses, board- 
ing houses, dormitory buildings, multiple-family dwellings (use 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



groups A, I, R-l and R-2). Said placard shall designate the 
maximum occupancy load. 

120.3 Replacement of posted signs: All posting signs shall be 
furnished by the owner and shall be of permanent design; they 
shall not be removed or defaced, and if lost, removed or de- 
faced, shall be immediately replaced. 

120.4 Periodic inspection for posting: The building official 
may periodically inspect all existing buildings and structures 
except one and two-family dwellings for compliance with this 
code in respect to posting; or he may accept the report of such 
inspections from a qualified registered engineer or architect or 
others certified by the Commission; and such inspections and 
reports shall specify any violation of the requirements of this 
code in respect to the posting of floor load, fire grading, occu- 
pancy load and use group of the building or structure. 



SECTION 121.0 VIOLATIONS 

121.1 Unlawful acts: It shall be unlawful for any person, firm 
or corporation to erect, construct, alter, reconstruct, repair, 
remove, demolish, use or occupy any building or structure or 
equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, 
contrary to or in conflict with or in violation of any of the pro- 
visions of this code. 

121.2 Notice of violation: The building official shall serve a 
notice of violation or order on the person responsible for the 
erection, construction, alteration, reconstruction, repair, re- 
moval, demolition, use or occupancy of a building or structure 
in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a 
detail statement or a plan approved thereunder, or in violation 
of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this 
code; and such order shall direct the discontinuance of the il- 
legal action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

121.2.1 Notice or orders, service and content: Every notice 
or order authorized by this code shall be in writing and shall 
be served on the person responsible: 

1. personally, by any person authorized by the building 
official; or 

2. by any person authorized to serve civil process by leav- 
ing a copy of the order or notice at his last and usual 
place of abode; or 

3. by sending him a copy of the order by registered or 
certified mail return receipt requested, if he is within the 
Commonwealth; or 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



4. if his last and usual place of abode is unknown, by post- 
ing a copy of this order or notice in a conspicuous place 
on or about the premises in violation and by publishing it 
for at least three (3) out of five (5) consecutive days in 
one (1) or more newspapers of general circulation wherein 
the building or premises affected is situated. 

121.3 Prosecution of violation: If the notice of violation is not 
complied with within the time period specified in the notice, 
unless otherwise provided in this code, the building official may 
institute the appropriate proceedings at law or in equity in a 
court of competent jurisdiction to restrain, correct or abate 
such violation or to require the removal or termination of the 
unlawful use of the building or structure in violation of the 
provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pur- 
suant thereto. 

121.4 Violation penalties: Anyone who shall violate a provision 
of this code shall be punishable by a fine of not more than one 
thousand dollars ($1,000) or by imprisonment for not more than 
one year, or both, for each violation. Each day during which 
any portion of a violation continues shall constitute a separate 
offense . 

121.5 Abatement of violation: The imposition of the penalties 
herein prescribed shall not preclude the building official from 
instituting appropriate action to prevent unlawful construction 
or to restrain, correct or abate a violation, or to prevent illegal 
occupancy of a building, structure or premises or to stop an 
illegal act, conduct, business or use of a building or structure 
in or about any premises. 



SECTION 122.0 STOP-WORK ORDER 

122.1 Notice to owner: Upon notice from the building official 
that any work is being prosecuted contrary to the provisions of 
this code or in an unsafe or dangerous manner, such work shall 
be immediately stopped. The stop-work order shall be in writ- 
ing and shall be served on the owner or on the person doing 
the work, and shall state the conditions under which work may 
be resumed; provided, however, that in instances where immed- 
iate action is deemed necessary for public safety or in the 
public interest, the building official may require that work be 
stopped upon verbal order, provided that said verbal order be 
confirmed in writing within forty -eight (48) hours. 

122.1.1 Posting: A stop-work notice shall be posted in a con- 
spicuous place on the job site and can only be removed by the 
building official. 

122.2 Unlawful continuance: Anyone who shall continue any 
work in or about the job site after having been served with a 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



stop-work order, except such work as he is directed by the 
building official to perform to remove a violation of unsafe con- 
ditions, shall be liable to prosecution as provided in Section 
121.0. 



SECTION 123.0 UNSAFE STRUCTURES 

123.1 Inspection: The building official immediately upon being 
informed by report or otherwise that a building or other struc- 
ture or anything attached thereto or connected therewith is 
dangerous to life or limb or that any building in that city or 
town is unused, uninhabited or abandoned, and open to the 
weather, shall inspect the same; and he shall forthwith in writ- 
ing notify the owner to remove it or make it safe if it appears 
to him to be dangerous, or to make it secure if it is unused, 
uninhabited or abandoned and open to the weather. If it 
appears that such structure would be especially unsafe in case 
of fire, it shall be deemed dangerous within the meaning hereof, 
and the building official may affix in a conspicious place upon 
its exterior walls a notice of its dangerous condition, which 
shall not be removed or defaced without authority from him. 

123.2 Removal or making structure safe: Any person so noti- 
fied shall be allowed until twelve o'clock noon of the day follow- 
ing the service of the notice in which to begin to remove such 
building or structure or make it safe, or to make it secure, and 
he shall employ sufficient labor speedily to make it safe or re- 
move it or to make it secure; but if the public safety so re- 
quires and if the mayor or selectmen so order, the building 
official may immediately enter upon the premises with the nec- 
essary workmen and assistants and cause such unsafe structure 
to be made safe or demolished without delay and a proper fence 
put up for the protection of Passersby, or to be made secure. 



SECTION 124.0 EMERGENCY MEASURES 

124.1 Failure to remove or make structure safe, survey board, 
survey report: If an owner of such unsafe structure refuses 
or neglects to comply with the requirements of such notice 
within the specified time limit, and such structure is not made 
safe or taken down as ordered therein, a careful survey of the 
premises shall be made by a board consisting; in a city, of a 
city engineer, the head of the fire department, as such term is 
defined in Section 1 of Chapter 148 of the Massachusetts General 
Laws Annotated, as amended, and one disinterested person to 
be appointed by the building official; and, in a town, of a sur- 
veyor, the head of the fire department and one disinterested 
person to be appointed by the building official. In the absence 
of any of the above officers or individuals, the mayor or select- 
men shall designate one or more officers or other suitable 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



persons in place of the officers so named as members of said 
board. A written report of such survey shall be made, and a 
copy thereof served on such owner. 

124.2 Removal of dangerous or abandoned structures: If such 
survey report as outlined in Section 124.1 declares such struc- 
ture to be dangerous or to be unused, uninhabited or aband- 
oned, and open to the weather, and if the owner continues 
such refusal or neglect, the building official shall cause it to be 
made safe or taken down or to be made secure; and, if the 
public safety so requires, said building official may at once 
enter the structure, the land on which it stands or the abut- 
ting land or buildings, with such assistance as he may require, 
and secure the same; and may remove and evict, under the 
pertinent provisions of Chapter 239 of the Massachusetts 
General Laws Annotated as amended, or otherwise, any tenant 
or occupant thereof; and may erect such protection for the 
public by proper fence or otherwise as may be necessary, and 
for this purpose may close a public highway. In the case of 
such demolition, the said building official shall cause such lot to 
be levelled to conform with adjacent grades by a non-organic 
fill. The costs and charges incurred shall constitute a lien 
upon the land upon which the structure is located, and shall be 
enforced in an action of contract; and such owner shall, for 
every day's continuance of such refusal or neglect after being 
so notified, be punished by a fine in accordance with Sec- 
tion 121.4. The provisions of the second paragraph of Sec- 
tion 3A of Chapter 139 of the Massachusetts General Laws 
Annotated as amended, relative to liens for such debt and the 
collection of claims for such debt shall apply to any debt re- 
ferred to in this section, except that the said building official 
shall act hereunder in place of the mayor or board of select- 
men. During the time such order is in effect, it shall be un- 
lawful to use or occupy such structure or any portion thereof 
for any purpose. 

124.3 Remedy of person ordered to remove a dangerous struc- 
ture or make it safe: An owner, aggrieved by such order may 
have the remedy prescribed by Section 2 of Chapter 139 of the 
Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as amended; provided 
that any provision of said Section 2 shall not be construed so 
as to hinder, delay or prevent the building official from acting 
and proceeding under Section 124.2; and provided, further, 
that this section shall not prevent the city or town from re- 
covering the forfeiture provided in said Section 124.2 from the 
date of the service of the original notice, unless the order is 
annulled by the jury. 

125.0 RESERVED 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 126.0 BOARD OF APPEALS 

126.1 State Building Code Appeals Board: Whoever is 
aggrieved by an interpretation, order, requirement, direction 
or failure to act under this code by any agency or official of 
the city, town or region, or agency or official of the State 
charged with the administration or enforcement of this code or 
any of its rules or regulations, excepting any specialized codes, 
may appeal directly to the State Building Code Appeals Board 
as provided in Section 126.0. 

Whoever is aggrieved by an interpretation, order, require- 
ment, direction or failure to act under this code by any agency 
or official of a city, town or region charged with the adminis- 
tration or enforcement of this code or any of its rules and 
regulations, excepting any specialized codes, may appeal direct- 
ly to the State Building Code Appeals Board or may appeal first 
to a local or regional appeals board and if aggrieved thereby he 
may then appeal to the State Building Code Appeals Board as 
provided in Section 126.0. 

In the event an appeal is taken directly to the State Build- 
ing Code Appeals Board from an interpretation, order, require- 
ment or direction, said appeal shall be filed as specified in 
Section 126.3.1 with the State Building Code Appeals Board not 
later than forty-five (45) days after the service of notice there- 
of of the interpretation, order, requirement or direction. 

In the event the appeal is taken directly to the State Build- 
ing Code Appeals Board for the failure to act, the appeal shall 
be taken not later than forty-five (45) days after a request to 
act has been made by the aggrieved person in writing and 
served upon the appropriate building official or chief adminis- 
trative officer of the state or local agency which fails to act. 

If the aggrieved person elects to appeal before the local or 
regional board, he shall not be allowed to enter such appeal 
with the State Building Code Appeals Board until such time as 
the said local or regional board renders a decision, unless the 
reason for appeal to the State Building Code Appeals Board is 
the failure of the local or regional board to act. 

126.2 Membership 

126.2.1 Three member panel: The State Building Code Appeals 
Board (hereinafter referred to in Section 126.0 as the Board) 
shall consist of the membership of the State Building Code 
Commission. The chairman of the Commission shall be Chairman 
of the Board. The chairman of the Board may designate any 
three (3) members of the Board to act as a three (3) member 
panel to hold any public hearing under Section 126.0 and to 
hear testimony and take evidence. The chairman of the Board 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



shall select one (1) of the three (3) members to act as chairman 
of the said three (3) member panel. If a three (3) member 
panel is so designated, the three (3) member panel shall act as 
the Appeals Board and render a decision as provided in Section 
126.0. 

126.2.2 Clerk: The executive director of the Commission shall 
designate one (1) of the staff of the Commission to act as clerk 
to the Board. The clerk shall keep a detailed record of all 
decisions and appeals and a docket book on file showing the 
name of each appeal properly indexed and the disposition of the 
appeal. Said docket book shall be open to public inspection at 
all times during normal business hours. 

126.2.3 Quorum: A majority of the Board shall constitute a 
quorum if the appeal is heard by the entire Board. 

126.3 Appeals procedure for State Building Code Appeals 
Board 

126.3.1 Entry: Appeals shall be entered on forms provided by 
the Commission and shall be accompanied by an entry fee of one 
hundred ($100) dollars or such other amounts as may be deter- 
mined by the Commission from time to time. 

The appeal shall be signed by the appellant or his attorney 
or agent and shall note the name and address of the person or 
agency in whose behalf the appeal is taken and the name of the 
person and address wherein service of notice for the appellant 
is to be made. The appeal shall also state in detail the inter- 
pretation, order, requirement, direction or failure to act which 
are the grounds of the appeals as well as the particular section 
or sections of this code which are involved in the appeal and 
the reasons for the appellant advances supporting the appeal. 

A copy of the appeal shall be served in accordance with 
Section 121.2.1 by the appellant on the person or state, 
regional or local agency from whose action or inaction the 
appeal is taken, on or before entry of the appeal. An affi- 
davit, under oath, that such copy has been served shall be 
filed with the Board forthwith by the appellant. 

126.3.2 Stay of Proceedings: Entry of an appeal shall stay all 
proceedings in furtherance of the action or failure to act 
appealed from, unless the state, regional or local agency or any 
person charged with the administration or enforcement of this 
code or any of its rules or regulations presents evidence and 
the Board or a three (3) member panel or a single member of 
the Board, appointed by the chairman for said purpose, finds 
that upon the evidence presented a stay would involve imminent 
peril to life or property. In such an event, stay of all pro- 
ceedings shall be waived or the Board or three (3) member 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

panel or single member may order such other action necessary 
to preserve public safety. 

Before waiving the stay or proceedings, the Board or three 
(3) member panel or single member of the Board, appointed by 
the chairman for said purpose, shall hold a hearing and give 
the appellant and state, regional or local agency or any person 
claiming that a stay would involve imminent peril to life or pro- 
perty, notice in writing of the hearing not less than twenty- 
four (24) hours before said hearing. 

126.3.3 Documents: Upon entry, the clerk shall request in 
writing from the state, city, regional or town officer in charge 
of the matter on appeal, a copy of the record and all other 
papers and documents relative to the appeal to be transmitted 
forthwith to the Board. Said state, city, regional or town 
officer shall upon receipt of the request of the Board transmit 
forthwith all the papers and documents and a copy of the record 
relating to the matter on appeal. 

126.3.4 Hearings: The chairman of the Board shall fix a con- 
venient time and place for a public hearing. Said hearings 
shall be held not later than thirty (30) days after the entry of 
such appeal, unless such time is extended by agreement with 
the appellant. Any such party may appear in person or by 
agent or attorney at such hearing. The chairman or clerk shall 
give notice of the time and place of said hearing to all parties 
to the hearing and to anyone else requesting notice in writing 
at least ten (10) days prior thereto. Failure to hold a public 
hearing within thirty (30) days shall not affect the validity of 
the appeal or any decision rendered. The Board or three (3) 
member panel in its hearings conducted under this section shall 
not be bound by strict rules of evidence prevailing in courts of 
law or equity. 

126.4 Decisions 

126.4.1 Votes required: If the appeal is conducted by a three 
(3) member panel, then the concurrence of two (2) of the three 
(3) members holding the public hearing shall be required. If 
the appeal is conducted by the entire Board, then a majority 
vote of those hearing the case shall be required. 

126.4.2 Standard: The Board or a three (3) member panel 
may vary the application of any provision of this code to any 
particular case when in the opinion of the Board or a three (3) 
member panel, the enforcement of this code would do manifest 
injustice, provided that the Board or threemember panel finds 
that the decision to grant a variance shall not conflict with the 
general objectives set forth in Section 18 of Chapter 23B of the 
General Laws of the Commonwealth or with the general objec- 
tives of this code. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



126.4.3 Time for decision: The Board shall within thirty (30) 
days after such hearing, unless such time is extended by 
agreement of the parties, issue a decision or order reversing, 
affirming or modifying in whole or in part the order, interpre- 
tation, requirement, direction or failure to act which is the 
subject matter of the appeal. 

Failure to render a decision within thirty (30) days shall not 
affect the validity of any such decision or appeal. 

Notice of and a copy of the decision shall be sent by the 
clerk to all parties to the appeal and anyone requesting in 
writing a copy of the decision. 

126.4.4 Contents of decision: All decisions shall be in writing 
and state findings of fact, conclusions and reasons for 
decisions. Every decision shall indicate thereon the vote of 
each member and shall be signed by each member voting. A 
decision shall not be considered by any person or agency as a 
precedent for future decisions. 

126.4.5 Additional powers: The Board or a three (3) member 
panel may impose in any decision, limitations both as to time 
and use, and a continuation of any use permitted may be con- 
ditioned upon compliance with future amendments to this code. 

126.5 Enforcement: Upon receipt of the decision of the Board 
or a three (3) member panel, the parties to the appeal shall 
take action forthwith to comply with the decision unless a later 
time is specified in the decision. 

126.6 Appeals from State Building Code Appeals Board: Any 
person aggrieved by a decision of the State Building Code 
Appeals Board may appeal to a court of law or equity in con- 
formance with Chapter 30A, Section 14 of the General Laws. 

126.7 Local and regional board of appeals 

126 .7.1 Local or regional board of appeals : Whoever is 
aggrieved by an interpretation, order, requirement, direction 
or failure to act under this code by any agency or official of a 
city, region or town charged with the administration or enforce- 
ment of this code or any of its rules and regulations may appeal 
first to the appeals board in that city, region or town and then 
to the State Building Code Appeals Board as provided in Sec- 
tion 126.0. 

In the event an appeal is taken from an interpretation, 
order, requirement or direction, said appeal shall be filed with 
the local or regional appeals board not later than forty-five (45) 
days after the service of notice thereof of the interpretation, 
order, requirement or direction. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



In the event the appeal is taken for the failure to act, the 
appeal shall be taken not later than forty-five (45) days after a 
request to act has been made by the aggrieved person in writ- 
ing and served to the appropriate building official or chief ad- 
ministrative officer of the city, regional or town agency which 
fails to act. 

126.7.2 Membership: Any building code board of appeals duly 
established by ordinance or by-law or otherwise in a city, 
region or town and in existence on January 1, 1975, shall qual- 
ify as a local board of appeals under Section 126.0 notwithstand- 
ing anything to the contrary contained herein. However, the 
procedure and rights for appeals for such board of appeals 
shall be governed by this code. 

If a city, region or town had not duly established by ordi- 
nance or by-law or otherwise a local or regional building code 
appeals board prior to January 1, 1975, said city, region or 
town may establish a local or regional board of appeals, herein- 
after referred to as the local board of appeals, consisting of 
five (5) members appointed by the chief administrative officer 
of the city, region or town: one (1) member appointed for five 
(5) years, one (1) for four (4) years, one for three (3) years, 
one for two (2) years and one to serve for one (1) year; and 
thereafter each new member to serve for five (5) years or until 
his successor has been appointed. 

126.7.3 Qualifications of local board members: Each member of 
a local board of appeals established under Section 126.7.2 shall 
have had at least five (5) years experience in the construction, 
alteration, repair and maintenance of building and building 
codes. At least one (1) member shall be a registered structural 
or civil professional engineer and one (1) member a licensed pro- 
fessional architect. 

126.7.4 Chairman of local or regional board: The board shall 
select one (1) of its members to serve as chairman and a de- 
tailed record of all proceedings shall be kept on file in the build- 
ing department. 

126.7.5 Absence of members: During the absence of a member 
of a local board of appeals for reason of disability or disqualifi- 
cation, the chief administrative officer of the city, region or 
town shall designate a substitute who shall meet the qualifi- 
cations as outlined in Section 126.7.3. 

126.7.6 Quorum: A quorum shall be three (3) members. 

126.7.7 Procedures: Entry of appeals shall be governed by 
Section 126.3.1 excepting that a city, region or town may set 
its own entry fee. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Upon notice of entry of appeal the local building commis- 
sioner or inspector of buildings shall transmit a copy of the 
record and all the papers and documents to the local board of 
appeals. 

Entry of an appeal shall stay all proceedings in furtherance 
of the action or failure to act appealed from, unless the build- 
ing commissioner or inspector of buildings certifies in writing to 
the local board of appeals that a stay would involve imminent 
peril to life or property. Notice in writing of such certification 
by the building commissioner or inspector of buildings shall be 
given the appellant at least twenty-four (24) hours prior to the 
hearing. In such an event a hearing on such stay shall be 
given first priority and be the first matter heard by the local 
board of appeals at its next scheduled meeting. The hearing 
on the appeal shall be held as soon as possible thereafter in 
accordance with Section 126.7.8. 

The local board of appeals may establish its own rules for 
procedure not established herein or not inconsistent with this 
code or the enabling legislation creating a statewide building 
code. 

126.7.8 Hearings: All hearings shall be public and notice of 
said hearings shall be advertised in a newspaper of general cir- 
culation in the city, region or town in which the appeal is 
taken at least ten (10) days before said hearing. Notice of the 
hearing, setting forth the date and time of said hearing, shall 
be mailed by the local board of appeals to all parties and all 
those who requested notice in writing at least fourteen (14) 
days before said hearing. Said hearings shall be held not later 
than thirty (30) days after the entry of such appeal, unless 
such time is extended by agreement with the appellant. This 
section as it pertains to notice shall not apply to hearings on a 
stay as provided in Section 126.7.7. 

126.7.9 Decisions of local boards: A concurring vote of a 
majority of all the members present shall be required for any 
decision. The local appeals board may vary the application of 
this code to any particular case when in its opinion the enforce- 
ment of this code would do manifest injustice; provided that the 
decision of the board shall not conflict with the general objec- 
tives of the state building code or any of its enabling legis- 
lation. The local board of appeals may impose in any decision, 
limitations both as to time and use, and a continuation of any 
use permitted may be conditioned upon compliance with future 
amendments to this code. 

126.7.10 Time for decision: The board shall within thirty (30) 
days after such hearing, unless such time is extended by 
agreement of the parties, issue a decision or order reversing, 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



affirming or modifying in whole or in part the order, interpre- 
tation, requirement, direction or failure to act which is the sub- 
ject matter of the appeal. 

Failure to render a decision within thirty (30) days shall not 
affect the validity of any such decision or appeal. 

Notice of and a copy of the decision shall be sent by the 
clerk to all parties to the appeal and to anyone requesting in 
writing a copy of the decision. 

126.7.11 Contents of decision: All decisions shall be in writ- 
ing and state findings of fact, conclusions and reasons for the 
decisions. Every decision shall indicate thereon the vote of 
each member and shall be signed by each member voting. Any 
decision shall not be considered by any person or agency as a 
precedent for future decisions. 

126.7.12 Copy of decision: A copy of any decision by a local 
board of appeals shall be transmitted to the State Building Code 
Appeals Board within ten (10) days after the rendering of such 
decision. If the State Building Code Appeals Board disapproves 
of the said decision of the local board, it may on its own 
motion appeal from the local appeals board's decision according 
to Section 126.0 and call for a hearing de novo. 

If the State Building Code Appeals Board does not notify the 
local board in writing within forty-five (45) days from the date 
of the local board's decision, the said decision shall be deemed 
approved; provided that the decision shall not conflict with the 
general objectives of the state building code and any of its en- 
abling legislation. 

126.7.13 Enforcement of decision: If said decision is approved 
by the State Building Code Appeals Board, all parties to the 
appeal shall take immediate action in accordance with the 
decision of the local board unless the person aggrieved by such 
decision appeals to the State Building Code Appeals Board as 
provided in Section 126.0. 

126.7.14 Review: Any person, including the State Building 
Code Appeals Board, aggrieved by a decision of the local board 
of appeals, whether or not a previous party to the decision, or 
any municipal officer or official board of the municipality, may, 
not later than forty-five (45) days after the mailing of the 
decision of the local board, apply to the State Building Code 
Appeals Board for a hearing de novo before the State Board, in 
accordance with the regulations contained in Section 126.0. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 127.0 CONSTRUCTION CONTROL 

127.1 Responsibilities: The provisions of this section define 
the construction controls required for all structures needing 
registered professional architectural or engineering services, 
and delineate the responsibilities of such professional services 
together with those services that are the responsibility of the 
contractor during construction. 

Exceptions : 

1. Any building containing less than thirty-five thousand 
(35,000) cubic feet of enclosed space; 

2. Any single or two-family house or any accessory building 
thereto ; 

3. Any building used for farm purposes; and 

4. Retaining walls less than ten (10) feet in height at all 
points along the wall as measured from the base of the 
footing to the top of the wall. 

127.2 Professional architecture or engineering services. 

127.2.1 Design: All plans, computations and specifications in- 
volving new construction, alterations, repairs, expansions or 
additions shall be prepared by or under the direct supervision 
of a registered professional architect or engineer and bear his 
signature and seal; said signature and seal shall signify that 
the plans, computations and specifications meet the applicable 
provisions of this code, all acceptable engineering practices and 
all applicable laws and ordinances. 

127.2.2 Architect/engineer inspectional responsibility: The reg- 
istered professional architect or engineer shall be responsible 
for the following: 

1. Review of shop drawings, samples and other submittals of 
the contractor as required by the construction contract 
documents as submitted for building permit, and approval 
for conformance to the design concept. 

2. Review and approval of the quality control procedures for 
all code-required controlled materials. 

3. Special architectural or engineering professional inspection 
of critical construction components requiring controlled 
materials or construction specified in the accepted engi- 
neering practice standards listed in Appendix B. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



The registered professional architect or engineer shall per- 
form the necessary professional services and be present on the 
construction site on a regular and periodic basis to determine 
that, generally, the work is proceeding in accordance with the 
documents approved for the building permit. 

127.2.3 Reporting: The registered professional architect or 
engineer shall submit periodically, in a form acceptable to the 
building official, a progress report together with pertinent com- 
ments. At the completion of the construction, the registered 
professional architect or engineer shall submit to the building 
official a report as to the satisfactory completion and the readi- 
ness of the project for occupancy (excepting any items not en- 
dangering such occupancy and listing pertinent deviations from 
the approved building permit documents). 

127.3 Construction contractor services: The actual construc- 
tion of the work shall be the responsibility of the general con- 
tractor as identified on the approved building permit and shall 
involve the following: 

1. Execution of all work in accordance with the approved con- 
struction documents. 

2. Execution and control of all methods of construction in a 
safe and satisfactory manner in accordance with all appli- 
cable local, state, and federal statutes and regulations. 

3. Upon completion of the construction, he shall certify to 
the best of his knowledge and belief that such has been 
done in substantial accord with items 1 and 2 above and 
with all pertinent deviations specifically noted. 

127.4 Special professional services: When applications for un- 
usual designs or magnitude of construction are filed, or where 
code reference standards and/or Appendix B require special 
architectural or engineering inspections, the building official 
may require full-time project representation by the registered 
professional architect or engineer in addition to that provided 
in Section 127.2.2. The project representative shall keep daily 
records and submit reports as may be required by the building 
official. Upon completion of the work, the registered profes- 
sional architect or engineer shall file a final report as required 
under Section 127.2.3. 

127.4.1 Building permit requirement: This special professional 
service requirement shall be determined prior to the issuance of 
the building permit and shall be a requisite for the permit 
issuance. Refusal by the applicant to provide such service as 
required by the building official shall result in the denial of the 
permit. However, the applicant may file an appeal as provided 
in Section 126.0. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



127.4.2 Fee and costs: All fees and costs related to the per- 
formance of special professional services shall be borne by the 
applicant. 

127.5 Building official responsibility: Nothing contained in 
this section shall have the effect of waiving or limiting the 
building official's authority to enforce this code with respect to 
examination of the contract documents, including plans, compu- 
tations and specifications, and field inspections (see Section 
108.0). 

SECTION 128.0 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SAFETY BOARD 

128.1 Membership: There shall be a board under the control 
of the Commission called the Construction Materials Safety 
Board, hereafter in Section 128.0 called the Board which shall 
consist of nine (9) members, one (1) of whom shall be a member 
of the Commission who shall be ex officio and a voting member 
of the Board and eight (8) members to be appointed by the 
chairman of the Commission: one of whom shall be a registered 
professional engineer who is a structural engineer; one of whom 
shall be a registered architect; one of whom shall be a repre- 
sentative of a commercial testing laboratory; one of whom shall 
be a representative of a public testing laboratory; two of whom 
shall be representatives from the construction industry; one of 
whom shall be a member of a university faculty engaged in re- 
search and teaching in structural materials; and one of whom 
shall be a member of a university faculty engaged in research 
and teaching in the area of theoretical and applied mechanics. 

128.2 Duties: The Board will review applications for registra- 
tion or licensing of individuals, laboratories or firms responsible 
for the inspection, control and testing of construction materials, 
and review applications and pertinent data relevant to all mater- 
ials, devices, products and methods of construction not in- 
cluded in this code; and report to the Commission their recom- 
mendations. The Board will collect information and review cases 
where disciplinary action against an existing license, whether 
an individual, laboratory or firm, has been proposed; and make 
recommendations to the Commission. The Commission will issue 
applications, receive payment for the review of such appli- 
cations and approvals, registration and licensing fees, and 
maintain records for the efficient dispatch of the duties of the 
Board. 

128.3 Testing and evaluation groups: The Commission shall 
establish and maintain testing and evaluation groups who will 
have the responsibility of administering and directing, under 
the supervision of the Commission, the testing and controls for 
evaluating individual applicants, laboratories and firms wishing 
to become registered or licensed. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

SECTION 129.0 ACTIVITIES REQUIRING LICENSES 

129 . 1 Concrete 

129.1.1 Field technicians: A person shall not engage in the 
activities of field testing of concrete for use in structures 
subject to construction control (Section 127.0) and/or controlled 
materials (Section 719.0) unless such person is licensed by the 
Commission in accordance with the Rules and Regulations for 
Concrete Testing Personnel as referenced in Appendix Q. 

129.1.2 Testing laboratories: A testing laboratory, branch 
laboratory and/or project laboratory shall not test concrete 
and/or concrete materials for use in structures subject to con- 
struction control (Section 127.0) and/or controlled materials 
(Section 719.0) unless licensed by the Commission in accordance 
with this code and the Rules and Regulations for Licensing of 
Concrete Testing Laboratories as referenced in Appendix Q. 

129.2 Native lumber: A person shall not engage in producing 
of native lumber for use in structures within the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts unless registered by the Commission in accord- 
ance with this code and the Rules and Regulations Controlling 
the Use of Native Lumber as referenced in Appendix Q. 

129.3 Enforcement: Any person or laboratory who violates the 
provisions of this section, or any rules and regulations promul- 
gated hereunder, or who falsifies or counterfeits a license or 
registration issued by the Commission, or who fraudently issues 
or accepts such a license shall be punished as provided in 
Section 121.0. 



SECTION 130.0 FIRE PREVENTION - FIRE PROTECTION BOARD 

130.1 Constitution of the Fire Prevention - Fire Protection 
Board: There shall be a Board under the control of the Com- 
mission called the Fire Prevention - Fire Protection Board, here- 
inafter in Section 130.0 called the Board which shall consist of 
thirteen (13) members, two (2) of whom shall be members of the 
Commission; one (1) of whom shall be the State Fire Marshal or 
his designee, all three (3) of whom shall be ex-officio and 
voting members of the Board, and ten (10) members to be 
appointed by the chairman of the Commission for a term of one 
(1) year; three (3) of whom shall be representatives of the Fire 
Chiefs Association; two (2) of whom shall be representatives of 
the Massachusetts Fire Prevention Association; one (1) of whom 
shall be a representative of the International Municipal Signal- 
men's Association; one (1) of whom shall be a member of the 
Board of Fire Prevention Regulations; one (1) of whom shall be 
a Fire Protection Engineer; one (1) of whom shall be a building 
official and one (1) of whom shall be a registered professional 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



engineer or architect. A chairman and a vice chairman shall be 
chosen by the members of the Board to serve for one (1) year. 
A member of an agency or board of the state shall not be elig- 
ible for the office of chairman or vice chairman. 

130.2 Purpose: The Board will review and recommend to the 
Commission changes to this code relating to fire prevention and 
fire protection and more specifically those matters contained in 
Article 12 of this code. 

131.0 - 139.0 RESERVED 



SECTION 140.0 VALIDITY 

140.1 General: The provisions of this code are severable, and 
if any of its provisions shall be held unconstitutional or other- 
wise invalid by any court of competent jurisdiction, the decision 
of such court shall not affect or impair any of the remaining 
provisions . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
NON-TEXT PAGE 



9/1/80 38 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

ARTICLE 2 

DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS 
SECTION 200.0 GENERAL 

200.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the classifi- 
cation of all buildings as to use group and type of construction; and the 
definition of all terms relating thereto in the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts . 

200.2 Application of terms: The terms herein defined shall be used to 
interpret all the applicable provisions of this code. 

200.3 Application of other laws: Nothing herein contained shall be 
deemed to nullify any provisions of the zoning by-laws or ordinance of 
any municipality in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts insofar as those 
provisions deal exclusively with those powers of regulating zoning granted 
by the provisions of Chapters 40A and 41 of the Massachusetts General 
Laws Annotated, as amended. 

SECTION 201.0 GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

201.1 Meaning: Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms 
shall, for the purpose of this code, have the meaning indicated in this 
section. 

201.2 Tense, gender and number: Words used in the present tense 
include the future; words used in the masculine gender include the fem- 
inine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural 
the singular. 

201.3 Terms not defined: Where terms are not defined, they shall have 
their ordinarily accepted meanings or such as the context may imply. 
Any terms relating to elevators, dumbwaiters and escalators shall have 
their meaning as defined by 524 CMR 3.00-11.00 and 524 CMR 15.00-33.00. 
Any terms relating to plumbing, gasfitting and electrical wiring shall have 
their terms as defined by 248 CMR 2.00, 248 CMR 3.00-8.00 and 527 CMR 
12.00 respectively as listed in Appendix B. 

Accepted engineering practice: That which conforms to accepted princi- 
ples, tests or standards of nationally recognized technical or scientific 
authorities . 

Accessory structure: A building or structure, the use of which is inci- 
dental to that of the main building or structure and which is located on 
the same lot. 

Accessory use: A use incidental to the principal use of a building as 
defined or limited by the provisions of the local zoning laws. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Accredited authoritative agencies: See Appendix O. 

Addition: An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building 
or structure. 

Air-conditioning: The treatment of air so as to control simultaneously its 
temperature, humidity, cleanness and distribution to meet the require- 
ments of a conditioned space. 

Air duct: A tube or conduit used for conveying air. 

Airplane hangar, private: A hangar for the storage of four (4) or less 
single motor planes and in which volatile or flammable oil is not handled, 
stored or kept other than that contained in the fuel storage tank of the 
plane . 

Airplane hangar, public: A building for the storage, care or repair of 
private or commercial airplanes not included in the term "private airplane 
hangar" . 

Air supported structure: A structural and mechanical system which is 
constructed of high strength fabric or film and achieves its shape, stabil- 
ity, and support by pretensioning with internal air pressure; air struc- 
tures may be used for temporary applications. 

Air transport factor: The ratio of the rate of useful sensible heat re- 
moval from the conditioned space to the energy input to the supply and 
return fan motor(s), expressed in consistent units and under the desig- 
nated operating conditions. 

Aisle: A clear and unobstructed passageway through a room. 

Alley: A secondary thoroughfare less than thirty (30) feet in width 
dedicated for the public use of vehicles and pedestrians, affording access 
to abutting property. 

Alteration: A change or modification of a building or structure, or the 
service equipment thereof, that affects safety or health and that is not 
classified as an ordinary repair. 

Alternate inspector: A person appointed to act in the absence of the 
inspector of buildings in case of illness, disability, or conflict of interest. 

Amusement device: A device or structure open to the public by which 
persons are conveyed or moved in unusual manner for diversion. 

Anchor store: An anchor store is an exterior perimeter department store 
or major merchandising or magnet center having direct access to a mall 
and having its required exits independent of the mall. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Annunciator: A unit containing two (2) or more identified targets or 
indicator lamps in each target, or lamp, indicating the circuit, condition 
or location to be annunciated. 

Apartment: A "Dwelling unit" as defined in this code. 

Approval: When used in Article 18 for manufactured buildings or build- 
ing components, approved by the State Building Code Commission. 

Approved: Approved by the Commission, the building official or other 
authority having jurisdiction. 

Approved material, equipment and methods: Approved by the Commission 
or by an agency approved by the Commission. 

Approved plastic: See Section 1900.2.1. 

Approved rules: Those rules approved by the State Building Code Com- 
mission unless otherwise specified. 

Appurtenant structure: A device or structure attached to the exterior or 
erected on the roof of a building designed to support service equipment 
or used in connection therewith, or for advertising or display purposes, 
or other similar uses. 

Architectural terra cotta: Plain or ornamental hard-burned plastic clay 
units, larger in size than brick, with glazed or unglazed ceramic finish. 

Area (building): The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or 
exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas 
of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in 
the building area if included within the horizontal projection of the roof 
or floor above. 

Areaway (form of construction): An uncovered subsurface space adjacent 
to a building. 

Ashlar facing: Facing of solid rectangular units larger in size than brick 
of burned clay or shale, natural or cast stone, with sawed, dressed and 
squared beds and mortar joints. 

Ashlar masonry: Masonry composed of bonded, rectangular units, larger 
in size than brick, with sawed, dressed or squared beds and mortar 
joints . 

Atrium: See "Open well". 

Attic: The space between the ceiling beams of the top habitable story 
and the roof rafters. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Attic (habitable): A habitable attic is an attic which has a stairway as a 
means of access and egress and in which the ceiling area at a height of 
seven and one-third (7 1/3) feet above the attic floor is not less than 
one-third (1/3) the area of the floor next below. 

Automatic: As applied to energy conservation, is self-acting, operating 
by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence such as 
a change in electric current, pressure, temperature, or mechanical con- 
figuration. (See definition of "Manual.") 

Automatic: As applied to fire protection devices, is a device or system 
providing an emergency function without the necessity of a human inter- 
vention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, 
rate of rise of temperature, or increase in the level of combustion pro- 
ducts; such as incorporated in an automatic sprinkler system, automatic 
fire door, etc. 

Automatic collapsible revolving door: A door which is designed, sup- 
ported and constructed so that the wings will release and fold back in the 
direction of egress under pressure exerted by persons under panic con- 
ditions, providing a means of travel on both sides of the door pivot. 

Automatic detecting device: A device which automatically detects heat, 
smoke or other products of combustion. 

Automatic fire alarm system: A system which automatically detects a fire 
condition and actuates a fire alarm signal device. 

Automatic fire door: A fire door or other opening protective constructed 
and arranged so that, if open, it shall close when subjected to: 

1. a predetermined temperature; 

2. a predetermined rate of temperature rise, or 

3. smoke or other products of combustion. 

Automatic sprinkler: A device, connected to a water supply system, that 
opens automatically at a predetermined fixed temperature and disburses a 
spray of water. 

Automatic sprinkler system: A sprinkler system for fire protection pur- 
poses, is an integrated system of underground and/or overhead piping 
designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The 
system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system 
above ground is a network of specially or hydraulically designed piping 
installed in a building, structure, or area, generally overhead, and to 
which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The 
system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over 
the fire area. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Automatic water supply: Water supplied through a gravity or pressure 
tank or automatically operated fire pumps, or from a direct connection to 
an approved municipal water main. 

Auxilliary alarm system: A connection to the municipal fire alarm system 
to transmit an alarm of fire to the fire department. Fire alarms from an 
auxilliary alarm system are received at municipal fire alarm headquarters 
on the same equipment and by the same alerting methods as alarms trans- 
mitted from municipal fire alarm boxes located on streets. 

Base: The level at which earthquake motions are considered to be im- 
parted to the structure or the level at which the structure as a dynamic 
vibrator is supported. 

Basement: That portion of a building which is partly below and partly 
above grade, and having at least one-half (1/2) its height above grade 
(see "Grade," "Story" and "Cellar"). 

Basic Code: The State Building Code of the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts, also referred to as this code. 

Bay (part of a structure): The space between two (2) adjacent piers or 
mullions or between two (2) adjacent lines of columns. 

Bay window: A window projecting beyond the wall line of the building 
and extending down to the foundation. 

Billboard (poster panel): A board panel or tablet used for the display of 
printed or painted advertising matter. 

Boiler: A closed heating appliance intended to supply hot water or steam 
for space heating, processing or power purposes. 

Low pressure and temperature 

Steam: Any boiler, generator, pressure vessel, system, piping or steam 
equipment used for the purpose of heating or distributing steam for 
heating, power or processing, operating at pressure of fifteen (15) pounds 
per square inch gauge (psig) or less, shall be classed as low pressure. 

Hot water: Any boiler, generator, pressure vessel, system, piping or 
equipment used for the purpose of heating or distributing hot water for 
heating, supply or processing, operating at pressure not exceeding one 
hundred sixty (160) psig and temperatures not exceeding two hundred 
(250) degrees F., shall be classed as low pressure. 

Exception: Hot water supply boilers equipped with safety devices as 
required by the mechanical code listed in Appendix B and direct fired are 
considered outside the scope of this definition when the heat input is less 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



than two hundred thousand (200,000) Btus per hour, the water temper- 
ature is less than two hundred (200) degrees F. and the capacity is less 
than one hundred twenty (120) gallons. 

High pressure and temperature 

Steam: Any boiler, generator, pressure vessel, system, piping or equip- 
ment used for the purpose of heating or distributing steam for heating, 
power and processing, operating at pressure in excess of fifteen (15) 
psig, shall be classed as high pressure. 

Hot water: Any boiler, generator, pressure vessel, system, piping or 
equipment used for the purpose of heating or distributing hot water for 
heating or processing, operating at pressures in excess of one hundred 
sixty (160) psig or temperatures in excess of two hundred fifty (250) 
degrees F., shall be classed as high pressure. 

Boiler capacity: The amount of heat output in Btu/h at the design tem- 
perature rise and rated input. 

Box system: A structural system where the vertical load is carried by 
bearing walls and structural framing and where the lateral stability and 
lateral force resisting system consists of shear walls or braced frames. 

Braced frame: A vertical truss or its equivalent which is provided to 
resist lateral forces in which the members are subjected primarily to axial 
stresses . 

Brick (clay or shale): A solid masonry unit of clay or shale, usually 
formed into a rectangular prism while plastic and burned or fired in a 
kiln. 

Calcium-silicate brick (sand lime brick): A building unit made of sand 
and lime. 

Concrete brick: A solid masonry unit having a shape approximately a 
rectangular prism and composed of inert aggregate particles embedded in 
a hardened cementitious matrix. 

Hollow brick: A masonry unit of clay or shale whose net cross-sectional 
area in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is not less than sixty 
(60) per cent or more than seventy-five (75) per cent of its gross cross- 
sectional area measured in the same plane. 

Building (see also "Structure"): A structure enclosed within exterior 
walls or firewalls, built, erected and framed of a combination of any 
materials, whether portable or fixed, having a roof, to form a structure 
for the shelter of persons, animals or property. For the purpose of this 
definition, "roof" shall include an awning or any similar covering, 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



whether or not permanent in nature. The word "building" shall be con- 
strued where the context requires as though followed by the words "or 
part or parts thereof". 

Building commissioner: The administrative chief of the building depart- 
ment in a municipality who is charged with the administration and en- 
forcement of this code. (See also "Inspector of buildings" and Section 
107.1.) 

Building component: Any subsystem, subassembly, or other system 
designed for use in or as part of a structure having concealed elements 
such as electrical, mechanical, plumbing and fire protection systems and 
other systems affecting health and safety. 

Building department: The person, body, agency, department or office of 
any municipality charged with the administration and enforcement of this 
code. 

Building envelope: The elements of a building which enclose conditioned 
spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the 
exterior. 

Building, existing: Any structure erected or one for which a legal 
building permit has been issued prior to the adoption of this code (and 
its amendments). 

Building line: The line established by law, beyond which a building shall 
not extend, except as specifically provided by law. 

Building official: The officer or other designated authority charged with 
the administration and enforcement of this code. Building official as used 
herein includes the building commissioner or the inspector of buildings 
and the local inspector. 

Building service equipment: The mechanical, electrical and elevator 
equipment, including piping, wiring, fixtures and other accessories, 
which provide sanitation, lighting, heating, ventilation, firefighting and 
transportation facilities essential for the habitable occupancy of the build- 
ing or structure for its designated use and occupancy. 

Building site: The area occupied by a building or structure, including 
the yards and courts required for light and ventilation, and such areas 
that are prescribed for access to the street. 

Building system: See Article 18. 

Buttress: A projecting part of a masonry wall built integrally therewith 
to furnish lateral stability which is supported on proper foundations. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Carbon dioxide extinguishing system (C0 2V , svstem t0 cvmnlv C02 
from a pressurized vessel through fixed pfpgs and -11022163. Tne system 
includes an automatic detection and actuating mechanism. 

Cellar: That portion of a building which is partly or completely below 
grade and having at least one-half (1/2) its height below grade (see 
"Grade," "Story" and "Basement"). 

Central station system: A system, or group of systems, the operations of 
which are signaled to, recorded in, maintained and supervised from an 
approved central station, in which there are competent and experienced 
observers and operators in attendance at all times whose duty it shall be, 
upon receipt of a signal, to take such an action as shall be required 
under the rules established for their guidance. Such systems shall be 
controlled and operated by a person, firm, or corporation whose principal 
business is the furnishing and maintaining of supervised protective signal- 
ing service and who does not have interest in the protected properties. 

Ceramic surface unit: See "Tile." 

Certificate of use and occupancy: The certificate issued by the building 
official which permits the use of a building in accordance with the ap- 
proved plans and specifications and which certifies compliance with the 
provisions of law for the use and occupancy of the building in its several 
parts, together with any special stipulations or conditions of the building 
permit. 

Certification: Any manufactured building or building component that 
meets the provisions of Article 18 and the rules and regulations pursuant 
thereto; and which has been labeled accordingly. 

Change of use: An alteration by change of use in a building heretofore 
existing to a new use group or sub-use group which imposes other special 
provisions of law governing building construction, equipment or means of 
egress. 

Chimney: A primarily vertical enclosure containing one (1) or more 
passageways. 

Factory-built chimneys: A chimney that is factory-made, listed by a 
nationally recogni2ed testing or inspection agency, for venting gas ap- 
pliances, gas incinerators and solid or liquid fuel burning appliances. 

Masonry chimney: A field constructed chimney of solid masonry units, 
bricks, stones, listed hollow masonry units or reinforced concrete built in 
accordance with nationally recogni2ed standards. 

Metal chimney (smokestack): A field constructed chimney made of metal 
and built in accordance with nationally recogni2ed standards. 



9/1/80 46 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Chimney connector: A pipe which connects a fuel burning appliance to a 
chimney . 

Class A soil: Includes all the classes of soil and rock enumerated in 
Section 720.4. 

Class A soil site: 

1. A site composed exclusively of Class A soil; or 

2. A site where Class A soil overlies or includes Class B soil, provided 
that the depth below ground surface to the uppermost Class B soil and 
the cumulative thickness of Class B soil meet the criteria in Figure 716.1. 

Class B soil: Includes all classes of soil not qualifying as Class A soil. 

Class B soil site: Any site which does not meet the criteria for Class A 
soil site. 

Classroom: A room with desks or equivalent used for group instruction 
purposes for ten (10) or more students. Libraries, study halls, science 
laboratories, shops, domestic science rooms and typing rooms shall be 
considered classrooms for the number of students indicated in the occu- 
pancy schedule. 

Clay masonry unit: A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed 
of burned clay, shale, fireclay or mixtures thereof. 

Coefficient of performance (COP): See Section 2010.0 for the definitions 
of COP as appropriate: electrically operated HVAC equipment- -cooling; 
applied HVAC system components—cooling; heat operated HVAC system 
equipment — cooling; and heat pump --heating. 

Cold-formed steel constuction: That type of construction made up en- 
tirely or in part of steel structural members cold-formed to shape from 
sheet or strip steel, such as roof deck, floor and wall panels, studs, 
floor joists, roof joists and other structural elements. 

Combination of municipalities: Any two (2) or more cities and/or towns 
who have agreed to combine in order to share costs necessary for the 
administration and enforcement of this code in the said cities and/or 
towns . 

Combination system: A system of piping designed to provide both stand- 
pipe service and automatic sprinkler protection. 

Combustible fire damper: A damper arranged to seal off air flow auto- 
matically through part of an air duct system, so as to restrict the pas- 
sage of heat. The fire damper may also be used as a smoke damper if 
the location lends itself to the dual purpose. 



9/1/80 47 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Combustible (material): A combustible (material) is a material which 
cannot be classified as noncombustible in accordance with that definition. 

Comfort envelope: The area on a psychometric chart enclosing all those 
conditions described in ASHRAE 55-74 as being comfortable. 

Commenced: Any physical action begun on the job site for the purposes 
of construction for which a building permit is required. 

Commission: See "State Building Code Commission." 

Common hallway: A common corridor or space separately enclosed which 
provides any of the following in any story: 

1. common access to the required exitways of the building, or 

2. common access for more than one (1) tenant; or 

3. common access for more than thirty (30) persons. 

Complete sprinkler system: An automatic sprinkler system providing 
protection for the entire building or structure. 

Compliance assurance program: The system, documentation and methods 
for assuring that manufactured buildings, building components, building 
systems and mobile homes, including their manufacture, storage, trans- 
portation and assembly and handling and installation, conform with Article 
18 and the rules and regulations promulgated pursuant thereto. 

Component: An integral part of a building or its mechanical systems; an 
element of a building envelope. 

Concrete: A mixture of cement, aggregates and water, of such propor- 
tions and manipulation as to meet specific requirements. 

Concrete masonry unit: A building unit or block larger in size than 
twelve (12) by four (4) by four (4) inches made of cement and suitable 
aggregates . 

Conditioned floor area: All portions of interior gross floor area which are 
contained within exterior walls and which are conditioned directly or 
indirectly by an energy-using system (see "Gross floor area"). 

Conflagration hazard: The fire risk involved in the spread of fire by 
exterior exposure to and from adjoining buildings and structures. 

Connected lighting load: Total possible simultaneous demand for lighting, 
including power used in the lamp itself and any losses in the fixture and 
ballast. 



9/1/80 48 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Construction operation: The erection, alteration, repair, renovation, 
demolition or removal of any building or structure; and the excavation, 
filling, grading and regulation of lots in connection therewith. 

Construction supervisor: Any individual directly supervising persons 
engaged in construction, reconstruction, alterations, repairs or demolition 
involving the structural elements of buildings and structures. 

Controlled construction: The construction of a building or structure or a 
specific part thereof which has been designated and erected under the 
supervision of a licensed professional engineer or architect using con- 
trolled materials as herein defined in compliance with accepted engineering 
practice under the procedure of Section 127.0. 

Controlled materials: Materials which are certified by an accredited 
authoritative agency as meeting accepted engineering standards for quality 
and as provided in Sections 719.0 and 800.0. 

Controlled materials procedure: See Section 127.0. 

Corridor: A hallway, passageway or other compartmented space providing 
the occupants with access to the required exitways of the building or 
floor area. 

Court: An open, uncovered, and unoccupied space on the same lot with 
a building. 

Inner: Any court other than an outer court. 

Outer: A court extending to and opening upon a street, public alley, or 
other approved open space, not less than fifteen (15) feet wide, or upon 
a required yard. 

Covered mall buildings: A covered mall building is a single building 
enclosing a number of tenants, and occupancies such as retail stores, 
restaurants, places of assemblage, recreation facilities, motion picture 
theaters, offices, banks, specialty shops and anchor stores, but ex- 
cluding high hazard (H) and institutional (I) occupancies, and may be 
either of two (2) types: 

Type A: A covered mall building containing such occupancies in airport 
passenger terminals, hotel lobbies, department stores, discount stores, 
the lower stories of office buildings, etc. in which the allowable distance 
of travel from the most remote part of the buildings is measured to an 
exterior exit door, horizontal exit, exit passageway or an enclosed stair- 
way. 

Type B: A covered mall building wherein two (2) or more tenants have a 
main entrance into one (1) or more malls which are roofed interior areas 
providing common pedestrian facilities for the public wherein the distance 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 49 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



of travel of one (1) of the exits from any point within a tenant space is 
measured to the mall. 

Curb level: The elevation of the street curb as established in accordance 
with law. 

Building or wall height: The elevation of the street grade opposite the 
center of the wall nearest to and facing the street lot line. 

Excavations: The elevation of the street grade nearest to the point of 
excavation . 

Day care center: Any facility operated on a regular basis whether known 
as a day nursery, nursery school, kindergarten, child play school, 
progressive school, child development center, or preschool, or known 
under any other name, which receives children not of common parentage 
under seven (7) years of age or under sixteen (16) years of age if such 
children have special needs for non-residential custody and care during 
part or all of the day separated from their parents. Day care center 
shall not include: any part of a public school system; any part of a 
private, organized educational system unless the services of such system 
are primarily limited to kindergarten, nursery or related preschool ser- 
vices; a Sunday school conducted by a religious institution; a facility 
operated by a religious organization where children are cared for during 
short periods of time while persons responsible for such children are 
attending religious services; a family day care home, as defined by Chap- 
ter 28A, Section 9, of the MGLA as amended; an informal cooperative 
arrangement among neighbors or relatives; or the occasional care of 
children with or without compensation therefor. 

Degree day, heating: A unit, based upon temperature difference and 
time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal heating 
load of a building in winter. For any one day, when the mean temper- 
ature is less than 65°F there exists as many degree days as there are 
Fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between the mean tempera- 
ture for the day and 65°F. 

Deluge system: An automatic sprinkler system consisting of open sprink- 
lers with water supply valves activated by a separate automatic detection 
system. 

Department (DPS): The Department of Public Safety, Division of Inspec- 
tion. Detoxification Facility: See Section 439.0. 

Display sign: Any fabricated sign, including its structure, consisting of 
any letter, figure, character, mark, point, plane, marguee sign, design, 
poster, pictorial, picture, stroke, stripe, line, trademark, reading matter, 
of illuminating device which is constructed, attached, erected, fastened, 
or manufactured in any manner whatsoever so that the same is used for 
the attraction of the public to any place, subject, person, firm, corpora- 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 50 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



tion, public performance, article, machine or merchandise whatsoever, and 
is displayed in any manner whatsoever out of doors for recognized adver- 
tising purposes. 

Display surface: The surface which is made available by the structure 
either for the direct mounting of letters and decoration or for the mount- 
ing of the facing material that is intended to carry the entire advertising 
message. 

Doorway: The clear width of the opening protected by a door, subject to 
the width reduction provisions of this code. 

Draft: The pressure difference existing between the equipment or any 
component part and the atmosphere which causes a continuous flow of air 
and products of combustion through the gas passages of the appliance to 
the atmosphere. 

Forced draft: The pressure difference created by the action of a fan, 
blower or ejector which supplies the primary combustion air above atmos- 
pheric pressure. 

Induced draft: The pressure difference created by the action of a fan, 
blower or ejector which is located between the appliance and the chimney 
or vent termination. 

Natural draft: The pressure difference created by a vent or chimney due 
to its height and the temperature difference between the flue gases and 
the atmosphere. 

Draft hood: A device built into a gas appliance or made a part of a 
chimney connector or vent connector from a gas appliance which is de- 
signed to: 

1. permit the ready escape of flue gases in the event of zero draft, a 
back-draft or stoppage in the vent beyond the draft hood; 

2. permit the ready relief of the back pressure from a back-draft so it 
does not enter the gas appliance; and 

3. neutralize the possible effect of excess draft (stack action) upon the 
operation of the appliance. 

Draft regulator: A device which functions to maintain a desired draft in 
the appliance by automatically reducing the draft to the desired value. 

Dry chemical extinguishing system: A system consisting of dry chemical 
and expellant gas storage tanks, fixed piping, and nozzles used to assure 
proper distribution of an approved extinguishing agent on a specific fire 
hazard or into a potential fire area. The system includes an automatic 
detection and actuating mechanism. 



9/1/80 51 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Dual bracing system: Consists of a moment resisting space frame and 
shear walls which meet the following design criteria: 

1. The space frame and shear walls shall resist the total lateral force in 
accordance with their relative rigidities considering the interaction of 
the shear walls and space frame. 

2. The shear walls acting independently of the resisting portions of the 
space frame shall resist the total lateral force. 

3. The space frame shall have the capacity to resist not less than 
twenty-five (25) per cent of the total lateral force. 

Duct: A tube or conduit used for conveying or encasing purposes as 
specifically defined below: 

Air duct: A tube or conduit used for conveying air. The air passages 
of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts. 

Pipe duct: A tube or conduit used for encasing pipe. 

Wire duct: A tube or conduit used for encasing either moving or sta- 
tionary wire, rope, etc. 

Dumbwaiter: A hoisting and lowering mechanism with a car of limited 
capacity and size which moves in guides in a substantially vertical direc- 
tion and is used exclusively for carrying material. 

Dwellings 

Boarding house, tourist house: A building arranged or used for lodging, 
with or without meals, for compensation, by more than three (3) lodgers 
or boarders (use group R-l). 

Dormitory: A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations 
are provided for persons not members of the same family group, in one 
(1) room, or in a series of closely associated rooms. 

Hotel: Any building containing six (6) or more guest rooms intended or 
designed to be used, or which are used, rented or hired out to be oc- 
cupied or which are occupied for sleeping purposes by guests. 

Lodging house: Any building or portion thereof arranged or used for 
lodging by more than three (3) lodgers or boarders and where cooking or 
sanitary facilities may be provided (R-l use group). 

Multi- family apartment house: A building or portion thereof containing 
more than two (2) dwelling units and not classified as a one- or two- 
family dwelling. 



9/1/80 52 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



One-family dwelling: A building containing one (1) dwelling unit with not 
more than three (3) lodgers or boarders. 

Two-family dwelling: A building containing two (2) dwelling units with 
not more than three (3) lodgers or boarders per family. 

Dwelling unit: A single unit providing complete, independent living 
facilities for one (1) or more persons including permanent provisions for 
living, sleeping, eating, cooking, and sanitation. 

Efficiency, overall system: For a designated time period, the ratio of 
useful energy at the point of use to the thermal energy input expressed 
in per cent. 

Egress: See "Means of egress." 

Elevator: See Elevator and Escalator Regulations (524 CMR 3.00 through 
11.00); Elevator, Dumbwaiter, Escalator and Moving Walk Regulations (524 
CMR 15.00 through 33.00). 

Elevator lobby: That portion of a floor, platform or alcove immediately 
adjacent to the elevator shaft opening, used to receive and discharge 
passengers or freight, or used as a waiting area. 

Energy: The capacity for doing work. Energy takes a number of forms 
which may be transformed from one into another, such as thermal (heat), 
mechanical (motion), electrical, and chemical. In customary units, energy 
is measured in kilowatt-hours (kwh) or British thermal units (Btu). 

Energy efficiency ratio (EER): The ratio of net cooling capacity in Btu/h 
to total rate of electric input in watts under designated operating con- 
ditions . 

Erection: The construction of a building or structure or a specific part 
thereof. 

Escalator: A moving stairway. 

Existing building: See "Building, existing." 

Existing equipment: Any equipment covered by this article which was 
installed prior to the effective date of this code or for which an applica- 
tion for permit to install was filed with the building official prior thereto. 

Exitway: That portion of a means of egress which is separated from all 
other spaces of a building or structure by construction or equipment as 
required in this code to provide a protected way of travel to the exitway 
discharge . 



9/1/80 53 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Exitway access: Exitway access is that portion of a means of egress 
which leads to an entrance to an exitway. 

Exitway discharge: That portion of a means of egress between the ter- 
mination of an exitway and a public way. 

Exitway discharge court: An exterior unoccupied space which is open to 
the sky for its entire area, located on the same lot with a theatre or 
other assembly building which it serves exclusively as an obstructed 
passageway to the street or other public space. 

Exterior envelope: The elements of a building which enclose conditioned 
spaces through which thermal energy may be transferred to or from the 
exterior . 

Exterior masonry wall construction: See Section 217.0. 

Fenestration: Any light-transmitting devices in the building envelope 
admitting natural light. 

Fire area: The floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls or exterior 
walls of a building to restrict the spread of fire. 

Fire damper: A damper arranged to seal off air flow automatically through 
part of an air duct system, so as to restrict the passage of heat. The 
fire damper may also be used as a smoke damper if location lends itself to 
the dual purpose. 

Fire department connection: A connection for fire department use in 
supplementing or supplying water for standpipes or sprinkler systems. 

Fire department hose outlet: A connection to standpipe or combination 
system piping to which the public fire department can connect its hose to 
provide an effective hose stream. 

Fire district: See "Fire limits." 

Fire division: The interior means of separation of one part of a floor 
area from another part together with fireresistive floor construction to 
form a complete barrier between adjoining or superimposed floor areas in 
the same building or structure. 

Fire door: A door and its assembly, so constructed and assembled in 
place as to give protection against the passage of fire. 

Fire door assembly: The assembly of a fire door and its accessories, 
including all hardware and closing devices and their anchors; and the 
door frame, when required, and its anchors. 



9/1/80 54 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Fire drill: The organized procedure conducted with or without a private 
fire brigade for vacating the occupants of a building and for operating 
the first-aid fire appliances and equipment for the extinguishing of fire 
and safeguarding of life. 

Fire grading: The fire hazard classification of a building or structure in 
hours or fractions of an hour established for its use group and occupancy 
in Table 902. 

Fire hazard: The potential degree of fire severity existing in the use 
occupancy of a building and classified as high, moderate or low. 

High: All uses which involve the storage, sale, manufacture or pro- 
cessing of highly combustible, volatile flammable or explosive products 
which are likely to burn with extreme rapidity and produce large volumes 
of smoke, poisonous fumes, gases or explosions in the event of fire. 

Moderate: All uses which involve the storage, sale, manufacture or 
processing of materials which are likely to burn with moderate rapidity 
and a considerable volume of smoke, but which do not produce either 
poisonous fumes or explosions in the event of fire. 

Low: All uses which involve the storage, sale or manufacture of materials 
that do not ordinarily burn rapidly, nor produce excessive smoke, poi- 
sonous fumes, or explosions in the event of fire. 

Fire limits: The territories defined and limited by the provisions of this 
code for the restriction of types of construction. 

Fire partition: A partition which subdivides a story of a building to 
provide an area of refuge or to restrict the spread of fire. 

Fire prevention: The preventive measures which provide for the safe 
conduct and operation of hazardous processes, storage of highly com- 
bustible and flammable materials, conduct of fire drills, and the main- 
tenance of fire detecting and fire- extinguishing service equipment and 
good housekeeping conditions. 

Fireproof construction: See Section 215.0. 

Fire protection: The provision of safeguards in construction and of exit 
facilities, and the installation of fire alarm, fire detecting and fire-extin- 
guishing service equipment, to reduce the fire risk and the conflagration 
hazard . 

Fire protection system: A system including systems, devices, and equip- 
ment to detect a fire, actuate an alarm or suppress or control a fire or 
any combination thereof. 



9/1/80 55 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Fireresistance: That property of materials or their assemblies which 
prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames 
under conditions of use. 

Fireresistance rating: The time in hours or fractions thereof that ma- 
terials or their assemblies will resist fire exposure as determined by fire 
tests conducted in compliance with recognized standards. 

Fireresistive partition: A partition other than a fire partition which is 
required to subdivide the floor area of a fireresistive building for the 
purpose of restricting the spread of fire. 

Fireretardant construction: Fabricated units or assemblies of units or 
construction which have a fireresistance rating of not less than one-third 
(1/3) hour. 

Fireretardant lumber: Wood so treated by a recognized impregnation 
process as to reduce its combustibility. 

Fire safety: The measure of protection of a building or structure against 
interior and exposure fire hazards through fireresistive construction and 
the provision of safe exitways and fire- detecting and extinguishing equip- 
ment. 

Fire separation, exterior fire exposure: The distance in feet measured 
from the building face to the closest interior lot line, to the center line of 
a street or public space or to an imaginary line between two buildings on 
the same property. 

Fire separation wall: A fireresistance rated assembly of materials not 
having unprotected openings, designed to restrict the spread of fire. 

Fire suppression system: A mechanical system designed and equipped to 
detect a fire, actuate an alarm and suppress or control a fire. 

Fire wall: A fireresistance rated wall, having protected openings, which 
restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation 
to or through the roof. 

Fire window: A window constructed and glazed to give protection against 
the passage of fire. 

Flameresistance: The property of materials or combinations of component 
materials which restricts the spread of flame as determined by the flame- 
resistance tests specified ih this code (see Section 904.0). 

Flame spread: The propagation of flame over a surface. 

Flame spread rating: The measurement of flame spread on the surface of 
materials or their assemblies as determined by tests conducted in com- 
pliance with recognized standards. 



9/1/80 56 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Flammable: Subject to easy ignition and rapid flaming combustion. 

Floor area, gross: Gross floor area shall be the floor area within the 
perimeter of the outside walls of the building under consideration, without 
deduction for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness of walls, columns, or 
other features. 

Floor area, net: For the purpose of determining the number of persons 
for whom exitways are to be provided, net floor area shall be the actual 
occupied area, not including accessory unoccupied areas or thickness of 
walls . 

Floor fill: The fill between the structural floor arch or slab and the 
finished flooring. 

Floor filling: The type of short-span floor construction in fireproof and 
fireresistive buildings installed between structural steel framing to serve 
as a combination structural floor slab or arch and fireproof protection of 
the framing. 

Floor finish: The finish placed on top of the floor arch, slab or other 
structural floor element. 

Foam extinguishing system: A special system to discharge a foam made 
from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be 
protected . 

Formed steel construction: That type of construction used in floor and 
roof systems consisting of integrated units of sheet or strip steel plates 
which are shaped into parallel steel ribs or beams with a continuous 
connecting flange deck; generally attached to and supported on the 
primary or secondary members of a structural steel or reinforced concrete 
frame. 

Foundation: A base constructed to support any building or structure 
including but not limited to footings, floating foundation, piles, caissons. 

Foundation level: The lowest of any of the following: 

1. the bottom of any spread or combined footing or foundation mat; 

2. the bottom of any pile cap; or 

3. the top of any pier or caisson. 

Foundation wall: A wall below the floor nearest grade serving as a 
support for a wall, pier, column or other structural part of a building. 

Foyer: The enclosed space surrounding or in the rear of the auditorium 
of a theatre or other place of assembly which is completely shut off from 



9/1/80 57 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



the auditorium and is used as an assembly or waiting space for the occu- 
pants . 

Fuel: A solid, liquid, or gaseous substance with a high energy content 
that can be burned to release the energy. 

Fuel oil: A liquid mixture or compound derived from petroleum which 
does not emit flammable vapor below a temperature of one hundred and 
twenty-five (125) degrees F. in a Tag closed-cup tester (ASTM D56). 

Furnace 

Floor furnace: A self-contained, connected or vented furnace designed to 
be suspended from the floor of the space being heated taking air for 
combustion outside this heated space and with means for observing the 
flame and lighting the appliance from the space being heated. 

Forced warm air furnace: A furnace equipped with a blower to provide 
the primary means for circulating air. 

Warm air furnace: A solid, liquid or gas-fired appliance for heating air 
to be distributed with or without duct systems to the space to be heated. 

Furring: The application of thin wood, brick, or metal to a surface to 
level it, or to create an air space. 

Garage, private: A garage for four (4) or less passenger motor vehicles 
without provision for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit. 

Garage, public: A building or structure for the storage or parking of 
more than four (4) passenger motor vehicles or motor powered boats, or 
more than one (1) commercial motor vehicle; and in which provision may 
be made for the dispensing of gasoline, oil or similar products for the 
servicing of such vehicles. Public garages shall be classified according 
to their specific use in one (1) of the following groups: 

Group 1: A public garage in which provision is made for the care, 
storage, repair or painting of motor vehicles. 

Group 2: A public garage used exclusively for passenger vehicles that 
will accommodate not more than nine (9) passengers. 

Glass fiber reinforced plastic: See Section 1900.2.1. 

Grade: A reference plane representing the average of finished ground 
level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. 

Grade hallway, grade lobby, grade passageway: An enclosed hallway or 
corridor that is an element of an exitway, terminating at a street or an 
open space or court communicating with a street. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Grandstand: Any structure, except movable seating and sectional ben- 
ches, intended primarily to support individuals for the purposes of as- 
sembly, but this definition shall not apply to the permanent seating in 
theatres, churches, auditoriums and similar buildings. 

Gross floor area: The floor area within the perimeter of the outside walls 
of the building, without deduction for hallways, stairs, closets, thickness 
of walls, columns, or other features. 

Gross leasable area: The gross leasable area is the total floor area 
designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant 
occupancy is measured from the center lines of joint partitions to the 
outside of the tenant walls. 

Gross wall area: The exterior wall area bounding interior space which is 
conditioned by an energy-using system. It includes the opaque wall, and 
window and door areas. 

Ground sign: A sign supported by uprights or braces in or upon the 
ground surface. 

Group residence: See Section 424.0. 

Habitable space: Space in a structure for living, sleeping, eating or 
cooking. Bathrooms, toilet compartments, closets, halls, storage or 
utility space, and similar areas are not considered habitable space. 

Hallway, common: A common corridor or space separately enclosed which 
provides any of the following in any story: 

1. common access to the required exitways of the building; 

2. common access for more than one (1) tenant, or 

3. common access for more than thirty (30) persons. 

Halogenated extinguishing system: A system of pipes, nozzles and an 
actuating mechanism and a container of halogenated agent under pressure. 

Head of the fire department: The chief executive officer of the fire 
department in a city, town or fire district having such an officer, other- 
wise the fire commissioner, board of fire commissioners or fire engineers, 
or commissioner of public safety; and in towns not having a fire depart- 
ment, the chief engineer, if any, otherwise the chairman of the board of 
selectmen. 

Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature 
difference . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Heated slab: Containing heated pipes or ducts that constitute a radiant 
slab or portion thereof for complete or partial heating of the contained 
space. 

Heating appliance: Any device designed or constructed for the gen- 
eration of heat from solid, liquid or gaseous fuel or electricity. 

Recessed heater: A completely self-contained heating unit usually re- 
cessed in a wall and located entirely above the floor of the space it is 
intended to heat. 

Unit heater: A factory-assembled device designed to heat and circulate 

air. Essential components are a heat transfer element, housing and fan 

with driving motor. Normally designed for free delivery of recirculated 

air. 

Heated space: A space within a building which is provided with a pos- 
itive heat supply to maintain air temperature of fifty (50) degrees F. or 
higher. 

Height, building: The vertical distance from the grade to the top of the 
highest roof beams of a flat roof, or to the mean level of the highest 
gable or slope of a hip roof. When a building faces on more than one (1) 
street, the height shall be measured from the average of the grades at 
the center of each street front. 

Court: The vertical distance from the lowest level of the court to the 
mean height of the top of the enclosing walls. 

Story: The vertical distance from top to top of two (2) successive tiers 
of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost story, from the 
top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists, or, where there is 
not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters. 

Wall: The vertical distance from the foundation wall or other immediate 
support of such wall to the top of the wall. 

Hereafter: After the time that this code becomes effective. 

Heretofore: Before the time that this code became effective. 

High hazard use: See Section 206.0. 

Historic buildings: See Section 436.2. 

Hollow masonry unit: A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
any plane parallel to the bearing surface is less than seventy-five (75) 
per cent of its gross cross -sectional area measured in the same plane. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Horizontal exit: A way of passage from one (1) building or fire area to 
an area of refuge in another building or fire area on approximately the 
same level, which affords safety from fire or smoke from the area of 
escape and areas communicating therewith. 

Horizontal fire line: A fire line installed around the interior walls and 
columns of a building, pier or wharf, with hose outlets located so that 
every part of the floor area is within reach of at least one (1) fire stream. 

Humidistat: An instrument which measures changes in humidity and 
controls a device(s) for maintaining a desired humidity. 

HVAC: Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning. 

HVAC system: A system that provides either collectively or individually 
the processes of comfort heating, ventilating, and/or air conditioning 
within or associated with a building. 

Industrial lift (material lift): A non-portable power operated raising or 
lowering device for transporting freight vertically, operating entirely 
within one (1) story of the building or structure. 

Illumination: The density of the luminous flux incident on a surface; it 
is the quotient of the luminous flux and the area of the surface when the 
latter is uniformly illuminated. 

Infiltration: The uncontrolled inward air leakage through cracks and 
interstices in any building element and around windows and doors of a 
building, caused by the pressure effects of wind and/or the effect of 
differences in the indoor and the outdoor air density. 

Inspector of buildings: The administrative chief of the building depart- 
ment in a municipality who is charged with the administration and enforce- 
ment of this code. See also "Building commissioner" and Section 107.1). 

Installation: See Article 18. 

Interior lot line: Any lot line other than one adjoining a street or public 
space. 

Kerosene: An oil or liquid product of petroleum which does not emit a 
flammable vapor below a temperature of one hundred and fifteen (115) 
degrees F. when tested in a Tag closed-cup tester (ASTM D56). 

Kiosk: A small structure used as a newstand, refreshment booth and/or 
pavillion for similar usage. 

Label: See Article 18. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Lateral force resisting system: That part of the structural system to 
which the total lateral forces prescribed in Section 716.4 are assigned. 

Light-diffusing system: A suspended construction consisting in whole or 
in part of lenses, panels, grids or baffles suspended below lighting 
fixtures . 

Light gage steel construction: That type of construction in which the 
structural frame consists of studs, floor joists, arch ribs, rafters, steel 
decks and other structural elements which are composed and fabricated of 
cold-formed sheet or strip steel members less than three sixteenths (3/16) 
inch thick. 

Limited access: Available only to authorized personnel. 

Limited area sprinkler system: An automatic sprinkler system consisting 
of not more than twenty (20) sprinklers for use in a room or space en- 
closed by construction assemblies as reguired by this code. 

Lintel: A beam placed over a opening or recess in a wall which supports 
the wall construction above. 

Liguefaction : A term used to describe a group of phenomena occurring in 
saturated cohesionless sandy and silty soils consisting of a large decrease 
in effective stress (total stress minus pore pressure) accompanied by 
large deformations under either static or cyclic loading. The term cyclic 
mobility should also be included within the scope of the definition of 
liguefaction . 

Load • 

Dead load: The weight of all permanent construction including walls, 
floors, roofs, partitions and stairways, and of fixed service eguipment. 

Duration of load: The period of continuous application of a given load, 
or the aggregate of periods of intermittent applications of the same load. 

Earthguake load: The assumed lateral load acting in any horizontal 
direction on the structural frame due to the kinetic action of earthguakes. 

Impact load: The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, crane- 
ways, vehicles, and other similar forces and kinetic loads. 

Lateral soil load: The lateral pressure due to the weight of the adjacent 
soil, including due allowance for hydrostatic pressure and possible sur- 
charge from fixed or moving loads. 

Live load: The weight superimposed by the use and occupancy of the 
building, not including the wind load, earthguake load, snow load or dead 
load. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Wind load: The pressure (either positive pressure or suction), on, or 
in, a building or structure due to wind blowing in any direction. 

Loading ramp: A hinged, non-portable device, either mechanical or 
hydraulic, hand or power operated, used for spanning gaps or adjusting 
heights between loading surface and carrier or between loading surface 
and loading surface. 

Lobby: The enclosed vestibule between the principal entrance to the 
building and the doors to the main floor of the auditorium or assembly 
room of a theatre or place of assembly, or to the main floor corridor of a 
business building (see also "Elevator lobby"). 

Local enforcement agency: A department or agency in a municipality 
charged with the enforcement of this code and appropriate specialized 
codes which include, but are not limited to, The State Plumbing Gas 
Fitting Code, and the State Electrical Code. 

Local inspector: A person in a municipality who assists the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings in the performance of his duties 
and is charged with the enforcement of this code (see Section 107.11). 

Lot: A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

Corner lot: A lot with two (2) adjacent sides abutting upon streets or 
other public spaces. 

Interior lot: A lot which faces on one (1) street or with opposite sides 
on two (2) streets. 

Lot line: A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any 
public place. 

Low hazard use: See Section 210.3. 

Maintenance: Restoring or replacing deteriorated elements. 

Mall: A mall is a roofed-over common pedestrian area serving more than 
one (1) tenant located within a covered mall building. 

Manual: Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see "Auto- 
matic"). 

Manual fire alarm system: An interior alarm system composed of sending 
stations and signaling devices in a building, operated on an electric 
circuit, so arranged that the operation of any one station will ring all 
signals throughout the building on at one or more approved locations. 
Signals may be either non-coded, or coded to indicate the floor area in 
which the signal originated and may be transmitted to an outside central 
station . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Manufactured building: Any building which has concealed elements, such 
as electrical, mechanical, plumbing, fire protection, insulation, and other 
systems affecting health and safety, and which is manufactured or assem- 
bled in manufacturing facilities, on or off the building site. Also, any 
building as defined above which does not have concealed elements, but 
which has been approved by the Commission at the request of the manu- 
facturer . 

Marquee sign: A sign attached to or hung from a marquee canopy or 
other covered structure projecting from and supported by the building 
and extending beyond the building wall, building line or street lot line. 

Masonry: A built-up construction or combination of building units or 
materials of clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other ap- 
proved units bonded together with mortar or monolithic concrete. Rein- 
forced concrete is not classed as masonry. 

Material platform hoist: A power or manually operated suspended platform 
conveyance operating in guide rails for the exclusive raising or lowering 
of materials, which is operated and controlled from a point outside the 
conveyance . 

Means of egress: A continuous and unobstructed path of travel from any 
point in a building or structure to a public way and consists of three (3) 
separate and distinct parts: (a) the exitway access; (b) the exitway; 
and (c) the exitway discharge. A means of egress comprises the vertical 
and horizontal means of travel and shall include intervening room spaces, 
doors, hallways, corridors, passageways, balconies, ramps, stairs, enclo- 
sures, lobbies, escalators, horizontal exits, courts, and yards. 

Mechanical ventilation: The mechanical process of supplying air to, or 
removing air from, any space. 

Mezzanine: An intermediate level between the floor and ceiling of any 
story, and covering not more than thirty-three (33) per cent of the floor 
area of the room in which it is located. 

Miscellaneous hoisting and elevating equipment: See Elevator and Esca- 
lator Regulations (524 CMR 3.00 through 11.00); Elevator, Dumbwaiter, 
Escalator and Moving Walk Regulations (524 CMR 15.00 through 33.00). 

Mobile home: A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which 
is eight (8) body feet or more in width and is thirty-two (32) body feet 
or more in length, and which is built on a permanent chassis, and de- 
signed to be used as a dwelling with permanent foundation, when con- 
nected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, 
air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein. 

Mobile unit: A structure of vehicular, portable design built on a chassis 
and designed to be moved from one site to another and to be used, with 
or without a permanent foundation. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Moderate hazard use: See Section 210.2. 

Moment-resisting space frame: A space frame designed to carry all ver- 
tical loads and in which the members and joints are capable of resisting 
design lateral forces by bending moments. 

Mortar: A plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine aggre- 
gates and water used to bond masonry or other structural units. 

Motel: A hotel as defined in this code. 

Motor fuel service station: A structure, building or premise or any 
portion thereof where a flammable fluid is stored, housed or sold for 
supply to motor vehicles. 

Motor vehicle repair shop: A building, structure or enclosure in which 
the general business of repairing motor vehicles is conducted, including a 
public garage. 

Moving stairway (escalator): See Elevator and Escalator Regulations (524 
CMR 3.00 through 11.00); Elevator, Dumbwaiter, Escalator and Moving 
Walk Regulations (524 CMR 15.00 through 33.00). 

Moving walk: See Elevator and Escalator Regulations (524 CMR 3.00 
through 11.00); Elevator, Dumbwaiter, Escalator and Moving Walk Regu- 
lations (524 CMR 15.00 through 33.00). 

Municipality: Any city or town in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 
The word "municipality" shall be construed, where the context requires, 
as though followed by the words "or combination of municipalities." 

Native lumber: Native lumber is wood processed in the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts by a mill registered in accordance with the regulations of 
the State Building Code Commission. Such wood is ungraded but is 
stamped or certified in accordance with the requirements of Section 
852.1.1 of this code. For the purpose of this definition, native lumber 
shall be restricted to use in one- and two-story dwellings, barns, sheds, 
agricultural and accessory buildings and other structures when permitted 
by section 852.1.1. 

Nominal dimension 

Lumber: A dimension that may vary from actual dimensions as provided 
in American Lumber Standard listed in Appendix C. 

Masonry: A dimension that may vary from actual masonry dimensions by 
the thickness of a mortar joint but not to exceed one-half (1/2) inch. 

Non-automatic sprinkler system: A sprinkler system in which all pipes 
are maintained dry and which is equipped with a Siamese fire department 
connection . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Non-depletable energy sources: Sources of energy (excluding minerals) 
derived from incoming solar radiation including photosynthetic processes; 
from phenomena resulting therefrom including wind, waves and tides, lake 
or pond thermal differences; and energy derived from the internal heat of 
the earth, including nocturnal thermal exchanges. 

Noncombustible: This is a general, relative term. Its precise meaning is 
defined in this code for specific applications. 

Noncombustible building material (incombustible): See Section 903.0 

Noncombustible construction: See Section 216.0. 

Non-slip: As used in this code, shall mean a surface that is tested and 
approved to be slip resistant by a nationally recognized testing labo- 
ratory, and have a minimum coefficient of anti-slip friction of forty one- 
hundredths (0.40) as defined by Research Paper No. RP-1879 of the 
National Bureau of Standards. 

Notice: See Section 122.1. 

Occupancy: The purpose for which a building, or part thereof, is used 
or intended to be used, within a use group. 

Occupancy load: The number of individuals normally occupying the 
building, or part thereof, or for which the exitway facilities have been 
designed. 

Occupancy sprinkler system: An automatic sprinkler system servicing a 
use group in a building enclosed by construction assemblies as required 
by this code. 

Occupant use hose station: A valve, rack, one and one-half (1 1/2) inch 
hose, and nozzle assembly located and labeled for use by building occu- 
pants only. Such occupant use hose stations may be connected to stand- 
pipe, combination or sprinkler systems. 

Occupiable room, minimum height: A clear height from finished floor to 

ceiling or lowest projection of not less than seven and one quarter (7 

1/4) feet shall be provided in all exitway access and occupiable rooms of 
assembly, business or mercantile uses. 

Occupied: As applied to a building, shall be construed as though fol- 
lowed by the words "or intended, arranged or designed to be occupied." 

One- source sprinkler system: An automatic sprinkler system which is 
supplied from one of the approved automatic sources of water supply. 

Opaque areas: All exposed areas of a building envelope which enclose 
conditioned space, except openings for windows, skylights, doors, and 
building service systems. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Open Well: A floor opening, series of floor openings or an atrium 
connecting two or more stories, which does not meet the requirements for 
a covered shaft with respect to enclosure. 

Ordinary materials: Materials which do not conform to the requirements 
of this code for controlled materials. 

Oriel window: A window projected beyond and suspended from the wall 
of the building or cantilevered therefrom. 

Outbuilding: A building the use of which is incidental to that of the 
main building, and which is located on the same lot. 

Outside air: Air taken from the outdoors and, therefore, not previously 
circulated through the system. 

Overall thermal transfer value (ottv): Overall heat gain through the 
building wall. 

Owner: Every person who alone or jointly or severally with others (a) 
has legal title to any building or structure; or (b) has care, charge, or 
control of any building or structure in any capacity including but not 
limited to agent, executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, 
trustee or guardian of the estate of the holder of legal title; or (c) lessee 
under a written letting agreement; or (d) mortgagee in possession; or (e) 
agent, trustee or other person appointed by the courts. Each such per- 
son is bound to comply with the provisions of this code. 

Packaged terminal air- conditioner: A factory-selected combination of 
heating and cooling components, assemblies, or sections, intended to 
serve a room or zone. 

Panel (part of a structure): The section of a floor or wall comprised 
between the supporting frame of two (2) adjacent rows of columns and 
girders or column bands of floor construction. 

Panning: The sealing off of a joist or stud space for use as a plenum. 
This is allowed in one and two-family dwellings only for use as a return 
air plenum. 

Parking structure, open: A structure for the parking of passenger cars 
wherein two (2) or more sides of such structure are not less than fifty 
(50) per cent open on each floor or level for fifty (50) per cent of the 
distance from the floor to the ceiling and wherein provision for the re- 
pairing of such vehicles is not made. Such open parking structures are 
not classified as public garages, but shall comply with the requirements 
of Section 429.0 and FPR-4. 

Party wall: A fire wall on an interior lot line used or adapted for joint 
service between two (2) buildings. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Penthouse: An enclosed structure above the roof of a building, other 
than a roof structure or bulkhead, occupying not more than thirty-three 
and one third (33 1/3) per cent of the roof area. 

Permit: An official document or certificate issued by the authority having 
jurisdiction authorizing performance of a specified activity. 

Person: Every individual, partnership, corporation, firm, association, 
trustee or group, including a city, town, county, authority or other 
governmental unit, owning property or conducting any activity regulated 
by this code. 

Place of Assembly: A room or space accommodating fifty (50) or more 
individuals for religious, recreational, educational, political, social or 
amusement purposes, or for the consumption of food and drink, including 
all connected rooms or space with a common means of egress and en- 
trance . 

Place of outdoor assembly: Premises used or intended to be used for 
public gatherings of two hundred (200) or more individuals in other than 
buildings . 

Plastic, combustible: A plastic material more than one twentieth (1/20) 
inches in thickness which burns at a rate of not more than two and 
one-half (2 1/2) inches per minute when subjected to ASTM D635, Stan- 
dard Method of Test for Flammability of Self- Supporting Plastics, listed in 
Appendix C. 

Plastic glazing: Material glazed, or set in frame or sash, and not held 
by mechanical fasteners which pass through the glazing material. 

Plastic roof panels: Approved plastic materials which are mechanically 
fastened to structural members, or to structural panels or sheathing, and 
which are used as light- transmitting media in roofs. 

Plastic wall panel: Approved plastic materials which are mechanically 
fastened to structural members, or to structural panels or sheathing, and 
which are used as light- transmitting media in exterior walls. 

Plenum: An air compartment or chamber to which one (1) or more ducts 
are connected, and which forms part of an air distribution system. 

Portable sign: A sign, usually of a temporary nature, not securely 
anchored to the ground or to a building or structure and which obtains 
some or all of its structural stability with respect to wind or other nor- 
mally applied forces by means of its geometry or character. 

Positive heat supply: Heat supplied to a space by design. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Posted use and occupancy: The posted classification of a building in 
respect to use, fire grading, floor load and occupancy load. 

Posted sign: The tablet, card or plate which defines the use, occu- 
pancy, fire grading and floor loads of each story, floor or parts thereof 
for which the building or part thereof has been approved. 

Power: In connection with machines, power is the time rate of doing 
work. In connection with the transmission of energy of all types, power 
refers to the rate at which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it 
is measured in watts (W) or British thermal units per hour (Btu/h). 

Prefabricated: Construction materials or assembled units fabricated prior 
to erection or installation in a building or structure (See "Manufactured 
buildings" and "Building components"). 

Prefabricated buildings: The completely assembled and erected building 
or structure, including the service equipment, of which the structural 
parts consist of prefabricated individual units or subassemblies using 
ordinary or controlled materials; and in which the service equipment may 
be either prefabricated or at-site construction. 

Prefabricated subassembly: A built-up combination of several structural 
elements designed and fabricated as an assembled section of wall, ceiling, 
floor or roof to be incorporated into the structure by field erection of two 
(2) or more such subassemblies. 

Prefabricated unit: A built-up section forming an individual structural 
element of the building, such as a beam, girder, plank, strut, column or 
truss, the integrated parts of which are prefabricated prior to incor- 
poration into the structure, including the necessary means for erection 
and connection at the site to complete the structural frame. 

Prefabricated unit service equipment: A prefabricated assembly of mech- 
anical units, fixtures and accessories comprising a complete service unit 
of mechanical equipment, including bathroom and kitchen plumbing assem- 
blies, unit heating and air-conditioning systems and loop-wiring assem- 
blies of electric circuits. 

Preservative treatment (treated material): Unless otherwise noted, is 
impregnation under pressure with a wood preservative. Wood preser- 
vative is any suitable substance that is toxic to fungi, insects, borers, 
and other living wood-destroying organisms. 

Primary member: Any member of the structural frame of a building or 
structure used as a column, grillage beam, or to support masonry walls 
and partitions; including trusses, isolated lintels spanning an opening of 
eight (8) feet or more, and any other member required to brace a column 
or a truss. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Professional engineer or architect: An individual technically and legally 
qualified to practice the profession of engineering or architecture. 

Projecting sign: A display sign which is attached directly to the building 
wall, and which extends more than fifteen (15) inches from the face of 
the wall. 

Proprietary (local) system: An electrical alarm system capable of auto- 
matically notifying building supervisory personnel of a water flow and/or 
an impairment of a sprinkler system. 

Protected construction: That in which all structural members are con- 
structed, chemically treated, covered or protected so that the individual 
unit or the combined assemblage of all such units has the required fire- 
resistance rating specified for its particular use or application in Table 
214; including protected-frame, protected-ordinary and protected-non- 
combustible construction. 

Public way: Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside 
air leading to a public street, deeded, dedicated, or otherwise perma- 
nently appropriated to the public for public use and having a clear width 
of not less than ten (10) feet. 

Pyroxylin plastic: Any nitro-cellulose product or compound soluble in a 
volatile, flammable liquid, including such substances as celluloid, pyroxy- 
lin, fiberloid and other cellulose nitrates (other than nitrocellulose film) 
which are susceptible to explosion from rapid ignition of the gases emitted 
therefrom. 

Raised platform: A raised portion of floor to be used for simple stage 
purposes that involves a minimum of fire hazard, so located that it ex- 
tends not more than eighteen (18) feet behind the probable curtain line of 
the proscenium opening and of an area limited to seventeen and one-half 
(17.5) per cent of the assembly room floor area or fifteen hundred and 
fifty (1,550) square feet, whichever is less. 

Raised platform, enclosed: A raised portion of a floor, to be used for 
simple stage purposes that involve a minimum of fire hazard, having a 
ceiling which extends not more than five (5) feet above the top of the 
proscenium opening, containing a proscenium opening curtain, not con- 
taining a gridiron, fly gallery or other apparatus above or below the 
stage for the movement of scenery, not extending more than eight (8) 
feet beyond the curtain line and having two (2) separate and independent 
means of egress such that any point behind the curtain shall not be more 
than fifty (50) feet from an egress doorway. 

Readily accessible: Capable of being reached quickly for operation, 
maintenance, or inspection, without requiring those to whom ready access 
is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable 
ladders, chairs, etc. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Recovered energy: Energy utilized, which would otherwise be wasted, 
from a system that utilizes energy for any purpose. 

Refrigerant: The medium used to produce cooling or refrigeration by the 
process of expansion or vaporization. 

Refrigeration: The mechanical process of removing heat from the air in 
an enclosed space of a building or structure. 

Reheat: The application of sensible heat to the supply air that has been 
previously cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by 
either mechanical refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air. 

Reinforced concrete: Concrete in which reinforcement, other than that 
provided for shrinkage or temperature changes, is combined in such 
manner that the two (2) materials act together in resisting forces. 

Reinforced thermosetting plastic: A thermosetting plastic reinforced with 
a glass fiber mat having not less than one and one-half (1 1/2) ounces of 
glass fiber per square foot. 

Remote station system: An electrical alarm system capable of automatically 
notifying the public or private fire departments, or other approved con- 
stantly-attended location, when the system is activated. 

Repair: Any maintenance which affects structure, egress, fire protection 
systems, fire ratings, energy conservative provisions (Article 20), use, 
occupancy or utilities. A builing permit is required. 

Repairs, ordinary: Any maintenance which does not affect structure, 
egress, fire protection systems, fire ratings, energy conservation pro- 
visions (Article 20), plumbing, sanitary, gas, electrical or other utilities. 
A building permit is not required for ordinary repairs. 

Required: Shall be construed to be mandatory by provisions of this 
code. 

Reset: Adjustment of the set point of a control instrument to a higher or 
a lower value, either automatically or manually in order to conserve 
energy. 

Residential unit: a) in R-2 multi-family use group, a dwelling unit; b) in 
R-2 dormitory use group, a room or group of rooms occupied as a single 
unit; and c) in R-l use group, a room or group of rooms occupied as a 
single unit. 

Resistance, thermal (R): A measure of the ability to retard the flow of 
heat. The R value is the reciprocal of a heat transfer coefficient as 
expressed by U. R = 1/U. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Riser: The vertical supply pipes in a sprinkler system or standipe 
system. 

Roof: The roof slab or deck with its supporting members, not including 
vertical supports. 

Roof covering: The covering applied to the roof for weather resistance, 
fireresistance or appearance. 

Roof sign: A sign which is erected, constructed and maintained above 
the roof of the building. 

Roof structure: An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part 
of a building. 

Room air conditioner: An encased assembly designated as a unit for 
mounting in a window or through a wall, or as a console. It is designed 
primarily to provide free delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, 
room or zone. It includes a prime source of refrigeration for cooling and 
dehumidification and means for circulating and cleaning air, and may also 
include means for ventilating and heating. 

Room dimensions: See Section 506.5. 

Rubble 

Coursed rubble: Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting 
approximately on level beds and well bonded. 

Random rubble: Masonry composed of roughly-shaped stones laid without 
regularity of coursing but well bonded and fitted together to form well 
defined joints. 

Rough or ordinary rubble: Masonry composed of unsquared field stones 
laid without regularity of coursing but well bonded. 

Rubble masonry: Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones. 

Runway: Any aisle or walkway constructed or maintained as a temporary 
passageway for pedestrians or vehicles. 

Rupture member: A mechanical device that will rupture at a predeter- 
mined pressure to control automatically the compressor or maximum pres- 
sure of operation of the refrigerant. 

Salamander: Portable stove or incinerator. 

Scaffold: Any elevated platform which is used for supporting workmen, 
materials or both. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Schoolhouse: Any building or premise in which a regular course of 
public or private instruction is given to not less than ten (10) students 
at one time, except for rooms in buildings separate from or attached to 
churches used for the primary purpose of religious instruction. 

Secondary member: Any member of the structural framework other than a 
primary member, including filling- in beams of floor systems. 

Self-closing: As applied to a fire door or other opening protective, 
means normally closed and equipped with an approved device which will 
insure closing after having been opened for use. 

Sensible heat: Heat added or removed which can be measured by a 
change in temperature of the substance. 

Separate sleeping area: See Section 1216.3.2.2. 

Sequence: A consecutive series of operations. 

Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are oper- 
ated to provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, 
including HVAC, service water heating, illumination, transportation, 
cooking or food preparation, laundering or similar functions. 

Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial 
purposes other than comfort heating. 

Service water heating demand: The maximum design rate of heated water 
withdrawal from a service water heating system in a designated period of 
time (usually an hour or a day). 

Shading coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing 
system corrected for external and internal shading to the solar gain 
through an unshaded single light of double strength sheet glass under 
the same set of conditions. 

Shaft, covered: An interior enclosed space extending through one (1) or 
more stories of a building, connecting openings in successive floors, or 
floors and roof, and covered at the top. 

Shaft, open: An exterior, enclosed space extending through one (1) or 
more stories of a building, enclosed with walls of the required weather 
and fireresistance rating for exterior walls, and open to the sky at the 
top. 

Shall: The term, when used in this code, shall be construed as man- 
datory. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Shear wall: A wall designed to resist lateral forces parallel to the wall. 

Signs: Any fabricated sign or outdoor display structure, including its 
structure, consisting of any letter, figure, character, mark, point, 
plane, marguee sign, design, poster, pictorial picture stroke, stripe, 
line, trademark, reading matter, or illuminating device, constructed, 
attached, erected, fastened, or manufactured in any manner whatsoever 
so that the same shall be used for the attraction of the public to any 
place, subject, person, firm, corporation, public performance, article, 
machine, or merchandise whatsoever, and displayed in any manner out of 
doors for recognized advertising purposes. 

Closed sign: A sign in which more than fifty (50) per cent of the entire 
area is solid or tightly enclosed or covered, preventing transmission of 
wind. 

Open sign: A sign in which at least fifty (50) per cent of the enclosed 
area is uncovered, or open to the transmission of wind. 

Slidescape: A straight or spiral chute erected on the interior or exterior 
of a building which is designed as a means of human egress direct to the 
street or other public space. 

Smoke detector: An approved, listed detector sensing visible or invisible 
particles of combustion. 

Smokeproof enclosure: An enclosed stairway, with access from the floor 
area of the building either through outside balconies or ventilated ves- 
tibules, opening on a street or yard or open court, and with a separately 
enclosed direct exitway to the street at the grade floor. 

Solar energy source: Source of thermal, chemical or electrical energy 
derived directly from conversion of incident solar radiation. 

Solid fuel burning appliance: Room heaters which are free standing fire 
chamber assemblies designed to burn wood or coal. They may be of the 
circulating or radiant type. These units are for attachment to a resi- 
dential type chimney and may be thermostatically controlled. 

Solid masonry: Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contig- 
uously with the joints between the units filled with mortar, or consisting 
of plain concrete. 

Solid masonry unit: A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in 
every plane parallel to the bearing surface is seventy-five (75) per cent 
or more of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane. 

Space frame: A three-dimensional structural system composed of inter- 
connected members, other than bearing walls, designed to function as a 
complete self-contained laterally stable unit with or without the aid of 
horizontal diaphragms or floor bracing systems. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Special hoisting and conveying eguipment: Manually or power-operated 
hoisting, lowering or conveying mechanisms, other than elevators, moving 
stairways or dumbwaiters for the transport of persons or freight in a 
vertical, inclined or horizontal direction on one (1) floor or in successive 
floors . 

Automotive lift: A fixed mechanical device for raising an entire motor 
vehicle above the floor level, but not through successive floors of the 
building or structure. 

Conveyors: A system of machinery and manual or mechanized devices 
other than elevator and dumbwaiter equipment, consisting of belts, chains, 
rollers, buckets, aprons, slides and chutes and other miscellaneous equip- 
ment for hoisting, lowering and transporting materials and merchandise in 
packages or in bulk in any direction in a building or structure. 

Manlifts: A power-operated belt device with steps and handholds for 
transporting persons in a vertical position through successive floors or 
levels of the building or structure. 

Material lift: A power-operated rising or lowering device for transporting 
freight vertically, operating entirely within one (1) story of the building 
or structure. 

Specialized Code: All building codes, rules or regulations pertaining to 
building construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair or demolition 
promulgated by and under the authority of the various agencies which 
have been authorized from time to time by the General Court of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Sprinkler alarm system: An alarm activated by waterflow from a sprinkler 
system. 

Sprinklered: A building or structure equipped with a complete, approved 
automatic sprinkler system properly maintained. 

Sprinkler system, dry pipe: A system in which all pipes and sprinkler 
heads are filled with air under pressure and the water supply is con- 
trolled by an approved automatic dry-pipe valve, in the event of fire 
actuated either by the release of air or by thermostatic electric control. 

Sprinkler system, thermostatic: An open or closed head sprinkler system 
operated through an auxiliary thermostatic device which functions at a 
predetermined rate of temperature rise. 

Sprinkler system, wet pipe: A system of automatic sprinklers in which 
all pipes are filled with water at all times. 

Stage: A partially enclosed portion of a building which is designed or 
used for the presentation of plays, demonstrations, or other entertainment 
wherein scenery, drops or other effects may be installed or used. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Stairway: One (1) or more flights of stairs, and the necessary landings 
and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted 
passage from one floor to another. A flight of stairs, for the purposes 
of this code, must have at least three (3) risers. 

Standard fire tests: See Appendix G. 

Standpipe: A system of piping and allied equipment installed to provide a 
means for manual application of water to fires in buildings. Standpipe 
systems are for fire department use to obtain effective hose streams in 
taller buildings or large low buildings. 

Standpipe, dry: A standpipe system not having permanent water supply 
connection. Water is supplied by the fire department through the re- 
quired fire department connection only. 

Standpipe, dry /wet: A standpipe system which is normally dry but can 
be charged with water. 

Standpipe, wet: A standpipe system which has the supply normally open 
and water pressure maintained in all portions of the standpipe system at 
all times. 

State Building Code: The State Building Code and amendments and rules 
and regulations thereto as promulgated by the State Building Code Com- 
mission under Chapter 23B, Sections 16, 17 and 18, of the Massachusetts 
General Laws Annotated as amended. 

State Building Code Commission (SBCC): The Massachusetts State rules 
and regulations thereto as promulgated by the State Building Building 
Code Commission established by Chapter 23B, Section 16, of the Mass- 
achusetts General Laws Annotated as amended. 

State inspector: An employee of the Division of Inspection, State Depart- 
ment of Public Safety who is charged with administering and enforcing 
this code relative to any structure or building or parts thereof that are 
owned by the Commonwealth or any departments, commissions, agencies or 
authorities of the Commonwealth. The state inspector is also charged 
with supervising the enforcement of this code relative to all buildings and 
structures other than those owned by the Commonwealth (see Section 
108.9). 

Steel joist: Any secondary steel member of a building or structure made 
of hot or cold-formed solid or open-web sections, or riveted or welded 
bar, strip or sheet steel members or slotted and expanded or otherwise 
deformed rolled sections. 

Story: That portion of a building included between the upper surface of 
a floor and upper surface of the floor or roof next above (see also "Mez- 
zanine"). 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Story (first): The lowermost story entirely above the grade plane. 

Street: A public thoroughfare (street, avenue, boulevard) which has 
been dedicated for public use. 

Street lot line: The lot line dividing a lot from a street or other public 
space. 

Structural clay tile: A hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, 
shale, fireclay or mixtures thereof, and having parallel cells. 

Structural steel member: Any primary or secondary member of a building 
or structure consisting of a rolled steel structural shape other than 
cold-formed steel, light gage steel or steel joist members. 

Structure: A combination of materials assembled at a fixed location to 
give support or shelter, such as a building, framework, retaining wall, 
tent, reviewing stand, platform, bin, fence, sign, flagpole, recreational 
tramway, mast for radio antenna or the like. The word "structure" shall 
be construed, where the context requires, as though followed by the 
words, "or part or parts thereof." 

Summer camps for children: premises, operated solely between April and 
October of each year for recreational or other purposes, and having 
residential facilities. The use of such accommodations for purposes of 
inspection, certification and inspection fees shall be considered as being 
similar to a dormitory in R-2 use group and subject to Article 4, Sections 
435.2 through 435.6. 

Supervised sprinkler system: A system in which all water supply, valves 
and accessory equipment are provided with electrical contact devices to 
transmit signals to an outside central supervisory station. 

System: A combination of equipment and/or controls, accessories inter- 
connecting means, and terminal elements by which energy is transformed 
and delivered to desired areas so as to perform a special function, such 
as HVAC, service water heating, or illumination. 

Task lighting: Illumination applied to an individual location, with local 
control of switching. Examples include desk lights, examining lights, and 
machine lights. 

Technical Code Council: See Section 100.5.1. 

Temperature difference equivalent, TDeq: Total heat flow through the 
structure caused by solar radiation and outside temperature. 

Temporary signs: A sign constructed of cloth, fabric or other light 
temporary material with or without a structural frame intended for a 
limited period of display; including decoration displays for holidays or 
public demonstrations. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Terminal element: The means by which the transformed energy from a 
system is finally delivered; i.e., registers, diff users, lighting fixtures, 
faucets, etc. 

Theatre: A building or part thereof in which it is intended to make a 
business of the presentation of performances for the entertainment of 
spectators, with a stage which can be used for scenery and other appli- 
ances (see Section 203.2). 

Thermal resistance, R: A measure of the ability to retard the flow of 
heat. The R value is the reciprocal of the heat transfer coefficient. R = 
1/U. 

Thermal transmittance overall, Uo, or overall Uo: Overall (average) heat 
transmission of a gross area of the exterior building envelope, expressed 
in units of Btu per hour per sguare foot per degree F. The Uo value 
applies to the combined effect of the time rate of heat flows through the 
various parallel paths, such as windows, doors, and opaque construction 
areas, comprising the gross area of one or more exterior building com- 
ponents, such as walls, floors, or roof /ceiling . 

Thermal transmittance, U: Coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) 
expressed in units of Btu per hour per square foot per degree F. It is 
the time rate of heat flow. The U value applies to combinations of dif- 
ferent materials used in series along the heat flow path, single materials 
used in series along the heat flow path, single materials that comprise a 
building section, cavity air spaces, and surface air films on both sides of 
a building element. 

Thermoplastic material: A solid plastic material which is capable of being 
repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by decrease 
of temperature. 

Thermosetting material: A solid plastic material which is capable of being 
changed into a substantially non-reformable product when cured under 
the application of heat or pressure. 

Thermostat: An instrument which measures changes in temperature, and 
controls devices for maintaining a desired temperature. 

Tile: A ceramic surface unit, usually relatively thin in relation to facial 
area, made from clay or a mixture of clay and other ceramic materials, 
called the body of the tile, having either "glazed" or "unglazed" face and 
fired above red heat in the course of manufacture to a temperature suffi- 
ciently high to produce specific physical properties and characteristics. 

Travel trailer: A vehicular, portable stucture built on a chassis and 
designed to be used for temporary occupancy for travel, recreational or 
vacation use; with the manufacturer's permanent identification "Travel 
Trailer," thereon; and when factory equipped for the road, being of any 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



length provided its gross weight does not exceed forty-five hundred 
(4500) pounds, or being of any weight provided its overall length does 
not exceed twenty-eight (28) feet. 

Two-source system: An automatic sprinkler system which is supplied 
from a combination of any two (2) of the approved automatic sources of 
water supply, or from two (2) pressure tanks, or by direct connections 
of the municipal water supply on two (2) streets in which the water mains 
are separately valved. 

Unitary cooling and heating eguipment: One or more factory-made assem- 
blies which normally include an evaporator or cooling coil, a compressor 
and condenser combination, and may include a heating function as well. 
Where such eguipment is provided in more than one assembly, the sep- 
arate assemblies shall be designed to be used together. 

Unitary heat pump: One or more factory-made assemblies which normally 
include an indoor conditioning coil, compressor(s) and outdoor coil or 
refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger, including means to provide both 
heating and cooling functions. It is designed to provide the functions of 
air-circulation, air cleaning, cooling, and heating with controlled temper- 
ature, and dehumidifying , and may optionally include the function of 
humidifying. When such eguipment is provided in more than one assem- 
bly, the separate assemblies shall be designed to be used together. 

Use group: The classification of a building or structure based on the 
purpose for which it is used as set forth in Sections 203.0 through 212.0. 

Use (used): The purpose for which the building or structure is de- 
signed, used or intended to be used. 

Vent: A conduit or passageway, vertical or nearly so, for conveying 
products of combustion to the outside atmosphere. 

Type B and Type B-W: A gas venting system consisting of vent piping 
and fittings listed for use with a listed gas appliance. 

Type L: A low temperature venting system, consisting of listing vent 
piping and fittings for use with oil-burning appliances listed for use with 
Type L vents, or with listed gas appliances. 

Vent connector: The pipe used to connect an approved fuel-fired appli- 
ance to a chimney or vent. 

Vent system: A continuous open passageway from the flue collar or draft 
hood of a fuel burning appliance to the outside atmosphere for the pur- 
pose of removing products of combustion. 

Ventilation: The process of supplying air to, or removing air from, any 
space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Ventilation air: That portion of supply air which comes from outdoors, 
plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired 
quality of air within a designated space. 

Vertical opening: An opening through a floor or roof. 

Volatile flammables: A liquid that will emit a flammable vapor at a tem- 
perature of less than one-hundred (100) degrees Fahrenheit, to be ascer- 
tained by any standard closed-cup instrument. 

Wall 

Apron wall: That portion of a skeleton wall below the sill of a window. 

Bearing wall: A wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its own 
weight. 

Cavity wall: A wall built of masonry units or of plain concrete, or a 
combination of these materials, arranged to provide an air space within 
the wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied 
together with metal ties. 

Composite wall: A wall built of a combination of two (2) or more masonry 
units of different materials bonded together, one (1) forming the back-up 
and the other the facing elements. 

Curtain wall: A non-bearing enclosure wall not supported at each story. 

Division wall: A wall used to divide the fioor area of a building or 
structure into separate parts for fire protection, for different uses, for 
restricted occupancy, or for other purposes specified in this code. 

Faced wall: A wall in which the masonry facing and backing are so 
bonded as to exert common action under load. 

Hollow wall: A wall built of masonry units so arranged as to provide an 
air space within the wall, and in which the facing and backing of the wall 
are bonded together with masonry units. 

Non-bearing wall: A wall which does not support vertical load other than 
its own weight. 

Parapet wall: That part of any wall entirely above the roof line. 

Retaining wall: A wall designed to resist the lateral displacement of soil 
or other material. 

Skeleton or panel wall: A nonbearing wall supported by each story on a 
skeleton frame. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Spandrel wall: That portion of a skeleton wall above the head of a win- 
dow or door. 

Veneered wall: A wall having a facing of masonry or other weather- 
resisting noncombustible materials securely attached to the backing but 
not so bonded as to exert common action under load. 

Wall sign: A sign which is painted on or attached directly to a fence or 
on the surface of masonry, concrete, frame or other approved building 
walls, and which extends not more than fifteen (15) inches from the face 
of the fence or wall. 

Water spray fixed system: A system using water in a form having a 
predetermined pattern, particle size, velocity, and density discharged 
from specially designed nozzles or devices. 

Width 

Inner court: As applied to an inner court, means its least horizontal 
dimension . 

Outer court: As applied to an outer court, means the shortest horizontal 
dimension measured in a direction substantially parallel with the principal 
open end of such court. 

Winder: A step in a winding stairway. 

Writing: The term shall be construed to include handwriting, type- 
writing, printing, photo-offset or any other form of reproduction in 
legible symbols or characters. 

Written notice: A notification in writing delivered in person to the indivi- 
dual or parties intended, or delivered at, or sent by certified or regis- 
tered mail to the last residential or business address of legal record. 

Yard: An unoccupied open space other than a court. 

Zone: A space or group of spaces within a building with heating and/ or 
cooling requirements sufficiently similar so that comfort conditions can be 
maintained throughout by a single controlling device. 

Zoning: The reservation of certain specified areas within a community or 
city for building and structures, or use of land, for certain purposes 
with other limitations such as height, lot coverage and other stipulated 
requirements . 

SECTION 202.0 USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 

202.1 General: All buildings and structures shall be classified with 
respect to use in one (1) of the following use groups listed below: 



9/1/80 81 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

1. Use group A assembly (see Section 203.0). 

2. Use group B business (see Section 204.0). 

3. Use group F factory and industrial (see Section 205.0). 

4. Use group H high hazard (see Section 206.0). 

5. Use group I institutional (see Section 207.0). 

6. Use group M mercantile (see Section 208.0). 

7. Use group R residential (see Section 209.0). 

8. Use group S storage (see Section 210.0). 

9. Use group T temporary and miscellaneous (see Section 211.0). 

202.2 Fire grading of buildings: All buildings and structures shall be 
graded in accordance with the degree of fire hazard of their use in terms 
of hours and fractions of an hour and as regulated by Section 902.0. 

202.3 New uses: The building official shall establish by approved rules 
the degree of hazard involved and the fire grading of any use not speci- 
fically provided for in this code. 

SECTION 203.0 USE GROUP A, ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS 

203.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be 
classified in the assembly (A) use group which are used or designed for 
places of assembly as defined in this code. Other buildings and struc- 
tures, or parts thereof, which accommodate less than fifty (50) indivi- 
duals but would otherwise qualify as places of assembly, shall be classi- 
fied in the business (B) use group. 

203.2 Use group A-l, theatres 

203.2.1 Use group A-l-A structures: This use group shall include all 
theatres and other buildings used primarily for theatrical or operatic 
performances and exhibitions, arranged with a raised stage proscenium 
curtain, fixed or portable scenery loft, lights, motion picture booth, 
mechanical appliances or other theatrical accessories and equipment, and 
provided with fixed seats. 

203.2.2 Use group A-l-B structures: This use group shall include all 
theatres without a stage and equipped with fixed seats used for motion 
picture performances. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



203.3 Use group A-2 structures: This use group shall include all buil- 
dings and places of public assembly, without theatrical stage accessories, 
designed for use as dance halls, night clubs and for similar purposes 
including all rooms, lobbies and other spaces connected thereto with a 
common means of egress and entrance. 

203.4 Use group A-3 structures: This use group shall include all buil- 
dings with or without an auditorium in which persons assemble for amuse- 
ment, entertainment or recreation, and incidental motion picture dramatic, 
theatrical or educational presentations, lectures, or other similar purposes 
without theatrical stage other than a raised platform; and principally used 
without permanent seating facilities, including art galleries, exhibition 
halls, museums, lecture halls, libraries, restaurants other than night 
clubs, and recreation centers; and buildings designed for other similar 
assembly purposes including passenger terminals. 

203.5 Use group A-4 structures: This use group shall include all buil- 
dings used as churches, schools, colleges and for similar educational and 
religious purposes, (see Section 434.0, Day care centers.) 

203.6 Use group A-5 structures: This use group shall include grand- 
stands, bleachers, coliseums, stadiums, drive-in theatres, tents and 
similar structures for outdoor assembly use, and shall comply with the 
provisions of this code for special uses and occupancies (see Article 4). 

203.7 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 203.7 is 
a guide to the principal requirements of this code applicable to use group 
A, assembly buildings. They are not necessarily the only, nor all, of 
the provisions with which compliance is required. Omission of reference 
to any provision shall not nullify any requirement of this code, nor 
exempt any structure from such requirement. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 203.7 
ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction: 



Construction classification 214.0 
Historic buildings 436.0 
Places of public assembly 417.0 
Public assembly other than theatres 418.0 
Stadiums and grandstands 420.0 
Drive-in motion picture theatres 421.0 



Allowable area: 



General area limitations 305.0 

Area exceptions 306.0 

Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 

Unlimited areas 307.0 

Unlimited area, school bldgs. 307.1.1 

Unlimited area, indoor recreation 307.1.2 



Allowable height: 



Fire separations: 



Exterior wall protection: 



Fire limit requirements: 



General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 



Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic.fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 



Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 



Restrictions within fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 



Fireresistance: 



Interior finish: 



Fire hazard classification 902.0 

Fireresistance tests 903.0 

Roof coverings 903.3 

Opening protectives 903.4 

Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Fire stopping 919.0 and 875.9 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 

Basement assembly uses 905.7.3 

Grade floor protection 905.7 



Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 
Decorative material restrictions 923.0 



Means of egress: 



Occupancy load 606.0 
Location 607.0 
Capacity 608.0 
Number of exitways 609.0 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



ASSEMBLY BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Means of egress: 
(continued) 


Exitway access corridors 610.0 
Grade passageways 611.0 
Means of egress doorways 612.0 
Horizontal exits 614.0 
Interior exitway stairways 616.0 
Access to roof 617.0 
Exit signs 623.0 
Means of egress lighting 624.0 
Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 
Smokeproof enclosures 618.0 
Exterior exitway stairways 619.0 
Panic hardware 612.5.2 (also see Sections 417.0 and 
418.0) 


Fire protection systems: 


Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 

Fire suppression systems 1202.0 

Standpipe systems 1211.0 

Fire department connections 1213.0 

Water supply 1214.0 

Manual fire alarm systems 1217.0 

Supervision 1218.0 


Vertical openings: 


Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistwavs 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 

Fire ventilation of open wells 520.0 


Hazardous area: 


Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Segregation of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 
Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 
Inspection of hazardous uses 403.1 


Light and ventilation: 


Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 
Required fresh air supply 514.0 
Ventilation of shafts 515.0 
Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 
Natural light and ventilation 506.0 
Air-conditioning, refrigeration and 

mechanical ventilation (see mechanical code listed 

in Appendix B) 
Skylights 1905.0 


Sanitation: 


Plumbing and drainage Article 17 
Termite protection 874.0 


Electrical wiring: 


Article 15 


Motion picture protection rooms: 


Use and storage of flammable films 408.0 
Projection rooms, construction 408.3 


Stages and platforms: 


Stage construction 417.7 
Dressing rooms 417.8 


Provisions for the handicapped 
and aged: 


Section 315.0 


Energy conservation: 


Article 20 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 






SECTION 204.0 USE GROUP B, BUSINESS BUILDINGS 

204.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be 
classified in the business ( B ) use group which are used for the trans- 
action of business for the rendering of professional services, or for other 
services that involve stocks of goods, wares or merchandise in limited 
quantities for use incidental to office uses or similar purposes; including 
among others offices, banks, civic administration activities, courthouses 
fire houses, police stations, professional services, clinics operated on an 
outpatient basis which do not harbor patients overnight, testing and 
research laboratories, radio stations, telephone exchanges, motor fuel 
service stations and similar establishments. 

204.2 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 204.2 
is a guide to the principal requirements of this code applicable to use 
group B, business buildings. They are not necessarily the only, nor all 
of the provisions with which compliance is requiired. Omission of refer- 
ence to any provision shall not nullify any requirement of this code, nor 
exempt any structure from such requirement. 






Table 204.2 
BUSINESS BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction: 



Allowable area: 



Allowable height: 



Fire separations: 



Exterior wall protection: 



Fire limit requirements: 



Fireresistance: 



Construction classification 214.0 
Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 
Historic buildings 436.0 
Motor fuel service stations 415.0 
Open parking structures 429.0 
High rise buildings 431.0 



General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 
Unlimited area buildings 307.0 

General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 



Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 



Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 

Restrictions within fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 



Fire hazard classification 902.0 
Fireresistance tests 903.0 
Roof coverings 903.3 
Opening protectives 903.4 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 204.2 



Table 204.2 (cont'd.) 
BUSINESS BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Light and ventilation: 
(continued) 


Air-conditioning, refrigeration and 

mechanical ventilation (see mechanical code 

listed in Appendix B) 
Skylights 1905.0 


Sanitation: 


Plumbing and drainage Article 17 
Termite protection 874.0 


Electrical wiring: 


Article 15 


Provisions for the handicapped 
and aged: 


Section 315.0 


Energy conservation: 


Article 20 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 204.2 (cont'd.) 
BUSINESS BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Fireresistance: 
(continued) 



Interior finish: 



Means of egress: 



Fire protection systems: 



Vertical openings: 



Hazardous area: 



Light and ventilation: 



Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Fire stopping 919.0 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 

Shipping areas 905.5 

Grade floor protection 905.7 

Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 



Occupancy load 606.0 

Location 607.0 

Capacity 608.0 

Number of exitways 609.0 

Exitway access corridors 610.0 

Grade passageways 611.0 

Means of egress doorways 612.0 

Horizontal exits 614.0 

Interior exitway stairways 616.0 

Access to roof 617.0 

Exit signs 623.0 

Means of egress lighting 624.0 

Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 

Smokeproot enclosures 618.0 

Exterior exitway stairways 619.0 

Buildings with one exitway 609.3 



Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 

Fire suppression systems 431.0 and Article 12 

Standpipe systems 1211.0 

Fire department connections 1213.0 

Water supply 1214.0 

Automatic fire alarm systems 1216.0 

Manual fire alarm systems 1217.0 

Supervision 1218.0 



Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 

Fire ventilation of open wells 520.0 



Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Segregation of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 
Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 



Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 
Required fresh air supply 514.0 
Ventilation of shafts 515.0 
Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 
Natural light and ventilation 506.0 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 205.0 USE GROUP F, FACTORY AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS 

205.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, in which 
occupants are engaged in performing work or labor in fabricating, as- 
sembling or processing, of products or materials, shall be classified in 
the factory and industrial (F) use group; including, among others, fac- 
tories, assembling plants, industrial laboratories and all other industrial 
and manufacturing uses, except those involving highly combustible, 
flammable or explosive products and materials of the high hazard use 
group (use group H). 

205.2 List of factory and industrial uses: The processes and manu- 
facturers listed in the following Table 205.2 shall be indicative of, and 
include, the uses permitted in use group F buildings. 

Table 205.2 



Table 205.2 
USE GROUP F, FACTORY AND INDUSTRIAL USES 



Bakeries 

Boiler works 

Breweries 

Canneries, including food products 

Condensed and powered milk manufacture 

Dry cleaning using other than volatile flam- 
mable liquids in cleaning or dyeing opera- 
tions or other than classified in Table 206.3 

Electric Hght plants and power houses 

Electrolytic reducing works 

Glass plants 



Ice plants 

Leather and tanneries, excluding enameling or 

japanning 
Millwork and woodworking 
Sugar refineries 
Tenant factories, excluding ladies' dresses and 

other high hazard uses. 
Textile mills, including canvas, cotton cloth, 

bagging, burlap, carpets and rags 
Upholstery and manufacturing shops 
Water-pumping plants 



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89 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



205.3 Special industrial uses: All buildings and structures designed to 
house low hazard industrial processes, including, among others, the 
production and distribution of electric, gas or steam power and rolling 
mills and foundries, requiring large areas and unusual heights to accom- 
modate craneways or special machinery and equipment, shall be exempt 
from the height and area limitations of Table 305. 

205.3.1 Construction: Buildings and structures for such special indus- 
trial uses shall comply with the requirements of Section 307.0, except as 
to height, and when constructed of noncombustible (Type 2C) construc- 
tion may have balconies and mezzanine floors which do not exceed two- 
thirds (2/3) the area of the main floor in any one (1) tier. 

205 .3.2 Exterior walls : The exterior walls of buildings of such low 
hazard industrial uses shall be constructed of approved noncombustible 
and weather resisting materials , and , when located with a fire separation 
of less than thirty (30) feet from interior lot lines of any other building 
shall be protected or constructed to provide a fireresistance rating of not 
less than two (2) hours. 

205.3.3 Fire protection systems: Special use industrial buildings as 
herein defined shall comply with the requirements of Article 12 for fire 
protection systems; except that the provisions of Section 307.0 for auto- 
matic fire suppression systems in unlimited area buildings may be waived 
by the building official when such installations would be detrimental or 
dangerous to the specific use and occupancy. 

205.4 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 205.4 
is a guide to the principal requiremenmts of this code applicable to use 
group F, factory and industrial buildings. They are not necessarily the 
only, nor all, of the provisions with which compliance is required. Omis- 
sion of reference to any provision shall not nullify any requirement of 
this code, nor exempt any structure from such requirement. 

Table 205.4 
FACTORY AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction: 



Allowable area: 



Allowable height: 



Fire separations: 



Construction classification 214.0 
Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 
Historic buildings 436.0 

General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 
Unlimited area buildings 307.0 

General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 



Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic tire doors and dampers 903.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical Shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 



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90 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 205.4 



Exterior wall protection: 


Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 


Fire limit requirements: 


Restrictions within fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 


Fireresistance: 


Fire hazard classification 902.0 

Fireresistance tests 903.0 

Roof coverings 903.3 

Opening protectives 903.4 

Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Fire stopping 919.0 and 875.9 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 

Grade floor protection 905.7 


Interior finish: 


Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 


Means of egress: 


Occupancy load 606.0 

Location 607.0 

Capacity 608.0 

Number of exitways 609.0 

Exitway access corridors 610.0 

Grade passageways 611.0 

Means of egress doorways 612.0 

Horizontal exits 614.0 

Interior exitway stairways 616.0 

Access to roof 617.0 

Exit signs 623.0 

Means of egress lighting 624.0 

Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 

Smokeproof enclosures 618.0 

Exterior exitway stairways 619.0 


Fire protection systems: 


Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 
Fire suppression systems 1202.0 
Standpipe systems 1211.0 
Fire department connections 1213.0 
Water supply 1214.0 
Supervision 1218.0 


Vertical openings: 


Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 205.4 



Hazardous area: 


Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 




Segregation of storage space 400.8 




Existing buildings 405.0 




Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 




Special permits 404.0 




Paint spraying 411.0 




Dry cleaning establishments 412.0 


Light and ventilation: 


Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 




Required fresh air supply 514.0 




Ventilation of shafts 515.0 




Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 




Natural light and ventilation 506.0 




Air-conditioning, refrigeration and 




mechanical ventilation (see mechanical code 




listed in Appendix B) 




Skylights 1905.0 




Drying rooms 1106.0 


Sanitation: 


Plumbing and drainage Article 17 




Termite protection 874.0 


Electrical wiring: 


Article 15 


Provisions for the handicapped 


Section 315.0 


and aged: 




Energy conservation: 


Article 20 



9/1/80 



n 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 206.0 USE GROUP H, HIGH HAZARD BUILDINGS 

206.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be 
classified in the high hazard (H) use group which are used for the stor- 
age, manufacture or processing of highly combustible or explosive prod- 
ucts or materials, which are likely to burn with extreme rapidity, or 
which may produce poisonous fumes or explosions; for storage or manu- 
facturing which involves highly corrosive, toxic or noxious alkalies, acids 
or other liquids or chemicals producing flame, fume, poisonous, irritant 
or corrosive gases; and for the storage or processing of any materials 
producing explosive mixtures of dust, or which result in the division of 
matter into fine particles subject to spontaneous ignition. 

206.2 List of high hazard uses: The processes, materials and manu- 
factures listed in the following Table 206.2 are indicative of and shall be 
included among high hazard uses. 

Table 206.2 

Use Group H, High Hazard Uses 



Acetylene gas and gases under pressure of 
fifteen (15) pounds or more and in quan- 
tities of greater than twenty-five hundred 
(2500) cubic feet; including hydrogen, il- 
luminating, natural, ammonia, chlorine, 
phosgene, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, 
methyl oxide and all gases subject to ex- 
plosion, fume or toxic hazard 
Ammunition, explosives and fireworks manu- 
facture 
Artificial flowers and synthetic leather manu- 
facture 
Celluloid and celluloid products 
Cereal, feed, flour and grist mills 
Cotton batting and cotton waste processes 
Cotton dressmaking 

Dry cleaning establishments using or storing 
more than three (3) gallons of gasoline or 
other hazardous liquids with a flash point 
under one hundred (100) degrees F., or more 
than sixty (60) gallons of volatile flammable 
liquids with flash point between one hun- 
dred (100) and one hundred and forty (140) 
degrees F., in a closed-cup tester (ASTM 
D56). 
Feather renovating 
Fruit ripening processes 
Grain elevators 
Hydrogenation processes 
Industries employing solids or substances 
which ignite or produce flammbale gases 
on contact with water 



Kerosene, fuel, lubricating, or any oil storage 
with a flash point under two hundred (200) 
degrees F. 

Match manufacture or storage 

Metal enameling or japanning 

Nitrocellulose film exchanges and labora- 
tories 

Paint and varnish manufacture 

Paint spraying or dipping 

Petroleum manufacture 

Processing of paper or cardboard in loose form 

Pyroxylin products manufacture and storage 

Rag sorting and storage 

Refrigerating systems using high hazard re- 
frigerants as defined in the mechanical code 

Shoddy mills 

Shoe polish manufacture 

Smoke houses (industrial) 

Straw goods manufacture or broom corn stor- 
age 

Sugar and starch pulverizing mills 

Tar. pitch or resin processing 

Tanneries with enameling or japanning 

Tire storage warehouse 

Waste paper sorting, shredding, storage or 
baling 



9/1/80 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



206.3 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 206.3 
is a guide to the principal requirements of this code applicable to use 
group H, high hazard buildings. They are not necessarily the only, nor 
all, of the provisions with which compliance is required. Omission of 
reference to any provision shall not nullify any requirement of this code, 
nor exempt any structure from such requirement. 

Table 206.3 



HIGH HAZARD BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction-. 


Construction classification 214.0 
Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 
Historic buildings 436.0 
Special high hazards 400.3 


Allowable area: 


General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 


Allowable height: 


General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 


Fire separations: 


Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 


Exterior wall protection: 


Exterior walls 906 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 


Fire limit requirements: 


Restrictions within limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 


Fireresistance: 


Fire hazard classification 902.0 

Fireresistance tests 903.0 

Roof coverings 903.3 

Opening protectives 903.4 

Fire-retardant-treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Firestopping 919.0 and 875.9 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 

Grade floor protection 905.7 


Interior finish: 


Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 



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94 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 206.3 (cont'd.) 
HIGH HAZARD BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Means of egress: 


Occupancy load 606.0 

Location 607.0 

Capacity 608.0 

Number of exitways 609.0 

Exitway access corridors 610.0 

Grade passageways 611.0 

Means of egress doorways 612.0 

Horizontal exits 614.0 

Interior exitway stairways 616.0 

Access to roof 617.0 

Exit signs 623.0 

Means of egress lighting 624.0 

Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 

Exterior exitway stairway 619.0 

Slidescapes 622.0 


Fire protection systems: 


Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 
Fire suppression systems 1202.0 
Standpipe systems 1211.0 
Fire department connections 1213.0 
Water supply 1214.0 
Supervision 1218.0 


Vertical openings: 


Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 

Fire ventilation of open wells 520.0 


Hazardous area: 


Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Segregation of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 
Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 
Explosion hazards 401.0 
Volatile flammables 402.0 
Outside aboveground storage 402.2.2 
Inspection of hazardous uses 403.1 
Special permits 404.0 


Hazardous area: 
(continued) 


Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage 410.0 
Combustible fibers, construction requirements 409.2 
Paint spraying 411.0 
Dry cleaning establishments 412.0 


Light and ventilation: 


Bath and toilet rooms.512.0 

Required fresh air supply 514.0 

Ventilation of shafts 515.0 

Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 

Natural light and ventilation 506.0 

Air-conditioning, refrigeration and mechanical ventilation 

(see mechanical code listed in Appendix B) 
Skylights 1905.0 


Sanitation: 


Plumbing and drainage Article 17 
Termite protection 874.0 


Electrical wiring: 


Article 15 


Provisions for the handicapped 
and aged: 


Section 315.0 


Energy conservation: 


Article 20 



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95 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 207.0 USE GROUP I, INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 

207.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be 
classified in the institutional (I) use group in which people suffering from 
physical limitations because of health or age are harbored for medical or 
other care or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or 
correctional purposes, or in which the liberty of the inmates is restricted. 

207.2 Use goup 1-1: This use group shall include all buildings designed 
for the detention of people under restraint, including, among others, 
jails, prisons, reformatories, insane asylums and similar uses. 

207.3 Use group 1-2: This use group shall include all buildings used 
for housing people suffering from physical limitations because of health or 
age, including among others, day nurseries, hospitals, sanitariums, 
clinics, infirmaries, orphanages, and homes for aged and infirm. (see 
Section 434.0, Day care centers.) 

207.4 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 207.4 
is a guide to the principal requirements of this code applicable to use 
group I, institutional buildings. They are not necessarily the only, nor 
all, of the provisions with which compliance is required. Omission of 
reference to any provisions shall not nullify any requirement of this code, 
nor exempt any structure from such requirement. 



9/1/80 96 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 207.4 
INSTITUTIONAL BUILDNGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction: 


Construction classification 214.0 
Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 
Historic buildings 436.0 


Allowable area: 


General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 
Unlimited area buildings 307.0 


Allowable height: 


General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 


Fire separations: 


Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 


Exterior wall protection: 


Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 


Fire limit requirements: 


Restrictions within fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 


Fireresistance: 


Fire hazard classification 902.0 



Fireresistance tests 903.0 

Roof coverings 903.3 

Opening protectives 903.4 

Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/ roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 

Grade floor protection 905.7 



Interior finish.- 



Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 



Means of egress: 



Occupancy load 606.0 

Location 607.0 

Capacity 608.0 

Number of exitways 609.0 

Exitway access corridors 610.0 

Grade passageways 611.0 

Means of egress doorways 612.0 

Horizontal exits 614.0 

Interior exitway stairways 616.0 

Access to roof 617.0 

Exit signs 623.0 



9/1/80 



97 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 207.4 (cont'd.) 
INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Means of egress: 
(continued) 



Means of egress lighting 624.0 
Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 
Smokeproof enclosures 618.0 
Slidescapes 622.0 
Revolving doois 613.0 



Fire protection systems: 



Vertical openings: 



Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 

Fire suppression systems 1202.0 

Standpipe systems 1211.0 

Fire department connections 1213.0 

Water supply 1214.0 

Fire emergency ventilating system 519.0 

Automatic fire alarm systems 1216.0 

Supervision 1218.0 



Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 



Hazardous area: 



Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Segregation of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 
Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 



Light and ventilation: 



Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 

Required fresh air supply 514.0 

Ventilation of shafts 515.0 

Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 

Natural light and ventilation 506.0 

Air-conditioning, refrigeration and mechanical ventilation 

(see mechanical code-listed in Appendix B) 
Skylights 1905.0 



Sanitation: 



Plumbing and drainage Article 17 
Termite protection 874.0 



Electrical wiring-. 



Article 15 



Provisions for the handicapped 
and aged: 



Section 315.0 



Energy conservation: 



Article 20 



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98 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 208.0 USE GROUP M, MERCANTILE BUILDINGS 

208.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be 
classified in the mercantile (M) use group which are used for display and 
sales purposes involving stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental 
to such purposes and accessible to the public; including, among others, 
retail stores, shops and salesrooms and markets. Highly combustible 
goods, such as merchandise made of pyroxylin products, shall be limited 
to small guantities that do not constitute a high hazard; and if not so 
limited, the construction shall comply with the reguirements of the high 
hazard use group as reguired by the provisions of Article 4 and Tables 
214 and 305. 

208.2 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 208.2 
is a guide to the principal reguirements of this code applicable to use 
group M, mercantile buildings. They are not necessarily the only, nor 
all, of the provisions with which compliance is reguired. Omission of 
reference to any provisions shall not nullify any reguirement of this code, 
nor exempt any structure from such reguirement. 

Table 208.2 



MERCANTILE BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction; 


Construction classification 214.0 
Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 
Historic buildings 436.0 
Tents and air supported structures 422.0 
Radio and television towers 426.0 
Radio and television antennae 427.0 
Open parking structures 429.0 
Covered malls 432.0 


Allowable area: 


General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision attic spaces 875.9 
Unlimited area buildings 307.0 


Allowable height: 


General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 


Fire separations: 


Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Retail business use 905.6.3 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 


Exterior wall protection: 


Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 



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99 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 208.2 (cont'd.) 
MERCANTILE BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Fire limit requirements: 



Restrictions within fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 



Fireresistance: 



Fire hazard classification 902.0 

Fireresistance tests 903.0 

Roof coverings S03.3 

Opening protectives 903.4 

Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 

Packing and shipping rooms 905.4 

Grade floor protection 905.7 



Interior finish: 



Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 



Means of egress: 



(also see section 432.0) 

Occupancy load 606.0 

Location 607.0 

Capacity 608.0 

Number of exitways 609.0 

Exitway access corridors 610.0 

Grade passageways 611.0 

Means of egress doorways 612.0 

Horizontal exits 614.0 

Interior exitway stairways 616.0 

Access to roof 617.0 

Exit signs 623.0 

Means of egress lighting 624.0 

Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 

Smokeproof enclosures 618.0 

Exterior exitway stairways 619.0 



Fire protection systems: 



Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 
Fire suppression systems 1202.0 
Sta'ndpipe systems 1211.0 
Fire department connections 1213.0 
Water supply 1214.0 
Supervision 1218.0 



Vertical openings: 



Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 

Fire ventilation of open wells 520.0 



Hazardous area.- 



Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Segregation of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 
Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 



9/1/80 



100 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 208.2 (cont'd.) 
MERCANTILE BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Light and ventilation: 


Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 

Required fresh air supply 514.0 

Ventilation of shafts 515.0 

Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 

Natural light and ventilation 506.0 

Air-conditioning, refrigeration and mechanical ventilation 

(see mechanical code listed in Appendx B) 
Skylghts 1905.0 
Business and work rooms 509.0 


Sanitation: 


Plumbing and drainage Article 17 
Termite protection 874.0 


Electrical wiring: 


Article 15 


Provisions for the handicapped 
and aged: 


Section 315.0 


Energy conservation: 


Article 20 



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101 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 209.0 USE GROUP R, RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

209.1 General: All buildings and strctures, or parts thereof, shall be 
classified in the residential (R) use group in which families or households 
live or in which sleeping accommodations are provided for individuals with 
or without dining facilities, excluding those that are classified as institu- 
tional buildings. 

209.2 Use group R-l structures: This use group shall include all hotel 
and motel buildings, detoxification facilities, and dormitory buildings 
arranged for the shelter and sleeping accommodation of more than twenty 
(20) individuals. 

209.3 Use group R-2 structures: This use group shall include all mul- 
tiple-family dwellings having more than two (2) dwelling units; and shall 
also include all dormitories, boarding and lodging houses arranged for 
shelter and sleeping accommodation by more than three (3) and not more 
than twenty (20) individuals. 

209.4 Use group R-3 structures: This use group shall include all build- 
ings arranged for the use of one- or two-family dwelling units including 
not more than three (3) lodgers or boarders per family. 

209.5 Use group R-4 structures: This use group shall include all de- 
tached one- or two-family dwellings not more than three (3) stories in 
height, and their accessory structures as indicated in Article 21, One- 
and Two-Family Dwelling Code. All such structures may be designed in 
accordance with the One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code or in accordance 
with the requirements of this code for a use group R-3 structure. 

209.6 Use group R-5 structures: This use group shall include all build- 
ings arranged for use as limited group residences in accordance with the 
requirements of this Code (see Section 438.0). 

209.7 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 209.6 
is a guide to the principal requirements of this code applicable to use 
group R, residential buildings. They are not necessarily the only, nor 
all, of the provisions with which compliance is required. Omission of 
reference to any provision shall not nullify any requirement of this code, 
nor exempt any structure from such requirement. 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 102 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 209.6 
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction: 


Construction classification 214.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Historic buildings 436.0 

Motels 425.0 

High rise buildings 431.0 

Mobile units 424.0 

Detoxification facilities 439. o 


Allowable area: 


General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 


Allowable height: 


General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 


Fire separations: 


Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Private garages 413.0 

Lot line separation 303.2 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 


Exterior wall protection: 


Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 


Fire limit requirements.- 


Restrictions with fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 


Fireresistance: 


Fire hazard classification 902.0 

Fireresistance tests 903.0 

Roof coverings 903.3 

Opening protectives 903.4 

Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 


Interior finish: 


Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 


Means of egress: 


Occupancy load 606.0 
Location 607.0 
Capacity 608.0 
Number of exitways 609.0 
Exitway access corridors 610.0 
Grade passageways 611.0 
Means of egress doorways 612.0 
Horizontal exits 614.0 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 



103 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 209.6 (cont'd.) 
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Means of egress: 

(continued) 



Interior exitway stairways 616.0 
Access to roof 617.0 
Exit signs 623.0 
Means of egress lighting 624.0 
Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 
Smokeproof enclosures 618.0 
Exterior exitway stairways 619.0 
Buildings with one exitway 609.3 



Fire protection systems: 



Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 

Fire suppression systems 431.0 and Article 12 

Standpipe systems 1211.0 

Fire department connections 1213.0 

Water supply 1214.0 

Fire emergency ventilating system 519.0 

Automatic fire alarm systems 1216.0 

Manual fire alarm systems 1217.0 



Vertical openings: 



Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 

Fire ventilation of open wells 520.0 



Hazardous area: 


Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Segregation of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 
Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 
Incinerator 1008.0 


Light and ventilation: 


Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 

Required fresh air supply 514.0 

Ventilation of shafts 515.0 

Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 

Natural light and ventilation 506.0 

Air-conditioning, refrigeration and mechanical ventilation 

(see mechanical code listed in Appendix B) 
Skylights 1905.0 


Sanitation: 


Plumbing and drainage Article 17 
Termite protection 874.0 


Electrical wiring: 


Article 15 


Provisions for the handicapped 
and aged 


Section 315.0 


Sound transmission control: 


Section 522.0 


Energy conservation: 


Article 20 



9/1/80 



104 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 210.0 USE GROUP S, STORAGE BUILDINGS 

210.1 General: All buildings and structures or parts thereof shall be 
classified in the storage (S) use group which are used primarily for the 
storage of goods, wares or merchandise, except those that involve highly 
combustible or explosive products or materials; including, among others, 
warehouses, storehouses and freight depots. 

210.2 List of moderate hazard uses: Buildings used for the storage of 
moderate hazard contents are likely to burn with moderate rapidity, but 
which do not produce either poisonous gases, fumes or explosives, includ- 
ing among others, the materials listed in the following Table 210.2, shall 
be classified in the S-l storage use group. 

Table 210.2 



USE GROUP S-1 STORAGE USES, MODERATE HAZARD 



Bags, cloth, burlap and paper 

Bamboo and rattan 

Baskets 

Belting, canvas and leather 

Books and paper in rolls or packs 

Boots and shoes 

Buttons, including cloth-covered, 

pearl or bone 
Cardboard and cardboard boxes 
Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 
Cordage 
Furniture 
Furs 

Glue, mucilage, paste and size 
Horn and combs, other than celluloid 
Leather enameling or japanning 



Linoleum 

Livestock shelters 

Lumber yards 

Motor vehicle repair shops 

Petroleum warehouses for storage of lubri- 
cating oils with a flash point of three hun- 
dred (300) degrees F. or higher (see Sec- 
tion 905.3.) 

Photo-engraving 

Public garages (Group 1) and stables 

Silk 

Soap 

Sugar 

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 

Upholstering and mattress manufacturing 

Wax candles 



y/i/8o 



105 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



210.3 List of low hazard uses: Buildings used for the storage of non- 
combustibility materials, and of low hazard wares that do not ordinarily 
burn rapidly, shall be classified in the S-2 storage use goup unless 
herein otherwise classified, including, among others, the materials listed 
in the following Table 210.3. 

Table 210.3 
USE GROUP S-2 STORAGE USES, LOW HAZARD 



Asbestos 

Chalk and crayons 
Food products 
Glass 



Ivory 

Metals 

Porcelain and pottery 

Talc and soapstones 



210.4 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 210.4 
is a guide to the principal requirements of this code applicable to use 
goup S, storage buildings. They are not necessarily the only, nor all, 
of the provisions with which compliance is required. Omission of refer- 
ence to any provision shall not nullify any requirement of this code, nor 
exempt any structure from such requirement. 

Table 210.4 
STORAGE BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction: 


Construction classification 214.0 
Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 
Historic buildings 436.0 
Motor vehicle repair shops 416.0 
Open parking structures 429.0 


Allowable area: 


General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 
Unlimited area buildings 307.0 


Allowable height: 


General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 


Fire separations: 


Fire walls and party walls 907.0 



Exterior wall protection: 



Fire limit requirements: 



Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Public garages 414.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 



Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 



Restrictions within fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 



Fireresistance: 



Fire hazard classification 902.0 
Fireresistance tests 903.0 
Roof coverings 903.3 
Opening protectives 903.4 



9/1/80 



106 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
Table 210.4 (cont'd.) Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

crnDArr niiiiniuor n™,,. .,, Fireresistance of structural members 9II.0 

STORAGE BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Fireresistance: Roof construction 913.0 

(continued) Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Firestopping 919.0 
Balconies 924.0 
Roof structures 925.0 
Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 
Grade floor protection 905.7 



Interior finish: 


Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 


Means of egress: 


Occupancy load 606.0 

Location 607.0 

Capacity 608.0 

Number of exitways 609.0 

Exitway access corridors 610.0 

Grade passageways 611.0 

Means of egress doorways 612.0 

Horizontal exits 614 

Interior exitway stairways 616.0 

Access to roof 617.0 

Exit signs 623.0 

Means of egress lighting 624.0 

Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 

Exterior exitway stairways 619.0 


Fire protection systems: 


Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 
Fire suppression systems 1202.0 
Standpipe systems 1211.0 
Fire department connections 1213.0 
Water supply 1214.0 
Supervision 1218.0 


Vertical openings: 


Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 

Fire ventilation of open wells 520.0 


Hazardous area: 


Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Segregation of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 
Pyroxylin plastics 407.0 
Outside aboveground storage 402.2.2 
Inspection of hazardous uses 403.1 
Special permits 404.0 



9/1/80 



Light and ventilation: 


Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 

Required fresh air supply 514.0 

Ventilation of shafts 515.0 

Artificial light and ventilation 504 

Natural light and ventilation 506.0 

Air-conditioning, refrigeration and mechanical ventilation 

(see mechanical code listed in Appendx B) 
Skylights 1905.0 
Drying rooms 1106.0 


Sanitation: 


Plumbing and drainage Article 17 
Termite protection 874.0 


Electrical wiring: 


Article 15 


Provisions for the physically 
handicapped and aged: 


Section 315.0 


Energy conservation: 


Article 20 
1 107 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 211.0 USE GROUP T, TEMPORARY AND MISCELLANEOUS USES 

211.1 General: Structures and buildings of a temporary character and 
miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific use group shall be 
constructed, equipped and maintained to meet the requirements of this 
code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their use. 
Miscellaneous uses shall include all accessory buildings and structures 
used as private garages, sheds, fences and similar purposes. 

211.2 Regulations guide: The following listing contained in Table 211.2 
is a guide to the principal requirements of this code applicable to use 
group T, temporary and miscellaneous buildings. They are not necessar- 
ily the only, nor all, of the provisions with which compliance is required. 
Omission of reference to any provision shall not nullify any requirement 
of this code, nor exempt any structure from such requirement. 

Table 211.2 



TEMPORARY AND MISCELLANEOUS BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Types of construction-. 


Construction classification 214.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Temporary structures 314.0 

Tents and air supported structures 422.0 

Builders shanties and reviewing stands 302.4 

Signs Article 14 


Allowable area: 


General area limitations 305.0 
Area exceptions 306.0 
Subdivision of attic spaces 875.9 
Temporary projections 312.0 


Allowable height: 


General height limitations 305.0 
Height exceptions 308.0 
Bins, tanks and towers 302.5 
Storm enclosures 302.3 


Fire separations: 


Fire walls and party walls 907.0 

Fire separation walls 909.0 

Elevator opening protectives Article 16 

Automatic fire doors and dampers 903.0 

Mixed use and occupancy 213.0 

Vertical shafts 910.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 


Exterior wall protection: 


Exterior walls 906.0 

Exterior opening protectives 914.0 

Glazing of unprotected openings 1902.0 


Fire limit requirements: 


Restrictions within fire limits 302.0 
Restrictions outside fire limits 303.0 
Roof structures 925.0 



9/1/80 



108 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Table 211.2 (cont'd.) 
TEMPORARY AND MISCELLANEOUS BUILDINGS REGULATIONS GUIDE 



Fireresistance: 



Fire hazard classification 902.0 

Fireresistance tests 903.0 

Roof coverings 903.3 

Opening protectives 903.4 

Fire-retardant treated wood 903.6 

Fireresistance of structural members 911.0 

Fireresistance rated floor/roof assemblies 912.0 

Roof construction 913.0 

Fire windows and shutters 916.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Balconies 924.0 

Roof structures 925.0 

Roof coverings 926.0 

Refuse vaults, enclosure requirements 1108.0 



Interior finish: 



Interior finish and trim 920.0 
Application of interior finish 921.0 
Flame resistance tests 904.0 



Means of egress: 



Occupancy load 606.0 

Location 607.0 

Capacity 608.0 

Number of exitways 609.0 

Exitway access corridors 610.0 

Grade passageways 611.0 

Means of egress doorways 612.0 

Horizontal exits 614.0 

Interior exitway stairways 616.0 

Access to roof 617.0 

Exit signs 623.0 

Means of egress lighting 624.0 

Elevator, exitway restrictions Article 16 

Exterior exitway stairways 619.0 



Fire protection systems: 



Vertical openings: 



Hazardous area: 



Water sprinkler systems 1204.0 
Fire suppression systems 1202.0 
Standpipe systems 1211.0 
Fire department connections 1213.0 
Water supply 1214.0 



Shafts 515.0 

Firestopping 919.0 

Vertical shafts and hoistways 910.0 

Hoistway enclosures and venting Article 16 

Fire ventilation of open wells 520.0 



Boiler and equipment rooms 400.6 
Refrigeration of storage space 400.8 
Existing buildings 405.0 



Light and ventilation: 



Sanitation: 



Electrical wiring: 



Bath and toilet rooms 512.0 

Required fresh air supply 514.0 

Ventilation of shafts 515.0 

Artificial light and ventilation 504.0 

Natural light and ventilation 506.0 

Air-conditioning, refrigeration and mechanical ventilation 

(see mechanical code listed in Appendix B) 
Skylights 1905.0 



Plumbing and drainage Article 17 

Termite protection 874.0 

Plumbing and water connections 1807.0 

Article 15 



9/1/80 



109 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 212.0 DOUBTFUL USE CLASSIFICATION 

212.1 General: When a building or structure is proposed for a use not 
specifically provided for in this code or the classification of which is 
doubtful, such building or structure shall be included in the use group 
which it most nearly resembles in respect to the existing or proposed life 
and fire hazard, and it shall be so classified by the building official. 

SECTION 213.0 MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

213.1 Two or more uses: When a building is occupied for two (2) or 
more uses, not included in the same use group, one (1) of the following 
shall apply: 

1. The provisions of the code applying to each use shall apply to such 
parts of the building as come within that use group; and if there 
are conflicting provisions the requirements securing the greater 
public safety shall apply to the entire building; or, 

2. the mixed uses shall be completely separated, both horizontally and 
vertically, by fire separation walls and floor-ceiling assemblies 
having a fireresistance rating corresponding to the highest fire 
grading prescribed in Table 902 for the separate uses. Each part 
of the building shall be separately classified to use. The most 
restrictive height and area limitations in this code for the mixed 
uses shall apply to the entire building, or except as otherwise 
provided for in this code; or, 

3. the mixed uses shall be completely separated by fire walls having 
a fireresistance rating corresponding to the highest fire grading 
prescribed in Table 902 for the separate uses. Each use group 
shall then comply with the provisions of this code applicable to that 
group . 

213.1.1 Detoxification facilities: In mixed occupancies, the separation 
required by Sections 439.7 may be applied in lieu of the provisions of 
this section. 

213.2 Incidental uses: Where the higher hazard use is supplemental to 
the main use of the building and the area devoted to such use is con- 
structed and segregated by fireresistance rated construction as required 
in Article 4, the building shall be classified according to the main use. 

SECTION 214.0 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

214.1 General: All buildings and structures erected or to be erected, 
altered or extended in height or area shall be classified in any one (1) or 
in a combination of the four (4) construction types herein defined: 

1. Type 1, fireproof construction; 

2. Type 2, noncombustible construction; 

6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 110 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

3. Type 3, exterior masonry wall construction; and 

4. Type 4, frame construction. 

214.2 False designation: A building shall not be designated a given type 
of construction unless it conforms to the minimum requirements for that 
type; and it shall be unlawful to post, or use, or designate, or advertise 
a building as of a given type of construction unless it complies with the 
minimum code requirements for that type. 

214.3 Minimum requirements: When a superior type of construction is 
used in preference to the minimum herein required for any special use, 
nothing in this code shall be construed to require full compliance with the 
specifications for the higher type; but the designated construction classi- 
fication of the building shall be that of the lesser requirement, unless all 
the requirements for the higher type are fulfilled. 

Note: Table 214 appears at the end of this article. 

SECTION 215.0 TYPE 1, FIREPROOF CONSTRUCTION 

215.1 General: Buildings and structures of fireproof construction are 
those in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, 
and roofs, and the exitways are constructed and protected with approved 
noncombustible materials to afford the fireresistance rating specified in 
Table 214, except as otherwise specifically regulated by the provisions of 
Article 9. Fireproof buildings shall be further classified as Types 1A and 
IB. Fire-retardant treated wood may be used as specified in Table 214 
and Section 903.6. 

SECTION 216.0 TYPE 2, NONCOMBUSTIBLE CONSTRUCTION 

216.1 General: Buildings and structures of noncombustible construction 
are those in which the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, 
ceilings, roofs, and the exitways are constructed of approved noncom- 
bustible materials meeting the fireresistance rating requirements specified 
in Table 214, except as modified by the fire limit restrictions of Article 3, 
and as further regulated in Article 9. Noncombustible buildings shall be 
further classified as Types 2A, 2B, and 2C. Fire-retardant treated wood 
may be used as specified in Table 214 and Section 903.6. 

SECTION 217.0 TYPE 3, EXTERIOR MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION 

217.1 General: Buildings and structures of exterior masonry wall con- 
struction are those in which the exterior, fire and party walls are con- 
structed of masonry or other approved noncombustible materials, of the 
required fireresistance rating and structural properties; and the floors, 
roofs, and interior framing are wholly or partly of wood or of metal or 
other approved construction; the fire and party walls are ground sup- 
ported; except that girders and their supports carrying walls of masonry 



9/1/80 111 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



shall be protected to afford the same degree of fireresistance rating of 
the walls supported thereon; and all structural elements have the re- 
quired fireresistance rating specified in Table 214. 

217.2 Type 3A: Buildings and structures of heavy timber construction 
are those in which fireresistance rating is attained by placing limitations 
on the minimum sizes of wood structural members and on minimum thick- 
ness and composition of wood floors and roofs; by the avoidance, or by 
the proper protection by firestopping or other acceptable means, of 
concealed spaces under floors and roofs; by the use of approved fasten- 
ings, construction details, and adhesives for structural members; and by 
providing the required degree of fireresistance rating in exterior and 
interior walls (see Section 853.0 for construction details). 

217.2.1 Columns: Wood columns may be sawn or glued laminated and 
shall be not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in any dimension when 
supporting floor loads and not less than six (6) inches, nominal, in width 
and not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in depth when supporting 
roof and ceiling loads only. 

217.2.2 Floor framing: Beams and girders of wood may be sawn or 
glued laminated and shall be not less than six (6) inches, nominal, in 
width and not less than ten (10) inches, nominal, in depth. Framed or 
glued laminated arches which spring from the floor line and support floor 
loads shall be not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in any dimension. 
Framed timber trusses supporting floor loads shall have members of not 
less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in any dimension. 

217.2.3 Roof framing: Framed or glued laminated arches for roof con- 
struction which spring from the floor line or from grade and do not 
support floor loads shall have members not less than six (6) inches, 
nominal, in width and not less than eight (8) inches, nominal, in depth 
for the lower half of the height and not less than six (6) inches, nomi- 
nal, in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued laminated arches for 
roof construction which spring from the top of walls or wall abutments, 
framed timber trusses, and other roof framing which do not support floor 
loads, shall have members not less than four (4) inches, nominal, in 
width and not less than six (6) inches, nominal, in depth. Spaced mem- 
bers may be composed of two (2) or more pieces not less than three (3) 
inches, nominal, in thickness when blocked solidly throughout their 
intervening spaces or when such spaces are tightly closed by a continu- 
ous wood cover plate of not less than two (2) inches, nominal in thick- 
ness, secured to the underside of the members. Splice plates shall be 
not less than three (3) inches, nominal, in thickness. When protected by 
approved automatic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members shall 
be not less than three (3) inches, nominal, in width. 

217.2.4 Flooring: Floors shall be without concealed spaces and shall be 
of sawn or glued laminated plank, splined, or tongue-and-groove, of not 



9/1/80 112 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



less than three (3) inches, nominal, in thickness covered with one (1) 
inch, nominal, dimension tongue -and -groove flooring, laid crosswise or 
diagonally, or one-half (1/2) inch plywood, or one-half (1/2) inch particle 
board; or of planks not less than four (4) inches, nominal, in width, set 
on edge close together and well spiked, and covered with one (1) inch, 
nominal, dimension flooring, or one-half (1/2) inch plywood, or one-half 
(1/2) inch particle board. 

217.2.5 Roof decking: Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and roof 
decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined or tongue-and-groove 
plank, not less than two (2) inches, nominal, in thickness, one and 
one-eighth (1 1/8) inches thick interior plywood (exterior glue), or of 
planks not less than three (3) inches, nominal, in width, set on edge 
close together and laid as required for floors. Other types of decking 
may be used if providing equivalent fireresistance rating and structural 
properties . 

217.2.6 Bearing walls: Bearing portions of exterior and interior walls 
shall be of approved noncombustible material and shall have a fireresis- 
tance rating of not less than two (2) hours. 

217-2.7 Nonbearing walls: Nonbearing portions of exterior walls shall be 
of approved noncombustible materials, except as otherwise noted and 
where a horizontal separation of less than twenty (20) feet is provided, 
nonbearing exterior walls shall have a fireresistance rating of not less 
than two (2) hours. Where a horizontal separation of twenty (20) feet to 
thirty (30) feet is provided, nonbearing exterior walls shall have a fire- 
resistance rating of not less than one (1) hour. Where a horizontal 
separation of thirty (30) feet or more is provided, fireresistance rating is 
not required. Where a horizontal separation of twenty (20) feet or more 
is provided, wood columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes 
may be used externally. 

217.3 Type 3B: Structures of Type 3B (ordinary protected) shall in- 
clude all exterior masonry wall buildings in which the interior structural 
elements are wholly or partly of fire-protected wood of not less than two 
(2) inch nominal thickness, or of other approved protected combustible 
materials, or of metal protected and insulated to afford the fireresistance 
rating specified in Table 214. 

217.4 Type 3C: Structures of Type 3C (ordinary unprotected) construc- 
tion shall include all exterior masonry wall buildings in which the interior 
structural members are of wood of not less than two (2) inch nominal 
thickness or consist of other combustible or noncombustible materials with 
protection of less than one (1) hour fireresistance rating. 

SECTION 218.0 TYPE 4, FRAME CONSTRUCTION 

218.1 General: Buildings and structures of frame construction are those 
in which the exterior walls, bearing walls, partitions, floor and roof 



9/1/80 113 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



construction are constructed wholly or partly of wood stud and joist 
assemblies with a minimum nominal dimension of two (2) inches, or of 
other approved combustible materials; with firestopping at all vertical and 
horizontal draft openings as regulated in Section 875.0, and in which the 
structural elements have the required fireresistance ratings specified in 
Table 214. Frame buildings shall be further classified as Types 4A and 
4B according to Table 214. 



9/1/80 114 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



NON-TEXT PAGE 



9/1/80 115 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSI! 









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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



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9/1/80 



116.1 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Notes applicable to Table 214 

Note a. For special high hazard uses involving a higher degree of fire 
severity and higher concentration of combustible contents, the fireresis- 
tance rating requirements for structural elements shall be increased accor- 
dingly (see Section 400.3). 

Note b. The fire separation or fire exposure in feet as herein limited 
applies to the distance measured from the building face to the closest in- 
terior lot line, the center line of a street or public space or an imaginary 
line between two (2) buildings on the same property. 

Note c. Protected exteriors shall be required within the fire limits in 
Type 2 construction as follows: high hazard uses, two (2) hour fireresis- 
tance with fire separation up to eleven (11) feet. 

Note d. See Section 303.2. 

Note e. See Sections 213.0, 909.0 and 912.0. 

Note f. In all buildings of Types 3 or 4 construction, the stairways 
and their enclosures may be constructed of wood or other approved materials 
of similar characteristics and of adequate strength. Exitways may be en- 
closed in one (1) hour fireresistance rated construction in buildings three 
(3) stories or less in height. 

Note g. In Type 3A construction members which are of material other than 
heavy timber shall have a fireresistance rating of not less than one (1) 
hour (see Section 853.2). 

Note h. Fire-Retardant Treated Wood, complying with Section 903.6.1 may 
be used as provided in Section 903.6.2. 

Note i. Where the omission of fire protection from roof trusses, roof 
framing and decking is permitted, the horizontal or sloping roofs in Type 1 
and Type 2 buildings, immediately above such members, shall be constructed 
of noncombustible materials of the required strength without a specified 
fireresistance rating, or of mill type construction in buildings not over 
five (5\ stories or sixty-five (65) feet in height (see Section 913.3) „ 

Note j. Exitway access corridors serving thirty (30) or less occupants 
may have a zero (0) fireresistance rating (see Section 610.4). 

Note k. Separation of all dwelling units iiall have a fireresistance rat- 
ing of not less than one (1) hour. 

Note 1. Interior bearing walls shall meet the requirements of Section 
909.0 if serving a fire separation function. 

Note m. Buildings of H (high hazard), S-l (moderate hazard storage) or 
M (mercantile) occupancies when of Type 1 or 2A construction shall have not 
less than one (1) hour fireresistance rated roof construction (see Section 
913.2). One (1) story buildings are exempted. 

9/1/80 116.2 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

ARTICLE 3 

GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 

SECTION 300.0 GENERAL 

300.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the division of 
the municipalities of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts into fire limits 
and the general limitations of height and area of all buildings hereafter 
erected, and additions to existing buildings hereafter enlarged as affected 
by the fire and life hazard incident to type of construction, use group, 
density of development, exterior exposure and accessibility of buildings 
and structures to fire-fighting facilities and equipment. 

SECTION 301.0 FIRE LIMITS 

301.1 Fire limits: For the purpose of control of use and construction of 
buildings, the building official may establish designated fire limits and 
outside fire limits under the legal procedure of the municipalities of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts for creating and establishing fire limits. 

301.2 Outside fire limits: All other areas not included in the fire limits 
shall be designated as outside fire limits. 

301.3 Changes in fire limits: Any changes in the boundaries of fire 
limits shall be established by the local municipality. 

301.4 Buildings on fire limit boundary: If a building or structure is 
partially located in a fire limit, the provisions of the fire limit shall 
apply. 

SECTION 302.0 RESTRICTIONS WITHIN THE FIRE LIMITS 

302.1 General: All buildings and structures, and all additions to exist- 
ing buildings and structures, hereafter erected within the boundaries of 
the fire limits shall be of fireproof (Type 1), protected noncombustible 
(Types 2A and 2B), heavy timber (Type 3A), or ordinary protected 
(Type 3B), construction as defined in Article 2 and regulated in Table 
214; and shall be constructed within the height and area limitations of 
Table 305 except as herein provided. Open parking structures may be 
constructed as permitted under Section 429.0. 

302.2 Type 2C, 3C and 4A construction permitted: Buildings and struc- 
tures, and additions to existing buildings and structures, hereafter 
erected within the fire limits may be of unprotected noncombustible (Type 
2C), ordinary unprotected (Type 3C) or protected frame (Type 4A) 
construction as defined in Article 2 and regulated in Tables 214 and 305 
when constructed and located in accordance with the requirements of 
Table 302. 



9/1/80 117 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 302 



EXTERIOR WALL FIRERESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS 



Width of fire 

separation adjacent 

to exterior wall 


Fireresistance 
rating of 

exterior wall' 
or barrier 


Fireresistance 

rating of 

exterior opening 

protectives 


Classification 

minimum 

of 

roof covering 


On lot lines or 
less than 3 ft. 
therefrom or from 
any building 


4 hour 


Not 

permitted 


B 


More than 3 ft. but 
less than 6 ft. 


3 hour 


3 hour 


B 


6 ft. or more but 
less than 11 ft. 


2 hour 


IV2 hour 


B 


11 ft. or more but 
less than 30 ft. 


1 hour 


% hour 


B 


30 ft. or more 


hour 


hour 


C 



*Not less than that required by Table 214. 

Note 1. The exterior wall or barrier shall extend to the height of the building and be so constructed 
that it will remain structurally in place for the duration of time indicated by the required fire resis- 
tance rating. When the exterior wall or barrier is adjacent to a flat roof, it shall be constructed with 
a parapet. 

Note 2. Fences of Type 4 construction up to six (6) feet in height are allowed without permit- 
however, fences of Type 4 construction over six (6) feet in height are not allowed in the fire limits. 

Note 3. Roof decking and roof fencing within the fire limits shall be of noncombustible construction 
or of exterior fire-retardant lumber complying with Section 903.6.2. Roof fences shall not exceed six 
(6) feet in height. 

Note 4. Fireresistance of exterior wall for 2C and 3C (Type 4) construction to comply with Table 214. 



9/1/80 



118 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



302.3 Storm enclosures: Storm enclosures may be erected of frame 
(Type 4) construction not more than ten (10) feet in height and not more 
than three (3) feet wider than the entrance doors which they serve, 
provided they do not project more than six (6) feet beyond the building 
line. 

302.4 Accesory buildings 

302.4.1 Outbuildings and parking lot offices: Outbuildings and parking 
lot offices not more than ten (10) feet in height and one hundred (100) 
square feet in area may be erected of frame (Type 4) construction when 
accessory to one- or two-family dwellings on the same lot or accessory to 
a lot approved for motor vehicle parking, when located not less than six 
(6) feet from the lot line or any other building. 

302.4.2 Greenhouses: Greenhouses and similar structures may be 
erected of frame (Type 4) construction when accessory to a one- or 
two-family dwelling on the same lot and when located not less than six (6) 
feet from interior lot lines or any building. 

302.4.3 Sheds: Sheds open on the long side not more than fifteen (15) 
feet in height nor more than five hundred (500) square feet in area may 
be erected of frame (Type 4) construction when located not less than six 
(6) feet from the lot lines. 

302.4.4 Builders' shanties and reviewing stands: Temporary builders' 
shanties erected in connection with approved building operations, plat- 
forms, reviewing stands, and other similar miscellaneous structures may 
be erected of frame (Type 4) construction for a limited period of time as 
approved by the building official. 

302.4.5 Garages: Garages of Type 4 construction are not allowed within 
the fire limits. 

302.5 Bins, tanks, towers and roof structures 

302.5.1 Timber construction: Coal and material bins, water towers, tank 
structures and trestles may be erected of mill type heavy timber construc- 
tion with dimensions not less than required for Type 3A construction, not 
over thirty-five (35) feet in height, when located thirty (30) feet from 
the interior lot lines of any building, except when located on lot lines 
along a railroad right of way or waterfront. 

302.5.2 Erection on buildings: Aerial supports not more than twelve 
(12) feet in height, water tanks and flag poles may be erected or wood 
on buildings not more than three (3) stories nor more than forty (40) 
feet in height, and drip bars in cooling towers may be constructed of 
wood. 



9/1/80 119 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



302.6 Motor fuel service stations: Gasoline service stations, and struc- 
tures of similar business uses, not including high hazard (H) uses, may 
be erected of unprotected noncombustible (Type 2C) construction within 
the height and area limits of use group B of Table 305, provided they are 
located not less than eleven (11) feet from the lot line or any building. 

302.7 Bus and passenger terminals: Roofs over parking lots, bus and 
passenger terminals may be erected one (1) story and not over twenty 
(20) feet in height and not more than eleven thousand (11,000) sguare 
feet in area of noncombustible (Type 2C) construction or of heavy timber 
mill (Type 3A) construction. 

302.8 Store fronts: Wood veneers of one (1) inch nominal thickness or 
exterior grade plywood not less than three-eighths (3/8) inch thick may 
be used on store fronts when facing public streets; provided the veneer 
does not exceed one (1) story in height and is applied to noncombustible 
backing or is furred not to exceed one and five-eighths 1 5/8) inch and 
firestopped in accordance with Sections 875.0 and 912.0. Where all wood 
veneers comply with Section 903.6.2 for exterior use, the height may be 
increased to two (2) stories. 

SECTION 303.0 RESTRICTIONS OUTSIDE FIRE LIMITS 

303.1 General: Outside the fire limits, all types of construction except 
as herein specifically prohibited, or for which special approval is required 
in connection with high hazard uses and occupancies in Article 4, shall be 
permitted within the height and area limitations of Table 305. 

303.2 Lot line separation: In frame construction, an exterior wall erected 
less than six (6) feet from its adjacent lot line shall be of one (1) hour 
fireresistance rated construction, including opening protectives, except 
store front and window and door openings in one- and two-family dwell- 
ings. Exterior walls of Type 4 frame construction shall not have open- 
ings of any type when located three (3) feet or less from interior lot 
lines. 

303.3 Roof coverings: Roof coverings shall conform to the fireresistive 
requirements for Class A, B, C or non-rated roofings complying with the 
provisions of Sections 903.0 and 926.0. 

SECTION 304.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

304 . 1 Alterations 

304.1.1 Limitations: These provisions shall not be deemed to prohibit 
alterations within the limitations of Section 106.0, provided an unlawful 
change of use is not involved. 

304.1.2 Minor changes: Changes, alterations or repairs to the interior 
of a building and to the front facing a street or other public space may 



9/1/80 }20 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



be permitted, provided such changes, in the opinion of the building 
official, do not increase the size or the fire hazard of the building, or 
endanger the public safety, and are not specifically prohibited by this 
code. 

304.1.3 Existing projections: A change or enlargement shall not be made 
to an existing part of a building now projecting beyond the street lot line 
or building line where such is established by law, except in conformity to 
the provisions of Section 310.0 governing new construction. 

304.2 Increase in height and area: It shall be unlawful to increase the 
height or area of an existing building or structure, unless it is of a type 
of construction permitted for new buildings of the increased height and 
area, and of a use group within the fire limit in which it is located and 
as regulated by Table 305. 

SECTION 305.0 GENERAL AREA AND HEIGHT LIMITATIONS 

305.1 General: The areas and heights of all buildings and structures 
between exterior walls, or between exterior walls and fire walls, shall be 
governed by the type of construction and the use group classification as 
defined in Article 2 and shall not exceed the limits fixed in Table 305, 
except as these may be specifically modified by other provisions of this 
article and Article 4. 

305.2 Area limit: The area limitations specified in Table 305 shall apply 
to all buildings fronting on a street, or public space not less than thirty 
(30) feet in width accessible to a public street. 

305.3 Height limit: The height in feet and number of stories specified in 
Table 305 shall apply to all buildings and to all separate parts of a build- 
ing enclosed within lawful fire walls complying with the provisions of Article 
9. 

305.4 Multi-story buildings: Building two (2) stories in height may be 
built to the same area limits provided in Table 305 for one (1) story 
buildings. In buildings over two (2) stories in height, the area limits of 
Table 305 for one (1) story buildings shall be reduced as specified in the 
following Table 305.4. 



9/1/80 121 



780 CMR: ST 

HEIGHT A 
ight limitations of buildings (shown 
i area limitations of one or two-sto 
t less than 30 feet wide (shown in 1 


ATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

TABLE 305 
ND AREA LIMITATIONS OF BUILDINGS 

in upper figure as stories and feet above grad 
ry buildings facing on one street or public spa 
ower figure as area in square feet per floor) . 
Type of construction 


1 


e Note a. Table notes appear on 

ge 123 following. N.P.-Not permitte 


d T"* 1 


Type 2 


Type 3 


~ype 4 


use group Unlimited 


Fireproof 
Note b 


Noncombustible 


Exterior masonry walis 


Frame 




Protected 


■ 

Unpro- 
tected 


(H.T.) 
Mill 


Ordinary joisted 


1 




Pro- 
tected 


Unpro- 
tected 


Pro- 
tected 


Uru 

teci 


Note a 


1A 


IB 


2A 


2B 


2C 


3A 


3B 


3C 


4A 


4! 


With stage and scenery 




6 St. 75' 
14,400 


4 St. 50/ 
11.400 


2St.30' 
7.500 


lSt.20' 
4.800 


2 St. 30' 
7,200 


2 St 30' 
6,600 


1 St. 20" 

4300 


1 St. 20" 
5100 


1 


Without stage (motion 
6 picture theatres) 






5 St 65' 
19,950 


3 St. 40' 
13,125 


2 St. 30' 
8.400 


3 St. 40' 
12,600 


3 St. 40' 
11,550 


2 St. 30' 
8,400 


1 St. 20 
8.925 


Assembly, night clubs and similar uses 




4 St. 50/ 

7,200 


3 St. 40' 
5,700 


2Vf- 30" 
3./ 50 


i St. 2rr 

2,400 


2 St. 30" 
3,600 


2 St. 30' 
3.300 


1 St. 20' 
2.400 


1 St. 20' 
2.550 


IS 


Lecture halls, recreation centers. 
Assembly terminals, restaurants other than 
night clubs 






5 St. 65' 
19,950 


3 St 40- 
13,125 


2S» 30' 
8.400 


3 St. 40' 
12.600 


3 St. 40' 
11,550 


2 St. 30' 

8.400 


1 St 20' 
8.023 


15 


Assembly, churches, schools 

Note c 






5 St. 65' 
34.20C 


3 St. 40" 
22,500 


2 St. 3Q> 
14.400 


3 St. 40' 

21.600 

Note d 


3 St. 40' 
19.800 


2 51.30" 
14,400 


1 St. 20' 

15.300 

Note d 


1- 


Business 






7 St. 85' 
34,200 


5 St. 65' 
22.500 


3 51.40" 
14,400 


5 St. 65' 
21,600 


4 St. 50" 

19.800 


3 St. 40' 
14.4C0 


3 St. 40" 
15.300 


2 SI 


Factory and industrial 






6 St. 75' 
22,800 


4 St. 50" 
15,000 


2St.30' 
9,600 


4 St. 50' 
14.400 


3 St. 40' 
13.200 


2 St. 30' 
9,600 


2St.30' 
10.200 


IS' 
1 


High hazard Note e 


5 St. 65' 
16.800 


3St.40' 
14.400 


3 St. 4C 
11.400 


2 St. 30' 
7,500 


1 St. 2f> 

4.8CD 


2 St. 30' 
7,200 


2 St 30' 
6.600 


lSt.20" 
4.800 


1 St. 20' 
5,100 




Institution, restrained 




6 St. 75' 
18.000 


4 51.50" 
14,250 


2 St. 30" 
9,375 


istw 

6.000 


2 St. SO 7 
9.000 


2St.30' 
8.250 


1 St. 20" 
6,000 


151.20- 
6,375 


1 

Nc 


institutional, incapacitated 




sst.w 

21,600 


4 St. 50" 
17,100 


i St. 3C 
11,250 


lSt^ 
7.200 


2 St. 30' 
10.800 


2 St. 30- 
9,900 


lSt.20" 
7.2O0 


ISt.W 
7.65C 


1 

IS: 
i 


Mercantile 






6 St. 75' 
22.800 


4 St 50" 
15,000 


2 St. 30" 

9.600 


4 St. 50- 
14.400 


3St.4C 
13.200 


2 St. 30- 
9.600 


2St.3f/ 
10,200 


Residential, hotels rJnfp k 






9 St. 100' 
22.800 


4 51.50- 
15,000 


3 St. 40 1 
9,600 


4St.50' 
14,400 


4 St 50' 
13.200 


3 St. 40' 

9.6O0 


3St.*V 
10.200 


ZV4S 
1 


Residential, multi-family 






9 St. IOC 
22,800 


4 St. 50' 

15,000 

Note f 


3 St. 40- 
9.600 


4St.50' 
14.400 


4 51.50" 

13.200 

Note f 


3 St. 40' 
9.6O0 


3St*(y 

10.200 


| 


Residential. 1 & 2 family 






1St. 50" 

22,800 


4 star 

15.000 


3 St 40* 
9,600 


4 St 5C 

14,400 


4 5150" 
13.200 


3 St. 40" 
9.600 


3St4C 
10.200 


2MS 


Storage, moderate Notes g and h 






5 St. 65' 
19.950 


4St50' 
13,125 


2 St. 30" 
8.40D 


4 St. 50/ 
12.600 


3 St. 40- 
11,550 


2 St. 30/ 
8.400 


2 St SO" 
8.925 


IS! 
i 


Storage, low 






7 St 85' 
34,200 


5 St. 65' 
22,500 


3 St. 40' 
14.400 


5 St 65' 

21,600 


4St.5C 
19.800 


3St.4<r 
14.400 


3 St 40- 
15,300 


i 


Temporary miscellaneous 




















1. 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Motes applicable to Table 305 

Note a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 305. 
Section 305.4 Allowable area reduction for multi-story buildings. 
Section 306.2 Allowable area increase due to street frontage. 

Section 306.3 Allowable area increase due to automatic fire suppression system installation. 
Section 307.0 Unlimited area one-story buildings. 
Section 308.1 Allowable height increase due to automatic fire suppression system installation. 

Note b. Typj 1 buildings permitted unlimited tabular heights and areas are not subject to special re- 
quirements that allow increased heights and areas for other types of construction. 

Note c. The tabular area of one-story school buildings of use group A-4 may be increased two hun- 
dred (200) per cent provided every classroom has at least one (1) door opening directly to the exterior 
of the building. Not less than one-half (V2) of the required exitways from any assembly room included 
in such bui'ding- shall also open directly to the exterior of the building. 

Note d. Church auditoriums of Type 3A construction may be erected to sixty-five (65) feet in height, 
and of Type 4 construction to. forty-five (45) feet in height. 

Note e. For exceptions to height and area limitations of high hazard use buildings, see Article 4 gov- 
erning the specific use. For other special fireresistive requirements governing specific uses, see Section 
905.0. 

Note *. For exceptions to height of multi-family dwellings of Types 2B and 3B construction, see Sec- 
tion 905.6. 

Note g. For height and area exceptions covering open parking structures, see Section 429.0. 

Note h. Deleted. 

Note i. The tabular area for use group A-4 sr-hoolhouse, Type 4B construction, shall be limited to 
forty-eight hundred (4800) square feet, one (1) story and twenty (20) feet high (no increase allowed for 
sprinklers or accessibility). 

Note j. See Section 434.4 for applicable height and area limitations. 

Note k. For R-l detoxification facilities see Table 439,6 

Table 305.4 



PER CENT REDUCTION OF AREA LIMITS 





Type of construction 


No. of stories 


1A&1B 


2A 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A, 4B 




1 


None 


None 


None 




2 


None 


None 


None 




3 


None 


5% 


20% 




4 


None 


10% 


20% 




5 


None 


15% 


30% 




6 


None 


20% 


40% 




7 


None 


25% 


50% 




8 


None 


30% 


60% 




9 


None 


35% 


70% 




10 


None 


40% 


80% 





SECTION 306.0 AREA EXCEPTIONS 

306.1 General: The provisions of this section shall modify the area limits of 
Table 305 as herein specified. 



9/1/80 



123 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



306.2 Street frontage increase: When a building or structure has more 
than twenty-five (25) per cent of the building perimeter fronting on a 
street or other unoccupied space not less than thirty (30) feet in width 
accessible from a street by a posted fire lane not less than eighteen (18) 
feet in width, the tabular areas may be increased two (2) per cent for 
each one (1) per cent of such excess frontage. 

306.3 Automatic fire suppression system: When a building of other than 
high hazard (use group H) use is equipped with an approved automatic 
fire suppression system, the tabular areas may be increased by two 
hundred (200) per cent for one (1) story buildings and one hundred 
(100) per cent for buildings more than one (1) story in height. 

306.4 School buildings: When every classroom of a one (1) story school 
building (use group A-4) has at least one (1) door opening directly to 
the exterior of the building, the tabular area of Table 305 may be in- 
creased two hundred (200) per cent. Not less than one-half (1/2) of the 
required exitways from any assembly room included in such buildings 
shall also open directly to the exterior of the building. 

306.5 Maximum total area: The maximum total area under the combined 
provisions of Sections 306.2 and 306.3 shall not exceed three and one-half 
(3 1/2) times the tabular area in Table 305. 

SECTION 307.0 UNLIMITED AREAS 

307.1 One-story buildings: In other than frame (Type 4) construction, 
the area of all buildings of assembly (use group A-3), business (B), 
factory and industrial (F), mercantile (M) and storage (S) use groups not 
including high hazard uses, which do not exceed one (1) story or eighty- 
five (85) feet in height shall not be limited; provided the exitway facilities 
comply with the provisions of Article 6, an automatic fire suppression 
system is provided complying with the provisions of Section 1202.0, and 
the building is isolated as specified in Section 307.2, except that a fire 
suppression system shall not be required for buildings of Type 1, Type 2 
or Type 3A construction used exclusively for storage of non-combustible 
material, not packed or crated in combustible materials, or as exempted 
by Section 205.3 for special industrial uses. 

307.1.1 School buildings: One (1) story school buildings of Types 2, 3A 
and 3B construction may be unlimited in area when a direct exitway to 
the outside of the building is provided from each classroom and the 
building is equipped with an approved automatic fire suppression system 
throughout. A fire separation shall be provided on all sides of such 
buildings as specified in Section 307.2. 

307.1.2 Indoor recreation buildings: Indoor participant sport areas such 
as tennis courts, skating rinks, swimming pools and equestrian clubs may 
be unlimited in area and exempt from the automatic fire suppression system 
requirements, providing: 



9/1/80 124 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



1. direct exitways to the outside are provided for all the occupants 
of the recreation area; 

2. the recreation area is conspicuously posted as to use and 
occupancy load; 

3. the building is equipped with a manual fire alarm system; and 

4. all other areas are equipped with an automatic fire suppression 
system. 

307.2 Fire separation: The minimum fire separation on any side of one 
(1) story buildings of unlimited area shall be determined by the type of 
construction and fireresistance rating of the exterior wall adjacent thereto 
as specified in the following Table 307. 

Table 307 



Table 307 
MINIMUM FIRE SEPARATION FOR TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 





Fire- 




Fireresistance 






resistance 




rating of 






rating of 


Minimum 


bearing & non- 


Minimum 


Type of 


exterior 


fire 


bearing portions 


fire 


construction 


bearing walls 


separation*** 


of exterior walls 


separation 


2A 


2hr. 


30 ft. 


_ 


_ 


2B 


1 hr. 


40 ft. 


2 hr.* 


30 ft. 


2C 


Ohr. 


50 ft. 


3hr.** 


30 ft. 


3A 


2 hr. 


40 ft. 


3 hr.** 


30 ft. 


3B 


2hr. 


40 ft. 


3 hr.** 


30 ft. 


3C 


2 hr. 


50 ft. 


4 hr.** 


30 ft. 



* A 1 1 exterior wall openings shall be protected with one and one-half hour fireresistance rated 

approved opening protectives. 

**AII exterior wall openings shall be protected with three hour fireresistance rated approved 

opening protectives. 

***When the fire separation exceeds the herein specified minimum, the requirements of Table 

214, Row 1 (Exterior walls with fire separation of 30 ft. or more: bearing) shall apply. 



9/1/80 



125 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



307.3 Roof vents: The roof system of one (1) story buildings of unlimi- 
ted area when of Type 2 or Type 3 construction shall be provided with 
smoke and heat vents in accordance with Sections 230 and 240 of the 
Guide for Smoke and Heat Venting (NFiPA 204) listed in Appendix B. 

307.4 Fire access panels: Grade level doors or fire access panels, as 
specified in Sections 859.4 and 1200.1.1, shall be provided and spaced not 
more than one hundred fifty (150) feet apart in exterior walls adjacent to 
a required fire separation less than forty (40) feet. 

SECTION 308.0 HEIGHT EXCEPTIONS 

308.1 Automatic fire suppression systems: When a building of other than 
high hazard (use group H) use is equipped with an approved automatic 
fire suppression system, the building may be erected one (1) story or 
twenty (20) feet higher than specified in Table 305. 

308.2 Auditoriums: Auditoriums (use group A-4) of protected or heavy 
timber (Type 3A) construction may be erected to sixty-five (65) feet in 
height and of unprotected construction to forty-five (45) feet. 

308.3 Roof structures: In applying the provisions of this code govern- 
ing height limits, the following appurtenant structures shall not be in- 
cluded in the height of the building: roof tanks and their supports; 
ventilating, air conditioning and similar building service equipment; roof 
structures other than penthouses; chimneys and parapet walls not exceed- 
ing four (4) feet in height; unless the aggregate area of such structures 
including penthouses exceeds one-third (1/3) of the area of the roof of 
the building upon which they are erected. 

SECTION 309.0 STREET ENCROACHMENTS 

309.1 General: Except as herein provided, a part of any building erec- 
ted and additions to an existing building heretofore erected shall not 
project beyond the lot lines or beyond the building line when such line is 
established by the zoning law or any other statute controlling building 
construction. 

309.2 Below grade: A part of a building erected below grade that is 
necessary for structural support of the building shall not project beyond 
the lot lines, except that the footings of street walls or their supports 
located at least eight (8) feet below grade may project not more than 
twelve (12) inches beyond the street lot line. 

309.3 Above grade: All projections permitted beyond the street lot line 
or the building line above grade shall be so constructed as to be readily 
removable without endangering the safety of the building. 



9/1/80 126 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



309.4 Projections necessary for safety: In any specific application, the 
building official may designate by approved rules such architectural 
features and accessories which are deemed desirable or necessary for the 
health or safety of the public and the extent to which they may project 
beyond the street lot line or the building line where such is established 
by statute, subject to all provisions and restrictions that may be other- 
wise prescribed by law, ordinance or rule of the authorities having juris- 
diction over streets or public spaces. 

309.5 Permit revocable: Any permit granted or permission expressed or 
implied in the provisions of this code to construct a building so as to 
project beyond the street lot line or building line shall be revocable by 
the municipality at will. 

309.6 Existing encroachments: Parts of existing buildings and struc- 
tures which already project beyond the street lot line or building line may 
be maintained as constructed until their removal is directed by the proper 
municipal authorities. 

SECTION 310.0 PERMISSIBLE STREET PROJECTIONS 

310.1 General: Subject to such provisions as may be otherwise pre- 
scribed by law or ordinance, or by rule of the municipal authorities 
having jurisdiction over streets, highways, and public spaces, the follow- 
ing projections, as described in Sections 310.2 through 310.11.1, shall be 
permitted beyond the street lot line or the building line, as the case may 
be. 

310.2 Cornices and eaves: Main cornices or roof eaves located at least 
twelve (12) feet above the curb level shall project not more than three 
(3) feet. 

310.3 Architectural decorations: Belt courses, lintels, sills, architraves, 
pediments and similar architectural decorations shall project not more than 
four (4) inches when less than ten (10) feet above the curb level, and 
not more than ten (10) inches when ten (10) feet or more above the curb 
level . 

310.4 Ornamental columns: Ornamental columns, or pilasters, including 
the bases and moldings which emphasize the main entrance of the build- 
ing, shall project not more than twelve (12) inches. 

310.5 Entrance steps: Entrance steps and doors shall project not more 
than twelve (12) inches and shall be guarded by check pieces not less 
than three (3) feet high, or shall be located between ornamental columns 
or pilasters. 

310.6 Oriel windows: Oriel windows with the lowest portion at least ten 
(10) feet above the curb level shall project not more than two and one- 
half (2 1/2) feet. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



310.7 Balconies: Balconies located at least ten (10) feet above the curb 
level shall project not more than three (3) feet, except than when the 
balcony is required in connection with a fire escape or exterior stairway 
as an element of a means of egress, the projection may be increased, but 
not to exceed four (4) feet. 

310.8 Awnings: Rectractable or fixed awnings shall have clearances 
above the grade, and shall be installed in accordance with the require- 
ments of Section 313.0. 

310.9 Awning covers or boxes: Awning covers or boxes located at least 
eight (8) feet above the curb level shall project not more than three (3) 
feet. 

310.10 Marquees: For the purpose of this section, a marquee shall 
include any object or decoration attached to or a part of said marquee. 

310.10.1 Projection and clearance: The horizontal clearance between a 
marquee and the curb line shall be not less than two (2) feet. A mar- 
quee projecting more than two-thirds (2/3) of the distance from the 
property line to the curb line shall be not less than ten (10) feet above 
the ground or pavement below. 

310.10.2 Thickness: The maximum height or thickness of a marquee 
measured vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall not exceed 
three (3) feet when the marquee projects more than two-thirds (2/3) of 
the distance from the property line to the curb line, and shall not exceed 
nine (9) feet when the marquee is less than two-thirds (2/3) of the 
distance from the property line to the curb line. 

310.10.3 Roof construction: The roof or any part thereof may be a 
skylight of approved plastics, or wired glass not less than one-fourth 
(1/4) inch thick with a single pane not more than eighteen (18) inches 
wide. Every roof and skylight of a marquee shall be sloped to downspouts 
which shall conduct any drainage from the marquee in a manner not to 
spill over the sidewalk. 

310.10.4 Location prohibited: Every marquee shall be so located as not 
to interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe, and not to 
obstruct the clear passage of stairways or exitway discharge from the 
building or the installation or maintenance of street lighting. 

310.10.5 Construction: A marquee shall be supported entirely from the 
building and constructed of noncombustible material. Marquees shall be 
designed and constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads and live 
loads as required in Article 7 of this code. Structural members shall be 
protected to prevent deterioration as required by Article 8. 

310.11 Vaults: Vaults below the sidewalk level shall extend not closer 
than three (3) feet to the curb line; and the construction and use of 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



such vaults shall be subject to the terms and conditions of the authority 
or legislative body having jurisdiction. 

310.11.1 Areaways: Areaways shall not project beyond the street lot 
line more than four (4) feet; provided that every such areaway shall be 
covered over at the street grade by an approved grating of metal or 
other noncombustible material. 

SECTION 311.0 PERMISSIBLE YARD AND COURT ENCROACHMENTS 

311.1 General: A part of any building or structure shall not extend into 
side courts, inner courts or yards required for light and ventilation of 
habitable and occupiable rooms by the provisions of Article 5, or of the 
zoning law or other statutes controlling building construction, except as 
hereinafter provided; but the encroachment shall not exceed twenty (20) 
per cent of the legal area of yard or court required for light and ventila- 
tion purposes. 

311.2 Roof eaves: Roof eaves shall project not more than three (3) feet 
beyond the face of the wall. 

311.3 Steps and architectural features: Steps, window sills, belt 
courses and similar architectural features, rain leaders and chimneys shall 
project not more than two (2) feet beyond the face of the wall. 

311.4 Exterior stairways and fire escapes: Outside stairways, smoke- 
proof tower balconies, fire escapes or other required elements of a means 
of egress shall not project more than four (4) feet beyond the face of the 
wall. 

SECTION 312.0 SPECIAL AND TEMPORARY PROJECTIONS 

312.1 Alley projections: The permissible projection beyond street lot 
lines shall apply in general to building projections into alleyways, except 
as may be modified by the local administrative authority having jurisdic- 
tion or by special deed restriction. 

312.2 Special permits: When authorized by special permit, vestibules 
and storm doors may be erected for periods of time not exceeding seven 
(7) months in any one (1) year, and shall project not more than three 
(3) feet nor more than one-fourth (1/4) the width of the sidewalk beyond 
the street lot line. Temporary entrance awnings may be erected with a 
minimum clearance of seven (7) feet to the lowest portion of the hood or 
awning when supported on removable steel or other approved noncombus- 
tible supports. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 313.0 AWNINGS AND CANOPIES 

313.1 Permit: A permit shall be obtained from the building official for 
the erection, repair of replacement of any fixed awning, canopy or hood 
except as provided in Section 313.1.1, and for any retractable awning 
located at the first story level and extending over the public street or 
over any portion of a court or yard beside a building serving as a passage 
from a required exitway or exitway discharge to a public street. 

313.1.1 Exemption from permit: a permit shall not be required for the 
erection, repair or replacement of fixed or retractable awnings installed 
on one- and two-family dwellings, unless they project over public proper- 
ty, or for retractable awnings installed above the first story or where the 
awning does not project over the public street or over any court or yard 
serving as a passage from a required exitway to a public street. 

313.2 Installation of awnings 

313.2.1 Retractable awnings: There shall be a minimum clearance of 
seven (7) feet from the sidewalk to the lowest part of the framework or 
any fixed portion of any retractable awning, except that the bottom of 
the valance of canvas awnings may extend to six (6) feet nine (9) inches 
above the sidewalk. Retractable awnings shall be securely fastened to 
the building and shall not extend closer than twelve (12) inches from the 
curb line. They shall be equipped with a mechanism or device for raising 
and holding the awning in a retracted or closed position against the face 
of the building. 

313.2.2 Fixed or permanent awnings: The clearance from the sidewalk to 
the lowest part of any fixed or permanent awning shall be the same as 
required in Section 313.2.1 for retractable awnings. Fixed or permanent 
awnings installed above the first story shall not project more than four 
(4) feet. 

313.3 Canopies: Canopies shall be constructed of a metal framework, 
with an approved covering, attached to the building at the inner end and 
supported at the outer end by not more than two (2) stanchions with 
braces anchored in an approved manner and placed not less than two (2) 
feet in from the curb line. The horizontal portion of the framework shall 
be not less than eight (8) feet nor more than twelve (12) feet above the 
sidewalk and the clearance between the covering or valance and the 
sidewalk shall be not less than seven (7) feet. The width of canopies 
shall not exceed eight (8) feet. 

313.4 Special applications of awnings: Rigid awnings supported in whole 
or part by members resting on the ground and used for patio covers, car 
ports, summer houses or other similar uses shall comply with the require- 
ments of Section 313.5 for design and structure. Such structures shall 
be braced as required to provide rigidity. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



313.5 Design and construction: Fixed awnings, canopies and similar 
structures shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or other 
lateral loads and live loads as required by Article 7 of this code with due 
allowance for shape, open construction and similar features that relieve 
the pressures or loads. Structural members shall be protected to prevent 
deterioration . 

SECTION 314.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 

314.1 General: The building official may issue a permit for temporary 
construction. Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but 
such temporary construction shall not be for more than a period of one 
(1) year. However, such temporary construction may be extended for an 
additional one (1) year period. 

314.2 Special approval: All temporary construction shall conform to 
structural strength, fire safey, means of egress, light, ventilation and 
sanitary requirements of this code necessary to insure the public health, 
safety and general welfare. 

314.3 Termination of approval: The building official is hereby author- 
ized to terminate such special approval and to order the demolition of any 
such construction at his discretion. 

SECTION 315.0 ACCESSIBILITY FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED 

315.1 Building access for handicapped: All buildings and parts thereof 
classified in use groups M (Mercantile), F (Factory and Industrial), B 
(Business), A (Assembly), I (Institutional), R-l and R-2, (Residential), 
shall have at least one (1) primary entrance accessible to and usable by 
the handicapped. Such entrance shall provide access to a level that 
makes elevators available in buildings where elevators are provided. 
Where ramps are used to comply with this requirement, they shall have a 
slope not greater than one (1) in twelve (12). 

315.1.1 Handicapped access for limited group residences: All required 
means of agress in buildings classified in use group R-5 (limited group 
residence) shall be made accessible to the handicapped in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 438.3. Where ramps are used to comply with 
this requirement, they shall have a slope not greater than one (1) in 
twelve (12). Such ramps shall be constructed in accordance with the 
provisions of Section 615.0. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

ARTICLE 4 

SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 
SECTION 400.0 GENERAL 

400.1 Scope: In addition to the general requirements of this code govern- 
ing the location, construction and equipment of all buildings and struc- 
tures and the fireresistance ratings, height and area limitations of Tables 
214 and 305, the provisions of this article shall control all buildings and 
structures designed for high hazard uses and occupancies which involve 
extreme fire, smoke, explosion or toxic gas risks, and places of assembly 
in which people congregate in large numbers and which are susceptible to 
panic incidental to crowds. Except as herein specifically provided, the 
applicable standards listed in Appendix B shall be deemed to comply with 
the requirements of this article. 

Chemical plants, packing plants, grain elevators, refineries, flour mills 
and other special structures may be constructed in accordance with the 
recognized practices and requirements of the specific industry. The 
building official may permit such variations from the requirements of this 
code which will secure reasonable and economical construction with the 
necessary fire, life and property safeguards. In granting such varia- 
tions, due regard shall be given to the isolation of the structure and fire 
hazard from and to surrounding property. 

400.1.1 Applicable Massachusetts General Laws: The applicable Massa- 
chusetts General Laws Annotated, as amended, and applicable rules and 
regulations, specifically the 522 and 527 CMR series as listed in Appendix 
P and elsewhere, shall be adhered to in the design and construction of 
structures covered under this article. 

400.2 Uses involving explosion hazards: The provisions of this article 
shall apply to all uses involving the storage, manufacture, handling or 
filling of flammable and volatile solids, liquids or gases which generate 
combustible and explosive air-vapor mixtures and toxic gases including 
nitrocellulose film; pyroxylin plastics; grain and other combustible dusts 
and pulverized fuels; combustible fibers; pyroxylin lacquer-spraying 
operations; liquified petroleum gases; alcohol, ether and gasoline; flamma- 
ble dusts and residues resulting from fabrication, grinding and buffing 
operations, and all other explosion hazard risks. 

400.3 Special high hazards: When necessary to resist a higher degree of 
fire severity than specified herein, for high concentrations of combustible 
contents and for buildings of high hazard uses which exceed five (5) 
stories or sixty-five (65) feet in height, the building official may require 
higher fireresistance ratings than the requirements of Table 214 govern- 
ing the fireresistance ratings of types of construction and protection of 
structural elements. 



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400.4 Means of egress: The means of egress for buildings of hazardous 
uses and occupancies shall conform to the requirements of Article 6, 
except as may be modified by more restrictive provisions of this article 
for specific uses. 

400.5 Heating and venting: The requirements herein prescribed for the 
installation of heating and venting appliances and equipment for high 
hazard uses and occupancies shall be construed as supplemental to the 
provisions of Articles 5 and 10, and the mechanical code listed in Appen- 
dix B. 

400.6 Equipment rooms: Heating and ventilating equipment in occupan- 
cies involving fire hazards from flammable vapors, dust, combustible 
fibers or other highly combustible substances shall be installed and protec- 
ted against fire and explosion hazards in accordance with the mechanical 
code listed in Appendix B. Rooms containing such equipment shall be 
segregated by construction of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance 
rating except as may be required for specific uses, without openings in 
the enclosure walls and with means of direct ingress and egress from the 
exterior, or such equipment shall be located in accessory structures 
segregated from the main building. 

400.7 Fire-fighting and extinguishing equipment: All buildings designed 
for specific hazardous uses shall be protected with approved automatic 
fire suppression systems or such other fire-extinguishing and auxiliary 
equipment as herein provided and in accordance with the requirements of 
Article 12. 

400.8 Segregation of storage spaces: All rooms and spaces used for the 
storage of volatile and flammable materials shall be separately enclosed 
and segregated with fireresistance rated construction as herein required 
for specific uses and occupancies. 

400.9 Restricted locations: Except as otherwise specifically approved, 
high hazard uses shall not be located in the fire limits nor in a building 
of unprotected frame (Type 4B) construction, nor in any case within two 
hundred (200) feet of the nearest wall of a building classified in a public 
assembly or institutional use group. 

400.10 Light and electric wiring: In every structure involving flash fire 
and explosion hazards, all artificial lighting shall be restricted to incan- 
descent electric lights or other approved lighting with keyless sockets 
and dust-tight, vapor-proof globes protected against mechanical injury. 
All wiring in vaults or compartments for the storage of highly flammable 
materials shall be in metal or other approved conduit complying with the 
provisions of the Massachusetts Electrical Code (527 CMR 12.00). 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 401.0 EXPLOSION HAZARDS 

401.1 Explosion relief: Every structure, room or space occupied for 
uses involving explosion hazards shall be equipped and vented with 
explosion relief systems and devices arranged for automatic release under 
predetermined increase in pressure as herein provided for specific uses 
or in accordance with accepted engineering standards and practice. 

401.2 Venting devices: Venting devices to relieve the pressure resulting 
from explosive air-vapor mixtures shall consist of windows, skylights, 
vent flues or releasing roof or wall panels which discharge directly to the 
open air or to a public place or other unoccupied space not less than 
twenty (20) feet in width on the same lot. Such releasing devices shall 
be so located that the discharge end shall be not less than (10) feet 
vertically and twenty (20) horizontally from window openings or means of 
egress facilities in the same or adjoining buildings or structures. The 
exhaust shall always be in the direction of least exposure and never into 
the interior of the building. 

401.3 Area of vents: The aggregate clear vent relief area shall be 
regulated by the type of construction of the building and shall be not 
less than prescribed below: 

1. heavy reinforced concrete frame, one (1) square foot for eighty 
(80) cubic feet of volume; 

2. light structural steel frame and ordinary construction, one (1) 
square foot for sixty-five (65) cubic feet of volume. 

The combined area of open windows pivoted sash or wall panels arranged 
to open under internal pressure shall not be less than ten (10) per cent 
of the area of the enclosure walls, with not less than fifty (50) per cent 
of the opening arranged for automatic release. 

401.4 Construction of vents: All explosion relief devices shall be of an 
approved type constructed of light weight, noncombustible and corrosion- 
resistive materials, and the discharge end shall be protected with ap- 
proved screens of not more than three-quarter (3/4) inch mesh, arranged 
to blow out under relatively low pressures. 

SECTION 402.0 VOLATILE FLAMMABLES 

402.1 Process storage 

402.1.1 Inside storage: Unless otherwise approved by the fire official, 
inside storage in process rooms shall be limited to one (1) day's supply in 
approved sealed containers of not more than five (5) gallon capacity or in 
approved steel barrels or drums of not more than fifty-five (55) gallon 
capacity . 

402.1.2 Handling: Discharge or filling operations shall be by pump 
through an approved system of securely attached and continuous piping 
or hose lines. In processes requiring the use of open vats or mixing 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



tanks, an approved mechanical ventilating system shall be provided to 
remove the vapors or to produce a vapor mixture of not more than one 
(1) per cent concentration. 

402.1.3 Construction of enclosures: Process rooms shall be separated 
from other uses and occupancies by walls, floors and ceilings of not less 
than two (2) hours fireresistance rating with one and one-half (1 1/2) 
hour fire doors or the approved labeled equivalent complying with Article 
9. The interior door openings shall be provided with non-combustible 
sills not less than six (6) inches high and the room shall be vented as 
required in Section 401.1. Floors shall be waterproofed and drained to 
comply with Section 872.0 

402.1.4 Fire protection: First aid fire appliances and automatic fire 
suppression systems or other extinguishing equipment shall be provided 
in accordance with Article 12 and the standards listed in Appendix I. 
Provision shall be made to prevent leaking flammable vapors from being 
exposed to open flames, fire or sparks. 

402.2 Main storage: No tank for the storage of volatile flammable liquids 
shall be erected, altered, or removed without first obtaining a permit 
from the building official. No permit shall be issued by the building 
official to erect, alter, or remove a flammable liquid storage tank without 
first obtaining the written approval of the head of the fire department. 
Flammable liquid storage tanks shall be constructed, located, and installed 
in conformance to the applicable provisions of this section, 527 CMR 9.00, 
522 CMR 10.00, 522 CMR 11.00, 522 CMR 12.00 (see Appendix P) and the 
accepted engineering practice standards listed in Appendix B of this 
code. 

402.2.1 Special restrictions: When necessary to ensure public safety, 
greater fire separations may be required or greater limitations may be 
placed on storage capacity for flammable liquid storage tanks. 

SECTION 403.0 FIRE PREVENTION CODES 

403.1 Inspections: All buildings and structures involving the use and 
handling of flammable or explosive materials, places of assembly and other 
hazardous uses and occupancies shall be inspected in accordance with the 
fire prevention codes listed in Appendix B. Such inspection shall be 
made to insure compliance with the provisions of the fire prevention codes 
in respect to protection against fire and panic; maintenance of exitways 
and operation of fire door assemblies; fire protection systems; standpipes; 
hydrant and fire suppression systems; fire-alarm, signaling and central 
station alarm systems; conduct of fire drills and fire brigades; and all 
special fire extinguishing equipment. 

403.2 Housekeeping: Periodic inspections of existing uses and occupan- 
cies shall be made to insure maintenance of good housekeeping conditions 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



including the removal of waste and rubbish; safe arrangement and storage 
of merchandise and other contents; proper segregation of hazardous pro- 
cesses; handling of volatile flammables; avoidance of dangerous congestion 
and maintenance of all means of egress clear of obstructions; and the safe 
operation of all places of public assembly in which combustible scenery 
and hazardous eguipment are in use while open to the public. 

403.3 Coordination of inspections: The building, fire, and health offi- 
cials and other administrative agencies of the jurisdiction to whom the 
authority is delegated to inspect buildings and structures in respect to 
the maintenance of safe conditions of use and occupancy shall immediately 
notify the respective official of any violation of the provisions of this 
code or the fire prevention and health rules and regulations. 

SECTION 404.0 SPECIAL PERMITS AND CERTIFICATES OF FITNESS 

404.1 Special permits: A hazardous or dangerous industry, trade, 
occupation or use which involves the transportation, storage or handling 
of explosive, flammable, combustible or other substance involving fire or 
life hazards shall not be conducted without a permit from the fire official 
prescribing the conditions and reguirements necessary to secure the pub- 
lic safety. 

404.2 Certificate of fitness: Before any equipment involving fire or life 
hazard is placed in operation, the supervisor or operator shall secure a 
certificate of fitness from the administrative official certifying to the qual- 
ifications of the person to whom such certificate is issued. Certificates of 
fitness shall be required for the operation of boilers and unfired pressure 
vessels as specified in the mechanical and boiler codes listed in Appendix 
B and for the conduct of all high hazard uses involving the storage, use 
or handling of flammable volatile liquids, materials and mixtures, liquified 
gases and compressed gases under a pressure of more than fifteen (15) 
pounds per square inch (psi), and all acid and liquid chemicals of a 
combustible and explosive character. All certificates of fitness may be 
terminated for cause at any time, and shall be renewed at intervals of not 
more than one (1) year. 

SECTION 405.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

405.1 Special permit for existing uses: Any existing hazardous use 
which was heretofore authorized by a permit issued under the provisions 
of law or the regulations of the fire official may be continued by special 
permit provided the continuance of such use or occupancy does not en- 
danger the public safety. 

405.2 Existing use prohibited: An existing building of frame (Type 4) 
construction which is more than two (2) stories in height or more than 
five thousand (5,000) square feet in area; or of nonfireproof (Type 3) 
construction which is more than four (4) stories in height shall not be 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



continued in use or hereafter occupied for the manufacture of pyroxylin 
plastics or similar materials of high fire hazard and explosive characteris- 
tics. 

405.3 Places of assembly 

405.3.1 Change of use: An existing building or structure or part there- 
of shall not be altered or converted into a place of assembly unless it 
complies with the provisions of this code applicable to places of public 
assembly (see Article 22). 

405.3.2 Deleted 

405.3.3 Deleted 

405.4 Deleted 

405.4.1 Deleted 

405.4.2 Deleted 

SECTION 406.0 LIQUIFIED PETROLEUM GASES 

406.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to the design, 
construction, location, installation, and operation of propane, butane and 
other petroleum gas facilities, normally stored in the liquid state under 
pressure for use in all buildings and structures. No tanks for the stor- 
age of liquified petroleum gases shall be erected, altered or removed 
without first obtaining a permit from the building official. No permit 
shall be issued by the building official to erect, alter or remove a liqui- 
fied petroleum gas storage tank without first obtaining the written ap- 
proval of the head of the fire department. Liquified petroleum gas stor- 
age tanks and accompanying valves, accessories, piping, vaporizers and 
safety devices shall be constructed, located, and installed in conformance 
to the applicable provisions of this section, 527 CMR 9.00, 522 CMR 
10.00, 522 CMR 11.00, 522 CMR 12.00 (see Appendix P), and the ac- 
cepted engineering practice standards listed in Appendix B of this code. 

406.2 Classification of systems: Systems for the storage and use of 
liquified petroleum gases shall be classified as: cylinder or bottled gas 
systems; aboveground tank systems other than bottled gas; and under 
ground tank systems. This applies to containers of less than ten thou- 
sand (10,000) gallons. 

406.3 Bottled gas: A container or cylinder of bottled gas for domestic 
or commercial use shall not exceed twelve hundred (1200) gallon equiva- 
lent water capacity; and such container shall be tested and approved by 
an accredited testing authority and shall be identified in accordance with 
the Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. The cylinders shall 
be installed above ground, with valves, flexible connectors, piping and 
safety devices in accordance with the approved rules; except that such 
containers, when approved by the building official, may be installed for 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



use inside buildings for industrial purposes or in connection with con- 
struction, repair or alteration operations. 

406.4 Above ground tank systems other than bottled gas: Above ground 
bulk storage of liquified petroleum gases shall not be permitted within the 
fire limits. 

406.4.1 Special restrictions: When necessary to ensure public safety, 
greater fire separations may be required or greater limitations may be 
placed on storage capacity for liquified petroleum gas storage tanks. 

406.5 Underground tank systems: When required, underground tanks 
for storage of liquified petroleum gases shall be anchored or weighted to 
prevent flotation. 

406.6 Labeling: All inlet and outlet connections except safety relief 
valves, level and pressure gauges shall be labeled to designate whether 
they communicate with vapor or liquid space and the tanks shall be marked 
marked with a securely attached label and nameplate identifying the sys- 
tem working pressure, vapor pressure of the contents and permissible 
liquid level in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

406.7 Instructions: Complete installation, operation and maintenance 
instructions shall be supplied for the personnel responsible for the use of 
the system. 

406.8 Grounding: All aboveground tanks exceeding twelve hundred 
(1200) gallons equivalent water capacity shall be permanently and effec- 
tively grounded. 

SECTION 407.0 PYROXYLIN PLASTICS 

407.1 General: The provisions of this section, including reference 527 
CMR 7.00, shall regulate all buildings, structures and parts thereof used 
for the storage, handling or fabrication of pyroxylin plastics permitted by 
Massachusetts law whether as raw material, process, finished product or 
scrap . 

407.2 Exceptions: The provisions of this section shall not apply to the 
manufacture, use or storage of nitro-cellulose film or the incidental stor- 
age of articles manufactured from pyroxylin plastics offered for sale in 
mercantile buildings (see Section 208.0). 

407.3 Restrictions: A permit for the storage or manufacture of pyroxy- 
lin plastics, except as specified in Section 407.2, shall not be issued for 
a building or structure hereafter erected, altered or used which is occu- 
pied or located as described in the following Sections 407.3.1 through 
407.3.5. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



407.3.1 Place of assembly: Within fifty (50) feet of the nearest wall of a 
school, theatre or other place of public assembly. 

407.3.2 Residential building: As a residential building, use group R-l, 
R-2 or R-3. 

407.3.3 High hazard uses: In quantities, exceeding one thousand (1,000) 
pounds in buildings where paints, varnishes or lacquers are manufactured, 
stored or kept for sale; or where matches, resin, oils, hemp, cotton or 
any explosives are stored or kept for sale. 

407.3.4 Other flammable materials: Where drygoods, garments or other 
materials of a highly flammable nature are manufactured in any portion of 
the building above that used for nitro-cellulose products. 

407.3.5 Tenant factory building: In quantities exceeding one hundred 
(100) pounds in any tenant factory building (use group F) in which more 
than five (5) people are employed or likely to congregate on one (1) floor 
at any one (1) time. 

407.4 Inside storage: All pyroxylin raw material and products intended 
for use in further manufacture shall be stored as herein provided on the 
following Sections 407.4.1 through 407.4.6 

407.4.1 Cabinets: Quantities of more than twenty-five (25) pounds and 
not more than five hundred (500) pounds shall be stored in approved 
cabinets constructed of noncombustible materials but the total quantity of 
storage shall not be more than one thousand (1,000) pounds in any work 
room or space enclosed in floor, walls and ceilings of not less than two 
(2) hours fireresistance rating. 

407.4.2 Vaults: Quantities of more than one hundred (100) pounds and 
not more than ten thousand (10,000) pounds shall be stored in vaults 
enclosed in floors, walls and ceilings of not less than four (4) hours 
fireresistance rating. The interior storage volume of the vault shall be 
not more than fifteen hundred (1500) cubic feet and the vault shall be 
constructed vapor and gastight in accordance with the approved rules, 
with one and one-half (1 1/2) hour vapor-tight fire doors or the ap- 
proved labeled fire door assembly equivalent on each side of the door 
opening. The vault shall be drained and provided with scuppers. 

407.4.3 Tote boxes and scrap containers: During manufacture, pyroxy- 
lin materials and products not stored in finished stock rooms, cabinets or 
vaults shall be kept in approved covered noncombustible tote boxes. 
Scrap and other refuse material shall be collected in approved noncom- 
bustible containers in quantities not greater than three hundred and fifty 
(350) pounds and removed at frequent intervals as directed by the fire 
official . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



407.4.4 Ventilation: Each separate compartment in storage vaults shall 
be vented directly to the outer air through flues complying with the re- 
quirements of the mechanical code listed in Appendix B for low tempera- 
ture chimneys, or exterior metal smokestacks, or as otherwise provided in 
the approved rules. The vent shall discharge not less than four (4) feet 
above the roof of the building or on a street, court or other open space 
not less than fifty (50) feet distance from any other opening in adjoining 
walls which are not in the same plane, nor nearer than twenty-five (25) 
feet vertically or horizontally to an exterior stairway, fire escape or exit- 
way discharge. The area of the vent shall be not less than one (1) 
square inch for each seven (7) pounds of pyroxylin stored. 

407.4.5 Structural strength: The floors, walls, roof and doors of all 
vaults, structures or buildings used for the storage or manufacture of 
pyroxylin materials and products shall be designed to resist an inside 
pressure load of not less than three hundred (300) pounds per square 
foot (psf). 

407.4.6 Fire protection: Vaults located within buildings for the storage 
of raw pyroxylin shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system capable of discharging one and sixty-six one-hundredths (1.66) 
gallons per minute (gpm) per square foot over the area of the vault. 

407.5 Isolated storage buildings: Pyroxylin products in quantities great- 
eater than permitted for interior storage shall be housed in isolated 
storage buildings. Such buildings shall not be used for any purpose 
other than packing, receiving, shipping and storage of pyroxylin plastics 
unless otherwise approved by the building official. 

407.5.1 Capacity: The maximum storage in any fire area enclosed in 
construction of four (4) hours fireresistance rating shall be not greater 
than one hundred thousand (100,000) pounds. The storage capacity of 
the building and its separation from lot lines and other buildings on the 
same lot shall be limited as provided in Table 407.5. When equipped with 
an approved automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of 
Article 12 and as herein modified, the exposure distances may be de- 
creased fifty (50 per cent. Such systems shall be designed in accordance 
with Section 2061 of NFiPA 42, Pyroxylin Plastics, as listed in Appendix 
B. 

EXPOSURE DISTANCE FOR PYROXYLIN STORAGE BUILDINGS 



Maximum quantity stored in pounds 



Fire separation from lot line or other 
buildings in feet 



9/1/80 



1,000 

2,000 

3,000 

4,000 

5,000 

10,000 

20,000 

30,000 

40,000 

50,000 

75,000 

100,000 

150,000 

300,000 



40 

50 

60 

70 

80 

100 

125 

150 

160 

180 

200 

225 

250 

300 



140 



780 CMR: STATE B" ILDING CODE COMMISSION 



407.6 Fire protection 

407.6.1 Heating equipment: All radiators, heating coils, piping and 
heating apparatus shall be protected with approved noncombustible mesh 
to maintain a clearance of six (6) inches of all pyroxylin products from 
such equipment. All piping and risers within six (6) feet of the floor 
shall be insulated with approved noncombustible covering unless protected 
with wire guards. 

407.6.2 Lighting control: All lighting shall comply with the provisions of 
Section 400.10, shall be controlled from panel boards located outside of 
storage compartments and vaults, shall comply with Article 15 of NFiPA 
42, Proxylin Plastics, as listed in Appendix B. 

407.6.3 Standpipes: First-aid standpipes shall be provided for each five 
thousand (5,000) square feet of floor area equipped with one and one-half 
(1 1/2) inch hose, complying with Article 12. 

407.6.4 Automatic sprinklers: All manufacturing and storage spaces and 
vaults where required shall be protected with an approved automatic 
sprinkler system as herein specified and with fire pails and portable fire 
extinguishers complying with Article 12 and the approved rules. 

407.6.5 Special protection: Special chemical extinguishers and other 
first-aid fire appliances shall be provided around motors and other elec- 
trical equipment in accordance with the approved rules. 

SECTION 408.0 USE AND STORAGE OF FLAMMABLE FILM 

408.1 Permit required: A permit for handling, use, storage or recovery 
of flammable film shall not be issued for any building located as specified 
in Section 407.3; except that those restrictions shall not apply to the 
screening and projection rooms of theatres and other places of amusement 
or instruction. It shall be unlawful to store, stock or use any nitro-cel- 
lulose or other flammable film in quantities of more than two thousand 
(2,000) feet in length or more than ten (10) pounds in weight unless 
approved by the fire official. All installations shall comply with the 
applicable standards listed in Appendix B. 

408.2 Storage: Other than motion picture projection and rewind rooms, 
or as herein specifically exempted, all rooms in which flammable film is 
stored or handled shall be enclosed in not less than two (2) hour firere- 
sistive construction complying with the provisions of Article 9. All film, 
except when in process or use, shall be kept in approved closed 
containers . 

408.2.1 Cabinets: Flammable film in amounts of twenty-five (25) to one 
thousand (1,000) pounds shall be stored in approved noncombustible cabi- 
nets constructed and vented in accordance with the approved rules. One 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



(1) cabinet shall not contain more than three hundred and seventy-five 
(375) pounds. All cabinets with a capacity of more than seventy-five 
(75) pounds shall be equipped with not less than one (1) automatic sprin- 
kler head. 

408.2.2 Vaults: Flammable film in amounts greater than one thousand 
(1,000) pounds shall be kept in vaults constructed as provided in Section 
407.0; except that the interior storage volume shall not exceed seven 
hundred and fifty (750) cubic feet. 

408.2.3 Rooms: Unexposed film may be stored in the original approved 
shipping cases complying with the rules of the Department of Transporta- 
tion (DOT) in rooms equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler 
system complying with the provisions of Section 407.4.6. 

408.2.4 Ventilation: Storage rooms shall be ventilated as specified in 
Section 407.4.4 with the vents arranged to open automatically in the event 
of fire, in accordance with the approved rules. 

408.2.5 Heating: All heating equipment and installations shall conform to 
the requirements of Section 407.6.1. The duct systems of warm air heat- 
ing and air conditioning systems shall comply with Article 5, and shall be 
protected with automatic fire dampers to cut off all rooms in which film is 
handled from all other rooms and spaces in the building. The heating of 
film vaults shall be automatically controlled to a maximum temperature of 
seventy (70) degrees F. 

408.2.6 Fire protection: Approved automatic sprinkler systems shall be 
provided in all buildings and structures and parts thereof in which flam- 
mable film is stored or handled in amounts of more than fifty (50) pounds 
and as herein specifically required, except in projection rooms and rewind 
rooms conforming to the requirements of Section 408.3. First-aid fire-ex- 
tinguishing and auxiliary fire-fighting equipment shall be provided in ac- 
cordance with Article 12 and the approved rules adopted thereunder. 

408.3 Projection room required (scope): The provisions of this section 
shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety 
film is used in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light source 
projection equipment which develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. 
Where cellulose nitrate film is used, projection rooms shall comply with 
NFiPA 40, listed in Appendix B. 

Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the 
scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant 
electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, may 
be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent con- 
struction. There shall be posted on the outside of each projection room 
door and within the projection room itself a conspicuous sign with one (1) 
inch block letters stating: Safety film only permitted in this room. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



408.3.1 Construction of projection rooms: Every projection room shall be 
of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements 
for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Open- 
ings need not be protected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than eighty (80) square feet 
for a single machine. Each motion picture projector, flood light, spotlight 
or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less 
than thirty (30) inches by thirty (30) inches on each side and at the 
rear thereof, but only one (1) such space shall be required between two 
(2) adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant 
thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than seven (7) feet, six 
(6) inches. The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not 
exceed twenty-five (25) per cent of the area of the wall between the 
projection room and the auditorium. All openings shall be provided with 
glass or other approved material, so as to completely close the opening. 

408.3.2 Means of egress from projection rooms: Exiting shall be pro- 
vided as required in Article 6. 

408.3.3 Ventilation of projection rooms: Ventilation shall be provided in 
accordance with the provisions of this section. 

408.3.3.1 Projection room 

1. Supply air: Each projection room shall be provided with two (2) 
or more separate fresh air inlet ducts with screened openings 
terminating within twelve (12) inches of the floor, and located at 
opposite ends of the room. Such air inlets shall be of sufficient 
size to permit an air change every three (3) minutes. Fresh air 
may be supplied from the general building air conditioning system; 
but when this is done, it shall be so arranged that the projection 
room will continue to receive one (1) change of air every three (3) 
minutes, regardless of the status of the general air conditioning 
system. 

2. Exhaust air: Each projection room shall be provided with one (1) 
or more exhaust air outlets which may be manifolded into a single 
duct outside the room. Such outlets shall be so located as to 
insure circulation throughout the room. Projection room exhaust 
air systems shall be independent of any other air systems in the 
building. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the 
building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily 
recirculated into the supply air system. The exhaust system shall 
be mechanically operated and of such a capacity as to provide a 
minimum of one (1) change of air every three (3) minutes. The 
blower motor shall be outside the duct system. The projection 
room ventilation system may also serve appurtenant rooms, such as 
the generator room and the rewind room. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



408.3.3.2 Projection equipment ventilation: Each projection machine shall 
be provided with an exhaust duct which will draw air from each lamp and 
exhaust it directly to the outside of the building in such a fashion that it 
will not be picked up by supply inlets. Such a duct shall be of rigid 
materials, except for a continuous flexible connector for the purpose. The 
lamp exhaust system shall not be interconnected with any other system. 

1. Electric arc projection equipment: The exhaust capacity shall be 
two hundred (200) cubic feet per minute (cfm) for each lamp con- 
nected to the lamp exhaust system, or as recommended by the 
equipment manufacturer. Auxiliary air may be introduced into the 
system through a screened opening to stabilize the arc. 

2. Xenon projection equipment: The lamp exhaust system shall ex- 
haust not less than three hundred (300) cubic feet per minute 
(cfm) per lamp, nor less than that exhaust volume required or 
recommended by the equipment manufacturer, whichever is the 
greater. The external temperature of the lamp housing shall not 
exceed one hundred thirty (130) degrees F., when operating. 

408.3.4 Lighting control: Provision shall be made for control of the 
auditorium lighting and the emergency lighting systems of theatres from 
inside of the room and from at least one (1) other convenient point in the 
building as required in Section 417.9. 

408.3.5 Miscellaneous equipment: Each projection room shall be provided 
with rewind and film storage facilities. A maximum of four (4) containers 
for flammable liquids not greater than sixteen (16) ounce capacity and of 
a nonbreakable type may be permitted in each projection room. 

408.3.6 Sanitary facilities: Every projection room shall be provided with 
a lavatory. Every projection room serving an assembly occupancy shall 
be provided with a water closet. 

408.4 Screening rooms: Screening rooms shall provide a seating capacity 
of not more than thirty (30) persons, with not less than two (2) ap- 
proved means of egress complying with Article 6. Such rooms shall be 
enclosed in one (1) hour fire separation walls with self-closing fire doors 
in their approved labeled equivalent at the openings. All seats shall be 
permanently fixed in position and the arrangement shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 417.4. 

408.5 Temporary motion picture installations: Permits for portable and 
temporary room construction for incidental amusement and educational 
purposes shall be secured from the fire official in accordance with the 
approved rules. 

408.6 Motion picture studios 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



408.6.1 Construction: All buildings designed or used as motion picture 
studios shall be protected with an approved two (2) source automatic 
sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Article 12; except that 
the building official may exempt rooms designed for housing electrical 
equipment from this requirement when constructed of fireproof (Type 1) 
construction. 

408.6.2 Special rooms: Rooms and spaces used as carpenter and repair 
shops, dressing rooms, costume and property stage rooms shall be en- 
closed in floors, walls and ceilings of not less than two (2) hour firere- 
sistance rated construction. 

408.6.3 Trim, finish and decorative hangings: All permanently attached 
acoustic, insulating and light reflecting materials and temporary hangings 
on walls and ceilings shall comply with the requirements of Article 9. 

408.6.4 Film storage: All film shall be stored as required in Section 
408.2 and surplus film shall not be kept on the studio stage except loaded 
magazines in the cameras and sound recording apparatus. All extra 
loaded magazines shall be stored in a separate magazine room enclosed in 
two (2) hour fireresistive construction. 

408.7 Film laboratories: Film laboratories shall not be conducted in other 
than fireproof (Type 1A) buildings or structures, equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system. 

408.8 Film exchanges: All film exchanges and depots shall be housed in 
buildings and structures of fireproof (Type 1A) construction equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system. All flammable 
film other than that in process of receipt, delivery or distribution shall 
be stored in vaults complying with the requirements of Section 407.4.2. 

SECTION 409.0 USE AND STORAGE OF COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS 

409.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings 
and structures involving the storage or use of finely divided combustible 
vegetable or animal fibers and thin sheets or flakes of such materials 
involving flash fire hazard, including among others cotton, excelsior 
(shredded paper), hemp, sisal, jute, kapok and paper and cloth in the 
form of scraps and clippings in excess of one thousand (1,000) pounds. 
The provisions of the applicable standards listed in Appendix B except as 
herein specifically provided shall be deemed to conform to the provisions 
of this code. 

409.2 Construction requirements: All buildings designed for the storage 
of combustible fibers as herein described shall be constructed within the 
limits of height and area specified in Table 305 for high hazard use (use 
group H) except as described in the following Sections 409.2.1 through 
409.2.6. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



409.2.1 Special limits: A single storage room or space shall not be more 
than five thousand (5,000) square feet in area or more than fifty thou- 
sand (50,000) cubic feet in volume unless of protected noncombustible 
(Type 2B) or better construction. 

409.2.2 Floor loads: The floors of all buildings designed for the storage 
of combustible fibers shall not be loaded in excess of one-half (1/2) the 
safe load capacity of the floor, nor shall materials be piled to more than 
two thirds (2/3) of the clear story height. 

409.2.3 Salvage doors: Every exterior wall shall be provided with a 
door to each storage compartment arranged for quick removal of the 
contents . 

409.2.4 Wall openings: All openings in outside walls shall be equipped 
with approved fire doors and fire windows complying with Article 9. 

409.2.5 Roof openings: All skylights, monitors and other roof openings 
shall be protected with galvanized wire or other approved corrosion-resis- 
tive screens with not less than thirty-six (36) meshes to the square inch 
or with wire glass in stationary frames. 

409.2.6 Boiler rooms: All power and heating boilers and furnaces shall 
be located in detached boiler houses or in a segregated boiler room en- 
closed in three (3) hour fireresistance rated construction with direct 
entrance from the outside, except that rooms containing gas-fired heating 
equipment may have openings into the warehouse protected with one and 
one-half (1 1/2) hour fire doors or their approved labeled equivalent. 

409.3 Fire protection: Fire protection equipment shall be provided com- 
plying with Article 12 consisting of casks, pails and portable chemical ex- 
tinguishers and standpipes. Where deemed necessary by the administra- 
tive authority, a system of outside hydrants and hose shall be provided. 

409.4 Housekeeping: Ashes, waste, rubbish or sweepings shall not be 
kept in wood or other combustible receptacles and shall be removed from 
the premises daily. Grass or weeds shall not be allowed to accumulate at 
any point on the premises. 

409.5 Open storage: Only temporary open storage of combustible fibers 
shall be permitted on the same premises with a fiber warehouse and shall 
be kept covered on top and sides with tarpaulins secured in place. Not 
more than seven thousand two hundred (7,200) cubic feet of fiber shall 
be stored in the open; and fire-extinguishing equipment shall be provided 
as directed by the fire official. 

409.6 Special treatments: When combustible fibers are packed in special 
noncombustible containers or when packed in bales covered with wrap- 
pings to prevent ready ignition, or when treated by approved chemical 
dipping or spraying processes to eliminate the flash fire hazard, the 
restrictions governing combustible fibers shall not apply. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 410.0 COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS, GRAIN PROCESSING 
AND STORAGE 

410.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings 
in which materials producing flammable dusts and particles which are 
readily ignitable and subject to explosion hazards are stored or handled, 
including, among others, grain bleachers and elevators, malt houses, 
flour, feed or starch mills, wood flour manufacturing and manufacture and 
storage of pulverized fuel and similar uses. The applicable standards 
listed in Appendix B, except as herein specifically required, shall be 
deemed to conform to the requirements of this code. 

410.2 Construction requirements 

410.2.1 Buildings: All such buildings and structures, unless herein 
otherwise specifically provided, shall be of fireproof (Type 1), noncom- 
bustible (Type 2), or of laminated planks or lumber sizes qualified for 
heavy timber mill (Type 3A) construction, within the height and area 
limits of high hazard uses (use group H) of Table 305; except that when 
erected of fireproof (Type 1A) construction, the height and area of grain 
elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, and when of heavy 
timber (Type 3A) construction, the structure may be erected to a height 
of sixty-five (65) feet; and except further that, in isolated areas, the 
height of Type 3 A structures may be increased to eighty-five (85) feet. 

410.2.2 Grinding rooms: Every room or space for grinding or other 
operations producing flammable dust shall be enclosed with floors and 
walls of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance rating when the area is 
not more than three thousand (3,000) square feet and of not less than 
four (4) hour fireresistance rating when the area is greater than three 
thousand (3,000) square feet. 

410.2.3 Conveyors: All conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment 
passing through the enclosures of such rooms or spaces shall be con- 
structed dirt and vapor tight, of approved noncombustible materials 
complying with Article 16. 

410.3 Explosion relief: Means for explosion relief shall be provided as 
specified in Section 401.0, or such spaces shall be equipped with the 
equivalent mechanical ventilation complying with the mechanical code listed 
in Appendix B. 

410.4 Grain elevators: Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings for 
similar uses shall not be located within thirty (30) feet of interior lot 
lines or structures on the same lot, except when erected along a railroad 
right of way. 

410.5 Coal pockets: Coal pockets located less than thirty (30) feet from 
interior lot lines or structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



less than protected noncombustible (Type 2A) construction. When more 
than thirty (30) feet from interior lot lines, or erected along a railroad 
right of way, such structures may be built of lumber sizes qualifying for 
heavy timber or laminated construction, provided they are not more than 
sixty-five (65) feet in height. 

SECTION 411.0 PAINT SPRAYING AND SPRAY BOOTHS 

411.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to the con- 
struction, installation and use of buildings and structures or parts there- 
of for the spraying of flammable paints, varnishes and lacquers or other 
flammable materials, mixtures or compounds used for painting, varnishing 
staining or similar purpose. All such construction and equipment shall 
comply with the approved rules and the applicable standards listed in 
Appendix B. 

411.2 Location of spraying processes: Such processes shall be conduc- 
ted in a spraying space, spray booth, spray room or shall be isolated in 
a detached building or as otherwise approved by the building official in 
accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

411 . 3 Construction 

411.3.1 Spray spaces: All spray spaces shall be ventilated with an 
approved exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flammable mist or 
vapors. When such spaces are not separately enclosed, noncombustible 
spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the spread of fire. 

411.3.2 Spray booths: All spray booths shall be constructed of ap- 
proved noncombustible materials equipped with mechanical ventilating 
systems . 

411.3.3 Spray rooms: All spray rooms shall be enclosed in partitions of 
not less than one (1) hour fireresistance rating. Floors shall be water- 
proofed and drained in an approved manner. Floor drains to the building 
drainage system and the public sewer shall be prohibited. 

411.3.4 Storage rooms: Spraying materials in quantities of not more 
than twenty (20) gallons may be stored in approved cabinets ventilated at 
top and bottom; when in quantities of more than twenty (20) gallons and 
not more than one hundred (100) gallons, they may be stored in approved 
double-walled noncombustible cabinets vented directly to the outer air; 
and all spraying materials in quantities of more than one hundred (100) 
gallons shall be stored in an enclosure of not less than two (2) hour 
fireresistance rating or in a separate exterior storage building. Such 
storage shall not be in quantities of more than two hundred and fifty 
(250) gallons, except when stored in isolated storage buildings; and 
except further that not more than twenty-five (25) gallons of spraying 
material shall be stored in buildings in which pyroxylin products are 
manufactured or stored. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



411.4 Ventilation of spraying processes: The ventilation system shall 
comply with the provisions of Section 401.0 and shall be adequate to 
exhaust all vapors, fumes and residues of spraying material directly to 
the outer air. Fresh air shall be admitted to the spraying spaces in an 
amount equal to the capacity of the fan in such manner as to avoid short 
circuiting the path of air in the working space and to provide air move- 
ment with a velocity of not less than one hundred (100) feet per minute 
at the face of the spray booth. All ducts and vents shall be constructed 
and installed to comply with the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 
Unless equipped with approved explosion-proof motors with nonferrous fan 
blade fans, the mechanical exhaust equipment shall be located outside of 
spray spaces. 

411.5 Fire protection: Sprinkler heads shall be provided in all spray, 
dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms and shall be installed in 
accordance with accepted engineering practice and the standards listed in 
Appendix B. Where buildings containing spray areas are not equipped 
with an approved automatic sprinkler system, the sprinkler heads in 
booths and other spray areas and storage rooms may be supplied from the 
building water supply when approved by the building official, to comply 
with the provisions of Section 1205.0. 

411.6 Electrical equipment: Artificial lighting and electrical equipment 
shall comply with Section 400.10. 

SECTION 412.0 DRY CLEANING ESTABLISHMENTS 

412.1 General: Before any dry cleaning plant is constructed or an 
existing plant is remodeled or altered, complete drawings shall be filed 
showing to scale the relative location of the dry cleaning area, the boiler 
room, finishing department, solvent storage tanks, pumps, washers, 
drying tumblers, extractors, filter traps, stills, piping and all other 
equipment involving the use of flammable liquid solvents. All dry clean- 
ing by immersion and agitation shall be carried on in closed machines, 
installed and operated in accordance with the approved rules and the 
applicable standards listed in Appendix B. 

412.2 Classification: For the purpose of this code, all dry cleaning and 
dry dyeing establishments shall be classified as described in the following 
Sections 412.2.1 through 412.2.3. 

412.2.1 High hazard: All such establishments shall be classified as high 
hazard which employ gasoline or other solvents having a flash point below 
one hundred (100) degrees F. (ASTM D56) in quantities of more than 
three (3) gallons, or more than sixty (60) gallons of flammable solvents 
with a flash point between one hundred (100) and one hundred and forty 
(140) degrees F. (ASTM D56). 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



412.2.2 Moderate hazard: All such establishments employing less than 
three (3) gallons of volatile flammables with a flash point of less than one 
hundred (100) degrees F. or less than sixty (60) gallons of solvent with 
a flash point between one hundred (100) and one hundred and forty (140) 
degrees F. (ASTM D56) shall be classified as moderate hazard. 

412.2.3 Low hazard: All such establishments using solvents of other 
than volatile flammable liquids or solvents with a flash point more than 
one hundred and forty (140) degrees F. (ASTM D56) in cleaning and 
dyeing operations shall be classified as low hazard. 

412.3 Construction of dry cleaning plants 

412.3.1 High hazard: High hazard dry cleaning plants as herein defined 
shall be located in buildings or structures of fireproof (Type 1A) con- 
struction, not more than one (1) story in height with solid floors and 
roofs and without openings other than required for egress and ventilation 
purposes. Such a building shall not be used for any other purpose. 

412.3.2 Moderate hazard: Moderate hazard dry cleaning plants as herein 
defined may be located in buildings or structures of any type of construc- 
tion other than frame (Type 4) buildings subject to the fire limit restric- 
tions of Article 3 and the height and area limitations for high hazard 
buildings (use group H) of Table 305. The room or space in which such 
operations are conducted shall be enclosed in not less than two (2) hour 
fireresistance rated construction with not less than two (2) means of 
egress from each dry cleaning or dry dyeing room or space. 

412.3.3 Low hazard: Low hazard dry cleaning plants shall not be re- 
stricted as to type of building construction within the height and area 
limitations for use group B of Table 305; except that such uses shall not 
be located in basements nor in a building used for public assembly (use 
group A) or institutional (use group I) purposes. 

412.3.4 Roof construction of dry cleaning plants: The roof over high 
hazard dry cleaning plants shall be flat without attic or concealed spaces 
and shall be provided with a pivot type skylight or other approved vent 
complying with Section 401.0, arranged to release outwardly under explo- 
sion pressures. 

412.3.5 Floor construction of dry cleaning plants: The floor finish in 
high hazard dry cleaning plants shall be constructed of water-resistant, 
noncombustible materials with nonsparking surface elevated above the 
adjoining grade and with door sills not less than ten (10) inches in 
height. There shall not be openings, vaults or pits below the floor. 

412.3.6 Exterior walls of dry cleaning plants: Exterior walls of high 
hazard dry cleaning plants having a fire separation of less than thirty 
(30) feet shall be solid masonry without openings, but more than two (2) 
sides of the building shall not be enclosed in blank walls. Opening pro- 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



tectives of exterior doors and windows shall have not less than three- 
quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance or the labeled equivalent construction, 
and the windows shall be pressure-releasing to comply with Section 401.0. 

412.3.7 Basements of dry cleaning plants: The basements of all build- 
ings in which high or moderate hazard dry cleaning establishments are 
conducted shall be completely separated from the superstructure with 
unpierced floor construction of not less than two (2) hours fireresistance 
rating. The access to such basements shall be from the exterior only. 

412.4 Boiler room separation: Boiler rooms and heating equipment for 
high hazard dry cleaning plants shall be separated from drying rooms, 
dry cleaning and dry dyeing rooms with unpierced walls of not less than 
four (4) hours fireresistance rating and in moderate hazard establishments 
with solid walls of not less than two (2) hours fireresistance rating; or 
such boiler rooms shall be located in a separate building. 

412.5 Ventilation: All rooms and spaces in high hazard dry cleaning 
plants shall be provided with a mechanical system of ventilation capable of 
twenty (20) complete and continuous changes of air per hour. Mechanical 
systems of ventilation in moderate hazard shall have sufficient capacity to 
insure ten (10) complete and continuous changes of air per hour. Satis- 
factory mechanical or natural ventilation shall be provided in low hazard 
plants by means of fans, pipes and ducts to ventilate drying tumblers, 
drying cabinets and similar equipment directly to the outer air. 

412.6 Solvent storage: All volatile flammable solvents with a flash point 
under seventy-five (75) degrees F. (ASTM D56) shall be stored under- 
ground in accordance with the provisions of Section 402.0. Interior 
aboveground storage shall be permitted for solvents with a flash point 
above seventy-five (75) degrees F. (ASTM D56) provided the aggregate 
quantity of such solvent in use in the system and in storage is not more 
than five hundred and fifty (550) gallons and the capacity of any indi- 
vidual tank is not more than two hundred and senventy-five (275) gal- 
lons. 

412.7 Fire protection: Every dry cleaning room and dry dyeing room 
employing high and moderate hazard solvents shall be protected with a 
fire protection system consisting of approved automatic sprinklers, manu- 
ally controlled steam-blankets carbon dioxide flooding systems or other 
approved fire-extinguishing equipment. 

SECTION 413.0 PRIVATE GARAGES 

413.1 Attached garages 

413.1.1 One- and two-family dwellings: Private garages located beneath 
one- and two-family dwellings shall have walls, partitions, floors and 
ceilings separating the garage space from the dwelling constructed of not 



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less than one (1) hour fireresistance rating. Private garages attached to 
one and two-family dwellings shall be completely separated from the dwell- 
ing and its attic area by means of one-half (1/2) inch gypsum board or 
equivalent applied to the garage side. The sills of all door openings 
between the garage and dwelling shall be raised by step or sill not less 
than four (4) inches above the garage floor. The door opening protec- 
tives shall be one and three-quarter (1 3/4) inch solid wood core doors 
or approved equivalent. 

413.1.2 Motels and multi-family dwellings: Private garages located be- 
neath motels and multi-family dwellings and in which gasoline or oil is not 
stored or handled shall be of protected construction of not less than one 
and one-half (1 1/2) hour fireresistance rating. 

413.1.3 Separation by breezeway: A garage separated from a residence 
outside the fire limits by a breezeway not less than ten (10) feet in 
length may be of unprotected frame (Type 4B) construction, but the 
junction of the garage and breezeway shall be firestopped to comply with 
Section 875.0. 

413.1.4 Other conditions: All private garages not falling within the 
purview of Sections 413.1.1, 413.1.2, or 413.1.3, attached to or located 
beneath a building shall comply with the requirements of Section 414.2.3 
for public garages. 

413.1.5 Heating equipment: Boilers, furnaces, hot water heaters or any 
other appliances having an open flame or exposed heated surfaces shall 
not be located in a private garage unless precautions are taken to protect 
such equipment from impact by automobiles. This equipment shall have 
the combustion chamber, ash pit etc., raised a minimum of eighteen (18) 
inches above the floor to eliminate a possible source of ignition. 

413.2 Means of egress: Where living quarters are located above a pri- 
vate garage, required means of egress facilities shall be protected from 
the garage area with one (1) hour fireresistance rated construction. 

SECTION 414.0 PUBLIC GARAGES 

414.1 General: Public garages shall comply with the applicable require- 
ments of this section. The portions of such buildings and structures in 
which gasoline, oil and similar products are dispensed shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 415.0; the portions in which motor vehicles 
are repaired shall comply with Section 416.0; and the portions in which 
paint spraying is done shall comply with the requirements of Section 411.0 
and 527 CMR 5.00. 

414.2 Construction: All Group 1 public garages hereafter erected shall 
be classified as storage buildings, moderate hazard (use group S-l) and 
all Group 2 public garages shall be classified as storage buildings, low 



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hazard (use group S-2) and shall conform to the height and area limita- 
tions of Table 305 except as herein specifically provided. The areas used 
for dispensing gasoline in such buildings shall be located on the grade 
floor and shall comply with the requirements of Section 415.0. 

414.2.1 Special height limitations: Public garage buildings shall comply 
with the height and area limitations of Table 305 for the classification of 
the use as specified in Section 414.2. Such heights may be increased one 

(1) additional story when the building is equipped with an approved 
automatic fire suppression system. 

414.2.2 Basements: The first floor construction of public garages of all 
classifications and public hangars with basements shall be constructed of 
not less than two (2) hour fireresistance rating and shall be water and 
vapor proof. Where openings are provided in the floor they shall be 
protected by a curb or ramp not less than six (6) inches high above the 
floor to avoid the accumulation of explosive liquids or vapors and prevent 
them from spilling to the lower floor. There shall be not less than two 

(2) means of egress from such areas, one (1) of which shall be directly 
to the outside independent of the exitways serving other areas of the 
building. 

414.2.3 Mixed occupancy: A public garage shall not be located within or 
attached to a building occupied for any other use, unless separated from 
such other use by walls or floors complying with Table 902 for fireresis- 
tance rating. Such fire separation walls shall be continuous and un- 
pierced by openings; except that door openings equipped with self-closing 
fire doors complying with Article 9 shall be permitted. In buildings of 
single occupancy not excluding the area limitations of Table 305, doors 
without a fireresistance rating shall be permitted between the garage area 
and salesroom or offices that are operated in connection with the garage. 

414.2.4 Roof storage of motor vehicles and airplanes: The roof of a 
public garage shall not be used for the parking or storage of motor 
vehicles unless the building is of fireproof construction (Type 1A or IB). 
When the roof of a building is used for parking or storage of motor 
vehicles, it shall be provided with a parapet wall or guard rail not less 
than three (3) feet six (6) inches in height and a wheel guard not less 
than six (6) inches in height, located so as to prevent any vehicle from 
striking the parapet wall or guard rail. The use of roofs for airplanes 
storage and landing shall be subject to the approval of the Federal Avia- 
tion Administration, if required. 

414.2.5 Floor construction and drainage: Floors of public garages and 
airplane hangars shall be graded to drain through oil separators or traps 
to avoid accumulation of explosive vapors in building drains or sewers as 
provided in the Massachusetts Plumbing Code (248 CMR 2.00). The floor 
finish shall be of concrete or other approved nonabsorbent, noncombust- 
ible material. 



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414.3 Ventilation 

414.3.1 Below grade: Enclosed and below grade public garages shall be 
equipped with mechanical ventilation adequate to provide six (6) air 
changes per hour. The ventilation system shall be operated at all times 
the garage areas are occupied by human beings. 

414.3.2 Repair shops or rooms: When motor vehicles are to be operated 
or engines are run for test purposes or minor adjustments, provisions 
shall be made to collect the exhaust fumes from each vehicle individually 
and to discharge such fumes to the outer air by means of a positive 
induced draft. The discharge from such system shall be located so as 
not to create a hazard to adjoining properties, but not less than eight (8) 
feet above the adjacent ground level on the exterior of the building and 
shall discharge into a yard or court. When necessary to discharge across 
a walkway or private thoroughfare, the discharge opening shall be carried 
to a height of not less than twenty-five (25) feet above the ground level 
or to a distance four (4) inches above the highest point of the wall of the 
building or structure on which it is located. 

414.3.3 Pits: Pits shall not be installed in floors below the first; and 
pits in first and upper stories shall be provided with mechanical ventila- 
tion sufficient to prevent the accumulation of noxious or volatile fumes or 
vapors. The ventilation system shall be operated at all times the pits are 
occupied by human things. 

414.4 Special hazards: Any process conducted in conjunction with public 
garages involving volatile flammable solvents shall be segregated or loca- 
ted in a detached building or structure, except as provided in Section 
402.0 for the storage and handling of gasoline and other volatile flam- 
mables. The quantity of flammable liquids stored or handled in public 
garages other than in underground storage and in the tanks of motor 
vehicles shall be not more than five (5) gallons in approved safety cans, 
except as provided in Rule 40 of 527 CMR 5.00. 

414.5 Heating and protection of equipment: Radiation and heating coils 
and pipes located within six (6) inches of the floor shall be protected 
with wire mesh or other approved noncombustible shields of adequate 
strength; and with asbestos or other insulation on top of the equipment 
when located in partitions or near combustible racks or woodwork. 

414.6 Boiler rooms of public garages: All heat generating plants other 
than approved direct fired heaters shall be located in separate buildings 
or shall be separately enclosed within the structure with solid, water and 
vapor tight masonry. All rooms housing boilers, stoves or other heating 
apparatus shall be cut off from all other parts of the building with four 
(4) hour fireresistance rated construction with entrance from outside 
only, and there shall not be openings through the fire separation wall 
other than those necessary for heating pipes or ducts. 



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SECTION 415.0 MOTOR FUEL SERVICE STATIONS 

415.1 Construction: Buildings and structures used for the storage and 
sale of motor fuel oils may be of all types of construction within the 
height and area limitations of Table 305 for business (use group B) 
buildings and as modified by Section 302.0. The canopies and supports 
over pumps and service equipment when located less than twenty (20) 
feet from interior lot lines shall be constructed of approved noncombust- 
ible materials, Type 3A (heavy timber) construction, or one (1) hour 
fireresistance rated construction. 

415.1.1 Exceptions: Approved plastics conforming to the requirements of 
Article 19 may be used in canopies over pumps when conforming to the 
following requirements . 

1. The canopies are located at least ten (10) feet from any building 
on the same property and face yards or streets not less than forty 
(40) feet wide on the other sides; 

2. the aggregate area of plastic in each canopy shall not exceed two 
hundred (200) square feet in the fire limits or one thousand (1,000) 
square feet outside the fire limits; and 

3. the maximum area of each panel shall not exceed one hundred 
(100) square feet. 

415.1.2 Opening protectives: All permissible openings in walls with a 
fire separation of less than twenty (20) feet shall be protected with 
approved fire windows or fire doors complying with Article 9, except 
doors in such walls to rest rooms. 

415.1.3 Basements: Motor fuel service stations shall not have cellars or 
basements; and when pits are provided, they shall be vented as required 
in Section 414.3. 

415.2 Gasoline storage: All volatile flammable liquid storage tanks shall 
be installed below ground and vented as specified in Section 402. Such 
tanks shall be subject to the approval of the fire official and comply with 
the provisions of 527 CMR 5.00. 

415.3 Location of pumps: Gasoline pumps or other mechanical equipment 
shall not be installed so as to permit servicing of motor vehicles standing 
on a public street or highway; except when necessitated by the widening 
of streets or highways, the use of the outer driveway of existing service 
stations may be continued for servicing of vehicles when approved by the 
authority having jurisdiction. 

SECTION 416.0 MOTOR VEHICLE REPAIR SHOPS 

416.1 General: All buildings and structures designed and used for 
repair and servicing motor vehicles, motor boats, airplanes or other motor 
rtriven means of transportation shall be subject to the limitations of Tables 



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214 and 305 for moderate hazard storage (use group S-l). Such build- 
ings shall be used solely for that purpose. 

416.2 Enclosure walls: Exterior walls, when located within six (6) feet 
of interior lot lines or other buildings, shall not have openings therein. 

416.3 Handling of volatile flammables: All volatile flammables shall be 
stored and handled as provided in Section 415.2 and as provided in 527 
CMR 5.00. 

416.4 Ventilation: All rooms and spaces used for motor vehicle repair 
shop purposes shall be provided with an approved system of mechanical 
ventilation meeting the requirements of Section 414.3 and the mechanical 
code listed in Appendix B. 

416.5 Fire prevention: Open gas flames except heating devices comply- 
ing with Section 414.6, torches, welding apparatus, or other equipment 
likely to create an open flame or spark shall not be located in a room or 
space in which flammable liquids or highly combustible materials are used 
or stored. 

SECTION 417.0 PLACES OF PUBLIC ASSEMBLY 

417.1 Applicability: The provisions of this section shall apply to all 
places of public assembly and all parts of buildings and structures classi- 
fied in the use group A-l, theatres and in other places of public assem- 
bly, use groups A-2, A-3, and A-4, except as specifically exempted in 
Section 418.0. 

417.2 Restrictions 

417.2.1 High hazard uses: A place of public assembly shall not be 
permitted in a building classified in the high hazard group (use group 
H). 

417.2.2 Superimposed theatres: An addition or extension shall not be 
erected over the stage section of a theatre, nor shall a second theatre be 
erected above another. The building official may waive the prohibition 
against superimposed theatres and construction above the stage when 
adequate access is provided for fire fighting with direct means of ventila- 
tion to the outer air from the stage portion. 

417.2.3 Frame construction: A theatre with stage, fly gallery and 
rigging loft shall not be permitted in a building of unprotected frame 
(Type 4B) construction. 

417.2.4 Location: All buildings used for assembly purposes shall front 
on at least one (1) street in which the main entrance and exitway dis- 
charge shall be located. The total capacity of such main exitway shall be 
not less than one-third (1/3) of the total required width of building 
exitways . 



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417.2.5 Trim, finish and decorative hangings: All permanent acoustic 
insulating and similar materials and temporary hangings shall comply with 
the flameresistance requirements of Article 9. Moldings and decorations 
around the proscenium openings shall be constructed entirely of noncom- 
bustible material. 

417.2.6 Existing buildings: Nothing herein contained shall prohibit the 
alteration of a building heretofore occupied as a place of public assembly 
for such continued use provided seats, aisles, passageways, balconies, 
stages, appurtenant rooms and all special permanent equipment comply 
with the requirements of this article (see Article 22). 

417.2.7 Deleted 

417.3 Theatre means of egress requirements 

417.3.1 Types of exitways: The required exitways from every tier or 
floor of a theatre shall consist of grade exitway discharge doors, interior 
or exterior stairways or horizontal exitways which provide direct access 
to a street, an exitway discharge court, or unobstructed passageway, 
hallway or lobby leading to a street or open public space. The number, 
location and construction of all means of egress facilities shall comply with 
the requirements of Article 6 and the applicable standards listed in Ap- 
pendix B, except as herein specifically provided. 

417.3.2 Number of stairways in auditorium: Each tier above the main 
floor of a theatre or other auditorium shall be provided with at least two 
(2) interior enclosed stairways which shall be located on opposite sides of 
the structure; except that enclosures shall not be required for stairs 
serving the first balcony only, or mezzanine thereunder. Such stairways 
shall discharge to a lobby on the main floor. Exitway stairways serving 
galleries above the balcony shall lead directly to the street or open public 
space as provided in Section 417.3.1. 

417.3.3 Emergency means of egress from main floor of auditorium: In 
addition to the main floor entrance and exitway, emergency exitway dis- 
charge doors shall be provided on both sides of the auditorium which lead 
directly to a street, or through a passageway to the street independent 
of other exitways, or to an exitway discharge court as defined in this 
code. 

417.3.4 Emergency means of egress from balconies and galleries: Emer- 
gency exitways shall be provided from both sides of each balcony and 
gallery with direct egress to the street, or to an independent passage- 
way, or to an exitway discharge court. There shall not be communication 
from any portion of the building to the emergency exitway stairways 
except from the tier for which such exitway is exclusively intended. 

417.3.5 Exitway discharge courts: All exitway discharge courts shall be 
not less than six (6) feet wide for the first six hundred (600) persons to 
be accommodated or fraction thereof, and shall be increased one (1) foot 



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in width for each additional two hundred and fifty (250) persons. Such 
courts shall extend sufficiently in length to include the side and rear 
emergency exitways from the auditorium. 

417.3.6 Hardware: Latches or bolts on all means of egress doorways 
shall be of an approved self-releasing, panicproof type complying with 
Section 612.5.2. 

417.3.7 Width of exitway doors: The maximum width of single exitway 
doors shall be forty-two (42) inches and the minimum width of double 
doorways shall be sixty (60) inches. 

417.3.8 "Exit" lights: All exitway doors shall be marked with illuminated 
Exit signs complying with Section 623.0 which shall be kept lighted at all 
times during occupancy of the building. 

417.4 Theatre seatings 

417.4.1 Fixed seats: In all theatres and similar places of assembly 
except churches, stadiums and reviewing stands, individual fixed seats 
shall be provided with an average width of not less than twenty (20) 
inches and seats shall not be less than nineteen (19) inches wide. All 
seats shall be provided with separating arms and arranged in rows not 
less than thirty- two (32) inches apart, back to back, measured horizon- 
tally . 

417.4.2 Number of seats: Aisles shall be provided so that not more than 
seven (7) seats intervene between any seat and the aisle or aisles, except 
that the number of seats in a row shall not be limited when self-raising 
seats are provided which leave an unobstructed passage between rows of 
seats of not less than eighteen (18) inches in width leading to side aisles 
in which exitway doorways are located at not more than twenty-five (25) 
foot intervals to the exitway corridor or exitway discharge court. 

417.4.3 Box seats: In boxes or loges with level floors, the seats need 
not be fastened when not more than fourteen (14) in number. 

417.5 Theatre aisles 

417.5.1 Longitudinal aisles: The width of longitudinal aisles at right 
angles to rows of seats and with seats on both sides of the aisle shall be 
not less than forty-two (42) inches, increasing one-guarter (1/4) inch for 
every foot of length of aisle from its beginning to an exitway door, or to 
a cross aisle or between cross aisles. The width of the longitudinal aisles 
with banks of seats on one side only shall be not less than thirty (30) 
inches, increasing one-guarter (1/4) inch for each foot of length from its 
beginning to an exitway door, or to a cross aisle or between cross seats. 

417.5.2 Cross aisles: When there are twenty-seven (27) or more rows of 
seats on the main floor of theatres, cross aisles shall be provided so that 
a block of seats shall not have more than twenty-two (22) rows. The 



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width of cross aisles shall be not less than the widest aisle with which 
they connect or the width of exitway which they serve; but a cross aisle 
shall not be less than forty-two (42) inches wide, or when bordering on 
means of entrance not less than forty-eight (48) inches wide. In balcon- 
ies and galleries of theatres, one (1) or more cross aisles shall be pro- 
vided when there are more than ten (10) rows of seats and in accordance 
with the provisions of the Life Safety Code NFiPA 101. 

417.5.3 Gradient: Aisles shall not exceed a gradient of one and three- 
quarter (1 3/4) inches per foot. 

417.5.4 Balcony steps: Steps may be provided in balconies and galleries 
only, and such steps shall extend the full width of the aisle with treads 
and risers complying with Article 6, which shall be illuminated by lights 
on both sides or by a step light or otherwise to insure an intensity of 
not less than one (1) foot candle. 

417.5.5 Railings: Metal or other approved noncombustible railings shall 
be provided on balconies and galleries as prescribed below: 

1. At the facia of boxes, balconies and galleries not less than thirty 
(30) inches in height; and not less than thirty-six (36) inches in 
height at the foot of steps; 

2. along cross aisles not less than twenty-six (26) inches in height 
except where the backs of the seats along the front of the aisle 
project twenty-four (24) inches or more above the floor of the aisle; 
and 

3. where seatings are arranged in successive tiers, and the height of 
rise between platforms exceeds eighteen (18) inches, not less than 
twenty- six (26) inches in height along the entire row of seats at 
the edge of the platform. 

417.6 Theatre foyers 

417.6.1 Capacity: In every theatre or similar place of public assembly, 
not including churches, for theatrical use with stage and scenery loft, a 
foyer or lobby shall be provided with a net floor area, exclusive of stairs 
or landings, of not less than one and one-half (1 1/2) square feet for 
each occupant having access thereto. The use of foyers and lobbies and 
other available spaces for harboring occupants until seats become available 
shall not encroach upon the clear floor area herein prescribed or upon 
the required clear width of front exitways. 

417.6.2 Egress: When the foyer is not directly connected to the public 
street through the main lobby, an unobstructed corridor or passage shall 
be provided which leads to and equals the required minimum width of 
main entrances and exitways. A mirror shall not be placed so as to give 
an appearance as a doorway, exit or passageway. 



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417.6.3 Gradient: The rear foyer shall be at the same level as the back 
of the auditorium and the means of egress leading therefrom shall not 
have a steeper gradient than one (1) foot in eight (8) feet. 

417.6.4 Construction: The partitions separating the foyer from the 
auditorium and other adjoining rooms and spaces of theatres shall be 
constructed of not less than two (2) hour fireresistance rating; except 
that opening protectives may be constructed of noncombustible materials 
without fireresistance rating. 

417.6.5 Waiting spaces: Waiting spaces for harboring occupants shall be 
located only on the first or auditorium floor. Separate exitways in addi- 
tion to the required theatre exitways shall be provided from the waiting 
space based on an occupancy of one (1) person for each three (3) square 
feet of waiting space area. 

417.7 Theatre stage construction 

417.7.1 Stage enclosure walls: Every stage hereafter erected or altered 
for theatrical performances which is equipped with portable or fixed 
scenery, lights and mechanical appliances, shall be enclosed on all sides 
with solid walls of not less than four (4) hour fireresistance rating, 
extending continuously from foundation to at least four (4) feet above the 
roof. There shall not be window openings in such walls within six (6) 
feet of an interior lot line; and all permissible window openings shall be 
protected with three-quarter (3/4) hour fire windows complying with 
Article 9. 

417.7.2 Floor construction: The entire stage, except that portion used 
for the working of scenery, traps, and other mechanical apparatus for 
the presentation of a scene, and the roof over the stage shall be not less 
than three (3) hour fireresistance rated construction. All openings 
through the stage floor shall be equipped with tight fitting, solid wood 
trap doors not less than three (3) inches in thickness or other materials 
of equal physical and fireresistance rated properties. 

417.7.3 Roof and rigging loft: The roof over the stage shall be of not 
less than three (3) hour fireresistive construction. The rigging loft, fly 
galleries and pin rails shall be constructed of approved noncombustible 
materials . 

417.7.4 Footlights and stage electrical equipment: Footlights and border 
lights shall be installed in troughs constructed of noncombustible materi- 
als. The switchboard shall be so located as to be readily accessible at all 
times and the storage of placing of stage equipment against it shall be 
prohibited. All electrical equipment shall conform to the requirements of 
the Massachusetts Electric Code 527 CMR 12.00. 

417.7.5 Exterior doors: All required exitway discharge door openings to 



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the outer air shall be protected with approved self-closing fire doors, 
complying with Article 9. All exterior openings which are located on the 
stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes which are 
likely to be open during occupancy of the theatre, shall be constructed 
with vestibules to prevent air draughts into the auditorium. 

417.7.6 Proscenium wall: There shall not be other openings in the wall 
separating the stage from the auditorium except the main proscenium 
opening; two (2) doorways at the stage level, one (1) on each side there- 
of; and, where necessary, not more than two (2) doorways to the musi- 
cians' pit from the space below the stage floor. Each such doorway shall 
not exceed twenty-one (21) sguare feet in area and shall be protected 
with approved automatic and self-closing fire door assemblies complying 
with Article 9 with a combined fireresistance rating of three (3) hours or 
the approved labeled eguivalent. The distance between the top of the 
proscenium opening and the ceiling of the stage shall be not less than 
five (5) feet. 

417.7.7 Proscenium curtain: The proscenium opening shall be protected 
with an automatic fireresistive and smoke-tight curtain designed to resist 
an air pressure of not less than ten (10) pounds per square foot (psf) 
normal to its surface, both inward and outward. The curtain shall with- 
stand a one-half (1/2) hour fire test at a temperature of not less than 
seventeen hundred (1700) degrees F. without the passage of flame. The 
curtain shall be operated by an automatic heat activated device to descend 
instantly and safely and to completely close the proscenium opening at a 
rate of temperature rise of fifteen (15) to twenty (20) degrees F. per 
minute; and by an auxiliary operating device to permit prompt and imme- 
diate manual closing of the proscenium opening. 

417.7.8 Scenery: All combustible materials used in sets and scenery 
shall be rendered flameresistant to comply with Article 9. 

417.7.9 Stage ventilation: Metal or other approved noncombustible 
ventilators, equipped with movable shutters or sash, shall be provided 
over the stage, constructed to open automatically and instantly by ap- 
proved heat activated devices, with an aggregate clear area of opening 
not less than one-eighth (1/8) the area of the stage, except as otherwise 
provided in Section 417.2.2. Supplemental means shall be provided for 
manual operation of the ventilator. 

417.8 Dressing and appurtenant rooms 

417.8.1 Construction: Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, 
work shops and store rooms and all compartments appurtenant to the 
stage shall be of fireproof (Type 1) construction and shall be separated 
from the stage and all other parts of the building by walls of not less 
than three (3) hour fireresistance rating. Such rooms shall not be placed 
immediately over or under the operating stage area. All shelving and 
closets in dressing rooms, property rooms or storage rooms shall be 
constructed of flameresistant materials complying with Article 9. 



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417.8.2 Opening protectives: Openings other than to trunk rooms and 
the necessary doorways at stage level shall not connect such rooms with 
the stage, and such openings shall be protected with one and one-half (1 
1/2) hour self-closing fire doors or the approved labeled equivalent 
complying with Article 9. 

417.8.3 Dressing room and stage exitways: Each tier of dressing rooms 
shall be provided with at least two (2) means of egress, one (1) of which 
shall lead directly to an exitway corridor, exitway discharge court or 
street. Exitway stairways from dressing and storage rooms may be unen- 
closed in the stage area behind the proscenium wall. At least one (1) 
approved exitway shall be provided from each side of the stage and from 
each side of the space under the stage, and from each fly gallery, and 
from the gridiron to a street, exitway discharge court or passageway to a 
street. An iron ladder shall be provided from the gridiron to a scuttle in 
the stage roof. 

417.9 Lighting 

417.9.1 Exitways: During occupancy all exitways in places of assembly 
shall be lighted to comply with the requirements of Section 624.0. 

417.9.2 Auditoriums: Aisles in auditoriums shall be provided with gen- 
eral illumination of not less than one-tenth (1/10) foot candles at the 
front row of seats and not less than two tenths (2/10) foot candles at the 
last row of seats and the illumination shall be maintained throughout the 
showing of motion pictures or other projections. 

417.9.3 Foyers and waiting spaces: Foyers and waiting spaces shall be 
artificially lighted by electrical means at all times during occupancy of a 
place of assembly so as to provide illumination of at least three (3) foot 
candles at the level of the floor and on the surface of all stairs, steps, 
ramps, and escalators within the foyers and waiting spaces. 

417.9.4 Open exterior spaces: Yards or courts which serve as open 
exterior spaces shall be artificially lighted by electrical means at all times 
between sunset and sunrise during occupancy of a place of assembly so 
as to provide illumination of at least one (1) foot candle at the level of 
the floor over at least the required area. 

417.9.5 Other places of public assembly: All areas and portions of 
buildings used as places of public assembly other than theatres shall be 
lighted by electric light to provide a general illumination of not less than 
one (1) foot candle. 

417.9.6 Control: The lighting of exitways, aisles and auditoriums shall 
be controlled from a location inaccessible to unauthorized persons. Supple- 
mentary control shall be provided as specified in Section 408.3.4 in the 
motion picture projection room. 



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417.10 Fire protection and fire fighting eguipment: Every theatre class- 
ified in the use group A-l shall be eguipped with a fire protection system 
complying with the requirements of Article 12 and as herein specified. 

417.10.1 Fire suppression system: Approved automatic fire suppression 
systems complying with the provisions of Section 1202.0 shall be provided 
to protect all parts of the building except the auditorium or in the immed- 
iate vicinity of automatic equipment or over dynamos and electric equip- 
ment. Such protection shall be provided over the stage, under the 
gridiron, under all fly galleries, in dressing rooms, over the proscenium 
opening on the stage side, under the stage, in all basements, cellars, 
work rooms, store rooms, property rooms and in toilet, lounge and smok- 
ing rooms. 

417.10.2 Standpipes: Standpipe fire lines complying with the provisions 
of Section 1211.0 shall be provided with outlets and hose attachments; one 
(1) on each side of the auditorium in each tier; one (1) in each mezza- 
nine; one (1) in each tier of dressing rooms; and protecting each proper- 
ty, store and work room; and one (1) on each side of the stage. Such 
standpipes shall be not less than two and one-half (2 1/2) inches in 
diameter, equipped with one and one-half (1 1/2) inch hose connections. 

417.10.3 First-aid hand equipment: Approved portable two and one-half 
(2 1/2) gallon fire extinguishers shall be provided and located as follows: 
two (2) on each tier or floor of the stage; one (1) immediately outside of 
the motion picture projection room; one (1) in each dressing room; and 
one (1) in each work, utility and storage room. Fire axes and fire hooks 
shall also be provided as directed by the fire official; and all fire extin- 
guishers and fire tools shall be securely mounted on walls in plain view 
and readily accessible. 

SECTION 418.0 ASSEMBLY OTHER THAN THEATRES 

418.1 General: Other places of public assembly, including auditoriums, 
armories, bowling alleys, broadcasting studios, chapels, churches, com- 
munity houses, dance halls, gymnasiums, lecture halls, museums, exhibi- 
tion halls, night clubs, rinks, roof gardens and similar occupancies and 
uses shall comply with the general exitway requirements of Article 6 and 
the applicable requirements of Section 417.0, except the provisions of 
Sections 417.5.5 and 417.6.4 or as herein specifically exempted. Places 
of public assembly which are equipped with a stage, movable scenery, 
scenery loft and dressing rooms shall comply with all the requirements of 
Section 417.0, except use group A-l, theatres. 



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Table 418 

Minimum Number 

Occupancy Load Per Floor °f Exitways 

Not more than 500 2 

501 to 900 3 

901 to 1800 4 

Over 1800 5 



418.2 Number of exitways: Every tier, floor level and story of places of 
public assembly other than theatres, shall be provided with the number of 
required exitways as specified in Section 609.2, and of not less than the 
required width complying with Section 608.0, for the occupancy load. The 
required exitways shall be remote and independent of each other and 
located on opposite sides of the area served thereby. 

418.3 Aisles with fixed seats: All rows of seats shall be individually 
fixed or fixed in rigid units between longitudinal aisles complying with 
Sections 417.4.2 and 417.5 except as provided for chapels and churches 
in Section 610.3. Where permitted, continuous fixed benches shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 420.0. 

418.4 Aisles without fixed seats: Tables and chairs in all rooms and 
spaces for assembly use shall provide convenient access by unobstructed 
aisles not less than thirty-six (36) inches wide which lead to required 
exitways complying with Article 6. Tables and chairs shall be so ar- 
ranged that the distance from any chair at any table by way of a path 
between tables and chairs is not greater than eighteen (18) feet to an 
aisle leading to an exitway. The width of the path shall be at least 
eighteen (18) inches; except that it may be reduced by one (1) inch for 
each one (1) foot that the distance to the aisle is less than eighteen (18) 
feet, but may not be reduced to less than twelve (12) inches. Chairs, 
when placed with the front edge of the seat on a line with the edge of 
the table, shall not protrude into this path. Booths containing up to 
eight (8) seats may be used, provided they open directly on an aisle. 

418.5 Bowling alleys: The storage and use of all volatile flammable 
liquids shall comply with Section 402.0 and the finishing rooms shall be 
separately enclosed in two (2) hour fireresistance rated construction with 
floor finish of concrete or other noncombustible , nonabsorbent material. 

418.6 Skating rinks: Skating rinks shall not be located below the floor 
nearest grade. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 419.0 AMUSEMENT PARKS 

419.1 General: All buildings and structures used as part of an amuse- 
ment park shall be subject to this code. This section specifically includes 
any building or structure supporting a moving device. The jurisdiction 
of structures or buildings is limited to the points of interface of the 
moving device and rails, said device is to be controlled by Form B-ll, 
(520 CMR 5.00) Rules and Regulations for the Safety, Construction and 
Operation of Ferris Wheels, Carousels, Inclined Railways or Similar Amuse- 
ment Devices, filed with the Secretary of State on December 16, 1974. 

SECTION 420.0 STADIUMS AND GRANDSTANDS 

420.1 General: Stadiums and grandstands shall be constructed as re- 
guired by this code and in accordance with the approved rules and the 
Standard for Tents, Grandstands and Air-Supported Structures Used for 
Places of Assembly (NFiPA 102) listed in Appendix B. 

420.2 Handrails: Means of egress stairways shall be provided with a 
handrail on at least one (1) side. The handrail may be broken as neces- 
sary to provide for entrance to the seating platforms. 

420.3 Spaces underneath seats: Spaces underneath grandstand seats 
shall be kept free of all combustible and flammable materials and shall not 
be occupied or used for other than exitways; except that when enclosed 
in not less than one (1) hour fireresistance rated construction, the build- 
ing official may approve the use of such spaces for other purposes that 
do not endanger the safety to public. 

SECTION 421.0 DRIVE-IN MOTION PICTURE THEATRES 

421.1 Location: The location of drive-in motion picture theatres shall be 
approved by the local or state authority having jurisdiction over highways 
and streets. 

421.2 Arrangement of lanes: Separate entrance and exit lanes shall be 
provided not less than twelve (12) feet in width, with not less than forty 
(40) foot intervals between access lanes. The parking space for each car 
shall not be less than nine (9) feet by twenty (20) feet in area, and so 
arranged to provide continuous lanes of travel. 

421.3 Projection booth: The projection booth shall comply with Section 

408.3 and shall be supported on a structure of Type 2C or other ap- 
proved noncombustible construction. A motor vehicle shall not be permit- 
ted to park within twenty (20) feet of the projection booth or room. 

421.4 Fire protection: Sufficient approved portable fire extinguishers 
shall be provided in readily accessible locations, plainly and visibly 
identified by signs, at distances of not more than one hundred and fifty 
(150) feet so as to be available to every motor vehicle as directed by the 
lire official. The fire extinguishers shall be mounted on posts or plat- 



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forms protected from mechanical injury with substantial guards as ap- 
proved by the building official. 

SECTION 422.0 TENTS, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURES AND OTHER 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 

422.1 Tents and other temporary structures 

422.1.1 General: Tents shall be constructed as reguired by this code 
and in conformance with accepted engineering practice and the Standard 
for Tents, Grandstands and Air- Supported Structures Used for Places of 
Assembly (NFiPA 102) as listed in Appendix B. 

422.1.2 Conditions of permit: A special temporary permit for tents and 
other temporary structures shall be obtained from the building official for 
installation for a period of time as determined by the building official but 
not to exceed ninety (90) days. 

422.1.3 Location: Tents shall be located outside the fire limits unless an 
accessible unoccupied open space is provided around the perimeter with a 
minimum width of ten (10) feet beyond stakes. Such structures may not 
be erected within the fire district for a period of more than twenty-four 
(24) hours unless such use is reviewed and approved by the fire official, 
and any such structure shall be subject to any condition of use, egress, 
and protection as may be determined by the building official. 

422.1.4 Approved type: Tents, and other temporary structures shall be 
of an approved type and shall have evidence submitted that the structure 
satisfies all structural and fire safety reguirements as indicated in NFiPA 
102. 

422.1.5 Flame, resistant treatment: For every tent used as a place of 
assembly, composed of combustible fabric material, there shall be submit- 
ted to the building official: 

1. a certificate or other evidence of approval by a recognized 
accredited laboratory; or, 

2. a certificate signed and stamped by a registered professional 
engineer, showing that the material has been tested and approved 
for flame resistance in accordance with the recommendations of 
NFiPA 701 within a period of twelve (12) months of the date on 
which the use will terminate under any building permit issued. If 
certification is not provided for within the time period indicated 
above, then the building official and fire official shall reguire 
confirmatory field tests using test specimens from the original 
material affixed at the time of manufacture to the exterior of the 
tent. 

422.1.6 Combustible materials: Combustible materials shall not be permit- 
ted under stands or seats at any time. Excessive vegetation shall not be 
allowed beneath the stands or seats. 



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422.2 Air support structures 

422.2.1 General: Air-supported structures shall be constructed as 
required by this code and in conformance with accepted engineering 
practice and the Standard for Tents, Grandstands and Air-Supported 
Structures used for Places or Assembly (NFiPA 102) listed in Appendix 
B. 

422.2.2 Conditions of permit: A temporary permit or a permanent per- 
mit, with the following provisions, shall be obtained from the building 
official for installation of a period of time as determined by the building 
official. A permanent permit shall be issued for a period not longer than 
two (2) years, with the added provision that the owner of an air struc- 
ture shall submit a certified inspection record to the building official upon 
renewal of said permit. This certification shall verify that the structure 
has been inspected and serviced by a qualified service organization. 

422.2.3 Location: Air-supported structures may not be erected within 
the fire district for a period of more than twenty-four (24) hours unless 
such use is reviewed and approved by the fire official, and they shall be 
subject to any condition of use and protection as may be determined by 
the building official. 

422.2.4 Approved type: Air-supported structures shall be of an ap- 
proved type and shall have evidence submitted that the structure satisfies 
all structural and fire safety requirements as indicated in NFiPA 102 
listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 423.0 PARKING LOTS 

423.1 Parking lot offices: The construction of parking lot offices shall 
comply with the fire limit restrictions of Section 302.0 and Section 56, 
Chapter 148 of the General Laws. 

423.2 Protection of adjoining property: A substantial bumper of mason- 
ry, steel or heavy timber shall be placed near all interior lot lines to 
protect structures and property abutting the parking lot. 

SECTION 424.0 GROUP RESIDENCE 

424.1 Definition: A group residence is a premise licensed by or oper- 
ated by an agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or subdivision 
thereof, as a special residence for those who are capable of self-preser- 
vation in the following categories: 

1. not more than twelve (12) unrelated persons between the ages of 
seven (7) and fifteen (15) years of age inclusive; or 

2. not more than twenty-five (25) unrelated persons, sixteen (16) 
years of age or over; or 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



3. a combination of Category 1 and 2 above consisting of not more 
than eighteen (18) unrelated persons over seven (7) years of age 
calculated at the rate of two (2) such persons, or portion thereof, 
from Category 2 being egual to one (1) such person in Category 1 
all in accordance with Table 424. 

Note: In determining the classification for proposed use, group resi- 
dence shall not be construed as being similar in any way to a multi- 
family dwelling, two-family dwelling, boarding house, lodging house, 
dormitory, hotel, school or institution of any kind. For building code 
purposes, it shall be treated as a single-family residential building. 

Table 424 



Category 1 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 





Category 2 





2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


25 


Maximum 

Total 

Residents 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


25 



424.1.1 Special definitions: For the purpose of Section 424.0, the fol- 
lowing terms shall be defined exclusively for use with group residences: 

Self preservation: Having the capability, both mentally and physically, 
to take action to preserve one's own life. Specifically, to egress the 
building within two and one-half (2 1/2) minutes. (Reference inspec- 
tion procedures in Sections 424 . 7 and 424 . 8 . ) 

Egress: A continuous unobstructed path of travel from any space in a 
building to the open air outside at grade. 

Principal means of egress: The primary choice of two (2) routes normally 
used by occupants to enter or leave a building. 

Escape route: To reduce the possibility of entrapment in the event that 
the principal means of egress is blocked by fire or smoke, an escape 
route shall be available which performs in accordance with Section 
424.8. In an existing building where a second means of egress is 
physically impractical from above grade floors, any proven, usable path 
to the open air outside at grade shall be deemed acceptable, including 
but not limited to connecting doors, porches, windows within six (6) 
feet of grade, ramps, fire escapes, balcony evacuation systems, etc. 

Authorized inspectors: The state or local building official having juris- 
diction and a representative of the licensing or operating agency having 
jurisdiction . 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Room: See definition of "Habitable space" and "Occupiable room" in 
Section 201.0. 

424.2 Existing buildings: These regulations shall apply to existing 
dwelling units which are to be converted to a group residence, notwith- 
standing Section 106.0 

424.2.1 Height limitations: Existing buildings, of Type 4B construction, 
greater than two and one-half (2 1/2) stories, or thirty-five (35) feet in 
height may be allowed to be used (as an exception to Table 305) as a 
group residence. 

424.3 Plans and specifications: Plans shall be filed with the building 
official having jurisdiction in accordance with Section 113.0 for any build- 
ing to be constructed as, or altered for use as, a group residence under 
Section 424.0. The floor plans shall show all rooms, spaces, closets, 
doors, corridors, windows, stairs and stairways, hazardous vertical 
openings and the location of all required fire warning equipment and 
proposed fire suppression equipment. 

424.4 Hazardous contents: Any contents which represent a fire hazard 
greater than that which could be expected of ordinary household furnish- 
ings, shall not be allowed. Storage shall not be allowed above the second 
floor . 

424.4.1 Interior finish: Only Class I and Class II interior finish materi- 
als shall be allowed in the principal means of egress. In refinishing any 
other area, material having a Class III flame spread rating shall be al- 
lowed provided it does not decrease the existing rating. The smoke 
contribution rating of any material shall not exceed 450 (see Section 
904.0). 

424.4.2 Exception: In existing buildings, the required flame spread or 
smoke development classification of interior surfaces may be obtained by 
applying approved fire retardant paints or solutions to existing interior 
surfaces having a higher flame spread rating than permitted. 

424.5 Egress: In existing buildings there shall be one (1) means of 
egress and one (1) escape route serving each floor, remote as possible 
from each other and leading to grade. The stairway between the first 
and second floors, if unenclosed, may remain unenclosed to preserve 
functional and aesthetic requirements. In new construction, two (2) 
means of egress are required in accordance with the One- and Two-Family 
Dwelling Code, and stairways above the grade floor shall be enclosed with 
one (1) hour fireresistive construction. 

424.6 Fire protection systems 

424.6.1 Hazardous vertical openings: Openings to such spaces as laun- 
dry chutes, dumbwaiters, heating plenums or combustible concealed spa- 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



ces shall be permanently blocked with one (1) hour construction, as 
regulated by the provisions of Article 9. 

424.6.2 Automatic fire warning systems: An approved automatic fire 
warning system shall be provided in accordance with Article 12. 

424.7 Inspections: There shall be three (3) mandatory types of inspec- 
tions as described below. The results of such inspections shall be on file 
in the office of the building official with copies sent to the licensing or 
operating agency on a prepared checklist and signed by the authorized 
inspectors. 

424.7.1 Temporary certificate: The building official shall perform plan 
review and post- construction inspection to ensure that the building con- 
forms to this code. He shall issue a temporary certificate of occupancy 
effective for ninety (90) days only. 

424.7.2 Final certificate: Before issuance of the final certificate of 
occupancy, the authorized inspectors shall mutually conduct a test (see 
Section 424.8.1) to ensure that the occupants are capable of self-preser- 
vation. Upon complete satisfaction of all requirements, the building 
official shall then issue a permanent certificate of occupancy. This test 
shall be conducted once a year in accordance with Section 108.5.1 for 
purposes of recertifying both the building and the occupants. 

424.8 Inspection procedure: The building and the occupants' capability 
of self-preservation constitute a system of life safety which are unique 
for each building and for each occupant in a group residence. There- 
fore, a simple direct test is specified herein to determine the capability of 
the occupant and/or the suitability of the building as a life safety sys- 
tem. 

424.8.1 Direct test/fire drill: A fire drill shall be conducted as the 
direct test required by Section 424.8. The building official may require 
that he be present for the fire drill, or may accept an affidavit signed by 
the residence manager citing the names of the authorized inspectors 
present, the names of the occupants who participated, the name(s) of any 
occupants who failed to egress the building within two and one-half (2 
1/2) minutes, the date, time and place where said fire drill was held. 
During the conduct of the drill, all staff personnel of the group residence 
shall isolate themselves from the occupants. The authorized inspector(s), 
when present, shall then cause to be blocked any one point in the princi- 
pal egress route to simulate a hazardous condition and the internal alarm 
system shall be activated for two and one-half minutes. 

424.8.2 Evaluation: Any occupant who fails to escape from the building 
and achieve egress outside the building at ground level within the two 
and one-half (2 1/2) minute period shall not be permitted to remain living 
in the residence. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Note: The occupant or the building may be at fault; therefore, the 
system has failed to perform adequately to provide life safety and is, 
consequently, unacceptable for that occupant. 

424.8.3 Other tests: Other tests are not necessary and shall not be 
required by the building official. It shall be the responsibility of the 
residence manager of the group residence to provide immediate suitable 
accommodations elsewhere for any occupant deemed unacceptable by the 
building official. Each occupant must be certified at regular intervals but 
not less than every quarter at the group residence by the licensing or 
operating agency. The building official may require an inspection at his 
discretion when he feels that either the building or the occupant may not 
conform . 

424.9 Certificate of occupancy: Any certificate of occupancy issued for 
a building intended to be used as a group residence, as defined in Sec- 
tion 424.1, shall become invalid if the premises have not been licensed or 
authorized by an agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts within 
ninety (90) days of the date of issuance of the certificate of occupancy. 

SECTION 425.0 MOTELS 

425.1 General: All buildings and accessory structures used as motels 
shall comply with the requirements and limitations of this code for the 
occupancy and use for which they are designed and as herein specifically 
required . 

425.2 Garages: Garages when attached to motel residential buildings 
shall have the interior faces of all walls, when not of approved masonry 
construction, and the ceilings protected to afford one (1) hour fireresis- 
tance rating and all connecting openings shall be protected with approved 
three-quarter (3/4) hour fire doors or their equivalent complying with 
Article 9, or with one and three-quarter (1 3/4) inch solid core wood 
doors. Roofed-over passageways may be used to connect garages to 
dwellings if protected with one (1) hour fireresistance rated construction. 

425.3 Required exitways: All exitways in buildings more than one (1) 
story in height shall be constructed of one (1) hour fireresistance rating 
and all stories above the first shall have at least two (2) means of egress 
complying with Article 6. All exitways from residential quarters shall 
lead to open spaces not less than twenty (20) feet in width which provide 
direct access to public streets or highways. 

425.4 Driveways and parking spaces: The arrangement of driveways 
and lanes shall provide adequate access for emergency vehicles. 

SECTION 426.0 RADIO AND TELEVISION TOWERS 

426.1 General: Subject to the structural provisions of Section 715.0 for 
wind loads and the requirements of Section 925.0 governing the fireresis- 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



tance ratings of buildings for the support of roof structures, all radio 
and television towers shall be designed and constructed as herein pro- 
vided. 

426.2 Location and access: The towers shall be so located and equipped 
with step bolts and ladders to be readily accessible for inspection pur- 
poses. Guy wires or other accessories shall not cross or encroach upon 
any street or other public space, or over any electric power lines, or 
encroach upon any other privately owned property without written con- 
sent of the owner. 

426.3 Construction: All towers shall be constructed of approved corro- 
sion-resistive, noncombustible materials. Within the limitations of Section 

302.0 for fire limits, isolated radio towers may be constructed of lumber 
sizes qualifying for mill type construction when not more than one hun- 
dred (100) feet in height. 

426.4 Loads: The structure shall be securely braced and anchored to 
resist a wind of not less than thirty (30) pounds per square foot (psf) 
on the net area of both sides of latticed construction and on the projected 
area of the antennae plus the wind on ice-covered sections in localities 
where subject to freezing temperatures. Where subject to winds of un- 
usual velocity, the loads shall be increased accordingly. Due allowance 
shall be made for effect of shape of individual elements and contour of 
the tower as provided in Section 715.0 in computing wind loads. 

426.4.1 Dead load: Antennae and towers shall be designed for the dead 
load plus ice load in regions where ice formation is likely to occur. 

426.4.2 Uplift: Adequate foundations and anchorage shall be provided to 
resist two (2) times the calculated wind uplift. 

426.5 Grounding: All towers shall be permanently and effectively ground- 
ed. 

SECTION 427.0 RADIO AND TELEVISION ANTENNAE 

427.1 Permits not required: Antennae structures for private radio or 
television reception not more than twelve (12) feet in height may be 
erected and maintained on the roof of any building without a building 
permit. Such a structure, however, shall not be erected so as to injure 
the roof covering and when removed from the roof, the roof covering 
shall be repaired to maintain weather and water tightness. The installa- 
tion shall not be erected nearer to the lot line than the total height of 
the antennae structure, nor shall such structure be installed near electric 
power lines or encroach upon any street or other public space. 

427.2 Permits required: The approval of the building official shall be 
secured for all antennae structures more than twelve (12) feet in height. 
The application shall be accompanied by detailed drawings of the struc- 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



ture and methods of anchorage. All connections to the roof structure 
must be properly flashed to maintain water tightness. The design and 
materials of construction shall comply with the requirements of Section 
426.3 for character, quality, and minimum dimensions. 

SECTION 428.0 SWIMMING POOLS 

428.1 General: Pools used for swimming or bathing shall be in conform- 
ity with the requirements of this section, provided, however, these 
regulations shall not be applicable to any such pool less than twenty-four 
(24) inches deep or having a surface area less than two-hundred and 
fifty (250) square feet, except when such pools are permanently equipped 
with a water recirculating system or involve structural materials. For 
purposes of this code, pools are classified as private swimming pools or 
public and semi-public swimming pools, as defined in Section 428.2. 

Materials and constructions used in swimming pools shall comply with the 
applicable requirements of this code. Pools used for swimming or bathing 
and their equipment or accessories which are constructed, installed and 
maintained in accordance with the applicable standards listed in Appendix 
B shall be deemed to conform to the requirements of this code, provided 
the requirements of Section 428.8 are included in the installation and the 
requirements of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Environmental Code 
310 CMR 16.00 are met. 

428.2 Classification of pools: Any constructed pool which is used, or 
intended to be used, as a swimming pool in connection with a single 
family residence and available only to the family of the householder and 
his private guests shall be classified as a private swimming pool. Any 
swimming pool other than a private swimming pool shall be classified in 
the public or semi-public swimming pool categories. 

428.3 Plans and permits 

428.3.1 Permits: A swimming pool or appurtenances thereto shall not be 
constructed, installed, enlarged or altered until a permit has been ob- 
tained from the building official. The approval of all city, county and 
state authorities having jurisdiction over swimming pools shall be obtained 
before applying to the building official for a permit. Certified copies of 
these approvals shall be filed as part of the supporting data for the 
application for the permit. 

428.3.2 Plans: Plans shall accurately show dimensions and construction 
of pool and appurtenances and properly established distances to lot lines, 
buildings, walks and fences; details of water supply system, drainage and 
water disposal systems, and all appurtenances pertaining to the swimming 
pool. Detail plans of structures, vertical elevations, and sections through 
the pool showing depth shall be included. 

428.4 Locations: Private swimming pools shall not encroach on any front 
or side yard required by this code, or the governing zoning law, except 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



by specific rules of the jurisdiction in which it may be located. A wall of 
a swimming pool shall not be located less than six (6) feet from any rear 
or side property line or ten (10) feet from any street property line, 
except by specific rules of the jurisdiction in which it may be located. 

428.5 Design and construction 

428.5.1 Structural design: The pool structure shall be engineered and 
designed to withstand the expected forces to which it will be subjected. 

428.5.2 Wall slopes: To a depth up to five (5) feet from the top, the 
wall slope shall not be more than two (2) feet horizontal in five (5) feet 
vertical . 

428.5.3 Floor slopes: The slope of the floor on the shallow side of 
transition point shall not exceed one (1) foot vertical to seven (7) feet 
horizontal. The transition point between shallow and deep water shall not 
be more than fix (5) feet deep. 

428.5.4 Surface cleaning: All swimming pools shall be provided with a 
recirculating skimming device or overflow gutters to remove scum and 
foreign matter from the surface of the water. Where skimmers are used 
there shall be at least one (1) skimming device for each one thousand 
(1,000) square feet of surface area or fraction thereof. Where overflow 
gutters are used they shall be not less than three (3) inches deep, 
pitched one-quarter (1/4) inch per foot to drains, and constructed so 
they are safe, cleanable and that matter entering the gutters will not be 
washed out by a sudden surge of entering water. 

428.5.5 Walkways: All public or semi-public swimming pools shall have 
walkways not less than four (4) feet in width extending entirely around 
the pool. Where curbs or sidewalks are used around any swimming pool 
they shall have a non-slip surface for a width of not less than one (1) 
foot at the edge of the pool and shall be so arranged to prevent return 
of surface water to the pool. 

428.5.6 Steps and ladders: One (1) or more means of egress shall be 
provided from the pool. Treads of steps or ladders shall have non-slip, 
surfaces and handrails on both sides, except that handrails may be omit- 
ted when there are not more than (4) steps or when they extend the full 
width of the slide or end of the pool. Access to public pools shall in- 
clude a paraplegic lift. 

428.6 Water supply, treatment and drainage systems 

428.6.1 Water supply: All swimming pools shall be provided with a 
potable water supply, free of cross-connections with the pool or its 
equipment. 



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428.6.2 Water treatment: Public and semi-public swimming pools shall be 
designed and installed so that there is a pool water turnover at least once 
every eight (8) hours. Filters shall not filter water at a rate in excess 
of three (3) gallons per minute per sguare foot of surface area. The 
treatment system shall be so designed and installed to provide in the 
water, at all times when the pool is in use, excess chlorine of not less 
than four-tenths (0.4) parts per million (ppm) or more than six-tenths 
(0.6) ppm, or excess chloramine between seven-tenths (0.7) and one 
(1.0) ppm, or disinfection may be provided by other approved means. 
Acidity-alkalinity of the pool water shall not be below seven (7.0) or more 
than seven and one-half (7.5). All recirculation systems shall be pro- 
vided with an approved hair and lint strainer installed in the system 
ahead of the pump. 

Private swimming pools shall be designed and installed so that there is a 
pool water turnover at least once every eighteen (18) hours. Filters 
shall not filter water at a rate in excess of five (5) gallons per minute 
per sguare foot of surface area. The pool owner shall be instructed in 
proper care and maintenance of the pool, by the supplier or builder, 
including the use of high test calcium hypochlorite (dry chlorine) or 
sodium hypochlorite (liguid chlorine) or egually effectively germicide and 
algaecide and the importance of proper pH (alkalinity and acidity) con- 
trol. 

428.6.3 Drainage systems: The swimming pool and equipment shall be 
equipped to be completely emptied of water and the discharged water shall 
be disposed of in an approved manner that will not create a nuisance to 
adjoining property. 

428.7 Appurtenant structures and accessories 

428.7.1 Appurtenant structures: All appurtenant structures, installa- 
tions, and equipment, such as showers, dressing rooms, equipment hous- 
es or other buildings and structures, including plumbing, heating, and 
air conditioning, amongst others appurtenant to a swimming pool, shall 
comply with all applicable requirements of this code, the zoning laws, the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Health Sanitary Code 
310 CMR 12.00, the Plumbing Code 248 CMR 2.00, as well as the Massa- 
chusetts Electrical Code 527 CMR 12.00. 

428.7.2 Accessories: All swimming pool accessories shall be designed, 
constructed, and installed so as not to be a safety hazard. Installations 
or structures for diving purposes shall be properly anchored to insure 
stability, and properly designed and located for maximum safety. 

428.8 Safety precautions 

428.8.1 Equipment installations: Pumps, filters, and other mechanical 
and electrical equipment for public and semi-public swimming pools shall 
be enclosed in such a manner as to be accessible only to authorized 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



persons and not to bathers. Construction and drainage shall be such as 
to avoid the entrance and accumulation of water in the vicinity of electri- 
cal equipment. The construction and installation of electrical wiring for 
equipment in or adjacent to swimming pools, to metallic appurtenances in 
or within five (5) feet of the pool, and to auxiliary equipment such as 
pumps, filters, and similar equipment shall conform to Article 680 of the 
Massachusetts Electrical Code 527 CMR 12.00. 

428.8.2 Enclosures: Every public and semi-public outdoor in-ground 
swimming pool shall be enclosed by a fence five (5) feet in height and 
firmly secured at ground level. If over five (5) feet in height, the fence 
shall be chain link. Such enclosure, including gates therein, shall not be 
less than five (5) feet above the ground, and any gate shall be self- 
latching with latches placed four (4) feet above the ground or otherwise 
made inaccessible from the outside to children up to eight (8) years of 
age. Any such pool shall be equipped with at least one (1) life ring and 
a rescue hook. 

428.8.3 Draining: Every outdoor in- ground swimming pool open to the 
public shall be drained or covered within seven (7) days of closing. 

428.8.4 Inspection: Every public and semi-public outdoor in-ground 
swimming pool shall be inspected annually by the inspector of buildings of 
each city and town in which said pools are located (in accordance with 
Chapter 140, Section 206, of the Massachusetts General Laws as amen- 
ded). 

428.8.5 General safety requirements: Cities or towns may enact by-laws 
or ordinances for enclosing private swimming pools by requiring the 
installation of fences or equivalent enclosures or means of protection from 
access to the pool. 

SECTION 429.0 OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 

429.1 General: Open passenger vehicle parking structures are those 
structures used for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles 
designed to carry not more than nine (9) persons, and include the follow- 
ing two (2) general types: 

1. Ramp type parking structures are those employing a series of 
continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps 
between floors permitting the movement of passenger automobiles 
under their own power to and from the street level. 

2. Mechanical type parking structures are those employing specially 
designed parking machines, elevators, lifts, conveyors, moving 
cranes, dollies or other devices for moving passenger automobiles to 
and from the street level. 

For exitway requirements see Section 609.5. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



429.2 General construction requirements: Passenger vehicle structures 
shall be constructed of noncombustible materials throughout, including 
structural framing, floors, roofs and walls. Any enclosed rooms or 
spaces on the premises shall comply with the applicable requirements of 
this code. 

429.3 Separations: Parking structures may be erected without exterior 
walls except that an enclosure wall with not less than two (2) hours 
fireresistance rating, without openings therein, shall be provided when 
located within six (6) feet of interior lot lines. 

429.4 Basements: Basements, if used for parking of vehicles, shall be 
sprinklered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1202.0 and shall 
be ventilated in accordance with the provisions of Section 414.3.1. 

429.5 Gasoline dispensing: Areas used for dispensing of gasoline in 
parking structures shall be located on the grade floor and shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 415.0. 

429.6 Heights and areas: Heights and areas of open parking structures 
shall not exceed the limits specified in the following Table 429. 

Table 429 



HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATION FOR OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 



Type of construction 


Height 


Area in square feet 


1A&1B 

2A 
2B 
2C 
2B&2C 


Unlimited 

12 Stories— 120 feet 

10 Stories— 100 feet 

8 Stories— 85 feet 

2 Stories— 25 feet 1 


Unlimited 

Unlimited 

50,000 

30,000 

Unlimited 



Note 1 Type 2B and 2C construction may be six (6) stories in height and unlimited in area when at 
least fifty (50) per rent open on all sides and when the horizontal distance from any point on any level to 
an exterior wall opening on a street, alley, courtyard or any other permanent open space does not ex- 
ceed two hundred (200) feet. 



The areas of structures wherein more than twenty-five (25) per cent of 
the perimeter has frontage on street or other open space leading to a 
street each of which is not less than thirty (30) feet wide may be in- 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



creased as provided in Section 306.2. When an automatic sprinkler sys- 
tem is installed in accordance with Section 1204.0 in Types 2B and 2C 
construction, the area may be unlimited. The above limits of height 
permit parking on the roof. 

429.7 Protective guard rails: All wells, shafts and other open, exposed 
spaces throughout, except first floor, shall be enclosed and protected 
with continuous walls or protective guard rails at least three (3) feet six 

(6) inches in height, except that in those structures wherein vehicles are 
hoisted to the desired level and placed in the parking space entirely by 
approved mechanical means, the three (3) foot six (6) inch high continu- 
ous wall or protective guard rail may be omitted on the side of the park- 
ing levels adjacent to the space occupied by the hoisting and placing 
equipment. 

429.8 Curbs and bumpers: Curbs or bumpers of noncombustible materi- 
als shall be provided at the perimeter of each parking tier. Such curbs 
or bumpers shall be at least twelve (12) inches high, substantially an- 
chored, and so located that any part of any motor vehicle will not contact 
a wall, partition or railing. 

429.9 Special restrictions: Open parking structures shall be subject to 
the provisions of this section and the Massachusetts Fire Prevention 
Regulation 527 CMR 5.00 and NFiPA 88. Where 527 CMR 5.00 and NFiPA 
88 may conflict with construction regulations contained in this code, this 
code shall govern. 

SECTION 430.0 FALLOUT SHELTERS 

430.1 General: This article shall establish the minimum criteria which 
must be met before a building or building space can be constructed, 
occupied, used, or designated as a fallout shelter, and such shelters 
must be constructed in accordance with the applicable standards as listed 
in Appendix B. 

SECTION 431.0 HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

431.1 Applicability: The provisions of this section shall apply to all 
buildings more than seventy (70) feet above mean grade. 

431.2 Maintenance and inspection: All fire protection systems shall be 
maintained in an operative condition at all times and shall be periodically 
inspected and tested in accordance with the fire prevention code listed in 
Appendix B. Maintenance inspections shall be made quarterly and logged 
in a journal kept available for inspection. 

431.3 General: All high-rise buildings complying with Section 431.1 shall 
be provided with an approved automatic fire suppression system. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



431.3.1 Automatic fire suppression system: The automatic fire suppres- 
sion system shall be installed throughout the building. The system shall 
be designed using the parameters set forth in the applicable standards 
listed in Appendix I, and shutoff valves and a water flow device shall be 
provided for each floor. 

Exception: In use groups R-l and R-2, sprinklers may be omitted in 
closets and similar spaces which are located within an individual dwell- 
ing unit when the least dimension of such spaces is not greater than 
thirty (30) inches and the floor areas within such spaces does not 
exceed twenty-four (24) sguare feet. 

431.3.1.1 Automatic fire suppression system alternatives: When a fire 
suppression system is installed, modifications to this code are permitted 
as described below. 



1. The type of construction required by this code may be modified as 
follows : 



Modified type 
Type of construction of construction 

set forth in Table 214 permitted hereunder 



1A IB 

IB 2A 

2A 2B 



2. The fireresistance rating of exitway access corridors and vertical 
separation of tenant spaces shall: 

a. not be required in use group B (business) buildings; 

b. be a minimum of one-half (1/2) hour in use group R-l (resi- 
dential, hotel) and R-2 (residential, multi-family) buildings; 
and the wall or partitions may be terminated at the lowest 
portion of the fireresistance rated assembly above. 

3. Vertical shafts other than stairway enclosures and elevator hoist- 
way enclosures may be reduced to one (1) hour when sprinklers 
are installed within the shafts at alternate floors. 

4. The exitway access and common corridor doors need not meet the 
requirements of Section 610.4 except they shall be self-closing and 
tight fitting. 

5. The one and one-half (1 1/2) inch hose line, nozzle, rack and 
cabinet may be omitted as set forth in Section 1211.5.1. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



6. The exitway access travel distance set forth in Table 607 may be 
increased to three hundred (300) feet. 

7. Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Section 618.0 may be omitted, 
but required stairways shall be pressurized to fifteen-hundredths 
(0.15) inches of water column in the manner described in Section 
618.9.3. 

8. Spandrel walls, eyebrows and compartmentation are not required; 
however, the fireresistance rating of the floors and junctures of 
exterior walls with each floor must be maintained. 

9. Fire dampers, other than those needed to maintain the fireresis- 
tance rating of the floor-ceiling assembly, are not required. Where 
fire dampers will interfere with the operation of the smoke control 
system approved alternate protective devices shall be utilized. 

10. Operable windows required by Section 609.4 for emergency egress 
or rescue may be omitted. 

431.4 Smoke detection systems in high-rise buildings. 

431.4.1 Mechanical and equipment rooms: An approved smoke detector 
suitable for the intended use shall be installed in every mechanical equip- 
ment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or 
similar room unless such rooms are protected with an automatic fire sup- 
pression system. 

The actuation of any detector required by this section shall operate the 
voice alarm system and shall place into operation all equipment necessary 
to prevent the recirculation of smoke. 

431.4.2 Dwelling units: In use groups R-l and R-2, single or multiple 
station smoke detectors shall be installed in accordance with Section 
1216.3.2.1, Item 6. 

431.5 Alarm and communication systems: Alarm and communication sys- 
tems shall be provided. The alarm and communication systems shall be so 
designed and installed that damage to any terminal unit or speaker will 
not render more than one (1) zone of the system inoperative. 

A single communication system may be designed to serve the voice alarm, 
public address and fire department communication system as follows: 

1. Voice alarm system: The operation of any smoke detection, sprin- 
kler waterflow device or manual fire alarm station shall automati- 
cally activate a voice alarm system. Activation of the system shall 
automatically sound an alert signal to the desired areas. The 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



voice alarm system shall provide a predetermined message on a 
selective basis to the area where the alarm originated and shall 
provide information and give direction to the occupants. The 
alarm shall be designed to be heard clearly by all occupants within 
the building or designated portions thereof as is required for the 
public address system. 

The central control station shall contain controls for the voice 
alarm system so that a selective or general voice alarm may be 
manually initiated. 
The system shall be continuously electrically supervised against com- 
ponent failure of the audiopath including amplifiers, speaker wiring, 
switches and electrical contacts and shall detect opens, shorts and 
grounds which might impair the function of the system. 

2. Public address system: A public address communication system de- 
signed to be clearly heard by all occupants of the building shall 
operate from the central control station. It shall be established on a 
selective or general basis to the following terminal areas: 

a . elevators , 

b. elevator lobbies, 

c . corridors , 

d. exitway stairways, 

e. rooms and tenant spaces exceeding one thousand (1,000) square 
feet in area, 

f. dwelling units in apartment houses, and 

g. hotel guest rooms or suites. . 

3. Fire department communication system: A two (2) way fire depart- 
ment communication system shall be provided for fire department use. 
It shall operate between the central control station and every eleva- 
tor, elevator lobby and entry to every enclosed exitway stairway. 

431.6 Central control station: A central control station for fire 
department operations shall be provided in a location approved by the 
fire department. It shall contain: 

1. the voice alarm and public address system panels; 

2. the fire department communications panel; 

3. fire detection and alarm system annunciator panels; 

4. status indicator for elevators; 

5. status indicators and controls for air handling systems; 

6. controls for unlocking all stairway doors simultaneously; 

7. sprinkler valve and waterflow detector display panels; 

8. emergency power, light and emergency system controls and status 
indicators; and 

9. a telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the 
public telephone system. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



431.7 Smoke control: Natural or mechanical ventilation for the removal 
of products of combustion shall be provided in every story and shall 
consist of one (1) of the following: 

1. Panels or windows in the exterior walls which can be opened re- 
motely from an approved location other than the fire floor. Such 
venting facilities shall be provided at the rate of twenty (20) 
square feet per fifty (50) lineal feet of exterior wall in each story 
and shall be distributed around the perimeter at not more than fifty 
(50) foot intervals. Such windows or panels and their controls 
shall be clearly identified. 

2. When a complete and approved automatic fire suppression system is 
installed, the mechanical air handling equipment may be designed to 
accomplish smoke removal. Under fire conditions, the return and 
exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recircu- 
lation to other sections of the building. The air handling system 
shall provide a minimum of one (1) exhaust air change each ten 
(10) minutes for the area involved. 

3. A continuous shaft through which smoke and heat can be mechani- 
cally vented to the outdoors. The size of the shaft shall be uni- 
form throughout and of such dimension as to produce one (1) air 
change per ten (10) minutes in the largest compartments served 
anywhere in the building. Openings into the shaft shall be pro- 
tected with an automatic single-piece shutter located as high in the 
room as possible and designed to vent the entire compartment. 

4. Any other approved design which will produce equivalent results. 

431.8 Elevators: Elevator operation and installation shall be in accord- 
ance with Article 16 and the standards listed in Appendix B, and the 
elevator cab shall be of such size as to accommodate an ambulance cot in 
its horizontal open position, and in accordance with the provisions of 524 
CMR 3.00-11.00. 

431.9 Emergency power, light and emergency systems: Emergency 
power, light and emergency systems shall comply with the following: 

1. Emergency power: A permanently installed on-site power generation 
system shall be provided. All power, lighting, signal and commu- 
nication facilities provided under the requirements of this section, 
including an independent ventilation system for the emergency 
power generator room, shall be transferable to the emergency power 
source. 

The electrical power requirements for sizing the emergency power 
generation systems shall include but not be limited to the following: 

a. fire protection equipment, including fire pumps; 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



b. mechanical ventilation equipment required by this section includ- 
ing power operated windows; 

c. elevator cars required by 524 CMR 15.00-33.00; 

d. emergency lighting; and 

e. the normal loads of all facilities classed as emergency. The 
regular light and power circuits supplying such facilities are 
classified as emergency systems and shall be automatically trans- 
ferable to the emergency power generation system. 

2. Emergency lighting: Emergency lighting shall include but not be 
limited to the following: 

a. separate lighting circuits and facilities sufficient to provide light 
with an intensity not less than one (1) foot candle measured at 
floor level in all exitway access corridors, stairways, smokeproof 
enclosures, elevators, elevator lobbies, and other areas which 
are clearly part of the means of egress; and 

b. all circuits supplying lighting for the central control station, the 
emergency power generator rooms, and other rooms housing 
control equipment for mechanical systems required by this sec- 
tion shall be transferable to the emergency power system. 

3. Emergency systems: All electrical systems and facilities required 
by this section and classified as emergency shall be installed in an 
approved manner. The following systems and lighting loads are 
classified as emergency facilities and shall operate within ten (10) 
seconds of primary power failure: 

a. required lighted exit signs and exit pathway illumination, 

b. fire alarm and sprinkler alarm systems, 

c. fire detection systems, 

d. elevator car lighting, 

e. stairway door control systems, and 

f. voice communication systems. 

431.10 Exits: Exits shall comply with other requirements of this code 
and the following: 

1. All stairway doors which are to be locked from the stairway side 
shall have the capability of being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the central control station. 

2. A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to 
an approved emergency service which operates continuously shall be 
provided at not less than every fifth (5) floor in each required 
stairway where other provisions of this code permit the doors to be 
locked . 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



3. Smokeproof enclosures may be eliminated if all enclosed stairways 
are pressurized, as provided for mechanically operated smokeproof 
enclosures, to a minimum of fifteen-hundredths (0.15) and a maxi- 
mum of thirty-five hundredths (0.35) inch of water column in fully 
sprinklered buildings. 

SECTION 432.0 COVERED MALLS 

432.1 Scope: Covered mall buildings are subject to the special require- 
ments of this section and are of two (2) types: 

1. Type A covered mall buildings are subject to the general provisions 
of this code. 

2. Type B covered mall buildings may be designd and constructed in 
accordance with the special provisions as noted herein. All other 
applicable provisions not specified herein shall be complied with. 

432.2 Requirements for Type B covered mall buildings 

432.2.1 Lease plan: The permit holder shall provide both the building 
and fire departments with a lease plan showing the locations of each 
occupancy and its means of egress after the certificate of occupancy has 
been issued. Such plans shall be kept current. No modifications or 
changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease 
plan without prior approval of the building official. 

432.2.2 Tenant separations: Each tenant shall be separated from adjoin- 
ing tenants by a wall having a minimum one (1) hour fireresistance rating 
which shall extend from the floor to the underside of the ceiling. No 
separation is required between a tenant space and a mall. 

432.2.3 Exitways: Exitways shall be provided in accordance with the 
following : 

1. The maximum length of exitway access travel from any point within 
the mall to an approved exitway along the natural and unobstructed 
path of travel shall not exceed two hundred (200) feet. 

2. Each individual occupancy within the covered mall building shall be 
provided with a means of egress in accordance with other provisions 
of this code. Measurements may be made to the entrance to the 
mall. 

3. When the length of travel from the most remote point within a 
tenant space exceeds one hundred (100) feet to the mall, a second 
means of egress shall be provided. When two (2) or more means of 
egress are required, the secondary exits may open into the mall, an 
exit corridor, an exit enclosure, or to the exterior. When a corri- 
dor provides the second means of egress, it shall be of one (1) 
hour fireresistance rated construction and doors to the corridors 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



shall be one (1) hour opening protectives. Such doors shall be self 
closing, and be so maintained, or shall be automatic closing when 
actuated by smoke detectors. 

4. Anchor stores shall provide the required number of exitways and 
units of exit width directly to the exterior. The occupant load of 
anchor stores opening into the mall shall not be included in deter- 
mining exitway requirements for the mall. 

5. The dead end of a mall shall not exceed twice its width. 

6. In determining required exitway facilities of the mall, the number of 
occupants for whom exitway facilities are to be provided, shall be 
based on gross leasable area of the covered mall building (including 
anchor stores) and shall be based on the following table. 



Square feet per person Gross leasable area (sq. ft.) 



30 under 300.000 

40 300.000-700,000 

50 over 700,000 



7. The minimum width of exitway access passageways and corridors 
from a mall shall be fifty-six (56) inches. 

8. The required units of exit width and exitways shall be distributed 
equally throughout the mall. 

9. Storage is prohibited in exitway corridors which are also used for 
service to the tenants. Such corridors shall be posted with con- 
spicuous signs so stating. 

432.2.4 Mall width: The minimum width of the mall shall be thirty (30) 
feet. 

There shall be a minimum of ten (10) feet clear exitway width to a height 
of eight (8) feet between any projection of a tenant space bordering the 
mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, or 
other obstruction to egress travel. 

The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupancy load 
emptying into the immediately adjacent mall as determined by Section 
432.2.3 for all occupancies except assembly which shall be determined by 
Section 606.0 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



432.2.5 Type of construction 

1. The structural elements of the covered mall building shall be of 
noncombustible (Types 1 and 2) or heavy timber (Type 3A) con- 
struction. 

2. Floor/ceiling assemblies and their supporting columns and beams 
within multi-level covered malls shall be of one (1) hour fire- 
resistance rated noncombustible construction. 

3. Separation between tenant spaces and the mall is not required. 
When walls are provided, they shall comply with the provisions of 
Table 214 for other non-bearing partitions. 

432.2.6 Roof coverings: Roof coverings for covered mall buildings shall 
be Class A, B, or C as required by Section 926.0. 

432.2.7 Mixed occupancy: Use groups assembly (A), business (B), 
mercantile (M), and residential (R) may be accessory to the covered mall 
building. Accessory occupancies may be three (3) times the area permit- 
ted by Table 305 for the type of construction and the occupancy in- 
volved. Use groups assembly (A), business (B), mercantile (M) and 
residential (R) shall be separated from adjacent tenants by a minimum of 
one (1) hour fireresistance rated separation wall. 

Exception: Assembly (A) occupancies shall be located in the covered mall 
building so that their main entrance is immediately adjacent to a principal 
entrance to the mall. 

The sprinkler system required in covered mall buildings shall not be 
substituted for required one (1) hour fireresistance rated construction. 
Assembly (A) occupancies other than restaurants shall have not less than 
one-half (1/2) of their required exitways opening directly to the exterior 
of the covered mall building. 

432.2.8 Fire protection: Every covered mall building shall be provided 
with fire protection equipment as follows: 

1. The covered mall and all buildings connected thereto shall be pro- 
vided throughout with an approved fire suppression system. The 
suppression system in the covered mall shall be independent of the 
suppression systems in the buildings connected to the covered mall. 

2. All sprinkler control valves shall be electrically supervised and 
connected to either the fire department or to an approved super- 
visory service, except as otherwise approved by the local fire 
official . 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Fire department standpipe outlets shall be provided within the mall 
at each entrance to an exit passageway, corridor or enclosed stair- 
way and at exterior exits. 

4. First aid fire extinguishers shall be provided as required by the 
fire prevention code listed in Appendix B, and as required by the 
local fire official. 

432.2.9 Fire emergency ventilating system: The covered mall and exit- 
way corridors serving the mall shall be equipped with an approved autom- 
atic exhaust system capable of producing six (6) air changes per hour 
computed on volume measured to a height of twelve (12) feet above each 
pedestrian area. Necessary outside air to accomplish the six (6) air 
changes per hour shall be provided. 

The exhaust system shall be activated by smoke detectors complying with 
the applicable standards listed in Appendix B, by operation of the sprink- 
ler system, and manually. The activation system shall be installed in an 
approved manner. Exhaust shall be taken uniformly from the entire mall 
area and exitways serving the mall through an approved duct system with 
vents spaced not more than fifty (50) feet or through a ceiling plenum 
with uniformly distributed openings. Where tenant spaces are open to the 
mall area exhaust may be taken through the tenant spaces. 

The approved automatic exhaust system may be a separate system or may 
be integrated with an approved air-conditioning system. Where a sepa- 
rate system is provided, operation of the fire emergency ventilating 
system shall automatically shut down the air-conditioning system or any 
other devices which interfere with the effective operation of the fire 
emergency ventilating system. The fire emergency ventilating system 
shall be connected to an emergency power source in accordance with the 
requirements of the Massachusetts Electric Code 527 CMR 12.00. 

432.2.10 Fire department access to equipment: Controls for air-condi- 
tioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other fire detection, 
suppression or control elements shall be accessible to and properly iden- 
tified for use by the fire department. 

432.2.11 Plastic panels and plastic signs: Within every story or level 
and from side wall to side wall of each tenant, approved plastic panels 
and signs shall be limited as follows: 

1. They shall not exceed twenty (20) per cent of the wall area facing 
the mall. 

2. They shall not exceed a height of thirty-six (36) inches, except if 
the sign is vertical, the height shall not exceed ninety-six (96) 
inches and the width shall not exceed thirty-six (36) inches. 

3. They shall be located a minimum distance of eighteen (18) inches 
from adjacent tenants. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



4. All edges and the backs shall be fully encased in metal. 

432.2.12 Kiosks: Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or perma- 
nent) shall meet the following reguirements : 

1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within 
the covered mall unless constructed of fire retardant treated wood 
throughout, conforming to the standards listed in Appendices C and 
G. 

2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the covered mall shall be 
provided with approved fire suppression and detection devices. 

3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks and other struc- 
tures within the covered mall shall be twenty (20) feet. 

4. Kiosks or similar structures shall have a maximum area of three 
hundred (300) sguare feet. 

SECTION 433.0 NURSING HOMES, REST HOMES, CHARITABLE HOMES 
FOR THE AGED, CONVALESCENT HOMES AND HOSPITALS 

433.1 New facilities: Buildings to be constructed or proposed for a 
change of occupancy, to be used as nursing homes, rest homes, chari- 
table homes for the aged, convalescent homes and hospitals (in use group 
1-2) shall meet the provisions of NFiPA 101 Life Safety Code, as refer- 
enced in Appendix B and the applicable provisions of this code. 

433.2 Deleted 

433.2.1 Deleted 

433 . 2 . 2 Deleted 

433.2.3 Deleted 

433.2.4 Deleted 

433 . 2 . 5 Deleted 

433.2.6 Deleted 

433.2.7 Deleted 

433.3 Construction requirements: Hospitals, nursing homes, and conva- 
lescent homes shall be built only of Type 1 construction, in accordance 
with Chapter 111, Sections 51 and 71, of the Massachusetts General Laws, 
as amended. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 434.0 DAY CARE CENTERS 

434.1 General: Day care centers shall be subject to the applicable 
provisions of this code and the special requirements of this section. Day 
care centers licensed by the Office for Children may be subject to compli- 
ance with the rules and regulations of that authority. These provisions 
shall apply to new and existing day care centers. 

434.2 High hazard restriction: A day care center shall not occupy the 
same building with, or be located within two hundred (200) feet of a high 
hazard occupancy. 

434.3 Day care center use groups 

434.3.1 Less than two years and nine months in age: Buildings and 
portions thereof licensed by the Office for Children as day care centers 
for children two (2) years and nine (9) months in age or younger shall 
be classified as 1-2 use group. 

434.3.2 More than two years and nine months in age: Buildings and 
portions thereof licensed by the Office for Children as day care centers 
for children more than two (2) years and nine (9) months in age shall be 
classified as A-4 use group. 

434.4 Height and area limitations 

434.4.1 1-2 limitations: Existing buildings containing day care occupan- 
cies (use group 1-2) not in conformance with the height and area limita- 
tions of Table 305 shall be limited to not more than three (3) stories and 
forty (40) feet in height. The day care center shall be restricted to the 
first floor and cellar or basement use and not more than two thousand 
four hundred (2,400) square feet per floor. All required egresses shall 
be directly to grade. 

434.4.2 A-4 limitations: Existing buildings containing day care occupan- 
cies (use group A-4) not in conformance with the height and area limita- 
tions of Table 305 shall be limited to not more than three (3) stories and 
forty (40) feet in height. The day care center shall be restricted to the 
first two (2) stories and the basement or cellar use and not more than 
four thousand eight hundred (4,800) square feet per floor. 

434.4.3 Increases: Increases in height or area shall not be allowed for 
A-4 or 1-2 day care center use groups. 

434.5 Day care centers classified as 1-2 use group 

434.5.1 Basement and cellar use in Types 3C and 4B construction 

434.5.1.1 Basement use: A basement, as defined in this code, of a 
Type 3C or 4B construction may be used for a day care center in accord- 



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ance with the following requirements: there shall be two (2) separate 
and independent means of egress, remote from each other: 

1. leading to grade; or 

2. leading to a one (1) hour fire-rated enclosed stairway not more 
than four (4) feet in height vertically which leads directly to grade 
and is separated from any other use as an egress by one (1) hour 
fire-rated partitions and self-closing doors. 

434.5.1.2 Cellar use: A cellar, as defined in this code, of a Type 3C or 
4B construction may be used for a day care center in accordance with the 
following requirements : 

1. There shall be at least two (2) separate and independent interior 
means of egress, remote as possible from each other and leading 
directly to grade or to a one (1) hour fire-rated enclosed stairway 
not more than four (4) feet in height, vertically. Any such stair- 
way serving as a required means of egress from a day care center 
shall serve only the day care center. 

2. Smoke detectors shall be located in the story of use and in the 
story below, if one exists, directly beneath the area being used for 
the day care center. 

3. Interior stairways used as required means of egress shall contain 
smoke detectors connected to alarms audible throughout the day 
care center. 

434.6 Egress requirements for 1-2 and A-4 day care center use groups 

434.6.1 Below grade: All day care centers or parts thereof located 
below grade, except for 1-2 day care center use in Types 3C and 4B 
construction is provided in Sections 434.5.1.1 and 434.5.1.2, shall con- 
form to the following requirements: 

1. There shall be at least two (2) separate and independent means of 
egress, remote as possible from each other, at least one (1) of 

2. Required interior stairways shall be of at least one (1) hour fire- 
rated construction enclosed with self-closing fire doors. 

3. Required interior stairways shall contain smoke detectors connected 
to alarms audible throughout the day care center. 

434.6.2 Egress on floors other than basement or cellar: Each story of 
the day care center shall be provided with not less than two (2) indepen- 
dent means of egress, remote as possible from each other, and such 
additional approved means of egress leading from the occupied spaces so 
that to reach an egress it will not be necessary to pass through a common 
corridor or space. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



434.6.2.1 Buildings of Types 1, 2A and 2B construction: In buildings 
of Types 1, 2A or 2B construction, except for R-2 use group, equipped 
with a fire suppression system in compliance with Section 1202.0, a single 
common corridor shall be acceptable for providing access to two (2) means 
of egress as required in this section. 

434.6.2.2 Common corridors used as exitways: Common corridors may be 
subdivided, for the purpose of Section 424.6.2 to provide separate and 
independent exitways by using smoke stop partitions complying with the 
provisions of this code. The doors in the smoke stop partitions may be 
equipped with an automatic hold open device connected to smoke or smoke 
and heat detectors and designed to close automatically by activation of the 
detector system. 

434.6.2.3 Egress from each room: Two (2) approved means of egress 
located as remotely as possible from each other shall be required for each 
occupied room. One (1) such required egress may be made by communi- 
cating door. 

434.6.3 Roof egress: Where the roof is used by a day care center, two 
(2) enclosed stairways shall be provided, one (1) leading directly to an 
enclosed exitway system and one (1) leading to a corridor on a floor 
below that leads to two (2) remote and independent exitways. The stair- 
ways shall comply with all the provisions of Section 434.0 and this code. 

434.6.4 Egress lighting: Egress lighting shall be provided in conform- 
ance with Article 6, including requirements for emergency lighting. 

434.6.5 Doorways: All required exitway doorways shall be at least 
thirty-six (36) inches in width. All other egress doorways shall be at 
least thirty-two (32) inches in width. 

434.6.6 Handrails: All required egress stairways shall be provided with 
double handrails on both sides, and these shall be continuous including 
all runs and platforms and shall be built as follows. 

1. The upper rail shall be not less than thirty (30) inches nor more 
than thirty-three (33) inches, measured vertically, above the nos 
ing of the treads. 

2. The lower rail shall be installed at approximately twenty (20) inches 
high measured vertically at the face of the riser. 

434.7 Heating system: Any portable or permanent heater in spaces 
occupied by children shall be separated from the occupied space by 
partitions, guards, screens, or other means. Space and unit heaters 
using combustible fuels shall be prohibited. 

434.8 Boiler rooms: Boilers, furnaces or other fire units shall be en- 
closed as required in Section 1105.0. Boiler room doors shall not open 

nto occupied areas. 



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434.9 Roofs: Where a roof is used by a day care center, there shall be 
a solid, smooth non-climbable fence or barrier a minimum of seven (7) 
feet high on all sides and separating the day care center area from any 
other uses. Fences shall be set back at least three (3) feet from the 
outside edge of the exterior wall below. A weatherproof telephone or 
equivalent means of communication shall be provided for use in emergen- 
cies and shall be openable without keys, coins, etc. 

434.10 Fire alarm systems: Fire alarm systems shall be provided in day 
care centers in accordance with the requirements of this section. The 
requirements of Sections 434.5.1.2 and 434.6.1 may be combined with the 
requirements of this section. 

1. Facilities for up to twenty-four (24) children shall be provided with 
a manual alarm system which will sound an alarm audible throughout 
the day care center. 

2. Facilities for twenty-five (25) or more children shall be provided 
with an automatic alarm system consisting of approved smoke detec- 
tors located as provided in Section 434.11 and audible throughout 
the day care center or throughout each floor of the center. In 
addition, there shall be at least one (1) manual alarm on each floor 
of the day care center which will sound on all floors when actuated. 

434.11 Location of detectors: Smoke detectors shall be installed on the 
ceiling of each story occupied by the day care center above or in front of 
the doors to the stairways and at not greater than thirty (30) foot spac- 
ing in the corridor providing required means of egress on all floors of 
the day care center. Smoke detectors shall also be installed in all acces- 
sory spaces of the day care center not used for children, including 
storage over one hundred (100) square feet in area. All required detec- 
tors shall be located on the same circuit and interconnected so that when 
one (1) sounds, all will sound. Required detectors shall meet the re- 
quirements of UL 217 as listed in Appendix I and shall have an alarm 
decibel rating of at least 85. 

434.12 Floor and ceiling protection: When the floor occupied by the day 
care center is above any usable space, the floor shall have a minimum of 
three quarter (3/4) hour fire rating. When the floor occupied by the day 
care center is below any usable space, the ceiling shall have at least a 
three quarter (3/4) hour fire rating or the floor above shall be equipped 
with smoke detectors. 

SECTION 435.0 SUMMER CAMPS FOR CHILDREN 

435.1 Definition: Summer camps for children include premises, operated 
solely between April and October of each year for recreational or other 
purposes, and having residential facilities. The use of such accommoda- 
tions for purposes of inspection, certification and inspection fees shall be 
considered as being similar to a dormitory in R-2 use group and subject 
to the following provisions of this section. 



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435.2 New and existing occupancies: These regulations shall apply to 
existing and new summer camps for children as defined in Section 435.1 
of this code. 

435.3 Means of egress: All one-story, one-room buildings having one 
thousand (1,000) square feet or less and having twenty-five (25) occu- 
pants or less shall require only one (1) means of egress provided that: 

1. the length of travel does not exceed fifty (50) feet from any point 
in the building to the outside at grade; and, 

2. the minimum width for aisles and corridors shall be three (3) feet. 

435.3.1 Emergency escape: Every sleeping room shall have at least one 
(1) exterior door or openable window to permit emergency exit or rescue; 
the windows shall conform to the following restrictions: 

1. must be openable from the inside without the use of separate tools; 

2. the sill height shall not be more than thirty-six (36) inches above 
the finish floor and with a maximum six (6) foot drop from the 
window sill to grade below the window; and 

3. provide a minimum net clear opening area of three and three tenths 
(3.3) square feet with a rectangle having minimum net clear opening 
dimensions of twenty (20) inches by twenty-four (24) inches. 

435.4 Fire protection: Smoke detectors shall be required for existing 
and new residential units in accordance with Section 1216.0 of this code 
and may be either A.C. wired or battery-operated. 

Exception: Tents and other temporary shelters which are designed to 
sleep less than eight (8) persons and which have an open side con- 
sisting of greater than one sixth (1/6) of the perimeter of the shelter 
or which have built-in provisions for emergency escape. 

435.5 Mechanical: If camps are heated, then the building must conform 
to all applicable code sections and specialized codes, notwithstanding any 
of the provisions in Section 435.0. 

435.6 Enforcement and inspections: Enforcement shall be by the local 
building official who shall inspect and certify the summer camps yearly, 
prior to season opening. Fees charged shall be in accordance with Table 
108 of this code. 

SECTION 436.0 HISTORIC BUILDINGS 

436.1 Scope: The provisions of Section 436.0 shall govern all buildings 
and structures in the Commonwealth which are legally designated as 
historic buildings. This section shall preempt all other regulations of this 
code governing the reconstruction, alterations, change of use and occu- 



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pancy, repairs, maintenance and additions for the conformity of historic 
buildings and structures to this code, with the exception of Section 126.0 
for appeals, or unless otherwise specified (see Appendix U). 

436.2 Definitions 

Historic buildings: Any individual building or structure, but excluding 
districts, so designated by the National Register of Historic Places or 
certified by the Massachusetts Historic Commission and ratified by the 
Massachusetts Building Code Commission as listed in Appendix U. Historic 
buildings shall be further defined as totally or partially preserved build- 
ings. 

Partially preserved buildings: Any building or structure designated as a 
historic building by the State Building Code Commission or listed in the 
National Register of Historic Places and not designated as a totally pre- 
served building in Appendix U. 

Restoration: Restoration is the process of accurately reconstructing the 
form and details of a building or structure or portion thereof as it ap- 
peared at a particular period or periods of time by means of removal of 
later work and/or the replacement of missing original work. 

Totally preserved buildings: A totally preserved building is a historic 
building or structure. The principal use of such a building or structure 
must be as an exhibit of the building or structure itself which is open to 
the public not less than twelve (12) days per year, although additional 
uses, original or ancillary to the principal use, shall be permitted within 
the same building up to maximum of twenty-five (25) per cent of the 
gross floor area. Totally preserved buildings shall be those listed in 
Appendix U. 

436.3 Totally preserved buildings 

436.3.1 State Building Code exceptions: A totally preserved building 
shall be subject to the following exceptions: 

1. Repairs, maintenance and restoration shall be allowed without con- 
formity to this code if the provisions of Section 436.4 have been 
fully complied with. 

2. In case of fire or other casualty to a totally preserved building, it 
may be rebuilt, in total or in part, using such techniques and 
materials as are necessary to restore it to its original condition and 
use group. 

3. If a historic building or structure, as a result of proposed work, 
would become eligible for certification as a totally preserved build- 
ing and the Massachusetts Historical Commission so certifies by 
affidavit and it is submitted to the building official with the permit 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



application, then the building official shall allow the work to pro- 
ceed under the provisions of this section. 

436.4 Mandatory safety requirements: All totally preserved buildings 
shall comply to the following requirements: 

436.4.1 Fire protection equipment: Fire protection equipment shall be 
provided according to the following requirements. 

1. Manual fire extinguishing equipment: all use groups, other than 
residential R-3, shall have approved manual fire extinguishing 
equipment, as determined by the fire official. 

2. Automatic fire warning system: all residential buildings in use 
groups R-l, R-2, and R-3 shall conform to the requirements of 

• Section 1216.3.2 of this code. All other use groups shall comply 
with Items a and b below: 

a. Locations: provide one (1) smoke detector, but not less than 
one, for every twelve hundred (1200) square feet of floor area 
per level. In addition, all lobbies, common corridors, hallways 
and exitway access and discharge routes shall be provided with 
approved smoke detectors with not more than thirty (30) foot 
spacing between detectors. All required smoke detectors shall 
have an alarm audible throughout the structure or building. 

b. Single station and multiple station smoke detection devices: 
smoke detectors of single station and multiple station types shall 
meet the requirements of U.L. 217 and be listed or approved by 
a nationally-recognized fire-testing laboratory. 

3 . Manual pull stations : a manual fire alarm pull station shall be 
provided in the natural path of egress in all use groups except 
R-3. Manual pull stations shall be connected to the building fire 
warning system in conformance with NFiPA 72A as listed in Appen- 
dix B. 

436.4.2 Exit signs and emergency lights: Approved exit signs and 
emergency lighting, where designated by the local building official, shall 
be provided in compliance with Sections 623.0 and 624.0 of this code. 

Exception: All totally preserved buildings need not comply with Sec- 
tions 623.0 and 624.0 if not occupied after daylight hours, except that 
paths of egress shall have exit signs. 

436.4.3 Maximum occupancy: Occupancy shall be limited by the actual 
structural floor load capacity as certified by a qualified Massachusetts 
registered professional engineer or architect or as per Section 606.0, 
whichever is less. Said floor load shall be posted as per the procedures 
set forth in Sections 119.0, 120.0 and 705.0. The owner shall submit 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



evidence of this certification and related computations to the building 
official upon request. 

436.4.4 Limited egress: Where one or more floors of a totally preserved 
building are limited to one (1) means of egress, the occupancy load shall 
be computed as follows: 

1. Floors below the first story: not more than one (1) occupant per 
one hundred (100) square feet of gross floor area with a maximum 
occupancy of forty-nine (49). 

2. First story: not more than one (1) occupant per fifty (50) square 
feet of gross floor area. 

3. Second story and above: not more then one (1) occupant per one 
hundred (100) square feet of gross floor area, or thirty (30) occu- 
pants per unit of egress width, whichever condition results in the 
lesser occupancy load. 

436.4.5 Inspections: The building official and fire official shall inspect 
all totally preserved buildings not less frequently than once every year in 
order to determine that the building or structure continues to conform to 
Section 436.4. A qualified Massachusetts registered professional engineer 
or architect shall certify every five (5) years thereafter as to the exact 
floor load capacity of the building or structure. The building official 
shall certify all totally preserved buildings not less frequently than once 
every year. Fees shall be established at $25 per building per inspection. 

436.5 Historic buildings not qualified as totally preserved 

436.5.1 Applicability: This section and Article 22 shall apply to all 
historic buildings which are not defined as totally preserved buildings. 

436.5.2 Continuation of use and occupancy: The legal use and occu- 
pancy of any partially preserved building may be continued without 
change or further compliance to this code. The provisions of Section 
436.4 shall be required for historic buildings accessible to the public on 
more than fifty (50) days per year. 

436.5.3 Inspection, certification and fees: The building inspector shall 
inspect all partially preserved buildings not less frequently than once a 
year in order to determine that the building or structure continues to 
conform to Sections 436.5 and/or 436.4. If in conformance, then he shall 
issue a certification. Fees shall be in conformance with Table 108. 

436.5.4 Fire damage: If a building or structure is damaged from fire or 
other casualty, it may be restored to its original condition using tech- 
niques and methods consistent with its original construction, or it shall 
meet the requirements of this code provided these requirements do not 
compromise the features for which the building was considered historic 
when listed in Appendix U of this code or the National Register of His- 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

toric Places. 

436.5.5 Repairs and maintenance: See Article 22. 

436.5.6 Change in occupancy: See Article 22. 

436.5.7 New systems: See Article 22. 

436.5.8 Lesser and equal hazard: See Article 22. 

436.5.9 Greater hazard: See Article 22. 

SECTION 437.0 OPEN WELLS 

437.1 General: Open wells are to be classified as either atriums (Section 
437.2) or floor openings (Section 437.3) and shall be permitted in all 
buildings in other than use group H (high hazard) when provided with 
the protection herein required. 

437.1.1 Fire suppression: An approved automatic fire suppression 
system shall be installed throughout all floor areas connected by the open 
well in accordance with the provisions of Article 12, except those floor 
areas separated from the open well by fire separation assemblies conform- 
ing to Table 214. 

437.1.2 Use: The floor of the open well shall not be used for other 
than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations 
may be used in the open well space. 

The open well space may be used for any approved use when the indivi- 
dual space is provided with an approved fire suppression system. 

437.1.3 Exitways: An open well connecting not more than three (3) 
floor levels may contain an exitway as permitted by Section 616.10. 

437.1.4 Standby power: All equipment required to provide smoke control 
shall be connected to a standby power system meeting the requirements of 
Section 431.9. 

437.1.5 Acceptance of the smoke control system: Before the certificate 
of occupancy is issued, the smoke control system shall be tested in an 
approved manner to show compliance with the requirements of this sec- 
tion. 

437.1.6 Inspections of the smoke control system: All operating parts of 
the smoke control system (including dampers) shall be tested by the 
owner every three (3) months and a log of the tests shall be kept for 
examination by the fire department. At six (6) month intervals the 
system shall be inspected and operated in accordance with the Basic Fire 
Prevention Code listed in Appendix B. 



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437.2 Atriums: Atriums shall be constructed as herein required except 
atriums in buildings two (2) stories in height shall not be required to be 
equipped with a smoke control system as indicated in Section 437.2.2. For 
purposes of this section, the volume of the atrium shall include all spaces 
not separated from the atrium in accordance with Section 437.2.2. 

437.2.1 Smoke control: A smoke control system shall be designed to 
control the migration of products of combustion in the atrium spaces. 
Upon detection of a fire or smoke, the system shall shut down the air 
supply to the fire floor and the return air from all non-fire floors. 

437.2.1.1 Atriums fifty-five (55) feet or less in height: In atriums 
fifty-five (55) feet or less in height with a volume of six hundred thou- 
sand (600,000) cubic feet or less a smoke exhaust system shall be located 
at the ceiling of the atrium. Such system shall exhaust forty thousand 
(40,000) cfm or six (6) air changes per hour, whichever is greater. 
When the volume of the atrium exceeds six hundred thousand (600,000) 
cubic feet, the exhaust system shall be sized to provide a minimum of 
four (4) air changes per hour. 

Supply air may be provided at the lowest level of the atrium. These 
inlets shall be sized for seventy-five (75) per cent of the exhaust. 

437.2.1.2 Atriums in excess of fifty-five (55) feet in height: When the 
height of the atrium exceeds fifty-five (55) feet, an exhaust system shall 
be provided as required by Section 437.2.1.1; however, supply air shall 
be introduced mechanically from the floor of the atrium and shall be 
directed vertically at the exhaust outlet above. The capacity of the 
supply shall be seventy-five (75) per cent of the exhaust. 

437.2.1.3 Smoke detectors: Smoke detectors shall be provided at the 
ceiling of the atrium and on the underside of each floor area projecting 
into the atrium space. Detectors shall be located in accordance with their 
listing . 

437.2.1.4 Smoke control activation: The smoke control system required 
for the atrium spaces shall be activated by the fire suppression system, 
smoke detectors required by Section 437.2.1.3 and by manual controls 
provided for the fire department use. The system shall not be activated 
by a manual fire alarm system required by Section 1217.0. Manual con- 
trols shall be located in the central control station or other location 
approved by the fire department. 

437.2.1.5 Other approved methods: Any other approved design which 
will achieve the same level of smoke control as described in this section 
may be used in lieu of these requirements. 

437.2.2 Enclosure of atriums: Atrium spaces shall be separated from 
adjacent spaces by a one (1) hour fire separation wall. A glass wall 
forming a smoke partition may be used in lieu of the required fire separa- 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



tion wall where automatic sprinklers are spaced six (6) feet or less along 
both sides of the separation wall, or on the room side only if there is not 
a walkway on the atrium side, and not more than one (1) foot away from 
the glass and so designed that the entire surface of the glass will be wet 
upon activation of the sprinkler system. 

Exception: The adjacent spaces of any three (3) floors of the atrium 
shall not be required to be separated from the atrium; however, these 
spaces shall be included in the atrium volume according to Section 437.2. 

437.2.3 Voice alarm: In use groups R-l, R-2 and I, a voice alarm 
system complying with the requirements of Section 431.5, Item 1, shall be 
required on the floors communicating with the atrium. The alarm shall be 
initiated by either the fire suppression system or the activation of two 
(2) or more smoke detectors in the atrium. 

437.2.4 Travel distance: In other than the lowest level of the atrium, 
when the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the 
exitway access travel distance shall not exceed one hundred and fifty 
(150) feet. 

437.3 Floor openings: Floor openings for unenclosed supplemental stair- 
ways, except supplemental stairways conforming to Section 616.8, or 
escalators conforming to Article 16 shall be permitted when protected on 
every floor pierced by the opening with an approved automatic exhaust 
system or by other approved smoke control method as herein required to 
prevent the passage of products of combustion to the story above. 

437.3.1 Smoke control: The approved automatic exhaust system may be 
a separate unit or integrated with an approved air handling system and 
shall be thermostatically controlled to operate simultaneously with the 
detection of fire. 

437.3.1.1 Capacity of exhaust system: The exhaust system shall be of 
adequate capacity to create a controlled draft in the floor opening with 
sufficient velocity of flow over the entire area of the floor opening under 
normal conditions of window and door openings in the building. 

437.3.1.2 Operation of mechanical system: The exhaust system herein 
required shall be so arranged as to automatically stop the operation of the 
normal mechanical air handling system and ventilating systems and close 
the dampers of the return air duct connection in the event of fire. 

437.3.2 Draft stop: An approved draft stop shall be intalled herein at 
each story of the floor opening. The draft stop shall enclose the perim- 
eter of the opening and shall extend from the ceiling downward at least 
eighteen (18) inches on all sides. Automatic sprinklers shall be provided 
around the perimeter of the opening and within two (2) feet of the draft 
stop. The distance between the sprinklers shall not exceed six (6) feet 
center to center. 



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SECTION 438.0 LIMITED GROUP RESIDENCE 

438.1 General: A building licensed by or operated by the Department 
of Mental Health or the Office for Children, Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts as a limited group residence: this is a special residence to 
include residents not capable of self-preservation. 

438.1.1 Scope: A limited group residence shall have a mzximum of 
twelve (12) residents who are at least four (4) years of age. Not 
more than four (4) of the residents shall be impaired; provided, 
however, that more than four (4) such residents may be impaired if 
the structure complies with Section 438.2. A limited group residence 
shall be classified in the R-5 use category for code purposes. 

438.1.2 Definitions: The following terms shall have the meaning 
indicated for the purpose of Section 438.0: 

Existing building or structure: Any completed building or struc- 
ture which has been legally occupied and/or legally used for a 
period of at least five (5) years. Structures which fail to qualify 
with this definition shall comply with Section 438.2. 

Resident: A client in need of care who resides in the limited group 
residence of the licensing or operation agency. Staff are not 
considered as residents under the provisions of Section 438.0. The 
licensing agency shall classify all residents in one (1) of the follow- 
ing three (3) categories: 

Impaired: All residents not capable of self-preservation through 
physical, mental and/or developmental disability and requiring 
physical assistance to exit the building. All residents under 
seven (7) years of age shall be classified as impaired. 

Partially impaired: All residents physically, mentally and/or 
developmentally disabled but capable of exiting the limited group 
residence with either supervision and/or instruction without any 
physical assistance. 

Unimpaired: All residents capable of exiting the building with- 
out physical assistance and/or supervision or instruction by staff 
personnel and capable of negotiating any exitway of the limited 
group residence. 

438.1.3 Application of building code and reference: Except as may 
otherwise be specifically provided for in Section 438.0, the Massa- 
chusetts State Building Code shall apply in its entirety. 

Exception: Article 22 shall not apply. 

438.1.4 Mixed use occupancy: A limited group residence shall not be 
housed in a building used for any occupancy other than a limited 
group residence (R-5). 

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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



438.1.5 Plans and specifications: Plans shall be filed with the build- 
ing official having jurisdiction in accordance with Section 113.0 for any 
building to be constructed as, or altered for use as, a limited group 
residence under Section 438.0. 

438.1.6 Temporary certificate of occupancy: Upon satisfactory com- 
pliance with the code sections pertaining to building reguirements , the 
building official shall issue a temporary certificate of occupancy in 
accordance with Section 119.4 for a period not to exceed ninety (90) 
days. This temporary certificate of occupancy specifically prohibits 
residents as defined in Section 438.1.2 from inhabiting the building 
overnight until the building official issues the certificate of occupancy 
under Section 438.1.8. 

438.1.7 Rules and regulations of the licensing or operating agency 
pertaining to and including, but not limited to, smoking regulations, 
staffing ratios, and resident classifications shall be provided to the 
building official by the licensing or operating agency prior to the 
issuance of a certificate of occupancy. 

438.1.8 Certificate of occupancy: Certificates of occupancy shall only 
be issued when a license, if appropriate, and an affidavit from the 
Department of Mental Health or the Office for Children, Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts have been accepted by the builidng official attesting 
to the satisfactory compliance with the applicable rules and regulations 
referenced in Section 438.1.7. 

438.1.9 Certificate of inspection: Certificates of inspection shall be 
issued by the building official in accordance with Section 108.5.1 and 
Table 108. 

438.1.10 Failure to comply:. The building official immediately upon 
being informed by written report or otherwise that a building or 
structure or anything attached thereto or connected therewith is being 
occupied in violation of this code may revoke or suspend any permit, 
license, certificate or other permission regulated by this code and 
granted by him, and no such building or structure shall be continued 
to be operated after such revocation or suspension. Such revocation 
or suspension shall not preclude the building official from instituting 
appropriate action in accordance with Section 121.0. 

438.2 New structures: All new structures shall be constructed, 
eguipped, and maintained to the reguirements of Article 21, Section 
438.0 and this code, and shall be limited to one (1) story in height. 
Corridors shall be of one (1) hour fireresistive construction. 

438.2.1 Other reguirements: New structures shall also satisfy the 
general reguirements contained in Sections 438.1 and 438.3. 

438.3 Existing structures: Existing structures of any construction up 
to three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height may be converted and 
used for limited group residence occupancies. All residents classified 

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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



as impaired as defined in Section 438.1.2 are restricted to those stories 
having direct access to grade without steps or changes in elevation 
other than ramps in accordance with Section 315.1. 

438.3.1 Third-story utilization: The third (3rd) story of buildings 
permitted by Section 438.3 may be only occupied by staff. Other use 
of the third (3rd) story is restricted to heating, ventilation units and 
ordinary storage. All doors leading to non-resident areas shall be 
maintained locked. 

438.3.2 Vertical openings: Openings to such spaces as laundry 
chutes, dumb-waiters, heating plenums or combustible concealed spaces 
shall be permanently blocked with one (1) hour construction, in accor- 
dance with the provisions of Article 9, unless such installation is in 
compliance with the pertinent provisions of other sections of this code. 

438.3.2.1 Firestopping and draftstopping : Firestopping and draft- 
stopping shall be provided in accordance with Sections 919.0 and 
2103.2.7 or as approved by the building official. 

438.3.3 Exitway Details 

438.3.3.1 Corridor width: The minimum clear width of an exitway 
access corridor shall be three (3) feet. 

Exception: In new structures the minimum clear width shall be four 
(4) feet. 

438.3.3.2 Dead ends: In no case shall dead end corridors exceed 
thirty (30) feet. Existing dead end corridors, wherever possible, shall 
be altered so that exitways shall be accessible in at least two (2) 
different directions from all points in corridors. 

438.3.3.3 Corridor walls: Corridor walls that separate use areas from 
exitway access corridors shall be of construction that will resist the 
passage of smoke. 

Exception: Existing openings to congregate living areas, other 
than kitchens, shall be allowed to remain open. 

438.3.3.4 Sleeping room doors: All sleeping room doors shall be of 
construction that will resist the passage of smoke. All doors shall be 
equipped with approved positive latching hardware and approved 
self-closing devices. 

Exceptions : 

1. Sleeping room doors may be equipped with approved hold-open 
smoke activated devices in accordance with Section 612.5.4. 

2. Hollow core doors shall not be permitted. 

4/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 199.3 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



438.3.3.5 Means of Egress: All habitable floors shall be provided 
with at least two (2) means of egress, located as remote as practicable 
from one another. Exitways shall be located to provide a safe path of 
travel to a public way without traversing any corridor or space ex- 
posed to an unprotected open stairway. 

Exceptions : 

1. Open stairs may be used as one (1) of the required means of 
egress when permitted by Section 438.3.3.6, Exception 3. How- 
ever, in no case may both required means of egress traverse the 
unprotected open space. 

2. Access to one (1) of the required exitways on sleeping room 
floors may be through adjoining rooms. 

438.3.3.6 Interior exitway stairs: Every story shall be provided 
with at least one (1) enclosed interior stairway which discharges 
directly to grade or through a grade passageway to a public way. 
The enclosed interior stairway(s) shall be of construction having a 
minimum fireresistance rating of one (1) hour, properly firestopped. 
Spaces below the stairway (s) shall be enclosed to maintain the in- 
tegrity of the one (1) hour fireresistive construction of the stairway 
enclosure. Stairway (s) openings shall be protected by at least Class 
"B" label one (1) hour fire door assemblies. 

New stair construction shall comply with Section 616.0. Existing 
stairs shall comply with Section 2101.10.8 or as approved by the 
building official. 

Exceptions : 

1. Secondary stairs not considered an exitway component may have 
door openings protected by a minimum one and three-eighths (1 
3/8) inch solid bonded wood core doors or equivalent; however, 
such doors shall be equipped with approved automatic positive 
latching hardware and approved self-closing devices. 

2. Basement/cellar: Stairway(s) shall be separated from the first 
floor by a twenty (20) minute fire rated, self-closing door or its 
equivalent. 

3. One (1) stairway may be allowed to remain unenclosed to pre- 
serve functional and aesthetic requirements. 

438.3.3.7 Door widths: No single egress door in a doorway shall be 
less than twenty-eight (28) inches wide. 

Exceptions : 

1. Exitway door leaves shall not be less than thirty-four (34) 
inches wide. 



4/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 199.4 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



2. Door leaves to resident bedrooms occupied by residents who are 
classified as "Impaired" shall not be less than thirty-four (34) 
inches wide. 

438.3.3.8 Basement/cellar: Basements/cellars shall be provided with 
at least two (2) acceptable exitways, one (1) of which shall discharge 
directly to the outside of the building. 

Exception: Basement/cellar areas with only one (1) existing en- 
trance from the outside only, and used solely as a mechanical space 
shall be permitted to maintain only one (1) doorway which shall be 
maintained locked as an entrance/exitway . 

438.3.3.9 Emergency escape: All sleeping rooms shall have at least 
one (1) openable window or exterior door to permit smoke control, 
emergency escape, or rescue. A required door or window must be 
openable from the inside without the use of separate tools, and shall 
comply with Section 609.4. 

438.3.3.10 Means of egress lighting: Means of egress lighting sys- 
tems shall be provided in accordance with Section 624.0. 

438.3.3.11 Locks: Locks installed in resident sleeping room doors 
shall be so arranged that they can be locked from the corridor side. 
All such locks shall be arranged to permit exit from the room by a 
simple operation without the use of a key. Double cylinder dead bolts 
requiring key operation on both sides are prohibited throughout this 
occupancy . 

438.3.4 Interior finish: The flame spread of interior finish shall be 
limited to Class II in exitways or exit access corridors. Rooms shall 
be permitted to have interior finish of a Class III flame spread. Floor 
coverings shall conform to the requirements of Section 920.7 except 
that carpei type floor coverings shall possess a critical radiant flux of 
0.22 w/cm or greater. 

438.3.5 Fire suppression systems: Automatic fire suppression systems 
shall be provided and installed in accordance with NFiPA Standard No. 
13D, 1980 edition. 

Additions : 

1. Exceptions listed in NFiPA Standard No. 13D applicable to 
dwellings shall not apply. 

2. A water flow detector, connected to the fire alarm system, shall 
be provided. 

3. NFiPA Standard No. 13D, Sections 4-6; Exception 1 shall not 
apply. 



4/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 199.5 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



4. The control valve(s) shall be secured in the open position. 

438.3.6 Fire alarm system: A manual fire alarm system shall be 
provided and installed in accordance with Section 1217.0 and speci- 
fically NFiPA Standard No. 72A as listed in Appendix I. 

438.3.7 Automatic protection alarm system: Approved smoke detectors 
shall be installed in accordance with Section 1216.0 and specifically 
NFiPA Standard No. 72E as listed in Appendix I in the following loca- 
tions : 

1. exitway access corridors not more than thirty (30) feet on 
center ; 

2. congregate living areas other than kitchens; 

3. at least one (1) detector in all basement/cellar areas; and 

4. all sleeping rooms. 

Exception: Smoke detectors used in combination with automatic 
closing devices may be substituted in each area aforementioned for 
the protection herein reguired. 

438.3.8 Fire department connection: All automatic and manual fire 
alarm systems shall be electrically interconnected; this combined system 
shall automatically transmit an alarm to the municipal fire department 
or to such other outside assistance as may be available. Such connec- 
tion shall be made in accordance with NFiPA Standard Nos. 71 or 72B 
or 72C as listed in Appendix I. 

438.3.9 Heating devices: Portable comfort heating devices and solid 
fuel burning appliances are prohibited. Any heating device, other 
than a central heating plant, shall be so designed and installed that 
combustible material will not be ignited by it or its appurtenances. If 
fuel-fired, such heating devices shall be chimney or vent connected, 
shall take air for combustion directly from the outside, and shall be so 
designed and installed to provide for complete separation of the com- 
bustion system from the atmosphere of the occupied area. The heating 
system shall have safety devices to immediately stop the flow of fuel 
and shut down the eguipment in case of either excessive temperature 
or ignition failure. 

Exceptions : 

1. Approved suspended unit heaters may be used in locations other 
than means of egress and sleeping areas, provided such heaters 
are located high enough to be out of the reach of persons using 
the area and provided they are eguipped with the safety devices 
specified in Section 438.3.9. 



1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 199.6 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



2. Fireplaces which comply with Sections 1007.0 and 2108.0 may be 
used only in areas other than resident sleeping rooms. The 
fireplaces shall be equipped with a heat tempered glass fireplace 
enclosure guaranteed against breakage up to a temperature of 
650 Farenheit. A lock on the enclosure shall be required. 

438.3.10 Fire drills: The licensing or operating agency shall require 
that fire drills be held with sufficient frequency so as to familiarize all 
residents and staff personnel with emergency procedures. Drills shall 
be held at unexpected times under varying conditions to simulate the 
unpredictable conditions which may occur in case of fire, including 
blocking of any point of any means of egress. 

438.3.10.1 Log: A log shall be kept of all fire drills and shall be 
available for inspection and duplication by the building official, fire 
official, and other parties having jurisdiction. 

438.3.10.2 The resident manager shall record in said log the names of 
any authorized inspectors who may have been present and the names 
or identifying numbers of the residents who participated. 



4/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 199.7 



♦ 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 439.0 DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES 



439.1 General: A detoxification facility is a facility licensed or operated by the 
Department of Public Health, Division of Alcoholism in accordance with the Rules 

fnd Regulations for Detoxification Facilities issued by the Department of Public 
health, Division of Alcoholism, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and shall be 
used to treat individuals acceptable to the program in accordance with those 
Rules and Regulations. 

439.2 Scope: Detoxification facilities shall be subject to the requirements of 
this section for new and existing buildings which are to be used or operated as 
licensed facilities. This section shall establish the requirements applicable to 

«uch facilities. Where specific reference is made to other sections of the Massa- 
hussetts State Building Code, to reference standards or other regulations, 
hose requirements cited shall apply. Where no reference is specifically made, 
this code, including Article 22, shall apply. 

439.3 Classification of Residents: All residents enrolled in the detoxification 
program shall be identified according to one of the following classifications when 
evaluated by the facility personnel in accordance with the Rules and Regulations 
for Detoxification Facilities of the Division of Alcoholism of the Department of 
Public Health: 

1 . Impaired 

2. Partially Impaired 

3 . Unimpaired 

439.4 Definitions: The following terms shall have the meaning indicated for the 
purpose of this section: 

Impaired: Anyone who will require assistance to egress the building. 

Partially Impaired: Anyone who may require assistance to egress the 
building. 



I 



Unimpaired: Anyone who appears able to egress the building without 
assistance. 



39.5 Use group classification: Detoxification facilities licensed and approved in 
accordance with these provisions shall be classified in the R-l use group. 

439.6 Mixed use occupancy: A portion of a building may be used for a detoxi- 
fication facility provided that it is completely separated from the rest of the 
building by both horizontal and vertical fire division assemblies of at least one 
) hour fireresistance rating. 



I 



Exception: Detoxification facilities shall not be located in buildings in 
which any of the following use groups are located: A-2, F, H, or S-l. 



439.7 Submission of plans: Plans shall be filerf, with the building official in 
accordance with Section 113.0 for any building to be constructed as, or altered 



* 



71/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 199.8 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



for use as, a detoxification facility under Section 439.0. The plans shall also 
identify those rooms which comply with these regulations for use by the im- 
paired. 

439.8 Inspection and certification: The building official shall inspect and cen* 
tify detoxification facilities once every two years Fees shall be applied in accor^ 
ance with Table 108 for the R-l Use Group. 

439.9 Resident location limitations: In buildings used as detoxification facilities 
in accordance with these provisions, resident locations shall be limited according 
to the use and type of construction as provided in Table 439.9. All heights are 
in stories above grade. All buildings used as detoxification facilities in accord- 
ance with these provisions shall be accessible to the Fire Department wherevej 
escape windows are required. 



TABLE 439.9 
RESIDENT SLEEPING ROOM LOCATION LIMITATION FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 





1A 


» 


2A 


2B 


2C 


3A 


3B 


3C 


4A 


4B 


Impaired 


NO 
LIMIT 


8 
St. 


4 
St. 


2 
St. 


1 
St. 


2 
St. 


2 
St.' 


1 
St. 


1 
St. 


1* 
St. 


Partially Impaired 


NO 
LIMIT 


NO 
LIMIT 


8 
St. 


3 
St. 


1 
St. 


3 
St. 


3 
St. 


2 
St. 


2 

St. 


1 
St. 


Unimpaired 


NO 
LTMIT 


NO 
LIMIT 


9 
St. 


4 

|st. 


3 
St. 


4 
St. 


4 
St. 


3 
St. 


3 
St. 


2 
St. 



1 



Note: * Impaired sleeping rooms in 4B construction require either fu. 
building sprinklering or one (1) hour fire rated separation for flooi 
and ceiling of sleeping room walls. 

439.9.1 Sprinklered buildings: Buildings which are completely sprinklered ma} 
have resident locations one story higher than allowed in Table 439.9. 

439.9.2 Sleeping room limitations: Sleeping facilities in building licensed I 
use as detoxification facilities shall not be located below the first story. 

439.10 Egress: At least two (2) exitways located as remote as practicable fror 
each other shall be provided from each floor of the building. 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 



199.9 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



) 



439.10.1 Every room used for sleeping for the impaired and partially impaired 
shall have an exitway access door leading directly to an exitway access corridor: 

Exceptions : 

1. Rooms having a means of egress doorway leading directly to the 
exterior of the building at grade. 

2. Rooms having a means of egress doorway leading directly to the 
exterior of the building above grade and connected directly to grade 
by means of an exterior stairway in accordance with Section 619. 

439.10.2 All other sleeping rooms: All other sleeping rooms shall comply with 
the reguirements of Article 6 in accordance with the provisions for the R-l use 
-roup . 



» 



i 



39.10.3 Corridors shall provide at least thirty-six (36) inches minimum nominal 
width. 

439.10.4 All means of egress doorways shall be thirty-two (32) inches minimum 
nominal width. 

Exception: Egress doorways from impaired sleeping rooms shall be 
thirty-six (36) inches minimum nominal width. 

439.10.5 Every reguired exitway access corridor shall have a one (1) hour 
fire-resistance rating and shall provide access to at least two (2) approved 
exitways without passing through any intervening rooms or spaces other than 
corridors and lobbies. 

Exception: In buildings with a complete sprinkler system, exitway 
access corridors not reguired for the impaired or partially impaired 
may be separated from other use areas by non-fire rated partitions. 

439.10.6 Stairways: Where not otherwise specified in this section, stairways 
I reguired as a means of egress shall be subject to these reguirements : 

: 439.10.6.1 Stairways reguired to provide egress for the impaired shall be at 
fcast thirty-six (36) inches minimum nominal width. The total capacity of the 
stairways shall be adeguate for the occupancy load served. 

439.10.6.2 Stairway enclosures shall have a fireresistance rating of one (1) 
hour for buildings not exceeding three (3) stories in height, and two (2) hours 
for buildings exceeding three (3) stories in height. 

439.10.6.3 Doors to the reguired exitway stairways shall comply with the pro- 
Iftsions of Section 616.6.3. 



1439.11 Interior finish: Interior finish reguirements shall comply with Table 
439.11 



I 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) ;994Q 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



. 



Exceptions: 

1. In buildings which are completely sprinklered, the interior finish 
requirements may be reduced one (1) level except in sleeping rooms 
for the impaired. 

2. The interior finish classifications in existing buildings may A 
improved one (1) level by the use of fire retardant coatings whi^j 
have been approved when tested in accordance with ASTM E-84. 



TABLE A39.ll 
INTERIOR FINISH REQUIREMENTS 



LOCATION 



WALLS 



FLOOR 



CEILING 



Sleeping rooms, Impaired 


II 


II 2 


II j 


Corridors, Impaired 


I 


ll 


I 

i 


Sleeping Rooms, Partially Impaired 


I 


ll 


I 


; 


Corridors, Partially Impaired 


I 


ll 


1 


All Other Exitway Access Corridors 


II 


Il2 


II 


Stairways 


I 


ll 


I 















Note 1: Carpet type floor coverings shall withstand a test exposure oil 

0.45 watts per square centimeter when tested in accordance with| 
Section 904.3. 

Note 2: Carpet type floor coverings shall withstand a test exposure o:f 

0.22 watts per square centimeter when tested in accordance wit 
Section 904.3. 



439.12 Fire alarm systems: Manual and automatic fire alarm systems shall 
provided in accordance with Sections 1216.0 and 1217.0 as they apply to Usi 
Group R-l. 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 



199.11 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



I 



I 



Exceptions: 

1. In rooms for the impaired and partially impaired the heat detectors 
required by Section 1216.3.2.1 (7) (b) shall be replaced with approved 
smoke detectors. 

2. Buildings or portions thereof with twenty-five (25) beds or less 
shall have as a minimum a Type II system as described in Section 
1216.3.2.3 (2): buildings with twenty-six (26) beds or more shall have 
as a minimum a Type I system as described in Section 1216.3.2.3 (1). 

3. All buildings or portions thereof regardless of the number of beds 
shall incorporate manual pull stations in conformance with Section 
1216.3.2.4. 

9.12.1 All automatic and manual fire alarm systems shall be electrically inter- 
^ nnected; this combined system shall automatically transmit an alarm to the 
municipal fire department or to another approved source of assistance. Such 
communication shall be made in accordance with NFiPA Standards Nos. 71 or 72B 
or 72C as listed in Appendix I. 

439.13 Means of egress lighting: Means of egress lighting including an emer- 
gency lighting system shall be provided throughout the facility in accordance 
with Section 624. 

439.14 Smoke enclosure doors: Smoke enclosure doors shall be tight-fitting 
with approved hardware. 

439.15 Heating apparatus: The use of portable heaters, solid fuel burning room 
heaters and fireplaces shall be prohibited. 

439.16 Sprinkler systems: Where a complete building sprinkler system is in- 
stalled, it shall comply with the provisions of NFiPA Standard No. 13, 1976 
edition as referenced in Appendix I. 

439.16.1 All rooms used for sleeping for the impaired shall be sprinklered. 

Exception: A partial system required for impaired sleeping rooms may 
be provided with a sprinkler system serving no more than six (6) 
■ sprinklers, which may be connected directly to a domestic water sup- 

ply system having a capacity sufficient to provide 0.15 gallons per 
minute per square foot of floor area throughout the entire area. An 
indicating shut-off valve shall be installed in an accessible location 
between the sprinklers and the connection to the domestic water supply. 



♦ 



I 



6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 199.12 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



ARTICLE 5 

LIGHT, VENTILATION AND SOUND 
TRANSMISSION CONTROL 

SECTION 500.0 GENERAL 

500.1 Scope: The provision of this article shall govern the means of 
light and ventilation required in all habitable and occupiable spaces and 
rooms. Every building and structure hereafter erected and every build- 
ing room or space which is changed in use shall be constructed, arranged 
and equipped to conform to the requirements of this article and the 
applicable standards listed in Appendix B. 

500.2 Conflicting laws: The provisions in this article shall not be con- 
strued to nullify the provisions of any other law or ordinance regulating 
yards, courts, or other spaces required for light or ventilation; but the 
provisions specifying the greater requirements shall control the construc- 
tion. 

500.3 Buildings on same lot: If more than one (1) building is hereafter 
placed on a lot, or if a building is placed on the same lot with existing 
buildings, the several buildings may be treated as a single structure for 
the purpose of this article, provided equivalent uncovered lot area or 
other adequate sources of light and ventilation are furnished for all 
habitable and occupiable spaces and rooms. 

500.4 Other standards: Compliance with the applicable provisions of the 
standards listed in Appendix B shall be deemed to meet the requirements 
of this article, unless otherwise specifically provided herein. 

SECTION 501.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

501.1 General: Plans for all buildings and structures other than one- 
and two-family and multi-family dwellings, which are designed for human 
occupancy, shall designate the number of occupants to be accommodated 
in the various rooms and spaces, and when means of artificial lighting 
and ventilation are required, the application shall include sufficient de- 
tails and description of the mechanical system to be installed as herein 
required or as specified in the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 502.0 STANDARDS OF NATURAL LIGHT 

502.1 General: In the application of the provisions of this article, the 
standard of natural light for all habitable and occupiable rooms, unless 
otherwise specifically required by the provisions of Article 4 for special 
uses and occupancies, shall be based on two hundred and fifty (250) foot 
candles of illumination on the vertical plane adjacent to the exterior of the 
light transmitting device in the enclosure wall and shall be adequate to 
provide an average illumination of six (6) foot candles over the area of 
the room at a height of thirty (30) inches above the floor level. 



9/1/80 200 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 503.0 STANDARDS OF NATURAL VENTILATION 

503.1 General: In the application of the provisions of this article, the 
standard of natural ventilation for all habitable and occupiable rooms shall 
be based on a volume of four hundred (400) cubic feet of air per occu- 
pant with ventilating skylights, monitors, louvres, windows, transoms, 
doors or other alternate ventilating devices located in the exterior walls 
or on the roof of the building as provided in Sections 506.0 to 514.0 
inclusive. 

SECTION 504.0 ARTIFICIAL LIGHT AND VENTILATION 

504.1 When required: When natural light and ventilation do not meet the 
minimum requirements of this code, or when rooms, which by use or 
occupancy, involve the presence of dust, fumes, gases, vapors or other 
noxious or deleterious impurities that create a fire or health hazard, or 
when required by the provisions of Article 4 for special uses, the build- 
ing shall be equipped with artificial light and mechanical means of ventila- 
tion under the conditions and of the minimum capacity prescribed herein 
and in the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

504.2 Operation of ventilating systems: Where mechanical ventilation is 
accepted as an alternate for natural means of ventilation, or is required 
under the conditions herein prescribed, the system, equipment and distri- 
buting ducts shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Arti- 
cle 10 and the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. Ventilating systems 
shall be kept in operation at all times during normal occupancy of the 
building or space so used. 

504.3 Habitable rooms: The glazed areas of windows and exterior doors 
in habitable rooms and spaces need not be openable where an approved 
mechanical ventilation system is provided capable of producing two (2) 
changes of air per hour. Recirculation of not more than seventy-five 
(75) per cent of the air supplied may be permitted in habitable rooms 
except kitchens, provided the air recirculated does not come from a 
plenum or system fed with air returned from habitable rooms occupied by 
other families, or from the stairways or common hallways; except that 
recirculation of one hundred (100) per cent of the air supplied may be 
permitted if the system supplies only a single dwelling unit. 

SECTION 505.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

505.1 Unsafe conditions: In all existing rooms or spaces in which the 
provisions for light and ventilation do not meet the requirements of this 
article and which, in the opinion of the building official, are dangerous to 
the health and safety of the occupants, he shall order the required 
repairs or installations to render the building or structure livable for the 
posted use and occupancy load. 



9/1/80 201 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



505.2 Alterations: A building shall not hereafter be altered or re- 
arranged so as to reduce either the size of a room, or the fresh air 
supply, or the amount of available natural light to less than that reguired 
for buildings hereafter erected; or to create an additional room unless 
made to conform to the reguirements of Section 506.0. The building 
official may permit new rooms to be of the same height as existing rooms 
in the same story unless in his opinion greater provision of artificial light 
and ventilation is deemed necessary to insure healthful living conditions. 

505.3 Uncovered yard and court area: A building shall not be hereafter 
enlarged, nor shall the lot on which it is located be diminished so as to 
decrease the reguired courts or yards to less than that prescribed in this 
article for the lighting and ventilation of new buildings. 

SECTION 506.0 NATURAL LIGHTING AND VENTILATION OF ROOMS 

506.1 Window and skylights: All habitable and occupiable rooms or 
spaces shall contain windows, skylights, monitors, glazed doors, tran- 
soms, glass block panels or other light transmitting media opening to the 
sky or on a public street, yard or court complying with the provisions of 
this article. The light transmitting properties and the area of the devi- 
ces used shall be adeguate to meet the minimum daylighting and ventila- 
ting reguirements specified herein and in the approved rules. 

506.2 Window size: Windows and exterior doors may be used as a natu- 
ral means of light and ventilation, and when so used their aggregate 
glass area shall amount to not less than eight (8) per cent of the floor 
area served, and with not less than one-half (1/2) of this reguired area 
available for unobstructed ventilation. 

506.3 Openings on yards and courts: In order to be credited as a 
source of natural light or ventilation under the provisions of this article, 
a window or any other approved device shall open directly on a public 
street, alley or other open public space, or on a yard or court located on 
the same lot or plot complying with the reguirements of Sections 516.0, 
517.0 and 518.0. 

506.4 Alternate devices: In place of the means for natural light and 
ventilation herein prescribed, alternate arrangement of windows, louvres, 
or other methods and devices that will provide the eguivalent minimum 
performance reguirements shall be permitted when complying with the 
code. 

506.5 Room dimensions 

506.5.1 Ceiling heights: Habitable (space) rooms, other than kitchens, 
storage rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less 
than seven (7) feet three (3) inches. Hallways, corridors, bathrooms, 
water closet rooms , and kitchens shall have a ceiling height of not less 
than seven (7) feet measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. 



9/1/80 202 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



If any room in a building has a sloping ceiling, the prescribed ceiling 
height for the room is reguired in only one-half (1/2) the area thereof. 
No portion of the room measuring less than five (5) feet from the finished 
floor to the finished ceiling shall be included in any computation of the 
minimum area thereof. 

If any room has a furred ceiling, the prescribed ceiling height is re- 
quired in two-thirds (2/3) of the area thereof, but in no case shall the 
height of the furred ceiling be less than seven (7) feet. 

506.5.2 Floor area: Habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area 
of not less than seventy (70) square feet between enclosing walls of 
partitions, exclusive of closet and storage spaces. 

506.5.3 Width: No habitable room other than a kitchen shall be less 
than seven (7) feet in any dimension. 

SECTION 507.0 LIGHTING AND VENTING OF SPECIAL SPACES 

507.1 Alcove rooms: When alcove rooms open without obstruction into 
adjoining rooms, the required window openings to the outer air shall be 
based on the combined floor area of room and alcove. An alcove space 
shall not be more than sixty (60) square feet in area and the opening to 
the adjoining room shall be not less than eighty (80) per cent of the 
superficial area of the dividing wall, unless provided with separate means 
of light and ventilation. 

507.2 Attic ventilation: Enclosed attics, and enclosed rafter spaces 
formed where ceilings are applied direct to the underside of the roof 
rafters, shall have cross ventilation for each separate space by ventila- 
ting openings protected against the entrance of rain and snow, sized by 
the following criteria: 

1. With a ceiling vapor barrier installed: attics with a ceiling vapor 
barrier shall be ventilated with screened openings of at least one 
(1) square foot of free vent area for each three hundred (300) 
square feet of ceiling area. 

2. Without a ceiling vapor barrier installed: attics without a ceiling 
vapor barrier installed shall be ventilated with screened openings of 
at least one (1) square foot of free vent area for each one hundred 
and fifty (150) square feet of ceiling area. 

3. Flat roofs: blocking and bridging shall be arranged so as not to 
interfere with the movement of air. Such roofs shall be ventilated 
along the overhanging eaves with at least one (1) square foot of 
free vent area for each two hundred and fifty (250) square feet of 
ceiling area. 



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4. Eave vents: when eave vents are installed, adquate baffling shall 
be provided to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the 
insulation. Baffles shall be installed prior to insulation, and shall 
be installed over the exterior wall at an angle to provide a two (2) 
inch minimum clearance under the roof deck for upward flow of 
ventilation air to the fixed vents in the upper portion of the attic. 
The ridge or gable vent must be at least three (3) feet above the 
level of the eave vents. 

507.3 Underfloor space ventilation: Enclosed underfloor spaces shall 
have cross ventilation for each separate space by ventilating openings 
protected against the entrance of rain and snow, sized by the following 
criteria. 

1. With a ground vapor barrier: underfloor spaces with a vapor 
barrier installed on the ground surface shall be ventilated with 
screened openings of one (1) square foot of vent area for each 
fifteen hundred (1500) square feet of crawl space. 

2. Without a ground vapor barrier: underfloor spaces without a vapor 
barrier installed on the ground surface shall be ventilated with 
screened openings of one (1) square foot of vent area for each fifty 
(50) square feet of crawl space. 

SECTION 508.0 BASEMENTS AND CELLARS 

508.1 General: Except as may be otherwise specified for habitable or 
occupiable rooms or specifically provided in Article 4 for special uses, the 
glass window area in basements and cellars, except crawl spaces as pro- 
vided in Section 507.3, shall be not less than one-fiftieth (1/50) of the 
floor area served, and provisions shall be made for fresh air supply 
prescribed for specific uses in Section 514.0 and the mechanical code 
listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 509.0 BUSINESS AND WORK ROOMS 

509.1 General: Offices, stores, mercantile and salesrooms, restaurants, 
markets, bakeries, hotel and restaurant kitchens, factories, workshops, 
machinery and boiler rooms shall be provided with the required windows 
specified in Section 506.0 for habitable and occupiable rooms, opening 
directly on a street or required yard or court; or such rooms shall be 
equipped with an approved system of mechanical ventilation complying 
with Section 504.0 and the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 510.0 ASSEMBLY ROOMS 

510.1 General: In addition to the requirements of Article 4 for special 
uses, the required windows or other approved devices for natural ventila- 
tion shall be distributed as equally as practicable on at least two (2) 



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sides of the room; and artificial lighting shall comply with the require- 
ments of this article and Article 15. 

SECTION 511.0 ROOMS OF INSTITUTIONAL BUILDINGS 

511.1 General: In buildings of the institutional use group, every habi- 
table and occupiable room shall be provided with light and ventilation as 
herein provided, except that in buildings used for enforced detention of 
people (use group 1-1) indirect openings to the street or court may be 
permitted through intermediate corridors or by other approved means of 
light and ventilation. 

SECTION 512.0 BATH AND TOILET ROOMS 

512.1 General: Every bath and toilet room shall be lighted and ventila- 
ted by one (1) of the methods prescribed in Sections 512.2 through 
512.7. 

512.2 Exterior windows: Windows opening to the outer air as provided 
in Section 506.0 but not less than three (3) square feet in area. 

512.3 Vent shaft windows: Windows as provided in Section 506.0 but not 
less than three (3) square feet in area, opening on a vent shaft with a 
cross-sectional area of one (1) square foot for every foot in height, but 
not less than nine (9) square feet in area, open to the outer air at top 
or constructed with equivalent side louvre openings. 

512.4 Vents and ducts: Individual vents or ducts constructed of ap- 
proved noncombustible materials complying with Section 1009.0 with a 
minimum cross-sectional area of one-half (1/2) square foot and one-third 
(1/3) additional square foot for each additional water closet or urinal 
above two (2) in number. Such ducts shall be of adequate height and so 
located as to insure a minimum supply of two (2) cubic feet of fresh air 
per square foot of room area. 

512.5 Skylights: A skylight of approved noncombustible construction 
complying with Section 925.3, and not less than three (3) square feet in 
area with ventilating opening. 

512.6 Mechanical ventilating systems: Any system of mechanical or 
gravity ventilation capable of producing a change of air every 12 minutes 
in private bathrooms. Public bathroom mechanical ventilation systems 
shall comply with the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

512.6.1 Recirculation: Recirculation of air supplied to toilet rooms, 
bathrooms and rest rooms shall not be permitted. 

512.7 Artificial lighting: Illumination shall be provided in all toilet rooms 
to afford an average intensity of three (3) foot candles measured at a 
level thirty (30) inches above the floor. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

SECTION 513.0 STAIRWAYS AND EXITWAYS 

513.1 Residential and institutional buildings 

513.1.1 Windows: In all multi-family dwellings (use group R-2) and in 
institutional buildings for the care or treatment of people (use group 1-2) 
required interior stairways shall be provided with windows to the outer 
air having a glass area of not less than ten (10) square feet which opens 
on a required street, alley, yard or court, or with the equivalent source 
of light for each story through which the stairway passes; and such 
additional artificial lighting to provide the equivalent illumination at all 
times that the building is occupied as specified in Section 624.0 and 
Article 15. 

513.1.2 Skylights: When the building is not more than three (3) stories 
in height, a ventilating skylight of the required area may be used in lieu 
of windows. 

513.1.3 Hallways: Hallways shall have at least one (1) window opening 
directly on a street or on a required yard or court in each story, located 
so that light penetrates the full length of the hallway, with additional 
windows for each change of direction of the hallway; or the equivalent 
artificial lighting shall be provided. Every recess or return with a depth 
or length which exceeds twice the width of the hall, and every corridor 
separately shut off by a door, shall be treated as a separate hall in 
applying the provisions of this section. 

513.1.4 Mechanical ventilating systems: All exitways and common corri- 
dors in multi-family dwellings (use group R-2) and in institutional build- 
ings (use group I) shall be provided with not less than one (1) cubic 
foot per minute of fresh air per square foot of floor area. Not more than 
seventy-five (75) per cent of the air supplied shall be recirculated. For 
institutional (Use Group I) buildings where controlled environmental 
conditions, such as air-conditioning, are provided, mechanical ventilating 
systems for corridors and exitways shall comply to the applicable refer- 
ence standard as listed in Appendix B of this code. 

513.2 Business and assembly buildings: All stairway enclosures shall 
conform to the requirements of Articles 6 and 9 for construction and shall 
have the means of artificial illumination to meet the requirements of this 
article and Article 15. 

513.3 Intensity of illumination: In all required exitways, except in 
one-and two-family dwellings, and wherever natural lighting is not avail- 
able, artificial lighting shall be provided to furnish not less than three 
(3) foot candles at the floor level of all required exitways. 

SECTION 514.0 REQUIRED FRESH AIR SUPPLY 



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514.1 General: Mechanical or gravity systems of ventilation shall provide 
the minimum air changes per hour specified in this code and the mechani- 
cal code listed in Appendix B. Recirculation of air supplied to kitchens, 
lavatories, toilet rooms, bathrooms, rest rooms, laboratories and garages 
shall not be permitted. 

SECTION 515.0 VENTILATION OF SHAFTS OTHER THAN ELEVATOR 
AND DUMBWAITER HOISTWAYS 

515.1 General: All enclosed vertical shafts extending through more than 
two (2) stories of every building or structure, except elevator or dumb- 
waiter hoistways, shall be automatically vented to the outer air as herein 
required or as specified in Section 910.0. 

515.2 Extending to roof: Shaft enclosures extending to the roof shall be 
provided with a metal skylight constructed to comply with Section 925.3 
or with windows of equivalent area or with other approved automatic 
means of removing hot air and gases. 

515.3 Thermostatic control: The automatic operation of fire shutters, 
skylights and other vent relief devices may be controlled by fusible links 
designed to operate at a fixed temperature of not more than one hundred 
and sixty (160) degrees F., or by electric or pneumatic operation under a 
rapid rise in temperature at a rate of fifteen (15) to twenty (20) degrees 
F. per minute or by other approved methods. 

515.4 Not extending to roof: Shaft enclosures not extending to the roof 
shall be provided with gas and smoke relief vents or adequate mechanical 
means of ventilation in conformity to the provisions of Section 910.6 and 
the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 516.0 COURTS 

516.1 General: All courts required to serve rooms for light and ventila- 
tion purposes shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

516.2 Width of court 

516.2.1 Minimum width: Every such court shall have a minimum width of 
three (3) inches for each foot of height or fraction thereof but not less 
than five (5) feet for outer courts and twice these values for inner 
courts . 

516.2.2 Irregular court width: In the case of irregular or gore-shaped 
courts, the required minimum width of a court may be deemed to be the 
average width, provided that such a court shall not be less than five (5) 
feet at any point. 

516.3 Area of court: The cross-sectional area of a required court shall 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



be not less than one and one-half (1 1/2) times the square of its width; 
nor shall the length of any court be more than twice its width. 

516.4 Access to court: A door or other means of access shall be provid- 
ed at the bottom of every court that is not otherwise conveniently acces- 
sible for purposes of cleaning. 

516.5 Air intakes to court 

516.5.1 Inner court: Every court serving one (1) or more habitable 
rooms that does not open for its full height on one (1) or more sides to a 
street or legal yard shall be connected at or near the bottom with a 
street or yard by a horizontal intake or passage of fireresistive construc- 
tion. Such intake or passageway shall have a cross-sectional area of not 
less than twenty-one (21) square feet, and shall remain fully open at 
both ends and unobstructed for its full size and length, except that 
grilles of noncombustible construction complying with the approved rules 
may be permitted at the ends of the intake. 

516.5.2 Fireresistance: The walls, floors and ceilings of such intakes or 
passages shall have a fireresistance rating of not less than two (2) hours 
in buildings of Types 1, 2 or 3 construction and not less than one (1) 
hour in Type 4 construction. 

516.6 Court walls: When, in the opinion of the building official, win- 
dows facing on courts do not receive adequate direct light by reason of 
peculiar arrangement or orientation, he may require the walls to be con- 
structed of light colored masonry, or to be painted and maintained a light 
color to furnish additional reflected light. 

516.7 Court drainage: The bottom of every court shall be properly 
graded and drained to a public sewer or other approved disposal system 
complying with the plumbing code listed in Appendix P; and shall be 
paved with concrete or other non-absorbent material when required by 
the building official. 

SECTION 517.0 REAR YARDS 

517.1 Residential and institutional buildings: At the rear of every 
building hereafter erected to be occupied as a one- and two-family or 
multi-family dwelling (use groups R-2 and R-3), or institutional building 
(use group I), there shall be maintained a yard of the minimum dimensions 
herein prescribed. When such yard serves as a required light and venti- 
lation court, its minimum dimensions shall be those required for a court in 
this article. 

517.1.1 Depth of yards: The depth of a required yard between the 
extreme rear of the building and the rear lot line shall be not less than 
fifteen (15) feet at any point for a height of thirty-five (35) feet, and 



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shall increase four (4) inches in depth for each additional foot of height 
above that limit; except that for a corner lot the minimum depth shall be 
not less than ten (10) feet. When the lot is less than sixty-five (65) feet 
in depth, the required yard may be diminished six (6) inches in depth 
for each foot less than sixty-five (65) feet. 

517.2 Other use groups: In buildings of other use groups, rear yards 
shall be provided to serve all habitable and occupiable rooms requiring 
light and ventilation from such source. Except for basements, such 
yards shall have a depth of not less than ten (10) feet for a height of 
thirty-five (35) feet and shall increase three (3) inches for each addi- 
tional foot of height above that level. 

SECTION 518.0 OBSTRUCTION OF COURTS AND YARDS 

518.1 Permissible projections: Every required court and yard shall 
remain unobstructed for its required area and full height, except for the 
projections permitted in Section 311.0. In residential and institutional 
buildings, clothes poles, arbors, garden trellises and other such accesso- 
ries shall not be prohibited in the open spaces at ground level. 

518.2 Motor vehicle parking: When approved by the building official, 
required court and yard areas may be used for automobile parking spaces 
or private garages not exceeding one (1) story in height when accessory 
to and only for the use of the occupants of a residential building, provid- 
ed required windows for light and ventilation are not obstructed thereby. 

SECTION 519.0 FIRE EMERGENCY VENTILATING SYSTEM 

519.1 Common corridors: In all buildings and structures herein required 
to have fire emergency ventilating systems, the common corridors shall be 
constructed with: 

1. vertical fire vent stacks and lateral fire vent ducts as herein pro- 
vided, or 

2. windows to the outer air, or 

3. mechanical ventilating or exhaust systems or 

4. other equivalent approved means for dissipating smoke, heated air 
and toxic gases directly to the outer air in the event of fire. 

519.2 Where required: Fire emergency ventilating systems shall be 
provided as described below: 

1. In buildings used for 1-1 and 1-2 (institutional) use groups which: 

a. exceed three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height; and 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



b. exceed ten thousand (10,000) square feet in floor area; and 

c. are occupied by more than fifty (50) persons above the first 
floor, or have more than twenty-five (25) sleeping rooms above 
the first floor. 

2. In buildings used for R-l and R-2 (hotel and apartment house) use 
groups which: 

a. same as l.a. above; 

b. same as l.b. above; 

c. same as I.e. above. 

3. In all fully enclosed industrial buildings without provision of ex- 
terior openings for ventilation purposes. 

519.3 Fire vent ducts: When the common corridors and exitways are not 
ventilated by windows opening directly to the outer air as required in 
Section 513.0, a system of collecting fire ducts shall be provided in each 
story of aggregate size to remove the smoke, hot air and noxious fumes 
or gases in event of fire. Each duct shall be not less than one (1) 
square foot in area located in the common hallways, with screened open- 
ings complying with the approved rules, constructed as provided for hot 
air ducts in Section 1009.0. 

519.4 Thermostatic operation: When not connected to a vent stack, the 
inlet openings on each story shall be controlled by automatic heat-opera- 
ted devices as required in Section 515.3 and in accordance with the 
approved rules. 

519.5 Fire vent stacks: When the fire ducts do not discharge directly to 
the outer air in each story, one (1) or more fire vent stacks of adequate 
capacity shall be installed to accommodate the discharge from the fire duct 
system in any one (1) floor or enclosed fire area, but an individual stack 
shall not be less than four (4) square feet in area, and all stacks shall 
terminate in an approved automatic cowl or ventilator outlet above the 
roof. 

519.6 Location of stacks: The vent stack shall be located in as central a 
position as practicable with respect to the floor area vented thereby, 
preferably in the vicinity of vertical shafts, and shall extend continuously 
to the roof. 

519.7 Vent control of stacks: The vent control of the vertical stacks 
shall consist of approved noncombustible dampers, shutters, or glazed 
metal sash designed to open outwardly, located not less than twenty (20) 
feet distant from window openings or exitway doors in adjoining walls, 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



and shall be equipped with a thermostatic unit arranged to open at a 
predetermined rate of temperature rise in accordance with the approved 
rules. Auxiliary mechanical means for manual operation of all vent con- 
trols shall be provided in an accessible location designated by the build- 
ing official. 

519.8 Stack construction: The stack enclosure shall be constructed to 
be vapor and smoke tight with walls of not less than two (2) hour fire- 
resistance rating, and without openings other than the fire duct inlets 
and the top automatic ventilator outlet. 

519.9 Mechanical exhaust systems: When mechanical exhaust is required 
to operate the emergency ventilating system either in horizontal ducts or 
vertical vent stacks, the installation shall be thermostatically controlled 
and installed in accordance with the provisions of the mechanical code 
listed in Appendix B and the approved rules. 

SECTION 520.0 FIRE VENTILATION OF OPEN WELLS 

520.1 through 520.6 deleted. 

SECTION 521.0 WINDOW CLEANING SAFEGUARDS 

521.1 General: All buildings and structures shall be designed to comply 
with the Dept. of Labor and Industry's Rules and Regulations for the 
Prevention of Accidents in Window Cleaning, (Industrial Bulletin No. 21), 
441 CMR 19.00. 

SECTION 522.0 SOUND TRANSMISSION CONTROL 
IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

522.1 Scope: This section shall apply to all common interior walls, 
partitions and floor-ceiling constructions between adjacent tenant units or 
between a tenant unit and adjacent public areas such as halls, corridors, 
stairs or service areas in all residential occupancies. 

522.2 Airborne noise: Walls, partitions and floor-ceiling constructions 
separating tenant units from each other or from public or service areas 
shall have a sound transmission class (STC) of not less than forty-five 
(45) for airborne noise. This requirement shall not apply to dwelling 
unit entrance doors. However, such doors shall be tight fitting to the 
frame and sill. 

522.2.1 Tested assemblies: All walls, partitions and floor-ceiling con- 
structions tested in accordance with the applicable standard ASTM E90 
listed in Appendix C and which meet the requirements for a forty-five 
(45) STC rating shall be considered as meeting the requirements of this 
section. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



522.3 Structureborne sound: Floor-ceiling constructions between tenant 
units and between a tenant and public or service areas within the struc- 
ture shall have an impact insulation class (IIC) rating of not less than 
forty-five (45). 

522.3.1 Tested assemblies: All floor-ceiling constructions tested in 
accordance with the applicable standard ASTM E492 listed in Appendix C 
and which meet the requirements for a forty-five (45) IIC rating shall be 
considered as meeting the requirements of this section. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



ARTICLE 6 

MEANS OF EGRESS 
SECTION 600.0 GENERAL 

600.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the design, 
construction and arrangement of building elements required to provide a 
reasonably safe means of egress from all buildings hereafter erected and 
from all buildings hereafter altered to a new occupancy load, or manner 
of use, or inherent fire hazard. 

600.2 Modification of exitway requirements: When strict compliance with 
the provisions of this code is not practical, the building official may 
accept alternate means of egress which will accomplish the same purpose, 
by the procedure established in Article 1 for modification of this code, or 
by adoption of approved rules. Existing buildings shall not be occupied 
during repairs or alterations unless all existing exitways and any existing 
fire protection are continuously maintained, or in lieu thereof other mea- 
sures are taken which provide equivalent safety. 

600.3 Minimum requirements: It shall be unlawful to alter any building 
or structure in any manner that will reduce the number of exitways or 
the capacity of exitways below the requirements of this code for new 
buildings of the proposed use and occupancy. 

600.4 Other standards: Compliance with the applicable provisions of the 
standards listed in Appendix B shall be deemed to meet the requirements 
of this article, unless otherwise specifically provided herein. 

SECTION 601.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

601.1 Arrangement of exitways: The plans shall show in sufficient detail 
the location, construction, size and character of all exitways together 
with the arrangement of aisles, corridors, passageways and hallways 
leading thereto in compliance with the provisions of this code. 

601.2 Number of occupants: In other than one- and two-family and 
multi-family dwellings, the plans and the application for permit shall 
designate the number of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, 
and in all rooms and spaces when required by the building official. When 
not otherwise specified, the minimum number of occupants to be accommo- 
dated by the exitways shall be determined by the occupancy load pre- 
scribed in Section 606.0. The posted occupancy load of the building shall 
be limited to that number. 

SECTION 602.0 USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 

602.1 New buildings: Every building and structure and part thereof 
hereafter erected shall have the prescribed number of exitways of one (1) 



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or more of the approved types defined in this article. Exitways, in 
combination with the exitway access and exitway discharge, shall provide 
safe and continuous means of egress to a street or to an open space with 
direct access to a street. 

602.2 Mixed use groups: In buildings classified in more than one (1) 
use group, each fire area shall be considered separately in determining 
the required number, capacity, size and construction of all exitways. 

602.3 Multiple tenants: When more than one (1) tenant occupies any one 
(1) floor of a building or structure, each tenant shall be provided with 
direct access to approved exitways. 

SECTION 603.0 AIR-CONDITIONED BUILDINGS 

603.1 Location of stairways: In all buildings, without exterior window 
openings in all stories, that are artificially ventilated and air-conditioned 
as provided in Section 504.0, the stairway element of required exitways 
shall be located as to be accessible to the fire department either through 
the access openings specified in Section 859.0 or as otherwise approved in 
at least alternate stories of the building. 

603.2 Exhaust ducts: Exhaust ducts or vents of air-conditioning sys- 
tems shall not discharge into stairway or elevator enclosures, nor shall 
corridors serving as exitway access be used as the return exhaust from 
air-conditioned spaces through louvres or other devices in the doors or 
partitions enclosing such air-conditioned spaces; unless such passageways 
are equipped with approved smoke detectors to automatically stop the 
supply and exhaust fans and close the louvres, and unless such use is 
approved by the building official. 

SECTION 604.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

604.1 Owner responsibility: The owner or lessee of every existing 
building and structure shall be responsible for the safety of all persons 
in, or occupying, such premises with respect to the adequacy of means of 
egress therefrom (see Section 104.0). 

604.2 Unsafe means of egress 

604.2.1 Inadeqate exitways: See Article 22. 

604.2.2 Appeal from exitway order: Within seven (7) days after the 
service of the exitway order of the building official, the owner may file a 
written appeal therefrom, and the building official shall appoint a board 
of survey as defined in Section 124.0 to make a final determination. 
Nothing herein is to supersede the provisions of Section 123.0, Unsafe 
structures . 



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SECTION 605.0 MAINTENANCE OF EXITWAYS 

605.1 Obstructions: It shall be unlawful to obstruct, or reduce in any 
manner, the clear widths of any doorway, hallway, passageway or any 
other exitway required by the provisions of this code. 

605.2 Maintenance: All required means of egress components shall at all 
times be maintained in a safe usable condition. All exterior stairways, 
fire escapes, egress balconies and bridges shall be kept free of snow and 
ice. All corrodible structural parts thereof shall be kept painted, or 
otherwise protected against rust and corrosion both before and after 
erection. All wood structural members shall be maintained to prevent 
rotting and decaying. Where these elements tie directly into the building 
structural system, all joints shall be sealed to prevent water from dam- 
aging or corroding the structural elements. 

605.3 Testing and certification: All exterior bridges, steel or wooden 
stairways, fire escapes and egress balconies shall be examined and/or 
tested, and certified for structural adequacy and safety every five (5) 
years, by a Massachusetts Registered Professional Egineer, or others 
qualified and acceptable to the building official, who shall then submit an 
affidavit to the building official. 

SECTION 606.0 OCCUPANCY LOAD 

606.1 Design occupancy load: In determining required exitway facilities, 
the number of occupants for whom exitway facilities shall be provided 
shall be established by the largest number computed as follows: 

1. the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, 
floor, or building, as the case may be, is designed for; 

2. the number of occupants computed at the rate of one (1) occupant 
per unit of area as prescribed in Table 606; or 

3. the number of occupants of any space as computed in 1 or 2 above, 
plus the number of occupants similarly computed for all spaces that 
discharge through the space in order to gain access to an exitway. 

606.1.1 Assembly occupancy: The occupancy load for places of assembly 
may be determined as provided in Section 606.1 if the necessary aisles 
and means of egress are provided as approved by the building official. 
An aisle, egress and seating diagram may be required by the building 
official to substantiate the occupancy load. 

606.2 Mezzanine levels: The occupancy load of a mezzanine level dis- 
charging through a floor below shall be added to that floor occupancy 
and the capacity of the exitways shall be designed for the total occupancy 
loads thus established. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



606.3 Roofs: Roof areas occupied as roof gardens or for assembly, 
storage or other purposes shall be provided with exitway facilities to 
accommodate the required occupancy load, but there shall not be less 
than two (2) approved means of egress for assembly uses from such roof 
areas. 

606.4 Special or unlisted occupancies: Where data regarding the square 
feet per person for an occupancy is not listed in Table 606, the occupant 
load shall be established by the architect or engineer, subject to the 
approval of the building official. 

Table 606 



MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 



Use 



Floor area in square 
feet per occupant 



Assembly without fixed seats 

Concentrated (chairs only — not fixed) 

Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 

Standing space 

Assembly with fixed seats 
Business areas 
Court rooms 
Educational 

Classroom area 

Shops and other vocational room areas 
Industrial areas 
Institutional areas 

Sleeping areas 

Inpatient treatment areas 

Outpatient areas 
Library 

Reading rooms 

Stack area 
Mercanti'e, basement and grade floor areas 

Areas on other floors 

Storage, shipping areas 
Residentia-I 
Sleeping rooms 

Storage areas, mechanical equipment room 
Bowling alleys, allow 5 persons for each alley 

including 15 feet of runway, and for 

additional areas 



7 net 
15 net 

3 net 
Notel 
100 gross 
40 net 

20 net 

50 net 

200 gross 

80 gross 
240 gross 
100 gross 

50 net 
100 gross 

30 gross 

60 gross 
100 gross 
200 gross 

50 net 
300 gross 



7 net 



Note 1. The occupant load for an assembly area having fixed seats shall be dete'mineJ by the number of 
fixed seats installed. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



606.5 Conflicts: When there are special requirements for specific occu- 
pancies and users which differ from general requirements herein pre- 
scribed, such special provisions shall take precedence. 

606.6 Non-simultaneous occupancy: The occupant load of toilets, locker 
rooms, meeting rooms, storage rooms, employee cafeterias, and similar 
rooms or spaces that are not occupied at the same time as other rooms or 
spaces on the same floor of a building, may be omitted from the occupant 
load calculation of the floor on which they are located, to the extent that 
such spaces only serve occupied rooms on the same floor. 

606.7 Modifications: The following modifications may be used in deter- 
mining the occupant load: 

1. When the actual occupant load of any space will be significantly 
different than that determined by Table 606, the building official 
may establish an alternate basis for the determination of the occu- 
pant load. The space occupied by permanent fixtures or displays 
may serve to reduce the occupant load. 

2. When a building is altered or changed in occupancy or use so as to 
require enlarged exitway facilities, the building official may auth- 
orize the alteration or change in occupancy or use without an 
enlargement of exitway facilities, provided the occupant load is 
limited to that accommodated by the existing exitway facilities as 
determined by the provisions of this code, and the building or 
space is posted as required by Section 120.0. 

SECTION 607.0 TYPES AND LOCATION OF EXITWAYS 

607.1 General: All approved exitways, including doorways, passage- 
ways, corridors, interior stairways, exterior stairways, moving stairways, 
smokeproof enclosures, ramps, horizontal exits, bridges, balconies, fire 
escapes and combinations thereof shall be arranged and constructed as 
provided in this code. 

607.2 Arrangement: All required exitways shall be so located as to be 
discernible and accessible with unobstructed access thereto and so ar- 
ranged as to lead directly to the street or to an area of refuge with 
supplemental means of egress that will not be obstructed or impaired by 
fire, smoke or other cause. 

607.2.1 Exitway discharge: All exitways shall discharge directly at a 
public way or at a yard, court or open space of the required width and 
size to provide all occupants with a safe access to a public way. 

607.3 Remote location: Whenever more than one (1) exitway is required 
from any room, space or floor of a building, they shall be placed as 
remote from each other as practicable, and shall be arranged to provide 
direct access in separate directions from any point in the area served. 



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607.4 Length of travel: Except as modified by provisions of Section 
609.3 for buildings with one (1) exitway, all exitways shall be so located 
that the maximum length of exitway access travel, measured from the most 
remote point to an approved exitway along the natural and unobstructed 
line of travel shall not exceed the distances given in Table 607; except 
where the area is subdivided into rooms or compartments, and the egress 
travel in the room or compartment is not greater than fifty (50) feet [one 
hundred (100) ft. in use groups equipped with an automatic fire suppres- 
sion system] , the distance shall be measured from the exitway access 
entrance to the nearest exitway. 

Table 607 



LENGTH OF EXITWAY ACCESS TRAVEL (FT.) 






Without fire 


With fire 


Use group 


suppression system 


suppression system 


Assembly 


150 


200 


Business 


200 


300 


Factory and industrial 


200 


300 


High hazard 





75 


Institutional 


100 


200 


Mercantile 


100 


150 


Residential 


100 


150 


Storage, low hazard 


300 


400 


Storage, moderate hazard 


200 


300 



Note. The maximum length of exitway access travel in unlimited area buildings shall be 400 feet. 



SECTION 608.0 CAPACITY OF EXITS 

608.1 Unit of egress width: The unit of egress width for all approved 
types of means of egress parts and facilities shall be twenty-two (22) in- 
ches with a credit of one-half (1/2) unit for each twelve (12) inches 
width width in addition to one (1) or more twenty-two (22) inch units. 
Fractions of a unit of width less than twelve (12) inches shall not be 
credited. 

608.2 Design allowance for use groups: Except as may be specifically 
modified in Article 4, the design capacity per unit of egress width shall 
be computed in accordance with Table 608 for the specified use groups. 



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Table 608 
CAPACITY PER UNIT EGRESS WIDTH 





Without fire suppression system 


With fire suppression system 




Number of occupants 


Number of occupants 


Use group 




Doors, ramps and 




Doors, ramps and 




Stairways 


corridors 


Stairways 


corridors 


Assembly 


75 


100 


113 


150 


Business 


60 


100 


90 


150 


Factory and 










industrial 


60 


100 


90 


150 


High hazard 


. — - 


— — 


60 


100 


Institutional 


22 


30 


33 


45 


Mercantile 


60 


100 


90 


150 


Residential 


75 


100 


113 


150 


Storage 


60 


100 


90 


150 



Note. The main exitway of a bowling alley shall be of sufficient capacity to accommodate 50 per cent of the 
total occupant load, without regard to the number of aisles which it serves. 



SECTION 609.0 NUMBER OF EXITWAYS 

609.1 General: The following general requirements apply to buildings of 
all use groups. More restrictive requirements that may be provided in 
Article 4 for special uses and occupancies shall take precedence over the 
general provisions of this section. 

609.2 Minimum number: There shall be not less than two (2) approved 
independent exitways serving every building except as modified in Section 
609.3. There shall be not less than two (2) approved independent exit- 
ways serving every story, except in one and two-family dwellings and as 
modified in Section 609.3. 

609.3 Buildings with one exitway: Only one (1) exitway shall be re- 
quired in buildings of the use group and characteristics specified in the 
following Table 609. In a building with the first story two thousand 
(2,000) square feet or less in area and with an occupancy load not ex- 
ceeding fifty (50) persons, one (1) means of egress may be permitted 
from the first story. Egress from other stories, shall comply with other 
sections of this article. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 609 



BUILDINGS WITH ONE EXITWAY 



Characteristics of the building 











Min. fire- 


Min. fire- 










resistance 


resistance 








Max. exitway 


rating 


rating 




Max. height 




access travel 


of exitway 


of opening 


Use group 


above grade 


Size 


distance 


enclosure 


protection 


B 

(Business) 


2 stories 


3000 sq. 
ft. per 
floor 


75 ft. 


1 hour 


1 hour 



Note 1. Areas complying with definition for basements shall not be counted as a story. 



609.4 Emergency escape: Every sleeping room below the fourth (4th) 
story shall have at least one (1) operable window or exterior door ap- 
proved for emergency egress or rescue. The units must be operable from 
the inside opening without the use of separate tools. Where windows are 
provided as a means of egress or rescue they shall have a sill height not 
more than forty-four (44) inches above the floor. All egress or rescue 
windows from sleeping rooms must have a minimum net clear opening of 
three and three-tenths (3.3) square feet. The minimum net rectangular 
clear opening dimensions shall be twenty (20) inches by twenty-four (24) 
inches in either direction. 

Bars, grills or screens placed over emergency escape windows shall be 
releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or 
excessive force. 

609.5 Open parking structures: Parking structures shall have not less 
than two (2) exitways from each parking tier, except that where vehicles 
are mechanically parked, only one (1) exitway need be provided. The 
maximum distance from any point on a parking tier to an exitway at that 
tier shall not exceed three hundred (300) feet. Unenclosed vehicle ramps 
may be considered as required exitways if pedestrian facilities are pro- 
vided. Interior exitway stairways need not be enclosed. 

SECTION 610.0 EXITWAY ACCESS PASSAGEWAYS AND CORRIDORS 

610.1 Access passageways: Direct exitway access shall be provided to 
required exitways through continuous passageways, aisles or corridors, 
conveniently accessible to all occupants and maintained free of obstruc- 
tion. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



610.1.1 Turnstiles and gates: Access through turnstiles, gates, rails or 
similar devices shall not be permitted unless such a device is equipped to 
readily swing in the exiting direction of travel under a total pressure of 
not more than fifteen (15) pounds. 

610.1.2 Restrictions: The required width of passageways, aisles or 
corridors shall be maintained free of projections and restrictions except 
doors opening into such spaces may reduce the clear width to not less 
than one^-half (1/2) the required width. When fully open, the door may 
project not more than seven (7) inches into the required width. 

610.2 Dead ends: Exitway access passageways and corridors in all 
stories which serve more than one (1) exitway shall provide direct con- 
nection to such exitways in opposite directions from any point in the 
passageway or corridor, insofar as practicable. The length of a dead end 
corridor shall not be more than twenty (20) feet. 

610.3 Width: The unit of egress width and occupancy allowance of aisles 
and corridors, unless otherwise provided for special uses and occupancies 
in Article 4, shall comply with Table 608 with a minimum total width of 
forty-four (44) inches except in institutional (I) buildings used for the 
movement of beds which shall be ninety-six (96) inches; in schools with 
more than one hundred (100) occupants which shall be seventy-two (72) 
inches; in one- and two-family dwellings which shall be thirty-six (36) 
inches; and in churches and chapels, side aisles may be one-half (1/2) 
the width but not less than thirty-two (32) inches clear. 

610.4 Enclosures: All corridors serving as exitway access shall be 
enclosed in fire separation walls having a fireresistance rating of at least 
one (1) hour when serving an occupancy load greater than thirty (30). 

610.4.1 Opening protectives: All door assemblies from rooms opening 
onto a corridor required to be of one (1) hour fireresistance rated con- 
struction shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection, 
with a twenty (20) minute fire protection rating when tested in accord- 
ance with ASTM E152 without the hose stream and labeled and listed by 
an independent, approved agency; or be one and three-quarter (1 3/4) 
inch solid wood core door or equivalent. 

All door assemblies from rooms opening onto a corridor, required by 
Table 214 to be of two (2) hour fireresistance rated construction, shall be 
one and one-half (1 1/2) hour fire doors. 

SECTION 611.0 GRADE PASSAGEWAYS 
USED AS AN EXITWAY ELEMENT 

611.1 Passageways: Every required interior and exterior exitway ele- 
ment which does not adjoin a public way shall be directly connected to 
the public way or to an open court leading to the public way by an 
enclosed grade passageway or other unobstructed exitway element con- 
structed as provided in this section. 



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611.2 Vestibule: An exitway may discharge into an interior vestibule 
used for ingress and egress only and which complies with the following: 

1. The vestibule depth from the exterior of the building is not greater 
than ten (10) feet and the width is not greater than twenty (20) 
feet; and 

2. The vestibule is separated from the remainder of the level of dis- 
charge by self-closing doors and the equivalent of one-quarter 
(1/4) inch thick wired glass in steel frames. 

611.3 Lobby: An exitway may discharge into an interior lobby which 
shall be provided with an automatic fire suppression system and any other 
portion of the floor with access to the lobby shall be provided with an 
automatic fire suppression system or shall be separated therefrom in 
accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of exitways. 

611.4 Width and height: The effective width of the passageway shall be 
not less than three-quarters (3/4) of the aggregate width of all required 
exitway stairways leading thereto and all required exitway doorways open- 
ing into the passageway. Such passageway shall have a minimum width of 
forty-four (44) inches and a minimum clear ceiling height of eight (8) 
feet. 

611.5 Maximum stairway limitations: Not more than fifty (50) per cent of 
the required stairways shall discharge through the same passageway. 

SECTION 612.0 MEANS OF EGRESS DOORWAYS 

612.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all door- 
ways serving as a component or element of a means of egress; except that 
this section shall not apply to doorways leading to or from required 
stairways (see Sections 616.6, 618.4 and 619.3). 

612.2 Number of doorways: Every room or tenant space with an occu- 
pancy load of more than fifty (50) or which exceeds two thousand (2,000) 
square feet in area shall have at least two (2) egress doorways leading 
from the room or tenant space to an exitway or corridor. All doors shall 
swing in the direction of egress travel when serving an occupancy load of 
fifty (50) or more or a high hazard occupancy. 

Exceptions 

1. For all areas, spaces or rooms with an occupancy load of ten (10) 
or more persons used for instructional purposes (see "Classroom" 
definition, Section 201.0) there shall be at least two (2) indepen- 
dent means of egress, leading to separate exitways remote from 
each other, and so arranged that to reach one it will not be neces- 
sary to pass through a common corridor or space, unless effectively 
divided by a smoke screen barrier into independent areas. Commu- 
nicating doors, which may swing in either direction, will be allowed 
as a second means of egress. 

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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



2. One- and two-family dwellings. 

612.2.1 Entrance and egress doorways: Where separate doors are pro- 
vided for entrance and egress use, the entrance door shall be clearly 
marked Entrance only in letters not less than six (6) inches in height and 
legible from both inside and outside. 

612.3 Size of doors: The minimum width of single door openings shall 
provide a clear width of not less than thirty-two (32) inches except in 
one- and two-family dwellings (use groups R-3 and R-4) the clear width 
shall be not less than twenty-eight (28) inches. The maximum width shall 
be forty-eight (48) inches nominal. Means of egress doors in institutional 
buildings (use group I) used for the movement of beds shall be at least 
forty-four (44) inches wide. When the doorway is subdivided into two 
(2) or more separate openings, the minimum clear width of one (1) open- 
ing shall be not less than thirty-two (32) inches, and each opening shall 
be computed separately in determining the number of required units of 
egress width. A door forty (40) inches in width shall be deemed the 
equivalent of two (2) full units of egress width. The height of doors 
shall not be less than six and two-thirds (6 2/3) feet except in one- and 
two-family dwellings (use groups R-3 and R-4) the height of doors shall 
be not less than six and one-half (6 1/2) feet. 

612.4 Location of doors: The required doorways opening from a room or 
space within a building and leading to an exitway access shall be located 
as remote as practicable from each other. The distance of exitway access 
travel from any point in a room or space to a required exitway door shall 
not exceed the limitations of Section 607.4. 

612.5 Door hardware 

612.5.1 Operation: All egress doors shall be readily opened from the 
side from which egress is to be made without the use of a key or special 
knowledge or effort except for special institutional uses as indicated in 
Section 612.5.3. Except for dwelling units, draw bolts, hooks and other 
similar devices shall be prohibited on all egress doors, unless there is a 
readily visible, durable sign on the door stating "This door to remain 
unlocked during occupancy." The sign shall be in letters not less than 
one (1) inch high on a contrasting background. The locking device must 
be of a type that will be readily distinguishable as locked. The use of 
manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts is prohibited. 

Double cylinder dead bolts requiring a key operation on both sides are 
prohibited on required means of egress doors in residential occupancies 
(use group R), excepting where serving only one dwelling unit. 

612.5.1.1 Locks in multi-family dwellings: Requirements for locks in 
multi-family dwellings are subject to the provisions of Section 3R of 
Chapter 143 of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, as amended. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



612.5.2 Panic devices: All doors equipped with latching devices in 
buildings of use group A (assembly) with an occupant load greater than 
forty nine (49) shall be equipped with approved panic hardware. Ac- 
ceptable panic hardware will be a device which causes the door latch to 
release when a force of fifteen (15) pounds is applied in the direction of 
egress to a bar or panel extending not less than one-half (1/2) of the 
width of the door and at a height greater than thirty (30) inches but less 
than forty-four (44) inches above the floor. 

612.5.3 Remote control: In rooms of use group 1-1 (institutional, re- 
strained) occupied as places of detention, approved releasing devices with 
remote control shall be provided for emergency use unless otherwise 
specifically approved. 

612.5.4 Mechanical operations: All doors which open into enclosed exit- 
way stairs, exitway passageways or those which are installed to provide 
fire or smoke barriers across corridors shall be self-closing and be so 
maintained, or shall be automatic doors which will close upon activation of 
an approved smoke detector. Where egress doors are arranged to be 
opened by non-power operated mechanical devices of any kind, they shall 
be so constructed that the door may be opened manually and will release 
under a total pressure of not more than fifteen (15) pounds applied in 
the direction of egress travel. Power operated exitway doors shall be 
capable of being opened with not more than fifty (50) pounds pressure 
applied at the normal door knob location when power is lost. 

612.6 Door construction: All required egress doors that serve as an 
element of an exitway shall be self-closing or automatic except for grade 
floor exitway discharge doors and revolving exitway doors. 

612.6.1 Grade exitway discharge doors: Doors at grade may be glazed 
with plate glass not less than seven thirty- seconds (7/32) inch thick, or 
with any other approved glazing materials. Approved doors having one 
(1) or more unframed edges may be used, provided they are constructed 
of safety glazing not less than one-half (1/2) inch thick. 

612 . 7 Deleted 

612.8 Door arrangement: Doors in series shall have a space between 
them of not less than seven (7) feet when measured in their closed 
positions . 

Exceptions: Power operated doors, one- and two-family dwellings (use 
groups R-3 and R-4) and use group T. 

SECTION 613.0 REVOLVING DOORS 

613.1 Limitations of use: Revolving doors shall not be used in calcula- 
ting exitway door requirements. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



613.2 Speed control: All approved automatic collapsible revolving doors 
shall be equipped with an approved speed control governor adjustable to 
safe traffic speed as required by the approved rules, but not more than 
fifteen (15) nor less than ten (10) revolutions per minute. 

613.3 Construction: All approved automatic collapsible revolving doors 
shall be constructed as indicated in the following Sections 613.3.1 through 
613.3.5. 

613.3.1 Operating mechanism: The collapsing mechanism shall be con- 
structed of stainless steel or other approved corrosion-resistive materials. 

613.3.2 Use of wood: The doors may be constructed of wood or other 
approved materials of similar combustible characteristics with a minimum 
thickness of one and one-quarter (1 1/4) inches. 

613.3.3 Floor covering: Approved mats or other floor coverings, not 
more than one-half (1/2) inch thick, may be installed within the enclosure 
when permanently secured to the structural flooring and finishing flush 
with the adjacent floor area. 

613.3.4 Glazing: The doors shall be glazed with approved safety glaz- 
ing. 

613.3.5 Door size: The door shall be not less than six (6) feet, six (6) 
inches nor more than seven (7) feet, six (6) inches in diameter and not 
less than seven (7) feet nor more than nine (9) feet in height. 

SECTION 614.0 HORIZONTAL EXITS 

614.1 General: Horizontal exits as herein defined shall be accepted as 
an approved element of a required means of egress when complying with 
the requirements of this article. The connection between the areas of 
refuge as herein specified may be accomplished by protected openings in 
a fireresistance rated wall, by a vestibule, or by an open-air balcony or 
bridge . 

614.2 Separation: The separation between fire areas shall be provided 
by at least a two (2) hour fireresistance rated fire wall or fire separation 
wall complying with Article 9 and Table 214. 

614.2.1 Opening protectives: All fire doors in horizontal exits are to be 
self-closing or automatically closing when activated by an approved smoke 
detector. All doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel. When 
serving as a dual element of a means of egress, there shall be adjacent 
openings with swinging fire doors opening in opposite directions. 

614.3 Size of doors: Size of openings in fire walls shall comply with the 
provisions of Section 908.0, but the width of one (1) opening used as a 
required exit shall not be greater than eighty-eight (88) inches nor shall 
the area exceed eighty (80) square feet. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



614.4 Area of refuge: The discharge area of a horizontal exit shall be 
either public areas or spaces occupied by the same tenant and each such 
area of refuge shall be adequate to house the total occupancy load of both 
connected areas. The capacity of areas of refuge shall be computed on a 
net floor area allowance of three (3) square feet for each occupant to be 
accommodated therein except for non-ambulatory institutional areas which 
shall be thirty (30) square feet per occupant, not including areas of 
stairs, elevators and other shafts or courts. 

614.5 Unlocked doors: Horizontal exit doors shall be kept unlocked and 
unobstructed whenever the area on either side of the horizontal exit is 
occupied. 

614.6 Egress from area of refuge 

614.6.1 Stairway exitway: In multi-story buildings, there shall be at 
least one (1) interior enclosed stairway or smokeproof enclosure on each 
side of the horizontal exit, and any fire area not having a stairway 
accessible thereto shall be considered as part of an adjoining section with 
such stairway; but the length of exitway access travel distance to the 
horizontal exit or the required exitway shall not exceed the requirements 
of Section 607.4 

614.6.2 Auxiliary elevator: When horizontal exits are provided in floors 
located twelve (12) or more stories above grade, the required stairway 
shall be supplemented by at least one (1) passenger elevator maintained 
ready for use during normal occupancy of the building. 

SECTION 615.0 EGRESS RAMPS 

615.1 Capacity: The capacity of ramps used as an egress component 
shall be computed in accordance with Section 608.0. 

615.2 Minimum dimensions 

615.2.1 Width: The minimum width of an egress ramp shall be not less 
than that required for corridors by Section 610.3 

615.2.2 Headroom: The minimum headroom in all parts of the egress ramp 
shall be not less than six and two-thirds (6 2/3) feet. 

615.2.3 Restrictions: Egress ramps shall not reduce in width in the 
direction of egress travel. Projections into the required ramp and land- 
ing width are prohibited except for handrails and stringers. Doors 
opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear width to less than 
forty-two (42) inches. 

615.3 Landings: Landings shall be provided at all points of turning, 
entrance, exiting and doors. Ramp slopes greater than one (1) in fifteen 
(15) shall have landings at the top, bottom and each five (5) feet of 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



vertical rise. Each landing shall have a minimum lengt" nf five (5) feet 
except the bottom landing shall have a length of six (6) 

615.4 Maximum slope: A ramp used for egress for + ysically handi- 
capped shall have a maximum slope of one (1) in tw „ l2) All other 
egress ramps shall have a maximum slope of one (1) in eigh 

615.4.1 Surface: For all slopes exceeding one (1) in t T e (12), and 
wherever the use is such as to involve danger of slipping, ne ramp shall 
be surfaced with approved non-slip materials. 

615.5 Handrails: Handrails shall be provided on at least one (1) side of 
every ramp having a slope greater than one (1) in fifteen (15), and they 
shall be not less than thirty (30) inches nor more than thirty-four (34) 
inches in height, measured from the surface of the ramp. Handrails shall 
be smooth and shall extend one (1) foot beyond the top and bottom of the 
ramp and return to walls or posts at the ends. 

615.6 Ramp construction: Ramps used as an exitway shall conform to 
the applicable requirements of Section 616.9 as to materials of construc- 
tion and enclosure. 

SECTION 616.0 INTERIOR EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

616.1 Capacity: The capacity of stairways and doors per unit of exit 
width shall be computed in accordance with Section 608.0. 

616.2 Minimum dimensions 

616.2.1 Width: All interior exitway stairways shall be not less than 
forty-four 44 inches in width, except that such width may be reduced to 
thirty-six (36) inches when serving an occupancy load of fifty (50) or 
less. 

616.2.2 Headroom: The minimum headroom in all parts of the stair 
enclosure shall be not less than six and two-thirds (6 2/3) feet measured 
vertically from the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing 
or platform. 

616.2.3 Restrictions: Stairways shall not reduce in width in the direc- 
tion of exit travel. Projections into a stairway are prohibited except for 
handrails as indicated in Section 616.5.1 and for stairway stringers which 
may project not more than one and one-half (1 1/2) inches. 

616.3 Landings and platforms 

616.3.1 Width: The least dimension of landings and platforms shall be 
not less than the required width of stairway. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



616.3.2 Vertical rise: In all buildings a stairway shall not have a height 
of vertical rise of more than twelve (12) feet between landings and inter- 
mediate platforms. 

616.4 Treads and risers 

616.4.1 Minimum dimensions: The height of risers and width of treads 
in inches shall be as indicated in the following Table 616. 

TREAD AND RISER SIZE 1 

Use group Maximum riser Minimum tread 

Assembly and institutional 2 IVi" 10" 
One and two family dwellings V-h" 9" 
All others 2 8" 9^ 

Note 1. Within any flight, a three-sixteenths (3/16) inch maximum variation in riser height or tread 
width is permitted. 

Note 2. Except in one ano two family dwellings, tread and riser shall be so proportioned that the sum 
of two (2) risers plus one (1) tread, exclusive of nosing, is not less than twenty-four (24) nor more than 
twenty-five (25) inches. 

616.4.2 Winders: Winders shall not be permitted in required exitway 
stairways except in one- and two-family dwellings and stairways serving a 
single dwelling unit and in ornamental stairways not required as an ele- 
ment of an exitway. Such winders shall have a tread width of not less 
than nine (9) inches at a point not more than twelve (12) inches from the 
side where the tread is narrower and the minimum tread width is not less 
than six (6) inches. 

616.5 Stairway guards and handrails: Stairways shall have continuous 
guards and handrails on both sides, and in addition thereto, stairways 
more than eighty-eight (88) inches in required width shall have intermedi- 
ate handrails dividing the stairway into portions not more than eighty-eight 
(88) inches wide. Stairways in one- and two-family dwellings may have 
one (1) handrail. 

616.5.1 Handrail details: Handrails shall be provided according to the 
following requirements : 

1. Handrails may project not more than three and one-half (3 1/2) 
inches into the required stair width. 

2. Handrails shall be not less than thirty (30) inches, nor more than 
thirty-four (34) inches, measured vertically, above the nosing of 
the treads. 

3. Handrails shall extend eighteen (18) inches beyond the top and 
bottom step if a guard or wall exists and shall be returned to walls 
or posts at the ends of the stairways. 

4. Handrails shall be designed to withstand an applied load of two 
hundred (200) pounds in any direction at any point. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



616.5.2 Guard details: Guards shall be provided according to the follow- 
ing requirements: 

1. Guards shall be not less than forty-two (42) inches in height mea- 
sured vertically above the nosing of the tread. 

Exception: Guards shall be not less than thirty (30) inches in 
height measured vertically above the nosing of the tread along 
stairs which: 



a. do not exceed twenty (20) feet in height; or 

b. reverse direction at intermediate landings with twelve (12) 
inches or less measured horizontally between successive flights. 

2. Guards shall be constructed so that the area in the plane of the 
guard, from the top of the tread to the top of the guard, is sub- 
divided or filled in one (1) of the following methods: 

a. a sufficient number of intermediate longitudinal rails constructed 
so that the clear distance between rails (measured at right 
angles to the rail) does not exceed six (6) inches. The bottom 
rail shall not be more than six (6) inches (measured vertically) 
from the tread nosing; or 

b. balusters spaced not more than six (6) inches apart; or 

c. panels of wire mesh, or expanded metal, or ornamental grills 
which provide protection equivalent to that provided by the 
intermediate rails or balusters specified in the two (2) preced- 
ing paragraphs; or 

d. walls; or 

e. any combination of the foregoing. 

3. Guards at least forty-two (42) inches in height shall be located 
along open-sided floor areas, mezzanines and landings. 

Exception: In R-3 and R-4 occupancies, guards shall be at least 
thirty-six (36) inches in height. 

616.6 Stair exitway doors 

616.6.1 Width: The width of every exitway door to or from a stairway 
shall be not less than the number of units of exit width required for the 
capacity of the stairway which services the floor or area from which the 
exitway door leads; but such a door shall not be less than twenty-eight 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



(28) inches in clear width in use group R-3 and R-4 buildings (one- and 
two-family dwellings), nor less than thirty-two (32) inches in clear width 
in all other use groups. 

616.6.2 Direction of swing: All doors shall swing on a landing in the 
direction of exit travel. When opening, stair exitway doors shall not 
reduce the width of landings to less than one-half (1/2) the minimum 
required for its capacity. When fully open, the exitway door may project 
seven (7) inches onto the landing. 

616.6.3 Door construction: All doorway opening protectives, including 
the frames and hardwares, shall be approved self-closing, swinging fire 
doors, except in one- and two-family dwellings where one and three-quar- 
ters (1 3/4) inch solid core wood doors are permitted. Labeled fire doors 
shall have a maximum transmitted temperature end point of not more than 
four hundred fifty (450) degrees F. above ambient at the end of thirty 
(30) minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

616.7 Spiral stairways: Spiral stairways of noncombustible construction 
may be used as an element of a means of egress in one- and two-family 
dwellings and within a single dwelling unit and from a mezzanine area not 
more than two hundred fifty (250) square feet in area and serving not 
more than five (5) occupants. The minimum width shall be twenty-six 
(26) inches with each tread having a seven and one-half (7 1/2) inch 
minimum tread width at twelve (12) inches from the narrow edge. All 
treads shall be identical and the rise shall be not more than nine and 
one-half (9 1/2) inches. A minimum headroom of six and one-half (6 1/2) 
feet shall be provided. 

616.7.1 Circular stairways: Circular stairways may be used as an ele- 
ment of egress when a minimum tread width of ten (10) inches is provided 
and the smaller radius is not less than twice the width of the stairway. 

616.8 Supplemental stairways: Stairways which are not a required means 
of egress element, serving one (1) adjacent floor and not connected with 
a corridor or stairway serving other floors, may be used in all use groups 
except institutional (use group I). (See Sections 520.1, 1202.1 and 
1202.17.) 

616.9 Stairway construction: Unless herein otherwise provided, all 
required interior stairways shall be built entirely of noncombustible mate- 
rials with solid risers, treads and landing platforms and all finish floor 
surfaces of non-slip noncombustible materials; except that wood handrails 
shall be permitted, complying with the requirements of Section 616.5. 

616.9.1 Strength: All stairways, platforms, landings and exitways in 
other than one- and two-family dwellings, shall be adequate to support a 
live load of one hundred (100) pounds per square foot (psf) and a con- 
centrated load of three hundred (300) pounds. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



616.9.2 Enclosures: Required interior exitway stairways shall be en- 
closed in fire separation assemblies of the fireresistance rating specified 
in Table 214. An exitway enclosure shall not be used for any purpose 
other than means of egress. A space below a stairway shall be enclosed 
as required or kept open. Doors shall not open into the stairway enclo- 
sure except exitway doors. 

Exceptions : 

1. Exitways in buildings of use groups R-3 and R-4 (residential, one- 
and two-family). 

2. Exitways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling 
unit. 

3. Exitways in communicating floor levels as provided in Section 
616.10. 

4. Supplemental stairways as provided in Section 616.8. 

616.9.3 Combustible construction: In all buildings of Types 3 or 4 
construction, the stairways and their enclosures may be constructed of 
wood or other approved materials of similar characteristics and of ade- 
quate strength. 

616.10 Communicating floors: In other than use groups A-4 (assembly, 
schools) or I (institutional), any building with low hazard occupancy (use 
group S-2), or with ordinary hazard occupancy (use groups B, M, R-l 
and R-2) with automatic sprinkler protection where necessary to the 
effective utilization of a building site with sloping grade or otherwise 
essential to the functional design of the building, not more than three (3) 
communicating floor levels may be permitted without enclosure or protec- 
tion between such areas, only provided all the conditions described below 
are met: 

1. the lowest, or next to the lowest, level is a street floor; 

2. the entire area, including all communicating floor levels, is suffi- 
ciently open and unobstructed to be assumed that a fire or other 
dangerous condition in any part will be immediately obvious to the 
occupants of all communicating levels and areas; 

3. egress capacity is simultaneously sufficient for all the occupants of 
all communicating levels and areas, all communicating levels in the 
same fire area being considered as a single floor area for purposes 
of determination of required egress capacity; and 

4. each floor level, considered separately, has at least one-half (1/2) 
of its individual required egress capacity provided by an exitway or 
exitways leading directly out of that area without traversing another 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



other communicating floor level or being exposed to the spread of 
fire or smoke therefrom. 

616.11 Discharge identification: Stairways which continue beyond the 
floor of discharge shall be interrupted at the floor of discharge by parti- 
tions, doors or other effective means of preventing persons from continu- 
ing past the floor of discharge while egressing. A sign shall be provided 
at each landing in all interior stairways more than three (3) stories in 
height designating the floor level above the floor of discharge. 

SECTION 617.0 ACCESS TO ROOF 

617.1 By stairway or ladder: In buildings more than three (3) stories 
in height except those with a roof slope greater than four (4) in twelve 
(12), access to the roof shall be provided by means of a stairway or a 
ladder and trap door; the ladder shall not be on the exterior of the 
building. Where the roof is used as a roof garden or for other habitable 
purposes, sufficient stairways shall extend to it to provide the necessary 
exitway facilities from the roof as required for such occupancy. Roof 
trap doors shall be constructed to comply with Section 925.2. 

617.1.1 Optional stairway or ladder: Buildings not required to have a 
stairway or ladder to the roof as described above, may include such a 
stairway or ladder at the discretion of the designer of the building. The 
stairway or ladder shall conform to the provisions of this section, except 
that ladders may be placed on the exterior of the building. The siderails 
of exterior ladders shall be carried over the coping or parapet to afford 
hand hold; the ladder shall be metal, and if it exceeds twenty (20) feet 
in height, shall have a protective cage or other safety device; other 
design details of such exterior ladders are subject to the approval of the 
building official. 

617.2 Roof enclosures: Stairways extending through roofs shall be 
enclosed in roof structures of fireresistance rated construction meeting 
the requirements of Section 925.0. 

SECTION 618.0 SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURES 

618.1 General: A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of a continuous 
stairway, enclosed from the highest point to the lowest point, meeting the 
requirements of this section. 

618.2 Where required: At least one (1) of the required exitways shall 
be a smokeproof enclosure in buildings over six (6) stories or seventy- 
five (75) feet in height when of one (1) of the following use groups: 

1. use groups A-2, A-3, A-4, A-5 (assembly other than theaters); 

2. use group B (business); 

3. use group F (factory and industrial); 

4. use group I (institutional); 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



5. use group M (mercantile); and 

6. use group R-l (residential, hotel). 

618-3 Access: Exitway access to the stairway at each story shall be 
through a vestibule or balcony with an unobstructed width not less than 
the required stairway width and a minimum dimension of seventy-two (72) 
inches in the direction of exit travel. 

618.4 Doors: Door openings from interior spaces to the vestibule or 
balcony and from the vestibule or balcony to the stairway, shall be as 
required in Section 612.3. The doors from interior spaces to the vesti- 
bule shall have a fireresistance rating not less than one and one-half (1 
1/2) hours and shall comply with the requirements of Section 616.6 for 
stair exitway doors. The door from the vestibule to the stairway shall be 
a tight-fitting door, equal to not less than an exterior type solid wood 
door without voids, assembled with exterior type glue, one and three- 
quarter 1 3/4) inch minimum thickness set in a steel frame. Wired glass, 
if provided, shall not exceed one hundred (100) square inches in area 
and shall be set in a steel frame. The door shall be provided with a 
drop sill and be weather stripped or otherwise provided to minimize air 
leakage . 

618.5 Terminal passageway: The smokeproof enclosure shall terminate at 
grade level and shall provide egress to the street independently of all 
other exitways. When grade passageways are used, they shall comply 
with the requirements of Section 611.0, except that there shall not be 
openings therein other than the smokeproof enclosure and street exit 
doorways. The passageway walls shall be of four (4) hour fireresistance 
rated construction, and the floor and roof of three (3) hour fireresistance 
rated construction. 

618.6 Construction: The construction of smokeproof enclosures shall be 
of walls with a four (4) hour fireresistance rating without openings other 
than the required doorways. The vestibule shall be considered to be an 
element of the exitway and shall be constructed in accordance with the 
fireresistance rating requirements of Table 214. The balcony shall be 
constructed in accordance with the fireresistance rating requirements in 
Table 214 for floor construction. The stairshaft vestibule or balcony 
shall be provided with emergency lighting from an approved independent 
power source to assure continued illumination in case of emergency. 

618.7 Ventilation of smokeproof enclosures: Smokeproof enclosures shall 
be ventilated with natural ventilation or mechanical ventilation meeting the 
requirements of Section 618.8 or 618.9. 

618.8 Smokeproof enclosure by natural ventilation: The balcony separa- 
ting the smokeproof enclosure from the interior building spaces shall have 
at least one (1) open side adjacent to a street, alley, or yard with guard 
railings across the open side(s). One (1) open side of the balcony shall 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



have a minimum open area of sixteen (16) square feet with any dimension 
at least thirty (30) inches. The balcony floor shall be level with or 
installed below the building floor where climatic conditions involve the 
possibility of door obstruction by snow or ice. A step shall not be 
permitted between the balcony and the smokeproof enclosure. The street, 
alley, or yard adjacent to one (1) open side of the balcony shall have a 
minimum area of two hundred (200) square feet and a minimum dimension 
of ten (10) feet. 

618.9 Smokeproof enclosure by mechanical ventilation: The stairshaft 
and vestibule shall be provided with a mechanical ventilation system as 
specified herein that will be automatically activated on three (3) or more 
floors in case of emergency. 

618.9.1 Operation of ventilating equipment: Vestibule and stairshaft 
mechanical ventilation may be inactive or may operate at reduced levels 
for normal operations, but when the detectors referred to herein either 
fail or are activated, the vestibule and stairshaft mechanical ventilation 
systems shall operate at the levels specified in Section 618.9.2 and 
618.9.3. The vestibule ventilation system shall be designed and activated 
in accordance with one (1) of the following methods. t 

1. Total system: simultaneous operation of all vestibules. *If the 
vestibule mechanical ventilation system is designed to provide the 
ventilation in the vestibules on all floors simultaneously, a 
products-of-combustion detector shall be located outside each ves- 
tibule so designed that activation or failure of any one (1) of the 
detectors will simultaneously activate the vestibule ventilation sys- 
tem on all floors. 

2. Zoned system: simultaneous operation of three (3) or more vesti- 
bules. If the vestibule ventilation system is designed as one (1) or 
more zones to provide the simultaneous ventilation in the vestibules 
for at least a three (3) floor zone, automatic supply and exhaust 
dampers shall be provided in all vestibules in order to obtain the 
zoned control of the ventilation as follows: a smoke detector shall 
be located outside each vestibule so designed to open the supply 
and exhaust duct dampers in the vestibules within the affected zone 
[three (3) or more floors] and to actuate the stairshaft ventilation 
system in case any detector in the affected zone either fails or is 
activated . 

618.9.2 Vestibule ventilation: The vestibule shall have an emergency 
ventilating system providing a supply of not less than one (1) air change 
per minute. The exhaust shall be one hundred fifty (150) per cent of 
the supply. Supply air and exhaust air shall serve the vestibule through 
separate tightly constructed ducts used only for that purpose. Supply 
air shall enter the vestibule within six (6) inches of the floor level. The 
top of the exhaust register shall be located within six (6) inches of the 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



vestibule ceiling and shall be entirely within the smoke trap area. Doors, 
when in the open position, shall not obstruct the duct openings. Duct 
openings may be provided with controlling dampers if required by Section 
618.9.1 (method 2) but these are not otherwise required. The vestibule 
ceiling shall be at least twenty (20) inches higher than the door opening 
into the vestibule, to serve as a smoke trap and to provide an upward 
moving air column. Special provision shall be made in the design to avoid 
creation of negative pressures which would retard the opening of the door 
to the stairshaft from the vestibule. 

618.9.3 Stairshaft ventilation: The stairshaft shall be provided with 
emergency mechanical supply and exhaust air. There shall be a minimum 
of twenty-five hundred (2500) cubic feet per minute (cfm) discharge at 
the top of the shaft. The supply shall be sufficient to provide a minimum 
of five-hundredths (.05) inches of water column pressure above atmos- 
pheric pressure with all doors closed and a minimum of ten-hundredths 
(.10) inch water column difference between the stairshaft and the vesti- 
bule, i Supply air shall be introduced at the level of the grade exitway 
discharge . 

618.9.4 Standby power: Mechanical vestibule stairshaft ventilation 
systems and detector systems shall be powered by an approved self-con- 
tained * generator designed to operate whenever there is a loss of power in 
the normal house current. The generator shall be located in a separate 
room of two (2) hour fireresistance rated construction and shall have a 
minimum fuel supply to operate the equipment for two (2) hours. 

618.9.5 Emergency lighting: The vestibules and stairshaft shall be 
provided with emergency lighting. The standby generator which is 
installed for the vestibule and stairshaft mechanical ventilation equipment 
may be used for the standby emergency lighting power supply. 

618.9.6 Fire protection indicator panel: A fire protection indicator panel 
may be required by the building official and, if so, shall be located as 
near as practical inside the entrance to the smokeproof tower stairshaft at 
grade. Said panel shall indicate the floor or floors having caused the 
alarm. Said panel shall have an overriding manual switch capable of 
deactivating the ventilation equipment. 

618.9.7 Fire department communications connection: The fire protection 
indicator panel shall have a direct connection to the fire department 
facilities if required by the building official. 

618.9.8 Acceptance and testing: Before the foregoing equipment is 
accepted by the building official, it shall be tested in his presence to 
confirm that equipment is operating in compliance with these require- 
ments . 

618.9.9 Building owners* responsibility: The building engineer shall test 
all the equipment referred to in these requirements at least once every 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



thirty (30) days and maintain a log attesting to the results. The log 
shall be available for inspection by the building official and the fire 
official. 

SECTION 619.0 EXTERIOR EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

619.1 As required exitway: Exterior stairways conforming to the re- 
quirements for interior stairways in all respects, except as to enclosures 
and except as herein specifically modified, may be accepted as an element 
of a required means of egress in buildings not exceeding five (5) stories 
or sixty-five (65) feet in height for other than use group I (institutional) 
buildings, except as provided in Section 619.1.1 for residential buildings. 
Exterior stairways which are accepted as exitway elements shall be re- 
lieved from requirements for fire doors, but shall be provided with hand- 
rails and guards as required for interior exitway stairs. Exterior stair- 
ways in climates subject to snow or ice shall be protected to prevent 
accumulation of snow and ice. 

619.1.1 Location and arrangement: Exterior stairways may be utilized 
where at least one (1) door from each tenant opens onto a roofed-over 
open porch or balcony served by at least two (2) stairways, except that 
one (1) stairway may be provided as permitted in Table 609, so located as 
to provide a choice of independent, unobstructed means of egress directly 
to the grade. Such porches and stairways shall comply with the require- 
ments for interior exitway stairways as specified in Section 616.0. Porch- 
es and balconies shall be not less than four and one-half (4 1/2) feet in 
width. The stairways shall be located remotely from each other. The 
maximum travel distance from any tenant space to the nearest stairway 
shall be as specified in Table 607. Porches and stairways shall be located 
at least ten (10) feet from adjacent property lot lines and from other 
buildings on the same lot, unless openings in such buildings are protec- 
ted by three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance rated doors or windows. 

619.2 Guards and handrails: Guards and handrails shall be as specified 
in Section 616.0. 

619.3 Opening protectives: Openings below and within ten (10) feet 
horizontally of the stairway shall be protected with approved three- 
quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance rated automatic opening protectives. 

Exception: Buildings two (2) stories or less in height. 

619.4 Location 

619.4.1 Access to street: All required exterior stairways shall be loca- 
ted so as to lead directly to a street or open space with direct access to 
a street; or when located on the rear of the building may lead through a 
passageway at grade complying with Section 611.0. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



619.4.2 Projection: Exterior stairways shall not project beyond the 
street lot line. 

619.5 Construction: Exterior stairs, porches and balconies shall be 
constructed of materials consistent with the types of materials permitted 
in Table 214 for the type of construction of the building to which the 
stairway is attached. 

SECTION 620.0 MOVING EXITWAY STAIRWAYS 

620.1 When acceptable: Moving stairways of the horizontal non-slip 
tread type moving in the direction of egress may be accepted as an 
approved exitway element in buildings of all use groups except assembly 
(A) and institutional (I) uses, when constructed and approved in accord- 
ance with the requirements of this article and the provisions of 524 CMR 
15.00 through 33.00. When accepted as an element of a required means 
of egress, they shall be enclosed with fireresistance rated partitions as 
specified in Section 616.0. 

620.2 Width: The width shall be not less than forty (40) inches between 
guards and the moving tread shall be not less than thirty-six (36) inches 
in width, and fifteen three-quarter (15 3/4) inches in depth. 

620.3 Capacity: The occupancy capacity shall be computed as provided 
in Section 608.0 for exitway stairways. 

620.4 Landings and platforms: Landings and platforms shall be provided 
at the top and bottom of each unit as required for interior exitway stair- 
ways. 

620.5 Railings: Guards shall be surmounted with moving handrails 
traveling at the same speed as the stairway. 

620.6 Egress: Means of egress to the street shall be provided as speci- 
fied herein for interior stairways. 

620.7 Construction 

620.7.1 Noncombustible materials: Only noncombustible materials shall be 
used in the construction of moving stairways accepted as a required 
means of egress except for step wheels, handrails, electrical equipment, 
and wood veneers not more than one twenty-eighth (1/28) inch thick 
directly attached to metal or other noncombustible backing with a nonvola- 
tile and nonflammable cement. 

620.7.2 Fireresistance: The enclosure shall afford the fireresistance 
rating required for approved interior exitway stairways as specified in 
Section 616.9. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



620.7.3 Height of travel per unit: A single moving stairway unit shall 
not have a vertical travel of more than (2) stories nor more than thirty- 
five (35) feet. 

SECTION 621.0 FIRE ESCAPES 

621.1 Where permitted: Fire escapes shall not be permitted as an ele- 
ment of a required means of egress except on existing buildings or struc- 
tures when constructed in accordance with the approved rules and when 
more adequate exitway facilities cannot be provided. Fire escapes shall 
not provide more than fifty (50) per cent of the required exit capacity. 
Fire escapes shall conform to NFiPA 101 and the specific requirements of 
Section 621.0. 

621.2 Location: When located on the front of the building and projecting 
beyond the building line, the lowest landing shall be not less than seven 
(7) or more than twelve (12) feet above grade, equipped with a counter- 
balanced stairway to the street. In alleyways and thoroughfares less 
than thirty (30) feet wide, the clearance under the lowest landing shall 
be not less than twelve (12) feet. 

621.3 Construction: The fire escape shall be designed to support a live 
load of one hundred (100) pounds per square foot (psf), and shall be 
constructed of steel or other approved noncombustible materials. Fire 
escapes may be constructed of wood not less than two (2) inches thick on 
buildings of Type 4 construction. 

621.3.1 Dimensions: Stairs shall be at least twenty-two (22) inches wide 
with risers not more and treads not less than eight (8) inches and land- 
ings at foot of stairs not less than forty (40) inches wide by thirty-six 
(36) inches long, located not more than eight (8) inches below the access 
window or door. 

621.3.2 Opening protectives: Doors and windows along the fire escape 
shall be protected with three-quarter (3/4) hour fireresistance rated 
opening protectives. 

621.3.3 Connections: All structural connections to and through the face 
of the building shall be designed to be corrosion and deterioration resis- 
tant. 

SECTION 622.0 SLIDESCAPES 

622.1 Where permitted: Slidescapes and safety chutes shall be permitted 
in buildings of the high hazard use group, and in existing school and 
institutional buildings, when approved by the building official and con- 
structed in accordance with the approved rules. 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



622.2 Location: The arrangement and location of slidescapes shall con- 
form to this article for means of egress and shall be designated by exit 
signs and lights as provided in Section 623.0. 

622.3 Construction: All chutes shall be constructed of approved non- 
combustible materials with a pitch in the line of travel of not less than 
twenty-four (24) nor more than forty-two (42) degrees measured on the 
developed circumference of spiral chutes. Straight chutes shall be not 
less than twenty-four (24) inches and spiral chutes not less than twen- 
ty-eight (28) inches wide in the clear; nor more than forty-four (44) 
inches wide in any case. When erected on the interior of a building, 
they shall be enclosed as required in Section 616.9 for interior stairways 
with direct means of egress to the street or other public space. 

622.4 Capacity: Slidescapes, where permitted as an element of a re- 
quired exitway, shall be rated at one (1) unit of egress width per slide, 
with rated capacity of sixty (60). Slidescapes, except as permitted for 
high hazard manufacturing buildings or structures, shall not constitute 
more than twenty-five (25) per cent of the required number of units of 
egress width from any building or structure or any individual story. 

SECTION 623.0 EXIT SIGNS AND LIGHTS 

623.1 Location: In all buildings having an occupancy load of fifty (50) 
or more, all required means of egress shall be indicated with approved 
illuminated signs reading Exit visible from the exitway access and, when 
necessary, supplemented by directional signs in the access corridors 
indicating the direction and way of egress. All Exit signs shall be loca- 
ted at exitway doors or exitway access areas, so as to be readily visible. 

623.2 Size and color: Exit signs shall have red letters at least six (6) 
inches high and the minimum width of each stroke shall be three-quarters 
(3/4) inch on a white background or in other approved distinguishable 
colors. If an arrow is provided as part of an Exit sign, the construction 
shall be such that the arrow direction cannot be readily changed. The 
letters "Exit" shall be clearly discernible when the illuminated sign is not 
energized. 

623.3 Illumination: Each sign shall be illuminated by a source providing 
not less than three (3) foot candles at the illuminated surface. 

623.4 Power source: All Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times when 
the building is occupied and provided with an emergency power source as 
described in Section 624.4. 

SECTION 624.0 MEANS OF EGRESS LIGHTING 

624.1 Artificial lighting: All means of egress in other than one- and 
two-family dwellings shall be equipped with artificial lighting facilities to 



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780 CMR STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



provide the intensity of illumination herein prescribed continuously during 
the time that conditions of occupancy of the building require that the 
exitways be available. Lighting shall also be provided to illuminate the 
exitway discharge. 

624.2 Intensity of illumination: The intensity of floor lighting shall be 
not less than one (1) foot candle. 

624.3 Places of assembly: In places of assembly for the exhibition of 
motion pictures or other projections by means of directed light, the 
illumination of floors of exitway access areas may be reduced during such 
period of projection to not less than one-half (1/2) foot candle. 

624.4 Emergency lighting system: Means of egress lighting shall be 
provided from an independent power source or other approved auxiliary 
source of power to assure continued illumination in case of emergency or 
primary power loss for a duration of one (1) hour in the following: 

1. use group A (public assembly); 

2. use group B (business); 

3. use group I (institutional); 

4. use group M (mercantile) when greater than three thousand (3,000) 
square feet in area on any floor or when having one (1) or more 
floors above or below grade floor; 

5. use group R-l (hotels and detoxification facilities); 

6. use group R-2 (multi-family dwellings) containing four (4) or more 
dwelling units; and 

7. in all windowless buildings or portions thereof regardless of use 
group, except R-3 and R-4 

SECTION 625.0 HAZARDS TO MEANS OF EGRESS 

625.1 Floor openings: Manholes or floor access panels shall not be 
located in the line of egress which reduce the clearance to less than 
thirty-two (32) inches. 

625.2 Protrusions: There shall not be low-hanging door closers that 
remain within the opening of a doorway when the door is open or that 
protrude hazardously into corridors or line of egress when the door is 
closed. There shall not be low-hanging signs, ceiling lights or similar 
fixtures which protrude into corridors or lines of egress. 

625.3 Identification of hazardous exits: Doors leading to dangerous 
areas such as fire escapes, loading platforms, switch rooms and mech- 
anical rooms shall be equipped with knobs, handles or push bars that 
have been knurled. 

625.4 Floor surfaces: All floors of corridors and lines of egress shall 
have a surface that is non-slip. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



ARTICLE 7 

STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION 
LOADS AND STRESSES 

SECTION 700.0 GENERAL 

700.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the structural 
design of all structures, and their foundations, hereafter erected to 
insure adequate strength of all parts thereof for the safe support of all 
superimposed live and special loads in addition to their own dead load, 
without exceeding the design capabilities. The loads specified herein are 
the minimum suitable for use with stresses and load factors prescribed in 
this code or in accepted engineering practice. 

SECTION 701.0 DESIGN SAFE LOAD 

701.1 Structural analysis: The safe load for any structural member or 
system of construction shall be determined by accepted engineering analy- 
sis except as provided in Sections 702.0 and 803.0 for tests of assemblies 
not capable of analysis. 

701.2 Check tests: When there is reasonable doubt as to the design 
capacity of any structural unit or assembly, the building official may 
require that tests be made of such unit or assembly under the supervi- 
sion of a qualified registered professional engineer. Such tests shall be 
made by an approved testing facility and personnel, and the procedures 
and results of such tests shall be signed and stamped by the said desig- 
nated qualified registered professional engineer. 

SECTION 702.0 TEST SAFE LOAD 

702.1 When required: When not capable of being accurately analyzed, 
any system of construction or structural unit and its connections shall be 
subjected to tests prescribed in Article 8 or in the test standards listed 
in Appendices D and E, or to such other tests which may be certified by 
a qualified registered professional engineer as being acceptable for pro- 
viding the information required. Any tests performed shall be conducted 
as required by the provisions of Section 701.2 for testing. 

702.2 Test load: The test load shall be subject to the provisions of 
Section 803.2 and, where applicable, deflections shall be limited as pro- 
vided in Section 803.3. 

SECTION 703.0 DESIGN LIVE LOAD 

703.1 Required live load: The live loads to be assumed in the design of 
buildings and structures shall be the greatest load produced by the 
intended use and occupancy, but not less than the minimum uniformly 
distributed unit loads required in Section 706.0 for specific uses. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



703.2 Loads not specified: The building official shall approve the live 
load for any use not specifically provided for in Table 706. 

SECTION 704.0 DESIGN DEAD LOAD 

704.1 Construction materials: In estimating dead load for the purposes 
of structural design, the weights of materials shall be used, but shall not 
be less than the unit dead loads prescribed in Appendix J and the Stan- 
dard for Minimum Design Loads in Buildings and Other Structures listed 
in Appendix B. 

704.2 Service equipment: In estimating dead loads for the purposes of 
structural design, the weight of service equipment and their distribution 
components for plumbing, electrical, heating, ventilating, air condition- 
ing, sprinkler and similar systems shall be included. 

704.3 Partition load: In structures where subdividing partitions may be 
subsequently erected, rearranged or relocated, provision shall be made to 
support the weight of such partitions where they occur, or for an equiva- 
lent uniform load, which shall be assumed not less than twenty (20) 
pounds per square foot (psf) of floor area, in addition to the specified 
uniformly distributed live load. Provision for partition weight shall be 
made whether or not partitions are shown on the plans, unless the speci- 
fied live load exceeds eighty (80) psf. 

SECTION 705.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

705.1 General: In the reconstruction, repair, extension or alteration of 
existing buildings, the allowable working stresses used in design shall be 
as indicated in the following Sections 705.2 through 705.5 (see Article 
22). 

705.2 Building extended: When an existing building is altered by an 
extension in height or area, all existing structural parts affected by the 
addition shall be strengthened where necessary, and all new structural 
parts shall be designed to meet the requirements for buildings hereafter 
erected. 

705.3 Building repaired: When repairs are made to the structural por- 
tion of an existing building, and the uncovered structural portions are 
found unsound, such parts shall be made to conform to the requirements 
for buildings hereafter erected. 

705.4 Existing live load: When an existing building heretofore approved 
is altered or repaired within the limitations prescribed in Article 22, the 
structure may be designed for the loads and stresses applicable at the 
time of erection, provided the public safety is not endangered thereby. 

705.5 Posted live load: Any existing building heretofore approved, in 
which there is not a change in use to a new use group requiring greater 



9/1/80 242 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



floor loads, may be posted for the originally approved live loads, provi- 
ded the building is structurally safe in all its parts, adeguate for its 
existing use, and the public safety is not endangered thereby. 

SECTION 706.0 UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 

706.1 Uniform live load: The plans for all buildings and structures 
intended for other than R-3 and R-4 use groups shall specify the live 
and partition loads for which each floor or part thereof has been de- 
signed. The minimum uniformly distributed live load in pounds per sguare 
foot (psf) shall be as provided in Table 706, and for all concentrated 
loads wherever they occur as provided in Section 707.0. 

Table 706 



MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 

Occupancy or use Live load (psf) 

Apartments (see Residential) 

Armories and drill rooms 150 

Assembly halls and other places of assembly: 

Fixed seats 60 

Movable seats 100 

Platforms (assembly) 100 

Balcony (exterior) 100 

One- and two- family dwellings only 60 
Bowling alleys, poolrooms, and similar 

recreational areas 75 

Cornices 75 

Court rooms 100 
Corridors: 

First floor 100 

Other floors, same as occupancy served 
except as indicated 

Dance halls and ballrooms 100 

Dining rooms and restaurants 100 

Dwellings (see Residential) 



706.2 Partial loading: The full intensity of the appropriately reduced 
live load applied only to a portion of the length of a structure or member 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 706 (cont'd.) 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 



Occupancy or use 



Live load (psf) 



Elevator Machine Room 
Fire escapes 

On multi- or single f mi ly residential buildings only 
Garages (passenger cars only) 

For trucks and buses use AASTHO' lane loads 

(see Table 707 for concentrated load reauirements) 

(see Section 710.1 for roofs) 
Grandstands (see Reviewing stands) 
Gymnasiums, main floors and balconies 
Hospitals 

Operating rooms, laboratories 

Private moms 

Wards 

Conidors. above first floor 
Hotels (see Residential) 
Libraries 

Reading rooms 

Stack rooms (books & shelving at 65 pcf) 
but not less than 

Corridors, above first floor 
Manufacturing: 

light 

Heavy 
Marquees 
Office buildings: 

Offices 

Lobbies 

Corridors, above first floor 

File and computer rooms lequiie heavier 
loads based upon anticipated occupancy 
Open parking structures (passenger cars only) 
Penal institutions: 

Cell blocks 

Corridors 
Residential: 

Multifamily houses 
Private apartments 
Public rooms 
Corridors 

Dwellings 
First floor 

Second floor and habitable attics 
Uninhabitable attics 2 
Hotels 
Guest rooms 
Public rooms 

Corridors serving public rooms 
Corridors 
Reviewing stands and bleachers 3 
Schools 
Classrooms 
Corridors 

Flexible open plan areas 
Sidewalks vehicular driveways, and yards, subject to trucking 
Skating rinks 



150 
100 

40 
50 



100 

60 
40 
40 
80 



60 

150 
80 

125 

250 

75 

50 

100 

80 



50 

40 
100 



40 
100 
80 



40 
30 
20 

40 
100 
100 

80 
100 

50 
100 
100 
250 
100 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 706 (cont'd.) 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 



Occupancy or use Live load (psf) 

Stairs and exitways 100 

Storage warehouse 

Light 125 

Heavy 250 

Stores 
Retail 

First floor, rooms 100 

Upper floors 75 

Wholesale 125 

Theaters 

Aisles, corridors, and lobbies 100 

Orchestra floors 60 

Balconies 60 

Stage floors 150 

Yards and terraces, pedestrians 100 

Note 1. American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials. 

Note 2. Live load need be applied to joists or to bottom chords of trusses or trussed rafters 
only in those portions of attic space having a clear height of forty-two (42) inches or more between 
joist and rafter in conventional rafter construction, and between bottom chord and any other mem- 
ber in trusses or trussed rafter construction. However, joists or the bottom chords of trusses or 
trussed rafters shall be designed to sustain the imposed dead load or ten (10) pounds per square 
foot (psf) whichever be greater, uniformly distributed over the entire span. 

A further ceiling dead load reduction to a minimum of five (5) pounds per square foot (psf) or the 
actual dead load, whichever is greater, may be applied to joists in conventional rafter construction, 
or to the bottom chords of trusses of trussed rafters under either or both of the following conditions. 

1. If the clear height is not over thirty (30) inches between joist and rafter in conventional con- 
struction and between the bottom chord and any other member for trusses or trussed rafter 
construction. 

2. If a clear height of greater than thirty (30) inches, as defined in ftem a directly above, does not 
exist for a horizontal distance of more than twelve (12) inches along the member. 

Note 3. For detailed recommendations, see the Standard for Tents, Grandstands, and Air-Supported 
Structures Used for Places of Assembly, NFiPA 102, listed in Appendix B. 



shall be considered if it produces a more unfavorable effect than the same 
intensity applied over the full length of the structure or member. 

706.3 Posting of live loads: In every building or structure or part 
thereof used for mercantile, business, industrial or storage purposes, the 
design and partition loads shall be marked on plates of approved design 
which shall be supplied and securely affixed by the owner of the building 
in a conspicuous place in each space to which they relate. Any plates 
lost, removed or defaced shall be replaced by the owner. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 707.0 CONCENTRATED LOADS 

707.1 General: Floors of buildings in the locations specified in Table 707 
shall be design to support the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed 
in Section 706.0 or the following concentrated loads, whichever produces 
the greater stresses. The indicated concentration shall be so located to 
produce the maximum stress conditions in the structural members. 

Table 707 CONCENTRATED LOADS 





Concentration 






Area 


Location 


(pounds) 






(Inches sq.) 


Elevator machine room grating 


300 






2 


Finish light floor plate construction 


200 






1 


Garages 




See 


note 1 




Greenhouse roof bars, purlins and rafters 


100 






1 


Manufacturing and storage buildings 




See note 2 




Office floors 


2000 






30 


Roofs 


200 






6 


Scuttle, skylight and accessible ceiling ribs 


200 






1 


Sidewalks 


8000 






15 


Stair treads 


300 






2 



Note 1. Garages or portions of buildings used for storage of motor vehicles (see Section 710.1 for 
roofs): 

1. for passenger cars accommodating not more than nine (9) passengers, two thousand (2,000) 
pounds acting on an area of six (6) inches square; 

2. for mechanical parking structures without slab or deck, passenger cars only, one thousand 
five hundred (1,500) pounds per wheel; and 

3. for trucks or buses, maximum axle load on an area produced by a tire pressure of forty (40) 
pounds per square inch. 

Note 2. For buildings in which mechanical material handling equipment, machines or apparatus will 
be utilized, the actual concentrated loads. 



SECTION 708.0 IMPACT LOADS 

708.1 General: The live loads specified in Section 706.0 shall be as- 
sumed to include adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions. 
Provision shall be made in the structural design for special uses and 



9/1/80 246 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



loads which involve vibration and impact forces. Where dynamic effects 
such as resonance and fatigue are likely to be important as a result of 
vibration of equipment or machinery, a dynamic analysis shall be carried 
out. 

708.2 Elevators: All moving elevator loads shall be increased one hun- 
dred (100) per cent for impact, and the structural supports shall be 
designed within the limits of deflection as specified in the Department of 
Public Safety Board of Elevator Regulations. (524 CMR 15.00 through 
33.00) 

708.3 Other vertical impact loads: The minimum design load due to 
equipment, machinery or other objects or persons that may produce 
impact, shall be the total of the weight of the equipment, machinery, or 
other objects plus its maximum lifting capacity; or the appropriate live 
load, multiplied by an appropriate factor listed below: 

Impact due to Factor 

1. operation of motor-driven cranes 1.25 

2. operation of hand-driven cranes 1.10 

3 . live loads on hanger supported floors and stairs 1 . 33 

4. elevator machinery 2.0 

5. supports for light machinery, shaft or motor driven 1.20 

6. supports for reciprocating machinery or power driven units . 1.50 

The factor for equipment and machinery shall be increased when so recom- 
mended by the manufacturer. 

708.4 Horizontal crane loads: The minimum horizontal design loads on 
crane runway rails shall be: 

1. the lateral force, which shall be 

a. for power-operated crane trolleys, twenty (20) per cent, and 
for hand-operated trolleys, ten (10) per cent, of the sum of 
the weights of the lifted loads and of the crane trolley exclud- 
ing other parts of the crane; 

b. applied at the top of the rail, one-half (1/2) on each side of 
the runway; and 

c. considered as acting in either direction normal to the runway 
rail; and 

2. the longitudinal force, which shall be 

a. ten (10) per cent of the maximum wheel loads of the crane; and 

b. applied at the top of the rail. 



9/1/80 247 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



3. Where there are positive and reliable means which limit the lateral 
or longitudinal impact loads due to power-operated cranes, the 
design lateral or longitudinal loads may be based upon the actual 
crane equipment, provided that design impact loads are not less 
than one-half (1/2) those specified in Section 708.4. Documentation 
and computations for such reduced forces shall be submitted to the 
building official. 

4. For exterior craneways, the specified design impact loads need not 
be included in the loading combination of dead plus live plus wind 
load. 

708.5 Assembly structures: Grandstands, stadiums and similar assembly 
structures shall be designed to resist a horizontal swaying load applied 
parallel to the rows of seats, in addition to any wind loads, of not less 
than twenty-four (24) pounds per lineal foot of seats per row; and of not 
less than ten (10) pounds per lineal foot of seats applied transversely. 

708.6 Vehicular impact in driveway and parking areas 

708.6.1 Railings, bumpers, or similar devices: Railings, bumpers or 
similar devices used in driveways and parking areas subject to possible 
impact of moving vehicles shall be designed to resist a uniformly distri- 
buted lateral load of not less than five hundred (500) pounds per foot 
and a concentrated lateral load of not less than four thousand (4,000) 
pounds, applied at least twenty-one (21) inches above the roadway. The 
distributed load and the concentrated load need not be assumed to act 
concurrently . 

708.6.2 Columns: Unless specially protected by independent permanent 
protective devices, columns in driveway and parking areas subject to 
possible impact of moving vehicles shall be designed to resist a concen- 
trated lateral load due to impact of not less than four thousand (4,000) 
pounds applied at least twenty-one (21) inches above the roadway. This 
load shall be considered to act simultaneously with other design loads. 

SECTION 709.0 SPECIAL LOADS 

709.1 General: Provisions shall be made for all special loads herein 
prescribed and all other special loads to which the building or structure 
may be subjected. 

709.2 Below grade: All retaining walls and other walls below grade shall 
be designed to resist lateral soil pressures with due allowance for hydro- 
static pressure and for all superimposed vertical loads. 

709.3 Hydrostatic uplift: All foundation slabs and other footings sub- 
jected to water pressure shall be designed to resist a uniformly distri- 
buted uplift equal to the full hydrostatic pressure. 



9/1/80 248 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



709.4 Railings: Railings around stairwalls, balconies and other floor 
openings, both exterior and interior, shall be designed to resist a con- 
centrated load of at least two hundred (200) pounds applied in any direc- 
tion at any point of the top rail and also a vertical and a horizontal 
thrust of fifty (50) pounds per lineal foot applied at the top railing. The 
concentrated load and distributed loads need not be assumed to act con- 
currently. Railings and guards of grandstands and similar assembly 
structures shall be capable of resisting a lateral force of fifty (50) 
pounds per lineal foot concurrently with a vertical load of one hundred 
(100) pounds per lineal foot. 

709.5 Construction loads and erection loads: Provision shall be made for 
temporary construction loads and wind loads which may occur during the 
erection of a building or structure; and all structural members and con- 
nections shall be designed and erected so as to prevent overloading 
during construction. 

709.6 Temperature loads: Forces and movements resulting from changes 
in temperature shall be considered in the design of all buildings and 
structures. 

SECTION 710.0 ROOF LOADS 

710.1 General: Roofs shall be designed to resist their dead load com- 
bined with the maximum effect of either snow load, wind load, earthquake 
load, or live load where appropriate for occupied roofs, whichever is more 
severe. Where roofs are used for parking, the appropriate live load shall 
be added to the snow load. Roofs shall also be designed to resist the 
applicable special loads required in Section 709.0. 

710.2 Design roof loads: Maximum effects of the following roof loads are 
given in the referenced sections of this code. 

710.2.1 Snow load: As provided in Section 711.0. 

710.2.2 Wind load: As provided in Sections 712.0, 713.0, 714.0, and 
715.0. 

710.2.3 Earthquake load: As provided in Section 716.0. 

710.2.4 Other live load: As provided in Sections 706.0 and 707.0. 

710.3 Overhanging eaves: In other than one- and two-family dwellings, 
and except where framing of overhang is a continuation of the roof fram- 
ing, overhanging eaves, cornices and other roof projections shall be 
designed for a minimum uniformly distributed live load of sixty (60) 
pounds per square foot. 

710.4 Ponding: Roofs shall be designed for the maximum possible depth 
of water that may be ponded thereon as determined by the relative levels 



9/1/80 249 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



of roof deck and overflow weirs, scuppers, edges of serviceable drains in 
combination with the deflected structural elements. 

710.5 Special purpose roofs: When used for incidental promenade purpo- 
ses, roofs shall be designed for a minimum live load of sixty (60) pounds 
per square foot and one hundred (100) pounds per square foot when 
designed for roof gardens or assembly uses; or for snow loads, as provi- 
ded in Section 711.0; whichever is larger. 

710.5.1 Landscaped roofs: Where roofs are to be landscaped, the design 
live load shall be the sum of the appropriate uniform live load and the 
landscaping load shall be considered as a dead load and shall be computed 
on the basis of saturation of the soil. 

SECTION 711.0 SNOW LOAD 

711.1 General: The map snow loads shown in Figure 711.1 shall be used 
as the basis for deriving design snow loads for all buildings and struc- 
tures . 

711.2 Roof snow loads: The minimum snow loads for the design of roofs 
shall be determined from Figures 711.1, 711.2, 711.3, 711.4, 711.5, 
711.6, 711.7, and 711.8 as applicable. 



9/1/80 250 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.1 







f i 



! -r' Kv4".-VVv-'/\! 







(0 




u 




H 




Z 


(0 


-> 


f- 


8 


t 


o 
z 
< 


X 

o 


</> 


< 

(0 


z 


<n 


:£ 


< 


o 


? 


h- 




to 


z 


bJ 




H 




u 





SNOW LOAD ZONES 



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251 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.2 

DESIGN SNOW LOAD AND DISTRIBUTION, CONDITION ONE 



DESIGN 5NO^ LOAD 

(ROUND*) fS.FK SQUARE FT.*) 


P»ITC H 


ZONE. 


1 


Z. 


3 


4- 


o - i : ia 


25 


3© 


2>5 


40 


7:J2 - 10:12 


20 


24 


2© 


32. 


IOU2- 14 :I2 


15 


ie> 


21 


24 


14: 12- 21 : 12 


IO 


12. 


14 


1(3 


> 21: 12 


o 


O 


O 


O 



PITCH » 



RISE 
RUN 




9/1/80 



252 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.3 

DESIGN SNOW LOAD AND DISTRIBUTION, CONDITION TWO 



ROOF SHAPES 



je i 4= 



DESIGN SNIOkNl LOAD 

("POUNDS PBR. SQUARE FT-) 


PITCH 


Z.ON& 


1 


2 


3 


4- 


o- 7: 12 


25 


53 


35 


40 


7: IS - IO.I2 


20 


24 


23 


32 


IO : 12- 14 : 12 


15 


IO 


21 


24 


14: 12 -21: 12 


IO 


12 


14 


l<2> 


> 21 : 12 


o 


o 


O 


O 



FOR PITCH GREATER THAN 7 •" 12 USE 
CASS I OR TT WHICHEVER RBSULTS 
INTHB SREATBR STRESSES. 

CA5E X 



1 1 1 I 1 I 1 



S\ + Az 



A 



- VALUE IN 

TASUE ABOVE 



CASE IE 



LLU 



Hi OR 



(- 



it 



4e 



L 



1.25 h. VALUE IN 
TABLE ABOVE 



9/1/80 



253 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.4 

DESIGN SNOW LOAD AND DISTRIBUTION, CONDITION THREE 



WOO!" -SHAPS^ 







DE.SIGN ^>r<OW LOAD 

(POUNDS PER SQUARE FT.) 


h/J2. 


Z.OKJE 


1 


2 


3 


4 


O - 0.2 


25 


30 


35 


40 


0.2 -o-3 


20 


24 


23 


32 


0.3 -O.G 


15 


is 


21 


24 


> o.<s 


IO 


12 


14 


IS 



FOR. h/,£ RATIO GREATER THAN 0.2 
USE CASE X OFK H.NHICH EVER 
RESULTS IN THE GREAs-TELR STRESSES. 



CASE. X 



11 



^ 



VALUE IN 
TABLB ABOVE 



CASE JX 




L 2 * VALUE IN 
TABLE ABOVE 



9/1/80 



254 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.5 

DESIGN SNOW LOAD AND DISTRIBUTION, CONDITION FOUR 



ROOF* SHAPES 
DRIFTED SMOkM 



y 



y 



y 



/ 



' 



FACE. OF 
HIGH *NALL 



<~ 



hd 



- — - — 15 FT. OF LESS 



LOWEK LEVSL OF MULTI-LEVEL ROOFS 
(lAJHEEN UFFE.R ROOF IS PART OF THE 
SAME &UILDING OR AN ADJACENT 
BUILDING NOT MORE THAN 15 FT AlAlAY) . 



DESIGN SNOIA/ LOAD 

(FOUNDS FER SQUARE FT) 


HEIGHT hd 
(FT) 


ZONE. 


1 


2 


3 


4- 


O- 2 


25 


30 


35 


40 


3 


45 


45 


45 


45 


4 


SO 


<so 


eo 


<zo 


5 


75 


75 


75 


75 


S 


75 


SO 


so 


SO 


7 


75 


SO 


105 


105 


>«> 


75 


so 


105 


ISO 



VALUE FROM 

TABLE ABOVE 



FACE OF 

HIGH IAJALL 



>irrm 



r 



- l/ALUE FROM 
CONDITION) I 



2 hd < 30 FT 



<=% 



9/1/80 



255 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.6 

DESIGN SNOW LOAD AND DISTRIBUTION, CONDITION FIVE 



ROOF SHAPES 



SLIDING SnO/V 



pace or 

HIGH >\ALL 




■f 



FT. OR LESS 



DESIGN UPPER ROOF FOR LOAD 
AfPLICABLe TO SlNGiUE LEVEL ROOF . 
DESIGN LOkNER ROOF FOR CONDITIONS- 
PLUS SLIDING 5NON FROM UPPER, ROOF 
WHEN PITCH OF UPPER. ROOr 15 GREATER 
THAN : 

S: 12 FOR. ROOFS OF SMOOTH MATERIALS 
SUCH AS ME1TAL OR. SLATE ; USl NIG 
COEFFICIENT A =. I.G. 

s:i2 for roops of other materials 

USING COEPFICIENT A = I . O. 
A*£/£s m VALUE 

rROM uppbr poor 

CONDITION I 



- VALUE FROM 
CONDITION I 



VALUE FROM 
CONDITION A 



FACE OF 
HIGH IA/ALL 




2 hd < SO ft. 



i's - 2hd EX CERT THAT 
5PT. < b <SO FT. 



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256 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.7 

DESIGN SNOW LOAD AND DISTRIBUTION, CONDITION SIX 



ROOT* SHAPES 



hd 




ROOF AREAS ADJACENT TO SMALL 
PARAPBTS, SCREENS FENCES, 
rROJBCTIOMS ANO OBSTRUCTIONS 
ONI ROOF'S. 



DESIGN 5NOH LOAD 

fPOUNDS RSR SQUARE FT) 


HEIGHT hd 
(FT.)* 


ZONE 


1 


2 


3 


A 


O - E 


25 


SO 


S5 


AO 


3 


SO 


SO 


35 


AO 


A. 


-4© 


4o 


Ao 


AO 


5 


50 


50 


50 


SO 


S 


50 


SO 


SO 


SO 


7 


50 


SO 


70 


70 


> & 


50 


(SO 


70 


SO 



ii*USE hd-o 
HHEN x(FT) 
IS 1. FSSTHAN 


5 


S 


7 


© 



VALUE FROM 
TABLE ABOVE- 



Uftfinnnd 



VALUE FROM 
CONDITION I 



2hJ <SO FT. 



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257 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 711.8 

DESIGN SNOW LOAD AND DISTRIBUTION, CONDITION SEVEN 




I. 5 x VALUE FROM 
CONDITION I 



i v. 



» + + +**»*! 



*! 



■m 



¥ 



ILM !: 1 



* 



VALUE. PROM. 
'COWOITIOM I 



VALLEY AREAS OF TWO SPAN AND 

MULTIPLE SBKIfiS SLOPED OR 

curved roofs. 

for <x greater. than iso 9 usb 
condition i . 

for cx. less than l«5° use diagram 
asove . 



7E> 




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258 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



711.3 Unbalanced snow loading: Account shall be taken of unbalanced 
snow loads relative to the stability and strength of structures by apply- 
ing pattern loadings of one hundred (100) per cent of design snow load 
alternating with fifty (50) per cent of design snow load located to maxi- 
mize the various structural effects, except as otherwise provided in 
Figures 711.2, 711.3, 711.4, 711.5, 711.6, 711.7, and 711.8. 

711.4 Snow pockets or wells: Consideration of potentially excessive snow 
accumulation shall be given to any roof areas which have pockets or wells 
which could serve as snow collectors. 

711.5 Snow storage and collection areas: Consideration of potentially 
excessive snow accumulation shall be given to portions of structures 
which may be designated or used as snow collection or storage areas 
during and after snow removal operations. 

SECTION 712.0 WIND LOAD 

712.1 Wind load zones: The locations of wind load zones are shown in 
the Figure 712.1 map. Zone 1 consists of the Counties of Berkshire, 
Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden; Zone 2 consists of the County of 
Worcester; and Zone 3 consists of the Counties of Essex, Middlesex, 
Suffolk, Norfolk, Plymouth, Bristol, Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket. 

712.2 Exposures: Exposure is defined as a measure of terrain roughness 
and is classified as follows: 

Exposure A: centers of large cities and very rough, hilly terrain. 
Exposure A applies for downtown areas only when the terrain for at 
least one-half (1/2) mile upwind of the structure is heavily built up, 
with at least fifty (50) per cent of the buildings being in excess of 
four stories, and when Exposure B prevails beyond this boundary. 
Exercise caution in using these reduced wind pressures for buildings 
and structures on high ground in the midst of cities or rough terrain. 

Exposure B: suburban areas, towns, city outskirts, wooded areas, and 
rolling terrain. Exposure B applies only when the terrain for at least 
one (1) mile upwind is a continuous urban development, forest, wooded 
area, or rolling terrain. 

Exposure C: open level terrain with only scattered buildings, struc- 
tures, trees or miscellaneous obstructions, open water, or shorelines. 

712.2.1 Special exposures: Consideration shall be given to the appli- 
cation of a more severe exposure (e.g., Exposure C instead of Expo- 
sures B or A) when the ground slope near the site of a structure 
changes abruptly, to account for the resulting higher wind speeds near 
ground level. 



9/1/80 259 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



712.3 Reference wind velocities: The reference wind velocity for each 
wind load zone is the "fastest-mile" wind velocity at thirty (30) feet 
above the ground (V™ for Exposure C, as follows: 

Zone V^ n -MPH 

1 JU 70 

2 80 

3 90 

712.4 Reference wind pressures: Reference wind pressures for the 
various exposures and wind zones are given in the following Table 712. 
The tabulated pressures are combined windward and leeward pressures 
representing the overall effect of the wind on essentially rectangular 
structures, and accounts for typical gust effects as found in ordinary 
buildings. These pressures do not account for buffeting or channeling 
caused by positions of nearby structures, vortex shedding, or wind 
sensitive dynamic properties of a particular structure. 



9/1/80 260 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 712 





co 
o> 

c 
o 


3 

to 

o 

Q. 
X 

LU 


o 


CM 


CO 


CO 


"3" 


LT> 

■=3- 


oo 


OJ 
IT) 


lO 


to 


LT> 

to 


CO 

to 


CM 

r— 


«3- 

p-. 




OQ 


CM 


CM 


CM 


CO 


7K 


co 


«* 


to 
•>* 


in 


LT) 

in 


oo 
m 


CM 

to 


LT) 

to 




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"» 


*t 


CO 


CM 

CM 


CM 


CO 
CM 


CM 
CO 


tO 

co 


«a- 




CO 
"3" 


CM 
LD 


LT) 

I 




CM 

oj 

c 
o 
pm 


co 

3 

O 
O. 
X 
UJ 


C_> 


r— 


CM 


CD 
CM 


CO 

CO 


to 

CO 


CD 
CO 


CM 


to 

"3- 


CD 


CM 

to 


LO 
LO 


m 


CD 
LT) 




CQ 


r-» 


r~- 


CM 


CM 


CM 


o 

CO 


CO 
CO 


CO 


5 


5 


l>» 


CD 


CM 
LT) 




<£ 


3 


~ 


«* 


l-~ 


O 
CM 


CM 
CM 


LT) 
CM 


CD 
CM 


co 

CO 


to 

CO 


CD 
CO 


•a- 


** 

T 




c 
o 
rM 


3 
V) 

o 

Q. 
X 
LU 


o 


CM 


00 


CM 
CM 


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CM 


CM 


CD 

CM 


CO 


3 


r-. 

CO 


CD 
CO 


«* 


co 


LO 




CO 


CM 


CM 


to 


CO 


o 

CM 


CM 
CM 


LO 
CM 


CO 
CM 


o 

CO 


CO 

CO 


tn 

CO 


CO 


CD 
CO 




< 


- 


~ 


- 


CO 


LO 


T~~ 


CD 


CM 
CM 


CM 


CM 


CD 
CSI 


CO 


CO 
CO 






CO 

a: 


T3 

ra 

nb 

0) 

> 
o 
x> 

TO 

jc 
op 


O 

m 

o 


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o 

o 

lO 


o 

LO 

s 

o 


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o 

CM 
O 
LO 


o 
m 

CM 

o 

o 

CM 


s 

co 

ci 

LO 
CM 


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o 

T 

o 

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CO 


S 
LO 

8 


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LO 


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o 
r-J. 

o 
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O 

CD 
O 
O 

oo 


O 

o 

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a 5.S 



9/1/80 



261 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 712.1 



e 










mMmmmtm 

fjt l,A!*L ; i,i.U'i;Mi_ 








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T_. 



I 
H 

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5 



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Z 

8 

Q 
Z 
< 

z 
o 

co 

UJ 

t 
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9/1/80 



262 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 713.0 WIND LOAD ON STRUCTURES AS A WHOLE 

AND ON VERTICAL SURFACES OF ENCLOSED 

OR PARTIALLY ENCLOSED STRUCTURES 

713.1 Structures as a whole: All buildings and enclosed or partially 
enclosed structures shall be designed to withstand a total wind load 
acting on the structure as a whole determined by applying the appropri- 
ate reference wind pressures given in Table 712 to the vertical projected 
area, normal to the wind direction of the vertical surfaces of the struc- 
ture, plus the appropriate wind forces on the roof as specified in Section 
714.0. Consideration shall be given to wind acting in all directions. 

713.1.1 Simultaneous wind forces on orthogonal sides: For structures 
which are essentially rectangular in plan, or whose plan shape is made up 
of rectangular parts, only wind directions normal to the sides of the 
structure need be considered, provided that zero point seven (0.7) times 
the effects of the wind acting simultaneously normal to adjacent orthogonal 
sides shall also be considered when it produces more severe effects in the 
structural support system. Factors other than zero point seven (0.7) 
may be used if substantiated by appropriate wind tunnel tests. 

713.1.2 Wind force distribution: The total wind force on the vertical 
surfaces of a structure prescribed in Section 713.1 shall be distributed 
six-tenths (6/10) to the windward surfaces (as a positive pressure) and 
four-tenths (4/10) to the leeward surfaces (as a suction). Other distri- 
butions may be used if substantiated by appropriate wind tunnel tests. 

713.2 Vertical parts of structures: Vertical parts of structures that are 
subjected directly to the wind, and their local supporting elements, shall 
be designed to resist the pressures listed in the following Table 713, 
normal to the surface, inward or outward. The pressures listed in the 
table represent the combined internal and external pressures. A local 
supporting element of a vertical part subjected directly to the wind shall 
be defined as a compound of a wall assembly, a stud, a mullion, a girt, 
or a similar item which distributes the wind load from the vertical part to 
the principal structural system of the structure. 



9/1/80 263 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 713 



WIND PRESSURES ON PARTS OF STRUCTURES AND LOCAL SUPPORTING ELEMENTS 



Location of 

applied wind 

pressure 

Within salient 
corner area 2 

Beyond salient 
corner area 



Tributary wind load 
area of part or local 
supporting element 



Required design pressures 



Ref. pressure of 
Sec. 712.4 

times' 



Any 

Less than or equal to 
200 sq. ft. 



Beyond salient Greater than 

corner area I 200 sq. ft. 



1.7 



1.2 



0.8 



But not 
less than 



20 psf 

20 psf 
15 psf 



But need not 
be greater than 



70 psf 
50 psf 
50 psf 



Note 1. For partially enclosed structures, where any side is more than • thirty-five (35) per cent open, 
add a factor of zero point three (0.3) to the coeffiuenti of this column of he able. 

.^M^^^^ (10 ' ' eet ' ,r ° m 3 

prominent (salient) corner. 



SECTION 714.0 WIND LOAD ON ROOFS 

714.1 General: Roofs and their supporting structure shall be designed 
to resist the combined effects of the external and internal wind pressures 
specified in Sections 714.2 through 714.5. All pressures specified shall 
be considered to act normal to the roof surface. When applying the 
reference wind pressures of Section 712.4 to the provisions of Sections 

714.2 through 714.5, the reference wind pressures shall be for a height 
equal to the average height of the roof eave above grade. 

714.2 External wind pressures on roofs of enclosed structures: Except 
as specified otherwise in Section 714.5, external wind pressures shall be 
as specified in the following Table 714, or in Section 714.2.1. Where 
both positive pressure and suction are specified, the effects of each shall 
be evaluated. 

714.2.1 Roof shapes not specified: For roof shapes not specified herein, 
external wind pressures shall be determined as specified in Section 715.2 
but the minimum suction effect shall be equal to zero point six (0.6) times 
the reference wind pressure of Section 712.4. 

714.3 Internal wind pressures on roofs of enclosed structures: Except 
as specified otherwise in Section 714.4, internal wind pressures shall be 
zero point two (0.2) times the reference wind pressure given in Section 



9/1/80 



264 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



712.4. The internal pressure shall be applied as a positive pressure or a 
suction, whichever gives the greater structural effect when added to the 
external pressure, for the design of each structural component. 

714.4 Wind pressures on roofs over nonenclosed or partially enclosed 
structures: Except as specified otherwise in Section 714.5, wind pres- 
sures for roofs of partially enclosed or nonenclosed structures shall be as 
follows : 

1. When a structure is partially enclosed, with each side not more than 
thirty-five (35) per cent open, the wind pressures shall be the 
same as for an enclosed structure. 

2. When a structure is partially enclosed, with openings essentially all 
on one (1) side, and when that side is more than thirty-five (35) 
per cent open, external wind pressure shall be as specified in 
Table 712 and internal wind pressures shall be as specified in 
Section 714.3 except that the value of internal wind pressure shall 
be equal to zero point five (0.5) times the reference wind pressure 
given in Table 714. 

3. For all other cases of partially enclosed structures, or for non- 
enclosed structures, the combined effect of the wind pressures 
above and below roofs shall be equal to one point twenty-five 
(1.25) times the values specified in Table 714 for the corresponding 
roof shapes and wind directions. 

WIND PRESSURES ON ROOFS 



External wind pressures— flat, gable, shed roofs (wind perpendicular to ridge) 



Roof pitch 


Multiples of ref. pressure of Sec. 712.4 


Degrees 


Rise/run 


Windward slope 


Leeward slope 




Flat to 4/12 

4/12 to 7/12 

7/12 to 10/12 

10/12 to 14/12 

14/12 to Vertical 


Positive 
pressure 


Suction 


Suction 


0-20 
20-30 
30-40 
40-50 
50-90 


0.2 
0.3 
0.4 
0.6 


0.6 
0.5 
0.4 
0.3 
0.0 


0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 
0.5 



External wind pressures— arch shaped roofs (wind perpendicular to ridge) 



Rise to 
span ratio 


Multiples of ref. pressure of Sec. 712.4 


Windward quarter 


Center 
half 


Leeward 
quarter 






Positive 
pressure 


Suction 


Suction 


Suction 


Less than 2/10 
2/10 to 3/10 
3/10 to 6/10 


0.2 
0.3 
0.6 


0.7 


0.7 
0.8 
1.0 


0.4 
0.4 
0.4 



External wind pressures — flat, gabled, shed or arch shaped roofs (wind parallel to ridge) 
Suction of 0.6 times the reference pressure of Section 712.4 



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265 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



714.5 Wind pressures for parts of roofs: Parts of roofs that are sub- 
jected directly to the wind, and their local supporting elements, shall be 
designed to resist the following pressures in an outward direction: 

1. Where parts subjected directly to the wind are located within a 
distance of one-tenth (1/10) the least width of a structure, but not 
more than ten (10) feet, from a ridge, eave, or cornice, they shall 
resist a pressure one point seven (1.7) times the reference wind 
pressure given in Table 712 (representing the combined internal 
and external pressures). 

2. Where parts subjected directly to the wind are located outside the 
zones specified in Item 1 above, they shall resist pressures as 
specified in Sections 714.2 through 714.4 and Table 714. 

A local supporting element of a part of a roof shall be defined as a roof 
deck element, purlin, rafter, or similar item which distributes the wind 
load from the roof part to the principal structural system of the struc- 
ture. 

SECTION 715.0 SPECIAL CONFIGURATIONS, SHAPES AND 
CONSIDERATIONS FOR WIND FORCES 

715.1 Wind load on signs, towers, exposed framing, tanks, stacks and 
chimneys: Signs, towers, exposed framing, tanks, stacks, chimneys, and 
similar structures, or parts thereof, shall be designed for wind forces 
determined by applying coefficients given in Sections 6.7, 6.8, 6.9 of 
ANSI A58.1 as listed in Appendix B for the applicable structure using 
zero point seventy-five (0.75) times the applicable reference wind pres- 
sures given in Table 712. 

715.1.1 Shielding: Shielding effect of one element by another shall not 
be considered when the distance between them exceeds four (4) times the 
projected smallest dimension of the windward element. 

715.1.2 Signs: For open or solid outdoor signs with ratios of dimensions 
with the limits stated below, a wind load applied uniformly over the area 
of the sign and determined by the lesser of one point two P (1.2P) on 
the gross area within the outside dimensions of the sign, or one point six 
P (1.6P) on the net projected area of the sign; whichever is less, may be 
used in lieu of the loads given in reference standard ANSI A58.1, where 
"P" is the reference wind pressure given in Table 712 for a height equal 
to the average height of the sign above the ground. 

1. Ground supported signs (whose bottom is .25 times the vertical 
height from the ground to the top of the sign): height to width 
ratio less than ten (10). 

2. Above ground signs: largest to smallest dimension ratio less than 
twenty (20). 



9/1/80 266 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



715.2 Special considerations for wind forces 

715.2.1 Design wind forces and pressures using wind tunnel tests: 
Design wind forces and pressures may be determined by appropriate wind 
tunnel tests on specific structures as stipulated by the responsible design 
engineer and approved by the building official. The wind tunnel test 
program shall adequately represent the relevant properties of the struc- 
ture and its surroundings and the oncoming wind flow. The wind tunnel 
tests may be combined with a detailed statistical study of meteorological 
records, including high level wind velocity and direction, from stations 
near the proposed structure. The wind effects used for design of the 
structure shall be not less than those corresponding to an event having 
an annual probability of occurrence of one one-hundredth (.01). In lieu 
of a detailed statistical study of meteorological records, the appropriate 
reference wind velocity stipulated in Section 712.3 may be used. 

The wind forces and pressures so determined, plus an appropriate 
allowance for stack effects and internal pressures, may be used for the 
design of the structure as a whole, and its individual parts. However, 
these values of forces and pressures shall not be less than eight-tenths 
(.8) of the values required by Sections 713.0, 714.0, and 715.0, as 
applicable, for reference wind pressures for Exposure A and the appro- 
priate wind zone specified in Table 712. 

715.3 Uplift, overturning and sliding 

715.3.1 Anchorage, roofs and walls: All parts of a structure subjected 
directly to the wind shall be anchored to the supporting structure, to 
resist specified wind loads inwardly or outwardly. 

715.3.2 Anchorage, structural system: The design of the structural 
system and its elements for uplift, overturning moment, or horizontal 
shear, or their combination, shall not depend on more than sixty-seven 
(67) per cent of the available resistance due to dead load effects. When, 
at joints between parts of the structure or at the foundation bearing 
level, the uplift, overturning moment, or horizontal shear, or their com- 
bination, is in excess of sixty-seven (67) per cent of the available resis- 
tance due to dead load effects, the additional required capacity shall be 
provided by suitable connections and anchorage. 

715.4 Eccentricity of wind forces: Consideration shall be given to the 
effects of specified wind forces being applied eccentric to the center of 
rigidity of a structure. 

SECTION 716.0 EARTHQUAKE LOAD 

716.1 General: Provisions of this section reflect informed judgments 
regarding the probable intensities of future earthquake ground motions in 
this region, and their associated probabilities of occurrence. The ob- 
jective of these provisions is to protect life safety by limiting structural 
failure. 



9/1/80 267 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



1. Every structure and every portion thereof shall be designed and 
constructed to resist stresses produced by lateral forces as provid- 
ed in this section, except detached one- and two-family dwellings 
and minor accessory buildings. Stresses shall be calculated as the 
effect of a force applied horizontally at each floor or roof level or 
to building parts above the foundation. The force shall be assumed 
to come from any horizontal direction. 

2. Every structure and every portion designed and constructed to 
resist stresses produced by lateral forces as provided in this sec- 
tion shall be constructed and inspected in accordance with the 
applicable provisions of this code. 

716.2 Definitions: (See Section 201.0) 

716.3 Symbols and notations: The following symbols and notations apply 
only to the provisions of Section 716.0: 

Ac, Ach, Ag, Ash See Section 716. 5. 1. 3. c. 2. 



C = Numerical coefficient for base shear as specified in Section 
716.4.1, Item a. 

Cp = Numerical coefficient as specified in Section 716.4.5 and as set 
forth in Table 716.2. 

D = The dimension of the building in feet in a direction parallel to 
the applied forces. 

D = Dead load or related internal moments and forces, when used in 
Section 716.5.4. 

Ds = The plan dimension of the vertical lateral force resisting system 
in feet. 

E = Load effects of earthquake, or related internal moments and 

forces. 

FiFn 

Fx = Lateral force applied to level i, n, or x, respectively. 

Fp = Lateral force on the part of the structure and in the direction 
under consideration. 

Ft = That portion of V considered concentrated at the top of the 
structure at the level. The remaining portion of the total base 
shear V shall be distributed over the height of the structure 
including level according to Section 716.4.2. 



9/1/80 268 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



yh 



h i h m 
l m 



K 
L 

Level i 
Level n 

Level x 

M 

Mx 

N 

S 

Sh 

T 

U 

V 



See Section 716. 5.1. 3. c. 2. 
See Section 716. 5. 1. 3. c. 2. 

Height in feet above the base to level i, n, or x, respectively. 

Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 716.1. 

Live loads or related internal moments and forces (see Section 
716.5.1.4). 

= Level of the structure referred to by the subscript "i." 

= That level which is uppermost in the main portion of the 
structure 

= That level which is under design consideration. 

= Overturning moment at the base of the building or structure. 

= The overturning moment at level "x." 

= The total number of stories above the base to level "n." 

= Numerical coefficient as specified in Section 716.5.1. 

= See Section 716. 5.1. 3. c. 2. 

= Fundamental period of vibration of the building or structure 
in seconds in the direction under consideration. 

= Required strength to resist factored loads or related internal 
moments and forces (see Section 716.5.1.4). 

= Total lateral load or shear at the base. 



V = Ft + 2 Fi 

i= 1 



w 



where i = 1 designates first level above the base. 

= Total dead load including the partition loading where appli- 
cable plus fifty (50) per cent of the snow load. 

Exception: W shall be equal to the total dead load plus 
twenty-five (25) per cent of the floor live load in storage 
and warehouse occupancies. 



9/1/80 



269 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



w. = That portion of W which is located or is assigned to level "i" 

1 or 

wx "x," respectively. 

Wp = The weight of a part or portion of a structure. 

Yt = Total unit weight. 

716.4 Minimum earthquake forces for structures: The provisions of 
Section 716.4 are applicable only to structures meeting the requirements 
of Section 716.5. All other structures shall be designed in accordance 
with Section 716.7. 

716.4.1 Total lateral force: Every structure shall be designed and 
constructed to withstand minimum total lateral seismic forces assumed to 
act noncurrently in the direction of each of the main axes of the struc- 
ture in accordance with the following formula: 

V = 1/3 *KCSW 

1. C factor: the value of C shall be determined in accordance 
with the following formula: 

_ 0.05 

For all one- and two-story buildings or structures the value of 
C shall be zero point one (0.1). The maximum value of C need 
not exceed zero point one (0.1). 

T is the fundamental period of vibration of the structure in 
seconds in the direction under consideration. Properly substan- 
tiated technical data for establishing the period T may be 
submitted. In the absence of such data, the value for T for 
buildings shall be determined by the following formula: 

0.05h„ 

T = 

VD 

Exception: In all buildings in which the lateral force resisting 
system consists of a moment-resisting space frame which resists 
one hundred (100) per cent of the required lateral forces and 
which frame is not enclosed by or adjoined by more rigid ele- 
ments would tend to prevent the frame from resisting lateral 
forces . 

T = 0.10 N 



9/1/80 270 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



2. K factor: The horizontal force factors K for structures meetina 
the requirements of Section 716.5 are set forth in Table 716.1 

3. S factor: For a Class A soil site, S = 1. For a Class B soil 
? I' \ ?■ Inter mediate values of S may be used as justi- 
fied on the basis of Figure 716.1 or by the results of adequate 
studies by a registered professional engineer. The value of CS 
need not exceed zero point twelve (0.12). (See Section 720 5 
for definition of Class A soil.) 

Table 716.1 



HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR "K" FOR STRUCTURES' 



Type of arrangement of resisting elements 


Value of K 


Buildings with a box system as defined in Section 201.0 


1.33 


Buildings with a dual bracing system as defined in Section 201.0 


0.80 


Buildings with a moment-resisting space frame designed to resist the total 
required lateral force 


0.67 


Other buildings 


1.00 


Elevated tanks plus full contents, on four (4) or more cross-braced legs 
and not supported by a building 2 


3.00 3 


Structures other than buildings and other than those set forth in Table 716.1 


2.00 



Note 1. Where wind load would produce higher stresses, this load shall be use in lieu of the 
loads resulting from earthquake forces. 

Note 2. The minimum value of KC shall be zero point twelve (012) and the maximum value of 
KC need not exceed zero point twenty-five (0.25). 

Note 3. The tower shall be designed for an accidental torsion of five (5) per cent as specified 
in Section 716.4.3. Elevated tanks which are supported by buildings or do not conform to type or 
arrangement of supporting elements as described above shall be designed in accordance with 
Section 716.4.5 using Cp = 0.2. 



271 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 716.1 



160 



I kO 



120 



100 



60 



^0 



20 



Class A 
Soi 1 S i te j 














S 


-1 




































Class B 
Soil Site 














S = 


1.5 








-/ 






























-- / . 

















20 kO 60 80 100 120 )k0 160 

Thickness of Class B Soil, ft. 



716.4.2 Distribution of lateral force 

1. With vertical distribution for structures having regular shapes 
or framing systems, the total lateral force V shall be distributed 
in the height of the structure in the following manner: 



Us 



9/1/80 



272 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Ft need not exceed zero point fifteen (0.15) V and may be 
considered as zero (0) values hn of three (3) or less, and 

f x - (y - F J wa Ds 

n W- h. 

S l 

i = 1 
Exception: One- and two-story buildings shall have uniform 
distribution . 

At each level designated as "x," the force Fx shall be applied 
over the building in accordance with the mass distribution on 
that level. 

Horizontal distribution: total shear in any horizontal plane 
shall be distributed to the various elements of the lateral force 
resisting system in proportion to their rigidities considering the 
rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or diaphragm. 

Setbacks: buildings having setbacks wherein the plan dimen- 
sion of the tower in each direction is at least seventy-five (75) 
per cent of the corresponding plan dimension of the lower part 
may be considered as a uniform building without setbacks for 
the purpose of determining seismic forces. 

For other conditions of setbacks the tower shall be designed 
as a separate building using the larger of the seismic coeffi- 
cients at the base of the tower determined by considering the 
tower as either a separate building for its own height or as 
part of the overall structure. The resulting total shear from 
the tower shall be applied at the top of the lower part of the 
building which shall be otherwise considered separately for its 
own height. 

Exception: Nothing in Section 716.4.2, Item 3 shall be 
deemed to prohibit the submission of properly substantiated 
technical data for establishing the lateral design forces by a 
dynamic analysis in accordance with Section 716.4.2, Item 
4. 

Distribution of lateral forces for structures having irregular 
shapes or framing systems: the distribution of the lateral 
forces in buildings or structures which have highly irregular 
shapes, large Differences in lateral resistance or stiffness 
between adjacent stories, or other unusual structural features 
affecting seismic response shall be determined considering the 
dynamic characteristics of the structure. The total base shear 
shall not be less than reguired by Section 716.4.1. The analy- 
sis should be based either upon the model analysis procedure 
using the appropriate response spectrum in Figure 716.2 with 



273 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



reduced ordinates or upon time histories of base motion with a 
frequency content similar to that implied by the appropriate 
response spectrum in Figure 716.2. 

716.4.3 Horizontal torsional moments: Provisions shall be made for the 
increase in shear resulting from the horizontal torsion due to an eccentri- 
city between the center of mass and the center of rigidity. Negative 
torsional shears shall be neglected. Where the vertical resisting elements 
depend on diaphragm action for shear distribution at any level, the 
shear-resisting elements shall be capable of resisting a torsional moment 
assumed to be equivalent to the story shear acting with an eccentricity of 
not less than five (5) per cent of the maximum building dimension at that 
level. 

716.4.4 Overturning: Every structure shall be designed to resist the 
overturning effects caused by the wind forces and related requirements 
specified in Section 715.3 or the earthquake forces specified in this 
section, whichever governs. 

At any level, the incremental changes of the design overturning 
moment in the story under consideration shall be distributed to the vari- 
ous resisting elements in the same proportions as the distribution of the 
shears in the resisting system. Where other vertical members are provid- 
ed which are capable of partially resisting the overturning moments, a 
redistribution may be made to these members if framing members of suffi- 
cient strength and stiffness to transmit the required loads are provided. 
Where a vertical resisting element is discontinuous, the overturning 
moment carried by the lowest story of that element shall be carried down 
as loads to the foundation. 

716.4.5 Lateral force on parts or portions of buildings or structures: 
Parts or portions of structures and their anchorage shall be designed for 
lateral forces in accordance with the following formula: 



F p = l/3C p Wp 



9/1/80 274 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 716.2 



HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR "C„" FOR PARTS OF PORTIONS OR STRUCTURES 



Part or portion of structures 


Direction 
of force 


Value of 
Cp 


Exterior bearing and nonbearing walls, 
interior bearing walls and partitions, 
interior nonbearing walls and partitions 
over ten (10) feet in height masonry 
or concrete fences over six (6) feet in height 


Normal to 

flat 
surface 


0.20 


Cantilever parapet and other cantilever 
walls, except retaining walls 


Normal to 

flat 
surface 


1.00 


Exterior and interior ornamentations 
and appendages 


Any 
direction 


1.00 


When connected to, part of, or housed 
within a building: towers, tanks towers and 
tanks plus contents, storage racks over 
six (6) feet in height plus contents, 
chimneys, smokestacks, penthouses, equipment 
and machinery 


Any 
direction 


0.20'- 7 


When resting on the ground, tank plus 
effective mass of its contents 


Any 
direction 


0.12" 


Floors and roofs acting as diaphragms 4 


Any 
direction 


0.10 


Connections for exterior panels or for 
elements complying with Section 716.6.6 


Any 
direction 


2.00 


Connections for prefabricated structural 
elements other than walls, with force 
applied at center of gravity of assembly 


Any 
horizontal 
direction 


0.3& 5 



Note 1. When located in the upper portion of any building where the "h„/D" ratio is five-to-one 
(5 1) or greater the value shall be increased by fifty (50) per cent. 

Note 2. "W|." for storage racks shall be the weight of the racks plus contents. The value of 
"Cp" for racks over two (2) storage support levels in height shall be zero point sixteen (0.16) for 
the levels below the top two (2) levels. 

Note 3. For purposes of determining the lateral force, a minimum ceiling weight of five (5) pounds 
per square foot shall be used. 

Note 4. Floors and roofs acting as diaphragms shall be designed for a minimum value of "C,. of ten 
(10) per cent applied to loads tributory from that story unless a greater value of "Cp" is re- 
quired by the basic seimsic formula V = Va KCSW. 

Note 5. The "W,." shall be equal to the total load plus twenty-five (25) per cent of the floor live 
load in storage and warehouse occupancies. 

Note 6. When the soil factor S is less than or equal to one point two (1.2) "Cp may be taken 
as zero point one (0.1) S. 

The values of Cp are set forth in Table 716.2. The distribution of these 
forces shall be according to the gravity loads pertaining thereto. 

716.4.6 Lateral force on foundations: Provision shall be made for trans- 
mission of the base shear, acting in any direction, between structure and 
soil or rock, by means of one of the following: 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



1. lateral soil pressure against foundation walls, footings, grade 
beams and pipe caps; 

2. lateral soil pressure against piles, piers, or caissons; 

3. batter piles; 

4. side or bottom friction on walls or footings; or 

5. combinations of the foregoing. 

Lateral pressure may not be more than one-third (1/3) the passive pres- 
sure. Bottom friction may not be relied upon where a building overlies 
Class B soil and is supported upon piles, piers or caissons. Even if not 
relied upon to transmit the base shear, foundation walls shall comply with 
the provisions of Section 716.6.10. 

716.5 Design reguirements 

716.5.1 Concrete: Design and construction of earthguake resisting 
reinforced concrete structures shall conform to the provisions of Section 
841.0 and of reference standard ACI 318 (except Appendix A) as listed in 
Appendix B, and to the reguirements of this section. 

1. Physical reguirements for reinforced concrete materials 

Concrete shall have an ultimate compressive strength at twenty- 
eight (28) days f'c, of not less than three thousand (3,000) 
pounds per square inch. The maximum specified ultimate com- 
pressive strength at twenty-eight (28) days, f'c, for lightweight 
concrete shall be limited to four thousand (4,000) pounds per 
square inch. Reinforcing steel shall comply with ASTM A615, 
Grade 40 or 60, as listed in Appendix C. 

2. Flexural members of moment-resisting space frames 

a. Throughout the length of flexural members, both top and 
bottom reinforcement shall consist of not less than two (2) 
bars and ratio provided shall not be less than 200/fy. 

b. Positive moment strength of flexural members at column 
connections shall not be less than twenty-five (25) per cent 
of the required negative moment strength. 

c. All reinforcement shall be extended beyond the section at 
which it is reguired and developed by bond, hook, or 
mechanic device to develop the yield strength of the bar. 
In confined regions, length of anchorage shall be not less 
than sixty (60) per cent of the development length but not 
less than twenty-four (24) inches. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



d. Web reinforcement perpendicular to the longitudinal rein- 
forcement shall be required throughout the length of each 
flexural member. The minimum area of such web reinforce- 
ment shall be zero point fifteen (0.15) per cent of the 
product of the width of the web and the spacing of the web 
reinforcement aong the longitudinal axis of the member. 
The maximum spacing shall be three-quarter (3/4) d unless 
a smaller spacing is required by reference standard ACI 
318. 

Stirrup-ties shall be provided for a distance not less than 
one and one half (1 1/2) d from the face of the support. 
The first stirrup-tie shall be not more than (3) inches from 
the face of the support and the remainder at a spacing not 
greater than d/4. A stirrup-tie is a closed stirrup which 
conforms to requirements set forth for hoops in tied columns 
in a following paragraph. 

Lapped splices located in a region of tension or reversing 
stress shall be confined by at least two (2) stirrup-ties at 
each splice. 

3. Columns of moment-resisting space frames 

a. Special transverse reinforcement shall be provided in those 
portions of tied columns within a distance from the face of 
the joint equal to the maximum column dimension, one-sixth 
(1/6) of the clear height of the column, or eighteen (18) 
inches, whichever is the greatest. The first hoop shall be 
located two (2) inches from the face of the joint. 

b. At exterior and corner columns, the open sides of the joint 
shall be confined by special transverse reinforcement 
throughout the height of the joint. 

c. Where special transverse reinforcement is required, by the 
provisions of this section, it shall mean spirals, single 
hoops or overlapping hoops with supplementary cross ties, 
where required, in accordance with the following require- 
ments : 

1. For spiral columns, p s , the ratio of the volume of 
spiral reinforcement to the volume of the core, mea- 
sured out-to-out of spiral, shall be not less than 

A v f f 



q i ] _" or 0.12 

: yh f yh 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



For tied columns, transverse ties in the form of rectan- 
gular hoops and supplementary cross ties shall be 
provided in sets spaced vertically not more than four 
(4) inches apart. The total cross-sectional area, Ash, 
of hoop reinforcement, included supplementary cross- 
ties, shall be not less than 



A„ \ f'_ f ' 

h h c 



0.30(' g -f ) s,h c _I or 0..12 s h h 



where 



v ch f yh fyh 



Ac = Area of circular core, measured out-to-out of 
spiral, in square inches. 

Ach = Area of rectangular core of column measured 
out-to-out of hoops, in square inches. 

Ag = Gross area of column, in square inches. 

Ash = Total cross-sectional area of hoop reinforce- 
ment, including supplementary cross ties having 
a spacing of s, and crossing a section with a 
core dimension of h , square inches. 

F , = Specified yield strength of spiral or hoops psi. 

h = Core dimension of tied column in inches, 
c 

s, = Vertical spacing of hoops. 

A hoop shall be a one-piece closed tie, #3 or larger, 
enclosing longitudinal bars, with a one hundred thirty- 
five (135) degree bend plus ten (10) tie-diameter exten- 
sion at its ends, the bends being hooked around a 
single longitudinal bar. 

Supplementary cross ties of the same size and 
longitudinal spacing as hoops, using one hundred 
eighty (180) degree standard hooks engaging the peri- 
pheral hoop and secured to a longitudinal bar, may be 
used. Supplementary cross-ties or legs of overlapping 
hoops shall be spaced not more than fourteen (14) 
inches on center transversely. 

Earthquake resisting shear walls and braced frames: Shear 
walls and braced frames shall be designed by the strength 
design and Method except that the alternate design method of 
reference standard ACI 318 may be used, provided that the 
factor of safety in shear is equivalent to that achieved with the 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



strength design method. The formulas for required strength 
U, as provided in reference standard ACI 318 shall be modified 
to: 

U = 1.4 (D + L) + 1.4 E 
U = 0.9D + 1.4 E 

except that 2E shall be used in the calculation of shear stresses 
in shear walls of buildings without a moment-resisting space 
frame capable of carrying all vertical loads and lateral forces. 
Force B shall be determined from V in accordance with Section 
716.4.1. 

a. Shear walls 

1. Special vertical boundary elements shall be provided at 
the edges of concrete shear walls in buildings with a 
dual bracing system as defined in Section 201.0. These 
elements shall be composed of concrete encased struc- 
tural steel elements of A36, A440, A441, A572 (except 
Grades 60 and 65) or A588 steel, or shall be concrete 
reinforced as required for columns with special trans- 
verse reinforcement, as described above for the full 
length of the element. The boundary vertical elements 
and such other similar vertical elements as may be 
required shall be designed to carry all the vertical 
stresses resulting from the wall loads in addition to 
tributary dead and live loads and from the design 
lateral forces. Horizontal reinforcing in the walls shall 
be fully anchored to the vertical elements. 

2. Similar confinement of horizontal and vertical boundaries 
at wall openings also shall be provided unless it can be 
demonstrated that the unit compressive stresses at the 
opening have a load factor two (2) times that given by 
the formulae of Section 716.5, Item 4, for required 
strength U. 

3. Wall reinforcement required to resist wall shear shall be 
terminated with not less than a ninety (90) degree bend 
plus a twelve (12) bar diameter extension beyond the 
boundary reinforcing at vertical and horizontal end 
faces of wall sections. Wall reinforcement terminating in 
boundary column shall be fully anchored into the bound- 
ary of elements. 

Braced frames 

a. Reinforced concrete members of braced frames subject 
primarily to axial stresses shall have special transverse 
reinforcement as specified above, through the full length of 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



the member. Tension members shall additionally meet the 
requirements for compressive members . 

b. In buildings without a moment-resisting space frame capable 
of carrying all vertical loads and the total required lateral 
force, all members in braced frames shall be designed for 
one point twenty-five (1.25) times the force determined in 
accordance with Section 716.4.1. Connections for these 
members are not permitted the thirty-three (33) per cent 
stress increase for earthquake. 

716.5.2 Steel: Design and construction of earthquake resisting struc- 
tural steel framing members and their connections shall conform to the 
requirements of Section 826.0 and of the Specification for the Design, 
Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings of the American 
Institute of Steel Construction and to the requirements of this section. 

1 . Moment-resisting space frames 

a. General: design and construction of steel framing in moment- 
resisting space frames shall conform to the provisions of 
Section 826.0 and the requirements of this section. 

b . Definitions 

1. Joints: the joint is the entire assemblage at the inter- 
sections of the members. 

2. Connections: the connection consists of only those 
elements that connect the member to the joint. 

c. Connections: 

Each beam or girder moment connection to a column shall be 
capable of developing in the beam the full plastic capacity 
of the beam or girder. 

Exception: The connection need not develop the full plastic 
capacity of the beam or girder if it can be shown that ade- 
quately ductile joint displacement is provided with a lesser 
connection . 

d. Local buckling: members in which hinges will form during 
inelastic displacement of the frames shall comply with the 
requirement for plastic design sections. 

e. Slenderness ratios: the effective length kl used in deter- 
mining the slenderness ratio of an axially loaded compres- 
sion member in the moment-resisting space frame depends 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



on its own bending stiffness for the lateral stability of the 
building, even if bracing or shear walls are provided. 

f. Nondestructive welding testing: welded connections between 
primary members of the moment-resisting space frame shall 
be tested by nondestructive methods for compliance with the 
code and job specifications. A program for this testing 
shall be established by the person responsible for struc- 
tural design. As a minimum, this program shall include the 
following : 

1. All complete penetration groove welds contained in joints 
and splices shall be tested one hundred (100) per cent 
either by ultrasonic testing or by radiography. 

Exception: The nondestructive testing rate for an 
individual welder may be reduced to twenty-five (25) 
per cent subject to the concurrence of the design engi- 
neer of record, provided the reject rate is demonstrated 
to be five (5) per cent or less of the welds tested for 
the welder. A sampling of at least forty (40) completed 
welds shall be made for such reduction evaluation. Re- 
ject rate is defined as the number of welds containing 
rejectable defects divided by the number of welds com- 
pleted. For evaluating the reject rate of continuous 
welds over three (3) feet in length, each twelve (12) 
inch increment shall be considered as one weld. For 
evaluating the reject rate for continuous welds greater 
than one (1) inch thick, each six (6) inches of length 
shall be considered one (1) weld. 

2. Partial penetration groove welds when used in column 
splices shall be tested either by ultrasonic testing or 
radiography as reguired by the design engineer of 
record . 

Braced frames 

a. All members in braced frames of K = 1.0 and K = 1.33 
buildings shall be designed for one point twenty-five (1.25) 
times the force determined in accordance with Section 716.4 
.1. Connections for these members are not permitted the 
thirty-three (33) per cent stress increase for earthguake, 
unless designed for the full capacity of the members. 



716.5.3 Masonry 



1. Walls: all bearing walls, shear walls, exterior walls, chimneys 
and parapets, which are constructed of masonry shall be rein- 
forced in two (2) directions so as to gualify as reinforced 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



masonry according to the provisions of the BIA or NCMA Stan- 
dards listed in Appendix B. 

In masonry bearing or shear walls, principal reinforcement 
shall be spaced a maximum of four (4) feet on center in either 
the horizontal or vertical direction. In the other direction, 
spacing or reinforcement may be increased to six (6) feet. 



Nonstructural masonry walls which enclose stairwells or 
elevator shafts, other than exterior walls, shall be designed as 
partially reinforced masonry in accordance with the standards 
listed in Appendix B. The spacing of reinforcement is not to 
exceed six (6) feet. 

2. Columns: the size and spacing of ties at the ends of tied col- 
umns shall not be less than that required for concrete columns 
(See Section 716.5.1, Item 3). 

3. Anchorage: masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors and 
roofs which provide lateral support for the wall. Such anchor- 
age shall provide a positive direct connection capable of resist- 
ing the horizontal design forces or a minimum force of two 
hundred (200) pounds per lineal foot of wall, whichever is 
greater. Required anchors in masonry walls of hollow units or 
cavity walls shall be embedded in a reinforced grouted struc- 
tural element of the wall. 



716.5.4 Timber 



General: design and construction of earthquake resisting 
timber structures shall conform to the requirements of Section 
852.0 and of the Timber Construction Manual of the American 
Institute of Timber Construction listed in Appendix B, and to 
the requirements of this section. 

Diaphragms: lumber and plywood diaphragms may be used to 
resist wind or horizontal earthquake forces. The design of 
diaphragms shall conform to the accepted engineering practice 
as presented in the Timber Construction Manual. 

Connections: axial and shear forces produced in wood members 
by wind or earthquake shall be transferred by positive connec- 
tions and adequate anchorage. Uplift or horizontal displacement 
of seated connections shall be prevented by positive anchors. 
Toenailing or nails subject to withdrawal are not acceptable for 
connections resisting such forces or displacements. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



4. Sheathing: sheathing materials may be used as tension ties 
provided the tension force does not produce cross-grain bend- 
ing or cross-grain tension in the peripheral members or other 
framing members to which the sheathing connects. 

716.5.5 Prefabricated construction: All structural elements within the 
structure which are considered to resist seismic forces or movement 
and/or are connected so as to participate with the structural system shall 
be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code in accordance 
with accepted engineering practice standards (ACI 318 for precast con- 
crete) as listed in Appendix B. Connections shall accommodate all design 
forces and movement without loss of load carrying capacity of the inter- 
connected members and shall conform to Section 716.5.7. 

716.5.6 Other materials or methods of construction: Materials other than 
concrete, structural steel, clay masonry, concrete block masonry and 
wood and structural systems other than structural steel, reinforced con- 
crete, reinforced masonry, wood frame or heavy timber shall not be relied 
on to resist lateral forces and deformations in building structures unless 
it can be demonstrated to the building official that the structure can 
safely withstand lateral distortion eight (8) times that computed for the 
lateral forces specified in Section 716.4.1. The building official shall 
require drawings and calculations submitted by a registered professional 
engineer to verify the requirements of this provision. 

716.5.7 Connections 

1. Connections which transfer forces between members resisting 
seismic forces in flexure shall be designed for the required 
forces and also shall either: 

a. develop the full plastic moment of the member; or 

b. be capable of deforming to form a reversible plastic hinge. 

2. Members which are part of the lateral force resisting system 
and resist seismic motion by direct axial force shall have con- 
nections designed to develop the axial capacities of the members. 

3. Connections of structural members which are not part of the 
lateral force resisting system to supporting members shall be 
designed to resist the required seismic forces without reliance 
on frictional forces. 

4. Column splices, base plate anchors and other types of connec- 
tions that act primarily in bearing shall be designed to resist 
the required forces, and also shall be capable of resisting the 
forces resulting from the full seismic loading combined with 
two-thirds (2/3) of the dead load forces acting concurrently. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



5. Connections between diaphragms and resisting shear walls and 
bracing shall be designed for twice the computed force. 

716.6 Other design requirements 

716.6.1 Lateral force resisting system: Rigid elements that are assumed 
not to be part of the lateral force resisting system may be incorporated 
into buildings provided that their effect on the action of the system is 
considered and provided for in the design. 

716.6.2 Moment resisting space frames: Moment resisting space frames 
may be enclosed by or adjoined by more rigid elements which would tend 
to prevent the space frame from resisting lateral forces where it can be 
shown that the action or failure of the more rigid elements will not impair 
the vertical and lateral load resisting. ability of the space frame. 

716.6.3 Building separations: All portions of structures shall be de- 
signed and constructed to act as an integral unit in resisting horizontal 
forces unless separated structurally by a distance sufficient to avoid 
contact under deflection from seismic action or wind forces. 

716.6.4 Deleted 

716.6.5 Combined vertical and horizontal forces: In computing the effect 
of seismic force in combination with vertical loads, gravity load stresses 
induced in members by dead load plus design live load, except roof live 
load, shall be considered. 

716.6.6 Exterior elements: Precast, nonbearing, nonshear wall panels, 
parapets, or other elements which are attached to, or enclose the exterior 
shall accommodate movements of the structure resulting from lateral forces 
or temperature changes. The concrete panels or other elements shall be 
supported by means of poured-in-place concrete or by mechanical fasten- 
ers in accordance with the following provisions: 

1. Connections and panel joints shall allow for a relative movement 
between stories of not less than two (2) times story drift caused 
by wind or seismic forces; or one quarter (1/4) inch, whichever 
is greater. 

2. Connections shall have sufficient ductility and rotation capacity 
so as to preclude fracture of the concrete or brittle failures at 
or near welds. Inserts in concrete shall be attached to, or 
hooked around reinforcing steel, or otherwise terminated so as 
to effectively transfer forces to the reinforcing steel. 

3. Connections to permit movement in the plane of the panel for 
story drift may be properly designed sliding connections using 
slotted or oversize holes, or may be connections which permit 
movement by bending of steel. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



716.6.7 Minor alterations: Minor structural alterations may be made in 
existing buildings and structures, but the resistance to lateral forces 
shall be not less than that before such alterations were made, unless the 
building as altered meets the requirements of this section of the code. 

716.6.8 Drift: Lateral deflections or drift of a story relative of its 
adjacent stories shall be considered in accordance with accepted practice. 
Lateral deflection of diaphragms shall be considered in addition to the 
deflection of vertical bracing elements. 

Rigid elements that are assumed not to be part of the lateral force 
resisting system may be incorporated into buildings provided that the 
effect of the action of the system is considered and provided for in the 
design. In addition, the effects of the drift on such rigid elements 
themselves and on their attachment to the building structure shall be 
considered. 

716.6.9 Interconnections of foundations: Pile, pier and caisson caps 
shall be interconnected by ties when the caps overlie Class B soil. Each 
tie shall carry by tension or compression a horizontal force equal to ten 
(10) per cent of the larger pile, pier or caisson cap loading, unless it 
can be demonstrated that equivalent restraint can be provided by other 
means. At sites where footings are underlain at shallow depths by cohe- 
sionless granular soils, the blow counts of which only slightly exceed the 
criteria given in Figure 720.1, adequate consideration shall be given to 
the lateral and vertical movements of footings that may occur during the 
design earthquake specified in Section 716.7. 

716.6.10 Retaining walls: Retaining walls shall be designed to resist at 
least the superimposed effects of the total static lateral soil pressure, 
excluding the pressure caused by any temporary surcharge, plus an 
earthquake force of 0.045Y H (horizontal backfill surface). Surcharges 
which are applied over extended periods of time shall be included in the 
total static lateral soil pressure and their earthquake lateral force shall be 
computed and added to the force of 0.045ytH . The earthquake force 
from the backfill shall be distributed as an inverse triangle over the 
height of the wall. The point of application of the earthquake force from 
an extended duration surcharge shall be determined on an individual case 
basis. If the backfill consists of loose saturated granular soil, considera- 
tion shall be given to the potential liquefaction of the backfill during the 
seismic loading. 

716.7 Dynamic analysis: Any building or structure is deemed to have 
complied with the provisions of Section 716.0 if a qualified registered 
engineer determines that there is negligible risk to life safety if the 
building or structure experiences an earthquake with a peak acceleration 
of 0.12g and a frequency content similar to that implied by the appropri- 
ate response spectrum in Figure 716.2. A copy of the studies upon 
which the determination may be based upon shall be filed with the build- 
ing official: Such a determination may be based upon: 



9/1/80 285 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Figure 716.2 







\ 


H • CUMULATIVE DEPTH OF SOFT 
SOIL BELOW FOUNDATION 
LEVEL 




J 














\ *"' 




H 
^0 












-s- 


* , 





























.0 


.5 


.0 2 


.5 3.0 



FUNDAMENTAL PERIOD OF STRUCTURE - seconds 



1. a dynamic analysis, based upon generally acceptable proced- 
ures, together with evidence that the building or structure can 
safely withstand the computed displacements and distortions; 

2. a comparison of the building or structure with similar buildings 
or structures having similar foundations and subsoil conditions, 
that have withstood a similar actual earthquake; or 

3. other accepted procedures. 

SECTION 717.0 COMBINATION OF LOADS 

717.1 General: All structures shall be investigated for the following 
combinations of loads. 

1. dead plus live plus snow; and 

2. dead plus live plus snow plus (wind or earthquake or thermal). 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



The most unfavorable effect may occur when one (1) or more of the 
contributing loads are not acting. 

717.2 Counteracting loads: When the stresses in any member or joint 
due to a loading counteract those due to dead load, combinations omitting 
that loading shall also be considered. In addition, the effect of a thirty- 
three (33) per cent decrease in the computed dead load shall be consid- 
ered. 

717.3 Other loads: If the structure may be subjected to other loads not 
included in Section 717.1, such loads shall be added to the combinations 
given in that section. 

SECTION 718.0 LIVE LOAD REDUCTION 

718.1 General: In all buildings and structures, the design live loads 
may be reduced on columns, piers, walls, trusses, girders, and founda- 
tions as herein specified, except a reduction shall not be applied to the 
roof live load. 

718.2 Live loads of 100 pounds or less: For live loads of one hundred 
(100) pounds or less per square foot, the design live load on any member 
supporting one hundred fifty (150) square feet or more may be reduced 
at the rate of eight-hundredths (0.08) per square foot of area supported 
by the members in excess of one hundred fifty (150) square feet except 
that a reduction shall not be made for areas to be occupied as places of 
assembly. The reduction shall exceed neither R as determined by the 
following formula, nor sixty (60) per cent: 

R = 23 (1 + D/L) 

where 

R = reduction in per cent; 

D = dead load per square foot of an area supported by the member; and 

L = design live load per square foot of an area supported by the member. 

718.3 Live loads of more than 100 pounds: For live loads exceeding one 
hundred (100) pounds per square foot, a reduction shall not be made, 
except that the design live loads on columns may be reduced twenty (20) 
per cent. 

SECTION 719.0 STRENGTH CRITERIA 

719.1 Controlled materials: Strength criteria for structural systems with 
controlled materials as defined in Section 201.0 shall conform to the speci- 
fications and methods of design of accepted engineering practice as given 
in reference standards contained in Appendix B, or to the approved 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



criteria in the absence of applicable standards. All structures shall be 
constructed with controlled materials, except as provided in Section 
719.2, or as approved by the building official (see Section 128.0). 

719.2 Ordinary materials: Strength criteria for structural systems with 
ordinary materials as defined in Section 201.0 shall be based on the work- 
ing stress method of design with maximum stresses limited as provided in 
Appendix K. For materials not covered in Appendix K, allowable stresses 
shall be a maximum of three-fourths (3/4) times allowable stresses given 
in applicable reference standards (listed in Appendix B). Only one- and 
two-family residential structures and one-story structures up to thirty- 
five thousand (35,000) cubic feet in size may be constructed with ordi- 
nary materials. 

719.3 New materials: Strength criteria for materials which are not 
specifically covered by the reference standards listed in Appendix B or 
by other provisions of this code shall be established by tests as provided 
in Sections 702.0 and 803.0. 

719.4 Light weight metals: Aluminum and other light weight metals and 
their alloys may be used in the design and construction of structures 
only after special approval of the building official, subject to the determi- 
nation of the physical properties by tests as prescribed in Article 8 and 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 833.0 and provided that 
plans and calculations are submitted by a registered professional engineer 
or architect. 

SECTION 720.1 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 

720.1 General: All applications for permits for the construction of new 
structures, and for the alteration of permanent structures which require 
changes in foundation loads and distribution, shall be accompanied by a 
statement describing soil in all bearing strata, including sufficient records 
and data to establish character, nature and load bearing capacity. Such 
records shall be certified by a qualified registered professional engineer 
or architect, except as otherwise specified in this article. 

720.2 Satisfactory foundation materials: Satisfactory bearing strata to 
provide structural support shall be considered to include the following, 
provided they are of a standard consistent with engineering specifica- 
tions: natural strata of rock, gravel, sand, inorganic silt, inorganic 
clay, or combination of these materials. Compacted fills, when designed 
and placed under the supervision of a registered professional engineer 
and certified by him as meeting the design requirements, may be accepted 
by the building official. Other conditions of unsatisfactory bearing 
materials which are altered under the supervision of a registered profes- 
sional engineer and certified by him as meeting the design requirements 
may be accepted by the building official. Sites involving medium and fine 
sands, inorganic silt and compacted fills are subject to the additional 
special requirements of Section 720.4. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



720.2.1 Loading interaction: Wherever bearing strata are subject to 
interaction from other loadings or strata reactions, such conditions shall 
be incorporated in the evaluation of the design bearing capacity of the 
support strata. 

720.2.2 Bearing capacity for light weight structures: Light weight 
structures and accessory structures, such as garages and sheds may be 
founded on normally unacceptable bearing strata, providing such material 
is certified by a gualified registered professional engineer or architect as 
being satisfactory for the intended use. 

720.2.3 Protection of bearing strata: Bearing strata which may be 
adversely affected by conditions within the structure, such as evaporation 
and shrinkages due to excess heat, shall be adequately protected. 

720.3 Bearing values: The maximum pressure on soils under foundations 
shall not exceed values specified in Table 720 except when determined in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 722.0 or when modified by 
specific sections of this article. 

TABLE 720 PRESUMPTIVE BEARING VALUE OF FOUNDATION MATERIALS 

Class of material** Tons per square foot* 

1. Massive crystalline bedrock including granite, diorite, gneiss, 

trap rock, and dolomite (hard limestone) 60 

2. Foliated rock including limestone, schist and slate in 

sound condition 40 

3. Sedimentary rock including hard shales, sandstones, and 

thoroughly cemented conglomerates 20 

4. Soft or broken bedrock (excluding shale) and soft limestone 20 

5. Compacted, partially cemented gravels, and sand and 

hardpan overlying rock 10 

6. Gravel, well-graded sand and gravel mixtures 6 

7. Loose gravel, compact coarse sand, loose sand 4 

8. Loose coarse sand, loose sand-gravel mixtures, and 

compact fine sand (confined) 2 

9. Loose medium sand (confined) 1 

10. Loose fine sand (+) 

11. Hard clay 4 

12. Medium stiff clay, stiff varved silt 2 (t) 

13. Soft clay, soft broken shale 1 (t) 

14. Soft inorganic silt, preloaded material, shattered shale, or 
any natural deposit of unusual character not provided 

for herein (+) 

15. Disturbed varved silt 

16. Compacted granular fill (2-5+) 

+ 

* The allowable bearing pressure given in this section, or when determined in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 722.0, will assure that the soils will be stressed within limits that lie 
safely below their strength. However, such allowable bearing pressure for Classes 9 to 12, in- 
clusive, do not assure that the settlements will be within the tolerable limits for a given structure. 

t Alternatively, the allowable bearing pressure shall be computed from the unconfined compressive 
stength of undisturbed samples, and shall be taken as one point five (1.5) times that strength for 
round and square footings, and one point twenty-five (1.25) times that strength for footings with 
length-width ratios of greater than four (4); for intermediate ratios, interpolation may be used. 

+ Value to be fixed by the building official in accordance with Sections 722.0 and 723.0. 

** The allowable bearing pressure may be increased by one-third (Vb) for combined live loadings such 

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720.3.1 Classification of bearing materials: The terms used in this 
section shall be interpreted in accordance with generally accepted engi- 
neering nomenclature. In addition, the following more specific definitions 
are used for bearing materials in the area: 

Rocks 

Shale: A soft, fine-grained sedimentary rock. 

Slate: A hard, fine-grained metamorphic rock of sedimentary origin. 

Conglomerate: A hard, well-cemented metamorphic rock consisting of 
fragments ranging from sand to gravel and cobbles set in a fine-grained 
matrix (locally known as Puddingstone). 

Granular materials 

Gravel: A mixture of mineral grains at least seventy (70) per cent (by 
weight) of which is retained on a No. 4 mesh sieve and not possessing 
dry strength. 

Sand: A mixture of mineral grains at least seventy (70) per cent (by 
weight) of which passes a No. 4 mesh sieve which contains not more 
than fifteen (15) per cent (by weight) passing a No. 200 mesh sieve. 

Coarse sand: A sand at least fifty (50) per cent (by weight) of which 
is retained on a No. 20 mesh sieve. 

Medium sand: A sand at least fifty (50) per cent (by weight) of which 
passes a No. 20 mesh sieve and at least fifty (50) per cent (by weight) 
is retained on a No. 60 mesh sieve. 

Fine sand: A sand at least fifty (50) per cent (by weight) of which 
passes a No. 60 mesh sieve and not more than fifteen (15) per cent (by 
weight) passing a No. 200 mesh sieve. 

Well-graded sand-gravel mixtures: A mixture of mineral grains which 
contains between twenty-five (25) per cent and seventy (70) per cent 
(by weight) passing a No. 4 mesh sieve, between ten (10) and forty 
(40) per cent (by weight) passing a No. 20 mesh sieve, and containing 
not more than eight (8) per cent (by weight) passing a No. 200 mesh 
sieve . 

Cohesive materials 

Glacial till: A very dense, heterogeneous mixture ranging from very 
fine material to coarse gravel and boulders and generally lying over 
bedrock. It can be identified from geological evidence and from the 
very high penetration resistance encountered in soil boring and sampl- 
ing operations. 



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Clay (inorganic): A fine-grained, inorganic soil possessing sufficient 
dry strength to form hard lumps which cannot readily be pulverized 
by the fingers. 

Hard clay (inorganic): An inorganic clay requiring picking for re- 
moval, a fresh sample of which cannot be molded by pressure of the 
fingers. 

Medium clay (inorganic): An inorganic clay which can be removed by 
spading, a fresh sample of which can be molded by a substantial 
pressure of the fingers. 

Soft clay (inorganic): An inorganic clay, a fresh sample of which can 
be molded with slight pressure of the fingers. 

Inorganic silt: A fine-grained inorganic soil consisting chiefly of 
grains which will pass a No. 200 mesh sieve and possessing sufficient 
dry strength to form lumps which can easily be pulverized with the 
fingers . 

Note: Dry strength is determined by drying a wet pat of soil and 
breaking it with the fingers. 

Compacted granular fill: A fill consisting of gravel, sand-gravel mix- 
tures, coarse or medium sand, crushed stone, or slag containing not more 
than eight (8) per cent by weight passing a No. 200 mesh sieve and not 
having plasticity, shall be considered satisfactory bearing material when 
compacted in nine (9) inch thick layers, measured before compaction, with 
adjustment of water content as necessary to achieve required compaction 
by applying to each layer a minimum of four (4) coverages of one (1) of 
the following: 

1. a vibratory roller with a steel drum with minimum weight of two (2) 
tons with a speed not exceeding one and one-half (1 1/2) miles per 
hour ; 

2. a rubber-tired roller having four (4) wheel abreast and weighted to 
a total load of not less than thirty-five (35) tons; 

3. with the treads of a crawler type tractor with total load of not less 
than thirty-five (35) tons; or 

4. other types of materials, compaction equipment, and procedures as 
may be approved by the building official on the basis of sufficient 
evidence that they will achieve compacted fills having satisfactory 
properties . 

The building official will require a competent inspector, qualified by 
experience and training and satisfactory to him, to be on the project 
at all times while fill is being placed and compacted. The inspector 



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shall make an accurate record of the type of material used, including 
grain-size curves, thickness of lifts, densities, type of compacting 
equipment and number of coverages, the use of water and other perti- 
nent data. 

Whenever the building official or the inspector questions the suitabi- 
lity of a compacted granular fill (Section 722.0), bearing tests shall be 
performed. A copy of all these records and test data shall be filed 
with the building official. 

Preloaded materials 

1. The building official may allow the use of certain otherwise unsatis- 
factory natural soils and uncompacted fills for the support of one 
(1) story structures, after these materials have been pre-loaded to 
effective stresses not less than one hundred and fifty (150) per 
cent of the effective stresses which will be induced by the 
structure. 

2. The building official may require the loading and unloading of a 
sufficiently large area, conducted under the direction of a regis- 
tered professional engineer, approved by the building official, who 
shall submit a report containing a program which will allow sufficient 
time for adequate consolidation of the material, and an analysis of 
the preloaded material and of the probable settlements of the 
structure. 

720.4 Liquefaction: The earthquake liquefaction potential of saturated 
clean medium to fine sands shall be evaluated on the basis of Figure 720 
for cases where lateral sliding cannot occur. If the standard penetration 
resistances, N, in all strata of medium and fine sand lie above the appli- 
cable curve in Figure 720, the sands at the site shall not be considered 
subject to liquefaction. Liquefaction below a depth of sixty (60) feet 
from final grade need not be considered for level ground. For pres- 
sure-injected footings, the ten (10) foot thickness of soil immediately 
below the bottom of the driven shaft shall not be considered subject to 
liquefaction. 



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Figure 720 

Standard Penetration Resistance 
blows/ft. 



0) 

o 

03 
<+- 

i_ 
D 

to 

-o 

c 

■3 

o 



2 
O 

CO 



Q- 




Compacted granular fills shall not be considered subject to liquefaction 
provided they are systematically compacted to at least ninety-three (93) 
per cent of maximum dry density as determined in accordance with labora- 
tory test designation ASTM D1557, or a relative density of at least sixty 
(60) per cent in the case of granular soil having less than ten (10) per 
cent of weight passing the No. 200 sieve. 

For sites not meeting the above criteria, studies by a registered 
professional engineer shall be made to determine that the structure loads 
can be safely suported. Such studies might include the following: 

1. Investigations to establish that the soils at the site are not subject 
to liquefaction during the design earthquake as specified in Section 
716.7. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



2. Design of foundations that will not fail either by loss of bearing 
capacity or excessive settlements if liquefaction occurs. 

3. Replacement or densification of liquefaction-susceptible soils such 
that liquefaction will not occur. 

For sites underlain by saturated sands where lateral sliding (slope 
instability), may occur, studies by a registered professional engineer shall 
be made to establish the safety against sliding during earthquakes (see 
Section 716.0). 

For sites underlain by saturated silty sands and inorganic nonplastic 
silts, studies shall be made by a registered professional engineer to 
determine the susceptibility to liquefaction of these soils. 

720.5 Class A soils: For purposes of determining the S factor for earth- 
quake design forces as specified in Sections 716.4 and 716.7, Class A soil 
includes the following classes from Table 720: massive igneous rocks and 
conglomerate; slate, shale in sound conditions, glacial till; gravel or 
well-graded sand and gravel, if dense to very dense; coarse sand, if 
dense to very dense; medium sand, if dense to very dense; fine sand, if 
dense to very dense; clay having an undrained shear strength of at least 
one thousand (1,000) psf; and compacted granular fill provided that fill 
soils are compacted throughout as required in Section 720.4 under contin- 
uous observations by a registered professional engineer or his authorized 
representative. (See Figure 716.1) 

720.6 Class B soils: All other soils shall be considered Class B. 

SECTION 721.0 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS 

721.1 Where required: Boring, tests, drill holes, core borings or any 
combination shall be required for all structures except the following, 
unless specifically required by the building official: 

1. one- and two-family dwellings and their accessory buildings; 

2. structures less than 35,000 cubic feet in gross volume; and 

3. structures used for agricultural purposes. 

The borings or tests shall be adequate in number and depth and so 
located to accurately define the nature of any subsurface material neces- 
sary for the support of the structure. When it is proposed to support 
the structure directly on bedrock, the building official shall require rock 
cores or core borings to be made into the rock, or shall require other 
satisfactory evidence to prove that the structure shall be adequately 
founded on bedrock. 



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721.2 Soil samples and boring reports: Samples of the strata penetrated 
in test borings or test pits, representing the natural disposition and 
conditions at the site, shall be available for examination by the building 
official. Wash or bucket samples shall not be accepted. Duplicate copies 
of the results obtained from all completed and uncompleted borings plotted 
to a true relative elevation and to scale, and of all test results or other 
pertinent soil data, shall be filed with the building official. 

SECTION 722.0 BEARING TESTS, PILE LOAD TESTS 
AND SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS 

722.1 General: Whenever the allowable bearing pressure on bearing 
materials, or the load bearing capacity of single piles or groups of piles 
is in doubt, the building official may require load tests and/or settlement 
analyses and the results analyzed. The work shall be performed under 
the direction of a registered professional engineer. 

722.2 Approval of test method: The apparatus and procedure used shall 
be approved by the building official before they are used. A complete 
record of the test results together with a soil profile shall be filed by the 
registered professional engineer who shall have a representative on the 
site during all test operations. 

722.3 Loading equipment: The load shall be applied by direct weight or 
by means of a recently-calibrated jack. Each load shall be maintained 
constant for the required period with an accuracy of plus or minus three 
(3) per cent. 

722.3.1 Area: Except for pile load tests, the load area shall be not less 
than one (1) square foot for bearing materials of Classes 1 to 5 inclusive 
and not less than four (4) square feet for other classes. 

722.4 Loading procedure: The application of the test load shall be in 
steps equal to not more than one-half (1/2) the contemplated design load, 
to at least twice the contemplated design load, except as provided in 
Section 722.8 for pile load tests. The unloading shall be at least two (2) 
steps, to the design load and then to zero (0) load. During the applica- 
tion of the test load, the contemplated design load and twice the contem- 
plated design load shall be maintained constant for at least twenty-four 
(24) hours and until the movement does not exceed two hundredths (.02) 
of an inch during a twenty-four hour period. The load for all other load 
and unload steps including the zero (0) load at the end of the test shall 
be maintained constant for a period of not less than four (4) hours. 
Sufficient readings for each load step shall be made to define properly 
the time-deflection curve. 

722.5 Measurements: Observation of vertical movement shall be made so 
that the data will accurately define the progress of vertical displacement 
during the test. 



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722.6 Additional requirements for soil bearing tests: Bearing tests shall 
be applied at the elevations of the proposed bearing surfaces of the 
structure; except that the load may be applied directly on the surface of 
compacted granular material (Class 16). The excavation immediately 
surrounding an area to be tested shall be made not deeper than one (1) 
foot above the plane of application of the test. The test plate shall be 
placed with uniform bearing. For the duration of the test, the material 
surrounding the test area shall be protected effectively against evapora- 
tion and frost action. 

722.7 Determination of design load from soil bearing test: The proposed 
design load shall be allowed provided that the requirements of Section 
722.0 are fulfilled and the settlements under the design load and twice 
the design load do not exceed three-eighths (3/8) of an inch and one (1) 
inch, respectively. 

722.8 Additional requirements for pile load tests: A single pile shall be 
load-tested to not less than twice the design load. When two (2) or more 
piles are to be tested as a group, the total load shall be not less than 
one and one-half (1 1/2) times the design load for the group. 

Provided that the load settlement curve does not show sign of failure 
and provided that the permanent settlement of the top of tlie pile after 
removal of all load at the completion of the test does not exceed one-half 
(1/2) inch, the maximum design load shall be the load allowed in this part 
for the type of pile or one-half (1/2) of the maximum applied load, which- 
ever is less. 

Whenever the soil conditions are such that substantial driving resis- 
tance and/or significant support of the pile test load is derived from soil 
strata overlying the intended bearing stratum this support shall be re- 
moved or the results of the pile test shall be analyzed so as to evaluate 
the actual support furnished by the bearing stratum. 

722.9 Application of pile load test results: The results of the load test 
can be applied to other piles within the area of substantially similar 
subsoil conditions as that for the test pile; and providing the performance 
of the test pile has been satisfactory and the remaining piles are of the 
same type, shape and size as the test pile; and are installed using the 
same methods and equipment and are driven into the same bearing strata 
as the load-tested pile to an equal or greater penetration resistance. 

722.10 Settlement analysis: Whenever a structure is to be supported by 
medium or soft clay (materials of Classes 12 and 13) or other materials 
which may be subject to settlement or consolidation, the settlements of the 
structure and of neighboring structures due to consolidation shall be 
given careful consideration, particularly if the subsurface material or the 
loading is subject to extensive variation. The building official may re- 
quire a settlement analysis to be made by a registered professional engi- 
neer in case the live and dead loads of the structure, as specified in this 



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article, minus the weight of the excavated material, induce a maximum 
stress greater than three hundred (300) pounds per square foot at mid- 
depth of the underlying soft clay layer. 

722.11 Settlement analysis computations: Settlement analyses will be 
based on a computation of the new increase in stress that will be induced 
by the structure and realistically appraised live loads, after deducting 
the weight of excavated material under which the soil was fully consoli- 
dated. The effects of fill loads within the building area or fill and other 
loads adjacent to :Jie building shall be included in the settlement analysis. 
The appraisal of the live loads may be based on surveys of actual live 
loads of existing buildings with similar occupancy. The soil compressibil- 
ity shall be determined by a registered professional engineer and ap- 
proved by the building official. 

SECTION 723.0 ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION PRESSURE 

723.1 General: The maximum allowable pressures on foundation materials 
shall be in accordance with Section 720.0 and as modified herein. 

723.2 Rock foundations: Where subsurface explorations at the project 
site indicate variations or doubtful characteristics in the structure of the 
rock upon which it is proposed to construct foundations, a sufficient 
number of borings shall be made to a depth of not less than ten (10) feet 
below the level of the footings to provide assurance of the soundness of 
the foundation bed and its bearing capacity. 

723.3 Bearing pressure on rock: The tabulated bearing pressures for 
rocks of Classes 1 and 3, inclusive, shall apply where the loaded area is 
on the surface of sound rock. Where the loaded area is below such 
surface these values may be increased ten (10) per cent for each foot of 
additional depth, but shall not exceed three (3) times the tabulated 
values. 

723.4 Bearing pressures for Classes 4 to 9, inclusive: The allowable 
bearing pressures for materials of Classes 4 to 9, inclusive, may exceed 
the tabulated values by five (5) per cent for each foot of depth of the 
loaded area below the minimum required in Section 724.0, but shall not 
exceed twice the tabulated values. For areas of foundations smaller than 
three (3) feet in least lateral dimension, the allowable design bearing 
pressures shall be one-third (1/3) of the allowable bearing pressures 
multiplied by the least lateral dimension in feet. 

723.5 Bearing pressures on clay: The tabulated bearing pressures for 
Classes 10 to 12, inclusive, shall apply only to pressures directly under 
individual footings, walls, and piers. If structures are founded on or 
are underlain by deposits of these classes, the total load over the area of 
any one bay or other major portion of the structure, minus the weight of 
all materials removed, divided by the area, shall not exceed one-half 
(1/2) the tabulated bearing pressures. 



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723.6 Vertical pressures: The computed vertical pressure at any level 
beneath a foundation shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressures for 
the material at that level. Computation of the vertical pressure in the 
bearing materials at any depth below a foundation shall be made on the 
assumption that the load is spread uniformly at an angle of sixty (60) 
degrees with the horizontal; but the area considered as supporting the 
load shall not extend beyond the intersection of sixty (60) degree planes 
of adjacent foundations. 

723.7 Disturbance of bearing materials: Whenever the bearing materials 
are disturbed from any cause, for example, by the inward or upward flow 
of water and/or by construction activities, the extent of the disturbance 
shall be evaluated by a registered professional engineer and appropriate 
remedial measures taken satisfactory to the building official. 

SECTION 724.0 DEPTH OF FOOTINGS 

724.1 Frost protection: All permanent supports of buildings and struc- 
tures shall extend a minimum of four (4) feet below finished grade except 
when erected upon sound bedrock or when protected from frost, or when 
the foundation grade is established by a registered professional engineer 
and as approved by the building official. The engineer shall support the 
design grade with data including the type and extent of free-draining 
foundation material, ground water levels, and climatic records. 

724.2 Depth of spread foundations: The bottom surface of any footing 
resting on material of Classes 4 to 15, inclusive, shall be at least eight- 
een (18) inches below the lowest ground surface or the surface of a floor 
slab bearing directly on the soil immediately adjacent to the footing. 

SECTION 725.0 FOOTING DESIGN 

725.1 Design loads: The loads to be used in computing the pressure 
upon bearing materials directly underlying foundations shall be the live 
and dead loads of the structure, as specified in Section 718.0 including 
the weight of the foundations and of any immediately overlying material, 
but deducting from the resulting pressure per square foot the total 
weight of a one (1) square foot column of soil, including the water in its 
voids, which extends from the lowest immediately adjacent surface of the 
soil to the bottom of the footing, pier or mat. Foundations shall be 
constructed so as to resist the maximum probable hydrostatic pressures. 

725.2 Pressure due to lateral loads: Where the pressure on the bearing 
material due to wind or other lateral loads is less than one -third (l/3)„of 
that due to dead and live loads, it may be neglected in the foundation 
design. Where this ratio exceeds one-third (1/3), foundations shall be so 
proportioned that the pressure due to combined dead, live, wind loads, 
and other lateral loads shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressures 
by more than one-third (1/3). 



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725.3 Earthquake loads: Special provision shall be made in the founda- 
tion design to comply with the provisions of Section 716.0. 

725.4 Vibratory loads: Where machinery or other vibrations may be 
transmitted through the foundations, consideration shall be given in the 
design of the footings to prevent detrimental disturbances of the soil. 

725.5 Eccentric loads: Eccentricity of loadings in foundations shall be 
fully investigated, and the maximum pressure on the basis of straight-line 
distribution shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressures. 

725.6 Isolated footings: Footings on granular soil of Classes 5 to 10 and 
Class 16 of Table 720 shall be so located that the line drawn between the 
lower edges of adjoining footings shall not have a steeper slope than 
thirty (30) degrees with the vertical, unless the material supporting the 
higher footing is braced or retained or otherwise laterally supported in an 
approved manner. 

725.7 Light structures: One-story structures without masonry walls and 
not exceeding eight hundred (800) square feet in area may be founded on 
a layer of satisfactory bearing material not less than three (3) feet thick, 
which is underlain by highly compressible material, provided that the 
stresses induced in the unsatisfactory material by the live and dead loads 
of the structure and the weight of any new fill, within or adjacent to the 
building area, will not exceed two hundred and fifty (250) pounds per 
square foot (psf). 

SECTION 726.0 TIMBER FOOTINGS, WOOD FOUNDATIONS 

726.1 Timber footings: Timber footings may be used for wood frame 
structures and as otherwise approved by the building official. Such 
footings shall be treated in accordance with the applicable standards in 
Appendix C or shall be placed entirely below permanent water level, 
except that untreated timbers may be used as capping of wood piles which 
project above the water level over submerged or marsh lands. The 
compressive stresses perpendicular to grain in untreated timber footings 
supported upon piles shall not exceed seventy (70) per cent of the allow- 
able stresses for the species and grade of timber as specified in the 
National Design Specification for Stress Grade Lumber listed in Appendix 
B. 

726.2 Pole buildings: Pole type buildings shall be designed and erected 
in accordance with the applicable standards listed in Appendix B. The 
poles shall be treated in accordance with the applicable standards in 
Appendix C. 

SECTION 727.0 STEEL GRILLAGES 

727.1 General: Structural steel grillage foundations shall have at least 
six (6) inches of concrete cover below the bottom of the steel and shall 
have at least four (4) inches of concrete cover above the steel and be- 
tween the sides of the steel and the adjacent soil. 

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SECTION 728.0 CONCRETE FOOTINGS 

728.1 Concrete strength: Concrete in footings shall have an ultimate 
compressive strength of not less than twenty-five hundred (2500) pounds 
per square inch (psi) at twenty-eight (28) days. 

728.2 Design: Concrete footings shall comply with Sections 840.0 and 

841.0 and the applicable reference standards therein listed for design. 

728.3 Dimensions 

728.3.1 Plain concrete: In plain concrete footings, the edge thickness 
shall be not less than twelve (12) inches for footings on soil or rock; 
except for wood frame buildings up to two (2) stories in height, these 
thicknesses may be reduced to eight (8) inches. 

728.3.2 Reinforced concrete: In reinforced concrete footings the thick- 
ness at the edge above the bottom reinforcement shall be not less than 
six (6) inches for footings on soil, nor less than twelve (12) inches for 
footings on piles. The clear cover on reinforcement where the concrete is 
cast against the earth shall not be less than three (3) inches. Where 
concrete is exposed to soil after it has been cast, the clear cover shall be 
not less than one and one-half (1 1/2) inches for reinforcement smaller 
than No. 5 bars of five-eighths (5/8) inch diameter wire, nor two (2) 
inches for larger reinforcement. 

728.4 Footings on piles and pile caps: Footings on piles and pile caps 
shall be of reinforced concrete. The minimum distance from the edge of 
the cap to the nearest pile surface shall be six (6) inches and there shall 
be at least two (2) inches of concrete between the top of the pile and the 
steel reinforcement of the cap. The pile caps shall extend not less than 
three (3) inches below the pile cutoff. 

728.5 Deposition: Concrete for foundations shall not be poured through 
water. When placed under or in the presence of water, the concrete 
shall be deposited by approved and properly operated equipment which 
insures minimum segregation of the mix and negligible turbulence of the 
water . 

728.6 Protection of concrete: Concrete footings shall be protected from 
freezing during deposition and for a period of not less than five (5) days 
thereafter and water shall not be allowed to flow through the deposited 
concrete . 

SECTION 729.0 MASONRY UNIT FOOTINGS 

729.1 Dimensions: Masonry unit footings shall be laid in type M or S 
mortar complying with Section 815.0 and the depth shall be not less than 
twice the projection beyond the wall, pier or column; and the width shall 
be not less than eight (8) inches wider than the wall supported thereon. 



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729.2 Offsets: The maximum offset of each course in brick foundation 
walls stepped up from the footings shall be one and one-half (1 1/2) 
inches if laid in single courses, and three (3) inches if laid in double 
courses. 

SECTION 730.0 FLOATING FOUNDATIONS 

730.1 General: The design of floating foundations shall include a settle- 
ment analysis in accordance with the provisions of Section 722.10. 

SECTION 731.0 FOUNDATION PIERS 

731.1 General: A foundation pier is here defined as a structural member 
which extends to a satisfactory bearing material, and which may be con- 
structed in an excavation that afterwards is backfilled by an approved 
method, or by filling the excavation with concrete, or which may be built 
by sinking an open or pneumatic caisson. 

731.2 Manner of construction: The manner of construction shall be by 
non-displacement methods and shall permit inspection of the bearing 
material in place. 

731.3 Base enlargement: The bases of foundation piers may be enlarged 
by spread footings, pedestals or belled bottoms. 

731.3.1 Belled bases: Bell-shaped bases shall have a minimum edge 
thickness of four (4) inches. The bell roof shall slope not less than 
sixty (60) degrees with the horizontal unless the base is designed in 
accordance with Sections 840.0 or 841.0. 

731.4 Design of piers: Foundation piers may be designed as concrete 
columns with continuous lateral support. The unit compressive stress in 
the concrete at the least cross section shall not exceed twenty-five (25) 
per cent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength of the concrete nor eleven 
hundred (1100) pounds per square inch. 

731.4.1 Reinforcement: When the center of the cross section of a foun- 
dation pier at any level deviates from the resultant of all forces more 
than one-sixtieth (1/60) of its height, or more than one-tenth (1/10) of 
its diameter, it shall be reinforced as provided in Section 841.0. The 
restraining effect of the surrounding soil may be taken into account. 

731.5 Placement: With approval of the building official, concrete may be 
placed through still water by means of a properly operated tremie or 
pumped concrete. 

731.6 Inspection: The owner shall engage a competent inspector, quali- 
fied by experience and training and satisfactory to the building official, 
to be present at all times while foundation piers are being installed, to 
inspect and approve the bearing soil and the placing of the concrete. 



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The inspector shall make a record of the type of bearing soil upon which 
the pier rests, of the dimensions of the pier, and of the class strength of 
concrete used in its construction. A copy of these records shall be filed 
in the office of the building official. 

SECTION 732.0 PILE FOUNDATIONS 

732.1 Site investigation: In addition to the provisions for subsurface 
explorations, Section 721.0, the building site shall be investigated for all 
conditions which might promote deterioration of pile foundations, and 
approved protective measures meeting the requirements of Section 733.0 
shall be taken to prevent corrosion or other destructive action from 
deleterious conditions . 

When it is intended that a structure be supported on end-bearing piles, 
a sufficient number of borings shall be cored into bedrock, or shall 
extend into the bearing stratum to such depths that satisfactory evidence 
is provided to demonstrate that there are not compressible soil deposits 
below the bearing stratum which would adversely affect the structure. 

732.2 Spacing: The minimum center- to- center spacing of piles shall be 
not less than twice the average diameter of a round pile, nor less than 
one and three-quarter (1 3/4) times the diagonal dimension of a rectangu- 
lar pile. When driven to or penetrating into rock, the spacing shall be 
not less than twenty-four (24) inches. When receiving principal support 
from end-bearing on materials other than rock or through frictional resis- 
tance, the spacing shall be not less than thirty (30) inches. 

732.3 Walls: All piles in wall foundations shall be staggered about the 
center line of the wall at a minimum distance of one-half (1/2) the top 
diameter therefrom. A foundation wall restrained laterally so as to ensure 
stability both during and after construction may be supported by a single 
row of piles. 

732.4 Isolated columns: An isolated column, when supported by piles, 
shall rest upon not less than three (3) piles, at least one (1) of which is 
offset; except that for other than precast concrete or wood-composite 
piles, such columns may be supported by two (2) piles or one (1) pile, 
provided the axis of the column is not more than one and one-half (1 1/2) 
inches away from the centroid of the pile or piles, and that the top of 
the pile group has adequate lateral support and the piles can withstand 
all moments induced by the eccentricity. Lateral support shall be provi- 
ded as necessary during construction. 

732.5 Minimum dimensions: Piles of uniform cross section or tapered 
piles shall have a minimum nominal diameter of eight (8) inches except as 
provided in Section 735.0 for timber piles or Section 736.0 for precast 
concrete piles. Tapered shoes or points of lesser dimensions may be 
attached to the pile unit. 



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732.6 Splices: Splices shall be avoided insofar as practicable. Where 
used, splices shall be sufficiently strong to withstand stresses induced 
during handling and driving without failure. Splices shall be so con- 
structed as to provide and maintain true alignment and position of the 
component parts of the pile during installation and subseguent thereto. 
Splices shall be capable of transmitting all stresses at the location of the 
splice under design load without exceeding the allowable stresses for 
specific pile types in this code. Splices shall develop not less than fifty 
(50) per cent of the value of the pile in bending. 

732.7 Pre-excavation: Jetting, augering and other methods of pre-exca- 
vation must be approved by the building official and carried out in a 
manner which will not impair the carrying capacity of the piles already in 
place or the safety of existing adjacent structures. Immediately after 
completion of jetting or augering, the pile shall be advanced to the maxi- 
mum depth of pre-excavation and driven below this depth to the reguired 
load resistance. 

732.8 Precautions: When piles have been damaged in driving, or driven 
in locations and alignment other than those indicated on the plans, or 
that have capacities less than reguired by the design, the affected pile 
groups and pile caps shall be investigated and if necessary, the pile 
groups or pile caps shall be redesigned or additional piles shall be driven 
to replace the defective piles. Piles shall be driven to embedment in the 
supporting stratum, as determined by borings. 

732.9 Pile heave: Adequate provision shall be made to observe pile 
heave. Accurate reference points shall be established on each pile im- 
mediately after installation; for cast-in-place piles with corrugated shells, 
the reference point shall be at the bottom of the pile. If, following the 
installation of other piles in the vicinity, heaving of one-half (1/2) inch 
or more occurs, corrective measures shall be taken to ensure that the pile 
has adeguate capacity. 

732.10 Records: The owner shall engage a registered professional engi- 
neer who shall submit his qualifications in writing to the building official. 
This engineer, or his representative who must be gualified by experience 
and training shall be present at all times while piles are being driven and 
to observe all work in connection with the piles. The engineer or his 
representative shall make an accurate record of the material and the 
principal dimensions of each pile, of the weight and fall of the ram, the 
type, size and make of hammer, cushion blocks, the number of blows per 
minute, the energy per blow, the number of blows per inch for the last 
six (6) inches of driving, together with the grades at point and cutoff 
and any other pertinent details. A copy of these records shall be signed 
by the registered professional engineer, and filed in the office of the 
building official. 



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SECTION 733.0 CORROSION PROTECTION 

733.1 General: Where boring records, previous experience, or site 
investigations indicate any condition which might promote deterioration or 
possible deleterious action on pile materials due to soil constituents, 
changing water levels or other causes, such pile materials shall be ade- 
quately protected as stated herein. 

733.2 Preservative treatments: The preservative treatment of timber 
piles shall comply with the provisions of Section 735.0 and the reference 
standards as listed in Appendix C. 

733.3 Steel and steel-concrete piles: At locations where steel and steel- 
concrete piles will be in contact with any material which is corrosive to 
the steel, one (1) of the following procedures shall be used for protec- 
tion, or any other method which will satisfy the requirements of the 
building official: 

1. Remove all objectionable material. 

2. Effectively protect the steel surface from pile cutoff grade to a 
grade fifteen (15) feet below the bottom of the objectionable material 
by means of: 

a. cathodic protection as approved by the building official; or 

b. an approved encasement of not less than three (3) inches of 
dense concrete; or 

c. an effective protective coating subject to the approval of the 
building official; or 

d. providing an excess thickness of one-eighth (1/8) inch beyond 
design requirements on all exposed surfaces. 

SECTION 734.0 ALLOWABLE PILE LOADS 

734.1 General: The allowable load on piles shall be determined by the 
applicable formulas complying with accepted engineering practice and as 
stated herein. The maximum load capacity shall be limited by the sup- 
porting capacity as obtained from bearing upon or embedment in bearing 
materials as defined in Sections 720.0 and 723.0, but the load shall not 
exceed the capacity of the pile designed in accordance with the provisions 
of Section 734.1 and the requirements of Article 8 for the construction 
materials involved. 

734.2 Lateral support of axially-loaded piles: The length of a pile below 
the ground surface shall be considered as a plain column with continuous 
lateral support. The length above the ground surface shall be designed 
as an unsupported column in accordance with the provisions of Section 
743.0. 



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734.3 Determination of allowable load: In the absence of pile load tests, 
the load on a single pile, except for the pile types covered in Section 
737.2 (pressure injected footings) and Section 739.0 (drilled-in caissons), 
shall not exceed the higher of the two (2) values determined in accord- 
ance with Section 734.3.1 (driving formula) or Section 734.3.2 (friction 
formula in clay), nor the maximum loads in Section 734.3.3 (jacked piles). 

Where the proposed design load for any pile exceeds fifty (50) tons 
including pressure injected footings, or exceeds the value determined in 
accordance with Section 734.3.2 (friction formula in clay), or where the 
design load for any pile is in doubt, one or more pile load tests shall be 
performed in accordance with Section 722.0, (Bearing Tests, Pile Load 
Tests and Settlement Analysis), on representative piles. The stresses on 
pile materials shall not exceed those limits established herein for various 
pile types. 

For design loads between fifty (50) and one hundred-twenty (120) 
tons, pile load tests may be waived by the building official, where justi- 
fied, upon submittal of substantiating data prepared by a registered pro- 
fessional engineer which includes experience and/or performance records 
for the proposed pile installation under similar soil and loading conditions. 

Higher stresses than those permitted in this code for various pile 
materials above may be approved by the State Building Code Commission 
based upon the submission of substantiating data and analyses which 
justify such higher stresses. The data shall be presented in a report, 
prepared by a registered professional engineer and shall include, as 
applicable: the results of soil investigations, dynamic analyses of pile 
behavior, pile load tests, analyses of load transfer during testing and 
prediction of pile performance during long term service. 

734.3.1 Driving formula: 

1. Where the design load capacity of the pile does not exceed fifty 
(50) tons, the allowable load may be computed by means of the 
following driving formula: 

R = 2E/(S + C) 

where 

R = allowable pile load in pounds; 

E = energy per blow in foot pounds; 

S = penetration of last blow or average penetration of last few 
blows experienced in inches; and 

C = constant egual to 1.0 for drop hammer and 0.1 for steam or 
air hammer. 



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2. When the design load capacity of a pile exceeds fifty (50) tons the 
required driving resistance shall be increased above that required 
by the driving formula in Item 1 above based on load tests or past 
experience under similar conditions. 

3. The value of S must be determined with the hammer operating at 
one hundred (100) per cent of the rated number of blows per 
minute for which the hammer is designed. 

4. Any driving resistance developed in strata overlying the bearing 
material shall be discounted. 

5. If the driving of the pile has been interrupted for more than one 
(1) hour, the value of S shall not be determined until the pile is 
driven at least an additional twelve (12) inches, except when it 
encounters refusal on or in a material of Classes 1 to 5 inclusive. 

6. When the constant tapered portion of a pile, including a timber 
pile, is driven through a layer of gravel, sand or hard clay 
(Classes 6 to 10 inclusive, and Class 14) exceeding five (5) feet in 
thickness, and through an underlying soft stratum, the bearing 
capacity shall not be determined in accordance with the driving 
formula, unless jetting is used during the entire driving of the 
tapered portion of the pile through the layer of gravel, sand, hard 
clay or Class 14 material, or unless a hole is pre-excavated through 
said layer for each pile. 

734.3.2 Friction formula in clay: The allowable load on a pile stopped in 
inorganic clay may be based on a friction value of five hundred (500) 
pounds per square foot of embedded pile surface for a design load not to 
exceed twenty-two (22) tons, or on a friction value determined from pile 
load tests. The embedded length shall be the length of the pile below 
the surface of the inorganic clay, or below the surface of immediately 
overlying satisfactory bearing material. The area of embedded pile sur- 
face shall be computed by multiplying the embedded length by the peri- 
meter of the smallest circle or polygon that can be circumscribed around 
the average section of the embedded length of the pile. The method of 
determining the allowable load described in this paragraph shall not be 
used for a pile in which the drive pipe is withdrawn or for piles which 
are driven through the clay to or into firmer bearing materials. 

In case these piles are in clusters, the allowable load shall be computed 
for the smaller of the following two (2) areas: the sum of the embedded 
pile surfaces of individual piles; or the area obtained by multiplying the 
perimeter of the polygon circumscribing the cluster at the surface of the 
satisfactory bearing material by the average embedded length of pile. 

734.3.3 Jacked piles: 



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1. Not less than ten (10) per cent of jacked piles shall be load-tested 
to twice the design load (load test piles). All other jacked piles 
shall be founded in the same bearing stratum as the load test pile 
and shall be proof-loaded to one hundred and twenty-five (125) per 
cent of design load (production piles). 

2. For production piles, the one hundred and twenty-five (125) per 
cent of design load shall be maintained for at least thirty (30) 
minutes. Acceptability criteria: during final fifteen (15) minutes 
of load, the rate is not progressive (plot is linear or decreasing 
when settlement is plotted against logarithm of time); and the rate 
of settlement is equal to or less than that observed for load test 
piles during the corresponding time period under one hundred and 
twenty-five (125) per cent of design load. 

3. Settlement readings shall be plotted after 1, 2, 4, 8, and 15 min- 
utes, and at 15 minute intervals thereafter. Load shall be main- 
tained on production piles until acceptability criteria are met. 

4. For load test piles, the load shall be applied directly to one hund- 
red and twenty-five (125) per cent of design load and maintained 
for not less than thirty (30) minutes, but until the settlement rate 
is not progressive (as defined above). Load shall then be in- 
creased to twice the design load and maintained constant for not 
less than four (4) hours. Settlement during the four (4) hour 
period shall not exceed point zero fifty (.050) inches. 

In the event that settlement exceeds point zero fifty (.050) 
inches in four (4) hours, the pile shall be deemed unacceptable for 
one half (1/2) of the final load, the allowable load on the rejected 
pile may be established by performing an additional load test at the 
lesser design load. The design load shall not exceed one half (1/2) 
the load maintained for a four (4) hour period during which time 
settlement did not exceed point zero fifty (.050) inches. 

734.4 Negative friction: Where a pile or a group of piles is placed in 
subsiding fill or soil, the effect of the downward frictional forces shall be 
given consideration in the design. 

734.5 Limiting load: Where weaker materials underlie the bearing mate- 
rial into which the piles are driven, time allowable pile load shall be 
limited by the provision that the vertical pressures in such underlying 
materials produced by the loads on all piles in a foundation shall not 
exceed the allowable bearing pressures of such materials as established by 
analysis, applying accepted principles of soil mechanics. Piles or pile 
groups shall be assumed to transfer their loads to the underlying materials 
by spreading the load uniformly at an angle of sixty (60) degrees with 
the horizontal, starting at a polygon circumscribing the piles at the top 
of the satisfactory bearing material in which they are embedded; but the 
area considered as supporting the load shall not extend beyond the inter- 
section of the sixty (60) degree planes of adjacent piles or pile groups. 



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734.5.1 Pile load limitation: The allowable load on a pile shall not be 
limited to the load obtained by multiplying its point area by the allowable 
bearing pressure given in Section 720.0. 

734.5.2 Liquefaction during earthquake: The requirements of Section 
720.3 shall be considered in the design of pile foundations. If pile tips 
lie above soil which does not meet the criteria in Figure 720, special 
studies shall be made by a registered professional engineer to ensure 
safety during the design earthquake specified in Section 716.7. 

SECTION 735.0 TIMBER PILES 

735.1 Species: Piles shall be of Type I species, Type II species or 
other species approved for such use by the building official. 

1. Type I species shall include southern yellor pine, oak, Douglas fir 
and" other woods of similar strength and physical characteristics. 

2. Type II species shall include Norway pine, spruce and other woods 
of similar strength and physical characteristics. 

735.2 Quality: Timber piles shall conform to the application provisions 
of the Standard for Round Timber Piles, ASTM D25. 

735.3 Minimum dimensions: 

1. Piles shall be of adequate size to resist the applied loads without 
having to endure compressive stress parallel with the grain in 
excess of the following: 

a. Eight hundred (800) pounds per square inch (psi) for Type I 
species of wood or five hundred (500) pounds per square inch 
for Type II species of wood on the pile cross section located at 
the surface of the bearing stratum for piles driven into mater- 
ials of Classes 6 through 10. 

b. Five hundred (500) pounds per square inch (psi) for Type I 
species of wood or three hundred (300) pounds per square inch 
for Type II species of wood on the pile cross section at the tips 
of piles driven to bearing on materials of Classes 1 through 5. 

2. The piles shall measure at least six (6) inches in diameter at the 
tip and at least ten (10) inches in diameter at the cutoff, with 
these measurements being taken under the bark. 

3. All piles shall be driven in one (1) piece except as provided in 
Section 741.0 for composite piles. 

735.4 Cutoff: The tops of all timber piles shall be cut off in a hori- 
zontal plane; and if not treated by an approved preservative process, the 



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cutoff shall be below mean low water level or lowest ground water level, 
and shall be subject to the building official's approval. He may require 
the owner to install and maintain in good condition at least one (1) ground 
water observation well within the building, which shall be accessible to 
the building official. 

735.5 Treated piles: Timber piles pressure-treated with creosote or 
creosote-coal-tar solution, and conforming to the requirements of this 
section, may be cut off above permanent ground water level when used 
for the support of buildings not exceeding two (2) stories in height. 

735.5.1 Treatment: Preservative and final retention shall be in accord- 
ance with AWPA Standard C-3. When exposed to salt water, the treat- 
ment shall conform to the AWPB Standard MP-1, MP-2 or MP-4. Pile 
cutoffs shall be treated in accordance with AWPI Standard M-4. 

735.5.2 Certification: Before any treated piles are driven, the building 
official shall be furnished with certification by a licensed testing labora- 
tory, certifying that piles were free of decay, were properly peeled and 
otherwise prepared before treatment; and that the method of treatment, 
the chemical composition and the amount of retention of the preservative 
conform to the requirements of this Section 735.0. 

735.6 Maximum load on wood piles: Except as provided in the fourth 
paragraph of Section 734.3, the load on a wood pile shall not exceed the 
allowable load specified in Section 734.0, nor thirty-five (35) tons. For 
timber piles driven into material of Classes 6 through 10, the area at the 
surface of the bearing stratum shall be used to compute the allowable 
load. 

735.7 Precautions in driving: To avoid damage to the pile, the size of 
the hammer shall be such that the driving energy in foot-pounds per blow 
shall not exceed numerically the point diameter of the pile in inches mul- 
tiplied by fifteen hundred (1500). The total driving energy in foot- 
pounds for six (6) inches of penetration shall for all types of hammers be 
numerically not greater than the point diameter in inches times thirty-two 
thousand (32,000) for Type I species of wood or times twenty-two thou- 
sand (22,000) for Type II species of wood. For the last inch of penetra- 
tion, the energy in foot-pounds shall not exceed numerically the point 
diameter in inches multiplied by six thousand (6,000). In any case, 
driving shall be stopped immediately when abrupt high resistance to 
penetration is encountered. Any sudden decrease in driving resistance 
shall be investigated with regard to the possibility of breakage of the 
pile; and if such sudden decrease in driving resistance cannot be corre- 
lated to boring data, and if the pile cannot be removed for inspection, it 
shall be considered adequate reason for rejection of the pile. 



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SECTION 736.0 PRECAST CONCRETE PILES 

736.1 Concrete strength: A precast concrete pile shall not be driven 
before the concrete has attained a compressive strength of not less than 
four thousand (4,000) pounds per square inch (psi) based on tests of 
cylinders cast from the same batches and cured under the same conditions 
as the pile concrete. These piles shall be so proportioned, cast, cured, 
handled and driven as to resist without significant cracking stresses 
induced by handling and driving as well as by loads. 

736.2 Design: The piles shall be designed and reinforced in accordance 
with the applicable reinforced concrete regulations cited in Section 841.0. 
If for any reason the pile is injured, or the reinforcement is exposed, its 
use shall be condemned. The lateral reinforcement at both ends of the 
pile shall be spaced sufficiently close to resist impact stresses due to 
driving and more than three (3) inches on center. When driven to or 
into bearing materials of Classes 1 to 5 inclusive, or through materials 
containing boulders, they shall have metal tips of approved design. The 
minimum lateral dimension of a precast concrete pile shall be ten (10) 
inches. 

736.3 Limitation of load: Except as provided in the fourth paragraph of 
Section 734.3, the load on precast concrete piles shall not exceed the 
allowable load specified in Section 734.0, thirty-three (33) per cent of the 
twenty-eight (28) day strength of the concrete, nor sixteen hundred 
(1600) psi. For prestressed concrete piles, thirty-three (33) per cent of 
the effective prestress load in the concrete after losses shall be deducted 
from thirty-three (33) per cent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength of 
the concrete or sixteen hundred (1600) psi, whichever is less, in compu- 
ting the maximum allowable load. 

736.4 Protection: A minimum covering of two (2) inches of concrete 
shall be provided over all reinforcements, except that for piles to be 
exposed to sea water and other severe environments, a three (3) inch 
protective covering shall be furnished in the zone of such exposure. 

736.5 Minimum spacing: The minimum spacing center-to-center of pre- 
cast concrete piles shall be two and one-half (2 1/2) times the square root 
of the cross-sectional area at the butt. 

736.6 Splices: One splice shall be permitted in precast concrete piles. 

SECTION 737.0 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILES 

737.1 General: In this section a distinction is made between poured-con- 
crete piles and pressure injected footings (compacted concrete piles). A 
poured-concrete pile is formed by pouring concrete into a driven casing 
that is permanently installed in the ground. A pressure injected footing 
is formed by placing concrete having a zero (0) slump in small batches, 
and compacting each batch. All cast-in-place concrete piles shall be made 



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and placed as to ensure the exclusion of all foreign matter and to secure 
a well-formed unit of full cross-section. The minimum strength of con- 
crete for cast-in-place piles shall be three thousand (3,000) pounds per 
square inch (psi). While placing the concrete, the casing or drive-pipe 
shall contain not more than three (3) inches of water. 

The maximum size of coarse aggregate for all concrete shall be three- 
quarter (3/4) inch and the concrete shall have a slump of four (4) to 
seven (7) inches. If placed from the top of pile, all concrete shall be 
poured in rapid, continuous operation through a funnel hopper centered 
at the top of the pile and having a discharge diameter less than the 
smallest diameter of the pile. After filling with concrete, the top ten 
(10) feet shall be thoroughly rodded. 

737.2 Poured concrete piles 

737.2.1 Design: The shape of the pile may be cylindrical, or conical, or 
a combination thereof, or it may be a succession of cylinders of equal 
length, with the change in diameter of adjoining cylinders not exceeding 
one (1) inch. 

737.2.2 Loading: Except as provided in the fourth paragraph of Section 
734.3, the load on poured concrete piles shall not exceed the allowable 
load specified in Section 734.0, thirty-three (33) per cent of the twenty- 
eight (28) day strength of the concrete, nor sixteen hundred (1600) psi, 
when applied to the cross-sectional area computed on the following basis: 

1. For metal-cased piles driven to and into materials of Classes 1 to 4 
inclusive, using the diameter measured one (1) foot above the 
point, except that when the rock is immediately overlain by a 
bearing stratum consisting of one (1) or a combination of bearing 
materials of Classes 5, 6 and 7, using the diameter at the surface 
of the bearing stratum. 

2. For metal-cased piles, driven through compressible materials includ- 
ing Classes 11, 12, 13 and 15 and into a bearing stratum consisting 
of one (1) or a combination of bearing materials of Classes 5 to 10 
inclusive, using the diameter at the surface of the bearing stratum. 

737.2.3 Installation: Immediately before filling with concrete, the inside 
of the casing shall be thoroughly cleaned to the bottom and subjected to a 
visual examination. The casing shall be subject to the following limita- 
tions : 

1. The diameter shall not vary more than twenty (20) per cent from 
the specified value. 

2. The point of the casing shall not deviate more than ten (10) per 
cent of the length of the pile from the design alignment. 



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3. The casing shall not deviate by more than four (4) per cent of the 
length of the casing from the straight line connecting the midpoints 
to the ends of the casing. Any other condition which may affect 
the design performance shall be duly noted and evaluated subject to 
the requirements of the building official. A casing or drive-pipe 
shall not be filled with concrete until all casings or drive-pipes 
shall be filled with concrete until all casings or drive-pipes within a 
radius of seven (7) feet, or within the heave range, whichever is 
greater, have been driven to the required resistance. 

737.3 Pressure injected footings 

737.3.1 Loading: Except as provided in the fourth paragraph of Section 
734.3, the load on pressure-injected footings shall be limited by the 
provisions of Sections 734.4 except that the circumscribing polygon shall 
start at the junction of the shaft and the enlarged base, and the bearing 
area shall be taken at planes six (6) feet or more below the junction. 

737.3.2 Installation: The installation of pressure-injected footings shall 
fulfill the following requirements: 

1. The drive pipe used for installing the pipes shall not be less than 
twenty (20) inches outside diameter for piles which have an allow- 
able of one hundred (100) tons or greater, and not less than six- 
teen (16) inches outside diameter for piles which have an allowable 
load between fifty (50) and one hundred (100) tons. For loads less 
than fifty (50) tons, smaller drive casing may be used subject to 
the approval of the building official. 

2. The enlarged base of the pressure-injected footings shall be formed 
on or in bearing materials of Classes 1 to 9 inclusive. The Class 9 
material (fine sand) shall have a maximum of fifteen (15) per cent 
by weight finer than the No. 200 mesh sieve and shall be non-plas- 
tic, unless satisfactory load test results or other substantiating 
data are submitted to, and approved by, the building official. 

3. The concrete in the base shall have a minimum compressive strength 
at twenty-eight (28) days of four thousand (4,000) psi; shall be of 
zero (0) slump, and shall be placed in batches not to exceed five 
(5) cubic feet in volume. 

4. The last batch of concrete shall be driven into the enlarged base 
with not less than twenty-five (25) blows, each of not less than one 
hundred and forty thousand (140,000) foot pounds. For lower 
allowable loads, the required number of blows on the last batch 
shall vary in proportion to the allowable load. On the basis of test 
data, and subject to approval by the building official, the hammer 
blow energy may be reduced, in which case the number of blows on 
the last batch shall vary inversely with the energy delivered per 
blow. 



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5. During injection of the last five (5) cubic feet, the level of con- 
crete in the drive casing shall not be more than six (6) inches 
above the bottom of the casing. 

6. As the drive pipe is being withdrawn, not less than two (2) blows 
of at least twenty-five thousand (25,000) foot-pounds each shall be 
applied to compact each batch of concrete in an uncased shaft. 

7. An uncased shaft shall not be formed through inorganic clay or 
inorganic silt unless a hole is made through such soil by a nondis- 
placement method, at least egual to the inside diameter of the drive 
pipe unless the individual piles are located more than nine (9) feet 
part and outside the heave range. Pressure-injected footings shall 
have cased shafts when spaced closer than nine (9) feet apart and 
when installed through inorganic clay or inorganic silt. 

8. An uncased shaft shall not be formed through peat or other organic 
soils . 

9. The permanent metal casing shall be fastened to the enlarged base 
in such a manner that the two will not separate. The concrete may 
be placed in the metal casing in the same manner as for poured- 
concrete piles . A metal casing shall not be filled with concrete 
until after all pressure injected footings within a radius of at least 
nine (9) feet have been driven. In metal-cased shafts the stresses 
in the concrete shall be thirty-three (33) per cent of the twenty- 
eight (28) day strength, but not exceeding sixteen hundred (1600) 
psi if non- corrugated steel casing is at least two-tenths (0.2) inch 
thick, the stress in the steel shall be thirty-five (35) per cent of 
the minimum specified yield strength, but not exceeding twelve 
thousand six hundred (12,600) psi. When required by soil condi- 
tions, allowance shall be made for corrosion as specified in Section 
733.0. 

737.4 Spacing: The center-to-center spacing of piles shall be not less 
than three (3) times the shaft diameter and not less than three and 
one-half (3 1/2) feet. 

SECTION 738.0 CONCRETE-FILLED PIPE AND 
TAPERED TUBULAR PILES 

738.1 Installation: Immediately before filling with concrete, the inside of 
the casing shall be thoroughly cleaned to the bottom and subjected to a 
visual inspection. The casing shall be subject to the following limitations: 

1. The diameter shall not vary more than twenty (20) per cent from 
the specified value. 

2. The point of the casing shall not deviate more than ten (10) per 
cent of the length of the pile from the design alignment. 



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3. The casing shall not deviate by more than six (6) per cent of the 
length of the casing from the straight line connecting the mid- 
points of the ends of the casing. Any other condition which may 
affect the design performance shall be duly noted and evaluated 
subject to the reguirements of the building official. Concrete shall 
not be placed through water; except that the building official may 
approve the use of a properly-operated tremie or pumped concrete 
in still water, provided the pipe is proven to be free of other 
material . 

738.2 Steel pipe: All steel pipe shall conform to the applicable standards 
listed in the reference standards in the appendices for welded and seam- 
less steel pipe and tubes, and for hot-rolled carbon steel sheets. The 
yield point used in the design of steel casings shall be that of the fabri- 
cated element as determined by test. 

738.3 Design: Except as provided in the fourth paragraph of Section 
734.3, the load on concrete-filled pipe piles shall not exceed the allowable 
load determined in accordance with Section 734.0, a load computed on the 
basis of stress in concrete at twenty-five (25) per cent of the twenty- 
eight (28) day strength, or eleven hundred (1100) pounds per sguare 
inch (psi)and stress in the steel at nine thousand (9000) pounds per 
sguare inch; nor shall the load carried by the steel on this basis exceed 
one-half (1/2) the total load on the pile. 

738.4 Minimum thickness: The minimum wall thickness of all load-bearing 
pipe, tubes and shells shall be one-tenth (1/10) inches. When reguired 
by soil conditions, allowance shall be made for corrosion as specified in 
Section 733.0. 

738.5 Splices: All splices of the steel section shall comply with Section 
732.6. 

SECTION 739.0 CONCRETE-FILLED PIPE WITH 
STEEL CORE CAISSONS 

739.1 Construction: These units shall consist of a shaft section of 
concrete-filled pipe extended to and firmly seated in bedrock of Classes 1 
or 2 with an uncased socket drilled into the bedrock which is filled with 
cement grout. The steel core shall be centered in the shaft and shall 
extend through the cement grout to the bottom of the socket. 

739.2 Steel shell: The steel shell shall be seamless or welded steel pipe 
with a minimum yield point of thirty-three thousand (33,000) pounds per 
sguare inch (psi), fitted with an approved cutting shoe and structural 
cap, or with other approved means of transmitting the super-structure 
load. The minimum diameter for drilled caissons shall be twenty-four (24) 
inches and minimum shell thickness five-sixteenths (5/16) inches. Steel 
shall be protected under the conditions specified in Section 733.0. Splices 
shall be welded to develop one hundred (100) per cent of the strength of 
the pipe. 



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739.3 Concrete fill: The concrete fill of caissons shall be controlled 
concrete with a minimum compressive strength of four thousand (4,000) 
psi at twenty-eight (28) days. It shall be so placed that it shall fill 
completely the space between the steel core and the pipe. In case the 
socket cannot be kept free from inflow of water, the pipe shall be filled 
to its top with clean water before placing the cement grout. The details 
of the design and installation, including the cleaning and inspection of 
the socket, the placement of concrete under water or in the dry, the 
method of centering the steel core, and all other phases of the work shall 
be submitted to the building official for approval. 

739.4 Rock socket: A socket, approximately the inside diameter of the 
pipe shall be made in bedrock of Classes 1 or 2 to a depth that will 
assure load transfer when computed for a bearing on the bottom surface 
of the socket in accordance with Sections 722.0 and 725.0 acting together 
with a bond stress on the perimeter surface of the socket of two hundred 
(200) psi. The minimum socket depth shall be at least egual to the 
diameter of the pipe. Before placement of concrete, the socket and pipe 
shall be thoroughly cleaned and the rock inspected by a registered pro- 
fessional engineer. 

739.5 Steel core: The steel core shall consist of a structural steel 
member. The mating ends of the sections shall be spliced so as to safely 
withstand the stresses to which they may be subjected. The minimum 
clearance between structural core and shell shall be two (2) inches. When 
such cores are installed in more than one (1) length, they shall be as- 
sembled to develop the full compressive strength of the section. 

739.6 Driving precautions: Drilled caissons shall not be driven out of 
plumb by more than two (2) per cent of the length of the caissons. 

739.7 Spacing: The minimum center-to-center spacing shall be not less 
than two and one-half (2 1/2) times the outside diameter of the steel 
shell. 

739.8 Allowable load: Except as provided in the fourth paragraph of 
Section 734.3, the load on concrete-filled pipe piles with steel core shall 
not exceed the allowable load determined in accordance with the provisions 
of Section 739.4; nor that computed on the basis of stress in concrete at 
thirty-three (33) per cent of the twenty-eight (28) day strength, but not 
exceeding sixteen hundred (1600) psi; plus stress in the steel at thirty- 
five (35) per cent of the minimum specified yield strength but not exceed- 
ing twelve thousand six hundred (12,600) psi of the net area of the steel 
pipe plus fifty (50) per cent of the minimum specified yield strength but 
not exceeding eighteen thousand (18,000) psi of the area of the core 
steel. 



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SECTION 740.0 STRUCTURAL STEEL PILES 

740.1 Steel: Steel sections may be of any type of steel permitted by the 
provisions of the reference standards of this article. 

1. Rolled structural steel piles shall be of H form, with flange projec- 
tion not exceeding fourteen (14) times the minimum thickness of 
metal in either flange or web and with total flange width at least 
eighty-five (85) per cent of the depth of the section. A section 
shall not have a nominal thickness of metal less than four-tenths 
(4/10) inch, nor a nominal depth in the direction of the web of less 
than eight (8) inches. 

2. The use of built-up sections or sections of other than H form will 
be permitted if the several components of the section are adequately 
connected to develop the strength of the adjacent components and if 
the ratio of width to thickness of the component parts does not 
exceed the values for conventional H sections. 

3. The tips of all steel H piles having a thickness of metal less than 
five-tenths (5/10) inches which are driven to end bearing on rock 
of Classes 1 through 3 by an impact hammer, shall be reinforced. 
The installation of all steel H piles by impact hammer to end bearing 
on rock of Classes 1 through 3 shall be conducted so as to termi- 
nate driving directly when the pile reaches refusal on the rock 
surface. 

4. Structural caps shall be rigidly attached to the pile section and 
shall be designed to transfer the full load into the piles; except 
that when the pile extends into the footing sufficiently to develop 
the full load by bond, or to permit the use of mechanical devices to 
develop the full load by shear, structural caps shall not be 
required. 

740.2 Splices: If piles are spliced, the splice shall develop one hundred 
(100) per cent of the strength of the section. 

740.3 Protection: Structural steel piles shall be protected under the 
conditions specified in Section 733.0 or due allowance shall be made for 
corrosion as therein specified. 

740.4 Allowable load: Except as provided in the fourth paragraph of 
Section 734.3, the load on such piles shall not exceed the allowable load 
determined in accordance with Section 734.0, nor shall a load based on 
stress exceed thirty-five (35) per cent of the minimum specified yield 
strength or twelve thousand six hundred (12,600) pounds per square inch 
(psi) on the cross section. 



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SECTION 741.0 COMPOSITE PILES 

741.1 Design: A composite pile shall consist of a combination of not 
more than two (2) of any of the different types of piles provided for in 
this article. The pile shall fulfill the requirements for each type, and in 
addition the provisions of Section 741.0. The requirements of Section 
737.2.3 shall apply to the entire length of a pipe shell composite pile. 

741.2 Limitation of load: The allowable load on composite piles shall be 
that allowed for the weaker of the two sections. Except as provided in 
the fourth paragraph of Section 734.3, the allowable load on wood compos- 
ite piles shall not exceed eighty (80) per cent of that allowed for the 
wood section alone. Wood shell composite piles, shall not be used for 
support of buildings exceeding two (2) stories in height. 

741.3 Splices: Splices between concrete sections and steel or wood 
sections shall be designed to prevent separation of the sections both 
before and after the concrete portion has set, and to insure the alignment 
and transmission of the total pile load. Splices shall be designed to 
resist uplift due to heave during driving of adjacent piles and shall 
develop the full compressive strength and not less than fifty (50) per 
cent of the strength in tension and bending of the weaker sections. 

741.4 Spacings: The center-to-center spacing shall be governed by the 
larger of the spacings required in this article for the types composing the 
pile. 

SECTION 742.0 SPECIAL PILES AND CAISSONS 

742.1 General: Types of piles or caissons not specifically covered by 
the provisions of this code may be permitted subject to the approval of 
the building official, provided sufficient test data, design and construc- 
tion information are filed by a registered professional engineer certifying 
that the pile or caisson installation is adequate to fulfill the design re- 
quirements . 

SECTION 743.0 LATERAL SUPPORT 

743.1 Surrounding materials: Any soil other than water or fluid soil 
including strata of soil not meeting the criterion in Figure 720 shall be 
deemed to afford sufficient lateral support to permit the design of any 
type of pile as a short column. When piles are driven through soil which 
will be removed subsequent at the completion of the foundation, the 
resistance offered by such material shall not be considered to contribute 
to the lateral supporting capacity. 

743.2 Column action: The portion of a pile or pier that is not laterally 
supported shall be designed as a column in accordance with Section 844.0 
and taking into consideration the conditions of end fixity. 



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SECTION 744.0 DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR FLOODPLAINS 
AND COASTAL HIGH HAZARD AREAS 

744.1 Designated areas and projects: Plans for all structures and gas 
storage tanks, including new construction and substantial improvements to 
existing structures, and the placement of manufactured buildings and 
mobile homes, shall be subject to review by the building official to deter- 
mine if the location is within any area of special flood hazards as desig- 
nated by the Federal Insurance Administration (FIA), through issuance of 
a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or through a scientific and engineering 
report entitled "Flood Insurance Study" with accompanying Flood Insur- 
ance Rate Maps and Flood Boundary and Floodway Maps. 

For the purposes of this section only, substantial improvements shall 
be defined as any repairs, reconstruction, or improvements, the cost of 
which exceeds fifty (50) per cent of the market value of the structure 
before repairs or damages. 

744.2 Structural requirements in floodplains: If a structure is to be 
constructed, or substantially improved within the one hundred (100) year 
floodplain (land subject to a one [1] per cent or greater chance of flood- 
ing in any given year), as determined by the building official, it shall be 
designed and constructed to minimize flood damage. Plans for such 
building shall be submitted and certified by a registered professional 
engineer or architect to insure that the following requirements are met: 

1. The building is designed (or modified) and adequately anchored to 
prevent flotation, collapse or lateral movement. 

2. The building is constructed with materials and utility equipment 
resistant to flood damage. 

3. Residential structures shall have the lowest floor, including base- 
ment or cellar, elevated to or above the one hundred (100) year 
elevation; or in the case of nonresidential structures, be flood - 
proofed watertight to the one hundred (100) year level. 

4. Where floodproofing is allowed for a particular building, it shall be 
designed to be watertight below the one hundred (100) year flood 
level and the floodproofing methods shall be adequate to withstand 
the flood depths, pressures, velocities, impact and uplift forces and 
other factors associated with the one hundred (100) year flood. 

5. All mobile homes be anchored to resist flotation collapse, or lateral 
movement by providing over-the-top and frame ties to ground 
anchors in the following manner: 

a. over-the-top ties be provided at each of the four corners of the 
mobile home; with two (2) additional ties per side at inter- 
mediate locations for mobile homes greater or equal to fifty (50) 



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feet long, and one (1) additional tie per side for mobile homes 
less than fifty (50) feet long; 

b. frame ties be provided at each corner of the mobile home; with 
five (5) additional ties per side at immediate points for mobile 
homes greater or egual to fifty (50) feet long, and four (4) 
additional ties per side for mobile homes less than fifty (50) 
feet long; 

c. all components of the anchoring system be capable of carrying a 
force of four thousand eight hundred (4,800) pounds; and 

d. any additions to the mobile home be similarly anchored. 

744.3 Structural reguirements in coastal high hazard areas: If a struc- 
ture is to be constructed or substantially improved within a coastal high 
hazard area (land subject to high velocity waters, including hurricane 
wave wash), as determined by the building official, plans for such build- 
ing shall be submitted and certified by a registered professional engineer 
or architect to insure that the following reguirements are met: 

1. the structure is elevated on adeguately anchored pilings or col- 
umns, and securely anchored to such piles or columns so that the 
lowest portion of the structural members of the lowest floor (ex- 
cluding the pilings or columns) is elevated to or above the one 
hundred (100) year level; 

2. the structure is securely anchored, as provided above, in order to 
withstand velocity waters and hurricane wave wash; 

3. fill is not used for structural support; and 

4. the space below the lowest floor free is of obstructions or con- 
structed with breakaway walls intended to collapse under stress, 
such temporarily enclosed space not to be used for human habita- 
tion. 

744.4 Records: The building official shall obtain (or have the applicant 
provide) and maintain for public inspection a record of: 

1. the elevations, in relation to mean sea level, of the lowest floor, 
including basement or cellar, and whether or not the building has a 
basement or cellar; 

2. the elevation, in relation to mean sea level, to which a building has 
been floodproof ed ; and 

3. the date when such construction commenced. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

ARTICLE 8-Part A 

MATERIALS AND TESTS 
SECTION 800.0 GENERAL 

800.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall govern the quality, 
workmanship and requirements for all materials and methods and the 
minimum specifications for enclosure walls and wall thickness hereafter 
used in the construction of buildings and structures. All materials and 
methods of construction shall conform to the approved rules and the 
standards for materials and tests and the requirements of accepted engi- 
neering practice as herein listed (see Section 110.0). 

Appendix B Accepted Engineering Practice 

Appendix C Material Standards 

Appendix D Structural Unit Test Standards 

Appendix E Structural Assembly Test Standards 

Appendix F Durability Test Standards 

Appendix G Fire Test Standards 

Appendix H Standard Time-Temperature Test Controls 

Appendix I Fire Protection Standards 

800.2 Accepted engineering practice: The quality, use and installation 
of all materials, equipment, devices, systems or methods of construction 
shall be controlled by the standards of accepted engineering practice as 
listed in Appendix B except where otherwise specifically provided in this 
code. 

800.3 Material standards: All building units used in wall, partition and 
floor construction and for fireproofing or other insulation purposes shall 
comply with the applicable standards listed in Appendix C. 

800.4 Material not conforming to standards: All building materials, 
equipment, devices systems or methods of construction not provided for 
in this code (including Sections 800.3 and 110.0), and any material of 
questioned suitability proposed for use in the construction of a building 
or structure, shall be subjected to the tests prescribed in Sections 802.0 
and 803.0 and in the approved rules to determine its character, quality, 
and limitations of use. 

800.5 New materials and methods of construction: The provisions of this 
code are not intended to prevent the use of any material, system or 
method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided 
any such alternate has been approved (see "Definitions," Section 201.0). 
The building official shall accept duly authenticated reports from the 
Commission on all new materials and methods of construction proposed for 
use which are not specifically provided for in this code. 



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800.6 Used materials and equipment: Used materials, equipment and de- 
vices which meet the minimum requirements of this code for new materials 
materials, equipment and devices shall be permitted; the building official 
may require satisfactory proof that such materials, equipment and devices 
have been reconditioned, tested, and/or placed in good and proper work- 
ing condition prior to approval. 

800.7 Equivalent materials or systems: Materials or systems which are 
subjected to tests determined by the Commission to be equivalent to those 
tests required by this code shall be accepted as meeting the requirements 
of this code. 

SECTION 801.0 BASIC CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS 

801.1 General: All materials and methods used in the design and con- 
struction of buildings and structures shall be classified as controlled 
materials and ordinary materials as defined in Sections 201.0 and 719.0. 
The design and construction shall be based on the assumptions, limita- 
tions, and methods of stress determination of recognized design proce- 
dures. 

SECTION 802.0 TESTS 

802.1 Test standards: All structural units and assemblies shall be 
tested in accordance with the standards listed in Appendices D, E and F. 
In the absence of test procedures governing any specific material or 
method of construction, the building official shall accept authenticated 
reports from recognized authoritative sources which meet the requirements 
of this code. 

802.2 Strength tests: To determine the safe uniformly distributed work- 
ing load, when not capable of design by accepted engineering analysis, or 
to check the adequacy of the structural design of an assembly when there 
is reasonable doubt as to its strength or stability, every system of con- 
struction, sub-assembly or assembled unit and its connections shall be 
subjected to strength tests prescribed in this code, or to such other 
tests acceptable to the building official that simulate the loads and condi- 
tions of application that the completed structure will be subjected to in 
normal use. Structural load determinations shall include transverse floor 
and roof, wall compression and racking, concentrated load, plaster bond, 
puncture penetration and soil tests. 

802.2.1 Strength tests for glass: The working strength of glass for any 
location in which it is required to withstand wind or impact loads shall be 
determined according to the following design procedure and criteria: 

1. Design for wind loads by Section 857.5.4. 

2. Design for impact loads of fully tempered, laminated and wired glass 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



shall comply with the requirements of the standard listed in Appen- 
dix B. 

802 . 3 Deleted 

802.4 Deleted 

802.5 Performance test: Whenever there is sufficient evidence that the 
stability or structural safety of a completed building or structure or part 
thereof is inadequate for the intended use, the building official may 
require a load test of the building unit or portion of the structure in 
question. Such existing structure shall be subjected to a superimposed 
load equal to two (2) times the design live load. The test load shall be 
left in place for a period of twenty-four (24) hours. If during the test, 
or upon removal of the test load, the structure shows evidence of failure, 
the building official shall order such reinforcement or modifications deemed 
necessary to insure adequacy of the structure for the rated capacity; or 
in lieu thereof, he may specify a reduced working load to which the 
structure shall be limited. The structure shall be considered to have 
successfully met the test requirements if the total deflection does not 
exceed the theoretical deflection computed by accepted engineering formu- 
lae. When the total deflection is greater than such theoretical value, the 
structure shall be considered safe for the design load, if it recovers 
seventy-five (75) per cent of the maximum deflection within twenty-four 
(24) hours after removal of the test load. 

802.6 Tests of service equipment and devices: Tests of service equip- 
ment and accessories shall include proscenium curtain and stage ventila- 
tion, Section 417.7; structural load tests, Section 702.0; flues and chim- 
neys, Section 1002.0; boilers, the mechanical code listed in Appendix B; 
electric installations, Article 15; moving stairways, elevator interlocks and 
safety devices, Article 16; refrigerating equipment, and other mechanical 
and plumbing systems and devices as required by the mechanical code and 
the plumbing code listed in Appendix B and all other service tests re- 
quired by the approved rules. 

802.7 Fire tests: In the determination of flash points, combustibility, 
flameresistance and fireresistance rating of construction materials and 
methods, all tests shall be conducted in conformity to Sections 902.0, 
903.0 and 904.0 and the applicable standards listed in Appendices G and 
I. 

802.8 Prefabricated construction tests: Prefabricated assemblies or 
sub-assemblies not capable of design by accepted engineering analysis, 
shall meet all the requirements and tests for at-site construction. The 
floor panels and other prefabricated units shall be assembled to form an 
integrated test specimen constructed as in practice, of not less than three 
(3) units in width with two (2) longitudinal joints; and when designed on 
the assumption of a simple span, such units shall be tested with flat end 
supports . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



802.9 Test specimens: The selection and construction of all test speci- 
mens and the details of test procedure herein required shall conform to 
the recognized test procedures listed in the appendices. All test speci- 
mens and constructions shall be truly representative of the materials, 
workmanship and details to be normally applied in practice. 

Note: Test procedures. Test requirements constitute fundamental 
performance standards and therefore come within the scope of this 
code. The detail test specifications and procedures are formulated and 
defined in the approved rules or by reference to accepted test standards 
of authoritative test agencies and organizations. Details of test proce- 
dures have been omitted from this code, except for essential basic 
requirements when deemed necessary. 

SECTION 803.0 CONDITIONS OF ACCEPTANCE 

803.1 General: In evaluating the physical properties of materials and 
methods of construction when not subject to design by accepted engineer- 
ing analysis, the structural requirements shall be based on the criteria 
established by the provisions of the following Sections 803.2 through 
803.7. 

803.2 Test load factor 

803.2.1 Loading: The test specimen shall sustain for a period of twenty- 
four (24) hours, without visible damage other than hairline cracks, its 
own weight, plus a superimposed test load equal to the dead load to be 
added at the site plus one hundred fifty (150) per cent of the design live 
load. 

803.2.2 Allowed deflection: After completion of the test required by 
Section 803.2.1 and removal of all superimposed loads, the recovery of 
deflection within twenty-four (24) hours shall be at least seventy-five 
(75) per cent of the deflection due to the superimposed loads. 

803.2.3 Failure loading: The test specimen shall sustain without collapse 
its own weight, plus a superimposed test load equal to fifty (50) per cent 
of its weight plus one hundred fifty (150) per cent of the dead load to be 
added at the site, plus two hundred fifty (250) per cent of the design 
live load. 

803.3 Working load deflection: Under the approved working load, the 
deflection of floor and roof assemblies shall not be greater than one 
three-hundred-sixtieth (1/360) of the span for plastered construction; one 
two-hundred-fortieth (1/240) of the span for unplastered floor construc- 
tion; and one one-hundred -eightieth (1/180) of the span for unplastered 
roof construction. 

803.4 Wall and partition assemblies: Bearing wall and partition assem- 
blies shall sustain the load test both with and without window framing. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



803.5 Comparative tests: When not available from existing authoritative 
test data, the building official may require comparative tests of assemblies 
of standard traditional forms of construction used for similar purposes to 
assist in determining the adequacy of the new construction. 

803.6 Concentrated load tests: When not capable of design, all floor 
constructions in the use classification groups specified in Table 707 shall 
be subjected to the concentrated loads therein prescribed when such 
loading exceeds in stress effect the uniformly distributed load specified 
for such uses in Table 706. 

803.7 Puncture penetration tests: All finish floor constructions in which 
light gage metal or other thin materials are used as the structural floor 
shall withstand the application of a two hundred (200) pound concentrated 
load applied to the top surface on an area of one (1) square inch at any 
point or points of the construction designated by the building official. 

SECTION 804.0 APPROVALS 

804.1 Written approval: Any material, equipment, device, system or 
method of construction meeting the requirements of this code shall be 
approved by the building official in writing within a reasonable time after 
satisfactory completion of all required tests and submission of required 
test reports. 

804.2 Approved record: Whenever any material, equipment, device, 
system or method of construction shall have been approved by the build- 
ing official, a record of such approval, including all the conditions and 
limitations of its permitted use, shall be kept on file in his office and 
shall be open to public inspection during business hours. 

804.3 Identification of product: When identification of a material is 
necessary for structural safety, the approved material shall be identified 
by the approved label and the grade mark, trademark or other manufac- 
turer's identification for which official recognition is desired. A drawing 
of the identification marks shall be filed with the building official and 
kept in the official records. 

804.4 Heretofore approved materials: The use of any material already 
fabricated or of any construction already erected, which conformed to 
requirements or approvals heretofore in effect, shall be permitted to 
continue, if not detrimental to life, health or safety of the public. 

SECTION 805.0 MASONRY CONSTRUCTION UNITS 

805.1 Nominal dimensions: Dimensions and thicknesses specified in this 
code are nominal dimensions; actual dimensions may vary from the pre- 
scribed minimum in accordance with accepted tolerances in the building 
industry. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



805.2 Second-hand units: Brick and other second-hand masonry units 
may be reused subject to the approval of the building official as to qual- 
ity, condition and compliance with the requirements for new masonry 
units. The unit shall be of whole, sound material, free from cracks and 
other defects that would interfere with its proper laying or use; and shall 
be cleaned free from old mortar before reuse. 

SECTION 806.0 BRICK UNITS 

806.1 General: Brick of clay, shale and calcium silicate (sand-lime) shall 
be of a quality equal to that required by ASTM Standards for brick 
units; C216 for solid units of face brick; C62 for solid units of building 
brick; C652 for hollow brick; and C73 for calcium silicate brick. Grade 
requirements for clay and shale brick units in contact with the ground 
and/or subject to water, frost and freezing action shall be governed by 
the standards listed in Appendix C. 

SECTION 807.0 STRUCTURAL CLAY TILE UNITS 

807.1 General: Structural clay wall tile shall be of a quality equal to 
that required by ASTM Standards for structural clay tile units: C34 for 
loadbearing wall tile; C212 for structural clay facing tile; C56 for struc- 
tural clay non-loadbearing wall tile. Grade requirements for units sub- 
jected to the weather and/or contact with the ground shall be governedby 
the standards listed in Appendix C. 

807.2 Deleted 

807.3 Deleted 

SECTION 808.0 GLAZED CLAY MASONRY UNITS 

808.1 General: Glazed masonry building units shall be of quality equal 
to that required by ASTM Standard C216 for ceramic glazed structural 
clay facing tile, face brick and solid masonry units. 

SECTION 809.0 CONCRETE UNITS 

809.1 Quality: Cast concrete units shall be of sound, compact struc- 
ture, uniform in shape and free from cracks, warpage or other defects 
that would impair their serviceability or strength when laid in the wall. 

809.2 Hollow load-bearing units: Approved hollow load-bearing concrete 
units for use below grade or unprotected against the weather by stucco, 
brick or other approved facings or veneers shall have a minimum com- 
pressive strength on the gross area of one thousand (1,000) psi; and for 
protected exterior use and general interior construction not less than 
seven hundred (700) psi. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



809.3 Hollow nonload-bearing units: Approved hollow nonload-bearing 
concrete units shall have a minimum compressive strength on the average 
gross area of three hundred and fifty (350) psi. 

809.4 Solid load-bearing units: Approved solid load-bearing concrete 
masonry units when unprotected against the weather or subject to frost 
and water action shall have a minimum compressive strength of eighteen 
hundred (1800) psi, and for protected exterior use or general interior 
use not less than twelve hundred (1200) psi. 

809.5 Concrete brick: Approved concrete brick for use when exposed to 
freezing in the presence of moisture, shall have a minimum compressive 
strength of twenty-five hundred (2500) psi; and when used as a back-up 
in exterior walls or for general interior construction, a compressive 
strength of not less than twelve hundred and fifty (1250) psi. 

809.6 Concrete fireproof ing and furring units: Approved concrete block 
or tile used in fireproofing or furring, when not exposed to the weather, 
shall have a minimum compressive strength of three hundred (300) psi of 
net area tested as laid in practice. When exposed to the weather, the 
compressive strength shall be not less than seven hundred (700) psi of 
gross area. All nonbearing units shall be clearly marked to distinguish 
them from load-bearing units. 

809.7 Concrete floor tile 

809.7.1 Structural fillers: Structural concrete filler-block or tile when 
included in strength calculations in ribbed floor construction shall have 
webs and shells not less than one (1) inch thick and shall develop an 
average compressive strength on the net area not less than that of the 
rib concrete. 

809.7.2 Other fillers: Removable tile and permanent fillers which are not 
included in strength calculations shall be of adeguate strength to insure 
integrity of the unit and safety in handling as approved by the building 
official . 

SECTION 810.0 GYPSUM UNITS 

810.1 General: Gypsum tile or block shall not be used in bearing walls 
or in any location exposed to freguent or continuous wetting or in exteri- 
ior walls unless protected from the weather. Approved gypsum units 
shall develop a compressive strength of not less than seventy-five (75) 
psi on the gross area. 

SECTION 811.0 STRUCTURAL GLASS BLOCK UNITS 

811.1 General: Solid or hollow approved structural glass blocks shall 
not be used in fire walls, party walls or fire separation walls, or for 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



load-bearing construction. All mortar-bearing surfaces of the block shall 
be precoated or prepared to insure adhesion between mortar and glass. 

SECTION 812.0 ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA 

812.1 General: All approved architectural terra cotta units shall be 
formed with a strong, homogeneous body of hard-burned, weather-resis- 
ting clay which gives off a sharp, metallic ring when struck and shall 
meet the strength and durability reguirements of accepted engineering 
practice. All units shall be formed to engage securely with and anchor to 
the structural frame or masonry wall. 

SECTION 813.0 NATURAL STONE 

813.1 General: Natural stone for masonry shall be sound and free from 
loose or friable inclusions; and shall meet the strength, fireresistance, 
durability and impact resistance for the intended use in accordance with 
accepted engineering practice. 

SECTION 814.0 CAST STONE 

814.1 All approved cast stone shall be fabricated of concrete or other 
approved materials of required strength, durability and fireresistance for 
the intended use and shall be reinforced where necessary to conform to 
Section 841.0 and standards listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 815.0 MORTAR FOR MASONRY 

815.1 Materials: All portland, natural and masonry cements, quick-lime 
and hydrated lime for use in masonry mortar shall meet the minimum 
strength and durability requirements of the standards listed in Appendi- 
ces B and C. 

815.2 Mortar types and proportions: Mortar for masonry construction 
shall conform to one (1) of the following types shown in Table 815.2 and 
shall be mixed to a consistent workability in the specified proportions 
measured by volume with clean fresh water free from harmful amounts of 
acids, alkalis, oils or organic materials; and with approved aggregates 
composed of hard, strong, durable mineral particles well-graded from fine 
to coarse, free from injurious amounts of acid, alkalis, oils, saline, organ- 
ic and other deleterious substances in accordance with accepted engineer- 
ing practice. Masonry mortars shall have a flow after suction of not less 
than seventy (70) per cent. 



9/1/80 327 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 815.2 
MORTAR PROPORTIONS (PARTS BY VOLUME) 



Mortar 
type 


Portland 
cement 


Masonry 
cement 


Hydrated lime 

or lime putty 

Min. Max. 


Damp 

loose 

aggregate 


M 


] 




- 


to 




S 
N 


1 
1 

'.2 

1 


1 

1 


to 

'.'2 


>/2 
lto 


Not less than 2to and not more 
than 3 times the sum of the vol- 
umes of the cements and lime 
used. 





1 


1 


lto 


2>/ 2 





815.3 Types of mortar permitted: Unit masonry shall be laid in mortar 
of the following types listed in Table 815.3. 

Table 815.3 
MASONRY AND MORTAR TYPES 



Type of masonry 


Types of mortar permitted 


Masonry in contact with earth 


M or S 


Grouted and filled cell masonry 


MorS 


Masonry above grade or interior masonry 




Piers of solid units 


M, S, or N 


Piers of hollow units 


Mor S 


Walls of solid units 


M, S, N or 


Walls of hollow units 


M, Sor N 


Cavity walls and masonry bonded hollow walls 




Design wind pressure exceeds 20 psf 


MorS 


Design wind pressure 20 psf or less 


M, S or N 


Glass block masonry 


S or N 


Nonloadbearing partitions and fireproofing 


M, S, N, or Gypsum 


Gypsum partition tile or block 


Gypsum 


Fire brick 


Refractory air-setting mortar 


Linings of existing masonry, above or below grade 


Mor S 


Masonry other than above 


M, S or N 



815.4 Alternate methods: Alternative methods of constructing masonry 
walls may be used, providing that the structural reguirements of Article 7 
are fully satisfied by the assembly. 

815.5 Dry stacking and bonding: Masonry walls that are laid dry and 
are bonded on each side with a formulation of portland cement and alka- 
li-resistant glass fibers with or without sand and mixed with water shall 
be permitted, providing the following allowable working stresses, based 
on gross area, are not exceeded. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



1 . Compression 

Standard hollow block 45 psi 

Ground hollow block 85 psi 

Solid block 

1800 + psi 110 psi 

1200 - 1800 psi 80 psi 

2. Shear 10 psi 

3. Flexural tension-vertical span 18 psi 

4. Flexural tension-horizontal span 30 psi 

Bearing walls so constructed shall have a minimum wall thickness of six 
(6) inches. 

815.6 Deleted 

815.7 Deleted 

815.8 Deleted 

SECTION 816.0 CONCRETE AGGREGATES 

816.1 Aggregate quality: All concrete aggregates shall conform to the 
requirements of ACI 318, ASTM C33 and ASTM C330 as listed in Appen- 
dices B and C. 

816.2 Deleted 

816.3 Deleted 

816.4 Deleted 

SECTION 817.0 READY-MIX CONCRETE 

817.1 Control: Ready-mixed concrete shall conform to the requirements 
of ACI 318 and ASTM C94 as listed in Appendices B and C. 

817.2 Deleted 

817.3 Deleted 

SECTION 818.0 STRUCTURAL WOOD GLUES 

818.1 Quality of glue: Glues used in structural assemblies of built-up or 
laminated lumber sections shall develop the full strength of the wood, 
shall not produce decomposition or deleterious chemical reaction in the 
wood structure and shall not be attractive to vermin. 

818.2 Manufacturers' requirements: Approved structural glues shall be 
handled, mixed and applied as prescribed by the manufacturer and the 



9/1/80 329 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



gluing shall be done only in accordance with the timber construction 
standards listed in Appendix B. 

818.3 Deleted 

SECTION 819.0 INTERIOR LATHING AND PLASTERING 

819.1 General: All interior lathing and plastering shall conform to the 
standards of accepted engineering practice for lathing, furring and acces- 
sories and gypsum and portland cement plastering listed in Appendices B 
and C; except as may be otherwise provided by statute or in this code 
for specific materials. 

819 . 2 Deleted 

SECTION 820.0 EXTERIOR LATHING AND STUCCO 

820.1 General: All exterior lathing, plastering and stucco work shall be 
installed of portland cement or other approved mortar as provided in the 
standards listed in Appendices B and C, in accordance with accepted 
engineering practice or as provided in this code for specific materials. 

820.2 Reinforcement: All stucco work shall be reinforced with approved 
metal lath or wire fabric except when applied directly to a masonry or 
concrete base, or when installed on a masonry base which is protected 
with bituminous surfacing. 

820.3 Minimum weight: Metal lath, expanded metal and wire reinforcing 
fabric shall weigh not less than that indicated in the following Table 820. 

Table 820 
MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT WEIGHT 



Type of reinforcement 


Minimum 
steel wire gage 


Maximum 
mesh (inches) 


Minimum weight 
(pounds per 
square yard) 


Metal lath . 


18 (0.048 in.) 

17 (0.054 in.) 

16 (0.063 in.) 

18 (0.048 in.) 

17 (0.054 in.) 
16 (0.063 in.) 


1 
1% 

2 

4 sq. in. 
4 sq. in. 
4 sq. in. 


3.4 


Expanded metal 

Woven wire 


1.8 
1.74 


Woven wire 


1.41 


Woven wire 


1.47 


Welded wire 


0.67 


Welded wire 


0.82 


Welded wire 


1.10 



820.4 Corrosion resistance: All metal lath and stucco reinforcing fabric 
shall be protected with a zinc, or other approved rust-resistive coating 
or rust-inhibitive paint, or shall be manufactured from approved corro- 
sion-resistive alloys. 



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330 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



820.5 Sheathing: Except in back-plastered construction, the studs shall 
be covered with approved sheathing complying with Section 854.0; or not 
less than No. 18 Steel Wire Gauge (0.048 inch) galvanized wire shall be 
stretched horizontally at six (6) inch centers and shall be covered with 
not less than fourteen (14) pound waterproof felt or paper before apply- 
ing the reinforced stucco; or an approved paper-backed wire fabric may 
be used of not less than No. 16 Steel Wire Gauge (0.063 inch) galvenized 
wire with stiffening ribs not more than five (5) inches on centers to 
which is attached a double layer of fibrous waterproof backing. The mesh 
opening shall not exceed two by two (2x2) inches. 

820.6 Back-plastered construction: In back-plastered construction, when 
spacing of studs exceeds sixteen (16) inches, approved horizontal non- 
combustible cross-furring at not more than sixteen (16) inch centers shall 
be first applied; unless approved stiffened lath is used and the frame is 
adequately stiffened as provided in Section 854.0. 

820.7 Application on masonry base: When applied directly to masonry or 
monolithic concrete, the surfaces shall be roughened, hacked or bush- 
hammered to provide bond, or a preparatory dash coat of portland cement 
grout shall be applied. The dash coat shall be kept damp for at least 
two (2) days after application and before applying succeeding stucco 
coats . 

820 . 8 Protection 

820.8.1 From freezing: At all times during application and for a period 
of not less than forty-eight (48) hours after application of each coat, 
provision shall be made to keep stucco work above fifty (50) degrees F. 

820.8.2 From moisture: Stucco shall be kept a sufficient height above 
ground surfaces as provided in Section 854.0 and all sills, coping and 
projecting courses shall be flashed and provided with drips as therein 
specified . 

SECTION 821.0 PLASTERING MATERIALS 

821.1 General: All sand, quick-lime, hydrated lime, hair binder, gyp- 
sum, keene and portland cements, pozzuolanic cements and aggregates 
and other materials used in plastering shall be stored, protected and 
applied in accordance with the standards of accepted engineering practice 
listed in Appendices B and C and the approved rules. 

821.2 Special cements and plasters: Approved cements used in plaster- 
ing may have admixtures of approved plasticity agents added in the 
manufacturing process or when mixing the plaster at the site in the 
approved proportions. All premixed special plasters, cements and aggre- 
gates shall be packaged and identified with the approved label. 



9/1/80 331 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



821.3 Lime plaster: Lime and hydra ted lime plasters for use in base and 
finish coats shall be applied in accordance with the approved rules and 
the manufacturers' specifications. 

821.4 Gypsum plaster: All gypsum plaster shall comply with the stan- 
dard specifications listed in Appendix C. 

821.5 Gypsum plasters with special aggregates: When gypsum is used 
with manufactured aggregates in place of natural sand for plaster, the 
mixture shall be proportioned and applied in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's recommendations and the applicable standard in Appendix B. 

SECTION 822.0 PLASTER BASES 

822.1 Fiber boards: Approved fiber boards used as plaster bases shall 
comply with Section 823.0. The surface of such boards shall be of a 
rough, fibrous texture to insure mechanical and suction bond; and the 
boards shall meet the bond and strength tests specified by the standards 
listed in Appendix C and the approved rules. 

822.2 Gypsum lath: Except when greater thickness is required for fire- 
resistance rating under the provisions of Article 9, or as herein specified, 
gypsum lath used for plastering shall be not less than three-eighths (3/8) 
inch thick and shall comply with the standards listed in Appendix C. 

822.3 Perforated gypsum lath: Where required to provide specified 
time-temperature performance, perforated gypsum lath shall be not less 
than three-eighths (3/8) inch thick. The openings shall be equivalent to 
three-quarter (3/4) inch diameter holes for each sixteen (16) square 
inches of lath surface; or the lath shall be perforated as determined by 
full size tests for load, strength and fireresistance ratings. 

822.4 Metal lath: The dimensions and sizes of expanded, ribbed and 
sheet metal lath shall comply with accepted engineering practice and the 
standards listed in Appendix B; and shall be fabricated from not less 
than No. 30 Manufacturer's Standard Gauge (0.012 inch) steel sheets. It 
shall be manufactured from copper-bearing steel, coated with rust-inhib- 
itive paint after cutting, or cut from zinc-coated steel sheets. 

822.5 Wire lath: All types of wire lath shall comply with accepted en- 
gineering practice and the standards listed in Appendix B ; and shall be 
fabricated from woven or welded wire of not less than No. 19 Steel Wire 
Gauge (0.041 inch) with not more than two and one-half (2 1/2) meshes 
to the inch. Woven or welded wire reinforcement shall be coated with 
zinc or rust-inhibitive paint. 

822.6 Paper-backed lath: Expanded metal or wire lath backed with 
integral approved paper shall be fabricated from the minimum gages and 
weights specified in Sections 822.4 and 822.5. 



9/1/80 332 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



822.7 Combustible lath: Wood lath shall be erected horizontally on walls 
and partitions and ceiling lath shall run in one (1) direction only; but in 
either case it shall not extend through cross-partitions from room to 
room. Wood lath shall be not less than one (1) inch wide nor less than 
five -sixteenth (5/16) inches thick and shall comply with all the require- 
ments of accepted engineering practice. The lath joints shall be stag- 
gered so that not more than seven (7) laths occur in any one (1) contin- 
uous break. 

SECTION 823.0 FIBER BOARDS 

823.1 General: Insulating boards manufactured with wood or other 
vegetable fibers used as building boards for sheathing, roof decks, 
plaster bases, interior wall and ceiling finish, roof insulation or sound 
deadening, shall be vermin proof, resistant to rot-producing fungi, 
water-repellent and shall meet the strength and durability tests specified 
in the standards listed in Appendix C. When required under the provi- 
sions of Article 9, the boards shall be protected or treated to develop the 
required fireresistance rating or flameresistance as determined by test. 

823.2 Jointing: To insure tight-fitting assemblies, edges shall be manu- 
factured square or shiplapped, beveled, tongue-and-grooved or U-jointed; 
and shall be installed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. 

823.3 Plaster base: When used as a plaster base, fiber boards shall be 
permitted in fireresistive construction complying with the test provisions 
of Article 9, except where specifically prohibited in fireproof (Type 1) 
and noncombustible (Type 2) construction. 

823.4 Roof insulation: When used as roof insulation in all types of 
construction, fiber boards shall be protected with an approved type of 
roof covering. 

823.5 Wall insulation: When installed and firestopped to comply with 
Article 9, fiberboards may be used for wall insulation in all types of 
construction. In fire wall and fire separation wall construction, unless 
treated to be fireretardant as provided in Sec. 904.0 for Class I materi- 
als, the boards shall be cemented directly to the masonry or other non- 
combustible base and shall be protected with an approved noncombustible 
veneer anchored to the base without intervening air spaces. 

823.6 Dry wall construction: Where fireresistance ratings are required, 
provision shall be made for interlocking, lapping or otherwise protecting 
the joints between adjacent boards to insure smoke and flame tightness. 

823.7 Insulating roof deck: When used as roof decking in open beam 
construction fiber board insulating roof deck shall have a minimum nominal 
thickness not less than one (1) inch. 



9/1/80 333 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 
SECTION 824.0 PLYWOOD 

824.1 Quality: All plywood when used structurally shall meet the per- 
formance standards and all other requirements of U.S. Product Standard 
PS 1 listed in Appendix C for the type, grade and identification index or 
species group of plywood involved and shall be so identified by an ap- 
proved agency- Working stresses shall conform to the standards of 
accepted engineering practice as listed in Appendices B and C. 

824.2 Types: Plywood for interior use may be either of the moisture 
resistant or exterior type; plywood for exterior use shall be of the exte- 
rior waterproof type. Exterior plywood may be applied directly to the 
framing as a siding, provided it has a nominal thickness of three-eighths 
(3/8) inch. Joints shall occur over framing members, unless wood or 
plywood sheathing is used or joints are lapped horizontally a minimum of 
one and one-half (1 1/2) inches or otherwise made waterproof to the 
satisfaction of the building official. If plywood is used as lapped siding 
without sheathing, the wall framing to which it is attached shall be diago- 
nally braced. 

824.3 Spans: The maximum spans for plywood roof sheathing and sub- 
flooring shall be limited by the allowable stresses and deflections for the 
design live load but shall have not less than the following identification 
index specified in Table 824.3.1, provided it is continuous over two (2) 
or more spans and laid with face grain perpendicular to the supports. 

824.3.1 Floor and roof sheathing: Allowable spans for floor and roof 
sheathing shall be as specified in the following Table 824.3.2 

Table 824.3.1 

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PLYWOOD FLOOR AND ROOF SHEATHING CONTINUOUS OVER 
TWO OR MORE SPANS AND FACE GRAIN PERPENDICULAR TO SUPPORTS' (SPAN IN INCHES) 





Roof 


Floor 




Maximum Spar 








Panel 


(inches) 


















Index 2 






Load (psf) 


Maximum 


Roof span, 


Thickness Edges 


Edges 


Total Live 


span 5 


roof/floor span 


(inches) blocked 3 


unblocked 


Load Load 


(inches) 


12/0 


5 /i» 


12 


12 


155 


150 





16/0 


Vu, h 


16 


16 


95 


75 





20/0 


»/■»,% 


19.2 


19.2 


75 


65 





24/0 


% 


24 


20 


65 


50 





24/0 


'A 


24 


24 


65 


50 





30/12 


V, 


30 


26 


70 


50 


12 7 


32/16 


% % 


32 


28 


55 


40 


16 s 


36/16 


y* 


36 


30 


55 


50 


16 a 


42/20 


y 8) %, v, 


42' 


32 


40" 


35 4 


20 8 


48/24 


%, V, 


48 


36 


40 4 


35 4 


24 



Note 1: These values apply for Structural I and II, C-D and C-C grades only. Spans shall be limited to 
values shown because of possible effect of concentrated loads. 

Note 2. Identification index appears on all panels in the construction grades listed in footnote (1). 

Note 3. Edges may be blocked with lumber or other approved type of edge support. 

Note 4. For roof live load of forty (40) psf or total load of fifty-five (55) psf, decrease spans by thirteen 
(13) per cent or use panel with next greater identification index. 

Note 5. Plywood edges shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking, un- 
less one-fourth (Vi) inch minimum thickness underlayment is installed, or finish floor is twenty-five thirty- 
seconds (-•&•>) inch wood strip. Allowable uniform load based on deflection of one three-sixtieth (Isso) of 
space is one hundred sixty-five (165) psf. 



9/1/80 



334 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Note 6. Plywood roof sheathing continuous over two or more spans may be placed with face grain parallel to 
supports spaced not over twenty-four (24) inches on center if all panel edges are blocked or other approved 
type edge support is provided, and if live loads do not exceed twenty-five (25) psf for one-half (V2) inch 
Structure I (4-ply) and one-half (V2) inch 5-ply in other grades, or forty (40) psf for one-half (V2) inch 
Structural I (5-ply) and five-eighths (Ve) inch 5-ply in other grades. 

Note 7. May be sixteen (16) inches, if twenty-five thirty-seconds (2%n) inch wood strip flooring is installed 
at right angles to joists. 

Note 8 May be twenty-four (24) inches if twenty-five thirty-seconds (=%„) inch wood strip flooring is in- 
stalled at right angles to joists. 

m N 1 te 9 '„o°U oists s P aced twenty-four (24) inches on center plywood sheathing with Identification Index 
Numbers 42 20 or greater can be used for subfloors when supporting one and one-half (IV2) inches of 
lightweight concrete. 

Table 824.3.1 .A 

ALLOWABLE LOADS FOR PLYWOOD ROOF SHEATHING 
CONTINUOUS OVER TWO OR MORE SPANS AND 
FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO SUPPORTS* 







No. of 




Total 


Live 




Thickness 


plies 


Span 


load 


load 


Structural I 


Vz 


4 


24 


35 


25 




Vz 


5 


24 


55 


40 


Other grades 


Vz 


5 


24 


30 


25 


covered in 


% 


4 


24 


40 


30 


PS 1 


% 


5 


24 


55 


45 



•Uniform load deflection limitations: 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/240 under live load 
only. Edges shall be blocked with lumber or other approved type of edge supports. 



Table 824.3.2. 



824.3.2 Plywood combination subfloor underpayment : Allowable spans for 
combination subfloor underpayment shall be as specified in the following 

Table 824.3.2 

ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PLYWOOD COMBINATION SUBFLOOR-UNDERLAYMENT,' 

PLYWOOD CONTINUOUS OVER TWO (2) OR MORE SPANS AND FACE GRAIN PERPENDICULAR 

TO SUPPORTS (THICKNESS IN INCHES) 



Species groups 


Maximum spacing of joists (inches) 




16 


20 


24 


1 

2,3 

4 


Vz 
% 

% 


5 /8 
% 


3 /4 
1 



Note 1. Applicable to underlayment grade, C-C (plugged) and all grades of sanded exterior type plywood. 
Spans limited to values shown because of possible effect of concentrated loads. Allowable uniform load based 
on deflection of one three hundred sixtieth (%eo) of span is one hundred twenty-five (125) Psf- Plywood edges 
shall have approved tongue-and-groove joints or shall be supported with blocking, unless one-fourth (W men 
minimum thickness underlayment is installed, or finish floor is twenty-five thirty-seconds (-%j) Inch i wood 
strip If wood strips are perpendicular to supports, thicknesses shown for sixteen (16) inch and twenty (20) 
inch spans may be used on twenty-four (24) inch span. Except for one-half (V2) inch, underlayment grade and 
C-C (plugged) panels may be of nominal thickness one thirty-second (%;) inch less than the nominal tnicn- 
n«wt chnuun when marked with the reduced thickness. 

824.3.3 Vertical maximum stud spacing: Stud spacing for vertical 
sheathing and for use in stress-skin panel or other prefabricated con- 
structions shall be determined by accepted engineering analysis or by the 
tests prescribed for prefabricated assemblies in Section 802.0. 

SECTION 825.0 WALLBOARDS AND SHEATHING 



825.1 Sheathing: Sheathing of particleboard , gypsum, processed fiber 
or other approved materials shall conform to accepted engineering prac- 
tice. All sheathing shall be identified as to compliance with appropriate 
standards. When used in frame construction, they shall meet require- 
ments of Sections 854.2 and 854.3. When required to meet fireresistance 
ratings, the assembled construction shall comply with Table 214 for struc- 
tural elements and Article 9 for trim and finishes. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



825.2 Wallboards: Wallboard of particleboard, gypsum, processed fiber 
or other approved materials shall conform to accepted engineering prac- 
tice. All wallboards shall be identified as to compliance with appropriate 
standards. Wallboard shall conform to the standards of accepted engi- 
neering practice for gypsum or processed fiber wallboard interior finishes, 
listed in Appendices B and C. When required to meet fireresistance 
ratings, the assembled construction shall comply with Table 214 for struc- 
tural elements and Article 9 for trim and finishes. 

825.2.1 Water resistant gypsum backer board: In all areas subjected to 
repeated damp conditions and moisture accumulation such as bathtub and 
shower compartments, water resistant gypsum backer board (ASTM C630) 
shall be used as a substratum unless protected with a moisture proof and 
vapor proof covering. 

ARTICLE 8-Part B 

STEEL, MASONRY, CONCRETE, GYPSUM 
AND LUMBER CONSTRUCTION 

SECTION 826.0 STRUCTURAL STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

826.1 General: The quality, fabrication and erection of structural steel 
for buildings shall conform to the requirements of the Specifications for 
the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings of 
American Institute for Steel Construction as listed in Appendix B. 

826.2 Deleted 

826.3 Deleted 

826.4 Deleted 

826.5 Deleted 

826.6 Deleted 

SECTION 827.0 FORMED STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

827.1 Formed steel construction: The design, fabrication and erection of 
cold-formed steel construction shall conform to the Specification for the 
Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members of American Iron and 
Steel Institute as listed in Appendix B. All individual structural members 
and assembled panels of cold-formed steel construction, except where 
fabricated of approved corrosion-resistive steel or of steel having corro- 
sion-resistive metallic or other approved coating, shall be protected 
against corrosion with an acceptable shop coat of paint, enamel, or other 
approved protection. 



9/1/80 336 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



827.2 Cold-formed stainless steel construction: The design, fabrication 
and erection of cold-formed stainless steel construction shall conform to 
the Specification for the Design of Cold- Formed Stainless Steel Structural 
Members of American Iron Steel Institute as listed in Appendix B. 

827.3 Deleted 

827.4 Deleted 

SECTION 828.0 STEEL JOIST CONSTRUCTION 

828.1 General: The design, fabrication erection of open web steel joist 
construction shall conform to the reguirements of the Standard Specifica- 
tions for Open Web Steel Joists J- and H- Series of American Institute of 
Steel Construction and Steel Joist Institute as listed in Appendix B. 

828.2 Deleted 

828.3 Deleted 



828.4 Deleted 



SECTION 829.0 REINFORCING STEEL 



829.1 General: Metal reinforcement for reinforced concrete, reinforced 
gypsum concrete, reinforced brickwork and reinforced hollow block con- 
struction shall conform to the reguirements of Building Code Reguirements 
for Reinforced Concrete, ACI 318; Building Code Reguirements for Engi- 
neered Brick Masonry of the Brick Institute of America; Specification for 
the Design and Construction of Load-Bearing Concrete Masonry, NCMA 
70, as listed in Appendix B, and applicable ASTM Standards listed in 
Appendix C. 

829.2 Deleted 

829.3 Deleted 

829.4 Deleted 

829 . 5 Deleted 

SECTION 830.0 CAST STEEL CONSTRUCTION 

830.1 Materials: Carbon steel casting for building construction shall be 
cast from steel conforming to the reguirements of accepted engineering 
practice listed in Appendix B and the applicable standards listed in 
Appendix C. All castings shall be free from injurious blow holes or other 
defects which would impair the structural strength. 



9/1/80 337 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



830.2 Higher strength cast steel: Higher strength cast steel may be 
used when approved under controlled material procedure. 

830.3 Welding cast steel: Cast steel designed for use in welding shall be 
of weldable grade complying with the approved rules. 

SECTION 831.0 DELETED 

SECTION 832.0 SPECIAL STEELS 

832.1 General: Alloy, high carbon or other special high strength steels 
not listed in Appendix C, may be used in the design and construction of 
buildings and structures as controlled materials as prescribed in Section 
721.0. 

SECTION 833.0 LIGHT WEIGHT METAL ALLOYS 

833.1 General: Aluminum and other approved light weight metals and 
alloys shall be used for structural purposes in buildings and structures 
in accordance with the applicable standards listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 834.0 MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION 

834.1 Design: All masonry construction shall comply with the provisions 
of this article governing quality of materials and manner of construction; 
and shall be of adequate strength and proportions to support all superim- 
posed loads within working stresses prescribed in this code and the 
standards of accepted engineering practices listed in Appendix B. 

834.2 Wetting of brick: Brick (clay or shale) at the time of laying shall 
require wetting if the units' initial rate of water absorption exceeds thirty 
(30) grams per thirty (30) square inches per minute or point zero thir- 
ty-five (0.035) ounces per square inch, as determined by ASTM C67, 
Standard Specifications for Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural 
Clay Tile as listed in Appendix B. 

834.3 Cold weather construction: Masonry laid in temperatures of the 
outside air below forty (40) degrees F shall be protected in accordance 
with the provisions provided in Recommended Practices and Guide Specifi- 
cations for Cold Weather Masonry of the International Masonry Industry 
All-Weather Council as listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 835.0 BONDING OF WALLS 

835.1 General: Walls of solid, composite and hollow masonry and cavity 
and other hollow walls shall be bonded in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice. 



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835.2 Rubble stone walls: All stones in rubble masonry shall be laid on 
their natural bed and the walls shall be bonded with not less than one 
(1) through bond stone for each nine (9) superficial square feet of area. 

835.3 Buttresses and piers: All buttresses shall be bonded into the wall 
by a masonry bond. The piers and buttresses shall have sufficient 
strength and stability with sufficient bonding or anchorage between the 
walls and the supports to resist wind pressure and suction. 

835.4 Intersecting walls and partitions: Masonry walls and partitions 
shall be securely anchored or bonded at points where they intersect by 
one (1) of the following methods: 

1. Walls may be bonded by laying at least fifty (50) per cent of the 
units at the intersection in true masonry bond with alternate units 
having a bearing of not less than three (3) inches upon the unit 
below, or they may be anchored with not less than three-sixteenths 
(3/16) inch corrosion-resistant metal wire ties or joint reinforcement 
at vertical intervals not to exceed two (2) feet, or by other equiva- 
lent approved anchorage. 

2. Where walls are carried up separately, the intersection shall be 
toothed or blocked with eight (8) inch maximum offsets and shall be 
provided with approved metal anchors at vertical intervals of not 
more than four (4) feet or, when approved, blocking may be elimi- 
nated and rigid steel anchors shall be provided, spaced not more 
than two (2) feet apart vertically. 

3. Interior non-loadbearing walls may be bonded or anchored as required 
by- 1 or 2 above or they may be anchored at their intersection, at 
vertical intervals of not more than two (2) feet, with at least No. 22 
Galvanized Sheet Gauge (0.034 in.) corrosion-resistant corrugated 
metal ties seven-eighths (7/8) inch in width, or other equivalent 
approved method of anchorage. 

835.5 Erecting precautions: Where hollow walls decrease in thickness, a 
course of solid masonry or of concrete-filled units, or a continuous bear- 
ing plate shall be interposed between the thicker and thinner sections. A 
wall shall not be built up more than twenty-five (25) feet in advance of 
other walls of the same building or structure unless supported independ- 
ently at each floor; and all walls shall be temporarily braced during 
erection . 

SECTION 836.0 LATERAL BRACING OF WALLS 

836.1 General: All masonry walls shall be laterally supported by hori- 
zontal bracing of floor and roof framing or vertical bracing of columns, 
buttresses or cross-walls at vertical or horizontal intervals as specified in 
the accepted engineering practice standards for masonry listed in Appen- 



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dix B; and provision shall be made in the structure to transfer wind 
pressures and other lateral forces to the foundations. 

SECTION 837.0 CHASES AND RECESSES IN BEARING WALLS 

837.1 General: Chases and recesses shall conform to the accepted engi- 
neering practice standards for masonry listed in Appendix B. 

837.2 Deleted 

837.3 Deleted 

837.4 Deleted 

837.5 Deleted 

SECTION 838.0 CORBELED AND PROJECTED MASONRY 

838.1 Limitations: The maximum total horizontal projection of corbels 
from the plane of the wall shall be not more than one-half (1/2) the 
thickness of the wall. The maximum projection of one (1) unit shall 
neither exceed one-half (1/2) the height of the unit nor one-third (1/3) 
of the bed depth. 

838.2 Hollow masonry or cavity walls: Hollow masonry or masonry built 
of hollow units shall be supported on solid masonry conforming to corbel- 
ing limitations of Section 838.1. 

838.3 Molded cornices: Unless structural support and anchorage is 
provided to resist the overturning moment, the center of gravity of all 
projecting masonry or molded cornices shall lie within the middle third of 
the supporting wall. Terra cotta and metal cornices shall be provided 
with a structural frame of approved noncombustible material anchored in 
an approved manner. 

SECTION 839.0 BEARING ON HOLLOW UNIT WALLS 

839.1 Bearing area: Beam, girder and other concentrated loads shall be 
provided with a bearing of solid masonry or filled cores of hollow unit 
masonry in accordance with acceptable engineering practice. 

839.2 Closure tiles: All open cells in tile or blocks at wall ends and at 
openings shall be filled solidly with grout for a length of not less than 
twelve (12) inches. 

SECTION 840.0 PLAIN CONCRETE 



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840.1 General: Structural members of plain concrete shall be designed 
and constructed to conform to the requirements of ACI 322 listed in 
Appendix B. 



840.2 Deleted 



SECTION 841.0 REINFORCED CONCRETE 



841.1 General: All structures of reinforced concrete, including pre- 
stressed concrete, shall be designed and constructed to conform to the 
requirements of ACI 318 listed in Appendix B. 

841.2 Deleted 

841.3 Deleted 

841.4 Deleted 

841 . 5 Deleted 

SECTION 842.0 DELETED 
SECTION 843.0 DELETED 
SECTION 844.0 DELETED 
SECTION 845.0 DELETED 
SECTION 846.0 CONCRETE-FILLED PIPE COLUMNS 

846.1 General: Concrete-filled pipe columns shall be manufactured from 
standard, extra strong, or double extra strong steel pipe and tubing, 
filled with concrete so placed and manipulated as to secure maximum 
density and to insure complete filling of the pipe without voids. 

846.2 Design: The safe supporting capacity of concrete-filled pipe 
columns shall be computed in accordance with the approved rules or as 
determined by test. 

846.3 Connections: All caps, base-plates and connections shall be of 
approved types and shall be positively attached to the shell and anchored 
to the concrete core. Welding of brackets without mechanical anchorage 
shall be prohibited. When the pipe is slotted to accommodate webs of 
brackets or other connections, the integrity of the shell shall be restored 
by welding to insure hooping action of the composite section. 

846.4 Reinforcement: To increase the safe load supporting capacity of 
concrete-filled pipe columns, the steel reinforcement shall be in the form 
of rods, structural shapes or pipe embedded in the concrete core with 



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sufficient clearance to insure the composite action of the section, but not 
nearer than one (1) inch to the exterior steel shell. All structural 
shapes used as reinforcement shall be milled to insure bearing on cap and 
base plates. 

846.5 Fireresistance rating protection: Pipe columns shall be of such 
size or so protected as to develop the required fireresistance ratings 
specified in Table 214. When an outer steel shell is used to enclose the 
fireproof covering, it shall not be included in the calculations for 
strength of the column section. The minimum diameter of pipe columns 
shall be four (4) inches except that in frame structures not exceeding 
three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height, three (3) inch columns may 
be used in the basement and as secondary steel members. 

846.6 Approvals: All details of column connections and their splices 
shall be shop-fabricated by approved methods and shall be approved only 
after tests in accordance with the approved rules. Shop-fabricated 
concrete-filled pipe columns shall be inspected by the building official or 
by an approved representative of the manufacturer at the plant. 

SECTION 847.0 PNEUMATIC CONCRETE 

847.1 General: Pneumatic applied concrete or mortar shall conform to 
requirements of ACI 506 listed in Appendix B. 

847 . 2 Deleted 

847.3 Deleted 

847.4 Deleted 

847.5 Deleted 

847.6 Deleted 

SECTION 848.0 MINIMUM CONCRETE DIMENSIONS 

848.1 General: The protection of reinforced concrete structural elements 
in buildings and structures of fireproof (Type 1) construction shall be 
adequate to meet the fire and strength tests of this code; but not less 
than the minimum dimensions established by the standards of accepted 
engineering practice. Any floor finish not placed monolithically with floor 
slabs, shall not be included in the calculations for structural strength. 

SECTION 849.0 REINFORCED GYPSUM CONCRETE 

849.1 General: Reinforced gypsum concrete for use in buildings and 
structures shall consist of a mixture of calcined gypsum and water, with 
or without the addition of wood chips, shavings, fiber or other approved 



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aggregates. The wood aggregates and gypsum shall be pre-mixed at the 
mill, reguiring only the addition of water at the job or site. The manu- 
facture, design and construction shall comply with the reguirements of 
the standards of accepted engineering practice listed in Appendix B. 

849.2 Limitations of use: Gypsum concrete shall not be used where ex- 
posed directly to the weather or where subject to freguent or continuous 
wetting. To prevent saturation or freezing, protection from the weather 
and from contact with moisture shall be furnished during shipment and 
storage of prefabricated units, and after erection or pouring at the site. 

SECTION 850.0 ENGINEERED UNREINFORCED MASONRY 

850.1 General: The wall thicknesses and lateral support reguirements 
for unreinforced masonry shall be determined by a structural analysis 
based upon accepted engineering practices. 

850.2 Brick masonry: Walls designed and constructed of brick masonry 
using solid clay shale units shall conform to the provisions of Building 
Code Reguirements for Engineered Brick Masonry of the Brick Institute of 
America as listed in Appendix B. 

850.3 Concrete block masonry: Walls designed and constructed of con- 
crete block masonry units shall conform to the provisions of Specification 
for the Design and Construction of Load Bearing Concrete Masonry of the 
National Concrete Masonry Association as listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 851.0 REINFORCED MASONRY 

851.1 General: All systems of reinforced masonry, except for engineered 
reinforced masonry, shall conform to the provisions of Building Code 
Reguirements for Reinforced Masonry ANSI A41.2 as listed in Appendix 
B. Engineered reinforced brick masonry, reguiring a structural analysis, 
shall conform to the Building Code Reguirements for Engineered Brick 
Masonry of the Brick Institute of America as listed in Appendix B. Engi- 
neered reinforced concrete block, reguiring a structural analysis, shall 
conform to the provisions of Specification for the Design and Construction 
of Load Bearing Concrete Masonry of the National Concrete Masonry 
Association as listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 852.0 LUMBER AND TIMBER CONSTRUCTION 

852.1 Design: Structural lumber and timber and its fastenings shall be 
adeguately designed and assembled to safely sustain all imposed loads. 
When stress-grade lumber is used and properly identified and controlled, 
working stresses may be in accordance with the accepted engineering 
practice standards listed in Appendix B. All lumber used for load sup- 
porting purposes shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grad- 
ing inspection agency approved by the building official. Grading practi- 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



ces and identification shall be in accordance with rules published by an 
agency recognized as being competent. In lieu of a grade mark on the 
material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a 
lumber grading or inspection agency approved by the building official may 
be accepted for precut, remanufactured, or rough sawn lumber; also for 
sizes larger than three (3) inches nominal thickness. 

852.1.1 Native lumber: Native lumber, as defined in this code, shall be 
acceptable for use in one- and two- story dwellings, barns, sheds, agri- 
cultural and accessory structures. Native lumber shall also be acceptable 
for use in other structures of less than three (3) stories as columns when 
the design loads are twenty-five (25) per cent greater than reguired 
elsewhere by this code; as joists, principal beams, and girders in floor 
constructions when the design loads are fifteen (15) per cent greater 
than reguired elsewhere by this code; and as other elements when the 
design loads are as reguired elsewhere by this code. 

Each piece of native lumber produced shall be stamped with the name 
and registration number of the producer in accordance with the rules and 
regulations of the State Building Code Commission. In addition, all native 
lumber shall bear an approved mark identifying the species of wood. In 
lieu of the stamp bearing the name and registration number and species 
identification, a certification bearing the same information may be pro- 
vided by the producer for precut or remanufactured lumber in accordance 
with the rules and regulations of the Commission. When native lumber is 
used, it shall be subject to the following reguirements : 

1. Sizing criteria: For lumber, sized in accordance with the American 
Softwood Lumber Standard PS-20-70, figures for maximum fiber 
stress and modulus of elasticity for framing grade No. 2 will be used 
in establishing span and spacing characteristics for all structural 
members . 

2. Stress increase: Lumber which is sized in excess of the dimensions 
established by the American Softwood Lumber Standard PS-20-70 for 
the given nominal size referenced shall be allowed to have a maximum 
fiber stress increase above that provided in Item 1 above in propor- 
tion to the increased bearing capacity of the cross section as provid- 
ed in Table 2103-1 or as calculated. 

852.2 Minimum dimensions 

852.2.1 Sizes of structural members: All lumber sizes specified in this 
code are nominal sizes. Nominal sizes may be shown on the plans. Com- 
putations to determine the reguired size of members shall be based on the 
net dimensions (actual sizes). 

852.2.2 Structural posts: All isolated structural posts shall have a 
minimum dimension of four (4) inches. 



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852.3 Fabrication 

852.3.1 Connections: All connections shall be fabricated with approved 
timber connectors, bolts, lag screws, spikes, nails or gluing or other 
approved connecting devices in accordance with accepted engineering 
practice. Bolted connections shall be snugged up tightly without crush- 
ing wood fibers under the washers. All nailed connections shall meet the 
minimum requirements of Appendix M. 

852.3.2 Cambering: Trusses and long span girders shall be designed 
with sufficient camber or other provision shall be made to counteract any 
possible deflection. 

852.3.3 Cutting and notching: It shall be unlawful to notch, cut or 
pierce wood beams, joists, rafters or studs in excess of the limitations 
herein specified unless proven safe by structural analysis, or suitably 
reinforced to transmit all calculated loads. Notches in the top or bottom 
of joists shall not exceed one-sixth (1/6) the depth of the member and 
shall not be located in the middle one-third (1/3) of the span. Notches 
located closer to the supports than three (3) times the depth of the 
member shall not exceed one-fifth (1/5) the depth. Holes bored or cut 
into joists for piping or electrical cables shall not be closer than two (2) 
inches to the top or bottom of the joist and the diameter of the hole shall 
not exceed one-third (1/3) the depth of the joist. In studs of bearing 
walls or partitions, notches or bored holes made to receive piping, elec- 
trical conduit, air-conditioning or heating duct work or for other fabri- 
cating purposes shall not be cut or bored more than one-third (1/3) the 
depth of the stud. When the stud is cut or bored in excess of one-third 
(1/3) its depth, it shall be reinforced to be equal in load carrying cap- 
acity to a stud notched not more than one-third (1/3) its depth. 

852.4 Trimmer and header beams: When determined necessary by stress 
analysis, trimmer and header beams shall be hung in approved metal or 
other approved noncombustible stirrups or hangers, unless supported on 
a masonry wall or girder. All such beams shall be spiked together. 

852.5 Bearing and anchorage on girders: All members framing into 
girders shall be anchored or tied to secure continuity. The ends of all 
wood beams or joists resting on girders shall bear not less than four (4) 
inches or shall be supported in approved metal stirrups, hangers or on 
wood clips or ribbon strips. Beams framing from opposite sides shall lap 
at least six (6) inches and be bolted or spiked together; and when fram- 
ing end to end, they shall be secured together by metal ties, straps or 
dogs. 

852.6 Maintenance: All connections in the joints of timber trusses and 
structural frames shall be inspected periodically and bolts and other 
connectors shall be maintained tight. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 853.0 HEAVY TIMBER TYPE CONSTRUCTION 

853.1 Wood: All structural wood members, sawn or glued laminated, 
used in heavy timber type construction shall be stress-grade timbers 
identified as to grade and strength by authoritative manufacturing, test- 
ing or inspection agencies or bureaus. All structural timber members 
shall have the minimum dimensions specified in Section 217.0 for Type 3A 
construction . 

853.2 Other structural materials: Structural steel or reinforced concrete 
members may be substituted for timber in any part of the structural 
frame, protected to develop the required fireresistance rating specified in 
Table 214, but not less than one (1) hour fireresistance rating. Struc- 
tural members supporting walls shall be protected to afford the same 
fireresistance rating as the wall supported. 

853.3 Columns: Columns shall be continuous or superimposed throughout 
all stories by means of reinforced concrete or metal caps with brackets, 
or shall be connected by properly designed steel or iron caps, with 
pintles and base plates, or by timber splice plates affixed to the columns 
by means of metal connectors housed within the contact faces, or by 
other approved methods. Girders or trusses supporting columns shall 
have at least one (1) hour fireresistance rating. 

853.4 Floors: The planks shall be laid so that a continuous line of joints 
will not occur except at points of support and so that they are not spiked 
to supporting girders. Flooring shall not extend closer than one-half 
(1/2) inch to walls to provide an expansion joint, but the joint shall be 
covered at top or bottom to avoid flue action. 

853.5 Beams and girders 

853.5.1 Wall and girder supports: Wall plate boxes of self-releasing type 
or approved hangers shall be provided where beams and girders enter 
masonry. An air space of one-half (1/2) inch shall be provided at the 
top, end and sides of the member unless approved durable or treated 
wood is used. Where intermediate beams are used to support a floor, 
they shall rest on top of the girders, or shall be supported by ledgers or 
blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, or they may be 
supported by approved metal hangers into which the ends of the beams 
shall be closely fitted. Wood beams and girders supported by walls 
required to have a fireresistance rating of two (2) hours or more shall 
have not less than four (4) inches of solid masonry between their ends 
and the outside face of the wall and between adjacent beams. Adequate 
roof anchorage shall be provided. 

853.5.2 Column connections: Where intermediate beams are used to 
support a floor, they shall rest on top of the girders, or shall be sup- 
ported by ledgers or blocks securely fastened to the sides of the girders, 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



or they may be supported by approved metal hangers into which the ends 
of the beams shall be closely fitted. 

SECTION 854.0 WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION 

854.1 General: The exterior walls, interior partitions, floors and roofs 
of wood frame construction shall be designed and constructed to develop 
adequate strength to resist all vertical and lateral forces due to both 
dead and live loads. Standard balloon, braced, platform, and post and 
beam types of construction shall be acceptable framing methods. 

854.2 Wood stud frame 

854.2.1 Bearing walls: Posts and studs in bearing walls and partitions 
shall be designed as columns , with due allowance for lateral support 
furnished by sheathing, intermediate bracing, horizontal bridging, wall 
coverings and the floor and roof assemblies. The walls shall be fabri- 
cated in such a manner as to provide adequate support for the material 
used to enclose the building and to provide for transfer of all lateral 
loads to the foundation, in accordance with Section 803.4. 

854.2.2 Non-bearing walls: Studs in non-bearing walls and partitions 
shall not be spaced more than forty-eight (48) inches on centers, and 
may be erected with the long dimension parallel to the wall, unless other- 
wise approved after test as an integrated assembly. 

854.2.3 Bracing: In buildings more than one (1) story in height and 
where necessary for strength in one (1) story buildings, the corner posts 
shall be the equivalent of not less than three (3) pieces of two (2) by 
four (4) inch studs, braced by not less than one (1) piece of one (1) by 
four (4) inch continuous diagonal brace let into the studs. Bracing may 
be omitted when diagonal wood sheathing or plywood panels are used, or 
other sheathing specified in Section 854.3 is applied vertically in panels 
of not less than four (4) feet by eight (8) feet in area with approved 
nailing complying with Appendix M. Ledger or ribbon boards used to 
support joists shall be not less than one (1) by four (4) inches in size, 
cut into and securely nailed to each stud. 

854.2.4 Mortise and tenon framing: Where mortise and tenon framing is 
used, the vertical members of the frame shall be not less than four (4) 
by six (6) inches in size and shall be designed as a column. 

854.2.5 Multiple stories: When the frame is more than one (1) story in 
height and studs and posts are not continuous from sill to roof, the 
members shall be secured together with approved clips, splices or other 
connections to insure a continuous, well-integrated structure. Sheet 
metal clamps, ties or clips shall be formed of galvanized steel or other 
approved corrosion-resistive materials equivalent to No. 20 Galvanized 
Sheet Gauge (0.040 in.) steel sheets for two (2) inch framing members 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



and not less than No. 18 Galvanized Sheet Gauge (0.052 in.) for three 
(3) inch structural members. For four (4) inch and larger members, 
column splices and beam and girder supports shall comply with Section 
853.0. 

854.2.6 Framing over openings: Headers, double joists, trusses or other 
approved assemblies of adequate size to transfer all superimposed loads to 
the vertical member shall be provided over all window and door openings 
in bearing walls and partitions. 

854.2.7 Framing around flues and chimneys: Combustible framing shall 
be trimmed away from all flues and chimneys, and combustible material 
shall not be placed within two (2) inches of any chimney, nor within six 
(6) inches of any inlet opening to such chimney. Finished flooring shall 
have not less than one-half (1/2) inch clearance from the chimney walls. 

854.3 Wall sheathing: Except as provided in Section 854.4 for weather 
boarding or when stucco construction complying with Section 820.6 is 
used, all enclosed buildings shall be sheathed with one (1) of the materi- 
als of the following nominal thickness or any other material of equal 
strength and durability approved by the building official: 

Reinforced cement mortar 1 inch 

Wood sheathing 5/8 inch 

Plywood 5/16 inch 

Gypsum sheathing 1/2 inch 

Fiber boards 1/2 inch 

Particle boards 3/8 inch 

854.3.1 Paper-backed lath sheathing: In one- and two-family dwellings 
and one (1) story commercial buildings with brick or similar veneers, the 
sheathing may consist of a layer of paper-backed lath complying with Sec- 
tion 820.5 with a one (1) inch intermediate space which shall be mortar- 
filled as each course of veneering is applied. 

854.3.2 Insulation sheathing: Insulation boards are approved for sheath- 
ing when recognized for this use by one (1) or more accredited authorita- 
tive agencies listed in the Appendix O. Each board shall be clearly 
marked with the authoritative agency's report number. 

854.3.2.1 Bracing: Buildings, including one-story buildings, shall be 
braced as specified in Section 854.2.3. 

854.3.2.2 Fastening: Insulation sheathing boards are to be fastened at 
each stud. When square-edged boards are used, vertical joints must be 
over framing members. When tongue-and-groove-edged boards are used, 
vertical joints may fall between studs when the boards above and below 
the joint are continuous across that wall area. 



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854.3.2.3 Fasteners: Fasteners may be seven-sixteenths (7/16) inch 
head roofing nails or three-quarter (3/4) inch crown staples on eight (8) 
inch centers, one (1) inch head nails or one (1) inch crown staples on 
twelve (12) inch centers, or any other fastener approved by the building 
official. All fasteners shall be long enough to penetrate the studs a 
minimum of one-half (1/2) inch. 

854.3.2.4 Underlying membrane: A membrane under the siding is not 
required when insulation sheathing boards are used. 

854.3.2.5 Exterior finish: Exterior finish siding fasteners must go 
through the sheathing and into the studs a minimum of three-quarter 
(3/4) inch. Exterior weather-boarding shall comply with Section 854.4. 
Nails shall conform to Section 854.4.4. 

854.4 Exterior weather-boarding, veneers and condensation: To secure 
weather-tightness in framed walls and other unoccupied spaces, the 
exterior walls shall be faced with an approved weather-resisting covering 
properly attached to resist wind and rain. The cellular spaces shall be 
so ventilated as not to vitiate the firestopping at floor, attic and roof 
levels or shall be provided with interior noncorrodible vapor-type barriers 
complying with the approved rules; or other means shall be used to avoid 
condensation and leakage of moisture. The following materials shall be 
acceptable as approved weather coverings of the nominal thickness 
specified: 

Brick masonry veneers 2 inches 

Stone veneers 2 inches 

Clay tile veneers 1/ 4 to 1 inch 

Stucco or exterior plaster 3/4 inch 

Precast stone facing 5/8 inch 

Wood siding (without sheathing) 1/2 inch 

Note: Wood siding of lesser thickness may be used providing such wall 
covering is placed over sheathing which conforms to Section 854.3. 

Protected fiberboard siding 1/2 inch 

Wood shingles 3/8 inch 

Exterior plywood (without sheathing) see Sec. 824.2 

Exterior plywood (with sheathing) 5/16 inch 

Asbestos shingles 5/32 inch 

Asbestos cement boards 1/8 inch 

Aluminum clapboard siding 0.024 inch 

Formed steel siding 29 gauge (0.017 in.) 

Hardboard siding 1/4 inch 

Particleboard (with sheathing) 3/8 inch 

Particleboard (without sheathing) 5/8 inch 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



854.4.1 Masonry veneers: Veneers of unit masonry shall be attached to 
the wood frame with at least No. 22 Galvanized Sheet Gauge (0.034 in.) 
corrosion-resistive, corrugated metal ties not less than seven-eighths 
(7/8) inch in width at vertical intervals of not more than sixteen (16) 
inches and horizontal intervals of not more than thirty-two (32) inches. 

854.4.2 Metal veneers: Veneers of metal shall be fabricated from ap- 
proved corrosion-resistive materials or shall be protected front and back 
with porcelain enamel or shall be otherwise treated to render the metal 
resistant to corrosion. Such veneers shall be not less than No. 29 (0.017 
in.) Galvanized Sheet Gauge in thickness mounted on wood or metal 
furring strips or approved sheathing on the frame construction. 

854.4.3 Height of veneers: The average height of four (4) inch brick 
veneer shall be not more than twenty-five (25) feet above its supports on 
foudation wall or on corbels of masonry or steel; and not more than 
eighteen (18) feet in height for two (2) inch veneers. 

854.4.4 Nailing: AD weatherboarding and wall and roof coverings shall 
be securely nailed with aluminum, copper, zinc, zinc-coated or other 
approved corrosion-resistive nails in accordance with the recommended 
nailing schedule or the approved manufacturer's standards. Shingles and 
other weather coverings shall be attached with appropriate standard 
shingle nails to furring strips securely nailed to studs, or with approved 
mechanically-bonding nails, except when sheathing is wood not less than 
one (1) inch nominal thickness or plywood not less than five-sixteenths 
(5/16) inch thick. Wood shingles or shakes attached with approved 
corrosion-resistive annular grooved nails may be applied over fiberboard 
shingle backer and fiberboard sheathing when the installation is in ac- 
cordance with the approved manufacturer's standards listed in Appendix 
C. Wood shingles or shakes and asbestos shingles or siding may be 
nailed directly to nail base fiberboard sheathing not less than one-half 
(1/2) inch nominal thickness with approved corrosion-resistive annular 
grooved nails when the installation is in accordance with the approved 
manufacturer's standards listed in Appendix C. 

854.5 Foundation anchorage: Wall sill plates, a minimum of a two-by- 
four inch (2" x 4") member, shall be sized and anchored to foundation 
walls or piers and at intermediate intervals as required to resist wind 
uplift. Anchor bolts shall be a minimum of one-half (1/2) inch diameter. 
The bolts shall be embedded in foundations to a depth of not less than 
eight (8) inches poured in place concrete, and not less than fifteen (15) 
inches in grouted unit masonry. There shall be a minimum of two (2) 
anchor bolts per section of plate and anchor bolts shall be placed twelve 
(12) inches from the end of each section of plate with intermediate bolts 
spaced a maximum of eight (8) feet on center. 

854.6 At-grade protection 



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854.6.1 Wood framing: All exterior wood framework of buildings, wheth- 
er structural or non-loadbearing, shall be supported on approved founda- 
tion walls at least eight (8) inches above the finished grade, and higher 
when necessitated by greater average snow fall. Where climatic conditions 
or the geographical location require additional control measures to protect 
buildings and structures against decay and termite attack, the provisions 
of Section 874.0 shall be complied with. 

854.6.2 Metal siding: Exposed metal siding or sheathing shall be protec- 
ted from corrosion at the ground level by supporting the foundation 
channel at sufficient height above grade on the concrete apron or other 
approved water-resisting foundation. 

854.7 Floors 

854.7.1 Bridging: Except as hereinafter noted, in all floor, attic and 
roof framing, there shall be not less than one (1) line of bridging for 
each eight (8) feet of span. The bridging shall consist of not less than 
one one-by-three (1x3) inch lumber, double-nailed at each end, or of 
equivalent metal bracing of equal rigidity. A line of bridging shall also 
be required at supports where adequate lateral support is not otherwise 
provided. Mid-span bridging is not required for floor, attic or roof 
framing in one- and two-family dwellings (use groups R-3 and R-4) and 
multi-family dwellings (use group R-2) except when the joist depth ex- 
ceeds twelve (12) inches nominal and/or when the minimum uniformly 
distributed live load exceeds forty (40) psf. 

854.7.2 Flooring: The flooring of wood frame construction shall be of 
adequate strength and stiffness to support required loads and, where 
necessary for strength and for lateral support of the building, subfloor- 
ing shall be provided. 

854.8 Roofs 

854.8.1 Types of decking and sheathing: Roof deck sheathing shall 
consist of not less than five-eighths (5/8) inch boards or plywood of the 
thickness specified in Section 824.3, or other approved materials of equi- 
valent strength and rigidity. When open-deck sheathing is used on 
pitched roofs, it shall consist of not less than one-by-four (1x4) inch 
roofers spaced not more than six (6) inches on centers or material of 
equivalent strength and rigidity. 

854.8.2 Wood shingles: Wood shingles and handsplit shakes complying 
with the standards listed in Appendix C may be used for roof covering 
where permitted in Section 926.0, and may be installed on tight decking 
or on spaced roof boards. 

854.8.3 Deleted 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

854.9 Deleted 
854.9.1 Deleted 

854.10 Deleted 

SECTION 855.0 STRESS SKIN PANELS 

855.1 Integrated assemblies: Approved panels or other integrated as- 
semblies fabricated of dimension lumber with wood stress-coverings glued 
thereto, or consisting of structural units of metal-covered or molded 
plywood or other approved plastics, formed and molded into prefabricated 
load-bearing members shall be permitted for use in floors, roofs, walls, 
partitions and ceilings when designed in accordance with accepted engi- 
neering practice or meeting the test reguirements of Sections 802.0, 803.0 
and 804.0. 

855.2 Splices: Splices and connections between panels shall be weather- 
tight and of sufficient strength to resist two and one-half (2 1/2) times 
the design live load to which they will be subjected in normal use. The 
fastenings of covering assemblies to structural studs, ribs or joists shall 
provide rigidity eguivalent to approved gluing. Nailing shall not be 
acceptable for that purpose. 

855.3 Molded plywood units: Structural units of plywood or other ap- 
proved plastics of similar combustible characteristics formed and molded 
into prefabricated load-bearing members shall conform to the approved 
rules and shall be identified by the approved label. The design shall be 
based on accepted engineering analysis confirmed by the tests prescribed 
in Sections 802.0 and 803.0. 

SECTION 856.0 STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED TIMBER AND 
BUILT-UP WOOD CONSTRUCTION 

856.1 General: Buildings and structures may be designed and erected of 
glued laminated structural members or of composite members of plywood 
and dimension lumber. 

856.2 Structural glued laminated timber members: Stress rated fabri- 
cated units of suitably selected and prepared wood laminations not exceed- 
ing two (2) inches in net thickness, which may be comprised of pieces 
joined end to end or of pieces placed or glued edge to edge, securely 
bonded together with adhesives so that the grain of all laminations is 
approximately parallel longitudinally shall be designed and manufactured 
under controlled material procedure to meet the reguirements of timber 
construction standards listed in Appendices B and C. 

856.3 Glued laminated members and plywood components: Built-up beam 
and column sections consisting of one (1) or more webs with glued lumber 



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flanges and stiffeners shall be designed in accordance with accepted 
engineering analysis. Plywood components consisting of plywood alone or 
plywood in combination with sawn or glued laminated lumber and bonded 
together with adhesives shall be designed, fabricated and identified in 
accordance with the applicable standards listed in Appendices B and C. 

856.3.1 Gluing surfaces: In glued lumber constructions, the surfaces to 
be glued shall be worked to a smooth, flat surface without sanding and 
free from wax grease or oil to insure a complete glue bond over the 
entire contact. Factory sanded plywood shall not be prohibited. 

ARTICLE 8-Part C 

BUILDING ENCLOSURES, WALLS AND 
WALL THICKNESS 

SECTION 857.0 ENCLOSURE WALLS 

857.1 General: All buildings, except as may be provided for miscellane- 
ous structures designed for special uses, shall be enclosed on all sides 
with independent or party walls of frame, masonry or other approved 
construction. Such walls shall be constructed to afford the fireresistance 
rating specified in Table 214 and as required in this code and the laws of 
Massachusetts for location, use and type of construction. 

857.2 Deleted 

857.3 Exterior wall pockets: In exterior walls of all buildings and struc- 
tures, wall pockets or crevices in which moisture may accumulate shall be 
avoided or protected with adequate caps or drips, or other approved 
means shall be provided to prevent water damage. 

857.4 Exceptions: The provisions of this article shall not be deemed to 
prohibit the omission of exterior walls for all or part of a story of a 
building in accordance with the provisions of Section 906.2. 

857.5 Glass in walls 

857.5.1 Labeling: Each light of glass shall be labeled with a removable 
paper label showing type, thickness and manufacturer. To qualify as 
glass with special performance characteristics, each unit of laminated, 
heat strengthened, fully tempered, and insulating glass shall be perma- 
nently identified by the manufacturer. The identification shall be etched 
or ceramic-fired on the glass and be visible with the unit is glazed. Heat 
strengthened and tempered spandrel glasses are exempted from permanent 
labeling. This type of glass shall be labeled with a removable paper label 
by the manufacturer. 

Safety glazing materials shall conform to the requirements of the Anno- 
tated Laws of Massachusetts Chapter 143, Sections 3T, 3U, and 3V, as 
amended . 



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857.5.2 Glass supports: Where one (1) or more sides of any light of 
glass is not firmly supported, or is subjected to unusual load conditions, 
detailed shop drawings, specifications and analysis or test data assuring 
safe performance for the specific installation shall be prepared by engi- 
neers experienced in this work and approved by the building official. 
Analysis shall be based on the wind loads specified in Section 713.2 for 
secondary framing members. The elevation of the glazed opening shall be 

-computed by adding the distances from grade to the head and sill, re- 
spectively, and dividing the sum by two (2). 

857.5.3 Glass dimensional tolerance: Glass thickness tolerance shall 
comply with those established in Table 857. Where thickness is to be 
controlled, nominal values are stated subject to the tolerances shown in 
the following Table 857. 

Table 857 
MINIMUM GLASS THICKNESS 





Plate glass 


Sheet glass 


Nominal 


min. thickness 


min. thickness 


thickness 


(inches) 


(inches) 


SS 




0.085 


DS 




0.115 


Vs 


0.094 




\t 


0.156 


0.182 


% 


0.172 




Vn 




0.205 


V* 


0.218 


0.236 


% 


0.281 




% 


0.343 


0.357 


Vz 


0.468 


0.478 


5 /8 


0.562 




% 


0.689 




% 


0.750 




1 


0.875 




1% 


1.125 





857.5.4 Wind loads: Glass exposed to wind pressure shall be capable of 
withstanding the design criteria of Section 713.2 for secondary framing 
members but shall not be less than the thickness prescribed in Table 
857.5.4.2. The wind load used to enter Table 857.5.4.2 shall be modified 
by dividing the load prescribed in Section 713.2 by the value shown in 
Table 857.5.4.1 for the type of glass involved. 



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Table 857.5.4.1 



RELATIVE RESISTANCE TO WIND LOAD 
(Assuming equal thickness! 



Glass type 



Approximate 
relationship* 



Laminated 
Wired glass 
Heat strengthened 
Fully-tempered 
Factory fabricated 
double glazing** 
Rough-rolled plate 
Sandblasted 
Regular plate or sheet 



0.6 
0.5 
2.0 
4.0 

1.5 
1.0 
0.4 
1.0 



'Before using Table 857.5.4.2 divide the design wind load from Section 713.0 by the value shown here 
for the glass type involved. 



"Use thickness of the thinner of the two lights, not thickness of unit. 



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Table 857.5.4.2 



REQUIRED NOMINAL THICKNESS OF REGULAR PLATE OR SHEET GLASS 

(Based on minimum thicknesses allowed in Federal Specifications DD-G-451 b) 
Design Factor = 2.5 



200 




10 



15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 

Design wind load from Section 713.0 (in lb. per sq. ft.) 



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857.5.5 Jalousies: In jalousie windows and doors regular plate, float 
sheet or rolled glass thickness shall be not less than three- sixteenths 
(3/16) inch; glass length shall be not more than forty-eight (48) inches; 
glass edges shall be smooth. Other types of glass may be used if de- 
tailed shop drawings, specifications and analysis by methods described in 
Section 857.5.2 or test data assuring safe performance for the specific 
installation are prepared by engineers experienced in this work and 
approved by the building official. 

857.5.6 Human impact loads: Individual glazed areas in hazardous loca- 
tions such as those indicated in Section 857.5.6.1 shall comply with the 
ANSI Z97.1 Standard listed in Appendix B, or by comparative test shall 
be proven to produce at least eguivalent performance. Annealed glass 
shall not be used. 

857.5.6.1 Specific hazardous locations: The following shall be considered 
specific hazardous locations for purposes of glazing: 

1. glazing in ingress and egress doors except wired glass in required 
fire doors and jalousies (see Section 857.5.5); 

2. glazing in fixed and sliding panels of sliding type doors (patio and 
mall type); 

3. glazing in storm doors; 

4. glazing in all unframed swinging doors; 

5. glazing in ingress and egress doors except wired glass in required 
fire doors and jalousies (see Section 857.5.5); 

6. glazing, operable or nonoperable, whose nearest vertical edge is 
within forty-eight (48) inches of a door in nonresidential occupancies 
or within twelve (12) inches of a door in residential occupancies and 
whose bottom edge is below the top of the door unless an interven- 
ing interior permanent wall is between the door and the glazing; and 

7. glazing in fixed panels having a glazed area in excess of nine (9) 
square feet with the lowest edge less than eighteen (18) inches 
above the finish floor level or walking surface and having a walking 
surface on both sides, both of which are within thirty-six (36) 
inches of such glazing and the horizontal planes of such surfaces are 
within twelve (12) inches of each other. In lieu of safety glazing, 
such glazed panels may be protected with a horizontal member not 
less than one and one-half (1 1/2) inches in width when located 
between twenty-four (24) and thirty-six (36) inches above the 
walking surface. 

SECTION 858.0 PROTECTION OF WALL OPENINGS 



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858.1 Fire-protected openings: Openings in exterior walls when required 
to be fire-protected shall comply with the provisions of Article 9. 

858.2 Area of openings: All openings facing on a street, yard, court, 
or public space are required for light and ventilation shall comply with 
the provisions of Article 5. 

858.3 Structural strength 

858.3.1 Against wind forces: In all buildings required to resist wind 
pressure under the provisions of Article 7, exterior window openings 
shall be designed to resist the specified wind load when such protectives 
are more than one hundred (100) square feet in area in the first story or 
more than fifty (50) square feet in area in the upper stories. 

858.3.2 Sash or frames: The glass, or other approved glazing material 
shall be of adequate thickness or shall be provided with steel frames or 
otherwise reinforced to resist the wind loads specified in Article 7 blowing 
both inwardly and outwardly. 

SECTION 859.0 FIRE ACCESS PANELS 

859.1 Required: Completely enclosed buildings, without exterior open- 
ings in the enclosure walls, or without ready access for the purpose of 
fighting fire, shall be provided with access panels and shall be approved 
by the local fire official (see Section 1200.1.1). 

859.2 Multi-story buildings: In all exterior walls of buildings required 
to have thirty (30) foot wide open space adjacent thereto (see 

Sections 305.2 and 306.2), each floor below the thirteenth (13th) floor 
shall be provided with access panels as follows: 

1. if such access panels are not less than thirty-two (32) inches by 
forty-eight (48) inches in size, they shall be spaced not more than 
one hundred (100) feet apart in each story; or 

2. if such access panels are not less than twenty-two (22) inches by 
forty-two (42) inches in size, they shall be spaced not more than 
thirty (30) feet apart in each story. 

859.3 Single-story buildings: In one (1) story buildings, not more than 
eighty-five (85) feet in height: 

1. roof vents shall be provided, spaced not more than one hundred 
twenty-five (125) feet apart; and 

2. grade level doors, or fire access panels shall be provided spaced not 
more than one hundred twenty-five (125) feet apart in all exterior 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



walls of buildings required to have thirty (30) foot wide open space 
adjacent thereto (see Sections 305.2 and 306.2). 

859.4 Construction of access panels: Access panels shall have a sill 
height of not more than thirty-six (36) inches; shall be readily identifi- 
able from the outside; and shall be readily openable from the outside, or 
shall be glazed with plain flat glass. When required to be fireresistance 
rated, access panels shall be equipped with approved opening protectives, 
complying with Article 9, which are readily openable from both the out- 
side and inside. Access panels shall be not less than thirty-two (32) 
inches by forty-eight (48) inches in size, except in buildings of moderate 
fire hazard such as schools and offices, wherein the sizes may be reduced 
to a minimum of twenty-two (22) inches by forty-two (42) inches. 

SECTION 860.0 STRUCTURAL GLASS BLOCK WALLS 

860.1 Exterior wall panels: The maximum dimensions of glass block wall 
panels in exterior walls, when used singly or in multiples forming con- 
tinuous bands of structural glass blocks between structural supports, 
shall be twenty-five (25) feet in length and twenty (20) feet in height 
between structural supports and expansion joints; and the area of each 
individual panel shall be not more than two hundred and fifty (250) 
square feet. Intermediate structural supports shall be provided to sup- 
port the dead load of the wall and all other superimposed loads. When 
individual panels are more than one hundred forty-four (144) square feet 
in area, a supplementary stiff ener shall be provided behind the panels, 
anchored thereto and to the structural supports. 

860.2 Joint materials: Glass blocks shall be laid up in Type S or N 
mortar with approved galvanized or other noncorrosive metal wall ties in 
the horizontal mortar joints of exterior panels. The sills of glass block 
panels shall be coated with approved asphaltic emulsion, or other elastic 
waterproofing material, previous to laying the first mortar course, and 
the perimeter of the panels shall be caulked to a depth of not less than 
one-half (1/2) inch with non-hardening caulking compound on both faces; 
or other approved expansion joints shall be provided. When laid up in 
joint materials other than mortars herein defined, a single panel shall not 
be more than one hundred (100) square feet in area nor more than ten 
(10) feet in either length or height. 

860.3 Wind and earthquake loads: Exterior wall panels shall be held in 
place in the wall opening to resist both the internal and external pres- 
sures due to wind and earthquake loads specified in Sections 712.0, 713.0 
and 716.0. 

860.4 Interior wall panels: Structural glass blocks shall not be used in 
fire walls or party walls or for load-bearing construction. Such blocks 
shall be erected with mortar in metal frames or reinforcement as provided 
in this section for exterior walls or other approved joint materials, except 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



that wood strip framing may be used in partitions not required to be 
fireresistance rated. 

860.5 Fireresistance rating: Nothing herein contained shall be construed 
to prohibit the use of glass blocks in an opening protective assembly or 
non-bearing partition or wall when required to afford a specific fireresis- 
tance rating, provided approval of the building official is secured after 
satisfactory time-temperature performance under the prescribed test 
procedure of Article 9. 

860.6 Access panels: Access panels shall be provided in exterior glass 
block walls for fire department use to comply with Section 859.0 

SECTION 861.0 WALL FACINGS AND VENEERS 

861.1 Backing surfaces for veneers: Veneers for other than frame 
buildings, shall be attached only to substantial, rigid, noncombustible 
surfaces which are plumb, straight and of true plane; and wood backing 
surfaces shall not be used, except in frame construction. The backing 
shall provide sufficient rigidity, stability and weather resistance; and the 
veneer shall be installed and anchored as required in this code for the 
specific material. 

861.2 Veneer thickness: Materials used for non-bearing veneers on 
masonry walls shall not have less than the thickness indicated in Table 
861. 

Table 861 

MINIMUM THICKNESS OF NONBEARING VENEERS ON MASONRY WALLS 

Ceramic veneer (architectural terra cotta, anchored type) . . 1 inch 

Brick 2 inches 

Stone (natural) 2 inches 

Stone (cast artificial) Wz inches 

Clay tile (structural) 1% inches 

Clay tile (flat slab) Va to 1 inch 

Marble slabs 1 inch 

Precast stone facing % inch 

Structural glass % inch 

Aluminum clapboard siding 024 inch 

Metal (approved corrosion-resistive) No. 28 Galvanized Sheet Gage (0.019 in) 



5861.2.1 Nonstructural: Masonry or other approved noncombustible 
materials used as facing on bearing walls or partitions shall not be con- 
sidered to have structural value and shall be excluded in the determina- 
tion of required wall thickness. 

SECTION 862.0 STRUCTURAL GLASS VENEERS 



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862.1 Dimensions: The minimum thickness of glass veneer shall be 
eleven thirty-seconds (11/32) inch and the area of individual panels shall 
not exceed ten (10) square feet, with a maximum length of four (4) feet. 
The edge of each unit shall be ground square with a slight arris; and all 
exposed, external corners and angles shall be rounded to a radius of not 
more than three-sixteenths (3/16) inch. 

862 . 2 Construction 

862.2.1 Backing surface: The glass veneer shall be set in mastic cement 
on a float coat of one (1) inch thick cement mortar reinforced with wire 
lath attached to noncombustible furring spaced not more than twelve (12) 
inches on centers. 

862.2.2 Support of veneer: The base course of glass units shall be 
supported on a corrosion-resistive metal frame anchored to the backing 
and caulked with a waterproof compound at grade. 

862.3 Reinforcement: Metal reinforcing of cold formed corrosion-resistive 
angles of not less than No. 16 Galvanized Sheet Gauge (0.064 in.), or 
other approved reinforcement shall be provided in all horizontal joints 
anchored into the masonry wall with expansion or toggle bolts. 

862.4 Expansion joints: Expansion joints shall be provided at ends and 
intermediate sections caulked with an approved waterproofing compound as 
required by the approved rules. Where necessary for water-tightness, 
exposed edges shall be protected with corrosion-resistive metal or other 
approved noncombustible flashing. 

862.5 Other loads: Signs, awning brackets or other loads shall not be 
hung directly from glass veneers, but shall be supported on framing 
anchored to or otherwise supported by the masonry wall, free from con- 
tact with the glass. 

SECTION 863.0 THIN STONE AND TILE VENEERS 

863.1 Size of units: In localities subject to frost and freezing tempera- 
tures, tile and terra cotta units shall be frost-proof and shall not be 
more than two hundred eighty-eight (288) square inches in area; and 
where not subject to frost action, the size of the tile may be increased 
not more than fifty (50) per cent in area. 

863.2 Construction: One (1) inch thick marble, granite, terra cotta, 
and similar materials; or ceramic tile facing one-quarter (1/4) to one (1) 
inch in thickness shall be set in accordance with the applicable standards 
listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 864.0 METAL VENEERS 



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864.1 Materials: Veneers of metal shall be fabricated from approved 
corrosion-resistive alloys, or shall be covered front and back with ap- 
proved porcelain enamel, or otherwise treated to render the metal resis- 
tant to corrosion. 

864.2 Construction: The metal veneer shall be securely attached to the 
masonry or supported on approved metal framing protected by painting, 
galvanizing or other approved protection, or on wood studs and furring 
strips, treated with an approved preservative process. 

864.3 Waterproofing: All joints and edges exposed to the weather shall 
be caulked with approved durable waterproofing material or by other 
approved means to prevent penetration of moisture. 

864.4 Grounding metal veneers: Grounding of metal veneers on all 
buildings shall comply with the requirements of Article 15 and the Massa- 
chusetts Electrical Code (527 CMR 12.00). 

Metal enclosures shall be placed around equipment carrying voltages in 
excess of sixty (60) volts between conductors, unless in substations or 
vaults under the sole control of the supply company. Where extensive 
metal in or on buildings may become energized and is subject to personal 
contact, adequate bonding and grounding shall be provided for additional 
safety. 

SECTION 865.0 PLASTIC VENEERS 

865.1 General: Veneers of weather-resisting plastics shall comply with 
the definition of approved plastics in Section 1900.2.1 and shall be erec- 
ted and anchored on a foundation coat, waterproofed or otherwise protec- 
ted from moisture absorption and sealed with a coat of mastic or other 
approved waterproof coating in accordance with the approved rules. 

865.2 Height limitation: Plastic veneer shall not be attached to any 
exterior wall to a height greater than thirty-five (35) feet above grade. 
Within the fire limits as provided in Section 301.0, exterior veneer shall 
be limited to the first story . 

865.3 Area limitation: Sections of plastic veneer shall not exceed two 
hundred (200) square feet in area. Outside the fire limits, the area may 
be increased by fifty (50) per cent. 

865.4 Separation: Sections of plastic veneer shall be separated by a 
minimum of four (4) feet vertically. 

SECTION 866.0 THICKNESS OF SOLID MASONRY WALLS 

866.1 General: All masonry walls shall be of the minimum thickness 
specified in the Building Code Requirements for Masonry listed in Appen- 



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dix B. The combined stress due to all loads shall not exceed the allow- 
able working stresses specified in this code for the materials of construc- 
tion. 

SECTION 867.0 THICKNESS OF PANEL WALLS 

867.1 Solid panel walls: Panel, apron or spandrel walls as defined in 
this code supported at vertical intervals not exceeding thirteen (13) feet 
in height, shall not be limited in thickness, provided they meet the 
fireresistance rating requirements of Article 9 and Table 214, and are 
constructed of approved noncombustible weather-resisting materials of 
adequate strength to resist the wind loads specified in Sections 712.0 and 
713.0. 

867.2 Hollow panel walls: Unless constructed of the materials and thick- 
ness specified by the accepted engineering standards for masonry, hollow 
panel walls shall be tested and approved in the assembled unit as con- 
structed in normal practice to develop the required fireresistance ratings 
specified in Table 214 for exposure on both faces. 

867.3 Weather resistance: When the construction is tested and approved 
for a fireresistance rating does not possess the required weather resis- 
tance, it shall be covered on the exterior with approved corrosion-resis- 
tive metal facings or other approved noncombustible weather-resisting 
veneers . 

867.4 Anchorage: All panel walls shall be anchored to the structural 
frame to insure adequate lateral support and resistance to wind and to 
earthquake forces where subject to seismic disturbances. 

SECTION 868.0 DELETED 

SECTION 869.0 FOUNDATION WALLS 

869.1 Design: Foundation walls shall be designed to resist frost action 
and to support safely all vertical and lateral loads as provided in Article 
7. The maximum stresses due to combined load shall be within the values 
specified for the materials used in the construction. Unless properly 
reinforced, tensile stresses shall not exceed those permitted in plain 
masonry . 

869.2 Minimum thickness: The minimum thickness of concrete or masonry 
foundation walls, with up to seven (7) feet of unbalanced fill (height of 
finish grade above basement floor or inside grade), shall be eight (8) 
inches or shall be designed according to acceptable engineering practice 
as listed in the standards in Appendix B and as required in Section 
870.2. Where the unbalanced fill exceeds seven (7) feet, foundation wall 
thickness shall be determined by structural analysis as required in Sec- 
tion 807.2. 



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869.2.1 Deleted 

869.2.2 Deleted 

869.2.3 Deleted 

Table 869 Deleted 

869.2.4 Rubble stone: Foundation walls of rough or random rubble stone 
shall be not less than sixteen (16) inches thick. 

869.2.5 Bonding: All foundation walls shall be bonded as reguired for 
superstructure walls in Section 835.0. 

869.3 Deleted 

869.4 Corbels on eight inch walls: Where an eight (8) inch wall is 
corbeled, the top corbel course shall be a full header course of headers 
at least six (6) inches in length, extending not higher than the bottom of 
the floor framing. The maximum projection of one (1) unit shall neither 
exceed one-half (1/2) the depth of the unit nor one-third (1/3) its width 
at right angles to the face which is offset. 

869.5 Lateral stability: Foundation walls of buildings and structures 
which serve as retaining walls shall conform to the applicable reguire- 
ments of Section 870.0 or shall be strengthened with buttresses or addi- 
tional wall thickness to resist lateral soil and hydrostatic pressure when 
subjected thereto. 

SECTION 870.0 RETAINING WALLS 

870.1 General: Walls built to retain or support the lateral pressure of 
earth or water or other superimposed loads shall be designed and con- 
structed of approved masonry, reinforced concrete, steel sheet piling or 
other approved materials within the allowable stresses of accepted engi- 
neering practice (see Section 874.5). 

870.2 Design: Retaining walls shall be designed to resist the pressure 
of the retained material, including both dead and live load surcharges to 
which they may be subjected, and to insure stability against overturning, 
sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift. 

870.3 Hydrostatic pressure: Unless drainage is provided, the hydro- 
static head of water pressure shall be assumed egual to the height of the 
wall. 

870.4 Deleted 

870.5 Guard rails: Retaining walls with a difference in grade level on 



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each side of the wall in excess of four (4) feet shall be provided with a 
forty-two (42) inch high guard rail or other approved protective measure. 

SECTION 871.0 DELETED 

SECTION 872.0 WATERPROOFING AND FLOODPROOFING 

872.1 General: The exterior structural elements of all buildings herein 
specified shall be waterproofed in accordance with the approved rules. 

872.2 Steel frame: Exterior steel columns and girders, before embedment 
in masonry of the required fireresistance rating specified in Table 214, 
shall be protected from moisture by approved waterproofing material, a 
parging coat of cement mortar or by a minimum of eight (8) inches of 
weather-tight masonry. 

872.3 Chases: The backs and sides of all chases in exterior walls with 
less than eight (8) inches of approved masonry to the exterior surface 
shall be insulated and waterproofed. 

872.4 Foundations: Exterior walls below grade and the cellar floors of 
all buildings for institutional and residential uses (use groups I and R) 
enclosing habitable or occupiable rooms or spaces below grade shall be 
made watertight, and when necessary shall be reinforced to withstand 
water pressure as prescribed in Sections 709.0 and 870.0. The basement 
walls of buildings in the residential use groups and the walls of all habit- 
able and occupiable rooms and spaces below grade shall be protected with 
not less than a one (1) coat application of approved waterproofing paint, 
or a one-half (1/2) inch parging coat of portland cement mortar or other 
approved dampproof covering. 

872.4.1 Subsoil drains: Subsoil drains shall be provided around founda- 
tions enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade and which 
are subjected to ground water conditions. Drains shall be installed at or 
below the area to be protected and shall discharge by gravity or by 
mechanical means into an approved drainage system complying with the 
plumbing code listed in Appendix P. 

872.5 Types of waterproofing: The processes and methods used to 
render buildings, structures or parts thereof watertight as herein re- 
quired shall comply with accepted engineering practice covering types of 
waterproofing . 

872.6 Floodproof ing : Where a structure is located within a flood plain or 
coastal high hazard area as determined by the building official or the 
governmental body having jurisdiction, such a structure must be designed 
to resist or overcome the anticipated flood conditions in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 744.0. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

SECTION 873.0 DELETED 
SECTION 874.0 PROTECTION AGAINST DECAY AND TERMITES 

874.1 Approval: The term "approval" as used in the following state- 
ments means approval in accordance with the procedure established by 
this code. 

874.2 Where conditions are favorable to decay 

874.2.1 Wood in contact with the ground: All wood in contact with the 
ground and supporting permanent structures shall be approved treated 
wood. 

874.2.2 Untreated wood: Untreated wood may be used where entirely 
below ground water level or continuously submerged in fresh water; and 
may be used in contact with the ground for detached accessory buildings 
not intended for human occupancy, for temporary structures and for 
fences . 

874.3 Wood joists or the bottom of wood structural floors: When wood 
joists or the bottom of wood structural floors without joists are closer 
than eighteen (18) inches, or wood girders are closer than twelve (12) 
inches, to exposed ground located within the periphery of the building 
over crawl spaces or unexcavated areas, they shall be approved durable 
or treated wood. Ventilation shall be provided as reguired in Section 
507.0. 

874.4 Sills: All sills which rest on concrete or masonry exterior walls 
and are less than eight (8) inches from exposed earth shall be of ap- 
proved durable or treated wood. 

874.4.1 Sleepers and sills: Sleepers and sills on a concrete or masonry 
slab which is in direct contact with earth shall be of approved durable or 
treated wood. 

874.4.2 Posts or columns: Posts or columns in cellars shall be supported 
by piers projecting at least two (2) inches above the finish floor and 
separated therefrom by an approved impervious barrier except when 
approved durable or treated wood is used. Posts or columns used in 
damp locations below grade shall be of approved durable or treated wood. 

874.4.3 Wall pockets: Ends of wood girders entering masonry or con- 
crete walls shall be provided with a one-half (1/2) inch air space on top, 
sides and end, unless approved durable or treated wood is used. 

874.4.4 Clearance between wood siding: Clearance between wood siding 
and earth on the exterior of a building shall be not less than six (6) 
inches . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



874.5 Wood used in a retaining wall: Wood used in a retaining wall shall 
be approved durable or treated wood, except as follows: 

1. when the wall is not more than two (2) feet in height and is located 
on the property line; or 

2. when the wall is not more than four (4) feet in height and is sep- 
arated from the property line by a minimum distance egual to the 
height of the wall. 

A retaining wall of durable wood shall not exceed six (6) feet in height. 
A wood retaining wall shall be separated from any permanent building by 
a minimum distance equal to the height of the wall. 

874.6 Where approved durable or treated woods are required: Where 
approved durable or treated woods are required in this code, the building 
official may require identification by an approved mark or certificate of 
inspection. All lumber and plywood required to be preservatively treated 
shall bear an approved quality mark of an inspection agency that main- 
tains continuing control, testing and inspection over the quality of the 
product as described in the quality control standards listed in Appendix 
C. 

874.7 Pressure treatment: Where pressure treatment of wood members is 
required by this code, preservatives and methods of treatment shall 
conform to the standards for pressure treatment and preserving of lumber 
listed in Appendix C. 

874 . 7 . 1 Deleted 

SECTION 875.0 DELETED 

SECTION 876.0 THERMAL INSULATING MATERIALS 

876.1 General: Insulating batts, blankets, fills or similar types of 
materials, including vapor barriers and breather papers or other cover- 
ings which are a part of the insulation, incorporated in construction 
elements shall be installed and used in a manner that will not increase the 
fire hazard characteristics of the building or any part thereof. 

876.2 Installation in Type 1 and Type 2 construction: Such materials 
when exposed as installed in buildings of fireproof or noncombustible 
(Types 1 or 2) construction shall comply with the requirements of Section 

904.2 for Class I materials. 

876.3 Installation in Type 3 and Type 4 construction: Such materials 
when exposed as installed in attic spaces in buildings of ordinary or 
frame (Types 3 and 4) construction shall comply with the requirements of 
Section 904.2 for Class III materials. 



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876.4 Facings and coverings: Vapor barriers, breather papers or other 
coverings of insulating materials, when installed adjacent to or not more 
than one and one-half (1 1/2) inches from the unexposed surface of 
ceiling or side wall interior finish, or when installed in completely en- 
closed wall, ceiling joist or rafter spaces and firestopped as required in 
Section 875.0, are not required to have a flameresistance rating. 

876.5 Foam plastic insulation: The provisions of this section shall gov- 
ern the requirements and uses of foam plastic insulation in buildings and 
structures. For interior finish and trim, see Section 920.0. 

Except where otherwise noted in this section, all foam plastics used in 
building construction shall have a flame spread rating of not more than 
seventy-five (75) and shall have a smoke developed rating of not more 
than four hundred and fifty (450) when tested in the maximum thickness 
intended for use in accordance with ASTM E84 listed in Appendix G. The 
interior of the building shall be separated from the foam plastic by an 
approved thermal barrier having an index of fifteen (15). The thermal 
barrier shall be installed in such a manner that it will remain in place for 
the time of its index classification based upon approved diversified tests. 

876.5.1 Other specific applications: Foam plastics may be installed in 
accordance with Sections 876.5 and 876.5.2 or as listed in this section, 
and as allowed by other provisions of this code. 

1. Masonry or concrete construction: foam plastics may be used without 
the thermal barrier described above, regardless of the type of 
construction, when the foam plastic is covered by a minimum of one 
(1) inch thickness of masonry or concrete in a wall, floor or roof 
system . 

2. Attics and crawl spaces: within an attic or crawl space where entry 
is made only for service of utilities, foam plastics shall be protected 
against ignition by one and one half (1 1/2) inch thick mineral fiber 
insulation, one half (1/2) inch thick gypsum wallboard, No. 26 gauge 
sheet metal, or other approved material installed in such a manner 
that the foam plastic is not exposed. 

3. Cold storage construction: foam plastic installed and meeting the 
requirements of Section 876.5 above when tested in a thickness of 
four (4) inches may be used in a thickness up to ten (10) inches in 
cold storage buildings, ice plants, food processing rooms, and sim- 
ilar areas. For rooms within a building, the foam plastic shall be 
protected by a thermal barrier on both sides. Foam plastic insula- 
tion may be used in free-standing coolers and freezers without the 
thermal barrier when the foam plastic has a flame spread rating for 
use, is covered by not less than point zero thirty-two (0.032) inches 
of aluminum or No. 26 gauge corrosion-resistant steel and is protected 
by an automatic sprinkler system. When such a room is within a 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



building, both the room and that part of the building in which the 
room is located shall be sprinklered. 

Exception: Freestanding walk-in coolers and freezer units less 
than four hundred (400) square feet in floor area need meet only 
the flame spread and smoke requirements of Section 876.5 above. 

4. Metal-clad building units: foam plastic insulation having a flame 
spread of twenty-five (25) or less may be used without the thermal 
barrier in or on walls in a thickness of not more than four (4) 
inches when the foam plastic is covered by a thickness of not less 
than point zero thirty-two (0.032) inch aluminum or No. 26 gauge 
corrosion-resistant steel and the area is protected with automatic 
sprinklers. 

5. Roofing: foam plastics installed and meeting the requirements of 
Section 876.5, above, may be used as insulation beneath a roof 
covering when the roof covering has a Class A, B or C classifi- 
cation . 

a. All roof coverings as allowed in Section 913.0 may be applied 
over foam plastic when the foam is separated from the interior 
of the building by plywood sheathing not less than one-half 
(1/2) inch in thickness bonded with exterior glue, with edges 
supported by blocking, tongue-and-groove joints or other 
approved type of edge support, or an equivalent material. 
The thermal barrier requirement is waived. 

b. Foam plastic which is a component of factory-made insulation 
board or a factory-made assembly which also complies with 
either Fire Test Standard for Insulated Roof Deck Construction 
UL 1256 or Test Method for Fire Performance of Roof Deck 
Construction Factory Mutual, FM 4450, as listed in Appendix 
B. need not meet the requirements of Section 876.5. 

c. The thermal barrier is waived in field-assembled roof coverings 
incorporating a foam plastic having a flame spread of seventy- 
five (75) or less and also meeting the requirements of either of 
the above roof deck construction tests. 

d. For all roof applications the smoke development rating shall not 
be limited. 

6. Doors: where doors are permitted without a fireresistive rating foam 
plastic having a flame spread of seventy-five (75) or less may be 
used as a core material when the door facing is wood or when the 
facing is metal having a minimum thickness of point zero thirty-two 
(0.032) inch aluminum or No. 26 gauge sheet steel. The thermal 
barrier is waived. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



7. Siding backer board: foam plastic of not more than two thousand 
(2,000) Btu's per square foot as determined by NFiPA 259-76, listed 
in Appendix B, may be used as siding backer board with a maximum 
thickness of one-half (1/2) inch, provided it is separated from the 
interior of the building by an interior thermal barrier, or not less 
than two (2) inches of mineral fiber insulation, or equivalent, in lieu 
of the thermal barrier. 

876.5.2 Specific approval: Plastic foam or assemblies using foam plastics 
may be specifically approved based on approved diversified tests such as, 
but not limited to, tunnel tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E84 
listed in Appendix G, fire tests related to actual end use such as a 
corner test and an ignition temperature test. The specific approval may 
be based on the end use, quantity, location and similar considerations 
where such tests would not be applicable or practical. 

876.6 Cellulosic insulation: Cellulosic insulation shall be certified that it 
complies with Federal Specification HH-I-515C. 

876.7 Urea based, foamed in place insulation: Urea based foamed in 
place thermal insulation shall be certified that it has been manufactured 
and installed in accordance with U.S. Department of Housing and Urban 
Development Use of Materials Bulletin No. 74. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

ARTICLE 9 

FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS 
SECTION 900.0 GENERAL 

900.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall govern the use and 
design of all materials and methods of construction in respect to required 
fireresistance rating and flameresistance as determined by the potential 
fire hazard of the use and occupancy of the building or structure and the 
location and function of all integral structural and other fire-protective 
elements of the building; and the installation of safeguards against the 
spread of fire to and from adjoining structures. 

900.2 Performance standards: The requirements of this article shall 
constitute the minimum functional performance standards for fire-protec- 
tion purposes; and shall not be deemed to decrease or waive any strength 
provisions or in any other manner decrease the requirements of this code 
in respect to structural safety. 

900.3 Use of combustibles: All materials and forms of construction that 
develop the fireresistance rating required by this code shall be acceptable 
for fireproofing and structural purposes; except that the use of combusti- 
ble component materials in structural units or structural assemblies shall 
be limited in types of construction specified in Sections 215.0 and 216.0 
and in the following Section 900.3.1. 

900.3.1 Combustible components: Combustible aggregates may be incor- 
porated in concrete mixtures approved for fireresistance rated construc- 
tion as provided in Sections 810.0 and 849.0 for gypsum concrete, and 
any other approved component material or admixture may be used in 
assemblies that meet the fireresistive test requirements of this code; and 
wood nailing strips or any other material of similar combustible character- 
istics may be embedded in concrete and masonry construction for securing 
trim and finish. 

SECTION 901.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

901.1 General: Plans for all buildings shall designate the type of con- 
struction and the fireresistance rating of all structural elements as re- 
quired by this code. The plans or specifications shall include documenta- 
tion or supporting data substantiating all required fireresistance ratings. 

SECTION 902.0 FIRE HAZARD CLASSIFICATION 

902.1 General: The degree of fire hazard of buildings and structures 
for each specific use group as defined by the fire grading in Table 902 
shall determine the requirements for fire walls, fire separation walls and 
the segregation of mixed uses as prescribed in Section 213.0 and all 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



structural members supporting such elements unless otherwise provided 
for in this code. 

Table 902 

FIRE GRADING OF USE GROUPS 

Fire grading 
Class Use group in hours 

A-l Assembly, theatres 3 

A-2 Assembly, night clubs 3 

A-3 Assembly, recreation centers, lecture halls, terminals, restaurants .... 2 

A-4 Assembly, churches, schools IVz 

B Business 2 

F Factory and industrial 3 

H High hazard 4 

1-1 Institutional, restrained occupants 3 

1-2 Institutional, incapacitated occupants 2 

M Mercantile 3 

R-l Residential, hotels 2 

R-2 Residential, multifamily dwellings IV2 

R-3 Residential. 1 and 2 family dwellings 1 

S-l Storage, moderate hazard 3 

S-2 Storage, low hazard 2 



902.2 Unclassified uses: The building official shall determine the fire 
hazard classification of a building or structure design for a use not 
specifically provided in Table 902 in accordance with the fire character- 
istics and potential fire hazard of the use group which it most nearly 
resembles . 

SECTION 903.0 FIRERESISTANCE TESTS 

903 . 1 Structural building assemblies : Built-up masonry units and com- 
posite assemblies of structural materials including walls, partitions, col- 
umns, girders, beams and slabs and assemblies of slabs and beams or 
other combinations of structural units for use in floor and roof construc- 
tion shall be regulated by the fireresistance ratings of Table 214. The 
fireresistance rating of the floor and ceiling assemblies shall extend to 
and be tight against the exterior wall. 

903.2 Column, beam and girder protection 

903 .2.1 Tests without load : To evaluate column , beam and girder pro- 
tection for structural units when the fireproofing is not a structural part 
of the element, in lieu of full size tests of loaded specimens, the struc- 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



tural sections encased in the material proposed for use as insulation and 
fire protection may be subjected to the standard test procedure without 
load. 

903.2.2 Alternate protection: When it can be shown to the building 
official that the structural integrity of structural framing elements will not 
be reduced below a safe level by a fire, within the building or in an 
adjacent building, having a severity corresponding to the fireresistance 
rating required for the elements, through the use of heat shields, separa- 
tions or other approved means of protection, fire protective coverings or 
insulating enclosing materials need not be provided for such elements. 

903.3 Roof coverings 

903.3.1 Test procedure and classification: Roof covering materials shall 
be classified in accordance with the severity of exposure to exterior fire 
and ability to resist the spread of fire from surrounding buildings and 
structures when tested in accordance with the roof covering standards 
(ASTM E108 or Modified Factory Mutual E108) listed in Appendix G. 

903.3.2 Class A roofings: Are those which are effective against severe 
fire exposure. In addition to roof coverings which have been classified, 
asbestos cement, metal, portland cement concrete, slate, concrete masonry 
and tile are acceptable where Class A roof coverings are required. 

903.3.3 Class B roofings: Are those which are effective against moderate 
fire exposure. 

903.3.4 Class C roofings: Are those which are effective against light 
fire exposure. 

903.3.5 Non-classified roofings: Are those not tested. 

903.4 Opening protectives 

903.4.1 Fire assembly: Shall include the fire doors, fire window, or fire 
damper and all required hardware, anchorage, frames and sills necessary 
for the assembly. 

903.4.2 Labeled fire doors: Opening protective assemblies including the 
frames, hardware and operation which comply with the standards listed in 
Appendix G and accepted practice, including shop inspection, of an 
accredited authoritative testing or inspection agency shall be deemed to 
meet the requirements of this code for their recommended and approved 
locations and use as listed in Section 915.0. 

903.4.3 Door openings more than 120 square feet: Labeled fire doors for 
openings which are more than one hundred and twenty (120) square feet 
in area may be approved as conforming to all the standard construction 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



requirements of tested and approved fire door assemblies except as to 
size. 

903.4.4 Labeled fire windows and shutters: Fire window assemblies and 
shutters which comply with Section 916.0, and the standards listed in 
Appendix G and accepted practice of an accredited authoritative testing 
or inspection agency shall be deemed to meet the requirements of their 
recommended and required locations under this code. 

903.4.5 Labeled fire dampers: Only fire dampers which have been tested 
in accordance with the standards listed in Appendix G and listed by an 
accredited authoritative testing or inspection agency shall be deemed to 
meet the requirements of this code. 

903.5 Combustibility tests: Where the behavior of materials under expo- 
sure to fire is specified in this code, the characteristics of materials shall 
be determined by the following tests and criteria. 

903.5.1 Tests: The following tests shall serve as criteria for acceptance 
of building materials (when tested in the form and thickness in which 
they are used) as set forth in Sections 215.0, 216.0 and 217.0 governing 
the combustibility of building materials for use in Types 1, 2 and 3 
construction. 

1. Materials which pass the test procedure for defining noncombusti- 
bility of elementary materials set forth in ASTM E 136 listed in 
Appendix G when exposed to a furnace temperature of thirteen 
hundred eighty-two (1382) degrees F. for a period of five (5) 
minutes, and do not cause a fifty-four (54) degrees F. rise above 
the furnace air temperature at the beginning of the test and which 
do not flame after an exposure of thirty (30) seconds. 

2. Materials having a structural base of noncombustible material as 
defined in paragraph 1 above, with a surfacing not more than 
one-eighth (1/8) inch thick which has a flamespread rating not 
greater than fifty (50) when tested in accordance with the method 
of test for surface burning characteristics of building materials as 
set forth in ASTM E 84 listed in Appendix G. 

The term noncombustible does not apply to the flame spread characteris- 
tics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not be classed 
as noncombustible building construction material which is subject to in- 
crease in combustible or flame spread rating beyond the limits herein 
established through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric 
conditions . 

903.6 Fireretardant treated wood 

903.6.1 Tests: Where permitted for use as a structural element, firere- 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



tardant treated wood shall be tested in accordance with the standard 
method of test for surface burning characteristics of building materials 
(ASTM E84) listed in Appendix G and shall show a flame spread rating 
not greater than twenty-five (25) when exposed for a period of not less 
than thirty (30) minutes without evidence of significant progressive 
combustion. The material shall bear the identification of an accredited 
authoritative testing or inspection agency showing the performance rating 
thereof. 

903.6.2 Use limitations: Wood that has been pressure-treated with 
fireretardant chemicals in accordance with the standards for pressure 
treatment of lumber or plywood in buildings listed in Appendix G or 
treated by other approved means during manufacture may be used in 
Types 1 and 2 construction for partitions, structural elements and roof 
framing and sheathing as indicated by Note h in Table 214, provided that 
the assembly in which such material is used shall produce the required 
fireresistance rating when tested in accordance with the standard method 
of fire test for building construction and materials listed in Appendix G. 
Where the material is to be subjected to sustained high humidity or ex- 
posed to the weather, it shall be further identified to indicate that there 
is not an increase in listed fire hazard classification after being subjected 
to the Underwriters' Laboratories (UL) Standard Rain Test. Where used 
as a structural element, such material shall meet the requirements of 
Section 903.6.1. Where used as interior finish, such material shall meet 
the requirements of Section 904.0. 

SECTION 904.0 FLAMERESISTANCE TESTS 

904.1 General: All materials which are required to restrict the spread of 
fire or to be flame-resistant under the provisions of this code, including, 
but not limited to, interior wall and ceiling finish materials (ASTM E84), 
floor coverings (NFiPA 253), fire-retardant treated wood (ASTM E119 or 
ASTM E84, depending on usage), tents and tarpaulins (NFiPA 102, NFiPA 
701 and 527 CMR 19.00), and interior hangings and decorations (527 CMR 
21.00, NFiPA 102, NFiPA 701, or ASTM E84 depending on material), shall 
meet the requirements for their respective uses and classifications. 

904.2 Interior wall and ceiling finish materials: All materials used for 
interior wall and ceiling finish shall be classified within the classification 
listed in Table 904 in accordance with the Method of Test for Surface 
Burning Characteristics of Building Materials (ASTM E84). 

Table 904 
INTERIOR FINISH CLASSIFICATION 



Class 
of material 


Surface burning characteristics 
test (tunnel test) 


1 

II 
III 


to 25 

26 to 75 
76 to 200 



Note: Refer to Table 920 for interior finish requirements by use group. 

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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



904.3 Floor coverings: Finish materials for floors in corridors and 
exitways shall be tested in accordance with Flooring Radiant Panel Test 
(NFiPA 253). 

904.3.1 Test application: Floor coverings shall be tested in assemblies 
in the manner in which they are intended for use in accordance with 
NFiPA 253. Where a separate underlayment is used, the floor covering 
shall be tested as proposed for use over either the actual cushion pad to 
be used in the installation or a standard cushion pad consisting of Type 
11 rubber-coated jute and animal hair or fiber, not less than three-eighths 
(3/8) inch thick and fifty (50) oz. per square yard, conforming to Federal 
Specification DDD-C-001023 (GSA-FSS) and subsequent amendments. 

904.4 Tents and tarpaulins: All material used for tents and tarpaulins 
shall be classified in accordance with the test methods and requirements 
of Tents, Grandstands and Air-Supported Structures Used for Places of 
Assembly (NFiPA 102), Fire Tests for Flame-Resistant Textiles and Films 
(NFiPA 701) and Flame-Retardant Tentage and Flammable Tentage (527 
CMR 19.00). (See Section 422.0.) 

904.5 Interior hangings and decorations 

904.5.1 Acceptance criteria: Where required to be flameresistant under 
the provisions of this code, all materials specified or required for artistic 
enhancement or use for decorations, draperies, curtains, scenery and 
hangings shall comply with the requirements for Flammable Decorations in 
527 CMR 21.00. 

SECTION 905.0 SPECIAL FIRERESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS 

905.1 General: In buildings or parts thereof of the uses and types of 
construction herein specified, the general fireresistive requirements of 
Table 214 and the height and area limitations of Table 305 shall be subject 
to the exceptions and modifications described in Sections 905.2 through 
905.5 and to the requirements for Garages, Service Stations and Gasoline 
Stations and Gasoline in 527 CMR 5.00. 

905.2 Public garages: All existing buildings and structures altered or 
converted for use to a garage, motor vehicle repair shop or gasoline 
service station, more than one (1) story in height, unless of fireproof 
(Type 1) construction, or heavy timber (Type 3A) construction, shall 
have the partitions, columns and girders and all floor and roof construc- 
tion protected and insulated with noncombustible materials or assemblies of 
component materials having a fireresistance rating of not less than one 
(1) hour; except that existing roof trusses shall be exempt from all 
fireproofing requirements. 

905.3 Deleted 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



905.4 Packing and shipping rooms: Every packing or shipping room 
located on or below a floor occupied for use group M (mercantile) use 
shall be separated therefrom by fire separation walls or floor-ceiling 
assemblies of not less than the fireresistance rating of the type of con- 
struction as set forth in Table 214 but not less than one (1) hour fire- 
resistance rating. 

905.5 Truck loading and shipping areas: Truck loading and shipping 
areas shall be permitted within any use group B (Business) building, 
provided such areas are enclosed in construction of not less than the 
fireresistance rating of the type of construction as set forth in Table 214 
but not less than one (1) hour, and direct access is provided therefrom 
to the street. 

905.6 Use group R (residential) buildings 

905.6.1 Protected ordinary construction: Multi-family dwellings (use 
group R-2) of protected ordinary (Type 3B) construction may be in- 
creased to six (6) stories or seventy-five (75) feet in height when the 
first floor construction above the basement or cellar has a fireresistance 
rating of not less than three (3) hours and the floor area is subdivided 
by two (2) hour fire walls into fire areas of not more than three thousand 
(3,000) square feet. 

905.6.2 Protected noncombustible construction: When of protected non- 
combustible (Type 2B) construction, multi-family dwellings (use group 
R-2) may be increased to nine (9) stories or one hundred (100) feet in 
height when separated by not less than fifty (50) feet from any other 
building on the lot and from interior lot lines, the exitways are segre- 
gated in a fire area enclosed in a fire wall of two (2) hour fireresistance 
rating and the first floor construction has a fireresistance rating of not 
less than one and one-half (1 1/2) hours. 

905.6.3 Retail business use: The first floor of buildings of unprotected 
noncombustible (Type 2C), masonry wall (Type 3C) or frame (Type 4B) 
construction may be occupied for retail store use, provided the floor-ceil- 
ing assembly and enclosure wall are protected to afford one (1) hour 
fireresistance rating and the exitways from the residential floors are 
separately enclosed in accordance with the requirements of Article 6. 

905.7 Grade floor protection 

905.7.1 Non-fireproof construction: In all buildings other than one- and 
two-family dwellings (use groups R-3 and R-4) and other than fireproof 
(Type 1) construction with habitable or occupiable stories or basements 
below grade the floor-ceiling assemblies and supports below the grade 
floor shall be protected by one (1) of the following methods: 

1. fireresistance rating of not less than one (1) hour, or 



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2. heavy mill (Type 3A) construction, or 

3. automatic fire suppression system. 

The fireresistance rating provided shall not be less than the rating re- 
quired by Table 214 for type of construction. 

905.7.2 Protected noncombustible construction: In all buildings of pro- 
tected noncombustible (Type 2A) construction, more than four (4) stories 
or fifty (50) feet in height, in other than residential (R) use groups, the 
floor-ceiling assembly above the basement or cellar shall be constructed 
with a fireresistance rating of not less than two (2) hours. 

905.7.3 Basement assembly uses: Places of public assembly for amuse- 
ment, entertainment, instruction, or service of food or refreshment shall 
not be located in stories or rooms below grade unless the floor-ceiling 
assembly above and below is of not less than one and one-half (1 1/2) 
hour fireresistance rating. 

905.8 Noncombustible construction exemptions: One (1) story buildings 
of Type 2C construction which do not exceed three thousand (3,000) 
square feet in area in all use groups except high hazard (H), assembly 
(A) and institutional (I) shall be exempt from all protected exterior wall 
requirements . 

905.9 Interior partitions: In buildings and structures of other than 
institutional (I) and residential (R) use groups of fireproof (Type 1) and 
protected noncombustible (Types 2A and 2B) constructions, partitions of 
a single thickness of wood or approved composite panels, and glass or 
other approved materials of similar combustible characteristics, may be 
used to subdivide rooms or spaces into offices, entries, or other similar 
compartments, provided they do not establish a corridor serving an 
occupant load of thirty (30) or more in areas occupied by a single tenant 
and not exceeding five thousand (5,000) square feet between fire separa- 
tion assemblies or fire walls. An area not exceeding seventy-five hun- 
dred (7500) square feet may be subdivided with fireretardant treated 
wood when complying with Section 903.6. 

905.10 Plenums: The use of uninhabited basements, cellars, crawl 
spaces, cavity walls, areas above ceilings or attic spaces as supply, make 
up, exhaust air or return air plenums or ducts is prohibited. 

Exception: Air-ceiling plenums may be installed as supply or return air 
plenums in all occupancies except one- and two-family dwellings, provid- 
ed such air plenums meet the requirements of other applicable articles 
of this code and of the mechanical code listed in Appendix B and pro- 
vided fuel-fired equipment or exposed combustible materials are not 
located therein. The use of air-ceiling plenums shall be confined to one 
(1) fire area. The floor or roof assembly above an unlisted air-ceiling 
plenum shall not depend upon the air ceiling for a portion of its fire- 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



resistive rating. Insulated cold water, hot water, steam, fire protec- 
tion and electric lines are allowed in air-ceiling plenums. The use of 
air-ceiling plenums in evaporative cooling systems is prohibited. Pan- 
ning of the joist or stud space for return air is permitted in one-and 
two-family dwellings only. Crawl spaces not used as storage areas in 
one- and two-family dwellings may be used for air distribution systems. 

905.11 Fire dampers: Except when proper fire tests have shown that 
fire dampers are not necessary to maintain the integrity of the fireresis- 
tance rated assembly, fire dampers complying with the SMACNA Fire 
Damper Guide, listed in Appendix B or UL 555 listed in Appendix G, 
shall be installed in the following locations: 

1. Ducts penetrating a fire wall. (When a fire wall is of three (3) 
hour or greater fire endurance, a fire door is required.) 

2. Ducts passing through a fire separation wall. 

3. Ducts penetrating a fireresistance rated shaft wall. Sub-ducts 
extending twenty-two (22) inches vertically upward may be used in 
lieu of fire dampers for exhaust ducts. 

4. Ducts penetrating the ceiling of a fireresistance rated floor /roof- 
ceiling assembly. 

5. Ducts penetrating fireresistance rated corridor walls, unless the 
building is completely sprinklered or unless the ducts are part of 
an engineered smoke removal system. 

SECTION 906.0 EXTERIOR WALLS 

906.1 General: All exterior walls shall comply with the structural provi- 
sions of Articles 7 and 8 and with the fireresistance rating requirements 
of Table 214. 

906.2 Exceptions: The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to 
prohibit the omission of exterior walls for all or part of a story when 
required for special uses and occupancies; except that when so omitted, 
the open areas shall be separated from the rest of the area and from the 
upper and lower stories of the building by wall and floor construction of 
the fireresistance rating required in Table 214; and except as otherwise 
specifically permitted in this code, the piers, columns and other struc- 
tural supports within the open portion shall be constructed with the 
fireresistance rating required for exterior bearing walls in Table 214. 

906.3 Vertical separation of windows 

906.3.1 Where required: In all buildings and structures designed for 
business (B), factory and industrial (F), high hazard (H), mercantile 
(M) or storage (S) uses, exceeding three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in 
height, openings located vertically above one another in exterior walls 
which are required to have a fireresistance rating of more than one (1) 
hour shall be separated by apron or spandrel walls not less than three 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



(3) feet in height extending between the top of any opening and the 
bottom of the opening next above . 

906. 3. 2 Fireresistance rating: The apron or spandrel walls shall be 
constructed with the same fireresistance rating required for the exterior 
wall in which it is located as specified in Table 214; except when such 
required rating exceeds one (1) hour, approved wire glass construction 
in fixed noncombustible sash and frames not exceeding one-third (1/3) of 
the area of such apron or spandrel may be located therein, and except 
further that in exterior non-bearing enclosure walls which are not re- 
quired to be of more than one (1) hour fireresistance rating the provi- 
sions of this section in respect to apron or spandrel walls shall not ap- 
ply. 

SECTION 907.0 FIRE WALLS AND PARTY WALLS 

907.1 General: Walls shall have sufficient structural stability under fire 
conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse 
of the wall and shall be constructed of any approved noncombustible 
materials providing the required strength and fireresistance rating speci- 
fied in Table 214 for the type of construction, but not less than the fire 
grading of the use group specified in Table 902. The construction shall 
comply with all the structural provisions for bearing or non-bearing walls 
of this code. 

907 . 2 Solid masonry : When constructed of solid masonry , the wall thick- 
ness shall be not less than the requirements of Section 866.0. 

907.3 Reinforced concrete: When constructed of reinforced concrete, the 
wall thickness shall be not less than nine (9) inches for the uppermost 
thirty-five (35) feet or portion thereof measured down from the top of the 
wall. 

907.4 Cutting walls: A wall, eight (8) inches or less in thickness, shall 
not be cut for chases or socketed for insertion of structural members 
subsequent to erection (see Section 837.0). 

907.5 Hollow masonry and cavity walls: When combustible members frame 
into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, all hollow spaces shall be solidly 
filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a distance not less than 
four (4) inches above, below and between the structural members, with 
noncombustible materials approved for firestopping in Section 919.0. The 
wall shall be not less than the minimum thickness specified in the Building 
Code Requirements for Masonry listed in Appendix B. 

907.6 Combustible insulation: The building official may permit the appli- 
cation of cork, fiberboard or other combustible insulation if laid up with- 
out intervening air spaces and attached directly to the face of the wall, 
and protected on the exposed surface as provided in Sections 823.0 and 
876.0. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



907.7 Continuity of walls: In all buildings and structures, walls shall be 
continuous from foundation to two (2) feet eight (8) inches above the roof 
surface, except for the following: 

1. The wall may terminate at the underside of the roof deck where the 
roof is of noncombustible construction and is properly firestopped 
at the wall. 

2. The wall may terminate at the underside of the roof deck in Types 
3 and 4 construction if properly firestopped, and the roof sheathing 
or deck is constructed of approved noncombustible materials for a 
distance of four (4) feet on either side of the wall and combustible 
material does not extend through or over the wall. 

907.8 Offset fire walls: If fire walls are offset at intermediate floor 
levels in fire-protected skeleton frame construction, the offset floor 
construction and the intermediate wall supports shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials with a fireresistance rating not less than that 
required for the fire wall. 

SECTION 908.0 FIRE WALL OPENINGS 

908.1 General: Openings in fire walls shall not exceed the limits in size 
and area herein prescribed and the opening protectives shall conform to 
the provisions of Sections 903.0 and 914.0. 

908.2 Size of opening: Except in sprinklered buildings, an opening 
through a fire wall shall not exceed one hundred twenty (120) square feet 
in area, and aggregate width of all openings at any floor level shall not 
exceed twenty-five (25) per cent of the length of the wall. 

908.2.1 First story exception: When the entire areas on both sides of a 
fire wall are protected with an approved automatic fire suppression system 
complying with the requirements of Article 12, openings designed for the 
passage of trucks may be constructed not more than two hundred forty 
(240) square feet in area with a minimum distance of three (3) feet be- 
tween adjoining openings. Such openings shall be protected with ap- 
proved automatic opening protectives of three (3) hour fireresistance 
rating and provided with an approved water curtain for such openings in 
addition to all other requirements. 

908.3 Opening protectives: Every opening in a fire wall shall be protec- 
ted on both sides with an approved automatic protective assembly as 
herein required, or the approved labeled equivalent, except horizontal 
exit openings. 

908.3.1 Hold-open devices: Heat-actuated hold-open devices used on an 
automatic fire assembly providing three (3) hour fireresistance rating 
shall be installed, one (1) on each side of the wall at ceiling height where 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



the ceiling is more than three (3) feet above the opening. Fire assem- 
blies protecting openings required to have one and one-half (1 1/2), one 
(1) or three-fourths (3/4) hour fireresistance rating, and which are not 
exitway doors, may be activated in a similar manner, or by a single 
fusible link incorporated in the closing device. Doors opening in a means 
of egress shall be closed by actuation of a smoke detector conforming to 
the standards listed in Appendix I. 

SECTION 909.0 FIRE SEPARATION WALLS 

909 . 1 Uses 

909.1.1 Mixed uses: When a building contains more than one (1) occu- 
pancy, and each part of the building is separately classified as to use, 
the mixed uses shall be completely separated with fire separation walls as 
specified in Section 213.0. 

909.1.2 One- and two-family dwellings: The requirements for the con- 
struction of fire separation walls in buildings containing single-family 
dwellings or two-family dwellings (use group R-3 or R-4) are as follows: 

Two-family dwelling, superimposed dwelling units: When one (1) 
dwelling unit of a two-family dwelling is located wholly or partly above 
the other dwelling unit, the two (2) dwelling units shall be completely 
separated by fire separation walls and floor-ceiling assemblies of not 
less than one (1) hour fireresistance rated construction. 
Two-family dwelling, side-by-side dwelling units: When adjacent 
dwelling units of a two-family dwelling are attached by a common wall, 
said wall shall be a fire separation wall, having a minimum one (1) hour 
fireresistance rating that shall serve to completely separate the dwelling 
units . 

Multiple, single-family dwellings; side-by-side: When multiple, single- 
family dwellings (use group R-3) are attached by a common wall, said 
wall shall be a fire separation wall, having a minimum one (1) hour 
fireresistance rating. Said wall shall extend from the foundation to the 
underside of the roof sheathing, and to the inside of the exterior wall 
sheathing . 

Multiple, two-family dwellings; side-by-side: When multiple, two-family 
dwellings (use group R-3) are attached by a common wall, said wall 
shall be a fire separation wall, having a minimum one (1) hour fireresis- 
tance rating. Said wall shall extend from the foundation to the under- 
side of the roof sheathing and to the inside of the exterior wall 
sheathing . 

909.1.3 Exitways: Fire separation walls required for the enclosure of 
exitways and areas of refuge shall be constructed of masonry, reinforced 
concrete or any other approved noncombustible materials having the 
minimum fireresistance rating prescribed by Table 214; except that such 
walls may be constructed of combustible materials as regulated by Sections 
616.9 and 909.3. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



909.1.4 Other uses: Fire separation walls used for subdividing purposes 
other than exitways and areas of refuge shall be constructed of the types 
of materials and have the minimum fireresistance rating as prescribed by 
Table 214 for the type of construction. 

909.2 Openings 

909.2.1 Size: Exitway doors located in fire separation walls shall be 
limited to a maximum aggregate width of twenty-five (25) per cent of the 
length of the wall and the maximum area of any single opening shall not 
exceed forty-eight (48) square feet. 

909.2.2 Protectives: All opening protectives in fire separation walls 
shall comply with the provisions of Section 903.0 and shall have the 
minimum fireresistance rating as set forth in Section 915.0. 

909.3 Combustible stair enclosures 

909.3.1 Construction: Stair enclosures constructed of approved combus- 
tible assemblies protected with component materials to afford the required 
fireresistance ratings shall be continuous through combustible floor con- 
struction and shall provide an unbroken fire barrier in combination with 
protected floors, ceilings and fire doors, separating the exitways from the 
unprotected areas of the building. Such enclosures shall be firestopped 
to comply with Sections 875.9 and 919.0. 

909.3.2 Openings for lighting: Openings for the purpose of providing 
light in such enclosures may be protected with wired glass with single 
panes not more than three hundred sixty (360) square inches in area and 
a total area in one (1) story of not more than seven hundred twenty 
(720) square inches. Such light panels shall comply with the provisions 
of Section 917.0, and shall be contained in stationary sash and frames of 
steel or other approved noncombustible materials. 

909.4 Continuity: All fire separation walls shall extend from the top of 
the fireresistance rated floor below to the ceiling above, unless otherwise 
provided for in this code, and shall be securely attached thereto. Where 
these walls enclose required exitways, areas of refuge and shafts, or 
where these walls separate mixed uses, they must be continuous through 
all concealed spaces such as the space above a suspended ceiling, and 
they must be constructed tight to the underside of the floor slab or roof 
deck above. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the 
required fireresistance rating of the wall supported. All hollow vertical 
spaces shall be firestopped at every floor level as required in Sections 

875.0 and 919.0. 

SECTION 910.0 VERTICAL SHAFTS 

910.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to all vertical 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



shaft enclosures, except as provided for stairway enclosures in Sections 
616.9 and 909.0, refuse chutes in Section 1107.0, and elevator and dumb- 
waiter hoistways in Article 16. 

910.2 Open shaft enclosures: The enclosing wall of shafts that are open 
to the outer air at the top shall be constructed of materials specified in 
Article 8 for exterior walls of buildings and structures of the required 
fireresistance rating specified in Table 214. 

910.3 Covered shaft enclosures: The enclosing walls and the top of in- 
terior covered shafts shall be constructed of approved masonry, rein- 
forced concrete or other approved construction with a fireresistance 
rating of not less than two (2) hours, except as provided in Section 
910.4. 

910.4 Shafts in residential buildings: In one- and two-family dwellings of 
other than fireproof or noncombustible construction, shafts may be sup- 
ported on and constructed of combustible materials or assemblies having a 
fireresistance rating of not less than one (1) hour and shall extend not 
less than three (3) feet above the roof with a ventilating skylight of non- 
combustible construction as specified in Section 925.0. 

910.5 Duct and pipe shafts: In all buildings other than one- and two- 
family dwellings, vertical pipes arranged in groups of two (2) or more 
which penetrate two (2) or more floors and occupy an area of more than 
one (1) square foot, and vertical ducts which penetrate two (2) or more 
floors, shall be enclosed by construction of not less than one (1) hour 
fireresistance rating to comply with this section. All combustible pipes 
and ducts connecting two (2) or more stories shall be enclosed as indi- 
cated herein. 

910.6 Top enclosure 

910.6.1 Not extending to roof: A shaft that does not extend into the 
top story of the building shall be enclosed with top construction of the 
same strength and fireresistance rating as the floors of the building or 
structure in which it occurs, but not less than that of the fireresistance 
rating of the shaft enclosure. Such shafts shall be provided with non- 
combustible vents for the relief of smoke and gases in the event of fire, 
with an area not less than ten (10) per cent of the shaft area. 

910.6.2 Extending to roof: All shafts that extend to the roofs of build- 
ings shall be covered at the top with a thermostatically controlled skylight 
of not less than ten (10) per cent of the area of the shaftway, construct- 
ed in accordance with the requirements of Section 925.0. The automatic 
operation of the skylight may be controlled by fusible links designed to 
operate at a fixed temperature of not more than one hundred sixty (160) 
degrees F. or by electric or pneumatic operation under a rapid rise in 
temperature at a rate of fifteen (15) to twenty (20) degrees F. per min- 
ute or by other approved methods. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



910.6.3 Alternate shaft ventilation: The skylight herein required may be 
replaced by a window of equivalent area in the side of the shaft, provi- 
ded the sill of such window is not less than two (2) feet above the ad- 
joining roof, is equipped with an automatic vent opening, does not face 
on an interior lot line or within ten (10) feet thereof, and is not located 
within twenty (20) feet of an opening in adjacent walls. 

910.7 Bottom enclosure: All shafts that do not extend to the bottom of 
building or structure shall be enclosed at the lowest level with construc- 
tion of the same strength and fireresistance rating as the lowest floor 
through which they pass, but not with a fireresistance rating less than 
that of the shaft enclosure. 

910.8 Existing shaftways: In all existing shaftways of buildings of 
assembly (use group A) and institutional classifications (use group I), 
which are not already enclosed as herein required, the building official 
shall direct such construction as he may deem necessary to insure the 
safety of the occupants, subject to review as provided in Section 126.0. 

910.9 Shaft openings: Openings other than necessary for the purpose of 
the shaftway shall not be constructed in shaft enclosures; and all open- 
ings shall be protected with approved fire doors, fire windows or fire 
shutters complying with the provisions of Sections 914.0, 915.0 and 
916.0. 

SECTION 911.0 FIRERESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 

911.1 Requirements: The fireresistance rating of construction assemblies 
and structural members shall comply with the requirements of Table 214 
and Section 903.0. 

911.2 Protection of structural members: Columns, girders, trusses, 
beams, lintels, or other structural members that are required to have a 
fireresistance rating and that support more than two (2) floors or one (1) 
floor and roof, or support a bearing wall, or a non-bearing wall more 
than two (2) stories high, shall be individually protected on all sides for 
their length or height with materials having the required fireresistance 
rating. All other structural members required to have a fireresistance 
rating may be protected by individual encasement, by a membrane or 
ceiling protection as specified in Section 912.0, or by a combination of 
both. 

911.3 Embedments and enclosures: Pipes, wires, conduits, ducts or 
other service facilities shall not be embedded in the required fire protec- 
tive covering of a structural member that is required to be individually 
encased. 

911.4 Impact protection: Where the fire protective covering of a struc- 
tural member is subject to impact damage from moving vehicles, the han- 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



dling of merchandise, or other activity, the fire protective covering shall 
be protected by corner guards or by a substantial jacket of metal or 
other noncombustible material, to a height adequate to provide full protec- 
tion, but not less than five (5) feet from the finished floor. 

911.5 Deleted 

911.6 Wall beams: Beams and girders which support walls required to 
have a fireresistance rating shall be protected to afford not less than the 
fireresistance rating of the wall supported, but the fireresistance rating 
shall not be less than one (1) hour for members supporting masonry 
walls . 

911.7 Wall lintels: Unless supported or suspended from structural wall 
girders protected with insulating materials of the required fireresistance 
rating or when the opening is spanned by a masonry arch of the required 
strength, all lintels over openings in masonry walls more than eight (8) 
feet in length shall be protected as required for structural members 
supporting walls for the type of construction. 

911.7.1 Stone lintels: The use of stone lintels on spans exceeding four 
(4) feet shall not be permitted unless supplemented by fireresistance 
rated structural members or masonry arches of the required strength to 
support the superimposed loads. 

911.8 First story columns: In buildings of exterior masonry wall (Type 
3) construction, required fire protection may be omitted from first story 
columns supporting enclosure walls located on the street lot line (see 
Section 217.0). 

SECTION 912.0 FIRERESISTANCE RATED FLOOR/ROOF-CEILING 

ASSEMBLIES 

912.1 Installation of ceiling fixtures: Fireresistive ceilings which consti- 
tute an integral part of a floor or roof assembly to meet a required fire- 
resistance rating may have openings to accommodate noncombustible pip- 
ing, ducts or electric outlets. The aggregate area of such openings in 
the ceiling shall be not greater than one hundred (100) square inches in 
any one hundred (100) square feet of ceiling area. The fixtures and 
attachments shall be installed so as not to decrease the fireresistance 
rating of the assembly. All duct openings shall be protected with ap- 
proved noncombustible fire dampers. 

912.2 Ceiling panels: Where the weight of lay-in ceiling panels, used as 
a part of fireresistive floor-ceiling or roof-ceiling assemblies, is not 
adequate to resist an upward force of one (1) pound per square foot 
(psf), wire or other approved devices shall be installed above the panels 
to prevent vertical displacement under such upward force. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



912.3 Deleted 

912.4 Deleted 

912.5 Deleted 

912.6 Unusable space: In an assembly required to be of one (1) hour 
fireresistance rating, the ceiling membrane may be omitted over unusable 
space or the floor may be omitted where unusable space occurs above. 

912.7 Openings in fireresistance rated floors: The required fire resis- 
tance rating of floor or floor/ceiling assemblies shall be maintained where 
a penetration is made for electrical, mechanical, plumbing and communica- 
tion conduits, pipes and systems. 

SECTION 913.0 ROOF CONSTRUCTION 

913.1 General: Roof construction shall be protected with noncombustible 
material or assemblies of noncombustible materials to afford the fireresis- 
tance rating required by Table 214 as herein modified. 

913.2 Roofs 20 feet or higher: When every part of the structural frame- 
work of roofs in Type 1 or Type 2 buildings is twenty (20) feet or more 
above the floor immediately below, all fire protection of the structural 
members may be omitted, including the protection of trusses, roof framing 
and decking. Heavy timber members, in accordance with Section 217.1, 
may be used for such unprotected members in one (1) story buildings. 

Exception: Buildings of H (High Hazard), S-l (Moderate Hazard Stor- 
age) or M (Mercantile) occupancies when of Types 1 or 2A construction 
shall not have less than one (1) hour fireresistance rated roof construc- 
tion. 

913.3 Roof slabs, arches and decking: Where the omission of fire pro- 
tection from roof trusses, roof framing and decking is permitted, the 
horizontal or sloping roofs in Type 1 and Type 2 buildings, immediately 
above such members, shall be constructed of noncombustible materials of 
the required strength without a specified fireresistance rating, or of mill 
type construction in buildings not over five (5) stories or sixty-five (65) 
feet in height. 

913.4 Firestopping: Firestopping of ceiling and attic spaces shall be 
provided as required by Sections 875.0, 912.0 and 919.0. 

SECTION 914.0 EXTERIOR OPENING PROTECTIVES 

914.1 Where required: Where specified herein, the exterior openings of 
all buildings and structures other than churches (use group A-4), resi- 
dential buildings (use groups R-2, R-3 and R-4), buildings of unprotect- 
ed noncombustible (Type 2C) construction, and buildings of frame (Type 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



4) construction shall have approved opening protectives meeting the 
requirements of this code and the provisions of Article 4 for special uses 
and occupancies. 

914.2 Horizontal exposure: Approved protectives shall be provided in 
every opening where the perpendicular fire separation is less than fifteen 
(15) feet. 

914.3 Vertical exposure: Approved protectives shall be provided in 
every opening which is less than fifty (50) feet vertically above the roof 
of an adjoining or adjacent structure that is within a horizontal distance 
of thirty (30) feet perpendicular to the wall in which the opening is 
located, unless such roof construction affords a fireresistance rating of 
not less than one and one-half ( 1 1/2) hours. 

914.4 First story openings: The required fireresistance rated opening 
protectives may be omitted in first story openings facing on a street or 
other public space not less than thirty (30) feet wide, when not extend- 
ing more than twenty-five (25) feet above grade. 

914.5 Protected openings: Required protective assemblies in exterior 
openings shall be fixed, or they may be self-closing, or provided with 
approved automatic self-closing devices. 

914.6 Unprotected openings: Where a fireresistance rating is not re- 
quired by this section for openings in exterior walls, window assemblies 
and doors may be of unprotected wood. Glazing shall conform to the 
requirements of Article 8 and Article 19. 

SECTION 915.0 FIRE DOORS 

915.1 Fire door assemblies: Approved fire door assemblies as defined in 
this code shall be constructed of any material or an assembly of compo- 
nent materials which meets the test requirements of Section 903.0 and the 
fireresistance ratings herein required, unless otherwise specifically pro- 
vided for in this code. 

Table 915 
FIRE DOOR FIRERESISTANCE RATINGS 



— Fireresistance 

rating in hours 
Location 

Fire walls and fire separation walls of three (3) or more hour construction ...... 3 

Fire walls fire separation walls and exitway enclosures of two (2) hour construction V 

Shaft enclosures and elevator hoistways of two (2) hour construction /z 

Shaft enclosures of one il) hour construction . . , 

Fire separation wa lls of one (1) hour construction /4 " w " 

Note a: One and three-quarter ,13/,) inch solid wood core or pressed wood part,cle board flush 
doors are acceptable (see Section 610.4.1). 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



915.2 Labeled protective assemblies: Labeled protective assemblies meet- 
ing the requirements of Sections 903.4.2 and 903.4.4 and the applicable 
fire protective standards listed in Appendix I, including shop inspection, 
shall be approved for use as provided for in this code. 

915.3 Multiple doors 

915.3.1 Fire walls: Two (2) doors, each with a fireresistance rating of 
one and one-half Oh) hours, installed on opposite sides of the same open- 
ing, shall be deemed equivalent in fireresistance rating to one (1) three 
(3) hour fire door. 

9153.2 Fire separation walls: Two (2) doors of three-quarter (3/4) hour 
fireresistance rating each, installed on opposite sides of the same opening 
shall be deemed equivalent in fireresistance rating to a one and one-half 
Oh) hour fire door; except when used in a required exitway. 

915.4 Glass panels: wired glass panels shall be permitted in fire doors 
within the limitations of Section 917.0 and as herein specifically pre- 
scribed . 

915.5 Closing devices: Except as may be otherwise provided for open- 
ings in fire walls and fire separation walls, all fire doors shall be self- 
closing and shall be closed during occupancy of the building or part 
thereof. The building official may accept the use of rate of rise heat ac- 
tuated devices meeting the requirements of the approved rules on doors 
that are normally required to be open for ventilation or other specified 
purposes when the safety of the occupants is not endangered thereby. 

SECTION 916.0 FIRE WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS 

916.1 Fireresistance rating: Approved assemblies of fire windows and fire 
shutters shall meet the test requirements of Section 903.0, or shall be 
approved labeled assemblies meeting the requirements of Section 903.4.4. 

916.1.1 Exception: Steel window frame assemblies of one-eighth (1/8) 
inch minimum solid section or of not less ' than No. 18 Manufacturer's 
Standard Gauge (0.048 in.) formed sheet steel members fabricated by 
pressing, mitering, riveting, interlocking or welding and having provision 
for glazing with one-quarter (1/4) inch wired glass as required in Section 
917.0 when securely installed in the building construction and glazed with 
one-quarter (1/4) inch labeled wired glass, shall be deemed to meet the 
requirements for a three-quarter (3/4) hour fire window assembly. 

916.2 Window mullions: All metal mullions which exceed a nominal height 
of twelve (12) feet shall be protected with insulating materials to afford 
the same fireresistance rating as required for the wall construction in 
which the protective is located. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



916.3 Swinging fire shutters: When fire shutters of the swinging type 
are used in exterior openings, not less than one (1) row in every three 
(3) vertical rows shall be arranged to be readily opened from the outside 
and shall be identified by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 
six (6) inches high. 

916.4 Rolling fire shutters: When fire shutters of the rolling type are 
used, they shall be of approved counterbalance construction that can be 
readily opened from the outside. 

SECTION 917.0 WIRED GLASS 

917.1 Maximum size: One-quarter (1/4) inch wired glass, which has 
been listed and labeled for use in approved labeled opening protectives, 
may be used with the size limitations described in Table 917. 

Table 917 



LIMITING SIZE OF WIRED GLASS PANELS 




Rating, opening 


Max. area 
sq. in. 


Max. height 
inches 


Max. width 
inches 


3 hour, Class A door 
1 & IV2 hour, Class B doors 
% hour, Class C door 
1 V2 hour, Class D door 
% hour, Class E door 
Fire windows 




100 

1296 


1296 
1296 




33 
54 



54 
54 



10 
54 



54 
54 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



917.1.1 Fire walls: Wired glass in fire doors located in fire walls shall 
be prohibited, except when serving as horizontal exits. In such instanc- 
es, the self-closing swinging door may be provided with a vision panel of 
not more than one hundred (100) square inches without a dimension 
exceeding twelve (12) inches. 

917.1.2 Fire separation walls: Wired glass vision panels may be used in 
fire doors of one and one-half (1 1/2) hour fireresistance rating intended 
for use in fire separation walls; but the glass panels shall not be more 
than one hundred (100) square inches. 

917.2 Exitway protectives: Unless specifically required in Article 4 to 
be solid in such locations where unusually hazardous conditions prevail, 
fire doors in elevator and stairway shaft enclosures may be equipped with 
approved wired glass vision panels which shall be so located as to furnish 
clear vision of the passageway or approach to the elevator or stairway. 
Such vision panels shall not exceed the size limitations specified for Class 
B doors. 

917.3 Fire separation walls: One-quarter (1/4) inch wired glass panels 
may be used in fire separation walls used for subdividing purposes as set 
forth in Section 909.1.3, provided the required fireresistance rating of 
the wall does not exceed one (1) hour. The maximum size of such panels 
shall not exceed the limitations for a three-quarter (3/4) hour Class C 
door. 

SECTION 918.0 FIRERESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR PLASTER 

918.1 Thickness of plaster: The required thickness of fireresistance 
rated plaster protection shall be determined by the prescribed fire tests 
for specified use and type of construction and in accordance with the 
provisions of Section 819.0 for interior plastering and Section 820.0 for 
exterior plaster (stucco). The thickness in all cases shall be measured 
from the face of the lath when applied to fiber board, wood, or gypsum 
lath and from the back of metal lath. 

918.2 Plaster equivalents: For fireresistive purposes, one-half (1/2) 
inch of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed equivalent to three- 
quarter (3/4) inches of one (1) to three (3) sanded gypsum or one (1) 
inch portland cement sand plaster. 

918.3 Noncombustible furring: In fireproof (Type 1) and noncombustible 
(Type 2) construction, plaster shall be applied directly on masonry or on 
approved noncombustible plastering base and furring. 

918.4 Double reinforcement: Except in solid plaster partitions, or when 
otherwise determined by the prescribed fire tests, plaster protections 
more than one (1) inch in thickness shall be reinforced with an additional 
layer of approved lath imbedded at least three-quarter (3/4) inch from 
the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



918.5 Plaster alternate for concrete: In reinforced concrete construc- 
tion, gypsum or portland cement plaster may be substituted for one-half 
(1/2) inch of the required concrete protection, except that a minimum 
thickness of three-eighths (3/8) inch of concrete shall be provided 
around the reinforcement in all reinforced concrete floors and one (1) 
inch in reinforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish, and 
the concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 820.7. 

SECTION 919.0 FIRESTOPPING AND DRAFTSTOPPING 

919.1 General: To prevent the free passage of flame and products of 
combustion through concealed spaces or openings in the event of fire, 
provisions shall be made to provide effective firestops or draftstops as 
herein specified. 

919.2 Firestopping materials: All firestopping shall consist of approved 
noncombustible materials securely fastened in place. Firestops of two (2) 
thicknesses of one (1) inch lumber with broken lap joint or one thickness 
of three-quarter (3/4) inch plywood with joints backed by three-quarter 
(3/4) inch plywood or of two (2) inch lumber installed with tight joints 
shall be permitted in open spaces of wood framing. 

919.3 Draftstopping materials: Draftstopping materials shall be not less 
than one-half (1/2) inch gypsum board, three-eighths (3/8) inch plywood 
or other approved materials adequately supported. 

919.4 Integrity: The integrity of all firestopping and draftstopping shall 
be continuously maintained. 

919.5 Required inspection: Firestopping and draftstopping shall not be 
concealed from view until inspected and approved by the building official. 

919.6 Firestopping required: Firestopping shall be provided in the 
following locations: 

1. In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred 
or studded-off spaces of masonry or concrete walls, at the ceiling 
and floor or roof levels. 

2. At all interconnections between vertical and horizontal spaces such 
as occur at soffits over cabinets, drop ceilings, cove ceilings, etc. 

3. In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 
of the run. 

4. At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at 
ceiling and floor levels, with noncombustible materials. 

5. In exterior cornices and other exterior architectural elements where 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



permitted of combustible construction in 924.0, or when erected 
with combustible frames, at maximum intervals of twenty (20) feet. 
If non-continuous, they shall have closed ends, with at least four 
(4) inches separation between sections. 

6. In the space behind combustible trim and finish where permitted 
under this code and all other hollow spaces where permitted in 
fireresistance rated construction at ten (10) foot intervals or the 
space shall be solidly filled with noncombustible materials. 

7. In concealed spaces formed by floor sleepers in areas of not more 
than one hundred (100) square feet, or the space shall be solidly 
filled with noncombustible materials. 

919.7 Draftstopping required: Draftstopping shall be provided in Types 
3B, 3C and 4 construction in the following locations: 

1. Where ceilings are suspended below solid wood joists or suspended 
or attached directly to the bottom of open web wood floor trusses, 
the space between the ceiling and the floor above shall be divided 
by providing draftstopping as follows: 

a. In use groups R-l and R-2 draftstopping shall be in line with 
the tenant separation walls when the walls do not extend to the 
floor sheathing above. 

b. In use groups R-3 and R-4 the space shall be divided into 
approximately equal areas with no area greater than five hund- 
red (500) square feet. The draftstopping shall be provided 
parallel to the main framing members. 

c. In all other use groups draftstopping shall be provided so that 
horizontal areas do not exceed one thousand (1,000) square 
feet. 

Exception: Where the space above a ceiling is of combustible 
construction and the building is sprinklered with sprinklers 
above and below the ceiling, the draftstopping may be omitted. 

2. Attics and concealed spaces: 

a. Use groups R-l and R-2: In the attic, mansard, overhang or 
other concealed roof space, above and in line with the tenant 
separation when the separation walls do not extend to the roof 
sheathing above. 

Exceptions : 

1. Where corridor walls provide a tenant separation, draft- 
stopping shall only be required above one of the corri- 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



dor walls. 

2. Where flat roofs with solid joist construction are used, 
draftstopping over tenant separation walls is not re- 
quired . 

3. Where the space above a ceiling is of combustible con- 
struction and the building is sprinklered with sprin- 
klers above and below the ceiling, the draftstopping 
may be omitted. 

b. Use groups R-3 and R-4: Draftstopping is not required in the 
attic space. 

c. In all other use groups: In attics and concealed roof spaces so 
that no horizontal area exceeds three thousand (3,000) square 
feet. 

Exceptions : 

1. Where flat roofs with solid joist construction are used, 
draftstopping over tenant separation walls is not re- 
quired . 

2. Where the space above a ceiling is of combustible con- 
struction and the building is sprinklered with sprin- 
klers above and below the ceiling, the draftstopping 
may be omitted. 

919.8 Ventilation: Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall be main- 
tained in accordance with Section 507.0. 

919.9 Access to attics: In use groups R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4, a readily 
accessible attic access opening not less than twenty-two (22) inches by 
thirty (30) inches shall be provided from every living unit to any attic 
area having a clear height of over thirty (30) inches. When doors or 
other openings are provided in the draftstopping, they shall be of ap- 
proved materials specified in this section, and the construction shall be 
tightly fitted around all pipes, ducts or other assemblies piercing the 
draftstopping . 

SECTION 920.0 INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH, FLOOR 
COVERINGS AND TRIM 

920.1 General: Interior finish and interior trim of buildings shall con- 
form to the requirements of this section. Interior finish shall include all 
wainscoting and paneling or other finish applied structurally or for acous- 
tical treatment, insulation, decoration or similar purposes. The use of a 
surface finish of paper or of material of not greater fire hazard than 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



paper shall not be prohibited provided such finish does not exceed one 
twenty-eighth (1/28) of an inch in thickness, and is applied directly to a 
noncombustible base or substrate meeting the requirements of Section 
903.6.2. Show windows in the first story of buildings may be of wood or 
of unprotected metal framing. 

920.2 Exposed construction: These requirements shall not be considered 
as requiring the installation of interior finish, but where construction or 
fire protection materials are exposed in rooms or spaces used for the 
occupancies specified, the hazard from rate of flame spread of such 
exposed materials shall be not greater than that of the interior finish 
permitted for such occupancy or use. Exposed portions of structural 
members complying with the requirements for heavy timber type construc- 
tion in Sections 217.0 and 853.0 shall not be subject to interior finish 
regulations . 

920.3 Smoke or gases: Interior finish materials shall not be permitted 
that have a smoke developed factor greater than four hundred fifty (450) 
when tested in accordance with the Method of Test For Surface Burning 
Characteristics of Building Materials (ASTM E84) listed in Appendix G. 
When restrictions are not otherwise established in this code, interior 
finish is not controlled, except that pyroxlin or similar finishes shall not 
be applied which, as dry films, produce excessive smoke or toxic fumes 
when exposed to fire. 

920.4 Materials: Material may be used for interior finish and trim only 
as specifically provided in this code for the occupancy or use of the 
space in which it is installed. Use of any material for floor finish, inte- 
rior finish, and trim in a building of Type 1 or Type 2 construction 
within the scope permitted in this section or Section 922.0 shall not 
declassify the building with respect to its type of construction. 

920.4.1 Foam plastics: Foam plastics shall not be used as interior fin- 
ish. 

920.5 Interior finish: Interior finish of walls and ceilings shall have a 
flame spread rating not greater than that designated by the class pre- 
scribed for the various occupancy groups listed in Table 920 when tested 
in accordance with the requirements of Section 904.0. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

Table 920 
INTERIOR FINISH REQUIREMENTS'" 





Required 


Corridors 






vertical 


providing 


Rooms or 




exitways and 


exitway 


enclosed 


Use groups 


passageways (d) 


access 


spaces (a) 


A-l Assembly.-theatres 




1 


1Kb) 


A-2 Assembly, night clubs 




1 


II (b) 


A-3 Assembly, halls, terminals, 




1 


II (b) 


restaurants 








A-4 Assembly, churches, schools 




1 


III 


B Business 




II 


III 


F Factory and industrial 




II 


III 


H High hazard 




II 


III 


1-1 Institutional, restrained 




1 


1(c) 


1-2 Institutional, incapacitated 




II 


1(c) 


M Mercantile walls, 




II 


III 


ceilings 




II 


11(e) 


R-l Residential, hotels (g) 




II 


III 


R-2 Residential, multi-family 




II 


III 


dwellings 








R-3 Residential, 1 and 2 family 


III 


III 


III 


dwellings 








S-l Storage, moderate hazard 




II 


III 


S-2 Storage, low hazard 




II 


III 



Note a. Requirements for rooms or enclosed spaces are based upon spaces enclosed in partitions of the 
building or structure, and where fireresistance rating is required for the structural elements the enclosing par- 
titions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions which do not comply with this shall be considered 
as enclosing spaces and the rooms or spaces on both sides thereof shall be counted as one. In determining 
the applicable requirements for rooms or enclosed spaces, the specific use or occupancy thereof shall be the 
governing factor, regardless of the occupancy group classification of the building or structure. When an ap- 
proved automatic fire suppression system is provided, the interior finish of Class II or III materials may be 
used in place of Class I or II materials respectively, where required in the table. 

Note b. Class III interior finish materials may be used in place of assembly with a capacity of three 
hundred (300) persons or less. 

Note e. Class III interior finish materials may be used in administrative areas. Class II interior finish mate- 
rials may be used in individual rooms of not over four (4) persons capacity. Provisions in Note a allowing a 
change in interior finish classes when fire suppression protection is provided shall not apply. 

Note d. Class III interior finish materials may be used for wainscoting or paneling for not more than one 
thousand (1,000) square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby when applied directly to a non-com- 
bustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fire-stopped as required by Section 
921.0. 

Note e. Class III interior finish materials may be used in mercantile occupancies of three thousand (3,000) 
square feet or less gross area. Used for sales purposes on the street floor only. (Balcony permitted). 

Note f. Carpeting and similar materials having napped, looped or similar surface may be used as 
interior finish* on walls and rpilinps only when they are Class I. 

Note g. interior finish in detoxification facilities shall comply with Table 

/1-5QJ i , 

920.5.1 Basements: In buildings other than 1- and 2-family residences, 
Class I or II interior finish shall be used in all basements or other un- 
derground spaces from which there is not direct exit to the outside of the 
building if subject to occupancy for any purpose other than storage or 
service facilities. 

920.5.2 Maximum flame spread: Interior finish materials with flame 
spread classifications in excess of two hundred (200) shall not be used in 
any room or space subject to human occupancy, except to such extent as 
may be specifically permitted by the building official on the basis of a 
finding that such use does not significantly increase the life hazard. 

920.6 Interior trim: Baseboards, chair-rails, mouldings, trim around 
openings and other interior trim, not in excess of ten (10) per cent of 
the aggregate wall and ceiling areas of any room or space, may be of 
Class I, II or III materials, except that trim around fire windows and fire 
doors shall comply with the reguirements of Section 915.0 and Section 
916.0. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



920.7 Floor covering 

920.7.1 Acceptance without tests: All wood, ceramic, concrete flooring 
and one-quarter (1/4) inch maximum thickness of resilient composition 
flooring shall be exempt from the requirements of this section unless the 
building official determines the floor surface is hazardous. 

920.7.2 Test acceptance criteria: Carpet type floor coverings, used in 
corridors and exitways in use groups A-l, A-2, 1-1 and 1-2 shall with- 
stand a test exposure of zero point forty-five (0.45) watts per square 
centimeter when tested in accordance with Section 904.3. Carpet type 
floor coverings, used in corridors and exitways in all other than the 
above use groups, and excepting R-3 and R-4 use groups, shall satisfac- 
torily withstand a test exposure of zero point twenty-two (0.22) watts per 
square centimeter when tested in accordance with Section 904.3. Where a 
complete standard system of automatic sprinklers is installed, carpet type 
floor coverings used in corridors and exitways of use groups A-l, A-2, 
1-1 and 1-2 shall satisfactorily withstand a test exposure of zero point 
twenty-two (0.22) watts per square centimeter. 

Exception: Carpeting in R-l detoxification facilities shall comply with 
Table 

Whenever the building official determines that the use of a particular 
floor finish in a particular use group constitutes a fire hazard, the build- 
ing official shall request other fire test data which is applicable to floor 
coverings . 

SECTION 921.0 APPLICATION OF INTERIOR FINISH 

921.1 Attachment: Where interior finish is regulated by the require- 
ments of this code, interior finish materials shall be applied or otherwise 
fastened in such a manner that they will not readily become detached 
when subjected to room temperatures of two hundred (200) degrees F. or 
less for thirty (30) minutes, or otherwise become loose through changes 
in the setting medium from the effects of time or conditions of occupancy. 

921.2 Application to structural elements: Interior finish materials applied 
to walls, ceilings, or structural elements of a building or structure which 
are required to be fireresistance rated or to be constructed of noncom- 
bustible component materials, shall be applied directly against the exposed 
surface of such structural elements, or to furring strips attached to such 
surfaces with all concealed spaces created thereby firestopped where in 
excess of ten (10) square feet in area or eight (8) feet in any dimension. 

921.3 Furred construction: Where walls, ceilings or other structural 
elements are required to be fireresistance rated or to be constructed of 
noncombustible component materials and interior finish is set out or 
dropped distances greater than one and three-quarter (1 3/4) inches from 
the surface of such elements, only material of which both faces qualify as 
Class I shall be used, unless the finish material is protected on both 
sides by an automatic fire suppression system (see Note a to Table 920) 

6/1/81 (Supp. 6/30/81) 397 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



or is attached to a noncombustible backing complying with Section 921.6 
or to furring strips applied directly to such backing as provided in 
Section 921.2. 

921.4 Heavy timber construction: Interior finish materials may be ap- 
plied directly to the wood members and decking of heavy timber (Type 
3A) construction, where permitted, or to furring strips applied to such 
members or wood decking as provided in Section 921.2. 

921.5 Class II and III material: Interior finish materials, other than 
Class I material, which are less than one-fourth (1/4) inch in thickness 
shall be applied directly against a noncombustible backing or a backing 
complying with the requirements of Section 903.6.2 unless the tests under 
which such material has been classed were made with the materials sus- 
pended from the noncombustible backing. 

921.6 Backing material: Backing for interior finish materials shall be a 
continuous surface with permanently tight joints, equal in area to the 
area of the finish, and extending completely behind such finish in all 
directions; and may be of any materials meeting the requirements of this 
code for noncombustible classification of material under Section 903.5.1 or 
of fire-retardant treated wood. When the backing does not constitute an 
integral part of the structural elements or system, it shall be attached 
directly to the structural elements or to furring strips as required for 
the application of finish according to Section 921.2, or may be suspended 
from the structural members at any distance provided concealed spaces 
created thereby shall be firestopped in accordance with the applicable 
requirements of this code. 

SECTION 922.0 COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS PERMITTED IN FLOOR 
CONSTRUCTION OF TYPE 1 AND 2 BUILDINGS 

922.1 General: Except as provided in Section 616.0 for stairs and 
Section 417.0 for theatres and similar places of public assembly (use 
groups A-l and A-2), the use of combustible materials in or on floors of 
Types 1 and 2 buildings shall be herein specified. 

922.2 Sleepers, bucks, and grounds: Floor sleepers, bucks, nailing 
blocks and grounds may be constructed of combustible materials, provided 
the space between the fireresistance rated floor construction and the 
flooring is either solidly filled with noncombustible materials or fire- 
stopped in areas of not more than one hundred (100) square feet, provi- 
ded such open spaces shall not extend under or through permanent 
partitions or walls. 

922.3 Flooring: Wood finish floorings may be attached directly to the 
embedded or firestopped wood sleepers and wood finish flooring shall be 
permitted when cemented directly to the top surface of approved fireresis- 
tance rated construction or cemented directly to a wood subfloor attached 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



to sleepers as provided in Section 922.2. Combustible insulating boards 
not more than one-half (1/2) inch thick and covered with approved fin- 
ished flooring may be used for sound deadening or heat insulating when 
attached directly to a noncombustible floor assembly or to wood subfloor- 
ing attached to sleepers as provided in Section 922.2. 

SECTION 923.0 DECORATIVE MATERIAL RESTRICTIONS 

923.1 General: In places of public assembly, all draperies, hangings, 
and other decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall be 
noncombustible or flameresistant meeting the reguirements of Section 904.0 
as herein specified. Compliance to 527 CMR 21.00 is also reguired for 
use groups therein specified (A, I, M, and R-l use groups). 

923.2 Noncombustible: The permissible amount of noncombustible decora- 
tive hangings shall not be limited. 

923.3 Flameresistant: The permissible amount of flameresistant decora- 
tive hangings shall not exceed ten (10) per cent of the total wall and 
ceiling area. 

SECTION 924.0 EXTERIOR TRIM RESTRICTIONS 

924.1 Gutters: All gutters hereafter placed on buildings and structures 
other than frame (Type 4) buildings, one- and two-family dwellings and 
private garages and similar accessory buildings shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials . 

924.2 Architectural trim 

924.2.1 Construction requirements: All architectural trim, such as 
cornices and other exterior architectural elements attached to the exterior 
walls of buildings of Types 1 and 2 construction shall be constructed of 
approved noncombustible materials and shall be secured to the wall with 
metal or other approved noncombustible brackets; except that outside the 
fire limits, such trim may be of combustible material when the building 
does not exceed three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height. Combusti- 
ble trim may be used on all buildings of Types 3 and 4 construction. 

924.2.2 Location: When combustible architectural trim is located along 
the top of exterior walls it must be completely backed up by the exterior 
wall and shall not extend over or above the top of exterior walls. 

924.2.3 Firestopping : Continuous exterior architectural trim constructed 
of combustible materials shall be firestopped as reguired in Section 919.0. 

924.3 Combustible half -timbering: In buildings of masonry (Type 3) 
construction that do not exceed three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in 
height, exterior half -timbering and similar architectural decorations may 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



be constructed of wood or other equivalent combustible materials , pro- 
vided such trim is backed up solidly with approved noncombustible 
materials . 

924.4 Balconies: All balconies attached to or supported by buildings of 
Types 1 and 2 construction shall be constructed of noncombustible materi- 
als. Balconies attached to or supported by buildings of Types 3 and 4 
construction may be of unprotected noncombustible materials or frame 
construction. Balconies of frame construction shall afford the fireresis- 
tance rating required by Table 214 for floor construction and the aggre- 
gate length shall not exceed fifty (50) per cent of the building perimeter 
on each floor. 

924.5 Bay and oriel windows: All bay and oriel windows attached to or 
supported by walls other than frame construction shall be of noncombusti- 
ble construction, framed with brackets of steel, concrete or other ap- 
proved noncombustible materials, unless specifically exempted by Section 
302.0. 

924.6 Existing combustible construction: Any existing cornice or other 
exterior architectural element constructed of wood or similar combustible 
materials may be repaired with the same material to the extent of fifty 
(50) per cent of its area in any one (1) year if the public safety is not 
thereby endangered. 

924.7 Wood veneers: Inside the fire limits, wood veneers are permitted 
in accordance with Section 302.0. 

SECTION 925.0 ROOF STRUCTURES 

925.1 General: All construction, other than aerial supports, clothes 
dryers and similar structures less than twelve (12) feet high, water tanks 
and cooling towers as hereinafter provided and flag poles, erected above 
the roof of any part of any building or structure located within the fire 
limits or of any building or structure more than forty (40) feet in height 
outside the fire limits shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. 

925.2 Scuttles: Trap doors and scuttles as required by Section 617.0 
shall be not less than two (2) feet by three (3) feet in size and shall be 
of fireresistance rated construction in fireproof (Types 1A and IB), and 
noncombustible (Type 2) buildings and of approved noncombustible ma- 
terials, or of wood covered on top and edges with sheet metal in exterior 
masonry (Type 3) and protected frame (Type 4A) buildings. 

925.3 Skylight 

925.3.1 Sash and frames: Sashes and frames of all skylights on build- 
ings of Types 1 and 2 construction shall be constructed of steel or other 
approved noncombustible materials. In foundries or buildings where acid 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



fumes deleterious to metal are incidental to the use of the building, 
treated wood or other approved noncorrosive materials shall be permitted. 

925.3.2 Structural requirements: When part of the roof system, sky- 
lights shall be designed to meet all structural requirements for roofs, 
specified in Article 7. Design of glazing shall be in accordance with 
glazing industry design methods. 

925.3.3 Mounting: All skylights having their glazing set at an angle of 
less than forty-five (45) degrees measured from the horizontal, shall be 
mounted at least four (4) inches above the plane of the roof on a curb 
constructed as required for the frame. 

925.3.4 Glazing materials: Skylights may be glazed with any of the fol- 
lowing glazed materials, subject to the noted limitations: laminated glass, 
wired glass, annealed glass, heat strengthened glass, tempered glass, 
glass block and light transmitting plastic. Annealed, heat strengthened 
and tempered glass shall be protected by screens as specified in Section 
925.3.5. Light transmitting plastic skylights shall meet the requirements 
of Section 1905.0. Glass construction shall conform to the requirements 
of Sections 811.0 and 860.0. 

925.3.5 Screens: Annealed glass skylights shall be protected from 
falling objects by screens above the skylight. Annealed, heat strength- 
ened and tempered glass skylights shall be equipped with screens below 
the skylight to protect building occupants from falling glazing should 
breakage occur. Screens shall be of noncombustible materials and shall 
have a mesh not larger than one-by-one (lxl) inches. They shall be 
constructed of not lighter than 12B and S Gage (0.0808 inches). Where 
utilized in a corrosive atmosphere, structurally equivalent noncorrosive 
materials shall be used. Screens above the skylight shall be at least four 
(4) inches above the skylight and shall project on all sides for a distance 
of not less than the height of the screen above the glass. When multiple 
layer glazing systems are used, a protective screen is not required when 
laminated glass is glazed on the interior surface. 

925.3.6 Venting skylights: Where required over shafts and stairs by 
Sections 515.2 and 910.6.2, venting skylights shall be glazed with a 
readily breakable glazing material. 

925.4 Penthouses: Penthouses shall be considered a part of the next 
lower story and the enclosure shall conform to the requirements for 
exterior walls of the building type as regulated by Table 214 and Article 
8 except as modified herein. 

925.4.1 Recessed walls: When the exterior wall of a penthouse is re- 
cessed five (5) feet or more from the exterior wall of the next lower 
story and the exterior wall of the next lower story is required to have a 
fireresistance rating of greater than one and one-half (1 1/2) hours, the 
penthouse exterior wall may be constructed with a fireresistance rating of 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



not less than one and one-half (1 1/2) hours, covered on the outside with 
noncombustible , weatherproof material and supported on protected steel or 
reinforced concrete construction. 

925.4.2 Doors, frames, and sash: Doors, frames, and window sash, 
except where otherwise specifically required to be fireproof or fireresis- 
tance rated under this code, shall be constructed the same as other 
similar elements in the building or structure. 

925.5 Other enclosed roof structures: Enclosed roof structures, other 
than the penthouses as defined in Article 2, shall be considered a story 
of the building and the enclosure shall conform to the requirements for 
exterior walls of the building type as regulated by Table 214 and Article 
8 and the provisions described in the following Sections 925.5.1 and 
925.5.2. 

925.5.1 Noncombustible materials: Unless constructed of masonry or 
reinforced concrete in accordance with Article 8, roof structures erected 
on buildings and structures of fireproof or noncombustible (Types 1 or 2) 
constructions shall be enclosed in walls of noncombustible materials having 
a fireresistance rating of not less than one (1) hour, protected with 
weather-resistive roof coverings complying with Section 926.0. 

925.5.2 Combustible materials: Roof structures erected on the roof of 
exterior masonry buildings (Type 3) and protected frame buildings (Type 
4A) may be constructed of combustible materials protected to afford a one 
(1) hour fireresistance rating covered on the outside with approved 
roofing materials. 

925.6 Mansard roofs and other sloping roofs 

925.6.1 High slope roofs: Every mansard roof or other sloping roof 
having a pitch of more than sixty (60) degrees to the horizontal hereafter 
erected on any building or structure of other than Type 4 frame con- 
struction more than three (3) stories or forty (40) feet in height shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials with a fireresistance rating of not 
less than one (1) hour; except that when the building is more than seven 
(7) stories or eighty-five (85) feet in height, such roofs shall afford the 
same fireresistance rating required for the exterior walls of the building 
but need not exceed one and one-half ( 1 1/2) hour fireresistance rating. 

925.6.2 Low slope roofs: When the pitch is less than sixty (60) degrees 
to the horizontal, the mansard roof or other sloping roof located on any 
building may be constructed of the same materials as required for the 
roof of the building. 

925.7 Dormers: The sides and roofs of dormers shall be of the same 
type of construction as the main roof construction; except that where a 
side of the dormer is merely a vertical extension of an exterior wall it 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



shall be subject to the same fireresistance rating requirements as apply to 
the wall of the building. The roofs of dormers shall be protected with 
approved roof coverings complying with Section 926.0. The side of 
dormers shall be protected with approved roof coverings or with material 
which would be permitted for covering the exterior walls of the building. 

925.8 Water tanks 

925.8.1 Supports: Water tanks having a capacity of more than five 
hundred (500) gallons placed in or on a building shall be supported on 
masonry, reinforced concrete, steel or other approved noncombustible 
framing or on timber conforming to heavy timber mill construction (Type 
3A); provided that, when such supports are located in the building above 
the lowest floor, they shall be fireresistance rated as required for fire- 
proof (Type 1A) construction. 

925.8.2 Emergency discharge: A pipe or outlet shall be located in the 
bottom or in the side close to the bottom, or the tank shall be fitted with 
a quick-opening valve to enable the contents to be discharged in an 
emergency to a suitable drain complying with the plumbing code listed in 
Appendix P. 

925.8.3 Location: A tank shall not be located over or near a stairway or 
elevator shaft unless a solid roof or floor deck is constructed underneath 
the tank. 

825.8.4 Tank cover: All unenclosed roof tanks exposed to the weather 
shall have approved covers sloping towards the outer edges. 

925.8.5 Hoop and strap protection: When metal hoops are used in the 
construction of wood tanks, they shall be protected with acceptable corro- 
sion-resistive coatings or shall be manufactured from approved corro- 
sion-resistive alloys. 

925.9 Cooling towers 

925.9.1 Located in fire limits: Within the fire limits, cooling towers 
erected on the roofs of buildings shall be constructed of noncombustible 
materials, except that drip bars may be of wood. Cooling towers may be 
constructed entirely of fire-retardant treated wood, including drip bars. 

925.9.2 Located outside fire limits: Outside the fire limits, cooling 
towers may be constructed of wood or other approved materials of similar 
combustible characteristics; except that when the base of the tower is 
more than fifty-five (55) feet above grade and the tower is located on a 
building, the drip bars only may be fabricated of combustible materials as 
herein provided. 

925.10 Miscellaneous roof structures: Except as herein specifically 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



provided, all towers, spires, dormers or cupolas shall be erected of the 
type of construction and fireresistance rating required for the building to 
which they are accessory as regulated by Tables 214 and 305; except that 
when the height of such appurtenant structures exceeds eighty-five (85) 
feet above grade or when the area at any horizontal section of the tower, 
spire, dormer or cupola exceeds two hundred (200) square feet or when 
it is used for any purpose other than as a belfry or architectural embel- 
lishment, the structure and its supports shall be of fireproof (Type 1) 
construction, noncombustible (Type 2) construction or fire-retardant 
treated wood complying with Sections 903.6.1 and 903.6.2. Radio and 
television towers and antennae shall be constructed to comply with Sec- 
tions 426.0 and 427.0. 

SECTION 926.0 ROOF COVERINGS 

926.1 Classification: All approved roof coverings shall meet the test 
requirements and be classified in accordance with Section 903.3 of this 
code. 

926.2 Existing roofs: The repair of existing roofs shall comply with 
provisions of Section 106.0 but more than twenty-five (25) per cent of 
the roof covering of any building shall not be replaced in a period of 
twelve (12) months unless the entire roof covering is made to conform to 
the requirements for new roofing. 

926.3 Classification of use 

926.3.1 Class A roof coverings: Class A roof coverings shall be permit- 
ted for use in buildings and structures of all types of construction. 

926.3.2 Class B roof coverings: Class B roof coverings shall be permit- 
ted as the minimum for use in buildings and structures of Type 1 con- 
struction. 

926.3.3 Class C roof coverings: Class C roof coverings shall be permit- 
ted as the minimum for use in buildings and structures of Types 2, 3 and 
4A construction. 

926.3.4 Non-classified roof coverings: Non-classified roof coverings 
shall be permitted on the buildings and structures listed below: 

1. Buildings and structures of unprotected frame (Type 4B) construc- 
tion when the distance from any other building is not less than 
twelve (12) feet. 

2. Private garages, airplane hangars and similar accessory structures, 
not exceeding one (1) story or twenty (20) feet in height and 
twenty-five hundred (2500) square feet in area, when outside the 
fire limits, located in the same lot with a dwelling and with a fire 
separation of not less than twelve (12) feet. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



3. Moderate and low hazard storage buildings (use groups S-l and 
S-2) not exceeding one (1) story or twenty (20) feet in height and 
six thousand (6,000) sguare feet in area with a fire separation of 
not less than twelve (12) feet. 

Fire walls may be used to obtain the required fire separation. 

926.4 Roof insulation: The use of cork, fiber board and other combusti- 
ble roof insulation shall be permitted provided it is covered with approved 
roof coverings directly applied thereto. 

926.5 Grounding of metal roofs: Whenever, because of hazard resulting 
from electrical equipment or apparatus located thereon, or because of 
proximity to power lines, or for any other reason, it is deemed necessary 
by the building official, metal roofs shall be grounded by bonding to- 
gether each course or strip and the bonding conductor or conductors 
shall be extended to and attached in an approved manner to the ground- 
ing electrode used to ground the electrical system within the building on 
which such metal roofing is applied. The conductors used to bond cour- 
ses or strips of metal roofing together, or any conductor extended for 
grounding to the grounding electrode, shall not have greater resistance 
than the conductor used to ground the electrical system within the build- 
ing. 

926.5.1 Alternate methods of grounding metal roofing: Alternate methods 
of grounding metal roofing may be used, provided they are at least equal 
in performance to the methods described herein, and further provided 
that such desired method is first submitted to and approved by the 
building official. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

ARTICLE 10 

CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENT PIPES 
SECTION 1000.0 GENERAL 

1000.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the design, 
installation, maintenance, repair and approval of all chimneys, vents and 
connectors hereafter erected or altered in all buildings and structures. 

1000.2 Other standards: Unless otherwise specifically provided herein, 
conformity to the applicable requirements for chimney construction and 
vents contained in the mechanical code listed in Appendix B shall be 
deemed to meet the requirements of this code. 

1000.2.1 Commonwealth of Massachusetts requirements: Gas vents re- 
quired for appliances or equipment using fuel gases of any kind, such as 
natural gas, manufactured gas, undiluted liquified petroleum gases, 
liquified petroleum gas-air mixtures, or mixtures of any of these gases 
shall comply with the requirements of the Massachusetts Fuel Gas Code, 
248 CMR 3.00 - 8.00, listed in Appendix B. 

1000.3 Minor repairs: Minor repairs for the purpose of maintenance and 
upkeep which do not increase the capacity of the heating apparatus or 
appliances, or which do not involve structural changes in the permanent 
chimney and vents of a building, may be made without a permit. 

1000.3.1 Multiple flue connections: A solid fuel burning heating appli- 
ance may be vented into a common flue of a masonry chimney with a 
liquid fuel burning device provided that: 

1. The flue does not also vent a working fireplace. 

2. The solid fuel burning appliance's connector, if separate, shall 
enter at a minimum of six (6) inches below the liquid fueled 
appliance's connector pipe. 

3. All appliances shall be approved by the appropriate state agencies. 

4. The flue shall be of sufficient size to serve all the units connected 
to it if operated simultaneously (see Table 1000). 



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♦ 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



Table 1000 



CAPACITY OF A MASONRY CHIMNEY SERVING TWO APPLIANCES 



Votal Vent Height 
(feet) of Not Less 
Than 


Combined Appliance Input Rating of Not Greater Than 
(Thousands of Btu's per Hour) 


8 


81 


118 


162 


277 


405 


10 


89 


129 


175 


300 


450 


15 


105 


150 


210 


360 


540 


A 20 


120 


170 


240 


415 


640 


■ 30 


135 


195 


275 


490 


740 


f 50 


- 


- 


325 


600 


910 




Liner Dimensions with Equivalents 


nominal liner 
size (in.) 
(sq. /rect.^) 


4x8 


4x8 


8x8 


8x12 


12x16 


inside dimension 
of liner (in.) 


2*5x6*5 


2*5x6% 


6 3/4 x 
6 3/4 


6*5x10% 


9%xl 3% 


inside diameter 
(in.) (circular) 


6 


7 


8 


10 


12 


equivalent area 
(square in.) 


28.3 


38.5 


50.3 


78.5 


113.0 



I 



10004.4 Cleanouts: A cleanout or other approved device shall be provi- 
ded at the base of every flue. 

SECTION 1001.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

1001 1 General: The structural plans and specifications shall describe in 
sufficient detail the location, size and construction of all chimneys, vents 
and ducts and their connections to boilers , furnaces , appliances and 
fireplaces. The thickness and character of all insulation materials clear- 
ances from walls, partitions and ceilings and proximity of heating devices 
and equipment to wall openings and exitways shall be clearly shown and 
described. 



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407 



780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



1001.2 Appliances: All appliances required to be vented shall be connec- 
ted to a vent or chimney, except as provided in Section 1006.3 and as 
provided in the standards listed in Appendix B for special venting ar- 
rangements. 

SECTION 1002.0 PERFORMANCE TEST AND ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 

1002.1 Tests: The building official may require a test or tests of any 
chimney or vent to insure fire safety and the removal of smoke and 
products of combustion. 

1002.2 Acceptance criteria: The system shall be accepted if the follow- 
ing conditions are fulfilled. 

1. There shall not be spillage at the draft hood when any one (1) or 
combination of appliances connected to the system is in operation. 

2. Temperature on adjacent combustible surfaces shall not be raised 
more than limits acceptable to nationally recognized testing or in- 
spection agencies. 

3. Condensation shall not be developed in a way that would cause 
deterioration of the vent or chimney drip from joints or bottom end 
of the vent or chimney. 

4. The draft reading taken at the place recommended in the installation 
instructions shall be within the range specified by the appliance 
manufacturer . 

1002.2.1 Approved installations: Factory-built chimneys and gas vents 
which have been tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing or 
inspection agency shall be accepted as complying with the requirements of 
Item 2 of Section 1002.2 when installed in accordance with the clearances 
specified in their listing. 

SECTION 1003.0 CHIMNEYS 

1003.1 Classification: Chimneys as used in this article shall be classified 
as: 

1. factory-built chimneys, 

2. masonry chimneys, and 

3. metal chimneys (smokestacks). 

SECTION 1004.0 APPLIANCES REQUIRING CHIMNEYS 

1004.1 General: All heating appliances, except those appliances 
specifically exempted by the provisions of Section 1006.3 shall be 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



connected to chimneys as specified in the chimney selection chart con- 
tained in the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

SECTION 1005.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1005.1 Raising existing chimneys: Whenever a building is hereafter 
erected, enlarged or increased in height so that a wall along an interior 
lot line, or within three (3) feet thereof, extends above the top of an 
existing chimney or vent of an adjoining existing building, the owner of 
the building so erected, enlarged or increased in height shall carry up at 
his own expense, with the consent of the adjoining property owner, 
either independently, or in his own building, all chimneys connected to 
fuel burning appliances. Vents within six (6) feet of any portion of the 
wall of such adjoining building shall be extended two (2) feet above the 
roof or parapet of the adjoining building. 

1005.2 Size of extended chimneys: The construction of an extended 
chimney shall conform to the requirements of this article for new chim- 
neys, but the internal area of such extension shall not be less than that 
of the existing chimney. 

1005.3 Notice to adjoining owner: It shall be the duty of the owner of 
the building which is erected, enlarged or increased in height to notify in 
writing, and to secure the consent of the owner of existing chimneys 
affected, at least ten (10) days before starting such work. 

1005.4 Existing chimneys: An existing chimney, except one which does 
not endanger the fire safety of a building or structure and is acceptable 
to the building official, shall not be continued in use unless it conforms 
to all requirements of this article for new chimneys. 

1005.5 Cleanouts and maintenance: Whenever a new chimney is completed 
or an existing chimney is altered, it shall be cleaned and left smooth on 
the inside. If the chimney is constructed of masonry or tile, the interior 
mortar joints must be left smooth and flush. Cleanouts or other approved 
devices shall be provided at the base of all flues to enable the passage- 
ways to be maintained and cleaned. 

SECTION 1006.0 VENT SYSTEMS 

1006.1 Listed appliances: For the purpose of determining vent require- 
ments, gas-fired and oil-fired appliances shall be classified as "listed" or 
"unlisted." A listed appliance is one that is shown in a list published by 
an accredited authoritative testing agency, qualified and equipped for 
testing of such appliances, and maintaining an adequate periodic inspec- 
tion of current production of listed models and whose listing states either 
that the appliance or accessory complies with nationally recognized safety 
requirements or has been tested and found 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



safe for use in a specific manner. Compliance may be determined by the 
presence on the appliance or accessory of a label of the testing agency 
stating that the appliance or accessory complies with nationally recognized 
safety requirements. An unlisted appliance or accessory is one that is 
not shown on such a list or does not bear such a label. In cases where 
an applicable standard has not been developed for a given class of appli- 
ance or accessory, approval of the authority having jurisdiction should be 
obtained before the appliance or accessory is installed. 

1006.2 Appliances required to be vented: Appliances shall be connected 
to a listed venting system or provided with other means for exhausting 
the flue gases to the outside atmosphere in accordance with the venting 
system selection chart contained in the mechanical code listed in Appendix 
B. 

1006.3 Exemption: Connections to vent systems shall not be required for 
appliances of such size or character that the absence of such connection 
does not constitute a hazard to the fire safety of the building or its 
occupants. The following appliances are not required to be vented unless 
so required by their listing: 

1. listed gas ranges; 

2. built-in domestic cooking units listed and marked as unvented units; 

3. listed hot plates and listed laundry stoves; 

4. listed domestic clothes dryers; 

5. listed gas refrigerators; 

6. counter appliances; 

7. space (room) heaters listed for unvented use, only upon prior 
approval by the building official; 

8. specialized equipment of limited input such as laboratory burners or 
gas lights; and 

9. electric appliances. 

When any or all of the appliances listed in Items 5, 6 and 7 above are 
installed so that the aggregate input rating exceeds thirty (30) British 
thermal units (Btu's) per hour per cubic foot of room or space in which 
they are installed, one (1) or more of them shall be vent connected or 
provided with approved means for exhausting the vent gases to the 
outside atmosphere so that the aggregate input rating of the remaining 
unvented appliances does not exceed thirty (30) Btu's per hour per cubic 
foot of room or space in which they are installed. Where the room or 
space in which they are installed is directly connected to another room or 
space by a doorway, arch, or other opening of comparable size, which 
cannot be closed, the volume of such adjacent room or space may be 
included in the calculations. 

SECTION 1007.0 FIREPLACES 

1007.1 General: Fireplaces, barbecues, smoke chambers and fireplace 
chimneys shall be of solid masonry or reinforced concrete or other ap- 
proved materials, and shall conform to requirements of this section. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



1007.2 Construction: Structural walls of fireplaces shall be at least 
eight (8) inches thick. Where a lining of low duty refractory brick 
(ASTM C64) or the eguivalent, at least two (2) inches thick laid in fire 
clay mortar (ASTM C105, medium duty), or the equivalent, or other 
approved lining is provided, the total thickness of back and sides, in- 
cluding the lining, shall be not less than eight (8) inches. Where such 
lining is not provided, the thickness of back and sides shall be not less 
than twelve (12) inches. The firebox shall be twenty (20) inches in 
depth and will be permitted to be open on all sides, provided all fireplace 
openings are located entirely within one (1) room. 

1007.3 Lining: The lining shall extend from the throat of the fireplace 
to a point at least four (4) inches above the top of the enclosing masonry 
walls . 

1007.4 Clearance 

1007.4.1 Distance: The distance between fireplace and combustibles shall 
be at least four (4) inches; and such combustibles shall not be placed 
within six (6) inches of the fireplace opening. Wood facings or trim 
normally placed around the fireplace opening may be permitted when 
conforming to the requirements of this section; however, such facing or 
trim shall be furred out from the fireplace wall at least four (4) inches 
and attached to noncombustible furring strips. The edges of such fac- 
ings or trim shall be covered with a noncombustible material. Where the 
walls of the fireplace are twelve (12) inches thick, the facings or trim 
may be directly attached to the fireplace. 

1007.4.2 Metal hoods: Metal hoods used as part of a fireplace or barbe- 
cue shall be at least eighteen (18) inches from combustible material unless 
approved for reduced clearances. 

1007.5 Metal: Metal hoods used as a part of a fireplace or barbecue 
shall be at least No. 18 B&S (0.0403 inch) Gauge sheet copper, No. 18 
Galvanized Steel Gauge (0.052 in.) galvanized steel or other equivalent 
corrosion-resistant ferrous metal with all seams and connections of smoke- 
proof unsoldered construction. The hoods shall be sloped at an angle of 
forty-five (45) degrees or less from the vertical and shall extend hori- 
zontally at least six (6) inches beyond the limits of the firebox. 

1007 . 6 Metal heat circulators : Approved metal heat circulators may be 
installed in fireplaces, provided the thickness of the fireplace walls is not 
reduced. 

1007.7 Smoke chamber: All walls, includin back walls, shall be at least 
eight (8) inches in thickness. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



1007.8 Areas of flues, throats and dampers: The net cross-sectional 
area of the flue and of the throat between the firebox and the smoke 
chamber of a fireplace shall be at least that required in the mechanical 
code listed in Appendix B. When dampers are used, damper openings 
shall be at least, when fully opened, equal to the required flue area and 
shall be of No. 12 Galvanized Steel Gauge (0.018 in.) metal. 

1007.9 Lintel: Masonry over the fireplace opening shall be supported by 
a noncombustible lintel. 

1007.10 Hearth: Every fireplace shall be constructed with a hearth of 
brick, stone, tile or other noncombustible material. For fireplaces with 
an opening of less than six (6) square feet, the hearth shall extend not 
less than sixteen (16) inches in front and not less than eight (8) inches 
on each side of the fireplace opening. For fireplaces with an opening of 
six (6) square feet or more, the hearth shall extend not less than twenty 
(20) inches in front and not less than twelve (12) inches on each side of 
the fireplace opening. Such hearths shall be supported on trimmer arch- 
es of brick, stone, tile or concrete not less than four (4) inches thick or 
other equally strong and fireresistance rated materials. All combustible 
forms or centering shall be removed after completion of the supporting 
construction. 

1007.11 Firestopping: Firestopping between chimneys and wooden con- 
struction shall meet the requirements specified in Section 919.0 and the 
mechanical code listed in Appendix B . 

1007.12 Support: Fireplaces shall be supported on foundations designed 
in conformity with Section 725.0. 

1007.13 Screens: Screens or other acceptable protection devices shall be 
provided for all fireplace openings. 

1007.14 Other type fireplaces: Other fireplaces not conforming to the 
requirements of this section shall be subject to approval by the building 
official prior to installation. Imitation fireplaces shall not be used for the 
burning of gas, solid or liquid fuel. Approved factory-built fireplaces 
may be installed and shall conform to the applicable portions of this code. 
Factory-built fireplaces shall bear the seal of a nationally recognized 
testing or inspection agency. 

1007.15 Solid wastes; Solid waste shall not be burned in a fireplace. 

SECTION 1008.0 INCINERATORS 

1008.1 Mechanical code: Incinerators of all types shall be installed in 
accordance with the applicable provisions of the mechanical code listed in 
Appendix B. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 1009.0 CONSTRUCTION OF METAL DUCTS AND VENTS 

1009.1 Mechanical code: All metal vents, ducts and duct systems re- 
quired under the provisions of this article for heating systems and equip- 
ment, and under the provisions of Article 5 for ventilating and air-condi- 
tioning systems shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the 
requirements of the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

1009.2 Construction of ducts: Ducts and plenums may be constructed of 
approved material constructed in accordance with the requirements of the 
mechanical code listed in Appendix B. Non-metallic ducts shall be con- 
structed and installed in accordance with their approval and the applica- 
ble standards listed in Appendix B. Aluminum ducts shall not be used in 
equipment rooms with fuel-fired equipment, encased in or under concrete 
slabs on grade, for kitchen or fume exhausts or in systems where air 
entering the duct is over two hundred fifty (250) degrees F. 

1009.3 Ducts for solid or solid/liquid fueled central hearing appliances. 

1009.3.1 Supply ducts: Supply ducts conveying heated conditioned air 
shall be fabricated of noncombustible material. 

1009.3.2 Hot air ducts: Hot air ducts shall have a clearance of not 
less than twelve (12) inches from combustibles for the first ten (10) feet 
of distance from the applicance plenum/bonnet. 

1009.3.3 Ducts: All ducts shall be otherwise constructed, installed, 
supported and insulated as required by this code. 

SECTION 1010.0 SPARK ARRESTORS 

1010.1 Mechanical code: All chimneys, stacks and flues, including 
incinerator stacks, which emit sparks shall be provided with a spark 
arrestor conforming to the requirements of the mechanical code listed in 
Appendix B. 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 

ARTICLE 11 

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS 
SECTION 1100.0 GENERAL 

1100.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the construc- 
tion, inspection and maintenance of all mechanical equipment and systems 
in respect to structural strength, fire safety and operation. For the 
purposes of this article, mechanical equipment shall include solid fuel 
burning heating appliances. 

1100.2 Mechanical code: All mechanical equipment and systems shall be 
constructed, installed and maintained in accordance with this code and the 
mechanical code listed in Appendix B. 

1100.3 Commonwealth of Massachusetts requirements: All installations of 
gas appliances shall comply with the Massachusetts Fuel Gas Code, 248 
CMR 3.00-8.00, as listed in Appendix B. The construction, installation 
and operation of oil burning equipment is subject to the provisions of 527 
CMR 4.00. The construction, installation, testing and inspection of 
boilers, unfired pressure vessels, air tanks, ammonia compressor valves 
and refrigeration and air-conditioning systems of twenty (20) tons or 
more capacity are subject to the provisions of 522 CMR 2.00-12.00, and 
chapter 146 of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, as amended. 

SECTION 1101.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

1101.1 General: Plans and specifications for the installation, repair, 
extension or removal of any mechanical equipment or system shall be 
submitted in accordance with the mechanical code listed in Appendix B 
and a permit shall be secured prior to the commencement of any work. 

1101.2 Matter covered: The plans and specifications shall show in suffi- 
cient detail all pertinent features and clearances of the appliances and 
systems, including: size and type of apparatus; construction of flue, 
stack or chimney; stack connections; type of fuel; method of operation; 
and the method of compliance with all regulations for the class and type 
of equipment installed. 

1101.3 Details: An application for permit shall be accompanied by speci- 
fications and diagrammatic mechanical drawings in sufficient detail, com- 
plying with the provisions of the mechanical code listed in Appendix B, 
before a permit shall be issued for the mechanical equipment and system. 
The plans shall be drawn to a scale of not less than one-eighth (1/8) 
inch to the foot and shall show the location and arrangement of all equip- 
ment and distribution elements including safties and pressure controlling 
devices . 



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780 CMR: STATE BUILDING CODE COMMISSION 



SECTION 1102.0 INSPECTIONS AND TESTS 

1102.1 Inspection: All mechanical equipment and systems requiring a 
permit shall be inspected in accordance with the mechanical code listed in 
Appendix B and shall not be placed in operation until they have been 
tested and approved. All solid fuel burning heating appliances shall be 
tested and approved according to the applicable test standards listed in 
Appendix B and contained in the applicable Rules and Regulations listed 
in Appendix Q. 

Exception: Used solid fuel burning room heaters which are not labeled 
must be inspected and approved prior to installation by the local build- 
ing official or fire official and installed in accordance to the provisions 
of this code. 

1102.2 Concealment: It shall be unlawful for owners, contractors or 
workmen to lath over or in any way to conceal, any piping outlet boxes 
or other parts of the mechanical equipment or system requiring a permit 
until an inspection has been made thereof and due notice given that the 
work has been approved. 

1102.3 Defects and repairs: Upon inspection or reinspection of a me- 
chanical system, any defects or deficiencies which require repair to 
insure safe operation shall be rectified before the system is placed in 
use. 

1102.4 Power of condemnation: When a system or any part thereof is 
found unsafe to life or property, it shall be condemned and such system 
shall not be restored to use until it has been made safe and approved. 



SECTION 1103.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1103.1 Unsafe orders: All existing mechanical equipment and systems 
shall be maintained and operated in accordance with the requirements of 
this code and the mechanical code listed in Appendix B. Any such equip- 
ment which does not comply with the requirements, and the operation of 
which is deemed unsafe to the building occupants, shall be altered as 
ordered by the building official to secure adequate safety. 



SECTION 1104.0 FEES 

1104.1 General: A permit to begin work for new construction or altera- 
tion shall not be issued until the application fee and permit fee prescribed 
have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit necessitating an 
additional fee