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Full text of "Commonwealth of Massachusetts state building code"

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WILLIAM F. WELD 
Governor 



KATHLEEN M. OTOOLE 
Secretary 



TEL: (617) 727-3200 FAX: (617) 227-1754 
MEMORANDUM 



KENTARO TSUTSUM1 
Chairman 



THOMAS L. ROGERS 

Administrator 



TO: All Inspectors of Buildings and Buj, ljji ng Commissioners 

FROM: Thomas L. Rogers, Administrator I 

DATE: December 24, 1996 

SUBJECT: Emergency Amendments to the Fifth Edition of the State 
Building Code//Sections 631, 636 and 638 



Note: Please disseminate this information to all Local Building 
Inspectors 

Attached please find two (2) distinct Code Change Amendments that 
impact Article 6, "SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY", Sections 631, 63 6 and 
638 of the current Fifth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building 
Code and will be carried into the "SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY" Chapter 
(Chapter 4) of the coming Sixth Edition of the Code which will be 
filed with the Secretary of State on January 24, 1997. 

Attachment 1 : 

By Emergency Amendment, Department of Mental Retardation (DMR) Group 
Homes are removed from the requirements of Sections 631, 636 and 638 
of the current Code and are to be treated as R-l, R-2, R-3 or R-4 
residential occupancies as applicable. 

This Code Change, -voted by the BBRS on October 15, 1996, was filed 
with the Secretary of State on November 13, 1996 and Is In effect. 

Attachment 2 : 

By Emergency Amendment on April 9, 1996, the BBRS voted to remove a 
specific type of Department of Mental Health (DMH) "APARTMENT 
PROGRAM" from the requirements of Article 6, "SPECIAL USE AND 
OCCUPANCY", Section 638. 

Such voted action will be reflected In the Sixth Edition of the 
Massachusetts State Building Code. 



DMRDMHl . DOC 



ATTACHMENT 1 



1. SECTION 631 GROUP RESIDENCE 

i 
insert new Section 631.2.2 

This section shall not apply to premises operated or 
licensed by the Department of Mental Retardation (DMR) 
pursuant to its regulations, 115 CMR 7.0 and 8.00, upon 
the completion of a DMR safety assessment for each 
individual and an approved safety plan for each location 
where' services and supports are provided. Such premises 
-shall be treated as conventional R-4, R-3, R-2, R-l use as 
applicable. 

2, SECTION 636 LIMITED GROUP RESIDENCE 

insert new Section 63 6.1.3.1 Application of Building 
Code - 

This section shall not apply to premises operated or 
licensed by the Department of Mental Retardation (DMR) 
pursuant to its regulations, 115 CMR 7.0 and 8.00, upon 
the completion of a DMR safety assessment for each 
individual and an approved, safety plan for each location 
where services and supports are provided. Such premises 
shall be treated as conventional R-4, R-3, R-2, R-l use as 
applicable. 



SECTION 63 8 GROUP DWELLING UNITS 

insert new sentence at end of Section 63 8.1 General- 

This section shall not apply to a group dwelling unit 
operated or licensed by the Department of Mental 
-Retardation , (DMR) pursuant .to, its -regulations, 115 CMR 
7.0 and 8.00, upon the completion of a DMR safety 
assessment for each individual and an approved safety 
plan where services and supports are provided. Such 
premises shall be treated as conventional R-4, R-3, R-2, 
R-l use as applicable. 



ATTACHMENT 2 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Boston Public Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/commonwealthofma1990mass 



MEMORANDUM 

To: BBRS Members 

From: Susan Motika, Assistant Attorney General xV\f\ f y\ 

Re: Sargent v. 0' Toole proposed regulatory changes 

Date: March 12, 1996 



The following proposed code change, developed with 
technical assistance from BBRS staff, is submitted in 
compliance with the HUD conciliation agreement in Sargent v. 
O'Toole. 



Proposed Change to the State Building Code 

638.1. General: A Group Dwelling Unit is a dwelling unit 
licensed by or operated by the Department of Mental Retardation 
or the Department of Mental Health as special residence for up 
to four (4) persons who may' or may not be capable of self 
preservation from fire or other related hazards. The 
provisions of this section shall apply to both new and existing 
Group Dwelling Units . 

Exception : Apartment programs as defined in 104 CMR 
17.13(2) (c) in which residents residing therein are also 
capable of self-preservation (unimpaired) shall be exempt from 
all requirements of Section 638. Such apartment programs shall 
be classified as R-l, R-2, R-3, or R-4, as applicable . 



NOTE : Below are amendments to DMH regulations, already 
promulgated as emergency regulations, which address the same 
population of "unimpaired" clients who are capable of 
self-preservation. This regulation was reviewed by BBRS staff, 
and the Attorney General's Office before its promulgation. 

Change to DMH Regulations 

17.13(4) (k) . Provision of or arrangement for a program of 
training in self-preservation, including knowledge of fire 
safety. Except for those clients defined in 17.13(2) (c) as 
residing in- -an -apartment program -and also capable of 



self-preservation (unimpaired) , individual certification and 
fire drills shall be held at least, quarterly, including records 
of evaluation times. At least two drills per year shall be 
conducted at night. The program shall maintain written reports 
of such training certification and fire drills. 

17.13(5) (b) (5) . Testing for client classification shall be 
conducted at least quarterly, and may be part of the quarterly 
fire drill. This provision shall not apply to those clients 
defined in 104 CMR 17.13(2) (c) as residing in an apartment 
program and also capable of self-preservation. 






THE MASSACHUSETTS 
STATE BUILDING CODE 



Users Guide 

to the 
Fifth Edition 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 



Published by 

Michael J. Connolly 

Massachusetts Secretary of State 



NOTE: This Guide is intended as a transition 
tool for users of the Massachusetts State 
Building Code. it is not meant as an 
authoritative source for all changes from either 
the 1987 BOCA National Building Code or the 
Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State 
Building Code. It lists only major changes - 
refer to the actual code documents for 
definitive requirements. 



PART I - OVERALL CHANGES 



The basic concept of the Fifth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code is to make the code 
as close as possible to the 1987 BOCA National Building Code. For several reasons, it was not 
possible to utilize BOCA in its entirety, namely. 

a) Requirements of Massachusetts General Laws (MGL) 

b) Board of Building Regulations and Standards (BBRS) changes to meet specific needs of 
the Commonwealth 

c) Requirements oT Massachusetts "Specialized CpSes under the control of separate 
independent boards 

The following articles, in their entirety, are non-BOCA (are to be considered unique to Massachusetts): 

Article 1 - Administration 

Article 10 - Fire Protection Systems 

Article 11 - Structural Loads 

Article 12 - Foundation Systems and Retaining Walls 

Article 27 - Electrical Wiring and Equipment 

Article 28 - Plumbing and Gas Fitting 

Article 31 - Energy Conservation 

Article 32 - Repair, Alteration and change of Use of Existing Buildings 

Article 33 - Manufactured Buildings, Building Components and Mobile Homes 

Article 34 - One and Two-Family Dwelling Code (not included in this code; available as a 

separate document from the State Bookstore, Room 116, Slate House, Boston, 

MA 02133. Tel: (617) 727-2834) 

In the remaining articles, Massachusetts unique requirements are identified by being presented in bold 
face type. 

Articles 27, 28, 31, 32, 33, and 34 in the Fifth Edition are technically the same as in the Fourth Edition 
of the State Building Code (there may be slight language alterations for purposes of clarity); Article 
1 - Administration, is essentially the same as in the Fourth Edition, but some additions and clarification 
of wording has been added or changed as noted under the Article 1 c u ange section of this document; 
Article 10 has some BOCA sections, but the Article is essentially unique to Massachusetts. 

The number of Appendices has been reduced in the Fifth Edition as compared to the Fourth Edition. 
All referenced standards have been included in Part I of Appendix A following BOCA's procedure. 
The second part of Appendix A in the Fifth Edition contains recognized standards not specifically 
mentioned in the body of the code, but are sufficiently pertinent to include. 

NOTE: The Fifth Edition of the State Building Code does not explicitly identify "accredited 
authoritative agencies" as is the case with the Fourth Edition of the Code (Appendix O). In 
the Fifth Edition of the Code, the requirements for an "approved agency" are found in Article 
2 - DEFINITIONS, and this approach is consistent with BOCA 

In the Fourth Edition, various standards were listed by type of standard in Appendices B through I. 
Appendix C - Fastening Schedule, is the Fourth Edition's Nailing Schedule. The balance of the 
Appendices in the Fifth Edition are unique to Massachusetts and are the same as in the Fourth Edition 
(although Appendix alphabetical designations have changed from the Fourth Edition), namely: 

Appendix D Guidance for selection of foundation material - Appendix X in the 
Fourth Edition 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



Appendix E Procedure for accounting for series and parallel heat flow paths - 

Appendix L in the Fourth Edition 
Appendix F Reference data for repair, alteration, addition and change of use of 

existing buildings - Appendix T in the Fourth Edition 
Appendix G Specialized Massachusetts rules and regulations other than those of the 

BBRS - Appendix P in the Fourth Edition- 
Appendix H Historic structures - Appendix U in the Fourth Edition. 

The Regulations of the Board of Building Regulations and Standards - Appendix Q in the Fourth 
Edition - is now a separate document available from the State Bookstore. 

NOTE: Appendix Q of the Fifth Edition no longer requires Massachusetts accreditation of 
testing laboratories for the testing of solid fuel heating appliances. Approval for such devices 
is now controlled by the 1987 BOCA Mechanical Code (in particular Article 4) in conjunction 
with the definition of APPROVED AGENCY, found in Article 2 - Definitions, of the Fifth 
Edition. 

The following Fourth Edition appendices have been deleted from the Fifth Edition: 

Metric equivalents - Appendix N in the Fourth Edition. 

Accredited authoritative agencies - Appendix O in the Fourth Edition. 

Technical code council - Appendix R in the Fourth Edition. 

Advisory boards and committees - Appendix S in the Fourth Edition, now in the Fifth Edition 

Foreword. 

Reference Standards for one and two-family dwellings - Appendix W in the Fourth Edition, 

now in separate Mass. one and two-family dwelling code - a separate document. 

Energy equations & other ASHRAE computer based procedures - Appendix V in the Fourth 

Edition. 

The article numbering system in the Fifth Edition has been changed to follow BOCA's system. To the 
extent possible, considering the constraints mentioned in the first paragraph, section numbers also 
correspond to BOCA's; where non-BOCA sections are required to meet Massachusetts requirements, 
sections and sub-sections were added to BOCA's articles or sections. These are bolded in all articles 
that are not uniquely Massachusetts in their entirety. 

Part II of this Guide contains a summary of major changes relative to 1987 BOCA and also relative 
to the Fourth Edition on an article-by-article basis. 

Recognizing the potential problems and frustrations when a major code re-numbering system occurs, 
a cross-index of article and primary section numbers of the Fourth Edition relative to the Fifth Edition 
is included as Part m of this Guide (again, please note that Part III is not meant as an absolute 
authoritative source identifying all changes from the Fourth Edition - refer to the actual code for 
definitive requirements). 



PART II - SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO EACH ARTICLE 

CAUTION 
These summaries are meant as a transition tool for users of the Firth Edition or the 
Massachusetts State Building Code. They are not meant as an authoritative source for 
all changes either from the 1987 BOCA National Building Code or the Fourth Edition 
of the Massachusetts State Building Code. Always refer to the actual code documents 
for definitive requirements. 

Part II of this Guide contains brief summaries of the major changes from 19S7 BOCA National 
Building Code, and also from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code. 

ARTICLE 1 - ADMINISTRATION and ENFORCEMENT 
(Fourth Edition Article 1) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 1 is entirely unique to Massachusetts. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Table 108 reflects some changes in use group designation. Use group E has been„added and replaces 
the Fourth Edition's A-4 designation for schools. In addition, E is used to designate child day care 
centers (section 633). 

Note: Child day care centers licensed by the Massachusetts Office of Children housing 
children more than two(2) years and nine(9) months of age are classified in use group 
E. Licensed centers for children two(2) years and nine(9) months in age or younger are 
in use group 1-2. 

Use group 1-1 of the Fourth Edition is now 1-3, Institutional, restrained. The 1-1 use group has been 
deleted (BOCA uses 1-1 for board and care facilities, half-way houses, group homes, alcohol and drug 
centers, convalescent facilities). The Fifth Edition has these uses in R-l, R-3, R-4 or R-5. 

Added section 114.1.1 - Railroad Right of Way, 114.12 - Water Supply; and 114.1.3 - Removal of 
Debris from work being conducted on existing buildings. 
Clarified the language in 114.8 - Approval in Part 

ARTICLE 2 - DEFINITIONS 

(Fourth Edition Article 2, Sections 200 - 201) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

All definitions from 1987 BOCA appear in this Article. In a few instances, the wording was modified 
to reflect Massachusetts law or clarification from MA definitions. 

Added to the definition list were items specific to Massachusetts (Inspector of Buildings, local 
inspectors, and the like). A number of energy definitions from the Mass Code were added to the list. 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

As a result of following the BOCA model, there are several definitions in the fourth edition that are 
not included in the Fifth Edition of the Massachusetts Code. In general, the summary definition of 
many of these terms were not definitive and could be misleading; the terms are more fully defined in 
appropriate sections and/or REFERENCED STANDARDS listed in Appendix A. 



ARTICLE 3 - USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 
(Fourth Edition Article 2, Sections 202 - 213) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

Article 3 is mostly BOCA Changes occur relative to Massachusetts General Laws and regulations 
(CMR's) as is evident in subsection 300.2. Other modifications have been made in subsections 302.1, 
307.4, 309.6, 313.1.1, 313.1.2, 313.13 and 313.1.4 which reflect recent code change proposals voted by 
the BBRS. 

Subsection 304.1.1 alters the age requirement for child day care facilities to 2 years 9 months and 
eliminates the restriction of more than five persons in order to remain consistent with Massachusetts 
Office for Children Regulations.Also, subsection 309.6 has been added to accommodate the 
requirements of the limited group residence which is categorized under use group R-5 (see Section 
636.0). 

Finally, the 1-1 use group has been deleted (see Section 307.2) to be consistent with Massachusetts 
requirements that these types of facilities remain as use group R. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

The Fourth Edition of the code classifies child day care facilities as use group A-4. Educational uses 
such as this in the BOCA code, however, are categorized under the E use group. This change occurs 
in subsection 304.1.1 and is carried through other applicable portions of the Fifth Edition; also, Use 
Group T has been deleted. Structures that would normally fall under this category in the Fourth 
Edition would now be part of the use group U. There is a special use in Article 6 entitled, Temporary 
Structures (626.0), that encompasses tents, membrane structures and the like. 

ARTICLE 4 - TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 
(Fourth Edition Article 2, Sections 214 - 218) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 4 is mostly BOCA. Changes occur in subsections 400.2, 401.4.3 and 401.4.4 relative to 
Massachusetts General Laws and CMR's. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

The major change in Article 4 relates to the designation of building construction types. Although titles ( 
appear somewhat different in Table 401, (Table 214 in the Fourth Edition) cons'truction type's 1 and 
2 remain the same. The Fourth Edition creates a subcategory of type 3 construction entitled Heavy 
timber. BOCA designates this type of construction as type 4. This, of course, necessitates -a regrouping 



SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO EACH ARTICLE 

of the remaining Fourth Edition construction types. Simply, the conversion is as follows: 

Fourth Edition Obstruction Types Fifth Edition Construction Types 

4 



3A 
3B 
3C 
4A 
4B 



3A 
3B 
5A 
JB 



ARTICLE 5 - GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 
(Fourth Edition Article 3) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 5 is mostly BOCA Change occurs in subsection 511.1 to reflect proper procedure for issuing 
a permit for temporary construction of a temporary structure (now under the U use group) Also 
section 512.0 has been revised to accommodate Massachusetts regulations regarding accessibility for 
the physically handicapped. 

BOCA verbiage concerning Section 513.1 has been eliminated and reference to Section 635.0 Historic 
Buildings, under the special use category, and Appendix H for Historic buildings, have been substituted. 

Table 501 (Table 305 in the Fourth Edition) has been edited to reflect the deletion of use group 1-1 
and the regrouping of the construction types (see Changes to Article 4 for conversions). 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

This article (Article 3 in the Fourth Edition of the Mass. Code) no longer contains the provisions for 
Tire Limits" and "Restrictions Within Fire Limits" (Sections 301, 302 and Table 302 of the Foui ; h 
Edition). The concerns of these deleted sections, are, however, addressed in other sections of the Fifth 
Edition particularly in Section 906, Exterior Walls, and Section 907, Exterior Opening 
Protective*. These sections provide a much more sophisticated approach which includes consideration 
of Use Group, percentage and location of openings, as well as fire separation distances to address the 
fire protection of the exterior wall. With this change, cities and towns which have not des.gnated hire 
Limits", but which may well have the conditions (density of buildings, exterior exposure and 
accessibility) that allow the spread of fire between buildings, have enforceable code for these 
conditions. 

Table 501 of the Fifth Edition contains changes reflecting the addition of Use Group E and Type 4 
and 5 construction. 

Table 501 4 PERCENT REDUCTION OF AREA LIMITS (Table 305.4 in the Fourth Edition) 
reflects the 'l987 BOCA Code reductions, which generally are somewhat higher than in the Fourth 
Edition. 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



ARTICLE 6 - SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY 
(Fourth Edition Article 4) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 6 is consistent with BOCA from Sections 600.0 to 626.0 barring any changes due to 
Massachusetts laws and regulations or recent BBRS voted code change proposals; sections 600.1.1, 
600.8, 600.8.1; oTO.9.1, 609.2.4, 617.1,-619.1, 619.4, 620.1, 622.2,-625.1, 625.5.1, 625.5.3, 625.6.1, 625.7.1, 
625.8, 625.9, 625.9.2, 625.93 and 625.9.4 illustrate these changes. 

Sections 627.0 to 638.0 are additional articles that are unique to Massachusetts (these sections do not 
appear in BOCA 1987), and Section 602.3.1.4.6 has been revised to require smoke-proof enclosures. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code. 

All changes relating to use groups and construction types have been carried through (see Chnnges to 
Articles 3 and 41 . 

NOTE; 

Portions of subsections 600.1.1, 600.2, 600.3, 600.4, 600.5, 600.6, 600.7 and 600.8 have 
been inadvertently bolded; these are not changes and will be changed during the 
amendment process. 



ARTICLE 7 - INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 
(Fourth Edition Article 5) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

Article 7 is a mix of 1987 BOCA and the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts code with subsections 
701.1, 7032, 706.1, 707.1, 7083, 708.2, 709.1, 711.1, 711.2 and 713.1 being somewhat altered from exact 
1987 BOCA text and subsection 709.4 has been added. 

Subsections 701.1, 711.1 and 711.2 do not refer to an 1-1 Use Group as the Fifth Edition of the code 
does not employ the 1-1 definition (these uses would now be E, 1-2 or R-5 uses - see Articles 2 and 
6 of the Fifth Edition of the code). 

subsection 703.2 contains language expanding the general requirements for ventilation and subsections 
706.1, 707.1, 708.1, 708.2, 709.1 and 713.1 contain requirements unique to Massachusetts regarding 
mechanical ventilation, ceiling heights, floor areas and window cleaning safeguards respectively - all 
such requirements reflecting retained Fourth Edition requirements or recent amendments or Mass. 
General Law. Subsection 709.4 language and requirements are retained from the Fourth Edition. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Subsection 706.1 requires that bathrooms and toilet rooms be mechanically vented - no longer will 
natural ventilation be allowed (in accordance with amendments to the Fourth Edition of the code). 
Subsection 708.1 contains clarifying language relative to the absolute minimum allowed ceiling height! 
in habitable rooms. 



SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO EACH ARTICLE 



NOTE; 



Sectio^ 706.2, 706.2.1, 706JL2, 7063, 706.4, 708.1.1, 708.12 and 708.13 - p. f*»™ . 

These sections have been inadvertantly bolded; these are not changes and should not be 

bolded. 

Sections 707.1 and 709.4 - p. 7-4 and 7-6, represent differences from 1987 BOCA and should 

be bolded (they are currently not bolded). 

ARTICLE 8 - MEANS OF EGRESS 
(Fourth Edition Article 6) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 8 contains a mix of both 1987 BOCA and Massachusetts requirement^ although ^ Article 8 
predominantly reflects BOCA requirements. Subsections 801 2 804 2 805.2 805 3 Tabl 807 Table 
808, Table 809.3, 809.3, 809.3.1, 809.4, 810.4, 810.4.1, 8122, 812.2.3, 812.4.1, 812.4.3, 812.7 815.3 816.2, 
816.4.1. 818.2, 818.7.7, 820.2, 823.1, 823.2, 823.4, 824.4 and 827.2 are altered from exact 1987 BOCA 
text ( 8053 and 812.7 are added subsections tied to Mass. requirements per the Fourth Edition ot the 
code and Mass. general law respectively). 

Subsections 801.2 Table 807, Table 808, 809.4, 810.4, 810.4.1 and 812.23 no longer refer to an M Use 
Group as the Fifth Edition of the code does not employ the 1-1 definition; subsec on S 122 fejg 
except the R-3 Use group from the requirement for having two egress doorways (this is a long-standing 
StoB requirement). Subsection 804.2 contains clarifying language as to the building official 
£#£ subsection^ 805.2, 805.3, 809.3, S093A, 812.4.1, 812.7 and 815. ; reto the .indent of 
tte Fourth Edition of the code regarding maintenance of egress components, ^P^^ 
one exit, locking requirements for apartment housing, and maximum ramp slope requirements tor 
Z^f^r^ot^y (such differences from 1987 BOCA due to intent of the existing 
Fourth Edition of the code and/or Mass. general law). 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Subsections 804.2, 809.3, 809.3.1, 816.2, 818.7.7, 823.4 and 824.4 reflect changes to the Fourth edition 
of the code. 

Subsection 804.2 requires the Building Official to issue a written violation notice in matters related to 
unsafe means of egress. Subsections 809.3 and 8093.1 clarify under what circumstances and by be 
Group, what buildings may have one exit. Subsection 816.2 imposes dimensional requirement on aU 
stairways, whether interior or exterior, required exitway stairways or not Subsections 818.7J, B-j.4 
and 824.4 identify the potentially governing standards relating to both standby and emergency power 
requirements. 

ARTICLE 9 - F1RERES1STIVE CONSTRUCTION 

(Fourth Edition Article 9) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 9 is nearly identical to BOCA. The only changes occur in Sections 904.4.1, 905.1 and 925.1 
relating to Massachusetts General Laws and CMR's. 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

As mentioned in the text of Changes to Article 5. the major revision to this article is the inclusion of 
the fire separation requirements under Section 906.0. 



ARTICLE 10 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 
(Fourth-Edition Article 1 2) 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Article 10 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS consists of the 3/1/90 amended Fourth Edition (Article 
12 of the Fourth Edition) of the code plus those amendments adopted as a result of the "Emergency" 
public hearing held on July 24, 1990 - those amendments associated with the emergency public hearing 
were required to be incorporated into the Fourth Edition. Article 12 - FIRE PROTECTION 
SYSTEMS, supplementing the Article as it was amended 3/1/90; additionally, portions of 19S7 BOCA 
are found in subsections 1019, 1020 and 1021. 

DUE TO THE UNIQUE REQUIREMENTS IMPOSED IN ARTICLE 10 OF THE 
FIFTH EDITION, THE READER IS CAUTIONED TO CAREFULLY REVIEW THIS 
ARTICLE WHICH EXISTS AS A HYBRID OF THE RECENTLY AMENDED 
FOURTH EDITION OF THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE AND 
THE 1987 BOCA BUILDING CODE. 



ARTICLE 11 - STRUCTURAL LOADS 
(Fourth Edition Article 7) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

Article 11 is considered uniquely Massachusetts code. In reality, it shares much of the same text as the 
BOCA code. Many sections and subsections, however, contain information that differs, either subtly 
or substantially, from the model code. Because of the number of changes, the text has been 
intentionally left unbolded. This article should be carefully examined and should not be regarded as 
equivalent to BOCA 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Article 11 is similar to that of the Fourth Edition. Changes do occur, however, in Sections 1111.0 
regarding determination of snow loads, as well as in Section 1112.0 for wind loads. Again, these 
changes have been intentionally left unbolded. Care should be taken in reading this article, for it is 
neither purely BOCA nor purely the Fourth Edition Massachusetts code. 

ARTICLE 12 - FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND RETAINING WALLS 
(Fourth Edition Article 7, Sections 720 -744) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Like Article 11, this article is considered unique to Massachusetts. Again, much of the text is borrowed 
from the BOCA code, however, because of local soil conditions and" weather patterns, many sections 



SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO EACH ARTICLE 

and subsections have been modified The tot. as in Article 11, ^^^^S^ 
article, too, should be carefully examined throughout, and should not be regarded as equivai 

BOCA. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Many subtle language changes have been interspersed ^^'^^^S^^ 
clarification. A fairl^igmficam language modification was made.to Sect,on 1213.6 (Section 
Fourth Edition), paragraph number 2 concerning columns supported on piles. 

Also, Sections 1222.0, 1223.0 and 1224.0 were taken directly from BOCA as no clear, comparable text 
exists in the Fourth Edition. 

Construction (the title and location are the only changes, however; the text remains consistent with 
the Fourth Edition). 

ARTICLE 13 - MATERIALS AND TESTS 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part A) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 13 is identical to the 1987 BOCA code, there have not been any changes. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

The Fourth Edition of the code divides Article 8 into three subarticles; 8A SB; and ISC The US7 
BOCA code dedicates separate articles for each topic covered in these sections. Thus ^th°d is more 
easily referenced, and, as such, has been carried through in the Fifth ^ ti ^f F ^S„ 
standards and methods of practice, no substantive changes have been made over the Fourth Edition, 
Materials and Tests . 

ARTICLE 14 -MASONRY 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part B, Sections 834 - 839, 850, 851) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

Article 14 is identical to the 1987 BOCA code, there have not been any changes. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Apart from the reorganization of subarticles as outlined in the Chanjesjo Article 13 ^ ^a^in 
been any substantive changes to the masonry portion of the code. Revxs.ons due to updates in 
standards and methods of practice do, however, occur. 



11 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



ARTICLE 15 - CONCRETE 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part B, Sections 840 -848) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

Article 15 is identical to BOCA except that Section 1501.0, Seismic Design Provisions, has been 
deleted. Instead, reference is made to Section 1113.0 which details all seismic requirements for 
buildings and structures. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

See Changes to Article 13 for modifications regarding the reorganization of subarticles. Also, changes 
due to updates in standards and methods of practice occur. 



ARTICLE 16 - GYPSUM AND PLASTER 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part A, Sections 819 - 823) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 16 is identical to BOCA 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Apart from the changes outlined in the Changes to Article 13 . there have not been any substantive 
changes in the gypsum and plaster portions of the code. Some standards and methods of practice have 
been updated. 

ARTICLE 17 -WOOD 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part B, Sections 852 • 856) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 17 is mostly BOCA Changes occur due to Massachusetts General Law and recently voted 
BBRS code changes. 

Subsection 1701.1.2 prescribes the regulations governing the use of native lumber in the state. Table 
1701, found in Article 21 of the Fourth Edition has been pulled into this article for ease of reference. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

See Changes to Article 13 for modifications due to reorganization of subarticles. Some standards and 
methods of practice have been updated. 






SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO EACH ARTICLE 

ARTICLE 18 -STEEL 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part B, Sections 826 - 832) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 18 is identical to BOCA, there have not been any changes. 

Changes from the'Tourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

See ^.a^o^icle^ for modifications due to reorganization of subsides. Some updates of 
standards and methods of practice have been made. 

ARTICLE 19 - LIGHTWEIGHT METAL ALLOYS 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part B, Section 833) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 19 is identical to BOCA there have not been any changes. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

See Chan ges to Article 13 for modifications regarding reorganization of subarticles. 

ARTICLE 20 - PLASTIC 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part C, Section 865, 876; Article 19) 

With the exception of the addition of subsection 2UU which is ^^^S^Z 
Department of Public Health banning the use of urea based foamed pi 
is the same as 87 BOCA. 

ARTICLE 21 - EXTERIOR WALLS 
(Fourth Edition Article 8, Part C, Sections 857 - 876) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 21 is mostly BOCA. Section 2102.0 ^^f^^^^^^^t £ 
title of the comparable BOCA section. Although this section shares many 
BOCA text, it should be considered unique to Massachusetts. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

As deseed in CW. to Article 12, the Fourth Edition ^^^^^^t 

Construction in Floodolains, has been renamed, Flood Res, ant C° Jg^, ff r , lhe B0CA 

2102.0 in the Fifth Edition. This modification was made to remain consisten 

numbering system. 

See n™** to Article 13 for additional changes due to reorganization of subarticles. 



n 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



ARTICLE 22 - VERTICAL AND SLOPED GLASS AND GLAZING 
(Fourth Edition Sections 1905,1910) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

Article 22 is primarily 1987 BOCA in content with exceptions tied to Mass. law or references to Article 
11 (ARTICLE 11, STRUCTURAL LOADS), related to Mass. requirements. 

Subsections 2201.1, 2201.2, 22011, 2202.1.1, 2203.1 and 2206.1.1 are impacted. 

Subsections 2201.1 and 2203.1 reference Massachusetts General Laws cl43 ss 3T, U and V, rather 

than CPSC 16 CFR cited in BOCA Subsections 2201.2, 22011, 22011.1 and 2206.1.1 identify the 

governing sections of Article 11 - STRUCTURAL LOADS, as they relate to Mass. loading 

requirements. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Fcr the initial release of the Fifth Edition of the State Building Code, Subsection 2202.1.1 replaces the 
nomogram (Table 857.5.4.2) of the Fourth Edition of the Code. 



ARTICLE 23 - ROOFS AND ROOF COVERINGS 
(Fourth Edition Sections 926, 1904) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 23 is identical to BOCA there have not been any changes. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Information regarding roofs and roof coverings is scattered about the Fourth Edition; Articles 8, 9, 21 
etc. Article 23 is a more easily referenced section.Changes in this article are limited to up dat ing to 
modem standards and principles. 

CHANGES TO ARTICLE 24 - MASONRY FIREPLACES 

(Fourth Edition Article 10, Section 1007) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 24 is identical to BOCA with the exception of paragraph number 2, Section 2402.1. This 
exception was added to reflect a recent BBRS code change. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

The Fourth Edition contains an Article 10 which is dedicated to chimneys, flues and vent pipes. The 
BOCA format allows control of these matters to be governed by the BOCA National Mechanical, 
Code. This concept is followed in the Fifth Edition of the code. BOCA also maintains this article,! 
Masonrv Fireplaces, to provide more easily referenced material. The Fourth Edition scatters much of 
this information throughout the code; Article 21, etc. 



SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO EACH ARTICLE 

ARTICLE 25 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS 
(Fourth Edition Article 11) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 25 is primarily 1987 BOCA in content with the addition of Massachusetts requirements directed 
^£S££J. solid fuel burning heating appliances and power venters. 
Subsections 2500.1, 2500.2, 2500.3 (added), all of subsections 2511, 2512 and 2513 (these subsections 
also added), are impacted. 

recent formal interpretations issued by the BBRS). 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Section 2512 - SOLID FUEL BURNING ^^^^^^^^^^ 
from requirements imposed in the Fourth Edition of the Mass -Building ^ £° s 
be a Massachusetts controlled certification program regarding these heating appliances. 

Section 2513 - POWER VENTERS (POWER EXMOTSRgJJ. --It of recem formal 

interpretations of the BBRS, power venters are now explicitly regulated 

Code. 

ARTICLE 26 - ELEVATOR, DUMBWAITER AND CONVEYOR 

INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE •&* 

(Fourth Edition Article 16) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

^icle 26 is similar .0 BOC^ Many changes occur due ••'-^S^^ 
CMR's. These modincations are interlaced throughout the article and are eas.ly identmaD . 

faced prinL 

Additional changes weremadedueto^risdictio^l^^^ 

of elevator inspection as the code official. In the Fifth Edition, the term ggsja ^ 

used; ie: Section 2601. Also, overlapping authonty occurs in a numbe of nstanc« due to 

ordinances etc. So as not to infringe upon the rights of other organizations the term, authont . 

Jurisdiction is substituted for the BOCA language. 

Frequency of inspection has been modiOed, too, « illustrated ^ Serf» M ^gS^jS 
a recently voted BBRS code change, and finally, Section 2602.53, MsnllfiS, has been 
are prohibited in the State of Massachusetts. 



15 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

Article 16 of the Fourth Edition is merely a reference to applicable Massachusetts CMR's. The Fifth 
Edition, Article 26 presents additional information regarding elevators, dumbwaiters, and conveyor 
equipment. This information is to be used as a supplement to the Massachusetts regulations. Article 
26 is not to be considered the sole source governing maintenance and installation of these items. As 
stated in the Fourth Edition, Chapter 143, Section 69 of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, 
as amended, provides that elevators, dumbwaiters, moving stairways (escalators), and moving walks shall 
be installed, relocated, or materially changed in conformance with Elevator and Escalator Regulations 
(524 CMR 3.00), and Elevator, Dumbwaiter, Escalator and Moving Walk Regulations (524 CMR 15.0 
through 33.00) promulgated by the Board of Elevator Regulations of the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts, Department of Public Safety, holds true for the Fifth Edition as well. These regulations 
are referred to as 524 CMR and Modifications throughout the text. 



ARTICLE 27 - ELECTRICAL WIRING AND EQUIPMENT 
(Fourth Edition Article 15) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 27 as it appears in the 1987 BOCA code has been deleted in its entirety. This subject is 
regulated separately in the state of Massachusetts. The Fifth Edition, Article 27 references appropriate 
Massachusetts General Laws and CMR's. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

There have not been any changes from the Fourth Edition. 

ARTICLE 28 - PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 
(Fourth Edition Article 17) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 28 as it appears in the 1987 BOCA code has been deleted in its entirety. The Fifth Edition, 
Article 28 is also a subject that is regulated by other authorities. This article references the appropriate 
Massachusetts General Laws and CMR's. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

There have not been any changes from the Fourth Edition. 

ARTICLE 29 - SIGNS 
(Fourth Edition Article 14) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 29 is similar to BOCA Some changes occur in Sections 2900.3, 2900.4, 2902.4.1, 2906.1, 2907.3,( 
2914.1, 2915.2 due to Massachusetts General Laws and CMR's. 



SUMMARY OF CHANGES TO EACH ARTICLE 

SSL 2900.3 and 2902.4.1 have been inadvertently left nnbolded. (They are unique . 
^LtoemttdVLd be bolded; to be revised dnring amendment process.) 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

There has been little chan 6 e from the Fourth Edition, except in terms of updated standards and 
practices. 

ARTICLE 30 - PRECAUTIONS DURING BUILDING OPERATIONS 

(Fourth Edition Article 13) 

Differences from 1 987 BOCA 

• c .•„„«■ imn? 1 1007 1 2 3015.1, 3018.3 and 3021.1 
Article 30 is mostly BOCA. Changes occur in Sections 3000.2.1, 3UU7.1.A 

due to Massachusetts General Laws and CMR s. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

There has been little change to this article over the Fourth Edition, except in terms of updated 
standards and practices. 

ARTICLE 31 - ENERGY CONSERVATION 
(Fourth Edition Article 20) 

Differences from 1987 BOCA 

Article 31 - ENERGY CONSERVATION is taken in its entirety from the Fourth Edition of the code 
(Article 20 of the Fourth Edition) and is unique to Massachusetts. 

Changes from the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code 

The only changes to Article 31 (formerly Artie, ^^ 
clarification comments and these are primarily related to the use ot certain v 
analysis in Sections 3113.5 and 3114.5 of this Article. 

ARTICLE 32 - EXISTING BUILDINGS 
(Fourth Edition Article 22) 

The BBRS voted to retain the existing buildings provisions of the Fourth Edition of the Mass Code. 
This Article, therefore, is the same as in the Fourth Edition, except for Article numbering. It is the 
former Article 22 of the Fourth Edition. 



17 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 

ARTICLE 33 - MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS 
(Fourth Edition Article 18) 

There is no equivalent section in BOCA; this Article is the same as in the Fourth Edition, except for 
Article numbering (Article 18 in the Fourth Edition). 

-ARTICLE 34 - ONE AND TWO FAIWLY DWELLINGS 
(Fourth Edition Article 21) 

It is the intent to adopt the CABO One and Two Family Dwelling Code with changes as 
required. Time prevented the complete review of the CABO code, therefore we are carrying the 
Fourth Edition version into the Fifth Edition for the present (Article 21 in the Fourth Edition). 

This Article has been deleted from the Fifth Edition main code document and is available from the 
State Bookstore as the Mass. One and Two-Family code, which contains Article 21 of the Fourth 
Edition (now Article 34), and Article 1 - Administration and Enforcement. Article 1 is the Fifth 
Edition Article 1. 



( 



PART III - CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 

CAUTION 

This cross-index is meant as a transition tool for users of the Fifth Edition of the Massachusetts 
State Building Code. It is not meant as an authoritative source for all changes either from the 19S7 
BOCA National Building Code or the Fourth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building 
Code. Always refer to the actual code documents for definitive requirements. 

The Table io.Part III has been developed for those who-are accustomed to using the Fourth Edition 
and previous editions of the Massachusetts State Building Code. The first column lists article and 
primary section numbers in the Fourth Edition; the second column gives the article and section number 
in the Fifth Edition. Where there is no corresponding section title in the Fifth Edition, the sections 
where the topic is covered are listed. 

Review of the table emphasizes that many section names are the same in the Fifth Edition as the 
Fourth Edition; section and article numbers tend to be different, however. 

Some of the major differences include: 

Article 2 of the Fourth Edition - Definitions & Classification - is now covered in three (3) articles in 
the Fifth Edition, corresponding to 1987 BOCA National Building Code numbering system, namely: 

Article 2 - Definitions 

Article 3 - Use Group Classification 

Article 4 - Type of Construction Classification 

Article 7 of the Fourth Edition - Structural and Foundation Loads and Stresses - is now covered in two 
(2) articles in the Fifth Edition: 

Article 11 - Structural Loads 

Article 12 - Foundations Systems and Retaining Walls 

Article 8 of the Fourth Edition is divided into three parts: Part A Materials and Tests; Part B, Steel, 
Masonry, Concrete, Gypsum and Lumber Construction; and Part C, Building Enclosures, Walls, and 
Wall Thickness. In the Fifth Edition, the subjects are covered primarily in eight (8) articles: 

Article 13 - Materials and Tests 

Article 14 - Masonry 

Article 15 - Concrete 

Article 16 - Gypsum and Plaster 

Article 17 - Wood 

Article 18 - Steel 

Article 19 - Lightweight Metal Alloys 

Article 20 - Plastics 

Article 21 - Exterior Walls 

Article 10 of the Fourth Edition - Chimneys, Rues and Vent Pipes, has no equivalent article in the 
Fifth Edition or BOCA - reference is generally made to the BOCA National Mechanical Code, 
although there are some references to some of the subjects in other articles and sections of the Fifth 
Edition. 

The balance of the articles in the Fourth Edition have an equivalent article in the Fifth Edition. 



19 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 





FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 




FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


Article 1 • ADMINISTRATION AND 
ENFORCEMENT 


Article 1 - ADMINISTRATION AND 

ENFORCEMENT 

(Same as Fourth Edition) 


100.0 


Scope 


100.0 


Scope 


101.0 


Applicability 


101.0 


Applicability 


102.0 


Ordinary repairs 


102.0 


Ordinary repairs 


103.0 


Installation of service equipment 


103.0 


Installation of service equipment 


104.0 


Maintenance 


104.0 


Maintenance 


105.0 


Change in existing use 


105.0 


Change in existing use 


106.0 


Alterations and repairs 


106.0 


Alterations and repairs 


107.0 


Building department 


107.0 


Building department 


108.0 


Duties and powers of the building official 
and state inspector 


108.0 


Duties and powers of the building 
official and state inspector 


109.0 


Rules and regulations 


109.0 


Rules and regulations 


110.0 


Approval 


110.0 


Approval 


111.0 


Inspection 


111.0 


Inspection 


112.0 


Right of entry 


112.0 


Right of entry 


113.0 


Application for permit 


113.0 


Application for permit 


114.0 


Permits 


114.0 


Permits 


115.0 


Conditions of permit 


115.0 


Conditions of permit 


116.0 


Demolition of structures 


116.0 


Demolition of structures 


117.0 


Moving structures 


117.0 


Moving structures 


118.0 


Fees 


118.0 


Fees 


119.0 


Certification of use and occupancy 


119.0 


Certification of use and occupancy 


120.0 


Posting structures 


120.0 


Posting structures 


121.0 


Violations 


121.0 


Violations 


12Z0 


Stop-work order 


122.0 


Stop-work order 


123.0 


Unsafe structures 


123.0 


Unsafe structures 


124.0 


Emergency measures 


124.0 


Emergency measures 


125.0 


Reserved 


125.0 


Reserved 


126.0 


Board of Appeals 


126.0 


Board of Appeals 


127.0 


Construction Control 


127.0 


Construction Control 


128.0 


Construction Materials Safety Board 


128.0 


Construction Materials Safety Board 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 




FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


129.0 


Activities requiring licenses 


129.0 


Activities requiring licenses 


130.0 


Fire-prevention-Fire protection board 


130.0 


Fire-prevention-Fire protection board 


131.0 


Reserved 


131.0 


Reserved 


140.0 


Validity 


140.0 


Validity 


Article 2 • DEFINITIONS AND 
CLASSIFICATIONS 


Article 2 - DEFINITIONS 


200.0 


General 


200.0 


General 


201.0 


General definitions 


201.0 


General definitions 




Article 3 - USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 


202.0 


Use group classification 


301.0 


Classification 


203.0 


Use group A, assembly buildings 


302.0 


Use group A, assembly uses 


204.0 


Use group B, business buildings 


303.0 


Use group B, business uses 




304.0 


Use group E, educational uses 


205.0 


Use group F, factory and industrial 
buildings 


305.0 


Use group F, factory and industrial use 


206.0 


Use group H, high hazard buildings 


306.0 


Use group H, high hazard uses 


207.0 


Use group I, institutional buildings 


307.0 


Use group I, institutional uses 


208.0 


Use group M, mercantile buildings 


308.0 


Use group M, mercantile uses 


209.0 


Use group R, residential buildings 


309.0 


Use group R, residential uses 


210.0 


Use group S, storage buildings 


310.0 


Use group S, storage uses 


211.0 


Use group T, temporary and 
miscellaneous uses 


311.0 


Use group U, Utility and miscellaneous 
uses 


2120 


Doubtful use classification 


312.0 


Doubtful use classification 


213.0 


Mixed use and occupancy 


313.0 


Mixed use and occupancy 




Article 4 - TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION 
CLASSIFICATION 




400.0 


General 


214.0 


Construction classification 


401.0 


Construction classification 


215.0 


Type 1 , fireproof construction 


4020 


Type 1 construction 


216.0 


Type 2 noncombustible construction 


403.0 


Type 2 construction 


217.0 


Type 3, exterior masonry wall 
construction 


404.0 


Type 3 construction 


218.0 


Type 4, frame construction 


405.0 


Type 4 construction 




406.0 


Type 5 construction 



21 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 





FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


Article 3 • GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 


Article 5 - GENERAL BUILDING 
LIMITATIONS 


300.0 


General 


500.0 


Scope 




501.0 


General area and height limitations 


301.0 


Fire limits 


900.0 


General 


3020 


Restriction within the fire limits 


906.0 


Exterior walls 


303.0 


Restrictions outside fire limits 


906.0 


Exterior walls 


304.0 


Existing buildings 


505.0 


Existing buildings 


305.0 


General area and height limitations 


501.0 


General area and height limitations 


306.0 


Area exceptions 


502.0 


Area modifications 


307.0 


Unlimited areas 


504.0 


Unlimited areas 


308.0 


Height exceptions 


503.0 


Height modifications 


309.0 


Street encroachments 


506.0 


Street encroachments 


310.0 


Permissible street projections 


507.0 


Permissible street projections 


311.0 


Permissible yard and court 
encroachments 


508.0 


Permissible yard and court 
encroachments 


312.0 


Special and temporary projections 


509.0 


Special and temporary projections 


313.0 


Awnings and canopies 


510.0 


Awnings and canopies 


314.0 


Temporary structures 


511.0 


Temporary structures 


315.0 


Accessibility for the physically 
handicapped 


512.0 


Physically handicapped and aged 




513.0 


Special historic buildings and districts 


Article 4 - SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY 
REQUIREMENTS 


ARTICLE 6 - SPECIAL USE AND 
OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 


400.0 


General 


600.0 


General 


401.0 


Explosion hazards 


618.0 


Explosion hazards 


4020 


Volatile flammables 


619.0 


Flammable and combustion liquids 


403.0 


Fire prevention codes 


627.0 


Fire prevention codes 


404.0 


Special permits and certificates of fitness 


628.0 


Special permits and certificates of 
fitness 


405.0 


Existing buildings 


629.0 


Existing buildings 


406.0 


Liquefied petroleum gases 


620.0 


Liquified petroleum gas facilities 


407.0 


Pyroxylin plastics 


603.0 


HPM use facilities 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 





FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 




FIFTH EDITION . 
Article Cross Reference 


408.0 


Use and storage of flammable film 


613.0 


Motion picture projection rooms, 
screening rooms and sound stages 


409.0 


Use and storage of combustible fibers 


306.0 


Use group H, high hazard uses (Table 
306.2) 


410.0 


Combustible dusts, grain processing 
and storage 


617.0 


Combustible dusts, grain processing 
and storage 


411.0 


Paint spraying and spray booths 


622.0 


Paint spraying and spray booths 


412.0 


Dry cleaning establishments 


603.0 


HPM use facilities 


413.0 


Private garages 


608.0 


Private garages 


414.0 


Public garages 


609.0 


Public garages 


415.0 


Motor fuel service stations 


609.0 


Public garages (also see definition for 
public garage, Article 2) 


416.0 


Motor vehicle repair shops 


609.0 


Public garage (also see definitions for 
public garage, Article 2) 


417.0 


Places of public assembly 


615.0 
806.0 
808.0 
826.0 
30Z0 
Art. 8 


Stages and Platforms 

Occupancy load 

Exit capacity 

Aisles 

Use group A-1 

Egress 


418.0 


Public assembly other than theaters 


302.0 
806.0 
808.0 
826.0 
Art. 8 


Use group A-4 
Occupancy load 
Exit capacity 
Aisles 
Egress 


419.0 


Amusement parks 


630.0 


Amusement parks 


420.0 


Stadiums and grandstands 


612.0 


Bleachers, grandstands and folding or 
telescopic seating 


421.0 


Drive in motion picture theaters 


Drive-in motion picture theaters are controlled 
by local or state authority having jurisdiction 
over highways and streets. 


422.0 


Tents, air-supported structures and other 
temporary structures 


604.0 
626.0 


Membrane structures and 
Temporary structures 


423.0 


Parking lots 


MGL c.148, s.56 (also see parking structures) 


424.0 


Group residence 


631.0 


Group residence 


425.0 


Motels 


309.2 


Use Group R-1 structures 


426.0 


Radio and television towers 


623.0 


Radio and television towers 


427.0 


Radio and television antennae 


624.0 


Radio and television antennae 


428.0 


Swimming pools 


625.0 


Swimming pools 



23 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 





FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


429.0 


Open parking structures 


607.0 


Open parking structures 


430.0 


Fallout shelters 


Deleted 


431.0 


High rise buildings 


60Z0 


High-rise buildings 


432.0 


Covered malls 


601.0 


Covered mall buildings 


433.0 


Nursing homes, rest homes, charitable 
homes for the aged, convalescent 
homes and hospitals 


632.0 


Nursing homes...etc. 


434.0 


Day care centers 


633.0 


Child day care centers 


435.0 


Summer camps for children 


634.0 


Summer camps for children 


436.0 


Historic buildings 


635.0 


Historic buildings 


437.0 


Open wells 


606.0 


Open wells 


438.0 


Limited Group Residences 


636.0 


Limited group residences 


439.0 


Detoxification Facilities 


637.0 


Detoxification Facilities 


440.0 


Group Dwelling Units 


638.0 


Group dwelling units 


Article 5 - LIGHT, VENTILATION AND SOUND 
TRANSMISSION CONTROL 


Article 7 - INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL 
REQUIREMENTS 


500. 


General 


700.0 


General 


501. 


Plans and specifications 


701.0 


Plans and specifications 


50Z 


Standards of natural light 


704.1 


Natural light 


503. 


Standards of natural ventilation 


706.0 


Natural ventilation 


504. 


Artificial light and ventilation 


705.1 
707.1 


Artificial light 
Mechanical ventilation 


505.0 


Existing buildings 


702.0 


Existing buildings 


506.0 
i 


Natural lighting and ventilation of rooms 


704.0 
706-0 


Natural light 
Natural ventilation 


507.0 


Lighting and venting of special spaces 


709.0 


Ventilation of special spaces 


508.0 


Basements and cellars 


703.0 


Light and Ventilation Required 


509.0 


Business and work rooms 


703 through 707 


510.0 


Assembly rooms 


703 through 707 


511.0 


Rooms of institutional buildings 


703 through 707 


51Z0 


Bath and toilet rooms 


703.1 


Light and Ventilation Required 


513.0 


Stairways and exitways 


704.3 


Natural light, stairways 


514.0 


Required fresh air supply 


707.1 


Mechanical ventilation 






CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


515.0 Ventilation of shafts other than elevator 
and dumbwaiter hoistways 


No comparable section 


516.0 Courts 


710.0 Courts 


517.0 Rear yards 


71 1 .0 Rear yards 


518.0 Obstruction of courts and yards 


712.0 Obstruction of courts and yards 


519.0 Fire emergency ventilating system 


1019.0 Smoke Control Systems 


520.0 Reserved 


N/A 


521.0 Window cleaning safeguards 


713.0 Window cleaning safeguards 


522.0 Sound transmission control in residential 
buildings 


714.0 Sound transmission control in 
residential buildings 


Article 6 - MEANS OF EGRESS 


Article 8 - MEANS OF EGRESS 


600.0 General 


800.0 General 


601.0 Plans and specifications 


801.0 Plans and specifications 


602.0 Use and occupancy requirements 


802.0 Use and occupancy requirements 


603.0 Air-conditioned buildings 


803.0 Prohibited use 


604.0 Existing buildings 


804.0 Existing buildings 


605.0 Maintenance of exitways 


805.0 Maintenance of exits 


606.0 Occupancy load 


806.0 Occupant load 


607.0 Types and location of exitways 


807.0 Types and location of means of egress 


608.0 Capacity of exits 


808.0 Capacity of egress components 


609.0 Number of exitways 


809.0 Number of exits 


61 0.0 Exitway access passageways and 
conidors 


810.0 Exit access passageways and corridors 


611.0 Grade passageways used as an exitway 
element 


811.0 Level of exit discharge passageways 
used as an exit element 


61 Z0 Means of egress doorways 


812.0 Means of egress doorways 


613.0 Revolving doors 


813.0 Revolving doors 


614.0 Horizontal exits 


814.0 Horizontal exits 


615.0 Egress ramps 


815.0 Ramps 


616.0 Interior exitway stairways 


816.0 Interior stairways 


617.0 Access to roof 


817.0 Access to roof 


618.0 Smokeproof enclosures 


818.0 Smokeproof enclosures 


619.0 Exterior exitway stairways 


819.0 Exterior stairways 



25 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


620.0 Moving exitway stairways 


820.0 Escalators and moving walks 


621.0 Fire escapes 


821.0 Fire escapes 


622.0 Siidescapes 


822.0 Siidescapes 


623.0 Exit signs and lights 


823.0 Exit signs and lights 


624.0 Means of egress lighting 


824.0 Means of egress lighting 


625.0 Hazards to means of egress 


825.0 Hazards to means of egress 


Article 7 - STRUCTURAL AND FOUNDATION 
LOADS AND STRESSES 


Article 11 - STRUCTURAL LOADS 


700.0 General 


1100.0 General 

1101.0 Plans and Specifications 


701.0 Design safe load 


1 1 0Z0 Design safe load 


7020 Test safe load 


1102.2 Load tests 


703.0 Design live load 


1103.0 Design live load 


704.0 Design dead load 


1104.0 Design dead load 


705.0 Existing buildings 


1105.0 Existing buildings 


706.0 Uniformly distributed live load 


1106.0 Uniformly distributed live loads 


707.0 Concentrated loads 


1107.0 Concentrated loads 


708.0 Impact loads 


1108.0 Impact loads 


709.0 Special loads 


1109.0 Special loads 


710.0 Special consideration for roofs 


1 1 1 0.0 Roof loads 


711.0 Snow load 


1111.0 Snow load 


7120 Wind load 


1112.0 Wind load 


713.0 Wind load on structures as a whole, and 
on vertical surfaces of enclosed or 
partially enclosed structures 


11125 Wnd loads on structures as a whole 


714.0 Wind load on roofs 


111Z7 Wind loads on roofs 


715.0 Special configurations, shapes and 
considerations for wind forces 


111Z12 Wind loads on signs, towers, exposed 
framing, tanks, stacks and chimneys 


716.0 Earthquake load 


1113.0 Earthquake loads 


717.0 Combination of loads 


1114.0 Combination of loads 


718.0 live load reduction 


1115.0 Live load reduction 


719.0 Strength criteria 


1304.0 Design strengths of materials 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 





FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 




Article 12 - FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND 
RETAINING WALLS 




1200.0 General 


720.0 


Bearing pressure on foundation 
materials 


1201.0 Bearing pressures on foundation 
materials 


721.0 


Subsurface explorations 


1202.0 Subsurface explorations 


722.0 


Bearing tests, pile loads tests and 
settlement analyses 


1203.0 Soil bearing tests 


723.0 


Foundations bearing on soil or rock 


1204.0 Allowable foundation loads 


724.0 


Depth of footings 


1205.0 Depth of footing 


725.0 


Footing design 


1206.0 Footing design 


726.0 


Timber footings, wood foundations 


1207.0 Timber footings and wood foundations 


727.0 


Steel grillages 


1208.0 Steel grillages 


728.0 


Concrete footings 


1209.0 Concrete footings 


729.0 


Masonry unit footings 


1210.0 Masonry unit footings 


730.0 


Floating foundations 


1211.0 Mat, raft and float foundations 


731.0 


Foundation piers 


121Z0 Pier foundations 


732.0 


Pile foundations 


1213.0 Pile foundations 


733.0 


Corrosion protection 


1213.3 Protection of pile materials 


734.0 


Allowable protection 


1214.0 Allowable pile loads 


735.0 


Timber piles 


1219.0 Timber piles 


736.0 


Precast concrete piles 


1218.0 Precast concrete piles 


737.0 


Cast-in-place concrete piles 


1217.0 Cast-in-place concrete piles 


738.0 


Concrete-filled pile and tapered tubular 
piles 


1216.0 Concrete-filled steel pipe and tapered 
tubular piles 


739.0 


Concrete-filled pipe and steel core 
caissons 


1221.0 Concrete-filled pipe with steel core 
caissons 


740.0 


Structural steel piles 


1215.0 Structural steel piles 


741.0 


Composite piles 


1220.0 Composite piles 


742.0 


Special piles and caissons 


1217.2 Small diameter grouted piles 


743.0 


Special piles and caissons 


1213.2 Special piles and caissons 


744.0 


Design requirements for construction in 
floodplains 


2102.0 Flood resistant construction 




1222.0 Foundation walls 



27 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 




1223.0 Retaining walls 




1224.0 Waterproofing and dampproofing 






Article 8 - PART A - MATERIALS AND TESTS 


Article 13 - MATERIALS AND TESTS 


800.0 General 


1300.0 General 


801.0 Basic classification of construction 
materials 


1300.5 Basic classification of construction 
materials 


802.0 Tests 


1303.0 Tests 


803.0 Conditions of acceptance 


1305.0 Conditions of acceptance 


804.0 Approvals 


1306.0 Approvals 


805.0 Masonry construction units 


1401.0 Masonry construction units 


806.0 Brick units 


1402.0 Brick units 


807.0 Structural clay tile units 


1403.0 Structural clay tile units 


I 808.0 Glazed clay masonry units 


1404.0 Glazed clay masonry units 


809.0 Concrete units 


1405.0 Concrete units 


810.0 Gypsum units 


1604.2 Limitations 


811.0 Structural glass block units 


1420.0 Structural glass block units 


81 2.0 Architectural terra cotta 


1406.0 Architectural terra cotta 


813.0 Natural stone 


1407.0 Natural stone 


814.0 Cast stone 


1408.0 Cast stone 


815.0 Mortar for masonry 


1409.0 Mortar and grout for masonry 


816.0 Concrete aggregates 


1502.3 Aggregates 


817.0 Ready-mix concrete 


1504.3.1 Ready-mixed concrete 


818.0 Structural wood glues 


1708.0 Structural glued-laminated timber and 
built-up wood construction 


819.0 Interior lathing and plastering 


1601.0 Interior lathing and gypsum plastering 
1602.0 Portland cement stucco lathe and 
plaster 


820.0 Exterior lathing and stucco 


160Z0 Portland cement stucco lath and plaster 


821.0 Plastering materials 


1602.0 Table 1601, Plaster materials & 
accessories 


822.0 Plaster bases 


1603.4 Gypsum board materials 


823.0 Fiber boards 


1603.4 Gypsum board materials 
1709.0 Fiber boards 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


824.0 Plywood 


1603.0.4 Gypsum board materials 
1710.0 Plywood 


825.0 Wallboards and sheathing 


1603.0.4 Gypsum board materials, Table 1603 ' 
1711.0 Particle board 


Article 8 - Part B - STEEL, MASONRY, 

CONCRETE, GYPSUM AND LUMBER 

CONSTRUCTION 


Article 14 - MASONRY 

Article 15 -CONCRETE 

Article 16 - GYPSUM AND PLASTER 

Article 17 -WOOD 

Article 18 -STEEL 

Article 19 - LIGHTWEIGHT METAL 

ALLOYS 


826.0 Structural steel construction 


1801.0 Structural steel construction 


827.0 Formed steel construction 


1802.0 Formed steel construction 


828.0 Steel joist construction 


1803.0 Open web steel joist construction 


829.0 Reinforcing steel 


1804.0 Reinforcing steel 


830.0 Cast steel construction 


1805.0 Cast steel construction 


831.0 Deleted 


N/A 


832.0 Special steels 


1807.0 Special steel and steel cable structural 
systems 


833.0 Light weight metal alloys 


1900.0 General 
1901.0 Materials 


834.0 Masonry wall construction 


1410.0 Masonry wall construction 


835.0 Bonding of walls 


1411.0 Bonding of walls 


836.0 Lateral bracing of walls 


1412.0 Lateral bracing of walls 


837.0 Chases and recesses in bearing walls 


1413.0 Chases and recesses in bearing walls 


838.0 Corbeled and projected masonry 


1415.0 Corbeled and projected masonry 


839.0 Bearing on hollow unit walls 


1416.0 Bearing on hollow unit walls 


840.0 Plain concrete 


1500.2 Plain concrete 


841.0 Reinforced concrete 


1506.0 Details of reinforcement 


842.0 Deleted 


N/A 


843.0 Deleted 


N/A 


844.0 Deleted 


N/A 


845.0 Deleted 


N/A 


846.0 Concrete-filled pipe columns 


1507.0 Concrete-filled pipe columns 


847.0 Pneumatic concrete 


1508.0 Shotcrete 


848.0 Minimum concrete dimensions 


1506.0 Details of reinforcement 



29 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 





FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 




849.0 


Reinforced gypsum concrete 


1604.0 


Gypsum construction 




850.0 


Engineered unreinforced masonry 


1417.0 


Engineered unreinforced masonry 




851.0 


Reinforced masonry 


1418.0 


Reinforced masonry 






1419.0 


Unreinforced Masonry 






1421.0 


Isolated piers 






1422.0 


Dry - stacked, surface-boarded masonry 
walls 






1700.0 


General 




852.0 


Lumber and timber construction 


1701.0 


Lumber and timber construction 




853.0 


Heavy timber type construction 


170Z0 


Heavy timber type construction 




854.0 


Wood frame construction 


1704.0 Wall construction 
1705.0 Floor construction 
1 706.0 Roof construction 




855.0 


Stress skin panels 


1707.0 


Stress skin panels 




856.0 


Structural glued laminated timber and 
built-up wood construction 


1708.0 


Structural glued-laminated timber and 
built-up wood construction 




Article 8 - Part C - BUILDING ENCLOSURES, 
WALLS AND WALL THICKNESS 


Article 21 - EXTERIOR WALLS 




857.0 


Enclosure walls 


906.0 


Exterior walls - fire resistive 




858.0 


Protection of wall openings 


907.0 


Exterior opening protectees 




859.0 


Fire access panels 


1002.15 WindowlVss story 




850.0 


Structural glass block walls 


1420.0 


Structural glass block walls 




861.0 


Wall facings and veneers 


2105.0 


Wall panels 




86Z0 


Structural glass veneers 


2109.0 


Structural glass veneers 




863.0 


Thin stone and tile veneers 


2108.0 Thin stone and tile veneers 




864.0 


Metal veneers 


2106.0 


Metal veneers 




865.0 


Plastic veneers 


2105.2 


Light-transmitting plastic 




866.0 


Thickness of solid masonry walls 


1410.0 


Masonry wall construction 




867.0 


Thickness of panel walls 


2105.0 


Wall panels 




868.0 


Deleted 


N/A 




869.0 


Foundation walls 


1222.0 


Foundation walls 




870.0 


Retaining walls 


1223.0 


Retaining walls 


871.0 


Deleted 


N/A 





CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 





FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


87Z0 


Waterproofing and floodproofing 


1224.0 
2102.0 


Waterproofing and dampproofing 
Flood resistant construction 


873.0 


Deleted 


N/A 


874.0 


Protection against decay and termites 


1712.0 Protection against decay and termites 


875.0 


Delete, add Reserved 


N/A 


876.0 


Thermal insulating materials 


922.4 & 2002.1 Foam plastics 

928.0 Thermal & insulating materials 

1709.3 Fiberboards for roof 

1709.4 Fiberboards for wall 


Article 9 - FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 
REQUIREMENTS 


Article 9 - FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 


900.0 


General 


900.0 


General 


901.0 


Plans and specifications 


901.0 


Plans and specifications 


902.0 


Fire hazard classification 


902.0 


Fire hazard classification 


903.0 


Fireresistance tests 


903.0 


Fire tests 


904.0 


Flameresistance tests 


904.0 


Flame spread and flameresistance tests 


905.0 


Special fireresistive requirements 


905.0 


Special fireresistive requirement 


906.0 


Exterior walls 


906.0 


Exterior walls 


907.0 


Fire walls and party walls 


908.0 


Fire walls and party walls 


908.0 


Fire wall openings 


909.0 


Fire wall openings 


909.0 


Fire separation walls 


910.0 


Fire separation walls 


910.0 


Vertical shafts 


915.0 


Vertical shafts 


911.0 


Fireresistance of structural members 


912.0 


Fireresistance rating of structural 
members 


912.0 


Fireresistance rated floor/roof-ceiling 
assemblies 


913.0 


Fireresistance rated floor/roof/ceiling 
assemblies 


913.0 


Roof construction 


914.0 


Roof construction 


914.0 


Exterior opening protectives 


907.0 


Exterior opening protectives 


915.0 


Fire doors 


916.0 


Fire door assemblies 


916.0 


Fire windows and shutters 


917.0 


Fire windows and shutters 




918.0 


Fire dampers 


917.0 


Wired glass 


91-S.O 


Wired glass 


918.0 


Fireresistive requirements for plaster 


920.0 


Fireresistive requirements for plaster 


919.0 


Firestopping and draftstopping 


921.0 


Firestopping and draftstopping 



31 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


920.0 Interior wall and ceiling finish, floor 
covering 


922.0 Interior finish and trim 


921.0 Application of interior finish 


923.0 Application of interior finish 


922.0 Combustible materials permitted in floor 
construction of Type 1 and Type 2 
building 


924.0 Combustible materials permitted in 
floors on Type 1 and 2 construction 


923.0 Decorative material restrictions 


925.0 Decorative material restrictions 


924.0 Exterior trim restrictions 


926.0 Exterior trim restrictions 


925.0 Roof structures 


927.0 Roof structures 


926.0 Roof coverings 


2301.0 Fire classification 


Article 10 - CHIMNEYS, FLUES AND VENT 
PIPES 


No comparable article 
-Covered in BOCA National Mechanical Code- 


1000.0 General 




1001.0 Plans and specifications 




10020 Performance test and acceptance criteria 




1003.0 Chimneys 




1004.0 Appliances requiring chimneys 




1005.0 Existing buildings 




1 006.0 Vent systems 




1007.0 Fireplaces 


2400.0 Masonry Fireplaces 


1008.0 Incinerators 


-See Art. 25 & BOCA Mechanical Code- 


1009.0 Construction of metal ducts and vents 


■ 


1010.0 Spark arrestors 


• 


Article 11 - MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND 
SYSTEMS 


Article 25 ■ MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND 
SYSTEMS 


1100.0 General 


2500.0 General 


1101.0 Plans and Specifications 


2501.0 Plans, specifications and permits 


1102.0 Inspections and tests 


25020 Inspections and tests 


1103.0 Existing buildings 


2503.0 Existing buildings 


1104.0 Fees 


2504.0 Fees 


1105.0 Boiler rooms 


2511.0 Boiler rooms 



( 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


1106.0 Drying rooms 


2505.0 Drying rooms 


1107.0 Refuse chutes 


2506.0 Waste and linen handling systems 


1108.0 Refuse vaults 


2507.0 Refuse vaults 


1109.0 Dust, stock and refuse conveyor systems 


2508.0 Dust, stock and refuse conveyor 
systems 


1110.0 Solid fuel burning heating appliances 


2512.0 Solid fuel burning heating appliances 


No comparable section 


2513.0 Power venters (Power exhausters) 


Article 12 - FIRE PREVENTION SYSTEMS 


Article 10 - FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 


1200.0 General 


1000.0 General 


1201.0 Plans and specifications 


1001.0 Plans and specifications 


1202.0 Fire suppression systems 


1 002.0 Fire suppression systems 


1203.0 Suppression system selection 


1 003.0 Suppression system selection 


1204.0 Water sprinkler systems 


1004.0 Water sprinkler systems 


1205.0 Limited area sprinkler systems 


1005.0 Limited area sprinkler systems 


1206.0 Water spray fixed systems 


1 005.0 Water-spray fixed systems 


1207.0 Foam extinguishing systems 


1007.0 Foam extinguishing systems 


1208.0 Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems 


1008.0 Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems 


1209.0 Halogenated fire extinguishing systems 


1009.0 Halogenated fire extinguishing systems 


1210.0 Dry chemical extinguishing systems 


1010.0 Dry chemical extinguishing systems 


1211.0 Wet chemical range hood extinguishing 
systems 


1011.0 Wet chemical range hood extinguishing 
systems 


1212.0 Standpipe systems 


1012.0 Standpipe systems 


1213.0 Standpipe systems for buildings under 
construction or demolition 


1013.0 Standpipe systems for buildings under 
construction or demolition 


1214.0 Fire department connections 


1014.0 Fire department connections 


1215.0 Water supply and other extinguishing 
media 


1015.0 Water supply and other extinguishing 
media 


1216.0 Yard hydrants 


1 01 6.0 Yard hydrants 


1217.0 Fire protection signalling systems 


1017.0 Fire protection signalling systems 


1218.0 Automatic fire detection systems 


1018.0 Automatic fire detection systems 


1219.0 Smoke control systems 


1019.0 Smoke control systems 


1220.0 Supervision 


1020.0 Supervision 


1221.0 Fire extinguishers 


1021.0 Fire Extinguishers 



33 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


Article 13 - PRECAUTIONS DURING 
BUILDING OPERATIONS 


ARTICLE 30 - PRECAUTIONS DURING 
BUILDING OPERATIONS 


1300.0 General 


3000.0 General 


1301.0 Plans; specifications and general permits 


3001:0 Plans, specification and special permits 


1302.0 Tests 


300Z0 Tests 


1303.0 Inspection 


3003.0 Inspection 


1304.0 Maintenance 


3004.0 Maintenance 


1305.0 Existing buildings 


3005.0 Existing buildings 


1306.0 Protection of public and workmen 


3006.0 Protection of public and workmen 


1307.0 Excavations 


3007.0 Demolition and excavation 


1308.0 Regulation of lots 


3008.0 Regulations of lots 


1309.0 Retaining walls and partition fences 


3009.0 Retaining walls and partition fences 


1310.0 Storage of materials 


3010.0 Storage of materials 


131 1.0 Removal of waste material 


301 1 .0 Removal of waste material 


1312.0 Protection of adjoining property 


30120 Protection of adjoining propeny 


1313.0 Protection of floor and wall openings 


3013.0 Protection of floor and wall openings 


1314.0 Scaffolds 


3014.0 Scaffolds 


1315.0 Hoists 


3015.0 Hoists 


1316.0 Stairways and ladders 


3016.0 Stairways and ladders 


1317.0 Lighting 


3017.0 Lighting 


1318.0 Fire hazards 


3018.0 Fire hazards 


131S.0 Health hazards 


3019.0 Health hazards 


1320.0 Welding safety precautions 


3020.0 Welding safety precautions 


1321.0 Deleted 


3021.0 Sanitation 


1322.0 Disputes 


302Z0 Disputes 


Article 14 ■ SIGNS 


Article 29 - SIGNS 


1400.0 General 


2900.0 General 


1401.0 Plans, specifications and permits 


2901.0 Plans, specifications and permits 


14020 Exemptions 


2902.0 Exemptions 


1403.0 Unsafe and unlawful signs 


2903.0 Unsafe and unlawful signs / 


1404.0 Existing signs 


k 

2904.0 Existing signs 


1405.0 Maintenance and inspection 


2905.0 Maintenance and inspection 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


1406.0 Bonds and liability insurance 


2906.0 Bonds and liability insurance 


1407.0 General requirements for all signs 


2907.0 General requirements for all signs 


1408.0 Ground signs 


2908.0 Ground signs 


1409.0 Roof signs 


2909.0 Roof signs 


1410.0 Wall signs 


2910.0 Wall signs 


1411.0 Projecting signs 


2911.0 Projecting signs 


1412.0 Marquee signs 


291Z0 Marquee signs 


1413.0 Miscellaneous and temporary signs 


2913.0 Miscellaneous and temporary signs 


1414.0 Illuminated signs 


2914.0 Illuminated signs 


1415.0 Portable signs 


2915.0 Portable signs 


Article 15 - ELECTRICAL WIRING AND 
EQUIPMENT 


Article 27 - See Mass. Electrical Code 
527 CMR 


Article 16 - ELEVATOR DUMBWAITER AND 

CONVEYOR EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION AND 

MAINTENANCE 


Article 26 - ELEVATOR, DUMBWAITER AND 

CONVEYOR EQUIPMENT, INSTALLATION 

AND MAINTENANCE 


Mass Code, Edition 4 refers only to 524 CMR 


2600.0 General 




2601.0 Plans, specifications and permits 




2602.0 Tests and inspections 




2603.0 Certificate of compliance 




2604.0 Maintenance and accidents 




2605.0 Existing installations 




2606.0 Alterations 




2608.0 Hoistway enclosures and venting 




2609.0 Elevator and dumbwaiter machinery and 
equipment 




2610.0 Machine rooms and related construction 
for passenger and freight elevators and 
dumbwaiters 




261 1 .0 Elevator opening protectives 




2612.0 Elevator car emergency signals and 
signs 




2613.0 Manlifts (prohibited) 




2614.0 Industrial lifts and loading ramps 




2615.0 Automotive lifts 



35 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 




2616.0 Conveyors 




2617.0 Escalators 


Article 28 • PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 


Article 28 - PLUMBING & GASFITTING 
■ See Mass. Plumbing & Gasfitting Code, 
248 CMR 


Article 18 - MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS, 

BUILDING COMPONENTS AND MOBILE 

HOMES 


Article 33 - MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS, 

BUILDING COMPONENTS AND MOBILE 

HOMES 

(Same as Fourth Edition) 


1800.0 General 


3300.0 General 


1801.0 Approval 


3301.0 Approval 


1802.0 Certification 


3302.0 Certification 


1803.0 Reciprocity 


3303.0 Reciprocity 


1804.0 Assurance inspection 


3304.0 Assurance inspection 


1805.0 Responsibility of the building official 


3305.0 Responsibility of the building official 


1806.0 Suspension and revocation of 
certification 


3306.0 Suspension and revocation of 
certification 


Article 19 - LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC 
CONSTRUCTION 


ARTICLE 20 - PLASTIC 


1900.0 General 


2000.0 General 


1 901 .0 Design and installation 


2001.0 Light-transmitting plastics 


1902.0 Glazing of unprotected openings 


2205.0 Light-transmitting plastic glazing of 
unprotected openings 


1903.0 Exterior panel walls 


2105.0 Wall panels 


1 904.0 Roof panels 


2306.0 Light-transmitting plastic roof panels 


1905.C Skylight assemblies 


2204.0 Sloped glazing and skylights 


1905.0 Light-diffusing systems 


2001.0 Light-transmitting plastics 


1907.0 Partitions 


2001.6 Partitions 


1 908.0 Bathroom accessories 


2001.7 Light-transmitting plastics (subsection) 


1909.0 Awnings and similar structures 


2001.8 Light-transmitting plastics (subsection) 


1910.0 Greenhouses 


2204.0 Sloped glazing and skylights 


Article 20 - ENERGY CONSERVATION 


ARTICLE 31 - ENERGY CONSERVATION 
(Same as Fourth Edition) 


2000.0 General 


3100.0 General 


2001.0 Administrative 


3101.0 Administrative 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


2002.0 Existing buildings 


3102.0 Existing buildings 


2003.0 Plans and specifications 


3103.0 Plans and specifications 


2004.0 Materials and equipment 


3104.0 Materials and equipment 


2005.0 Design conditions 


3105.0 Design conditions 


2006.0 Building insulation 


3106.0 Building insulation 


2007.0 Air infiltration & moisture control 


3107.0 Air infiltration & moisture control 


2008.0 Component design 


3108.0 Component design 


2009.0 Exterior envelope requirements for low- 
rise residential buildings 


3109.0 Exterior envelope requirements for low- 
rise residential buildings 


2010.0 Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning 
(HVAC) systems 


3110.0 Heating, ventilating, & air-conditioning 
(HVAC) systems 


2011.0 Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning 
equipment 


3111.0 Heating, ventilating & air-conditioning 
equipment 


2012.0 Electric power distribution 


3112.0 Electric power distribution 


2013.0 Lighting systems 


3013.0 Lighting systems 


2014.0 Building envelope requirements for 
commercial and high-rise buildings 


3014.0 Building envelope requirements for 
commercial and high-rise buildings 


2015.0 Building design by system analysis 


3115.0 Building design by system analysis 


201 6.0 Buildings utilizing solar, geothermal, 
wind or other non depletable energy 
sources as alternative design 


3116.0 Buildings utilizing solar, geothermal, 
wind or other non-depletable energy 
sources as alternative design 


Article 21 - ONE AND TWO FAMILY 
DWELLING 


Article 34 - ONE AND TWO FAMILY 

DWELLINGS 

(Same as Fourth Edition) 

(See Separate ONE & TWO FAMILY CODE) 


2100.0 General 


3400.0 General 


2101.0 Building planning 


3401.0 Building Planning 


210Z0 Foundations 


34020 Foundations 


2103.0 Wall construction 


3403.0 Wall Construction 


21 04.0 Wall covering 


3404.0 Wall Covering 


2105.0 Floors 


3405.0 Floors 


2106.0 Roof-ceiling construction 


3406.0 Roof-ceiling construction 


21 07.0 Roof coverings 


3407.0 Roof coverings 


2108.0 Chimneys, fireplaces and connector 
pipes 


3408.0 Chimneys, fireplaces and connector 
plates 


2109.0 Solid fuel burning heating appliances 


3409.0 Solid fuel burning appliances 



37 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 




FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


2110.0 Mechanical equipment general 


3410.0 


Mechanical equipment, general 


2111.0 Combustion air 


3411.0 


Combustion air 


2112.0 Warm-air furnaces 


3412.0 


Warm-air furnace 


2113.0 Vented decorative appliances, floor 
furnaces, vented wall furnaces and 
vented room heaters 


3413.0 


Vented decorative appliances, floor 
furnaces, vented wall furnaces and 
vented room heaters 


2114.0 Venting of appliances 


3414.0 


Venting of appliances 


2115.0 Ducts 


3415.0 


Ducts 


2116.0 Comfort cooling 


3416.0 


Comfort cooling 


2117.0 Absorption units and absorption systems 
for comfort cooling and comfort heating 


3417.0 


Absorption units and absorption 
systems for comfort cooling and comfort 
heating 


2118.0 Fuel supply systems 


3418.0 


Fuel supply systems 


2119.0 Energy conservation by component 
design 


3419.0 


Energy conservation by component 
design 


2120.0 Building insulation 


3420.0 


Building insulation 


2121.0 Ventilation 


3421.0 


Ventilation 


2122.0 Vapor barriers 


3422.0 


Vapor barriers 


2123.0 U-values of building components 


3423.0 


U-values of building components 


2124.0 Air leakage for all buildings 


3424.0 


Air leakage for all buildings 


2125.0 System design heating/cooling capacity 


3425.0 


System design heating/cooling capacity 


2126.0 Controls 


3426.0 


Controls 


2127.0 Balancing 


3427.0 


Balancing 


2128.0 Duct insulation 


3428.0 


Duct insulation 


2129.0 Pipe insulation 


3429.0 


Pipe insulation 


Reference Standards 


Reference Standards 


Index to Tables and Figures 


Index to Tables and Figures 


General Index 


General Index 


Article 22 - REPAIR, ALTERATION, ADDITION 

AND CHANGE OF USE OF EXISTING 

BUILDINGS 


Article 32 - REPAIR, ALTERATION, ADDITION 

AND CHANGE OF USE OF EXISTING 

BUILDINGS 

(Same as Fourth Edition) 


2200.0 Scope 


3200.0 


Scope 


2201.0 Definitions 


3201.0 


Definitions 


2202.0 Implementation 


320Z0 


Implementation 



( 



CROSS REFERENCE BY ARTICLE 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


2203.0 Requirements for continuation of the 
same use group or change to a use 
group of equal or lesser hazard index 


3203.0 Requirements for continuation of the 
same use group of equal or lesser 
hazard index 


2204.0 Requirements for change in use group 
to one hazard index greater tiazard in- 


3204.0 Requirements for change in use group 
*~" to one hazard index greater 


2205.0 Requirement for change in use group to 
two or more hazard indices greater 


3205.0 Requirements for change in use group 
to two or more hazard indices greater 


2206.0 Compliance alternatives 


3206.0 Compliance alternatives 


2207.0 Energy provisions for existing buildings* 


3207.0 Energy provisions for existing buildings 


2208.0 Other Code Sections pertaining to repair 
alteration or change of use of existing 
buildings 


3208.0 Other code sections pertaining to repair, 
alteration, or change of use of existing 
buildings 


APPENDICES 


APPENDICES 


Appendix a reference standards agencies 


A reference standards (note that there are 
two parts to Appendix A) 


Appendix b accepted engineering practice 
standards 


A 


Appendix c material standards 


A 


Appendix d structural unit test standards 


A 


Appendix f durability test standards 


A 


Appendix g fire test and flame test standards 


A 


Appendix h standard time-temperature fire 
test controls 


A 


Appendix i fire protection standards 


A 


Appendix j unit dead loads for design 
purposes 


B unit dead loads for design purposes 


Appendix k unit working stresses for ordinary 
material 


no comparable appendix 


Appendix 1 procedure for accounting for 
series and parallel heat flow 
paths 


E procedure for accounting for series and 
parallel heat flow paths 


Appendix m recommended nailing schedule 


C recommended fastening schedule 


Appendix n metric equivalents 


no comparable appendix 


Appendix o accredited authoritative agencies 


no comparable appendix 


Appendix p specialized massachusetts rules 
and regulations other than state 
building code commission 


G specialized massachusetts rules and 
regulations other than state building 
code commission 



39 



( 



THE USERS GUIDE TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



FOURTH EDITION 
Table of Contents 


FIFTH EDITION 
Article Cross Reference 


Appendix q massachusetts state building 
code commission rules and 
regulations 


now a separate document 


Appendix r technical code council 


no comparable appendix 


Appendix s advisory boards and committees 


no comparable appendix - (in Foreword) 


Appendix t reference data for repair, 

alteration, addition and change 
of use of existing buildings 


F reference data for repair, alteration, 

addition and change of use of existing 
buildings 


Appendix u historic structures 


H historic structures 


Appendix v energy equations & other 
ASHRAE computer based 
procedures 


no comparable appendix 


Appendix w reference standards - article 21 
(1 & 2 family dwelling) 


no comparable appendix-See MA 1 & 2 
family code 


Appendix x guidance for selection of 

foundation material classes in 
table 720 


D guidance for selection of foundation 
material classes in table 720 



( 



The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

SECTETARYOFSTATE 



REGULATION FILING AND PUBLICATION 



1 . Regulation Chapter Number and Heading: 

780 CMR: THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

2. Name of Agency: 

STATE BOARD OF BUILDING REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 

3. This document is reprinted from the Code of Massachusetts 

Regulations and contains the following: 

THIS IS THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE AS ADOPTED BY 
THE STATE BOARD OF BUILDING REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS AND ON 
FILE WITH THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF STATE. 



Under the provisions of Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter 30A, 
Section 6 and Chapter 233, Section 75, this document may be used as 
evidence of the original documents on file with the State Secretary. 

Compiled as in full force and effect: 9 /14/90 _ 780 cmr 1-33 and Appendices 

10/26/90 - 780 CMR 1-5 (formerly appendix Q) 

n/9/90 - 780 cmr 34 A true copy attests 

(1&2 Family Dwellin^A^ Cj^UjUJ] ■ ( 0^ryyudJj/jh Jr ~ 

michaelj3se?h connollyJ 

$34 - 00 Secretary of State \J 



i 



THE MASSACHUSETTS 
STATE BUILDING CODE 

Fifth Edition 

780 CMR 



COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS 



Published by 

Michael J. Connolly 

Massachusetts Secretary of State 




3 



\W^Y 






FOREWORD and ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

EDITION 5 OF THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

FOREWORD 

The Fifth Edition of the Massachusetts State Building Code has been revised from 
the Fourth Edition to make it as close to the BOCA National Model, both in Article 
and sub-Article numbering and in technical content. In several instances, BOCA 
could not be followed for a number of reasons, including: 

- Requirements of Massachusetts General Laws (MGL) 

- BBRS changes to meet specific needs of the Commonwealth 

- Specialized Massachusetts Codes under the Control of Separate 

Independent Boards 

The following Articles, in their entirety, are non-BOCA: 

Article 1 - Administration 

Article 10 - Fire Protection Systems 

Article 11 - Structural Loads 

Article 12 - Foundation Systems and Retaining Walls 

Article 27 - Electrical Wiring and Equipment 

Article 28 - Plumbing and Gasfitting 

Article 31 - Energy Conservation 

Article 32 - Repair, Alteration and Change of Use of Existing Buildings 

Article 33 - Manufactured Buildings, Building Components and Mobile Homes 

Article 34 - One and Two Family Dwelling Code (available as a separate 
document from the State Bookstore; not included in this code.) 

In the remaining Articles, BBRS changes are presented in bold-faced type. 



Corrected 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition iii 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



In following the BOCA National Building Code format, Edition 5 does not include 
either the One and Two- Family Dwelling Code provisions (Article 21 in Edition 4) 
or the various Rules and Regulations (Appendix Q in Edition 4). Both documents 
will be available as separate publications from the State Bookstore, Room 116, State 
House, Boston, MA 02133 (Tel: (617) 727-2834). 

One and Two-Family Dwelling Code: Now identified separately and in Edition 5 as 
Article 34, includes Article 1 (Administration and Enforcement) of Edition 5 and 
Article 21 of Edition 4. The Edition 4 version of Article 21 will remain in effect 
until such time as it has been updated, using the 1989 edition of the CABO One and 
Two- Family Dwelling Code as a base. 

Rules and Regulations of the Board of Building Regulations and Standards: Now 

identified as 780 CMR 1 through 4, may be purchased as a "package" or separately 
from the State Book Store. These four regulations which were contained in 
Appendix Q of Edition 4 will remain in effect until updated. 

Guide to Edition 5 of the Massachusetts State Building Code: This guide was 
developed to assist code users and is available from the State Bookstore. It includes 
an Article No. Cross-Index from Edition 4 to Edition 5, and a Summary of Major 
Changes made in Edition 5 relative to Edition 4. Note: One copy will be given to 
purchasers of the Basic Code at no extra charge. 

These codes are subject to change by amendment. These amendments are effective 
when published in the bi-weekly MASSACHUSETTS REGISTER unless otherwise 
stated by the promulgating agency. All code purchasers will be notified by the State 
Bookstore when amendments have been made and are available. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

A substantial portion of this Code has been copied from the BOCA 
National Building Code/1987, Tenth Edition, Copyright, 1986, Building 
Officials and Code Administrators, International, Inc., All rights reserved. 
For further information write BOCA International, Inc., 4051 West 
Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois, 6047-5795. 



iv 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



BOARDS AND COMMITTEES 



MEMBERS - BOARD OF BUILDING REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS 



Kentaro Tsutsumi, Chairman 
Registered Professional Engineer 
(Structural) 

Joseph J. Cellucci 
Inspector of Buildings (City) 



Stanley S. Shuman, Vice Chairman 
General Contractor of Commercial/ 
Industrial Buildings 

Charles J. Dinezio 

Chief of Division of Inspections 

Ex Officio Member 



Thomas E. Donovan 

Building Contractor of One or Two 

Family Homes 

John E. Grover 

Inspector of Buildings (Town) 

William P. Kramer 

Registered Professional Engineer 

(Mechanical) 

Douglas Cole Smith 
Registered Architect 



Leo J. Purcell 
Building Trades 



James M. Hallisey 

Head of Local Fire Department 

Joseph A. O'Keefe 
State Fire Marshal 
Ex-Officio Member 



STAFF 



Charles J. Dinezio, Administrator 

Robert A. Anderson 

William C. Plouffe 

Thomas M. Riley 

Pauline E. Stanton 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



FIVE STANDING ADVISORY BOARDS/COMMITTEES 
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SAFETY BOARD (CMSB) 



Kentaro Tsutsumi, Chairman 
College of Engineering 
Tufts University 

Charles A.J. Theodore, P.E. 
Hometech Consulting Group 



Francis Harvey, P.E., R.A. 
Harvey & Tracy 



Ara Shrestinian, P.E. 

Vice President 

The Thompson & Lichtner Co., Inc. 



Sanford Kaplan 

Sanford Construction Company 



Terrence Johnston 
Laboratory Supervisor 
Testing Laboratory 

Metropolitan District Commission Charles Dinezio 

BBRS Member 



FIRE PREVENTION-FIRE PROTECTION BOARD (FP-FP) 



John M. Murphy, Chairman 
Consultant, Int'l. Municipal 
Signalmen's Assoc. Representative 

Lt. Michael P. Akstin 
Mass Fire Prevention Assoc. 
Representative 

Chief James W. Clarke 
Mass. Fire Chiefs Assoc. 
Representative 

Chief William V. Dolan 
Mass, Fire Chiefs Assoc. 
Representative 

Thomas McNicholas 
Building Official 

Carlisle V. Smith 

Mass. Board of Fire Prevention 

Regulations 



Walter Adams 
Registered Architect 



Joseph C. Celluci 
BBRS Member 



Harold Cutler 

Fire Protection Engineer 



David J. Goggin 

Mass. Fire Prevention Assoc. Representative 



Joseph O'Keefe 
State Fire Marshall 

Commissioner Leo Stapleton 

Mass. Fire Chiefs Assoc. Regulations 

John Grover 
BBRS Member 



VI 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



btlbrvilU ADVISORY UUMMII I EE 



Norton S. Remmer, Chairman 
Consulting Engineers 



Professor Kentaro Tsutsumi 
BBRS Member 



Dr. John T. Christian Professor Robert V. Whitman 

Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. Massachusetts Institue of Technology 



David O. Knuttunen, P.E. 
LeMessurier Consultants 

Francis D. Leathers 
Geotechnical Engineers, Inc. 

Nicholas Mariani 
Charles T. Main, Inc. 

Maurice A. Reidy, Jr. 
Maurice A. Reidy Engineers 



Kenneth B. Wiesner 
LeMessurier Consultants 

Joseph J. Zona 

Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. 

Professor William A. Nash 
University of Massachusetts 

Dr. Cetin Soydemir 
Haley &. Aldrich, Inc. 



LOADS ADVISORY COMMITTEE 

Dr. Frank J. Heger, P.E., Chairman Arthur L. Brown, Jr., P.E. 
Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. Brown & Rona, Inc. 



Rubin M. Zallen, P.E. 
Consulting Engineer 

Hans William Hagen, P.E., Chairman 
LeMessurier Associates/SCI 



Stanley Shuman,P.E. 
BBRS Member 



Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



GEOTECHNICAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE 



Edmund G. Johnson, Chairman 
Haley & Aldrich, Inc. 

Robert E. McPhail 
McPhail Associates, Inc. 

Mr. P.A. O'Neill 

New England Foundation Co., Inc. 

Asaf A. Qazilbash 

Asaf A. Qazilbash Associates 



Peter K. Taylor, Vice Chairman 
Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. 

David Shields 
Geotechnical Engineers, Inc. 

Dr. Richard M. Simon 
Goldberg-Zoino & Assoc, Inc. 

Richard P. Weber 
Kupferman & Weber, Inc. 



viu 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 1 ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 1-1 

Section 

100.0 Scope 

101.0 Applicability 

102.0 Ordinary Repairs 

1 03.0 Installation Of Service Repairs Equipment 

1 04.0 Maintenance 

105.0 Change in Existing Use 

106.0 Alterations & Repair 

107.0 Building Department 

1 08.0 Duties and Powers of the Building Official and State Inspector 

109.0 Rules & Regulations 

1 1 0.0 Approval 

1 1 1 .0 Inspection 

112.0 Right Of Entry 

1 1 3.0 Application Of Permit 

114.0 Permits 

115.0 Conditions Of Permit 

1 1 6.0 Demolition Of Structures 

1 1 7.0 Moved Structures 

1 1 8.0 Fees 

1 1 9.0 Certificate Of Use and Occupancy 

120.0 Posting Structures 

121.0 Violations 

122.0 Stop Work Order 

123.0 Unsafe Structures 

124.0 Emergency Measures 

125.0 Reserved 

126.0 Board Of Appeals 

127.0 Construction Control 

128.0 Construction Materials Safety Board 

129.0 Activities Requiring Licenses 

1 30.0 Fire Prevention - Fire Protection Board 

140.0 Validity 

Article 2 Definitions 2-1 

200.0 General 

201 .0 General Definitions 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition k 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Article 3 USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 3-1 

Section 

300.0 General 

301 .0 Classification 

302.0 Use group A, Assembly Uses 

303.0 Use group B, Business Uses 

304.0 Use group E, Educational Uses 

305.0 Use group F, Factory and industrial Uses 

306.0 Use group H, High hazard Uses 

307.0 Use group I, Institutional Uses 

308.0 Use group M, Mercantile Uses 

309.0 Use group R, Residential Uses 

31 0.0 Use group S, Storage Uses 

31 1 .0 Use group U, Utility and miscellaneous Uses 

312.0 Doubtful use classification 

31 3.0 Mixed use and occupancy 

Article 4 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 4-1 

400.0 General 

401 .0 Construction Classification 

402.0 Type 1 Construction 

403.0 Type 2 Construction 

404.0 Type 3 Construction 

405.0 Type 4 Construction 

406.0 Type 5 Construction 

Article 5 GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 5-1 

500.0 General 

501 .0 General area and height limitations 

502.0 Area modifications 

503.0 Height modifications 

504.0 Unlimited areas 

505.0 Existing buildings 

506.0 Street encroachments 

507.0 Permissible street projections 

508.0 Permissible yard and court encroachments 

509.0 Special and temporary projections 

510.0 Awnings and canopies 

51 1 .0 Temporary structures 

512.0 Accessibility for the physically handicapped 

51 3.0 Special historic buildings and districts 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 6 SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 6-1 

Section 

600.0 General 

601 .0 Covered mall buildings 

602.0 High-rise building 

603.0 HPM use facilities 

604.0 Membrane structures 

605.0 Mezzanines 

606.0 Open wells 

607.0 Open parking structures 

608.0 Private garages 

609.0 Public garages 

610.0 Use group 1-2 

611.0 Use group 1-3 

612.0 Bleachers, grandstands and folding or telescopic seating 

61 3.0 Motion picture projections rooms, screening rooms and sound stages 

614.0 Rooftop heliports 

61 5.0 Stages and platforms 

61 6.0 Airport traffic control towers 

61 7.0 Combustible dust, gain processing and storage 

618.0 Explosion hazards 

619.0 Flammable and combustion liquids 

620.0 Liquified petroleum gas facilities 

621 .0 Mobile units 

622.0 Paint spraying and spray booths 

623.0 Radio and television towers 

624.0 Radio and television antennae 

625.0 Swimming pools 

626.0 Temporary structures 

627.0 Fire prevention codes 

628.0 Special permits and certificates of fitness 

629.0 Existing buildings 

630.0 Amusement parks 

631 .0 Group residence 

632.0 Nursing home.rest homes, charitable homes for the aged.convalescent 

homes and hospitals 

633.0 Child day care center 

634.0 Summer camps for children 

635.0 Historic buildings 

636.0 Limited group residence 

637.0 Detoxification facilities 

638.0 Group dwelling units 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition xi 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Article 7 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 7-1 

Section 

700.0 General 

701 .0 Plans and specifications 

702.0 Existing buildings 

703.0 Light and ventilation required 

704.0 Natural light 

705.0 Artificial light 

706.0 Natural ventilation 

707.0 Mechanical ventilation 

708.0 Room dimensions 

709.0 Ventilation of special spaces 

710.0 Courts 

71 1 .0 Rear yards 

712.0 Obstruction of courts and yards 

71 3.0 Window cleaning safeguards 

71 4.0 Sound transmission control in residential buildings 

Article 8 MEANS OF EGRESS 8-1 

800.0 General 

801 .0 Plans and specifications 

802.0 Use and occupancy requirements 

803.0 Prohibited use 

804.0 Existing buildings 

805.0 Maintenance of exits 

806.0 Occupant load 

807.0 Types and location of means of egress 

808.0 Capacity of egress components 

809.0 Number of exits 

81 0.0 Exit access passageways and corridors 

81 1 .0 Level of exit discharge passageway used as an exit element 

81 2.0 Means of egress doorways 

813.0 Revolving doors 

81 4.0 Horizontal exits 

815.0 Ramps 

81 6.0 Interior stairways 

81 7.0 Access to roof 

81 8.0 Smokeproof enclosures 

81 9.0 Exterior stairways 

820.0 Escalators and moving walks 

821 .0 Fire escapes 

822.0 Slidescapes 

823.0 Exit signs and lights 

824.0 Means of egress lighting 

825.0 Hazards to means of egress 

xii 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 8 - continued 

Section 

826.0 Assembly aisles 

827.0 Guards 

828.0 Handrails 

Article 9 FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 9-1 

900.0 General 

901 .0 Plans And Specifications 

902.0 Fire hazard classification 

903.0 Fire tests 

904.0 Flame spread and flameresistance tests 

905.0 Special fireresistive requirements 

906.0 Exterior walls 

907.0 Exterior opening protectives 

908.0 Fire walls and party walls 

909.0 Fire wall openings 

91 0.0 Fire separation walls 

91 1 .0 Smoke barriers 

912.0 Fireresistance rating of structural members 

91 3.0 Fireresistance rated floor/roof/ceiling assemblies 

914.0 Roof construction 

915.0 Vertical shafts 

916.0 Fire door assemblies 

917.0 Fire windows and shutters 

91 8.0 Fire dampers 

919.0 Wired glass 

920.0 Fireresistive requirements for plaster 

921 .0 Firestopping and draftstopping 

922.0 Interior finish and trim 

923.0 Application of interior finish 

924.0 Combustible materials permitted in floors of types 1 and 2 construction 

925.0 Decorative material restrictions 

926.0 Exterior trim restrictions 

927.0 Roof structures 

928.0 Thermal and sound insulating materials 

929.0 Plenums 

930.0 Smoke and heat vents 

Article 10 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 10-1 



1000.0 General 

1001.0 Plans and specifications 

1 002.0 Fire suppression systems 

1003.0 Suppression system selection 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition xiii 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Article 10 - continued 



Section 

1 004.0 Water sprinkler systems 

1 005.0 Limited area sprinkler systems 

1 006.0 Water-spray fixed systems 

1007.0 Foam extinguishing systems 

1 008.0 Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems 

1 009.0 Halogenated fire extinguishing systems 

1010.0 Dry chemical extinguishing systems 

1 01 1 .0 Wet chemical range hood extinguishing systems 

1012.0 Standpipe systems 

1 01 3.0 Standpipes for buildings under construction or demolition 

1 01 4.0 Fire department connections 

1015.0 Water supply and other extinguishing media 

1016.0 Yard hydrants 

1 01 7.0 Fire protective signaling systems 

1 01 8.0 Automatic fire detection systems 

1 01 9.0 Smoke control systems 

1020.0 Supervision 

1 021 .0 Fire extinguishers 

Article 1 1 STRUCTURAL LOADS 1 1 -1 

1100.0 General 

1 1 01 .0 Plans and specifications 

1102.0 Design safe load 

1 1 03.0 Design live load 

1 1 04.0 Design dead load 

1105.0 Existing buildings 

1106.0 Uniformly distributed live loads 

1 1 07.0 Concentrated loads 

1 1 08.0 Impact loads 

1109.0 Special loads 

1 1 1 0.0 Special consideration for roofs 

1 1 1 1 .0 Snow loads 

1112.0 Wind loads 

1 1 1 3.0 Earthquake loads 

1 1 1 4.0 Combination of loads 

1 1 1 5.0 Live load reduction 

Article 12 FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND RETAINING WALLS 12-1 

1200.0 General 

1201.0 Bearing pressure on foundation materials 

1202.0 Subsurface explorations 

1203.0 Soil bearing test 

xiv 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 12 - continued 

Section 

1204.0 Allowable foundation loads 

1205.0 Depth of footings 

1206.0 Footing design 

1 207.0 Timber footings and wood foundations 

1208.0 Steel grillages 

1 209.0 Concrete footings 

1 21 0.0 Masonry unit footings 

1 21 1 .0 Mat, raft and float foundation 

1212.0 Pier foundations 

1213.0 Pile foundations 

1214.0 Allowable pile loads 

1215.0 Structural steel piles 

1216.0 Concrete-filled pipe and tapered tubular piles 

1 21 7.0 Cast-in-place concrete piles 

1218.0 Precast concrete piles 

1219.0 Timber piles 

1220.0 Composite piles 

1 221 .0 Concrete-filled pipe with steel core caissons 

1222.0 Foundation walls 

1223.0 Retaining walls 

1224.0 Waterproofing and dampproofing 

Article 13 MATERIALS AND TESTS 13-1 

1300.0 General 

1 301 .0 Alternative test procedure 

1 302.0 Test safe load 

1303.0 Tests 

1 304.0 Design strengths of materials 

1 305.0 Conditions of acceptance 

1306.0 Approvals 

Article 14 MASONRY 14-1 

1400.0 General 

1 401 .0 Masonry construction units 

1402.0 Brick units 

1403.0 Structural clay tile units 

1 404.0 Glazed masonry units 

1 405.0 Concrete units 

1 406.0 Architectural terra cotta 

1407.0 Natural stone 

1408.0 Cast stone 

1409.0 Mortar and grout for masonry 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition xv 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Article 14 - continued 

Section 

1 41 0.0 Masonry wall construction 

1 41 1 .0 Bonding of walls 

1412.0 Lateral bracing of walls 

1 41 3.0 Chases and recesses in bearing walls 

1414.0 Waterproofing chases 

1 41 5.0 Corbeled and projected masonry 

1 41 6.0 Bearing on hollow unit walls 

1417.0 Engineered unreinforced masonry 

1418.0 Reinforced masonry 

1419.0 Unreinforced masonry 

1 420.0 Structural glass block walls 

1421.0 Isolated Piers 

1 422.0 Dry-stacked, surface-bonded masonry walls 

Article 15 CONCRETE 15-1 

1500.0 Concrete design standards 

1501.0 Seismic design provisions 

1502.0 Materials 

1 503.0 Concrete quality 

1 504.0 Mixing and placing of concrete 

1 505.0 Formwork, embedded pipes, and construction joints 

1 506.0 Details of reinforcement 

1 507.0 Concrete-filled pipe columns 

1508.0 Shotcrete 

1 509.0 Minimum slab thickness 

Article 16 GYPSUM AND PLASTER 16-1 

1600.0 General 

1 601 .0 Interior lathing and gypsum plastering 

1 602.0 Portland cement stucco lath and plaster 

1603.0 Gypsum board materials 

1604.0 Gypsum construction 

Article 17 WOOD 17-1 

1700.0 General 

1 701 .0 Lumber and timber construction 

1 702.0 Heavy timber construction 

1703.0 Design and construction 

1704.0 Wall construction 

1 705.0 Floor construction 

1 706.0 Roof construction 

xvi 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 1 7 - continued 
Section 



1707.0 


Stress skin panels 


1708.0 


Structural glued-laminated timber and built-up wood construction 


1709.0 


Fiber boards 


1710.0 


Plywood 


1711.0 


Particle board 


1712.0 


Protection against decay and termites 


Article 18 ! 


STEEL 


1800.0 


General 


1801.0 


Structural steel construction 


1802.0 


Formed steel construction 


1803.0 


Open web steel joist construction 


1804.0 


Reinforcing steel 


1805.0 


Cast steel construction 


1806.0 


Cast iron construction 


1807.0 


Special steel and steel cable structural systems 


1808.0 


Exterior steel frame corrosion protection under masonry 


Article 19 I 


LIGHTWEIGHT METAL ALLOYS 


1900.0 


General 


1901.0 


Materials 



18-1 



19-1 



Article 20 PLASTIC 20-1 

2000.0 General 

2001 .0 Light-transmitting plastics 

2002.0 Foam plastics 

Article 21 EXTERIOR WALLS 21 -1 

2100.0 General 

21 01 .0 General construction requirements 

21 02.0 Flood-resistant construction 

2103.0 Ratproofing 

21 04.0 Weather protection 

2105.0 Wall panels 

2106.0 Metal veneers 

21 07.0 Masonry veneers 

21 08.0 Thin stone and tile veneers 

21 09.0 Structural glass veneers 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition xvii 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Article 22 VERTICAL AND SLOPED GLASS AND GLAZING 22-1 

Section 

2200.0 General 

2201 .0 General requirement for glass 

2202.0 Wind loads for glass 

2203.0 Safety glazing 

2204.0 Sloped glazing and skylights 

2205.0 Light-transmitting plastic glazing of unprotected opening 

2206.0 Light in handrails and guardrail 

2207.0 Glazing in racquetball and squash courts 

Article 23 ROOFS AND ROOF COVERINGS 23-1 

2300.0 General 

2301 .0 Fire classification 

2302.0 Wood shingles 

2303.0 Asphalt shingles 

2304.0 Flashing 

2305.0 Fastening 

2306.0 Light-transmitting plastic roof panels 

Article 24 MASONRY FIREPLACES 24-1 

2400.0 General 

2401 .0 Plans and specifications 

2402.0 Construction requirements 

STEMS 25-1 



ARTICLE 25 


MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND 


2500.0 


General 


2501 .0 


Plans and specification 


2502.0 


Inspections and tests 


2503.0 


Existing buildings 


2504.0 


Fees 


2505.0 


Drying rooms 


2506.0 


Waste and linen handling systems 


2507.0 


Refuse vaults 


2508.0 


Dust.stock and refuse conveyor systems 


2509.0 


Medical gases 


2510.0 


Oxygen systems 


2511.0 


Boiler rooms 



2512.0 Solid fuel burning heating appliances 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



ARTICLE 26 ELEVATOR, DUMBWAITER AND CONVEYOR 

EQUIPMENT, INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE 



26-1 



Section 

2600.0 General 

2601 .0 Plans, Specifications and permits 

2602.0 Tests and inspections 

2603.0 Certificate of compliance 

2604.0 Maintenance and accidents 

2605.0 Existing installations 

2606.0 Alterations 

2607.0 Power elevator operation 

2608.0 Hoistway enclosures and venting 

2609.0 Elevator and dumbwaiter machinery and equipment 

261 0.0 Machine rooms and related construction for passenger and freight 

elevators and dumbwaiters 

261 1 .0 Elevator opening protectives 

2612.0 Elevator car emergency signals and signs 

2613.0 Manlifts 

261 4.0 Industrial lifts and loading ramps 

2615.0 Automotive lifts 

2616.0 Conveyors 

2617.0 Escalators 



ARTICLE 27 ELECTRICAL WIRING AND EQUIPMENT 
ARTICLE 28 PLUMBING AND GAS FITTING 
ARTICLE 29 SIGNS 

2900.0 General 

2901 .0 Plans, specifications and permits 

2902.0 Exemptions 

2903.0 Unsafe and unlawful signs 

2904.0 Existing signs 

2905.0 Maintenance and inspection 

2906.0 Bonds and liability insurance 

2907.0 General requirements for all signs 

2908.0 Ground signs 

2909.0 Roof signs 

2910.0 Wall signs 

2911.0 Projecting signs 

291 2.0 Marquee signs 

291 3.0 Miscellaneous and temporary signs 

2914.0 Illuminated signs 

2915.0 Portable signs 



27-1 
28-1 
29-1 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



xix 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



ARTICLE 30 PRECAUTIONS DURING BUILDING OPERATIONS 30-1 

Section 

3000.0 General 

3001 .0 Plans.specifications and special permits 

3002.0 Tests 

3003.0 Inspection 

3004.0 Maintenance 

3005.0 Existing buildings 

3006.0 Protection of public and workers 

3007.0 Demolition and excavation 

3008.0 Regulation of lots 

3009.0 Retaining walls and partition fences 

301 0.0 Storage of materials 

301 1 .0 Removal of waste material 

301 2.0 Protection of adjoining property 

301 3.0 Protection of floor and wall openings 

3014.0 Scaffolds 

3015.0 Hoists 

301 6.0 Stairways and ladders 

3017,0 Lighting 

3018.0 Fire hazards 

3019.0 Health hazards 

3020.0 Welding safety precautions 

3021.0 Sanitation 

3022.0 Disputes 

ARTICLE 31 ENERGY CONSERVATION 31-1 

3100.0 General 

3101.0 Administrative 

3102.0 Existing buildings 

3103.0 Plans & specifications 

3104.0 Material equipment 

31 05.0 Design conditions 

31 06.0 Building insulation specifications 

31 07.0 Air infiltration and moisture control 

3108.0 Component design 

3109.0 Exterior envelope requirements for low rise residential buildings 

3110.0 Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems 

31 1 1 .0 Heating, ventilating and air conditioning equipment 

3112.0 Electrical power distribution 

3113.0 Lighting systems 



xx 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



3114.0 Building envelope requirements for commercial and high rise residential 

buildings 
3115.0 Building design by system analysis 
31 16.0 Buildings utilizing solar, geothermal, wind or other non-depletable energy 

sources as alternative design. 



ARTICLE 32 REPAIR, ALTERATION, ADDITION, AND CHANGE 

OF USE OF EXISTING BUILDINGS 32-1 

Section 

3200.0 Scope 

3201.0 Definitions 

3202.0 Implementation 

3203.0 Requirements for continuation of the same use group or change to use 

group of equal or lesser hazard index 
3204.0 Requirements for change in use group to one hazard index greater 
3205.0 Requirement for change in use group to two or more hazard indexes 

greater 
3206.0 Compliance alternative 
3207.0 Energy provisions for existing buildings 
3208.0 Other code sections pertaining to repair, alteration, or change of use 

existing buildings 

ARTICLE 33 MANUFACTURED BUILDINGS, BUILDING COMPONENTS 
AND MOBILE HOMES 33-1 

3300.0 General 

3301.0 Approval 

3302.0 Certification 

3303.0 Reciprocity 

3304.0 Assurance inspection 

3305.0 Responsibility of the local enforcement agencies 

3306.0 Suspension or revocation of certification 

ARTICLE 34 ONE AND TWO FAMILY DWELLINGS 34-1 



LIST OF APPENDICES 

APPENDIX A Referenced Standards A-1 

APPENDIX B Unit Dead Loads For Design Purposes B-1 

APPENDIX C Recommended Fastening Schedule C-1 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition xxi 



irtt ivlAi>i>MUHUSLI IS S1AIE BUILDING CODE 



APPENDIX D Guidance For Selection of Foundation 

Material Classes in Table 1201 D-1 

APPENDIX E Procedure For Accounting For 

Series and Parallel Heat Flows E-1 



APPENDIX F Reference Data For Repair, Addition, 

and Change Of Use Of Existing Buildings F-1 

APPENDIX G Specialized Massachusetts Rules and Regulations 
Other Than Board Of Building Regulations and 
Standards G-1 

APPENDIX H Historic Structures H-1 



xxii corrected 780 CMR " Fifth Edition 



Article 1 
ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



ARTICLE 1 



ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 

(This Article is entirely unique to Massachusetts) 

SECTION 100.0 SCOPE 

100.1 Title: These regulations shall be known as the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts State Building Code hereinafter referred to as "this code." 

1 00.2 Scope: These regulations, in accordance with Chapter 348 of the Acts of 
1984 as amended, shall control: a) the construction, reconstruction, alteration, 
repair, demolition, removal, inspection, issuance and revocation of permits or 
licenses, installation of equipment, classification and definition of any building or 
structure and use or occupancy of all buildings and structures and parts thereof 
except bridges and appurtenant supporting structures which have been or are to be 
constructed by or are under the custody and control of the Department of Public 
Works, the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation 
Authority, the Metropolitan District Commission, or the Massachusetts Port 
Authority or for which said agencies have maintenance responsibility; b) the 
rehabilitation and maintenance of existing buildings; c) the standards or 
requirements for materials to be used in connection therewith, including but not 
limited to provisions for safety, ingress and egress, energy conservation and sanitary 
conditions; d) the establishment of reasonable fees for inspections and the issuance 
of licenses to individuals engaged as construction supervisors; except as such matters 
are otherwise provided for in the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, or in the 
rules and regulations authorized for promulgation under the provisions of this code. 



100.3 Application of reference: Unless otherwise specifically provided in this 
code, all references to article or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically 
identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such article, section or provision 
of this code. 

100.4 Code remedial: This code shall be construed to secure its expressed intent 
which is to insure public safety, health and welfare insofar as they are affected by 
building construction through structural strength, adequate egress facilities, sanitary 
conditions, equipment, light and ventilation and fire safety; and, in general, to secure 
safety to life and property. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1-1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



100.5 Specialized codes: Specialized codes, rules or regulations pertaining to 
building construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair, or demolition promulgated, 
and as amended, from time to time, by the various authorized state agencies shall 
be incorporated in this code. The said specialized codes, rules or regulations 
include, but are not limited to, those listed in Appendix G. 



SECTION 101.0 APPLICABILITY 

101.1 General: The provisions of this code shall apply to all matters affecting or 
relating to buildings and structures; and shall apply with equal force to municipal, 
county, state authorities of or established by the legislature and private buildings and 
structures, except where such buildings and structures are otherwise specifically 
provided for by statute. 

Exceptions: 

1. Unless specifically provided otherwise in this code, all existing buildings 
and structures shall meet and shall be presumed to meet, the provisions of the 
applicable laws, codes, rules or regulations, bylaws or ordinances in effect at 
the time such building or structure was erected or substantially altered. 

2. In cases where applicable codes, rules or regulations, bylaws or ordinances 
were not in use at the time of such erection or substantial alteration, the 
provisions of Section 104.0 of this code shall apply. 

3. In cases where the provisions of this code are less stringent than the 
applicable codes, rules or regulations, bylaws or ordinances in force at the 
time of such erection or substantial alteration, the applicable provisions of this 
code shall apply, providing such application of these provisions does not result 
in danger to the public as determined by the building official. 

101.2 Zoning restrictions: When the provisions herein specified for structural 
strength, adequate egress facilities, sanitary conditions, equipment, light and 
ventilation, and fire safely conflict with the local zoning bylaws or ordinances, this 
code shall control the erection or alteration of buildings. 

101.3 Matters not covered: Any requirements essential for structural, fire or 
sanitary safety of an existing or proposed building or structure, or essential for the 
safety of the occupants thereof, and which is not specifically covered by this code, 
shall be determined by the building official. The State Board of Building 
Regulations and Standards (hereinafter referred to as the BBRS) and the 

1-2 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



ADMINISlKAilUN ANU LNhUHUhMLNI 



Department of Public Safety shall be notified in writing within seven (7) working 
days of any action taken under this section. 

101.4 Referenced Standards: Where differences occur between provisions of this 
code and referenced standards, the provisions of this code shall apply. 



SECTION 102.0 ORDINARY REPAIRS 

102.1 General: Except as provided in Section 113.1, a permit shall not be required 
for ordinary repairs to buildings and structures. 



SECTION 103.0 INSTALLATION OF SERVICE EQUIPMENT 

103.1 General: When the installation, extension, alteration or repair of an 
elevator, moving stairway, mechanical equipment, refrigeration, air conditioning or 
ventilating apparatus, plumbing, gas piping, electric wiring, heating system or any 
other equipment is specifically controlled by the provisions of this code or the 
approved rules, it shall be unlawful to use such equipment until a certificate of 
approval has been issued therefor by the building official or other agency having 
jurisdiction. 



SECTION 104.0 MAINTENANCE 

1 04.1 General: All buildings and structures and all parts thereof, both existing and 
new, shall be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. All service equipment, 
means of egress, devices and safeguards which are required by this code in a 
building or structure, or which were required by a previous statute in a building or 
structure, when erected, altered or repaired, shall be maintained in good working 
order. 

104.2 Owner responsibility: The owner, as defined in Article 2, shall be 
responsible for the safe and sanitary maintenance of the building or structure and 
its exitway facilities at all times, unless otherwise specifically provided in this code. 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 105.0 CHANGE IN EXISTING USE 

105.1 Continuation of existing use: The legal use and occupancy of any existing 
structure for which it had been heretofore approved, may be continued without 
change, except as maybe specifically covered in this code or as may be deemed 
necessary by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the occupants 
and the public. 

105.2 Change of existing use: Any change in the use and occupancy of any 
existing building or structure shall comply with Article 32. 



SECTION 106.0 ALTERATIONS AND REPAIRS 

106.1 Application: Except as provided in this code, existing buildings or structures 
when altered or repaired shall be made to conform to Article 32. 



SECTION 107.0 BUILDING DEPARTMENT 

107.1 Appointment: The chief administrative officer of each city or town shall 
employ and designate an inspector of buildings or building commissioner, as well as 
such other local inspectors as are reasonably necessary. The inspector of buildings 
or building commissioner shall report directly and be solely responsible to the 
appointing authority. 

107.2 Building commissioner or inspector of buildings: The building 
department shall have an administrative chief responsible for the administration and 
enforcement of this code who shall be known as the building commissioner or 
inspector of buildings. 

107.2.1 Local Inspector: The local inspector (building) shall assist the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings in the performance of his duties and shall 
also be responsible for the enforcement of this code. 

107.2.2 Alternate inspector: An alternate inspector of buildings may be 
appointed to act in the disability of the inspector of buildings in case of illness, 
absence, or conflict of interest. The alternate inspector shall meet the qualifications 
of Section 107.3. 

107.3 Qualifications of the building commissioner or inspector of buildings: 

Each building commissioner or inspector of buildings shall have had at least five (5) 
years of experience in the supervision of building construction or design or in the 
alternative a four year undergraduate degree in a field related to building 

1-4 780 CM R - Fifth Edition 



ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



construction or design. In addition, such persons shall have had general knowledge 
of the accepted requirements for building construction, fire prevention, light, 
ventilation and safe egress; as well as a general knowledge of other equipment and 
materials essential for safety, comfort, and convenience of the occupants of a 
building or structure; plus whatever other requirements of experience and knowledge 
that are deemed necessary by the municipality. 

1 07.4 Qualifications Of the local inspector: Each local inspector shall have had 
at least five (5) years of experience in the supervision of building construction or 
design or in the alternative a two year associate degree in a field related to building 
construction or design. In addition, such persons shall have a general knowledge of 
the accepted requirements for building construction, fire prevention, light, ventilation 
and safe egress; as well as a general knowledge of other equipment and materials 
essential for safety, comfort, and convenience of the occupants of a building or 
structure; plus whatever other requirements of experience and knowledge that are 
deemed necessary by the municipality. 

107.5 Restriction on employees: No full-time building commissioner, inspector 
of buildings, or full-time local inspector as defined herein shall be engaged in, or 
directly or indirectly connected with, the furnishing of labor, materials or appliances 
for the construction, alteration or maintenance of a building or structure, or the 
preparation of plans or of specifications therefor within the city, town or region for 
which he is appointed, unless he is the owner of the building or structure; nor shall 
any officer or employee associated with the building department engage in any work 
which conflicts with his official duties or with the interests of the department. 

107.6 Relief from personal liability: Insofar as the law allows, while acting for the 
municipality, the building official, charged with the enforcement of this code shall 
not be deemed personally liable in the discharge of his official duties. 

SECTION 108.0 DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE BUILDING OFFICIAL AND 

STATE INSPECTOR 

108.1 The local building official: The building commissioner or inspector of 
buildings and the local inspector shall enforce all the provisions of this code and any 
other applicable state statutes, rules and regulations, or ordinances and bylaws, and 
act on any question relative to the mode or manner of construction, and the 
materials to be used in the construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair, 
demolition, removal, installation of equipment, and the location, use, occupancy, and 
maintenance of all buildings and structures, including any building or structure 
owned by any authority established by the legislature but not owned by the 
Commonwealth. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



108.2 Applications and permits: The building official shall receive applications 
and inspect the premises for which permits have been issued and enforce compliance 
with the provisions of this code. 

108.3 Building notices and orders: The building official shall issue all necessary 
notices or orders to remove illegal or unsafe conditions, to require the necessary 
safeguards during construction, to require adequate egress facilities in new and 
existing buildings and structures, and to insure compliance with all the code 
requirements for the safety, health and general welfare of the public. 

108.4 Credentials: The building official or his authorized representative shall 
carry proper credentials of his respective office for the purpose of inspecting any and 
all buildings, structures and premises in the performance of his duties under this 
code. 

108.5 Inspections: The building official shall make all the required inspections 
or may accept reports of inspections from a qualified registered professional 
engineer or architect or others certified by the BBRS, and all reports of such 
inspections shall be in writing; or the building official may engage such experts as 
he may deem necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that may arise. 

1 08.5.1 Inspection and certification, specified use groups: The building official 
shall periodically inspect and certify buildings and structures or parts thereof in 
accordance with Table 108. A building or structure shall not be occupied or 
continue to be occupied without the posting of a valid certificate of inspection where 
required by Table 108. A certificate of inspection as herein specified shall not be 
issued until an inspection is made certifying that the building or structure or parts 
thereof complies with all the applicable requirements of this code, and until the fee 
is paid as specified in Table 108. Municipalities may increase or waive only in their 
entirety for any specific use group the fees as specified in said Table 108. 

Exception: Municipalities may revise or modify, or waive in part those fees 
for buildings and structures or parts thereof owned by the municipality, county or 
political subdivision thereof and for buildings and structures or parts thereof used 
solely for religious purposes. 

108.6 Administrative procedures: The building commissioner or inspector of 
buildings shall have the authority to formulate administrative procedures necessary 
to uniformly administer and enforce this code provided that such procedures do not 
conflict with the rules and regulations promulgated by the BBRS. 



1-6 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



1 08.7 Department records: The building official shall keep in a public place and 
open to public inspection during normal working hours official records of 
applications received, permits and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of 
inspections, variances granted, and notices and orders issued. File copies of all 
papers in connection with building operations shall be retained in the official records 
so long as the building or structure to which they relate remains in existence. 

108.8 Reports: The building official shall submit the following reports: 

1. to the chief administrative officer of the municipality a written statement 
of all permits and certificates issued, fees collected, inspections made, and 
notices and orders issued for the year; 

2. to the BBRS and Department of Public Safety reports on decisions 
regarding the matters not covered as specified in Section 101.3; and 

3. to the assessors of the municipality reports on permits issued as specified 
in Section 114.2. 

1 08.9 The state inspector: In every city and town this code shall be enforced by 
the state inspector as to any structures or buildings or parts thereof that are owned 
by the Commonwealth or any departments, commissions, agencies, or authorities of 
the Commonwealth. The state inspector shall have as to such buildings and 
structures all the powers of a building commissioner or inspector of buildings. All 
buildings and structures owned by any authority established by the legislature and 
not owned by the Commonwealth shall be regulated in accordance with Section 
108.1 of this code. 

108.9.1 Other responsibilities: The state inspector shall make periodic reviews 
of all local building inspection practices, provide technical assistance and advice to 
the local building officials in the implementation of this code, and report in writing 
his findings to the building officials. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



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1-8 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



Notes upplicuble to Table 108 
General: 

The maximum certification period specified in Table 108 is intended to provide administrative 
flexibility. For those buildings and structures or parts thereof allowing more than one (1) year 
maximum certification period, the building official may determine the length of validity of the 
certificate issued. For example, a building in the R-2 use group could be issued a certificate valid for 
1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 years. The total amount of fees charged for a certificate or certificates issued during 
the maximum certification period can exceed the fee listed or referenced in column 4 of Table 108. 
For example, if the building official issues a certificate valid for two (2) years for a building in the R-2 
use group, the fee charced would be two fifths (2/5) times the fee per maximum certification period 
as determined for the building in question using the formula in note f below. 

Note a. For all buildings or structures, or parts thereof, in the A-3+ Use Group categories 
the fee to be charge for the maximum certification period of one (1) year is $75 for accomodations 
for up to five thousand (5,000) persons, plus $15 for the accomodations for each additional one 
thousand (1,000) persons or fraction thereof. 

Note b. For all buildings or structures, or parts thcreof.in A-5 use group, the fee to be 
charged for the maximum certification period of one (1) year is $40 for seating accommodations for 
up to five thousand (5.000) persons, plus $8 for the accommodation for each additional one thousand 
(1,000) persons or fraction thereof. 

Note c. For all buildings and structures, or parts thereof, in the 1-3 use group, the fee to be 
charged for the maximum certification period of two (2) years is $75 for each structure containing 
up to one hundred (100) beds, plus a $2 charge for each additional ten (10) beds or fraction thereof 
over the initial one hundred (100) beds. 

Note d. For hospitals, nursing homes, sanitariums, and orphanages in the 1-2 use group, the 
fee to be charged for the maximum certification period of two (2) years is $75 for each structure 
containing up to one hundred (100) beds, plus a S2 charge for each additional ten (10) beds or 
fraction thereof over the initial one hundred (100) beds. All other buildings or structures or parts 
thereof in the 1-2 use group classification shall be charged a fee of $75 for a two (2) year maximum 
certification period. 

Note e. For all buildings and structures or parts thereof in the R-l use group, the fee to be 
charged for the maximum certification period of one (1) year shall be $40 for up to five (5) units 
plus $2 per unit for all over five (5) units. A unit shall be defined as follows: 
two (2) hotel guest rooms; 
two (2) lodging house guest rooms; 
two (2) boarding house guest rooms; or 
four (4) dormitory beds 

Note f. For all buildings and structures or parts thereof in the R-2 use group, the fee to be 
charged for the maximum certification period of five (5) years shall be $75, plus $2 per dwelling unit, 
except three (3) family dwelling units shall be exempt from such fees. 

Note g. For purposes of determining the required number of inspections, the maximum 
certification period, and the fees, as specified in Table 108, dormitories are included in the R-l use 
group classification rather than the R-2. 

Note h. Summer camps for children in use group R-2 shall be inspected and certified annually 
prior to the beginning of each season. The annual fee shall be $15 for the first twenty-five (25) 
residential units: $8 for each additional twenty-five(25) residential units; and $15 for each assembly 
building or use. (A residential unit for this purpose shall be defined as four (4) beds.) 



108.9.2 Review by the commissioner: The Commissioner of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, Department of Public Safety shall establish districts which shall 

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be supervised by a state inspector of the Division of Inspection. The Commissioner 
may review, on his own initiative or on the application of any state inspector, any 
action or refusal or failure of action by any building official the result of which does 
not comply with the uniform implementation of this code; and may reverse, modify 
or annul, in whole or in part, such action except with respect to the specialized 
codes, provided that an order or action of the Commissioner shall not reverse, 
modify, annul, or contravene any order, action, determination, interpretation or any 
decision by the BBRS or the State Building Code Appeals Board. 

108.9.3 Reports: The state inspector shall file with the BBRS reports of his 
periodic reviews and recommendations for improvements of building inspection 
practices. The format and due dates for these reports shall be determined by the 
BBRS. 



SECTION 109.0 RULES AND REGULATIONS 

109.1 Rule making authority: Under authority granted by Chapter 348, Acts of 
1984, as amended, the BBRS is empowered in the interest of public safety, health 
and general welfare, to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations, and to interpret 
and implement the provisions of this code to secure the intent thereof. 

109.1.1 Licensing of Construction Supervisors: Except for those structures 
governed by Construction Control in Section 127.0, effective July 1, 1982, no 
individual shall be engaged in directly supervising persons engaged in construction, 
reconstruction, alteration, repair, removal or demolition involving the structural 
elements of buildings and structures, unless he or she is licensed in accordance with 
the rules and regulations promulgated by the BBRS entitled Rules and Regulations 
for Licensing Construction Supervisors. 

Exception: Any Home Owner performing work for which a building 
permit is required shall be exempt from the provisions of this section; provided that 
if a Home Owner engages a person (s) for hire to do such work, that such Home 
Owner shall act as supervisor. 

For purposes of this section only, a "Home Owner" is defined as follows: 
Person(s) who owns a parcel of land on which he/she resides or intends to reside, 
on which there is, or is intended to be, a dwelling of six or less units, attached or 
detached structures accessory to such use and/or farm structures. A person who 
constructs more than one home in a two-year period shall not be considered a home 
owner. 

109.1.1.1 No municipality shall be prohibited from requiring a license for 
those individuals engaged in directly supervising persons engaged in construction, 

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reconstruction, alteration,repair, removal or demolition in those categories of 
building and structures for which the BBRS is not requiring a license, provided that 
those municipalities which have established licensing requirements for construction 
supervisors prior to January 1, 1975, may maintain their existing licensing 
requirements. 

109.1.2 Licensing of laboratories and test personnel: The BBRS shall issue 
rules and regulations for the examination and licensing, and the revocation of 
licenses of individuals, laboratories and firms responsible for the inspection and/or 
testing of materials, devices and methods of construction, in accordance with the 
Rules and Regulations for Concrete Testing Personnel and the Rules and 
Regulations for Licensing of Concrete Testing Laboratories. 

109.1.3 Manufactured buildings: The BBRS shall issue rules and regulations 
pursuant to Article 33 governing manufactured buildings and building components. 



109.1.4 Mobile homes: The BBRS shall issue rules and regulations pursuant to 
Article 33 governing mobile homes. 

109.2 Amendments and promulgation of rules: Any person may propose 
amendments to this code. Public hearings shall be held in the city of Boston in May 
and November of each year, and at such other times and places as the BBRS may 
determine, to consider petitions for such amendments. Amendments adopted by the 
BBRS shall be binding and have the full force and effect in all cities and towns. 



SECTION 110.0 APPROVAL 

110.1 Approved materials and equipment: All materials, equipment, devices, 
systems or methods of construction shall be subject to the following approvals 
required by this section. 

110.2 Accepted engineering practice: Knot otherwise specified in this code, the 
regulations, specifications and standards listed in the appropriate appendices shall 
be deemed to represent accepted engineering practice with respect to the material, 
equipment, device, system or method of construction therein specified. 

110.3 New materials and methods of construction: The provisions of this code 
are not intended to prevent the use of any material, system or method of 
construction not specifically prescribed by this code. The building official shall 
accept approvals of the BBRS on all new materials, systems or methods of 
construction proposed for use which are not specifically provided for in this code. 



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1 1 0.4 Used materials and equipment: Used materials, equipment and devices 
which meet the minimum requirements of this code for new materials, equipment 
and devices shall be permitted; however, the building official may require satisfactory 
proof that such materials, equipment and devices have been reconditioned, tested, 
and/or placed in good and proper working condition prior to approval. 

1 1 0.5 Research and investigations: Wherever there is insufficient evidence that 
any material, system or method of construction conforms to the requirements of this 
code or there is insufficient evidence to substantiate claims for alternative materials, 
systems or methods of construction, the building official may require tests meeting 
the functional requirements of this code (see Sections 1300.0, 1303.0, and 1305.0) 
and such tests shall be conducted by a laboratory and/or personnel approved by the 
BBRS. The costs of all such tests or other investigations required under these 
provisions shall be paid by the applicant. 

1 10.5.1 Test results: Copies of the results of all such tests shall be forwarded to 
the BBRS within ten (10) days and copies shall be kept on file in the permanent 
records of the building department. 

110.5.2 Retesting: The BBRS may require tests to be repeated, if at any time 
there is reason to believe that material or construction no longer conforms to the 
requirements on which its approval was based. 

110.6 Variances/modifications: When there are practical difficulties involved in 
carrying out structural or mechanical provisions of this code, the Board of Appeals 
may allow a variance or a modification from such provisions as applied for by the 
owner as provided in Section 126.0, provided that the decision of the Board shall not 
conflict with the general objectives of this code and its enabling legislation and 
provided that no decision shall be considered by any person or agency as a 
precedent for future decisions. 



SECTION 111.0 INSPECTION 

111.1 Preliminary Inspection: Before issuing a permit, the building official may 
examine or cause to be examined all buildings, structures and sites for which an 
application has been filed for a permit to construct, reconstruct, alter, repair, 
remove, demolish or change the use thereof. 

111.2 Inspection: The building official shall make all required inspections as 
specified in the provisions of this code and he shall conduct such inspections from 
time to time during and upon completion of the work for which he has issued a 
permit; and he shall maintain a record of all such examinations and inspections and. 
of all violations of this code. In conjunction with specific construction projects, the 

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building official may designate specific inspection points in the course of 
construction that require the contractor or builder to give the building official 
twenty-four (24) hours notice prior to the time when those inspections need to be 
performed. The building official shall make the inspection within forty-eight (48) 
hours after such notification. 

111 .2.1 Inspection services: The building official may accept the written report 
of inspections from a qualified registered professional engineer or architect or others 
certified by the BBRS; and such inspection report shall specify but not be limited 
to any violation of the requirements of this code in respect to egress requirements, 
floor load, fire grading, occupancy load and use of the buildings or structures. 

111.3 Final inspection: The owner or his authorized representative shall notify 
the building official upon completion of the building or structure or part thereof. 
Prior to the issuance of the certificate of use and occupancy required in Section 
119.0, a final inspection shall be made and all violations of the approved plans and 
permit shall be noted and the holder of the permit shall be notified of any 
discrepancies. 

1 1 1 .4 Manufactured Buildings 

111.4.1 Plant inspection: Inspection of all manufactured buildings and building 
components at the plant shall be performed by a third party which shall be certified 
and approved by the BBRS and monitored as specified in Article 33 and the rules 
and regulations pursuant thereto. 

111.4.2 Site inspection: Inspection of all manufactured buildings, building 
components, and mobile homes at the installation site shall be made by the building 
official as specified in Article 33 and the rules and regulations pursuant thereto. 

111.5 Existing Buildings 

111.5.1 Periodic Inspections: The building commissioner or inspector of 
buildings shall develop plans for the systematic periodic inspection of all existing 
buildings and structures and shall cause such buildings and structures to be 
periodically or otherwise inspected as specified in Section 108.5.1 and Section 120.4, 
for compliance with this code. 



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SECTION 112.0 RIGHT OF ENTRY 

1 12.1 General: In the discharge of his duties, the building official shall have the 
authority to enter at any reasonable hour any building, structure or premises in the 
municipality to enforce the provisions of this code. 

If any owner, occupant, or other person refuses, impedes, inhibits, interferes 
with, restricts, or obstructs entry and free access to every part of the structure, 
operation or premises where inspection authorized by this code is sought, the 
building official, or state inspector may: 

1. seek in a court of competent jurisdiction a search warrant so as to apprise 
the owner, occupant or other person concerning the nature of the inspection 
and justification for it and may seek the assistance of police authorities in 
presenting said warrant; and/or 

2. revoke or suspend any permit, license, certificate or other permission 
regulated under this code where inspection of the structures, operation or 
premises is sought to determine compliance with this code. 

1 12.2 Office badge: The BBRS may adopt a badge of office for building officials 
which shall be displayed for the purpose of identification. 

112.3 Jurisdictional cooperation: The assistance and cooperation of police, fire, 
and health departments and all other officials shall be available to the building 
official as required in the performance of his duties. 



SECTION 113.0 APPLICATION FOR PERMIT 

113.1 When permit is required: It shall be unlawful to construct, reconstruct, 
alter, repair, remove or demolish a structure; or to change the use or occupancy of 
a building or structure; or to install or alter any equipment for which provision is 
made or the installation of which is regulated by this code without first filing a 
written application with the building official and obtaining the required permit 
therefor. 

Exception: Ordinary repairs as defined in Section 201.0. 

113.2 Form of application: The application for a permit shall be submitted in 
such form as the building official may prescribe and shall be accompanied by the 
required fee as prescribed in Section 118.0. 



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1 1 3.3 By whom application is made: Application for a permit shall be made by 
the owner of the building or structure. The full names and addresses of the owner, 
applicant, and of the responsible officers, if the owner is a corporate body, shall be 
stated in the application. 

1 1 3.4 Description of work: The application shall contain a general description 
of the proposed work, its location, the use and occupancy of all parts of the building 
or structure and of all portions of the site or lot not covered by the building or 
structure; and shall state whether or not fire extinguishing equipment, plumbing, 
water piping, gasfitting, heating or electrical work is involved, the estimated cost of 
such work including the general work, and such additional information as may be 
required by the building commissioner or inspector of buildings. The building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings may require the facts contained in each 
application to be certified by the applicant under oath. 

113.5 Plans and specifications: The application for the permit shall be 
accompanied by not less than three (3) copies of specifications and of plans drawn 
to scale, with sufficient clarity and detail dimensions to show the nature and 
character of the work to be performed. When quality of materials is essential for 
conformity to this code, specific information shall be given to establish such quality; 
and this code shall not be cited or the term "legal" or its equivalent be used as a 
substitute for specific information. The building official may waive the requirement 
for filing plans when the work involved is of a minor nature. 

When such application for a permit must comply with the provisions of Article 
6 or Article 10 of this code, the building official shall cause one (1) such set of plans 
and specifications received by him to be forwarded simultaneously to the head of the 
fire department for his file and approval of the items specified in Section 1000.0 as 
they relate to the applicable sections of Article 6 and Article 10. The head of the 
fire department shall within ten (10) working days from the date of receipt by him 
approve or disapprove such plans and specifications. Upon request by the head of 
the fire department, the building official may grant one (1) or more extensions for 
such review, providing, however, that the total review by said head of the fire 
department shall not exceed thirty (30) calendar days. If such approval, disapproval 
or request for an extension of time shall not be received by the building official 
within said ten (10) working days, the building official may deem the plans and 
specifications to be in full compliance with the applicable sections of Article 6 and 
Article 10 and, therefore, approved by the head of the fire department. 

All plans filed with the building official shall include but not be limited to: 

1. the accurate locations and dimension of all means of egress from fire and 
an occupancy schedule of persons for all occupiable spaces; 



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2. the method and amount of ventilation and sanitation; 

3. the methods of firestopping as required in this code; and 

4. schedules and details indicating compliance of interior trim and finish with 
provisions of Article 9. 

113.5.1 Structures subject to control: In those structures subject to control as 
required in Section 127.0, affidavits must be submitted with the permit application 
that the individuals and testing laboratories responsible for carrying out the duties 
specified in Section 127.0 have been licensed by the BBRS. 

113.5.2 Architects' and engineers' seals: Unless otherwise provided in this 
code, all plans and specifications for buildings and structures containing more than 
thirty-five thousand (35,000) cubic feet of enclosed space shall bear the 
Massachusetts seal of registration of a qualified registered professional engineer or 
architect. 

Plans and specifications, plats and records whenever required to be stamped 
with the seal of a registered professional engineer or architect shall be signed by the 
registrant named thereon. The use of a facsimile signature stamp shall not be 
deemed to comply with this section. 

113.6 Site plan: There shall also be filed prior to a permit being granted for the 
excavation or for the erection of any building or structure a site plan showing to 
scale the size and location of all new construction and all existing structures on the 
site, distances from lot lines, the established street grades if they exist (verified by 
the town or city) and proposed finished grades. In the case of demolition, the site 
plan shall show all construction to be demolished and the location and size of all 
existing structures and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The site 
plan shall not be changed except as specified in Sections 113.8 and 115.3. 

113.7 Engineering details: The building official may require adequate details of 
structural, mechanical and electrical work, including computations, stress diagrams 
and other essential technical data, prepared by a registered professional engineer 
qualified by experience in the specific field of construction, to be filed. All such 
plans and computations shall bear the Massachusetts seal of registration and 
signature of the qualified registered professional engineer or architect. 

113.8 Amendments to application: Subject to the limitations of Section 113.9, 
amendments or revisions to a plan or other records accompanying the same may not 
be made until the proposed changes have been filed with and approved by the 
building official; and such approved amendments shall be deemed part of the 
original application and shall be filed therewith. 



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113.9 Time limitation of application: An application for a permit for any 
proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned six (6) months after date 
of filing, unless such application has been diligently prosecuted or a permit has been 
issued; except that for reasonable cause the building official may grant one or more 
extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding ninety (90) days each. 



SECTION 114.0 PERMITS 

1 1 4.1 Action on application: The building commissioner or inspector of buildings 
shall examine or cause to be examined all applications for permits and amendments 
thereto within thirty (30) days after filing. If the application or the plans do not 
conform to the requirements of Section 113.0 or other related sections of this code 
or of pertinent laws within his direct jurisdiction, he shall reject such application in 
writing citing the specific sections of this code or pertinent law. If he is satisfied 
that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and all pertinent 
law applicable thereto, he shall issue a permit. 

1 1 4.1 .1 Railroad Right-Of-Way: No permit to build a structure of any kind on land 
formerly used as a railroad right-of-way or any property appurtenant thereto 
formerly used by any railroad company in the state shall be issued without first 
obtaining, after public hearing, the consent in writing to the issuance of such permit 
from the Secretary of the Executive Office of Transportation and Construction, all 
in accordance with MGL C40, S54A. 

1 1 4.1 .2 Water Supply: No permit shall be issued for the construction of a building 
or structure which would necessitate the use of water therein, unless a supply of 
water is available therefor, either from a water system operated by a city, town or 
district, or from a well located on the land where the building or structure is to be 
constructed, or from a water corporation or company, as required by MGL C40, S54. 

114.1.3 Debris: As a condition of issuing a permit for the demolition, renovation, 
rehabilitation or other alteration of a building or structure, MGL C40, S54 requires 
that the debris resulting therefrom shall be disposed of in a properly licensed solid 
waste disposal facility as defined by MGL CI 11, S150A. Signature of the permit 
applicant, date and number of the building permit to be issued shall be indicated on 
a form provided by the building department, and attached to the office copy of the 
building permit retained by the building department. In the case of a large project 
where the name and location of the disposal facility may be unknown at the time of 
the building permit application, an affidavit provided by the building department 
containing the number of the building permit, date, within two months, when 
notification will be submitted to the building official of the name and location of the 
waste disposal facility, signature and address of the permit applicant and date shall 
be acceptable. 

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Exception: This sub-section does not apply to new buildings or structures. 

1 1 4.2 Report to assessors: The building official shall give to the assessors of the 
municipality written notice of the granting by him of permits for the construction of 
any buildings or structures, or for the removal or demolition, or for any substantial 
alteration or addition thereto. Such notice shall be given within seven (7) days after 
the granting of each permit, and shall state the name of the person to whom the 
permit was granted and the location of the building or structure to be constructed, 
reconstructed, altered, demolished or removed. 

1 1 4.3 Expiration of permit: Any permit issued shall be deemed abandoned and 
invalid unless the work authorized by it shall have been commenced within six (6) 
months after its issuance; however, for cause, one or more extensions of time, for 
periods not exceeding six (6) months each, may be granted in writing by the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings. Work under such a permit in the opinion 
of the building commissioner or inspector of buildings, must proceed in good faith 
continuously to completion so far as is reasonably practicable under the 
circumstances. 

For purposes of this section, any permit issued shall not be considered invalid 
if such abandonment or suspension of work is due to a court order prohibiting such 
work as authorized by such permit; provided, however, in the opinion of the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings, the person so prohibited by such court order, 
adequately defends such action before the court. 

114.4 Previous approvals: Nothing in this code or the rules and regulations 
pursuant thereto shall affect any building permit lawfully issued, or any building or 
structure lawfully begun in conformance with such permit, before the effective date 
of this code or any amendments thereto. 

1 1 4.5 Signature to permit: The building commissioner or inspector of buildings 
shall attach his signature to every permit, or he may authorize a subordinate to affix 
such signature thereto. 

114.6 Approved plans: If approved by him, the building commissioner or 
inspector of buildings or his authorized subordinate shall stamp and endorse in 
writing the plans submitted in accordance with Section 113.5; one (1) set of such 
stamped and endorsed plans shall be retained; the other set of plans shall be kept 
at the building site, open to the inspection of the building commissioner, inspector 
of buildings, or his authorized subordinate, at all reasonable times. 

1 1 4.7 Revocation of permits: The building commissioner or inspector of buildings 
may revoke a permit or approval issued under the provisions of this code only in 



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case of any false statement or misrepresentation of fact in the application or the 
plans on which the permit or approval was based. 

114.8 Approval in part: When application for a permit to erect or add to a 
building or structure has been filed, as required in Section 113.5, and pending 
issuance of such permit, the building commissioner or inspector of buildings may, at 
his discretion, issue a special permit for the foundations or any other part of a 
building or structure, before the entire plans and specifications for the whole 
building have been submitted, provided adequate information and detailed 
statements have been filed complying with all the requirements of this code and 
pertinent law. The holder of such a special permit may proceed at his own risk 
without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted. 

1 1 4.9 Posting of permit: A copy of the building permit provided by the building 
department shall be kept in view and protected from the weather on the site of 
operation during the entire time the work is under execution and until the certificate 
of use and occupancy shall have been issued. The building permit shall serve as an 
inspection record card to allow the building official conveniently to make entries 
thereon regarding inspection of the work. 

114.10 Notice of start: At least twenty-four (24) hours' notice of start of work 
under a building permit shall be given to the building official. 



SECTION 115.0 CONDITIONS OF PERMIT 

1 15.1 Compliance with code: The permit shall be a license to proceed with the 
work and shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or set aside any of the 
provisions of this code, except as specifically stipulated by modification or legally 
granted variation in accordance with Section 126.0. 

115.2 Compliance with permit: All work shall conform to the stamped or 
endorsed application and plans for which the permit has been issued and any 
approved amendments thereto. 

115.3 Change in site plan: A lot or site shall not be changed, increased or 
diminished in area from that shown on the official site plan, as specified in Section 
113.6, unless a revised plan showing such changes accompanied by the necessary 
affidavit of owner or applicant shall have been filed and approved. 

Exception: A revised site plan will not be required if the change is caused by 
reason of an official street opening, street widening or other public 
improvement. 



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SECTION 116.0 DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURES 

1 16.1 Service connections: Before a building or structure can be demolished or 
removed, the owner or agent shall notify all utilities having service connections 
within the building or structure, such as; water, electric, gas, sewer and other 
connections. A permit to demolish or remove a building or structure shall not be 
issued until a release is obtained from the utilities, stating that their respective 
service connections and appurtenant equipment, such as; meters and regulators have 
been removed or sealed and plugged in a safe manner. 

116.2 Lot regulation: When a building or structure has been demolished or 
removed and a building operation has not been projected or approved, the vacant 
lot shall be filled with nonorganic fill, graded and maintained in conformity with 
adjacent grades. The lot shall be maintained free from the accumulation of rubbish 
and all other unsafe or hazardous conditions which endanger the health of the 
public; provisions shall be made to prevent the accumulation of water or damage to 
any foundations on the premises or the adjoining property; and the necessary 
retaining walls and fences shall be erected in accordance with the provisions of 
Article 30. 

SECTION 117.0 MOVED STRUCTURES 

1 1 7.1 General: Buildings and structures moved into or within the jurisdiction shall 
comply with the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 118.0 FEES 

1 18.1 General: A permit shall not be issued to begin work for new construction, 
alteration, removal, demolition or other building operation until the fees prescribed 
by municipal ordinance or bylaw shall have been paid to the city or town collector 
or other municipal agency authorized to collect such fees. 

1 1 8.2 Other fees: The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal 
or demolition and for all work done in connection with or concurrently with the 
work contemplated by a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of 
the permit from the payment of other fees that may be prescribed by law or 
ordinance for water taps, sewer connections, electrical and plumbing permits, 
erection of signs and display structures, marquees or other appurtenant structures, 
or fees for inspections, certificates of use and occupancy or other privileges or 
requirements, both within and without the jurisdiction of the building department. 



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SECTION 119.0 CERTIFICATE OF USE AND OCCUPANCY 

1 1 9.1 New buildings and structures: A building or structure hereafter shall not 
be used or occupied in whole or in part until the certificate of use and occupancy 
shall have been issued by the building commissioner or inspector of buildings or, 
when applicable, the state inspector. The certificate shall not be issued until all the 
work has been completed in accordance with the provisions of the approved permits 
and of the applicable codes for which a permit is required, except as provided in 
Section 

119.4. 

Prior to the issuance of the certificate of use and occupancy, the building 
commissioner or inspector of buildings shall cause a written request to be 
transmitted to the head of the fire department concerning the issuance of the 
certificate with regard to items in Section 1000.1.1 of this code. Within three (3) 
working days of receipt of the request the head of the fire department shall indicate 
concurrence with the issuance of said certificate or non-concurrence with specific 
reasons therefor which relate to the items listed in said Section 1000.1.1. Should no 
response to the inquiry be received by the building commissioner or inspector of 
buildings within five (5) working days, the building commissioner or inspector of 
buildings shall deem concurrence by the head of the fire department. 

119.2 Buildings or structures hereafter altered: A building or structure, in 
whole or in part, altered to change from one use group to another; to a different use 
within the same use group; the fire grading; the maximum live load capacity; the 
occupancy load capacity; or a building or structure hereafter altered for which a 
certificate of use and occupancy has not been heretofore issued, shall not be 
occupied or used until the certificate shall have been issued certifying that the work 
has been completed in accordance with the provisions of the approved permits and 
of the applicable codes for which a permit is required. Any use or occupancy, which 
was not discontinued during the work of alteration, shall be discontinued within 
thirty (30) days after the completion of the alteration unless the required certificate 
is issued. 

1 19.3 Existing buildings or structures: If a certificate of use and occupancy has 
not been issued, upon written request from the owner of an existing building or 
structure, a certificate of use and occupancy shall be issued, provided there are no 
violations of law or orders of the building official pending, and it is established after 
inspection and investigation that the alleged use of the building or structure has 
heretofore existed. Nothing in this code shall require the removal, alteration or 
abandonment of, or prevent the continuance of the use and occupancy of a lawfully 
existing building or structure, unless such use is deemed to endanger public safety 
and welfare. 



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119.4 Temporary occupancy: Upon the request of the holder of a permit, a 
temporary certificate of occupancy for a building or structure or part thereof may 
be issued before the entire work covered by the permit shall have been completed, 
provided such portion or portions may be occupied safely prior to full completion 
of the building or structure without endangering life or public welfare, and provided 
that the agencies having jurisdiction for permits issued under other applicable codes 
are notified of the decision to issue a temporary certificate. 

119.5 Contents of certificate: The certificate shall certify compliance with the 
provisions of this code and the purpose for which the building or structure may be 
used in its several parts; and shall be issued within ten (10) days after final 
inspection, provided that the provisions of the approved permits and of the 
applicable codes for which permits are required have been met. The certificate of 
use and occupancy shall specify: the use group in accordance with the provisions of 
Article 3, the fire grading as defined in Article 2 and Table 902, the maximum live 
load on all floors as prescribed in Article 11, the occupancy load in the building and 
all parts thereof as defined in Article 2 and Article 8, and any special stipulations 
and conditions of the building permit. 



SECTION 120.0 POSTING STRUCTURES 

120.1 Posted use and occupancy: A suitably designed placard approved by the 
building official shall be posted by the owner on all floors of every building and 
structure and part thereof designed for high hazard, storage, mercantile, factory and 
industrial or business use (use groups H, S, M, F and B) as defined in Article 3. 
Said placard shall be securely fastened to the building or structure in a readily 
visible place, stating: the use group, the fire grading, the live load and the 
occupancy load. 

120.2 Posted occupancy load: A suitably designed placard approved by the 
building official shall be posted by the owner in every room where practicable of 
every building and structure and part thereof designed for use as a place of public 
assembly or as an institutional building for harboring people for penal, correctional, 
educational, medical or other care or treatment, or as residential buildings used for 
hotels, lodging houses, boarding houses, dormitory buildings, multiple family 
dwellings (use groups A, I, R-l and R-2). Said placard shall designate the maximum 
occupancy load. 

120.3 Replacement of posted signs: All posting signs shall be furnished by the 
owner and shall be of permanent design; they shall not be removed or defaced, and 
if lost, removed or defaced, shall be immediately replaced. 



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120.4 Periodic inspection for posting: The building official may periodically 
inspect all existing buildings and structures except one and two family dwellings for 
compliance with this code in respect to posting; or he may accept the report of such 
inspections from a qualified registered engineer or architect or others certified by 
the BBRS; and such inspections and reports shall specify any violation of the 
requirements of this code in respect to the posting of floor load, fire grading, 
occupancy load and use group of the building or structure. 



SECTION 121.0 VIOLATIONS 



121.1 Unlawful acts: It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to 
erect, construct, alter, reconstruct, repair, remove, demolish, use or occupy any 
building or structure or equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, 
contrary to or in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code. 

121.2 Notice of violation: The building official shall serve a notice of violation or 
order on the person responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, 
reconstruction, repair, removal, demolition, use or occupancy of a building or 
structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a detail 
statement or a plan approved thereunder, or in violation of a permit or certificate 
issued under the provisions of this code; and such order shall direct the 
discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation. 

1 21 .2.1 Notice or orders, service and content: Every notice or order authorized 
by this code shall be in writing and shall be served on the person responsible: 

1. personally, by any person authorized by the building official; or 

2. by any person authorized to serve civil process by leaving a copy of the 
order or notice at his last and usual place of abode; or 

3. by sending him a copy of the order by registered or certified mail return 
receipt requested, if he is within the Commonwealth; or 

4. if his last and usual place of abode is unknown, by posting a copy of this 
order or notice in a conspicuous place on or about the premises in violation 
and by publishing it for at least three (3) out of five (5) consecutive days in 
one (1) or more newspapers of general circulation wherein the building or 
premises affected is situated. 

121.3 Prosecution of violation: If the notice of violation is not complied with 
within the time period specified in the notice, unless otherwise provided in this code, 

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the building official may institute the appropriate proceedings at law or in equity in 
a court of competent jurisdiction to restrain, correct or abate such violation or to 
require the removal or termination of the unlawful use of the building or structure 
in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant 
thereto. 

121.4 Violation penalties: Anyone who shall violate a provision of this code shall 
be punishable by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) or by 
imprisonment for not more than one year, or both, for each violation. Each day 
during which any portion of a violation continues shall constitute a separate offense. 

121.5 Abatement Of violation: The imposition of the penalties herein prescribed 
shall not preclude the building official from instituting appropriate action to prevent 
unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation, or to prevent illegal 
occupancy of a building, structure or premises or to stop an illegal act, conduct, 
business or use of a building or structure in or about any premises. 



SECTION 122.0 STOP-WORK ORDER 

122.1 Notice to owner: Upon notice from the building official that any work is 
being prosecuted contrary to the provisions of this code or in an unsafe or dangerous 
manner, such work shall be immediately stopped. The stop-work order shall be in 
writing and shall be served on the owner or on the person doing the work, and shall 
state the conditions under which work maybe resumed; provided, however, that in 
instances where immediate action is deemed necessary for public safety or in the 
public interest, the building official may require that work be stopped upon verbal 
order, provided that said verbal order be confirmed in writing within forty-eight (48) 
hours. 

122.1 .1 Posting: A stop-work notice shall be posted in a conspicuous place on the 
job site and can only be removed by the building official. 

122.2 Unlawful continuance: Anyone who shall continue any work in or about 
the job site after having been served with a stop-work order, except such work as he 
is directed by the building official to perform to remove a violation of unsafe 
conditions, shall be liable to prosecution as provided in Section 121.0. 



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SECTION 123.0 UNSAFE STRUCTURES 

1 23.1 Inspection: The building official immediately upon being informed by report 
or otherwise that a building or other structure or anything attached thereto or 
connected therewith is dangerous to life or limb or that any building in that city or 
town is unused, uninhabited or abandoned, and open to the weather, shall inspect 
the same; and he shall forthwith in writing notify the owner to remove it or make 
it safe if it appears to him to be dangerous, or to make it secure if it is unused, 
uninhabited or abandoned and open to the weather. If it appears that such 
structure would be especially unsafe in case of fire, it shall be deemed dangerous 
within the meaning hereof, and the building official may affix in a conspicuous place 
upon its exterior walls a notice of its dangerous condition, which shall not be 
removed or defaced without authority from him. 

123.2 Removal or making structure safe: Any person so notified shall be 
allowed until twelve o'clock noon of the day following the service of the notice in 
which to begin to remove such building or structure or make it safe, or to make it 
secure, and he shall employ sufficient labor speedily to make it safe or remove it or 
to make it secure; but if the public safety so requires and if the mayor or selectmen 
so order, the building official may immediately enter upon the premises with the 
necessary workmen and assistants and cause such unsafe structure to be made safe 
or demolished without delay and a proper fence put up for the protection of 
passersby, or to be made secure. 

SECTION 124.0 EMERGENCY MEASURES 

124.1 Failure to remove or make structure safe, survey board, survey report: 

If an owner of such unsafe structure refuses or neglects to comply with the 
requirements of such notice within the specified time limit, and such structure is not 
made safe or taken down as ordered therein, a careful survey of the premises shall 
be made by a board consisting; in a city, of a city engineer, the head of the fire 
department, as such term is defined in Section 1 of Chapter 148 of the 
Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, as amended, and one disinterested person 
to be appointed by the building official; and, in a town, of a surveyor, the head of 
the fire department and one disinterested person to be appointed by the building 
official. In the absence of any of the above officers or individuals, the mayor or 
selectmen shall designate one or more officers or other suitable persons in place of 
the officers so named as members of said board. A written report of such survey 
shall be made, and a copy thereof served on such owner. 

124.2 Removal of dangerous or abandoned structures: If such survey report 
as outlined in Section 124.1 declares such structure to be dangerous or to be unused, 
uninhabited or abandoned, and open to the weather, and if the owner continues 
such refusal or neglect, the building official shall cause it to be made safe or taken 

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down or to be made secure; and, if the public safety so requires, said building official 
may at once enter the structure, the land on which it stands or the abutting land or 
buildings, with such assistance as he may require, and secure the same; and may 
remove and evict, under the pertinent provisions of Chapter 239 of the 
Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as amended, or otherwise, any tenant or 
occupant thereof; and may erect such protection for the public by proper fence or 
otherwise as may be necessary, and for this purpose may close a public highway. In 
the case of such demolition, the said building official shall cause such lot to be 
levelled to conform with adjacent grades by a nonorganic fill. The costs and charges 
incurred shall constitute a lien upon the land upon which the structure is located, 
and shall be enforced in an action of contract; and such owner shall, for every day's 
continuance of such refusal or neglect after being so notified, be punished by a fine 
in accordance with Section 121.4. The provisions of the second paragraph of Section 
3A of Chapter 139 of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as amended, 
relative to liens for such debt and the collection of claims for such debt shall apply 
to any debt referred to in this section, except that the said building official shall act 
hereunder in place of the mayor or board of selectmen. During the time such order 
is in effect, it shall be unlawful to use or occupy such structure or any portion 
thereof for any purpose. 

124.3 Remedy of person ordered to remove a dangerous structure or make 
it safe: An owner, aggrieved by such order may have the remedy prescribed by 
Section 2 of Chapter 139 of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as 
amended; provided that any provision of said Section 2 shall not be construed so as 
to hinder, delay or prevent the building official from acting and proceeding under 
Section 124.2; and provided, further, that this section shall not prevent the city or 
town from recovering the forfeiture provided in said Section 124.2 from the date of 
the service of the original notice, unless the order is annulled by the jury. 

125.0 RESERVED 



SECTION 126.0 BOARD OF APPEALS 

126.1 State Building Code Appeals Board: Whoever is aggrieved by an 
interpretation, order, requirement, direction or failure to act under this code by any 
agency or official of the city, town or region, or agency or official of the State 
charged with the administration or enforcement of this code or any of its rules or 
regulations, excepting any specialized codes, may appeal directly to the State 
Building Code Appeals Board as provided in Section 126.0. 

Whoever is aggrieved by an interpretation, order, requirement, direction or 
failure to act under this code by any agency or official of a city, town or region 
charged with the administration or enforcement of this code or any of its rules and 

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regulations, excepting any specialized codes, may appeal directly to the State 
Building Code Appeals Board or may appeal first to a local or regional building code 
appeals board and if aggrieved thereby he may then appeal to the State Building 
Code Appeals Board as provided in Section 126.0. 

In the event an appeal is taken directly to the State Building Code Appeals 
Board from an interpretation, order, requirement or direction, said appeal shall be 
filed as specified in Section 126.3.1 with the State Building Code Appeals Board not 
later than forty-five (45) days after the service of notice thereof of the interpretation, 
order, requirement or direction. 

In the event the appeal is taken directly to the State Building Code Appeals 
Board for the failure to act, the appeal shall be taken not later than forty-five (45) 
days after a request to act has been made by the aggrieved person in writing and 
served upon the appropriate building official or chief administrative officer of the 
state or local agency which fails to act. 

If the aggrieved person elects to appeal before the local or regional building 
code appeals board, he shall not be allowed to enter such appeal with the State 
Building Code Appeals Board until such time as the said local or regional board 
renders a decision, unless the reason for appeal to the State Building Code Appeals 
Board is the failure of the local or regional board to act. 

126.2 Membership 

126.2.1 Three member panel: The State Building Code Appeals Board 
(hereinafter referred to in Section 126.0 as the Board) shall consist of the 
membership of the BBRS. The chairman of the BBRS shall be Chairman of the 
Board. The Chairman of the Board may designate any three (3) members of the 
Board to act as a three (3) member panel to hold any public hearing under Section 
126.0 and to hear testimony and take evidence. The Chairman of the Board shall 
select one (1) of the three (3) members to act as chairman of the said three (3) 
member panel. If a three (3) member panel is so designated, the three (3) member 
panel shall act as the Appeals Board and render a decision as provided in Section 
126.0. 

126.2.2 Clerk: The administrator of the BBRS shall designate a clerk to the 
BBRS. The clerk shall keep a detailed record of all decisions and appeals and a 
docket book on file showing the name of each appeal properly indexed and the 
disposition of the appeal. Said docket book shall be open to public inspection at all 
times during normal business hours. 

126.2.3 Quorum: A majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum if the appeal 
is heard by the entire Board. 

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126.3 Appeals procedure for State Building Code Appeals Board 

126.3.1 Entry: Appeals shall be entered on forms provided by the BBRS and shall 
be accompanied by an entry fee of one-hundred fifty ($150) dollars or such other 
amounts as may be determined by the BBRS from time to time. 

The appeal shall be signed by the appellant or his attorney or agent and shall 
note the name and address of the person or agency in whose behalf the appeal is 
taken and the name of the person and address wherein service of notice for the 
appellant is to be made. The appeal shall also state in detail the interpretation, 
order, requirement, direction or failure to act which are the grounds of the appeals 
as well as the particular section or sections of this code which are involved in the 
appeal and the reasons for the appellant advances supporting the appeal. 

A copy of the appeal shall be served in accordance with Section 121.2.1 by the 
appellant on the person or state, regional or local agency from whose action or 
inaction the appeal is taken, on or before entry of the appeal. An affidavit, under 
oath, that such copy has been served shall be filed with the Board forthwith by the 
appellant. 

126.3.2 Stay of Proceedings: Entry of an appeal shall stay all proceedings in 
furtherance of the action or failure to act appealed from, unless the state, regional 
or local agency or any person charged with the administration or enforcement of this 
code or any of its rules or regulations presents evidence and the Board or a three 
(3) member panel or a single member of the Board, appointed by the chairman for 
said purpose, finds that upon the evidence presented a stay would involve imminent 
peril to life or property. In such an event, stay of all proceedings shall be waived or 
the Board or three (3) member panel or single member may order such other action 
necessary to preserve public safety. 

Before waiving the stay or proceedings, the Board or three(3) member panel 
or single member of the Board, appointed by the chairman for said purpose, shall 
hold a hearing and give the appellant and state, regional or local agency or any 
person claiming that a stay would involve imminent peril to life or property, notice 
in writing of the hearing not less than twenty-four (24) hours before said hearing. 

126.3.3 Documents: Upon entry, the clerk shall request in writing from the state, 
city, regional or town officer in charge of the matter on appeal, a copy of the record 
and all other papers and documents relative to the appeal to be transmitted 
forthwith to the Board. Said state, city, regional or town officer shall upon receipt 
of the request of the Board transmit forthwith all the papers and documents and a 
copy of the record relating to the matter on appeal. 



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126.3.4 Hearings: The chairman of the Board shall fix a convenient time and 
place for a public hearing. Said hearings shall be held not later than thirty (30) days 
after the entry of such appeal, unless such time is extended by agreement with the 
appellant. Any such party may appear in person or by agent or attorney at such 
hearing. The chairman or clerk shall give notice of the time and place of said 
hearing to all parties to the hearing and to anyone else requesting notice in writing 
at least ten (10) days prior thereto. Failure to hold a public hearing within thirty 
(30) days shall not affect the validity of the appeal or any decision rendered. The 
Board or three (3) member panel in its hearings conducted under this section shall 
not be bound by strict rules of evidence prevailing in courts of law or equity. 

126.4 Decisions 

126.4.1 Votes required: If the appeal is conducted by a three (3) member panel, 
then the concurrence of two (2) of the three (3) members holding the public hearing 
shall be required. If the appeal is conducted by the entire Board, then a majority 
vote of those hearing the case shall be required. 

126.4.2 Standard: The Board or a three (3) member panel may vary the 
application of any provision of this code in any particular case,may determine the 
suitability of alternate materials and methods of construction, and provide 
reasonable interpretations of the provisions of this code; provided that the Board or 
a three-member panel finds that the decision to grant a variance shall not conflict 
with the general objectives set forth Section 95 of Chapter 143 of the General Laws 
of the Commonwealth or with the general objectives of this code. 

126.4.3 Time for decision: The Board shall within thirty (30) days after such 
hearing, unless such time is extended by agreement of the parties, issue a decision 
or order reversing, affirming or modifying in whole or in part the order, 
interpretation, requirement, direction or failure to act which is the subject matter of 
the appeal. 

Failure to render a decision within thirty (30) days shall not affect the validity 
of any such decision or appeal. 

Notice of and a copy of the decision shall be sent by the clerk to all parties 
to the appeal and anyone requesting in writing a copy of the decision. 

126.4.4 Contents of decision: All decisions shall be in writing and state findings 
of fact, conclusions and reasons for decisions. Every decision shall indicate thereon 
the vote of each member and shall be signed by each member voting. A decision 
shall not be considered by any person or agency as a precedent for future decisions. 



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126.4.5 Additional powers: The Board or a three (3) member panel may impose 
in any decision, limitations both as to time and use, and a continuation of any use 
permitted may be conditioned upon compliance with future amendments to this 
code. 

126.5 Enforcement: Upon receipt of the decision of the Board or a three (3) 
member panel, the parties to the appeal shall take action forthwith to comply with 
the decision unless a later time is specified in the decision. 

126.6 Appeals from State Building Code Appeals Board: Any person aggrieved 
by a decision of the State Building Code Appeals Board may appeal to a court of 
law or equity in conformance with Chapter 30A, Section 14 of the General Laws. 

126.7 Local and regional board of appeals 

126.7.1 Local or regional board of appeals: Whoever is aggrieved by an 
interpretation, order, requirement, direction or failure to act under this code by any 
agency or official of a city, region or town charged with the administration or 
enforcement of this code or any of its rules and regulations may appeal first to the 
appeals board in that city, region or town and then to the State Building Code 
Appeals Board as provided in Section 126.0. 

In the event an appeal is taken from an interpretation, order, requirement or 
direction, said appeal shall be filed with the local or regional appeals board not later 
than forty-five (45)days after the service of notice thereof of the interpretation, 
order, requirement or direction. 

In the event the appeal is taken for the failure to act, the appeal shall be 
taken not later than forty-five (45) days after a request to act has been made by the 
aggrieved person in writing and served to the appropriate building official or chief 
administrative officer of the city, regional or town agency which fails to act. 

126.7.2 Membership: Any building code board of appeals duly established by 
ordinance or by law or otherwise in a city, region or town and in existence on 
January 1, 1975, shall qualify as a local board of appeals under Section 126.0 
notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein. However, the procedure 
and rights for appeals for such board of appeals shall be governed by this code. 

If a city, region or town had not duly established by ordinance or bylaw or 
otherwise a local or regional building code appeals board prior to January 1, 1975, 
said city, region or town may establish a local or regional board of appeals, 
hereinafter referred to as the local board of appeals, consisting of five (5) members 
appointed by the chief administrative officer of the city, region or town: one (1) 
member appointed for five(5) years, one (1) for four (4) years, one for three (3) 

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years,one for two (2) years and one to serve for one (1) year; and thereafter each 
new member to serve for five (5) years or until his successor has been appointed. 

126.7.3 Qualifications of local board members: Each member of a local board 
of appeals established under Section 126.7.2 shall have had at least five (5) years 
experience in the construction, alteration, repair and maintenance of building and 
building codes. At least one (1) member shall be a registered structural or civil 
professional engineer and one (1) member a licensed professional architect. 

126.7.4 Chairman of local or regional board: The board shall select one (1) of 
its members to serve as chairman and a detailed record of all proceedings shall be 
kept on file in the building department. 

1 26.7.5 Absence Of members: During the absence of a member of a local board 
of appeals for reason of disability or disqualification, the chief administrative officer 
of the city, region or town shall designate a substitute who shall meet the 
qualifications as outlined in Section 126.7.3. 

126.7.6 Quorum: A quorum shall be three (3) members. 

126.7.7 Procedures: Entry of appeals shall be governed by Section 126.3.1 
excepting that a city, region or town may set its own entry fee. 

Upon notice of entry of appeal the local building commissioner or inspector 
of buildings shall transmit a copy of the record and all the papers and documents 
to the local board of appeals. 

Entry of an appeal shall stay all proceedings in furtherance of the action or 
failure to act appealed from, unless the building commissioner or inspector of 
buildings certifies in writing to the local board of appeals that a stay would involve 
imminent peril to life or property. Notice in writing of such certification by the 
building commissioner or inspector of buildings shall be given the appellant at least 
twenty-four (24) hours prior to the hearing. In such an event a hearing on such stay 
shall be given first priority and be the first matter heard by the local board of 
appeals at its next scheduled meeting. The hearing on the appeal shall be held as 
soon as possible thereafter in accordance with Section 126.7.8. 

The local board of appeals may establish its own rules for procedure not 
established herein or not inconsistent with this code or with the general objectives 
set forth in Section 95 of Chapter 143 of the General Laws of the Commonwealth 

126.7.8 Hearings: All hearings shall be public and notice of said hearings shall 
be advertised in a newspaper of general circulation in the city, region or town in 
which the appeal is taken at least ten (10) days before said hearing. Notice of the 

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hearing, setting forth the date and time of said hearing, shall be mailed by the local 
board of appeals to all parties and all those who requested notice in writing at least 
fourteen (14) days before said hearing. Said hearings shall be held not later than 
thirty (30) days after the entry of such appeal, unless such time is extended by 
agreement with the appellant. This section as it pertains to notice shall not apply 
to hearings on a stay as provided in Section 126.7.7. 

126.7.9 Decisions of local boards: A concurring vote of a majority of all the 
members present shall be required for any decision. The local board of appeals may 
vary the application of this code to any particular case, may consider the suitability 
of alternate materials and methods of construction and may provide reasonable 
interpretations of the provisions of this code; provided that the decision of the local 
board shall not conflict with the general objectives of the state building code or with 
the general objectives of Section 95 of Chapter 143 of the General Laws of the 
Commonwealth. The local board of appeals may impose, in any decision, limitations 
both as to time and use, and a continuation of any use permitted may be conditioned 
upon compliance with future amendments to this code. 

126.7.10 Time for decision: The board shall within thirty (30) days after such 
hearing, unless such time is extended by agreement of the parties, issue a decision 
or order reversing, affirming or modifying in whole or in part the order, 
interpretation, requirement, direction or failure to act which is the subject matter of 
the appeal. 

Failure to render a decision within thirty (30) days shall not affect the validity 
of any such decision or appeal. 

Notice of and a copy of the decision shall be sent by the clerk to all parties 
to the appeal and to anyone requesting in writing a copy of the decision. 

126.7.1 1 Contents of decision: All decisions shall be in writing and state findings 
of fact, conclusions and reasons for the decisions. Every decision shall indicate 
thereon the vote of each member and shall be signed by each member voting. Any 
decision shall not be considered by any person or agency as a precedent for future 
decisions. 

126.7.12 Copy of decision: A copy of any decision by a local board of appeals 
shall be transmitted to the State Building Code Appeals Board within ten (10) days 
after the rendering of such decision. If the State Building Code Appeals Board 
disapproves of the said decision of the local board, it may on its own motion appeal 
from the decision of the local board of appeals according to Section 126.0 and call 
for a hearing de novo. 



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If the State Building Code Appeals Board does not notify the local board in 
writing within forty-five (45) days from the date of the local board's decision, the 
said decision shall be deemed approved; provided that the decision shall not conflict 
with the general objectives of the state building code and the pbjectives of Section 
95, Chapter 143 of the General Laws of the Commonwealth. 



126.7.13 Enforcement of decision: If said decision is approved by the State 
Building Code Appeals Board, all parties to the appeal shall take immediate action 
in accordance with the decision of the local board unless the person aggrieved by 
such decision appeals to the State Building Code Appeals Board as provided in 
Section 126.0. 

126.7.14 Review: Any person, including the State Building Code Appeals Board, 
aggrieved by a decision of the local board of appeals, whether or not a previous 
party to the decision, or any municipal officer or official board of the municipality, 
may, not later than forty-five (45) days after the mailing of the decision of the local 
board, apply to the State Building Code Appeals Board for a hearing de novo before 
the State Board, in accordance with the regulations contained in Section 126.0. 



SECTION 127.0 CONSTRUCTION CONTROL 

127.1 Responsibilities: The provisions of this section define the construction 
controls required for all structures needing registered professional architectural or 
engineering services, and delineate the responsibilities of such professional services 
together with those services that are the responsibility of the contractor during 
construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Any building containing less than thirty-five thousand (35,000) cubic feet 
of enclosed space; 

2. Any single or two family house or any accessory building thereto; 

3. Any building used for farm purposes; and 

4. Retaining walls less than ten (10) feet in height at all points along the 
wall as measured from the base of the footing to the top of the wall. 



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127.2 Professional architecture or engineering services. 

127.2.1 Design: All plans, computations and specifications involving new 
construction, alterations, repairs, expansions or additions shall be prepared by or 
under the direct supervision of a registered professional architect or engineer and 
bear his signature and seal; said signature and seal shall signify that the plans, 
computations and specifications meet the applicable provisions of this code, all 
acceptable engineering practices and all applicable laws and ordinances. 

127.2.2 Architect/engineer inspectional responsibility: A registered 
professional architect or engineer shall be responsible for the following: 

1. Review of shop drawings, samples and other submittals of the contractor 
as required by the construction contract documents as submitted for 
building permit, and approval for conformance to the design concept. 

2. Review and approval of the quality control procedures for all code- 
required controlled materials. 

3. Special architectural or engineering professional inspection of critical 
construction components requiring controlled materials or construction 
specified in the accepted engineering practice standards. 

A registered professional architect or engineer shall perform the necessary 
professional services and be present on the construction site on a regular and 
periodic basis to determine that, generally, the work is proceeding in accordance 
with the documents approved for the building permit. 

127.2.3 Reporting: A registered professional architect or engineer shall submit 
periodically, in a form acceptable to the building official, a progress report together 
with pertinent comments. At the completion of the construction, the registered 
professional architect or engineer shall submit to the building official a report as to 
the satisfactory completion and the readiness of the project for occupancy (excepting 
any items not endangering such occupancy and listing pertinent deviations from the 
approved building permit documents). 

127.3 Construction contractor services: The actual construction of the work 
shall be the responsibility of the general contractor as identified on the approved 
building permit and shall involve the following: 

1. Execution of all work in accordance with the approved construction 
documents. 

2. Execution and control of all methods of construction in a safe and 
satisfactory manner in accordance with all applicable local, state, and 
federal statutes and regulations. 

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Upon completion of the construction, he shall certify to the best of his 
knowledge and belief that such has been done in substantial accord with 
Items 1 and 2 above and with all pertinent deviations specifically noted. 



127.4 Special professional services: When applications for unusual designs or 
magnitude of construction are filed, or where reference standards require special 
architectural or engineering inspections, the building official may require full-time 
project representation by the registered professional architect or engineer in addition 
to that provided in Section 127.2.2. The project representative shall keep daily 
records and submit reports as may be required by the building official. Upon 
completion of the work, the registered professional architect or engineer shall file 
a final report as required under Section 127.2.3. 

127.4.1 Building permit requirement: This special professional service 
requirement shall be determined prior to the issuance of the building permit and 
shall be a requisite for the permit issuance. Refusal by the applicant to provide such 
service as required by the building official shall result in the denial of the permit. 
However, the applicant may file an appeal as provided in Section 126.0. 

127.4.2 Fee and costs: All fees and costs related to the performance of special 
professional services shall be borne by the applicant. 

1 27.5 Building official responsibility: Nothing contained in this section shall have 
the effect of waiving or limiting the building official's authority to enforce this code 
with respect to examination of the contract documents, including plans, computations 
and specifications, and field inspections (see Section 108.0). 



SECTION 128.0 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS SAFETY BOARD 

128.1 Membership: There shall be a board under the control of the BBRS called 
the Construction Materials Safety Board, hereafter in Section 128.0 called the CMSB 
which shall consist of nine (9) members, one (1) of whom shall be a member of the 
BBRS who shall be ex-officio and a voting member of the Board and eight (8) 
members to be appointed by the chairman of the BBRS: one of whom shall be a 
registered professional engineer who is a structural engineer; one of whom shall be 
a registered architect; one of whom shall be a representative of a commercial testing 
laboratory; one of whom shall be a representative of a public testing laboratory; two 
of whom shall be representatives from the construction industry; one of whom shall 
be a member of a university faculty engaged in research and teaching in structural 
materials; and one of whom shall be a member of a university faculty engaged in 
research and teaching in the area of theoretical and applied mechanics. 



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128.2 Duties: The CMSB will review applications for registration or licensing of 
individuals, laboratories or firms responsible for the inspection, control and testing 
of construction materials, and review applications and pertinent data relevant to all 
materials, devices, products and methods of construction not included in this code; 
and report to the BBRS their recommendations. The CMSB will collect information 
and review cases where disciplinary action against an existing license, whether an 
individual, laboratory or firm, has been proposed; and make recommendations to the 
BBRS. The BBRS will issue applications, receive payment for the review of such 
applications and approvals, registration and licensing fees, and maintain records for 
the efficient dispatch of the duties of the CMSB. 

128.3 Testing and evaluation groups: The BBRS shall establish and maintain 
testing and evaluation groups who will have the responsibility of administering and 
directing, under the supervision of the BBRS, the testing and controls for evaluating 
individual applicants, laboratories and firms wishing to become registered or 
licensed. 



SECTION 129.0 ACTIVITIES REQUIRING LICENSES 

129.1 Concrete 

129.1.1 Field technicians: A person shall not engage in the activities of field 
testing of concrete for use in structures subject to construction control (Section 
127.0) and/or controlled materials (Section 1304.0) unless such person is licensed by 
the BBRS in accordance with the Rules and Regulations for Concrete Testing 
Personnel. 

129.1.2 Testing laboratories: A testing laboratory, branch laboratory and/or 
project laboratory shall not test concrete and/or concrete materials for use in 
structures subject to construction control (Section 127.0) and/or controlled materials 
(Section 1304.0) unless licensed by the BBRS in accordance with this code and the 
Rules and Regulations for Licensing of Concrete Testing Laboratories. 

1 29.2 Native lumber: A person shall not engage in producing native lumber for 
use in structures within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts unless registered by 
the BBRS in accordance with this code and the Rules and Regulations Controlling 
the Use of Native Lumber. 

1 29.3 Enforcement: Any person or laboratory who violates the provisions of this 
section, or any rules and regulations promulgated hereunder, or who falsifies or 
counterfeits a license or registration issued by the BBRS, or who fraudulently issues 
or accepts such a license shall be punished as provided in Section 121.0. 



1-36 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 



SECTION 130.0 FIRE PREVENTION - FIRE PROTECTION BOARD 

130.1 Constitution of the Fire Prevention - Fire Protection Board: There shall 
be a Board under the control of the BBRS called the Fire, Prevention Fire 
Protection Board, hereinafter in Section 130.0 called the FPFP Board which shall 
consist of thirteen (13) members, two (2) of whom shall be members of the BBRS; 
one (1) of whom shall be the State Fire Marshal or his designee, all three (3) of 
whom shall be ex-officio and voting members of the Board, and ten (10) members 
to be appointed by the chairman of the BBRS for a term of one(l) year; three (3) 
of whom shall be representatives of the Fire Chiefs Association; two (2) of whom 
shall be representatives of the Massachusetts Fire Prevention Association; one (1) 
of whom shall be a representative of the International Municipal Signalmen's 
Association; one (1) of whom shall be a member of the Board of Fire Prevention 
Regulations; one (1) of whom shall be a Fire Protection Engineer; one (1) of whom 
shall be a building official and one (1) of whom shall be a registered professional 
engineer or architect. A chairman and a vice chairman shall be chosen by the 
members of the Board to serve for one (1) year. A member of an agency or board 
of the state shall not be eligible for the office of chairman or vice chairman. 

130.2 Purpose: The FPFP Board will review and recommend to the BBRS 
changes to this code relating to fire prevention and fire protection and more 
specifically those matters contained in Article 10 of this code. 

131.0-139.0 RESERVED 

SECTION 140.0 VALIDITY 

140.1 General: The provisions of this code are severable, and if any of its 
provisions shall be held unconstitutional or otherwise invalid by any court of 
competent jurisdiction, the decision of such court shall not affect or impair any of 
the remaining provisions. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1.37 



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■|_38 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 2 
DEFINITIONS 



ARTICLE 2 



DEFINITIONS 



SECTION 200.0 GENERAL 

200.1 Scope: Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following terms shall, for the 
purpose of this code, have the meaning indicated in this section. 

200.2 Interchangeability: Words used in the present tense include the future; 
words used in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular 
number includes the plural and the plural the singular. 

200.3 Terms defined in other codes: Any terms relating to elevators, dumbwaiters 
and escalators shall have their meaning as defined by 524 CMR 3.00-11.00 and 524 
CMR 15.00-33.00, as well as Article 26. Any terms relating to plumbing, gasfitting 
and electrical wiring shall have their terms as defined by 248 CMR 2.00, 248 CMR 
3.00-8.00 and 527 CMR 12.00 respectively as listed in Appendix G. 

200.4 Terms not defined: Where terms are not defined through methods 
authorized by this section, they shall have their ordinarily accepted meanings such 
as the context implies. 

200.5 Application of other laws: Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to 
nullify any provisions of the zoning by-laws or ordinance of any municipality in the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts insofar as those provisions deal exclusively with 
those powers of regulating zoning granted by the provisions of Chapter 40A and 41 
of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated, as amended. 



SECTION 201.0 GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

Accepted engineering practice: That which conforms to accepted principles, tests 
or standards of nationally recognized technical or scientific authorities. 

Accessory structure: A building the use of which is incidental to that of the main 
building and which is located on the same lot. 

Addition: An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Air-conditioning: The treatment of air so as to control simultaneously its 
temperature, humidity, cleanness and distribution to meet the requirements of a 
conditioned space. 

Airplane hangar, private: A building for the storage of four or less single motor 
planes in which volatile or flammable oil is not handled, stored or kept in other than 
that contained in the fuel storage tank of the plane. 

Aisle: A clear and unobstructed passageway through a room. 

Airplane hangar, public: A building for the storage, care or repair of private or 
commercial airplanes not included in the term "private airplane hangar." 

Air transport factor: The ratio of the rate of useful sensible heat removal from the 
conditioned space to the energy input to the supply and return fan motor(s), 
expressed in consistent units and under the designated operating conditions. 

Alley: A secondary thoroughfare less than thirty (30) feet in width dedicated for the 
public use of vehicles and pedestrians, affording access to abutting property. 

Alteration: A change or modification of a building or structure, or the service 
equipment thereof, that affects safety or health and that is not classified as an 
ordinary repair. 

Alternate inspector: A person appointed to act in the absence of the inspector of 
buildings in case of illness, disability, or conflict of interest. 

Alternating tread stairway: A stair that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 
degrees from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating 
manner so that the user of the stairs never has both feet at the same level at the 
same time. 

Amusement Device: A device or structure open to the public by which persons are 
conveyed or moved in unusual manner for diversion. 

Anchor store: An anchor store is an exterior perimeter department store or major 
merchandising or magnet center having direct access to a mall and having its 
required exits independent of the mall. 

Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE): Energy output divided by energy input, 
calculated on an annual basis and including part load and cycling effects. 



2-2 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Approval: When used in Article 33 for manufactured buildings or building 
components, approved by the State Board of Building Regulations and Standards, 
hereinafter known as the BBRS. 

Approved: Approved by the State Board of Building Regulations and Standards, the 
building official or other authority having jurisdiction. 

Approved agency: An established and recognized agency regularly engaged in 
conducting tests or furnishing inspection services. The building commissioner or 
local inspector may accept creditable evidence of competency of such an agency, 
however, the BBRS is the ultimate Massachusetts approval agency. 

Approved material, equipment and methods: Approved by the BBRS or an agency 
approved by said Board. 

Approved rules: Those rules approved by the BBRS unless otherwise specified. 

Appurtenant structure: A device or structure attached to the exterior or erected 
on the roof of a building designed to support service equipment used in connection 
therewith, or for advertising or display purposes, or other similar uses. 

Architectural terra cotta: Plain or ornamental hard burned plastic clay unit: larger 
in size than brick, with glazed or unglazed ceramic finish (see Section 1406.0). 

Area, building: The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior 
walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not 
provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if included 
within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. 

Area Factor (AF): A multiplying factor which adjusts the base unit power density 
(UPD) for spaces of various sizes to account for the impact of room configuration 
on lighting power utilization. 

Areaway (form of construction): An uncovered subsurface space adjacent to a 
building. 

Atrium: See "Open well". 

Attic: The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters. 

Automatic: As applied to energy conservation, is self-acting, operating by its own 
mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence such as a change in 
electric current, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration. (See definition 
of "Manual"). 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Automatic: As applied to fire protection devices, automatic refers to a device or 
system providing an emergency function without the necessity of human intervention 
and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of rise of 
temperature, or increase in the level of combustion products; such as incorporated 
in an automatic sprinkler system, automatic fire door, etc. 

Automatic fire suppression system: An engineered system using carbon dioxide 
(C0 2 ), dry chemical, a halogenated extinguishing agent, or an automatic sprinkler 
system to automatically detect and suppress a fire through fixed piping and nozzles. 

Base: The level at which earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the 
structure or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported. 

Basement: That portion of a building which is partly below and partly above grade, 
and having at least one-half (1/2) its height above grade. 

Bay (part of a structure): The space between two adjacent piers or mullions or 
between two adjacent lines of columns. 

BBRS: Massachusetts State Board of Building Regulations and Standards. 

Box system: A structural system where the vertical load is carried by bearing walls 
and structural framing and where the lateral stability and lateral force resisting 
system consists of shear walls or braced frames. 

Braced frame: A vertical truss or its equivalent which is provided to resist lateral 
forces in which the members are subjected primarily to axial stresses. 

Brick: 

Calcium silicate brick (sand lime brick): A building unit made of sand and 

lime. 

Clay or shale: A solid masonry unit of clay or shale, usually form into a 

rectangular prism while in the plastic state and burned or fired in a kiln. 

Concrete brick: A solid masonry unit having the approximate shape of a 

rectangular prism and composed of inert aggregate particles embedded in a 

hardened cementitious matrix. 

Hollow brick: A masonry unit of clay or shale whose net cross-sectional area 

in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is not less than 60 percent or 

more than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same 

plane. 

Building (see also "Structure 11 ): A structure enclosed within exterior walls or 
firewalls, built, erected and framed of a combination of any materials, whether 
portable or fixed, having a roof, to form a structure for the shelter of persons, 

2-4 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



animals or property. For the purpose of this definition, "roof shall include an 
awning or similar covering, whether or not permanent in nature. The word 
"building" shall be construed where the context requires as though followed by the 
words "or part or parts thereof. 

Building Commissioner: The administrative chief of the building department in a 
municipality who is charged with the administration and enforcement of this code. 
(See also "Inspector of buildings" and Section 107.1.) 

Building component: Any subsystem, subassembly, or other system designed for 
use in or as part of a structure having concealed elements such as electrical, 
mechanical, plumbing and fire protection systems and other systems affecting health 
and safety. 

Building, existing: Any structure erected or one for which a legal building permit 
has been issued prior to the adoption of this code (and its amendments). 

Building line: The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, 
except as specifically provided by law. 

Building official: The officer or other designated authority charged with the 
administration of this code. Building official as used herein includes the building 
commissioner or the inspector of buildings, the local inspector and state inspector. 

Building service equipment: The mechanical, electrical and elevator equipment 
including piping, wiring, fixtures and other accessories, which provides sanitation, 
lighting, heating, ventilation, fire fighting and transportation facilities essential for 
the habitable occupancy of the building or structure for its designated use and 
occupancy. 

Building site: The area occupied by a building or structure, including the yards and 
courts required for light and ventilation, and such areas that are prescribed for 
access to the street. 

Buttress: A projecting part of a masonry wall built integrally therewith to furnish 
lateral stability which is supported on proper foundations. 

Cellar: That portion of a building which is partly or completely below grade and 
having at least one-half (1/2) its height below grade. 

Central station system: A system, or group of systems, the operations of which are 
signaled to, recorded in, maintained and supervised from an approved central 
station, in which there are competent and experienced observers and operators in 
attendance at all times whose duty it shall be, upon receipt of a signal, to take such 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-5 



mt iwAbbAUHUSEI IS SI ATE BUILDING CODE 



action as shall be required under the rules established for their guidance. Such 
systems shall be controlled and operated by a person, firm or corporation whose 
principal business is the furnishing and maintaining of supervised protective signaling 
service and who does not have interest in protected properties (see Section 1020.0). 

Certificate of Approval - a written document from the appropriate code official 
approving an action, type of material, and the like. 

Certificate of use and occupancy: The certificate issued by the code official which 
permits the use of a building in accordance with the approved plans and 
specifications and which certifies compliance with the provisions of law for the use 
and occupancy of the building in its several parts together with any special 
stipulations or conditions of the building permit. 

Certification: Any manufactured building or building component that meets the 
provisions of Article 33 and the rules and regulations pursuant thereto and which 
has been labeled accordingly. 

Change of use: An alteration by change of use in a building heretofore existing to 
a new use group which imposes other special provisions of law governing building 
construction, equipment or means of egress. 

Child day care center: Any facility operated on a regular basis whether known as 
a day nursery, nursery school, kindergarten, child play school, progressive school 
child development center, or preschool, or known under any other name, which 
receives children not of common parentage under seven (7) years of age or under 
sixteen (16) years of age if such children have special needs for non-residential 
custody and care during part or all of the day separated from their parents. Child 
day care center shall not include: any part of a public school system; any part of 
a private, organized educational system unless the services of such a system are 
primarily limited to kindergarten, nursery or related preschool services; a Sunday 
school conducted by a religious institution; a facility operated by a religious 
organization where children are cared for during short periods of time while persons 
responsible for such children are attending religious services; a family day care 
home, as defined by Chapter 28A, Section 9, of the MGLA as amended; an informal 
cooperative arrangement among neighbors or relatives; or the occasional care of 
children with or without compensation therefor. 

Chimney: A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more passageways. 

Factory-built chimney: A chimney that is factory-made and listed by an 
approved testing or inspection agency for the venting of gas appliances, gas 
incinerators and solid or liquid fuel burning appliances. 
Masonry chimney: A field-constructed chimney of solid masonry units, 
bricks, stones, listed hollow masonry units or reinforced concrete. 

2-6 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Metal chimney (smokestack): A field-constructed chimney made of metal. 

Clay masonry unit: A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed of burned 
clay, shale, fireclay or mixtures thereof. 

CMR: Code of Massachusetts Regulations; Appendix G contains a listing of carious 
CMR's for Massachusetts specialized codes. 

Coefficient of performance (COP): See Section 3110.0 for the definitions of COP 
as appropriate: electrically operated HVAC equipment-cooling; applied HVAC 
system components-cooling; heat operated HVAC system equipment-cooling; and 
heat pump— heating. 

Combination of municipalities: Any two (2) or more cities and/or towns who have 
agreed to combine in order to share costs necessary for the administration and 
enforcement of this code in the said cities and/or towns. 

Combination system: A system of piping designed to provide both standpipe service 
and automatic sprinkler protection. 

Combustible material: A combustible material is a material which cannot be 
classified as noncombustible in accordance with that definition (see Section 903.4). 

Comfort envelope: The area on a psychometric chart enclosing all those conditions 
described in ASHRAE 55-74 as being comfortable. 

Common hallway: A common corridor or space separately enclosed which provides 
any of the following in any story: 

1. common access to the required exitways of the building, or 

2. common access for more than one (1) tenant; or 

3. common access for more than thirty (30) persons. 

Compliance assurance program: The system, documentation and methods for 
assuring that manufactured buildings, building components, building systems and 
mobile homes, including their manufacture, storage, transportation and assembly 
and handling and installation, conform with Article 33 and the rules and regulations 
promulgated pursuant thereto. 

Concrete: A mixture of cement, aggregates and water, of such proportions and 
manipulation as to meet specific requirements. 

Concrete, reinforced: Concrete in which reinforcement, other than that provided 
for shrinkage or temperature changes, is combined in such a manner that the two 
materials act together in resisting forces. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Conditioned floor area: All portions of interior gross floor area which are 
contained within exterior walls and which are conditioned directly or indirectly by 
an energy-using system (see "Gross floor area"). 

Conflagration hazard: The fire risk involved in the spread of fire by exterior 
exposure to and from adjoining buildings and structures. 

Connected lighting load: Total possible simultaneous demand for lighting, 
including power used in the lamp itself and any losses in the fixture and ballast 

Construction equipment: The construction machinery, tools, derricks, hoists, 
scaffolds, platforms, runways, ladders and all material handling equipment, 
safeguards and protective devices used in construction operations. 

Construction operation: The erection, alteration, repair, renovation, demolition or 
removal of any building or structure; and the excavation, filling, grading and 
regulation of lots in connection therewith. 

Construction supervisor: Any individual directly supervising persons engaged in 
construction, reconstruction, alterations, repairs or demolition involving the 
structural elements of buildings and structures. 

Controlled construction: The construction of a building or structure or a specific 
part thereof which has been designed and erected under the supervision of a licensed 
professional engineer or architect using controlled materials as herein defined in 
compliance with accepted engineering practice under the procedure of Section 127.0. 

Controlled materials: Materials which are certified by an approved agency as 
meeting accepted engineering standards for quality. 

Construction, type of: See Section 401.0. 
Type 1: See Section 402.0. 
Type 2: See Section 403.0. 
Type 3: See Section 404.0. 
Type 4: See Section 405.0. 
Type 5: See Section 406.0 

Corridor: An enclosed hallway, passageway or other compartmented space providing 
the occupants with access to the required exitways of the building or floor area. 

Court: An open, uncovered and unoccupied space on the same lot with a building 
and enclosed wholly or partly by buildings, walls or other enclosing devices. 

Inner: Any court enclosed wholly by buildings, walls or other enclosing 

devices. 

2-8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Outer: A court extending to and opening upon a street, public alley, or other 
approved open space, not less than 15 feet wide, or upon a required yard. 

Court width: As applied to an inner court, means its least horizontal dimension. As 
applied to an outer court, means the shortest horizontal dimension measured in a 
direction substantially parallel with the principal open end of such court. 

Curb level: The elevation of the street curb as established in accordance with law. 
Building or wall height: The elevation of the street grade opposite the center 
of the wall nearest to and facing the street lot line. 

Excavations: The elevation of the street grade nearest to the point of 
excavation. 

Damper, fire: A damper arranged to seal off air flow automatically through part of 
an air duct system, so as to restrict the passage of heat. The fire damper shall not 
be used as a smoke damper unless the location lends itself to the dual purpose 

Day care center (child): See "Child day care center". 

Degree day, heating: A unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in 
estimating fuel consumption and specifying the nominal heating load of a building 
in winter. For any one day, when the mean temperature is less than 65 degrees R, 
there exist as many degree days as there are Fahrenheit degrees difference in 
temperature between the mean temperature for the day and 65 degrees F. 

Deluge system: An automatic sprinkler system consisting of open sprinklers with 
water supply valves activated by a separate automatic detection system. 

Department: (DPS): The Department of Public Safety, Division of Inspection. 

Detecting device, automatic: A device which automatically detects heat, smoke or 
other products of combustion. 

Detection system, automatic fire: A fire protective signaling system containing 
automatic detecting device(s) which actuate a fire alarm signal (see Section 1018.0). 

Detector, smoke: An approved, listed detector for sensing visible or invisible 
particles of combustion (see Section 1018.0). 

Detoxification facility: A facility licensed or operated by the Department of Public 
Health, Division of Alcoholism in accordance with the Rules and Regulations for 
Detoxification Facilities issued by the Department of Public Health, Division of 
Alcoholism, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and shall be used to treat individuals 
acceptable to the program in accordance with those Rules and Regulations. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-9 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Dispensing: The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or 
similar vessel, whereby vapors, dust, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the 
atmosphere. 

Door assembly, fire; A combination of a fire door, frame, hardware, and other 
accessories which together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the 
opening. 

Door, fire: A door and its assembly, so constructed and assembled in place as to give 
protection against the passage of fire. 

DPS: The Department of Public Safety, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Draft hood: A device built into a gas appliance or made a part of a chimney 
connector or vent connector from a gas appliance which is designed to: 

1. permit the ready escape of flue gases in the event of zero draft, a 
back-draft or stoppage in the vent beyond the draft hood; 

2. permit the ready relief of the back pressure from a back-draft so it 
does not enter the gas appliance; and 

3. neutralize the possible effect of excess draft (stack action) upon the 
operation of the appliance. 

Draft regulator: A device which functions to maintain a desired draft in the 
appliance by automatically reducing the draft to the desired value. 

DraftStopping: Building materials installed to prevent the movement of air smoke, 
gases and flame to other areas of the building through large concealed passages such 
as attic spaces and floor assemblies with suspended ceilings or open web trusses. 

Dual bracing system: Consists of a moment resisting space frame and shear walls 
which meet the following design criteria: 

1. The space frame and shear walls shall resist the total lateral force in 
accordance with their relative rigidities considering the interaction of 
the shear walls and space frame. 

2. The shear walls acting independently of the resisting portions of the 
space frame shall resist the total lateral force. 

3. The space frame shall have the capacity to resist not less than twenty-five 
(25) per cent of the total lateral force. 

Dumbwaiter: A hoisting and lowering mechanism with a car of limited capacity and 
size which moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction and is used 
exclusively for carrying material (see 524 CMR - Massachusetts State Elevator 
Regulations and Article 26 of this code). 

2-10 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



UL.IIUI I IUho 



Dwellings 

Boarding house: A building arranged or used for lodging, with or without 
meals, for compensation and not occupied as a single family unit. 

Dormitory: A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are 
provided for persons not members of the same family group, in one room, or 
in a series of closely associated rooms. 

Hotel: Any building containing six or more guest rooms, intended or designed 
to be used, or which are used, rented or hired out to be occupied or which are 
occupied for sleeping purposes by guests. 

Lodging house: Any building or portion thereof arranged or used for lodging 
by more than three (3) lodgers or boarders and where cooking or sanitary 
facilities may be provided (R-l use group). 

Multi-family dwelling: A building or portion thereof containing more than 
two (2) dwelling units and not classified as a one- or two-family dwelling, and 
with not more than three (3) lodgers or boarders per dwelling unit. 

One-family dwelling: A building containing one dwelling unit with not more 
than three (3) lodgers or boarders. 

Two-family dwelling: A building containing two dwelling units with not more 
than three (3) lodgers or boarders per dwelling unit. 

Dwelling unit: A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one 
or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, 
and sanitation, with not more than three (3) lodgers or boarders per dwelling unit. 

Dwelling unit, congregate: A building or portion thereof, owned by a municipal 
authority or an agency or department of the Commonwealth, housing no more than 
six (6) not necessarily related residents all over the age of 55, with separate sleeping 
accommodations for each resident and in which living spaces, cooking and sanitary 
facilities are shared outside the sleeping accommodations, shall be considered a 
single dwelling unit. Where individual residents' rooms contain a sink, refrigerator 
and cook-top. and residents have individual or shared sanitary facilities, each 
individual resident room shall be considered a dwelling unit For purposes of the 
State Building Code, Congregate Dwelling Units shall be considered multi-family 
dwellings (R2) when not designed as attached one- or two-family dwelling (R3) or 
(R4). Congregate housing shall not be considered as boarding, lodging, dormitory, 
hotel, motel or institutional use. 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-11 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Economizer, Air: A ducting arrangement and automatic control system that allows 
a cooling supply to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical 
refrigeration during mild or cold weather. 

Efficiency, overall system: For a designated time period, the ratio of useful energy 
at the point of use to the thermal energy input expressed in percent 

Elevator: See Elevator and Escalator Regulations (524 CMR 3.00 through 11.00) 
and Article 26 of this code; Elevator, Dumbwaiter, Escalator and Moving Walk 
Regulations (See 524 CMR 15.00 through 33.00 and Article 26 of this code). 

Elevator lobby: That portion of a floor, platform or alcove immediately adjacent to 
the elevator shaft opening used to receive and discharge passengers or freight, or 
used as a waiting area. 

Elevator repairs: All work necessary to maintain present elevator equipment in a 
safe and serviceable condition and to adjust or replace defective, broken or worn 
parts with parts made of equivalent material, strength and design, and only where 
the replacing part performs the same function as the replaced part. 

Emergency control station: An approved location on the premises where signals 
from emergency equipment are received. 

Energy: The capacity for doing work. Energy takes a number of forms which may 
be transformed from one to another, such as thermal (heat), mechanical (motion), 
electrical, and chemical. In customary units, energy is measured in kilowatt-hours 
(kwh) or British thermal units (Btu). 

Energy efficiency ratio (EER): The ration of net cooling capacity in Btu/h to total 
rate of electric input in watts under designated operating conditions. 

Equipment, existing: Any equipment covered by this code which was installed prior 
to the effective date of this code, or for which an application for permit to install 
was filed with the code official prior thereto. 

Escalator: A power-driven, inclined, continuous stairway used for raising and 
lowering passengers (see 524 CMR and Article 26 of this code). 

Exit: That portion of a means of egress which is separated from all other spaces of 
a building or structure by construction or equipment as required in this code to 
provide a protected way of travel to the exit discharge. 

Exit access: Exit access is that portion of a means of egress which leads to an 
entrance to an exit. 

2-12 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Exit discharge: That portion of a means of egress between the termination of an 
exit and a public way. 

Exit, horizontal: A way of passage from one building to an area of refuge in another 
building on approximately the same level, or a way of passage through or around a 
wall or partition to an area of refuge on approximately the same level in the same 
building, which affords safety from fire or smoke from the area of incidence and 
areas communicating therewith. 

Exitway discharge court An exterior unoccupied space which is open to the sky 
for its entire area, located on the same lot with a theater or other assembly building 
which it serves exclusively as an obstructed passageway to the street or other public 
space. 

Exterior envelope: The elements of a building which enclose conditioned spaces 
through which thermal energy transfers to or from the exterior. 

Fire area: The floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire separation 
assemblies or exterior walls of a building to restrict the spread of fire. 

Fire department connection: A connection for fire department use in 
supplementing or supplying water for standpipes or sprinkler systems (see Section 
1014.0). 

Fire grading: The fire hazard classification of a building or structure in hour or 
fractions thereof established for its use group and occupancy in Table 902. 

Fire hazard: The potential degree of fire severity existing in the use and occupancy 

of a building, classified as high, moderate or low. 

High: All uses which involve the storage, sale, manufacture or processing of 

highly combustible, volatile flammable or explosive products which are likely 

to burn with extreme rapidity and produce explosions or large volumes of 

smoke, poisonous fumes or gases in the event of fire. 

Moderate: All uses which involve the storage, sale, manufacture or processing 

of materials which are likely to burn with moderate rapidity and a 

considerable volume of smoke, but which do not produce either poisonous 

fumes or explosions, in the event of fire. 

Low: All uses which involve the storage, sale or manufacture of materials that 

do not ordinarily burn rapidly, nor produce excessive smoke, poisonous fumes 

or explosions in the event of fire. 

Fire protection: The provision of construction safeguards and exit facilities; and the 
installation of fire alarm, fire detecting and fire extinguishing service equipment, to 
reduce the fire risk and the conflagration hazard. 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Fire protection system: A system including systems, devices and equipment to 
detect a fire, actuate an alarm or suppress or control a fire or any combination 
thereof (see Article 10). 

Fireresistance: That property of materials or their assemblies which prevents or 
retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use. 

Fireresistance rating: The time in hours or fractions thereof that materials or their 
assemblies will resist fire exposure as determined by the fire test specified in this 
code. 

Fire separation distance: The distance in feet measured from the building face to 
the closest interior lot line, to the center line of a street or public way or to an 
imaginary line between two buildings on the same property. 

Firestopping: Building materials installed to prevent the movement of flame and 
gases to other areas of a building through small concealed passages in building 
components such as floors, walls and stairs. 

Flameresistance: That property of materials or combinations of component 
materials which restricts the spread of flame as determined by the flameresistance 
tests specified in this code. 

Flame spread: The propagation of flame over a surface. 

Flame spread rating: The measurement of flame spread on the surface of materials 
or their assemblies as determined by the tests specified in this code. 

Flammable: Subject to easy ignition and rapid flaming combustion. 

Floor area, gross: Gross floor area shall be the floor area within the perimeter of 
the outside walls of the building under consideration, without deduction for hallways, 
stairs, closets, thickness of walls, columns, or other features. 

Floor area, net: For the purpose of determining the number of persons for whom 
exits are to be provided, net floor area shall be the actual occupied area, not 
including accessory unoccupied areas or thickness of walls (see Section 806.0). 

Floor fill: The fill between the structural floor arch or slab and the finished flooring. 

Floor filling: The type of short-span floor construction in fireresistive buildings 
installed between structural steel framing to serve as a combination structural floor 
slab or arch and fireproof protection of the framing. 



2-14 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Floor finish: The finish placed on top of the floor arch, slab or other structural floor 
element. 

Footcandle (FC): The unit of illuminance on a surface one (1) square foot in area 
on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of one lumen, or the illuminance 
produced on a surface all points of which are at a distance of one foot from a 
directionally uniform point source of one candle. 

Garage, private: A garage for four or less passenger motor vehicles without 
provision for repairing or servicing such vehicles for profit. 

Garage, public: A building or structure for the storage or parking of more than four 
passenger motor vehicles or motor powered boats, or more than one commercial 
motor vehicle; with or without provision for the dispensing of gasoline, oil or similar 
products for the servicing of such vehicles. Public garages shall be classified 
according to their specific use in one of the following groups. 

Group 1: A public garage in which provision is made for the care, storage, 

repair or painting of or fuel-dispensing to motor vehicles. 

Group 2: A public garage used exclusively for passenger vehicles that will 

accommodate not more than nine (9) passengers. 

Grade: A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level 
adjoining the building at all exterior walls. When the finished ground level slopes 
away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest 
points within the area between the building and the lot line or, when the lot line is 
more than 6 feet from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet from the 
building. 

Grade hallway, grade lobby, grade passageway: An enclosed hallway or corridor 
that is an element of an exit; and terminating at a street or an open space or court 
communicating with a street. 

Grandstand: Any structure, except movable seating and sectional benches, intended 
primarily to support individuals for the purposes of assembly, but this definition shall 
not apply to the permanent seating in theaters, churches, auditoriums and similar 
buildings. 

Habitable space: Space in a structure for living, sleeping, eating, or cooking. 
Bathrooms, toilet compartments, closets, halls, storage or utility space and similar 
areas are not considered habitable space. 

Hazardous production material (HPM): A solid, liquid or gas that has a degree of 
hazard rating in health, flammability or reactivity of 3 or 4 as ranked by NFiPA 704 
listed in Appendix A, and which is used directly in research, laboratory or 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-15 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



production processes which have, as their end product, materials which are not 
hazardous. 

Heat: The form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference. 

Heat capacity (H c ): The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a 
given mass. Numerically the mass multiplied by the specific heat 

Heated space: A space within a building which is provided with a positive heat 
supply. Finished living space within a basement, or registers or heating devices 
designed to supply heat to a basement space shall define that spar as heated space. 

Height 

Building: The vertical distance from grade to the top of the highest roof 
beams of a flat roof, or the mean level of the highest gable or slope of a hip 
roof. 

Court: The vertical distance from the lowest level of the court to the mean 
height of the top of the enclosing walls. 

Story: The vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams 
or finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor 
finish to the top of the ceiling joists, or, when there is not a ceiling, to the top 
of the roof rafters. 

Walls: The vertical distance from the foundation wall or other immediate 
support of such wall to the top of the wall. 

Hereafter: After the time that this code becomes effective. 

Heretofore: Before the time that this code became effective. 

Hoist, material platform: A power or manually operated suspended platform 
conveyance operating in guide rails for the exclusive raising or lowering of materials, 
which is operated and controlled from a point outside the conveyance. (See Elevator 
and Escalator Regulations 524 CMR, and Article 26 of this code). 

Hoisting and conveying equipment, special: Manually or power operated 
hoisting, lowering or conveying mechanisms, other than elevators, escalators or 
dumbwaiters for the transport of persons or freight in a vertical inclined or 
horizontal direction on one floor or in successive floors. (See Elevator and Escalator 
Regulations 524 CMR, and Article 26 of this code). 



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DEFINITIONS 



Automobile lift: A fixed mechanical device for raising an entire motor vehicle 

above the floor level, but not through successive floors of the building or 

structure. 

Conveyors: A system of machinery and manual or mechanized devices other 

than elevator and dumbwaiter equipment, consisting of belts, chains, rollers, 

buckets, aprons, slides and chutes and other miscellaneous equipment for 

hoisting, lowering and transporting materials and merchandise in packages or 

in bulk in any direction in a building or structure. 

Freight lift: A power operated raising and lowering device for transporting 

freight vertically, operating entirely within one story of the building or 

structure. 

Manlifts: A power operated belt device with steps and handholds for 

transporting persons in a vertical position through successive floors or levels 

of the building or structure. 

Hoisting and elevating equipment, miscellaneous: All power operated hoisting 
and elevating equipment for raising, lowering and moving persons or merchandise 
from one level to another such as inclined elevators, slings and hooks, tiering and 
piling machines not permanently located in a fixed position, mine elevators, skip 
hoists for blast furnaces, stage and orchestra lifts, lift bridges and temporary builders' 
hoists and similar equipment. 

Illumination: The density of the luminous flux incident on a surface; it is the 
quotient of the luminous flux and the area of the surface when the latter is 
uniformly illuminated. 

Industrial lift (material lift): A non-portable power operated raising or lowering 
device for transporting freight vertically, operating entirely within one (1) story of 
the building or structure. 

Inspection, special: Professional supervision as herein required of the installation, 
fabrication, erection or placement of components and/or connections requiring 
special expertise to ensure adequacy. 

Inspector of buildings: The administrative chief of the building department in a 
municipality who is charged with the administration and enforcement of this code. 
(See also "Building commissioner") 

Interior lot line: Any lot line other than one adjoining a street or public space. 

Jurisdiction: The governmental unit which has adopted this code under due 
legislative authority. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Kiosk: A small structure used as a newsstand, refreshment booth and/or pavilion 
for similar usage. 

Label: A plate, tag or other device permanently and prominently affixed to a product 
or material indicating that it has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency. 

Lateral force resisting system: That part of the structural system to which the 
total lateral forces prescribed in Section 1113.0 are assigned. 

Lintel: A beam placed over an opening or recess in a wall which supports the wall 
construction above. 

Load: Forces or other actions that arise on structural systems from the weight of all 
permanent construction, occupants and their possessions, environmental effects, 
differential settlement and restrained dimensional changes. 

Dead load: The weight of all permanent structural and nonstructural 

components of a building, such as walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways and 

fixed service equipment. 

Duration of load: The period of continuous application of a given load, or the 

aggregate of periods of intermittent applications of the same load. 

Earthquake load: The assumed lateral load acting in any horizontal direction 

on the structural frame due to the kinetic action of earthquakes. 

Impact load: The load resulting from moving machinery, elevators, craneways, 

vehicles, and other similar forces and kinetic loads. 

Internal load: The forces resulting from the restraint of movement of 

construction materials or differential movement of a combination of mate rials 

caused by the effects of expansion or contraction due to temperature changes, 

shrinkage, moisture changes, creep, differential settlement or combinations 

thereof. 

Lateral soil load: The lateral pressure in pounds per square foot (psf) due 

to the weight of the adjacent soil including due allowance for hydrostatic 

pressure and possible surcharge, from fixed or moving loads. 

Live load: The weight superimposed by the use and occupancy of the 

building, not including the wind load, earthquake load, or dead load. Wind 

load: The lateral pressure on the building or structure in pounds per square 

foot (psi) due to wind blowing in any direction. 

Loading ramp: A hinged, nonportable device, either mechanical or hydraulic, hand 
or power operated, used for spanning gaps or adjusting height: between loading 
surface and carrier or between loading surface and loading surface. 

Lobby: The enclosed vestibule between the principal entrance to the building and 
the doors to the main floor of the auditorium or assembly room of a theater or place 



2-18 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



of assembly, or to the main floor corridor of a business building (see also "Elevator 
lobby"). 

Local enforcement agency: A department or agency in a municipality charged 
with the enforcement of this code and appropriate specialized codes which include, 
but are not limited to, The State Plumbing and Gas Fitting Code, and the State 
Electrical Code. 

Local inspector: A person in a municipality who assists the building commissioner 
or inspector of buildings in the performance of his duties and is charged with the 
enforcement of this code. 

Lot: A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit. 

Corner lot: A lot with two adjacent sides abutting upon streets or other 

public spaces. 

Interior lot: A lot which faces on one street or with opposite sides on two 

streets. 

Lot line: A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place. 

Lot line, interior: Any lot line other than one adjoining a street or public space. 

Lot line, Street: The lot line dividing a lot from a street or other public way. 

Manufactured building: Any building which has concealed elements, such as 
electrical, mechanical, plumbing, fire protection, insulation, and other systems 
affecting health and safety, and which is manufactured or assembled in 
manufacturing facilities, on or off the building site. Also, any building as defined 
above which does not have concealed elements, but which has been approved by the 
BBRS at the request of the manufacturer. 

Masonry: A built-up construction or combination of building units or materials of 

clay, shale, concrete, glass, gypsum, stone or other approved units bonded together 

with mortar or monolithic concrete. Reinforced concrete is not classed as masonry. 

Ashlar facing masonry: Facing of solid rectangular units larger in size than 

brick and of burned clay or shale, natural or cast stone, with sawed, dressed 

and squared beds and mortar joints. 

Ashlar masonry: Masonry composed of bonded, rectangular units, larger in 
size than brick, with sawed, dressed or squared beds and mortar joints. 
Solid masonry: Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously 
with the joints between the units filled with mortar, or consisting of plain 
concrete. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-19 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Masonry unit 

Clay: A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed of burned clay, 

shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof. 

Concrete: A building unit or block larger in size than 12 by 4 by 4 inches 

made of cement and suitable aggregates. 

Hollow: A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel 

to the bearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area 

measured in the same plane. 

Solid: A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel 

to the bearing surface is 75 percent or more of its gross cross-sectional area 

measured in the same plane. 

Means Of egress: A continuous and unobstructed path of travel from any point in 
a building or structure to a public way, and consisting of three separate and distinct 
parts: (a) the exit access, (b) the exit and (c) the exit discharge. A means of egress 
comprises the vertical and horizontal means of travel and shall include intervening 
room spaces, doors, hallways, corridors, passageways, balconies, ramps, stairs, 
enclosures, lobbies, horizontal exits, courts and yards. 

Member 

Primary: any member of the structural frame of a building or structure used 
as a column, grillage beam, or to support masonry walls and partitions, 
including trusses, isolated lintels spanning an opening of 8 feet or more, and 
any other member required to brace a column or a truss. 
Secondary: any member of the structural framework other than a primary 
member, including filling-in beams of floor systems. 

Membrane: As it pertains to membrane structures, a thin, flexible, impervious 
material capable of being supported by an air pressure of 1.5 inches of water 
column. 

Membrane structures: 

Air-inflated structure: A building where the shape of the structure is 
maintained by air pressurization of cells or tubes to form a barrel vault over 
the usable area. Occupants of such a structure do not occupy the pressurized 
area used to support the structure. 

Air-supported Structure: A building wherein the shape of the structure is 
attained by air pressure and occupants of the structure are within the elevated 
pressure area. Air supported structures are of two basic types: 

Single skin: Where there is only the single outer skin and the air 

pressure is directly against that skin. 



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DEFINITIONS 



Double skin: Similar to a single skin, but with an attached liner which is 
separated from the outer skin and provides an air space which serves for 
insulation, acoustic, aesthetic or similar purposes. 
Cable-restrained, air-supported structure: A structure in which the uplift 
is resisted by cables or webbings which are anchored to either foundations or 
dead men. Reinforcing cable or webbing is attached by various methods to the 
membrane or is an integral part of the membrane. This is not a 
cable-supported structure. 

Membrane-covered cable structure: A non-pressurized structure in which 
a mast and cable system provides support and tension to the membrane 
weather barrier and the membrane imparts structural stability to the structure. 
Membrane-covered frame structure: A non-pressurized building wherein 
the structure is composed of a rigid framework to support tensioned 
membrane which provides the weather barrier. 

Noncombustible membrane structure: A membrane structure in which the 
membrane and all component parts of the structure are noncombustible. 
Tent: Any structure, enclosure or shelter constructed of canvas or pliable 
material supported by any manner except by air or the contents it protects. 

Mezzanine(s): An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any 
story with an aggregate floor area of not more than 33 percent of the floor area of 
the story in which the level or levels are located. 

Mobile home: A structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is eight (8) 
body feet or more in width and is thirty-two (32) body feet or more in length, and 
which is built on a permanent chassis, and designed to be used as a dwelling with 
permanent foundation, when connected to the required utilities, and includes the 
plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein. 

Mobile unit: A structure of vehicular, portable design, built on a chassis and 
designed to be moved from one site to another, and to be used with or without a 
permanent foundation. 

Mortar: A plastic mixture of approved cementitious materials, fine aggregate and 
water used to bond masonry or other structural units. 

Mortar, surface-bonding: A mixture containing hydraulic cement, glass fiber 
reinforcement with or without inorganic fillers, or organic modifiers, and water, used 
to bond concrete masonry units. 

Motel: A hotel as defined in this code. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Moving walk: A type of passenger carrying device on which passengers stand or 
walk, and in which the passenger carrying surface remains parallel to the direction 
of motion and is uninterrupted (see Section 2600.2). 

Native lumber: Native lumber is wood processed in the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts by a mill registered in accordance with the regulations of the State 
Building Code Commission. Such wood is ungraded but is stamped or certified in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 1701 of this code. For the purpose of 
this definition, native lumber shall be restricted to use in one- and two-story 
dwellings, barns, sheds, agricultural and accessory buildings and other structures 
when permitted by section 1701.1.2. 

Noncombustible: This is a general, relative term. Its precise meaning is defined in 
this code for specific applications. 

Noncombustible building material (incombustible): See Section 903.0. 

Nominal dimension 

Lumber: A dimension that varies from actual dimensions in accordance with 
DOC PS 20 listed in Appendix A. 

Masonry: A dimension that varies from actual masonry dimensions by the 
thickness of a mortar joint but not more than one-half inch. 

Occupancy: The purpose for which a building, or part thereof, is used or intended 
to be used. 

Occupant load: The total number of persons that are permitted to occupy a 
building, or portion thereof, at any one time (see Section 806.0). 

Occupiable room: A room or enclosed space designed for human occupancy in 
which individuals congregate for amusement, educational or similar purposes, or in 
which occupants are engaged at labor; and which is equipped with means of egress, 
light, and ventilation facilities meeting the requirements of this code. 

Occupied: As applied to a building, shall be construed as though followed by 
the words "or intended, arranged or designed to be occupied." 

Open Well: A floor opening, or atrium. 

Owner: Every person who alone or jointly or severally with others (a) has legal title 
to any building or structure; or (b) has care, charge, or control of any building or 
structure in any capacity including but not limited to agent, executor, executrix, 
administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate of the holder of legal 
title; or (c) lessee under a written letting agreement; or (d) mortgagee in possession; 

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DEFINITIONS 



or (e) agent, trustee or other person appointed by the courts. Each such person is 
bound to comply with the provisions of this code. 

Packaged terminal air-conditioner: A factory-selected combination of heating and 
cooling components, assemblies, or sections, intended to serve a room or zone. 

Packaged terminal heat pump: A packaged terminal air conditioner using the 
refrigeration system in a reverse cycle or heat pump mode to provide heat 

Panel (part Of a Structure): The section of a floor or wall comprised between the 
supporting frame of two adjacent rows of columns and girders or column bands of 
floor construction. 

Panning: The sealing off of a joist or stud space for use as a plenum. This is 
allowed in one and two-family dwellings only for use as a return air plenum. 

Parking structure, open: A structure for the parking of passenger cars wherein two 
(2) or more sides of such structure are not less than fifty (50) per cent open on each 
floor or level for fifty (50) per cent of the distance from the floor to the ceiling and 
wherein provision for the repairing of such vehicles is not made. Such open parking 
structures are not classified as public garages, but shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 607.0 and FPR-4. 

Particle board: Particle board is a mat-formed panel consisting of particles of wood 
or a combination of wood particles and wood fibers bonded together with synthetic 
resins or other suitable bonding systems (see Section 1711.0). 

Penthouse: An enclosed structure above the roof of a building, other than a roof 
structure or bulkhead, occupying not more than 33 1/2 percent of the roof area. 

Permit: An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction 
which authorizes performance of a specified activity. 

Person: Every individual, partnership, corporation, firm, association, trustee or 
group, including a city, town, county, authority or other governmental unit, owning 
property or conducting any activity regulated by this code. 

Place Of Assembly: A room or space accommodating fifty (50) or more individuals 
for religious, recreational, educational, political, social or amusement purposes, or 
for the consumption of food and drink, including all connected rooms or space with 
a common means of egress and entrance. 

Place of outdoor assembly: Premises used or intended to be used for public 
gatherings of two hundred (200) or more individuals in other than buildings. 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Plastic, combustible: A plastic material more than one twentieth (1/20) inches in 
thickness which burns at a rate of not more than two and one-half (2 1/2) inches per 
minute when subjected to ASTM D635, Standard Method of Test for Flammability 
of Self- Supporting Plastics, listed in Appendix A. 

Plastic 

Light diffusing system: A suspended construction consisting in whole or in 

part of lenses, panels, grids or baffles suspended below independently mounted 

electrical lighting sources. 

Plastic glazing: Plastic materials which are glazed or set in frame or sash 

and not held by mechanical fasteners which pass through the glazing 

material. 

Plastic roof panels: Plastic materials which are fastened to structural 

members, or to structural panels or sheathing, and which are used as light 

transmitting media in roofs. 

Plastic wall panels: Plastic materials which are fastened to structural 

members, or to structural panels or sheathing, and which are used as light 

transmitting media in exterior walls. 

Reinforced plastic, glass fiber: Plastic reinforced with glass fiber having not 

less than 20 percent of glass fibers by weight 

Thermosetting material: A plastic material which is capable of being 

changed into a substantially nonreformable product when cured. 

Thermoplastic material: A plastic material which is capable of being 

repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by decrease of 

temperature. 

Plenum: An enclosed portion of the building structure, so designed to allow the 
movement of air, that forms part of an air distribution system. 

Positive heat supply: Heat deliberately supplied to a space by design, such as a 
supply register, radiator or heating element Also, heat indirectly supplied to a space 
through uninsulated surfaces of service water heaters and space heating components, 
such as furnaces, boilers and heating and cooling distribution systems which 
continually maintain air temperature within the space of 50 degrees F. (10 degrees 
C.) or higher during normal operation. 

Posted use and occupancy: The posted classification of a building in respect to 
use, fire grading, floor load and occupant load. 

Posted sign: The tablet, card, or plate which defines the use, occupancy, fire 
grading and floor loads of each story, floor or parts thereof for which the building 
or part thereof has been approved. 



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DEFINITIONS 



Power; In connection with machines, power is the time rate of doing work. In 
connection with the transmission of energy of all types, power refers to the rate at 
which energy is transmitted; in customary units, it is measured in watts (W) or 
British thermal units per hour (Btu/h). 

Power adjustment factor: A modifying factor less than 1.0 to reduce the connected 
lighting power of a space to account for the use of energy-conserving lighting control 
devices. 

Power factor: A factor, equal to the cosine of the phase angle between current and 
voltage by which the product of voltage and current is multiplied to convert volt- 
amperes to power in watts. 

Preservative treatment (treated material): Unless otherwise noted, is impregnation 
under pressure with a wood preservative. Wood preservative is any suitable 
substance that is toxic to fungi, insects, borers, and other living wood-destroying 
organisms. 

Professional engineer or architect: A person who, by reason of special knowledge 
and the principles and methods of engineering and architectural analysis and design 
acquired by professional education and experience, is qualified to practice 
engineering or architecture, as attested by registration as a professional engineer or 
architect. 

Proprietary (local) system: An electrical alarm system capable of automatically 
notifying building supervisory personnel of a water flow or an impairment of a 
sprinkler system. 

Protected construction: That in which all structural members are constructed 
chemically treated, covered or protected so that the individual unit or the combined 
assemblage of all such units has the required fireresistance rating specified for its 
particular use or application in Table 401 and includes protected combustible and 
protected noncombustible construction. 

Public way: Any street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading 
to a public street; deeded, dedicated, or otherwise permanently appropriated to the 
public for public use and having a clear width of not less than 10 feet. 

Recovered Energy: Energy utilized, which would otherwise be wasted, from a 
system that utilizes energy for any purpose. 

Reheat: The application of sensible heat to the supply air that has been previously 
cooled below the temperature of the conditioned space by either mechanical 
refrigeration or the introduction of outdoor air. 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Remote station system: An electric alarm system capable of automatically notifying 
the public or private fire department, or other approved constantly attended 
location, when the system is activated. 

Repair: The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the 
purpose of its maintenance. 

Repairs, ordinary: Any maintenance which does not affect structure, egress, fire 
protection systems, fire ratings, energy conservation provisions, plumbing, sanitary, 
gas, electrical or other utilities. A building permit is not required for ordinary 
repairs. 

Required: Shall be construed to be mandatory by provisions of this code. 

Residential unit: a) in R-2 multi-family use group, a dwelling unit; b) in R-2 
dormitory use group, a room or group of rooms occupied as a single unit; and c) in 
R-l use group, a room or group of rooms occupied as a single unit 

Riser: The vertical supply pipes in a sprinkler system or standpipe system. 

Roof: The roof slab or deck with its supporting members, not including vertical 
supports. 

Roof covering: The covering applied to the roof for weather resistance, 
fireresistance or appearance. 

Roof Structure: An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a 
building. 

Room air conditioner: An encased assembly designed as a unit for mounting in a 
window or through a wall, or as a console. It is designed primarily to provide free 
delivery of conditioned air to an enclosed space, room or zone. It includes a prime 
source of refrigeration for cooling and dehumidification and means for circulating 
and cleaning air, and may also include means for ventilating and heating. 

Room Area (A r ): The area of a room or space determined from the inside face of 
the walls or partitions measured at work plane height 

Rubble 

Coursed rubble: Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones fitting 
approximately on level beds and well bonded. 

Random rubble: Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones laid without 
regularity of coursing but well bonded and fitted together to form well 
defined joints. 

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DEFINITIONS 



Rough or ordinary rubble: Masonry composed of unsquared field stones laid 

without regularity of coursing but well bonded. 

Rubble masonry: Masonry composed of roughly shaped stones. 

Runway: An aisle or walkway constructed or maintained as a temporary passageway 
for pedestrians or vehicles. 

Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER): EER calculated on a weighted average 
over a seasonal annual period. 

Scaffold: Any elevated platform which is used for supporting workmen, materials 
or both. 

Self-closing: As applied to a fire door or other opening protective, means normally 
closed and equipped with an approved device which will insure closing after having 
been opened for use. 

Sensible heat: Heat added or removed which can be measured by a change in 
temperature of the substance. 

Service passage, HPM: A passage used for the transportation of hazardous 
production material (HPM) from a separate inside HPM storage room or the 
exterior of the building to the perimeter wall of the fabrication area, and for 
purposes other than required egress. 

Service systems: All energy-using systems in a building that are operated to 
provide services for the occupants or processes housed therein, including HVAC, 
service water heating, illumination, transportation, cooking or food preparation, 
laundering or similar functions. 

Service water heating: Supply of hot water for domestic or commercial purposes 
other than comfort heating. 

Service water heating demand: The maximum design rate of heated water 
withdrawal from a service water heating system in a designated period of time 
(usually an hour or a day). 

Shading coefficient: The ratio of the solar heat gain through a glazing system 
corrected for external and internal shading to the solar gain through an unshaded 
single light of double strength sheet glass under the same set of conditions. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-27 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Shaft, covered: An interior enclosed space extending through one or more stories 
of a building, connecting openings in successive floors, or floors and roof; and 
covered at the top. 

Shaft, open: An exterior, enclosed space extending through one or more stories of 
a building, enclosed with walls of the required weather and fireresistance rating for 
exterior walls, and open to the sky at the top. 

Shall: The term, when used in this code, shall be construed as mandatory. 

Sign: Any fabricated sign or outdoor display structure, including its structure, 
consisting of any letter, figure, character, mark, point, plane, marquee sign, design, 
poster, pictorial, picture, stroke, stripe, line, trademark, reading matter or 
illuminating device, constructed, attached, erected, fastened or manufactured in any 
manner whatsoever so that the same shall be used for the attraction of the public 
to any place, subject, person, firm, corporation, public performance, article, machine 
or merchandise whatsoever, and displayed in any manner out of doors for recognized 
advertising purposes. 

Closed sign: A sign in which more than 50 percent of the entire area is solid 

or tightly enclosed or covered. 

Ground sign: A sign supported by uprights or braces in or upon the ground 

surface. 

Marquee sign: A sign attached to or hung from a marquee, canopy or other 

covered structure, projecting from and supported by the building and 

extending beyond the building wall, building line or street lot line. 

Open sign: A sign in which at least 50 percent of the enclosed area is 

uncovered, or open to the transmission of wind. 

Projecting sign: A display sign which is attached directly to the building wall, 

and which extends more than 15 inches from the face of the wall. 

Portable sign: A sign, usually of a temporary nature, not securely anchored 

to the ground or to a building or structure and which obtains some or all its 

structural stability with respect to wind or other normally applied force; by 

means of its geometry or character. 

Roof sign: A sign which is erected, constructed and maintained above the 

roof of the building. 

Temporary sign: A sign constructed of cloth, fabric or other light temporary 

material with or without a structural frame intended for a limited period of 

display; including decoration displays for holidays or public demonstrations. 

Wall sign: A sign which is painted on or attached directly to a fence or to the 

surface of masonry, concrete, frame or other approved building walls and 

which extends not more than 15 inches from the face of the fence or wall. 



2-28 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Signaling system, fire protective: An interior alarm system composed of sending 
stations and signaling devices in a building, operated on an electrical circuit, so 
arranged that the operation of any one station will ring all signals throughout the 
building and at one or more approved locations. 

Slidescape: A straight or spiral chute, erected on the interior or exterior of a 
building, which is designed as a means of human egress direct to a street or other 
public way. 

Smoke barrier: A continuous membrane that will resist the movement of smoke. 

Smoke compartment: A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers or fire 
separation walls on all sides, including top and bottom. 

Smokeproof enclosure: An enclosed stairway, with access from the floor area of 
the building either through outside balconies or ventilated vestibules opening on a 
street, yard or open court; and with a separately enclosed direct exit to the street at 
the grade floor. 

Solar energy source: Source of thermal, chemical or electrical energy derived 
directly from conversion of incident solar radiation. 

Solid fuel burning appliance: Room heaters which are free standing fire chamber 
assemblies designed to burn wood or coal. They may be of the circulating or radiant 
type. These units are for attachment to a residential type chimney and may be 
thermostatically controlled. 

Specialized Code: All building codes, rules or regulations pertaining to building 
construction, reconstruction, alteration, repair or demolition promulgated by and 
under the authority of the various agencies which have been authorized from time 
to time by the General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. 

Sprinkler, automatic: A device, connected to a water supply system, that opens 
automatically at a predetermined fixed temperature and disburses a spray of water. 

Sprinkler system, automatic: A sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is 
an integrated system of underground or overhead piping designed in accordance with 
fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. 
The portion of the system above ground is a network of specially or hydraulically 
designed piping installed in a building, structure or area, generally overhead, and to 
which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is 
usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-29 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Sprinkler system, limited area: An automatic sprinkler system consisting of not 
more than 20 sprinklers for use in a room or space enclosed by construction 
assemblies as required by this code. 

Sprinkler system, occupancy: An automatic sprinkler system servicing a use group 
in a building enclosed by construction assemblies as required by this code. 

Stage: A partially enclosed portion of a building which is designed or used for the 
presentation of plays, demonstrations, or other entertainment wherein scenery, drops 
or other effects may be installed or used. 

Stairway: One or more flights of stairs, and the necessary landings and platforms 
connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one floor to 
another. A flight of stairs, for the purposes of this code, shall have at least three 
risers. 

Standpipe: A standpipe system is an arrangement of piping, valves, hose outlets and 
allied equipment installed in a building or structure. The outlets are located in such 
a manner that water can be discharged in streams or spray patterns through hoses 
and nozzles attached to such hose outlets for the purpose of extinguishing a fire and 
so protecting the occupants. This is accomplished by connections to water supply 
systems or by pumps, tanks and other equipment necessary to provide an adequate 
supply of water to the hose outlets. 

Standpipe, dry: A standpipe system not having permanent water supply connection. 
Water is supplied by the fire department through the required fire department 
connection only. 

Standpipe, dry/wet: A standpipe system which is normally dry but can be charged 
with water. 

Standpipe, wet: A standpipe system which has the supply normally open and water 
pressure maintained in all portions of the standpipe system at all times. 

State Building Code: The State Building Code and amendments and rules and 
regulations thereto as promulgated by the State Building Code Commission (now 
the Board of Building Regulations and Standards) under Chapter 23B, Sections 16, 
17 and 18, of the Massachusetts General Laws Annotated as amended. 

State Building Code Commission (SBCC): The Massachusetts State rules and 
regulations thereto as promulgated by the State Building Code Commission 
established by Chapter 23B, Section 16, of the Massachusetts General Laws 
Annotated as amended. The State Building Code Commission has been replaced by 
the State Board of Building Regulations and Standards. 

2-30 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



State inspector: An employee of the Division of Inspection, State Department of 
Public Safety who is charged with administering and enforcing this code relative to 
any structure or building or parts thereof that are owned by the Commonwealth or 
any departments, commissions, agencies or authorities of the Commonwealth. The 
state inspector is also charged with supervising the enforcement of this code relative 
to all buildings and structures other than those owned by the Commonwealth. 

Steel construction, cold-formed: That type of construction made up entirely, or 
in part, of steel structural members cold-formed to shape from sheet or strip steel 
such as roof deck, floor and wall panels, studs, floor joists, roof joists and other 
structural elements. 

Steel joist: Any steel structural member of a building or structure made of 
hot-rolled or cold-formed solid or open web sections, or riveted or welded bars, strip 
or sheet steel members, or slotted and expanded, or otherwise deformed rolled 
sections. 

Steel member, structural: Any steel structural member of a building or structure 
consisting of a rolled steel structural shape other than cold-formed steel, light gage 
steel or steel joist members. 

Storage room, HPM, separate inside: A room used for the storage of hazardous 
production material (HPM) in containers, tanks, drums or other means, separated 
from other occupancies (see Section 603.0). Such rooms include: 

HPM inside room: An HPM storage room totally enclosed within a building 

and not having exterior walls. 

HPM cutoff room: An HPM storage room within a building and having at 

least one exterior wall. 

Story: That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and 
upper surface of the floor or roof next above (also see "Mezzanine"). 

Story above grade: Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade 
except that a basement shall be considered as a story above grade when the distance 
from grade to the finished surface of the floor above the basement is more than 6 
feet for more than 50 percent of the total perimeter or more than 12 feet at any 
point. 

Street: A public thoroughfare (such as street, avenue or boulevard) which has been 
dedicated for public use. 

Structure: A combination of materials assembled at a fixed location to give support 
or shelter, such as a building, framework, retaining wall, tent, reviewing stand, 
platform, bin, fence, sign, flagpole, recreational tramway, mast for radio antenna, 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-31 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



or the like. The word "structure" shall be construed, where the context requires, as 
though followed by the words, "or part or parts thereof." 

Summer camps for children: Premises, operated solely between April and October 
of each year for recreational or other purposes, and having residential facilities. The 
use of such accommodations for purposes of inspection, certification and inspection 
fees shall be considered as being similar to a dormitory in R-2 use group and 
subject to Article 6, Sections 635.2 through 635.6. 

Tamdera wiring: Consists of pairs of luminaires operating with one lamp in a 
luminaire powered from a single two-lamp ballast contained in a second luminaire. 

Task lighting: Illumination applied to an individual location, with local control of 
switching. Examples include desk lights, examining lights, and machine lights. 

Temperature difference equivalent, TDeq: Total heat flow through the structure 
caused by solar radiation and outside temperature. 

Thermal resistance (R): A measure of the ability to retard the flow of heat. The 
R value is the reciprocal of thermal conductance expressed in units of hr»ft 2 - °F. 
per Btu. 

Thermal transmittance (U): The coefficient of heat transmission (air-to-air) 
expressed in units of Btu per hour per square foot per degrees F. (Watts per square 
meter per degree K.). It is the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit 
temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films. The U value 
applies to combinations of different materials used in series along the heat flow path 
and also to single materials that comprise a building section and includes cavity air 
spaces and surface air films on both sides of a building element. 

Thermal transmittance (U ): Overall (average) heat transmission of a gross area of 
the exterior building envelope, expressed in units of Btu per hour per square foot 
per degrees F. (Watts per square meter per degree K.). The U value applies to the 
combined effect of the time rate of heat flow through the various parallel paths, such 
as windows, doors and opaque construction areas, comprising the gross area of one 
or more exterior building components, such as walls, floor or roof/ceiling. 

Thermoplastic material: A solid plastic material which is capable of being 
repeatedly softened by increase of temperature and hardened by decrease of 
temperature. 

Thermosetting material: A solid plastic material which is capable of being changed 
into a substantially non-reformable product when cured under the application of 
heat or pressure. 

2-32 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Tile: A ceramic surface unit, usually relatively thin in relation to facial area made 
from clay or a mixture of clay and other ceramic materials, called the body of the 
tile, having either "glazed" or "unglazed" face and fired above red heat in the course 
of manufacture to a temperature sufficiently high to produce specific physical 
properties and characteristics. 

Tile, structural clay: A hollow masonry unit composed of burned clay, shale, fire 
clay or mixtures thereof, and having parallel cells. 

Tires, bulk storage of: Storage of 10,000 or more average size passenger vehicle 
tires weighing approximately 25 pounds each. 

Travel trailer: A vehicular, portable structure built on a chassis and designed to be 
used for temporary occupancy for travel, recreational or vacation use; with the 
manufacturer's permanent identification "Travel Trailer," thereon; and when factory 
equipped for the road, being of any length provided its gross weight does not exceed 
forty-five hundred (4500) pounds, or being of any weight provided its overall length 
does not exceed twenty-eight (28) feet 

Use (used): The purpose for which the building or structure is designed, used or 
intended to be used. 

Use, accessory: A use incidental to the principal use of a building as defined or 
limited by the provisions of the local zoning laws. 

Use group: The classification of a building or structure based on the purpose for 
which it is used as listed in Article 3. 

Use Group A assembly (see Section 302.0). 

Use Group B business (see Section 303.0). 

Use Group E educational (see Section 304.0). 

Use Group F factory and industrial (see Section 305.0). 

Use Group H high hazard (see Section 306.0). 

Use Group I institutional (see Section 307.0). 

Use Group M mercantile (see Section 308.0). 

Use Group R residential (see Section 309.0). 

Use Group S storage (see Section 310.0). 

Use Group U utility and miscellaneous (see Section 311.0). 

Ventilation: The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or 
unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space. 

Vertical opening: An opening through a floor or roof. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-33 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Wall 

Apron wall: That portion of a skeleton wall below the sill of a window. 

Bearing wall: A wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its own 

weight. 

Cavity wall: A wall built of masonry units or of plain concrete, or a 

combination of these materials, arranged to provide an air space within the 

wall, and in which the inner and outer parts of the wall are tied together with 

metal ties. 

Composite wall: A wall built of a combination of two or more masonry units 

of different materials bonded together, one forming the backup and the other 

the facing elements. 

Curtain wall: A nonhealing enclosure wall not supported at each story. 

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded walls: A wall built of concrete masonry units 

where the units are stacked dry, without mortar on the bed or head joints, and 

where both sides of the wall are coated with a surface-bonding mortar. 

Faced wall: A wall in which the masonry facing and backing are so bonded 

as to exert common action under load. 

Fire separation wall: A fireresistance rated assembly of materials having 

protected openings, and designed to restrict the spread of fire. 

Fire wall: A fireresistance rated wall, having protected openings, which 

restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to 

or through the roof. 

Foundation wall: A wall below the floor nearest grade serving as a support 

for a wall, pier, column or other structural part of a building (see Section 

1222.0). 

Hollow wall: A wall built of masonry units so arranged as to provide an air 

space within the wall, and in which the facing and backing of the wall are 

bonded together with masonry units. 

Nonbearing wall: A wall which does not support vertical loads other than its 

own weight. 

Parapet wall: That part of any wall entirely above the roof line. 

Party wall: A fire wall on an interior lot line used or adapted for joint service 

between two buildings (see Section 908.0). 

Retaining wall: A wall designed to resist the lateral displacement of soil or 

other material. 

Skeleton or panel wall: A nonbearing wall supported by each story on a 

skeleton frame. 

Veneered wall: A wall having a facing of masonry or other weather resisting 

noncombustible materials securely attached to the backing, but not so bonded 

as to exert common action under load. 

Water spray fixed system: A system using water in a form having a predetermined 
pattern, particle size, velocity and density discharged from specially designed nozzles 
or devices. 

2-34 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



DEFINITIONS 



Water supply, automatic: Water supplied through a gravity or pressure tank or 
automatically operated fire pumps, or from a direct connection to an approved 
municipal water main (see Section 1013.0). 

Winder: A step in a winding stairway (see Section 816.4.3). 

Window 

Bay window: A window projecting beyond the wall line of the building and 

extending down to the foundation. 

Fire window: A window constructed and glazed to give protection against the 

passage of fire (see Section 917.0). 

Oriel window: A window projected beyond and suspended from the wall of 

the building or cantilevered therefrom. 

Writing: The term shall be construed to include handwriting, typewriting, printing, 
photo offset or any other form of reproduction in legible symbol or characters. 

Written notice: A notification in writing delivered in person to the individual or 
parties intended; or delivered at, or sent by certified or registered mail to the last 
residential or business address of legal record. 

Yard: An unoccupied open space other than a court. 

Zoning: The reservation of certain specified areas within a community or city for 
building and structures, or use of land, for certain purposes with other limitations 
such as height, lot coverage and other stipulated requirements. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 2-35 



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2-36 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 3 
USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



ARTICLE 3 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 300.0 GENERAL 

300. 1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the classification of all 
buildings and structures as to use group. 

300.2 Application of Other laws: The provisions of this article shall not be deemed 
to nullify any provisions of the zoning law, ordinance of any municipality in the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts or any other statute pertaining to the location or 
use of buildings, except as is specifically required by the provisions of this code. 



SECTION 301.0 CLASSIFICATION 

301.1 General: All buildings and structures shall be classified with respect to use 
in one of the use groups listed below. 

1. Use Group A assembly (see Section 302.0). 

2. Use Group B business (see Section 303.0). 

3. Use Group E educational (see Section 304.0). 

4. Use Group F factory and industrial (see Section 305.0), 

5. Use Group H high hazard (see Section 306.0). 

6. Use Group I institutional (see Section 307.0). 

7. Use Group M mercantile (see Section 308.0). 

8. Use Group R residential (see Section 309.0). 

9. Use Group S storage(see Section 310.0). 

10. Use Group U utility and miscellaneous (see Section 311.0). 

301 .2 Fire grading of buildings: All buildings and structures shall be graded in 
accordance with the degree of fire hazard of their use in terms of hours and 
fractions of an hour and as regulated by Section 902.0. 

301.3 Deleted 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 3.1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 302.0 USE GROUP A, ASSEMBLY USES 

302.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be classified in 
Use Group A which are used or designed for the gathering together of persons for 
purposes such as civic, social or religious functions, recreation, food or drink 
consumption or awaiting transportation. A room or space used for assembly purposes 
by less than 50 persons and which is accessory to another use group shall be 
included as a part of that main use group. Other buildings or structures which 
accommodate less than fifty (50) but would otherwise qualify as places of assembly, 
shall be classified in the business (B) use group. 

302.2 Use Group A-1 , theaters: This use group shall include all theaters and all 
other buildings and structures, or parts thereof, intended for the production and 
viewing of the performing arts or motion pictures and usually provided with fixed 
seats, including theaters, motion picture theaters and television and radio studios 
admitting an audience. Stages and platforms shall comply with Section 615.0. 

302.3 Use Group A-2 structures: This use group shall include all buildings and 
places of public assembly, without theatrical stage accessories, designed for use as 
dance halls, night clubs and for similar purposes, including all rooms, lobbies and 
other spaces connected thereto with a common means of egress and entrance. 

302.4 Use Group A-3 structures: This use group shall include all buildings with 
or without an auditorium in which persons assemble for amusement, entertainment 
or recreation, and incidental motion picture, dramatic or theatrical presentations, 
lectures or other similar purposes without theatrical stage other than a raised 
platform; and principally used without permanent seating facilities, including art 
galleries, exhibition halls, museums, lecture halls, libraries, restaurants other than 
night clubs, and recreation centers; and buildings designed for other similar assembly 
purposes including passenger terminals. 

302.5 Use Group A-4 structures: This use group shall include all buildings used 
as churches and for similar religious purposes. 

302.6 Use Group A-5, outdoor assembly: This use group shall include structures 
used for outdoor assembly intended for participation in or reviewing activities 
including grandstands, bleachers, coliseums, stadiums, tents, amusement park 
structures and fair or carnival structures. Such structures shall comply with the 
provisions of this code for special uses and occupancies (see Article 6). 

SECTION 303.0 USE GROUP B, BUSINESS USES 

303. 1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be classified in 
Use Group B which are used for the transaction of business, for the rendering of 

3-2 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



professional services, or for other services that involve stocks of goods, wares or 
merchandise in limited quantities for use incidental to office uses or sample 
purposes. 

303.2 List of business uses: The uses listed in Table 303.2 are indicative of and 
shall be classified as Use Group B. 

Table 303.2 
USE GROUP B, BUSINESS USES 



Airport traffic control towers 


Fire stations 


Animal hospitals, kennels, pounds 


Florists and nurseries 


Automobile and other motor vehicle 


Laboratories; testing and research 


showrooms 


Laundries; pickup and delivery 


Banks 


Stations and self-service 


Barber shops 


Police stations 


Beauty shops 


Post offices 


Car wash 


Print shops 


Civic administration 


Professional services; attorney, dentist, 


Clinic, outpatient 


physician, engineer, etc. 


Dry-cleaning; pickup and delivery 


Radio and television stations 


stations and self-service 


Telephone exchanges 


Electronic data processing 





SECTION 304.0 USE GROUP E, EDUCATIONAL USES 

304.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, other than those used 
for business training or vocational training, shall be classified in Use Group E which 
are used by more than five persons at one time for educational purposes through the 
12th grade including, among others, schools and academies. Educational type uses 
with a total occupant load less than 50 shall be classified as Use Group B. School 
buildings, or parts thereof, for business training or vocational training shall be 
classified in the same use group as the business or vocation taught. 

304.1.1 Child day care center: A child day care center which provides care for 
children more than 2 years 9 mo. of age shall be classified as use Group E. 



SECTION 305.0 USE GROUP F. FACTORY AND INDUSTRIAL USES 

305.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, in which occupants are 
engaged in performing work or labor in the fabricating, assembling or processing of 
products or materials shall be classified in Use Group F including, among others, 
factories, assembling plants, industrial laboratories and all other industrial and 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



3-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



manufacturing uses, except those of use Group H involving highly combustible, 
flammable or explosive products and materials. 

305.2 Use Group F-1 structures: Factory and industrial uses which are not 
otherwise classified as low hazard Use Group F-2 shall be classified as moderate 
hazard factory and industrial Use Group F-1. The manufacturing processes listed in 
Table 305.2 shall be indicative of and included in Use Group F-1. 

305.3 Use Group F-2 Structures: Factory and industrial uses which involve the 
fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, 
packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard shall be classified as 
Use Group F-2. Except as herein provided, buildings of Use Group F-2 shall comply 
with the requirements of the code for buildings of Use Group F-1. The 
manufacturing processes listed in Table 305.3 shall be indicative of and included in 
Use Group F-2. 



3-4 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



Table 305.2 


USE GROUP F-1 MODERATE HAZARD FACTORY AND INDUSTRIAL USES 


Aircraft 


Food processing 


Appliances 


Furniture 


Athletic equipment 


Hemp and jute products 


Automobiles and other motor vehicles 


Laundries 


Bakeries 


Leather and tanneries, excluding 


Beverages, alcoholic 


enameling or japanning 


Bicycles 


Machinery 


Boat building 


Millwork and woodworking, wood 


Boiler works 


distillation 


Brooms or brushes 


Motion picture and television filming 


Business machines 


Musical instruments 


Cameras and photo equipment 


Optical goods 


Canneries, including food products 


Paper mills or products 


Clothing 


Plastic products 


Condensed and powdered milk 


Printing or publishing 


manufacture 


Recreational vehicles 


Construction and agricultural machinery 


Refuse incinerators 


Disinfectants 


Shoes 


Dry cleaning using other than flammable 


Soaps and detergents 


liquids in cleaning or dyeing 


Sugar refineries 


operations or other than classified 


Textile mills, including canvas, cotton, 


in Table 306.2 


cloth, bagging, burlap, carpets 


Electric light plants and power houses 


and rags 


Electrolytic reducing works 


Tobacco 


Electronics 


Trailers 


Engines, including rebuilding 


Upholstery and manufacturing shops 


Film, photographic 







Table 305.3 


USE GROUP F-2, 


LOW HAZARD FACTORY AND INDUSTRIAL USES 


Beverages, nonalcoholic 


Gypsum 


Brick and masonry 




Ice 


Ceramic products 




Metal fabrication and assembly 


Foundries 




Water pumping plants 


| Glass products 







SECTION 306.0 USE GROUP H, HIGH HAZARD USES 

306.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be classified in 
Use Group H which are used for the manufacturing, processing, generation or 
storage of corrosive, highly toxic, highly combustible, flammable or explosive 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



3-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



materials that constitute a high fire or explosion hazard, including loose combustible 
fibers, dust and unstable materials. 

306.2 List of high hazard uses: The processes, materials and manufactures listed 
in Table 306.2 are indicative of and shall be classified as Use Group H. 

306.2.1 Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as Use Group H: 

1. Any building or portion of a building containing less than the exempt 
amount of those materials shown in Table 306.2.1 when maintained in 
accordance with the fire prevention code listed in Appendix A. 

2. Buildings containing rooms conforming to the requirements of Article 6 
and the fire prevention code listed in Appendix A for such hazardous 
material. 

3. Rooms containing flammable liquids in tightly-closed containers of one 
gallon capacity or less for retail sale or private use on the premises and 
in quantities not exceeding 2 gallons per square foot of room area. 

4. Rooms used for preparation or storage of food products for retail sale on 
the premises. 

5. Retail paint salesrooms with quantities of paint not exceeding 2 gallons 
per square foot of room area. 

6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage. 

7. The storage or use of materials for agricultural purposes for use on the 
premises. 

8. Closed systems housing flammable or combustible liquids or gases used 
for the operation of machinery or equipment. 

9. Cleaning establishments which utilize combustible liquid solvents having 
a flash point of 140 degrees F. (60 degrees C.) or higher in closed systems 
employing equipment listed by an approved testing laboratory, provided 
this use is separated from all other areas of the building by 1 hour 
fireresistance rated construction. 

10. Cleaning establishments which utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point 
at or above 200 degrees F. (93 degrees C). 

11. Refrigeration systems. 

12. Tire retail stores without bulk storage. 



3-6 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



Table 306.2 
USE GROUP H, HIGH HAZARD USES 



Bulk storage of tires. 

Combustible dust and any similar solid material sufficiently comminuted for suspension 
in still air which, when so suspended, is capable of self-sustained combustion. 

Combustible fibers and any similar readily ignitable and free burning fibers such as 
cotton, sisal, henequen, jute, hemp, tow, cocoa fiber, oakum, baled waste, baled 
wastepaper, kapok, hay, straw, excelsior, Spanish moss and other like material. 

Combustible liquids having a flash point at or above 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C). 
Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows: 

Class II liquids shall include those having flash points at or above 100 
degrees F. (38 degrees C), and below 140 degrees F. (60 degrees C). 

Class lll-A liquids shall include those having flash points at or above 

140 degrees F. (60 degrees C.) and below 200 degrees F.(93 degrees C), 

Corrosive liquids which, when in contact with living tissue, will cause severe damage 
to such tissue by chemical action or are liable to cause fire when in contact with organic 
matter or with certain chemicals such as acids and alkaline caustic liquids. 

Explosive material and any chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary and 
common purpose of which is to function by explosion with substantially simultaneous 
release of gas and heat, the resultant pressure being capable of destructive effects. 

Flammable liquids having a flash point below 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C), and having 
a vapor pressure not exceeding 40 psia at 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C). Class I liquids 
shall include those having flash points below 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C), and may 
be subdivided as follows: 

Class l-A shall include those having flash points below 73 degrees F. (23 degrees 
C.) and having a boiling point below 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C). 

Class l-B shall include those having flash points below 73 degrees F.(23 degrees 
C.) and having a boiling point at or above 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C). 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 3-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 306.2 (continued) 
USE GROUP H, HIGH HAZARD USES 



Class l-C shall include those having flash points at or above 73 degrees F. (23 
degrees C.) and below 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C). 

The flash point of liquids having a flash point at or below 175 degrees F. (79 
degrees C), except for fuel oils and certain viscous materials, shall be determined 
in accordance with ASTM D56 listed in Appendix A. 

The flash point of liquids having a flash point above 1 75 degrees F. (79 degrees 
C), except for fuel oils, shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D92 listed 
in Appendix A. 

The flash point of fuel oil and certain viscous materials having a flash point at or 
below 175 degrees F. (79 degrees C.) shall be determined in accordance with 
ASTM D93 listed in Appendix A. 

Flammable gas having a flammability range with air greater than 1 percent by volume 
which is a liquid while under pressure and having a vapor pressure in excess of 27 psia 
at a temperature of 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C). 

Flammable solids and any similar solid substance other than one classified as explosive, 
which is liable to cause fires through friction, through absorption of moisture, through 
spontaneous chemical change or as a result of retained heat from manufacturing or 
processing. 

Liquefied petroleum gas which is composed predominately of the following 
hydrocarbons or mixtures of them, such as: propane, propylene, butane (normal butane 
or isobutane) and butylenes. 

Nitromethane which is a combustible liquid which at 599 degrees F. (315 degrees C.) and 
91 5 psig decomposes explosively and is an unstable material. 

Oxidizing materials and any similar substances that readily yield oxygen to stimulate 
combustion, such as sodium nitrate, potassium chlorate and pyroxylin plastic. 

Organic peroxide. 

Unstable materials which polymerize, decompose, condense or become self-reactive 
when exposed to air, water, heat, shock or pressure. 



3-8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



Table 306.2.1 

EXEMPT AMOUNTS OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS, 

LIQUIDS AND CHEMICALS 



| Material 


Maximum quantities 


1 . Flammable liquids 




Class 1-A 


30 gal. b 


Class 1-B 


60 gal. b 


Class 1-C 


90 gal. b 


2. Combustible liquids 




Class II 


120gal. b 


j Class lll-A 


250 gal. b 


3. Combination flammable liquids 3 


120gal. b 


4. Flammable gasses 


3,000 cu. ft. at one 




atmosphere of pressure at 70° 


5. Liquefied flammable gasses 


60 gal. 


6. Combustible fibers-loose 


1 00 cu. feet 


7. Combustible fibers-baled 


1 ,000 cu. feet 


8. Flammable solids 


500 lbs. 


9. Unstable materials 


No exemptions 


1 0. Corrosive liquids 


55 gal. 


1 1 . Oxidizing materials-gases 


6,000 cu. feet 


12. Oxidizing materials-liquids 


50 gal. 


13. Oxidizing materials-solids 


500 lbs. 


1 4. Organic peroxides 


10 lbs. 


1 5. Nitrometnane (unstable materials) 


No exemptions 


1 6. Ammonium nitrate 


1,000 lbs. 


1 7. Ammonium nitrate compound mixtures 




containing more than 60% nitrate by weight 


1,000 lbs. 


18. Highly toxic materials and poisonous gas 


No exemptions 


19. Smokeless powder 


20 lbs. d 


20. Black sporting powder 


5 lbs. d 



Note a. Containing not more than the exempt amounts of Class 1-A, 1-B or 1-C flammable liquids. 

Note b. The maximum quantities shall be increased by 100 percent in areas which are not accessible 

to the public. In buildings where automatic fire suppression systems are installed, the maximum 

quantities shall be increased 100 percent in the areas accessible to the public. 

Note c Tank storage up to 660 gallons for fuel burning equipment meeting the requirements of the 

BOCA National Mechanical Code or the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed 

in Appendix A and G, respectively, shall be permitted. 

Note d. Maximum quantities in the amount specified by NFiPA 495 shall be permitted when stored 

in accordance with NFiPA 495 listed in Appendix A. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



3-9 



...^ ^^ W iiuoli 10 oiMlt DUlLUINli UUUt 



SECTION 307.0 USE GROUP I, INSTITUTIONAL USES 

307.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be classified in 
Use Group I in which people suffering from physical limitations because of health 
or age are harbored for medical or other care or treatment, or in which people are 
detained for penal or correction purposes, or in which the liberty of the inmates is 
restricted. 

307.2: Deleted 

307.3 Use Group I-2: This use group shall include buildings or parts thereof used 
for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care on a 24-hour basis of six 
or more persons who are not capable of self-preservation. The following types of 
facilities, when accommodating persons of the above description, shall be classified 
as 1-2 facilities: hospital, nursing home (both intermediate care facility and skilled 
nursing facility) and mental hospital. A facility such as the above with five or less 
occupants shall be classified as a residential use group. 

307.3.1 Child day care center: A child day care center which accommodates 
children 2 years 9 months of age or less shall be classified as Use Group 1-2. 

307.4 Use Group 1-3: This use group shall include buildings or parts thereof 
inhabited by six or more persons who are under some restraint or security. An 1-3 
facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due 
to security measures not under the occupants control. The following types of 
facilities, when accommodating persons of the above description, shall be classified 
as 1-3 facilities: prisons, jails, reformatories, detention centers, correctional centers 
and pre-release centers. Buildings of Use Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the 
subclassifications indicated in Sections 307.4.1 through 307.4.5. Any building to be 
constructed or proposed for a change in occupancy to an 1-3 use, shall meet the 
provisions of both General Building Limitations (Article 5) and Fire Protection 
Systems (Article 10) required by this Code and also meet the governing provisions 
of NFiPA 101, Life Safcrv Code, chapters 14 and 15 respectively (also see Section 
611.0). 

307.4.1 Use Condition I: This use condition shall include all buildings in which free 
movement is allowed from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or 
occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Use 
Condition I facility shall be classified in Use Group R. 

307.4.2 Use Condition II: This use condition shall include all buildings in which 
free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke 
compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is 
impeded by locked exits. 

3-10 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



307.4.3 Use Condition III: This use condition shall include all buildings in which 
free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a 
residential unit comprised of individual sleeping rooms and group activity space, with 
egress impeded by remote control release of means of egress from such smoke 
compartment to another smoke compartment. 

307.4.4 Use Condition IV: This use condition shall include all buildings in which 
free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote controlled release is 
provided to permit movement from all sleeping rooms, activity space and other 
occupied areas within the smoke compartment and to other smoke compartments. 

307.4.5 Use Condition V: This use condition shall include all buildings in which 
free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff controlled release is 
provided to permit movement from all sleeping rooms, activity spaces and other 
occupied areas within the smoke compartment and to other smoke compartments. 

SECTION 308.0 USE GROUP M, MERCANTILE USES 

308.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be classified in 
Use Group M which are used for display and sales purposes involving stocks of 
goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the 
public; including, among others, retail stores, motor fuel service stations, shops and 
salesrooms and markets. Highly combustible goods shall be limited to small 
quantities that do not constitute a high hazard; and if not so limited, the 
construction shall comply with the requirements for Use Group H as set forth in the 
provisions of Section 306.0 and Tables 401 and 501. 

SECTION 309.0 USE GROUP R, RESIDENTIAL USES 

309.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be classified in 
Use Group R in which families or households live, or in which sleeping 
accommodations are provided for individuals with or without dining facilities, 
excluding those that are classified as institutional buildings. 

309.2 Use Group R-1 structures: This use group shall include all hotels, motels, 
boarding houses, lodging houses and similar buildings arranged for shelter and 
sleeping accommodations and in which the occupants are primarily transient in 
nature, making use of the facilities for a period of less than 30 days. 

309.3 Use Group R-2 structures: This use group shall include all multiple-family 
dwellings having more than two dwelling units, except as provided in Section 910.3 
for multiple single-family dwelling units, and shall also include all boarding houses, 
lodging houses and similar buildings arranged for shelter and sleeping 
accommodations in which the occupants are primarily not transient in nature. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 3-1 1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



309.3.1 Dormitories: A dormitory facility which accommodates more than five 
persons more than 2 V2 years of age shall be classified as Use Group R-2. 

309.4 Use Group R-3 Structures: This use group shall include all buildings 
arranged for the use of one- or two-family dwelling units, including not more than 
three (3) lodgers or boarders per dwelling unit, and as provided in Section 910.3 for 
multiple single-family dwelling units. 

309.4.1 Family day-care home: A family day-care home as defined by MGL 28A, 
s. 9, shall be classified as use group R-3 or R-4. Such facility may not accommodate 
more than six children. 

309.5 Use Group R-4 structures: This use group shall include all detached one-or 
two-family dwellings not more than three stories in height, and their accessory 
structures as indicated in Article 34, the One and Two Family Dwelling Code. All 
such structures shall be designed in accordance with the One and Two Family 
Dwelling Code or in accordance with the requirements of this code for a Use Group 
R-3 structure. 

309.6 Use group R-5 structures: This use group shall include all buildings 
arranged for use as limited group residences in accordance with the requirements 
of this code (see Article 6). 

SECTION 310.0 USE GROUP S, STORAGE USES 

310.1 General: All buildings and structures, or parts thereof, shall be classified 
in Use Group S which are used primarily for the storage of goods, wares or 
merchandise, except those of Use Group H that involve highly combustible or 
explosive products or materials; including, among others, warehouses, storehouses 
and freight depots. 

31 0.2 List Of moderate hazard uses: Buildings used for the storage of moderate 
hazard contents which are likely to burn with moderate rapidity, but which do not 
produce either poisonous gases, fumes or explosives, including, among others, the 
materials listed in Table 310.2, shall be classified in Use Group S-l. 

31 0.3 List of low hazard uses: Low hazard uses shall include buildings used for 
the storage of noncombustible materials, and of low hazard wares that do not 
ordinarily burn rapidly such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons without 
significant amounts of combustible wrappings, but with a negligible amount of plastic 
trim such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Such uses shall be classified as Use 
Group S-2 including, among others, the materials listed in Table 310.3. 



3-12 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



Table 310.2 
USE GROUP S-1 STORAGE USES, MODERATE HAZARD 



Bags, cloth, burlap and paper 


Linoleum 


Bamboo and rattan 


Livestock shelters 


Baskets 


Lumber yards 


Belting, canvas and leather 


Motor vehicle repair shops 


Books and papers in rolls and packs 


Petroleum warehouses for storage of 


Boots and shoes 


lubricating oils with a flash 


Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl 


point of 200 degrees F. or higher I 


or bone 


Photo engraving 


Cardboard and cardboard boxes 


Public garages (Group 1) and stables 


Clothing, woolen wearing apparel 


Silk 


Cordage 


Soap 


Furniture 


Sugar 


Furs 


Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff 


Glue, mucilage, paste and size 


Upholstering and mattress 


Horn and combs, other than celluloid 


manufacturing 


Leather, enameling or japanning 


Wax candles 



Table 310.3 


USE GROUP S-2 STORAGE USES, LOW HAZARD 


Asbestos 


Gypsum board 


Beer or wine up to 12% alcohol in metal, 


Inert pigments 


glass or ceramic containers 


Ivory 


Cement in bags 


Meats 


Chalk and crayons 


Metal cabinets 


Dairy products in nonwaxed coated 


Metal desks with plastic tops and trim 


paper containers 


Metal parts 


Dry cell batteries 


Metals 


Electrical coils 


Mirrors 


Electrical motors 


New empty cans 


Food products 


Oil filled and other types of distribution 


Foods in noncombustible containers 


transformers 


Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic 


Open parking structures 


trays or containers 


Porcelain and pottery 


Frozen foods 


Public garages (Group 2) 


Glass 


Stoves 


Glass bottles, empty or filled with 


Talc and soapstone 


\ noncombustible liquids 


Washers and dryers 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



3-13 



I HE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 311.0 USE GROUP U, UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS USES 

311.1 General: Buildings and structures of an accessor)' character and miscellaneous 
structures not classified in any specific use group shall be constructed, equipped and 
maintained to meet the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and 
life hazard incidental to their use. Utility and miscellaneous uses shall include fences 
over 6 feet high, tanks, cooling towers, retaining walls and buildings such as private 
garages, carports, sheds and agricultural buildings. 

SECTION 312.0 DOUBTFUL USE CLASSIFICATION 

312.1 General: When a building or structure is proposed for a use not specifically 
provided for in this code or the classification of which is doubtful, such building or 
structure shall be included in the use group which it most nearly resembles in 
respect to the existing or proposed life and fire hazard, and it shall be so classified 
by the building official. 

SECTION 313.0 MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY 

313.1 Two or more uses: When a building is occupied for two or more uses, not 
included in the same use group, one of the following Sections 313.1.1 through 313.1.4 
or a combination thereof shall apply. 

313.1.1 Nonseparated uses: The provisions of the code applying to each use shall 
apply to such parts of the building as come within that use group. The required 
building type of construction shall be determined according to the use of the 
building which has the more restrictive height and area limitations. The most 
restrictive applicable provisions of Article 10 shall apply to the nonseparated uses. 
A Fire separation assembly is not required between uses, however, Tire separation 
assemblies shall be provided as required by other sections of the code. Tenant 
separations shall be provided as required in Table 401. 

313.1.2 Separated uses: The mixed uses shall be completely separated, both 
horizontally and vertically, by fire separation walls and floor/ceiling assemblies 
having a fireresistance rating corresponding to the highest fire grading prescribed in 
Table 902 for the separate uses. Each such portion of the building shall comply with 
the code based on the use of that space. Each portion of the building shall comply 
with the height limitations of Sections 501.0 and 503.0 based on the use of that space 
and the building type of construction. For each story, the building area shall be such 
that the sum of the ratios of the floor area of each use divided by the allowable area 
by Sections 501.0 and 502.0 for each use shall not exceed one. 

313.1.3 Separate buildings: The mixed uses shall be completely separated by fire 
walls having a fireresistance rating corresponding to the highest fire grading 

3-14 Corrected 780 CM R - Fifth Edition 



USE GROUP CLASSIFICATION 



prescribed in Table 902 for the separate uses. Each use group shall be considered 
a separate building and shall comply with the provisions of this code applicable to 
that group. 

313.1.4 Incidental uses: Where the use is supplemental to the main use of the 
building and the area devoted to such use does not occupy more than 10 percent of 
the area of any floor nor more than 10 percent of the allowable area permitted by 
Sections 501.0 and 502.0 based on the supplemental use, a fire separation assembly 
shall not be required between the main and supplemental uses. The required type 
of construction shall be based on the main use of the building. 

Exceptions: Section 313.1.4 shall not apply to: 

1. Specific use areas within buildings of Use Group I-2(see Section 610.2) 

2. Specific use areas within buildings of Use Group 1-3 (see Section 611.7) 

3. Supplemental areas of Use Group H 

313.2 High hazard uses: A place of public assembly or education shall not be 
permitted in a building classified in Use Group H. 

313.3 Means Of egress: The means of egress requirements shall be applied in 
accordance with Section 802.2. 

313.4 Open parking facilities beneath other use groups: Open parking 
structures constructed under Use Groups A, I, B, M and R shall not exceed the 
height and area limitations permitted under Section 607.0. The height and area of 
the structure for the occupancy above the open parking facility shall be in 
accordance with Section 501.0. The height of the entire building shall be the distance 
defined in Section 201.0 and shall not exceed the limitations for the upper occupancy 
in Section 501.3. Fire separation for wall assemblies and floor/ceiling assemblies 
between the parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall correspond to the 
highest fire grading prescribed in Table 902 for the uses involved. The type of 
construction shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that all structural 
members including main bracing within the open parking structure necessary to the 
support of the upper occupancy shall be protected with more restrictive fireresistive 
assemblies of the occupancies involved as shown in Table 401. Exit facilities for the 
upper occupancy shall conform to Article 8 and shall be separated from the parking 
area by walls having at least a 2-hour fireresistance-rating as required by Table 401 
and self-closing doors complying with Section 916.0. Means of egress from the 
opening parking facility shall comply with Section 809.5. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 3-15 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



This page intentionally left blank 



3-16 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 4 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 
CLASSIFICATION 



ARTICLE 4 

TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 



SECTION 400.0 GENERAL 

400.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the classification of all 
buildings as to type of construction. 

400.2 Application of other laws: The provisions of this article shall not be deemed 
to nullify any provisions of the zoning law, ordinance of any municipality in the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts or any other statute pertaining to the location, or 
type of construction of buildings, except as is specifically required by the provisions 
of this code. 

SECTION 401.0 CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 

401.1 General: All buildings and structures erected or to be erected, altered or 
extended in height or area shall be classified in any one or in a combination of the 
five construction types defined in Table 401 and Sections 402.0 through 406.0. 

401.2 False designation: A building shall not be designated a given type of 
construction unless it conforms to the minimum requirements for that type. It shall 
be unlawful to post, or use, or designate, or advertise a building as of a given type 
of construction unless it complies with the minimum code requirements for that type. 

401 .3 Minimum requirements: When a type of construction is used that is superior 
to the minimum herein required for any specified use, height and area of the 
building, nothing in this code shall be construed to require full compliance with the 
specifications for the higher type; but the designated construction classification of 
the building shall be that of the lesser type, unless all the requirements for the 
higher type are fulfilled. 

401 .4 Noncombustibility requirements: Where a structure or a part of a structure 
is required to be constructed of noncombustible construction, the use of combustible 
elements shall be permitted subject to the limitations of this section without altering 
the construction classification. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 4-1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 











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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



4-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



Notes to Table 401 

Note a. For increased fireresistance ratings requirements in special high hazard uses involving a higher 

degree of fire severity and higher concerntration of combustible contents, see Section 600.2. For 

fireresistance rating requirements for structural membranes and assemblies which support other 

fireresistance rated members or assemblies, see Section 912.1. 

Note b. For reductions in the required fireresistance rating of exit and shaft enclosures, see Sections 

816.9.2 and 915.3. 

Note c. For substitution of other structural materials for timber in Type 4 construction, see Section 

1702.2. 

Note d. Fire retardant treated wood permitted, see Sections 903.5 and 905.3. 

Note e. For permitted uses of heavy timber in roof construction in buildings of Types 1 and 2 

construction, see Section 914.4. 

Note f. For reductions in required fireresistance ratings of exit access corridors, tenant separations 

and dwelling unit separations, see Section 810.4 and 810.4.1. 

Note g. For exceptions to the required fireresistance rating of construction supporting exit access 

corridors and smoke barriers, see Sections 910.6 and 911.2. 

Note h. For buildings having habitable or occupiable stories or basements below grade, see Section 

807.3.1. 

401.4.1 Roofs, floors and walls: Combustible elements in roofs, floors and walls 
are permitted to be used for the following components: 

1. Interior finish and trim materials as regulated by Sections 922.0, 923.0 and 
924.0. 

2. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by Articles 20, 21, 22 and 23. 

3. Fire-retardant treated wood as permitted by Section 903.0. 

4. Mastics and caulking materials applied to provide flexible seals between 
components of exterior wall construction. 

5. Roof covering materials as regulated by Section 2301.0. 

6. Thermal and sound insulation as permitted by Sections 908.4, 928.0, 
1709.4, 2002.0 and 2301.4. 

7. Exterior veneer and trim as permitted by Sections 926.2 and 2105.0. 

8. Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Sections 900.3.1 and 923.0. 9. 
Windows and doors as permitted by Section 907.4. 

10. Heavy timber as permitted by Sections 807.3.1 and 914.2. 

11. Partitions as permitted by Section 905.3. 

12. Roof structures as permitted by Section 927.0. 

401 .4.2 Ducts: Nonmetallic ducts as permitted by the BOCA National Mechanical 
Code listed in Appendix A. 

401 .4.3 Piping: Combustible piping materials as permitted by the BOCA National 
Mechanical Code, Massachusetts State Plumbing Code (248 CMR 2.00) and the 
Massachusetts Fuel Gas Code (248 CMR 3.00 through 8.00) promulgated by the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts Board of State Examiners of Plumbers and Gas 
Fitters, listed in Appendix G. 



4-4 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 



401 .4.4 Electrical: Insulated electrical wiring and related components as regulated 
by the Massachusetts Electrical Code promulgated by the Board of Fire Prevention 
Regulations, listed in Appendix G. 

SECTION 402.0 TYPE 1 CONSTRUCTION 

402.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 1 construction are those in which 
the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs, and the exits are 
constructed and protected with approved noncombustible materials to afford the 
fireresistance rating specified in Table 401 , except as otherwise specifically regulated 
by the provisions of Article 9. Type 1 buildings shall be further classified as Types 
1A and IB. Fire-retardant treated wood shall only be used as specified in Table 401 
and Section 903.5. 

SECTION 403.0 TYPE 2 CONSTRUCTION 

403.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 2 construction are those in which 
the walls, partitions, structural elements, floors, ceilings, roofs, and the exits are 
constructed of approved noncombustible materials meeting the fireresistance rating 
requirements specified in Table 401, except as further regulated in Article 9. Type 
2 buildings shall be further classified as types 2A, 2B, and 2C. Fire-retardant treated 
wood shall only be used as specified in Table 401 and Section 903.5. 

SECTION 404.0 TYPE 3 CONSTRUCTION 

404.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 3 construction are those in which 
the exterior, fire and party walls are constructed of masonry or other approved 
noncombustible materials of the required fireresistance rating and structural 
properties; and the floors, roofs and interior framing are wholly or partly of wood 
or of metal or other approved construction; the fire and party walls are ground 
supported, except that girders and their supports carrying walls of masonry shall be 
protected to afford the same degree of fireresistance rating of the walls supported 
thereon; and all structural elements shall have the required fireresistance rating 
specified in Table 401. 

404.2 Type 3A: Structures of type 3A construction shall include all Type 3 buildings 
in which the interior structural elements are wholly or partly of fire protected wood 
of not less than 2-inch nominal thickness, or of other approved protected 
combustible materials, or of metal protected and insulated to afford the 
fireresistance rating specified in Table 401. 

404.3 Type 3B: Structures of Type 3B construction shall include all Type 3 
buildings in which the interior structural members are of wood of not less than 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 4-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



2-inch nominal thickness or consist of other combustible or noncombustible materials 
with protection of less than 1-hour fireresistance rating. 

SECTION 405.0 TYPE 4 CONSTRUCTION 

405.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 4 construction are those in which 
the exterior walls are of noncombustible materials having a fireresistance rating not 
less than that specified in Table 401 and the interior structural members are of solid 
or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The elements of Type 4 construction 
shall comply with the provisions of this section (see Section 1702.0 for construction 
details). 

405.2 Columns: Wood columns shall be sawn or glued laminated and shall be not 
less than 8 inches, nominal, in any dimension when supporting floor loads and not 
less than 6 inches, nominal, in width and not less than 8 inches, nominal, in depth 
when supporting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be continuous or 
superimposed and connected in an approved manner. 

405.3 Floor framing: Beams and girders of wood shall be sawn or glued laminated 
timber and shall be not less than 6 inches, nominal, in width and not less than 10 
inches, nominal, in depth. Framed sawn or glued laminated timber arches which 
spring from the floor line and support floor loads shall be not less than 8 inches, 
nominal, in any dimension. Framed timber trusses supporting floor loads shall have 
members of not less than 8 inches, nominal, in any dimension. 

405.4 Roof framing: Framed or glued laminated arches for roof construction which 
spring from the floor line or from grade and do not support floor loads shall have 
members not less than 6 inches, nominal, in width and not less than 8 inches, 
nominal, in depth for the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches, 
nominal, in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued laminated arches for roof 
construction which spring from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber 
trusses, and other roof framing which does not support floor loads shall have 
members not less than 4 inches, nominal, in width and not less than 6 inches, 
nominal, in depth. Spaced members shall be composed of two or more pieces not 
less than 3 inches, nominal, in thickness when blocked solidly throughout their 
intervening spaces or when such spaces are tightly closed by a continuous wood 
cover plate of not less than 2 inches, nominal, in thickness, secured to the underside 
of the members. Splice plates shall be not less than 3 inches, nominal, in thickness. 
When protected by approved automatic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing 
members shall be not less than 3 inches, nominal, in width. 

405.5 Flooring: Floors shall be without concealed spaces and shall be of sawn or 
glued laminated plank, splined, or tongue and groove, of not less than 3 inches, 
nominal, in thickness covered with 1 inch, nominal, dimension tongue and groove 

4-6 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION 



flooring, laid crosswise or diagonally, or 15/32-inch plywood or Vi inch particle board; 
or of planks not less than 4 inches, nominal, in width, set on edge close together and 
well spiked, and covered with 1-inch nominal, dimension flooring, or 15/32 inch 
plywood, or ¥2 inch particle board. The lumber shall be laid so that no continuous 
line of joints will occur except at points of support. Floors shall not extend closer 
than V2 inch to walls. Such V2 inch spaces shall be covered by a molding fastened to 
the wall either above or below the floor and so arranged that it will not obstruct the 
swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor, or corbeling of masonry walls under 
floor shall be used in place of molding. 

405.6 Roofs: Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and roof decks shall be sawn 
or glued laminated, splined or tongue and groove plank, not less than 2 inches, 
nominal, in thickness, l 1 /e inch thick interior plywood (exterior glue), or of planks 
not less than 3 inches, nominal, in width, set on edge close together and laid as 
required for floors. Other types of decking shall only be used if providing equivalent 
fireresistance rating and structural properties. 

405.7 Walls: Walls shall be of solid wood construction formed by not less than two 
layers of 1-inch matched boards or laminated construction of a 4-inch thickness, or 
of 1-hour fireresistance rated construction. 

405.8 Exterior structural members: Wood columns and arches conforming to 
heavy timber sizes shall only be used externally where a fire separation distance of 
20 feet or more is provided. 

SECTION 406.0 TYPE 5 CONSTRUCTION 

406.1 General: Buildings and structures of Type 5 construction are those in which 
the exterior walls, bearing walls, partitions, floor and roof construction are 
constructed of any materials permitted by this code and in which the structural 
elements have the required fireresistance ratings specified in Table 401. Type 5 
buildings shall be further classified as Types 5A (protected) and 5B (unprotected). 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 4-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

This page intentionally left blank 



4-8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 5 
GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



ARTICLE 5 

GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



SECTION 500.0 GENERAL 

500.1 Scope: The provisions of this article control the height and area of all 
buildings hereafter erected, and extensions to existing buildings hereafter altered or 
enlarged as a function of the type of construction, use group, exterior exposure and 
accessibility of buildings and structures for fire fighting purposes. 

SECTION 501.0 GENERAL AREA AND HEIGHT LIMITATIONS 

501.1 General: The areas and heights of all buildings and structures between 
exterior walls, or between exterior walls and fire walls, shall be governed by the type 
of construction and the use group classification as defined in Articles 3 and 4 and 
shall not exceed the limits fixed in Table 501 , except as specifically modified by this 
section and Sections 502.0, 503.0, 504.0, 601.6, 602.3.1.4, 603.1,2, 604.2.5, 616.2, 617.2 
and 905.2. 

501 .1 .1 Special industrial uses: All buildings and structures designed to house low 
hazard industrial processes, including, among others, the production and distribution 
of electric, gas or steam power and rolling mills, structural metal fabrication shops 
and foundries, requiring large areas and unusual heights to accommodate craneways 
or special machinery and equipment, shall be exempt from the height and area 
limitations of Table 501. 

501.1.2 Open parking structures: Open parking structures shall conform to the 
height and area limitations in Section 607.5. 

501.2 Area limit: The area limitations specified in Table 501 shall apply to the 
maximum horizontally projected area of all buildings fronting on a street, or public 
space not less than 30 feet in width accessible to a public street. 

501 .2.1 Buildings on same lot: Two or more buildings on the same lot shall be 
regulated as separate buildings or shall be considered as portions of one building if 
the height of each building and the aggregate area of all buildings are within the 
limitations of Table 501 as modified by Sections 502.0 and 504.0. The provisions of 
this code applicable to the aggregate building shall be applicable to each building. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 5-1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



5-3 



.._ „,nw>.M W i iooli 10 oihih toUlLLMNlj LUUt 



501.3 Height limit: The height in feet and number of stories above grade specifiec 
in Table 501 shall apply to all buildings and to all separate parts of a building 
enclosed within lawful fire walls complying with the provisions of Article 9. A 
basement shall be considered as a story above grade whenthe distance from grade 
to the finished surface of the floor above the basement is more than 6 feet for more 
than 50 percent of the total perimeter or more than 12 feet at any point. 

501.4 Multi-story buildings: The area limits for buildings two stories in height shall 
be the same as the area limits provided in Table 501 for one-story buildings. In 
buildings over two stories in height, the area limits of Table 501 for one-story 
buildings shall be reduced as specified in Table 501.4. 

Table 501.4 
PERCENT REDUCTION OF AREA LIMITS 



No. of stories 


Type of construction 


1A & 1B 


2A 


2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 4, 


5A, 5B 


1 


None 


None 


None 




2 


None 


None 


None 




3 


None 


5% 


20% 




4 


None 


10% 


20% 




5 


None 


15% 


30% 




6 


None 


20% 


40% 




7 


None 


25% 


50% 




8 


None 


30% 


60% 




9 


None 


35% 


70% 




10 


None 


40% 


80% 





501.5 Type 1 construction: Buildings of Type 1 construction permitted to be of 
unlimited tabular heights and areas in Table 501 are not subject to the special 
requirements that allow increased heights and areas for other types of construction. 

SECTION 502.0 AREA MODIFICATIONS 

502.1 General: The provisions of this section shall modify the area limits of Table 
501 as herein specified. 

502.2 Street frontage increase: When a building or structure has more than 25 
percent of the building perimeter fronting on a street or other unoccupied space, the 
area limitations specified in Table 501 shall be increased 2 percent for each 1 
percent of such excess frontage. The unoccupied space shall be on the same lot or 
dedicated for public use, and not less than 30 feet in width accessible from a street 
by a posted fire lane not less than 18 feet in width. 



5-4 Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



502.3 Automatic fire suppression system: When a building of other than Use 
Group H is equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression 
system, the area limitation specified in Table 501 shall be increased by 200 percent 
for one- and two-story buildings and 100 percent for buildings more than two stories 
in height. An approved limited-area sprinkler system is not considered as an 
approved automatic fire suppression system for the purposes of this section. 

502.4 School buildings: When every classroom of a one-story school building of 
Use Group E has at least one door opening directly to the exterior of the building, 
the area limitations specified in Table 501 shall be increased 200 percent. Not less 
than one-half of the required exits from any assembly room included in such 
buildings shall also open directly to the exterior of the building. 

SECTION 503.0 HEIGHT MODIFICATIONS 

503.1 Automatic fire suppression systems: When a building is equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system, the building height 
limitation specified in Table 501 shall be increased one story and 20 feet. This 
increase shall not apply to buildings of Use Group 1-2 of Types 2C, 3A, 4 and 5A 
construction nor to buildings of Use Group H. An approved limited-area sprinkler 
system is not considered an approved automatic fire suppression system for the 
purposes of this section. 

503.2 Auditoriums: The maximum height of auditoriums in Use Groups A-4 and 
E shall be 65 feet when of Type 2B, 3A, 4 or 5A construction and 45 feet when of 
Type 2C, 3B or 5B construction. 

SECTION 504.0 UNLIMITED AREAS 

504.1 One-Story buildings: In other than Type 5 construction, the area of all 
buildings of Use Groups A-3, B, F, 1-2, M and S not including high hazard uses, 
which do not exceed one story or 85 feet in height shall not be limited provided the 
exit facilities comply with the provisions of Article 8, an automatic fire suppression 
system is provided throughout in accordance with the provisions of Section 1002.0 
and the building is isolated as specified in Section 504.2. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings and structures of special industrial uses according to Section 
501.1.1 shall be exempt from the above height limits and fire separation 
distance requirements, and the automatic fire suppression system shall not 
be provided when such installations would be detrimental or dangerous 
to the specific use and occupancy as approved by the building official. 
When located with a fire separation distance of less than 30 feet, the 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 5.5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



exterior walls of such buildings shall be protected or constructed to 
provide a fireresistance rating of not less than 2 hours. 

2. A fire suppression system shall not be required for buildings of Type 2 or 
Type 4 construction used exclusively for storage of noncombustible 
material, not packed or crated in combustible material. 

3. When buildings and structures of Types 1 and 2 construction for rack 
storage facilities do not have access by the public, they shall not be 
limited in height provided they conform to the requirements of Section 
504.1 and NFiPA 231C listed in Appendix A. 

504.1.1 School buildings: One-story school buildings of Use Group E of Type 2, 
3A or 4 construction shall not be limited in area when a direct exit to the outside 
of the building is provided from each classroom and the building is equipped with 
an approved automatic fire suppression system throughout. Exterior walls on all 
sides of such buildings shall comply with Section 504.2. 

504.1.2 Indoor recreation buildings: Indoor participant sport areas such as tennis 
courts, skating rinks, swimming pools and equestrian clubs shall not be limited in 
area and shall be exempt from the automatic fire suppression system requirements 
provided the requirements of Sections 504.1.2.1 through 504.1.2.4 are met. 

504.1 .2.1 Exits: Direct exits to the outside are provided for all the occupants of the 
recreation area. 

504.1.2.2 Posting: The recreation area is conspicuously posted as to use and 
occupant load. 

504.1.2.3 Fire protective signaling system: The building is equipped with a fire 
protective signaling system. 

504.1.2.4 Fire suppression: All other areas are equipped with an automatic fire 
suppression system. 

504.2 Exterior walls: The minimum fireresistance rating of exterior walls of 
one-story buildings of unlimited area shall be determined by the use group and fire 
separation distance as specified in Table 504.2, but not less than the fireresistance 
rating required by Table 401 for the type of construction. 



5-6 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



Table 504.2 
MINIMUM FIRERESISTANCE RATING OF EXTERIOR WALLS 

(HOURS) 



Fire separation 
distance 


Use group 


A-3 


B 


F 


1-2 


M 


S-1 


S-2 


30 feet or greater but 
less than 50 feet 


2 


2 


3 


2 


3 


3 


2 


50 feet or greater 
























504.2.1 Opening protectives: Openings in exterior walls required by Table 504.2 
to have a fireresistance rating of 3 hours or greater shall be protected with fire 
assemblies having a fireresistance rating of not less than 3 hours. Openings in 
exterior walls required by Table 504.2 to have a fireresistance rating of 2 hours shall 
be protected with fire assemblies having a fireresistance rating of not less than \ l h 
hours. 

SECTION 505.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

505.1 Alteration limitations: These provisions shall not be deemed to prohibit 
alterations within the limitations of Sections 106.0 and 505.2, provided an unlawful 
change of use is not involved. 

505.1 .1 Minor changes: Changes, alterations or repairs to the interior of a building 
or to the front facing a street or other public space shall be permitted, provided such 
changes, in the opinion of the building official, do not increase the size or the fire 
hazard of the building, or endanger the public safety, and are not specifically 
prohibited by this code. 

505.1.2 Existing projections: A change or enlargement shall not be made to an 
existing part of a building now projecting beyond the street lot line or building line 
where such is established by law, except in conformity to the provisions of Section 

507.0 governing new construction. 

505.2 Increase in height and area: It shall be unlawful to increase the height or 
area of an existing building or structure, unless the building or structure is of a type 
of construction permitted for new buildings or structures of the increased height and 
area as regulated by Section 501.0 and in conformance with Section 106.0. 

SECTION 506.0 STREET ENCROACHMENTS 

506.1 General: Except as herein provided, a part of any building hereafter erected 
and additions to an existing building heretofore erected shall not project beyond the 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



5-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



lot lines or beyond the building line when such line is established by the zoning law 
or any other statute controlling building construction. 

506.2 Below grade: A part of a building hereafter erected below grade that is 
necessary for structural support of the building shall not project beyond the lot lines, 
except that the footings of street walls or their supports located at least 8 feet below 
grade shall not project more than 12 inches beyond the street lot line. 

506.3 Above grade: All projections hereafter permitted beyond the street lot line 
or the building line above grade shall be so constructed as to be readily removable 
without endangering the safety of the building. 

506.4 Projections necessary for safety: In any specific application, the building 
official is authorized to designate by approved rules such architectural features and 
accessories which are deemed desirable or necessary for the health or safety of the 
public and the maximum extent to which they shall project beyond the street lot line 
or the building line where such is established by statute, subject to all provisions and 
restrictions that are otherwise prescribed by law, ordinance or rule of the authorities 
having jurisdiction over streets or public spaces. 

506.5 Permit revocable: Any permit granted or permission expressed or implied 
in the provisions of this code to construct a building so as to project beyond the 
street lot line or building line shall be revocable by the jurisdiction at will. 

506.6 Existing encroachments: Parts of existing buildings and structures which 
already project beyond the street lot line or building line are not required to be 
altered until their removal is directed by the proper authorities of the jurisdiction. 

SECTION 507.0 PERMISSIBLE STREET PROJECTIONS 

507.1 General: Subject to such provisions as are otherwise prescribed by law or 
ordinance, or by rules of the authorities having jurisdiction over streets, highways, 
and public spaces, the following projections, as described in Sections 507.2 through 
507.11.1 , shall be permitted beyond the street lot line or the building line. 

507.2 Cornices and eaves: Main cornices or roof eaves located at least 12 feet 
above the curb level shall project not more than 3 feet. 

507 J Architectural decorations: Belt courses, lintels, sills, architraves, pediments and 
similar architectural decorations shall project not more than 4 inches when less than 
10 feet above the curb level,and not more than 10 inches when 10 feet or more 
above the curb level. 



5-8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



507.4 Ornamental columns: Ornamental columns, or pilasters, including the bases 
and moldings which emphasize the main entrance of the building, shall project not 
more than 12 inches. 

507.5 Entrance steps: Entrance steps and doors shall project not more than 12 
inches and shall be guarded by cheek pieces not less than 3 feet high, or shall be 
located between ornamental columns or pilasters. 

507.6 Oriel windows: Oriel windows with the lowest portion at least 10 feet above 
the curb level shall project not more than 2 l A feet. 

507.7 Balconies: Balconies located at least 10 feet above the curb level shall 
project not more than 3 feet, except that when the balcony is required in connection 
with a fire escape or exterior stairway as an element of a means of egress, the 
projection shall not exceed 4 feet. 

507.8 Awnings: Retractable or fixed awnings shall have clearances above the grade, 
and shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of Section 510.0. 

507.9 Awning covers or boxes: Awning covers or boxes located at least 8 feet 
above the curb level shall not project more than 3 feet. 

507.10 Marquees: For the purpose of this section, a marquee shall include any 
object or decoration attached to or a part of said marquee. 

507.10.1 Projection and clearance: The horizontal clearance between a marquee 
and the curb line shall be not less than 2 feet. A marquee projecting more than 
two-thirds of the distance from the property line to the curb line shall be not less 
than 10 feet above the ground or pavement below. 

507.10.2 Thickness: The maximum height or thickness of a marquee measured 
vertically from its lowest to its highest point shall not exceed 3 feet when the 
marquee projects more than two-thirds of the distance from the property line to the 
curb line, and shall not exceed 9 feet when the marquee is less than two-thirds of 
the distance from the property line to the curb line. 

507.10.3 Roof construction: Where the roof or any part thereof is a skylight, the 
materials shall consist of approved plastics, or wired glass not less than l A inch thick 
with a single pane not more than 18 inches wide. Every roof and skylight of a 
marquee shall be sloped to downspouts which shall conduct any drainage from the 
marquee in a manner not to spill over the sidewalk. 

507.10.4 Location prohibited: Every marquee shall be so located as not to 
interfere with the operation of any exterior standpipe, and not to obstruct the clear 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 5-9 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



passage of stairways or exit discharge from the building or the installation or 
maintenance of street lighting. 

507.10.5 Construction: A marquee shall be supported entirely from the building 
and constructed of noncombustible material. Marquees shall be designed and 
constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads and live loads as required in 
Article 11 of this code. Structural members shall be protected to prevent 
deterioration. 

507.11 Vaults: Vaults below the sidewalk level shall extend not closer than 3 feet 
to the curb line; and the construction and use of such vaults shall be subject to the 
terms and conditions of the authority or legislative body having jurisdiction. 

507.1 1 .1 Areaways: Areaways shall not project beyond the street lot line more than 
4 feet; provided that every such areaway shall be covered over at the street grade 
by an approved grating of metal or other noncombustible material. 

SECTION 508.0 PERMISSIBLE YARD AND COURT ENCROACHMENTS 

508.1 General: A part of any building or structure shall not extend into side courts, 
inner courts or yards required for light and ventilation of habitable and occupiable 
rooms by the provisions of Article 7, or by the zoning law or other statutes 
controlling building construction, except as hereinafter provided; but the 
encroachment shall not exceed 20 percent of the legal area of yard or court required 
for light and ventilation purposes. 

508.2 Roof eaves: Roof eaves shall project not more than 3 feet beyond the face 
of the wall. 

508.3 Steps and architectural features: Steps, window sills, belt courses and 
similar architectural features, rain leaders and chimneys shall project not more than 
2 feet beyond the face of the wall. 

508.4 Exterior stairways and fire escapes: Outside stairways, smokeproof tower 
balconies, fire escapes or other required elements of a means of egress shall not 
project more than 4 feet beyond the face of the wall. 

SECTION 509.0 SPECIAL AND TEMPORARY PROJECTIONS 

509.1 Alley projections: The permissible projection beyond street lot lines shall 
apply in general to building projections into alleyways, except as is modified by the 
authority having jurisdiction or by special deed restriction. 



5-10 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 



509.2 Special permits: When authorized by special permit, vestibules and storm 
doors shall be erected for periods of time not exceeding seven months in any one 
year, and shall not project more than 3 feet nor more than one-fourth the width of 
the sidewalk beyond the street lot line. Temporary entrance awnings shall be erected 
with a minimum clearance of 7 feet to the lowest portion of the hood or awning 
when supported on removable steel, or other approved noncombustible supports. 

SECTION 510.0 AWNINGS AND CANOPIES 

510.1 Permit: A permit shall be obtained from the building official for the erection, 
repair or replacement of any fixed awning, canopy or hood except as provided in 
Section 510.1.1, and for any retractable awning located at the first story level and 
extending over the public street or, over any portion of a court or yard beside a 
building serving as a passage from a required exit or exit discharge to a public street. 

510.1.1 Exemption from permit: A permit shall not be required for the erection, 
repair or replacement of fixed or retractable awnings installed or buildings of Use 
Group R-3 unless they project over public property, or for retractable awnings 
installed above the first story or where the awning does not project over the public 
street or over any court or yard serving as a passage from a required exit to a public 
street. 

51 0.2 Retractable awnings: There shall be a minimum clearance of 7 feet from the 
sidewalk to the lowest part of the framework or any fixed portion of any retractable 
awning, except that the bottom of the valance of canvas awnings shall have a 
minimum clearance of 6 feet 9 inches above the sidewalk. Retractable awnings shall 
be securely fastened to this building and shall not extend closer than 12 inches in 
from the curb line. They shall be equipped with a mechanism or device for raising 
and holding the awning in a retracted or closed position against the face of the 
building. 

510.3 Fixed or permanent awnings: The clearance from the sidewalk to the lowest 
part of any fixed or permanent awning shall be the same as required in Section 510.2 
for retractable awnings. Fixed or permanent awnings installed above the first story 
shall not project more than 4 feet. 

510.4 Canopies: Canopies shall be constructed of a metal framework, with an 
approved covering, attached to the building at the inner end and supported at the 
outer end by not more than two stanchions with braces anchored in an approved 
manner and placed not less than 2 feet in from the curb line. The horizontal portion 
of the framework shall be not less than 8 feet nor more than 12 feet above the 
sidewalk and the clearance between the covering or valance and the sidewalk shall 
be not less than 7 feet. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 5-1 1 



._. ■ _ w._ I . ^ sj I r* I 4_ f UlLUIKU ^\JUC 



510.5 Special applications of awnings: Rigid awnings supported in whole or part 
by members resting on the ground and used for patio covers, car ports, summer 
houses or other similar uses shall comply with the requirements of Section 510.6 for 
design and construction. Such structures shall be braced as required to provide 
rigidity. 

510.6 Design and construction: Fixed awnings, canopies and similar structures 
shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind or other lateral loads and live 
loads as required by Article 11 of this code with due allowance for shape, open 
construction and similar features that relieve the pressures or loads. Structural 
members shall be protected to prevent deterioration. 

SECTION 511.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 

51 1 .1 General: The building official may issue a permit for temporary construction. 
Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but such temporary construction 
shall not be for more than a period of one (1) year. However, such temporary 
construction may be extended for an additional one (1) year period. 

511.2 Special approval: All temporary construction shall conform to structural 
strength, fire safety, means of egress, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of 
this code necessary to insure the public health, safety and general welfare. 

511.3 Termination of approval: The building official is hereby authorized to 
terminate such special approval and to order the demolition of any such construction 
at his discretion, or as directed by a decision of the board of appeals. 

SECTION 512.0 ACCESSIBILITY FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED 

512.1 Building access for handicapped: All buildings and portions thereof of Use 
Groups A, B, E, F, I, M, R-l and R-2 shall have at least one (1) primary entrance 
accessible to and useable by the handicapped. Such entrance shall provide access to 
a level that makes elevators available in buildings where elevators are installed. 
Where ramps are used to comply with this requirement, they shall have a slope not 
greater than one (1) in twelve (12). See 521 CMR Rules and Regulations of the 
Architectural Access Board for additional provisions for building use by the 
physically handicapped, as listed in Appendix G. 

512.1.1 Handicapped access for limited group residences: All required means 
of egress in a building classified in Use Group R-5 (limited group residence) shall 
be made accessible to the handicapped in accordance with the provisions of Section 
636.0. Where ramps are used to comply with this requirement, they shall have a 
slope not greater than one (1) in twelve (12). Such ramps shall be constructed in 
accordance with the provisions of Section 815.0. 

5-12 corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



GENERAL BUILDING LIMITATIONS 

SECTION 513.0 SPECIAL HISTORIC BUILDINGS AND DISTRICTS 
513.1 Approval: See Section 635.0 and Appendix H for Historic Buildings 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 5.13 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



This page intentionally left blank 



5-14 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 6 

SPECIAL USE AND 
OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



ARTICLE 6 

SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 600.0 GENERAL 

600.1 Scope: In addition to the general requirements of this code governing the 
location, construction and equipment of all buildings and structures, and the 
fireresistance ratings, height and area limitations of Tables 401 and 501, the 
provisions of this article shall control all buildings and structures designed for special 
uses and occupancies as herein provided. 

Chemical plants, packing plants, grain elevators, refineries, flour mills and other 
similar structures shall be constructed in accordance with the recognized practices 
and requirements of the specific industry. The building official shall permit such 
variations from the requirements of this code as will secure reasonable and 
economical construction with the necessary fire, life and property safeguards. In 
granting such variations, due regard shall be given to the isolation of the structure, 
the fire hazard and the exposure to surrounding property. 

600.1.1 Applicable Massachusetts General Law: The applicable Massachusetts 
General Laws Annotated, as amended, and applicable rules and regulations, 
specifically the 522 and 527 CMR series as listed in Appendix G and elsewhere, shall 
be adhered to in the design and construction of structures under this article. 

600.2 Special high hazards: When necessary to resist a higher degree of fire 
severity than specified herein, for high concentrations of combustible contents and 
for buildings of high hazard uses which exceed five stories or 65 feet in height, the 
building official shall require higher fireresistance ratings than the requirements of 
Table 401 governing the fireresistance ratings of types of construction and protection 
of structural elements. 

600.3 Means of egress: The means of egress for buildings of special uses and 
occupancies shall conform to the requirements of Article 8, except as is modified by 
more restrictive provisions of this article for specific uses. 

600.4 Heating and venting: The requirements herein prescribed for the installation 
of heating and venting appliances and equipment shall be construed as supplemental 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



to the provisions of Articles 7 and 25, and the BOCA National Mechanical Code 
listed in Appendix A. 

600.5 Equipment rooms: Heating and ventilating equipment in occupancies 
involving fire hazards from flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers or other 
highly combustible substances shall be installed and protected against fire and 
explosion hazards in accordance with the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed 
in Appendix A. Rooms containing such equipment shall be segregated by 
construction of not less than 2 hour fireresistance rating except as otherwise 
required for specific uses, without openings in the enclosure walls and with means 
of direct ingress and egress from the exterior, or such equipment shall be located in 
accessor)' structures segregated from the main building. 

600.6 Segregation of storage spaces: All rooms and spaces used for the storage 
of volatile and flammable materials shall be separately enclosed and segregated with 
fireresistance rated construction as herein required for specific uses and occupancies. 

600.7 Restricted locations: Except as otherwise specifically provided for herein, 
buildings of Use Group H shall not be located within 200 feet of the nearest wall of 
a building classified in Use Group A, E or I. 

600.8 Inspections: All buildings and structures involving the use and handling of 
flammable or explosive materials and other hazardous uses and occupancies, and 
buildings of Use Groups A and E, shall be inspected in accordance with the BOCA 
National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed in Appendix A and G, 
respectively. 

600.8.1 Coordination of inspections: The building official, fire prevention code 
official, health officials and other administrative agencies of the jurisdiction to whom 
the authority is delegated to inspect buildings and structures in respect to the 
maintenance of safe conditions of use and occupancy shall immediately notify the 
respective official of any violation of the provisions of this code or the BOCA 
National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed in Appendix A and G, 
respectively, and health rules and regulations. 

SECTION 601.0 COVERED MALL BUILDINGS 

601.1 Scope: The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures 
defined herein as covered mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels in height 
at any one point. Except as specifically required by this section, covered mall 
buildings shall meet all applicable provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: When approved by the building official, the following uses are not 
required to comply with the provisions of this section. 

6-2 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



1. Terminals for transportation facilities. 

2. Foyers and lobbies in buildings of Use Groups R-l, R-2 or B. 

3. Buildings which comply totally with all other applicable provisions of this 
code. 

601.1.1 Definitions: Terms used in this section shall have the following meanings: 

Anchor store: An exterior perimeter department store or major merchandising or 
magnet center having direct access to a mall and having its required exits 
independent of the mall. 

Gross leasable area: The gross leasable area is the total floor area designed for 
tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from 
the center lines of joint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. 

Mall: A mall is a roofed-over common pedestrian area serving more than one 
tenant located within a covered mall building. 

Mall building, covered: A building enclosing a number of tenants and occupancies 
such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and 
amusement facilities, offices and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants 
have a main entrance into one or more malls. Anchor stores shall not be considered 
as part of the covered mall building. 

601 .2 Lease plan: The owner shall provide both the building and fire departments 
with a lease plan showing the locations of each occupancy and its means of egress 
after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. Such plans shall be kept current. 
Modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall not be made from that shown on 
the lease plan without prior approval. 

601 .3 Tenant separations: Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant 
spaces by a wall having a fireresistance rating of not less than 1 hour. The separation 
wall shall extend from the floor to the underside of the ceiling. Except as required 
by other provisions of this code, the ceiling need not be a fireresistive assembly. A 
separation is not required in attic spaces above tenant separation walls nor is a 
tenant separation wall required between any tenant space and a mall, except for 
occupancy separations required elsewhere in this code. 

601.3.1 Anchor store openings: Openings between an anchor store and the 
pedestrian area of a mall need not be protected. 

601 .4 Egress: Each individual occupancy within the covered mall building shall be 
provided with a means of egress in accordance with other provisions of this code. 
Measurements shall be made to the entrance to the mall. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-3 



IMt KIAb5AUHUi>tl li> blAlt bUILUIHVa LUDt 



601.4.1 Travel distance: The maximum length of exit access travel from any point 
within the mall to an approved exit along the natural and unobstructed path of 
travel shall not exceed 200 feet. 

601.4.2 Anchor store exits: Anchor stores shall provide the required number of 
exits and units of exit width directly to the exterior. The occupant load of anchor 
stores opening into the mall shall not be included in determining exit requirements 
for the mall. 

601.4.3 Dead ends: The dead end of a mall shall not exceed twice its width. 

601.4.4 Design occupant load: In determining required exit facilities of the mall, 
the number of occupants for whom exit facilities are to be provided shall be based 
on gross leasable area of the covered mall building (excluding anchor stores) and 
shall be based on Table 601. 

601.4.5 Exit access width: The minimum width of exit access passageways and 
corridors from a mall shall be 66 inches. 

601.4.6 Exit distribution: The required units of exit width and exits shall be 

distributed equally throughout the mall. 

601.4.7 Storage prohibited: Storage is prohibited in exit corridors which are 
also used for service to the tenants. Such corridors shall be posted with conspicuous 
signs so stating. 

Table 601 
FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCE PER OCCUPANT FOR COVERED MALLS 



Square feet per person 


Gross leasable area (sq. ft.) 


30 
40 
50 


Under 150,000 

150,001-350,000 

over 350,000 



601.5 Mall width: The minimum width of the mall shall be 20 feet. There shall be 
a minimum of 10 feet clear exit width to a height of 8 feet between any projection 
of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, 
display opening, or other obstruction to egress travel. The mall width shall be 
sufficient to accommodate the occupant load emptying into the immediately adjacent 
mall as determined by Section 601.4.4 for all occupancies except Use Groups A and 
E which shall be determined by Section 806.0. 

601.6 Structural elements: Covered mall buildings shall be of Type 1, 2 or 4 
construction. Covered mall buildings three stories or less in height are exempt from 
the area limitations of Table 501. 

6-4 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



601.6.1 Floor/ceiling assemblies: Floor/ceiling assemblies and their supporting 
columns and beams within multi-level covered malls shall be of 1 hour fireresistance 
rated noncombustible construction or of Type 4 construction meeting the 
requirements of Section 405.0. 

601.6.2 Structural elements, anchor stores: An anchor store three stories or 
less in height shall be of Type 1, 2 or 4 construction and is exempt from the 
area limitations of Table 501, provided that a smoke control system conforming to 
Section 1019.4 is installed in the anchor store. For the purposes of the design and 
operation of the fire emergency ventilation system, the anchor store shall be 
considered a tenant space zone. 

601 .7 Roof coverings: Roof coverings for covered mall buildings shall be Class A, 
B or C as required by Section 2301.0. 

601.8 Use Group A-1 and A-2 occupancies: Use Group A-l and A-2 occupancies 
shall have not more than one-half of their required exits opening directly to the 
covered mall. 

601 .9 Fire suppression: The covered mall and all buildings connected thereto 
shall be provided throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system. 
The system shall be installed in such a manner that when any portion of the system 
serving tenant spaces is shut down, the portion of the system serving the mall will 
remain operational. 

601 .9.1 Supervision: All sprinkler control valves shall be electrically supervised and 
connected to either the fire department or to an approved supervisory service. 

601.10 Standpipes: There shall be a fire department standpipe outlet connected 
to a supply capable of delivering 250 gallons per minute (gpm) located within the 
mall at each entrance to an exit passageway, corridor or enclosed stairway and at 
exterior exits. Fire department standpipes shall be supplied from the automatic 
sprinkler supply piping of the mall or shall be a separate standpipe system. 

601 .1 1 Smoke control: The mall and adjacent tenant spaces shall be equipped with 
a smoke control system conforming to Section 1019.4. 

601.12 Fire department access to equipment: Controls for air conditioning 
systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other fire detection, suppression or control 
elements shall be accessible to and properly identified for use by the fire 
department. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



601 .1 3 Plastic panels and plastic Signs: Within every story or level and from side 
wall to side wall of each tenant space, approved plastic panels and signs shall be 
limited as specified in Sections 601.13.1 through 601.13.4. 

601.13.1 Area: The panels and signs shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area 
facing the mall. 

601.13.2 Height and width: The panels and signs shall not exceed a height of 36 
inches; except if the panel or sign is vertical, the height shall not exceed 96 inches 
and the width shall not exceed 36 inches. 

601.13.3 Location: The panels and signs shall be located a minimum distance of 18 
inches from adjacent tenants. 

601.13.4 Encasement: All edges and the backs shall be fully encased in metal. 

601.14 Kiosks: Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) shall meet 
the requirements of Sections 601.14.1 through 601.14.4. 

601.14.1 Construction: Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located 
within the covered mall unless constructed of fire-retardant treated wood throughout 
conforming to Section 903.5. 

601.14.2 Fire suppression: Kiosks or similar structures that are covered or have 
roofs and are located within the covered mall shall be protected by an approved 
automatic fire suppression system. 

601.14.3 Horizontal separation: The minimum horizontal separation between 
kiosks and other structures within the covered mall shall be 20 feet. 

601.14.4 Maximum area: Kiosks or similar structures shall have a maximum area 
of 300 square feet. 

601.15 Parking structures: An attached garage for the storage of passenger 
vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine persons or an open parking 
structure shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the 
covered mall building by a fire separation wall having a fireresistance rating of not 
less than 2 hours or shall be considered as part of the covered mall building. 



6-6 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 602.0 HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 

602.1 Applicability: The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings 
Groups when such buildings have floors used for human occupancy located more 
than 70 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, except that the 
provisions of this section shall not apply to airport traffic control towers conforming 
to the requirements of Section 616.0. 

602.2 Maintenance and inspection: All fire protection systems shall be maintained 
in an operative condition at all times and shall be periodically inspected and tested 
in accordance with the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed 
in Appendix A and G, respectively. Maintenance inspections shall be made quarterly 
and logged in a journal kept available for inspection. 

602.3 General: All buildings and structures complying with Section 602.0 shall be 
provided with an approved automatic fire suppression system according to Section 
602.3.1. 

602.3.1 Automatic fire suppression system: The automatic fire suppression 
system shall be installed throughout the building. The system shall be designed using 
the parameters set forth in Article 10 and the requirements of Sections 602.3.1.1 
through 602.3.1.3. 

602.3.1 .1 Shutoff valves and water flow devices: Shutoff valves and a water flow 
device shall be provided for each floor. 

602.3.1.2 Valve supervision: Valves shall be supervised by a continuously manned 
control station or central station. 

602.3.1.3 Deleted 

602.3.1.4 Deleted 

602.3.1.4.1 Type Of construction: The minimum type of construction required by 
this code shall be modified as indicated in Table 602. 

602.3.1.4.2 Fireresistance ratings of walls and doors: The fireresistance rating 
of exit access corridors, vertical separation of tenant spaces and dwelling unit 
separations shall be in accordance with Sections 810.4.1 and 810.4.2. 

602.3.1.4.3 Shaft enclosures: The required fireresistance rating of vertical shafts 
other than stairway enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall be reduced to 
1-hour fireresistance rating when sprinklers are installed within the shafts at 
alternate floors. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



602.3.1.4.4 Standpipe system: The IVi-inch hose line, nozzle, rack and cabinet are 
not required in accordance with Section 1012.5.1. 

Table 602 

TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION MODIFICATIONS 

PERMITTED FOR HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS 



Type of construction set forth 
in Table 401 


Modified type of construction 
permitted hereunder 


1A 
1B 
2A 


1B 
2A 
2B 



602.3.1.4.5 Travel distance: The exit access travel distance limitations set forth in 
Table 807 shall be increased to 300 feet. 

602.3.1.4.6 Smokeproof enclosures: A smokeproof enclosure as set forth in 
Section 818.0 is required for at least one exit Other required stairways greater than 
70 feet in height shall be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inches of water column 
and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column in the shaft relative to the building 
with all stairway doors closed. The stairway pressurization system shall be activated 
by all devices which are required to activate the voice alarm system in Section 
602.5.1. 

602.3.1.4.7 Fire dampers: Fire dampers, other than those needed to maintain the 
fireresistance rating of the floor/ceiling assembly, are not required, Where fire 
dampers will interfere with the operation of the smoke control system, approved 
alternative protective devices shall be utilized. 

602-4 Smoke detection systems: A smoke detector suitable for the intended use 
shall be installed in accordance with Sections 602.4.1 through 602.4.3. 

602.4.1 Room locations: A smoke detector shall be installed in every mechanical 
equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar 
room unless such rooms are protected with an automatic fire suppression system. 

602.4.2 Duct locations: A smoke detector shall be installed in each connection to 
a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from return air ducts or plenums 
of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems. In buildings of Use Group R, 
an approved smoke detector shall be installed as required above or shall be installed 
in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) and 
serving not more than ten air inlet openings. 



6-8 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



602.4.3 Operation: The actuation of any detector required by this section shall 
operate the voice alarm system and shall place into operation all equipment 
necessary to prevent the recirculation of smoke. 

602.5 Alarm and communication systems: Alarm and communication systems 
shall be provided. The alarm and communication systems shall be so designed and 
installed that damage to any terminal unit or speaker will not render more than one 
zone of the system inoperative. 

One or more communication systems shall be designed to serve the voice alarm, 
public address and fire department communication system as indicated in Sections 
602.5.1 through 602.5.3. 

602.5.1 Voice alarm system: The operation of any smoke detector, sprinkler, water 
flow device or manual fire alarm station shall automatically activate a voice alarm 
system. Activation of the system shall automatically sound an alert signal to the 
desired areas. The voice alarm system shall provide a predetermined message on a 
selective basis to the area where the alarm originated and shall provide information 
and give direction to the occupants. The alarm shall be designed to be heard clearly 
by all occupants within the building or designated portions thereof as is required for 
the public address system. 

The central control station shall contain controls for the voice alarm system having 
the capability to manually initiate a selective or general voice alarm. 

The system shall be continuously electrically supervised against component failure 
of the audiopath, including amplifiers, speaker wiring, switches and electrical 
contacts and shall detect opens, shorts and grounds which might impair the function 
of the system. 

602.5.2 Public address system: A public address communication system designed 
to be clearly heard by all occupants of the building shall operate from the central 
control station. It shall be established on a selective or general basis to the following 
terminal areas: elevators, elevator lobbies, corridors, exit stairways, rooms and tenant 
spaces exceeding 1,000 square feet in area, dwelling units in Use Group R-2 and 
guest rooms or suites in Use Group R-l. 

602.5.3 Fire department communication system: A two-way fire department 
communication system shall be provided for fire department use. It shall operate 
between the central control station and every elevator, elevator lobby and entry to 
an enclosed exit stairway. 

602.6 Central control station: A central control station for fire department 
operations shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department. It shall 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-9 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



contain the voice alarm and public address system panels; the fire department 
communications panel; fire detection and alarm system annunciator panels; an 
annunciator which visually indicates the floor location of elevators and whether they 
are operational; status indicators and controls for air handling systems; controls for 
unlocking all stairway doors simultaneously; sprinkler valve and water flow detector 
display panels; emergency power, light and system controls; and status indicators and 
a telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone 
system. 

602.7 Smoke control: A smoke control system conforming to Section 1019.2 shall 
be installed. 

602.8 Elevators: Elevator operation and installation shall be in accordance with 
Article 26. Elevator service shall be provided for fire department emergency access 
to all floors. Said elevator cab shall be of such size to accommodate an ambulance 
cot 24 inches by 76 inches in its horizontal open position. Except for the main 
entrance level, all elevators shall open into a lobby separated from the remainder 
of the building by 1-hour fireresistance rated construction. Exit stairways, chutes, 
janitor closets, tenant spaces in Use Group R and service rooms shall not open into 
the elevator lobby. In use groups other than R, tenant spaces opening directly into 
the elevator lobby shall be provided with other means of exit access that does not 
require passage through the elevator lobby. 

Exception: Elevator lobbies are not required when a smoke control system is 
installed in accordance with Section 1019.3. 

602.9 Standby power, light and emergency systems: Standby power, light and 
emergency systems shall comply with the requirements of Sections 602.9.1 through 
602.9.3. 

602.9.1 Standby power: A standby power system conforming to 527 CMR (12.00) 
and/or NFiPA 70, article 701, as applicable, shall be provided. If the standby system 
is a generator set inside a building, it shall be located in a separate room of 2-hour 
fireresistance rated construction. System supervision with manual start and transfer 
features shall be provided at the central control station. 

602.9.1.1 Fuel supply: An on-premises fuel supply sufficient for not less than 2 
hours full demand operation of the system shall be provided. 

Exception: Where the system is supplied with pipeline natural gas and is 
approved. 



6-10 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



602.9.1 .2 Capacity: The standby system shall have a capacity and rating that would 
supply all equipment required to be operational at the same time. The generating 
capacity need not be sized to operate all the connected electrical equipment 
simultaneously. 

602.9.1.3 Connected facilities: All power, lighting, signal and communication 
facilities specified in Sections 602.4, 602.5, 602.6, 602.7, 602.8 and 602.9 as applicable, 
and electrically-powered fire pumps required to maintain pressure, shall be 
transferable to the standby source. Service shall be provided for access to all floors 
by at least one elevator when standby power is connected. 

Exception: Smoke control systems in accordance with Section 1019.1.2. 

602.9.2 Separate circuits and fixtures: Separate lighting circuits and fixtures shall 
be required to provide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than 1 footcandle 
measured at floor level in all egress corridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, 
elevator cars and lobbies and other areas which are clearly a part of the escape 
route. 

602.9.2.1 Other circuits: All circuits supplying lighting for the central control 
station and mechanical equipment rooms shall be transferable to the standby source. 

602.9.3 Emergency systems: Exit signs, exit illumination as required by Section 
824.0, and elevator car lighting, are classified as emergency systems and shall operate 
within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power supply. 

602.10 Exits: Exits shall comply with other requirements of this code and Sections 
602.10.1 and 602.10.2. 

602.10.1 Door operation: All stairway doors which are to be locked from the 
stairway side shall have the capability of being unlocked simultaneously without 
unlatching upon a signal from the central control station. 

602.10.2 Stairway communication system: A telephone or other two-way 
communications system connected to an approved emergency service which 
operates continuously shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each 
required stairway where other provisions of this code permit the doors to be locked. 

602.11 Seismic consideration: Anchorage of elevator drive and suspension 
systems, emergency power and lighting facilities, fire pumps and all other fire 
protection equipment and systems shall be designed in accordance with Section 
1113.0. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-1 1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 603.0 HPM USE FACILITIES 

603.1 Scope: The provisions of these sections shall apply to buildings and structures 
using hazardous production materials (HPM), such as in semiconductor fabrication 
facilities and areas of comparable research and development. Except as specifically 
required by this section, such buildings shall comply with the applicable requirements 
of this code. The specific code provisions of Sections 306.0, 502.3 and Tables 808 and 
902 applicable to high hazard use shall not apply unless stated herein. 

603.1.1 Fab area, general: A fabrication area (fab area) is one in which there are 
processes involving hazardous production materials, and includes ancillary rooms or 
areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are supplemental to the area processes. 

603.1.2 Allowable heights, stories and area: The allowable height, number of 
stories and basic areas permitted for buildings and structures used for facilities using 
HPM shall not exceed the limits specified in Table 603.1.2. The provisions of Section 
504.0 shall not apply. The area limitations are for one- or two-story buildings facing 
on one street or public space not less than 30 feet wide. The increases permitted in 
Sections 502.2 and 502.3 shall apply. 

Table 603.1.2 

HEIGHT, NUMBER OF STORIES AND AREA 

LIMITATION FOR HPM USE FACILITIES 



Type of 


Number of stories 


Height (feet) 


Area in square 


construction 






feet/floor 


1Aand 1B 


3 


55 


Unlimited 


2A 


3 


55 


34,200 


2B 


3 


55 


22,500 


2C 


3 


40 


14,400 


3A 


3 


50 


19,800 


3B 


3 


40 


14,400 


4 


3 


55 


21,600 


5A 


3 


40 


15,300 


5B 


2 


30 


7,200 



603.1 .3 Fab area size: The size of a fab area shall be determined by the density of 
the HPM in that space. The density of HPM shall not exceed that specified in Table 
603.1.3b. The total quantity of HPM permitted shall be based on the densities in 
Table 603.1.3b, or the quantities in Table 603.1.3a, whichever is the larger amount. 

603.1.4 Egress: There shall be not less than two means of egress provided for any 
fab area or any HPM use facility subdivision thereof larger than 200 square feet. The 
maximum length of exit access travel in HPM use facilities shall be 100 feet. 



6-12 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



Table 603.1.3a 

PERMITTED QUANTITIES OF HPM IN A 

SINGLE FABRICATION AREA 



Material 


Maximum quantity 


Flammable liquids 




Class 1-A 


90 gal. 


Class 1-B 


180 gal. 


Class 1-C 


270 gal. 


Combination flammable liquids 




containing not more than the exempt 




amounts of Class 1-A, 1-B or 1-C 




flammable liquids 


360 gal. 


Combustible liquids 




Class II 


360 gal. 


Class lll-A 


750 gal. 


Flammable gases 


9,000 cu. ft. at one atmosphere of 




pressure at 70° degrees F. 


Liquified flammable gases 


180 gal. 


Flammable solids 


1,500 lbs. 


Corrosive liquids 


165 gal. 


Oxidizing material - gases 


18,000 cu. ft. 


Oxidizing material - liquids 


150 gal. 


Oxidizing material-solids 


1,500 lbs. 


Organic peroxides 


30 lbs. 


Highly toxic material and 


Included in the aggregate for 


poisonous gas 


flammables as noted above 



Table 603.1.3b 

PERMITTED QUANTITIES OF HPM IN A 

SINGLE HPM USE FACILITY - DENSITY BASIS BC 



State 



Units 



Flammable 



Oxidizer 



Corrosive 



Solid 

Liquid 

Gas 



Ibs/sq.ft. 
gal/sq.ft. 
cf/sq.ft. 



0.001 
0.04° 
1.250 



0.003 
0.03 
1.250 



0.003 
0.08 
3.000 



Note a. HPM within piping shali not be induced in the caiculaied quantities. 

Note b. The maximum permitted quantities of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the 

following quantities: 

Class (l-A)+(I-B) + (I-C)(Combination flammable liquids) = .025 

however Class I-A shall not exceed = .0025 
Class II = .01 

Class III-A = .02 

Note cHighly toxic materials and poisonous gases shall be limited by the maximum quantities specified 
in Table 603.1.3a. 



Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



6-13 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



603.1.5 Separation: Fab areas shall be separated from each other, from egress 
corridors, and from other parts of the building by not less than 1-hour fireresistance 
rated assemblies in compliance with Section 903.1, with fire doors complying with 
Section 916.0. Floors forming part of the required separation shall be liquid-tight. 

603.1.6 Floors: Floors within fab areas shall be of noncombustible construction. 
Unprotected openings through floors of fab areas are permitted when the 
interconnected levels are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related to 
such fab areas. 

Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fab area shall not extend through 
more than two floors. Penetrations shall be effectively draftstopped at the floor level. 
The fab area, including the areas through which ductwork and piping extend, shall 
be considered a single conditioned space or fire area. 

603.1.7 Ventilation, general: Ventilation systems shall comply with the BOCA 
National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A except as otherwise provided herein. 
Ventilation including recirculated air shall be provided throughout the fab area at 
the rate of not less than 1 cfm per square foot of floor area. 

603.1.7.1 Interconnection: The exhaust system of one fab area shall not connect 
to another exhaust system outside that fab area within the building. The return air 
system from one fab area shall not connect to any other system. 

603.1.7.2 Smoke detectors: Smoke detectors shall be installed in the recirculating 
air stream and shall initiate a signal at the emergency control station. 

603.1 .7.3 Shutoff switches: Automatic shutoffs are not required to be installed on 
air-moving equipment. A manually-operated remote switch to shut off the fab area 
supply or recirculation air system, or both, shall be provided at an approved location 
outside the fab area. 

603.1.7.4 Gas detection: When HPM gas is used or dispensed and the 
physiological warning properties for the gas are at a higher level than the accepted 
permissible exposure limit for the gas, a continuous gas-monitoring system shall be 
provided to detect the presence of a short-term hazard condition. When dispensing 
occurs with the possibility of generating flammable gases or vapors in quantities 
exceeding 20 percent of the lower explosive limit, a continuous gas-monitoring 
system shall be provided. The monitoring system shall be connected to the 
emergency control station. 

603.1.8 Transporting HPM: HPM shall be transported to fab areas through 
enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Section 603.5, through service 
passages, or in egress corridors as permitted in the exception to Section 603.2. 

6-14 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



603.1.9 Electrical: Electrical equipment and devices within the fab area shall 
comply with NFiPA 70 listed in Appendix A. The requirements for hazardous 
locations need not be applied when the average rate of air change is at least 4 cfm 
per square foot of floor area and when the rate of air change at any location is not 
less than 3 cfm per square foot. 

603.2 Egress corridors: Egress corridors shall comply with Section 810.4 and shall 
be separated from fab areas as specified in Section 603.1.5. Egress corridors shall not 
be used for transporting HPM except as provided in Section 603.5.2. 

Exception: In existing HPM use facilities, when there are alterations or 
modifications to existing fab areas, the transportation of HPM in egress 
corridors shall be permitted when all the following requirements are met: 

1. Corridors adjacent to the fab area under alteration shall comply with 
Table 401, item 7, for a length determined as follows: 

a. The length of the common wall of the corridor and that fab area, 
and 

b. For the distance along the egress corridor to the point of entry of 
HPM into the egress corridor serving that fab area. 

2. There shall not be openings between an egress corridor and an HPM 
storage cabinet in a fab area other than those in compliance with all of 
the following: 

a. 1-hour fire doors are installed between the egress corridor and the 
cabinet. 

b. The cabinet is enclosed with a 1-hour fireresistance rated assembly 
between it and the corridor. 

c. The cabinet shall be internally sprinklered. 

603.3 Service passages: Service passages shall be considered as HPM use 
facilities. Service passages shall be separated from egress corridors as required by 
Section 603.1.5. 

603.3.1 Ventilation: Service passages shall be ventilated as required by Section 
603.1.7. 

603.3.2 Egress: There shall be not less than two means of egress from a service 
passage. Not more than one-half of the required means of egress shall be into the 
fab area. Doors from service passages shall be self-closing and swing in the direction 
of egress travel. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-15 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



603.3.3 Travel distance: The maximum distance of travel from any point in a 
service passage to an exit or door into a fab area shall not exceed 75 feet. Dead ends 
shall not exceed 4 feet in length. 

603.3.4 Alarms: Alarms shall be provided in accordance with Section 603.4.5. 

603.4 Storage of HPM, general: Rooms used for the storage of HPM in quantities 
greater than that set forth in Table 306.2.1 , except for that permitted within a fab 
area, shall comply with the provisions of NFiPA 30 listed in Appendix A, provided 
that the area of an HPM cutoff room shall not exceed 6,000 square feet (558 m 2 ). 
The storage area for any liquid HPM shall be provided with drains. 

603.4.1 Location within building: When HPM cutoff rooms are provided, they shall 
be not less than 30 feet from lot lines. 

603.4.2 HPM drainage systems: Drainage systems shall be provided to direct 
liquid leakage and fire protection water to a safe location away from the building, 
any important valve or adjojning property. HPM flammable liquid drains shall be 
separated from other HPM liquid drains. Other HPM liquids in drains that are not 
compatible shall be separated from each other, provided that they are permitted to 
be combined when they have been rendered acceptable for discharge by an approved 
means into the public sewers. 

603.4.3 Egress: There shall be two means of egress from a separate inside HPM 
storage room when the room exceeds 200 square feet in area. When two means of 
egress are required from HPM cutoff rooms, one shall be directly to the outside of 
the building. All storage room egress doors shall be self-closing and swing in the 
direction of egress travel. 

603.4.4 Ventilation: Exhaust ventilation shall be provided in accordance with 
Section 603.1.7 for all categories of HPM. 

603.4.5 Emergency alarm: An emergency telephone system or local fire protective 
signaling system station shall be installed outside of each interior egress door from 
HPM cutoff rooms. The signal shall be relayed to the emergency control station and 
a local signaling device provided. 

603.4.6 Electrical: HPM cutoff rooms containing flammable liquids or gases shall 
be classified as Class I, Division 1 hazardous locations in accordance with NFiPA 70 
listed in Appendix A. 

603.4.7 Gas detection: Gas detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 
603.1.7.4. 



6-16 corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



t>PtOlAL Ubt AWU UOUUPANUT HtUUIHtWltN I b 



603.5 Piping and tubing: HPM piping and tubing shall comply with this section and 
shall be installed in accordance with ASME B31.3 listed in Appendix A. 

603.5.1 General: Piping and tubing systems shall be metallic unless the material 
being transported is incompatible with such system. Systems supplying gaseous HPM, 
having a health hazard of 3 or 4 as ranked by NFiPA 704 listed in Appendix A, shall 
be welded throughout, except for connections, valves and fittings which are within 
an exhausted enclosure. HPM supply piping or tubing in service passages shall be 
exposed to view. 

603.5.2 Installation in egress corridors or above other use groups: HPM shall 
not be located within egress corridors or above areas not containing HPM use 
facilities except as permitted by this section. HPM piping and tubing shall be 
permitted within the space defined by the walls of egress corridors and the floor or 
roof above, or in concealed spaces above other use groups under the following 
conditions: 

1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the space unless the space 
is less than 6 inches in least dimension. 

2. Ventilation at not less than 6 air changes per hour shall be provided. The 
space shall not be used to convey air from any other area. 

3. All HPM supply piping and tubing and HPM nonmetallic waste lines shall 
be separated from the egress corridor and from any use group other than 
an HPM use facility by construction having a fireresistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour as permitted for walls or partitions. When gypsum 
wallboard is used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure need not be 
taped, provided the joints occur over framing members. 

4. When the piping or tubing is used to transport HPM liquids, a receptor 
shall be installed below such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be 
designed to collect any discharge or leakage and drain it to an approved 
location. The 1-hour enclosure required by item 3 herein shall not be used 
as part of the receptor. 

5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely-activated fail-safe 
emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on piping and tubing, other 
than waste lines, at the following locations: 

a. At branch connections into the fab area; 

b. At entries into egress corridors. 

6. Where HPM supply gas is carried in pressurized piping, a fail-safe system 
for excess flow control shall shut off flow due to a rupture in the piping. 

7. Electrical wiring and equipment located in the piping space shall be 
approved for Class I, Division 2 hazardous locations in accordance with 
NFiPA 70 listed in Appendix A. 

8. Gas detection shall be provided per Section 603.1.7.4. 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6_17 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Exceptions to items 1 through 8: Transverse crossings of the corridors by 
supply piping coaxially enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for the 
width of the corridor. An enclosing pipe or tube open to an HPM use 
facility is permitted. 

603.5.3 Identification: Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines shall be identified in 
accordance with ANSI A 13.1 listed in Appendix A. 

SECTION 604.0 MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 

604.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to air-supported, 
air-inflated, membrane-covered cable and membrane-covered frame structures, 
collectively known as membrane structures, erected for a period of 90 days or longer. 
Those erected for a shorter period of time shall comply with applicable provisions 
of the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed in Appendix A and 
G, respectively, and Section 626.0. Membrane structures covering water storage 
facilities, water clarifiers, water treatment plants, sewage treatment plants, and 
similar facilities not used for human occupancy are required to meet only the 
requirements of Section 604.2.2 and Section 604.5 of this section. 

604.2 Construction requirements: Construction of membrane structures shall 
comply with Sections 604.2.1 through 604.2.5. 

604.2.1 Type of construction: All noncombustible membrane structures shall be 
classified as Type 2C construction. Noncombustible frame- or cable- supported 
structures covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 604.2.2 
shall be classified as Type 2C construction. Heavy timber frame-supported structures 
covered by an approved membrane in accordance with Section 604.2.2 shall be 
classified as Type 3B construction. A noncombustible membrane structure used 
exclusively as a roof and located more than 20 feet above any floor, balcony or 
gallery is deemed to comply with the roof construction for Type 1 and Type 2 
construction, provided that such a structure complies with the requirements 

of this section. All other membrane structures shall be classified as Type 5B 
construction. 

604.2.2 Membrane material: Membranes shall be either noncombustible as defined 
by Section 903.4, or flameresistant conforming to NFiPA 701 listed in Appendix A. 

Exception: Plastic less than 20-mil thickness used in greenhouses when 
occupancy by the general public is not permitted and for aquaculture pond 
covers are not required to be flameresistant. 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



604.2.3 Applicability Of Other provisions: Except as otherwise specifically required 
by this section, membrane structures shall meet all applicable provisions of this code. 
The membrane shall meet roof covering requirements of Section 2301.3. 

604.2.4 Allowable floor areas: The area of a membrane structure shall not exceed 
the limits set forth in Table 501, except as provided in Section 502.0. 

604.2.5 Maximum height: Membrane structures shall not exceed one story nor shall 
they exceed the height limits in feet set forth in Table 501. 

Exception: Noncombustible membrane structures serving as roof construction 
only. 

604.3 Inflation systems: Air-supported and air-inflated structures shall be provided 
with primary and auxiliary inflation systems to meet the minimum requirements of 
Sections 604.3.1 and 604.3.2. 

604.3.1 Equipment requirements: The inflation system shall consist of one or more 
blowers and shall include provisions for automatic control to maintain the required 
inflation pressures. The system shall be so designed as to prevent overpressurization 
of the system. 

In addition to the primary inflation system, in buildings exceeding 1,500 square feet 
in area, an auxiliary inflation system shall be provided with sufficient capacity to 
maintain the inflation of the structure in case of primary system failure. The auxiliary 
inflation system shall operate automatically if there is a loss of internal pressure or 
if the primary blower system becomes inoperative. 

Blower equipment shall meet the following requirements: 

1. Blowers shall be powered by continuous rated motors at the maximum 
power required for any flow condition as required by the structural 
design. 

2. Blowers shall be provided with inlet screens, belt guards and other 
protective devices as required by the building official to provide 
protection from injury. 

3. Blowers shall be housed within a weather-protecting structure. 

4. Blowers shall be equipped with backdraft check dampers to minimize air 
loss when inoperative. 

5. Blower inlets shall be located to provide protection from air 
contamination. Location of inlets shall be approved by the building 
official. 

604.3.2 Standby power: Whenever an auxiliary inflation system is required, an 
approved standby power generating system shall be provided. The system shall be 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



equipped with a suitable means for automatically starting the generator set upon 
failure of the normal electrical service and for automatic transfer and operation of 
all the required electrical functions at full power within 60 seconds of such normal 
service failure. Standby power shall be capable of operating independently for a 
minimum of 4 hours. 

604.4 Support provisions: A system capable of supporting the membrane in the 
event of deflation shall be provided in all air-supported and air-inflated structures 
having an occupant load of more than 50 or when covering a swimming pool 
regardless of occupant load. The support system shall be capable of maintaining 
membrane structures used as a roof for Type 1 or Type 2 construction not less than 
20 feet above floor or seating areas. The support system shall be capable of 
maintaining all other membranes at least 7 feet above the floor, seating area or 
surface of the water. 

604.5 Engineering design: All membrane structures shall be structurally designed 
in accordance with criteria approved by the building official and developed by an 
engineer or architect licensed by the state to practice as such. 

SECTION 605.0 MEZZANINES 

605.1 General: A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance with this section shall be 
considered a portion of the floor below. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to the 
building area as regulated by Section 501.2. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to 
the number of stories or height as regulated by Section 501.3. 

605.2 Area limit: The aggregate area of a mezzanine or mezzanines within a story 
shall not exceed one-third of the area of that story. 

Exception: The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and structures of 
Type 1 or 2 construction for special industrial uses according to Section 
501.1.1 shall not exceed two-thirds of the area of that story. 

605.3 Egress: Each occupant of a mezzanine with an occupant load of more than 
50 or in which the travel distance to an exit exceeds 75 feet shall have access to at 
least two independent means of egress. 

SECTION 606.0 OPEN WELLS 

606.1 General: The term "open well" shall mean a floor opening, series of floor 
openings or an atrium connecting two or more stories which does not meet 
requirements for a covered shaft with respect to enclosure. Open wells are to be 
classified as either atriums (Section 606.2) or floor openings (Section 606.3) and 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



shall be permitted in all buildings in other than Use Group H when provided with 
the protection herein required. 

Exceptions: The provisions of this section shall not apply to the following: 

1. Stairways permitted to be unenclosed in accordance with Section 816.9.2. 

2. In other than Use Group I, openings which serve only one adjacent floor, 
are not connected with an exit access corridor, not connected with 
openings serving other floors and are not concealed within the building 
construction. 

606.1.1 Fire suppression: An approved, electrically supervised automatic fire 
suppression system shall be installed throughout all floor areas connected by the 
open well in accordance with the provisions of Article 10, except those floor areas 
separated from the open well by fire separation assemblies conforming to Table 401 
and for floor openings meeting the exceptions in Section 606.3. 

606.1.2 Use: The floor of the open well shall not be used for other than low fire 
hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations shall be used in the open 
well space. 

Exception: The use of the open well floor area for any approved purpose shall 
not be restricted when the individual space is provided with an approved 
automatic fire suppression system. 

606.2 Atriums: Atriums shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 606.2.1 
through 606.2.4. 

606.2.1 Smoke control: A smoke control system complying with Section 1019.5 
shall be installed in all atriums that connect more than two stories. 

606.2.2 Enclosure of atriums: Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent 
spaces by a 1-hour fire separation wall as required for corridors. 

Exceptions: 

1. In residential occupancies, protected openings are not required when the 
floor area of each guest room or dwelling unit does not exceed 1,000 
square feet and each room or unit has an approved means of egress not 
entering the atrium. 

2. Adjacent spaces shall be separated from the atrium by fire windows or by 
a tempered, wired or laminated glass wall subject to the following: 

a. The glass shall be protected by a specially designed automatic fire 
sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall completely wet the 
entire surface of the glass wall when actuated. When there are 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



walking surfaces on both sides of the glass, both sides of the glass 
shall be so protected. 

b. The glass shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a 
manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking 
(loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates. 

c. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, 
curtains,drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between 
the sprinkler heads and the glass. 

3. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be 
required to be separated from the atrium; however, these spaces shall be 
included in the atrium volume for the design of the smoke control system 
(see Section 1019.5). 

606.2.3 Alarm: In all buildings with an atrium, an automatic fire detection system 
shall be required. The alarm shall be initiated by either the fire suppression system 
or the activation of two or more smoke detectors in the atrium. Such buildings of 
Use Group A, E or M shall be provided with voice alarms complying with the 
requirements of Section 602.5.1. 

606.2.4 Travel distance: In other than the lowest level of the atrium, when the 
required means of egress is through the atrium space, the exit access travel distance 
shall not exceed 150 feet. 

606.3 Floor openings: Floor openings including unenclosed supplemental stairways 
or escalators conforming to Section 2617.3 shall be permitted when protected on 
every floor pierced by the opening in accordance with Sections 606.3.1 and 606.3.2. 

Exception: In buildings having an approved automatic fire suppression system 
throughout, escalator openings which are protected by a draft curtain and a 
closed sprinkler water curtain conforming to NFiPA 13 listed in Appendix A. 

606.3.1 Smoke control: A smoke control system conforming to Section 1019.6 shall 
be installed. 

606.3.2 Draftstop: An approved draftstop shall be installed at each story of the 
floor opening. The draftstop shall enclose the perimeter of the opening and shall 
extend from the ceiling downward at least 18 inches on all sides. Automatic 
sprinklers shall be provided around the perimeter of the opening and within 2 feet 
of the draftstop. The distance between the sprinklers shall not exceed 6 feet center 
to center. 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 607.0 OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 

607.1 General: Open passenger vehicle parking structures are those structures used 
for the parking or storage of passenger motor vehicles designed to carry not more 
than nine persons, wherein two or more sides of such structures are not less than 50 
percent open on each floor or level for 50 percent of the distance from the floor to 
the ceiling, and wherein provision for the repairing of such vehicles is not made and 
include the two general types indicated in Sections 607.1.1 and 607.1.2. Open parking 
structures are not classified as public garages. 

607.1.1 Ramp-type parking structures: Ramp-type parking structures are those 
employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps 
between floors permitting the movement of passenger automobiles under their own 
power to and from the street level. 

607.1.2 Mechanical-type parking structures: Mechanical-type parking structures 
are those employing specially designed parking machines, elevators, lifts, conveyors, 
moving cranes, dollies or other devices for moving passenger automobiles to and 
from the street level. 

607.2 General construction requirements: Passenger vehicle structures shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials throughout, including structural framing, 
floors, roofs and walls. Any enclosed rooms or spaces on the premises shall comply 
with the applicable requirements of this code. 

607.3 Basements: Basements which are not classified as open parking structures 
in accordance with Section 607.1 but are used for parking vehicles shall be 
sprinklered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1002.0 and shall be 
ventilated in accordance with the mechanical code listed in Appendix A. 

607.4 Fuel dispensing: Areas where fuel is dispensed shall conform to the 
requirements of Section 609.4. 

607.5 Heights and areas: Heights and areas of open parking structures shall not 
exceed the limits specified in Table 607, except that when at least 50 percent open 
on all sides and when the horizontal distance from any point on any level to an 
exterior wall opening on a street, alley, courtyard or any other permanent open 
space does not exceed 200 feet, the maximum height of open parking structures of 
Type 2B and 2C construction shall be 75 feet and the area shall not be limited. 



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Table 607 
HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATION FOR OPEN PARKING STRUCTURES 



Type of Construction 


Height 


Area in Square Feet 


1Aand 1B 


Unlimited 


Unlimited 


2A 


12 Stories - 120 Feet 


Unlimited 


2B 


10 Stories - 100 Feet 


50,000 


2C 


8 Stories - 85 Feet 


50,000 


2B and 2C 


2 Stories - 25 Feet a 


Unlimited 



Note a. For exceptions to height and area limitations, see Section 607.5. 

The allowable areas of structures wherein more than 25 percent of the perimeter has 
frontage on street or other open space leading to a street, each of which is not less 
than 30 feet wide, shall be increased as provided in Section 502.2. When an 
automatic sprinkler system is installed in accordance with Section 1004.0 in Types 
2B and 2C construction, the area shall be unlimited. The above limits of height 
permit parking on the roof. 

607.6 Protective guardrails: All wells, shafts and other open, exposed spaces 
throughout, except first floor, shall be enclosed and protected with continuous walls 
or protective guardrails constructed in accordance with Section 827.0, except that in 
those structures wherein vehicles are hoisted to the desired level and placed in the 
parking space entirely by approved mechanical means, the continuous wall or 
protective guardrail is not required on the side of the parking levels adjacent to the 
space occupied by the hoisting and placing equipment. 

607.7 Wheel guards: Wheel guards made of noncombustible material shall be 
placed wherever required. 

607.8 Means Of egress: For means of egress requirements, see Section 809.5. 

607.9 Standpipe systems: For standpipe requirements, see Section 1012.2.9. 

SECTION 608.0 PRIVATE GARAGES 

608.1 Attached garages: Private garages located beneath rooms in buildings of Use 
Groups R-l, R-2 or R-3 shall have walls, partitions, floors and ceilings separating the 
garage space from the adjacent interior spaces constructed of not less than 1 -hour 
fireresistance rating. Attached private garages shall be completely separated from the 
adjacent interior spaces and the attic area by means of Vfc-inch gypsum board or 
equivalent applied to the garage side. The sills of all door openings between the 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



garage and adjacent interior spaces shall be raised not less than 4 inches above the 
garage floor. The door opening protectives shall be l 3 /4-inch solid core wood doors 
or approved equivalent. 

608.1.1 Separation by breezeway: Where a garage separated by a breezeway not 
less than 10 feet in length from a building of Use Group R-3 is of Type 5B 
construction, the junction of the garage and breezeway shall be firestopped to 
comply with Section 921.0. 

608.2 Other conditions: All private garages not falling within the purview of 
Sections 608.1 or 608.1.1 attached to or located beneath a building shall comply with 
the requirements of Section 313.0 for public garages. 

608.3 Means of egress: Where living quarters are located above a private garage, 
required means of egress facilities shall be separated from the garage area with 
1-hour fireresistance rated construction. 

SECTION 609.0 PUBLIC GARAGES 

609.1 General: Public garages shall comply with the applicable requirements of this 
section. The portions of such buildings and structures in which paint spraying is done 
shall comply with the requirements of Section 622.0. 

609.2 Construction: All Group 1 public garages hereafter erected shall be classified 
as Use Group S-l and all Group 2 public garages shall be classified as Use Group 
S-2 and both shall conform to the height and area limitations of Table 501 except 
as herein specifically provided. 

609.2.1 Special height limitations: Public garage buildings shall comply with the 
height and area limitations of Table 501 for the classification of the use as specified 
in Section 609.2. The height limitations shall be increased one additional story when 
the building is equipped with an approved automatic fire suppression system. 

609.2.2 Basements: The first floor construction of public garages of all 
classifications and public hangars with basements shall be constructed of not less 
than 2-hour fireresistance rating and shall be water- and vapor-proof. Where 
openings are provided in the floor, they shall be protected by a curb or ramp not less 
than 6 inches high above the floor to avoid the accumulation of explosive liquids or 
vapors and prevent spilling to the lower floor. There shall be not less than two 
means of egress from such areas. 

609.2.3 Roof storage of motor vehicles: When the roof of a building is used for 
parking or storage of motor vehicles, it shall be provided with a parapet wall or a 
guardrail constructed in accordance with Section 827.0 and a wheel guard not less 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-25 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



than 6 inches in height, located so as to prevent any vehicle from striking the 
parapet wall or guardrail. 

609.2.4 Floor construction and drainage: Floors of public garages and airplane 
hangars shall be graded to drain through oil separators or traps to avoid 
accumulation of explosive vapors in building drains or sewers as provided in the 
Massachusetts State Plumbing Code (248 CMR 2.00) listed in Appendix G. The 
floor finish shall be of concrete or other approved nonabsorbent, noncombustible 
material. 

Exception: Floor drains are not required for detached public garages for the 
storage of four or less commercial motor vehicles without provision for 
repairing or servicing such vehicles nor the dispensing of gasoline, oil, or 
similar products. 

609.3 Fuel dispensing areas: Fuel dispensing areas shall be located on the level 
nearest grade. Public garages with fuel dispensing areas shall be completely 
separated from any other use, both horizontally and vertically, by fire separation 
walls and floor/ceiling assemblies having a minimum fireresistance rating of 2 hours. 
The floors of the fuel dispensing areas shall be graded to a floor drainage system 
such that any fuel spill or leak is contained within the area. The drainage system 
shall conform to the requirements of the Massachusetts State Plumbing Code (248 
CMR 2.00) listed in Appendix G. The fuel dispensing area shall be protected with 
an approved automatic fire suppression system in accordance with Section 1002.10. 

609.3.1 Fuel dispensing systems: All fuel dispensing and storage systems shall 
conform to the requirements of the mechanical code listed in Appendix A. 

609.4 Ventilation: All public garages shall be ventilated in accordance with the 
BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. Fuel dispensing areas shall 
be mechanically ventilated. 

609.5 Special hazards: Any process conducted in conjunction with public garages 
involving volatile flammable solvents shall be segregated or located in a detached 
building or structure, except as provided in Section 619.0 for the storage and 
handling of gasoline and other volatile flammables. The quantity of flammable 
liquids stored or handled in public garages other than in underground storage and 
in the tanks of motor vehicles shall be not more than 5 gallons in approved safety 
cans. 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 610.0 USE GROUP I-2 

610.1 General: All buildings or portions thereof of Use Group 1-2 shall comply 
with the provisions of this section and all other applicable provisions of this code. 

610.2 Specific use areas: The specific use areas listed in Table 610.2 shall be 
separated from other areas of buildings of Use Group 1-2 in accordance with the 
requirements of Table 610.2. 

610.2.1 Separation walls: Where the separation walls around specific use areas are 
not required to have a fireresistance rating by Table 610.2, the separation walls shall 
be constructed of materials consistent with the building type of construction and be 
capable of resisting the passage of smoke. The separation walls shall extend from the 
floor to the underside of a fireresistance rated floor/ceiling assembly or to the 
floor/roof deck above. All doors shall be self-closing or automatic closing upon 
detection of smoke. Doors in walls required to be fireresistance rated shall have a 
minimum fireresistance rating of 3 A hour and shall comply with Section 916.0. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-27 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 610.2 
SPECIFIC USE AREAS WITHIN AN I-2 USE 



Room or area 


Separation/Protection 


Boiler and heater rooms 


2-hour; or 1 -hour and automatic fire 
suppression 


Employee locker rooms 


1 -hour; or automatic fire suppression 
with separation walls 


Gift/retail shops 


1 -hour; or automatic fire suppression 
with separation walls 


Handicraft shops 


1 -hour; or automatic fire suppression 
with separation walls 


Kitchens 


1 -hour; or automatic fire suppression 
with separation walls 


Laboratories which employ hazardous 
materials but such materials are in 
quantities less than that which would 
cause classification as Use Group H 


1 -hour; or automatic fire suppression 
with separation walls 


Laundries greater than 1 00 square feet 


1-hour and automatic fire suppression 


Paint shops employing hazardous 
substances and material in quantities 
less than that which would cause 
classification as Use Group H 


2-hour or 1 -hour and automatic fire 
suppression 


Physical plant maintenance shop 


2-hour or 1 -hour and automatic fire 
suppression 


Soiled linen room 


1 -hour and automatic fire suppression 


Storage rooms more than 50 square 
feet in area but not more than 1 00 
square feet in area storing 
combustible material 


1 -hour or automatic fire suppression 
with separation walls 


Storage rooms more than 100 
square feet storing 
combustible material 


1 -hour and automatic fire suppression 


Trash collection rooms 


1 -hour and automatic fire suppression 



61 0.3 Corridors: All corridors in buildings of Use Group 1-2 shall be continuous to 
the exits and separated from all other use areas except waiting areas, nurses' 
stations, and mental health treatment areas conforming to Sections 610.3.1 through 
610.3.5. 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



610.3.1 Waiting areas on patient sleeping floors: Waiting areas on patient 
sleeping floors shall not be open to the corridor, except where: 

1. The area does not exceed 250 square feet; and 

2. The area is located to permit direct supervision by facility staff; and 

3. The area is equipped with an approved electrically supervised smoke 
detection system; and 

4. Not more than one such waiting area is permitted in any one smoke 
compartment; and 

5. The area is arranged not to obstruct access to required exits; and 

6. The walls and ceiling of the space are constructed as required for 
corridors. 

610.3.2 Waiting areas on other floors: Waiting areas on the floors other than 
patient sleeping floors shall not be open to the corridor, except where: 

1. Each area does not exceed 600 square feet; and 

2. The area is located to permit direct supervision by the facility staff; and 

3. The area is arranged not to obstruct access to required exits; and 

4. The area is equipped with an approved electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system; and 

5. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for 
corridors. 

610.3.3 Waiting areas in sprinklered buildings: In buildings equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic fire suppression system, spaces constructed as required 
for corridors shall not be open to a corridor, except where: 

1. The spaces are not used for patient sleeping rooms, treatment rooms or 
hazardous areas as defined in Section 610.2; and 

2. Each space is located to permit direct supervision by the facility staff; and 

3. The space and corridors which the space opens onto in the same smoke 
compartment are protected by an approved electrically supervised 
automatic smoke detection system; and 

4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to required exits. 

610.3.4 Nurses' stations: Space for doctors' and nurses' charting, communications 
and related clerical areas shall not be open to the corridor, except where the space 
is constructed as required for corridors. 

610.3.5 Mental health treatment areas: Areas wherein only mental health patients 
who are capable of self-preservation are housed, group meeting or multi-purpose 
therapeutic spaces, other than specific use areas as defined in Section 610.2, under 
continuous supervision by facility staff, shall not be open to the corridor, except 
where: 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet; and 

2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff; and 

3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to required exits; 
and 

4. The area is equipped with an approved electrically supervised automatic 
smoke detection system; and 

5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke 
compartment; and 

6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for 
corridors. 

610.4 Corridor walls: Corridor walls shall have a 1-hour fireresistance rating 
extending from the floor to the underside of the floor or roof deck above. In 
buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system, 
the corridor wall fireresistance rating is not required provided the corridor walls 
form a barrier to limit the transfer of smoke. The walls shall extend from the floor 
to the underside of the floor or roof deck above or to the underside of the 
fireresistance rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly above when the ceiling 
membrane is constructed to limit the transfer of smoke. 

610.4.1 Corridor doors: All doors shall conform to Section 916.0. Doors to patient 
sleeping rooms shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection. All other doors shall 
be self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection. In buildings equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system, corridor doors other 
than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 610.2 or for the enclosure of a 
vertical opening shall not have a required fireresistance rating, but shall provide an 
effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke. In buildings equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic fire suppression system, all doors except those to 
sleeping rooms shall be self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection. 

61 0.4.2 Locking devices: Locking devices which restrict access to the patient room 
from the corridor, which are operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not 
restrict egress from the patient room except for mental health patient rooms. 

61 0.5 Smoke barrier: Each floor of a building of Use Group 1-2 shall have at least 
one smoke barrier creating not less than two compartments per floor with a 
maximum compartment length and width of 150 feet. The smoke barrier shall be in 
accordance with Section 911.0. 

610.5.1 Refuge area: At least 30 net square feet per occupant shall be provided 
within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or 
dining areas and other low hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier. On 
floors not housing bed or litter patients at least 6 net square feet per occupant shall 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants 
in adjoining compartments. 

61 0.5.2 Independent egress: A means of egress shall be provided from each 
compartment created by smoke barriers without returning through the compartment 
from which egress originated. 

610.6 Smoke/heat detectors: An automatic fire alarm system conforming to 
Section 1018.0 shall be provided in patient sleeping rooms, corridors and common 
spaces open to the corridor as permitted by Section 610.3. Heat detectors shall be 
provided in unsprinklered specific use areas listed in Section 610.2 and shall sound 
a local alarm at a constantly attended location. 

610.6.1 Rooms: Patient sleeping rooms shall be provided with a smoke detector 
permanently connected to house current and complying with the requirements of UL 
217 or UL 268 listed in Appendix A. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on 
the corridor side of each patient room and shall provide an audible and visual alarm 
at the nursing station attending that room. Where such detectors and related devices 
are not combined with the nursing call system, the total system shall be electrically 
supervised. 

Exception: Smoke detectors are not required in patient rooms equipped with 
automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the room 
sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided the integral detectors 
perform the required alerting function. 

61 0.6.2 Corridors: An approved automatic fire detection system shall be installed 
in all corridors in buildings of Use Group 1-2 which are not equipped throughout 
with an approved automatic fire suppression system. The automatic fire detection 
system required by this section shall be electrically interconnected to the fire 
protective signaling system. 

SECTION 611.0 USE GROUP I-3 

61 1 .1 General: All buildings or portions thereof of Use Group 1-3 shall comply with 
the provisions of this section and all other applicable provisions of this code (see 
Section 307.4). 

611.2 Definitions: Terms used in this section shall have the following meaning: 

Residential housing area: Includes sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, 
group activity space or other common spaces for customary access of residents. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-31 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Sallyport (security vestibule): A compartment provided with two or more doors 
where the intended purpose is to prevent the continuous and unobstructed passage 
by allowing the release of only one door at a time. 

611.3 Mixed occupancies: Portions of buildings of Use Group 1-3 which are 
classified as a different occupancy group shall meet the applicable requirements of 
this code for such occupancies. Where security operations necessitate the locking of 
required means of egress, provisions shall be made for the release of occupants 
during all times of use. 

611.4 Means Of egress: Except as modified or provided for in this section, the 
provisions of Article 8 shall apply. 

611.4.1 Door width: Doors to resident sleeping rooms shall have a clear width of 
not less than 28 inches. 

61 1 .4.2 Sliding doors: When doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal 
sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 
pounds with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds. 

61 1 .4.3 Horizontal exits: Horizontal exits shall not be substituted for other exits 
unless the maximum exit travel distance specified in Table 807 is not exceeded. 
Horizontal exits shall be permitted to comprise 100 percent of the exits required. At 
least 6 square feet of accessible space per occupant shall be provided on each side 
of the horizontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining compartments. 
Every fire compartment for which credit is allowed in connection with a horizontal 
exit shall not be required to have a stairway or door leading directly outside, 
provided the adjoining fire compartments have stairways or doors leading directly 
outside. 

611.4.4 Spiral stairs: Spiral stairs meeting the requirements of Section 816.7 are 
permitted for access to and between staff locations. 

61 1 .4.5 Exit discharge: Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled 
courtyard, provided that not more than two walls of the courtyard are the building 
walls from which exit is being made. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of sufficient 
size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum of 50 feet from the building with a 
net area of 15 square feet per person. 

61 1 .4.6 Sallyports: A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there 
are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during 
an emergency condition. 



6-32 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



61 1 .5 Locks: Doors from an area of refuge to the exterior are permitted to be 
locked with a key lock in lieu of locking methods described in Section 611.5.1. The 
locks shall be operable from the outside. 

61 1 .5.1 Remote release: All remote release in a means of egress shall be provided 
with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release 
locks on all required doors. 

Exception: Provisions for remote unlocking are not required provided not 
more than ten locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move all 
occupants from one smoke compartment to an area of refuge as promptly as 
required for remote unlocking. The opening of all necessary doors shall be 
accomplished with not more than two separate keys. 

61 1 .5.2 Power operated doors and locks: All power operated sliding doors or 
power operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release 
mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical 
operating release shall be provided. 

61 1 .5.3 Redundant operation: Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors 
or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically 
operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant 
remote release control. 

61 1 .5.4 Relock capability: Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions 
shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the 
remote location to enable doors to relock. 

61 1 .6 Vertical openings: Vertical openings shall be enclosed in accordance with 
Section 915.1. 

Exception: Two communicating floor levels are permitted without enclosure 
protection between the two levels, provided all the following conditions are 
met: 

1. The entire normally occupied area, including all communicating floor 
levels, is sufficiently open and unobstructed that a fire or other dangerous 
condition in any part will be immediately obvious to the occupants or 
supervisory personnel in the area. 

2. Egress capacity is simultaneously sufficient for all the occupants of all 
communicating levels and areas, all communicating levels in the same fire 
area being considered as a single floor area for purposes of determination 
of required egress capacity. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-33 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



3. Each floor level, considered separately, has at least one-half of its 
individual required egress capacity accessible by exit access leading 
directly out of that level without traversing another communicating floor 
level. 

611.7 Specific use areas: The specific use areas listed in Table 611.7 shall be 
separated from other areas of buildings of Use Group 1-3 in accordance with the 
requirements of Table 611.7. 

Table 611.7 
SPECIFIC USE AREAS WITHIN AN I-3 USE 



Room or area 


Separation/Protection 


Boiler and heater rooms 


2-hour; or 1 -hour and automatic 
fire suppression 


Employee locker rooms 


1 -hour; or automatic fire 
suppression with separation walls 


Handicraft shops 


1-hour; or automatic fire 
suppression with separation walls 


Kitchens 


1 -hour; or automatic fire 
suppression with separation walls 


Laundries greater than 1 00 square feet 


1 -hour and automatic Fire 
suppression 


Paint shops employing hazardous 
substances and materials in quantities less 
than that which would cause classification as 
Use Group H 


2-hour; or 1 -hour and automatic 
automatic fire suppression 


Physical plant maintenance shop 


2-hour; or 1 -hour and automatic 
suppression 


Storage rooms more than 50 square feet in 
area but not more than 1 00 square feet in 
area storing combustible material 


1 -hour; or automatic fire 
suppression with separation 
walls 


Storage rooms more than 1 00 square feet 
storing combustible material 


1-hour; or automatic fire 
suppression 


Trash collection rooms 


1 -hour and automatic fire 
suppression 


Padded cells 


1 -hour and automatic fire 
suppression 



6-34 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



61 1 .7.1 Separation walls: Where the separation walls around specific use areas are 
not required by Table 611.7 to have a fireresistance rating, the separation walls shall 
be constructed of materials consistent with the building type of construction and be 
capable of resisting the passage of smoke. The separation walls shall extend from the 
floor to the underside of a fireresistance rated floor/roof assembly or to the 
floor/roof deck above. All doors shall be self-closing or automatic-closing upon 
detection of smoke. 

61 1 .8 Smoke barrier: All buildings of Use Group 1-3 shall have smoke barriers as 
follows: 

1. To divide every story used by residents for sleeping, or any other story 
having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two 
compartments, and 

2. To limit the housing of a maximum of 200 residents in any smoke 
compartment, and 

3. To limit the travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier: 

a. From any room door required as exit access to 100 feet, 

b. From any point in a room to 150 feet. 

611.8.1 Refuge area: At least 6 net square feet per occupant shall be provided on 
each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining 
compartments. 

611.8.2 Independent egress: A means of egress shall be provided from each 
compartment created by smoke barriers without returning through the compartment 
from which exiting originates. 

61 1 .9 Subdivision of resident housing areas: Any individual cell, dormitory, or 
other space where residents are housed shall be separated from all other spaces by 
substantial construction of noncombustible materials in accordance with Table 611.9. 

611.9.1 Fireresistance rated doors: Doors in openings in partitions required to 
be flreresistive by Table 611.9 in other than required enclosures of exits or 
hazardous areas shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist fire for at 
least 20 minutes. Wired glass vision panels are permitted. Latches and door closers 
are not required on cell doors. 

611.9.2 Smoke-tight doors: Doors in openings in partitions required to be 
smoke-tight by Table 611.9 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist 
the passage of smoke. Latches and door closers are not required on cell doors. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-35 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



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6-36 



7S0 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



Notes to Table 611.9 

Note a. "Total opening in solid room face" includes all openings (undercuts, food passes, grilles, etc.), 
the total of which will not exceed 120 sq. inches. All openings shall be 36 inches or less above the 
floor. 

Note b. Under use condition II, III or IV, a space housing not more than 16 persons and subdivided 
by open construction (any combination of grating doors and grating walls or solid walls) shall be 
considered as one room or as separate rooms. The perimeter walls of such space shall be of smoke- 
tight construction. Smoke detection shall be provided in such space under use condition IV, common 
walls between sleeping areas within the space shall be smoke-tight and grating doors and fronts are 
permitted. 
Note c. This is the travel distance through the common space to the exit access corridor 

611.10 Windowless buildings: For the purposes of this section, a windowless 
building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not 
readily breakable, or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with 
vent openings, smoke shafts, or an engineered smoke control system to provide 
ventilation (mechanical or natural) for each windowless smoke compartment. 

SECTION 612.0 BLEACHERS, GRANDSTANDS AND FOLDING OR 
TELESCOPIC SEATING 

612.1 General: Bleachers, grandstands and folding or telescopic seating shall be 
constructed as required by this code and in accordance with NFiPA 102 listed in 
Appendix A. 

612.2 Handrails: Means of egress stairways shall be provided with a handrail on at 
least one side and shall conform to Section 828.0. The handrail shall be broken as 
necessary to provide for entrance to the seating platforms. 

612.3 Spaces underneath seats: Spaces underneath grandstand seats shall be kept 
free of all combustible and flammable materials and shall not be occupied or used 
for other than exits; except that when enclosed in not less than 1-hour fireresistance 
rated construction, the building official shall approve the use of such spaces for 
other purposes provided that the safety of the public is not endangered. 

SECTION 613.0 MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS, 
SCREENING ROOMS AND SOUND STAGES 

613.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to rooms in which 
ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is used in conjunction with electric 
arc, xenon or other light source projection equipment which develops hazardous 
gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is used or stored, such rooms 
shall comply with NFiPA 40 listed in Appendix A. 

Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this 
section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6 . 37 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room 
or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction. There shall be posted on the 
outside of each projection room door and within the projection room itself a 
conspicuous sign with 1-inch block letters stating: Safety Film Only Permitted in this 
Room. 

613.2 Construction of projection rooms: Every projection room shall be of 
permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type 
of building in which the projection room is located. Openings need not be protected. 

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet for a single 
machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of 
equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches 
on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required 
between two adjacent projectors.The projection room and the rooms appurtenant 
thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches. The aggregate of 
openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the 
wall between the projection room and the auditorium. All openings shall be provided 
with glass or other approved material, so as to completely close the opening. 

613.3 Projection booth and equipment ventilation: Projection booths and 
equipment shall be ventilated in accordance with the BOCA National Mechanical 
Code listed in Appendix A. 

613.4 Lighting control: Provision shall be made for control of the auditorium 
lighting and the emergency lighting systems of theaters from inside of the room and 
from at least one other convenient point in the building as required in Section 
824.3.1. 

613.5 Miscellaneous equipment: Each projection room shall be provided with 
rewind and film storage facilities. 

613.6 Screening rooms: Screening rooms shall provide a seating capacity of not 
more than 30 persons, with not less than two approved means of egress complying 
with Article 8. Such rooms shall be enclosed in 1-hour fire separation walls with fire 
doors complying with Section 916.0. All seats shall be permanently fixed in position 
and the arrangement shall comply with the requirements of Section 826.0. 

613.7 Sound Stage construction: All buildings designed or used as sound stages 
for motion picture or television film productions shall be protected with an approved 
two-source automatic sprinkler system complying with the provisions of Article 10; 
except that where approved, suppression of rooms designed for housing electrical 
equipment is not required when such rooms are constructed of Type 1 construction. 



6-38 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



613.8 Film laboratories: Film laboratories shall not be operated in other than 
buildings or structures of Type 1A construction, equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system. 

61 3.9 Film exchanges: All film exchanges and depots shall be housed in buildings 
and structures of Type 1A construction equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic sprinkler system. All flammable film other than that in process of receipt, 
delivery or distribution shall be stored in vaults complying with the requirements of 
Section 613.9.1. 

613.9.1 Vaults: Flammable film quantities of more than 1,000 pounds and not more 
than 10,000 pounds shall be stored in vaults enclosed in floors, walls and ceilings of 
not less than 4-hour fireresistance rating with 3-hour fire doors complying with 
Section 916.0. The interior storage volume of the vault shall be not more than 1,500 
cubic feet. The vault shall be drained and provided with scuppers. 

SECTION 614.0 ROOFTOP HELIPORTS 

614.1 General: This section governs the design and construction of rooftop facilities 
intended to accommodate the landing of helicopters. The use of a roof for landing 
shall be subject to the approval of the Federal Aviation Administration. 

61 4.2 Structural loads: The roof and all pertinent building components shall be 
designed for the dead loads, live loads, impact loads and vibration imparted to the 
structure due to helicopter landing, including the single skid point landing. 

614.3 Referenced standard: All rooftop heliports shall comply with NFiPA 418 
listed in Appendix A. 

SECTION 615.0 STAGES AND PLATFORMS 

615.1 Applicability: The provisions of this section shall apply to all parts of 
buildings and structures which contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances 
as herein defined. 

61 5.2 Stages: A stage is a partially enclosed portion of a building which is designed 
or used for the presentation of plays, demonstrations or other entertainment. A stage 
shall be further classified as either a legitimate stage, regular stage or thrust stage. 

Stage, legitimate: A stage wherein curtains, drops, leg drops, scenery, lighting 
devices or other stage effects are retractable horizontally or suspended 
overhead. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-39 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Stage, regular: A stage wherein curtains, fixed leg drops, valances, scenery and 
other stage effects are hung and are not retractable. 

Stage, thrust: A platform extending beyond the proscenium arch and into the 
audience. 

615.2.1 Stage floor construction: Openings through all stage floors shall be 
equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors not less than 2 inches in nominal 
thickness with approved safety locks or other materials of equal physical and fire 
endurance properties. 

61 5.2.1 .1 Legitimate Stages: Legitimate stages shall be constructed as required for 
the type of construction, but not less than Type IB construction except that the 
portion of the legitimate stage extending back from and 6 feet beyond the full width 
of the proscenium opening on each side shall be permitted to be constructed of 
noncombustible or heavy timber construction covered with a wood floor of not less 
than 2 inches in nominal thickness. Except for the finished floor, combustible 
construction shall not extend beyond the plane of the proscenium opening. 

615.2.1.2 Regular and thrust stages: Regular stages and thrust stages shall be 
constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the 
building in which they are located. 

61 5.2.2 Stage rigging loft: The rigging loft, also referred to as a loft or fly, is the 
space over the stage where scenery and equipment can be out of view. The fly 
gallery is the narrow raised platform at the side of the legitimate stage from which 
the lines for flying scenery are manipulated. The gridiron is the arrangement of 
beams over a legitimate stage supporting the machinery for flying scenery and 
hanging battens from which lighting is hung. The pin rail is the beam at one side of 
a legitimate stage through which wooden or metal pins are driven and to which lines 
from the flies are fastened. The rigging loft, fly galleries, gridiron and pin rails shall 
be constructed of approved noncombustible materials. 

615.2.3 Footlights and stage electrical equipment: Footlights and border lights 
shall be installed in troughs constructed of noncombustible materials. The 
switchboard shall be so located as to be readily accessible at all times and the 
storage or placing of stage equipment against it shall be prohibited. 

615.2.4 Exterior stage doors: Where protection of openings is required, exit 
discharge door openings to the outer air shall be protected with fire doors complying 
with Section 916.0. All exterior openings which are located on the stage for means 
of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and which are likely to be open during 
occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts 
into the auditorium. 



6-40 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



61 5.2.5 Proscenium wall: Legitimate stages shall be completely separated from the 
seating area by a proscenium wall of not less than 2-hour fireresistance rating 
extending continuously from foundation to at least 4 feet above the roof. There shall 
be no other openings in the wall separating a legitimate stage from the auditorium 
except the main proscenium opening; two doorways at the stage level, one on each 
side thereof; and one doorway to the musician's pit from the space below the stage 
floor. Each such doorway shall not exceed 45 square feet in area and shall be 
protected with fire doors complying with Section 916.0. 

615.2.5.1 Trim, finish and decorative hangings: All moldings and decorations 
around the proscenium opening shall be constructed entirely of noncombustible 
material. 

61 5.2.6 Proscenium curtain: The proscenium opening shall be provided with an 
approved curtain of noncombustible or fire-retardant material so designed and 
installed that it will protect against passage of flame and smoke for 5 minutes. The 
curtain shall be operated by an automatic heat activated device to descend instantly 
and safely and to completely close the proscenium opening at a rate of temperature 
rise of 15 to 20 degrees F. per minute (0.14 degrees C. to 0.19 degrees C. per 
second); and by an auxiliary operating device to permit prompt and immediate 
manual closing of the proscenium opening. 

615.2.7 Scenery: All combustible materials used in sets and scenery shall be 
rendered flameresistant to comply with Article 9. 

615.2.8 Stage ventilation: Metal or other approved noncombustible ventilators, 
equipped with movable shutters or sash shall be provided over stages larger than 500 
square feet in floor area, constructed to open automatically by approved heat 
activated devices, with an aggregate clear area of opening not less than 5 percent of 
the area of the stage, except as otherwise provided in Section 615.2.9. Supplemental 
means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be 
provided as required for skylights in Section 2204.6.1. 

615.2.9 Superimposed theaters: An addition or extension shall not be erected 
over the stage section of a theater, nor shall a second theater be erected above 
another. Where approved, the prohibition against superimposed theaters and 
construction above the stage shall not apply when approved access is provided for 
fire fighting with direct means of ventilation to the outer air from the stage portion. 

615.3 Platforms: A platform is that raised area within a building used for the 
presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special 
guests; the raised area for lectures and speakers, boxing and wrestling rings; 
theater-in-the-round; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead hanging 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-41 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting. A temporary platform 
is one installed for use for not more than 30 days. 

615.3.1 Materials: In buildings required to be of Type 1 or Type 2 construction, 
where the platforms are not more than 30 inches above the main floor level the 
minimum type of construction for a permanent platform shall be Type 2C. For all 
types of construction, where the platforms are not more than 30 inches above the 
main floor level, not larger in area than 10 percent of the room floor area and not 
more than 200 square feet in area, the minimum type of construction for a 
permanent platform shall be Type 5B. For all types of construction, where the 
platforms are not more than 30 inches above the main floor level, not larger than 
one-third of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet in area, the 
minimum type of construction for a permanent platform shall be Type 4 or the 
platform shall be constructed of fire-retardant treated wood. All other permanent 
platforms shall be constructed of approved materials as required for floors for the 
required type of construction of the building in which it is located. Temporary 
platforms shall be constructed of any approved materials. 

615.3.2 Space beneath: The space between the floor and a temporary platform 
above shall not be used for any purpose other than electrical wiring to platform 
equipment. Where the space between the floor and a permanent platform above is 
used for any purpose other than electrical wiring or plumbing, the platform shall 
provide a 1-hour fireresistance rating. 

615.4 Dressing and appurtenant rooms: Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall 
comply with Sections 615.4.1 through 615.4.3. 

61 5.4.1 Construction: Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops and 
storerooms and all compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from 
each other and from the stage and all other parts of the building by walls of not less 
than 1-hour fireresistance rating with approved opening protectives. Such rooms 
shall not be placed immediately over or under the operating stage area. 

Exception: Separation from the stage is not required for stages having a floor 
area of 500 square feet or less. 

615.4.2 Opening protectives: Openings other than to trunk rooms and the 
necessary doorways at stage level shall not connect such rooms with the stage, and 
such openings shall be protected with fire doors complying with Section 916.0. 

615.4.3 Dressing room and stage exits: Each tier of dressing rooms shall be 
provided with at least two means of egress. Egress stairways from dressing and 
storage rooms are not required to be enclosed when located in the stage area behind 
the proscenium wall. At least one approved means of egress shall be provided from 

6-42 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



each side of the stage and from each side of the space under the stage, and from 
each fly gallery and from the gridiron. A steel ladder shall be provided from the 
gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof. 

SECTION 616.0 AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS 

616.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to airport traffic control 
towers not exceeding 1,500 square feet per floor used only for air traffic control, 
electrical and mechanical equipment rooms, radar and electronics rooms, office 
spaces incidental to tower operation and lounges for employees including restrooms. 

616.2 Type of construction: Air traffic control towers shall be constructed to 
conform with the height and area limitations of Table 610.2. 

Table 616.2 

HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATION FOR AIRPORT 

TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS 



Type of construction 


Height 


Maximum area in square feet 


1A, 1B 


Unlimited 


1,500 


2A 


240 feet 


1,500 


2B 


100 feet 


1,500 



61 6.3 Egress: A minimum of one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic 
control towers of any height provided the occupant load per floor does not exceed 
15. The stair shall conform to the requirements of Sections 816.0 and 818.0. The stair 
shall be separated from elevators by a minimum distance of one-half the diagonal 
of the area served. 

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Section 818.0 are not 
required when required stairways are pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inches 
of water column and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column in the shaft 
relative to the building with all stairway doors closed. 

616.4 Automatic fire detection systems: Airport traffic control towers shall be 
provided with an automatic fire detection system complying with Section 1018.0. 

616.5 Standby power, light and emergency systems: A standby power system 
conforming to Section 2707.0 shall be provided in airport traffic control towers over 
65 feet in height. Service shall be provided to smokeproof enclosure mechanical 
equipment and lighting, elevator operational equipment, and automatic fire alarm 
systems. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-43 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 617.0 COMBUSTIBLE DUSTS, GRAIN PROCESSING AND 

STORAGE 

617.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to all buildings in which 
materials producing flammable dusts and particles which are readily ignitable and 
subject to explosion hazards are stored or handled, including, among others, grain 
bleachers and elevators, malt houses, flour, feed or starch mills, wood flour 
manufacturing and manufacture and storage of pulverized aluminum, coal, cocoa, 
magnesium, spices, sugar or similar material producing dust. The provisions of 
NFiPA 61A, 61B, 61C, 61D, 65, 85F, 651, 653, 654, 655, 664 and the BOCA National 
Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed in Appendix A and G, respectively, except 
as herein specifically required, shall be deemed to conform to the requirements of 
this code. 

61 7.2 Buildings: All such buildings and other occupied structures shall be of Type 
1, Type 2 or of laminated planks or lumber sizes qualified for Type 4 construction, 
within the height and area limits of Table 501 for Use Group H; except that when 
erected of Type 1 or Type 2 construction, the height and area of grain elevators and 
similar structures shall be unlimited, and when of Type 4 construction, the maximum 
height shall be 65 feet and except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum height 
of Type 4 structures shall be increased to 85 feet. 

617.2.1 Grinding rooms: Every room or space for grinding or other operations 
producing flammable dust shall be enclosed with floors and walls of not less than 
2-hour fireresistance rating when the area is not more than 3,000 square feet, and 
of not less than 4-hour fireresistance rating when the area is greater than 3,000 
square feet. 

617.2.2 Conveyors: All conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment passing 
through the enclosures of such rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt- and 
vapor-tight, and of approved noncombustible materials complying with Section 
2616.0. 

61 7.3 Explosion relief: Means for explosion relief shall be provided as specified in 
Section 618.0, or such spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical 
ventilation complying with the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix 
A 

61 7.4 Grain elevators: Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings for similar uses 
shall not be located within 30 feet of interior lot lines or structures on the same lot, 
except when erected along a railroad right of way. 

617.5 Coal pockets: Coal pockets located less than 30 feet from interior lot lines 
or structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than Type 2A 

6-44 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



construction. Where more than 30 feet from interior lot lines, or erected along a 
railroad right of way, the minimum type of construction of such structures shall be 
Type 4, provided they are not more than 65 feet in height. 

SECTION 618.0 EXPLOSION HAZARDS 

618.1 Explosion relief: Every structure, room or space occupied for uses involving 
explosion hazards shall be equipped and vented with explosion relief systems and 
devices arranged for automatic release under predetermined increase in pressure as 
herein provided for specific uses. 

618.2 Venting devices: Venting devices to relieve the pressure resulting from 
explosive air-vapor mixtures shall consist of windows, skylights, vent flues or 
releasing roof or wall panels which discharge directly to the open air or to a public 
place or other unoccupied space not less than 20 feet in width on the same lot. Such 
releasing device shall be so located that the discharge end shall be not less than 10 
feet vertically and 20 feet horizontally from window openings or means of egress 
facilities in the same or adjoining buildings or structures. The exhaust shall always 
be in the direction of least exposure and never into the interior of the building. 

618.3 Area of vents: The aggregate clear vent relief area shall be regulated by the 
type of construction of the building and shall be not less than prescribed below. 

1. Heavy reinforced concrete frame, 1 square foot for 80 cubic feet of 
volume. 

2. light structural steel frame and ordinary construction, 1 square foot for 
65 cubic feet of volume. 

3. light wood frame construction, 1 square foot for 50 cubic feet of volume. 

The combined area of open windows, pivoted sash or wall panels arranged to open 
under internal pressure shall not be less than 10 percent of the area of the enclosure 
walls, with not less than 50 percent of the opening arranged for automatic release. 

61 8.4 Construction of vents: All explosion relief devices shall be of an approved 
type constructed of lightweight, noncombustible and corrosion-resistive materials, 
and the discharge end shall be protected with approved screens of not more than 
3 /4-inch mesh, arranged to blow out under relatively low pressures. 

SECTION 619.0 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 

619.1 Main storage: Main storage systems of flammable and combustible liquids 
shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFiPA 30 and the BOCA 
National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed in Appendix A and G, 
respectively. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-45 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



61 9.2 Construction of enclosures: Process rooms shall be separated from other 
uses and occupancies by walls, floors and ceilings of not less than 2-hour 
fireresistance rating with lV£-hour fire doors complying with Section 916.0. The 
interior door openings shall be provided with noncombustible sills not less than 6 
inches high and the room shall be vented as required in Section 618.1. Floors shall 
be waterproofed and drained to comply with Section 1224.0. 

61 9.3 Enclosure openings: Openings shall not be permitted in the enclosure walls 
within 11 feet of adjoining property lines or with a fire separation distance of less 
than 11 feet from any building or structure not part of the installation. 

619.4 Dry cleaning plants: The construction and installation of dry cleaning plants 
shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the BOCA National 
Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A, the Massachusetts State Plumbing Code 
(248 CMR 2.00) and NFiPA 32 listed in Appendix G and A, respectively. 

SECTION 620.0 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS FACILITIES 

620.1 General: The design and construction of propane, butane, propylene, butylene 
and other liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities shall conform to the 
applicable provisions of this section. The storage and handling of liquefied petroleum 
gas systems shall conform to the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR 
listed in Appendix A and G, respectively. The design and installation of piping, 
equipment and systems which utilize liquefied petroleum gas shall be in accordance 
with the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. Liquefied 
petroleum gas facilities shall be ventilated in accordance with the BOCA National 
Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A and Section 620.1.1. 

620.1.1 LPG distribution facilities: Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities 
shall be provided with air inlets and outlets arranged so that air movement across 
the floor of the facility will be as uniform as possible. The total area of both inlet 
and outlet openings shall be at least 1 square inch for each square foot of floor area. 
The bottom of such openings shall not be more than 6 inches above the floor. 

620.2 Construction: Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities shall be 
constructed in accordance with Section 620.3 for separate buildings, Section 620.4 
for attached buildings or Section 620.5 for rooms within buildings. 

620.3 Separate buildings: When located in separate buildings, such buildings shall 
be used exclusively for that purpose or for other purposes having similar hazards. 
Such buildings shall be limited to one story in height. 

620.3.1 Floors: The floor shall not be located below ground level and any spaces 
beneath the floor shall be solidly filled or shall be left unenclosed. 

6-46 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



620.3.2 Materials: Walls, floors, ceilings, columns and roofs shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. Exterior walls, ceilings and roofs shall be constructed of 
lightweight material designed for explosion venting or, if of heavy construction such 
as solid brick masonry, concrete block or reinforced concrete construction, explosion 
venting windows or panels in walls or roofs shall be provided having an explosion 
venting area of at least 1 square foot for each 50 cubic feet of the enclosed volume. 

620.4 Attached buildings: Where liquefied petroleum gas facilities are located in 
an attached structure, the attached perimeter shall not exceed 50 percent of the 
perimeter of the space enclosed and the facility shall comply with Sections 620.3 and 
620.4.1. Where the attached perimeter exceeds 50 percent, such facilities shall 
comply with Section 620.5. 

620.4.1 Walls: Common walls at points at which structures are attached shall have 
a fireresistance rating of not less than 1 hour and shall not have openings. Common 
walls for attached structures used only for storage of LP-gas are permitted to have 
fire doors complying with Section 916.0. Such walls shall be designed to withstand 
a static pressure of at least 100 pounds per square foot (psf), except where the 
building to which the structure is attached is occupied by operations or processes 
having a similar hazard. 

620.5 Rooms within buildings: When liquefied petroleum gas facilities are located 
in rooms within buildings, such rooms shall be located in the first story and shall 
have at least one exterior wall with sufficient exposed area to permit explosion 
venting as provided in Section 620.5.1. The building in which the room is located 
shall not have a basement or unventilated crawl space and the room shall comply 
with Sections 620.5.1 and 620.5.2. 

620.5.1 Materials: Walls, floors, ceilings, and roofs of such rooms shall be 
constructed of noncombustible materials. Exterior walls and ceilings shall be either 
of lightweight material designed for explosion venting, or, if of heavy construction 
such as solid brick masonry, concrete block or reinforced concrete construction shall 
be provided with explosion venting windows or panels in the walls or roofs having 
an explosion venting area of at least 1 square foot for each 50 cubic feet of enclosed 
volume. 

620.5.2 Common construction: Walls and floor/ceiling assemblies common to the 
room and to the building within which it is located shall have a fireresistance rating 
of not less than 1 hour with no openings. Common walls for rooms used only for 
storage of LP-gas are permitted to have doorways which shall be equipped with 
3 /4-hour opening protectives. Such walls and ceiling shall be designed to withstand 
a static pressure of at least 100 psf. Where approved, these provisions shall not apply 
when the building within which the room is located is occupied by operations or 
processes having a similar hazard. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-47 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 621.0 MOBILE UNITS 

621.1 General: Mobile units, as defined in Section 201.0, shall be designed, 
constructed and maintained to be transported from one location to another and not 
mounted on a permanent foundation. A mobile unit placed on a permanent 
foundation or on foundation piers shall be designed and constructed to comply with 
all of the requirements of this code for on-site and prefabricated construction. 

621.2 Construction: Residential mobile units shall be of an approved design and 
constructed in accordance with the applicable ordinances and statutes. All other 
mobile units shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements 
of this code. All mobile units on a permanent foundation shall be evaluated, 
inspected and labeled in-plant in accordance with Section 115.2.3. 

621.3 Location: Mobile units shall be located in spaces approved for such use. The 
provisions of this code shall not be construed to repeal, modify or constitute an 
alternative to any lawful zoning regulations. In case of conflict between this code or 
any other ordinance or statute, the most rigid requirements shall apply. 

621 .3.1 Anchorage and tie-down: Every parking space for mobile units shall be 
provided with devices for anchoring the unit to prevent overturning or uplift. The 
owner of the parking space shall anchor or cause to be anchored all mobile units 
located on the parking space. Where concrete platforms are provided for the parking 
of the units, anchorage shall be provided by eyelets embedded in the concrete with 
adequate anchor plates or hooks, or other suitable means. The anchorage shall be 
adequate to withstand wind forces and uplift as required in Article 1 1 for buildings 
and structures, based upon the size and weight of the units. 

SECTION 622.0 PAINT SPRAYING AND SPRAY BOOTHS 

622.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction, 
installation and use of buildings and structures or parts thereof for the spraying of 
flammable paints, varnishes and lacquers or other flammable materials, mixtures or 
compounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or similar purposes. All such 
construction and equipment shall comply with NFiPA 33 and 34 in Appendix A. 

622.2 Location of spraying processes: Such processes shall be conducted in a 
spraying space, spray booth, spray room or shall be isolated in a detached building 
or as otherwise approved by the building official in accordance with NFiPA 70 and 
the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and 527CMR listed in Appendix A and 
G, respectively. 

622.3 Spray spaces: All spray spaces shall be ventilated with an exhaust system to 
prevent the accumulation of flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the BOCA 

6-48 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. When such spaces are not 
separately enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the 
spread of flammable vapors. 

622.3.1 Spray booths: All spray booths shall be constructed of noncombustible 
materials and equipped with mechanical ventilating systems in accordance with the 
BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. 

622.3.2 Spray rooms: All spray rooms shall be enclosed in partitions of not less 
than 1-hour fireresistance rating. Floors shall be waterproofed and drained in an 
approved manner. 

622.3.3 Spray storage rooms: Spraying materials in quantities of not more than 
20 gallons shall be stored in approved cabinets ventilated at top and bottom. When 
in quantities of more than 20 gallons and not more than 100 gallons, the spraying 
materials shall be stored in approved double walled noncombustible cabinets vented 
directly to the outer air. All spraying materials in quantities of more than 100 gallons 
shall be stored in an enclosure of not less than 2-hour fireresistance rating or in a 
separate exterior storage building. Such storage shall not be in quantities of more 
than 250 gallons, except when stored in storage buildings; and except further that 
not more than 25 gallons of spraying material shall be stored in buildings in which 
pyroxylin products are manufactured or stored. 

622.4 Fire protection: Sprinkler heads shall be provided in all spray, dip and 
immersing spaces and storage rooms, and shall be installed in accordance with 
Article 10. Where buildings containing spray areas are not equipped with an 
approved automatic sprinkler system, the sprinklers in booths and other spray areas 
and storage rooms shall be permitted to be supplied from the building water supply 
when approved and conforming to Section 1005.0. 

SECTION 623.0 RADIO AND TELEVISION TOWERS 

623.1 General: Subject to the structural provisions of Section 1112.0 for wind loads 
and the requirements of Section 927.0 governing the fireresistance ratings of 
buildings for the support of roof structures, all radio and television towers shall be 
designed and constructed as herein provided. 

623.2 Location and access: The towers shall be so located and equipped with step 
bolts and ladders to be readily accessible for inspection purposes. Guy wires or other 
accessories shall not cross or encroach upon any street or other public space, or over 
any electric power lines, or encroach upon any other privately owned property 
without written consent of the owner. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-49 



IL. i.mjoMullUOCI lo dlHIC DUILLMNU UUUt 



623.3 Construction: All towers shall be constructed of approved corrosion- resistive 
noncombustible material. The minimum type of construction of isolated radio towers 
not more than 100 feet in height shall be Type 4. 

623.4 Loads: The structure shall be designed to resist the wind loads in accordance 
with ANSI A58.1 listed in Appendix A. Consideration shall be given to conditions 
involving wind load on ice-covered sections in localities subject to sustained freezing 
temperatures. 

623.4.1 Dead load: Towers shall be designed for the dead load plus ice load in 
regions where ice formation is likely to occur. 

623.4.2 Uplift: Adequate foundations and anchorage shall be provided to resist two 
times the calculated wind uplift. 

623.5 Grounding: All towers shall be permanently and effectively grounded. 

SECTION 624.0 RADIO AND TELEVISION ANTENNAE 

624.1 Permits not required: A building permit is not required for roof installation 
of antennae structures not more than 12 feet in height for private radio or television 
reception. Such a structure, however, shall not be erected so as to injure the roof 
covering, and when removed from the roof, the roof covering shall be repaired to 
maintain weather- and water-tightness. The installation of any antennae structure 
mounted on the roof of a building shall not be erected nearer to the lot line than 
the total height of the antennae structure above the roof, nor shall such structure 
be erected near electric power lines or encroach upon any street or other public 
space. 

624.2 Permits required: Approval shall be secured for all roof mounted antennae 
structures more than 12 feet in height above the roof. The application shall be 
accompanied by detailed drawings of the structure and methods of anchorage. All 
connections to the roof structure shall be properly flashed to maintain 
water-tightness. The design and materials of construction shall comply with the 
requirements of Section 623.3 for character, quality and minimum dimension. 

SECTION 625.0 SWIMMING POOLS 

625.1 General: Pools used for swimming or bathing shall be in conformity with the 
requirements of this section, provided, however, these regulations shall not be 
applicable to any such pool less than 24 inches deep or having a surface area less 
than 250 square feet, except when such pools are permanently equipped with a water 
recirculating system or involve structural materials.For purposes of this code, pools 
are classified as private, public or semi-public swimming pools, as defined in 

6-50 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



^, , ,^l_ uol mnu u^LUKANUK KbUUIHhMENIS 



Section 625.2. Materials and constructions used in swimming pools shall comply with 
the applicable requirements of this code. 

Materials and construction used in swimming pools shall comply with applicable 
requirements of this code. Pools used for swimming or bathing and their equipment 
or accessories which are constructed, installed and maintained in accordance with 
the applicable standards listed in Appendix A shall be deemed to conform to the 
requirements of this code, provided the requirements of Sections 625.7, 625.8 and 
625.9 are included in the installation and the requirements of the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts Environmental Code 310 CMR 16.00 are met. 

625.2 Classification of pools: Any constructed pool which is used, or intended to 
be used, as a swimming pool in connection with a building of Use Group R-3 and 
available only to the family of the householder and his private guests shall be 
classified as a private swimming pool. Any swimming pool other than a private 
swimming pool shall be classified as a public or semi-public swimming pool. 

625.3 Plans and permits 

c 

625.3.1 PermitS:A swimming pool or appurtenances thereto shall not be 
constructed, installed, enlarged or altered until plans have been submitted and a 
permit has been obtained from the building official. The approval of all city, county 
and state authorities having jurisdiction over swimming pools shall be obtained 
before applying to the building official for a permit. Certified copies of these 
approvals shall be filed as part of the supporting data for the application for the 
permit. 

625.3.2 Plans: Plans shall accurately show dimensions and construction of the pool 
and appurtenances and properly established distances to lot lines, buildings, walks 
and fences, as well as details of the water supply system, drainage and water disposal 
systems, and all appurtenances pertaining to the swimming pool. Detailed plans of 
structures, vertical elevations, and sections through the pool showing depth shall be 
included. 

625.4 Locations: Private swimming pools shall not encroach on any front or side 
yard required by this code, or the governing zoning law, except by specific rules of 
the jurisdiction in which it is located. A wall of a swimming pool shall not be located 
less than 6 feet from any rear or side property line or 10 feet from any street 
property line, except by specific rules of the jurisdiction in which it is located. 

625.5 Structural design: The pool structure shall be engineered and designed to 
withstand the expected forces to which it will be subjected. 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-51 



me uiMooMUnuofcl lb blAlh BUILDING CUUE 



625.5.1 Wall slopes: To a depth up to 2 feet 9 inches from the top, the wall slope 
shall not be more than one foot horizontal in five feet vertical. 

625.5.2 Floor slopes: The slope of the floor on the shallow side of the transition 
point shall not exceed one foot vertical to seven feet horizontal.The transition point 
between shallow and deep water shall not be more than five (5) feet deep. 

625.5.3 Surface cleaning: All swimming pools shall be provided with a 
recirculating skimming device or overflow gutters to remove scum and foreign matter 
from the surface of the water. Where skimmers are used there shall be at least one 
(1) skimming device for each 1,000 square feet of surface area or fraction thereof. 
Where overflow gutters are used, they shall be not less than 3 inches deep, pitched 
to drains and constructed so they are safe, clcanable and that matter entering the 
gutters will not be washed out by a sudden surge of entering water. 

625.5.4 Walkways: All public swimming pools shall have walkways not less than 
four (4) feet in width extending entirely around the pool. Where curbs or sidewalks 
are used around any swimming pool, they shall have a slip-resistant surface for a 
width of not less than one (1) foot at the edge of the pool, and shall be so arranged 
to prevent return of surface water to the pool. 

625.5.5 Steps and ladders: One (1) or more means of egress shall be provided 
from the pool. Treads of steps or ladders shall have non-slip surfaces and handrails 
on both sides, except that handrails may be omitted when there are not more than 
four (4) steps or when they extend the full width of the pool.Access to public pools 
shall include a paraplegic lift. 

625.6 Water supply: All swimming pools shall be provided with a potable water 
supply, free of cross connections with the pool or its equipment. 

625.6.1 Water treatment: Public and semi-public swimming pools shall be designed 
and installed so that there is a pool water turnover at least once every eight (8) 
hours. Filters shall not filter water at a rate in excess of three (3) gallons per minute, 
per square foot of surface area. The treatment system shall be so designed and 
installed to provide in the water, at all times when the pool is in use, excess chlorine 
of not less than four-tenths (0.4) parts per million (ppm) or more than six-tenths 
(0.6) ppm, or excess chloramine between seven-tenths (0.7) and one (1.0) ppm, or 
disinfection shall be provided by other approved means. Acidity/alkalinity of the pool 
water shall not be below seven (7.0) or more than seven and one-half (7.5). All 
recirculating systems shall be provided with an approved hair and lint strainer 
installed in the system ahead of the pump. 

Private swimming pools shall be designed and installed so that there is a pool water 
turnover at least once every 18 hours.Filters shall not filter water at a rate in excess 

6-52 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



*jr nolAL Ubt 



aNU UUUUHANUY KEUUIHEMENIS 



of five (5) gallons per minute per square foot of surface area.The pool owner shall 
be instructed in proper care and maintenance of the pool by the supplier or builder, 
including the use of high test calcium hypochlorite (dry chlorine) or sodium 
hypochlorite (liquid chlorine) or equally effective germicide and algicide, and the 
importance of proper pH (alkalinity and acidity) control. 

625.6.2 Drainage systems: The swimming pool and equipment shall be equipped 
to be completely emptied of water and the discharged water shall be disposed of in 
an approved manner that will not create a nuisance to adjoining property. 

625.7 Appurtenant structures: All appurtenant structures, installations, and 
equipment, such as showers, dressing rooms, equipment houses or other buildings 
and structures, including plumbing, heating, and air conditioning, amongst others 
appurtenant to a swimming pool, shall comply with all applicable requirements of 
this code, the zoning laws, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of 
Public Health Sanitary Code 310 CMR 12.00, the Plumbing Code 248 CMR 2.00, as 
well as the Massachusetts Electrical Code 527 CMR 12.00. 

625.7.1 Accessories: All swimming pool accessories shall be designed, constructed, 
and installed so as not to be a safety hazard. Installations or structures for diving 
purposes shall be properly anchored to insure stability, and properly designed and 
located for maximum safety. 

625.8 Equipment installations: Pumps, filters, and other mechanical and electrical 
equipment for public swimming pools shall be enclosed in such a manner as to be 
accessible only to authorized persons and not to bathers. Construction and drainage 
shall be such as to avoid the entrance and accumulation of water in the vicinity of 
electrical equipment.The construction and installation of electrical wiring for 
equipment in or adjacent to swimming pools, to metallic appurtenances in or within 
five (5) feet of the pool, and auxiliary equipment such as pumps, filters and similar 
equipment shall conform to Article 680 of the Massachusetts Electrical Code 527 
CMR 12.00. 

625.9 Swimming pool safety devices: Every public and semipublic outdoor in- 
ground swimming pool shall be enclosed by a fence six (6) feet in height and firmly 
secured at ground level provided that any board or stockade fence or structure shall 
be at least five (5) feet in height, but if over five (5) feet in height, the fence shall be 
chain link.Such enclosure, including gates therein, shall not be less than six (6) feet 
above the ground, and any gate shall be self-latching with latches placed four (4) feet 
above the ground or otherwise made inaccessible from the outside to children up to 
eight (8) years of age.Such enclosure shall be constructed of such material and 
maintained so as not to permit any opening in said enclosure, other than a gate, 
wider than three (3) inches at any point along the enclosure.Any such pool shall be 
equipped with at least one (1) life ring and a rescue hook. 

Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-53 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



625.9.1 Diving boards: Minimum water depths and distances for diving hoppers for 
pools, based on board height above water, shall comply with Table 625 for public 
pools and Table 625a for private pools. 

Diving boards higher than 3 meters shall conform to the recommendations of the 
Rules and Regulations of United States Diving, Inc., listed in Appendix A. 

The maximum slope permitted between point D 2 and the transition point shall not 
exceed one unit vertical to three units horizontal (1:3) in public pools and one unit 
vertical to one unit horizontal (1:1) in private pools. Dj is the point directly under 
the end of the diving boards. D 2 is the point at which the floor begins to slope 
upwards to the transition point. See Figure 625. 



» Typical position of tip of board 
relative to Pt. A 



Pt. A 



Pt. B 



Water Line 





D ? Min 



Transition Point 



Figure 625 

MINIMUM WATER DEPTHS AND DISTANCES BASED ON BOARD 

HEIGHT FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE POOLS 



6-54 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



Table 625 
MINIMUM WATER DEPTHS AND DISTANCE BASED ON BOARD HEIGHT FOR 

PUBLIC POOLS 



Board height 


Minimum depth at D 1 


Distance between 


Minimum 




directly under end of board 


D, and D 2 


depth at D 2 


n 2'-2" 


7'-0" 


8'-0" 


8'-6" 


2'-6" 


7'-6" 


9'-0" 


9'-0" 


1 meter 


8'-6" 


10'-0" 


10'-0" 


3 meter 


H'-O" 


10'-6" 


12'-0" 



Table 625a 
MINIMUM WATER DEPTHS AND DISTANCE BASED ON BOARD HEIGHT FOR 

PRIVATE POOLS 



Board height 


Minimum depth at D., 


Distance 


Minimum depth 




directly under 


between 


at D 2 




end of board 


D 1 and D 2 




1'-8" 


6'-0" 


7'-0" 


7'-6" 


2'-2' 


6'-10" 


7'-6" 


8'-0" 


2'-6" 


7'-5" 


8'-0" 


8'-0" 


I 3'-4" 


8'-6" 


9'-0" 


9'-0" 



625.9.2 Draining: Every outdoor in-ground swimming pool open to the public shall 
be drained or covered within seven (7) days of closing. 

625.9.3 Inspection: Every public and semi-public outdoor in-ground swimming pool 
shall be inspected annually by the inspector of buildings of each city and town in 
which said pools are located (in accordance with Chapter 140, Section 206, of the 
Massachusetts General Laws as amended). 

625.9.4 General Safety Requirements: Cities or towns may enact by-laws or 
ordinances for enclosing private swimming pools by requesting the installation of 
fences or equivalent enclosures or means of protection from access to the pool. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



6-55 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 626.0 TEMPORARY STRUCTURES 

626.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to tents, membrane 
structures and other structures, erected for a period of less than 180 days. Those 
erected for a longer period of time shall comply with Section 604.0 or all applicable 
sections of this code when Section 604.0 is not applicable. 

626.1.1 Permit required: All temporary structures including tents or membrane 
structures covering an area in excess of 120 square feet, including all connecting 
areas or spaces with a common means of egress or entrance, and used or intended 
to be used for gathering together of ten or more persons shall not be erected, 
operated or maintained for any purpose without obtaining a permit from the 
building official. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes shall be 
exempt from the above requirements. Special permits required by the building code 
shall be secured from the building official. 

626.2 Plans and specifications: A permit application and drawings shall be 
submitted for each installation and use with specifications indicating the location of 
the structure on the site and details regarding the location of egress facilities, seating 
capacity, construction and all mechanical and electrical equipment. 

626.3 Location: All temporary structures shall be located in accordance with the 
requirements of Table 906.2 based on the fireresistance rating of the exterior walls 
for the proposed type of construction. 

626.4 Construction: Tents and air-supported structures shall be constructed as 
required by this code and NFiPA 102 listed in Appendix A. 

626.5 Membrane material: All tents shall be constructed of flameresistive materials 
or materials treated to render the material flameresistant in a manner approved by 
the building official. The membrane material shall be either noncombustible as 
defined in Section 903.4 or flameresistant conforming to NFiPA 701 listed in 
Appendix A. 

626.6 Certification: An affidavit or affirmation shall be submitted to the building 
official and a copy retained on the premises on which the tent or air-supported 
structure is located, attesting to the following information relative to the 
flameresistance of the fabric: 

1. The names and addresses of the owners of the tent or air-supported 
structure. 

2. Date fabric was last treated with flameresistant solution. 

3. Trade name or kind of chemical used in treatment. 



6-56 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



4. The name of person or firm treating the material. 

5. Name of testing agency and test standard by which the fabric was tested. 

626.7 Inflation pressure: Operating pressure shall be maintained at the design 
pressure specified by the manufacturer to assure structural stability and to avoid 
excessive distortion during high wind or snow loads. 

626.8 Door operation: Under high wind over 50 mph or snow conditions, the use 
of doors in air-supported structures shall be controlled to avoid excessive air loss. 
Doors shall not be left open under any conditions. 

626.9 Means of egress: All temporary structures including tents and membrane 
structures shall conform to the means of egress requirements of Article 8 and shall 
have a maximum length of exit access travel of 100 feet. 



SECTION 627.0 FIRE PREVENTION CODES 

627.1 Inspections: All buildings and structures involving the use and handling of 
flammable or explosive materials, places of assembly and other hazardous uses and 
occupancies shall be inspected in accordance with the BOCA National Fire 
Prevention Code and 527CMR listed in Appendix A and G, respectively. Such 
inspection shall be made to insure compliance with the fire prevention codes in 
respect to protection against fire panic; maintenance of exitways and operation of 
fire door assemblies; fire protection systems; standpipes; hydrant and fire 
suppression systems; fire-alarm, signaling and central station alarm systems; 
conduct of fire drills and fire brigades; and all special fire extinguishing equipment 

627.2 Housekeeping: Periodic inspections of existing uses and occupancies shall 
be made to insure maintenance of good housekeeping conditions including the 
removal of waste and rubbish; safe arrangement and storage of merchandise and 
other contents; proper segregation of hazardous processes; handling of volatile 
flammables; avoidance of dangerous congestion and maintenance of all means of 
egress clear of obstructions; and the safe operation of all places of public assembly 
in which combustible scenery and hazardous equipment are in use while open to the 
public 

627.3 Coordination Of inspections: The building, fire and health officials and 
other a dminis trative agencies of the jurisdiction to whom the authority is delegated 
to inspect buildings and structures in respect to the maintenance of safe conditions 
of use and occupancy shall immediately notify the respective official of any violation 
of the provisions of this code or the fire prevention and health rules and regulations. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-57 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 628.0 SPECIAL PERMITS AND CERTIFICATES OF FITNESS 

628.1 Special permits: A hazardous or dangerous industry, trade, occupation or 
use which involves the transportation, storage or handling of explosive, flammable, 
combustible or other substance involving fire or life hazards shall not be conducted 
without a permit from the fire official prescribing the conditions and requirements 
necessary to secure the public safety. 

628.2 Certificate of fitness: Before any equipment involving fire or life hazard is 
placed in operation, the supervisor or operator shall secure a certificate of fitness 
from the administrative official certifying to the qualifications of the person to whom 
such certificate is issued. Certificates of fitness shall be required for the operation 
of boilers and unfired pressure vessels as specified in the mechanical and boiler 
codes listed in Appendix A and for the conduct of all high hazard uses involving the 
storage, use or handling of flammable volatile liquids, materials and mixtures, 
liquified gases and compressed gases under a pressure of more than fifteen (15) 
pounds per square inch (psi), and all avid and liquid chemicals of a combustible 
and explosive character. All certificates of fitness may be terminated for cause at any 
time, and shall be renewed at intervals of not more than one (1) year. 

SECTION 629.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

629.1 Special permit for existing uses: Any existing hazardous use which 
heretofore authorized by a permit issued under the provisions of law or the 
regulations of the fire official may be continued by special permit provided the 
continuance of such use or occupancy does not endanger the public safety. 

629.2 Existing use prohibited: An existing building of frame (Type 5) construction 
which is more than two (2) stories in height or more than five thousand (5,000) 
square feet in area; or of nonfireproof (Type 3) construction which is more than four 
(4) stories in height shall not be continued in use or hereafter occupied for the 
manufacture of pyroxylin plastics or similar materials of high fire hazard and 
explosive characteristics. 

629.3 Places of assembly 

629.3.1 Change Of use: An existing building or structure or part thereof shall not 
be altered or converted into a place of assembly unless it complies with the 
provisions of this code applicable to places of public assembly (see Article 32). 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 630.0 AMUSEMENT PARKS 

630.1 General: All buildings and structures used as part of an amusement park 
shall be subject to this code. This section specifically includes any building or 
structure supporting a moving device. The jurisdiction of structures or buildings is 
limited to the points of interface of the moving device and rails, said device is to be 
controlled by Form B-ll, (520 CMR 5.00) Rules and Regulations for the Safely, 
Construction and Operation of Ferris Wheels, Carousels, Inclined Railways or 
Similar Amusement Devices, filed with the Secretary of State. 

SECTION 631.0 GROUP RESIDENCE 

631.1 Definition: A group residence is a premise licensed by or operated by an 
agency of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or subdivision thereof, as a special 
residence for those who are capable of self-preservation in the following categories: 

1. not more than twelve (12) unrelated persons between the ages of seven (7) 
and fifteen (15) years of age inclusive ; or 

2. not more than twenty-five (25) unrelated persons, sixteen (16) years of age 
or over; or 

3. a combination of Category 1 and 2 above consisting of not more than 
eighteen (18) unrelated persons over seven (7) years of age calculated at 
the rate of two (2) such persons , or portion thereof , from Category 2 
being equal to one (1) such person in Category 1 all in accordance with 
Table 631. 

Note: In determining the classification for proposed use, group residence shall 
not be construed as being similar in any way to a multi-family dwelling, 
two-family dwelling, boarding house, lodging house, dormitory, hotel, school 
or institution of any kind. For building code purposes, it shall be treated as 
a single-family residential building. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-59 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 631 
Group Residence - Maximum Capacity, Combination of Categories 



Category 1 


12 


11 


10 


9 


8 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 





Category 2 





2 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


25 


Maximum total 
residents 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


18 


25 



631.1.1 Special definitions: For the purpose of Section 631.0, the following terms 
shall be defined exclusively for use with group residences: 

Self preservation: Having the capability, both mentally and physically, to take action 
to preserve one's own life. Specifically, to egress the building within two and one-half 
(2Vz) minutes. (Reference inspection procedures in Sections 631.7 and 631.8.) 

Egress: A continuous unobstructed path of travel from any space in a building to the 
open air outside at grade. 

Principal means of egress: The primary choice of two (2) routes normally used by 
occupants to enter or leave a building. 

Escape route : To reduce the possibility of entrapment in the event that the principal 
means of egress is blocked by fire or smoke, an escape route shall be available which 
performs in accordance with Section 631.8. In an existing building where a second 
means of egress is physically impractical from above grade floors, any proven, 
usable path to the open air outside at grade shall be deemed acceptable, including 
but not limited to connecting doors, porches, windows within six (6) feet of grade, 
ramps, fire escapes, balcony evacuation systems, etc 

Authorized inspectors: The state or local building official having jurisdiction and a 
representative of the licensing or operating agency having jurisdiction. 

Room: See definition of "Habitable space" and "Occupiable room" in Section 201.0. 

631.2 Existing buildings: These regulations shall apply to existing dwelling units 
which are to be converted to a group residence, notwithstanding Section 106.0. 

631 .2.1 Height limitations: Existing buildings, of Type 5B construction, greater 
than two and one-half (2V£) stories, or thirty-five (35) feet in height may be allowed 
to be used (as an exception to Table 501) as a group residence. 

631.3 Plans and specifications: Plans shall be filed with the building official 
having jurisdiction in accordance with Section 113.0 for any building to be 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



constructed as, or altered for use as, a group residence under Section 631.0. The 
floor plans shall show all rooms, spaces, closets, doors, corridors, windows, stairs 
and stairways, hazardous vertical openings and the location of all required fire 
warning equipment and proposed fire suppression equipment. 

631.4 Hazardous contents: Any contents which represent a fire hazard greater 
than that which could be expected of ordinary household furnishings, shall not be 
allowed. Storage shall not be allowed above the second floor. 

631.4.1 Interior finish: Only Class I and Class n interior finish materials shall be 
allowed in the principal means of egress. In refinishing any other area, material 
having a Class HI flame spread rating shall be allowed provided it does not decrease 
the existing rating. The smoke contribution rating of any material shall not exceed 
450 (see Section 904.0). 

631.4.2 Exception: In existing buildings, the required flame spread or smoke 
development classification of interior surfaces may be obtained by applying approved 
fire retardant paints or solutions to existing interior surfaces having a higher flame 
spread rating than permitted. 

631.5 Egress: In existing buildings there shall be one (1) means of egress and one 
(1) escape route serving each floor, remote as possible from each other and leading 
to grade. The stairway between the first and second floors, if unenclosed, may 
remain unenclosed to preserve functional and aesthetic requirements. In new 
construction, two (2) means of egress are required in accordance with the One- and 
Two-Family Dwelling Code, and stairways above the grade floor shall be enclosed 
with one (1) hour fireresistive construction. 

Exception: 

1. Where the Group Residence is protected with a fire suppression system 
according to NFiPA 13D or better only one means of egress shall be 
required from floors above the grade floor in existing buildings and new 
construction. 

2. Where the Group Residence is protected with a fire suppression system 
according to NFiPA 13D or better the enclosure of stairways is not 
required. 

631.6 Fire protection systems 

631 .6.1 Hazardous vertical openings: Openings to such spaces as laundry chutes, 
dumbwaiters, heating plenums or combustible concealed spaces shall be 
permanently blocked with one (1) hour construction, as regulated by the provisions 
of Article 9. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



631.6.2 Automatic fire warning systems: An approved automatic fire warning 
system shall be provided in accordance with Article 10. 

631.7 Inspections: There shall be three (3) mandatory types of inspections as 
described below. The results of such inspections shall be on file in the office of the 
building official with copies sent to the licensing or operating agency on a prepared 
checklist and signed by the authorized inspectors. 

631.7.1 Temporary certificate: The building official shall perform plan review and 
post-construction inspection to ensure that the building conforms to this code. He 
shall issue a temporary certificate of occupancy effective for ninety (90) days only. 

631 .7.2 Final certificate: Before issuance of the final certificate of occupancy, the 
authorized inspectors shall mutually conduct a test (see Section 631.8.1) to ensure 
that the occupants are capable of self-preservation. Upon complete satisfaction of all 
requirements, the building official shall then issue a permanent certificate of 
occupancy. This test shall be conducted once a year in accordance with Section 
108.5.1 for purposes of recertifying both the building and the occupants. 

631.8 Inspection procedure: The building and the occupants' capability of 
self-preservation constitute a system of life safety which are unique for each building 
and for each occupant in a group residence. Therefore, a simple direct test is 
specified herein to determine the capability of the occupant and/or the suitability of 
the building as a life safety system. 

631.8.1 Direct test/fire drill: A fire drill shall be conducted as the direct test 
required by Section 631.8. The building official may require that he be present for 
the fire drill, or may accept an affidavit signed by the residence manager citing the 
names of the authorized inspectors present, the names of the occupants who 
participated, the name(s) of any occupants who failed to egress the building within 
two and one-half (2Vi) minutes, the date, time and place where said fire drill was 
held. During the conduct of the drill, all staff personnel of the group residence shall 
isolate themselves from the occupants. The authorized inspector(s), when present, 
shall then cause to be blocked any one point in an egress route where the choice of 
an alternate route is possible, to simulate a hazardous condition, and the internal 
alarm system shall be activated for two and one-half minutes. 

631 .8.2 Evaluation: Any occupant who fails to escape from the building and achieve 
egress outside the building at ground level within the two and one-half (2 l A) minute 
period shall not be permitted to remain living in the residence. 

Note: The occupant or the building may be at fault; therefore, the system has 
failed to perform adequately to provide life safety and is, consequently, 
unacceptable for that occupant 

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631 .8.3 Other tests: Other tests are not necessary and shall not be required by the 
building official. It shall be the responsibility of the residence manager of the group 
residence to provide immediate suitable accommodations elsewhere for any occupant 
deemed unacceptable by the building official. Each occupant must be certified at 
regular intervals but not less than every quarter at the group residence by the 
licensing or operating agency. The building official may require an inspection at his 
discretion when he feels that either the building or the occupant may not conform. 

631 .9 Certificate Of occupancy: Any certificate of occupancy issued for a building 
intended to be used as a group residence, as defined in Section 631.1, shall become 
invalid if the premises have not been licensed or authorized by an agency of the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts within ninety (90) days of the date of issuance of 
the certificate of occupancy. 



SECTION 632.0 NURSING HOMES, REST HOMES, CHARITABLE HOMES 
FOR THE AGED, CONVALESCENT HOMES AND HOSPITALS 

632.1 New facilities: Buildings to be constructed or proposed for a change of 
occupancy, to be used as nursing homes, rest homes charitable homes for the aged, 
convalescent homes and hospitals (in Use Group 1-2) shall meet the provisions of 
NFiPA 101 Life Safety Code, as referenced in Appendix A and the applicable 
provisions of this code. 

632.2 Construction requirements: Hospitals, nursing homes, and convalescent 
homes shall be built only of Type 1 construction, in accordance with Chapter 111, 
Sections 51 and 71, of the Massachusetts General Laws, as amended. 

SECTION 633.0 CHILD DAY CARE CENTERS 

633.1 General: Child day care centers shall be subject to the applicable provisions 
of this code and the special requirements of this section. Child day care centers 
licensed by the Office for Children shall also be subject to compliance with the rules 
and regulations of that authority. 

633.2 Applicability: The locations of the child day care centers shall be governed 
by the provisions of Section 633.0. Locations of the child day care centers shall not 
be restricted by the limitations of Table 501 for E and/or 1-2 use groups solely 
because of the child day care center's use group classification/The provisions of 
Section 3203.4 shall not apply to child day care centers. In all buildings in which the 
introduction of a child day care center changes the use, the child day care center and 
all portions of the building required for use by the child day care center shall comply 
with Section 32033, 3203.8, 3203.9, 3203.10, 3203.11 and 3204.6. 



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633.3 High hazard restrictions: A child day care center shall not occupy the same 
building with, or be located within two hundred (200) feet of a high hazard 
occupancy. 

633.4 Child day care center use groups: 

633.4.1 Less than two years and nine months in age: Buildings and portions 
thereof licensed by the Office for Children as child day care centers for children two 
(2) years and nine (9) months in age or younger shall be classified as 1-2 use group. 

633.4.2 More than two years and nine months in age: Buildings or portions 
thereof licensed by the Office for Children as child day care centers for children 
more than two (2) years and nine (9) months in age shall be classified as E use 
group. 

633.5 Story height limitations: The locations of the child day care centers in new 
and existing buildings shall be limited by the provisions of this section, as applicable 
to the use group classification of the center, and Table 633. When a child day care 
center contains children of mixed ages such that it would be classified in both the 
1-2 and E use groups, the provisions of this section for use group 1-2 shall apply. 

633.5.1 I-2 limitations: In new and existing buildings, child day care centers which 
are classified in the 1-2 use group shall comply with one of the following compliance 
options listed below. All required means of egress for child day care centers 
classified in use group 1-2 shall lead directly to grade. 

1. The location of the child day care center shall be limited to the first floor, 
cellar and/or basement; or 

2. In buildings of Type 2B, 3A or 4 construction which are fully sprinklered 
and comply with the special provisions of Section 633.15 through 633.15 J 
inclusive, the child day care center shall be located no higher than the 
third floor; or 

3. In buildings of Types 1A, IB or 2A construction which comply with the 
special provisions of Sections 633.15 through 633.153 inclusive and are 
either fully sprinklered, or in which the child day care center shall be 
located no higher than the third floor. 

633.5.2 E limitations: In new and existing buildings, child day care centers which 
are classified in the E use group shall comply with one of the following compliance 
options listed below. All required means of egress for child day care centers 
classified in use group E shall lead directly to grade. 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



1. The location of the child day care center shall be no higher than the 
second floor; or 

2. In buildings of Type 2B, 3A or 4 construction which are fully sprinklered 
and comply with the special provisions of Section 633.15 through 633.153 
inclusive, the child day care center shall be located no higher than the 
fourth floor; or 

3. In buildings of Types LA, IB or 2A construction which comply with the 
special provisions of Sections 633.15 through 633.153 inclusive and are 
either fully sprinklered, or in which the child day care center shall be 
located no higher than the seventh floor. 

633.6 Child day care centers classified as 1-2 use group: 

633.6.1 Basement and cellar use in Types 3B and 5B construction: 

633.6.1 .1 Basement use: A basement, as defined in this code, of a building of Type 
3B or 5B construction may be used for a child day care center in accordance with 
the following requirements: there shall be two separate and independent means of 
egress, remote from each other: 

1. leading to grade; or 

2. leading to a one (1) hour fire-rated enclosed stairway not more than four 
(4) feet in height vertically which leads directly to grade and is separated 
from any other use as an egress by one (1) hour fire-rated partitions and 
self-closing doors. 

633.6.1.2 Cellar use: A cellar, as defined in this code, of a building of Type 3B or 
5B construction may be used for a child day care center in accordance with the 
following requirements: 

1. There shall be at least two (2) separate and independent interior means 
of egress, remote as possible from each other and leading directly to grade 
or to a one (1) hour fire-rated enclosed stairway not more than four (4) 
feet in height, vertically. Any such stairwell serving as a required means 
of egress from a child day care center shall serve only the day care center. 

2. Smoke detectors shall be located in the story of the use and in the story, 
if one exists, directly beneath the area being used for the child day care 
center. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



3. Interior stairways used as required means of egress shall contain smoke 
detectors connected to alarms audible throughout the child day care 
center. 

633.7 Egress requirements for I-2 and E child day care center use groups: 

633.7.1 Below grade: All child day care centers or parts thereof located below 
grade, except for 1-2 child day care center use in Types 3B and 5B construction as 
provided in Sections 633.6.1.1 and 633.6.1.2, shall conform to the following 
requirements: 

1. There shall be at least two (2) separate and independent means of egress, 
remote as possible from each other, at least one (1) of which leads 
directly to grade or to a one (1) hour fire-rated enclosed stairway not 
more than four (4) feet in height, vertically. Any such stairwell serving as 
a required means of egress from a child day care center shall serve only 
the day care center. 

2. Required interior stairways shall be of least one (1) hour fire-rated 
construction enclosed with self-closing fire doors. 

3. Required interior stairways shall contain smoke detectors connected to 
alarms audible throughout the child day care center. 

633.7.2 Egress on floors other than basement or cellar: Each story of the child 
day care center shall be provided with not less than two (2) independent means of 
egress, remote as possible from each other, and such additional approved means of 
egress leading from the occupied spaces so that to reach an egress it will not be 
necessary to pass through a common corridor or space. 

633.7.2.1 Buildings of Types 1 , 2A & 2B construction: In these buildings, except 
for R-2 use group, equipped with a fire suppression system in conformance with 
Section 1002.0, a single common corridor shall be acceptable for providing access 
to two (2) means of egress as required in this section. 

633.7.2.2 Common corridors used for exitway access: Common corridors may 
be subdivided, for the purpose of Section 633.7.2.1 to provide separate and 
independent exitway access by using smoke stop partitions complying with the 
provisions of this code. Access through interconnected rooms to either side of the 
smoke stop partition, as provided in Section 633.7.23, shall be allowed as a method 
of complying with Section 633.7.2.1. The doors in the smoke stop partitions may be 
equipped with anautomatic hold open device connected to smoke or smoke and heat 
detectors and designed to close automatically by activation of the detector system. 



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633.7.2.3 Egress from each room: Two (2) approved means of egress located as 
remotely as possible from each other shall be required for each occupied room. One 
(1) such required egress may be made by communicating door. 

633.7.3 Roof egress: Where the roof is used by a child day care center, two (2) 
enclosed stairways shall be provided, one (1) leading directly to an enclosed exitway 
system and one (1) leading to a corridor on a floor below that leads to two (2) 
remote and independent exitways. The stairways shall comply with all the provisions 
of Section 633.0 and this code. 

633.7.4 Egress lighting: Egress lighting shall be provided in conformance with 
Article 8, including requirements for emergency lighting. Emergency lighting 
provided for required egresses for the child day care center shall include battery 
back-up. 

633.7.5 Doorways: All required exitway doorways shall be at least thirty-six (36) 
inches in width. All other egress doorways shall be atleast thirty-two (32) inches in 
width. 

633.7.6 Handrails: All required egress stairways shall be provided with double 
handrails on both sides, and these shall be continuous including all runs and 
platforms and shall be built as follows: 

1. The upper rail shall not be less than thirty (30) inches nor more than 
thirty-three (33) inches, measured vertically, above the nosing of the 
treads. 

2. The lower rail shall be installed at approximately twenty (20) inches high 
measured vertically at the face of the riser. 

633.8 Heating system: Any portable or permanent heater in spaces occupied by 
children shall be separated from the occupied space by partitions, guards, screens, 
or other means. Space and unit heaters using combustible fuels shall be prohibited. 

633.9 Boiler rooms: Boilers, furnaces or other fire units shall be enclosed as 
required in the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. Boiler room 
doors shall not open into occupied areas. 

633.10 Roofs: Where a roof is used by a child day care center, there shall be a 
solid, smooth non-climbable fence or barrier a minimum of seven (7) feet high on 
all sides and separating the child day care center area from any other uses. Fences 
shall be set back at least three (3) feet from the outside edge of the exterior wall 
below. A weatherproof telephone or equivalent means of communication shall be 
provided for use in emergencies and shall be openable without keys, coins etc 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-67 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



633.1 1 Fire alarm systems: Fire alarm systems shall be provided in child day care 
centers in accordance with the requirements of this section. The requirements of 
Sections 633.6.1.2 and 633.7.1 may be combined with the requirements of this 
sections. 

1. Facilities for up to twenty-four (24) children shall be provided with a 
manual alarm system which will sound an alarm audible throughout the 
child day care center. 

2. Facilities for twenty-five (25) or more children shall be provided with an 
automatic alarm system consisting of approved smoke detectors located 
as provided in Section 633.12 and audible throughout the child day care 
center or throughout each floor of the center. In addition, there shall be 
at least one (1) manual alarm on each floor of the child day care center 
which will sound on all floors of the child day care center when actuated. 

633.12 Location of detectors: Smoke detectors shall be installed on the ceilings 
of each story occupied by the day care center above or in front of the doors to the 
stairways and at not greater than thirty (30) foot spacing in the corridor providing 
required means of egress on all floors of the child day care center. Smoke detectors 
shall also be installed in all accessory spaces of the child day care center not used 
for children, including storage over one hundred (100) square feet in area. All 
required detectors shall be located on the same circuit and interconnected so that 
when one (1) sounds, all will sound. Required detectors shall meet the requirements 
of UL 217 as listed in Appendix A and shall have an alarm decibel rating of at least 
85. 

633.13 Child day care center separations: When the floor occupied by the child 
day care center is above any usable space, the floor shall have a minimum of one 
(1) hour fire resistance rating in buildings of Type 2C, 3B and 5 and two (2) hours 
in buildings of Type 1, 2A, 2B, 3A and 4 construction. When the floor occupied by 
the child day care center is below any usable space, the ceiling above shall have at 
least a one hour fire resistance rating or the floor above shall be equipped with 
smoke detectors connected to the child day care center alarms. The child day care 
center shall be separated from all other uses on the same level by fire separation of 
at least two (2) hour fire resistance rating or greater as per Table 902. 

633.14 Elevator doors: The child day care center shall not be exposed directly to 
the elevator doors opening from the elevator shaft. At least one (1) of the required 
means of egress shall not be exposed to the elevator openings. Elevator door 
openings may be separated by two (2) hour fire rated construction. 

633.15 Special provisions: In new and existing buildings containing 1-2 child care 
occupancies where the child day care center is located above the first floor, and in 

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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



new and existing buildings containing E child care occupancies where the child day 
care center is located above the third floor, the child day care center shall meet the 
requirements of this section or shall meet these requirements through other 
methods acceptable to the authority haying jurisdiction. 

633.15.1 Direct communication: The child day care center shall have direct 
communication from each room in the child day care center to either the fire 
command center or to the fire department 

633.15.2 Alarm requirements: In addition to meeting the requirements of Section 
633.11, on the floor of the child day care center and/or the floor below, the operation 
of any water flow device, manual pull station, smoke or heat detector will initiate a 
special announcement for the child day care center to evacuate or proceed to the 
area specified in Section 633.153. A standard announcement shall also be initiated 
for the rest of the building. Smoke detectors shall be installed on the ceiling of the 
floor below the child day care center. Manual pull stations shall be required on the 
floor located below the child care center. 

633.15.3 Areas of refuge: In new and existing buildings containing E child care 
occupancies where the child day care center is located on the fourth through seventh 
floors, the child day care center shall have direct access to a separate area which 
shall have a minimum of two (2) hour rated construction separating it from the rest 
of the building. The area shall adjoin an enclosed stairway with a fire resistance 
rating of at least two (2) hours. The area shall be sized at nine (9) square feet per 
person to accommodate the licensed capacity and staff of the child day care center. 
This provision shall apply to all centers located on the sixth or seventh floors of a 
building and to those centers on the fourth or fifth floors whose licensed capacity 
exceeds fifty (50) children. 

(See Table 633 next page) 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 633 

PERMITTED LOCATIONS AND REQUIRED SPRINKLER PROTECTION FOR 

CHILD DAY CARE CENTERS 



1-2 Child Care Occupancy / Children Under Two Years Nine Months of Age 


Floor Level of 
Child Day Care 
Center 


Building Construction Type 


1A 


1B 


2A 


2B 


2C 


3A 


3B 


4 


5A 


5B 


Basement / 
Cellar 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


1st Story 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


2nd Story 


PS 


PS 


PS 


S 


NP 


S 


NP 


S 


NP 


NP 


3rd Story 


PS 


PS 


PS 


s 


NP 


S 


NP 


S 


NP 


NP 


4th Story and 
Higher 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


E Child Care Occupancy / Children Over Two Years Nine Months of Age 


Floor Level of 
Child Day Care 
Center 


Building Construction Type 


1A 


1B 


2A 


2B 


2C 


3A 


3B 


4 


5A 


5B 


Basement / 
Cellar 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


1st Story 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


! p 


2nd Story 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


p 


3rd Story 


PS 


PS 


PS 


S 


NP 


S 


NP 


S 


NP 


NP 


4th Story 


PS 


PS 


PS 


s 


NP 


s 


NP 


S 


NP 


NP 


5th to 7th Story 


PS 


PS 


PS 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


8th Story and 
Higher 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 


NP 



Key to Table 

P = Permitted 
NP = Not Permitted 

S = Sprinklers Required / See Section 633.15 for Special Provisions 
PS = Partial Sprinklers Required / See Section 633.15 for Special Provisions 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 634.0 SUMMER CAMPS FOR CHILDREN 

634.1 Definition: Summer camps for children include premises, operated solely 
between April and October of each year for recreational or other purposes, and 
having residential facilities. The use of such accommodations for purposes of 
inspection, certification and inspection fees shall be considered as being similar to 
a dormitory in Use Group R-2 and subject to the following provisions of this section. 

634.2 New and existing occupancies: These regulations shall apply to existing 
and new summer camps for children as defined in Section 634.1 of this code. 

634.3 Means Of egress: All one-story, one-room buildings having one thousand 
square feet (1,000) or less and having twenty-five (25) occupants or less shall require 
only one (1) means of egress provided that: 

1. the length of travel does not exceed fifty (50) feet from any point in the 
building to the outside at grade; and, 

2. the minimum width for aisles and corridors shall be three (3) feet 

634.3.1 Emergency escape: Every sleeping room shall have at least one (1) 
exterior door or openable window to permit emergency exit or rescue; the windows 
shall conform to the following restrictions: 

1. must be openable from the inside without the use of separate tools; 

2. the sill height shall not be more than thirty-six (36) inches above the 
finish floor and with a maximum six (6) foot drop from the window sill 
to grade below the window; and 

3. provide a minimum net clear opening area five and seven tenths (5.7) 
square feet The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 
24 inches, The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 
inches. 

634.4 Fire protection: Smoke detectors shall be required for existing and new 
residential units in accordance with Section 1018.0 of this code and may be either 
A.C. wired or battery-operated. 

Exception: Tents and other temporary shelters which are designed to sleep 
less than eight (8) persons and which have an open side consisting of greater 
than one sixth (1/6) of the perimeter of the shelter or which have built-in 
provisions for emergency escape. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



634.5 Mechanical: If camps are heated, then the building must conform to all 
applicable code sections and specialized codes, notwithstanding any of the provisions 
in Section 634.0. 

634.6 Enforcement and inspections: Enforcement shall be by the local building 
official who shall inspect and certify the summer camps yearly, prior to season 
opening. Fees charged shall be in accordance with Table 108 of this code. 

SECTION 635.0 HISTORIC BUILDINGS 

635.1 Scope: The provisions of Section 635.0 shall govern all buildings and 
structures in the Commonwealth which are legally designated as historic buildings. 
This section shall preempt all other regulations of this code governing the 
reconstruction, alterations, change of use and occupancy, repairs, maintenance and 
additions for the conformity of historic buildings and structures to this code, with 
the exception of Section 126.0 for appeals, or unless otherwise specified (see 
Appendix H). 

635.2 Definitions: 

Historic buildings: Any individual building or structure, but excluding districts, so 
designated by the National Register of Historic Places or certified by the 
Massachusetts Historic Commission and ratified by the Board of Building 
Regulations and Standards as listed in Appendix H. Historic buildings shall be 
further defined as totally or partially preserved buildings. 

Partially preserved buildings: Any building or structure designated as a historic 
building by the State Board of Building Regulations and Standards or listed in the 
National Register of Historic Places and not designated as totally preserved 
buildings in Appendix H. 

Restoration: Restoration is the process of accurately reconstructing the form and 
details of a building or structure or portion thereof as it appeared at a particular 
period or periods of time by means of removal of later work/or the replacement of 
missing original work. 

Totally preserved buildings: A totally preserved building is a historic building or 
structure. The principal use of such a building or structure must be as an exhibit 
of the building or structure itself which is open to the public not less than twelve 
(12) days per year, although additional uses, original or ancillary to the principal 
use, shall be permitted within the same building up to maximum of twenty-five (25) 
percent of the gross floor area. Totally preserved buildings shall be those listed in 
Appendix H. 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



635.3 Totally preserved buildings: 

635.3.1 State Building Code exceptions: A totally preserved building shall be 
subject to the following exceptions: 

1. Repairs, maintenance and restoration shall be allowed without conformity 
to this code if the provisions of Section 635.4 have been fully complied 
with. 

2. In case of fire or other casualty to a totally preserved building, it may be 
rebuilt, in total or in part, using such techniques and materials as are 
necessary to restore it to its original condition and use group. 

3. If a historic building or structure, as a result of proposed work, would 
become eligible for certification as a totally preserved building and the 
Massachusetts Historical Commission so certifies by affidavit it is 
submitted to the building official with the permit application, then the 
building official shall allow the work to proceed under the provisions of 
this section. 

635.4 Mandatory safety requirements: All totally preserved buildings shall comply 
to the following requirements: 

635.4.1 Fire protection equipment: Fire protection equipment shall be provided 
according to the following requirements. 

1. Manual fire extinguishing equipment: All use groups, other than 
Residential R-3, shall have approved manual fire exstingushing 
equipment, as determined by the fire official. 

2. Automatic fire warning system: All residential buildings in use groups R- 
1, R-2 and R-3 shall conform to the requirements of Section 1018.3.4 of 
this code. All other use groups shall comply with items a and b below: 

a. Locations: Provide one (1) smoke detector, but not less than one, 
for every twelve hundred (1200) square feet of floor area per level. 
In addition, all lobbies, common corridors, hallways and exitway 
access and discharge routes shall be provided with approved smoke 
detectors with not more than thirty (30) foot spacing between 
detectors. All required smoke detectors shall have an alarm audible 
throughout the structure or building. 

b. Single station and multiple station smoke detection devices: Smoke 
detectors of single station and multiple station types shall meet the 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-73 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



requirements of U.L. 217 and be listed or approved by a nationally- 
recognized fire-testing laboratory. 

3. Manual pull stations: A manual fire alarm pull station shall be provided 
in the natural path of egress in all use groups except R-3. Manual pull 
stations shall be connected to the building fire warning system in 
conformance with NFiPA 72A as listed in Appendix A. 

635.4.2 Exit signs and emergency lights: Approved exit signs and emergency 
lighting, where designated by the local building official, shall be provided in 
compliance with Sections 823.0 and 824.0 of this code. 

Exception: All totally preserved buildings need not comply with Sections 823.0 
and 824.0 if not occupied after daylight hours, except that paths of egress 
shall have exit signs. 

635.4.3 Maximum occupancy: Occupancy shall be limited by the actual structural 
floor load capacity as certified by a qualified Massachusetts registered professional 
engineer or architect or as per Section 806.0, whichever is less. Said floor load shall 
be posted as per the procedures set forth in Sections 119.0, 120.0 and 1105.0. The 
owner shall submit evidence of this certification and related computations to the 
building official upon request 

635.4.4 Limited egress: Where one or more floors of a totally preserved building 
are limited to one (1) means of egress, the occupancy load shall be computed as 
follows: 

1. Floors below the first story: Not more than one (1) occupant per one 
hundred (100) square feet of gross floor area with a maximum occupancy 
of forty-nine (49). 

2. First story: Not more than one (1) occupant per fifty (50) square feet of 
gross floor area. 

3. Second story and above: Not more than one (1) occupant per one hundred 
(100) square feet of gross floor area, or thirty (30) occupants per unit of 
egress width, whichever condition results in the lesser occupancy load. 

635.4.5 Inspections: The building official and the fire official shall inspect all 
totally preserved buildings not less frequently than once every year in order to 
determine that the building or structure continues to conform to Section 635.4. A 
qualified Massachusetts registered professional engineer or architect shall certify 
every five (5) years thereafter as to the exact floor load capacity of the building or 
structure. The building official shall certify all totally preserved buildings not less 

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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



frequently than once every year. Fees shall be established at $25.00 per building per 
inspection. 

635.5 Historic buildings not qualified as totally preserved: 

635.5.1 Applicability: This section and Article 32 shall apply to all historic 
buildings which are not defined as totally preserved buildings. 

635.5.2 Continuation of use and occupancy: The legal use and occupancy of any 
partially preserved building may be continued without change or further compliance 
to this code. The provisions of Section 635.4 shall be required for historic buildings 
accessible to the public on more than fifty (50) days per year. 

635.5.3 Inspection, certification and fees: The building inspector shall inspect all 
partially preserved buildings not less than once a year in order to determine that the 
building or structure continues to conform to Sections 635.5 and/or 635.4. If in 
conformance, then he shall issue a certification. Fees shall be in conformance with 
Table 108. 

635.5.4 Fire damage: If a building or structure is damaged from fire or other 
casualty, it may be restored to its original construction, or it shall meet the 
requirements of this code provided these requirements do not compromise the 
features for which the building was considered historic when listed in Appendix H 
of this code or the National Register of Historic Buildings. 

635.5.5 Repairs and maintenance: See Article 32. 

635.5.6 Change in occupancy: See Article 32. 

635.5.7 New systems: See Article 32. 

635.5.8 Lesser and equal hazard: See Article 32. 

635.5.9 Greater hazard: See Article 32. 

SECTION 636.0 LIMITED GROUP RESIDENCE 

636.1 General: A building licensed by or operated by the Department of Mental 
Health or the Office for Children, Commonwealth of Massachusetts as a limited 
group residence: this is a special residence to include residents not capable 
self-preservation. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-75 



mi_ i.iMooHOiiuotl Id dlMlb bUILUINU UUUfc 



636.1.1 Scope: A limited group residence shall have a maximum of twelve (12) 
residents who are at least four (4) years of age. Not more than four (4) of the 
residents shall he impaired; provided, however, that more than four (4) such 
residents may be impaired if the structure complies with Section 636.2. A limited 
group residence shall be classified in the R-5 use category for code purposes. 

636.1.2 Definitions: The following terms shall have the meaning indicated for the 
purpose of Section 636.0: 

Existing building or structure: Any completed building or structure which has 
been legally occupied and/or legally used for a period of at least five (5) years. 
Structures which fail to qualify with this definition shall comply with Section 
636.2. 

Resident: A client in need of care who resides in the limited group residence 
of the licensing or operation agency. Staff arc not considered as residents 
under the provisions of Section 636.0. The licensing agency shall classify all 
residents in one (1) of the following three (3) categories: 

Impaired: All residents not capable of self-preservation through physical, 

mental and/or developmental disability and requiring physical assistance 

to exit the building. All residents under seven (7) years of age shall be 

classified as impaired. 

Partially impaired: All residents physically, mentally and/or 

developmentally disabled but capable of exiting the limited group 

residence with either supervision and/or instruction without any physical 

assistance. 

Unimpaired: All residents capable of exiting the building without physical 

assistance and/or supervision or instruction by staff personnel and 

capable of negotiating any cxitway of the limited group residence. 

636.1.3 Application of building code and reference: Except as may otherwise be 
specifically provided for in Section 636.0, the Massachusetts State Building Code 
shall apply in its entirety. 

Exception: Article 32 shall not apply. 

636.1.4 Mixed use occupancy: A limited group residence shall not be housed in 
a building used for any occupancy other than a limited group residence. 

Exception: Dwelling unit(s) meeting the requirements of this section may be 
incorporated within a building in residential use provided unit separation 
walls and Floor-ceiling assemblies shall serve to completely separate the 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



limited group residence and provided that one of the limited group residence 
exitways is separate from the other uses. 

636.1 .5 Plans and specifications: Plans shall be filed with the building official 
having jurisdiction in accordance with Section 113.0 for any building to be 
constructed as, or altered for use as, a limited group residence under Section 636.0. 

636.1.6 Temporary certificate of occupancy: Upon satisfactory compliance with 
the code sections pertaining to building requirements, the building official shall 
issue a temporary certificate of occupancy in accordance with Section 119.4 for a 
period not to exceed ninety (90) days. This temporary certificate of occupancy 
specifically prohibits residents as defined in Section 636.1.2 from inhabiting the 
building overnight until the building official issues the certificate of occupancy under 
Section 636.1.8. 

636.1 .7 Rules and regulations of the licensing or operating agency pertaining to and 
including, but not limited to, smoking regulations, staffing ratios, and resident 
classifications shall be provided to the building official by the licensing or operating 
agency prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy. 

636.1.8 Certificate of occupancy: Certificates of occupancy shall only be issued 
when a license, if appropriate, and an affidavit from the Department of Mental 
Health or the Office for Children, Commonwealth of Massachusetts have been, 
accepted by the building official attesting to the satisfactory compliance with the 
applicable rules and regulations referenced in Section 636.1.7. 

636.1.9 Certificate Of inspection: Certificates of inspection shall be issued by the 
building official in accordance with Section 108.5.1 and Table 108. 

636.1 .1 Failure to comply: The building official immediately upon being informed 
by written report or otherwise that a building or structure or anything attached 
thereto or connected therewith is being occupied in violation of this code may revoke 
or suspend any permit, license, certificate or other permission regulated by this code 
and granted by him, and no such building or structure shall be continued to be 
operated after such revocation or suspension. Such revocation or suspension shall 
not preclude the building official from instituting appropriate action in accordance 
with Section 121.0. 

636.2 New structures: All new structures shall be constructed, equipped, and 
maintained to the requirements of the One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code, Section 
636.0 of this code, shall be limited to two (2) stories in height, and shall have 
dwelling unit(s) limited to one story in height with direct access to grade without 
steps or changes in elevation other than ramps in accordance with Section 512.0. 
Corridors shall be of one (1) hour fire resistive construction. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-77 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



636.2.1 Other requirements: New structures shall also satisfy the general 
requirements contained in Sections 636.1 and 636.3. 

636.3 Existing structures: Existing structures of any construction up to three (3) 
stories or forty (40) feet in height may be converted and used for limited group 
residence occupancies. All residents classified as impaired as defined in Section 

636.1.2 are restricted to those stories having direct access to grade without steps or 
changes in elevation other than ramps in accordance with Section 512.0. 

636.3.1 Third-Story utilization: The third (3rd) story of buildings permitted by 
Section 636 J may be only occupied by staff. Other use of the third (3rd) story is 
restricted to heating, ventilation units and ordinary storage. All doors leading to 
non-resident areas shall be maintained locked. 

636.3.2 Vertical openings: Openings to such spaces as laundry chutes, 
dumb-waiters, heating plenums or combustible concealed spaces shall be 
permanently blocked with one (1) hour construction, in accordance with the 
provisions of Article 9, unless such installation is in compliance with the pertinent 
provisions of other sections of this code. 

636.3.2.1 Firestopping and draftstopping: Firestopping and draftstopping shall 
be provided in accordance with Sections 921.0 and the One- and Two-Family 
Dwelling Code or as approved by the building official. 

636.3.3 Exitway Details: 

636.3.3.1 Corridor width: The minimum clear width of an exitway access corridor 
shall be three (3) feet 

Exception: In new structures the minimum clear width shall be four (4) feet. 

636.3.3.2 Dead ends: In no case shall dead end corridors exceed thirty (30) feet 
Existing dead end corridors, wherever possible, shall be altered so that exitways shall 
be accessible in at least two (2) different directions from all points in corridors. 

636.3.3.3 Corridor walls: Corridor walls that separate use areas from exitway 
access corridors shall be of construction that will resist the passage of smoke. 

Exception: Existing openings to congregate living areas, other than kitchens, 
shall be allowed to remain open. 

636.3.3.4 Sleeping room doors: All sleeping room doors shall be of construction 
that will resist the passage of smoke. All doors shall be equipped with approved 
positive latching hardware and approved self-closing devices. 

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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



Exceptions: 

1. Sleeping room doors may be equipped with approved hold-open smoke 
activated devices in accordance with Section 812.0. 

2. Hollow core doors shall not be permitted. 

636.3.3.5 Means of Egress: All habitable floors shall be provided with at least two 
(2) means of egress, located as remote as practicable from one another. Exitways 
shall be located to provide a safe path of travel to a public way without traversing 
any corridor or space exposed to an unprotected open stairway. 

Exceptions: 

1. Open stairs may be used as one (1) of the required means of egress when 
permitted by Section 636.33.6, Exception 3. However, in no case may both 
required means of egress traverse the unprotected open space. 

2. Access to one (1) of the required exitways on sleeping room floors may be 
through adjoining rooms. 

636.3.3.6 Interior exitway stairs: Every story shall be provide with at least one (1) 
enclosed interior stairway which discharge directly to grade or through a grade 
passageway to a public way. The enclosed interior stairway(s) shall be of 
construction having a minimum flreresistance rating of one (1) hour, properly 
flrestopped. Spaces below the stairway(s) shall be enclosed to maintain the integrity 
of the one (1) hour flreresistive construction of the stairway enclosure. Stairway(s) 
openings shall be protected by at least Class "B" label one (1) hour fire door 
assemblies. 

New stair construction shall comply with Section 816.0. Existing stairs shall comply 
with the One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code or as approved by the building official. 

Exceptions: 

1. Secondary stairs not considered an exitway component may have door 
openings protected by a minimum one and three-eighths (1 3/8) inch solid 
bonded wood core doors or equivalent; however, such doors shall be 
equipped with approved automatic positive latching hardware and 
approved self-closing devices. 

2. Basement/cellar: Stairway(s) shall be separated from the first floor by a 
twenty (20) minute fire rated, self-closing door or it equivalent 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-79 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



3. One (1) stairway may be allowed to remain unenclosed to preserve 
functional and aesthetic requirements. 

636.3.3.7 Door widths: No single egress door in a doorway shall be less than 
twenty-eight (28) inches wide. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exitway door leaves shall not be less than thirty-four (34) inches wide. 

2. Door leaves to resident bedrooms occupied by residents who are classified 
as "Impaired" shall not be less than thirty-four (34) inches wide. 

636.3.3.8 Basement/cellar: Basements/cellars shall be provided with at least two 
(2) acceptable exitways, one (1) of which shall discharge directly to the outside of the 
building. 

Exception: Basement/Cellar areas with only one (1) existing entrance from the 
outside only, and used solely as a mechanical space shall be permitted to 
maintain only one (1) doorway which shall be maintained locked as an 
entrance/exitway. 

636.3.3.9 Emergency escape: All sleeping rooms shall have at least one (1) 
openable window or exterior door to permit smoke control, emergency escape, or 
rescue. A required door or window must be openable from the inside without the use 
of separate tools, and shall comply with Section 809.0. 

636.3.3.10 Means of egress lighting: Means of egress lighting systems shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 824.0. 

636.3.3.11 Locks: Locks installed in resident sleeping room doors shall be so 
arranged that they can be locked from the corridor side. All such locks shall be 
arranged to permit exit from the room by a simple operation without the use of a 
key. Double cylinder dead bolts requiring key operation on both sides are prohibited 
throughout this occupancy. 

636.3.4 Interior finish: The flame spread of interior finish shall be limited to Class 
II in exitways or exit access corridors. Rooms shall be permitted to have interior 
finish of a Class III flame spread. Floor coverings shall conform to the requirements 
of Section 920.0 except that carpet type floor coverings shall possess a critical 
radiant flux of 0.22 w/cm 2 or greater. 

636.3.5 Fire suppression systems: Automatic fire suppression systems shall be 
provided and installed in accordance with NFiPA Standard No. 13D, 1980 edition. 

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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



Additions: 

1. Exceptions listed in NFiPA Standard No. 13D applicable to dwellings shall 
not apply. 

2. A water flow detector, connected to the Are alarm system, shall be 
provided. 

3. NFiPA Standard No. 13D, Sections 4-6; Exception 1 shall not apply. 

4. The control valve(s) shall be secured in the open position. 

636.3.6 Fire alarm system: A manual Are alarm system shall be provided and 
installed in accordance with Section 1017.0 and specifically NFiPA Standard No. 72A 
as listed in Appendix A. 

636.3.7 Automatic protection alarm system: Approved smoke detectors shall be 
installed in accordance with Section 1016.0 and specifically NFiPA Standard No. 72E 
as listed in Appendix A in the following locations: 

1. exitway access corridors not more than thirty (30) feet on center; 

2. congregate living areas other than kitchens; 

3. at least one (1) detector in all basement/cellar areas; and 

4. all sleeping rooms. 

Exception: Smoke detectors used in combination with automatic closing 
devices may be substituted in each area aforementioned for the protection 
herein required. 

636.3.8 Fire department connection: All automatic and manual fire alarm 
systems shall be electrically interconnected; this combined system shall 
automatically transmit an alarm to the municipal fire department or to such other 
outside assistance as may be available. Such connection shall be made in accordance 
with NFiPA Standard Nos. 71 or 72B or 72C as listed in Appendix A. 

636.3.9 Heating devices: Portable comfort heating devices and solid fuel burning 
appliances are prohibited. Any heating device, other than a central heating plant, 
shall be so designed and installed that combustible material will not be ignited by 
it or its appurtenances. If fuel-fired, such heating devices shall be chimney or vent 
connected, shall take air for combustion directly from the outside, and shall be so 
designed and installed to provide for complete separation at the combustion system 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



from the atmosphere of the occupied area. The heating system shall have safety 
devices to immediately stop the flow of fuel and shut down the equipment in case of 
either excessive temperature or ignition failure. 

Exceptions: 

1. Approved suspended unit heaters may be used in locations other than 
means of egress and sleeping areas, provided such heaters are located 
high enough to be out of the reach of persons using the area and provided 
they are equipped with the safety devices specified in Section 636.3.9. 

2. Fireplaces which comply with Section 2402.0 may be used only in areas 
other than resident sleeping rooms. The fireplaces shall be equipped with 
a heat tempered glass fireplace enclosure guaranteed against breakage up 
to a temperature of 650 Fahrenheit A lock on the enclosure shall be 
required. 

636.3.10 Fire drills: The licensing or operating agency shall require that fire drills 
be held with sufficient frequency so as to familiarize all residents and staff personnel 
with emergency procedures. Drills shall be held at unexpected times under varying 
conditions to simulate the unpredictable conditions which may occur in case of fire, 
including blocking of any point of any means or egress. 

636.3.10.1 Log: A log shall be kept of all fire drills and shall be available for 
inspection and duplication by the building official, fire official, and other parties 
having jurisdiction. 

636.3.10.2 The resident manager shall record in said log the names of any 
authorized inspectors who may have been present and the names or identifying 
numbers of the residents who participated. 

SECTION 637.0 DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES 

637.1 General: A detoxification facility is a facility licensed or operated by the 
Department of Public Health, Division of Alcoholism in accordance with the Rules 
and Regulations for Detoxification Facilities issued by the Department of Public 
Health, Division of Alcoholism, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and shall be used 
to treat individuals acceptable to the program in accordance with those Rules and 
Regulations. 

637.2 Scope: Detoxification facilities shall be subject to the requirements of this 
section for new and existing buildings which are to be used or operated as licensed 
facilities. This section shall establish the requirements applicable to such facilities. 
Where specific reference is made to other sections of the Massachusetts State 

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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



Building Code, to reference standards or other regulations, those requirements cited 
shall apply. Where no reference is specifically made, this code, including Article 32, 
shall apply. 

637.3 Classification of Residents: All residents enrolled in the detoxification 
program shall be identified according to one of the following classifications when 
evaluated by the facility personnel in accordance with the Rules and Regulations for 
Detoxification Facilities of the Division of Alcoholism of the Department of Public 
Health: 

1. Impaired 

2. Partially Impaired 

3. Unimpaired 

637.4 Definitions: The following terms shall have the meaning indicated for the 
purpose of this section: 

Impaired: Anyone who will require assistance to egress the building 

Partially Impaired: Anyone who may require assistance to egress the building. 

Unimpaired: Anyone who appears able to egress the building without 
assistance. 

637.5 Use group Classification: Detoxification facilities licensed and approved in 
accordance with these provisions shall be classified in the R-l use group. 

637.6 Mixed use occupancy: A portion of a building may be used for a 
detoxification facility provided that it is completely separated from the rest of the 
building by both horizontal and vertical fire division assemblies of at least one (1) 
hour fireresistance rating. 

Exception: Detoxification facilities shall not be located in buildings in which 
any of the following use groups are located: A-2, F, H, or S-l. 

637.7 Submission of plans: Plans shall be filed with the building official in 
accordance with Section 113.0 for any building to be constructed as, or altered for 
use as, a detoxification facility under Section 637.0. The plans shall also identify 
those rooms which comply with these regulations for use by the impaired. 

637.8 Inspection and certification: The building official shall inspect and certify 
detoxification facilities once every two years Fees shall be applied in accordance with 
Table 108 for the R-l Use Group. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



637.9 Resident location limitations: In buildings used as detoxification facilities 
in accordance with these provisions, resident locations shall be limited according to 
the use and type of construction as provided in Table 637.9. All heights are in stories 
above grade. All buildings used as detoxification facilities in accordance with these 
provisions shall be accessible to the Fire Department wherever escape windows are 
required. 

Table 637.9 

RESIDENT SLEEPING ROOM LOCATION LIMITATION FOR 

DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 



Impaired 


1A 


1B 


2A 


2B 


2C 


3A 


3B 


4 


5A 


5B 


No 
limit 


8 St. 


4 

St. 


2 

St. 


1 

St. 


2 

St. 


1 

St. 


2 

St. 


1 

St. 


1* 

St. 


Partially 
impaired 


No 
limit 


No 
limit 


8 

St. 


3 

St. 


1 

St. 


3 

St. 


2 

St. 


3 

St. 


2 

St. 


1 

St. 


Unimpaired 


No 
limit 


No 
limit 


9 

St. 


4 

St. 


3 

St. 


4 

St. 


3 

St. 


4 

St. 


3 

St. 


2 

St. 



Note: * Impaired sleeping rooms in 5B construction require either full building sprinklering 
or one (1) hour fire rated separation for floor and ceiling of sleeping room walls. 

637.9.1 Sprinklered buildings: Buildings which are completely sprinklered may 
have resident locations one story higher than allowed in Table 637.9. 

637.9.2 Sleeping room limitations: Sleeping facilities in building licensed for use 
as detoxification facilities shall not be located below the first story. 

637.10 Egress: Al least two (2) exitways located as remote as practicable from each 
other shall be provided from each floor of the building. 

637.1 0.1 Every room used for sleeping for the impaired and partially impaired shall 
have an exitway access door leading directly to an exitway access corridor: 

Exceptions: 



1. 



2, 



Rooms having a means of egress doorway leading directly to the exterior 
of the building at grade. 

Rooms having a means of egress doorway leading directly to the exterior 
of the building above grade and connected directly to grade by means of 
an exterior stairway in accordance with Section 819. 



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637.10.2 All other sleeping rooms: All other sleeping rooms shall comply with the 
requirements of Article 8 in accordance with the provisions for the R-l use group. 

637.10.3 Corridors shall provide at least thirty-six (36) inches minimum nominal 
width. 

637.10.4 All means of egress doorways shall be thirty-two (32) inches minimum 
nominal width. 

Exception: Egress doorways from impaired sleeping rooms shall thirty-six (36) 
inches minimum nominal width. 

637.10.5 Every required exitway access corridor shall have a one (1) hour 
fire-resistance rating and shall provide access to at least two (2) approve exitways 
without passing through any intervening rooms or spaces other than corridors and 
lobbies. 

Exception: In buildings with a complete sprinkler system, exitway access 
corridors not required for the impaired or partially impaired may be 
separated from other use areas by non-fire rated partitions 

637.1 0.6 Stairways: Where not otherwise specified in this section, stairway required 
as a means of egress shall be subject to these requirements: 

637.10.6.1 Stairways required to provide egress for the impaired shall be at least 
thirty-six (36) inches minimum nominal width. The total capacity of the stairways 
shall be adequate for the occupancy load served. 

637.10.6.2 Stairway enclosures shall have a fireresistance rating of one (1) hour for 
buildings not exceeding three (3) stories in height, and two (2) hours for buildings 
exceeding three (3) stories in height 

637.10.6.3 Doors to the required exitway stairways shall comply with the provisions 
of Section 816.6.3. 

637.1 1 Interior finish: Interior finish requirements shall comply with Table 641.11. 

Exceptions: 

1. In buildings which are completely sprinklered, the interior finish 
requirements may be reduced one (1) level except in sleeping rooms for 
the impaired. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-85 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



2. The interior finish classifications in existing buildings may be improved 
one (1) level by the use of fire retardant coatings which have been 
approved when tested in accordance with ASTM E-84. 



TABLE 637.11 
INTERIOR FINISH REQUIREMENTS 



Location 


Walls 


Floor 


Ceiling 


Sleeping rooms, Impaired 


II 


II 2 


II 


Corridors, Impaired 


I 


I 1 


I 


Sleeping rooms, Partially impaired 


I 


I 1 


I | 


Corridors, Partially impaired 


I 


I 1 


I 


All other exitway access corridors 


II 


II 2 


II 


Stairways 


I 


I 1 


i j 



Note 1: Carpet type floor coverings shall withstand a test exposure of 0.45 watts per square 
centimeter when tested in accordance with Section 904.0. 

Note 2: Carpet type floor coverings shall withstand a test exposure of 0.22 watts per square 
centimeter when tested in accordance with Section 904.0. 

637.12 Fire alarm systems: Manual and automatic fire alarm systems shall be 
provided in accordance with Section 1017.0 as they apply to Use Group R-l. 

Exceptions: 

1. In rooms for the impaired and partially impaired the heat detectors 
required by Section 1018.0 shall be replaced with approved smoke 
detectors. 

2. Buildings or portions thereof with twenty-five (25) beds or less shall have 
as a minimum a Type II system as described in Section 1018.0: buildings 
with twenty-six (26) beds or more shall have as a minimum a Type I 
system as described in Section 1018.0. 

3. All buildings or portions thereof regardless of the number of beds shall 
incorporate manual pull stations in conformance with Section 1017.0. 

637.12.1 All automatic and manual fire alarm systems shall be electrically 
interconnected; this combined system shall automatically transmit an alarm to the 
municipal fire department or to another approved source of assistance. Such 



6-86 



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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



communication shall be made in accordance with NFiPA Standards Nos. 71 or 72B 
or 72C as listed in Appendix A. 

637.1 3 Means of egress lighting: Means of egress lighting including an emergency 
lighting system shall be provided throughout the facility in accordance with Section 
824. 

637.14 Smoke enclosure doors: Smoke enclosure doors shall be tight-fitting with 
approved hardware. 

637.15 Heating apparatus: The use of portable heaters, solid fuel burning room 
heaters and fireplaces shall be prohibited. 

637.16 Sprinkler systems: Where a complete building sprinkler system is installed 
it shall comply with the provisions of NFiPA Standard No. 13, 1976 edition as 
referenced in Appendix A. 

637.16.1 All rooms used for sleeping for the impaired shall be sprinklered. 

Exception: A partial system required for impaired sleeping rooms may be 
provided with a sprinkler system serving no more than six (6) sprinklers, 
which may be connected directly to a domestic water supply system having 
capacity sufficient to provide 0.15 gallons per minute per square foot of floor 
area throughout the entire area, An indicating shut-off valve shall be installed 
in an accessible location between the sprinklers and the connection the 
domestic water supply. 

SECTION 638.0 GROUP DWELLING UNITS 

638.1 General: A Group Dwelling Unit is a dwelling unit licensed by or operated 
by the Department of Mental Retardation or the Department of Mental Health as 
special residence for up to four (4) persons who may or may not be capable of se 
preservation from fire or other related hazards. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to both new and existing Group Dwelling Units. 

638.1.1 Classification of Use: Group Dwelling Units shall be classified as follows: 

Use Group R-2 - The Group Dwelling Unit(s) is (are) one or more of three or 
more dwelling units contained in the building. 

Use Group R-3 or R-4 - The Group Dwelling Unit(s) is (are) contained in a 
one or two family dwelling. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



638.1.2 Classification of Residents: Persons other than staff of the facility who 
occupy or intend to occupy Group Dwelling Units shall be classified by the Licensing 
or Operating Agency in one of the following three categories according to their 
capabilities for self preservation: 

Impaired: Any resident who is incapable of self preservation through physical, 
mental or developmental disability, so as to require physical assistance from 
the staff of the Group Dwelling Unit to exit the building or to reach an area 
of refuge within 2Vi minutes. 

Partially Impaired: Any resident who is capable with either supervision or 
instruction from the staff of the Group Dwelling Unit but without physical 
assistance, of exiting the building or reaching an area of refuge within 2V2 
minutes. 

Unimpaired: Any resident who is capable of exiting the building or reaching 
an area of refuge within 2V2 minutes without physical assistance, supervision 
or instruction. 

638.1.3 Application of building code and reference: Except as may otherwise be 
specifically provided in Section 638.0, the Massachusetts State Building Code shall 
apply in its entirety. 

Exception: 

Article 32 shall not apply. However, existing buildings may be used to house 
group dwelling units, provided that they comply with the applicable portions 
of this section, and have no outstanding violations of this code or the 
specialized codes. 

638.1.4 Plans and specifications: Plans shall be filed with the building official 
having jurisdiction in accordance with Section 113.0 for any building to be 
constructed as, or altered for use as a Group Dwelling Unit under Section 642.0. 

638.1.5 Temporary Certificate of Occupancy: Upon satisfactory compliance with 
the code sections pertaining to building requirements, the building official shall 
issue a temporary certificate of occupancy in accordance with Section 119.4 for a 
period not to exceed ninety (90) days. This temporary certificate of occupancy 
specifically prohibits residents as defined in Section 642.1.2 from inhabiting the 
building overnight the building official issues the certificate of occupancy under 
Section 638.1.8. 

638.1.6 Corresponding Rules and Regulations: Rules and regulations of the 
Department of Mental Retardation (104 CMR 22.53) dated August 1983 or of the 
Department of Mental Health (104 CMR 17.13) dated December 1981 pertaining to 

6-88 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



and including, but not limited to, smoking regulations, staffing ratios, and resident 
classifications shall be provided upon request to the building official by the 
Licensing or Operating Agency prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy. 

638.1.7 Certification of Residents: The Licensing Agency shall certify the 
classification of each resident prior to application for a Certificate of Occupancy and 
shall regularly re-examine and, where necessary, reclassify residents in accordance 
with Department of Mental Retardation or Department of Mental Health 
regulations. Copies of the current certification of each resident shall be kept on file 
at the Group Dwelling Unit, and shall be made available to the building official 
upon request 

638.1.8 Certificate Of Occupancy: Certificates of occupancy shall be issued only 
when a license and/or affidavit from the Department of Mental Retardation or the 
Department of Mental Health have been provided to the building official attesting 
to the satisfactory compliance with the applicable rules and regulations referenced 
in Section 638.1.6, the capabilities for self preservation of all residents, and, if 
appropriate, the intent to license the facility. Upon compliance with all building 
requirements of this section and receipt of the Licensing Agency's affidavit, the 
building official shall issue a certificate of occupancy within 72 hours. In addition 
to the contents specified in Section 119.5, the certificate shall indicate the category 
of Group Dwelling Unit for which the building has been constructed or altered, as 
defined in Section 638.2. 

638.2 Category of Unit/Compliance Options: New and existing building 
containing Group Dwelling Units shall be required to satisfy at least one compliance 
option presented for the appropriate category of residency as defined in this Section: 

Category A Group Dwelling Unit - May contain any or all of the resident 
classifications. 

Category B Group Dwelling Unit - May contain only partially impaired or 
unimpaired residents. 

Category C Group Dwelling Unit - Shall contain only unimpaired residents. 

638.2.1 Category A Unit Compliance Options: Buildings housing Group Dwelling 
Units classed as "Category A" shall comply with any one of the following compliance 
options: 

1. The entire building shall be equipped with a fire suppression system; or 

2. The building shall be of a protected construction type (Type 1, 2A, 2B, 3A, 
4 or 5A). All interior stairways shall be enclosed to comply with the 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-89 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



requirements of this code for interior exitway stairways and shall 
discharge directly to the exterior of the building or into a code complying 
grade passageway or lobby. The building shall also be equipped with fire 
alarms complying with Article 10 for the appropriate use group 
classification; or 

3. The Building shall comply with the provisions of Section 636.0; or 

4. The building, if of unprotected construction (Types 2C, 3B or 5B), shall 
be equipped with fire alarms complying with Article 10 for the 
appropriate use group classification. No Group Dwelling Unit(s) shall 
utilize portions of the building above the second story. All stories in the 
building shall be equipped with two approved, independent exitways (even 
if the building is classified in Use Group R-3). Interior exitway stairways 
shall be enclosed to comply with the requirements of this code for interior 
exitway stairways, and shall discharge directly to the exterior of the 
building or into a code complying grade passageway or lobby; or 

5. In those buildings of unprotected constructed (Types 2C, 3B or 5B) where 
enclosure of interior exitway stairways is impractical due to physical 
limitations of configuration of the building (e.g. split entry type 
stairways), the stairway(s) may be permitted to remain unenclosed, 
provided that all sleeping rooms are segregated from the open stairway 
by a minimum of one (1) hour fire resistive construction and the exitways 
are arranged so that a second means of egress is available from each 
sleeping area which does not pass through the open stairway area. The 
building shall also be equipped with fire alarms complying with Article 
10 for the appropriate use group classification. No Group Dwelling Unit 
shall utilize portions of the building above the second story. All stories in 
the building shall be equipped with two approved, independent exitways 
(even if the building is classified in Use Group R-3). 

638.2.1.1 Limitation on location of impaired residents: All sleeping rooms of 
impaired residents shall either be located on the first story or on a story containing 
a horizontal exit complying with Section 814. 

638.2.2 Category B Unit Compliance Options: Buildings housing Group Dwelling 
Units classified as "Category B" shall comply with any one of the following 
compliance options: 

1. Any Category A compliance option; or 

2. All stories in the building shall be provided with two approved, 
independent exitways (even if the building is classified in Use Group R-3). 

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SPECIAL USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 



All interior stairways shall be enclosed to comply with the requirements 
of the code for interior exitway stairways and shall discharge directly to 
the exterior of the building or into a code complying grade passageway or 
lobby. The building also shall be equipped with fire alarms complying 
with Article 10 for the appropriate use group classification. 

638.2.3 Category C Unit Compliance Options: Buildings housing Group Dwelling 
Units classified as "Category C" shall compLy with any one of the following 
compliance options: 

1. Any Category A compliance option; or 

2. Any Category B compliance option; or 

3. The building shall comply with the provisions of Section 631. 

638.3 Special Fire Safety Items: 

638.3.1 Hazardous Contents: No contents which represent a fire hazard greater 
than that which could be expected of ordinary household furnishings shall be 
permitted within a Group Dwelling Unit 

638.3.2 Interior Finish: Interior finish in exitways and exitway access corridors 
shall be a minimum of Class II, unless the building is equipped with a fire 
suppression system. Approved fire retardant paints may be used to improve the 
interior finish classification of existing construction to satisfy this requirement 

638.3.3 Locks: Double cylinder deadbolt locks which require a key operation on the 
side from which egress is to be made are not permitted in Group Dwelling Units. 
Locks of any type are prohibited on sleeping room doors of impaired or partially 
impaired residents or on any door which provides access to an exitway. 

638.4 Special inspection/fire drill: Prior to occupancy of the group dwelling unit 
the Licensing Agency shall conduct a fire drill to test the capability of residents to 
exit according to their residency classification. At least once every ninety (90) days, 
the Operating Agency shall also conduct a fire drill to test the capability of residents 
to exit according to their residency classification. Drills shall be held at unexpected 
times under varying conditions to simulate the unpredictable nature of fire 
emergencies. The building official may, at his option, participate in or witness the 
fire drill, or may accept an affidavit from the Operating Agency attesting to the 
performance of each resident or prospective resident The affidavit shall also specify 
the date, time and conditions of the drill, and shall list all participants and 
witnesses. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 6-91 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



638.4.1 Conduct Of the Fire Drill: During the conduct of the drill, one exit shall 
be blocked to simulate a hazardous condition and the alarm system shall be 
activated. Successful performance for each resident shall be defined as his/her ability 
to exit the building, or where horizontal exits are provided to reach an area of refuge 
within 2 l /2 minutes of the activation of the fire alarm system. Only those staff 
members who are normally on duty shall be allowed to assist residents, and the only 
assistance permitted shall be that which is provided by the staff of the Group 
Dwelling Unit consistent with the classification of each individual resident 



6-92 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 7 

INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL 
REQUIREMENTS 



ARTICLE 7 

INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 



SECTION 700.0 GENERAL 

700.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall govern the means of light, 
ventilation and sound transmission control required in all buildings intended for 
human occupancy. Every building and structure hereafter erected and every building, 
room or space which is changed in use shall be constructed, arranged and equipped 
to conform to the requirements of this article. 

700.2 Buildings on same lot: Where more than one building is hereafter placed 
on a lot, or where a building is placed on the same lot with existing buildings, and 
the several buildings are treated as a single structure for the purpose of this article, 
equivalent uncovered lot area or other adequate sources of light and ventilation shall 
be provided for all buildings intended for human occupancy. 

700.3 Conflicting laws: The provisions in this article shall not be construed to 
nullify the provisions of any other law or ordinance regulating yards, courts, or other 
spaces required for light or ventilation; but the provisions specifying the greater 
requirements shall control the construction. 

700.4 Other standards: Compliance with the applicable provisions of the standards 
listed in Appendix A shall be deemed to meet the requirements of this article, unless 
otherwise specifically provided herein. 

SECTION 701.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

701.1 General: Plans for all buildings and structures other than buildings of Use 
Groups R-2 and R-3 which are designed for human occupancy shall designate the 
number of occupants to be accommodated in the various rooms and spaces, and 
when means of artificial lighting and ventilation are required, the application shall 
include sufficient details and description of the mechanical system to be installed as 
herein required or as specified in the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in 
Appendix A. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 7.1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 702.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

702.1 Unsafe conditions: In all existing rooms or spaces in which the provisions 
for light and ventilation do not meet the requirements of this article and which, in 
the opinion of the building official, are dangerous to the health and safety of the 
occupants, the building official shall order the required repairs or installations to 
render the building or structure livable for the posted use and occupant load. 

702.2 Alterations: A building shall not hereafter be altered or rearranged so as to 
reduce either the size of a room, or the fresh air supply, or the amount of available 
natural light to less than that required for buildings hereafter erected; or to create 
an additional room unless made to conform to the requirements of Sections 703.0 
and 708.0. The building official shall permit new rooms to be of the same height as 
existing rooms in the same story unless in the building official's opinion greater 
provision of artificial light and ventilation is deemed necessary to insure healthful 
living conditions. 

702.3 Uncovered yard and court area: A building shall not be hereafter enlarged, 
nor shall the lot on which it is located be diminished, so as to decrease the required 
courts or yards to less than that prescribed in this article for the lighting and 
ventilation of new buildings. 

SECTION 703.0 LIGHT AND VENTILATION REQUIRED 

703.1 Light required: Every room or space intended for human occupancy shall 
be provided with natural or artificial light. 

703.1.1 Bathroom and toilet room lighting: Every bathroom and toilet room shall 
be provided with artificial light. The illumination shall have an average intensity of 
3 foot candles measured at a level of 30 inches above the floor. 

703.2 Ventilation required: Every room or space intended for human occupancy 
shall be provided with natural or mechanical ventilation (refer to this Article and/or 
Article 31 and/or the BOCA National Mechanical Code as listed in Appendix A, as 
applicable). 

SECTION 704.0 NATURAL LIGHT 

704.1 General: In the application of the provisions of this article, the standard of 
natural light for all habitable and occupiable rooms, unless otherwise specifically 
required by the provisions of Article 6 for special uses and occupancies, shall be 
based on 250 foot candles of illumination on the vertical plane adjacent to the 
exterior of the light transmitting device in the enclosure wall and shall be adequate 



7-2 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 



to provide an average illumination of 6 foot candles over the area of the room at a 
height of 30 inches above the floor level. 

704.2 Minimum glazing area: Ever)' room or space intended for human occupancy 
shall have an exterior glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area. 
Natural light shall be provided by glazing areas which open onto courts or yards 
which comply with the requirements of Sections 710.0, 711.0 and 712.0, or by other 
approved means. 

704.2.1 Adjoining spaces: Where natural light for rooms or spaces without exterior 
glazing areas is provided through an adjoining room, the unobstructed opening to 
the adjoining room shall be at least 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room 
or space, but not less than 25 square feet. The exterior glazing area shall be based 
on the total floor area being served. 

704.3 Stairways: Interior stairways shall be provided with an exterior glazing area 
of not less than 10 square feet on every floor through which the stairway passes. 

704.4 Hallways: Natural light shall be capable of penetrating the full length of the 
hallway. 

SECTION 705.0 ARTIFICIAL LIGHT 

705.1 General: Artificial light shall be capable of providing a minimum illumination 
as specified for natural light and may be substituted for the requirements for natural 
light. 

SECTION 706.0 NATURAL VENTILATION 

706.1 General: Natural ventilation of an occupied space shall be through windows, 
doors, louvers or other natural openings to the outdoor air. 

Exception: All residential occupancies must have mechanical 

ventilation in bathrooms and toilets as specified in the BOCA National 

Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. 

706.2 Ventilation area required: The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall 
be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated. 

706.2.1 Adjoining spaces: Where rooms and spaces without openings to the 
outdoors are ventilated through an adjoining room, the unobstructed opening to the 
adjoining rooms shall be at least 8 percent of the floor area of the interior room or 
space, but not less than 25 square feet. The ventilation openings to the outdoors 
shall be based on the total floor area being ventilated. 

r 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 7-3 

Corrected 



I lit HIAsaMLMUbtl l£> blAlt bUILUINU OUUc 



706.2.2 Openings below grade: Openings below grade shall be acceptable for 
natural ventilation provided the outside horizontal clear space measured 
perpendicular to the opening is one and one-half times the depth below the average 
adjoining grade. 

706.3 Contaminants exhausted: Contaminants in the breathing atmosphere should 
be exhausted to the outdoor and in accordance with the BOCA National Mechanical 
Code listed in Appendix A. 

706.4 Openings on yards or courts: Natural ventilation shall be provided by 
openings onto yards or courts which comply with the requirements of Sections 710.0, 

711.0 and 712.0, or by other approved means. 

SECTION 707.0 MECHANICAL VENTILATION 

707.1 General: Mechanical ventilation shall conform to the requirements of the 
BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A unless otherwise expressly 
defined within this Code and may be substituted for the requirements for natural 
ventilation. ' 

Exception: The minimum amount of fresh outdoor air quantity for schools 
and office buildings shall be not less than 10 cfm per person. Recirculation 
of air supplied to kitchens, lavoratories, toilet rooms, bathrooms, rest rooms, 
laboratories and garages shall not be permitted. 

SECTION 708.0 ROOM DIMENSIONS 

708.1 Ceiling heights: Habitable (spaces) rooms, other than kitchens, storage 
rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 3 inches. 
Hallways, corridors, bathrooms, toilet rooms, kitchens and habitable basements for 
use as a recreation room only shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 
measured to the lowest projection from the ceiling. 

Exception: In buildings of Use Group R-3, the maximum projection below 
the required ceiling height of beams and girders spaced not less than 4 feet 
on center shall be 9 inches but in any case such projection shall not reduce 
the minimum free height, as measured from top of finish floor to underside 
of projection, to less than 6'-6". 

708.1.1 Use Groups A, B, E and M: A clear height from finished floor to ceiling 
or lowest projection of not less than 7 feet 6 inches shall be provided in all exit 
access and occupiable rooms of structures of Use Group A, B, E and M. 



7-4 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 



708.1.2 Sloping ceilings: If any room in a building has a sloping ceiling, the 
prescribed ceiling height for the room is required in only one-half the area thereof. 
Any portion of the room measuring less than 5 feet from the finished floor to the 
finished ceiling shall not be included in any computation of the minimum area 
thereof. 

708.1.3 Furred ceilings: If any room has a furred ceiling, the prescribed ceiling 
height is required in two-thirds of the area thereof, but the height of the furred 
ceiling shall not be less than 7 feet. 

708.2 Floor area: Habitable rooms except kitchens shall have an area of not less 
than seventy (70) square feet between enclosing walls of partitions, exclusive of closet 
and storage spaces. 

708.3 Width: A habitable room other than a kitchen shall not be less than 7 feet in 
any dimension. 

SECTION 709.0 VENTILATION OF SPECIAL SPACES 
t 

709.1 Roof spaces: Enclosed attics, and enclosed rafter spaces formed where 
ceilings are applied direct to the underside of the roof rafters, shall have cross 
ventilation for each separate space by ventilating openings protected against the 
entrance of rain and snow, sized by the following criteria: 

1. With a ceiling vapor barrier installed: attics with a ceiling vapor barrier 
shall be ventilated with screened openings of at least one (1) square foot 
of free vent area for each three hundred (300) square feet of ceiling area. 

2. Without a ceiling vapor barrier installed: attics without a ceiling vapor 
barrier installed shall be ventilated with screened openings of at least one 
(1) square foot of free vent area for each one hundred and fifty (150) 
square feet of ceiling area. 

3. Flat roofs: blocking and bridging shall be arranged so as not to interfere 
with the movement of air. Such roofs shall be ventilated along the 
overhanging eaves with at least one (1) square foot of free vent area for 
each two hundred and fifty (250) square feet of ceiling area. 

4. Eave vents: when eave vents are installed, adequate baffling shall be 
provided to deflect the incoming air above the surface of the insulation. 
Baffles shall be installed prior to insulation, and shall be installed over 
the exterior wall at an angle to provide a two (2) inch minimum clearance 
under the roof deck for upward flow of ventilation air to the fixed vents 
in the upper portion of the attic. The ridge or gable vent must be at least 
three (3) feet above the level of the eave vents. 

Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 7-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



709.2 Underfloor space ventilation: Enclosed underfloor spaces shall have cross 
ventilation for each separate space by ventilating openings protected against the 
entrance of rain and snow, sized by the following criteria. 

1. With a ground vapor barrier: underfloor spaces with a vapor barrier on 
the ground surface shall be ventilated with screened openings of one (1) 
square foot of vent area for each fifteen hundred (1500) square feet of 
crawl space. 

2. Without a ground vapor barrier: underfloor spaces without a vapor 
barrier installed on the ground surface shall be ventilated with screened 
openings of one (1) square foot of vent area for each fifty (50) square feet 
of crawl space. 

709.3 Alternative mechanical ventilation: Enclosed attic, rafter and crawl spaces 
which are not ventilated as herein required shall be equipped with a mechanical 
ventilation system conforming to the requirements of the BOCA National 
Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. 

709.4 Alcove rooms: When alcove rooms open without obstruction into adjoining 
rooms, the required window openings to the outer air shall be based on the 
combined floor area of room and alcove. An alcove space shall not be more than 
sixty (60) square feet in area and the opening to the adjoining room shall be not less 
than eighty (80) per cent of the superficial area of the dividing wall, unless provided 
with separate means of light and ventilation. 

SECTION 710.0 COURTS 

710.1 General: All courts required to serve rooms for natural light or ventilation 
purposes shall comply with the requirements of this section. 

71 0.2 Minimum width: Ever)' such court shall have a minimum width of 3 inches for 
each foot of height or fraction thereof, but not less than 5 feet for outer courts and 
twice these values for inner courts. 

710.2.1 Irregular court width: In the case of irregular or gore shaped courts, the 
required minimum width of a court shall be the average width, provided that such 
a court shall not be less than 5 feet at any point. 

710.3 Area of court: The cross-sectional area of a required court shall be not less 
than one and one-half times the square of its width; nor shall the length of any court 
be more than twice its width. 



7-6 Corrected 780 - MR " Fiftn Edition 



INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 



71 0.4 Access to court: A door or other means of access shall be provided at the 
bottom of every court that is not otherwise conveniently accessible for purposes of 
cleaning. 

71 0.5 Air intakes: Every court serving one or more habitable rooms that does not 
open for its full height on one or more sides to a street or legal yard shall be 
connected at or near the bottom with a street or yard by a horizontal intake or 
passage of fireresistive construction. Such intake or passage shall have a 
cross-sectional area of not less than 21 square feet and shall remain fully open at 
both ends and unobstructed for its full size and length, except that grilles of 
noncombustible construction are permitted at the ends of the intake. 

710.5.1 Fireresistance rating: The walls, floors and ceilings of such intakes or 
passages shall have a fireresistance rating of not less than 2 hours in buildings of 
Types 1, 2, 3 or 4 construction and not less than 1 hour in Type 5 construction. 

71 0.6 Court walls: When, in the opinion of the building official, windows facing on 
courts do not receive adequate direct light by reason of peculiar arrangement or 
orientation, the building official shall require the walls to be constructed of light 
colored masonry, or to be painted and maintained a light color to furnish additional 
reflected light, or shall require other approved means of providing additional light. 

710.7 Court drainage: The bottom of every court shall be properly graded and 
drained to a public sewer or other approved disposal system complying with the 
plumbing code listed in Appendix G; and shall be paved with concrete or other 
nonabsorbent material when required by the building official. 

SECTION 711.0 REAR YARDS 

711.1 Use Groups R and I: At the rear of every building hereafter erected to be 
occupied as Use Group R-2, R-3 or 1-3, there shall be maintained a yard of the 
minimum dimensions herein prescribed. When such yard serves as a required light 
and ventilation court, its minimum dimensions shall be those required for a court in 
this article. 

711.1.1 Depth of yards: The depth of a required yard between the extreme rear 
of the building and the rear lot line shall be not less than 15 feet at any point for 
a height of 35 feet, and shall increase 4 inches in depth for each additional foot of 
height above that limit. For a corner lot, the minimum depth shall be not less than 
10 feet. When the lot is less than 65 feet in depth, the required yard depth shall be 
reduced 6 inches for each foot less than 65 feet. 

711.2 Other use groups: In buildings of other than Use Group R-2, R-3, or 1-3, 

rear yards shall be provided to serve all habitable and occupiable rooms requiring 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 7-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



light and ventilation from such source. The lowest level of such yards shall begin at 
the sill level of the second story windows, with a depth of not less than 10 feet for 
a height of 35 feet and shall increase 3 inches for each additional foot of height 
above that level. 

SECTION 712.0 OBSTRUCTION OF COURTS AND YARDS 

712.1 Permissible projections: Every required court and yard shall remain 
unobstructed for its required area and full height, except for the projections 
permitted in Section 508.0. In Use Groups R and I, clothes poles, arbors, garden 
trellises and other such accessories shall not be prohibited in the open spaces at 
ground level. 

712.2 Motor vehicle parking: When approved, the use of required court and yard 
areas for automobile parking spaces or private garages not exceeding one story in 
height when accessory to and only for the use of the occupants of a Use Group R 
building is permitted, provided required windows for light and ventilation are not 
obstructed thereby. 

SECTION 713.0 WINDOW CLEANING SAFEGUARDS 

713.1 General: All buildings and structures shall be designed to comply with the 
Dept of Labor and Industry's Rules and Regulations for the Prevention of Accidents 
in Window Cleaning, (Industrial Bulletin No. 21), 441 CMR 19.00. 

SECTION 714.0 SOUND TRANSMISSION CONTROL 
IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 

714.1 Scope: This section shall apply to all common interior walls, partitions and 
floor/ceiling assemblies between adjacent dwelling units or between a dwelling unit 
and adjacent public areas such as halls, corridors, stairs or service areas in all 
buildings of Use Group R. 

714.2 Airborne noise: Walls, partitions and floor/ceiling assemblies separating 
dwelling units from each other or from public or service areas shall have a sound 
transmission class (STC) of not less than 45 for airborne noise when tested in 
accordance with ASTM E90 listed in Appendix A. This requirement shall not apply 
to dwelling unit entrance doors, but such doors shall be tight-fitting to the frame and 
sill. 

71 4.3 Structure borne sound: Floor/ ceiling assemblies between dwelling units and 
between a dwelling unit and a public or service area within the structure shall have 
an impact insulation class (IIC) rating of not less than 45 when tested in accordance 
with ASTM E492 listed in Appendix A. 

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INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 



714.4 Tested assemblies: When approved, assemblies of building construction 
listed in GA 600, NCMA TEK 69A and BIA TN 5A listed in Appendix A shall be 
accepted as having the STC and IIC ratings specified therein for determining 
compliance with the requirements of this section. 



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7-10 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 8 
MEANS OF EGRESS 



ARTICLE 8 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



SECTION 800.0 GENERAL 

800.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the design, construction and 
arrangement of building elements required to provide a reasonably safe means of 
egress from all buildings and structures hereafter erected, and from all buildings 
hereafter altered to a new occupant load, or manner of use, or inherent fire hazard. 
Existing buildings and uses shall be controlled by the provisions of Section 804.0. 

800.2 Modification of egress requirements: When strict compliance with the 
provisions of this code is not practical, the building official shall approve alternative 
means of egress which will accomplish the same purpose, by the procedure 
established in Article 1 for modification of this code, or by adoption of approved 
rules. Existing buildings shall not be occupied during repairs or alterations unless all 
existing means of egress and any existing fire protection are continuously maintained, 
or in lieu thereof, other measures are taken which will provide equivalent safety. 

800.3 Minimum requirements: It shall be unlawful to alter any building or 
structure in any manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of exits 
below the requirements of this code for new buildings of the proposed use and 
occupancy. 

SECTION 801.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

801.1 Arrangement of egress: The plans shall show in sufficient detail the 
location, construction, size and character of all exits together with the arrangement 
of aisles, corridors, passageways and hallways leading thereto in compliance with the 
provisions of this code. 

801.2 Number of occupants: In other than buildings of Use Groups R-2 and R-3, 
the plans and the application for a permit shall designate the number of occupants 
to be accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces when required by 
the building official. When not otherwise specified, the minimum number of 
occupants to be accommodated by the exits shall be determined by the occupant 
load prescribed in Section 806.0. The posted occupant load of the building shall be 
limited to that number. 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 802.0 USE AND OCCUPANCY REQUIREMENTS 

802.1 New buildings: Every building and structure and part thereof hereafter 
erected shall have the prescribed number of exits of one or more of the approved 
types defined in this article. Exits, in combination with the exit access and exit 
discharge, shall provide safe and continuous means of egress to a street or to an 
open space with direct access to a street. 

802.2 Mixed use groups: Where a building is occupied for two or more uses, the 
means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on 
the use of that space. 

802.3 Multiple tenants: When more than one tenant occupies any one floor of a 
building or structure, each tenant shall be provided with direct access to approved 
exits. 

SECTION 803.0 PROHIBITED USE 

803.1 General: Exits and exit access corridors shall not be used as supply or return 
air ducts or plenums. 

Exception: The restriction on the use of the space between the corridor ceiling 
and the floor or roof structure above as a return air plenum shall not apply 
when the corridor is not required to be of fireresistance rated construction or 
is separated from the plenum by fireresistance rated construction or is located 
within a dwelling unit. 

SECTION 804.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

804. 1 Owner responsibility: The owner or lessee of every existing building and 
structure shall be responsible for the safety of all persons in, or occupying, such 
premises with respect to the adequacy of means of egress therefrom. 

804.2 Unsafe means of egress: In any existing building or structure not provided 
with exit facilities as herein prescribed for new buildings and in which the exits are 
deemed inadequate for safety by the building official, the building official shall issue 
an exit order in the form of a violation notice. 

804.2.1 Appeal from exit order: Within seven days after the service of the exit 
order of the building official, the owner shall have the right to file a written appeal 
therefrom, and the building official shall appoint a board of survey as required in 
Section 124.0 to make a determination. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



SECTION 805.0 MAINTENANCE OF EXITS 

805.1 Obstructions: It shall be unlawful to obstruct, or reduce, in any manner, the 
clear width of any doorway, hallway, passageway or other means of egress required 
by the provisions of this code. 

805.2 Maintenance: All required means of egress components shall at all times 
be maintained in a safe usable condition. All exterior stairways, fire escapes, egress 
balconies and bridges shall be kept free of snow and ice. AH corrodible structural 
parts thereof shall be kept painted, or otherwise protected against rust and corrosion 
both before and after erection. All wood structural members shall be maintained to 
prevent rotting and decaying. Where these elements tie directly into the building 
structural system, all joints shall be sealed to prevent water from damaging or 
corroding the structural elements. 

805.3 Testing and certification: All exterior bridges, steel or wooden stairways, 
fire escapes and egress balconies shall be examined and/or tested, and certified for 
structural adequacy and safety every five (5) years, by a Massachusetts Registered 
Professional Engineer, or others qualified and acceptable to the building official, who 
shall then submit an affidavit to the building official. 

SECTION 806.0 OCCUPANT LOAD 

806.1 Design occupant load: In determining required facilities, the number of 
occupants for whom exit facilities shall be provided shall be established by the 
largest number computed in accordance with each of Sections 806.1.1 through 
806.1.3. 

806.1.1 Actual number: The actual number of occupants for which each occupied 
space, floor, or building is designed. 

806.1.2 Number by Table 806: The number of occupants computed at the rate of 
one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 806. 

806.1.3 Number by combination: The number of occupants of any space as 
computed in Sections 806.1.1 or 806.1.2 plus the number of occupants similarly 
computed for all spaces that discharge through the space in order to gain access to 
an exit. 

806.1.4 Increased occupant load: The occupant load permitted in any building or 
portion thereof is permitted to be increased from that number established for the 
given use by Table 806 when all other requirements of the code are also met based 
on such modified number. Where required by the building official, an approved aisle, 
seating, or fixed equipment diagram to substantiate any increase in occupant load 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 8-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



shall be submitted. Where required by the building official, such diagram shall be 
posted. 

806.1.5 Maximum occupant load: The occupant load of any space or portion 
thereof shall not exceed one occupant per 3 square feet of occupiable floor space. 

806.1 .6 Fixed seats: The occupant load for an assembly or educational area having 
fixed seats shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed. The capacity 
of fixed seats without dividing arms shall equal one person per 18 inches. For 
booths, the capacity shall be one person per 24 inches. 

806.2 Mezzanine levels: The occupant load of a mezzanine level discharging 
through a floor below shall be added to that floor's occupant load, and the capacity 
of the exits shall be designed for the total occupant load thus established. 

806.3 Roofs: Roof areas occupied as roof gardens or for assembly, educational, 
storage or other purposes shall be provided with exit facilities to accommodate the 
required occupant load, but there shall not be less than two approved means of 
egress from roof areas of Use Groups A and E. 

SECTION 807.0 TYPES AND LOCATION OF MEANS OF EGRESS 

807.1 General: All approved means of egress, including doorways, passage ways, 
corridors, interior stairways, exterior stairways, escalators, smokeproof enclosures, 
ramps, horizontal exits, bridges, balconies, fire escapes and combinations thereof 
shall be arranged and constructed as provided in this code. 

807.2 Arrangement: All required exits shall be so located as to be discernable and 
accessible with unobstructed access thereto. 

807.2.1 Egress through adjoining spaces: Egress from a room or space shall not 
open into an adjoining or intervening room or area, except where such adjoining 
room or area is accessory to the area served, is not a high hazard use and provides 
a direct means of egress to an exit. A maximum of one exit access shall be permitted 
to pass through a kitchen, storeroom, restroom, closet or similar space provided that 
it is not the only means of access to an exit. An exit access shall not pass through a 
room subject to locking. 



8-4 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Table 806 
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT 



Use 


Floor area in square 
feet per occupant 


Assembly with fixed seats 
Assembly without fixed seats 

Concentrated (chairs only-not fixed) 

Standing space 

Unconcentrated (tables and chairs) 


See Section 806.1.6 

7 net 
3 net 
15 net 


Bowling alleys, allow 5 persons for each alley including 
15 feet of runway, and for additional areas 
Business areas 


7 net 
1 00 gross 


Court rooms-other than fixed seating areas 
Educational 

Classroom area 

Shops and other vocational room areas 


40 net 

20 net 
50 net 


Industrial areas 
Institutional areas 

Inpatient treatment areas 

Outpatient areas 

Sleeping areas 


1 00 gross 

240 gross 
1 00 gross 
120 gross 


Library 

Reading rooms 
Stack area 


50 net 
1 00 gross 


Mercantile, basement and grade floor areas 
Areas on other floors 
Storage, stock, shipping areas 

Parking garages 


30 gross 
60 gross 
300 gross 
200 gross 


Residential 

Storage areas, mechanical equipment room 


200 gross 
300 gross 



807.2.2 Assembly buildings: All buildings used for assembly purposes shall front 
on at least one street on which the main entrance and exit discharge shall be 
located. Where there is a single main entrance, the entrance shall be capable of 
serving as the main exit and shall provide an egress capacity for at least one-half of 
the total occupant load. In addition to having access to a main exit, each level of a 
building of Use Group A shall be provided with additional exits which shall provide 
an egress capacity for at least two-thirds of the total occupant load served by that 
level. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 807 
LENGTH OF EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL (IN FEET)' 



Use group 


Without fire 
suppression system 


With fire 
suppression system 


A, B,E, F-1, 
M, R, S-1 


200 


250 


F-2, S-2 


300 


400 


H 


- 


75 


I-2, I-3 


150 


200 



Note a. See the following sections for modifications to travel distance requirements. 
Section 601.4.1: For the exit access travel distance limitation in covered malls. 
Section 602.3.1.4.5: For the exit access travel distance limitation in high-rise buildings 
under the automatic fire suppression system alternatives. 

Section 603.1.4: For the exit access travel distance limitation in HPM use facilities. 
Section 606.2,4: For the exit access travel distance limitation through an atrium space. 
Section 626.9; For the exit access travel distance limitation in temporary structures, 
Section 807.5.1: For increased limitation in Use Groups F and S. 
Section 807.5.2: For increased limitation in Use Group A-5. 
Section 809.3: For buildings with one exit, 

807.2.3 Skating rinks: Places of assembly used for skating rinks shall not be located 
below the floor nearest grade. 

807.2.4 Foyers and waiting spaces: The term "foyer" shall mean an enclosed 
space surrounding or in the rear of the auditorium of a theater or other place of 
assembly which is completely separated from the auditorium and is used as an 
assembly or waiting space for the occupants. In Use Group A-l, a foyer, waiting 
space, or lobby shall be provided with a net floor area, exclusive of stairs or landings, 
of not less than 1 1/2 square feet for each occupant having access thereto. The use 
of foyers and lobbies and other available spaces for harboring occupants until seats 
become available shall not encroach upon the clear floor area herein prescribed or 
upon the required clear width of front exits. 

807.2.4.1 Egress: When the foyer is not directly connected to the public street 
through the main lobby, an unobstructed corridor or passage shall be provided which 
leads to, and equals the required minimum width of, main entrances and exits. A 
mirror shall not be placed so as to give the appearance of a doorway, exit or 
passageway. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



807.2.4.2 Gradient: The rear foyer shall be at the same level as the back of the 
auditorium and the means of egress leading therefrom shall not have a steeper 
gradient than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (1:8). 

807.2.4.3 Construction: The partitions separating the foyer from the auditorium 
and other adjoining rooms and spaces of a theater shall be constructed of not less 
than 2-hour fireresistance rating. Where opening protectives are constructed of 
noncombustible materials, fireresistance rating of the opening protectives is not 
required. 

807.3 Exit discharge: All exits shall discharge directly at a public way or at a yard, 
court or open space of the required width and size to provide all occupants with a 
safe access to a public way. 

807.3.1 Level of exit discharge protection: In all buildings having habitable or 
occupiable stories or basements below grade, the floor/ceiling assemblies and 
supports below the level of exit discharge shall provide a fireresistance rating of not 
less than 1 hour. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings of Use Group R-3. 

2. Buildings of Type 1 construction. 

3. When such floor/ceiling assemblies and supports are constructed of Type 
4 construction. 

4. When the floor areas below the level of exit discharge are equipped 
throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system. 

807.4 Remote location: Whenever more than one exit is required from any room, 
space or floor of a building, they shall be placed as remote from each other as 
practicable, and shall be arranged and constructed to provide direct access in 
separate directions from any point in the area served so as to minimize the 
possibility that both would be blocked by any one fire or other emergency condition. 

807.4.1 Remoteness: Where two exits or two exit access doors are required, they 
shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the 
maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served. Where 
exit enclosures are provided as a portion of the required means of egress and are 
interconnected by a corridor conforming to the requirements for corridor 
construction, the exit separation distance shall be measured along the line of travel 
within the corridor. In all other cases, the separation distance shall be measured in 
a straight line between exits or exit access doors. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 8-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic 
fire suppression system, the minimum separation distance shall be one 
fourth the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension. 

807.4.1.1 Three or more: When three or more exits or exit access doors are 
required, at least two exits or exit access doors shall be separated as provided in 
Section 807.4.1. 

807.5 Length of travel: Except as modified by provisions of Section 809.3 for 
buildings with one exit, all exits shall be so located that the maximum length of exit 
access travel, measured from the most remote point to an approved exit along the 
natural and unobstructed line of travel, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 
807. In single exit buildings covered by Section 809.3, where the area is subdivided 
into rooms or compartments, and the egress travel in the room or compartment is 
not greater than 50 feet or 100 feet in buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic fire suppression system, the exit access travel distance shall be 
measured from the exit access entrance to the nearest exit. 

807.5.1 Roof vent increase: In buildings of Use Group F or S, one story in height, 
equipped with automatic heat and smoke roof vents complying with Section 930.0 
and equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system, the 
exit access travel distance limitation in Table 807 shall be increased to 400 feet. 

807.5.2 Use Group A-5: Buildings and structures of Use Group A-5, where all 
portions of the means of egress are essentially open to the outside, shall have an exit 
access travel distance of not more than 400 feet, except that such buildings and 
structures of Type 1 or 2 construction shall not have an exit access travel distance 
limit. 

807.6 Elevators: Elevators shall not be accepted as a required element of the 
means of egress. 

SECTION 808.0 CAPACITY OF EGRESS COMPONENTS 

808.1 General: The capacity of means of egress for a floor, balcony, tier or other 
occupied space shall be sufficient for the occupant load thereof. 

808.2 Minimum width: The width of each means of egress component shall not be 
less than the width computed in accordance with Table 808 for the required capacity 
of the component, but not less than the minimum width as prescribed by this code 
for each such component. 



8-8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Table 808 
EGRESS WIDTH PER OCCUPANT 



Use group 


Without fire suppression system 
(inches per person) 


With fire suppression system 
(inches per person) 


Stairways 


Doors, ramps and 
corridors 


Stairways 


Doors, ramps and 
corridors 


A, B, E, F, 
M, R, S 


0.3 


0.2 


0.2 


0.15 


H 


- 


- 


0.3 


0.2 


DELETED 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1-2 


1.0 


0.7 


0.6 


0.5 


1-3 


0.3 


0.2 


0.3 


0.2 



808.3 Exit design per floor: Where exits serve more than one floor, only the 
occupant load of each floor considered individually shall be used in computing the 
required capacity of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not 
decrease in the direction of egress travel. 

808.4 Egress convergence: When means of egress from floors above and below 
converge at an intermediate floor, the capacity of the means of egress from the point 
of convergence shall not be less than the sum of the two. 

SECTION 809.0 NUMBER OF EXITS 

809.1 General: The following general requirements apply to buildings of all use 
groups. Where more restrictive requirements are provided in this code, such 
requirements shall take precedence over the general provisions of this section. 

809.2 Minimum number: Every floor area shall be provided the minimum number 
of approved independent exits as required by Table 809.2 based on the occupant 
load, except as modified in Section 809.3. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 809.2 
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD 



Occupant load 


Minimum number of exits 


500 or less 


2 


501 - 1000 


3 


over 1 000 


4 



809.3 Buildings with one exit: Only one exit shall be required in buildings of the 
Use Groups and characteristics specified in Table 809.3. 

Table 809.3 
BUILDINGS WITH ONE EXIT 



Use 
group 


Max. 
height 
above 
grade 


Max. 
size 


Max. exit 
access 
travel 

distance 


Min. fire- 
resistance 
rating 
of exit 
enclosure 


Min. fire- 
resistance 

rating 
of opening 
protection 


DELETED 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B and S-2 a 


2 stories 


3,500 sq. ft. 
per floor 


75 ft. 


1 hour 


1 hour 



Note a. For the required number of exits for open parking structures, see Section 809.5. 



809.3.1 Buildings with a single exit at level of exit discharge: Only one exit shall 
be required in stories at the level of exit discharge having an occupant load not 
exceeding 50 persons and an exit access travel distance not exceeding 75 feet in 
buildings of any use group; and in airport traffic control towers which comply with 
Section 616.0. 

Exception: Buildings of Use Group R-3 are required to have two (2) exits at 
the level of exit discharge. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



809.4 Emergency escape: Every sleeping room below the fourth story in buildings 
of Use Group R shall have at least one operable window or exterior door approved 
for emergency escape or rescue. The units shall be operable from the inside without 
the use of separate tools. Where windows are provided as a means of egress or 
rescue, the windows shall have a sill height not more than 44 inches above the floor. 
All egress or rescue windows from sleeping rooms shall have a minimum net clear 
opening of 5.7 square feet. The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall 
be 24 inches. The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches. 
Bars, grilles or screens placed over emergency escape windows shall be releasable 
or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or excessive force or 
special knowledge. 

Exceptions: 

1. The minimum net clear opening for grade floor windows shall be 5 square 
feet. 

2. In buildings where the sleeping room is provided with a door to a corridor 
having access to two remote exits in opposite directions, an outside 
window or an exterior door for emergency escape from each such sleeping 
room is not required. 

3. Buildings equipped throughout with a complete automatic fire suppression 
system. 

809.5 Open parking structures: Parking structures shall have not less than two 
exits from each parking tier, except only one exit is required where vehicles are 
mechanically parked. Unenclosed vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required 
exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Interior exit stairways are not required 
to be enclosed. 

SECTION 810.0 EXIT ACCESS PASSAGEWAYS AND CORRIDORS 

810.1 Access passageway: Direct exit access shall be provided to required exits 
through continuous passageways, aisles or corridors, conveniently accessible to all 
occupants and maintained free of obstruction. 

810.1.1 Use Group I-2: Every patient sleeping room in buildings of Use Group 1-2 
shall have an exit access door leading directly to an exit access corridor. 

Exceptions: Direct corridor access is not required where: 

1. There is an exit door opening directly to the outside from the room at 
ground level; 

2. One adjacent room, such as a sitting room or anteroom, intervenes and 
all doors along the means of egress are equipped with nonlockable 
hardware in accordance with Section 610.4.2, and the intervening room is 
not used as an exit access for more than eight patient beds. 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



3. A patient sleeping room is subdivided with nonfireresistance-rated, 
noncombustible partitions, provided that the arrangement allows for direct 
and constant visual supervision by nursing personnel and the suite 
complies with this section and Section 812.0. Such rooms which are so 
subdivided shall not exceed 5,000 square feet. 

810.1.2 Turnstiles and gates: Access through turnstiles, gates, rails or similar 
devices shall not be permitted unless such a device is equipped to readily swing in 
the direction of exit travel under a total force of not more than 15 pounds. 

810.1.3 Restrictions: The required width of passageways, aisles or corridors shall 
be maintained free of projections and restrictions; except that the minimum clear 
width resulting from doors opening into such spaces shall be one-half the required 
width. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches into the 
required width. 

81 0.2 Dead ends: Exit access passageways and corridors in all stories which serve 
more than one exit shall provide direct connection to such exits in opposite 
directions from any point in the passageway or corridor, insofar as practicable. The 
length of a dead end corridor shall not be more than 20 feet. 

81 0.3 Width: The minimum required width of passageways, aisles and corridors shall 
be determined by the greater of the following criteria: 

1. 44 inches where serving an occupant load of greater than 50. 

2. 36 inches where serving an occupant load of 50 or less. 

3. 96 inches in buildings of Use Group I used for the movement of beds. 

4. 72 inches in buildings of Use Group E with more than 100 occupants. 

5. The width required for capacity as determined by Section 808.0. 

Aisles shall conform to the requirements of this section or Section 826.0. 

81 0.4 Enclosures: In buildings of other than Use Group 1-2, all corridors serving 
as exit access shall be enclosed in fire separation walls having a fireresistance rating 
of at least 1 hour. Corridors in buildings of Use Group 1-2 shall comply with Section 
610.4. Tenant and dwelling unit separations which are also corridor walls shall 
comply with this section and the requirements of Table 401. 

Exceptions: 

1. In all uses other than Use Groups R-l and R-2, a fireresistance rating is 
not required for exit access corridors serving 30 or fewer occupants. 

2. A fireresistance rating is not required for corridors contained within a 
dwelling unit. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



810.4.1 Automatic fire suppression system alternatives: When an approved 
automatic fire suppression system is installed and supervised in accordance with 
Section 1020.1, parts 1, 2 or 3, and has its water flow alarm device connected to an 
approved central station system, proprietary system or remote station system of the 
jurisdiction, a fireresistance rating for exit access corridors, and tenant separation 
walls which are also corridor walls, is not required in Use Groups A, B, E, F, M, and 
S. In Use Groups R-l and R-2, the corridor enclosure walls, and dwelling unit 
separation walls which are also corridor walls, shall have a fireresistance rating of 
not less than 1/2 hour. Corridor walls, and dwelling unit separation walls which are 
also corridor walls, in Use Groups R-l and R-2 shall be constructed tight to the 
underside of the ceiling directly above. 

810.4.2 Opening protectives: All door assemblies from rooms opening onto a 
corridor required to be of fireresistance rated construction shall be fire doors 
complying with Section 916.0. 

SECTION 811.0 LEVEL OF EXIT DISCHARGE PASSAGEWAYS 
USED AS AN EXIT ELEMENT 

811.1 Passageways: Every required interior and exterior exit element which does 
not adjoin a public way shall be directly connected to the public way or to an open 
court leading to the public way by an enclosed passageway at the level of exit 
discharge or other unobstructed exit element constructed as provided in this section. 

81 1 .2 Vestibule: Where an exit discharges into an interior vestibule, the vestibule 
shall be used for ingress and egress only, and the vestibule shall comply with 
Sections 811.2.1 and 811.2.2. 

811.2.1 Depth and width: The vestibule depth from the exterior of the building is 
not greater than 10 feet and the width is not greater than 20 feet. 

811.2.2 Separation: The vestibule is separated from the remainder of the level of 
discharge by self-closing doors and the equivalent of 1/4 inch thick wired glass in 
steel frames. 

81 1 .3 Lobby: Where an exit discharges into an interior lobby, located at the level 
of exit discharge, such lobby shall be provided with an automatic fire suppression 
system, and any other portion of the floor with access to the lobby shall be provided 
with an automatic fire suppression system or shall be separated therefrom in 
accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of exits. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



81 1 .4 Width and height: The effective width of the passageway shall be not less 
than three-quarters of the aggregate width of all required exit stairways leading 
thereto and all required exit doorways opening into the passageway. Such 
passageway shall have a minimum width of 44 inches and a minimum clear ceiling 
height of 8 feet. 

81 1 .5 Maximum stairway limitations: Not more than 50 percent of the required 
stairways shall discharge through the same passageway. Multiple lobbies constructed 
in accordance with Section 811.3 located adjacent to one another shall be separated 
from each other in accordance with the requirements for enclosure of exits. 

SECTION 812.0 MEANS OF EGRESS DOORWAYS 

812.1 General: The requirements of this section shall apply to all doorways serving 
as a component or element of a means of egress from habitable and occupiable 
rooms: except as provided in Sections 816.6, 818.6.1, 818.6.2, 818.7.1 and 819.2. 

812.2 Number of doorways: Every room or tenant space with an occupant load of 
more than 50 or in which the travel distance exceeds 75 feet shall have at least two 
egress doorways leading from the room or tenant space to an exit or corridor. 

Exceptions: 

1. --DELETED-- 

2. Boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms shall be provided two egress 
doorways when the area exceeds 500 square feet and individual fuel-fired 
equipment exceeds 400,000 Btuh input capacity. Doorways shall be 
separated by horizontal distance equal to not less than one-half of the 
diagonal dimension of the room. When two doorways are required by this 
exception, a fixed ladder access out of the room shall be permitted in lieu 
of one doorway. 

3. In buildings of Use Group 1-2, any room and any suite of rooms as 
permitted in Section 810.1.1, Exception No. 3, of more than 1,000 square 
feet, shall have at least two exit access doors remote from each other. 

812.2.1 Entrance and egress doorways: Where separate doors are provided for 
entrance and egress use, the entrance door shall be clearly marked ENTRANCE 
ONLY in letters not less than 6 inches in height and legible from both inside and 
outside. 

81 2.2.2 Location of doors: The required doorways opening from a room or space 
within a building and leading to an exit access shall be located as remote as 
practicable from each other and shall conform to Section 807.4.1. The distance of 
exit access travel from any point in a room or space to a required exit door shall not 
exceed the limitations of Section 807.5. 

8-14 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MLMUj <Jl LUhLOJ 



812.2.3 Door arrangement: Doors in series shall have a space between them of not 
less than 7 feet when measured in their closed positions. 

Exception: Power-operated doors in buildings of Use Group R-3. 

812.3 Size of doors: The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient 
for the occupant load thereof and shall provide a clear width of not less than 32 
inches except that for door openings to resident sleeping rooms in buildings of Use 
Group 1-3 and door openings within a dwelling unit the clear width shall be not less 
than 28 inches. The maximum width of a door leaf shall be 48 inches nominal. 
Means of egress doors in Use Group I used for the movement beds shall be at least 
44 inches wide. The height of doors shall not be less than 6 2/3 feet, except that 
within a dwelling unit the height of the doors shall be not less than 6 1/2 feet. 

Exception: An egress door serving a storage area of not more than 800 square 
feet and which is normally unoccupied shall have a maximum width of 10 feet. 

812.4 Door hardware: All egress doors shall be of a side-hinged swinging type. All 
doors shall swing in the direction of egress when serving an occupant load of 50 or 
more persons or a high hazard occupancy. The door latch shall release when 
subjected to a 15-pound force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 
30-pound force. The door shall swing to a full open position when subjected to a 
15-pound force. Forces shall be applied to the latch side. 

Exceptions: 

1. Private garages, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or 
less. 

2. Horizontal sliding type doors complying with Section 611.4.2 shall be 
permitted in a means of egress in buildings of Use Group T3. 

3. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit. 

4. Revolving doors conforming to Section 813.0. 

5. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 812.4.4. 

812.4.1 Locks and latches: All egress doors shall be readily openable from the 
side from which egress is to be made without the use of a key or special knowledge 
or effort (for apartment houses/exterior doors and locks, also see Section 812.7). 

Exceptions: 

1. Key operation shall be permitted from a dwelling unit provided the key 
cannot be removed from the lock when the door is locked from the side 
from which egress is to be made. 

2. Locking devices conforming to Section 610.4.2 shall be permitted in 
buildings of Use Group 1-2. 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 8-15 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



3. Locks conforming to Section 611.5 shall be permitted in buildings of Use 
Group 1-3. 

4. Egress doors from individual dwelling units and guest rooms of Use 
Group R having an occupant load of 10 or less shall be permitted to be 
equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such 
devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool and 
mounted at a height not to exceed 48 inches above the finished floor. 

5. Special locking arrangements conforming to Section 812.4.1.2. 

812.4.1.1 Flush and surface bolts: Manually-operated edge or surface mounted 
flush bolts and surface bolts are prohibited, except on doors not required for egress 
within a dwelling unit. When egress doors are used in pairs and approved automatic 
flush bolts are used, the door leafs having the automatic flush bolts shall not have 
a door knob or surface mounted hardware. The unlatching of any leaf shall not 
require more than one operation. 

812.4.1.2 Special locking arrangements: In Use Groups A-3, A-4, B, E, F, I, M, 
S and R-l, protected throughout by an approved automatic fire suppression system, 
or an approved automatic fire alarm system, doors in a means of egress shall be 
unlocked or be equipped with approved egress control devices which shall unlock 
in accordance with items 1 through 7 below. 

1. Actuation of the automatic fire suppression system, or automatic fire 
alarm system. 

2. Loss of power to the egress control device. 

3. Loss of power to the building. 

4. Be capable of being unlocked manually by a signal from a required 
central control station on the premises. 

5. The initiation of an irreversible and automatic process which will release 
the latch within 15 seconds when a force of not more than 15 pounds is 
applied for 1 second to the release device and not relock until the door 
has been opened and returned to the closed position for not less than 30 
seconds. Any reopening of the door shall restart the 30-second relocking 
cycle. Any attempt to exit which exceeds 1 second must render the door 
openable. The time delay and the minimum relocking cycle time shall not 
be field-adjustable. 

Exceptions: 

1. An increase in the time delay to 30 seconds shall not be permitted 
except as approved by the building official. 

2. An increase in the relocking cycle time to 45 seconds shall not be 
permitted except as approved by the building official. 



8-16 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



6. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible alarm in the 
vicinity of the door. 

7. A sign having block letters 1 inch in height shall be provided on the door 
above and within 12 inches of the release device stating Keep pushing. This 
door will open in 15 seconds. Alarm will sound. 

812.4.2 Panic hardware: All doors equipped with latching devices in buildings of 
Use Groups A and E or portions of buildings used for assembly or educational 
purposes and serving rooms or spaces with an occupant load greater than 100 shall 
be equipped with approved panic hardware. Acceptable panic hardware will be a 
door latching assembly incorporating a device which causes the door latch to release 
and the leaf to open when a force of 15 pounds is applied in the direction of egress 
to a bar or panel, the activating portion of which extends not less than one-half the 
width of the door leaf, and applied at a height greater than 30 inches but less than 
44 inches above the floor. The force shall be applied at the lock side of the door or 
30 inches from the hinged side, whichever is farther from the hinge. Where fire door 
assemblies are required to have panic hardware, approved fire exit hardware shall 

be used. 

i 

812.4.3 Power-operated doors: Where egress doors are operated by power, such 
as doors with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon the 
approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted manual operation, the design 
shall be such that in the event of power failure the door is capable of being opened 
manually to permit egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of 
egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those 
specified in Section 812.4 except that the force to set the door in motion shall not 
exceed 50 pounds. The door shall be so designed and installed that when a force is 
applied to the door on the side from which egress is made, it shall be capable of 
swinging from any position to the full use of the opening in which it is installed. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings of Use Group 1-3. 

2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 812.4.4 

812.4.4 Horizontal sliding doors: To be considered as components of a means of 
egress, horizontal sliding doors shall comply with all of the following criteria: 

1. The door shall be power operated and be capable of being operated 
manually in the event of power failure; and 

2. The door shall be openable from both sides without special knowledge or 
effort; 

3. The force required to open the door shall not exceed 30 pounds to set the 
door in motion and 15 pounds to close the door or to open the door to the 
minimum required width; 

Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 8-17 



MIL. ItlHoOMUMUOC:! iO OIMIL OUIL.UIHVJ tOUC 



4. The door shall be opcnablc with a force not to exceed 15 pounds when a 
force of 250 pounds is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the 
operating device; 

5. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fireresistance rating 
and, when rated, shall be self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke 
detection, shall be installed in accordance with NFiPA 80 as listed in 
Appendix A, and shall comply with Section 916.0; 

6. The door assembly shall have a standby power supply; 

7. The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds 
after activation of the operating device; and 

8. The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised at a 
constantly attended location. 

81 2.5 Security grilles: Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles which are a part 
of a required means of egress shall be openable from the inside without the use of 
a key or special knowledge or effort when the space is occupied. The grilles shall 
remain secured in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the 
general public. Grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 
more than ten persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 persons 
occupying spaces served by more than one exit. When two or more exits are 
required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be equipped with horizontal 
sliding or vertical grilles. 

812.6 Level of exit discharge doors: Where glazed, doors at the level of exit 
discharge shall be glazed with approved safety glazing. Approved doors having one 
or more unframed edges shall be constructed of safety glazing not less than 1/2 inch 
thick. 

81 2.7 Apartment houses; exterior doors and locks: Refer to Chapter 143, Section 
3R of Massachusetts General Law. 

SECTION 813.0 REVOLVING DOORS 

813.1 General: All revolving doors shall comply with Sections 813.2 through 813.5. 
Revolving doors to be considered a component of a means of egress shall comply 
with Sections 813.2 through 813.6. 

813.2 Collapse: Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing into a book-fold 
position with parallel egress paths having an aggregate width of not less than 36 
inches. The revolving door shall collapse when a force of not more than 180 pounds 
is applied within 3 inches of the outer edge of a wing. 



8-18 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



Exception: The maximum collapsing force shall not apply if the force required 
to collapse the door is reduced to not more than 130 pounds when: 

1. There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the 
wings in position. 

2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system when such system 
is provided. 

3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system which is installed to 
provide coverage in all areas within the building which are within 75 feet 
of the revolving doors. 

4. There is the actuation of a manual control switch which reduces the 
holding force to not more than the 130-pound force level. Such switch 
shall be in an approved location and shall be clearly identified. 

813.3 Dispersal area: A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet of the 
foot or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the 
stairs or escalators and the revolving doors. 

813.4 Speed control: The revolutions per minute for a revolving door shall not 
exceed the speeds indicated in Table 813.4. 

Table 813.4 
REVOLVING DOOR SPEED 



Inside 
diameter 


Power-driven type 
speed control (rpm) 


Manual-type 
speed control (rpm) 


6'6" 


11 


12 


7'0" 


10 


11 


7'6" 


9 


11 


8'0" 


9 


10 


8'6" 


8 


9 


9'0" 


8 


9 


9'6" 


7 


8 


10'0" 


7 


8 



813.5 Adjacent area: Each revolving door shall have a conforming side-hinged 
swinging door in the same wall as, and within 10 feet of, the revolving door. 

Exception: The adjacent swinging door is not required for street floor elevator 
lobbies if a stairway, escalator, or door from other parts of the building does 
not discharge through the lobby and the lobby does not have any occupancy 
or use other than as a means of travel between the elevators and street. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



8-19 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



813.6 Means of egress: A revolving door to be considered as a component of a 
means of egress shall comply with Sections 813.2 through 813.5 and the following 
conditions: 

1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the 
required exit capacity of the building. 

2. Each revolving door shall not be credited with more than a 50-person 
capacity. 

3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of 
not more than 130 pounds is applied within 3 inches of the outer edge of 
a wing. 

SECTION 814.0 HORIZONTAL EXITS 

814.1 General: Horizontal exits as herein defined shall be accepted as an approved 
element of a required means of egress when complying with the requirements of this 
article. The connection between the areas of refuge as herein specified shall be 
accomplished by protected openings in a fireresistance rated wall, by a vestibule, or 
by an open-air balcony or bridge. 

814.2 Separation: The separation between fire areas shall be provided by at least 
a 2-hour fireresistance rated fire wall or fire separation wall complying with Article 
9 and Table 401. 

814.2.1 Opening protectives: All doorway opening protectives shall be fire doors 
complying with Section 916.0. All doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel. 
When serving as a dual element of a means of egress, there shall be adjacent 
openings with swinging fire doors opening in opposite directions. 

81 4.3 Size Of doors: Size of openings in fire walls and fire separation walls shall 
comply with the provisions of Sections 909.0 and 910.0. 

81 4.4 Area Of refuge: The discharge area of a horizontal exit shall be either public 
areas or spaces occupied by the same tenant, and each such area of refuge shall be 
adequate to house the total occupant load of both connected areas. The capacity of 
areas of refuge shall be computed on a minimum net floor area allowance for each 
occupant to be accommodated therein, not including areas of stairs, elevators and 
other shafts or courts, as follows: 

1. At least 30 square feet per patient for hospitals and nursing homes. 

2. On stories not housing bed or Utter patients in buildings of Use Group I- 
2, and in all buildings of Group 1-3, 6 square feet. 

3. 3 square feet in all other cases. 



8-20 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



814.5 Unlocked doors: All horizontal exit doors shall be readily openable from the 
side or sides from which egress is to be made without the use of a key or special 
knowledge or effort. 

814.6 Stairway exit: In multi-story buildings of other than Use Group 1-3, there 
shall be at least one interior enclosed stairway or smokeproof enclosure on each side 
of the horizontal exit, and any fire area not having a stairway accessible thereto shall 
be considered as part of an adjoining section with such stairway; but the length of 
exit access travel distance to the horizontal exit or the required exit shall not exceed 
the requirements of Section 807.5. Buildings of Use Group 1-3 shall conform to 
Section 611.4.3. 

814.7 Auxiliary elevator: When horizontal exits are provided in floors located 12 
or more stories above the level of exit discharge, the required stairway shall be 
supplemented by at least one passenger elevator maintained ready for use during 
normal occupancy of the building. 

SECTION 815.0 RAMPS 

815.1 Capacity: The capacity of a ramp used as an egress component shall be 
computed in accordance with Section 808.0. 

815.2 Minimum dimensions: The minimum dimensions of egress ramps shall 
comply with Sections 815.2.1 through 815.2.3. 

815.2.1 Width: The minimum width of an egress ramp shall be not less than that 
required for corridors by Section 810.3. 

815.2.2 Headroom: The minimum headroom in all parts of the egress ramp shall 
be not less than 6 feet 8 inches. 

815.2.3 Restrictions: Egress ramps shall not reduce in width in the direction of 
egress travel. Projections into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited 
except for handrails and stringers. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the 
clear width to less than 42 inches. 

815.3 Maximum slope: The maximum slope of egress ramps shall be one unit 
vertical in 8 units horizontal (1:8); except ramps required for the physically 
handicapped according to Section 512.0, in which case the maximum slope shall be 
one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1:12). 

81 5.4 Landings: Landings shall be provided at all points of turning, entrance and 
exit and at doors. Ramps with a slope of greater than one unit vertical in ten units 
horizontal (1:10) shall not have a vertical rise of greater than 12 feet between 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 8-21 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



landings. Ramps required for the physically handicapped according to Section 512.0 
shall not have a vertical rise greater than 30 inches between landings. All landings 
shall have a minimum length of 60 inches. 

815.5 Guards and handrails: Guards shall be provided on both sides and 
constructed in accordance with Section 827.0. Handrails conforming to Section 828.0 
shall be provided on at least one side of every ramp having a slope greater than one 
unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1:12). Ramps required by Section 512.0 for the 
physically handicapped shall have handrails on both sides of the ramp whenever the 
vertical rise between landings exceeds 6 inches. 

81 5.6 Ramp construction: Ramps used as an exit shall conform to the applicable 
requirements of Section 816.9 as to materials of construction and enclosure. 

815.6.1 Surface: For all slopes exceeding one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal 
(1:12) and wherever the use is such as to involve danger of slipping, the ramp shall 
be surfaced with approved slip-resistant materials. 

SECTION 816.0 INTERIOR STAIRWAYS 

816.1 Capacity: The capacity of stairways and doors shall be computed in 
accordance with Section 808.0. 

816.2 Minimum dimensions: The minimum dimensions of interior exit stairways 
shall comply with Sections 816.2.1 through 816.2.3. 

Note: All stairways, whether such stairways serve as a part of a required 
means of egress or not, shall conform dimensionally to Sections 816.2, 816.3, 
816.4, 816.5, 816.7 and/or 816.11 as applicable. 

816.2.1 Width: All interior exit stairways shall be not less than 44 inches in width. 

Exceptions: 

1. Exit stairways in buildings of single exit construction where permitted by 
Section 809.3 shall be not less than 36 inches in width. 

2. Spiral stairways as provided in Section 816.7. 

3. Exit stairways in buildings of Use Group R-3 shall not be less than 36 
inches in width. 

4. Exit stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling 
unit shall be not less than 36 inches in width. 

5. Exit stairways in buildings having a total occupant load of 50 or less shall 
be not less than 36 inches in width. 



8-22 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



81 6.2.2 Headroom: The minimum headroom in all parts of the stair enclosure shall 
be not less than 6 feet 8 inches measured vertically from the tread nosing or from 
the floor surface of the landing or platform. 

81 6.2.3 Restrictions: Stairways shall not reduce in width in the direction of exit 
travel. Projections into a stairway width are prohibited, except for handrails as 
indicated in Section 828.2.1 and for stairway stringers which shall project not more 
than 1 1/2 inches at each side. 

81 6.3 Landings and platforms: Landings and platforms of interior exit stairways 
shall comply with Sections 816.3.1 and 816.3.2. 

816.3.1 Width: The least dimension of landings and platforms shall be not less than 
the required width of stairway. 

81 6.3.2 Vertical rise: In all buildings, a stairway shall not have a height of vertical 
rise of more than 12 feet between landings and intermediate platforms. 

81 6.4 Treads and risers: Treads and risers of interior exit stairways shall comply 
with Sections 816.4.1 through 816.4.3. 

816.4.1 Limiting dimensions: Maximum riser height shall be 7 inches and minimum 
riser height shall be 4 inches. Minimum tread depth shall be 11 inches, measured 
horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads 
and at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. 

Exceptions: 

1. Winders in accordance with Section 816.4.3. 

2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 816.7. 

3. Circular stairways in accordance with Section 816.7.1. 

4. Stairways serving as aisles in assembly seating areas where the stairway 
pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope of the adjacent 
seating area. 

5. --DELETED-- 

6. Existing stairways. 

7. In Use Group R-3 and within dwelling units in Use Group R-2, the 
maximum riser height shall be 8 1/4 inches and the minimum tread depth 
shall be 9 inches. 

816.4.2 Dimensional uniformity: There shall not be variation exceeding 3/16 inch 
in the depth of adjacent treads or in the height of adjacent risers. The tolerance 
between the largest and smallest riser or between the largest and smallest tread shall 
not exceed 3/8 inch in any flight of stairs. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 8-23 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Exceptions: 

1. Where the bottom riser adjoins a sloping public way, walk or driveway 
having an established grade and serving as a landing, a variation in height 
of the bottom riser shall not exceed 3 inches in every three feet of 
stairway width. 

2. On stairways serving as aisles in assembly seating, where necessitated by 
changes in the gradient of adjoining seating areas to maintain adequate 
sightlines, the maximum nonuniformity of riser heights within a flight and 
the nonuniformity between adjacent risers shall not apply. Where a 
nonuniformity exceeds 3/16 inch between adjacent risers, the exact 
location of the nonuniformity shall be indicated with a distinctive marking 
stripe on each tread at the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the 
nonuniform risers. 

3. On stairways serving as aisles in assembly seating, where smaller 
intermediate steps are provided between larger treads level with seating 
platforms, such smaller intermediate steps shall have a uniform tread 
depth of not less than 13 inches. 

81 6.4.3 Winders: Winders shall not be permitted in required exit stairways except 
in Use Group R-3 and stairways serving a single dwelling unit and in ornamental 
stairways not required as an element of an exit. Such winders shall have a tread 
depth of not less than 9 inches at a point not more than 12 inches from the side 
where the tread is narrower and the minimum tread depth shall not be less than 6 
inches. 

816.5 Stairway guards and handrails: Stairways shall have continuous guards and 
handrails on both sides, and in addition thereto, stairways more than 88 inches in 
required width shall have intermediate handrails dividing the stairway into portions 
not more than 88 inches wide. Only one handrail is required on stairways having a 
width of less than 44 inches. Guards shall be constructed in accordance with Section 
827.0. Handrails shall be constructed in accordance with Section 828.0. 

816.6 Stair exit doors: Stairway exit doors shall comply with Sections 816.6.1 
through 816.6.3. 

816.6.1 Width: The minimum required width of every exit door to or from a 
stairway shall be determined by the greater of the following criteria; 

1. 28-inch clear width in buildings of Use Group R-3. 

2. 36-inch minimum width of door leaf in buildings of Use Group 1-2. 

3. 32-inch clear width in all other cases. 

4. The width required for the capacity of the stairway which serves the floor 
area from which the exit door leads. 



8-24 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



MEANS OF EGRESS 



816.6.2 Direction of swing: All doors shall swing on a landing in the direction of 
egress travel. When opening, stair exit doors shall not reduce the width of landings 
to less than one-half the required width. When fully open, the exit door shall not 
project more than 7 inches onto the landing. 

Exception: Doors leading from a room or tenant space to a stairway in 
buildings in which only one exit is required are not required to swing in the 
direction of egress travel. 

816.6.3 Door construction: All doorway opening protectives shall be fire doors 
complying with Section 916.0. Labeled fire doors shall have a maximum transmitted 
temperature end point of not more than 450 degrees F. (232 degrees C.) above 
ambient at the end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure. 

816.7 Spiral stairways: Spiral stairways shall not be used as an element of a means 
of egress except in buildings of Use Group R-3 and within a single dwelling unit and 
from a mezzanine area not more than 250 square feet in area and serving not more 
than five occupants. The minjmum width shall be 26 inches with each tread having 
a 7 1/2 inch minimum tread width at 12 inches from the narrow edge. Ail treads shall 
be identical and the rise shall be not more than 9 1/2 inches. A minimum headroom 
of 6 feet 6 inches shall be provided. 

816.7.1 Circular stairways: Circular stairways shall not be used as. an element of 
a means of egress except where a minimum tread depth and maximum riser height 
are provided in accordance with Section 816.4.1 and the smaller radius is not less 
than twice the width of the stairway. 

81 6.8 Supplemental stairways: Stairways which are not a required means of egress 
element, serve one adjacent floor, are not connected with an exit access corridor, 
and are not connected with a stairway serving other floors, are permitted in all use 
groups except Use Group I (also see Section 816.2). 

816.9 Stairway construction: All required interior stairways shall be built of 
materials consistent with the types of materials permitted in Table 401 for the type 
of construction of the building; except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all 
types of construction. Such stairways shall have solid treads and landing platforms, 
and all finish floor surfaces shall be of slip-resistant materials. 

81 6.9.1 Strength: All stairways, platforms, landings and exits in other than buildings 
of Use Group R-3 shall be adequate to support a live load of 100 pounds per square 
foot and a concentrated load of 300 pounds. 

816.9.2 Enclosures: Required interior exit stairways shall be enclosed in fire 
separation assemblies of the fireresistance rating specified in Table 401. An exit 

Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 8-25 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



enclosure shall not be used for any purpose other than means of egress. A space 
below a stairway shall be enclosed as required or kept open. Only exit doors shall 
open into the stairway enclosure. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to exits in buildings of Use Group R-3. 

2. This section shall not apply to exits serving and contained within a single 
residential dwelling unit. 

3. This section shall not apply to supplemental stairways as provided in 
Section 816.8. 

4. This section shall not apply to exits in open parking structures as provided 
in Section 809.5. 

5. The minimum required fireresistance rating for exit enclosures connecting 
three floor levels or less shall be 1 hour. 

816.10 Discharge identification: Stairways which continue beyond the level of exit 
discharge shall be interrupted at the level of exit discharge by partitions, doors or 
other effective means of preventing persons from continuing past the floor of 
discharge while egressing. A sign shall be provided at each floor landing in all 
interior stairways connecting more than three stories designating the floor level 
above and below the level of exit discharge. 

81 6.1 1 Alternating tread stairways: Alternating tread stairways of noncombustible 
construction are permitted as an element of a means of egress in buildings from a 
mezzanine area not more than 250 square feet in area and serving not more than 5 
occupants. Alternating tread stairways are also permitted for access to roofs as 
provided in Section 817.0. 

816.11.1 Handrails of alternating tread stairways: Stair handrails shall be 
provided on both sides of alternating tread stairways and shall conform to Section 
828.0. 

816.11.2 Treads of alternating tread stairways: Alternating tread stairways shall 
have a minimum projected tread of 5 inches, a minimum tread depth of 8 1/2 inches, 
a minimum tread width of 7 inches and a maximum riser to the next surface of the 
alternating tread of 9 1/2 inches. The initial tread of the stairway shall begin at the 
same elevation as the platform, landing or floor surface. 

Exception: Alternating tread stairways of noncombustible construction used 
as an element of a means of egress in buildings from a mezzanine area not 
more than 250 square feet in area and serving not more than 5 occupants 
shall have a minimum projected tread of 8 1/2 inches with a minimum tread 
depth of 10 1/2 inches. The rise to the next alternating tread surface shall not 
be more than 8 inches. 



8-26 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Wl tMNo U(- tiUHcoiJ 



SECTION 817.0 ACCESS TO ROOF 

817.1 By stairway or ladder: In buildings more than three stories in height except 
those with a roof slope greater than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (4:12), 
access to the roof shall be provided by means of a stairway, an alternating tread stair 
in accordance with Section 816.11 or a ladder and trap door. The ladder shall not 
be on the exterior of the building. Where the roof is used as a roof garden or for 
other habitable purposes, sufficient stairways shall extend to the roof to provide the 
necessary exit facilities from the roof as required for such occupancy. Roof trap 
doors shall be constructed to comply with Section 927.2. 

817.1.1 Optional stairway or ladder: In buildings not required to have a stairway, 
alternating tread stair or ladder to the roof, such devices, if provided, shall conform 
to the provisions of this section. Ladders placed on the exterior of the building shall 
be metal, and if exceeding 20 feet in height, shall have a protective cage or other 
safety device. The siderails of exterior ladders shall be carried over the coping or 
parapet to afford handhold. Other design details of such exterior ladders are subject 
to approval. 

817.2 Roof enclosures: Stairways extending through roofs shall be enclosed in roof 
structures of fireresistance rated construction meeting the requirements of Section 
927.0. 

Section 818.0 SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURES 

818.1 General: A smokeproof enclosure shall consist of an interior exit stairway 
conforming to Section 816.0, enclosed from the highest point to the lowest point, and 
meeting the requirements of this section. When access to the roof is required by 
Section 817.0, such access shall be from the smokeproof enclosure where a 
smokeproof enclosure is required. 

818.2 Where required: At least one of the required exits shall be a smokeproof 
enclosure in buildings having floors used for human occupancy located more than 
70 feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access. 

Exceptions: None 

818.3 Access: Access to the smokeproof enclosure shall be from every story and 
shall be by way of a vestibule or by way of an open exterior balcony. 

818.4 Outlet: The smokeproof enclosure shall discharge into a street, yard or open 
court with direct access to a public way, or into a level of exit discharge passageway 
leading to a public way. The level of exit discharge passageway shall be without other 



Corrected 780 CMR . Fifth Edition 8-27 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



other openings and shall be separated from the remainder of the building by 2-hour 
fireresistance rated construction. 

81 8.5 Construction; The walls of the smokeproof enclosure and the vestibule shall 
provide a 2-hour fireresistance rating without openings other than the required 
doorways. The open exterior balcony shall be constructed in accordance with the 
fireresistance rating requirements for floor construction. 

81 8.6 Smokeproof enclosure by natural ventilation: The provisions of Sections 
818.6.1 through 818.6.4 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures by natural 
means. 

818.6.1 Balcony doors: Where access to the smokeproof enclosure is by way of an 
open exterior balcony, the door assembly into the enclosure shall be a fire door 
complying with Section 916.0. 

81 8.6.2 Vestibule doors: Where access to the smokeproof enclosure is by way of 
a vestibule, the door assembly into the vestibule shall be a fire door complying with 
Section 916.0. The door assembly from the vestibule to the stairs shall have not less 
than a 20-minute fireresistance rating complying with Section 916.0. 

818.6.3 Vestibule ventilation: Each vestibule shall have a minimum net area of 16 
square feet of opening in a wall facing an outer court, yard, or public way at least 
20 feet in width. 

81 8.6.4 Vestibule size: The minimum dimension of the vestibule shall be not less 
than the required width of the corridor leading to the vestibule. 

818.7 Smokeproof enclosure by mechanical ventilation: The provisions of 
Sections 818.7.1 through 818.7.8 shall apply to ventilation of smokeproof enclosures 
by mechanical means. 

818.7.1 Vestibule doors: The door assembly from the building into the vestibule 
shall be a fire door complying with Section 916.0. The door assembly from the 
vestibule to the stairway shall have not less than a 20-minute fireresistance rating 
complying with Section 916.0. The door to the stairway shall be provided with a drop 
sill or other provisions to minimize air leakage. 

81 8.7.2 Vestibule Size: The vestibule shall have a minimum width of 44 inches and 
a minimum length of 72 inches in the direction of exit travel. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



81 8.7.3 Vestibule ventilation: The vestibule shall be supplied with not less than one 
air change per minute, and exhausted at a rate sufficient to maintain an 
underpressure relative to the atmosphere of 0.05 inch of water column, and of 0.10 
inch of water column relative to the stair shaft. Supply air shall enter and exhaust 
air shall discharge from the vestibule through separate, tightly-constructed ducts 
used only for that purpose. Supply air shall enter the vestibule within 6 inches of the 
floor level. The top of the exhaust register shall be located at the top of the smoke 
trap but not more than 6 inches down from the top of the trap and shall be entirely 
within the smoke trap area. Doors, when in the open position, shall not obstruct duct 
openings. Duct openings with controlling dampers are permitted where necessary to 
meet the design requirements, but dampers are not otherwise required. 

818.7.3.1 Engineered ventilation system: Where a specially engineered system is 
used, the system shall provide 2,500 cubic feet per minute (cfm) exhaust from a 
vestibule when in emergency operation and shall be sized to handle three vestibules 
simultaneously. The smoke detectors located outside each vestibule shall, upon 
release, open the supply and exhaust duct dampers in that affected vestibule. 

81 8.7.4 Smoke trap: The vestibule ceiling shall be at least 20 inches higher than 
the door opening into the vestibule to serve as a smoke and heat trap and to provide 
an upward moving air column. The height shall not be decreased unless approved 
and justified by design and test. 

818.7.5 Stair shaft air movement system: The stair shaft shall be provided with 
a dampered relief opening at the top and supplied with sufficient air to discharge 
a minimum of 2,500 cfm through the relief opening while maintaining a minimum 
positive pressure of 0.05 inch of water column in the shaft relative to atmosphere 
with all doors closed. 

818.7.6 Ventilating equipment: The activation of ventilating equipment shall be by 
a smoke detector installed outside the vestibule door in an approved location. When 
the closing device for the stair shaft and vestibule doors is activated by smoke 
detection or power failure, the mechanical equipment shall operate at the levels 
specified in Sections 818.7.3 and 818.7.5. 

81 8.7.7 Standby power: Mechanical vestibule and stair shaft ventilation systems 
and detector systems shall be powered by an approved standby power system 
conforming to 527 CMR (12.00) and/or NFiPA 70, article 701 as applicable (also see 
Section 602.9.1). 

818.7.8 Acceptance and testing: Before the mechanical equipment is approved, 
the system shall be tested in the building official's presence to confirm that the 
system is operating in compliance with these requirements. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 819.0 EXTERIOR STAIRWAYS 

819.1 As required exit: Exterior stairways used as an element of a required means 
of egress shall conform to the requirements for interior stairways as required in 
Section 816.0, except as to enclosures and fire doors and except as herein specifically 
modified. Exterior stairways and exit access balconies in climates subject to snow or 
ice shall be protected to prevent accumulation of same. Exterior exit stairways shall 
not be used as an element of a required means of egress in the following cases. 

1. Buildings of Use Group 1-2 exceeding four stories or 50 feet in height. 

2. Buildings of Use Group 1-3. 

3. Floors exceeding five stories or 65 feet in height above the level of exit 
discharge. 

819.1.1 Location and arrangement: Exterior stairways utilized as a means of 
egress shall have at least one door from each tenant space opening onto a 
roofed-over open balcony served by at least two stairways, except where one stairway 
is permitted in Section 809.3, so located as to provide a choice of independent, 
unobstructed means of egress directly to the grade. The stairways shall be located 
remotely from each other. Balconies shall conform to the same width requirements 
as corridors as required by Section 810.0. The maximum travel distance from any 
tenant space to the nearest stairway shall be as specified in Table 807. Balconies and 
stairways shall be located at least 10 feet from adjacent lot lines and from other 
buildings on the same lot unless openings in such buildings are protected by 3/4-hour 
fireresistance rated doors or windows. 

Exception: Noncombustible exterior stairways constituting not more than 50 
percent of the required means of egress shall be exempt from the 10-foot fire 
separation distance requirement. 

819.2 Opening protectives: All openings below and within 10 feet horizontally of 
the stairway and all doors opening onto the stairway except at the top story shall be 
protected with approved 3/4-hour fireresistance rated fixed or automatic opening 
protectives. 

Exceptions: 

1. Buildings two stories or less above grade when the level of exit discharge 
is the first story above grade. 

2. Opening protectives are not required when two independent exterior 
stairways serve an exterior balcony. 

819.3 Location: All required exterior stairways shall be located so as to lead directly 
to a street or open space with direct access to a street; or when located on the rear 
of the building shall lead through a passageway at the level of exit discharge 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



complying with Section 811.0. Exterior stairways shall not project beyond the street 
lot line. 

81 9.4 Construction: Exterior stairs, porches and balconies shall be constructed of 
materials consistent with the types of materials permitted in Table 401 for the type 
of construction of the building to which the stairway is attached. 

SECTION 820.0 ESCALATORS AND MOVING WALKS 

820.1 Means of egress: Escalators and moving walks shall not constitute a part of 
the required means of egress. 

820.2 Reference standards: Escalators and moving walks shall conform to 
Massachusetts Regulations - 524 CMR listed in Appendix G and Section 2617.0. 

SECTION 821.0 FIRE ESCAPES 

821.1 Where permitted: Fire escapes shall be permitted only as provided in 
Sections 821.1.1 through 821.1.4. 

821.1.1 New buildings: Fire escapes shall not constitute any part of the required 
means of egress in new buildings. 

821.1.2 Existing fire escapes: Existing fire escapes shall be continued to be 
accepted as a component in the means of egress in existing buildings only. 

821.1.3 New fire escapes: New fire escapes for existing buildings shall be 
permitted only where exterior stairs cannot be utilized due to lot lines limiting stair 
size or due to the sidewalks, alleys or roads at grade level. New fire escapes shall not 
incorporate ladders or access by windows. 

821.1.4 Limitations: Fire escapes shall comply with this section and shall not 
constitute more than 50 percent of the required number of exits nor more than 50 
percent of the required exit capacity. 

821.2 Location: When located on the front of the building and projecting beyond 
the building line, the lowest landing shall be not less than 7 feet or more than 12 
feet above grade, equipped with a counterbalanced stairway to the street. In 
alleyways and thoroughfares less than 30 feet wide, the clearance under the lowest 
landing shall be not less than 12 feet. 

821.3 Construction: The fire escape shall be designed to support a live load of 100 
pounds per square foot and shall be constructed of steel or other approved 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



noncombustible materials. Fire escapes constructed of wood not less than 2 inches 
thick are permitted on buildings of Type 5 construction. 

821 .3.1 Dimensions: Stairs shall be at least 22 inches wide with risers not more and 
treads not less than 8 inches and landings at the foot of stairs not less than 40 inches 
wide by 36 inches long, located not more than 8 inches below the access window or 
door. 

821 .3.2 Opening protectives: Doors and windows along the fire escape shall be 
protected with 3/4-hour fireresistance rated opening protectives. 

SECTION 822.0 SLIDESCAPES 

822.1 Where permitted: Slidescapes and safety chutes shall be permitted in 
buildings of Use Group H, in existing school buildings of Use Group E and in 
existing buildings of Use Group I when approved and constructed in an approved 
manner. 

822.2 Location: The arrangement and location of slidescapes shall conform to this 
article for means of egress and shall be designated by Exit signs and lights as 
provided in Section 823.0. 

822.3 Construction: All chutes shall be constructed of approved noncombustible 
materials with a pitch in the line of travel of not less than 24 nor more than 42 
degrees, measured on the developed circumference of spiral chutes. Straight chutes 
shall be not less than 24 inches and spiral chutes not less than 28 inches in clear 
width; nor more than 44 inches wide in any case. When erected on the interior of 
a building, they shall be enclosed as required in Section 816.9.2 for interior stairways 
with direct means of egress to a street or other public way. 

822.4 Capacity: Slidescapes, where permitted as an element of a required exit, shall 
be rated at one unit of egress width per slide, with a rated capacity of 60. 
Slidescapes, except as permitted for buildings of Use Group H, shall not constitute 
more than 25 percent of the required number of units of egress width from any 
building or structure or any individual story. 

SECTION 823.0 EXIT SIGNS AND LIGHTS 

823.1 Location: In all buildings, rooms or spaces required to have more than one 
exit or exit access, all required means of egress shall be indicated with approved 
illuminated signs reading Exit, visible from the exit access and, when necessary, 
supplemented by directional signs in the exit access corridors indicating the direction 
and way of egress. All Exit signs shall be located at exit doors or exit access areas, 
so as to be readily visible. 

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Exception: Exit signs are not required in sleeping room areas in buildings of 
Use Group 1-3. 

823.2 Size and color: Exit signs shall have red letters at least 6 inches high and the 
minimum width of each stroke shall be 3/4 inch on a white background or in other 
approved distinguishable colors. If an arrow is provided as part of an Exit sign, the 
construction shall be such that the arrow direction cannot be readily changed. The 
word Exit shall be clearly discernible when the illuminated sign is not energized. 

823.3 Illumination: Each sign shall be illuminated by a source providing not less 
than five foot candles at the illuminated surface. 

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs which provide evenly illuminated 
letters shall have a minimum luminance of 0.06 foot lamberts. 

823.4 Power source: All Exit signs shall be illuminated at all times when the 
building is occupied. To assure continued illumination for a duration of not less than 
1 hour in case of primary power loss, the Exit signs shall be connected to an 
emergency electrical system that complies with 527 CMR (12.00) and/or NFiPA 70, 
article 700, as applicable. 

Exception: Approved self-luminous signs which provide continuous 
illumination independent of external power sources are not required to have 
emergency electrical power. 

SECTION 824.0 MEANS OF EGRESS LIGHTING 

824.1 Artificial lighting: All means of egress in other than buildings of Use Group 
R-3 shall be equipped with artificial lighting facilities to provide the intensity of 
illumination herein prescribed continuously during the time that conditions of 
occupancy of the building require that the exits be available. Lighting shall also be 
provided to illuminate the exit discharge. In buildings of Use Group R-2, means of 
egress lighting, except that lighting within a dwelling unit, shall be wired on a circuit 
independent of circuits within any dwelling unit. The disconnecting means and 
overcurrent protection device shall not be located within a dwelling unit or such that 
access is obtained by going through a dwelling unit. 

824.2 Intensity of illumination: The intensity of floor lighting shall be not less than 
1 foot candle except as provided in Section 824.3. 

824.3 Use Groups A and E: In buildings of Use Groups A and E for the exhibition 
of motion pictures or other projections by means of directed light, the minimum 
required illumination of aisles during such period of projection shall be 0.2 foot 
candle. 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



824.3.1 Control: The lighting of exits, aisles and auditoriums shall be controlled 
from a location inaccessible to unauthorized persons. Supplementary control shall 
be provided as specified in Section 613.4 in the motion picture projection room. 

824.4 Power source: Means of egress lighting in all buildings, rooms or spaces 
required to have more than one exit or exit access shall be connected to an 
emergency electrical system that complies with 527 CMR (12.00) and/or NFiPA 70, 
article 700, as applicable, to assure continued illumination for a duration of not less 
than 1 hour in case of emergency or primary power loss. 

Section 825.0 HAZARDS TO MEANS OF EGRESS 

825.1 Floor openings: Manholes or floor access panels shall not be located in the 
line of egress which reduce the clearance to less than 32 inches. 

825.2 Protrusions: There shall not be low-hanging door closers that remain within 
the opening of a doorway when the door is open, or that protrude hazardously into 
the corridor or line of egress when the door is closed. There shall not be 
low-hanging signs, ceiling lights or similar fixtures which protrude into corridors or 
lines of egress. 

825.3 Identification of hazardous exits: Doors leading to dangerous areas such as 
fire escapes, loading platforms, switch rooms and mechanical rooms shall be 
equipped with knobs, handles or push bars that have been knurled. 

825.4 Floor surface: All floors of corridors and lines of egress shall have a 
slip-resistant surface. 

825.5 Open-sided floor areas: Guards shall be located along open-sided walking 
surfaces, mezzanines and landings. The guards shall be constructed in accordance 
with Section 827.0. 

825.6 Elevation change: Where changes in elevation exist in exit access corridors, 
exits or exit discharge, ramps shall be used when the difference in elevation is less 
than 12 inches. 

Exception: At exterior doors not required for the physically handicapped and 
aged by Section 512.0, a maximum of 8 inches step down shall be permitted. 

SECTION 826.0 ASSEMBLY AISLES 

826.1 Where required: Buildings or portions of buildings of Use Group A which 
contain seats, tables, displays, equipment or other material shall be provided with 
aisles leading to exits in accordance with this section. 

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826.2 Aisle width: The aisle width shall provide sufficient egress capacity for the 
number of persons accommodated by the catchment area served by the aisle (see 
Section 826.2.3). The catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the total 
space that is naturally served by that section of the aisle. In establishing catchment 
areas the assumption shall be made that there is a balanced use of all means of 
egress, with the number of persons in proportion to egress capacity. 

826.2.1 Converging aisles: Where aisles converge to form a single path of egress 
travel, the required egress capacity of that path shall be not less than the combined 
required capacity of the converging aisles. 

826.2.2 Uniform width: Those portions of aisles, where egress is possible in either 
of two directions, shall be uniform in required width. 

826.2.3 Capacity: The width of aisles shall provide sufficient capacity in accordance 
with the following formulas where clear width is measured to walls, edges of seating 
and tread edges; except that handrail projections are permitted. 

1. At least 0.3 inch of width for each person served shall be provided on 
stairs having riser heights 7 inches or less and tread depths 11 inches or 
greater, measured horizontally between tread nosings. 

2. At least 0.005 inch of additional stair width for each person shall be 
provided for each 0.10 inch of riser height above 7 inches. 

3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 inch of additional width 
for each person shall be provided on those portions of stair width not 
having handrails within a horizontal distance of 30 inches. 

4. Level or ramped means of egress with slopes less than one unit vertical 
in eight units horizontal (1:8), shall have at least 0.2 inch of clear width 
for each person served. 

826.2.4 Minimum width: The minimum clear width of aisles shall be: 48 inches for 
stairs having seating on each side; 36 inches for stairs having seating on only one 
side; 23 inches between a stair handrail or guardrail and seating when the aisle is 
subdivided by a handrail (see Section 826.5); 42 inches for level or ramped aisles 
having theater style seating on both sides; 36 inches for all other level or ramped 
aisles; and 23 inches between a stair handrail and seating when an aisle does not 
serve more than five rows on one side. 

826.3 Termination: Each end of a cross aisle shall terminate at an aisle, foyer, 
doorway or vomitory giving access to an exit. Dead end aisles which terminate only 
at one end with a cross aisle, foyer, doorway or vomitory giving access to an exit 
shall be not greater than 20 feet in length. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Exception: A longer dead end aisle is permitted where seats served by the 
dead end aisle are not more than 24 seats from another aisle, measured along 
a row of seats having a minimum clear width of 12 inches plus 0.6 inch for 
each additional seat above seven in the row. 

826.4 Walking surfaces: Aisles with a gradient of one unit vertical in eight units 
horizonal (1:8) or less shall consist of a ramp having a slip-resistant walking surface. 
Aisles with a gradient exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizonal (1:8) shall 
consist of a series of risers and treads extending across the full width of aisles and 
complying with Sections 826.4.1 and 826.4.2. 

826.4.1 Treads: Tread depths shall be a minimum of 11 inches and be uniform 
within each aisle. 

Exception: Nonuniformities shall not exceed 3/16 inch between adjacent 
treads. 

826.4.2 Risers: Where the gradient of aisle stairs is to be the same as the gradient 
of adjoining seating areas, the riser height shall be not less than 4 inches nor more 
than 8 inches and shall be uniform within each flight. 

Exception: Riser height nonuniformity shall be limited to the extent 
necessitated by changes in the gradient of the adjoining seating area to 
maintain adequate sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 3/16 inch 
between adjacent risers, the exact location of such nonuniformities shall be 
indicated with a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at the nosing or 
leading edge adjacent to the nonuniform risers. Such stripe shall be a 
minimum of 1 inch wide and a maximum of 2 inches wide. 

826.5 Handrails: Ramped aisles having a gradient exceeding one unit vertical in 
fifteen units horizontal (1:15) and aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails 
located either at the side or within the aisle width. 

Exceptions: 

1. Handrails are not required if, at the side of the aisle, there is a guard that 
complies with the requirements for handrails. 

2. Handrails are not required for aisles with seating on both sides unless 
there is more than one riser per row of seating. The single riser shall be 
indicated by a distinctive marking stripe on the leading edge of the tread. 

826.5.1 Discontinuous rails: Where there is seating on both sides of the aisle, the 
handrails shall be discontinuous with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceeding five 
rows to facilitate access to seating and to permit crossing from one side of the aisle 
to the other. These gaps or breaks shall have a clear width of at least 22 inches and 

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MEANS OF EGRESS 



not greater than 36 inches, measured horizontally, and the handrail shall have 
rounded terminations or bends. 

826.5.2 Intermediate rails: Where handrails are provided in the middle of aisle 
stairs, there shall be an additional intermediate handrail located approximately 12 
inches below the main handrail. 

826.6 Row width: The row minimum clear width shall be not less than 12 inches 
measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of the row ahead and the 
nearest projection of the row behind. Where chairs have automatic or self-rising 
seats, the measurement shall be made with seats in the raised position. Where any 
chair in the row does not have an automatic or self -rising seat, the measurement 
shall be made with the seat in the down position. 

826.6.1 Dual access: For rows of seating served by aisles or doorways at both ends, 
there shall be not more than 100 seats per row and the row minimum clear width of 
12 inches in rows shall be increased by 0.3 inch for every additional seat beyond 14 
but the minimum clear width is not required to exceed 22 inches. 

826.6.2 Single access: For rows of seating served by an aisle or doorway at only 
one end of the row, the minimum clear width of 12 inches between rows shall be 
increased by 0.6 inch for every additional seat beyond seven but the minimum clear 
width is not required to exceed 22 inches. However, the path of travel shall not 
exceed 30 feet from any seat to a point where a person has a choice of two paths of 
travel to two exits. 

826.7 Guardrails: Guardrails shall be provided on balconies and galleries in 
accordance with Section 827.4. 

SECTION 827.0 GUARDS 

827.1 General: Where required by the provisions of Sections 609.2.3, 607.6, 815.5, 
816.5, 825.5 and 1223.5, guards shall be designed and constructed in accordance with 
the requirements of this section and Section 1109.7. A guardrail system is a system 
of building components located near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces for 
the purpose of minimizing the possibility of an accidental fall from the walking 
surface to the lower level. 

827.2 Height: The guards shall be at least 42 inches in height measured vertically 
above the leading edge of the tread or adjacent walking surface. 

Exceptions: 

1. In buildings of Use Group E, guards shall be not less than 34 inches in 

height above the leading edge of the tread along stairs which are not 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



more than 20 feet in height or which reverse direction at an intermediate 
landing with 12 inches or less measured horizontally between successive 
flights. 
2. Guards in buildings of Use Group R-3 shall be not less than 36 inches in 
height. 

827.3 Construction: Open guards shall have intermediate rails, balusters or other 
construction such that a sphere with a diameter of 6 inches cannot pass through any 
opening. 

Exception: In buildings of Use Groups F, H or S, the construction shall not 
permit a sphere with a diameter of 14 inches to pass through any opening. 

827.4 Railings: Metal or other approved noncombustible railings shall be provided 
on balconies and galleries as prescribed in Sections 827.4.1 through 827.4.3. 

827.4.1 At fascia: At the fascia of boxes, balconies and galleries not less than 26 
inches in height; not less than 36 inches in height at the end of aisles extending to 
the fascia for the full width of the aisle; and not less than 42 inches in height at the 
foot of steps for the full width of the steps. 

827.4.2 At cross aisles: Along cross aisles, not less than 26 inches in height except 
where the backs of the seats along the front of the aisles project 24 inches or more 
above the floor of the aisle. 

827.4.3 Successive tiers: Where seatings are arranged in successive tiers, and the 
height of rise between platforms exceeds 18 inches, not less than 26 inches in height 
along the entire row of seats at the edge of the platform. 

SECTION 828.0 HANDRAILS 

828.1 General: Where required by the provisions of Sections 612.2, 815.5, 816.5, 
816.11 and 826.5, handrails shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this 
section and Section 1109.7. A handrail is a horizontal or sloping rail grasped by hand 
for guidance or support, and for arresting falls on the adjacent walking surface. 

828.2 Handrail details: Handrails shall conform to the requirements of Sections 
828.2.1 through 828.2.5. 

828.2.1 Projection: Handrails shall not project more than 3 1/2 inches into the 
required stair or ramp width. 



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MEANS OF EGRESS 



828.2.2 Height: Handrails shall not be less than 34 inches nor more than 38 inches, 
measured vertically, above the nosing of the treads or above the finished floor of the 
landing or walking surfaces. 

Exception: Handrails that form part of a guardrail shall have a height not less 
than 34 inches and not more than 42 inches. 

828.2.3 Handrail ends: Except for stairways within a dwelling unit, handrails shall 
extend at least 12 inches beyond the top riser and at least 12 inches plus the width 
of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At the top, the handrail extension shall be 
parallel to the walking surface. At the bottom, the handrail shall continue to slope 
for a distance of the width of one tread from the bottom riser with the remainder 
parallel to the walking surface. The handrail ends shall be returned to a wall or post. 
Handrails between runs of stairs shall be continuous around newel posts or shall 
terminate 12 inches beyond the last riser as required above. 

828.2.4 Handrail grip size: For all stair handrails located within a dwelling unit, 
the maximum horizontal cross-sectional dimension of the handrail shall not exceed 
2 5/8 inches. 

828.2.5 Handrails of alternating tread stairways: Stair handrails of alternating 
tread stairways shall be of such a configuration as to provide an adequate hand-hold 
for a person grasping the handrail to avoid falling. A minimum distance of 6 inches 
shall be provided between the stair handrail and any other object. A minimum of 12 
inches shall be provided between the stair handrails of adjacent alternating tread 
stairways. Handrails on alternating tread stairways shall be spaced a minimum width 
of 17 inches, not to exceed 24 inches, between the handrails. 



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8-40 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 9 
FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



ARTICLE 9 



FIRERESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 900.0 GENERAL 

900.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall govern the use and design of all 
materials and methods of construction in respect to required fireresistance rating 
and flameresistance, as determined by the potential fire hazard of the use and 
occupancy of the building or structure and the location and function of all integral 
structural and other fireresistive elements of the building; and the installation of 
safeguards against the spread of fire to and from adjoining structures. 

900.2 Performance standards: The requirements of this article shall constitute the 
minimum functional performance standards for fire protection purposes; and shall 
not be deemed to decrease or waive any strength provisions or in any other manner 
decrease the requirements of this code in respect to structural safety. 

900.3 Use of combustibles: All materials and forms of construction that develop 
the fireresistance ratings required by this code shall be acceptable for fireproofing 
and structural purposes; except that the use of combustible component materials in 
structural units or structural assemblies shall be limited in types of construction 
specified in Sections 402.0, 403.0, 404.0 and 405.0, and in Section 900.3.1. 

900.3.1 Combustible components: Combustible aggregates are permitted in 
concrete mixtures approved for fireresistance rated construction as provided in 
Section 1604.0 for gypsum concrete, in Article 15 for cinder concrete, and other 
approved component material or admixture is permitted in assemblies that meet the 
fireresistive test requirements of this code; and wood nailing strips or any other 
materials of similar combustible characteristics are permitted in concrete and 
masonry construction for securing trim and finish. 

SECTION 901.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

901.1 General: Plans for all buildings shall designate the type of construction and 
the fireresistance rating of all structure elements as required by this code. The plans 
and specifications shall include documentation or supporting data substantiating all 
required fireresistance ratings. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



901.2 Penetrations: Plans for buildings more than two stories in height shall 
indicate where penetrations will be made for electrical, mechanical, plumbing and 
communications conduits, pipes and systems, and shall also indicate the materials 
and methods for maintaining the required structural integrity, fireresistance rating 
and firestopping. 

SECTION 902.0 FIRE HAZARD CLASSIFICATION 

902.1 General: The degree of fire hazard of buildings and structures for each 
specific use group as defined by the fire grading in Table 902 shall determine the 
requirements for fire walls, fire separation walls, and horizontal and vertical 
assemblies separating mixed uses as prescribed in Section 313.0 and all structural 
members supporting such elements unless otherwise provided for in this code. 

902.2 Unclassified uses: The building official shall determine the fire hazard 
classification of a building or structure designed for a use not specifically provided 
in Table 902 in accordance with the fire characteristics and potential fire hazard of 
the use group which it most nearly resembles; or its designation shall be fixed by the 
approved rules. 

Table 902 
FIRE GRADING OF USE GROUPS 



Use 


Description 


Fire grading 


Group 




on hours 


A-1 


Assembly, theaters 


3 


A-2 


Assembly, night clubs 


3 


A-3 


Assembly, recreation centers, lecture halls, 






terminals, restaurants 


2 


A-4 


Assembly, churches 


Vh 


B 


Business 


2 


E 


Educational 


1 1 /2 


F 


Factory and industrial 


3 


H 


High hazard 


4 


I-2 


Institutional, incapacitated 


2 


I-3 


Institutional, restrained 


3 


M 


Mercantile 


3 


R-1 


Residential, hotels 


2 


R-2 


Residential, multi-family dwellings 


V/2 


R-3 


Residential, 1- and 2- family dwellings 


1 


S-1 


Storage, moderate hazard 


3 


S-2 


Storage, low hazard 


2 



9-2 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 903.0 FIRE TESTS 

903.1 Structural building assemblies: Built-up masonry units and composite 
assemblies of structural materials including walls, partitions, columns, girders, beams, 
slabs and assemblies of slabs and beams or other combinations of structural units for 
use in floor and roof construction shall be regulated by the fireresistance ratings of 
Table 401. Floor assemblies which are required to be fireresistance rated shall 
extend to and be tight against exterior walls, or other provisions shall be made for 
maintaining the fireresistance rating of the assembly at such locations. 

903.1.1 Fireresistance ratings: The fireresistance ratings of building assemblies 
and structural elements shall be determined in accordance with the test procedures 
set forth in ASTM El 19 listed in Appendix A. The fireresistance rating of concrete 
assemblies and structural elements shall be established as heretofore required, or 
shall be determined in accordance with the procedures of the CRSI book Reinforced 
Concrete Fire Resistance or PCI MNL 124-77 listed in Appendix A. The fireresistance 
rating of protected steel shall be established as heretofore required or shall be 
calculated in accordance with AISI Designing Fire Protection for Steel Columns, AISI 
Designing Fire Protection for Steel Beams and AISI Designing Fire Protection for Steel 
Trusses listed in Appendix A. The calculations shall be based upon the fire exposure 
and acceptance criteria specified in ASTM El 19 listed in Appendix A. 

903.1.2 Tested assemblies: Assemblies of building construction shall be tested 
according to Section 903.1.1 or be detailed in GA-600 or in the UL Fire Resistance 
Directory listed in Appendix A as having the fireresistance ratings specified therein 
for determining compliance with the requirements of this code. 

903.2 Alternative protection: Where it can be shown to the building official that 
the structural integrity of structural framing elements will not be reduced below a 
safe level by a fire within the building or in an adjacent building having a severity 
corresponding to the fireresistance rating required for the elements through the use 
of heat shields, separations or other approved means of protection, fireresistive 
coverings or insulating enclosing materials are not required for such elements. 

903.3 Opening protectees: Opening protectives shall include the fire door, fire 
shutter, fire window, or fire damper and all required hardware, anchorage, frames 
and sills necessary for the assembly. 

903.4 Combustibility tests: Where the behavior of materials under exposure to fire 
is specified in this code, the characteristics of materials shall be determined by the 
tests and criteria set forth in Sections 903.4.1 and 903.4.1.1. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



903.4.1 Tests: The tests indicated in Sections 903.4.1.1 and 903.4.1.2 shall serve as 
criteria for acceptance of building materials as set forth in Sections 402.0, 403.0, 
404.0 and 405.0 governing the combustibility of building materials for use in Types 
1, 2, 3 and 4 construction. The term "noncombustible" does not apply to the flame 
spread characteristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not be 
classed as a noncombustible building construction material which is subject to an 
increase in the combustible or flame spread rating beyond the limits herein 
established through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions. 

903.4.1.1 Elementary materials: Materials which are intended to be classified as 
noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E136 listed in Appendix 
A. Such materials shall be acceptable as noncombustible materials when at least 
three of the four specimens tested meet all of the following criteria: 

1. The recorded temperature of the surface and interior thermocouples 
shall not at any time during the test rise more than 54 degrees F. (30 
degrees C.) above the furnace temperature at the beginning of the test. 

2. There shall not be flaming from the specimen after the first 30 seconds. 

3. If the weight loss of the specimen during testing exceeds 50 percent, the 
recorded temperature of the surface and interior thermocouples shall not 
at any time during the test rise above the furnace air temperature at the 
beginning of the test, and there shall not be flaming of the specimen. 

903.4.1.2 Composite materials: Materials having a structural base of 
noncombustible material as defined in Section 903.4.1.1. with a surfacing not more 
than Vs inch thick which has a flame spread rating not greater than 50 when tested 
in accordance with ASTM E84 listed in Appendix A shall be acceptable as 
noncombustible materials. 

903.5 Fire-retardant treated wood: Fire-retardant treated wood shall comply with 
Sections 903.5.1 and 903.5.2. 

903.5.1 General: Where permitted for use as a structural element, fire-retardant 
treated wood shall be defined as any wood product which when impregnated with 
chemicals by a pressure process, or other means during manufacture, shall have, 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 listed in Appendix A, a flame spread 
rating not greater than 25 when the test is continued for a period of 30 minutes, 
without evidence of significant progressive combustion and the flame front shall not 
progress more than 10V& feet beyond the centerline of the burner at any time during 
the test. The material shall bear the identification of an approved agency having a 
reexamination service, and such identification shall show the performance rating of 
the material. Fire-retardant treated wood shall be dried to a moisture content of 19 
percent or less for lumber and 15 percent or less for plywood before use. 



9-4 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



903.5.2 Use limitations: An assembly of wood which has been pressure treated with 
fire-retardant chemicals in accordance with AW PA C20 and AW PA C27 listed in 
Appendix A, or treated by other approved means during manufacture, is permitted 
to be used in Types 1 and 2 construction for partitions, structural elements and roof 
framing and sheathing as indicated by Note d in Table 401, and shall produce the 
required fireresistance rating when tested in accordance with ASTM El 19 listed in 
Appendix A. When the material is to be exposed to the weather, the material shall 
be further identified to indicate that there is not an increase in the listed flame 
spread classification after being weathered in accordance with ASTM D2898 listed 
in Appendix A. Fireretardant treated wood subjected to high humidity conditions 
shall be identified to indicate the treated wood has a moisture content of not over 
28 percent when tested in accordance with ASTM D3201 listed in Appendix A at 92 
percent relative humidity. 

SECTION 904.0 FLAME SPREAD AND FLAMERESISTANCE TESTS 

904.1 General: All materials which are required to restrict the spread of flame or 
to be flameresistant under the provisions of this code, including but not limited to 
interior finish materials, fire-retardant treated wood, tents and tarpaulins, and 
interior hangings and decorations, shall meet the requirements for their respective 
use and classifications as determined by the applicable test procedures listed in this 
section. 

904.2 Interior finish and trim materials: All materials used for interior finish and 
trim shall be classified in accordance with ASTM E84 listed in Appendix A. 

904.3 Interior floor finish materials: Interior floor finish materials which are 
judged by the building official to represent an unusual hazard and are to be installed 
in exits, passageways and corridors shall be classified in accordance with ASTM E648 
listed in Appendix A. 

904.4 Interior hangings and decorations: Interior hangings and decorations shall 
comply with Sections 904.4.1 through 904.4.4. 

904.4.1 Acceptance criteria: Where required to be flameresistant under the 
provisions of this code, all materials used for artistic enhancement, decorations, 
draperies, curtains, scenery and hangings shall comply with this section and the 
requirements for Flammable Decorations in 527 CMR 21.00, listed in Appendix G. 
If treated to be flameresistant, these materials shall not generate smoke more dense 
than that given off by untreated wood or paper burning under comparable conditions 
when tested in the vertical flame test in accordance with NFiPA 701 listed in 
Appendix A. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



904.4.2 Limitation of approval: All approvals of organic decorative material shall 
be limited to one year. The owner or the owner's authorized agent shall file an 
affidavit with the building official certifying that the process and materials used 
comply with this code and stating the date of treatment and the warranted period 
of effectiveness of the process. 

904.4.3 Field test for decorative materials: The building official shall subject 
decorative materials, where required to be flameresistant, to a field test in 
accordance with Chapter 6 of NFiPA 701 listed in Appendix A. 

904.4.4 Replacement Of defective materials: All treated hangings, draperies, 
canvas and other decorative and tent materials that fail to meet the field test 
requirements shall be retreated or replaced by an approved installation. 

SECTION 905.0 SPECIAL FIRERESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS 

905.1 General: In buildings or parts thereof of the uses and types of construction 
herein specified, the general fireresistive requirements of Table 401 and the height 
and area limitations of Table 501 shall be subject to the exceptions and modifications 
described in Sections 905.2 and 905.3 and to the requirements for Garages, Service 
Stations and Gasoline Stations and Gasoline in 527 CMR 5.00, listed in Appendix 
G. 

905.2 Use Groups B, M and R: Buildings of Use Groups B, M and R shall comply 
with the special fireresistive requirements of Sections 905.2.1 through 905.2.3. 

905.2.1 Type 3A construction: The height limitation for buildings of Use Group 
R-2 of Type 3A construction shall be increased to six stories and 75 feet where the 
first floor construction above the basement has a fireresistance rating of not less 
than 3 hours and the floor area is subdivided by 2-hour fire walls into fire areas of 
not more than 3,000 square feet. 

905.2.2 Type 2B construction: The height limitation for buildings of Use Group 
R-2 of Type 2B construction shall be increased to nine stories and 100 feet where 
the building is separated by not less than 50 feet from any other building on the lot 
and from interior lot lines, the exits are segregated in a fire area enclosed by a fire 
wall of 2-hour fireresistance rating and the first floor construction has a 
fireresistance rating of not less than IV2 hours. 

905.2.3 Use Groups B and M: The first floor of buildings of Type 2C. 3B or 5B 
construction shall not be occupied for Use Groups B and M, unless the floor/ceiling 
assembly and enclosure walls are protected to afford 1-hour fireresistance rating and 
the exits from the residential floors are separately enclosed in accordance with the 
requirements of Article 8. 

9-6 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



905.3 Interior partitions: In buildings or structures of other than Use Groups I and 
R of Types 1, 2A and 2B construction, partitions of a single thickness of wood or 
approved composite panels, and glass or other approved materials of similar 
combustible characteristics, are permitted to subdivide rooms or spaces into offices, 
entries, or other similar compartments, provided they do not establish a corridor 
serving an occupant load of more than 30 in areas occupied by a single tenant and 
do not exceed 5,000 square feet between fire separation assemblies or fire walls. The 
maximum allowable compartment size shall be increased to 7,500 square feet where 
subdivided with fire-retardant treated wood complying with Section 903.5. 

SECTION 906.0 EXTERIOR WALLS 

906.1 General: All exterior walls shall comply with the applicable provisions of this 
code and with the fireresistance rating requirements of this section and Section 
401.0, except as provided in Section 906.1.1 for open parking structures. 

Exception: The provisions of Sections 906.2 and 906.3 shall not apply to 
exterior walls which face buildings on the same lot when the buildings are 
such that, if combined into one structure, the resulting building would 
otherwise comply with the height and area limits of Section 501.0 (see Section 
501.2. 1). 

906.1.1 Omission of exterior walls: The provisions of this code shall not be 
deemed to prohibit the omission of exterior walls for all or part of a story where the 
provisions of Section 906.2 do not require a nonloadbearing exterior wall to provide 
a fireresistance rating. Except as otherwise specifically permitted in Section 912.5, 
the piers, columns and other structural elements within the open portion shall be 
constructed with the fireresistance rating required for exterior bearing walls in Table 
401. 

Open parking structures erected without exterior walls shall have an enclosure wall 
having a fireresistance rating of not less than 2 hours without openings when located 
with a fire separation distance of less than 6 feet from an interior lot line. 

906.2 Fireresistance ratings: The fireresistance rating of exterior walls shall 
comply with Table 906.2. Loadbearing exterior walls shall also comply with the 
fireresistance rating requirements of Section 401.0. The fireresistance rating of 
exterior walls with a fire separation distance of greater than 5 feet shall be rated for 
exposure to fire from the inside. The fireresistance rating of exterior walls with a fire 
separation distance of 5 feet or less shall be rated for exposure to fire from both 
sides. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9-7 



Table 906.2 
EXTERIOR WALL FIRERESISTANCE RATINGS (hours) 



Fire separation 
distance (feet) 


Use Group 


H 


F-1, M, S-1 


R-2 


R-3 


A, B, E, F-2, I, 
R-1, S-2 


to 5 

Greater than 5 to 10 
Greater than 10 to 15 
Greater than 15 to 30 
Greater than 30 


4 
3 
2 
1 



3 
2 
1 




1 
1 





1 






2 

1 






906.2.1 Wall height: The wall shall extend the full height of the building and shall 
be constructed so that it will remain in place for the duration of time indicated by 
the required fireresistance rating. 

906.2.2 Automatic fire suppression: In buildings protected throughout with an 
approved automatic fire suppression system, the required fireresistance rating of 
nonloadbearing exterior walls' shall be reduced by 1 hour. This reduction shall not 
apply to buildings of Use Group H. 

906.2.3 Noncombustible construction exemptions: One-story buildings of Type 
2C construction which do not exceed 3,000 square feet in area shall be exempt from 
all protected exterior wall requirements. This exemption shall not apply to buildings 
of Use Groups A, E, H and I. 

906.2.4 Unexposed surface temperature: Where protected openings are not 
limited by Table 906.3, the limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed 
surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM El 19 listed in Appendix A shall not 
apply. Where protected openings are limited by Table 906.3, the limitation on the 
rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM 
El 19 listed in Appendix A shall not apply provided correction is made for radiation 
from the unexposed exterior wall surface in accordance with the following formula: 



9-8 Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



A e = A + (A f x FJ 



where: 



A^ = equivalent area of protected openings 

A = actual area of unprotected and protected openings 

A f = area of exterior wall surface in the story under consideration 

exclusive of openings, on which the temperature limitations of 

ASTM El 19 for walls is exceeded. 
F^ = an equivalent opening factor derived from Figure 906.2.4. 

906.3 Openings: The maximum area of unprotected or protected openings 
permitted in an area of exterior wall in any story shall not exceed the values given 
in Table 906.3. Where both, unprotected and protected openings are used in the 
exterior wall in any story, the total area of the openings shall comply with the 
following formula: 

A ♦ $l * 1.0 
a a 

u 



where: 

A = actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent area of 

protected openings A,., (see Section 906.2.4) 
a = allowable area of protected openings 

\ = actual area of unprotected openings 
a u = allowable area of unprotected openings 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9-9 



imc MMioMUHUijtl lb SI Alt BUILDING CODE 



1.0 



09 



08 



^ 07 



0.6 



E 05 



04 



0.3 



0.2 



01 




200 400 600 BOO 1.000 1.200 1.400 1.600 1.800 2.000 

Average lemperalure ol unexposed surlace (degrees F.) 



Figure 906.2.4 
EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR 



9-10 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



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Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



9-11 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



906.3.1 Automatic fire suppression: In buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic fire suppression system, other than buildings, or portions 
thereof, of Use Group H, the area of unprotected openings shall not exceed the 
tabulated limits for protected openings. 

906.3.2 First Story: In all buildings, other than buildings, or portions thereof, of Use 
Group H, unlimited unprotected openings are permitted in the first story of exterior 
walls facing a street and having a fire separation distance of greater than 15 feet. 

906.4 Vertical separation of openings: Openings in exterior walls in adjacent 
stories shall be separated vertically to protect against fire spread on the exterior of 
the buildings where the openings are within 5 feet of each other horizontally and the 
opening in the lower story is not a protected opening in accordance with Section 
907.0. Such openings shall be separated vertically at least 3 feet by spandrel girders, 
exterior walls, or other similar assemblies with a fireresistance of at least 1 hour or 
by flame barriers which extend horizontally at least 30 inches beyond the exterior 
wall. Flame barriers shall also have a fireresistance rating of at least 1 hour. The 
unexposed surface temperature limits specified in ASTM El 19 listed in Appendix 
A shall not apply to the flame barriers or vertical separation unless otherwise 
required by the provisions of this code. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to buildings of three stories or less in height. 

2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic fire suppression system. 

906.5 Vertical exposure: Approved protectives shall be provided in every opening 
which is less than 15 feet vertically above the roof of an adjoining building or 
adjacent structure that is within a horizontal fire separation distance of 15 feet of 
the wall in which the opening is located, unless such roof construction affords a 
fireresistance rating of not less than 1 hour. 

906.6 Continuity of exterior walls: Exterior walls required to be fireresistance 
rated by Section 906.2 because of fire separation distance, shall be continuous from 
the foundation to not less than 30 inches above the roof surface. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where the roof deck or sheathing is constructed of approved 
noncombustible materials or of fire-retardant treated wood for a distance 
of not less than 4 feet from the wall, and the roof covering has a 
minimum of a Class C rating, the exterior wall shall be permitted to stop 
at the underside of the roof deck or sheathing. 

2. Exterior walls in buildings of Use Group R-3 or buildings not exceeding 
1,000 square feet in area. 

9-12 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



3. Exterior walls of a building where the roof has an angle of more than 20 
degrees with the horizontal. 

SECTION 907.0 EXTERIOR OPENING PROTECTIVES 

907.1 Where required: Exterior opening protectives shall be provided in all 
exterior wall openings required to be protected by Section 906.0. 

907.1.1 Outside sprinklers: Approved outside automatic sprinklers used for the 
protection of exterior openings shall be installed in accordance with NfiPA 13 listed 
in Appendix A, shall have an automatic source of water supply and shall be provided 
with a fire department connection. 

907.2 Automatic protection: Approved fire protective assemblies shall be fixed, self 
closing or equipped with approved automatic closing devices meeting the 
requirements of this section and Sections 903.0, 916.0, 917.0, 918.0 and 919.0. 

907.3 Fireresistance rating: An exterior opening in a wall required by Section 

906.0 to have a fireresistance rating greater than 1 hour shall be protected with an 
assembly having a fireresistance rating of not less than IV2 hours. An exterior 
opening in a wall required by Section 906.0 to have a fireresistance rating of 1 hour 
shall be protected with an assembly having a fireresistance rating of not less than % 
hour. 

907.4 Unprotected openings: Where protected openings are not required by 
Section 906.0, windows and doors shall be constructed of any approved materials. 
Glazing shall conform to the requirements of Articles 20, 21 and 22. 

SECTION 908.0 FIRE WALLS AND PARTY WALLS 

908.1 General: Fire walls and party walls shall conform to the requirements of this 
section. Party walls are fire walls required by the presence of an interior lot line or 
joint service between two buildings. These walls shall have sufficient structural 
stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without 
collapse of the wall, and shall be constructed of any approved noncombustible 
materials providing the required strength and fireresistance rating specified in Table 
401 for the type of construction, but not less than the fire grading of the use group 
specified in Table 902. Strength and stability shall comply with the provisions of 
Articles 11 and 21. 

908.2 Cutting walls: A wall 8 inches or less in thickness shall not be cut for chases 
or socketed for insertion of structural members subsequent to erection (see Section 
1413.0). 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9-13 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



908.3 Hollow walls: When combustible members frame into hollow walls or walls 
of hollow units, all hollow spaces shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the 
wall and for a distance not less than 4 inches above, below and between the 
structural members with noncombustible materials approved for firestopping in 
Section 921 .0. The wall shall be not less than the minimum thickness specified in 
NBS 211 for nonreinforced masonry, NBS H74 for reinforced masonry, BIA Building 
Code Requirements for Engineered Brick Masonry, NCMA TR75-B or ACI 531 listed 
in Appendix A. 

908.4 Combustible insulation: The building official shall permit the application of 
cork, fiber board or other combustible insulation where laid up without intervening 
air spaces and attached directly to the face of the wall, and protected on the exposed 
surface as provided in Sections 1709.0 and 928.0. 

908.5 Continuity Of walls: In all buildings or structures, walls shall be continuous 
from foundation to 2 feet 8 inches above the roof surface, except as provided in 
Sections 908.5.1 through 908.5.3. Fire walls shall be made smoke-tight at their 
junction with exterior walls. In exterior wall construction employing studs, the wall 
shall extend through the stud space to the exterior sheathing. 

908.5.1 Noncombustible roofs: The wall is permitted to terminate at the underside 
of the roof deck where the roof is of noncombustible construction and is properly 
firestopped at the wall. 

908.5.2 Combustible roofs: The wall is permitted to terminate at the underside of 
the roof deck in Types 3, 4 and 5 construction where all of the following conditions 
below are met. 

1. The wall is properly firestopped at the deck. 

2. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of approved noncombustible 
materials, or fire-retardant treated wood, for a distance of 4 feet on either 
side of the wall. 

3. Combustible material does not extend through the wall. 

4. The roof covering has a minimum of a Class C rating. 

908.5.3 Noncombustible frame: The wall shall not be supported on the structural 
frame in buildings of noncombustible construction unless such supporting frame has 
a fireresistance rating at least equal to that required for the wall. 

908.6 Offset fire walls: Where fire walls are offset at intermediate floor levels in 
protected skeleton-frame construction, the offset floor construction and the 
intermediate wall supports shall be constructed of noncombustible materials with a 
fireresistance rating not less than that required for the fire wall. 



9-14 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 909.0 FIRE WALL OPENINGS 

909.1 General: Openings in fire walls shall not exceed the limits in size and area 
herein prescribed, and the opening protectives shall conform to the provisions of 
Sections 903.0 and 907.0. 

909.2 Size Of opening: Except in sprinklered buildings, an opening through a fire 
wall shall not exceed 120 square feet in area, and the aggregate width of all openings 
at any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall. 

909.2.1 First story: Where the entire first story areas on both sides of a fire wall 
are provided with an approved automatic fire suppression system complying with the 
requirements of Article 10, the maximum allowable size of openings on the first story 
of the building designed for the passage of trucks shall be increased to 240 square 
feet in area with a minimum distance of 3 feet between adjoining openings. Such 
openings shall be protected with approved automatic opening protectives of 3 -hour 
fireresistance rating, and provided with an approved water curtain in addition to all 
other requirements. 

909.3 Opening protectives: Every opening in a fire wall shall be protected with an 
approved automatic opening protective assembly as herein required or the approved 
labeled equivalent in accordance with Section 916.2, except as provided in Section 
814.2.1 for horizontal exit openings. 

909.3.1 Hold-open devices: Heat actuated hold-open devices shall be installed on 
both sides of the wall, interconnected so that the operation of any single device will 
permit the door to close. Heat detectors or fusible links shall be installed at the door 
opening and at the ceiling in conformance with NFiPA 80 listed in Appendix A for 
the particular type of door to be installed. Swinging fire doors, where the ceiling is 
less than 3 feet above each side of the opening, are permitted to be actuated by a 
single fusible link incorporated in the hold-open arm of an approved automatic door 
closer. Doors opening in a means of egress shall be closed by an approved door 
closer, or shall be closed by actuation of a smoke detector located in conformance 
with NFiPA 80 listed in Appendix A. 

SECTION 910.0 FIRE SEPARATION WALLS 

910.1 General: Fire separation walls used for subdividing purposes shall be 
constructed of the types of materials and shall have the minimum fireresistance 
rating as prescribed by Table 401 for the type of construction, except as provided in 
Section 910.4. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9-1 5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



91 0.2 Mixed uses: When a building contains more than one occupancy, and each 
part of the building is separately classified as to use, the mixed uses shall be 
completely separated with fire separation walls as specified in Section 313.0. 

910.3 Multiple single-family dwellings: Single-family dwelling units (Use Group 
R-3) located above or adjacent to other single-family dwelling units (Use Group 
R-3) shall be considered as one building classified as Use Group R-3 for the 
purpose of determining the applicable provisions of this code, provided each 
dwelling unit is completely separated from the adjacent dwelling unit(s) by fire 
separation wall(s) and floor/ceiling assemblies of not less than 1-hour fireresistance 
rated construction and each unit has independent means of egress. 

91 0.4 Exits: Fire separation walls required for the enclosure of exits and areas of 
refuge shall be constructed of masonry, reinforced concrete or any other approved 
noncombustible materials having the minimum fireresistance rating prescribed by 
Table 401. Such walls, where permitted to be of combustible materials by Section 
816.9, shall comply with Section 910.4.1. 

910.4.1 Combustible stair enclosures: Where permitted by Section 816.9, 
combustible stair enclosures shall be constructed of approved combustible assemblies 
protected with component materials to afford the required fireresistance ratings; 
shall be continuous through combustible floor construction; and shall provide an 
unbroken fire barrier in combination with protected floors, ceilings and fire doors, 
separating the exits from the unprotected areas of the building. Such enclosures shall 
be firestopped to comply with Section 921.0. 

910.4.2 Openings for lighting: Openings for the purpose of providing light in 
combustible stair enclosures are permitted to be protected with wired glass with 
single panes not more than 360 square inches in area and a total area in one story 
of not more than 720 square inches. Such light panels shall comply with the 
provisions of Section 919.0, and shall be contained in stationary sash and frames of 
steel or other approved noncombustible material. 

91 0.5 Openings: Exit doors located in fire separation walls shall be limited to a 
maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall and the maximum 
area of any single opening shall not exceed 48 square feet. 

910.5.1 Protectives: All opening protectives in fire separation walls shall comply 
with the provisions of Section 903.0 and shall have the minimum fireresistance rating 
as set forth in Section 916.0. 

910.6 Continuity: All fire separation walls shall extend from the top of the 
fireresistance rated floor/ceiling assembly below to the fireresistance rated floor/ 
ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly above, unless otherwise provided for in this code, and 

9-16 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



shall be securely attached thereto. Where these walls enclose required exits, areas 
of refuge and shafts, or where these walls separate mixed uses, they shall be 
continuous through all concealed spaces such as the space above a suspended 
ceiling, and they shall be constructed tight to the underside of the floor slab or roof 
deck above. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required 
fireresistance rating of the wall supported, except for exit access corridor walls in 
buildings of Types 2C, 3B and 5B construction. All hollow vertical spaces shall be 
firestopped at every floor level as required in Section 921.0. 

910.7 Exterior walls: Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required 
fireresistance rated enclosure, such walls shall comply with the requirements of 
Table 401 for exterior walls and the fireresistance rated enclosure requirements shall 
not apply. 

SECTION 911.0 SMOKE BARRIERS 

911.1 Where required: Smoke barriers shall be provided as required in Section 
610.5 for buildings of Use Group 1-2 and Section 611.8 for buildings of Use Group 
1-3. 

911.2 Construction: Smoke barriers shall have a fireresistance rating of not less 
than 1 hour. Such barriers shall form an effective membrane continuous from outside 
wall to outside wall and from floor slab to floor or roof deck above, including 
continuity through all concealed spaces, such as those found above suspended 
ceilings, and including interstitial structural and mechanical spaces. Transfer grilles, 
whether equipped with fusible link-operated dampers or not, shall not be used in 
these partitions. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the 
required fireresistance rating of the wall supported in buildings of other than Types 
2C, 3B and 5B construction. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke barriers are not required in interstitial spaces when such spaces 
are designed and constructed with ceilings that provide resistance to the 
passage of fire and smoke equivalent to that provided by smoke barriers. 

2. Smoke barriers in buildings of Use Group 1-3 are permitted to be 
constructed of nominal 0.10 inch thick steel plate. 

91 1 .3 Doors: Doorways separating corridors in adjoining smoke compartments shall 
be equipped with a pair of swinging type doors, each swinging in a direction opposite 
from the other, and the minimum clear width of each door shall be 44 inches for 
corridors used for the movement of beds and 32 inches for other corridors. Other 
doors in smoke barriers shall be of the swinging type of required width. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.17 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Exception: Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 611.0 are 
permitted to be used in smoke barriers in buildings of Use Group 1-3. 

911.4 Opening protectives: Doors in smoke barriers shall have a fireresistance 
rating of not less than 20 minutes when tested in accordance with ASTM E152 listed 
in Appendix A without the hose stream and labeled by an approved agency. Double 
egress corridor doors shall have vision panels of l A inch thick labeled wired glass 
mounted in approved steel frames. Vision panels provided in other doors in smoke 
barriers shall be V* inch thick labeled wired glass mounted in approved steel frames. 
The glass area of the vision panels shall be limited to 1,296 square inches for each 
door. The doors shall close the openings with only the clearance necessary for 
proper operation under self-closing or automatic closing and shall be without 
undercuts, louvers or grilles. Rabbets or astragals are required at the meeting edges 
of double egress doors, and stops are required on the head and jambs of all doors 
in smoke barriers. Positive latching devices are required on double egress corridor 
doors. 

Exceptions: 

1. Protection at the meeting edges of doors and stops at the head and sides 
of door frames shall not be required in buildings equipped throughout 
with an approved engineered smoke control system. The engineered 
smoke control system shall respond automatically, preventing the transfer 
of smoke across the barrier. 

2. In buildings of Use Group 1-2, positive latching devices are not required 
on double egress doors, and center mullions are prohibited. 

911.4.1 Door closers: Doors in smoke barriers shall be self-closing or shall be 
provided with approved door hold-open devices of the fail-safe type which shall 
release the doors, causing them to close upon the actuation of smoke detectors as 
well as upon the application of a maximum manual pull of 50 pounds against the 
hold-open device. 

911.5 Smoke damper: An approved damper designed to resist the passage of 
smoke shall be provided at each point a duct penetrates a smoke barrier. The 
damper shall close upon detection of smoke by an approved smoke detector located 
within the duct. 

Exceptions: 

1. In lieu of an approved smoke detector located within the duct, ducts 
which penetrate smoke barriers above smoke barrier doors required by 
Section 911.4 shall have the approved damper arranged to close upon 
detection of smoke by the local device designed to detect smoke on either 
side of the smoke barrier door opening. 



9-18 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



2. Dampers are not required in buildings equipped throughout with an 
approved engineered smoke control system. 

3. Dampers are not required where the openings in ducts are limited to a 
single smoke compartment and the ducts are of steel construction. 

SECTION 912.0 FIRERESISTANCE RATING 
OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 

912.1 Requirements: The fireresistance rating of structural members and 
assemblies shall comply with the requirements for the type of construction and not 
less than the rating required for the fireresistance rated assemblies supported, except 
as provided in Section 910.6 for support of exit access corridor walls and in Section 

911.2 for support of smoke barriers. 

91 2.2 Protection of structural members: Columns, girders, trusses, beams, lintels, 
or other structural members that are required to have a fireresistance rating and that 
support more than two floors or one floor and roof, or support a bearing wall or a 
nonbearing wall more than two stories high, shall be individually protected on all 
sides for their length or height with materials having the required fireresistance 
rating. All other structural members required to have a fireresistance rating shall be 
protected by individual encasement, by a membrane or ceiling protection as specified 
in Section 913.0, or by a combination of both. 

912.3 Embedments and enclosures: Pipes, wires, conduits, ducts or other service 
facilities shall not be embedded in the required fire protective covering of a 
structural member that is required to be individually encased. 

91 2.4 Impact protection: Where the fire protective covering of a structural member 
is subject to impact damage from moving vehicles, the handling of merchandise, or 
other activity, the fire protective covering shall be protected by corner guards or by 
a substantial jacket of metal or other noncombustible material to a height adequate 
to provide full protection, but not less than 5 feet from the finished floor. 

912.5 Exterior structural members: Structural members located in exterior walls 
or along the outer lines of a building or structure shall be protected as required by 
Table 401 for exterior bearing walls for the type of construction involved and shall 
be protected against corrosion by an approved method complying with Section 
1808.1. The interior faces of exterior structural members shall be protected with 
coverings of not less than the required fireresistance rating specified for interior 
structural members in Table 401. Where a fireresistance rating is required in Table 
401 for exterior bearing walls in buildings of Type 2C, 3B and 5B construction, the 
interior faces of any exterior structural member of such buildings shall be protected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.19 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



to provide a fireresistance rating not less than that required for exterior bearing 
walls. 

912.6 Bottom flange protection: Fire protection is not required for the bottom 
flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates not a part of the structural frame or with a 
span of 6 feet or less. 

91 2.7 Stone lintels: The use of stone lintels on spans exceeding 4 feet shall not be 
permitted, unless supplemented by fireresistance rated structural members or 
masonry arches of the required strength to support the superimposed loads. 

SECTION 913.0 FIRERESISTANCE RATED 
FLOOR/ROOF/CEILING ASSEMBLIES 

913.1 Installation of ceiling fixtures: Openings to accommodate noncombustible 
piping, ducts or electric outlets in fireresistive ceilings which constitute an integral 
part of a floor or roof assembly to meet a required fireresistance rating shall be not 
greater in aggregate area than 100 square inches in any 100 square feet of ceiling 
area. The fixtures and attachments shall be installed so as not to decrease the 
fireresistance rating of the assembly. All duct openings shall be protected with 
approved noncombustible ceiling dampers. 

Exception: Ceiling dampers shall not be required when fire tests show that the 
integrity of the fireresistance rated assembly is maintained without the ceiling 
dampers. 

91 3.2 Ceiling panels: Where the weight of lay-in ceiling panels, used as part of 
fireresistance rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist 
an upward force of 1 psf, wire or other approved devices shall be installed above the 
panels to prevent vertical displacement under such upward force. 

913.3 Unusable space: In an assembly required to have 1-hour fireresistance 
rating, the ceiling membrane of a tested assembly is not required to be installed over 
unusable space, or the flooring is not required to be installed where unusable space 
occurs above. 

913.4 Openings in fireresistance rated floors: The required fireresistance rating 
of floor or floor/ceiling assemblies shall be maintained where a penetration is made 
for electrical, mechanical, plumbing and communication conduits, pipes and systems. 

SECTION 914.0 ROOF CONSTRUCTION 

914.1 General: Roofs shall be constructed of materials or assemblies of materials 
designed to afford the fireresistance rating required by Table 401 as herein modified. 

9-20 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



91 4.2 Stadiums: The roof construction, including beams, trusses, framing, arches 
and roof decks, enclosing stadiums of Type 1 or Type 2 construction shall be of 
noncombustible materials without a specified fireresistance rating or of Type 4 
construction. 

91 4.3 Roofs 20 feet or higher: Where every part of the structural framework of 
roofs in buildings of Type 1 or Type 2 construction is 20 feet or more above the floor 
immediately below, omission of all fire protection of the structural members is 
permitted, including the protection of trusses, roof framing and decking. 

91 4.4 Roof slabs, arches and decking: Where the omission of fire protection 
from roof trusses, roof framing and decking is permitted, roofs in buildings of Type 
1 and Type 2 construction shall be constructed of noncombustible materials without 
a specified fireresistance rating, or of Type 4 construction in buildings not over five 
stories or 65 feet in height. 

914.5 Firestopping: Firestopping of ceiling and attic spaces shall be provided as 
required by Section 921.0. 

SECTION 915.0 VERTICAL SHAFTS 

915.1 General: The provisions of this section shall apply to all vertical shaft 
enclosures, except as provided for stairway enclosures in Sections 816.9 and 910.0, 
refuse chutes in Section 2506.0, and elevator and dumbwaiter hoistways in Section 
2608.0. 

91 5.2 Open shaft enclosures: The enclosing walls of shafts that are open to the 
outer air at the top shall be constructed of materials specified in Article 21 for 
exterior walls of buildings and structures of the required fireresistance rating 
specified in Table 401. 

915.3 Covered shaft enclosures: The enclosing walls of interior covered shafts 
shall be constructed of approved materials with the fireresistance rating specified in 
Table 401. The tops of covered shafts shall comply with Section 915.5. 

Exceptions: 

1. Shafts in buildings of Use Group R-3 and serving a single dwelling unit 
are not required to be enclosed. 

2. The minimum required fireresistance rating for shaft enclosures 
connecting three floor levels or less shall be 1 hour. 

915.4 Duct and pipe shafts: In all buildings other than buildings of Use Group 
R-3, vertical pipes arranged in groups of two or more which penetrate two or more 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9-21 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



floors and occupy an area of more than 1 square foot, and vertical ducts which 
penetrate two or more floors, shall be enclosed by construction having the 
fireresistance rating specified in Table 401. All combustible pipes and ducts 
connecting two or more stories shall be enclosed as indicated herein. 

915.4.1 Shaft alternative: Where a shaft is required by Section 915.4, a shaft shall 
not be required where a pipe penetration protection system tested according to 
ASTM E814 listed in Appendix A is provided and has an F rating and T rating of 
1 hour but not less than the required fireresistance rating of the assembly being 
penetrated. The test shall be conducted with a minimum positive pressure 
differential of 0.03 inches of water column. 

915.5 Top enclosure: A shaft that does not extend to the underside of the roof 
deck of the building shall be enclosed with top construction of the same strength and 
fireresistance rating as the floors of the building or structure in which it occurs, but 
not less than that of the fireresistance rating of the shaft enclosure. 

915.6 Bottom enclosure: All shafts that do not extend to the bottom of the 
building or structure shall be enclosed at the lowest level with construction of the 
same strength and fireresistance rating as the lowest floor through which it passes, 
but not with a fireresistance rating less than that of the shaft enclosure. 

915.7 Shaft openings: Openings other than those necessary for the purpose of the 
shaftway shall not be constructed in shaft enclosures. All openings shall be protected 
with approved fire doors, fire windows or fire dampers complying with the provisions 
of Sections 907.0, 916.0, 917.0, and 918.0. 

915.7.1 Shaft wall penetrations: Noncombustible pipe, tube and conduit 
penetrating a shaft wall shall have approved firestopping installed around the 
penetrating pipe, tube and conduit. Such firestopping shall be capable of maintaining 
the integrity of the shaft wall when subjected to the test temperatures prescribed in 
ASTM El 19 listed in Appendix A for the duration of time equal to the rating of the 
assembly to be penetrated and then subjected to the hose stream test as prescribed 
in ASTM El 19 listed in Appendix A. Each penetration of a shaft wall by a 
combustible pipe, tube or conduit shall be protected by a through-penetration 
firestop system that has been tested according to ASTM E814 listed in Appendix A 
or a system that has been tested according to ASTM El 19 listed in Appendix A. The 
through penetration firestop system tested according to ASTM E814 shall have an 
F rating and T rating not less than the required fireresistance rating of the shaft wall 
penetrated. The system tested according to ASTM El 19 shall have a fireresistance 
rating not less than the required fireresistance rating of the shaft wall penetrated. 
The ASTM E814 test shall be conducted with a minimum positive pressure 
differential of 0.03 inches of water column. 



9-22 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



SECTION 916.0 FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLIES 

916.1 Fire door assemblies: Approved fire door assemblies as defined in this code 
shall be constructed of any material or an assembly of component materials which 
meets the test requirements of ASTM E152 listed in Appendix A and the 
fireresistance rating herein required in Table 916, unless otherwise specifically 
provided for in this code. 

916.1.1 Twenty-minute doors: One-third hour (20-minute) fire doors shall be 
tested in accordance with ASTM E152 listed in Appendix A without the hose stream 
test. 

916.2 Labeled protective assemblies: All fire door assemblies shall be labeled by 
an approved agency. Labeled protective assemblies meeting the requirements of this 
section or UL 10A, 14B and 14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies, and NFiPA 80 
listed in Appendix A, shall be approved for use as provided for in this code. 

91 6.2.1 Labeling requirements: Fire doors shall have a label or other identification 
showing the name of the manufacturer, the fireresistance rating and, where required 
for stairway fire doors by Section 816.6.3, the maximum transmitted temperature end 
point. Such label shall be approved and shall be permanently affixed. The label shall 
be applied at the factory where fabrication and assembly are done. Inspection shall 
be made by an approved agency. 

91 6.2.2 Oversize doors: Approval of doors which cannot be labeled because of size 
shall be based on a certificate of inspection furnished by an approved testing agency 
for such oversize doors. The certificate shall state that the door conforms to the 
requirements of design, materials and construction, but has not been subjected to 
the fire test. 

916.3 Multiple doors in fire walls: Two doors, each with a fireresistance rating of 
IV2 hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a Fire wall, shall be 
deemed equivalent in fireresistance rating to one 3-hour fire door. 

91 6.4 Glass panels: Wired glass panels shall be permitted in fire doors within the 
limitations of Section 919.0 and as herein specifically prescribed. 

91 6.5 Closing devices: Except as otherwise provided for openings in fire walls and 
fire separation walls, all fire doors shall be self-closing and shall be closed during 
occupancy of the building or part thereof. The use of rate-of-rise heat-actuated 
devices, fusible links, or smoke detection devices on doors that are normally required 
to be open for ventilation or other specified purposes shall be permitted when the 
safety of the occupants is not endangered thereby. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9-23 



O UImIL UWILUIMU n^> 



916.5.1 Smoke-actuated closing devices: Where fire doors open onto an exit 
access, exit or horizontal exit and are not self-closing, door closers shall be 
smoke-actuated. 

916.5.2 Closing time: Doors which are automatic-closing by smoke detection or by 
rate-of-rise detection, or self-closing, shall not have a delay in closing or reclosing 
of more than 10 seconds. 



Table 916 
FIRE DOOR RESISTANCE RATINGS 



Location 


Fireresistance 
ratings in hours 


Exit access corridor enclosures of 1-hour construction 

Fire walls and fire separation walls of 3 or more hour 

construction 

Fire walls, fire separation walls and exit enclosures 

of 1 Vz- or 2-hour construction 

Shaft and exit enclosures of 1-hour construction 

Shaft enclosures and elevator hoistways of 2-hour construction 

Other fire separation walls of 1-hour construction 


V 3 a 
3 

1V4 

1 
V/z 

3 /< 



Note a. For testing requirements, see Section 916.1.1. 

SECTION 917.0 FIRE WINDOWS AND SHUTTERS 

917.1 Fireresistance rating: Approved assemblies of fire windows and fire shutters 
shall meet the test requirements of ASTM E163 listed in Appendix A. Fire windows shall 
be in the fixed closed position or be automatic-closing. 

91 7.1 .1 Exception: Steel window frame assemblies of Ve-inch minimum solid section or 
of not less than nominal 0.048 inch thick formed sheet steel members fabricated by 
pressing, mitering, riveting, interlocking or welding and having provision for glazing with 
Winch wired glass as required in Section 919.0 when securely installed in the building 
construction and glazed with %-inch labeled wired glass, shall be deemed to meet the 
requirements for a 3 /«-hour fire window assembly. 



9-24 Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

917.2 Window mullions: All metal mullions which exceed a nominal height of 12 
feet shall be protected with materials to afford the same fireresistance rating as 
required for the wall construction in which the protective is located. 

917.3 Swinging fire shutters: When fire shutters of the swinging type are used in 
exterior openings, not less than one row in every three vertical rows shall be 
arranged to be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified by 
distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches high. 

91 7.4 Rolling fire shutters: When fire shutters of the rolling type are used, they 
shall be of approved counterbalanced construction that can be readily opened from 
the outside. 

SECTION 918.0 FIRE DAMPERS 

918.1 Approval: Fire dampers shall comply with UL555 listed in Appendix A and 
shall bear the label of an approved agency. Fire dampers shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Fire dampers shall be 
capable of maintaining the integrity of the required fireresistance rating. 

918.2 Where required: Fire dampers shall be provided at locations where air 
distribution systems penetrate assemblies required to have a fireresistance rating. 

Exceptions: Fire dampers are not required: 

1. Where proper fire tests have shown that fire dampers are not necessary 
to maintain the integrity of the fireresistance rated assembly. 

2. Where an exhaust duct penetrates a fireresistance rated shaft wall and the 
subduct extends not less than 22 inches vertically upward. 

3. At penetrations of tenant separation and corridor walls in buildings 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system. 

4. Where the ducts are constructed of steel and are part of an engineered 
smoke removal system. 

5. At penetrations of corridor walls when the ducts are constructed of steel 
and do not have openings which communicate the corridor with adjacent 
spaces or rooms. 

6. At penetrations of a roof assembly when ducts are open to the 
atmosphere. 

7. In hazardous exhaust systems as defined in the BOCA National 
Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. 

8. Where ceiling dampers are installed in accordance with Section 913.1. 

918.3 Accessibility: Fire dampers shall be accessible. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.25 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 919.0 WIRED GLASS 

919.1 Maximum size: One-quarter inch wired glass, which has been labeled for use 
in approved labeled opening protectives, shall conform to the size limitations set 
forth in Table 919. 

Table 919 
LIMITING SIZE OF WIRED GLASS PANELS 



Rating, opening 


Max. area 


Max. height 


Max. width 




sq. in. 


inches 


inches 


3-hour 











1 Va-hour doors in exterior wall 











1-and 1!/2-hour 


100 


33 


10 


3 /4-hour 


1,296 


54 


54 


Fire windows 


1,296 


54 


54 



919.1.1 Fire walls: Wired glass in fire doors located in fire walls shall be prohibited 
except that where serving as a horizontal exit, a self-closing swinging door shall be 
permitted to have a vision panel of not more than 100 square inches without a 
dimension exceeding 10 inches. 

919.1.2 Fire separation walls: Wired glass vision panels shall not be used in fire 
doors of lV2-hour fireresistance rating intended for use in fire separation walls, 
unless the glass panels are not more than 100 square inches in area. 

91 9.2 Exit and elevator protectives: Unless specifically required by Article 6 to 
be solid in such locations where unusually hazardous conditions prevail, approved 
wired glass vision panels used in fire doors in elevator and stairway shaft enclosures 
shall be so located as to furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the 
elevator or stairway and shall not exceed the size limitations specified in Table 919. 

91 9.3 Fire separation walls: One-quarter inch wired glass panels shall not be used 
in fire separation walls used for subdividing purposes as set forth in Section 910.1 
when the required fireresistance rating of the wall exceeds 1 hour. The maximum 
size of such panels shall not exceed the limitations for a 3 /4-hour door. 

SECTION 920.0 FIRERESISTIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR PLASTER 

920.1 Thickness Of plaster: The required thickness of fireresistance rated plaster 
protection shall be determined by the prescribed fire tests for the specified use and 
type of construction and in accordance with the provisions of Section 1601.0 for 
interior plastering and Section 1602.0 for exterior plastering. The thickness in all 
cases shall be measured from the face of the lath when applied to gypsum lath or 
metal lath. 



9-26 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



920.2 Plaster equivalents: For fireresistive purposes, Vz inch of unsanded gypsum 
plaster shall be deemed equivalent to 3 A inches of one-to-three sanded gypsum or 1 
inch portland cement sand plaster. 

920.3 Noncombustible furring: In Types 1 and 2 construction, plaster shall be 
applied directly on masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and 
furring. 

920.4 Double reinforcement: Except in solid plaster partitions, or when otherwise 
determined by the prescribed fire tests, plaster protection more than 1 inch in 
thickness shall be reinforced with an additional layer of approved lath embedded at 
least % inch from the outer surface and fixed securely in place. 

920.5 Plaster alternates for concrete: In reinforced concrete construction, gypsum 
or portland cement plaster is permitted to be substituted for Vi inch of the required 
poured concrete protection, except that a minimum thickness of % inch of poured 
concrete shall be provided in all reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch in reinforced 
concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. The concrete base shall be 
prepared in accordance with Section 1602.0. 

SECTION 921.0 FIRESTOPPING AND DRAFTSTOPPING 

921.1 General: To prevent the free passage of flame and products of combustion 
through concealed spaces or openings in the event of fire, provisions shall be made 
to provide effective firestops or draftstops as herein specified. 

921.2 Firestopping materials: All firestopping shall consist of approved 
noncombustible materials securely fastened in place. Firestops of approved 
noncombustible materials or of materials of two thicknesses of 1-inch lumber with 
broken lap-joint, or one thickness of 23/32-inch plywood with joints backed by 
23/32-inch plywood, or of 2-inch lumber installed with tight joints, shall be used in 
open spaces of wood framing. 

921.3 DraftStopping materials: Draftstopping materials shall be not less than 
V2-inch gypsum board, %-inch plywood or other approved materials adequately 
supported. 

921.4 Integrity: The integrity of all firestopping and draftstopping shall be 
continuously maintained. 

921 .5 Required inspection: Firestopping and draftstopping shall not be concealed 
from view until inspected and approved. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.27 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



921.6 Firestopping required: Firestopping shall be provided in the locations 
specified in Sections 921.6.1 through 921.6.7. 

921.6.1 Concealed wall spaces: In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, 
including furred or studded-off spaces of masonry or concrete walls, at the ceiling 
and floor or roof levels. 

921.6.2 Connections between horizontal and vertical spaces: At all 

interconnections between vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits over 
cabinets, drop ceilings, cove ceilings and similar locations. 

921 .6.3 Stairs: In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom 
of the run. 

921.6.4 Ceiling and floor openings: At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, 
chimneys and fireplaces at ceiling and floor levels, with noncombustible materials. 

921.6.5 Architectural trim: In exterior cornices and other exterior architectural 
elements where permitted of combustible construction in Section 926.0, or when 
erected with combustible frames, at maximum intervals of 20 feet. If noncontinuous, 
they shall have closed ends, with at least 4 inches of separation between sections. 

921 .6.6 Combustible finish and trim: In the space behind combustible trim and 
finish where permitted under this code and all other hollow spaces where permitted 
in fireresistance rated construction at 10 foot intervals; or the space shall be solidly 
filled with noncombustible materials. 

921 .6.7 Concealed Sleeper spaces: In concealed spaces formed by floor sleepers 
in areas of not more than 100 square feet; or the space shall be solidly filled with 
noncombustible materials. 

921.7 Draftstopping required: Draftstopping shall be provided in Types 3, 4 and 
5 construction in the locations specified by Sections 921.7.1 and 921.7.2. 

921.7.1 Floors: Where ceilings are suspended below solid wood joists or suspended 
or attached directly to the bottom of open web wood floor trusses, the space 
between the ceiling and the floor above shall be divided by providing draftstopping 
as specified in Sections 921.7.1.1 through 921.7.1.3. 

921.7.1.1 Use Groups R-1 and R-2: In buildings of Use Groups R-l and R-2, 
draftstopping shall be in line with the tenant separation walls when the walls do not 
extend to the floor sheathing above. 



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921.7.1.2 Use Group R-3: In buildings of Use Group R-3, the space shall be 
divided into approximately equal areas not greater than 500 square feet. The 
draftstopping shall be provided parallel to the main framing members. 

921.7.1.3 Other use groups: In all other use groups, draftstopping shall be 
provided so that horizontal areas do not exceed 1,000 square feet. 

Exception: Where the space above a ceiling is of combustible construction and 
the building is sprinklered above and below the ceiling, the draftstopping is 
not required. 

921 .7.2 Attics and concealed spaces: Attics and concealed roof spaces shall be 
provided with draftstopping as specified in Sections 921.7.2. 1 and 921.7.2.2. 

921.7.2.1 Use Group R: In buildings of Use Group R, in the attic, mansard, 
overhang or other concealed roof space, above and in line with the tenant separation 
walls which do not extend to the roof sheathing above. (See exceptions next page.) 

Exceptions: 

1. Where corridor walls provide a tenant separation, draftstopping shall only 
be required above one of the corridor walls. 

2. Where flat roofs with solid joist construction are used, draftstopping over 
tenant separation walls is not required. 

3. Where the space above a ceiling is of combustible construction and the 
building is sprinklered above and below the ceiling, the draftstopping is 
not required. 

4. Draftstopping is not required in detached one- and two-family dwellings. 

921.7.2.2 Other use groups: In attics and concealed roof spaces, so that any 
horizontal area does not exceed 3,000 square feet. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where flat roofs with solid joist construction are used, draftstopping over 
tenant separation walls is not required. 

2. Where the space above a ceiling is of combustible construction and the 
building is sprinklered above and below the ceiling, the draftstopping is 
not required. 

921.8 Ventilation: Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall be maintained in 
accordance with Section 709.0. 

921 .9 Access to attics: A readily-accessible access opening not less than 22 inches 
by 30 inches shall be provided to any attic area having a clear height of over 30 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



inches. When doors or other openings are provided in the draftstopping, they shall 
be self-closing and of approved materials specified in this section, and the 
construction shall be tightly fitted around all pipes, ducts or other assemblies 
piercing the draftstopping. 

SECTION 922.0 INTERIOR FINISH AND TRIM 

922.1 General: Interior finish and trim of buildings shall conform to the 
requirements of this section. Interior finish shall include all wainscoting and paneling 
or other finish applied structurally or for acoustical treatment, insulation, decoration 
or similar purposes. The use of a surface finish of paper or of material of not greater 
fire hazard than paper shall not be prohibited provided such finish does not exceed 
1/28 inch in thickness and is applied directly to a noncombustible base or substrate 
meeting the requirements of Section 903.5.2. Show windows in the first story of 
buildings are permitted to be of wood or unprotected metal framing. 

922.2 Exposed construction: These requirements shall not be considered as 
requiring the installation of interior finish, but where construction or fire protection 
materials are exposed in rooms or spaces used for the occupancies specified in 
Section 922.5, the hazard from rate of flame spread of such exposed materials shall 
be not greater than that of the interior finish permitted for such occupancy or use. 
Exposed portions of structural members complying with the requirements for Type 
4 construction in Sections 405.0 and 1702.0 shall not be subject to interior finish 
regulations. 

922.3 Smoke or gases: Interior finish materials shall not be permitted that have 
a smoke developed rating greater than 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E84 listed in Appendix A. When restrictions are not otherwise established in this 
code, interior finish is not controlled, except that pyroxylin or similar finishes shall 
not be applied which, as dry films, produce excessive smoke or toxic fumes when 
exposed to fire. 

922.4 Materials: Materials shall only be used for interior finish and trim as 
specifically provided in this code for the occupancy or use of the space in which it 
is installed. Use of any material for floor finish, interior finish, and trim in a building 
of Type 1 or 2 construction within the scope permitted in this section or Section 
924.0 shall not declassify the building with respect to its type of construction. 

922.4.1 Foam plastics: Foam plastics shall not be used as interior trim or finish 
except in compliance with this section and Section 2002.0. 

922.5 Interior finish: Interior finish of walls and ceilings shall have a flame spread 
rating not greater than that designated by the class prescribed for the various use 



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groups listed in Table 922.5, when tested in accordance with the requirements of 
Section 904.2. 

922.5.1 Basements: In buildings or structures other than Use Group R-3, Class I 
or II interior finish shall be used in all basements or other underground spaces from 
which there is not direct exit to the outside of the building, if subject to occupancy 
for any purpose other than storage or service facilities. 

922.5.2 Maximum flame spread: Interior finish materials with flame spread 
classifications greater than 200 shall not be used in any room or space subject to 
human occupancy, except to such extent as specifically approved on the basis of a 
finding that such use does not significantly increase the life hazard. 

922.5.3 Flame spread classifications: The classifications of interior finishes 
referred to herein correspond to flame spread ratings determined by ASTM E84 
listed in Appendix A as follows: Class I flame spread, - 25; Class II flame spread, 
26 - 75; Class III flame spread, 76 - 200. 

922.5.4 Rooms and enclosed spaces: Requirements for rooms or enclosed spaces 
are based upon spaces enclosed in partitions of the building or structure, and where 
fireresistance rating is required for the structural elements, the enclosing partitions 
shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions which do not comply with this 
shall be considered as enclosing spaces and the rooms or spaces on both sides 
thereof shall be counted as one. In determining the applicable requirements for 
rooms or enclosed spaces, the specific use or occupancy thereof shall be the 
governing factor, regardless of the use group classification of the building or 
structure. Where an approved automatic fire suppression system is provided, interior 
finish of Class II or III materials is permitted to be used in place of Class I or II 
materials respectively, where required in Table 922.5. 

922.6 Interior trim: Baseboards, chairrails, moldings, trim around openings and 
other interior trim, not in excess of 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling 
areas of any room or space, shall be of Class I, II or III materials, except that trim 
around fire windows and fire doors shall comply with the requirements of Sections 
916.0 and 917.0. 

922.7 Interior floor finish: Finished floors or floor covering materials of a 
traditional type, such as wood, vinyl, linoleum, terrazzo and other resilient floor 
covering materials are exempt from the requirements of this section. Floor coverings 
judged by the building official to represent an unusual hazard shall meet the 
classification prescribed for the various use groups listed in Table 922.7 when tested 
in accordance with the requirements of Section 904.3. 



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922.7.1 Suppression system exception: Where an approved automatic fire 
suppression system is provided, Class II materials are permitted in any area where 
Class I materials are required and materials complying with the DOC FF-1 "pill test" 
listed in Appendix A are permitted in any area where Class II materials are 
required. 

922.7.2 Test report: All carpet required by this section to meet critical radiant flux 
limits in accordance with Section 904.3 shall be tested by an approved agency. A 
copy of the test report identifying and representing the style to be installed shall be 
provided to the building official upon request. The test report shall identify the 
carpet by manufacturer (or supplier) and style name, and shall be representative of 
the current construction of the carpet. 

The carpet shall be identified as to manufacturer (or supplier) and style by a hang 
tag or other suitable method, which shall indicate the classification of the material 
based upon the limits specified in Section 904.3. 

922.7.3 Rooms and enclosed spaces: Requirements for rooms or enclosed spaces 
are based upon the spaces being enclosed with partitions extending from the floor 
to the ceiling. Where partitions do not satisfy this criteria, the room or space is 
considered part of the corridor. 

922.7.4 Other materials: All carpet manufactured for sale in the United States is 
required by federal regulations to pass the DOC FF-1 "pill test" (16 CFR, Part 1630) 
listed in Appendix G. If a material other than carpet is used, the material shall be 
shown to be at least as resistant to flame propagation as a material which passes 
DOC FF-1 (minimum critical radiant flux of 0.04 watts/cm 2 ). 

922.7.5 Classifications: The classifications in Table 922.7 correspond to that 
determined by ASTM E648 listed in Appendix A as follows: Class I, 0.45 watts/cm 2 ; 
Class n, 0.22 Watts/cm 2 . 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 922.5 
INTERIOR FINISH REQUIREMENTS 9 



Use Groups 


Required 


Corridors 


Rooms or 




vertical exits 


providing 


enclosed 




and passageways 


exit access 


spaces 3 


A-1 Assembly, theaters 


I 


l e 


ll b 


A-2 Assembly, night clubs 


I 


l e 


ll b 


A-3 Assembly halls, 








terminals.restaurants 


I 


l e 


ll b 


A-4 Assembly, churches 


I 


II 


III 


B Business 


I 


II 


III 


E Educational 


I 


II 


III 


F Factory 


I 


II 


III 


H High hazard 


I 


II 


lll f 


I-2 Institutional, incapacitated 


l h 


l h 


l h 


I-3 Institutional, restrained 


I 


I 


III 


M Mercantile walls, 


I 


II 


III 


ceilings 


I 


II 


ll d 


R-1 Residential, hotels 


I 


II 


III 


R-2 Residential, multi-family 








dwelling 


I 


II 


III 


R-3 Residential, 








1 - and 2- family dwellings 


III 


III 


III 


S-1 Storage, moderate hazard 


II 


II 


III 


S-2 Storage, low hazard 


II 


II 


III 



Note a. For requirements applicable to rooms and enclosed spaces, see Section 922.5.4. 

Note b. Class III interior finish materials are permitted in places of assembly with a capacity of 300 

persons or less. 

Note c. Class III interior finish materials are permitted for wainscoting or paneling for not more than 

1,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby when applied directly to a 

noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and firestopped as 

required by Section 923.0. 

Note d. Class III interior finish materials are permitted in mercantile occupancies of 3,000 square feet 

or less gross area used for sales purposes on the street floor only (balcony permitted). 

Note e. Lobby areas shall be not less than Class II. 

Note f. Where building height is over two stories, Class II shall be required. 

Note g. For the classifications of interior finishes referred to herein, see Section 922.5.3. For interior 

finish requirements for exposed insulation, see Section 928.2. 

Note h. Walls and ceilings shall be a minimum of Class II materials in individual rooms of not over 

four persons capacity. Where a complete approved automatic fire suppression system is provided, the 

minimum requirement for interior finish shall be Class II. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



9-33 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



Table 922.7 
INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH REQUIREMENTS 



Use Groups 


Required 


Corridors 


Rooms or 




vertical 


providing 


enclosed 




exits and 


exit 


spaces 3 




passageways 


access 




A-l Assembly, theaters 


n 


II 


DOC FF-l b 


A-2 Assembly, night clubs 


n 


II 


DOC FF-l b 


A-3 Assembly halls, terminals 








restaurants 


ii 


n 


DOC FF-l b 


A-4 Assembly, churches 


ii 


ii 


DOC FF-l b 


B Business 


ii 


ii 


DOC FF-l b 


E Educational 


ii 


ii 


DOC FF-l b 


F Factory and Industrial 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


H High hazard 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


1-2 Institutional, incapacitated 


I 


I 


DOC FF-l b 


1-3 Institutional, restrained 


II 


II 


DOC FF-l b 


M Mercantile 


II 


II 


DOC FF-l b 


R-l Residential, hotels 


II 


II 


DOC FF-l b 


R-2 Residential, multi-family 


II 


II 


DOC FF-l b 


R-3 Residential, 1 & 2- family 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


S-l Storage, moderate hazard 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


S-2 Storage, low hazard 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 


DOC FF-l b 



Note a. For requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, see Section 922.7.3 

Note b. For requirements for use of other than carpet materials, see Section 922.7.4. 

Note c. For classifications of floor finishes required herein, see Section 922.7.5. 

SECTION 923.0 APPLICATION OF INTERIOR FINISH 

923.1 Attachment: Where interior finish is regulated by the requirements of this 
code, interior finish materials shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a 
manner that they will not readily become detached when subjected to room 
temperatures of 200 degrees F. (93 degrees C.) or less for 30 minutes, or otherwise 
become loose through changes in the setting medium from the effects of time or 
conditions of occupancy. 

923.2 Application to structural elements: Interior finish materials applied to walls, 
ceilings or structural elements of a building or structure which are required to be 
fireresistance rated or to be constructed of noncombustible component materials 
shall be applied directly against the exposed surface of such structural elements or 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



to furring strips attached to such surfaces with all concealed spaces created thereby 
firestopped where in excess of 10 feet in any dimension (see Section 921.6.6). 

3.3 Furred construction: Where walls, ceilings or other structural elements are 
equired to be fireresistance rated or to be constructed of noncombustible component 
materials and interior finish is set out or dropped distances greater than 1%, inches 
from the surface of such elements, only material of which both faces qualify as Class 
I shall be used. 

Exceptions: 

1. Class II finish materials shall be permitted when protected on both sides 
by an approved automatic fire suppression system. 

2. Class II or m materials shall be permitted when attached to a 
noncombustible backing complying with Section 923.6 or to furring strips 
applied directly to such backing as provided in Section 923.2. 

923.4 Type 4 construction: Interior finish materials shall be applied directly to the 
wood members and decking of Type 4 construction, or to furring strips applied to 
such members or wood decking as provided in Section 923.2. 

923.5 Class II and III materials: Interior finish materials, other than Class I 
materials, which are less than l A inch in thickness shall be applied directly against 
a noncombustible backing or a backing complying with the requirements of Section 
903.5.2 unless the tests under which such material has been classified were made 
with the materials suspended from the noncombustible backing. 

923.6 Backing material: Backing for interior finish materials shall be a continuous 
surface with permanently tight joints, equal in area to the area of the finish, and 
extending completely behind such finish in all directions; and shall be of 
fire-retardant treated wood or any materials meeting the requirements of this code 
for noncombustible classification of material under Section 903.4.1. 

When the backing does not constitute an integral part of the structural elements or 
system, it shall be attached directly to the structural elements or to furring strips as 
required for the application of finish according to Section 923.2, or shall be 
suspended from the structural members at any distance provided concealed spaces 
created thereby shall be firestopped in accordance with Section 921.0. 

SECTION 924.0 COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS PERMITTED IN FLOORS OF 
TYPES I AND 2 CONSTRUCTION 

924.1 General: Except as provided in Section 816.0 for stairs and Section 615.0, the 
use of combustible materials in or on floors of buildings of Types 1 and 2 
construction shall be as herein specified. 

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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



924.2 Sleepers, bucks, and grounds: Floor sleepers, bucks, nailing blocks and 
grounds shall not be constructed of combustible materials, unless the space between 
the fireresistance rated floor construction and the flooring is either solidly filled with 
noncombustible materials or firestopped in accordance with Section 921.6.7, and 
provided such open spaces shall not extend under or through permanent partitions 
or walls. 

924.3 Flooring: Wood finish flooring is permitted to be attached directly to the 
embedded or firestopped wood sleepers, and shall be permitted when cemented 
directly to the top surface of approved fireresistance rated construction or directly 
to a wood subfloor attached to sleepers as provided in Section 924.2. Combustible 
insulating boards not more than Vi inch thick and covered with approved finished 
flooring are permitted for sound deadening or heat insulating when attached directly 
to a noncombustible floor assembly or to wood subflooring attached to sleepers as 
provided in Section 924.2. 

SECTION 925.0 DECORATIVE MATERIAL RESTRICTIONS 

925.1 General: In buildings of Use Groups A, E, 1-2, 1-3 and R-l, all curtains, 
draperies, hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings 
shall be noncombustible or maintained flameresistant meeting the requirements of 
Section 904.0 as herein specified and 527 CMR 21.00. 

925.2 Noncombustible: The permissible amount of noncombustible decorative 
hangings shall not be limited. 

925.3 Flameresistant: The permissible amount of flameresistant decorative 
hangings shall not exceed 10 percent of the total wall and ceiling area. 

SECTION 926.0 EXTERIOR TRIM RESTRICTIONS 

926.1 Gutters and leaders: All gutters and leaders hereafter placed on buildings 
or structures of other than Type 5 construction, buildings of Use Group R-3 and 
private garages and similar accessory buildings shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

926.2 Architectural trim: Architectural trim shall be constructed and installed 
in accordance with Sections 926.2.1 through 926.2.3. 

926.2.1 Construction requirements: All architectural trim, such as cornices, 
veneers and other exterior architectural elements, which exceeds 40 feet in height 
above grade shall be constructed of approved noncombustible materials and shall be 
secured to the wall with metal or other approved noncombustible brackets. 
Combustible architectural trim, other than fire-retardant treated wood complying 

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with Section 903.5 for exterior use, shall not exceed 10 percent of an exterior wall 
surface area where the fire separation distance is 5 feet or less. 

926.2.2 Location: Where combustible architectural trim is located along the top of 
exterior walls, it shall be completely backed up by the exterior wall and shall not 
extend over or above the top of exterior walls. 

926.2.3 Firestopping: Continuous exterior architectural trim constructed of 
combustible materials shall be firestopped as required in Section 921.0. 

926.3 Combustible half-timbering: In buildings of Types 3 and 4 construction that 
do not exceed three stories or 40 feet in height above grade, exterior half-timbering 
and similar architectural decorations are permitted to be constructed of wood or 
other equivalent combustible materials, provided such trim is backed up solidly with 
approved noncombustible materials. 

926.4 Balconies and similar appendages: All balconies, porches, decks and 
supplemental exterior stairs attached to or supported by buildings of Types 1 and 2 
construction shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Such appendages 
attached to or supported by buildings of Types 3, 4 and 5 construction shall be of 
either noncombustible or combustible construction. Such appendages of combustible 
construction, other than fire-retardant treated wood, shall afford the fireresistance 
rating required by Table 401 for floor construction or shall be of Type 4 construction 
as described in Section 405.0 and the aggregate length shall not exceed 50 percent 
of the building perimeter on each floor. 

926.5 Bay and oriel windows: All bay and oriel windows attached to or supported 
by walls of other than Type 5 construction shall be of noncombustible construction, 
framed with brackets of steel, concrete or other approved noncombustible materials. 

SECTION 927.0 ROOF STRUCTURES 

927.1 General: All construction, other than aerial supports, clothes dryers and 
similar structures less than 12 feet high, water tanks and cooling towers as 
hereinafter provided and flag poles erected above the roof of any part of any 
building or structure more than 40 feet in height shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials. 

927.2 Scuttles: Trap doors and scuttles as required by Section 817.0 shall be not 
less than 2 feet by 3 feet in size. In Types 1 and 2 construction, trap doors and 
scuttles shall be of approved noncombustible materials. 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



927.3 Penthouses: Penthouses shall be considered a part of the next lower story, 
and the enclosure shall conform to the requirements for exterior walls of the 
building type as regulated by Table 401 and Article 21 except as modified herein. 

927.3.1 Recessed walls: When the exterior wall of a penthouse is recessed 5 feet 
or more from the exterior wall of the next lower story and the exterior wall of the 
next lower story is required to have a fireresistance rating of greater than V/z hours, 
the Penthouse exterior wall shall be constructed with a fireresistance rating of not 
less than l x /2 hours, covered on the outside with noncombustible, weatherproof 
material and supported on protected steel or reinforced concrete construction. 

927.3.2 Doors, frames, and sash: Doors, frames and window sash, except where 
otherwise specifically required to be fireresistance rated under this code, shall be 
constructed the same as other similar elements in the building or structure. 

927.4 Other enclosed roof structures: Enclosed roof structures, other than 
penthouses as defined in Article 2, shall be considered a story of the building and 
shall conform to the requirements for the building type as regulated by Table 401 
and Article 21. 

927.5 Mansards and other sloping roofs: Mansards and other sloping roofs shall 
comply with Sections 927.5.1 and 927.5.2. 

927.5.1 High slope roofs: Every mansard roof or other sloping roof having a pitch 
of more than 60 degrees to the horizontal hereafter erected on any building or 
structure of other than Type 5 construction more than three stories or 40 feet in 
height shall be constructed of noncombustible materials with a fireresistance rating 
of not less than 1 hour. When the building is more than seven stories or 85 feet in 
height, such roofs shall afford the same fireresistance rating required for the exterior 
walls of the building, but need not exceed lV^-hour fireresistance rating. 

927.5.2 Low slope roofs: Where the pitch is 60 degrees or less to the horizontal, 
the mansard or other sloping roof located on any building shall be constructed of not 
less than the same materials as required for the roof of the building. 

927.6 Dormers: The sides and roofs of dormers shall be of the same type of 
construction as the main roof, except that where a side of the dormer is a vertical 
extension of an exterior wall it shall be subject to the same fireresistance rating 
requirements as apply to the wall of the building. The roofs of dormers shall be 
protected with approved roof coverings complying with Section 2301.0. The sides of 
dormers shall be protected with approved roof coverings or with material permitted 
for covering the exterior walls of the building. 



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927.7 Water tanks: Water tanks shall be constructed and installed in accordance 
with Sections 927.7.1 through 927.7.5. 

927.7.1 Supports: Water tanks having a capacity of more than 500 gallons laced in 
or on a building shall be supported on masonry, reinforced concrete, steel or other 
approved noncombustible framing or on timber conforming to Type 4 construction; 
provided that, when such supports are located in the building above the lowest story, 
they shall be fireresistance rated as required for Type 1A construction. 

927.7.2 Emergency discharge: A pipe or outlet shall be located in the bottom or 
in the side close to the bottom, or the tank shall be fitted with a quick opening 
valve, to enable the contents to be discharged in an emergency to a suitable drain 
complying with the Massachusetts State Plumbing Code (248 CMR 2.00) listed in 
Appendix G. 

927.7.3 Location: A tank shall not be located over or near a stairway or elevator 
shaft unless a solid roof or floor deck is constructed underneath the tank. 

927.7.4 Tank cover: All roof tanks exposed to the weather shall have approved 
covers sloping towards the outer edges. 

927.7.5 Hoop and strap protection: When metal hoops are used in the 
construction of wood tanks, they shall be protected with approved corrosion- 
resistive coatings or manufactured from approved corrosion-resistive alloys. 

927.8 Cooling towers: Cooling towers erected on the roofs of buildings when the 
base of the tower is more than 55 feet above grade shall be constructed of 
noncombustible materials or of fire-retardant treated wood except that drip bars are 
not required to be of noncombustible material or of fire-retardant treated wood. 

927.9 Miscellaneous roof structures: Except as herein specifically provided, all 
towers, spires, dormers or cupolas shall be erected of the type of construction and 
fireresistance rating required for the building to which they are accessory as 
regulated by Table 401 and 501. When the height of such appurtenant structures 
exceeds 85 feet above grade or when the area at any horizontal section of the tower, 
spire, dormer or cupola exceeds 200 square feet, or when it is used for any purpose 
other than as a belfry or architectural embellishment, the structure and its supports 
shall be of Type 1 or 2 construction, or of fire-retardant treated wood complying 
with Section 901.5. Radio and television towers and antennae shall be constructed 
to comply with Sections 623.0 and 624.0. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.39 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



SECTION 928.0 THERMAL AND SOUND INSULATING MATERIALS 

928.1 General: Insulating batts, blankets, fills or similar types of materials, other 
than fiberboard insulation, including vapor barriers and breather papers or other 
coverings, incorporated in construction elements shall be installed as required by this 
section. Fiber board insulation shall be installed as required by Section 1709.0. 

928.2 Exposed installations: Such materials, when exposed as installed in rooms 
or spaces, including attics and crawl spaces of buildings of any type construction, 
shall have a flame spread rating of 25 or less and a smoke developed rating of 450 
or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 listed in Appendix A. Plenum 
installations shall comply with the requirements of Section 929.0 and the BOCA 
National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. 

928.3 Concealed installations: Insulating materials, when concealed as installed 
in buildings of any type construction, shall have a flame spread rating of 75 or less 
and a smoke developed rating of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM 
E84 listed in Appendix A. 

928.3.1 Facings: Where such materials are installed in concealed spaces such as 
wall, floor or ceiling cavities, attics or crawl spaces in buildings of Types 3, 4 and 5 
construction, the flame spread and smoke developed rating limitations do not apply 
to facings, provided that the facing is installed behind and in substantial contact with 
the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish. 

928.4 Cellulosic insulation: Cellulosic insulation shall meet the requirements of 
CPSC Standard 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404, listed in Appendix G. 

SECTION 929.0 PLENUMS 

929.1 General: Supply and return air plenums shall be limited to uninhabited crawl 
spaces, areas above a ceiling or below the floor, or attic spaces. Plenums shall be 
limited to one fire area. Fuel-fired equipment shall not be installed within a plenum. 
Plenums shall be classified as noncombustible plenums (929.2), as combustible 
plenums (929.3) or as stud and joist space plenums (929.4). 

929.2 Noncombustible plenums: Plenums shall be constructed with 
noncombustible material. Combustible material shall not be exposed within a plenum 
except as permitted in Sections 929.2.1 through 929.2.5. 

929.2.1 Pipe: Pipe shall be noncombustible and, where insulated, the insulation 
shall have a flame spread of 25 or less and smoke developed rating of 50 or less 
when tested in accordance with ASTM E84 listed in Appendix A. 



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FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 



929.2.2 Ceiling and thermal material: Thermal and acoustical materials shall have 
a flame spread of 25 or less and a smoke developed rating of 50 or less when tested 
in accordance with ASTM E84 listed in Appendix A. 

929.2.3 Ducts: Rigid or flexible ducts and connectors shall conform to the BOCA 
National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. 

929.2.4 Duct coverings: Duct coverings, linings, tape and connectors shall conform 
to the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A. 

929.2.5 Wire: Wire shall be low voltage or power-limited wire or cable. Wire shall 
have a peak optical density not greater than 0.50, an average optical density not 
greater than 0.15 and a flame spread of not greater than 5.0 feet when tested in 
accordance with UL 910 listed in Appendix A and shall bear the label of an 
approved agency. 

929.3 Combustible plenums: In Types 3, 4 and 5 construction, the plenum shall 
be constructed with approved material. Combustible material, pipe or wire exposed 
within the plenum shall be permitted. 

929.3.1 Size: Combustible plenums shall be draftstopped every 3,000 square feet in 
area. 

Exception: Plenums shall be limited to one fire area without draftstopping in 
buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression 
system. 

929.4 Stud and joist spaces: The space between studs or joists shall not be used 
as a plenum for supply air. The space between studs or joists used as a plenum for 
return air shall not be part of a required fireresistance rated assembly. Air shall be 
removed from one floor level only. All connections shall be firestopped and 
draftstopped. 

SECTION 930.0 SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS 

930.1 General: Where exit access travel distance is increased in accordance with 
Section 807.5.1, smoke and heat vents shall be constructed and installed in 
accordance with this section. 

930.2 Vent size and spacing: The vent area and the spacing of the vents shall 
comply with Table 930. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 9.41 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 1990 



930.2.1 Releasing devices: Smoke and heat vents shall open automatically by 
activation of a heat-responsive device rated at 100 degrees F. (38 degrees C.) to 220 
degrees F. (104 degrees C.) above ambient. The releasing mechanism shall be 
capable of operation such that the vent shall fully open when the vent is exposed to 
a time-temperature gradient that reaches an air temperature of 500 degrees F. (260 
degrees C.) within 5 minutes. Vents shall be capable of being opened by an 
approved manual operation. 

930.3 Curtain boards construction: Curtain boards shall be provided to subdivide 
a vented building. Curtain boards shall be constructed of material that will resist the 
passage of smoke and is consistent with the building type of construction. Curtain 
board location and depth shall comply with Table 930. The bottom of the curtain 
board shall be level. 



9-42 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE RESISTIVE CONSTRUCTION 





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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



9-43 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

This page intentionally left blank 



9.44 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 10 
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



ARTICLE 10 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 

(This Article is entirely unique to Massachusetts) 



SECTION 1000.0 GENERAL 

1000.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall specify where fire protection 
systems are required in all buildings or structures or portions thereof. 

1000.1.1 Authority: Plans submitted under Section 113.5 and Article 6 of this code 
relative to this article shall be reviewed by the local fire official for approval of the 
following items: 

1. source and capacity of water supply, including size of water main; 

2. location of hydrants and Siamese connections; 

3. access for fire fighting apparatus and rescue vehicles; 

4. provisions for a fire pump, if necessary, including electrical supervisory 
control; 

5. design and location of standpipes and/or sprinkler systems and related 
equipment; 

6. design and location of required fire alarm systems, including detection, 
supervision, and all related equipment; 

7. smoke control; 

8. firefighter elevator key location and associated equipment; 

9. location and protection of furnace rooms, boiler rooms and rooms of 
similar uses; and 

10. fire access panels (see Section 1019.2.1.) 

1000.2 Installation requirements: The installation methods, repair, operation and 
maintenance of fire protection systems shall be in accordance with this code and the 
BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and/or 527 CMR as applicable (listed in 
Appendices A and G respectively). 

1 000.3 Maintenance: The owner, tenant or lessee of every building or structure 
shall be responsible for the care and maintenance of all fire protection systems, 
including equipment and devices, to ensure the safety and welfare of the occupants. 
Fire protection systems shall not be disconnected or otherwise rendered 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



unserviceable without first notifying the fire department. When installations of 
required fire protection systems are interrupted for repairs or other necessary 
reasons, the owner, tenant or lessee shall immediately advise the fire department and 
shall diligently prosecute the restoration of the protection. 

1 000.4 Threads: All threads provided for fire department connections to sprinkler 
systems, standpipe systems, yard hydrants or any other fire hose connections shall 
be uniform to those used by the local fire department. 

1 000.5 Signs: Where fire suppression control valves are located in a separate room 
or building, a sign shall be provided on the entrance door. The lettering for such 
sign shall be of a conspicuous color and shall be at least 4 inches in height, and shall 
read Sprinkler Control Valves or Standpipe Control Valves or indicate other types of 
systems (see Sections 1012.4.1 and 1014.8 for additional signs). 

1000.6 Tests: Where required by this article and the standards referenced herein, 
all flow test connections and points of fluid discharge shall be reasonably accessible 
and acceptable to the administrative authority. 

SECTION 1001.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

1001.1 Required: Plans shall be submitted to indicate conformance with this code 
and shall be reviewed by the department prior to issuance of the permit. 

Note: Since the fire department is responsible for inspection for the proper 
maintenance of fire protection systems in buildings, the administrative 
authority shall cooperate with the fire department in the discharging of 
responsibility to enforce this article. 

1001.2 Plans: The plans and specifications submitted to the department shall 
contain sufficient detail to evaluate the hazard and the effectiveness of the system. 
The details on the hazards shall include materials involved, the location and 
arrangement, and the exposure to the hazard. 

1001.3 Calculations: The details on the fire protection system shall include the 
design considerations, calculations and other information as required by this code. 



10-2 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1002.0 FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 

1002.1 Where required: Fire suppression systems shall be installed and maintained 
in full operating condition, as specified in this code, in the locations indicated in 
Sections 1002.2 through 1002.21. (Note: Requirements for detoxification facilities, 
Use Group R-l, are contained in Section 637.0). 

Exception: Buildings of Use Group R-3. 

1 002.2 Use Group A-1 : In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group A-1. 

1 002.3 Use Group A-2: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group A-2: 

1. When more than 5,000 square feet in area; or 

2. When more than one story in height. 

1002.4 Use Group A-3: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group A-3 when more than 12,000 square feet in area. 

1002.5 Stages and enclosed platforms: Stages under the roof and gridiron, in the 
tie and fly galleries, and in all places behind the proscenium wall of the stage; over 
and within enclosed platforms in excess of 500 square feet in area; and in dressing 
rooms, lounges, workshops and storerooms accessory to such stages or enclosed 
platforms. 

Exceptions: 

1. Stages or enclosed platforms open to the auditorium room on three or 
more sides. 

2. Altars, pulpits or similar platforms and their accessory rooms. 

3. Stage gridirons when sidewall sprinklers with 135 degrees F. (57 degrees 
C.) rated heads with heat-baffle plates are installed around the perimeter 
of the stage except for the proscenium opening at points not more than 
30 inches below the gridiron nor more than 6 inches below the baffle 
plate. 

4. Under stage or under enclosed platform areas less than 4 feet in clear 
height used exclusively for chair or table storage and lined on the inside 
with materials approved for 1-hour fireresistance rated construction. 

1002.6 High-rise buildings: In all high-rise buildings exceeding seventy (70) feet 
in height, as required by Chapter 148, Section 26A of the Massachusetts General 
Laws, as amended. 



780 CM R - Fifth Edition 10-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1002.7 Use Group H: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group H. 

1002.8 Use Group I: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group I. 

Exceptions: 

1. One-story hospitals with patient rooms having direct egress to grade level 
at the exterior of the building. 

2. In hospitals of Type 1 construction, the automatic fire suppression system 
may be omitted from operating rooms, X-ray rooms, delivery rooms, 
cardiac and intensive care rooms and patient sleeping rooms not 
exceeding six hundred (600) square feet in area when such room is 
protected by an automatic fire alarm system connected to a central 
annunciator panel. 

3. For sprinklerer requirements for child day care centers of 1-2 Use, see 
Section 633.0 

4. 1-3 (institutional-restrained) occupancies having an occupancy load of less 
than six (6). 

5. In 1-3 (institutional-restrained) occupancies the fire suppression system 
shall be a sprinkler system which may be manual or automatic in 
operation. 

1002.9 Use Groups M, S-1 and F-1: In all buildings or structures or portions 
thereof of Use Groups M, S-1 and F-1: 

1. When more than 12,000 square feet in area; or 

2. When more than 24,000 square feet in total area on all floors; or 

3. When more than three stories in height. 

1002.10 Public garages (Group 1): In all Group 1 public garages: 

1. When more than 10,000 square feet in area. 

2. When more than 7,500 square feet in area and more than one story in 
height. 

3. When more than 5,000 square feet in area and more than two stories in 
height. 

4. When more than three stories in height. 

5. When located in buildings where the upper stories are designed for other 
uses. 

6. When located in any story that is more than 50 percent below grade. 

7. In fuel dispensing areas. 

1002.11 Public garages (Group 2): In all Group 2 public garages: 

1. When more than 10,000 square feet in area and more than one story in 
height. 

10-4 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. When more than two stories in height. 

3. When located in buildings where the upper stories are designed for other 
uses. 

Exception: Open parking structures or portions of buildings classified as open 
parking structures according to the definition in Section 607.1. 

1002.12 Bus garages: In all bus garages: 

1. When required by Section 1002.10. 

2. When used as passenger terminals for four or more buses. 

3. When used for storage or loading of four or more buses. 

1002.13 Unlimited area buildings: In unlimited area buildings as required by 
Section 504.0. 

Exception: Special industrial uses as indicated in Section 501.1.1. 

1002.14 Storage and workshop areas: In all portions of Use Groups A, B, E, I, 
R-l and R-2 occupied for storage, workshop or similar purposes. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Individual storage or workshop areas located entirely within unsprinklered 
dwelling units. 

2. Storage and workshop rooms less than 24 square feet in area. 

1 002.1 5 Windowless Story: In every story or basement of all buildings where there 
is not provided at least one of the following types of openings: 

1. An exterior stairway meeting Section 819.0, or outside ramp meeting 
Section 815.0, leading directly to grade in each fifty (50) lineal feet or 
fraction thereof of exterior wall in the story or basement, on at least one 
side of the building. 

2. Twenty (20) square feet of opening above the adjoining ground level in 
each fifty (50) lineal feet or fraction thereof of exterior wall in the story 
or basement, on at least one side of the building. Openings shall have 
minimum dimensions of not less than twenty-two (22) inches. Such 
openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and 
shall be unobstructed to allow firefighting and rescue operations from the 
exterior. 

When openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall of 
such story is more than seventy-five (75) feet from such openings, the story shall be 
provided with an approved automatic fire suppression system, or openings as 
specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of the exterior walls of the 
story. If any portion of a basement is located more than seventy-five (75) feet from 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



openings required in this section, the basement shall be provided with an approved 
automatic fire suppression system. 

1002.16 Painting rooms: In spray painting rooms or shops where painting, 
brushing, dipping or mixing is regularly conducted using flammable materials. 

1002.17 Trash rooms and chutes: In rooms or areas used for incineration, trash 
and laundry collection or similar uses; and at alternate floor levels and at the top of 
all chutes used in conjunction with these rooms or areas. 

1002.18 Furnace rooms: In furnace rooms, boiler rooms and rooms for similar uses 
and as provided in Sections 610.2 and 611.7 for Use Groups 1-2 and 1-3 respectively. 

Exception: Such a room located entirely within and serving a single dwelling 
unit. 

1002.19 Unenclosed vertical openings: In unenclosed vertical openings between 
floors as required by Section 606.3. 

1 002.20 Kitchen exhaust systems: In commercial kitchen exhaust systems when 
such systems are required by the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in 
Appendix A. 

1002.21 Hazardous exhaust systems: In duct systems exhausting hazardous 
material in accordance with the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in 
Appendix A. 

1 002.22 Alternative protection: In special use areas of buildings or structures, an 
automatic fire detection system shall be installed in lieu of a fire suppression system 
where such fire suppression system installation would be detrimental or dangerous 
to the specific use or occupancy, as approved by the code official and the fire 
prevention code official. 

1002.22.1 Telephone central office equipment buildings: Within telephone 
central office equipment buildings, the automatic fire suppression system is not 
required in the following rooms or areas when such rooms or areas are protected 
with an approved automatic fire alarm system. 

1. Generator and transformer rooms. 

2. Communication equipment areas when such areas are separated from the 
remainder of the building by 1-hour fireresistance rated wall and 2-hour 
fireresistance rated floor/ceiling assemblies, and are used exclusively for 
such equipment. 



10-6 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1003.0 SUPPRESSION SYSTEM SELECTION 

1003.1 General: To guide the administrative authority with the selection of the 
proper type of fixed fire suppression system, the extinguishing agents for each type 
of hazard or fire are classified as follows. 

Class A: Fires involving ordinary combustible materials (such as wood, cloth, 
paper, rubber and many plastics) requiring the heat-absorbing (cooling) effects 
of water, water solutions, or the coating effects of certain dry chemicals which 
retard combustion. 

Class B: Fires involving flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, 
greases and similar materials where extinguishment is most readily secured by 
excluding air (oxygen), inhibiting the release of combustible vapors, or 
interrupting the combustion chain reaction. 

Class C: Fires involving energized electrical equipment where safety to the 
operator requires the use of electrically nonconductive extinguishing agents. 

Note: Portable Class A or B extinguishers and hand-held solid stream 
nozzles are inappropriate for fighting electrical fires. However, fixed water 
spray systems are appropriate for fighting fires in energized electrical 
systems. 

1003.2 Special hazards: In rooms or buildings containing combustibles such as 
aluminum powder, calcium carbide, calcium phosphide, metallic sodium and 
potassium, quick-lime, magnesium powder or sodium peroxide, which are 
incompatible with the use of water as an extinguishing agent, other extinguishing 
agents shall be used. 

1003.3 Types: Where a fire suppression system is required in this code, Table 1003 
provides the code official with information to assist in the determination of the type 
of suppression system suitable for the hazard involved, if not otherwise specified in 
this code. 



-SEE TABLE 1003 ON THE FOLLOWING PAGES- 



780 CM R - Fifth Edition 10-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 







































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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



10-9 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



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10-10 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



10-11 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Wet 

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10-12 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1004.0 WATER SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

1004.1 General: Water sprinkler extinguishing systems shall be of an approved type 
and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFiPA 13 listed in 
Appendix A. 

1004.2 Occupancy sprinkler system: Within a building of mixed occupancies and 
where an occupancy is required by this code to be sprinklered with more than 20 
sprinklers, the use group requiring sprinklers shall be separated from other uses by 
fire separation walls and floor/ceiling assemblies having a fireresistance rating 
corresponding to the highest fire grading prescribed in Table 902 for the separate 
uses and equipped throughout with a complete automatic sprinkler system. 

1 004.3 Design: The details of the system supplied with the plans and specifications 
shall include information and the calculations of the sprinkler spacing and 
arrangement with water supply and discharge requirements, size and equivalent 
lengths of pipe and fittings and water supply source. Sufficient information shall be 
included to identify the apparatus and devices used. The design of the sprinkler 
system for a HPM use facility shall be in accordance with NFiPA 13 listed in 
Appendix A, and not less than that required for the special fire hazard areas shown 
in Table 1003. 

1004.4 Actuation: Water sprinkler extinguishing systems shall be automatically 
actuated unless otherwise specifically provided in this code. 

1004.5 Sprinkler alarms: Approved audible or visual alarm devices shall be 
connected to every water sprinkler system. Such alarm devices shall be activated by 
water flow and shall be located in an approved location. 

Exception: Alarms and alarm attachments shall not be required for limited 
area sprinkler systems (see Section 1005.5). 

1004.5.1 Additional alarms: At least one additional audible or visual alarm device 
shall be installed within the building. 

1004.6 Water control valve tags: Identification tags shall be provided in 
accordance with NFiPA 26 listed in Appendix A. 

1004.7 Sprinkler riser: A sprinkler system riser which also serves as the wet 
standpipe riser in buildings required to have or having both systems shall conform 
to Section 1012.4.1. 

1004.8 Tests: All sprinkler systems shall be tested in accordance with the BOCA 
National Fire Prevention Code and 527 CMR listed in Appendix A and Appendix 
G, respectively. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 0-1 3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 1005.0 LIMITED AREA SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

1005.1 General: A limited area sprinkler system shall be of an approved type and 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this section. 

1005.2 Installation: Where the provisions of this code require a limited number of 
sprinklers, a limited area sprinkler system is permitted to be installed to comply with 
these requirements. 

1 005.3 Design: The details of the system supplied with the plans and specifications 
shall include information and the calculations of the sprinkler spacing and 
arrangement with water supply and discharge requirements, size and equivalent 
lengths of pipe and fittings and water supply source. Sufficient information shall be 
included to identify the apparatus and devices used. 

1005.4 Actuation: A limited area sprinkler system shall be automatically actuated. 

1 005.5 Sprinkler alarms: Alarms and alarm attachments shall not be required. 

1005.6 Standpipe connection: The water supply for the limited area sprinkler 
system shall be from the building standpipe system when the building is equipped 
with a standpipe system that is sized for 500 gallons per minute minimum flow and 
has an automatic water supply (see Section 1012.4.1). 

1005.6.1 Domestic supply: Where limited area sprinklers are supplied from the 
domestic water system, the domestic water system shall be designed to adequately 
support the design flow of the largest number of sprinklers in any one of the 
enclosed areas. When supplied by the domestic water system, the maximum number 
of sprinklers in any one enclosed room or area shall not exceed 20, and the 
sprinklers shall be capable of totally protecting the room or area. 

Note: See Section 637.16 for requirements for limited area sprinkler systems 
in detoxification facilities (Use Group R-l). 

1005.6.2 Fire department connections: A fire department connection is not 
required for limited area sprinkler systems supplied from the domestic water system. 

1005.6.3 Cross connection: There shall not be a cross connection between the 
domestic water system and the standpipe system. 

1 005.6.4 Domestic connection: A check valve shall be provided at the point where 
the suppression system piping is connected to the domestic water piping to prevent 
contamination of the domestic water supply. Shutoff valves shall not be permitted 
in the suppression system piping. Water supply shall be controlled by the riser 
control valve to the domestic water piping. 

10-14 780 CM R - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1 005.7 Use: Limited area sprinklers shall be used only in rooms or areas enclosed 
with construction assemblies as required by this code. 

1 005.8 Tests: All limited area sprinkler systems shall be tested in accordance with 
the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and 527 CMR listed in Appendix A and 
Appendix G, respectively. 

SECTION 1006.0 WATER-SPRAY FIXED SYSTEMS 

1 006.1 General: Water-spray extinguishing systems shall be of an approved type and 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFiPA 15 listed in 
Appendix A. 

1 006.2 Design: The details of the system supplied with the plans and specifications 
shall include information and the calculations of the sprinkler spacing and 
arrangement with water supply and discharge requirements, size and equivalent 
lengths of pipe and fittings and water supply source. Sufficient information shall be 
included to identify the apparatus and devices used. 

1 006.3 Actuation: Water-spray extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated 
with supplementary manual tripping capability. 

1 006.4 Tests: All new system piping shall be hydrostatically tested in accordance 
with the provisions of NFiPA 15 listed in Appendix A. 

SECTION 1007.0 FOAM EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

1007.1 General: Foam extinguishing systems shall be of an approved type and 
installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFiPA 11, 11A and 16 
listed in Appendix A. 

1 007.2 Design: The details of the system supplied with the plans and specifications 
shall include complete computations showing pressure drop in all system piping, 
friction loss calculations of liquid lines and a detailed layout of the entire hazard 
area to be protected. Hydraulic characteristics of foam proportioners and foam 
makers as determined by tests shall be supplied by the manufacturer to the 
department (including the range of operating conditions required for the proposed 
installation) to permit determination of the adequacy of the hydraulics of the 
proposed protection. 

1 007.3 Actuation: A foam extinguishing system shall be automatically actuated with 
supplementary manual tripping capability. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 q-1 5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE . 



1 007.4 Tests: All piping, except that piping which handles expanded foam, shall be 
subjected to a two (2) hour hydrostatic pressure test of 200 psi or 50 psi in excess 
of the maximum pressure anticipated, whichever is greater, without leakage. The 
system shall be subjected to a flow test to ensure that the hazard area is fully 
protected in conformance with the design specifications, and to determine the flow 
pressures, actual discharge capacity, foam quality, consumption rate of 
foam-producing materials, manpower requirements and other operating 
characteristics. 

SECTION 1008.0 CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

1 008.1 General: Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be of an approved type 
and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFiPA 12 listed in 
Appendix A. 

1008.2 Design: The details of the system supplied with the plans and specifications 
shall include information and calculations of the amount of carbon dioxide, the 
location and flow rate of each nozzle including equivalent orifice area and the 
location, size and the carbon dioxide storage facility. Information shall be submitted 
pertaining to the location and function of the detection devices, operating devices, 
auxiliary equipment and electrical circuitry, if used. Sufficient information shall be 
indicated to identify properly the apparatus and devices used. Any special features 
shall be adequately explained. 

1008.3 Actuation: Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be automatically 
actuated with supplementary manual tripping capability. 

1 008.4 Safety requirements: In any proposed use of a carbon dioxide system where 
there is a possibility that persons will enter or be trapped in atmospheres made 
hazardous by a carbon dioxide discharge, warning signs, discharge alarms and 
breathing apparatus shall be provided to ensure prompt evacuation of and to prevent 
entry into such atmospheres, and also to provide means for prompt rescue of any 
trapped personnel. 

1 008.5 Tests: A completed system shall be tested for tightness up to the selector 
valve, and for continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow beyond the selector 
valve. The labeling of devices with proper designations and instructions shall be 
checked. Operational tests shall be conducted on all devices except cylinder valves 
in multi-cylinder high pressure systems. Where conditions prevail that make it 
difficult to determine adequately the system requirements or design, a suitable 
discharge test and concentration analysis test shall be made. All tests are to be 
conducted as indicated in NFiPA 12 listed in Appendix A. 



10-16 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1008.6 Range hoods: In addition to the requirements of this section, Section 
1002.20 and the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A, range hood 
C0 2 systems shall bear the label of an approved agency. The system shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 

SECTION 1009.0 HALOGENATED FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

1009.1 General: Halogenated fire extinguishing systems shall be of an approved 
type and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFiPA 12A 
and 12B listed in Appendix A. 

1 009.2 Design: The details of the system supplied with the plans and specifications 
shall include information and calculations of the amount of extinguishing agent; 
container storage pressure; the location and flow rate of each nozzle including 
equivalent orifice area; the location, size and equivalent lengths of pipe, fittings and 
hose; and the location and size of the storage facility. Information shall be submitted 
pertaining to the location and function of the detection devices, auxiliary equipment 
and electrical circuitry, if used. Sufficient information shall be indicated to identify 
properly the apparatus and devices used. Any special features shall be adequately 
explained. 

1009.3 Actuation: Halogenated fire extinguishing systems shall be automatically 
actuated with supplementary manual tripping capability. 

1009.4 Safety requirements: In any proposed use of a halogenated fire 
extinguishing system where there is a possibility that persons will enter or be trapped 
in atmospheres made hazardous by a discharge, warning signs, discharge alarms and 
breathing apparatus shall be provided to ensure prompt evacuation of and to prevent 
entry into such atmospheres, and also to provide means for prompt rescue of any 
trapped personnel. 

1009.5 Tests: A completed system shall be tested for tightness up to the selector 
valve, and for continuity of piping with free unobstructed flow beyond the selector 
valve. The labeling of devices with proper designations and instructions shall be 
checked. Operational tests shall be conducted on all devices except cylinder valves 
in multi-cylinder systems. Where conditions prevail that make it difficult to 
determine adequately the system requirements or design, a suitable discharge test 
and concentration analysis shall be made. All tests are to be conducted as indicated 
in NFiPA 12A and 12B listed in Appendix A. 



780 CM R - Fifth Edition 10-17 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 1010.0 DRY CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

1010.1 General: Dry chemical extinguishing systems shall be of an approved type 
and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFiPA 17 listed in 
Appendix A. 

1 01 0.2 Design: The details of the system supplied with the plans and specifications 
shall include sufficient information and calculations of the amount of dry chemical; 
the size, length, and arrangement of connected piping, or piping and hose; 
description and location of nozzles so that the adequacy of the system can be 
determined. Information shall be submitted pertaining to the location and function 
of detection devices, operating devices, auxiliary equipment and electrical circuitry, 
if used. Sufficient information shall be indicated to identify properly the apparatus 
and devices used. Any special features shall be adequately explained. 

1010.3 Actuation: Dry chemical extinguishing systems shall be automatically 
actuated with supplementary manual tripping capability. 

1010.4 Safety requirements: Where there is a possibility that personnel will be 
exposed to a dry chemical discharge, warning signs, discharge alarms and breathing 
apparatus shall be provided to ensure prompt evacuation of such locations, and also 
to provide means for prompt rescue for any trapped personnel. 

1 01 0.5 Tests: A completed system shall be tested by a discharge of expellant gas 
through the piping and nozzles. Observations for gas leakage and for continuity of 
piping with free unobstructed flow shall be made. Observations shall be made of the 
flow of expellant gas through all nozzles. The labeling of devices with proper 
designations and instructions shall be checked. After testing, all piping and nozzles 
are to be blown clean, using compressed air or nitrogen and the system properly 
charged and placed in the normal "set" condition. All tests are to be conducted as 
indicated in NFiPA 17 listed in Appendix A. 

1010.6 Range hoods: In addition to the requirements of this section, Section 
1002.20 and the BOCA National Mechanical Code listed in Appendix A, range hood 
dry chemical systems shall bear the label of an approved agency. The system shall 
be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. The dry 
chemical agent of the system shall be nontoxic. 



1 0-1 8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1011.0 WET CHEMICAL RANGE HOOD 
EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS 

1 01 1 .1 General: Wet chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance 
with the provisions of this section, and the BOCA National Mechanical Code and 
NFiPA 17A listed in Appendix A. The system shall bear the label of an approved 
agency and be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. Wet chemical is defined as a solution of water and 
potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a 
combination thereof which forms the extinguishing agent. 

1 01 1 .2 Tests: A completed system shall be tested by a discharge of wet chemical 
in sufficient amounts to verify that the system is properly installed and functional. 
Tests shall include a check of the detection systems, alarms, and releasing devices, 
including manual stations, fuel and power shutoff devices and other associated 
equipment. All tests are to be conducted as indicated in NFiPA 17A listed in 
Appendix A. 

SECTION 1012.0 STANDPIPE SYSTEMS 

1012.1 General: Standpipe systems shall be of an approved type and installed and 
maintained in accordance with the provisions of this code, the BOCA National Fire 
Prevention Code and 527 CMR and NFiPA 14 listed in Appendix G and Appendix 
A, respectively. 

1012.2 Where required: Standpipe systems shall be installed in the locations 
prescribed in Sections 1012.2.1 through 1012.2.11. 

1012.2.1 Use Group A: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group A when: 

1. Two or more stories in height of Use Group A-l, A-2, or A-3, and having 
an occupant load of more than 300; or 

2. Three or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor; or 

3. Having an auditorium seating over 500. Standpipes shall be located one 
on each side of the auditorium in each tier, one in each mezzanine, one 
in each tier of dressing rooms, and protecting each property, store and 
work room; or 

4. Having a stage. Standpipes shall be located on each side of the stage. 
Such standpipes shall be not less than 2 V2-inch diameter, equipped with 
1 V^-inch hose and %-inch nozzles. 

1012.2.2 Use Group B: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group B when: 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition ^ rj-1 9 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1. Three or more stories in height, and more than 3,000 square feet in area 
per floor; or 

2. Four or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor. 

1012.2.3 Use Group E: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group E when three or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor or 
when having a stage or auditorium in accordance with Sections 1012.2.1(3) and 
1012.2.1(4). 

1 01 2.2.4 Use Group F: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group F when: 

1. Three or more stories in height, and more than 3,000 square feet in area 
per floor; or 

2. Four or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor. 

1012.2.5 Use Group H: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group H when: 

1. Three or more stories in height, and more than 10,000 square feet in area 
per floor; or 

2. Four or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor. 

1012.2.6 Use Group I: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group I, three or more stories in height, regardless of the area per floor. 

1012.2.7 Use Group M: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group M when: 

1. Three stories or more in height, and more than 3,000 square feet in area 
per floor; or 

2. Four or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor; or 

3. Classified as a covered mall building within the mall portions (see Section 
601.10). 

1 01 2.2.8 Use Group R: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group R when: 

1. Three or more stories in height and of Use Group R-l regardless of the 
area per floor; or 

2. Three or more stories in height and more than 10,000 square feet in area 
per floor; or 

3. Four or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor. 

1 01 2.2.9 Use Group S: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group S, other than public garages which shall conform to Section 1012.2.10. when: 



10-20 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1. Three or more stories in height, of Use Group S-l, and more than 3,000 
square feet in area per floor; or 

2. Three or more stories in height, of Use Group S-2, and more than 10,000 
square feet in area per floor; or 

3. Four or more stories in height of Use Groups S-l or S-2 regardless of the 
area per floor. 

1012.2.10 Use Group U: In all buildings or structures or portions thereof of Use 
Group U when: 

1. Three or more stories in height and more than 10,000 square feet in area 
per floor; or 

2. Four or more stories in height regardless of the area per floor. 

1012.2.11 Public garages: In all Group I and II public garages when: 

1. More than 10,000 square feet in area per floor; or 

2. More than 7,500 square feet in area per floor and more than one story in 
height; or 

3. More than 5,000 square feet in area per floor, and more than two stories 
in height; or 

4. More than three stories in height; or 

5. Located in buildings where the upper stories are designed for other uses; 
or 

6. When located in any story that is more than 50 percent below grade. 

Note: Open parking structures are not public garages (see Section 607.1). 

1012.3 Standpipe system piping sizes: The riser piping, supply piping, and the 
water service piping shall be sized to maintain a residual pressure of at least 65 psi 
at the topmost outlet of each riser while flowing the minimum quantities of water 
specified in Sections 1012.3.1 and 1012.3.2 of this code. 

Exception: The 65 psi residual pressure is not required to be maintained in 
buildings less than 70 feet in height which are equipped throughout with an 
approved automatic fire suppression system. 

1012.3.1 Riser sizing: The vertical water pipe(s) within a building to which fire 
hose outlets and valves are attached shall be sized for a minimum flow of 500 gpm. 
Exceptions: 

1. Where only 1 V^-inch valves are required or are provided, the riser (s) 
shall be sized to provide a minimum flow of 100 gpm. The minimum size 
shall be 2 Vi inches. 

2. In buildings where limited area sprinkler systems are supplied water from 
a common standpipe riser, the riser shall be sized to satisfy total demand. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-21 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



3. In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire 
suppression system where both the suppression system and standpipe fire 
hose outlets are supplied water from a common riser, the minimum riser 
diameter shall be adequate for the suppression system or the standpipe 
system, whichever is greater. The minimum riser diameter shall be not less 
than that based on hydraulic calculations. 

4. In buildings which are not equipped throughout with an approved 
automatic fire suppression system wherein the minimum diameter of the 
common riser is based on hydraulic calculations, all risers shall have a 
minimum diameter as described in Table 1012. 

5. In buildings of Use Groups B, R-l, R-2, and I equipped throughout with 
an approved automatic fire suppression system, each vertical standpipe 
riser shall be sized for a minimum flow of 250 gpm. 

6. Standpipe systems in covered mall buildings as provided in Section 601.10. 

Table 1012 
BUILDING HEIGHT AND STANDPIPE RISER SIZE 



Maximum building height 


Minimum riser size 


4 stories or 50 feet 
6 stories or 75 feet 
76 feet to 250 feet 
over 250 feet 


2 1/2 inches 
4 inches 
6 inches 
8 inches 



1012.3.2 Supply pipe sizing: The supply piping, including the horizontal or 
common feeder lines within a building and the water service line outside of the 
building, shall be sized for a minimum flow of 500 gpm. When more than one 
standpipe riser is required or provided, all common supply piping shall be sized for 
a minimum flow of 500 gpm for the first riser plus 250 gpm for each additional riser, 
and the total need not exceed 2,500 gpm. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where only 1 Vi-inch valves are required or are provided, the supply 
piping shall be sized for a minimum flow of 100 gpm for each riser, and 
the total need not exceed 500 gpm. The minimum size shall be 2 Vi 
inches. 

2. In buildings where limited area sprinkler systems are supplied water from 
a common standpipe riser, the supply piping shall be sized for a minimum 
flow of 500 gpm plus the sprinkler demand for the first riser, plus 250 
gpm for each additional riser, and the total need not exceed 2,500 gpm. 

3. In buildings of Use Groups B, I, R-l and R-2 equipped throughout with 
an approved automatic fire suppression system, all common supply piping 



1 0-22 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



shall be sized for a minimum flow of 250 gpm for the first riser plus 250 
gpm for each additional riser, and the total need not exceed 1,500 gpm. 

1012.4 Number of risers: The number of standpipe risers shall be such that all 
parts of every floor area can be reached by a thirty (30) foot hose stream from a 
nozzle attached to not more than 100 feet of hose connected to a riser outlet. In 
those buildings equipped with an interior smokeproof enclosure vestibule, at least 
one standpipe hose connection shall be located in the vestibule. In covered mall 
buildings, outlets shall be located in accordance with Section 601.10. 

1012.4.1 Combination: Where a standpipe system riser also serves as the water 
sprinkler system riser in buildings required to have both systems or in buildings 
having both systems, control valves shall be installed where sprinklers are connected 
to the riser so that sprinklers are under the control of a separate floor control 
valve(s) to allow standpipes to remain operational while the sprinkler system is in 
a closed position. If control valves are located in a separate room or building, a sign 
shall be provided on the entrance door. The lettering of such sign shall be of a 
conspicuous color and shall be at least 4 inches in height and shall read Standpipe 
Control Valve or indicate other types of systems. 

1012.4.2 High-rise buildings: All buildings seventy (70) feet in height or greater 
shall have each floor supplied by a minimum of two (2) combination risers. 

1012.5 Outlets: Standpipe system outlets shall comply with the provisions of 
Sections 1012.5.1 through 1012.5.4. 

1012.5.1 Hose connections: At each floor level, and not more than five (5) feet 
above the floor, there shall be connected to each standpipe a 2 V^-inch hose 
connection capped with a reducing coupling to a 1 Vi-inch hose connection which 
shall also be capped. 

1012.5.2 Roof hydrants: Where standpipes are installed in buildings more than six 
stories or 75 feet in height, at least one riser shall extend through the roof and 
terminate in a two-way, 2 Vi-inch hose connection. The main control valve on a roof 
hydrant or manifolded hose connection shall be located in an area not subject to 
freezing, as close to the roof access as practical and plainly marked (see Section 
1014.8). 

1012.5.3 Pressure reducers: When the residual pressure at any standpipe fire 
hose outlet exceeds 100 psi, approved pressure reducing devices or discs shall be 
installed at the outlets to reduce the pressure to 100 psi while the required quantity 
of water per minute is flowing. Any standpipe riser over 250 feet in height shall be 
equipped with an approved pressure regulating device on each hose outlet, which 
controls discharge pressures under both flow (residual) and no-flow (static) conditions. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-23 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE . 



1012.5.4 Test gauges: An approved water pressure gauge shall be attached to the 
top of each standpipe riser for inspection and test purposes. Shutoff valves, with 
provisions for bleeding pressure from the gauge, shall be installed between the gauge 
and the top of the riser. Gauges shall be accessible and located in spaces not subject 
to freezing. 

1012.6 Materials: All standpipes shall be constructed of approved materials. All 
pipe, fittings and valves shall be of extra heavy pattern when the normal working 
pressure will exceed 175 psi. 

1012.7 Tests: All standpipe systems shall be flow tested and hydrostatically tested 
in accordance with the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and/or 527 CMR, as 
applicable, and listed in Appendix A and Appendix G, respectively. 

SECTION 1013.0 STANDPIPES FOR BUILDINGS UNDER 
CONSTRUCTION OR DEMOLITION 

1013.1 General: Standpipes required by this section are to be either temporary or 
permanent in nature, with or without a water supply, provided, however, that 
such standpipes conform to the requirements of Section 1012.0 as to number of 
risers, capacity, outlets and materials. 

1013.2 Where required: Temporary or permanent standpipes shall be installed, as 
the work of the building progresses, beginning at the fourth story or at forty (40) 
feet in height. 

1 01 3.3 Height: The standpipe systems shall be carried up with each floor and shall 
be installed and ready for use as each floor progresses. Standpipes shall be extended 
as construction progresses to within one floor of the highest point of construction 
having secured decking or flooring. 

1 01 3.4 Outlets: Hose outlets shall be provided with caps and attachment chains. 
The 1 V^-inch hose and nozzle shall not be required during construction. 

1013.5 Fire department connections: At the street level there shall be provided 
for each temporary or permanent standpipe installation one or more two-way fire 
department inlet connections. Fire department inlet connections shall be prominently 
marked and readily and easily accessible at all times (see Section 1014.8). 

1013.6 Buildings under demolition: Where a building is being demolished and a 
standpipe is existing within such a building, such standpipe shall be maintained in 
an operable condition so as to be available for use by the fire department. Such 
standpipe shall be demolished with the building but shall not be more than one floor 
below the floor above being demolished. 

10-24 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



SECTION 1014.0 FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS 
(See Section 1013.5 for temporary standpipes) 

1014.1 Required: All water sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be provided with 
at least one two-way fire department connection. Each inlet of the fire department 
connection shall be at least 2 Vz inches in diameter. The pipe from the standpipe 
system and the pipe from the water sprinkler system to the fire department 
connection shall not be smaller than four (4) inches. Single fire department 
connections shall not be installed unless approved by the fire official. 

Exceptions: 

1. A fire department connection shall not be required for limited area 
sprinkler systems (see Section 1005.6.2). 

2. On standpipe or sprinkler systems where the supply pipe to the system is 
less than four (4) inches, the pipe from the system to the fire department 
connection shall not be smaller than 2 V^-inches. 

1014.2 Connections: Fire department connections shall be arranged in such a 
manner that the use of any one water sprinkler connection will serve all the 
sprinklers, and the use of any one standpipe connection will serve all the standpipes 
within the building. 

1014.3 Location: Fire department connections shall be located and be visible on a 
street front or in a location approved by the department. Such connections shall be 
located so that immediate access can be made by the fire department. Obstructions 
such as fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other similar object, shall not be permitted 
for new or existing installations. 

1 01 4.4 Height: Fire department connections shall not be less than 18 inches and not 
more than 42 inches in elevation, measured from the ground level to the center line 
of the inlets. 

1 01 4.5 Projection: Where the fire department connection would project beyond the 
property line or into the public way, a flush-type fire department connection shall 
be provided. 

1014.6 Hose thread: Hose thread in the fire department connection shall be 
uniform with that used by the local fire department. 

1 01 4.7 Fittings: Fire department inlet connections shall be fitted with check valves, 
ball drip valves and plugs with chains or frangible caps. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 0-25 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1014.8 Signs: A metal sign with raised letters at least one (1) inch in height shall 
be mounted on all fire department connections serving sprinklers or standpipes. 
Such signs shall read Automatic Sprinklers and/or Standpipe. 

SECTION 1015.0 WATER SUPPLY AND 
OTHER EXTINGUISHING MEDIA 

1015.1 Required: All fire suppression and standpipe systems shall be provided with 
at least one automatic supply of extinguishing material of adequate pressure, 
capacity and reliability to perform the function intended, except as provided in 
Section 1013.0. 

1015.2 Combination sprinkler/standpipe water supply: Where both sprinklers 
and standpipes are installed and have a common fire water service as their combined 
source of supply, the water supply line shall be adequately sized to meet the flow 
and pressure demands of the water supplies for the sprinkler system or the standpipe 
system, whichever is greater. 

1015.3 Combination sprinkler/domestic water supply: Where a sprinkler system 
is connected to the domestic water supply system, the supply system shall be of 
adequate pressure, capacity and size for the simultaneous operation of the water 
sprinkler system and domestic water needs. Taps for domestic water from water 
sprinkler systems are prohibited. 

1 01 5.4 Size: The extinguishing material supply for fire suppression systems shall be 
sized in an approved manner in accordance with this code. 

1015.5 Standpipe water service: All standpipe systems shall be connected to a 
street water main. Water mains shall be adequately sized and have enough pressure 
and discharge capacity to supply the total water demand for the building. Taps into 
the main and water service lines from the main to the building shall be at least equal 
in size to the largest supply line inside the building. Common supply lines from the 
main, from which standpipes, domestic or sprinkler systems are supplied, shall be 
sized to satisfy total demand. 

1 01 5.6 Standpipe interconnection: The required water supply shall be connected 
to the base of each standpipe riser. Where more than one standpipe riser is 
required, all risers shall be interconnected at their base with a common supply line 
and an approved indicating valve shall be installed at the base of each riser so as to 
permit individual risers to be taken out of service if damaged or broken without 
interrupting the water supply to other risers. 

1015.7 Standpipes in unheated areas: Standpipes installed so that all or any 
portion of the system is installed through unheated areas subject to freezing shall be 

10-26 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



so arranged through the use of approved devices as to admit water to the system 
automatically by opening a hose valve or through the use of approved remote control 
devices located at each hose station. 

SECTION 1016.0 YARD HYDRANTS 

1016.1 Fire hydrants: Fire hydrants installed on private property shall be located 
and installed as directed by the fire department. Hydrants shall conform to the 
standards of the administrative authority of the jurisdiction and the fire department. 
Hydrants shall not be installed on a water main less than six (6) inches in diameter. 

SECTION 1017.0 FIRE PROTECTIVE SIGNALING SYSTEMS 

1017.1 Plans and specifications: Where a fire protective signaling system is 
required by this code, the plans and specifications shall show the location and 
number of all sending stations and signals with specifications of the type, 
construction and operation of the system. Installation of all equipment shall conform 
to the requirements of this code and the applicable NFiPA Standards listed in 
Appendix A. 

1017.2 Approval: The fire protective signaling system shall be approved for the 
particular application and shall be used for the fire protective signaling purpose only. 
Alarm boxes shall be painted a distinctive red color. 

1017.3 Where required: A fire protective signaling system shall be installed and 
maintained in full operating condition in the locations described in Sections 1017.3.1 
through 1017.3.6. 

1017.3.1 Use Groups A and E: In all buildings of Use Groups A and E. 

1 01 7.3.2 Use Group B: In all buildings of Use Group B when three or more stories 
in height. 

1017.3.3 Use Group I: In all buildings of Use Group I. 

1017.3.4 Use Group I-3: In all buildings of Use Group 1-3. The manual pull boxes 
shall be permitted to be locked, provided that staff is present within the subject area 
when occupied. 

1017.3.5 Use Group R-1: In all buildings of Use Group R-l. 

1017.3.6 Use Group R-2: In all buildings of Use Group R-2 when four or more 
stories in height. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-27 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1017.4 Location: Manual pull stations shall be located in each story, including 
basements, not more than five (5) feet from each exit. In buildings of Use Group A, 
where a stage is provided, a manual pull station shall be located adjacent to the 
lighting control panel. 

Exception: In buildings of Use Group A, manual pull stations may be omitted 
at exits, but shall be provided at constantly attended locations such as ticket 
booths, refreshment facilities, bars, etc. Where the building official determines 
that it is impractical to have a constantly attended location in an assembly 
occupancy other than a theater, manual pull stations shall be provided at each 
required building exit. 

1017.4.1 Pull station height: The height of the manual pull station boxes shall be 
a minimum of forty-two (42) inches and a maximum of fifty-four (54) inches 
measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever of the pull 
station. 

1 01 7.5 Coding: Systems shall be either coded or noncoded. Coded stations shall be 
coded in conformance with NFiPA 72A listed in Appendix A. 

1 01 7.6 Power supply: The power for the fire protective signaling system shall be 
provided from an emergency electrical system conforming to NFiPA 72A listed in 
Appendix A. 

1017.7 Requirements: Fire protective signaling systems shall be of the closed 
circuit type and shall be electrically or mechanically supervised. In addition, such 
systems shall comply with Sections 1017.7.1 through 1017.7.4. 

1017.7.1 Wiring: All wiring or mechanical tubing shall conform to the requirements 
of the Massachusetts Electrical Code - 527 CMR (12.00). 

1017.7.2 Alarms: Audible alarms of the approved type shall be provided. The 
operation of any fire alarm device shall cause all audible or visual alarms to operate. 
Visual and audible alarms shall be provided in occupancies housing the hard of 
hearing. Alarm sounding devices shall be of approved type, shall provide a distinctive 
tone and shall not be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm. They 
shall be of such character and so located as to be seen or effectively heard above all 
other sounds, by all the occupants, in every occupied space within the building. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detectors in buildings of Use Group 1-3 shall be permitted to 
alarm at a constantly attended location and are not required to 
accomplish general alarm indication. 



10-28 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Audible alarms in buildings of Use Group A shall sound only in a 
constantly attended receiving station within the building for purposes of 
initiating emergency action. Occupant notification shall be by means of 
either voice or prerecorded message announcement initiated by the 
person in the constantly attended receiving station. In buildings of Use 
Group A utilizing reduced lighting levels on a regular basis, lights 
providing normal lighting levels shall be activated simultaneously with the 
beginning of the voice or prerecorded message announcement. Where the 
building official determines that it is impractical to have a constantly 
attended location in an assembly occupancy other than a theater, the fire 
alarm system shall be arranged to automatically provide prerecorded 
evacuation instructions. 

1017.7.2.1 Definition of evacuation signal for voice evacuation signaling 
systems: The evacuation signal shall be a standard "slow whoop" tone. The slow 
whoop shall be an ascending tone commencing at approximately 600 Hertz and 
terminating at approximately 1100 Hertz with a duration of approximately 3-Vz 
seconds and an interruption between tones of approximately x h second. The slow 
whoop shall be transmitted in a temporal pattern of three (3) pulses with a silent 
period of approximately four (4) seconds between each group of pulses. 

1017.7.2.2 Definition of evacuation signal for systems using bells or horns: 

The general evacuation signal for fire alarm systems using bells, horns or other non- 
verbal signaling, except chimes, shall be the sounding of such devices in a temporal 
pattern. This pattern shall be a series of pulses. Each pulse shall be on for 
approximately 3-V2 seconds with an interruption between pulses of approximately Vi 
second. The evacuation signal shall be transmitted in a temporal pattern of three (3) 
pulses with a silent period of approximately four (4) seconds between each group of 
pulses. 

1017.7.2.3 Definition of evacuation signal for systems using chimes and other 
Single Stroke devices: Chimes and similar single stroke devices shall use a 
temporal pattern of three (3) distinct pulses with approximately one (1) second 
separation. There shall be a separation of approximately four (4) seconds between 
each three (3) pulse group. In hospital intensive care units, special care units and 
operating rooms, the audible signal need not be sounded; however a visual alarm 
shall be displayed on an approved device. The audible signal shall have a sound 
intensity at least ten (10) dbA above the ambient background noise level. If this 
sound level would exceed ninety-two (92) dbA at ten (10) feet from the sounding 
device, then the signal level shall be held at such a level as to produce an intensity 
of ninety-two (92) dbA at ten feet from the sounding device, and an approved visual 
signaling device(s) shall be installed. The device(s) shall be so located as to be 
readily visible to persons in the high sound level area. All sound levels shall be 
measured using an approved sound level meter. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-29 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE . 



1017.7.2.4 Length of the general evacuation signal: Once initiated, the general 
evacuation signal shall sound continuously on all connected devices for at least 
fifteen (15) minutes. The general evacuation signal may be automatically terminated 
at the end of this fifteen (15) minute period in order to preserve standby battery 
power. This automatic termination shall be permitted only if the alarm is transmitted 
directly to the fire department having jurisdiction. Transmitted directly shall mean 
transmission of the alarm via transmission facilities covered by NFiPA 71, 72B or 
72C listed in Appendix A and with the permission of the head of the fire 
department. The term general evacuation signal shall mean the signal 
sounded/displayed on all signaling devices as required by NFiPA 72F or 72G listed 
in Appendix A which is used to require all occupants to evacuate the protected 
property. 

1017.7.2.5 Taped message: Where voice alarm is required, the following taped 
message shall be provided to all areas requiring voice alarm: 

Attention please. The signal tone you have just heard indicates a report of 
an emergency in this building. If your floor evacuation signal sounds after 
this message, walk to the nearest stairway exit and leave the floor. Do not 
use elevators. All handicapped occupants shall follow the building 
evacuation plan. While the report is being verified, occupants on other floors 
should await further instructions. 
This message shall be repeated once. A female voice shall be used for this message. 

1 01 7.7.3 Presignal system: Presignal systems shall not be installed unless approved 
by the code official and by the fire department. Where a presignal system is 
installed, twenty-four (24) hour personnel supervision shall be provided at a location 
approved by the fire department, in order that the alarm signal can be actuated in 
the event of fire or other emergency. 

1017.7.4 Zones: Each floor shall be zoned separately. If the floor area exceeds 
20,000 square feet, additional zoning shall be provided. The length of any zone shall 
not exceed 300 feet in any direction. Zoning indicator panels and controls shall be 
located as approved by the department. Annunciators shall lock in until the system 
is reset. 

1 01 7.8 Acceptance tests: Upon completion of the fire protective signaling system, 
the installation shall be subjected to a performance test to demonstrate its efficiency 
of operation. 

SECTION 1018.0 AUTOMATIC FIRE DETECTION SYSTEMS 

1018.1 Plans and specifications: Where an automatic fire detection system is 
required by this code, the plans and specifications shall show the location and 
number of all sending stations and signals with specifications of the type, 

10-30 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



I IlkL I UUILUIIUI4 OIJltlHJ 



construction and operation of the system including all automatic detection devices. 
Installation of all equipment shall conform to requirements of this code and NFiPA 
72E listed in Appendix A. The system shall be installed in accordance with this 
section and shall be part of and subject to the requirements of a fire protective 
signaling system specified in Section 1017.0. 

1018.2 Approval: The automatic fire detection system shall be approved for the 
particular application and shall only be used for detection and signaling in the event 
of fire. The automatic detecting devices shall be smoke detectors, except an 
approved alternative type of detector shall be installed in spaces such as boiler 
rooms where during normal operation products of combustion are present in 
sufficient quantity to cause alarm. 

1018.3 Where required: An automatic fire detection system shall be installed and 
maintained in full operating condition in the locations described in Sections 1018.3.1 
through 1018.3.5. 

1018.3.1 Use Group I-2: Buildings of Use Group 1-2 shall be equipped with a fire 
protective signaling system ^'accordance with this section or Article 6 as applicable. 

1018.3.2 Use Group I-3: Automatic smoke detectors shall be installed throughout 
all resident housing areas. 

Exceptions: 

1. Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleeping rooms with four or less 
occupants in Use Condition II or III (see Section 307.4). 

2. Smoke detectors shall not be required in sleeping rooms with four or less 
occupants in buildings protected throughout with an approved automatic 
fire suppression system. 

1018.3.3 Use Group B: In all buildings of Use Group B when such buildings have 
floors used for human occupancy located more than 70 feet above the lowest level 
of fire department vehicle access. 

1018.3.4 Automatic fire warning systems in residential use groups R-1, R-2, 
R-3 and R-4: Every building, structure or portion thereof for which a permit was 
issued on or after January 1, 1975, and not exceeding seventy (70) feet in height 
above mean grade, in use groups R-1. R-2, R-3 or R-4 shall be subject to the 
provisions of this section. Such buildings in use groups R-1 or R-2 which exceed 
seventy (70) feet in height shall be subject to the provisions of Section 1018.3.4.1, 
Item 6 (also see Section 602). Buildings or structures which are altered or repaired 
shall be subject to the provisions of Section 106.0. A summary of the requirements 
is given in Table 1018. 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-31 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1018.3.4.1 R-1 and R-2 use groups: All buildings or portions thereof of R-l and 
R-2 use groups shall incorporate automatic fire detectors located as required in the 
following Items 1 through 9 (see Section 1018.3.4.3 for type of system): 

1. All buildings of R-l and R-2 use groups which contain six (6) or less 
separate residential units shall use a Type III or Type II system with 
multiple station smoke detectors on each level of the common space as 
defined in Section 1018.3.4.1, Item 7a (see Item 4 if three (3) or more 
stories). 

2. All buildings of R-l and R-2 use groups which contain seven (7) to twelve 
(12) separate residential units shall be provided with a Type II system 
(see Item 4 if three (3) or more stories). 

3. All buildings of R-l and R-2 use groups which contain thirteen (13) or 
more separate residential units shall be provided with a Type I system and 
zoned in conformance with Section 1018.3.4.5. 

4. All buildings of R-l and R-2 use groups which contain thirteen (13) or 
more separate residential units, or are three (3) or more stories in height, 
shall incorporate manual pull stations located in conformance with 
Section 1018.3.4.4. 

5. All buildings of R-l and R-2 use groups which contain twenty-five (25) or 
more separate residential units shall incorporate provisions for automatic 
fire department notification in conformance with Section 1018.3.4.6. 

6. Approved single or multiple station smoke detectors shall be located 
within each residential unit to comply with the following minimum 
requirements: 

a. Minimum number of detectors: 

i. One (1) approved smoke detector shall be located outside of each 
separate sleeping area, in accordance with the definition for 
"separate sleeping area" as defined in Section 1018.3.4.2, item 2.b.i 
and NFiPA 74 as listed in Appendix A. 

ii. In residential units twelve hundred (1200) square feet or more in 
area, at least one (1) permanently wired multiple station smoke 
detector shall be provided for each twelve hundred (1200) square 
feet of area or part thereof. 

b. Location of detectors: 

i. One (1) approved smoke detector shall be located outside of each 
separate sleeping area, as defined in Section 1018.3.4.2, item 2.b.i, 
and NFiPA 74 as listed in Appendix A. 

ii. One (1) approved smoke detector shall be located on the ceiling 
near the base of, but not within, each stairway. 

10-32 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



iii. A smoke detector shall not be required to be located in or within 
six (6) feet of a kitchen or cooking area. (This provision does not 
preclude installation in these areas.) 

7. Approved fire detectors also shall be located within the structure to 
comply with the following minimum requirements: 

a. Corridors, lobbies and exitway discharge: All lobbies, common 
corridors, hallways and exitway access and discharge routes shall be 
provided with approved smoke detectors with not more than a 
thirty (30) foot spacing between detectors. 

b. Inside residential unit entrance doorways: All residential unit 
doorways to corridors or hallways shall be provided with an 
approved heat detector located not more than six (6) feet inside 
the doorway and in conformance with the requirements of NFiPA 
72E as listed in Appendix A. 

c. Other rooms: All rooms one hundred (100) square feet in area or 
more, not in residential units, shall be equipped with approved heat 
detectors or smoke detectors located in accordance with the 
requirements of their listing and in conformance with NFiPA 72E 
as listed in Appendix A. 

8. All detectors in Section 1018.3.4.1, Item 7, shall be arranged to activate 
the building fire alarm in accordance with Section 1018.3.4.3. 

9. Any building of R-l and R-2 use groups that is completely protected by 
an approved automatic sprinkler system may omit the detectors required 
in Section 1018.3.4.1, Item 7, provided that water flow will sound the 
building fire alarms in accordance with Section 1018.3.4.3. When a 
building in use group R-l and R-2 is completely sprinklered, sprinklers 
may be omitted in closets and similar spaces which are located within an 
individual dwelling unit when the least dimension of such spaces is not 
greater than thirty (30) inches and the floor area within such spaces does 
not exceed twenty-four (24) square feet. 

Exceptions: 

1. See Section 637 for types of systems required in R-l detoxification 
facilities. 

2. Required smoke detectors shall not be deleted when an approved 
automatic sprinkler system is installed. 

1018.3.4.2 R-3 and R-4 use groups, including manufactured homes: 

1. All buildings which are defined by this code as one or two-family 
dwellings shall contain a Type III system in conformance with Section 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-33 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1018.3.4.3 with smoke detectors located as required in Section 1018.3.4.2, 
Item 2, of this section and in accordance with NFiPA 72E as listed in 
Appendix I. 

2. Smoke detectors shall be located to comply with the following minimum 
requirements: 

a. Minimum number of detectors: 

i. Not less than one (1) approved smoke detector shall be provided 
on the highest habitable level and on each floor, story or level 
below, including basements or cellars. 

ii. For any floor, level or story exceeding twelve hundred (1200) 
square feet in area, one (1) approved smoke detector shall be 
provided for each twelve hundred (1200) square feet or part 
thereof. 

b. Location of detectors: 

i. One (1) approved smoke detector shall be located outside of each 
separate sleeping area. By sleeping area is meant the area or areas 
of the family living unit in which the bedrooms (or sleeping rooms) 
are located. Bedrooms (or sleeping rooms) separated by other use 
areas, such as kitchens or living rooms (but not bathrooms), shall 
be considered as separate sleeping areas for the purposes of this 
regulation. 

ii. One (1) approved smoke detector shall be located on the ceiling 
near the base of, but not within, each stairway. 

iii. A smoke detector shall not be required to be located in or within 
six (6) feet of a kitchen, cooking area or garage. (This provision 
does not preclude installation in these areas.) 

c. Combined coverage: 

Smoke detectors required by Section 1018.3.4.2, Item 2.a, may be 
used to fulfill the requirements of Section 1018.3.4.2, Item 2.b. 

1018.3.4.3 Type of systems: Systems shall be one (1) of the following types as 
required by this section: 

1. Type I: A Type I system shall be installed in conformance with the 
Massachusetts Electrical Code (527 CMR 12.00) and NFiPA 72A as listed 
in Appendix G and Appendix A, respectively. A Type I system shall 
include an approved secondary source of power and incorporate an 
annunciator at the grade level located as directed by the local fire 
department. 



10-34 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



2. Type II: A Type II system shall be installed in conformance with the 
Massachusetts Electrical Code (527 CMR 12.00) and NFiPA 72A as listed 
in Appendix G and Appendix A, respectively. A Type II system shall 
include an approved secondary source of power. 

3. Type HI: A Type HI system shall be installed in accordance with NFiPA 
74 as listed in Appendix A. Power shall be supplied from a 
permanently-wired connection directly to an AC primary source of power 
or monitored batteries. All power for AC powered detectors shall be 
taken from a single branch circuit serving a habitable area; and the power 
source for the detectors shall be on the supply side, ahead of any 
switches. All required smoke detectors shall be provided with a visible 
power-on indication. All required smoke detectors shall be interconnected 
so that when one actuates all will sound to meet the requirements of 
NFiPA 74, Section 2-2.4, as listed in Appendix A. All required smoke 
detectors shall conform with Section 1018.3.4.7, Items 1, 2 and 5. 

1018.3.4.4 Manual pull stations: Where required, manual pull stations shall be 
located on the corridor side of, and within six (6) feet of each entrance to an 
exitway. Manual pull stations shall be connected to the building fire alarm system 
in conformance with NFiPA 72A as listed in Appendix A. 

1018.3.4.5 Zones: Where required, each floor, level or story shall be separately 
zoned. The length of any zone on any floor, level or story shall not exceed two 
hundred (200) feet in any direction. 

1018.3.4.6 Automatic fire department notification: Where required to provide 
automatic fire department notification, the system shall be connected to the fire 
department alarm headquarters if so directed by the head of the local fire 
department, in conformance with NFiPA 72B, NFiPA 72C, or NFiPA 71 as listed in 
Appendix A. 

1018.3.4.7 Approved devices: 

1. Single station and multiple station smoke detection devices: Smoke 
detectors of single station and multiple station types shall meet the 
requirements of UL 217 as listed in Appendix A and be listed or 
approved by a nationally recognized fire testing laboratory. 

2. Smoke detectors, other than single station and multiple station devices, 
shall meet the room fire test provisions of UL 167 in addition to carrying 
a listing or approval as meeting UL 167 or UL 168. 

3. All heat detectors shall be listed or approved for a spacing not less than 
thirty (30) feet. 

4. All other alarm equipment used in this section shall be listed or approved 
by a nationally recognized fire testing laboratory. 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-35 



me iwiMooMOrtUi>cl li> bIMlh bUILDlN(j CUUb 



5. The State Board of Building Regulations and Standards shall withdraw 
the approval from any device or equipment which repeatedly fails to 
perform under this section. 

1018.3.4.8 Maintenance and testing: 

1. It shall be the responsibility of the owner to properly maintain the system. 

2. All Type I and Type II systems shall be tested at least annually in 
conformance with the NFiPA 72A as listed in Appendix I with the 
performance of each initiating device and indicating device recorded with 
the head of the fire department. 

3. In addition to the above, all Type I systems connected to the fire 
department shall be tested with advance notice as required by the head 
of the fire department. 

1018.3.5 Use Groups A-4 and E: In all buildings of use groups A-4 and E 
(churches, schools, etc.). 



10-36 Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



TABLE 1018 
Residential Fire Protection Requirements 



Use 
Group 


Number 
of Units 


Unit 
Occupant 
Protection 


Other 
Occupant 
Protection 


Standby 
Power 


Manual 
Stations 


Zoned 


Provision 

for Fire 

Department 

Notification 


R-3 


lor 2 


Yes 

1018.3.4.2 


N.A. 


N.A. 


N.A. 


N.A. 


N.A 


R-l 

and 
R-2 


6 or less 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


N.A. 


N.A. 
(note a) 


N.A 


N.A. 


R-l 
and 
R-2 


7 to 12 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


Yes 
1018.3.4.3 


N.A 
(note a) 


N.A 


N.A. 


R-l 
and 
R-2 


13 to 24 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


Yes 
1018.3.4.3 


Yes 
1018.3.4.4 


Yes 
1018.3.4.5 


N.A 


R-l 
and 
R-2 


25 or 
more 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


Yes 
1018.3.4.1 


Yes 
1018.3.4.3 


Yes 
1018.3.4.4 


Yes 
1018.3.4.5 


Yes 
1018.3.4.6 



Note a: Manual pull stations required for all Use Group R-l buildings and for Use Group R-2 
buildings four (4) stories or more in height. 

1018.4 Sprinklered buildings exception: Buildings or portions thereof equipped 
throughout with an automatic fire suppression system are not required to be 
equipped with an automatic fire detection system, but are required to be equipped 
with a manual fire protective signaling system conforming to Section 1017.0. This 
exception does not apply to buildings of Use Group I, or to single-station smoke 
detectors as required in Section 1018.3.4. 

1 01 8.5 Distances: Smoke detectors shall be installed not to exceed the lineal or 
square footage allowances specified, based on the test standards under which they 
were tested and approved. 

1018.6 Zones: The automatic fire detection system shall be connected to the same 
zones as those required for the fire protective signaling system in Section 1017.0. 
Automatic detectors which have separate indication on the annunciator panel from 
the manual pull stations and the fire suppression systems shall have detection zones 
which match the pull station zones in size and arrangement. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



10-37 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 1019.0 SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS 

1019.1 General: Smoke control systems required by this code shall conform to the 
provisions of this section. 

1 01 9.1 .1 Acceptance: Before a certificate of occupancy is issued, the smoke control 
system shall be tested in an approved manner to show compliance with the 
applicable requirements of this section. 

1019.1.2 Standby power: All equipment required to provide smoke control shall 
be equipped with a standby source of power complying with the Massachusetts 
Electrical Code. 

Exceptions: 

1. Mechanical air-handling equipment designed to accomplish smoke control 
in systems specified in Sections 1019.2 and 1019.3 when the building is 
equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire suppression system. 

2. Smoke control systems specified in Section 1019.4. 

1019.1.3 Inspections: All operating parts of the smoke control systems specified 
in Sections 1019.5 and 1019.6 (including dampers) shall be tested by the owner every 
three months and a log of the tests shall be kept for examination by the fire 
department. At six month intervals, the system shall be inspected and operated in 
accordance with the BOCA National Fire Prevention Code and 527 CMR listed in 
Appendix A and Appendix G, respectively. 

1019.2 High-rise buildings: Where required by Section 602.7, natural or 
mechanical ventilation for the removal of products of combustion shall be provided 
in every story and shall consist of one of the methods described in Sections 1019.2.1 
through 1019.2.3. 

1019.2.1 Panels or windows: Panels or windows shall be provided in the exterior 
walls which can be opened remotely from an approved location other than the fire 
floor. Such venting facilities shall be provided at the rate of 20 square feet per 50 
lineal feet of exterior wall in each story and shall be distributed around the 
perimeter at not more than 50 foot intervals. Such windows or panels and their 
controls shall be clearly identified. 

Exception: Where an approved automatic fire suppression system is installed 
throughout, remotely operated openable panels and windows are not required 
when windows or panels manually openable from within the fire floor are 
installed or approved fixed tempered glass is used. Such windows shall be 
clearly identified and shall be of the size and spacing indicated above. 



10-38 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



1019.2.2 Mechanical system: Where an approved automatic fire suppression 
system is installed throughout, and the mechanical air handling equipment is 
designed to accomplish smoke removal, the return and exhaust air shall be moved 
directly to the outside without recirculation to other sections of the building under 
fire conditions. The air handling system shall provide a minimum of one exhaust air 
change each 10 minutes for the area involved. 

1019.2.3 Other designs: Any other approved design which will adequately remove 
smoke from each compartment served in an unsprinklered building is permitted, 
provided the system is tested and approved by the code official before the building 
is certified for occupancy. 

1019.3 Elevators: When equipped with a mechanical smoke control system that will 
restrict smoke and hot gases from entering the elevator shaft in the fire floor, 
hoistway venting specified in Section 2608.3 is not required. In high-rise buildings 
equipped with this system and equipped throughout with an approved automatic fire 
suppression system, the 1-hour fireresistance rated elevator lobbies specified in 
Section 602.8 are not required. 

1019.4 Covered mall buildings: Where required by Section 601.11, the mall and 
adjacent tenant spaces shall be equipped with an approved smoke control system. 
Smoke control equipment serving the mall shall be sized to provide a minimum of 
six air changes per hour for malls having a volume of 600,000 cubic feet or less, and 
a minimum of four air changes per hour for malls having a volume of more than 
600,000 cubic feet. The volume shall be measured from the entrance to tenant spaces 
and to a height of 12 feet above each pedestrian area. Exhaust inlets for the mall 
shall be located a minimum of 6 feet above the walking surface. Necessary outside 
air to accomplish the required air changes per hour shall be provided. 

1019.4.1 Activation: The exhaust system shall be activated by smoke detectors 
complying with NFiPA 72E listed in Appendix A, by operation of the sprinkler 
system, and manually. A smoke detector shall be installed in the return air portion 
of every heating and cooling system ahead of any fresh air intake. The activation 
system shall be installed in an approved manner. 

1019.4.2 Operation: The approved automatic exhaust system shall be a separate 
system or shall be integrated with an approved air conditioning system. Where a 
separate system is provided, operation of the fire emergency ventilating system shall 
automatically shut down the air conditioning system or any other devices which 
interfere with the effective operation of the fire emergency ventilating system. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-39 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

1019.4.2.1 Tenant space zones: When a fire occurs within a tenant space zone, 
that zone shall operate at 100 percent exhaust, and supply air to that zone shall be 
shut down. Adjoining tenant space zones shall go to normal operations and the mall 
system shall operate at 100 percent fresh air supply. 

1019.4.2.2 Mall system: When a fire occurs within the mall, the mall system shall 
operate at 100 percent exhaust, and adjoining tenant spaces shall go to normal 
operation. 

1019.5 Atriums: Where required by Section 606.2.1, a smoke control system shall 
be designed to control the migration of products of combustion in the atrium spaces. 
A mechanically operated air handling system shall be installed that will exhaust 
smoke either entering or developed within the atrium. Exhaust openings shall be 
located in the ceiling or in a smoke trap area immediately adjacent to the ceiling of 
the atrium. Supply openings sized to provide 50 percent of the exhaust volume shall 
be located at the lowest level of the atrium. For purposes of this section, the volume 
of the atrium shall include all spaces not separated from the atrium in accordance 
with Section 606.2.2. 

1019.5.1 Supply air: Where the height of the atrium is 55 feet or less, supply air 
introduced by gravity is permitted provided smoke control is accomplished. When 
the height of the atrium is more than 55 feet, supply air shall be introduced 
mechanically from the floor of the atrium and be directed vertically toward the 
exhaust outlets. In atriums over six stories in height or having open floors above the 
second story, introduction of supplemental supply air at upper levels is permitted. 

1 01 9.5.2 Exhaust: The atrium smoke control system shall exhaust not less than the 
following quantities of air: 

1. For atriums having a volume of not more than 600,000 cubic feet, 
including the volume of any levels not physically separated from the 
atrium, not less than 40,000 cfm nor less than six air changes per hour. 

2. For atriums having a volume of more than 600,000 cubic feet, including 
the volume of any levels not physically separated from the atrium, not less 
than four air changes per hour. 

1 01 9.5.3 Smoke detectors: Smoke detectors shall be installed at the perimeter and 
on the ceiling of the atrium and on the underside of each floor level that is open to 
the atrium space. Detectors shall be located in accordance with their listing. 

1019.5.4 Smoke control activation: The smoke control system required for the 
atrium spaces shall be activated by the fire suppression system, by smoke detectors 
required by Section 1019.5.3, and by manual controls provided for fire department 
use. The system shall not be activated by a manual fire protective signaling system 
required by Section 1017.0. Manual controls shall be located in the central control 

10-40 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 



station or other location approved by the fire department. When the smoke control 
system is activated, other air handling systems which interfere with its function shall 
shut off automatically. 

1 01 9.5.5 Other approved methods: Any other approved design which will achieve 
the same level of smoke control as described in this section is permitted in lieu of 
these requirements. 

1019.6 Floor openings: The smoke control system required by Section 606.3.1 shall 
be an automatic exhaust system designed to prevent the passage of smoke to the 
story above in accordance with Sections 1019.6.1 through 1019.6.3, or any other 
approved system of smoke control which will accomplish the same purpose. 

1019.6.1 Control: The system shall be a separate unit or shall be integrated with 
an approved air handling system and shall be thermostatically controlled to operate 
simultaneously with the detection of fire. 

1 01 9.6.2 Capacity: The system shall be of adequate capacity to create a controlled 
draft in the floor opening with sufficient velocity of flow over the entire area of the 
floor opening under normal conditions of window and door openings in the building. 

1019.6.3 Operation: The system shall be so arranged as to automatically stop the 
operation of the normal mechanical air handling and ventilating systems, and close 
the dampers of the return air duct connections, in the event of fire. 

SECTION 1020.0 SUPERVISION 

1020.1 Fire suppression systems: Fire suppression systems required for buildings 
of Use Groups A, E, I or R shall be supervised by methods 1, 2, 3 or 4 below. All 
other fire suppression systems shall be supervised by one of the following methods: 

1. Approved central station system in accordance with NFiPA 71 listed in 
Appendix A. 

2. Approved proprietary system in accordance with NFiPA 72D listed in 
Appendix A. 

3. Approved remote station system of the jurisdiction in accordance with 
NFiPA 72C listed in Appendix A. 

4. Approved local alarm service which will cause the sounding of an audible 
signal at a constantly attended location in accordance with NFiPA 72A 
listed in Appendix A. 

5. Locking valves open. 

6. Approved auxiliary protective system(s) which will cause the sounding of 
an audible signal at a constantly attended location in accordance with 
NFiPA 72B as listed in Appendix A. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 10-41 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Exceptions: 

1. Underground gate valves with roadway boxes. 

2. Halogenated extinguishing systems. 

3. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. 

4. Dry chemical extinguishing systems. 

5. Limited area sprinkler systems. 

1020.2 Fire protection systems: All required fire protection systems, other than 
fire suppression systems, shall be connected to an approved central station system, 
proprietary system, or remote station system of the jurisdiction when approved by 
the fire department. Fire suppression systems shall conform to Section 1020.1. 
Exceptions: 

1. Standpipe systems. 

2. Fire alarm systems in buildings of Use Group R when less than five 
stories in height. 

3. Single-station detectors required by Section 1018.3.4. 

4. Smoke detectors in buildings of Use Group 1-3. 

SECTION 1021.0 FIRE EXTINGUISHERS 

1021.1 Approval: Portable fire extinguishers shall bear the label of an approved 
agency and shall be installed in a location visible and accessible to the occupants. 

1021.2 Where required: A portable fire extinguisher shall be installed in the 
following locations in accordance with NFiPA 10 listed in Appendix A. 

1. In all buildings of Use Groups A-l, A-2, A-3, A-4, E, 1-2, R-l and H. 

2. In all areas containing commercial kitchen exhaust hood systems. 

3. In all areas where fuel is dispensed. 

4. In all areas where a flammable or combustible liquid is used in the 
operation of spraying, coating or dipping. 

5. In all buildings of Use Group 1-3 at staff locations. Access to portable 
extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked. 

6. On each completed floor of buildings under construction, other than 
buildings of Use Group R-3. 



10-42 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 1 1 
STRUCTURAL LOADS 



ARTICLE 1 1 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 

(This Article is entirely unique to Massachusetts) 

SECTION 1100.0 GENERAL 

1100.1 Scope: The provisions of this article shall control the structural design of 
all buildings and structures or potions thereof hereafter erected. 

SECTION 1101.0 PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 

1101.1 General: Design plans drawn to appropriate scale shall show the size, 
section and relative locations of all structural members with floor levels, column 
centers and all offsets fully dimensioned. The design loads shall be clearly indicated 
for all parts of the building or structure. 

SECTION 1102.0 DESIGN SAFE LOAD 

1102.1 Safe support required: Buildings or other structures, and all parts thereof, 
shall be designed and constructed to support safely all loads, including dead loads, 
without exceeding the allowable stresses (or specified strengths when appropriate 
load factors are applied) for the materials of construction in the structural members 
and connections. 

1102.2 Load tests: The building official is authorized to require a load test, or 
certified reports of such tests, conducted in an approved manner by approved testing 
agencies, of any construction whenever there is reason to question its safety for 
intended occupancy or use. Load test provisions are presented in Section 1302.0. 

SECTION 1103.0 DESIGN LIVE LOAD 

1103.1 Required live load: The live loads to be assumed in the design of 
buildings and structures shall be the greatest load produced by the intended use and 
occupancy, but not less than the minimum uniformly distributed unit loads required 
in Section 1106.0 for specific uses. 

1103.2 Loads not specified: The building official shall approve the live load for 
any use not specifically provided for in Table 1106. 

Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 -1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 1104.0 DESIGN DEAD LOAD 

1104.1 Weights of materials and construction: In estimating dead load for the 
purposes of structural design, the actual weights of materials and constructions shall 
be used, but not less than the unit dead loads prescribed in Appendix B and ANSI 
A58.1 listed in Appendix A. In the absence of definite information, any values 
assumed by the designers shall be subject to the approval of the building official. 

1104.2 Weight of fixed service equipment: In estimating dead loads for the 
purposes of design, the weight of service equipment such as plumbing stacks and 
risers, electrical feeders, heating, ventilating, air conditioning and sprinkler systems 
shall be included. 

1 1 04.3 Partition load: In offices and other buildings, in which subdividing partitions 
are subsequently erected, rearranged or relocated, provisions shall be made to 
support the actual weight of such partitions where they occur or for an equivalent 
uniform load, which shall be assumed not less than 20 pounds per square foot (psf) 
of floor area in addition to the specified uniformly distributed live load. Provisions 
for partition weight shall be made whether or not partitions are shown on the plans, 
unless the specified live load exceeds 80 psf. 

SECTION 1105.0 EXISTING BUILDINGS 

1105.1 General: In the reconstruction, repair, extension or alteration of existing 
buildings, comply with Sections 1105.2 through 1105.5 and Article 32. 

1105.2 Building extended: When an existing building is altered by an extension in 
height or area, all existing structural parts affected by the addition shall be 
strengthened where necessary, and all new structural parts shall be designed to meet 
the requirements for buildings hereafter erected. 

1105.3 Building repaired: When repairs are made to the structural portion of an 
existing building, and the uncovered structural portions are found unsound, such 
parts shall be made to conform to the requirements for buildings hereafter erected. 

1105.4 Existing live load: When an existing building heretofore approved is 
altered or repaired within the limitations prescribed in Article 32, the structure may 
be designed for the loads and stresses applicable at the time of erection, provided 
the public safety is not endangered thereby. 

1 1 05.5 Posted live load: Any existing building heretofore approved, in which there 
is not a change in use to a new use group requiring greater floor loads, may be 
posted for the originally approved live loads, provided the building is structurally 



1 1 -2 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



safe in all its parts, adequate for its existing use, and the public safety is not 
endangered thereby. 

SECTION 1106.0 UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 

1106.1 Uniform live load: The plans for all buildings and structures intended for 
other than R-3 and R-4 use groups shall specify the live and partition loads for 
which each floor or part thereof has been designed. The minimum uniformly 
distributed live load in pounds per square foot (psf) shall be as provided in Table 
1106, and for all concentrated loads wherever they occur as provided in Section 
1107.0. 

Table 1106 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS 



Occupancy and use 


Live load (psf) 


Apartments (see Residential) 




Armories and drill rooms 


150 


Assembly halls and other places of assembly: 




Fixed seats 


60 


Movable seats 


100 


Platforms (assembly) 


100 


Balcony and 


60 (or as 


Open decks 


required by 




occupancy load) 


Bowling alleys, poolrooms, and similar recreational areas 


75 


Cornices 


75 


Court rooms 


100 


Corridors: 




First floor 


100 


Other floors, same as occupancy served except as 




indicated 




Dance halls and ballrooms 


100 


Dining rooms and restaurants 


100 


Dwellings (see Residential) 




Elevator machine rooms 


150 


File and computer rooms in all building types 


Unit load based 




on anticipated 




occupancy 


Fire escapes: 


100 


On multi or single family residential buildings only 


40 


Garages (passenger cars only) 


50 


! (For trucks and buses use AASTHO 3 lane loads) 




(see Table 1 1 07 for concentrated load requirements) 




(see Section 1110.1 for roofs) 





780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Table 1106 (continued) 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOAD 



Occupancy or use 


Live load (psf) 


Grandstands (see reviewing stands) 




Gymnasiums, main floors and balconies 


100 


Hospitals: 




Operating rooms, laboratories 


100 


Private rooms 


40 


Wards 


40 


Corridors, above first floor 


80 ' 


Hotels (see residential) 




Libraries: 




Reading rooms 


60 


Stack rooms (books & shelving at 40 pcf) but not 




less than 


150 


Corridors, above first floor 


80 


Manufacturing: 




Light 


125 


Heavy 


150 (min) 




or occupancy load, 




if greater 


Marquees 


75 


Office buildings: 




Offices 


50 


Lobbies 


100 


Corridors, above first floor 


80 


Open parking structures (passenger cars only) 


50 


Penal institutions: 




Cell blocks 


40 


Corridors 


100 


Residential: 




Multi family: 




Private apartments 


40 


Public rooms 


100 


Corridors, balconies, open decks 


80 


1 & 2 family dwellings: 




First floor 


40 


Second floor and habitable attics 


30 


Unhabitable attics b 


20 


Open decks or balconies 


60 


Hotels: 




Guest rooms 


40 


Public rooms 


100 


Corridors, balconies or open decks serving 




public rooms 


100 



11-4 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



Table 1106 (continued) 
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOAD 



Occupancy or use 


Live load (psf) 


Hotels (cont'd.): 




Corridors, balconies or open decks 


80 


Reviewing stands and bleachers 


100 


Schools: 




Classrooms 


50 


Corridors 


100 


Flexible open plan areas 


100 


Sidewalks, vehicular driveways and yards, subject to 




trucking 


250 


Skating rinks 


100 


Stairs and exits 


100 


Storage warehouse: 




Light 


125 


Heavy 


250 


Stores: 




Retail 




First floor, rooms 


100 


Upper floors 


75 


Wholesale 


125 


Theaters 




Aisles, corridors and lobbies 


100 


Orchestra floors 


60 


Balconies 


60 


Stage floors 


150 


Yards and terraces, pedestrians 


100 



Note a. American Association of State Highway transportation Officials. 

Note b. Live load need be applied to joists or to bottom chords of trusses or trussed rafters only in 

those portions of attic space having a clear height of forty-two (42) inches or more between joist and 

rafter in conventional rafter construction, and between bottom chord and any other member in 

trusses or trussed rafter construction. However, joists or the bottom chords of trusses or trussed 

rafters shall be designed to sustain the imposed dead load or ten (10) pounds per square foot (psf) 

whichever is greater, uniformly distributed over the entire span. 

A further ceiling dead load reduction to a minimum of five (5) pounds per square foot (psf) or the 

actual dead load, whichever is greater, may be applied to joists in conventional rafter construction, 

or to the bottom chords of trusses of trussed rafters under either or both of the following conditions. 

1. If the clear height is not over thirty (30) inches between joist and rafter in conventional 
construction and between the bottom chord and any other member for trusses or trussed 
rafter construction. 

2. If a clear height of greater than thirty (30) inches, as defined in item (1) above, does not 
exist for a horizontal distance of more than twelve (12) inches along the member. 

Note c. For detailed recommendations, see the Standards for Tents, Grandstands, and Air-Supported 
Structures Used for Places of Assembly, NFiPA 102, listed in Appendix A. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1106.2 Partial live loading: The full intensity of the appropriately reduced 
live load applied only to a portion of the length of a structure or member 
shall be considered if it produces a more unfavorable effect than the same 
intensity applied over the full length of the structure or member. 

1 1 06.3 Posting of live loads: In every building or other structure or part thereof 
of Use Groups B, F, M or S, the design loads shall be marked on plates of approved 
design which shall be supplied and securely affixed by the owner of the building, or 
the owner's authorized agent, in a conspicuous place in each space to which they 
relate. Any plates lost, removed or defaced shall be replaced by the owner or the 
owner's agent. 

SECTION 1107.0 CONCENTRATED LOADS 

1107.1 General: Floors and roofs of buildings of buildings shall be designed to 
support the uniformly distributed live loads prescribed in Section 1106.0 or the 
concentrated loads prescribed in Table 1107, whichever produces the greater effects. 
The indicated concentrated load shall be located so as to produce the maximum 
stress conditions in the structural members. 



Table 1107 




CONCENTRATED LOADS 




Location 


Concentrated 


Applied Area 




Load (lbs.) 


(inches each side 
of a square) 


Garages, open parking structures 


See note 1 


See note 1 


Manufacturing and storage buildings 


2,000 


See note 2 


Hospital floors 


1,000 


30 


Library floors 


1,000 


30 


Mercantile floors 


2,000 


30 


Office floors 


2,000 


30 


Roofs 


200 


6 


School floors 


1,000 


30 


Sidewalks 


8,000 


15 | 


Elevator machine room grating 


300 


2 


Finish light floor plate construction 


200 


1 


Greenhouse, roof bars, purlins 






and rafters 


100 


1 


Scuttle, skylight and accessible 






ceiling ribs and hangers 


200 


1 


Stair treads 


300 


2 



Note 1: Open parking structures, garages or portions of buildings used for storage of motor vehicles 
(see Section 1110.1 for roofs): 



11-6 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1) for passenger cars accommodating not more than (9) passengers, two thousand (2,000) 
pounds acting on an area of six (6) inches each side of a square; 

2) for trucks or buses, maximum axle load on two areas of 8 inches by 20 inches, 6 feet 
apart. 

Note 2: Buildings in which mechanical material handling equipment, machines or apparatus will be 
utilized: the actual concentrated loads of the machinery. 

SECTION 1108.0 IMPACT LOADS 

1108.1 General: The live loads specified in Section 1106.0 may be assumed to 
include adequate allowance for ordinary impact conditions. Provision shall be made 
in the structural design for special uses and loads which involve vibration and impact 
forces. Where dynamic effects such as resonance and fatigue are likely to be 
important as a result of cyclical loading, a dynamic analysis shall be carried out. 

1108.2 Elevators: Structural supports for elevators, dumbwaiters, escalators and 
moving walks shall be designed for the loads and within the limits of the deflection 
specified in the Massachusetts State Department of Public Safety Board Elevator 
Regulations (524 CMR 1.0 through 34.0). (In accordance with the Regulations, all 
suspended elevator loads shall be increased one hundred percent (100 %) for 
impact.) 

1108.3 Machinery and moving loads: For machinery and moving loads, the 
minimum applied load shall be the total of the maximum weight of the machinery 
or moving loads multiplied by the impact factor listed below: 

Impact Factor 

Motor-driven cranes 1.25 

Hand-driven cranes 1.10 
Light machinery, shaft 

or motor driven 1.20 

Reciprocating machinery 1.50 

The impact factor for machinery or cranes shall be increased, when so recommended 
by the manufacturer. 

1 1 08.4 Hangers for floors and stairs: Live loads on hangers supporting floors 
or stairs shall be multiplied by an impact factor of 1.33. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 1109.0 SPECIAL LOADS 

1 109.1 General: Provisions shall be made for all special loads herein prescribed and 
all other special loads to which the building or structure may be subjected. 

1 1 09.2 Loads on below grade walls: All retaining walls and other walls below 
grade shall be designed to resist lateral soil pressures with appropriate allowance for 
hydrostatic pressure, for all superimposed vertical loads and seismic effects. 

1109.3 Hydrostatic uplift: All foundation slabs and other footings subjected to 
water pressure shall be designed to resist a uniformly distributed uplift equal to the 
maximum hydrostatic pressure which may occur. Counteracting weight shall be 
reduced as prescribed in Section 1114.0. 

1109.4 Construction loads and erection loads: Procedures of construction and 
erection shall be adopted which prevent loading of the structure above its design 
capacity. Where specified or proposed procedures require the strengthening of 
structural elements beyond that required in the finished building, such increase in 
the capacity of the structural elements shall be provided. 

1109.5 Horizontal crane loads: A lateral force shall be applied perpendicular 
(normal) to the span of runway beams and a lateral force shall be applied parallel 
(longitudinal) to the beam span. 

(a) The lateral force acting normal to the runway shall be applied at the 
top of the rail, and shall be twenty (20) percent for power-operated 
crane trolleys, and ten (10) percent for hand-operated trolleys, of the 
sum of the weights of the maximum lifted load and of the crane trolley. 
This force shall be distributed to tributary supporting structural 
members based on the relative lateral stiffness of each component 
structure supporting the rails. 

(b) The longitudinal force acting parallel to the runway and applied at the 
top of the rail shall be ten (10) percent of the maximum wheel loads of 
the crane. 

(c) Reductions in these loads may be permitted if substantiating 
technical data acceptable to the building official is provided. 

(d) These loads need not be considered in combination with wind loads. 

1109.6 Partitions and interior finish: Partitions, their components and other 
interior finish shall have adequate strength to resist a horizontal load of not less 
than 5 psf. 

1109.7 Guardrails and handrails: All required guardrails and handrails shall be 
designed and constructed to the structural loading conditions set forth in Table 1109 

1 1 -8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



without exceeding the allowable design working stresses of the materials, anchorage 
and connecting devices utilized. The allowable working stresses shall be as defined 
by the appropriate design standard. Each load shall be applied so as to produce the 
maximum stress in each of the respective components. 

Each load shall be applied in the direction indicated in the table. The concentrated 
load and uniformly distributed loads need not be applied simultaneously. The loads 
applied to in-fill areas need not be applied simultaneously with the loads applied on 
the top railing. 

1109.8 Railings and barriers in places of public assembly, grandstands and 
stadia: Railings and barriers around stairways, stair wells, balconies and other floor 
openings, both exterior and interior, shall be designed to resist a concentrated load 
of at least three hundred (300) pounds applied in any direction at any point at the 
top of the barrier and also to resist a uniformly distributed load of one hundred 
(100) pounds per lineal feet applied in any direction at the top of the barrier, 
whichever is more severe. 

Table 1109 
LOADS ON GUARDRAILS AND HANDRAILS 



Type of 
occupancy 


Location of 
load 


Type of 
load 


Direction of 
load 


Magnitude 
of load 


All 


Handrails 


Concentrated 


Any 


200 lbs. 


All, except 
dwelling units 
in Use Groups 

R-2 and R-3 


Handrails 


Uniformly 
distributed 


Any 


50 Ibs./ft. 


All 


Guardrails, 
top railing 
members 


Concentrated 


Any 


200 lbs. 


All, except 
dwelling units 
in Use Groups 

R-2 and R-3 


Guardrails, 
top railing 
members 


Uniformly 
distributed 


Vertical 

simultaneously 

with 

horizontal 


100 Ibs./ft. 
50 Ibs./ft. 


All 


Guardrails, 
in-fill 
areas 


Concentrated 


Any 


200 lbs. 

applied 

over 1 s. f. 

area 



1109.9 Driveways and parking areas: Columns, walls, spandrel panels, barriers, 
bumpers or similar devices in driveways and parking areas that are subject to 
possible impact of moving vehicles shall be designed to resist a concentrated lateral 
load of not less than seven thousand (7,000) pounds, applied at least eighteen (18) 
inches above the roadway. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-9 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1109.10 Grandstands, stadia and similar structures shall be designed to resist, in 
combination with design wind loads, a horizontal swaying load applied parallel to the 
row of seats of not less than twenty-four (24) pounds per lineal foot of seats per row, 
and a horizontal swaying load applied transversely of not less than ten (10) pounds 
per lineal foot of seats per row. Design footboards and seat boards for a minimum 
vertical load of 120 lbs. per lineal foot. 

1109.11 Temperature loads: Movements, and forces resulting from restraint of 
movements, produced by changes in temperature shall be considered in the design 
of buildings and structures. 

SECTION 1110.0 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR ROOFS 

1110.1 Parking on roofs: Where roofs are used for parking of vehicles, the 
appropriate live load shall be added to the snow load. 

111 0.2 Other special uses: Where roofs are used for roof gardens or assembly use, 
the minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be 100 psf. Where roofs are used 
for incidental promenade purposes, the minimum uniformly distributed live load 
shall be 60 psf. The structure shall be designed for the effects of the appropriate 
roof live load, or the effects of the snow loads specified in Section 1111.0 whichever 
are larger. 

1110.3 Landscaped roofs: Where roofs are to be landscaped, the weight of the 
landscaping shall be considered a dead load. Soils shall be considered to be fully 
saturated when computing the weight of the soils. 

1110.4 Ponding: Roofs shall be designed for the maximum possible depth of water 
that may be ponded thereon as determined by the relative levels of roof deck, 
overflow weirs, scuppers, edges of serviceable drains, and the deflected shape of 
structural elements. In determining the maximum possible depth of water, all primary 
roof drainage means shall be assumed to be blocked. 

SECTION 1111.0 SNOW LOAD 

1111.1 General: Design snow loads shall be determined in accordance with this 
section, and shall be applied to the roofs and open decks of all buildings and other 
structures. 

1111.2 Basic snow load: Figures 1111.1A, 1111.1B, 1111.1C, and 1111.1D define 
four snow load zones in the state. The basic snow load for each zone shall be a 
uniformly distributed load, P f , in pounds per square foot of horizontal projection, as 
follows: 



11-10 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



Snow Load Zone 

1 
2 
3 
4 



25psf 
30 psf 
35 psf 
40 psf 




H*fmiCK£T- 



Figure 1 11 1.1 A 
SNOW LOAD MAP - ZONE 1 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-11 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



CARLISLE 

eae.g>gc3tap 

L.£xiHg»TCrH 



fcOSToH 




pLYn^LJTJ 



Figure 11 11. 1B 
SNOW LOAD MAP - ZONE 2 



11-12 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 




. E=>E«r-|,*.ar:3£TCr1 




=OX SQgS>JSt M 



Figure 1111.1C 
SNOW LOAD MAP - ZONE 3 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-13 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 








&-4gLbLJane 
fi,52*«v-rvi LL5- 



WAQ-i 



Figure 11 11. 1D 
SNOW LOAD MAP - ZONE 4 



11-14 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1111.3 Symbols and notations: The following symbols and notations apply to the 
provisions of this section. 

a = roof slope expressed in degrees 

A = coefficient for amount of sliding snow 

Ajj = crossectional area of drift surcharge, expressed in square feet 

C s = slope factor (see Section 1111.5) 

D = density of snow, expressed in pounds per cubic foot (pcf) 

h b = height of uniform snow load on lower roof or deck, expressed in 

feet 
h d = maximum height of drift surcharge, expressed in feet 
h dr = reduced height of drift surcharge, expressed in feet 
H ol = potential height of drift surcharge from snow blown from lower 

roof, expressed in feet 
H ou = potential height of drift surcharge from snow blown from upper 

roof, expressed in feet 
h r = difference in height between the upper and lower roof or deck, 

expressed in feet 
Lj. = length of upper roof or projecting element parallel to the line of 

separation, expressed in feet 
P f = basic uniform snow load, expressed in pounds per square foot (psf) 
P s = intensity of sloped roof snow load, expressed in pounds per square 

foot (psf) 
Pds = maximum intensity of surcharge load from sliding snow, expressed 

in pounds per square foot (psf) 
S = horizontal separation between adjacent structures, expressed in feet 

(See Figure 1111.7) 
W a = horizontal dimension, in feet, of upper sloping roof (See Fig. 

1111.10) 
W bu = horizontal dimension, in feet, of upper roof normal to the line of 

change in roof level (See Figure 1111.4) 
W bl = horizontal dimension, in feet, of lower roof normal to the line of 

change in roof level (See Figure 1111.4) 
W d = width of snow drift, expressed in feet (See Figure 1111.4) 
W s = width of sliding snow drift, expressed in feet (See Figure 1111.10) 

1 1 1 1 .4 Flat roof snow loads: The snow load on an unobstructed flat roof with 
slope less than 30 degrees shall be equal to the basic snow load, P f . 

1 1 1 1 .5 Sloped roof snow loads: Snow loads acting on a sloping surface shall be 
considered to act on the horizontal projection of that surface. The sloped roof snow 
load on roofs having a slope greater than 30 degrees shall be calculated using the 
following formula: (See formula next page) 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 11-15 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 

(Equation 1) 

p. = cj>, 

where "C s " is determined by the following formula: 

(Equation 2) 

c _ 1 (a - 30) 



and "a" is the slope of the roof expressed in degrees. 

1111.5.1 Roof slope factor for curved roofs: Portions of curved roofs having a 
slope exceeding 70 degrees shall be considered free from snow load. The point at 
which the slope exceeds 70 degrees shall be considered the "eave" for such roofs. For 
curved roofs, the slope factor shall be determined by basing the slope on the vertical 
angle from the "eave" to the crown. 

1111 .5.2 Roof slope factor for multiple roofs: For multiple folded-plate, sawtooth 
and barrel vault roofs with parallel ridge lines, the roof slope factor shall be 
considered to be equal to 1.0(C S = 1.0) regardless of the slope of the roof. 

1 1 1 1 .6 Unbalanced snow loads: Account shall be taken of the unbalanced snow 
loads relative to the stability and strength of structures by applying pattern loadings 
of one hundred (100) percent of design snow load alternating with fifty (50) percent 
of design snow load, located to maximize the various structural effects, except as 
provided below for roofs of special shapes. 

1111.6.1 Unbalanced snow load for curved roofs: Portions of curved roofs 
having a slope exceeding 70 degrees shall be considered free of snow. The equivalent 
slope of a curved roof is equal to the slope of a line from the eave, or the point at 
which the slope exceeds 70 degrees, to the crown. If the equivalent slope is less than 
10 degrees or greater than 60 degrees, the unbalanced snow loads need not be 
considered. Unbalanced snow loads shall be determined according to the loading 
diagrams in Figure 1111.2. In all cases, the windward side shall be considered free 
of snow. If the ground or another roof abuts a Case-II or Case-Ill (See Figure 
1111.2) arched roof structure at, or within 3 feet of its eave, the snow load shall not 
be decreased between the 30 degree point and the eave but shall remain constant 
at 2P S . This distribution is shown as a dashed line in Figure 1111.2. 

11-16 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1111.6.2 Unbalanced snow load for multiple roofs: For multiple folded-plate, 
sawtooth and barrel vault roofs with parallel ridge lines, the roof snow load shall be 
increased from one-half the balanced load at the ridge or crown (0.5 P f ) to three 
times the balanced load at the valley (3.0 P f ). Balanced and unbalanced loading 
diagrams for a sawtooth roof are presented in Figure 1111.3. However, the snow 
surface above the valley shall not be at an elevation higher than that above the 
ridge, and if this condition limits the unbalanced load to something less than 3.0 P f 
the minimum design unbalanced load shall be the lesser value. 



CASE I •■ <BLDPS AT |s^N/& <3C" 



r~5 








\ 




\ 


; 


A 


L 












A 



fcAvi 



cr>vH 



*r 6 



•E^WH 



C^^>£ n ' 'S.LooE AT ±=C'TC> no" 



ir-2r? 




.£AVE 



»CW' 









I'^ri 




ALTJEft-j^TE OiSTgieactTIQ-! |c- ^tX-iC^THJEg, R=0- /Ag^UT^, 



Figure 1111.2 
UNBALANCED LOADING CONDITIONS FOR CURVED ROOFS 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-17 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 




L15235 



io^c> o 



Figure 1111.3 
BALANCED AND UNBALANCED LOADS ON A SAWTOOTH ROOF 

1111.7 Drifts on lower roofs: Multi-level roofs, lower roofs and decks of adjacent 
structures, and roofs adjacent to projections shall be designed in accordance with 
Sections 1111.7.1 through 1111.7.6. 

1111.7.1 Design loads at changes in roof elevation: The drift load on lower roofs or 
decks at changes in roof or deck elevation shall be taken as the triangular loading 
surcharge superimposed on the uniform roof snow load, P f , as shown in Figure 
1111.4. 

Two types of drifts shall be considered: 

1.) from wind blowing snow from the upper roof 

2.) from wind in the opposite direction blowing snow from the lower roof 

The drift causing the more severe structural effect shall be used for design. 

The density of snow, D, in a snowdrift and in the uniform layer of snow underlying 
the drift shall be not less than: 



11-18 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



blHUUlUKAL LUAUS 



(Equation 3) 

D = 20 psf 

The height, h b , of the uniform snow layer underlying the drift shall be: 

(Equation 4) 

„ p, 



The intensity of snow load at any point shall be the total depth, at that point, of the 
snowdrift and the underlying uniform layer of snow, times the density, D. 

1111.7.1,1 Drifting of snowfrom upper roof: 

The height of drift, h d , and the width of drift, W d , both in feet, shall be determined 
as follows: 

a. Compute the potential drift height H ou , in feet, and the cross-sectional 
area of drift, A d , in square feet, as: 

(Equation 5) 

H ou = 1.15 (WJ°- 33 - 1.5 

(Alternately, H ou may be determined from Figure 1111.5) 

(Equation 6) 

A d - ("°">< 4 "™> = 2 (H B f 



b. If (H ou + h b ) is less than or equal to the difference in roof elevations, 
h r then: 



Corrected 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 11-19 



Ht MASSAUHUSEI IS STATE BUILDING CODE 



h d = H ou 



W d = 4(tf J 



c. If (H ou + h b ) is greater than h r : 



(Equation 7) 



(Equation 8) 







(Equation 9) 


v= 


hr-h> 


(Equation 10) 


w d = 


2(AJ 





But W d need not exceed 10(h r - h b ) 

1111.7.1.2 Drifting of snow from lower roof: 

The height of drift, h d , and the width of drift, W d , both in feet, shall be 
determined as follows: 



a. Compute the potential drift height, H ol , in feet, as: 



(Equation 11) 



H Bl = 0.5[1.15(WJ°- 3J - 1.5] 



(Alternatively, H o! may be determined from Figure 1111.5.) 



11-20 Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 

b. If (H 0l + h b ) is less than or equal to h r , then: 

(Equation 12) 

c. If (H 0l + h b ) is greater than h r , then: 

(Equation 13) 

h d = h r - h b 



(Equation 14) 



W d = 8(AiJ 



1111.7.1.3 Multiple level roofs: 



For multiple stepped roofs similar to that shown in Figure 1111.6a, the sum of all the 
roof lengths upwind above the drift under consideration shall be considered as the 
length of upper roof for that drift (as shown, for example, in Figure 1111.6a). 

For multiple level roofs similar to that shown in Figure 1111.6b, if the total 
calculated height of a drift and the underlying uniform snow layer on the upwind 
side of a higher roof (h ' d + h b ) is equal to or greater than 0.7h ' r , then the length, 
W bu *, as shown in Figure 1111.6b, shall be used in place of W bu in Equation 5. 

1111 .7.2 Drift loads on adjacent lower structures: A drift surcharge shall be 
applied to roofs of lower adjacent structures if these structures are located within 
a distance of W d , but not greater than 20 ft., of the higher structure as depicted in 
Figure 1111.7. The height of drift h d and the width of drift W d shall be computed for 
wind in either direction, in accordance with Section 1111.7.1, assuming, for these 
computations only that there is no space between the higher and lower structures. 
The actual triangular drift surcharge on the roof of the lower structure shall be as 
shown in Figure 1111.7. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 11-21 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



W: 



w 



dJ 



Wj 










Figure 1111.4 

DRIFTING SNOW ON LOWER ROOFS AND DECKS AT CHANGES 

IN ROOF OR DECK ELEVATIONS 



11-22 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



poT&rtTIAl 



0-«t:> 



\o 



CRl&T 




HEiCrWT Hou 


& 


OP: 
Mo. 


(b 



-4 ■- 



2 ■- 




, i , 
i l l' 



© 1CO 200 $O0 -4CO *XD <cO0 ICO <SO0 e ^CD 1O0O 



(r&£T) 



Figure 1111.5 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-23 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



WHP ^ 



W 



>*J 




Cpttci p£P^r tori 




Figure 1111.6a 



WHO 



w 



l*J 



(UpwTID SiP^") 




3^ W 




bQFTUWP&a. 



**4 



rtc?T& - usb w^Jf wuierl h ^ t h^ > o.-q H' r 



Figure 1111.6b 



11-24 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 











w 


b>l 








W ^ 


w^ 












^■■| :•::.•;.■ ■-.-•"■•■> 




"T __ ',"" 












i 






- — - _ 


H 


— \ 




1 


bl 






/n^r^^r-^- r 


1 






p- :*.•".:■ ■::.::■: .'■ "^ 


hu 


*i» 


kj-s ■ 






I 




. w ^ J 














Figure1111.7 
DRIFTING SNOW ONTO ADJACENT LOW STRUCTURES 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-25 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 




Figure 1111.8 
SNOW DRIFTING AT ROOF PROJECTIONS 



11-26 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 




Figure 1111.9 
INTERSECTING SNOW DRIFTS 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-27 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



CA6E I 

wiriD 


* 


^o 






rn 



4t C^E n 



W 




(METAL oa^LATE^ 



Figure 1111.10 
ADDITIONAL SURCHARGE DUE TO SLIDING SNOW 



11-28 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1111 .7.3 Very high roof separations: When h r is greater than 30 ft., the drift 
surcharge load on the lower roof due to drifting of snow from the upper roof may 
be reduced because some of the snow is blown beyond the low roof. The reduced 
height of the drift surcharge shall be not less than: 



(Equation 15) 



„ 30(/g 

"dr ' ■ 



"r 



1111 .7.4 Limited extent of upper roof: When the dimension of an upper roof or 
projecting element, Lp, in feet, parallel to the line of separation (perpendicular to 
W bu or W bl ) is less than 20 ft., the potential height of drift may be reduced and shall 
not be less than: 



(Equation 16) 



(Equation 17) 



H our ~ ~^ H ot) 



H olr ~ ^ H o) 



1111.7.5 Parapets and other roof projections: Design drift loads for roofs 
adjacent to parapets and other roof projections, as shown in Figure 1111.8, shall be 
determined in accordance with Sections 1111.7.1 and 1111.7.4. Drifts due to snow 
from the top of a roof projection need only be considered when W bu is 10 feet or 
greater. 

1111.7.6 Intersecting drifts: When one snow drift intersects another at an angle 
as shown in Figure 1111.9, the unit snow load at any point shall be not less than the 
greater of the unit loads from the two individual drifts, plus the unit load of the 
underlying uniform snow layer. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 -29 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1 1 1 1 .8 Sliding snow from sloped upper roofs: Two cases of drift loading shall 
be considered for roofs which are located below upper sloped roofs, as shown in 
Figure 1111.10 and as follows: 

(a) Case I Drift loading due to snow from the upper roof computed in 

accordance with Section 1111.7.1, but without load from sliding 
snow (W bu is the full width of the upper roof as shown in Figure 
1111.10.) 

(b) Case II Drift loading due to snow from the lower roof computed in 

accordance with Section 1111.7.1 and a sliding snow surcharge 
load as specified below and as shown in Figure 1111.10. 

The maximum intensity of the sliding snow load, P^, shall be: 

(Equation 18) 

AW 



where W a and W s are defined in Figure 1111.10 and the coefficient A is defined as 
follows: 

(a) For roof surfaces of metal and slate, and for other roof surfaces 
smoother than mineral surfaced roofing: If the angle of slope of the 
upper roof, "a", as shown in Figure 1111.10 is equal to or greater than 
15° (slope 3.2 in 12), A = 1.6; if "a" is less than 15°, A = (no sliding 
snow load). 

(b) For roof surfaces of mineral surfaced roofing or rougher surfaces: If 
"a" is equal to or greater than 25° (slope 5.6 in 12), A = 1.0; if "a" is 
less than 25°, A = 0. 

The value of W s , the width of the sliding snow surcharge, shall be computed as 
follows: 

(a) For "a" less than or equal to 45°, (See equation next page) 



11-30 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



(Equation 19) 



W, = h, 



or: 

(Equation 20) 

s 4 

whichever is greater. 

(b) For "a" greater than or equal to 45° 

(Equation 21) 

W s = hfaoXa) 

or: 



w m = 



(Equation 22) 



a 



s 4 



whichever is greater. 

1111.8.1 Snow guards: Sliding snow from an adjacent sloping high roof need not 
be considered on the low roof if proper snow guards are provided on the high roof. 
In this case, the sloping roof with snow guards shall be designed for the unit snow 
loads required for a flat roof. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .31 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1111.9 Snow pockets or wells: Consideration of potentially excessive snow 
accumulation shall be given to any roof areas which have pockets or wells which 
could serve as snow collectors. 

1111.10 Snow storage and collection areas: Consideration of potentially 
excessive snow accumulation shall be given to portions of structures which may be 
designed or used as snow collection or storage areas during and after snow removal 
operations. 

SECTION 1112.0 WIND LOAD 

1112.1 Wind load zones: The locations of wind load zones are shown in the 
Figures 1112.1A, 1112.1B, 1112.1C maps. Zone 1 consists of the Counties of 
Berkshire, Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden; Zone 2 consists of the County of 
Worcester; and Zone 3 consists of the Counties of Essex, Middlesex, Suffolk, 
Norfolk, Plymouth, Bristol, Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket. 

1112.2 Exposures: Exposure is defined as a measure of terrain roughness 
and is classified as follows: 

Exposure A: centers of large cities and very rough, hilly terrain. 
Exposure A applies for downtown areas only when the terrain for at 
least one-half (Vt) mile upwind of the structure is heavily built up, 
with at least fifty (50) per cent of the buildings being in excess of 
four stories, and when Exposure B prevails beyond this boundary. 

Exercise caution in using these reduced wind pressures for buildings 
and structures on high ground in the midst of cities or rough terrain. 

Exposure B: suburban areas, towns, city outskirts, wooded areas, and 
rolling terrain. Exposure B applies only when the terrain for at least one (1) 
mile upwind is a continuous urban development, forest, wooded area, or 
rolling terrain. 

Exposure C: open level terrain with only scattered buildings, structures, trees 
or miscellaneous obstructions, open water, or shorelines. 

1112.2.1 Special exposures: Consideration shall be given to the application of a 
more severe exposure (e.g., Exposure C instead of Exposures B or A) when the 
ground slope near the site of a structure changes abruptly, to account for the 
resulting higher wind speeds near ground level. 



11-32 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



11123 Reference wind velocities: The reference wind velocity for each wind load 
zone is the "fastest-mile" wind velocity at thirty (30) feet above the ground (V^) for 
Exposure C. as follows: 



Zone 


V^-MPH 


1 


70 


2 


80 


3 


90 




"j£*^ 



W>Lti«*rlSTr7r1 



14/*Hc&C>K- 



&a-4ncnc2 



•WEi^T 






^&>gfcrgrTr> 



'ng>LriT 




t-fc>LL^ric^ 



Figure 11 12.1 A 
WIND LOAD MAP - ZONE 1 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-33 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 











HTCMttaJOSr 






fe=oL-rori 

. gpLfMSPt2aJ S4-J 






Figure 11 12.1 B 
WIND LOAD MAP - ZONE 2 



11-34 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 




Figure 11 12.1 C 
WIND LOAD MAP - ZONE 3 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-35 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1112.4 Reference wind pressures: Reference wind pressures for the various 
exposures and wind zones are given in the following Table 1112.1. The tabulated 
pressures are combined windward and leeward pressures representing the overall 
effect of the wind on essentially rectangular structures, and account for typical gust 
effects as found in ordinary buildings. These pressures do not account for buffeting 
or channeling caused by positions of nearby structures, vortex shedding, or wind 
sensitive dynamic properties of a particular structure. 

1112.5 Wind loads on structures as a whole: All buildings and enclosed or 
partially enclosed structures shall be designed to withstand a total wind load acting 
on the structure as a whole determined by applying the appropriate reference wind 
pressures given in Table 1112.1 to the vertical projected area, normal to the wind 
direction of the vertical surfaces of the structure, plus the appropriate wind forces 
on the roof as specified in Section 1112.8. Consideration shall be given to wind 
acting in all directions. 

1112.5.1 Simultaneous wind forces on orthogonal sides: For structures which 
are essentially rectangular in plan, or whose plan shape is made up of rectangular 
parts, only wind directions normal to the sides of the structure need be considered, 
provided that zero point seven (0.7) times the effects of the wind acting 
simultaneously normal to adjacent orthogonal sides shall also be considered when 
it produces more severe effects in the structural support system. Factors other than 
zero point seven (0.7) may be used if substantiated by appropriate wind tunnel tests. 

1112.5.2 Wind force distribution: The total wind force on the vertical surfaces of 
a structure prescribed in Section 1112.5 shall be distributed six-tenths (6/10) to the 
windward surfaces (as a positive pressure) and four- tenths (4/10) to the leeward 
surfaces (as a suction). Other distributions may be used if substantiated by 
appropriate wind tunnel tests. 

1 1 12.6 Vertical parts of structures: Vertical parts of structures that are subjected 
directly to the wind, and their local supporting elements, shall be designed to resist 
the pressures listed in the following Table 1112.2, normal to the surface, inward or 
outward. The pressures listed in the table represent the combined internal and 
external pressures. A local supporting element of a vertical part subjected directly 
to the wind shall be defined as a wall assembly, a stud, a mullion, a girt, or a similar 
item which distributes the wind load from the vertical part to the principal structural 
system of the structure. 



1 1-36 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 





CO 

CO 

c 
o 

N 


CD 

D 
CO 

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Q. 
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O 


cm 


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m 


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m 

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CO 


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in 


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in 


m 
in 


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in 


Table 1112.1 
SURE (POUNDS PE 


CO 


t^ 


N- 


CM 


CM 


CM 


o 

CO 


CO 
CO 


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5 


"3- 




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in 


< 


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- 


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cc 


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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-37 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 





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780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-39 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



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11-40 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1112.7 Wind loads on roofs: Roofs and their supporting structure shall be 
designed to resist the combined effects of the external and internal wind pressures 
specified in Sections 1112.8 through 1112.11. All pressures specified shall be 
considered to act normal to the roof surface. When applying the reference wind 
pressures of Section 1112.4 to the provisions of Sections 1112.8 through 1112.11, the 
reference wind pressures shall be for a height equal to the average height of the roof 
eave above grade. 

1112.8 External wind pressures on roofs of enclosed structures: Except as 
specified otherwise in Section 1112.11, external wind pressures shall be as specified 
in the following Table 1112.3, or in Section 1112.8. Where both positive pressure and 
suction are specified, the effects of each shall be evaluated. 

111 2.8.1 Roof shapes not specified: For roof shapes not specified herein, external 
wind pressures shall be determined as specified in Section 1112.13 but the minimum 
suction effect shall be equal to zero point six (0.6) times the reference wind pressure 
of Section 1112.4. 

1112.9 Internal wind pressures on roofs of enclosed structures: Except as 
specified otherwise in Section 1112.10, internal wind pressures shall be zero point 
two (0.2) times the reference wind pressure given in Section 1112.4. The internal 
pressure shall be applied as a positive pressure or a suction, whichever gives the 
greater structural effect when added to the external pressure, for the design of each 
structural component. 

1112.10 Wind pressures on roofs over nonenclosed or partially enclosed 
Structures: Except as specified otherwise in Section 1112.11, wind pressures for 
roofs of partially enclosed or nonenclosed structures shall be as follows: 

1. When a structure is partially enclosed, with each side not more than 
thirty-five (35) per cent open, the wind pressures shall be the 

same as for an enclosed structure. 

2. When a structure is partially enclosed, with openings essentially all on 
one (1) side, and when that side is more than thirty-five (35) percent 
open, external wind pressure shall be as specified in Table 1112.1 and 
internal wind pressures shall be as specified in Section 1112.9 except 
that the value of internal wind pressure shall be equal to zero point five 
(0.5) times the reference wind pressure given in Table 1112.3. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .41 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



3. For all other cases of partially enclosed structures, or for 

nonenclosed structures, the combined effect of the wind pressures 
above and below roofs shall be equal to one point twenty-five (1.25) 
times the values specified in Table 1112.3 for the corresponding roof 
shapes and wind directions. 

1112.11 Wind pressures for parts of roofs: Parts of roofs that are subjected 
directly to the wind, and their local supporting elements, shall be designed to resist 
the following pressures in an outward direction: 

1. Where parts subjected directly to the wind are located within a 
distance of one-tenth (1/10) the least width of a structure, but not 
more than ten (10) feet, from a ridge, eave, or cornice, they shall 
resist a pressure one point seven (1.7) times the reference wind 
pressure given in Table 1112.1 (representing the combined internal and 
external pressures). 

2. Where parts subjected directly to the wind are located outside the 
zones specified in Item 1 above, they shall resist pressures as 
specified in Sections 1112.8 through 1112.10 and Table 1112.3 

A local supporting element of a part of a roof shall be defined as a roof deck 
element, purlin, rafter, or similar item which distributes the wind load from the roof 
part to the principal structural system of the structure. 

1112.12 Wind load on signs, towers, exposed framing, tanks, stacks and 
chimneys: Signs, towers, exposed framing, tanks, stacks, chimneys, and similar 
structures, or parts thereof, shall be designed for wind forces determined by applying 
coefficients given in Sections 6.7, 6.8, 6.9 of ANSI A58.1 as listed in Appendix A for 
the 

applicable structure using zero point seventy-five (0.75) times the applicable 
reference wind pressures given in Table 1112.1. 

1112.12.1 Shielding: Shielding effect of one element by another shall not be 
considered when the distance between them exceeds four (4) times the projected 
smallest dimension of the windward element. 

1 1 1 2.1 2.2 Signs: For open or solid outdoor signs with ratios of dimensions with the 
limits stated below, a wind load applied uniformly over the area of the sign and 
determined by the lesser of one point two P (1.2P) on the gross area within the 
outside dimensions of the sign, or one point six P (1.6P) on the net projected area 
of the sign; whichever is less, may be used in lieu of the loads given in reference 
standard ANSI A58.1, where "P" is the reference wind pressure given in Table 1112.1 
for a height equal to the average height of the sign above the ground. 

1 1 -42 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1. Ground supported signs (whose bottom is .25 times the vertical 
height from the ground to the top of the sign): height to width 
ratio less than ten (10). 

2. Above ground signs: largest to smallest dimension ratio less than 
twenty (20). 

1 1 12.13 Wind forces and pressures using wind tunnel tests: Design wind forces 
and pressures may be determined by appropriate wind tunnel tests on specific 
structures as stipulated by the responsible design engineer and approved by the 
building official. The wind tunnel test program shall adequately represent the 
relevant properties of the structure and its surroundings and the oncoming wind 
flow. The wind tunnel tests may be combined with a detailed statistical study of 
meteorological records, including high level wind velocity and direction, from stations 
near the proposed structure. The wind effects used for design of the structure shall 
be not less than those corresponding to an event having an annual probability of 
occurrence of one-hundredth (.01). In lieu of a detailed statistical study of 
meteorological records, the appropriate reference wind velocity stipulated in Section 
1112.3 may be used. 

The wind forces and pressures so determined, plus an appropriate allowance for 
stack effects and internal pressures, may be used for the design of the structure as 
a whole, and its individual parts. However, these values of forces and pressures shall 
not be less than eight-tenths (.8) of the values required by Sections 1112.5, 1112.7 
and 1112.12, as applicable, for reference wind pressures for Exposure A and the 
appropriate wind zone specified in Table 1112.1. 

1112.14 Uplift, overturning and sliding: 

1112.14.1 Anchorage, roofs and walls: All parts of a structure subjected directly 
to the wind shall be anchored to the supporting structure, to resist specified wind 
loads inwardly or outwardly. 

1 1 12.1 4.2 Anchorage, structural system: The design of the structural system and 
its elements for uplift, overturning moment, or horizontal shear, or their 
combination, shall provide anchorage resistance required by the load combinations 
specified in Section 1114.0. 

1112.15 Eccentricity of wind forces: Consideration shall be given to the effects 
of specified wind forces being applied eccentric to the center of rigidity of a 
structure. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .43 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



SECTION 1113.0 EARTHQUAKE LOADS 

1113.1 General: Provisions of this section reflect informed judgments regarding 
the probable intensities of future earthquake ground motions in this region, and 
their associated probabilities of occurrence. The objective of these provisions is to 
protect life safety by limiting structural failure. 

1113.1.1 Every structure and every portion thereof, except detached one- and two- 
family dwellings and minor accessory buildings, shall be designed and constructed 
to resist stresses produced by lateral forces as provided in this section. Stresses shall 
be calculated as the effect of a force applied horizontally at each floor or roof level 
or to building parts above the foundation. The force shall be assumed to come from 
any horizontal direction. 

1113.1.2 Every structure and every portion designed and constructed to resist 
stresses produced by lateral forces as provided in this section shall be constructed 
and inspected in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code. 

1113.2 Definitions: (See Section 201.0) 

1113.3 Symbols and notations: The following symbols and notations apply only 
to the provisions of Section 1113.0: 

A,. , A,.,, , A. , Aj h = See Section 1113.5.1.3.C. 

C = Numerical coefficient for base shear as 

specified in Section 1113.4.1.1. 

C_ = Numerical coefficient as specified in 1113.4.5 

and as set forth in Table 1113.2. 

D = The dimension of the building in feet in a 

direction parallel to the applied forces. 

D = Dead load or related internal moments and 

forces, when used in Section 1113.5.4. 

D s = The plan dimension of the vertical lateral 

force resisting system in feet. 

E = Load effects of earthquake, or related 

internal moments and forces. 



11-44 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



^i » ^n ' *x 



Ft 



hj , h n , h x 
K 



Level i 



Level n 



Level x 



M 



N 



Lateral force applied to level i, n, or x, 
respectively. 

Lateral force on the part of the structure and 
in the direction under consideration. 

That portion of V considered concentrated at 
the top of the structure. The remaining 
portion of the total base shear V shall be 
distributed over the height of the structure 
including level according to Section 1113.4.2. 

See Section 1113.5.1.3.C 

See Section 1113.5.1.3.C (2). 

Height in feet above the base to level i, n, or 
x, respectively. 

Numerical coefficient as set forth in Table 
1113.1 

Live loads or related internal moments and 
forces (see Section 1113.5.1.4). 

Level of the structure referred to by the 
subscript "i". 

that level which is uppermost in the main 
portion of the structure. 

That level which is under design 
consideration. 

Overturning moment at the base of the 
building or structure. 

The overturning moment at level "x". 

The total number of stories above the base to 
level "n". 

Numerical coefficient as specified in Section 
1113.4.1. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-45 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



s h = See Section 1113.5.1.3.c.(2). 

T = Fundamental period of vibration of the 

building or structure in seconds in the 
direction under consideration. 

U = Required strength to resist factored loads or 

related internal moments and forces (see 
Section 1113.5.1.4). 

V = Total lateral load or shear at the base. 



V-Pt + tt 

/=1 



where i = 1 designates first level above the base. 

W = Total dead load including the partition 

loading where applicable plus fifty (50) per 
cent of the snow load. 

Exception: W shall be equal to the total dead load plus twenty-five (25) per 
cent of the floor live load in storage and warehouse occupancies. 

= That portion of W which is located or is 
assigned to level "i" or "x", respectively. 

= The weight of a part or portion of a 
structure. 



Wj ,w x 



W p 



Y t = Total unit weight. 

1113.4 Minimum earthquake forces for structures: The provisions of Section 
1113.4 are applicable only to structures meeting the requirements of Section 1113.5. 
All other structures shall be designed in accordance with Section 1113.7. 

1113.4.1 Total lateral force: Every structure shall be designed and constructed to 
withstand minimum total lateral seismic forces assumed to act non concurrently in 



1 1 -46 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



the direction of each of the main axes of the structure in accordance with the 
following formula: 



V = - KCSW 



1113.4.1.1 C factor: The value of C shall be determined in accordance with the 
following formula: 

c = 005 



V? 



For all one- and two-story buildings or structures the value of C shall be zero 
point one (0.1). The maximum value of C need not exceed zero point one 
(0.1). 

T is the fundamental period of vibration of the structure in seconds in the 
direction under consideration. Properly substantiated technical data for 
establishing the period T may be submitted. In the absence of such data, the 
value for T for buildings shall be determined by the following formula: 



= 0.05A n 



JD 



Exception: In all buildings which the lateral force resisting system consists of 
a moment-resisting space frame which resists one hundred (100) percent of 
the required lateral forces and which frame is not enclosed by or adjoined by 
more rigid elements would tend to prevent the frame from resisting lateral 
forces. 



T = 0.01 ON 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .47 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1113.4.1.2 K factor: The horizontal force factors K for structures meeting the 
requirements of Section 1113.5 are set forth in Table 1113.1. 

Table 1113.1 
HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTORS "K" FOR STRUCTURES 



Type of arrangement of existing element 


Value of K 


Buildings with a box system as defined in Section 201 .0 


1.33 


Buildings with a dual bracing system as defined in Section 201 .0 


0.80 


Buildings with a moment-resisting space frame designed to resist 
the total required lateral force 


0.67 


Other buildings 


1.00 


Elevated tanks plus full contents on four (4) or more cross-braced 
legs and not supported by a building 2 


3.00 3 


Structures other than buildings and other than those set forth in 
Table 1113.1 


2.00 



Note 1. Where wind load would produce higher stresses, the wind load shall be used in lieu of the 

loads resulting from earthquake forces. 

Note 2. The minimum value of KC shall be zero point twelve (0.12) and the maximum value of KC 

need not exceed zero point twenty-five (0.25). 

Note 3. The tower shall be designed for accidental torsion of five (5) percent as specified in Section 

1113.4.3. Elevated tanks which are supported by buildings or do not conform to type or arrangement 

of supporting elements as described above shall be designed in accordance with Section 1113.4.5 using 

C p = 0.2. 

1113.4.13 S Factor: The S Factor shall have the following values according to the 
types of soil sites as defined below. 

Soil Site S l5 S = 1 
Soil Site S 2 , S = 1.2 
Soil Site S 3 , S = 1.5 

Values other than those tabulated may be used provided they are based 
on studies by a registered professional engineer and are not less than 1.0. 
The values of CS need not exceed zero point twelve (0.12). 

For the purposes of determining the S Factor, the following types of soils 
sites are defined according to the materials encountered below the 
foundation level. 

Soil Site S x : Bedrock of any type including material Classes 1 through 4 
of Table 1201. 



11-48 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LCA2S 



Stiff soil conditions where the soil depth below foundation level is less 
than 200 ft_ and the soil types overlying bedrock consist of glacial till; 
gravel or well graded sand and gravel, sands that are not susceptible to 
liquefaction in accordance with Section 1113.8, clay having an undrained 
shear strength of at least one thousand (1,000) psf, dense silts and 
compacted granular fill provided that fill soils are compacted throughout 
as required in Section 1201.3.1. 

Soil Site S 2 : Soil sites that cannot be classified as Soil Sites S, or S 3 . 

Soil Site S ? : Soil profiles that contain 30 ft or more of soft clays having an 
undrained shear strength smaller than 1,000 psf, loose silts, organic soils, 
loose sands, or miscellaneous fill. 



0.4 





tn 








^~ 


_l 


< 


< 


(Y 


\l 


LL) 


t— 


_J 


u 


Li) 


Li) 

u_ 


5 



©.£>■- 



O.2. 



OA - 



- SOIL £>IT& S: 



-P. 1.2. 




«fe \.0 1.6) 2.0 2.=: 



>.o 



s^TS-ictu^e* 



^ 



y 



Figure 1113.1 
DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRUM 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-49 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1113.4.2 Distribution of lateral force: 

111 3.4.2.1 With vertical distribution for structures having regular shapes or framing 
systems, the total lateral force V shall be distributed in the height of the structure 
in the following manner: 



F, - .004 v 



tn* 



K D » 



F t need not exceed zero point fifteen (0.15) V and may be considered as zero (0) for 
values (hj/DJ of three (3) or less, and: 



(V - Fj l*A 

* x 



/=1 



Exception: one- and two-story buildings shall have uniform distribution. At each 
level designated as "x," the force F x shall be applied over the building in accordance 
with the mass distribution on that level. 

1113.4.2.2 Horizontal distribution: Total shear in any horizontal plane shall be 
distributed to the various elements of the lateral force resisting system in proportion 
to their rigidities considering the rigidity of the horizontal bracing system or 
diaphragm. 

111 3.4.2.3 Setbacks: Buildings having setbacks wherein the plan dimension of the 
tower in each direction is at least seventy-five (75) percent of the corresponding plan 
dimension of the lower part may be considered as a uniform building without 
setbacks for the purpose of determining seismic forces. 

For other conditions of setbacks the tower shall be designed as a separate 
building using the larger of the seismic coefficients at the base of the tower 
determined by considering the tower as either a separate building for its own 
height or as part of the overall structure. The resulting total shear from the 



1 1 -50 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



tower shall be applied at the top of the lower part of the building which shall 
be otherwise considered separately for its own height. 

Exception: Nothing in Section 1113.4.2.3 shall be deemed to prohibit the 
submission of properly substantiated technical data for establishing the lateral 
design forces by a dynamic analysis in accordance with Section 1113.4.2.4. 

1 1 13.4.2.4 Distribution of lateral forces for structures having irregular shapes 
or framing systems: The distribution of the lateral forces in buildings or structures 
which have highly irregular shapes, large differences in lateral resistance or stiffness 
between adjacent stories, or other unusual structural features affecting seismic 
response shall be determined considering the dynamic characteristics of the 
structure. The total base shear shall not be less than required by Section 1113.4.1. 
The analysis should be based either upon the modal analysis procedure using the 
appropriate response spectrum in Figure 1113.1 with reduced ordinates or upon time 
histories of base motion with a frequency content similar to that implied by the 
appropriate response spectrum in Figure 1113.1. 

111 3.4.3 Horizontal torsional moments: Provisions shall be made for the increase 
in shear resulting from the horizontal torsion due to an eccentricity between the 
center of mass and the center of rigidity. Negative torsional shears shall be 
neglected. Where the vertical resisting elements depend on diaphragm action for 
shear distribution at any level, the shear-resisting elements shall be capable of 
resisting a torsional moment assumed to be equivalent to the story shear acting with 
an eccentricity of not less than five (5) per cent of the maximum building dimension 
at that level. 

1113.4.4 Overturning: Every structure shall be designed to resist the overturning 
effects caused by the wind forces and related requirements specified in Section 
1112.14 or the earthquake forces specified in this section, whichever governs. 

At any level, the incremental changes of the design overturning moment in the story 
under consideration shall be distributed to the various resisting elements in the same 
proportions as the distribution of the shears in the resisting system. Where other 
vertical members are provided which are capable of partially resisting the 
overturning moments, a redistribution may be made to these members if framing 
members of sufficient strength and stiffness to transmit the required loads are 
provided. Where a vertical resisting element is discontinuous, the overturning 
moment carried by the lowest story of that element shall be carried down as loads 
to the foundation. 

1113.4.5 Lateral force on parts or portions of buildings or structures: Parts or 
portions of structures and their anchorage shall be designed for lateral forces in 
accordance with the following formula: (See formula next page) 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .51 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Ft = \ C„W P 



The values of C p are set forth in Table 1113.2. The distribution of these forces shall 
be according to the gravity loads pertaining thereto. 

Table 1113.2 

HORIZONTAL FORCE FACTOR "C " FOR PARTS 

OR PORTIONS OF STRUCTURES 



Parts or portion of structure 


Direction of force 


Value of C D 


Exterior bearing and non-bearing walls, 
interior and partitions, interior non-bearing 
walls and partitions over ten (1 0) feet in 
height, masonry or concrete fences over six 
(6) feet in height. 


Normal to 
flat surface 


0.20 3 


Cantilever parapet and other cantilever walls, 
except retaining walls 


Normal to 
flat surface 


1.00 


Exterior and interior ornamentations and 
appendages. 


Any direction 


1.00 


When connected to, part of, or housed 
within a building: towers, tanks, towers and 
tanks plus contents, storage racks over six 
(6) feet in height plus contents, chimneys, 
smoke stacks, penthouses, equipment and 
machinery. 


Any direction 


0.20 1 ' 2 


When resting on the ground, tank plus 
effective mass of its contents. 


Any direction 


0.12 6 


Floors and roofs acting as diaphragms 4 . 


Any direction 


0.10 


Connections for exterior panels or for 
elements complying with Section 1113.6.6. 


Any direction 


1.00 


Connections for prefabricated structural 
elements other than walls, with force applied 
at center of gravity of assembly. 


Any horizontal 
direction 


0.30 5 


Connections for exterior panels or for 
elements complying with Section 1 1 1 3.6.6. 


Any direction 


1.00 


Connections for prefabricated structural 
elements other than walls, with force applied 
at center of gravity of assembly. 


Any horizontal 
direction 


0.30 5 



11-52 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



Notes to Table 1113.2 

Note 1: When located in the upper portion of any building where the "h n /D" ratio is five to one (5/1) 

or greater, the value shall be increased by fifty (50) percent. 

Note 2: "W P " for storage racks plus contents. The value of C p for racks over two (2) storage support 

levels in height shall be zero point sixteen (0.16) for the levels below the top two levels. 

Note 3: Exterior bearing and nonbearing walls, interior bearing walls and partitions, interior 

nonbearing walls and partitions over ten (10) feet in height shall be designed for a minimum value 

of C p of 0.20 unless a greater value of C p is required by the basic seismic formula V = 1/3 (KCSW) 

and the coefficient F x w, at the height h x where the wall or partition is located. 

Note 4: Floors and roofs acting as diaphragms shall be designed for a minimum value of "C p " of ten 

(10) percent applied to loads tributary from that story unless a greater value of "C p " is required by 

the basic seismic formula V = 1/3 (KCSW). 

Note 5: The "W p " shall be equal to the total load plus twenty-five (25) percent of the floor live load 

in storage and warehouse occupancies. 

Note 6: When the soil Factor S is less than or equal to one point two (1.2), "C p " may be taken as zero 

point one times S (0.1 )(S). 

111 3.4.6 Lateral force on foundations: Consideration shall be given to the manner 
in which the earthquake lateral force, computed in accordance with Section 
1113.4.6.1, will be transmitted from the soil or rock to the structure. Transmission 
of the lateral force will occur through one or more of the following foundation 
elements: 

a. Lateral soil pressure against foundation walls, footings, grade beams, and 
pile caps; 

b. Lateral soil pressure against piles, piers, or caissons; 

c. Side or bottom friction on walls or footings; 

d. Batter piles. 

Bottom friction under pile caps should be assumed to be ineffective in transmitting 
horizontal forces. 

The horizontal force shall be distributed among the various elements in the 
foundation in proportion to their estimated rigidities. Any element which will 
participate in the transfer of horizontal forces from the soil to the structure shall be 
designed to resist forces in such a way that its ability to sustain static loads will not 
be impaired. 

111 3.5 Design requirements: 

1113.5.1 Concrete: Design and construction of earthquake resisting reinforced 
concrete structures shall conform to the provisions of Section 1506.0 and of 
reference standard ACI 318 (except Appendix A) as listed in Appendix A, and to 
the requirements of this section. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .53 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1113.5.1.1 Physical requirements for reinforced concrete materials: Concrete 
shall have an ultimate compressive strength at twenty-eight (28) days/' c , of not less 
than three thousand (3,000) pounds per square inch. The maximum specified 
ultimate compressive strength at twenty-eight (28) days,/' c , for lightweight concrete 
shall be limited to four thousand (4,000) pounds per square inch. Reinforcing steel 
shall comply with ASTM A615, Grade 40 or 60, as listed in Appendix A. 

1113.5.1.2 Flexural members of moment-resisting space frames: 

a. Throughout the length of flexural members, both top and bottom 

reinforcement shall consist of not less than two (2) bars and ratio 
provided shall not be less than 200/fy. 

b. Positive moment strength of flexural members at column connections shall 
not be less than twenty-five (25) percent of the required negative moment 
strength. 

c. All reinforcement shall be extended beyond the section at which it is 
required and developed by bond, hook, or mechanical device to develop 
the yield strength of the bar. 

In confined regions, length of anchorage shall be not less than sixty (60) 
per cent of the development length but not less than twenty-four (24) 
inches. 

d. Web reinforcement perpendicular to the longitudinal reinforcement shall 
be required throughout the length of each flexural member. The minimum 
area of such web reinforcement shall be zero point fifteen (0.15) percent 
of the product of the width of the web and the spacing of the web 
reinforcement along the longitudinal axis of the member. The maximum 
spacing shall be three-quarter (%)d unless a smaller spacing is required by 
reference standard ACI 318. 

Stirrup-ties shall be provided for a distance not less than one and one half (IV2) d 
from the face of the support. The first stirrup-tie shall be not more than (3) inches 
from the face of the support and the remainder at a spacing not greater than d/4. 
A stirrup-tie is a closed stirrup which conforms to requirements set forth for hoops 
in tied columns in a following paragraph. 

Lapped splices located in a region of tension or reversing stress shall be confined by 
at least two (2) stirrup-ties at each splice. 



11-54 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1113.5.1.3 Columns of moment-resisting space frames: 

a. Special transverse reinforcement shall be provided in those portions of tied 
columns within a distance from the face of the joint equal to the maximum 
column dimension, one-sixth (1/6) of the clear height of the column, or 
eighteen (18) inches, whichever is the greatest. The first hoop shall be 
located two (2) inches from the face of the joint. 

b. At exterior and corner columns, the open sides of the joint shall be 
confined by special transverse reinforcement throughout the height of the 
joint. 

c. Where special transverse reinforcement is required, by the provisions of 
this section, it shall mean spirals, single hoops or overlapping hoops with 
supplementary cross ties, where required, in accordance with the following 
requirements: 

1.) For spiral columns, the ratio of the volume of spiral 

reinforcement to the volume of the core, measured out-to-out of 
spiral, shall be not less than: 



0.45 



(A. 




or: 



0.12 






\ f yhj 



2.) For tied columns, transverse ties in the form of rectangular 

hoops and supplementary cross ties shall be provided in sets 
spaced vertically not more than four (4) inches apart. The total 
cross-sectional area, A^, of hoop reinforcement, included 
supplementary cross ties, shall be not less than: (See additional 
formula next page) 



0.03 



(A ^ 



^ch 



S h h c 



'yh 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



11-55 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



or: 



0.1 2 V?, 






\ f yh t 



where: 



A,, = Area of circular core, measured out-to-out of spiral, in square 

inches. 
\ h = Area of rectangular core of column measured out-to-out of 

hoops, in square inches. 
A g = Gross area of column, in square inches. 
^ = Total cross-sectional area of hoop reinforcement, including 

supplementary cross ties having a spacing of s h and crossing a 

section with a core dimension of h c , square inches. 
f yh = Specified yield strength of spiral or hoops, psi. 
h c = Core dimension of tied column in inches. 
s h = Vertical spacing of hoops. 

A hoop shall be a one-piece closed tie, #3 or larger, enclosing longitudinal bars, with 
a one hundred thirty-five (135) degree bend plus ten (10) tie-diameter extension at 
its ends, the bends being hooked around a single longitudinal bar. 

Supplementary cross ties of the same size and longitudinal spacing as hoops, using 
one hundred eighty (180) degree standard hooks engaging the peripheral hoop and 
secured to a longitudinal bar, may be used. Supplementary cross-ties or legs of 
overlapping hoops shall be spaced not more than fourteen (14) inches on center 
transversely. 

1113.5.1.4 Earthquake resisting shear walls and braced frames: Shear walls 
and braced frames shall be designed by the strength design method except that the 
alternate design method of reference standard ACI 318 may be used, provided that 
the factor of safety in shear is equivalent to that achieved with the strength design 
method. The formulas for required strength U, as provided in reference standard 
ACI 318 shall be modified to: 



U = 1.4(0 + L) + 1.4E 



1 1 -56 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



U = 0.9D + 1.4E 



Except that 2E shall be used in the calculation of shear stresses in shear walls 
of buildings without a moment-resisting space frame capable of carrying all 
vertical loads and lateral forces. 



Force E shall be determined from V in accordance with Section 1113.4.1. 

a. Shear walls 

1.) Special vertical boundary elements shall be provided at the edges of 
concrete shear walls in buildings with a dual bracing system as defined 
in Section 201.0. These elements shall be composed of concrete 
encased structural steel elements of A36, A440, A441, A572 (except 
Grades 60 and 65) or A588 steel, or shall be concrete reinforced as 
required for columns with special transverse reinforcement, as 
described above for the full length of the element. The boundary 
vertical elements and such other similar vertical elements as may be 
required shall be designed to carry all the vertical stresses resulting 
from the wall loads in addition to tributary dead and live loads and 
from the design lateral forces. Horizontal reinforcing in the walls shall 
be fully anchored to the vertical elements. 

2.) Similar confinement of horizontal and vertical boundaries at wall 
openings also shall be provided unless it can be demonstrated that the 
unit compressive stresses at the opening have a load factor two (2) 
times that given by the formulae of Section 1113.5.1.4 for required 
strength U. 

3.) Wall reinforcement required to resist wall shear shall be terminated 
with not less than a ninety (90) degree bend plus a twelve (12) bar 
diameter extension beyond the boundary reinforcing at vertical and 
horizontal end faces of wall sections. Wall reinforcement terminating 
in boundary column shall be fully anchored into the boundary 
elements. 

1113.5.1.5 Braced frames: 

a. Reinforced concrete members of braced frames subject primarily to 
axial stresses shall have special transverse reinforcement as specified 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 11.57 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



above, through the full length of the member. Tension members shall 
additionally meet the requirements for compressive members. 

b. In buildings without a moment-resisting space frame capable of carrying 
all vertical loads and the total required lateral force, all members in 
braced frames shall be designed for one point twenty-five (1.25) times 
the force determined in accordance with Section 1113.4.1 Connections 
for these members are not permitted the thirty-three (33) per cent 
stress increase for earthquake. 

111 3.5.2 Steel: Design and construction of earthquake resisting structural steel 
framing members and their connections shall conform to the requirements of Section 
1801.0 and of the Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of 
Structural Steel for Buildings of the American Institute of Steel Construction and 
to the requirements of this section. 

1113.5.2.1 Moment-resisting space frames: 

a. General: Design and construction of steel framing in moment- resisting 
space frames shall conform to the provisions of Section 1801.0 and the 
requirements of this section. 

b. Definitions: 

1.) Joints: The joint is the entire assemblage at the intersections of 
the members. 

2.) Connections: The connection consists of only those elements that 
connect the member to the joint. 

c. Connections: 

Each beam or girder moment connection to a column shall be capable of 
developing in the beam the full plastic capacity of the beam or girder. 

Exception: The connection need not develop the full plastic capacity of the 
beam or girder if it can be shown that adequately ductile joint displacement 
is provided with a lesser connection. 

d. Local buckling: Members in which hinges will form during inelastic 
displacement of the frames shall comply with the requirements for 
plastic design sections. 



1 1 -58 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



e. Slenderness ratios: The effective length kl used in determining the 
slenderness ratio of an axially loaded compression member in the 
moment-resisting space frame depends on its own bending stiffness for 
the lateral stability of the building, even if bracing or shear walls are 
provided. 

f. Nondestructive welding testing: Welded connections between primary 
members of the moment-resisting space frame shall be tested by 
nondestructive methods for compliance with the code and job 
specifications. A program for this testing shall be established by the 
person responsible for structural design. As a minimum, this program 
shall include the following: 

1.) All complete penetration groove welds contained in joints 

and splices shall be tested one hundred (100) per cent either by 
ultrasonic testing or by radiography. 

Exception: The nondestructive testing rate for an individual welder may be 
reduced to twenty-five (25) percent subject to the concurrence of the design 
engineer of record, provided the reject rate is demonstrated to be five (5) 
percent or less of the welds tested for the welder. A sampling of at least forty 
(40) completed welds shall be made for such reduction evaluation. Reject 
rate is defined as the number of welds containing rejectable defects divided 
by the number of welds completed. For evaluating the reject rate of 
continuous welds over three (3) feet in length, each twelve (12) inch 
increment shall be considered as one weld. For evaluating the reject rate for 
continuous welds greater than one (1) inch thick, each six (6) inches of length 
shall be considered one (1) weld. 

2.) Partial penetration groove welds when used in column splices shall be 
tested either by ultrasonic testing or radiography as required by the 
design engineer of record. 

1113.5.2.2 Braced frames: 

a. All members in braced frames of K = 1.0 and K = 1.33 buildings shall 
be designed for one point twenty-five (1.25) times the force 
determined in accordance with Section 1113.4.1. Connections for these 
members are not permitted the thirty-three (33) per cent stress 
increase for earthquake, unless designed for the full capacity of the 
members. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 .59 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1113.5.3 Masonry: 

1113.5.3.1. Walls: All bearing walls, shear walls, exterior walls, chimneys and 
parapets, which are constructed of masonry shall be reinforced in two (2) directions 
so as to qualify as reinforced masonry according to the provisions of the BIA or 
NCMA Standards listed in Appendix A. 

In masonry bearing or shear walls, principal reinforcement shall be spaced a 
maximum of four (4) feet on center in either the horizontal or vertical 
direction. In the other direction, spacing or reinforcement may be increased 
to six (6) feet. 

Nonstructural masonry walls which enclose stairwells or elevator shafts, other 
than exterior walls, shall be designed as partially reinforced masonry in 
accordance with the standards listed in Appendix A. The spacing of 
reinforcement is not to exceed six (6) feet. 

111 3.5.3.2 Columns: The size and spacing of ties at the ends of tied columns shall 
not be less than that required for concrete columns (See Section 1113.5.1.3). 

111 3.5.3.3 Anchorage: Masonry walls shall be anchored to all floors and roofs 
which provide lateral support for the wall. Such anchorage shall provide a positive 
direct connection capable of resisting the horizontal design forces or a minimum 
force of two hundred (200) pounds per lineal foot of wall, whichever is greater. 
Required anchors in masonry walls of hollow units or cavity walls shall be embedded 
in a reinforced grouted structural element of the wall. 

1113.5.4 Timber: 

1113.5.4.1. General: Design and construction of earthquake resisting timber 
structures shall conform to the requirements of Section 1701.0 and of the Timber 
Construction Manual of the American Institute of Timber Construction listed in 
Appendix A, and to the requirements of this section. 

1113.5.4.2 Diaphragms: Lumber and plywood diaphragms may be used to resist 
wind or horizontal earthquake forces. The design of diaphragms shall conform to the 
accepted engineering practice as presented in the Timber Construction Manual. 

1113.5.4.3 Connections: Axial and shear forces produced in wood members by 
wind or earthquake shall be transferred by positive connections and adequate 
anchorage. Uplift or horizontal displacement of seated connections shall be 
prevented by positive anchors. Toenailing or nails subject to withdrawal are not 
acceptable for connections resisting such forces or displacements. 



1 1 -60 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



111 3.5.4.4 Sheathing: Sheathing materials may be used as tension ties provided the 
tension force does not produce cross-grain bending or cross-grain tension in the 
peripheral members or other framing members to which the sheathing connects. 

111 3.5.5 Prefabricated construction: All structural elements within the structure 
which are considered to resist seismic forces or movement and/or are connected so 
as to participate with the structural system shall be designed in accordance with the 
provisions of this code in accordance with accepted engineering practice standards 
(ACI 318 for precast concrete) as listed in Appendix A. Connections shall 
accommodate all design forces and movement without loss of load carrying capacity 
of the interconnected members and shall conform to Section 1113.5.7. 

1113.5.6 Other materials or methods of construction: Materials other than 
concrete, structural steel, clay masonry, concrete block masonry and wood and 
structural systems other than structural steel, reinforced concrete, reinforced 
masonry, wood frame or heavy timber shall not be relied on to resist lateral forces 
and deformations in building structures unless it can be demonstrated to the building 
official that the structure can safely withstand lateral distortion eight (8) times that 
computed for the lateral forces specified in Section 1113.4.1. The building official 
shall require drawings and calculations submitted by a registered professional 
engineer to verify the requirements of this provision. 

1113.5.7 Connections: 

1113.5.7.1 Connections which transfer forces between members resisting seismic 
forces in flexure shall be designed for the required forces and also shall either: 

a. Develop the full plastic moment of the member; or 

b. Be capable of deforming to form a reversible plastic hinge. 

1113.5.7.2 Members which are part of the lateral force resisting system and resist 
seismic motion by direct axial force shall have connections designed to develop the 
axial capacities of the members. 

111 3.5.7.3. Connections of structural members which are not part of the lateral 
force resisting system to supporting members shall be designed to resist the required 
seismic forces without reliance on frictional forces. 

1113.5.7.4 Column splices, column base anchorages, and similar connections or 
anchorage elements in which forces induced by seismic loading counteract forces due 
to dead load shall, in addition to the other design requirements, be designed to resist 
the forces resulting from sixty-seven (67) percent of the dead load combined with 
forces of opposite sign resulting from the full seismic loading (0.67 D-E). For this 
loading combination the splice, anchorage or connection is not permitted the thirty- 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 -61 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



three (33) percent increase in allowable stress otherwise permitted by the accepted 
engineering practice standards. The above provisions shall not apply to portions of 
the splice, anchorage or connection governed by reinforced concrete provisions of 
this code based on factored loads and ultimate strength design. 

111 3.5.7.5 Connections between diaphragms and resisting shear walls and bracing 
shall be designed for twice the computed force. 

1113.6 Other design requirements: 

1113.6.1 Lateral force resisting system: Rigid elements that are assumed not to 
be part of the lateral force resisting system may be incorporated into buildings 
provided that their effect on the action of the system is considered and provided for 
in the design. 

1 1 13.6.2 Moment resisting space frames: Moment resisting space frames may be 
enclosed by or adjoined by more rigid elements which would tend to prevent the 
space frame from resisting lateral forces where it can be shown that the action or 
failure of the more rigid elements will not impair the vertical and lateral load 
resisting ability of the space frame. 

1113.6.3 Building separations: All portions of structures shall be designed and 
constructed to act as an integral unit in resisting horizontal forces unless separated 
structurally by a distance sufficient to avoid contact under deflection from seismic 
action or wind forces. 

111 3.6.4 Structural system anchorage: The design of the structural system and 
its elements for uplift, overturning moment, or horizontal shear, or their 
combination, shall not depend on more than sixty-seven (67) percent of the available 
resistance due to dead load effects, the additional required capacity shall be 
provided by suitable connections and anchorages. 

111 3.6.5 Combined vertical and horizontal forces: In computing the effect of 
seismic force in combination with vertical loads, gravity load stresses induced in 
members by dead load plus design live load, except roof live load, shall be 
considered. 

111 3.6.6 Exterior elements: Precast, nonbearing, nonshear wall panels, parapets, 
or other elements which are attached to, or enclose the exterior shall accommodate 
movements of the structure resulting from lateral forces or temperature changes. The 
concrete panels or other elements shall be supported by means of poured-in-place 
concrete or by mechanical fasteners in accordance with the following provisions: 



1 1 -62 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



1113.6.6.1 Connections and panel joints shall allow for a relative movement 
between stories of not less than two (2) times story drift caused by wind or (3.0/K) 
times the calculated elastic story drift caused by required seismic forces; or one-half 
(V2) inch, whichever is greater. Values of K are set forth in Table 1113.1. 

111 3.6.6.2 Connections shall have sufficient ductility and rotation capacity so as to 
preclude fracture of the concrete or brittle failures at or near welds. Inserts in 
concrete shall be attached to, or hooked around reinforcing steel, or otherwise 
terminated so as to effectively transfer forces to the reinforcing steel. 

111 3.6.6.3 Connections to permit movement in the plane of the panel for story drift 
may be properly designed sliding connections using slotted or oversize holes, or may 
be connections which permit movement by bending of steel. 

1113.6.7 Minor alterations: Minor structural alterations may be made in existing 
buildings and structures, but the resistance to lateral forces shall be not less than 
that before such alterations were made, unless the building as altered meets the 
requirements of this section of the code. 

111 3.6.8 Drift: Lateral deflections or drift of a story relative of its adjacent stories 
shall be considered in accordance with accepted practice. Lateral deflection of 
diaphragms shall be considered in addition to the deflection of vertical bracing 
elements. 

Rigid elements that are assumed not to be part of the lateral force resisting system 
may be incorporated into buildings provided that the effect of the action of the 
system is considered and provided for in the design. In addition, the effects of the 
drift on such rigid elements themselves and on their attachment to the building 
structure shall be considered. 

1113.6.9 interconnections of foundations: Pile, pier and caisson caps shall be 
interconnected by ties. Each tie shall carry by tension or compression a horizontal 
force equal to ten (10) percent of the larger pile, pier or caisson cap loading, unless 
it can be demonstrated that equivalent restraint can be provided by other means. 
At sites where footings are used, adequate consideration shall be given to the lateral 
and vertical movements of footings that may occur during the design earthquake 
specified in Section 1113.7. Particular consideration shall be given to those sites 
where there are saturated, cohesionless, granular soils with blowcounts which only 
slightly exceed the criteria given in Figure 1113.2. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 1 1 -63 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1 1 13.6.10 Retaining walls: Retaining walls shall be designed to resist at least the 
superimposed effects of the total static lateral soil pressure, excluding the pressure 
caused by any temporary surcharge, plus an earthquake force of 0.045Y t H 2 
(horizontal backfill surface). Surcharges which are applied over extended periods 
of time shall be included in the total static lateral soil pressure and their earthquake 
lateral force shall be computed and added to the force of 0.045Y t H 2 . The 
earthquake force from the backfill shall be distributed as an inverse triangle over the 
height of the wall. The point of application of the earthquake force from an 
extended duration surcharge shall be determined on an individual case basis. If the 
backfill consists of loose saturated granular soil, consideration shall be given to the 
potential liquefaction of the backfill during the seismic loading. 

1113.7 Dynamic analysis: Any building or structure is deemed to have complied 
with the provisions of Section 1113.0 if a qualified registered engineer determines 
that there is negligible risk to life safety if the building or structure experiences an 
earthquake with a peak acceleration of 0.1 2g and a frequency content similar to that 
implied by the appropriate response spectrum in Figure 1113.1. A copy of the studies 
upon which the determination may be based upon shall be filed with the building 
official. Such a determination may be based upon: 

1. A dynamic analysis, based upon generally acceptable procedures, 
together with evidence that the building or structure can safely 
withstand the computed displacements and distortions: 

2. A comparison of the building or structure with similar buildings or 
structures having similar foundations and subsoil conditions, that have 
withstood a similar actual earthquake; or 

3. Other accepted procedures. 

1113.8 Liquefaction: The earthquake liquefaction potential of saturated clean 
medium to fine sands shall be evaluated on the basis of Figure 1113.2 for cases 
where lateral sliding cannot occur. If the standard penetration resistances, N, in all 
strata of medium and fine sand lie above the applicable curve in Figure 1113.2 the 
sands at the site shall not be considered subject to liquefaction. Liquefaction below 
a depth of sixty (60) feet from final grade need not be considered for level ground. 
For pressure-injected footings, the ten (10) foot thickness of soil immediately below 
the bottom of the driven shaft shall not be considered subject to liquefaction. 



1 1 -64 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



10 



20 



e?o 



D 



o 



Hi 



QO 



40._ 



&CL, 




rloT ^Jcc&«>Tifi»LE 



T5 utcaJgg^CTiO""': 



de°tU -- 





TO 


^O A 


" GiC=>JT-|Z> 


•4©\ 


. wXm"E2; 


J 





Figure 1113.2 
STANDARD PENETRATION RESISTANCE (BLOWS/FT.) 

Compacted granular fills shall not be considered subject to liquefaction provided 
they are systematically compacted to at least ninety-three (93) percent of maximum 
dry density as determined in accordance with laboratory test designation ASTM 
D1557, or a relative density of at least sixty (60) percent in the case of granular soils 
having less than ten (10) percent of weight passing the No. 200 sieve. 

For sites not meeting the above criteria, studies by a registered professional 
engineer shall be made to determine that the structure loads can be safely 
supported. Such studies might include the following: 

1. Investigations to establish that the soils at the site are not subject to 
liquefaction during the design earthquake as specified in Section 
1113.7. 

2. Design of foundations that will not fail either by loss of bearing 
capacity or excessive settlements if liquefaction occurs. 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



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THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



3. Replacement or densification of liquefaction-susceptible soils such that 
liquefaction will not occur. 

For sites underlain by saturated sands where lateral sliding (slope instability) may 
occur, studies by a registered professional engineer shall be made to establish the 
safety against sliding during an earthquake with a peak acceleration of 0.12g and a 
frequency content similar to that implied by the appropriate response spectrum in 
Figure 1113.1. 



For sites underlain by saturated silty sands and inorganic nonplastic silts, studies 
shall be made by a registered professional engineer to determine the susceptibility 
to liquefaction of these soils. 

SECTION 1114.0 COMBINATION OF LOADS 

1114.1 Load combinations: 

a.) All structures shall be designed for the effects of at least the following 
combinations of loads: 

(1.) D + L + S 

(2.) D + L + S + .5W 

(3.) D + L + .5S + W 

(4.) D + L + S + E 

b.) If the structure will be subjected to loads not included in the above 
combinations, such loads shall be added to the above combinations. 

1 1 1 4.2 Counteracting loads: 

a.) When the inclusion of live, snow, wind, earthquake or other temporary 
loads will counteract the accumulation of the maximum or minimum 
total loads in the above load combinations, that load or those loads 
shall be assumed not to be acting so that only the maximum and the 
minimum total loads are considered. 

b.) When dead load counteracts the maximum or minimum applied load, 
the dead load shall be reduced. In this case, the dead load shall be 
taken as 0.67D, unless such a reduction is accounted for by the use of 



1 1-66 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



STRUCTURAL LOADS 



an ultimate or limit strength design procedure as permitted in this 
Code. 

111 4.3 Creep and volume change: When appropriate, the effects of creep or 
volume change due to temperature or moisture variations shall be considered. 

SECTION 1115.0 LIVE LOAD REDUCTIONS 

1115.1 General: The design live loads specified in Section 1106.0 may be reduced 
as permitted and specified herein, except that the design live load shall not be 
reduced on the following types of structural members: 

1.) One-way precast or cast-in-place solid, ribbed, and hollow core concrete 
slabs. 

Exception: Ribs of ribbed or hollow core slabs may be treated as 
individual beams, and live load may be reduced on the ribs the same as 
for beams. 

2.) Two-way concrete flat slabs and grid slabs, with or without capitals or 
drop panels. 

Exception: Live load may be reduced on slab panels if there are beams 
on all sides of the panels, and load is transferred to the columns from 
these beams entirely by "beam shear". 
3.) Hangers 

1 1 1 5.2 Design live loads of 1 00 psf or less; Except for places of public assembly 
(as defined in Section 210.0) and for floors of garages and open parking structures, 
a structural member having a tributary area A T that is greater than A B may be 
designed for a reduced live load determined by the following formulas: 

L = NL 

N = the largest of the following: 

1.) 1 - 0.0008(A T - A B ) 

2.) 0.75 - 0.20(0^) 

3.) 0.50 for members supporting load from more than one 

floor, or 0.60 for members supporting load from one floor 

only in which: 

L = reduced design live load for the member 
L = basic design live load 
D„ = dead load on the member 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 11-67 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



A T = loaded area tributary to the member, square feet 
A B = basic tributary area, square feet, defined as follows: 



V B 



100 square feet for members supporting load from more than 
one floor 
A B = 250 square feet for members supporting load from one floor only 

1115.3 Design live loads greater than 100 psf: Structural members supporting 
load from more than one floor may be designed for a reduced live load equal to 
80% of the design live load. 

1115.4 For determination of the number of floors supported by a member in 
Sections 1115.2 and 1115.3, a roof may be considered to be a floor if the design live 
load of the roof is equal to or greater than the design live load of the floor below. 



1 1 -68 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



Article 12 

FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND 
RETAINING WALLS 



ARTICLE 12 



FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND RETAINING WALLS 

(This Article is entirely unique to Massachusetts) 

SECTION 1200.0 GENERAL 

1200.1 Scope: The provisions of lliis article shall control foundation design and 
construction of all buildings and structures hereafter erected to insure adequate 
strength of all parts thereof for the safe support of all superimposed live and special 
loads, in addition to their own dead load, without exceeding the allowable stresses 
or design capacities. 

i 

SECTION 1201.0 BEARING PRESSURE ON 
FOUNDATION MATERIALS 

1201.1 Soils report:- All applications for permits for the construction of new 
structures, and for the alteration of permanent structures which require changes in 
foundation loads and distribution, shall be accompanied by a report describing soil 
in all bearing strata including sufficient records and data to establish character, 
nature and load bearing pressure. Such report shall be prepared and submitted by 
a registered professional engineer, except as otherwise specified in this article. 

1201.2 Satisfactory foundation materials: Satisfactory bearing strata to provide 
structural support shall be considered to include the following, provided they are of 
a standard consistent with engineering specifications: natural strata of rock, gravel, 
sand, inorganic silt, inorganic clay, or combination of these materials. Compacted 
fills, when designed and monitored by a registered professional engineer, may be 
accepted by the building official. Other conditions of unsatisfactory bearing 
materials which are improved in accordance with the recommendations of, and 
monitored by, a registered professional engineer may be accepted by the building 
official. Sites involving medium and fine sands, inorganic silt and compacted fills are 
subject to the additional special requirements of Section 1113.8 (Liquefaction). 

1201.2.1 Loading interaction: Wherever bearing strata are subject to interaction 

from other loadings or strata reactions, such conditions shall 

be incorporated in the evaluation of the design bearing capacity of the support 

strata. 



Corrected 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 12-1 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1201.2.2 Bearing capacity for light weight structures: Light weight structures 
and accessory structures, such as garages and sheds, may be founded on normally 
unacceptable bearing strata, providing such material is determined by a qualified 
registered professional engineer as being satisfactory for the intended use. 

1201.2.3 Protection of bearing strata: Bearing strata which may be adversely 
affected by conditions within the structure, such as evaporation and shrinkage due 
to excess heat or cold, shall be adequately protected. 

1201.3 Allowable bearing pressures: The maximum pressure on soils under 
foundations shall not exceed values specified in Table 1201 except when determined 
in accordance with the provisions of Section 1203.0 or when modified by specific 
sections of this article. Higher allowable bearing pressures may be approved by the 
building official when substantiated by the results of investigations, analyses or 
testing prepared by a registered professional engineer. 

1201.3.1 Classification of bearing materials: The terms used in this section shall 
be interpreted in accordance with generally accepted engineering nomenclature. 
Refer to commentary in Appendix D for guidelines regarding soil and rock 
classification and description. 

1201.3.2 Compacted fills below foundations: Materials from Classes 6 through 
8, Table 1201, or dense graded crushed stone or slag, and which contain no plastic 
fines, shall have a maximum allowable bearing pressure of up to five (5) tsf when 
compacted to ninety-five (95) percent or greater of the maximum dry density as 
determined by ASTM D1557. 

For compacted fills which do not meet the above criteria or materials which cannot 
be tested as above, a registered professional engineer shall be engaged to provide 
recommendations for compaction and allowable bearing pressures. 

The building official will require that a registered professional engineer or his 
representative be on the project at all times while fill is being placed and compacted. 
He shall make an accurate record of the types of materials used, including grain-size 
curves, thickness of lifts, densities, percent compaction, type of compacting 
equipment and number of coverages, the use of water and other pertinent data. 



12-2 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND RETAINING WALLS 



Table 1201 

ALLOWABLE BEARING PRESSURES FOR 

FOUNDATION MATERIALS 



Material 
Class 


Description 


Notes 


Consistency in 
Place 1 


Allowable Net 

Bearing Pressure 

(tons/ft 2 ) 


1a 


Massive bedrock: 

Granite, diorite 

gabbro, basalt, 

gneiss 


3 


Hard, sound 

rock , minor 

jointing 


100 


1b 


Quartzite, well 

cemented 
conglomerate 


3 


Hard, sound 

rock moderate 

jointing 


60 


2 


Foliated bedrock: 
slate, schist 


3 


Medium hard 

rock, minor 

jointing 


40 


3 


Sedimentary 

bedrock: 

cementation shale, 

siltstone, sandstone, 

limestone, dolomite, 

conglomerate 


3,4 


Soft rock, 

moderate 

jointing 


20 


4 


Weakly cemented 

sedimentary 

bedrock: compaction 

shale or other similar 

rock in sound 

condition 


3 


Very soft rock 


10 


5 


Weathered bedrock: 

any of the above 

except shale. 


3,5 


Very soft rock, 
weathered 

and/or major 

jointing and 

fracturing 


8 


6 


Slightly cemented 

sand and/or gravel, 

glacial till (basal or 

lodgement), hardpan 


7,8 


Very dense 


10 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



12-3 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



Material 
Class 


Description 


Notes 


Consistency in 
Place 1 


Allowable Net 

Bearing Pressure 

(tons/ft 2 ) 


7 


Gravel, widely 

graded sand and 

gravel; and granular 

ablation till 


6,7,8 


Very dense 

Dense 

Medium dense 

Loose 

Very loose 


8 
6 

4 
2 

Note 1 1 


8 


Sands and 

nonplastic silty sands 

with little or no gravel 

(except for Class 9 

materials) 


6,7,8,9 


Dense 

Medium dense 

Loose 

Very loose 


4 

3 
2 

Note 1 1 


9 


Fine sand, silty fine 

sand, and nonplastic 

inorganic silt 


6,7,9 


Dense 

Medium dense 

Loose 

Very loose 


3 

2 

1 
Note 1 1 


10 


Inorganic sandy or 

silty clay, clayey 

sand, clayey silt, 

clay, or varved clay; 

low to high plasticity 


5,6,10 


Hard 

Stiff 

Medium 

Soft 


4 
2 

1 
Note 1 1 


11 


Organic soils: peat, 

organic silt, organic 

clay 


11 




Note 1 1 



Notes on Table 1201: 

1. Refer to commentary in Appendix D regarding typical index test values that may be helpful 
as guides for evaluation of consistency in place. 

2. Refer to Section 1206.0 for determination of design loads and for special cases. 

3. The allowable bearing pressures may be increased by an amount equal to ten (10) percent 
for each foot of depth below the surface of sound rock; however, the increase shall not 
exceed two (2) times the value given in the table. 

For limestone and dolomite, the bearing pressures given are acceptable only if an exploration 
program performed under the direction of a registered professional engineer demonstrates 
that there are no cavities within the zone of influence of the foundations. If cavities exist, a 
special study of the foundation conditions is required. 

Weathered shale and/or weathered compaction shale shall be included in Material Class 10. 
Other highly weathered rocks and/or residual soils shall be treated as soil under the 
appropriate description in Material Classes 6 to 10. Where the transition between residual 
soil and bedrock is gradual, a registered professional engineer shall make a judgment as to 
the appropriate bearing pressure. 



4. 



5. 



12-4 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND RETAINING WALLS 



6. Settlement analyses in accordance with Section 1204.5 should be performed if the ability of 
a given structure to tolerate settlements is in question, particularly for, but not limited to, soft 
or very soft clays and silts and loose granular materials. 

7. Allowable bearing pressures may be increased by an amount equal to five (5) percent for each 
foot of depth of the bearing area below the minimum required in Section 1205.0; however, 
the bearing pressure shall not exceed two (2) times the value given in the table. For 
foundation bearing areas having a least lateral dimension smaller than three (3) feet, the 
allowable bearing pressure shall be one-third (1/3) of the tabulated value times the least 
dimension in feet. 

8. Refer to Section 1201.3.2 when these materials are used as compacted fills. 

9. These materials are subject to the provisions in Section 1113.8 (Liquefaction). 

10. Alternatively, the allowable bearing pressure may be taken as 1.5 times the peak unconfined 
compressive strength of undisturbed samples for square and round footings or 1.25 times that 
strength for footings with length to width ratio of 4 or greater. For intermediate cases, 
interpolation may be used. 

11. A registered professional engineer shall be engaged to provide recommendations for these 
special cases. Direct bearing on organic soils is not permitted. Organic soils are allowed under 
foundations for those cases defined in Section 1201.3.3, Preloaded materials. 

1201.3.3 Preloaded materials: The building official may allow the use of certain 
otherwise unsatisfactory natural soils and uncompacted fills for support of one (1) 
story structures after these materials have been preloaded to effective stresses not 
less than one hundred and fifty (150) percent of the effective stresses which will be 
induced by the structure. 

The building official may require the loading and unloading of a sufficiently large 
area, conducted under the direction of a registered professional engineer, approved 
by the building official, who shall submit a report containing a program which will 
allow sufficient time for adequate consolidation of the material based on an analysis 
of the preloaded material and of the probable settlements of the structure. 

1201.4 Light weight structures: One story structures without masonry walls and 
not exceeding eight hundred (800) square feet in area may be founded on a layer 
of satisfactory bearing material not less than three (3) feet thick, which is underlain 
by highly compressible material, provided that the stresses induced in the 
unsatisfactory material by the live and dead loads of the structure, and the weight 
of any new fill within or adjacent to the building area, will not exceed two hundred 
and fifty (250) pounds per square foot (psf). 

SECTION 1202.0 SUBSURFACE EXPLORATIONS 

1202.1 Where required: Borings, test pits or other soil investigations shall be 
required for all structures except the following, unless specifically required by the 
building official: 



780 CMR - Fifth Edition 12-5 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



1. one- and two-family dwellings and their accessory buildings; 

2. structures less than 35,000 cubic feet in gross volume; or 

3. structures used for agricultural purposes. 

The borings, test pits or other soil investigations shall be adequate in number and 
depth and so located to accurately define the nature of the subsurface materials 
necessary for the support of the structure. When it is proposed to support the 
structure directly on bedrock, the building official shall require core borings to be 
made into the rock; or shall require other satisfactory evidence to prove that the 
structure shall be adequately founded on bedrock. 

1202.2 Soil samples and boring reports: Samples of the strata penetrated in test 
borings or test pits, representing the natural disposition and conditions at the site, 
shall be available for examination by the building official. Wash or bucket samples 
shall not be accepted. Duplicate copies of the results obtained from all borings, 
plotted to a true relative elevation and to scale, and of all test results or other 
pertinent soil data, shall be filed with the building official. 

SECTION 1203.0 SOIL BEARING TESTS 

1203.1 General: Whenever the allowable bearing pressure on bearing materials is 
in doubt, the building official may require soil bearing tests. The tests shall be 
performed under the direction of a registered professional engineer. A complete 
record of the test results together with a soil profile shall be filed by the registered 
professional engineer who shall have a representative on the site during all test 
operations. 

1203.2 Loaded areas: The loaded area shall be approximately 4 square feet for all 
bearing materials; except that when the footing overlies wet clay or other soft 
materials, the test load shall be applied to an area of not less than 10 square feet. 

Bearing tests shall be applied at the elevations of the proposed bearing surfaces of 
the structure; except that the load may be applied directly on the surface of 
compacted granular material. The excavation immediately surrounding an area to be 
tested shall be made not deeper than one (1) foot above the plane of application of 
the test. The test plate shall be placed with uniform bearing. 

1203.3 Loading procedure: The application of the test load shall be in steps equal 
to not more than one-half (V2) the contemplated design load, to at least twice the 
contemplated design load. The unloading shall be at least two (2) steps, to the 
design load and then to zero (0) load. The contemplated design load and twice the 
contemplated design load shall be maintained constant for at least twenty-four (24) 
hours and until the movement does not exceed two hundredths (.02) of an inch 
during a twenty-four hour period. The load for all other load and unload steps 

12-6 780 CM R - Fifth Edition 



FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND RETAINING WALLS 



including the zero (0) load at the end of the test shall be maintained constant for 
a period of not less than four (4) hours. Sufficient readings for each load step shall 
be made to define properly the time-deflection curve. 

1203.4 Accuracy Of loading: Test loads applied by mechanical devices shall be 
automatically controlled so as to insure not more than 5 percent variation in applied 
load. Such devices shall be calibrated prior to the test. 

1203.5 Determination of design load: The proposed design load shall be allowed 
provided that the requirements of Section 1204.5 are fulfilled and the settlements 
under the design load and twice Lhe design load do not exceed three-eighths (3/8) 
of an inch and one (1) inch, respectively. 

SECTION 1204.0 ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION LOADS 

1204.1 General: The maximum allowable pressures on foundation materials 
shall be in accordance with Section 1201.0 and as modified herein. 

1204.2 Foundations on rock: Where subsurface explorations at the project site 
indicate variations or doubtful characteristics in the structure of the rock upon which 
it is proposed to construct foundations, a sufficient number of borings shall be made 
to a depth of not less than ten (10) feet below the level of the footings to provide 
assurance of the soundness of the foundation bed and its bearing capacity. Refer to 
Table 1201 for allowable bearing pressures and special conditions. 

1204.3 Foundations on soil: Refer to Table 1201 for allowable bearing pressure 
and special conditions. 

1204.4 Vertical pressure: The computed vertical pressure at any level beneath a 
foundation shall not exceed the allowable bearing pressure for the material at that 
level. Computation of the vertical pressure in the bearing materials at any depth 
below a foundation shall be made on the assumption that the load is spread 
uniformly at an angle of thirty (30) degrees with the vertical; but the area considered 
as supporting the load shall not extend beyond the intersection of thirty (30) degree 
planes of adjacent foundations. 

1204.5 Settlement analysis: Whenever a structure is to be supported by medium 
or soft clay (materials of Class 10) or other materials which may be subject to 
settlement or consolidation, the settlements of the structure and of neighboring 
structures due to consolidation shall be given careful consideration, particularly if 
the subsurface material or the loading is subject to significant variation. The building 
official may require a settlement analysis to be made by a registered professional 
engineer when the live and dead loads of the structure, as specified in this article, 

780 CMR - Fifth Edition 12-7 



THE MASSACHUSETTS STATE BUILDING CODE 



minus the weight of the excavated material, induce a maximum stress greater than 
three hundred (300) pounds per square foot at mid-depth of the underlying soft clay 
layer. 

Settlement analysis will be based on a computation of the new increase in stress that 
will be induced by the structure and realistically appraised live loads, after deducting 
the weight of excavated material under which the soil was fully consolidated. The 
effects of fill loads within the building area or fill and other loads adjacent to the 
building shall be included in the settlement analysis. The appraisal of the live loads 
may be based on surveys of actual live loads of existing buildings with similar 
occupancy. The soil compressibility shall be determined by a registered professional 
engineer. 

1204.6 Disturbance of bearing materials: Whenever the bearing materials are 
disturbed from any cause, for example, by the inward or upward flow of water and/or 
by construction activities, the extent of the disturbance shall be evaluated by a 
registered professional engineer and appropriate remedial measures taken 
satisfactory to the building official. 

SECTION 1205.0 DEPTH OF FOOTING 

1205.1 Frost protection: All permanent supports of buildings and structures shall 
extend a minimum of four (4) feet below finished grade except when erected upon 
sound bedrock or when protected from frost, or when the foundation grade is 
established by a registered professional engineer and as approved by the building 
official. The engineer shall show supporting data including the type and extent of 
free-draining foundation material, ground water levels, and climatic records. 

1205.2 Isolated footing: Footings on granular soil of Classes 7 to 9 of Table 1201 
and compacted fill shall be so located that the line drawn between the lower edges 
of adjoining footings shall not have a steeper slope than thirty (30) degrees with the 
vertical, unless the material supporting the higher footing is braced or retained or 
otherwise laterally supported in an approved manner. 

1205.3 Depth of spread foundations: The bottom surface of any footing resting 
on material of Classes 5 to 10 of Table 1201, inclusive, shall be at least eighteen (18) 
inches below the lowest ground surface or the surface of a floor slab bearing directly 
on the soil immediately adjacent to the footing. 

SECTION 1206.0 FOOTING DESIGN 

1206.1 Design loads: The loads to be used in computing the pressure upon bearing 
materials directly underlying foundations shall be the live and dead loads of the 
structure, as specified in Section 1115.0 including the weight of the foundations and 

12-8 780 CMR - Fifth Edition 



FOUNDATION SYSTEMS AND RETAINING WALLS 



of any immediately overlying mate