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Full text of "Communist activities among aliens and national groups. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-first Congress, first session, on S. 1832, a bill to amend the Immigration act of October 16, 1918, as amended"

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COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG 
ALIENS AND NATIONAL GROUPS 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE ON 

IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIRST CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
ON 

S. 1832 

A BILL TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 
OCTOBER 16, 1918, AS AMENDED 



PART 1 

MAY 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, JUNE 1, 8, 9, 18, JULY 15, 16, 27, 28, 
AUGUST 10, 11, 12, 1949 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 




COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG 
ALIENS AND NATIONAL GROUPS 




HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SUBCOMMITTEE ON 
IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 
UNITED STATES SENATE 

EIGHTY-FIRST CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
ON 

S. 1832 

A BILL TO AMEND THE IMMIGRATION ACT OF 
OCTOBER 16, 1918, AS AMENDED 



PART 1 

MAY 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, JUNE 1, 8, 9, 18, JULY 15, 16, 27, 28, 
AUGUST 10, 11, 12, 1949 



Printed for the use of the Committee on the Judiciary 










UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
'98330 WASHINGTON : 1950 






„ 8 . »H**WTWDO*T OF DOCUW** 

WAR 18 1950 

COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 



PAT McCARRAN 

HARLEY M. KILGORE, West Virginia 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi 
HERBERT R. O'CONOR, Maryland 
FRANK P. GRAHAM, North Carolina 
ESTES KEPAUVER, Tennessee 
GARRETT L. WITHERS, Kentucky 



Nevada, Chairman, 

ALEXANDER WILEY, Wisconsin 
WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 
HOMER FERGUSON, Michigan 
FORREST C. DONNELL, Missouri 
WILLIAM E. JENNER, Indiana 



J. G. Sodrwine, Counsel 



Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration and Naturalization 

PAT McCARRAN, Nevada, Chairman 
JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi WILLIAM LANGER, North Dakota 

HERBERT R. O'CONOR, Maryland FORREST C. DONNELL, Missouri 

Richard Abens. Staff Director 

(Senator J. Melville Broughton, of North Carolina, was a member of the Committee 
on the Judiciary until his death on March 6, 1949 ; Senator J. Howard McGrath, of Rhode 
Island, was a member of the Committee on the Judiciary until his resignation from the 
Senate on August 23, 1949 ; Senator Bert H. Miller, of Idaho, was a member of the Com- 
mittee on the Judiciary until his death on October 8, 1949.) 

II 





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1 3-0. 



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CONTENTS 



Page 

S. 1694. A bill to amend the Immigration Act of October 16, 1918 1 

S. 1832. Superseding S. 1694 2 

Statement or testimony of — 

Modelski, Gen. Izydor, former military attache of Poland 6 

Fischer, Mrs. Ruth, New York 30 

Raditsa, Bogdan, former chief of the foreign press department in the 

Information Ministry of Yugoslavia 41 

Smyth, William H., engineer, 44 West Forty-fourth Street, New 

York, N. Y 57 

Alexeev, Kirill Mikhailovich, former commercial air attache, Soviet 

Embassy, Mexico City 65 

Caspar, Frank J., 102 Rockledge Road, Bronxville, N. Y 77 

Cain, Harry P., United States Senator from Washington 101 

Bentley, Elizabeth Terrill, New York 106 

Taylor, Gen. John Thomas, Director of National Legislative Committee, 

American Legion 123 

Crouch, Paul, Miami, Fla 125 

Clark. Tom C, Attorney General of the United States 164, 298 

Peurifoy, John E., Assistant Secretary of State 169, 336 

Pirinsky, George, executive secretary, the American Slav Congress, 

New York 179, 207 

Neuwald, Alfred A. (or Matyas Torok), New York 198, 207 

Marik, Paul, former consul general of Hungary 204 

Budenz, Louis Francis, Crestwood, N. Y 217 

Fainaru, Harry, managing editor, Romanul-American, Detroit, Mich- 251, 293 

Riposanu, Pamfil, former first counselor of the Rumanian Legation 266 

Metes, Mircea, former first secretary of the Rumanian Legation 279 

Vogel, Alfons, former press counselor, Rumanian Legation 289 

Ford, Peyton, the assistant to the Attorney General 298 

Horan, Michael J., special assistant to the Attorney General 298 

Miller, Watson B., Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization 

Service 298 

Winings, L. Paul, general counsel, Immigration and Naturalization 

Service 298- 

L'Heureux, Herve J., Chief, Visa Division, Department of State 336 

Boykin, Sam, Director of the Office of Consular Affairs, Department 

of State 336 

Hillenkoetter, Rear Adm. Roscoe H., Director of Central Intelli- 
gence 358- 

Valuchek, Andrew J., president, Slovak National Alliance 371 

Marcus, J. Anthony, president, the Institute of Foreign Trade . 385 

Szczerbinski, George, crew department, Gdynia-America Line, Inc 413 

Tysh, Walter, International Workers Order, New York 425 

Gutowski, Stanislaw A., managing editor, Nowa Epoka 447 

INDEX I 

III 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GROUPS 



TUESDAY, MAY 10, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration and 

Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. O. 

• The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 30 a. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran, chairman, presiding. 

Present : Senators McCarran, Eastland, and McGrath. 

Also present: Messrs. Eichard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee, Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

These hearings are conducted under Senate bill 1694 1 to amend the 
Immigration Act of October 16, 1918. The bill will be inserted in the 
record at this point. 

[S. 1694, 81st Cong., 1st sess.] 
A BILL To amend the Immigration Act of October 16, 1918 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled. That the Act of October 16, 1918, as amended 
(40 Stat. 1012; 41 Stat. 1008-1009; 54 Stat. 673; 8 U. S. C. 137), is further 
amended by adding a new section at the end thereof to be designated as "Section 
3" and to read as follows : 

"Sec. 3. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, Executive order, agree- 
ment, or treaty, no visa shall be issued to any alien for admission into the United 
States who the visa-issuing officer knows, or has reason to believe, seeks to enter 
the United States with a purpose of: (1) obtaining or transmitting information 
respecting the national defense with the intent or reason to believe that the 
information to be obtained or transmitted is to be used to the injury of the United 
States, or (2) engaging in any activity a purpose or aim of which is the control 
by force or overthrow of the Government of the United States, or (3) organizing, 
aiding, joining, or associating with any association, society, or group in the 
United States which shall be publicly designated by the Attorney General as 
Communist controlled or dominated or otherwise subversive. The Attorney 
General shall exclude from the United States any alien who the Attorney General 
knows or has reason to believe seeks to enter the United States with a purpose 
of engaging in any of the activities enumerated in (1), (2), or (3) of this sec- 
tion. The Attorney General is hereby authorized and directed to publish, at 
least once every calendar year, a list containing the name of every association, 
society, or group in the United States which the Attorney General deems 
to be Communist controlled or dominated or otherwise subversive. Pending 
the publication of the first such list after the enactment of this section, any 
association, society, or group which has. prior to the enactment of this sec- 
tion, been designated by the Attorney General as subversive pursuant to Ex- 



1 Senate bill 1694 -was superseded on May 11, 1,949, by Senate bill 1832, introduced by 
Senator McCarran. 

Senator McCarran's statement in the Senate, accompanying the introduction of S. 1694, 
is contained in appendix I, p. Al. 

1 



2 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

ecutive Order 9S35 of March 21, 1947, shall be deemed to be a subversive 
organization within the meaning of this section. The Attorney General shall 
take into custody and deport any alien who shall at any time, within the United 
States, engage in any of the activities enumerated in (1), (2), or (3) of this 
section : Provided, however, That the Attorney General may suspend deportation 
of any alien deportable under category (3) of this section (a) if such alien shall 
publicly disassociate himself within thirty days after the publication by the 
Attorney General of the name of the association, society, or group in the United 
States which the Attorney General deems to be Communist controlled or domi- 
nated or otherwise subversive, which such alien shall have organized, aided, 
joined, or associated with, and in addition, (b) if the Attorney General knows, 
or has reason to believe, that such alien did not know, or have reason to believe, 
at the time such alien organized, aided, joined, or associated with such associa- 
tion, society, or group in the United States that such association, society, or 
group in the United States was Communist controlled or dominated, or other- 
wise subversive: except that the foregoing proviso shall not be applicable to any 
alien who has engaged in any of the activities under category (3) of this sec- 
tion with reference to any association, society, or group which has, prior to the 
enactment of this section, been designated by the Attorney General as sub- 
versive pursuant to Executive Order 9835 of March 21, 1947. The power and 
duty to enforce the exclusion and deportation provisions of this section shall be 
vested exclusively in the Attorney General and the prior approval of no other 
official, organization, or person shall be requested or required as a prerequisite 
to the discharge of this duty. All Acts or parts of Acts inconsistent with this 
section are hereby repealed." 

(Senate bill 1694 was superseded on May 11, 1949, by Senate bill 
1832 introduced by Senator Pat McCarran. By direction of the 
chairman, Senate bill 1832 is inserted in the record at this point.) 

[S. 1832, 81st Cong., 1st sess.] 
A BILL To amend the Immigration Act of October 16, 1918, as amended 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of America in Congress assembled, That existing section 3 of the Act of October 
16, 1918, as amended (40 Stat. 1012, 41 Stat. 1008, 54 Stat. 673; 8 U. S. C. 
137 (h) ), is hereby designated as section 6 of the said Act. 

Sec. 2. The said Act of October 16, 1918, as amended, is hereby further amended 
by adding the following new sections : 

"Sec. 3. (a) No visa or other travel document shall be issued to any alien who 
the issuing officer knows, or has reason to believe, seeks to enter the United States 
for the purpose or a purpose of (1) obtaining or transmitting information, not 
available to the public generally, respecting the national security, or (2) engaging 
in any activity a purpose of which is the control or overthrow of the Government 
of the United States by force or violence, or (3) organizing, aiding in any manner 
whatsoever, joining, associating with, or participating in the activities of, any 
association, society, or group, which shall be publicly designated by the Attorney 
General as provided in subsection (b) of this section as subversive to the national 
security. The case of an alien within any of the foregoing categories shall not be 
defined as an emergency case within the meaning of section 30 of the Alien Regis- 
tration Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 673 ; 8 U. S. C. 451). 

"(b) The Attorney General is hereby. authorized and directed to publish in the 
Federal Register, at least once in every calendar year, a list containing the name 
of every association, society, or group, which the Attorney General deems, on the 
basis of evidence or information satisfactory to him, to be subversive to the 
national security. He shall from time to time, by publication in the Federal 
Register, add to or delete from the list of organizations such as he deems are 
subversive or are no longer of such character. 

"(c) The Attorney General shall exclude and deport from the United States 
any alien who applies for admission if the Attorney General knows or believes 
that said alien seeks to enter the United States with the purpose of engaging in 
any of the activities set forth in categories (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) of 
this section. 

"(d) The Attorney General shall, in like manner as provided in section 2. take 
into custody and deport from the United States any alien who at any time, 
whether before or after the effective date of this section, shall engage, shall have 
engaged, or shall have the purpose or a purpose to engage, in any of the activities 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 6 

set forth in categories (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) of this section : Provided, 
however, That the Attorney General in his discretion may temporarily suspend 
or cancel deportation proceedings against any alien within category (3) if the 
Attorney General knows or believes that such alien did not know or have reason 
to believe at the time such alien organized, aided in any manner whatsoever, 
joined, associated with, or participated in the activities of the association, society, 
or group (and did not thereafter and prior to the publication of the name of such 
organization as provided in subsection (b) acquire such knowledge or belief) 
that such association, society, or group was subversive to the national security. 
Determination of the deportability of any alien under this section shall be vested 
exclusively in the Attorney General and the prior approval of no other official, 
organization, or person, shall be requested or required as a prerequisite to the 
discharge of this duty. 

"Sec. 4. (a) Those provisions of sections 16 and 17 of the Immigration Act of 
February 5, 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 885-887; 8 U. S. C. 152, 153), which 
relate to boards of special inquiry and to appeal from the decisions of such 
boards shall have no application to aliens whose cases fall within the purview of 
section 1 or 3 (c) of this Act. 

"(b) The provisions of the seventh, ninth, and tenth provisos to section 3 of 
the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 875; 8 U. S. C. 
136) , clauses (1) and (7) of section 3 of the Immigration Act of 1924, as amended 
(43 Stat. 154, 47 Stat. 607, 54 Stat. 711, 59 Stat. 672; 8 U. S. C. 203), and of any 
other statute or authority permitting the admission of aliens to the United 
States shall have no application to cases falling within the purview of section 3 
(c) of this Act. 

"(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law — 

"(1) determinations of fact by the Attorney General under any provision 
of this Act shall not be reviewable by any court ; 

"(2) determinations of law by the Attorney General shall not be review- 
able by any court in any case within the purview of section 1 or 3 (c) of this 
Act; and 

"(3) determinations of law by the Attorney General in any case within 
the purview of section 2 or 3 (d) of this Act shall not be reviewable by any 
court except through the writ of habeas corpus. 

"(d) No petition for naturalization by any alien shall be received and filed, 
nor heard and determined, nor shall any alien be naturalized by any court after 
the question of the alien's subjection to the provisions of this Act, as here 
amended, has arisen and remains undetermined in his favor. 

"(e) Any statute or other authority or provision having the force or effect of 
law, to the extent that it is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Act, 
is hereby expressly declared to be inapplicable to any alien whose case is within 
the purview of this Act. The citizens or subjects of any country, which country 
upon request declines or unduly delays acceptance of the return of any alien who 
was admitted to the United States upon the basis of documents issued by such 
country and representing such alien to be a citizen or subject thereof or entitled 
to return thereto may be denied all rights, privileges, or benefits under the immi- 
gration laws. If any provision of this Act or the application of such provision 
to any person or circumstances shall be held invalid, the validity of the remain- 
der of this Act, and the applicability of such provision to other persons or 
circumstances, shall not be affected thereby. 

"Sec. 5. The Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, with the ap- 
proval of the Attorney General, shall prescribe all rules and regulations deemed 
necessary in aid of the administration and enforcement of this Act." 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens, you may proceed to call your witnesses 
arid interrogate them. 

Mr. Arens. With the permission of the subcommittee, I should like 
to suggest the following procedure : 

First, I should like to make reference to certain provisions of the 
present immigration law. 

Second, I should like to submit for tne record a list of organizations 
and groups which have been thus far declared to be subversive by the 
Attorney General. 

Third, we should like to interrogate Gen. Izydor Modelski this 
morning. 



4 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Fourth, we should like for the subcommittee to go into executive* 
session, at which time we should desire to present excerpts from con- 
fidential records taken from the security files of Government agencies 
with reference to certain persons who will be named in the testimony 
of the witness this morning. 

The Chairman. Very well, Mr. Arens, you may proceed. 

Mr. Arexs. With reference to the immigration law, I should like 
to invite the attention of the subcommittee to section 3 of the Immi- 
gration Act of 1917, particularly that part which excludes from ad- 
mission to the United States — 

polygamists, or persons who practice polygamy or believe in or advocate the 
practice of polygamy ; anarchists, or persons who believe in or advocate the 
overthrow by force or violence of the Government of the United States, or of 
all forms of law, or who disbelieve in or are opposed to organized government, 
or who advocate the assassination of public officials, or who advocate or teach 
the unlawful destruction of property ; persons who are members of or affiliated 
with any organization entertaining and teaching disbelief in or opposition to 
organized government, or who advocate or teach the duty, necessity, or propriety 
of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers, either of specific 
individuals or of officers generally, of the Government of the United States or 
of any other organized government, because of his or their official character or 
who advocate or teach the unlawful destruction of property ; * * * 

May I observe that this section is the general exclusion section ap- 
plicable to subversives, but in that section are two provisos to which 
I would invite the attention of the subcommittee. The first is known 
as the ninth proviso, which reads as follows : 

That the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization with the approval 
of the Attorney General shall issue rules and prescribe conditions, including 
exactions of such bonds as may be necessary, to control and regulate the admis- 
sion and return of otherwise inadmissible aliens applying for temporary 
admission : * * *." 

I should like also to invite the attention of the subcommittee to the 
tenth proviso, which reads as follows : 

That nothing in this Act shall be construed to apply to accredited officials of 
foreign governments, nor to their suites, families, or guests. 

I should like now to invite the attention of the subcommittee to sec- 
tion 33 of the Immigration Act of 1917, with reference to the landing 
of seamen, and I invite the attention of the subcommittee particularly 
to the proviso which I shall read : 

Provided, That in case any such alien intends to reship on board any other vessel 
bound to any foreign port or place, he shall be allowed to land for the purpose 
of so reshipping, under such regulations as the Attoney General may prescribe 
to prevent aliens not admissible under any law, convention, or treaty from re- 
maining permanently in the United States, * * *. 

I may comment at this point with reference to that section that I 
believe the testimony and the evidence which will be adduced in this 
series of hearings will show that there apparently is a conduit here 
through which couriers of information subversive to the best interests 
of this country are allowed to enter the United States. 

I should like also to invite the attention of the subcommittee to the 
International Organizations Immunities Act of December 29, 1945, 
section 7 (a) of which reads as follows : 

Persons designated by foreign governments to serve as their representatives 
in or to international organizations and the officers and employees of such 
organizations, and members of the immediate families of such representatives, 
officers, and employees residing with them, other than nationals of the United 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 5 

States, shall, insofar as concerns laws regulating entry into and departure from 
the United States, alien registration and fingerprinting, and the registration of 
foreign, agents, be entitled to the same privileges, exemptions, and immunities 
as are accorded under similar circumstances to officers and employees, respec- 
tively, of foreign governments, and members of their families. 

I should also like to invite the attention of the subcommittee to the 
provisions of Public Law 357 of the Eightieth Congress, which is the 
law authorizing the UN headquarters site agreement. Section 11 
reads as follows: 

The Federal, State or local authorities of the United States shall not impose 
any impediments to transit to or from the headquarters district of (1) repre- 
sentatives of Members or officials of the United Nations, or of specialized agen- 
cies as defined in article 57, paragraph 2. of the Charter, or the families of 
such representatives or officials: (2) experts performing missions for the United 
Nations or for such specialized agencies; (3) representatives of the press, or 
of radio, film or other information agencies, who have been accredited by the 
United Nations (or by such a specialized agency) in its discretion after con- 
sultation with the United States; (4) representatives of nongovernmental or- 
ganizations recognized by the United Nations for the purpose of consultation 
under article 71 of the Charter ; or (5) other persons invited to the headquarters 
district by the United Nations or by such specialized agency on official business. 
The appropriate American authorities shall afford any necessary protection to 
such persons while in transit to or from the headquarters district. 

Then I should like to invite the attention of the subcommittee to an 
excerpt from section 13 of Public Law 357 : 

When visas are required for persons referred to in that section — 

and I may interpose here a comment that in that this refers to sec- 
tion 11 — 

they shall be granted without charge and as promptly as possible. 
Subsection (b) of section 13 reads as follows: 

Laws and regulations in force in the United States regarding the residence of 
aliens shall not be applied in such manner as to interfere with the privileges 
referred to in section 11 and, specifically, shall not be applied in such manner 
as to require any such person to leave the United States on account of any ac- 
tivities performed by him in his official capacity. In case of abuse of such priv- 
ileges of residence by any such person in activities in the United States outside 
his official capacity, it is understood that the privileges referred to in section 11 
shall not be construed to grant him exemption from the laws and regulations of 
the United States regarding the continued residence of aliens : Provided, That 
(1) no proceeding shall be instituted under such laws or regulations to require 
any such person to leave the United States except with the prior approval of the 
Secretary of State of the United States. Such approval shall be given only after 
consultation with the appropriate Member in the case of a representative of a 
Member (or a member of his family) or with the Secretary-General or the prin- 
cipal executive officer of the appropriate specialized agency in the case of any 
other person referred to in Section 11; (2) a representative of the Member con- 
cerned, the Secretary-General, or the principal executive officer of the appropriate 
specialized agency, as the case may be, shall have the right to appear in any 
such proceeding on behalf of the person against whom they are instituted; (3) 
persons who are entitled to diplomatic privileges and immunities under section 15 
or under the general convention shall not be required to leave the United States 
otherwise than in accordance with the customary procedure applicable to diplo- 
matic envoys accredited to the United States. 

Subsection (f ) of section 13 reads as follows : 

The United Nations shall, subject to the foregoing provisions of this section, 
have the exclusive right to authorize or prohibit entry of persons and property 
into the headquarters district and to prescribe the conditions under which persons 
may remain or reside there. 



6 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

And finally, I should like to invite the attention of the subcommittee 
to an excerpt from section 6 of Annex 2 of Public Law 357 of the 
Eightieth Congress, which reads as follows : 

Nothing in the agreement shall be construed as in any way diminishing, abridg- 
ing, or weakening the right of the United States to safeguard its own security 
and completely to control the entrance of aliens into any territory of the United 
States other than the headquarters district and its immediate vicinity, as to be 
defined and fixed in a supplementary agreement between the Government of the 
United States and the United Nations in pursuance of section 13 (3) (e) of the 
agreement, and such areas as it is reasonably necessary to traverse in transit 
between the same and foreign countries. 

If it meets the pleasure of the subcommittee, we should like to sub- 
mit for the record a list which Mr. Dekom of the staff will designate. 
That is for insertion in the appendix of the record. It is a list of 
subversive organizations issued by the Attorney General. 

The Chairman. Will you designate it as you offer it ? 

Mr. Dekom. The list of Communist and other subversive organiza- 
tions issued by the Attorney General of the United States. 

The Chairman. It will be inserted in the record. 1 

TESTIMONY OF GEN. IZYDOR MODELSKI, FORMER MILITARY 

ATTACHE OF POLAND 2 

Mr. Arens. I would like to have the chairman swear the witness, 
General Modelski. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

General Modelski. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly state your full name ? 

General Modelski. Lt. Gen. Izydor Modelski. 

Mr. Arens. You have answered a subpena to appear before the sub- 
committee to testify concerning facts which were indicated in the 
subpena ? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a statement which you would care to read 
at this time ? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir. 

I was born in Lwow, now under Russia, on the 10th of May 
1888. I received a degree of doctor of philosophy from the Univer- 
sity of Lwow. Afterward, I took part in World War I with Marshal 
Pilsudski and General Haller, 3 commander in chief of the Polish Army 
in France. After the end of the war I fought against the coup d'etat 
of Marshal Pilsudski in Warsaw. I was dismissed afterward from 
the army. 

When the Second World War broke out, I went with General Sikor- 
ski to France as Under Secretary of War there. After the collapse 
of France, I went— as the one who evacuated Polish forces from 
France — over to England. In England, I was Under Secretary of 

1 The list of subversive organizations designated by the Attorney General will be found 
in appendix II. p. A7. 

2 Mi-. Jonathan Thursz and Miss Evelyn Romer acted as translators for the sub- 
committee. 

3 General Jozef Haller, commander of the Polish Army in France during World War I. 
Jozef Pilsudski. commander of brigade of the Polish Lesrion during World War I, later 
commander in chief of the Polish Army and President of Poland. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 7 

War to General Sikorski, 1 and, after his death, to the Prime Minister 
of the Polish Government in Exile, Mr. Stanislaw Mikolajczyk. 

In 1945, I returned to Poland, and I was sent back to London as 
the head of the Polish military mission there. Soon, I was recalled 
to Warsaw, and later I was appointed military attache to Washington. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you serve as military attache here in 
Washington ? 

General Modelski. For 27 months, from May 29, 1946, to the 15th 
of August 1948. 

Mr. Arens. What happened at that time, the 15th of August 1948? 

General Modelski. They gave me illness leave and called me back to 
Poland. I refused to go back, and I sent a letter to General Marshall, 
then Secretary of State, asking for permission to stay here with my 
family. On the 19th of November of last year, I received a permanent 
visa for myself to stay here. 

Mr. Arens. What is your occupation or vocation now? 

General Modelski. I am writing a book on Kussia's espionage here. 

Mr. Arens. Are you employed in any way by any person or firm? 

General Modelski. No ; not yet. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly proceed to read your statement? 

General Modelski. Yes. 

Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of the committee, I appear here as 
a Pole and as the son of a nation which has for many centuries, fought 
for freedom. I have been active in the democratic Polish movement for 
many years. I refused to go along with the coup d'etat of 1926 by 
Marshal Pilsudski and was, therefore, driven from the army. I was 
active in the Polish underground before the First World War, and 
I had fought against the Czarist armies under Pilsudski himself. I 
also later participated in the Warsaw uprising against the Germans. 
I worked closely in cooperation with General Sikorski and with Gen- 
eral Haller, who led the Polish troops in France. 

After being dismissed from the army for refusing to go along with 
the Pilsudski dictatorship, I was elected president of the Polish vet- 
erans who had served in France. I was reelected until 1939, when the 
war with Nazi Germany broke out. During all this time, I devoted 
myself to the cause of democracy. 

After the outbreak of World War II, I escaped to France, where 
General Sikorski formed another Polish army in exile. I held the 
rank of general and Under Secretary of War. After the fall of France, 
we were evacuated to England, where we worked for the restitution of 
our country. 

The agreements of Tehran and Yalta were a great shock to me, but 
I decided to work to save what could be saved of my country. When the 
war was finally over, I returned to Poland in July 1945. I was con- 
nected with the democratic Poles, including Stanislaw Mikolajczyk, 
who is also in exile here in the United States. I myself had been the 
vice president of the Christian Democratic Party since before the war. 

In Warsaw, I made contact with the Polish anti-Communist under- 
ground. I realized, however, that they could not succeed without help 
from the west. I was also in contact with Ambassadors Arthur Bliss 
Lane, of the United States, and Victor Cavendish-Bentick, of Great 
Britain. 

1 General Wladyslaw Sikorski, commander in chief of Polish Army in World War II and 
Prime Minister of the Polish Government in exile. 



8 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

When it was decided that I should be sent to Washington as military 
attache, Ambassador Lane was well satisfied and even gave me a letter 
of introduction to General Eisenhower. Since I wanted to stay at 
home and fight alongside my people, I consulted with Mr. Miko- 
lajczyck, who was the Vice Premier, about this matter. He told me 
that I would be used to serve as a human screen behind which my 
deputy, Colonel Alef, 1 using the assumed name of Bolkowiak, would 
engage in espionage and subversive activity. I thought the matter 
over and consulted with my wife. After that, I finally decided to 
accept the post in the hope that I could thereby serve the cause of 
democracy and assist the United States in its struggle against espio- 
nage and subversive activity. 

On the eve of my departure from Warsaw, I received a set of three 
sealed instructions, the originals of which I have here with me and 
would like to present in evidence. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt at this time to ask Mr. Thursz to read 
or translate into the record the sealed instructions which you received ? 

Mr. Thursz. I found that the translations as made before another 
committee are not quite right technically. I would suggest that these 
translations should be done by technicians who know military terms; 
and perhaps, if the chairman wanted a summary as the introduction 
to each document, we could give you that. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Thursz, will you proceed ? 

The Chairman. You may proceed to give the translation. 

Mr. Thursz. The first document is from the Polish Army Chief 
Command, General Staff, Division II, in Warsaw, to the military at- 
tache in Washington. 

[Translation] 

Secret Copy No. 1 

Polish Army, Chief. Command, Division II, No. 0334, 14 March 1946 

Instruction fob the Mitjtary Attache at the Embassy of the Polish 

Repurlic in Washington 2 

polish colony in the united states 

1. To ascertain and observe the activity of Polish organizations in the United 
States. Through yonr ''residents," to observe particularly Polish reactionary 
organizations, to determine their connections with similar circles in London, to 
ascertain tbeir links with Poland, such as means of assigning agents and 
saboteurs. 

2. Through the aid of people devoted to the democratic idea, to maintain 
contact with Polish democratic organizations, to support their struggle against 
reaction, aiming at creating a democratic bloc of all those of Polish origin in the 
United States. Information and propaganda ar-tivity should unmask the policy 
of the emigrant clique, in whose hands the Poles of the United States are objects 
of a political game against the Government of National Unity. Of special 
importance in winning over the Poles of the United States to our side is the 
commemoration of Tadeusz Kosciuszko. The 200th anniversary of the birth 
of the Polish and American hero occurs this year. 

3. To observer the activity of such Polish organizations as the P. C. K. 3 and 
various welfare funds. To define their relationship to Poland and to emigrant 
circles. To what end and by what means funds are distributed. 

4. To ascertain the intentions of the international organizations — UNRRA 
and YMCA — in relation to Poland. 

1 Colnnpl Onstnv Bolkowiak Alef (Aleksiej Frumkin), assistant military and air attache 
of Poland in the United States. 

2 For notes on persons named and forms used, see appendix III, p. All. 

3 Polish Red Cross (Polski Czerwony Krzyz). 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 9 

5. To ascertain the relationship of the United States and various political 
groups to Polish organizations, democratic and reactionary. The degree and 
form of support given by them to Polish reactionary activities. 

6. The connection of Polish reactionary organizations in the United States 
with the military clique of Anders and the activities of the information bureau of 
Matuszewski. 

7. To define and observe the relationship of American capital to the Polish 
colony in the United States and the Nation. 

8. To arouse the public opinion of Americans and Poles of the United State* 
against appeasement by American occupation authorities in Germany. A large 
percentage of the authorities are former German emigrants. Under their cover, 
the German press in the American Zone of Occupation is conducting a definite 
anti-Polish campaign. 

9. Taking as a basis the Note of the Polish Government of February 14, 1946, 
to conduct a campaign against the creation by American authorities of Polish 
guard companies or other Polish military units. Specifically it should be stressed 
that it is inadmissible that anyone in these units should wear insignia and 
merit badge distinctions of the Polish Army. 

10. To secure the receipt of confidential political publications, especially those 
published by the Polish colony in the United States. 

With the aim of obtaining information relative to the above matters, to organize 
a suitable information network among emigrant groups and in the offices of 
Polish organizations. In the first place, the following democratic organizations 
should be exploited : 

a. Polish American Labor Council, whose president, Leo Krzycki, is a member 
of the Socialist Party. 

b. Polonia Society, affiliated with the International Workers Order, president, 
Boleslaw Gebert. 

c. "Kosciuszko League," with headquarters in Detroit, Michigan. 

d. American Slav Congress. 

The above-mentioned organizations do not exhaust the list of democratic 
organizations which conform loyally to the Government of National Unity. 1 In 
order to become fully enlightened on the activities of emigrant-reactionary 
circles, it is necessary to have our own informers in organizations such as : 

a. Polish National Alliance, which has contact with "Sanacja" reactionary 
elements in Poland. 

b. Polish Roman Catholic Union. 

c. Other organizations which profit from the support of the influential seg- 
ments of the Polish colony in America. 

In order to infiltrate influential American societies and to interest specific 
groups in the Polish problem, it is necessary to exploit all oppositional elements 
in relation to the present President. To obtain extensive information, the 
Military Attache will organize a network of "residents," on whom he will place 
the responsibility of selecting agents. The Military Attache does not come in 
direct contact with the agents. 
19, III, 1946. [19 March 1946.] 

Mi inster of National Defense 

Michael Zymiebski, Marshal of Polaid. 

[Seal of the Ministry of National Defense] 

In 2 copies : 

Copy No. 1 — addressee 
Copy No. 2 — a /a 
Drawn up 13, 3, 46 [13 March 1946] 
KS 
Mr. Arens. Do you have another instruction there? 
General Modelski. Yes; detailed instructions about the Western 
Hemisphere on how to carry out spying work and subversive activity. 
The Chairman. Let us proceed with the second one. 
Mr. Thursz. This is from the Polish Army Chief Command, Gen- 
eral Division 2, instructions on the scope and range of activities of the 
military attache assigned to the Polish Embassy in Washington. 

1 The designation "Government of National Unity" was applied to the postwar coalition 
government of Poland which was formed around the so-called Lublin government of the 
Communists. 



10 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

[Translation] 
Polish Army, Chief Command, General Staff Division II, No. 0333, 14 March 1946 

Secret Copy No. 1 

Instruction on the Competence and Scope of the Activities of the Military 
Attache at the Polish Embassy in Washington 

1. The Military Attache at the Polish Embassy in Washington is under the 
Ambassador of Poland in matters of representation and political appearances. 

2. The Military Attache directs the over-all activities in the sphere of military 
representation in the United States. Through his first deputy, he makes prepara- 
tions for establishing contact with Canada, Argentina, and Brazil — where Military 
Attaches will be assigned. 

3. The Military Attache resolves any difficulties which may hinder direct com- 
munications between Attache's offices of specific North and South American 
countries and Poland. 

4. Through his first deputy, the Military Attache accomplishes the following 
tasks : 

Controls the work of the Military Attache in Mexico ; 
Supplies that office with required materials from the homeland ; 
Collects and transmits the correspondence of that office. 

5. All diplomatic personnel assigned to North and South America will travel 
through Washington when reporting to their posts. The Military Attach^ 
himself : 

Will establish contact with the Military Attache assigned to these missions ; 
Through his deputy: 

He will give tactical instructions to the respective Attaches, based on expe- 
rience gained in the preparatory work done in these countries prior to setting 
up the offices of the Attaches ; 

He will decide on the method of controlling the work ; 

He will decide on the method of correspondence. 

6. The Military Attache in Washington will cooperate as closely as possible 
with his first deputy, so that in the event of the Military Attache's absence the 
latter shall be in a position to replace him. 

[Seal of the Minister of National Defense] 

Minister of National Defense, 
Michael Zymierski, Marshal of Poland. 
14, III, 1946 [14 March 1946] 
Reproduced in 2 copies : 
Copy No. 1-addressee. 
Copy No. 2-file. 
Drawn up 13, III, 1946 [13 March 1946] 
AL 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly translate the third instruction? 

The Chairman. Are we going to have access to the originals of 
these later on ? Will they be made available to us ? 

Mr. Dekom. We will submit translations of the originals. 

The Chairman. He might then give a resume, if that is satisfactory 
to the committee. 

Mr. Thursz. These contain directives for intelligence work and 
indicate the basic matters on which information should be given to 
the G-2 ; that is, the Polish G-2. It also indicates some of the matters 
and procedures to be used in carrying out intelligence work in the 
United States. These matters and procedures are stated to be condi- 
tional on the internal situation in the country and on the personal 
qualifications of the agent. 

General Modelski. These instructions asked that a network of spy- 
ing and subversive activity be set up all over the United States of 
America. That ring consists of secret agents, subservient to so-called 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 11 

"residents. 1 " The latter depend on so-called directors ; that is, persons 
directing spy and subversive networks. 

It is signed by Komar, 2 General of the Army. He was then a 
colonel. He is the head of intelligence in Poland; no Pole, he is a 
Russian. 

[Translation] 

Top Secret Copy No. 1 

Polish Army, Chief Command, General Staff Division II, No. 0382, 22 March 1946 

Instruction (Detailed) fob the Military Attache at the Polish Embassy 

in Washington 

The (detailed) instruction issued to the Military Attache in the United States 
embodies direction for intelligence work and indicates the basic problems upon 
which Division II of the General Staff of the Polish Army should be kept in- 
formed. Methods and form of activities of the Military Attache will be subject 
to the work conditions, internal situation of the country, and the personal pre- 
requisites of the informant. 

intebnal conditions in the united states 
Armed forces of the United States 

A. Aviation 

1. Total number of aircraft formations and their distribution, combat and 
numerical strength of the formations (manpower and equipment) : (a) according 
to statute, (b) actual status. 

2. Types of planes held in reserve for arming aircraft formations and their 
characteristics: (a) construction, (b) combat. Number of planes in the first 
and second lines. 

3. Potentialities for development of aircraft formations: (a) manpower, 
(b) production of aircraft equipment. Quantities and destination of exports of 
airplanes. 

4. Distribution of base and alternate airfields, their technical equipment and 
characteristics. 

5. Methods of recruitment of personnel and registration in aviation schools, 
the curriculum and period of study. 

6. Civilian aviation. 

7. New types of planes. 

S. Recent technical inventions in the field of aviation, carrier- and land-based 
planes in detail, technical data, extent of the application of radar, radio direction 
from the ground of pilotless planes either singly or in squadrons. 

9. Combat manuals and joint operation between aviation and other branches 
of service. 

B. Ground troops 

1. Infantry: Numerical strength, distribution, organization, combat manuals, 
firing power, training status, equipment, morale, and combat status, officers' 
corps. The role and significance of the infantry in the armed forces in general. 
Is there a tendency to increase this role and the numerical strength of the 
infantry, or the opposite, or to maintain status quo? 

2. Artillery and armored troops: Organization, distribution, training status, 
combat manuals, equipment data (technical, combat, characteristic, etc.). Ex- 
tent of production anl applicatioi of '-V-2. 3 " The role and significance of the 
artillery and armored troops in the armed forces as a whole. Is there a tendency 
to give greater weight and significance to this branch as compared to others, to 
do the opposite, or to maintain status quo? 

3. Engineer troops and Signal Corps: Organization, training status, technical 
equipment, characteristic of equipment. Is there a tendency to expand or reduce 
the role and numbers of these troops in the armed forces in general? 

1 Designation used for the heads of district espionage units. Residents are fn direct con- 
tact with heads of foreign espionage units of satellite diplomatic missions. 

2 General Waclaw Komar, Head of Polish Military Intelligence. 

3 The German rockets employed in the latter stages of the war against England. 



12 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

4. Medical Service: Organization, new methods of treatment, etc. 

C. Na 11/ 

1. General description of the naval units (surface and subsurface). 

2. Tonnage of the fleel for the current year. I/osses sustained during the war. 

3. Number of combat units according to categories — displacement, name, and 
class of ships. 

4. Organization of naval units. 

5. Principal naval bases and characteristics. 

C. Shipyards — technical equipment, number Of docks, their capacity. 
7. Construction plans of new naval units. 

D. Chemical units 

1. Organization and distribution of chemical units. 

2. Types of equipment used and its unannounced combat characteristics. 

3. Recent inventions in chemical warfare, their characteristics and influence 
on war of the future. 

E. Paramilitary training 

1. Military training in schools and other institutions. Curriculum, importance 
ascribed to military training in the general curriculum of the school. 

2. Youth circles and organizations of military character ; age of the members 
and membership of said organizations. 

F. I'erritorial Army 

1. Methods of recruiting according to status, age, length of service. 

2. Distribution and identification marks of units. 

3. Equipment and level of combat training. 

Organization and administration 

1. Political organization (state authorities). 

2. Chief legislative and executive body. 

3. Election law. 

4. Administrative division. 

5. Number of Members in the Congress (House of Representatives and Senate). 

6. Description of duties of the Secretary of State, the Supreme Court, and 
Congress. 

7. Relation of various population groups of the National Government. 

8. Names of the most important representatives in Government service. 

9. Political rights of the people. 

Internal situation 

1. Laws regulating the life of citizens. 

2. Reaction of people to the announcements of laws and statutes. 

3. Attitude and political views of various population groups. 

4. Commerce, monetary system, speculation. 

5. Market and commercial prices. 

6. Strikes, demonstrations, incidents, and the reaction of the Government to 
them. 

7. Political parties, form of political contests, influence of political parties on 
the people. 

Economic condition 

1. Natural resources, stockpiles, annual extraction, location of natural re- 
sources. 

2. Raw materials of military value. 

3. Development of various branches of industry and yearly production. 

4. Agricultural, arable land, yield, total farm income, distribution of land. 

5. Annual budget and its subdivisions. 

Industry 

1. Principal branches of industry, especially war industry; total production 
of various enterprises and branches of industry. 

2. Location of industry, especially war industry. 

3. Role of public and private capital in the various branches of industry. 

4. Status of various firms and associations (trusts, cartels), their productive 
capacity, type of production, number of employed workers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 13 

5. Role of foreign capital in industry : Name of firm, size, branches of enter- 
prise. 

6. Construction of new industrial plants (especially war plants). 

7. Technical improvements in industry. 

8. Work of engineers, research institutions, and laboratories. 

Loans 

1. Announcements of national loans : purpose, terms, period, and amount. 

2. Method of selling bonds to the public. 

3. Reaction of the public to announcements of Government loans. 

4. Lotteries, payable in goods or cash. 

Level of civilisation, habits, and customs 

1. Average ability to read and to write. Educational system : schools, size of 
attendance. 

2. Publications : political views in literature, music, and films. 

3. Standard of living. 

4. Social conventions in private life and public places. 

5. Creeds, marriage contracts, divorces. Family life and the jurisdiction of 
courts in this sphere. 

Freedom of movement within the country 

1. Regulations and laws governing movements within the country (especially 
in the frontier zones). 

2. Documents required for traveling within the country and in the event of 
traveling abroad. 

3. Method of acquiring documents for travel (e. g., tickets) and their prices. 

4. Control of railway administration and of shipping lines. Timetables of 
passenger trains on the most important lines. 

5. Baggage-checking facilities, porters, restaurants, hotels. Customary pro- 
cedures. 

6. Customary procedure in use of mails, telegraph, telephone, etc. 

Regulations governing the sojourn of foreigners 

1. Total number of foreigners. 

2. Attitude and measures of authorities in relation to foreigners, their political 
rights. Occupations engaged in most frequently by foreigners. 

3. Relationship of authorities and the public to particular nationalities. 

4. Identification documents and those authorizing residence. Method of 
obtaining them. 

5. Possibilities of assuring living quarters and employment for foreigners. 

6. Method of obtaining entrance and exit visas for foreigners. 

Possibility of setting up enterprises, stores, workshops, etc. 

1. Possibility of and procedures for setting up the above-mentioned businesses 
for citizens and foreigners. 

Radio subscriptions 

1. Conditions for acquiring and using radios. 

2. Number of radio subscribers, methods and terms of registration, conditions 
for receiving and transmitting on private sets. 

3. Number of radio schools, duration of courses, kinds of specialists trained. 
Entrance requirements for citizens and foreigners. 

Foreign policy 

1. Trends in international politics and orientation of individual politicians. 

2. International agreements (open and secret) of a political, military, and 
economic character. 

3. Amount of public interest in foreign policy manifested by specific groups. 

4. Influence of and dependence on the foreign policy of other countries (Eng- 
land, U. S. S. R., etc.). 

5. Colonial policy. 

98330 — 50— nt. 1 2 



14 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

6. Accreditation of representatives of foreign missions, press, conferences. 

7. Credits <>f economic or military significance extended to other nations — 
amount, duration, and terms of repayment. 

Formation of residencies 

In setting up information networks, it is important to observe that they be 
composed of separate residencies not connected with one another, and that each 
has its own informants. Special attention should be paid to the selection of 
residents and to the organization of an apparatus that will be mobile, operational, 
and have the possibility of supplying pertinent information in accordance with 
the requirements. 

The details of organizing information posts should be delegated to the residents. 
There should be a minimum number of residencies, and the information network 
should not be extended at the expense of the number of informers. Overexten- 
sion of the information network may point to its origin, may cause superfluous 
immobility, and ultimately facilitate its discovery. 

For intelligence work, only people in high places with wide social connections, 
in a position to deliver intelligence material, should be engaged. 

The selection of a resident should be preceded by a thorough and extensive 
investigation of his activities, social standing, political convictions, as well as 
the positive and negative traits of his character. 

Investigation of the individual may be carried out as follows : 

(a) by personal observation in the course of service contacts and in casual 
social meetings ; 

(b) by study of his reputation and his political activities. 

The creation of residencies should be accomplished in relationship with the 
prescribed aims and previously established requirements. 

One should not engage for intelligence work people whom one meets casually 
and does not investigate properly. 

Haste in recruiting may lead to unfortunate results. It should be remembered 
that successful intelligence work depends on the proper selection of cadres. 

Organization of the communication system 

1. Within the residencies (outposts) : Communications within the residencies 
are maintained only from the top down. Each member of a residency knows only 
his immediate superior and the individual with whom he has contacts in his work 
(liaison man, administrator of underground local), depending on conditions. 

Horizontal communications between various informers or members of residen- 
cies are forbidden. The resident directs the work of his post through : personal 
instructions, liaison men, post-office box. 

Selection of the method of maintaining contacts in each individual case will 
depend on the character of the agent and local conditions. 

Unless professional or friendship ties exist, frequent contacts between residents 
and informants should be avoided. 

2. Contacts of the Military Attache with residents: The Military Attache directs 
tbe work of the residents by personal contact or through trusted persons. The 
other members of the residency should not know their "boss" (Attache). 

The Military Attache should avoid frequent meetings with the residents in 
public places and on occasions which have nothing to do with the official appear- 
ances of the Military Attache. Meetings in places at which the Military Attache" 
does not appear on official business should be delegated to trusted persons, after 
working out details of the meeting beforehand. Special care must be taken in the 
selection of the place for the meeting and in determining the password. The 
meeting should be adapted to local conditions. Rash meetings, not carefully pre- 
pared, must not be permitted. 

Conspiracy of work 

The diplomatic passport and conditions surrounding the official presence of 
the Military Attache facilitate in part the conduct of the intelligence work and 
create a certain "cover" for unofficial intelligence activity. Nevertheless, it should 
be remembered that the Attache will find himself under the constant and close 
observation of the counterintelligence and of the reactionary circles of the Polish 
emigration (former agency of the London Government). For this reason the 
Attache" should control his activity in accordance with intelligence instructions. 
Persons who are not associated with the intelligence work should have no knowl- 
edge of the work, either directly or indirectly. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 15 

Special attention should be paid to the recruitment of people for intelligence 
service. The final hiring should be delayed ; i. e., until after a thorough exami- 
nation of the given individual and trial period, during which he should receive 
unrelated assignments, devoid of intelligence significance. 

Experience shows that some of our official representatives organized intelli- 
gence work carelessly and did not give enough serious thought to the problem 
of recruiting, arranging meetings, etc. Disclosures of their activities were made 
in the presence of the Embassy staff members who had nothing in common with 
our work, and the result of such activity came to the knowledge of unsolicited 
persons. 

Such a worker becomes compromised and should leave his diplomatic post. 
The Attache should therefore approach his activity from the conspirational point 
of view, and on this premise must work out his plan of action. He must constantly 
supervise and control the activities of those to whom he assigned the execution 
of operational tasks. Only constant vigilance in connection with his own activities 
and the constant check of his subordinates will enable the Military Attach^ 
to perform good intelligence work without compromising himself. 

[Seal of The Polish Army Chief Staff, Intelligence Department.] 

Duplicated in 3 copies : 

Copy No. 1 — addressee. 
Copy No. 2 — Archives. 
Copy No. 3— file. 

22, III, 1946 [22 March 1946] I. B. No. 52. 

(Signature) W. Komar (Col.). 

Mr. Arens. Reference was made in the first instruction to contacts 
with the Polish Labor Council, the International Workers Order, and 
the American Slav Congress. 

General Modelski. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Could you in a word tell us about those organizations 
in the United States? 

General Modelski. I did not approach those organizations at all, 
because my job was quite another, about which I shall refer to later 
in my statement. 

All those organizations mentioned in my instructions as "demo- 
cratic" are, of course, Communist organizations. No one supports 
Communist organizations abroad without some purpose. Therefore, 
I was very much concerned, for instance, with the so-called Kosciusko 
League in Detroit, Mich. Being in Detroit late in the spring of 1947 
1 decided to call upon Professor Car, one of the prominent leaders of 
that organization. I was told that he was not a Communist but com- 
pletely loyal to the United States. We talked over the matter openly 
and frankly and came to an understanding. 

Mr. Car stated that he was anti-Communist and that his main aim 
was to help the Polish people, not the Red regime in Poland. And 
when I insisted then upon having his organization disaffiliate as a 
Communist front, he answered that it would probably not be necessary 
because the organization, once very powerful, was then dying away 
by itself. Immigrants of Polish descent had abandoned this organiza- 
tion en masse and this process was still going on. Furthermore, he 
added that the Michigan State Senate was preparing an anti-Com- 
munist bill demanding registration of all Communist organizations 
as agencies of a foreign power, which would kill the Kosciusko 
League. 

_ As to the American Slav Congress, it is a pure Communist organiza- 
tion and a means by which Russia, under the pretended cover of de- 
fending common Slav interests here, wants to get a stronghold for her 
propaganda, spying, and undermining aims in this country. There 
are no common Slav interests here, as there are none even in Europe. 



16 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

I wish that all Slav people in Europe could become united and cherish 
the same rights of freedom as Americans of all descent do here. The 
American Slav Congress in your country is a Russian tool in perform- 
ing Communist tasks here. 

As to my knowledge, and I am only speaking about Americans of 
Polish extraction, who may be connected with the Communist Amer- 
ican Slav Congress, the number — as we saw in Kosciusko League — 
must not be considerable, because Americans of Polish descent are, for 
the most part, anti-Communist. About Leo Krzycki and Boleslaw 
Gebert, as president and member of the American Slav Congress, re- 
spectively, I Avill say more later. 

Now, 1 would like to call your attention to the book While They 
Fought, by Helen Lombard, issued at the end of 1947. There you will 
find discussed the close connection between Krzycki and Moscow. Mr. 
Krzycki, although an American of Polish descent, did not look for 
contact with democratic Poles in exile nor in Poland, but went directly 
to Moscow to discuss Polish problems with the Communists. If the 
American Slav Congress is not a Communist organization, then may 
I ask why only prominent Communists from abroad came here in 1946 
to take part in that Slav Congress meeting ? Why and for what reason 
did Russia send here prominent members of the NKVD and military 
generals to head the "Polish" delegation? (A Russian general and a 
prominent international Communist, General Walter Swierczewski.) 
Is it likely that they met on cultural problems? They came here to do 
their Communist jobs, to undermine your splendid unity, and so on. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you one more question, then ? I observed in 
the instruction which was read by the translator a reference to stores 
and shops which it was proposed be established here. Would you 
kindly address yourself to that subject? 

General Modelski. Yes. They are using all means to do their spy- 
ing or subversive job. 

Mr. Arens. Were these stores and shops to be used as a screen? 

General Modelski. Yes, yes. 

Mr. Arens. For dissemination or Communist propaganda? 

General Modelski. Naturally, yes ; that was the way that they are 
using them. 

Mr. Arens. And for espionage? 

General Modelski. Every means by which they can find cover to do 
their underground job. 

The Chairman. The instructions came to you to establish stores and 
shops ? 

General Modelski. To examine the possibilities. 

The Chairman. But there is a mention there of establishing stores 
and shops. 

General Modelski. You are right, Mr. Chairman. They wanted to 
build up the whole apparatus under various titles to support subversive 
activities and spying work ; to get unsuspected places in which to meet 
one another, to get or give further orders for agents, to collect infor- 
mation, secret mail and packages, and so on. With such places, easy 
contact would be had between agents of Russia and satellite Embassies. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to make one other inquiry to clarify the 
record on one thing. The instructions refer to the "democratic" par- 
ties. By democratic parties, the instructions do not embrace the Dem- 
ocratic Party in this country, as such ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 17 

'General Modelski. No. 

Mr. Dekom. "When they say democratic organizations, they mean 
'Communist organizations? 

General Modelski. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. When they say reactionary organizations, they mean 
American ? 

General Modelski. Yes. In Communist language, "democratic" 
party means Communist Party. Therefore, they asked me to find all 
foes of the President, to unite with them and form a "people's demo- 
cratic party" here. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to make one comment for the benefit of the 
subcommittee, and that is that those groups, the American Polish 
Labor Council, International Workers Order, and American Slav 
Congress, are among the organizations which the Attorney General of 
the United States has listed as Communist and subversive. The list 
is already in the record. 1 

The Chalrmax. All right. General, I think you may proceed with 
your statement. 

General Modelski. Some of the instructions may appear strange 
to you. because they ask for information which is quite public. You 
must understand that these instructions were written by Soviet officials 
in order to have all secret agents sent here from abroad better informed 
and more familiar with all the details of your way of life than perhaps 
even your own citizens. 

The Chairman. These instructions, you say, were written by the 
Russians? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir. These instructions were written by 
Soviet officers, because the wording is the same as that issued by the 
Russians. At the end of this set of special instructions, you will find 
some paragraphs that show very clearly that they were written by 
Hussians. It reads, for example, "our experience shows that many 
blunders were committed by our attaches," although at that time there 
were no Polish attaches and, consequently, no such experience. They 
were obviously talking about Soviet attaches. 

The Chairman. These were then translated into Polish and trans- 
mitted through the Polish Government to its personnel? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Why were they interested in so manv details, and in 
information which is not secret in the United States? 

General Modelski. In Russia, everything is secret, and they believe 
that these things are also secret in the United States. Furthermore, 
it is important that every agent sent to a foreign counry must know 
everything that is happening and be completely familiar with the cus- 
toms and your way of life. It is important, for example, for an agent 
to purchase any type of transportation ticket, so that he will never 
have to ask any questions and, therefore, not have to attract any 
attention. They are instructed to ask no details of anyone. 

The Chairman. Have you information on the activities of Com- 
munist agents in this country? 

General Modelski. Yes. The principal spy and subversive agent 
with whom I am familiar was my deputy. Colonel Alef. who worked 
under the assumed name of Bolkowiak. He is one of the most im- 

a Appendix n, p. A7. 



18 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

portant Communist agents and an officer of the NKVD, which is the 
Russian secret police. 

To better understand the job that the Russians and her satellites 
are trying to do here, I would like to tell you the philosophy which 
guides them. When Colonel Alef came to the United States from 
London, he told me that this country is standing on the brink of 
collapse ; that it not only has an economic depression, but grave labor 
difficulties. He said the labor unions were well prepared for revolu- 
tion, and he reported that the Communists had more than 400 organ- 
izations here. 

Mr. Arens. That is in the United States ? 

General Modelski. That is in the United States. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask a question right there, General ? When you 
referred to the 400 Communist organizations in the United States, 
could you give the subcommittee a word as to whether or not these 
Communist organizations are local products, or whether or not they 
have international connections and are directed from Moscow ? 

General Modelski. Yes. In my opinion, the most of them have 
international connections even if they are local products. It was 
very easy to establish here in your country many international and 
so-called democratic establishments during the war. As I remem- 
ber, the United States began diplomatic relations with the Russians in 
1933. They have had much time to do that, and most of their work 
here was done during the war, when they went to war with Hitler, as 
your allies. Yes ; they have had many opportunities to build organiza- 
tions for "democratic" purposes. Colonel Alef did not tell me exactly 
which ones, but he told me that here in your country there are more than 
400 undercover organizations of international and local scope, under 
various titles. 

During the coal strike of John L. Lewis, Colonel Alef said that 
this was the beginning of the revolution. I was always forced to con- 
tradict Colon 1 1 Alef because I could see with my own eyes that this was 
not true. 

The Chairman. Which Lewis coal strike was that ? 

Mr. Dekom. What year ? 

General Modelski. As I remember, it was 1946 and you are still safe. 
Only a small group of people here were following the Communists. 
I sent that information to Warsaw, referring to that small group as 
fifth columnists. I was blamed afterward for that. At that time 
Colonel Alef said to me : 

There will be a revolution. There will be a revolution. There will be a de- 
pression. There will be a depression. 

To show you how the Communists operate, I would like to tell you 
of one more experience which happened to me before I came to 
this country. I was sent to London as head of a military mission 
to work out the repatriation of the Polish Army there. I had orders 
to reach an agreement to bring back the Polish troops. I was able to 
work out such an agreement with the British Government, bu f be- 
fore it could be signed, I was called back I had with me, as my deputy, 
Col. Viktor Grosz, a Communist agent. He had instructions which 
were contradictory to mine. He was ordered to try to get the army 
to disband and try to incite riots. They did not want these men to 
return because they would have been an obstacle to the Communists. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 19 

When it became clear that I had worked out an agreement, he tele- 
graphed to Warsaw and I was recalled before anything could be 
accomplished. 

Mr. Arens. Has Col. Viktor Grosz, who was with you on this mis- 
sion, ever been in the United States? 

General Modelski. Yes ; he was to come to the United Nations. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity? 

General Modelski. I don't know, but perhaps he was sent as one 
to take part in the Polish delegation for some meeting of the United 
Nations. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know any other activities of Col. Viktor Grosz, 
other than those which you have thus far related, insofar as activities 
in the United States are concerned? 

General Modelski. In the United States? No. He is in Poland 
and is now a general in charge of overseas propaganda. 

The Chairman. When did he leave the United States, if you know? 

General Modelski. Mr. Chairman, he came here in about 1947, 
when he came to take part at the United Nations Assembly. 

The Chairman. How long did he remain? 

General Modelski. I think for 1 month, perhaps, or longer. 

Mr. Dekom. Is it your opinion, on the basis of your knowledge of 
his activities, that he was engaged in subversive activities in the 
United States? 

General Modelski. In my knowledge and opinion, no one from the 
Communist block is coming here for pure diplomatic purposes. 
Everyone has to have another secret assignment. Communists don't 
waste time in their endeavors to kindle up world revolution, even if 
they perform their usual formal diplomatic missions or jobs. No one 
is permitted to leave from behind the iron curtain to go over to the 
United States and return, if he is not a Communist. 

The Chairman. If he does not have a Communist mission? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir, a Communist mission. 

The Chairman. All right. Proceed. 

General Modelski. When I came to the United States, I approached 
the Army Intelligence Service at once. It wasn't as easy as you think. 
I had to overcome many obstacles to get rid of suspicion. I handed 
them the instructions which were given to me and gave them all the 
evidence which I had. I kept them informed of all that happened in 
my office. I told them, for example, that Colonel Alef was going to 
Canada, Mexico, Florida, Texas, California, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, 
and many other places. I would like to state here that Colonel Alef 
was very'much afraid about making contact with the non-Communist 
Americans of Polish descent, because they would have nothing to do 
with him. That was supposed to be my job. 

Colonel Alef was also the chief agent of the Polish Communists 
for all the American continent. I believe he was deeply involved with 
the rioting at Bogota during the Inter-American Conference. He 
went to Mexico 6 or 8 weeks before the event, where his contact man 
was a colonel who was disguised as the secretary to Mr. Drohojowski, 1 
Ambassador in Mexico. His name was Colonel Welker. 2 

One day after Colonel Alef left his room. I went in and found 
some scraps of paper on the floor. I picked them up. It was a letter 

1 Tan Drohojowski. Polish Minister to Mexico. 

2 Colonel Jozef Welker, First Secretary of the Polish Legation in Mexico. 



20 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

from Colonel Welker, his agent in Mexico. He had written to Alef. 
I do not remember exactly, but he probably wrote this way : 

Don't come to see me this time because I am awaiting instructions from War- 
saw about Colombia, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba. 

From this letter I understood that Colonel "Welker had received 
instructions for some sort of activity in Bogota, which is very unusual, 
because Poland had nothing to do with the Inter-American Confer- 
ence. I believe that they were active in the Communist riots which 
occurred there. 

Colonel Alef was always telling me about the "stupid FBI" and 
the "stupid American Intelligence Service." But one day he con- 
fessed to me, "There is something strange. I fear there is someone at 
my heels." I said to him, "I don't think so, because you told me that 
they were so stupid." Of course, they were able to follow him because 
I always informed the American authorities of his movements in 
advance. 

Mr. Arexs. May I clarify the record at this point ? Is it your testi- 
mony that you were informing the American authorities ? 

General Modelski. All the while. 

Mr. Arexs. Of what was going on ? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. The Army Intelligence? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. Were you yourself ever a Communist ? 

General M odelski. What ? 

Mr. Arens. Were you yourself ever a Communist or member of the 
Communist Party ? 

General Modelski. I ? 

Mr. Arexs. Yes, sir. 

General Modelski. Never. I fought and I fight them. 

Mr. Arexs. Would you proceed, please ? 

The Chatrmax. You may proceed, General. 

General Modelski. Colonel Alef 's specialty was labor unions. Mos- 
cow was very much interested in the CIO, and they always asked 
questions about them. They wanted to know about the people and 
their leanings. I received many requests about this matter. Colonel 
Alef was very angry with John L. Lewis, William Green, and David 
Dubinsky because they would not go along with the Communists. 

Another important iob of Colonel Alef was to infiltrate the Polish 
organizations, particularly by means of the American Slav Congress, 
which is a Communist organization. It is unfortunate that the presi- 
dent of the Slav Congress is of Polish origin. He is Leo KrzyclH. 

There is one more thing I want to tell you about Krzycki. When 
my wife and I were vistin.tr in New York, we were invited +<~> the home 
of the Stanczyk's. I asked Jan Stanczyk 1 whether Krzycki is 
a Communist. He did not reply directly, but he said : 

General, one day I was asked to dinner with Mr. Green of the AFL and with 
Mr. Murray from CIO, 2 and I desired that Mr. Krzycki, a friend of mme, be 
invited to that dinner, too. Both presidents of the \mions answered, "We will 
never sit with that Communist at any dinner." 



1 .Tan Stanczyk was the Polish delegate to the Lnbor Commission of Hip United Notions. 
Hp had ,il*o served as the Minister of Enbor and Social Welfare in the present Polish 
Oove'-Tiiiient. 

2 William Oreen. president of the American Federation of Labor, and Phil Murray, presi- 
dent of the Congress of Industrial Organizations. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 21 

There was another important Communist in the American Slav 
Congress, Boleslaw Gebert, who was a leader in the International 
Workers Order as well. Gebert has returned to Poland where he is 
now a Communist official. 

Since I had consistently refused to follow instructions about getting 
in contact with the Polish communities here, both Colonel Alef and 
the Government kept asking me when I would begin to do this job. 
Marshal Zymierski, the minister of war and commander in chief of 
the Polish Army, kept writing to me to work among the left wingers 
and the Communists. I would like to submit in evidence some of this 
correspondence. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Thursz, would you give a resume and then trans- 
late the original document in the record, if that meets with the 
approval of the committee ? 

The Chairman. That is very well. 

Mr. Thursz. This is an instruction from the G-2 division of the 
Polish Army to the military attache. The text of this is as follows : 

Please send the following information concerning the American Navy: (a) 
The detailed organization of naval units on the lower levels, (b) detailed organ- 
ization of the naval air force, (c) organization and exploitation of underwater 
craft, (d) nature and methods of training of naval personnel. 

Signed "General of Brigade Komar, chief of the G-2 section of the 
Polish Army." This is dated the 24th of March 1947 and is marked 
"Secret." 

Another "secret" memorandum, dated the 24th of February, 1947, 
is as follows : 

From the G-2 Division of the Polish Army addressed to the military 
attache, General Modelski, the contents of which are as follows : 

In connection with the fact that the unification of the armed forces of the 
United States of America has been accomplished, please prepare a report on the 
organization of the Department of National Defense, the Departments of the 
Army and Air Forces and Navy. 

Another instruction is dated the 24th of February 1947, addressed 
to the military attache, the Embassy, Washington, General Modelski. 
The text is as follows : 

Top secret. Please send detailed list of your informants showing : First, name 
and surname of informer ; second, age ; third, address ; fourth, method of con- 
tacting him ; fifth, his previous work ; sixth, remuneration ; seventh, reputation. 
After reading this, please destroy. 

Signed "General of Brigade Komar, chief of Second Division of 
Polish Army, Polish Army General Staff." 
Secret document dated the 31st of May : 

Evaluation of the material from the period of 1st of February to the 30th of 
April 1&47. 

It is from the Polish Army Second Division, addressed to General 
Modelski. 

Almost all material received from you with the exception of German question 
based on the press has no informative value. We have until now received no 
material on the subjects : Organization of artillery, organization of armed 
forces, organization of aviation, the strength of the Army, of the Navy, and of 
the Air Force. Study matters. Want evidence on important units : on large 
military units, division. Army, and so on: radio, industry, commerce; the 
financing of the occupational zone in Germany, capital and its penetration into 



22 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Germany, Import-Export Bank, International Fund; military, industrial, air 
communication and transport; the working out of these important data. Please 
consider this as very urgent, as the first duty of attach6's office. 

Signed, "Komar, General of Brigade, Second Division of the Polish 
General Staff." 

The Chairman. Were these instructions transmitted to you ? 

General Modelski. Yes. 

Mr. Thurz. This is a letter of instructions of January 2, 1947, con- 
cerning the evaluation of the military attache's reports during the 
months of October, November, and December, 1946, expressing dis- 
satisfaction in the reporting of the military attache, and stating, con- 
cerning the evaluation of the position of President Truman as the 
leader who has behind him the entire American population, that — 

It seems to us, also, that the evaluation of the position of President Truman 
as a providential leader who has behind him the entire American population is, 
according to our opinion, false. It seems to us, also, that Truman did not gain 
in authority after the speeches of Mr. Wallace, but, on the contrary, lost a lot of 
his prestige. The role of the trade-unions is mistakenly interpreted, and the 
name of fifth column does not withstand criticism. 

The statement that the activity of the labor unions meets with decided reac- 
tion of "a healthy society" brings up the question as to what part of society you 
consider healthy. 

The Chairman. Who was that from? Who signed that? 

General Modelski. That one is signed by General Komar, the head 
of G-2, a Russian officer. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if the general could give in his own language, 
now, a resume of the others. Apparently they have a great number 
of those there, forty-some-odd documents. I wonder if the general 
could give a word summary to the committee of the. contents of the 
other instructions. 

General Modelski. There are many instructions here. There is 
much correspondence which contains new instructions to me, too. 
There are 48 altogether, instructions and orders, or evaluation of my 
activity here. 

Mr. Arens. Would it be practicable, General, and Mr. Thursz, if 
the translator would translate the contents of those documents and 
submit the translations to the subcommittee for inclusion in the 
record ? 

General Modelski. Yes. I think that the better way would be if I 
submit to your subcommittee the whole for translation. I am ready 
to help, because there are some military terms not to be understood 
even by an American of Polish descent. 

The Chairman. I think that is a good course to pursue. You are 
submitting them to us in the original language ? 

General Modelski. Yes. 

The Chairman. We will have them officially translated. As they 
are translated they will go in the record in their order. 1 

You might go ahead there, General. 

General Modelski. As you can see from this and the other evidence 
which I have, the Polish Embassy here in Washington is the center 
of a spying apparatus and subversive activities directed against the 
United States. 

The Chairman. These were orders received by you ? 

1 Translations of the documents submitted by General Modelski will be found in 
appendix III, p. All. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 23 

General Modelski. Directly from Warsaw. 

The Chairman. While you' were in the Polish Embassy ? 

General Modelski. Wliile I was an attache to the Polish Embassy 
here. 

Mr. Arens. When you say it was the center, you are not precluding 
the possibility of other centers in other embassies. 

General Modelski. Oh, no ; because there are more than one branch 
working against the United States. There are as many as there are 
iron curtain embassies, consulates, and so on. They work together 
here at top levels. 

The Chairman. Would it be fair to say from your knowledge, your 
intimate knowledge of the whole affair, that the Embassy of each of 
the so-called satellite countries is also a nerve center of Communist 
activity? 

General Modelski. Yes. 

The Chairman. For the dissemination of Communist doctrine from 
Moscow ? 

General Modelski. Yes, sir, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Very well, proceed. 

General Modelski. In 1948 Warsaw sent a telegram to establish in 
the Western Hemisphere a radio transmitting and receiving station. 
Colonel Alef was ordered to go throughout the country and obtain 
information on American production, particularly military produc- 
tion. However, before Colonel Alef was able to accomplish his task 
I wrote to Warsaw and demanded that he be recalled because I could 
not work with him. He was extremely shocked when the orders came 
for him to go back in March 1948. 

The Chairman. Why could you not work with him ? 

General Modelski. First, I wanted the United States to be rid of 
a dangerous Communist agent; second, it was impossible to work 
with him as a man, as a human being. He pressed me always to do 
my assignments, and Warsaw ordered me to submit my reports to and 
get my orders from him. I refused to do that. I wrote, "Either he 
will be recalled or I, because I am the chief here, and I am responsible 
for all that is happening here." Colonel Alef should have submitted 
his reports to me, which had never happened up to that time. 

One day my second deputy, Major Olkiewicz x received instructions 
to go to Canada without me. He was to follow through on the in- 
struction to set up the secret radio station. 

The Chairman. What was the date of that ? 

General Modelski. It was about March of 1948. It was decided by 
that time that Canada would be a better place than the United States 
or South America. Although the second deputy had already received 
a visa to Canada, he did not leave. After he made many excuses, 
I kept prodding him, and one day I told him : "Major Olkiewicz, go 
to Canada. You have your orders." But he replied : "General, there 
is such a terrible situation in the United States. We are being trailed 
everywhere by the FBI. I am afraid to go there. I have diplomatic 
immunity in the United States but not there in Canada. I am afraid 
of being arrested there." 

Mr. Arens. Just what did you interpret his comment to mean when 
he said he has diplomatic immunity in the United States but not in 
Canada? 

1 Major Alfons Olkiewicz, Assistant Military and Air Attache of Poland in Washington. 



24 C01MMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

General Modelski. Because he only has immunity here. He has no 
diplomatic immunity in the other country. Therefore, he was afraid 
to <ro there, to be arrested there perhaps. 

Mr. Di.kom. In other words, he would not dare do the things he 
was doing except behind the screen of diplomatic immunity. 

Genera] Modelski. Yes. 

I knew, however, that the Russians would not give up that easily 
and that they would take care of the situation in another way. One 
day, I came to my office and I saw there a man who was a code clerk. 
He had returned to Poland and was now back here as a specialist. 
"When I saw him, I wondered what he was doing back here from 
Warsaw. He answered, "I came here to see Major Olkiewicz." 

The Chairman. Who was this man that you saw here in Washing- 
ton again ? 

General Modelski. That was a former code clerk at the Polish 
Embassy here. He came here to see my second deputy, Major Olkie- 
wicz. The major remained here after I left the Embassy. Since 
my first deputy, Colonel Alef, had been recalled at my demand, Major 
Olkiewicz became acting military attache in my place. He is now 
awaiting the arrival of a man to replace me. The new military attache 
is a pure and prominent Communist, with the assumed name of 
Torunczyk. 1 He has been indoctrinated in Moscow for many years. I 
was told that Moscow had bestowed upon him the highest Communist 
medal, the Order of Lenin. 

The Chairman. What was his real name ? 

General Modelski. I don't know. He changed his name before the 
war. He was a Communist before the war, too. He was arrested 
many times in Poland. 

Mr. Dekom. Is it in your testimony that after Colonel Alef left, 
Major Olkiewicz assumed his job as espionage and subversive agent? 

General Modelski. Yes; it must be so, because spying never dies. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

General Modelski. That man who came from Warsaw as a special- 
ist, accosted suddenly by me in my office, confessed to me, "I have 
been in Canada to inspect the job of the Polish code clerk there." It 
is my opinion that he was sent to Canada with special diplomatic im- 
munity to accomplish the job in connection with the secret radio station 
there. 

Communist activity was not confined to the United States. They 
had one branch in Canada and one in Mexico. I have already dis- 
cussed with you the activities of Colonel Welker in Mexico. Colonel 
Alef visited Canada many times, and at one time he traveled in his 
own car to meet someone there. 

The Slav Congress is one of the centers of activity in this country 
and I would, therefore, like to tell you about the so-called Panslav 
movement. This movement is like the Pan-German movement. It is 
one of the means which Russia uses for her imperialistic purposes. 
Panslavism was used before World War I by the czars and is used 
now by the Communists. Panslavism was opposed by the Polish 
people while they were in bondage to the czars, and it is opposed by 
the people today when we are in bondage to the Communists. 

'Henryk Torunczyk. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 25 

Colonel Alef was always telling me that there is no United States. 
It will all be destroyed. They hope to use the various nationalities 
here, particularly the Slavs, to bring about this destruction. He be- 
lieved that there was no unity here, and said to me once, "It is a fairly 
easy job to undermine United States production. There will be a revo- 
lution.'' They expect to break up the United States into small groups ; 
they propose to establish a Negro nation, a Polish nation, a Yugoslav 
nation, a German nation, and so forth. 

Mr. Arens. Is the American Slav Congress listed by the Attorney 
General as a subversive organization? 

General Modelski. I know that the Attorney General listed it as a 
Communist organization. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know how many members there are of the Amer- 
ican Slav Congress? 

General Modelski. I am unable to estimate it, but in my opinion 
there is only a small number who are of Polish descent. 

This is part of the means by which they are preparing a revolu- 
tion, preparing for strikes, riots, arid other ways in which to destroy 
American war production. They are preparing to steal secret weapons 
and armaments, and if the economic situation will permit, there will 
be war. One day in May 1947 Soviet Admiral Glinkov 1 , who came 
as a new naval attache here told me that the Russians will decide when 
war should come with the United States. 

The same opinion was expressed by many other prominent Com- 
munists. Russia was convinced that the United States was on the 
brink of an economic depression, an internal political split, facing 
labor union movements against the Government and so forth. Directly 
or indirectly, in my reports I strongly opposed these false opinions, 
and very early in 1947 I predicted the victory of Mr. Truman, and I 
predicted the complete defeat of Communists in peace or war. I 
warned the Reds that to count on America's disunity and weakness was 
merely wishful thinking. Especially, I stressed that Americans of 
Polish descent were true and loyal citizens and would give their whole 
support to the United States in its defense. Red Warsaw didn't agree 
with me and demanded that my reports be approved by Colonel Alef. 

In 1946, the Polish Government sent a General Swierczewski as the 
chief delegate to the American Slav Congress in New York. He was 
a very prominent Communist and Under Secretary of War in the 
Communist government. Before that, he was a commander of the 
International Brigade in Spain. Warsaw wanted to use him for its 
activity here, but they hoped to find a means to make his visit here 
seem for an entirely different purpose. They told me that I should ask 
the United States Army to invite General Swierczewski to West Point 
so that he could present West Point cadets with a banner in honor of 
General Kosciuszko. I told the United States Army about this and 
suggested that they refuse. They agreed with me and refused. So, 
the general had to come here without any invitation. 

When he came here, he read all my reports and accused me of being 
under the influence of the "Pentagon clique" and "Wall Street," and 
that I did not understand the situation in the United States, nor what 
was happening among the masses of the people. Then, I answered 

1 Rear Adm. Evgeni Georgievich Glinkov, naval attache^ Soviet Embassy, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



26 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

that I had written realistically about America and told him, "I warn 
you that you do not properly evaluate the power of the United States." 
I told him that although America does not want war, she is not afraid 
to fight if war should come. 

While General Swierczewski was here, Mr. Litauer, 1 who was 
charge d'affaires in the absence of the Ambassador, called the Polish 
consuls from throughout the entire country for a conference. The 
general told ma that I was to go all over the country and visit Polish 
communities with him and speak with them. I told him that I would 
not go, because I was a general who was sent here for military pur- 
poses and not for political purposes. And, I told him that it was not 
proper for a military attache to do a political job. He immediately 
stopped the conversation and asked me to see him later in his office. 
When I did see him, he handed me a letter from Marshal Zymierski, 
wdio was Minister of War. The letter instructed me to comply with 
all the orders of General Swierczewski. I handed him back the letter 
and told him I could not comply with that. I informed Military 
Intelligence, and, through the State Department, he was refused per- 
mission to engage in any activities here unless he registered as the 
agent of a foreign power. This he refused to do, and made some 
visits privately rather than in his official capacity. 

I would like to tell you now about couriers who are sent here with 
diplomatic immunity from Warsaw. One of these men was a man by 
the name of Winter, 2 who sometimes handed me an unimportant note, 
but generally brought things to Colonel Alef . He had some relatives 
here in the United States. He stayed here for several months, and 
then he disappeared and nobody knew where he was. Therefore, it is 
obvious that beside his courier job, he was doing something else. He 
would come to the United States, stay here for a long time, and then 
go to Mexico, Canada, or other places. 

I remember one thing when Mr. Winter disappeared. I went, as I 
had many times previously, into Colonel Alef's office, and I found a 
letter there on which there was no postage stamp. I looked at it and 
found it was addressed to someone here in Washintgon. Another 
time Winter told me, when I asked him where he was going, that he was 
leaving for Chicago to stay with his mother. But nobody could find 
him in Chicago. When couriers for the United States are screened 
in Warsaw they are very anxious to use those who have friends or rela- 
tives in this country, because they are able to get around more easily 
and have better excuses for visiting cities than those without relatives. 

I would now like to tell you something about Ambassador Winie- 
wicz. 3 He is a very cunning man. He is very clever. He knows 
which way to turn, when to approach someone or to make a contact. 
I think his wife is also important, and I was told that she is a mem- 
ber of the NKVD, which is, of course, the secret police. 

Mr. Dekom. That is the secret police of Russia? 

General Modelski. It is the same as Polish. They are conducted by 
Russian officers. It is the same line. 

Winiewicz is extremely shrewd. He uses cultural parties in order 
to make contact with officials and other persons. He arranges artistic 
and musical events behind which he operates. I would like to cite an 

1 Stefan Litauer, minister plenipotentiary. 

2 Leon Winter, diplomatic courier (now a UN official). 
8 Josef Winiewicz. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 27 

instance which might be of interest to the committee. I once asked 
the Ambassador if he thought there would be a war. He said to me, 
"General, I assure you that there will be no war, because I have spoken 
to many influential people, and that is their opinion." 

He referred particularly to a man who was to have dinner with 
Secretary Royall 1 of the Army, and said this unnamed man would be 
in a position to prevent Avar. I do not know who this man was, but it 
would seem to me from this information that the Ambassador is trying 
to force himself into circles with important people. Ambassador 
Winiewicz tried to make contact with the American Poles in Detroit, 
and he asked Bishop Woznicki 2 for an interview. The bishop, who 
was active for relief of Poland, said that he would receive him. But 
that was not enough for the Ambassador ; he wanted to meet other peo- 
ple and expected the bishop to acquaint him with them. This the 
bishop refused to do. 

The Chairman. What bishop is this ? 

General Modelski. The Catholic bishop in Detroit, I know him 

very well. 

Winiewicz was, however, able to make close contact with the Amer- 
ican Slav Congress. And I have a particular incident to illustrate 
this. One clay he ordered a great celebration held in the Embassy in 
honor of Boleslaw Gebert. Gebert was to be awarded the order of 
Polonia Restituta, second class. That is a very high rank. In address- 
ing Gebert, during the awarding of the decoration, the Ambassador 
said, among other things, the following : 

My dear Boleslaw, you have delivered a great service to Poland. You have 
given us very important information of highest significance. Today, there exists 
the new Poland, for which you dreamed all your life. You have helped us with 
the very important information which you have given us. 

From this you can see that Gebert was an important agent for the 
Embassy here. The Ambassador expressed the greatest gratitude for 
the job which Gebert had done. 

Mr. Arens. Would you give the subcommittee your opinion on the 
bill under consideration. 

In my opinion, because I have become familiar with Communist 
tactics, the bill which Senator McCarran has introduced is a good 
one. It will place a great obstacle in the entry of alien Communists to 
America, and it will make the activity of the Communists more diffi- 
cult. It will also discourage many people from contact with the Com- 
munists if they expect to be deported. I consider your bill, although 
I am for more drastic rules, to be one of the best ways to stop them. 

In this connection, I would like to give you a specific example. It is 
concerning Ignacy Zlotowski. During World War II, he was in 
France with Joliot-Curie, the head of the French Atomic Commission 
and a prominent member of the French Communist Party. After the 
collapse of France, Zlotowski came to the United States to become a 
professor. He worked here as a scientist for 4 years. Zlotowski was 
a prominent Communist, and I have heard that he was a great scientist. 
In 1946, Zlotowski returned to Poland, after teaching at four univer- 
sities. He subsequently returned to the United States as Polish repre- 
sentative in the United Nations and as deputy to the Polish Ambassa- 

1 Kenneth C. Royall. 

2 Most Rev. Stephen Woznicki, D. D., Auxiliary Bishop of the Detroit Archdiocese. 



28 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

dor, first Dr. Oskar Lange, and then Winiewicz. He returned again 
about 1948 to Poland. It was the job of Zlotowski, whose real name 
was either Goldberg or Goldman, to do espionage in the atom bomb 
field, because he was a physical scientist and specialist in this field. 
My instructions never contained any reference to atomic questions, 
because I am not a scientist and would not know anything about it. 
But Zlotowski was the man who handled this phase of the operation. 

One of the ways I found out about his activity here was this. There 
was a man in the embassy whose name was rather similar to Zlotowski, 
and I told him that the United States intelligence agencies were going 
to investigate his activities as a Communist. He was greatly disturbed 
and told me, U I am not the man, it is Zlotowski who is over here doing 
a job." 

Soviet Russia and the satellites send here many trade missions which 
have freedom of movement around the country. This is another way 
for agents to get in, and I think that this bill would stop them. 

I would like now to tell you just a word about the reasons for my 
action. I came to this country in the hope that I could expose the 
activities of Colonel Alef and his espionage work. When this work 
was thoroughly done, and when I could no longer refuse their insistent 
demands that I return to Poland, I resigned. Gentlemen, I fought 
against the Communist armies that invaded my country in 1920 ; I am 
determined to fight against them today. 

Mr. Dekom. Are you familiar with the newspaper Glos Ludowy ? 

General Modelski. Yes. That is a communist newspaper. 

Mr. Dekom. That is published in Detroit ; is it not ? 

General Modelski. In Detroit, yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you describe the nature of the American Slav 
Congress here; is it a Communist organization? 

General Modelski. Oh, I am sure of that ; for what other reason do 
they send here only Communists — a Russian general so-called Polish 
general, Swierczewski, and so on — to speak with those people if they 
were not Communists ? Why do they ask me to meet with this organi- 
zation to do a Communist job? 

Mr. Dekom. Would you consider it a fifth-column organization in 
this country % 

General Modelski. Yes; I would. I even wrote to Warsaw that 
some people working among your labor unions are a fifth column. 

Mr. Arens. Nothing further of this witness, Mr. Chairman. Thank 
you very much, General. 

The Chairman. Thank you, General. You will be excused from 
subpena. 

(Thereupon, at 3 : 15 p. m., the subcommittee proceeded to executive 
session.) 

Supplemental Statement of General Izydob Modelski 

In order to better understand the way in which Russia moves in espionage 
activities in the United States, you must know that the work is controlled by 
Marshal Beria * in Moscow, the head of the secret police. As Security Minister 
of the Soviet Union, he is the dictator of the so-called security activities in 
Russia, in the satellite countries and abroad. His men are stationed in the 
Communist-controlled countries, including Poland. His representative is a Rus- 
sian general, probably General Malinov, who receives instructions from Moscow 



1 Marshal L. P. Beria, member, Soviet Politburo, head of Soviet secret police. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 29 

and transmits them to the other Russian officers who are in charge of the Polish 
secret police. The Soviet Military Intelligence is headed by General Komar, a 
Russian general masquerading behind a Polish uniform. 

The hub of all Communist espionage is in Russia ; the other espionage units are 
merely the spokes. When Colonel Alef arrived in Washington to serve in the 
Polish Embassy, he, as well as the other officers attached to my staff in the 
Embassy, were frequent visitors at the Soviet Embassy and were also in con- 
tact with the military attaches of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. 

All diplomatic mail must be sent by one channel or another to Moscow. The 
complete dependence of the satellite secret police and espionage systems on 
Soviet Russia is illustrated by the following experience which I had : One day 
in 1948, I told the Polish Ambassador, Joseph Winiewicz, that I had had enough 
of the reproaches which were sent to me by the Communists in Warsaw, and 
that I had decided to send strong protests to them in code about their attitude 
toward me. The Ambassador then urged me not to do that. He confessed, "All 
your reports have to be submitted to Lebedev, 1 the Russian Ambassador in War- 
saw, just as I am required to submit important matters to Ambassador Panyush- 
kin L in Washington, to have him agree upon them." 

Another example of the contacts between the satellites and Russia came to my 
attention at the beginning of 1947. Colonel Alef came to my ofhVe one day greatly 
disturbed, and asked that Major Olkiewicz and, especially, Major Kierys, 3 be 
instructed not to go directly to the Soviet Embassy because the FBI was trailing 
everybody going there. He informed them, "'The best place to meet Russians is 
at the Czech and, even better, at the Yugoslav embassy." I know that most of 
these meetings were held at the Yugoslav Embassy. Meetings later on took 
place among Russian. Czech, and Yugoslav officials in my own office. These were 
attended by Colonel Alef and Major Olkiewh z. 

While the meeting of the American Slav Congress was being held in New 
York in 1946, there was a meeting held of the International Congress of Women, 
which is a Communist-front organization. Among the delegates sent by the 
Communist government of Poland was Mrs. Malinowska, the mother of Colonel 
Alef's wife. (Malinowska is not her real name.) She came here on a diplo- 
matic visa and stayed in the United States until March 194S, when Colonel Alef 
departed with his family for Poland. During her stay she was actively engaged 
in activities among Jewish-American organizations, a task which had also been 
assigned to Colonel Alef. 

After my arrival in Washington, Colonel Alef, who had come here earlier, 
introduced' me to members of the Soviet Embassy during a party held on the 
anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. At my request, he introduced me to 
Soviet Ambassador Xovikov. 4 Afterward he took me aside and told me very 
confidentially that the most important man at the Embassy is not the Ambassador 
but the First Secretary, who is chief of the Soviet secret police in the United 
States. 

In my testimony before the committee, I mentioned my discussion with Soviet 
Admiral Glinkov. I would like to amplify further on my discussion with him. 
He said to me that the Soviet Union has no intention of capitulating to the de- 
mands of a "capitalist world." He expressed his confidence that the world is on 
the threshold of significant changes, and he outlined the steps which, in his opin- 
ion, would lead to an entirely new world for which the "Soviet Union has opened 
the door." He added, "The Soviet Union is determined not only to defend 
what she has gained thus far, but is equally determined to continue expansion 
of its domain." He continued, "The progress of world revolution may take a 
long time, but is nevertheless inevitable, and the new world can arise only out 
of the ruins of capitalism." 

EXECUTIVE SESSION 

The subcommittee met in executive session at 3 : 15 p. m., in the 
District Committee room, the Capitol, Senator Pat McCarran (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Present: Senator McCarran (chairman). 

1 Viktor Lebedev. 

Alexander S. Panvushkin. Soviet Ambassador to the United States. 

3 Major Edward Kierys, liaison officer, Office of the Military Attache, Polish Embassy, 
Washington, D. C. 

4 Nikolai V. Novikov, former Soviet Ambassador to the United States. 

98330—50 — pt. 1 3 



30 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Also present : Richard Arens, staff director of the special subcom- 
mittee; Otto J. Dekom, and Frank \X. Schroeder, professional staff 
members. 

The Chairman. Who is your next witness? 

Mr. Arens. The next witness will be Mrs. Ruth Fischer. 1 Will you 
remain standing while you are sworn as a witness. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. RUTH FISCHER, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give before the committee of the Senate will be the truth 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mrs. Fischer. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself? 

Mrs. Fischer. My name is Ruth Fischer. I am a writer living in 
New York. 

The Chairman. How long have you lived in New York City i 

Mrs. Fischer. Since 1941. 

The Chairman. Of what country are you a native? 

Mrs. Fischer. I am a native of Germany. 

The Chairman. How long have you been in this country ? 

Mrs. Fischer. Since April 1941. 

The Chairman. Are you a citizen of this country? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes. 

The Chairman. Are you married or single ? 

Mrs. Fischer. I am a widow. 

The Chairman. What is your line of business at the present time, 
if any? 

Mrs. Fischer. I have written a large study, Stalin and German 
Communism, published by the Harvard University Press, and I am 
working under the auspices of Widener Library of Harvard Univer- 
sity on a second study on European communism. 

The Chairman. Have you ever been to Moscow ? 

Mrs. Fischer. I have been in Moscow 14 times. 

The Chairman. Were you ever indoctrinated or trained in Moscow ? 

Mrs. Fischer. I was a German Communist, and an Austrian Com- 
munist from the very beginning. 

The Chairman. When did you become a Communist ? 

Mrs. Fischer. In 1917. 

The Chairman. As a Communist, were you taken to or did you go 
to Moscow ? 

Mrs. Fischer. I was a member of the central committee of the 
German Communist Party and general secretary of the Communist 
organization of Berlin, and I went there as an elected delegate of 
my Communist organization to represent this organization at Com- 
intern meetings. 

The Chairman. What year was that, what date ? 

Mrs. Fischer. Between 1922 and 192G. 

The Chairman. You were an accredited delegate from the Com- 
munist Party in Germany to the meeting, the Comintern at Moscow? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes; and I was elected delegate to the Fourth and 
Fifth Congress of the Communist International in Moscow, in 1922 

1 The witness appeared under subpena. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 31 

and 1924. In this capacity, I was elected to the executive committee 
of the Communist International and to its presidium, in which func- 
tion I served until I was expelled from the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. On your many visits to Moscow, what was done in 
the way of training you or indoctrinating you in communism ? 

Mrs. Fischer. In these years I was personally not easy to in- 
doctrinate because I was an oppositionist Communist, so what was done 
with me personally was cooperation in the style of the first 10 years 
of the Russian Revolution, consultations with the leading Russian 
Communists. I saw Stalin quite a number of times in the closed 
sessions of the Comintern. I had the privilege of meeting Lenin 
in 1922, and I met Trotsky and all of the big leaders of the first gen- 
eration during the formative years of the Comintern. As I stayed 
there for 10 months in one stretch, I had, of course, ample opportunity 
to get some inside knowledge as a leading Communist about the 
various techniques of Communist organization. 

The Chairman. Madam, you realize that you are under oath now ? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes; I realize that. 

The Chairman. You fully realize the nature of an oath? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes. 

The Chairman. When did you first come to the United States ? 

Mrs. Fischer. I came to the United States in April 1941. 

The Chairman. Why did you come to the United States? 

Mrs. Fischer. Because I was persecuted by both the secret police 
of Russia and Germany, by the GPU and by the Gestapo. I had been 
a member of the German Reichstag from 1924 to 1928 and was put on 
the first list of people to be exterminated by the Nazi Government in 
August 1933. In addition, I was on the extermination list of the 
NKVD or the GPU. I was in danger of my life and could only save 
niy life by getting out of Europe. I was in constant opposition to 
both totalitarian groups, against Stalin's and Hitler's. 

The Chairman. When did you take that turn of mind of being 
against Stalin? 

Mrs. Fischer. In 1926. 

The Chairman. Where were you living then ? 

Mrs. Fischer. I was living partially in Moscow, until June of 1926, 
when I managed to escape back to Germany. 

The Chairman. Of what nationality, of what blood, are you? 

Mrs. Fischer. I am of German origin. 

The Chairman. Was there anything about your nationality, your 
religion, or your blood that caused you to be apprehensive of your 
safety in Germany. 

Mrs. Fischer. I was a leading German Communist, and known all 
over the country, so, for mere political reasons of the old times and 
about my opposition against the Nazi Government, it was obvious 
that I was not in safety. In evidence, in addition, my apartment was 
raided by the SS and my young son was taken as a hostage, and the 
Gauleitung of Berlin was looking for me all over the place. So, the 
evidence was that I was not quite safe in Berlin at this time. 

The Chairman. Are you any relation to Gerhart or Hanns Eisler? 

Mrs. Fischer. They are my brothers. 



32 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. Very well. You may proceed. Do you have a pre- 
pared statement? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes. I have entitled my statement, "Communist 
Agents and United States Immigration Policy." 

The United States has been a subject of major interest of the Russian 
Communist Party for decades. The economic achievements of this 
country and also, to a large extent, the social achievements have been 
the envy of Russian Communists. As a result, the information serv- 
ices concentrated a good deal of their attention here, particularly on 
industry and technology. After Hitler came to power in the period 
preceding the Second World War, this surveillance was heightened. 
Any evaluation of the techniques of the Russian secret services in this 
country, therefore, must be based on the fact that for at least 20 years 
the Russian Communist Party has had an uninterrupted chain of 
agents here. As one of his principal jobs, each agent sent back in- 
formation that would improve the training of his successors; and, in- 
creasingly, the more important agents have been good American types 
who could fit anywhere in this society. 

Despite the rather small membership of the American Communist 
Party, because of its strategic position it has always been regarded as 
high in the Comintern hierarchy. Not only is the United States of 
prime importance in itself, but this is an excellent coordinating point 
for work in Latin America and the colonies. For example, the Ameri- 
can Communist Party was given the specific task — which it carried 
out very well — of spreading propaganda on the "agrarian reformist" 
character of the Chinese Communists. 

To an even higher degree than elsewhere, the personnel of the vari- 
ous Soviet delegations, Embassy, consulates, Amtorg, 1 Tass, 2 etc., in 
this country have been composed in part of Soviet intelligence agents. 
Hidden in each of these bureaus, ostensibly performing some routine 
function, are MVD men whose real job is to report on various phases 
of American society to Moscow headquarters. Recently, this corps 
has been reinforced by the UN delegations of Russia and her satellites. 
A small group of these MVD agents, say three to five men, directs the 
work of the whole network in this part of the world ; it filters the in- 
formation that comes in and, making use of the diplomatic pouches, 
passes on what is new and useful to Moscow. 

The enormous growth of Communist parties abroad, plus the large 
number and variety of Communist fronts in this country, has made 
possible a system by which agents chosen for their suitability and ease 
of cover can be sent in through any one of several channels. For 
really dangerous and important jobs, such as sabotage in war time, 
the Moscow agent is the antithesis of the popular conception of the 
Communist. He is selected from among British or Swedish or Cana- 
dian — if not native-born Americans — and he is carefully insulated 
from open contact with the party or any of its front organizations. 
His job is to get into a strategic place and wait until he is needed. 

Security measures against Communists can be effective only if they 
are based on a thorough knowledge, continuously renewed, of the 
principles of Communist organization and the details of Communist 
history. In contrast to Soviet methods, by which a detailed record is 

1 Russian Trading Corporation, incorporated under the laws of the State of New York. 
* Official Soviet news agency. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 33 

kept over the years of all persons — not to say organizations and par- 
ties — of importance to the regime, the immigration officers of the 
United States are in general reduced to judging each case on its ap- 
parent merits, based on hearsay evidence collected only in this country 
at the moment it is needed. Over a period of several weeks, the same 
officer is called upon to pass on the applications of a Frenchman, a 
Chinese student, an Italian, a Czech. He does not, and he cannot, 
know the languages of all these people, or anything of their culture, 
or specifically anything of the Communist parties and their fronts in 
the countries involved,; and there is no central advisory committee 
of experts to which he can apply for information. In general, so far 
as I know, there is not even the practice of allowing the officers to 
specialize in applicants from one country, so that in the course of 
their work they might pick up at least a rudimentary familiarity with 
the facts they are called upon to judge. 

The result of this system has been that during the past decades, some 
thousands of persons, many of them well known as Communists to in- 
formed persons in their native countries, have been freely admitted to 
the United States, honored, given fat jobs, and freely allowed to de- 
part when they were finished with their assignments. On the other 
hand, some hundreds of others, ex-Communists or non-Communist 
Socialists, have been banned from admittance even though an Ameri- 
can officer competent to judge on their cases would have passed them. 
In my view, the immigration law should have two aspects : every effort 
should be made to keep out — and if they slip in, to deport — the actual 
agents of a foreign power, or those closely and knowingly associated 
with them over a period ; contrariwise, ex-Communists and their like, 
once they have demonstrated fully that they have broken completely 
and definitely, should be given the possibility of entering this coun- 
try. I say this not for sentimental reasons, or because the lives of 
these people may be in danger, or for any other reason connected only 
with them, but because in my view the United States needs such people 
badly. No matter what happens in the world, it is certain that a 
sound American policy must be based on an accurate and detailed 
knowledge of Communist parties and organizations, and on friendly 
cooperation with those who have learned from their personal experi- 
ence that Stalinism is the most reactionary power in the world and 
want to fight it. To summarize : 

(1) The United States is a prime point of interest for Soviet Rus- 
sia, and many of the best Moscow agents are concentrated here. 

(2) A change of procedure is certainly required to make it more 
difficult for agents to get into this country, but a mere change of pro- 
cedure cannot of itself work wonders; it has to be supplemented by 
an organized means of furnishing the immigration officers with accur- 
ate, detailed information on the Communist movement all over the 
world. 

(3) In my view, the optimum immigration policy should be flexible 
enough to make allowance for innocent dupes of Communist fronts, 
and particularly for ex-Communists and anti-Communist Socialists. 

The Chairman. Can you cite specific cases ? 

Mrs. Fischer. Hermann Budzislawski, never a member of the Com- 
munist Party but a useful instrument of the Moscow apparatus, left 
Germany in 1933 and went to Prague. There the organ of the Ger- 



34 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

man pacifist Carl von Ossietzski, Die Weltbiihne, was published by 
his widow and Mrs. Jacobsohn, and edited by Willi Schlamm, an anti- 
Stalinist. Behind the scenes, Moscow agents arranged for the pur- 
chase of the magazine and installed Budzislawski as editor. From 
1934 to 1938 he wrote pro-Soviet editorials. In 1938, he fled to Paris, 
and became one of the urgent cases to be admitted to this country. 
Here he became the research assistant of Dorothy Thompson and 
helped organize a Communist front, the Council for a Democratic Ger- 
many, through which Gerhart Eisler dictated the Communist Party 
line on Germany. Budzislawski is now back in Germany, a professor 
of sociology at the University of Leipzig. Gerhart Eisler was also 
named a professor at Leipzig and is there now. If I go to Europe, 
I will have to explain again that Eisler was not in the cellars of the 
American Gestapo in chains and half starved, because people really 
believe this type of Communist propaganda. In the very first issue 
of my periodica], The Network, January 1944, I mentioned Budzis- 
lawski as one of the Soviet agents in New York, and several issues 
later I gave a full account of his background. Several weeks ago, 
Dorothy Thompson wrote an article in the Saturday Evening Post 
telling how she had been duped by Budzislawski, and in the December 
7, 1948, issue of Die Welbiihne, Budzislawski wrote an article entitled, 
"I Was America's Best Known Woman." He almost got American 
citizenship ; he was in the last phase ; he had his second papers, and 
I think they filled all requirements. 

Marie-Claude Vaillant-Couturier, general secretary of the Women's 
International Democratic Federation, 37 rue Jouvenet, Paris, JASmin 
85-05, has been granted a visa to attend the constitutional conven- 
tion of the Congress of American Women as WIDF representative. 
The WIDF, which claims to have 53 national affiliates and 80,000,000 
members, is the principal Stalinist front in the women's field. Its 
officers, apart from Vaillant-Couturier, include Mme. Eugenie Cotton, 
a member of every Stalinist front since the thirties ; Mme. Irene Joliot- 
Curie; Jeanette Vermeersch, the wife of Maurice Thorez, secretary of 
the French Communist Party; Madeline Brown, a long-time Com- 
munist journalist. In the United States the WIDF has links to not 
only its affiliate, the Congress of American Women, but the Progres- 
sive Youth of America — formerly American Youth for Democracy, 
and before that, Young Communist League. Among its other national 
affiliates are the Union of Democratic German Women, headed by 
Louise Dornemann ; the Norwegian Federation of Democratic Women, 
headed by Mimi Sverdrup Lunden, who is now in the United States. 
Its propaganda everywhere has been an echo of the Moscow line 
against the Marshall plan, against the Atlantic Pact, for peace on 
Soviet terms, and so forth. In spite of this very clear and open 
record, Trygve Lie has granted the WIDF a B status, meaning that 
it is a consultative organization in the UN ; and Mme. Vaillant-Cou- 
turier is in this country, having just attended the convention of its 
American Communist affiliate in New York. 

I have a few other cases. I would like to report on them only if 
one of the gentlemen would like to ask about them. 

Mr. Arens. Would you summarize the cases that you have in mind, 
then? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 35 

Mrs. Fischer. Just before I went to Washington I was called up by 
one of the immigration officers, who told me that Miss Erika Mann 1 
has applied for citizenship and asked what did I think about it. I 
give you that as a current example. I was so surprised that I said, 
"I would advise her to apply for citizenship in the Soviet Union, about 
which she has made many laudatory statements, and not to apply for 
citizenship here." 

I have just read in the German newspapers and magazines I get 
regularly from Germany, that both Thomas Mann and Heinrich Mann 2 
are saints of the Communist family. I have a great admiration for 
Thomas Mann as an artist, but as a politician he has always sided with 
the Communists. Heinrich Mann, his brother, was a kingpin in the 
fellow-traveling front of the German anti-fascist refugees in this 
country. I believe he might well become the president of a pro-Com- 
munist Germany. 

His daughter, Erika Mann, has been, I must even say, an agent for 
it. She traveled freely in this country during the war, coming from 
England. I had the opportunity to observe her, and to a lesser de- 
gree, her brother. Both have been intimately connected with the 
Communist apparatus. I do not know if she has a membership card. 
I have no personal acquaintance with her. I only observed her from 
the side, and when I was called up yesterday — not 2 years ago, but 
yesterday — by your immigration office, I was told she is just in the 
last phase of getting her citizenship. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mrs. Fischer. In New York City. It is really surprising, the 
impudence of this type of well-known Soviet fellow-travelers, who 
really bank on the ignorance, if I may say so, of the minor Ameri- 
can officials. 

Another example, about which you may have heard — and believe me, 
I give you only the high lights. During the civil war in Spain, there 
was an agent of the GPU, a liaison officer for the International Brigade, 
named Alfred Kantorowica. Now, Mr. Kantorowicz was not only in 
this country here 6 years and went about freely as a prominent anti- 
Nazi refugee, but he has gone back to Germany and now he issues a 
magazine called East and West, which is Russian-licensed in Berlin 
and peddles the Communist line in the usual fellow-traveler style. 

I have here another recent German publication called Die Welt- 
biihne to which Eisler sent his article so he could print "Written in 
New York" in Berlin. In the same issue there is an article of Hermann 
Budzislawski, with that nice title, "I Was America's Best Known 
Woman." This most famous woman to whom Mr. Budzislawski re- 
fers is Miss Dorothy Thompson. 

When I was in Lisbon in 19-41, I saw hundreds of agents whom I 
had known during my 20 years of fight against Stalin — from Warsaw, 
from Vienna, from Prague, from Paris, from Berlin, from the Bal- 
kans, from any country in Europe — getting their first entrance permits 
to this country under the title of persecuted refugees. They should 
have all gone to Russia and fought the battle of Stalingrad. Instead, 
they got jobs in OWI and OSS, and similar organizations; and, if I 

1 The list of Communist-front organizations with which Erika Mann has been associated 
appears in appendix V, p. A77. 

2 The lists of Communist-front organizations with which Thomas Mann has been asso- 
ciated appear in Appendix V, p. A75. 



36 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

may say so, these things are far from being finished. I cannot go into 
this, because it is not my business, but still people who are absolutely 
untrustworthy are getting key positions in new organizations. 

Going back to Mr. Budzislawski, he went to America from Lisbon 
at the beginning of 1941. As a particularly prominent anti-Fascist, he 
had to be saved by special action of the immigration authorities. In 
a lit lie magazine I published at this time, called The Network, I 
printed a profile of Mr. Budzislawski. As I said then, he was never 
a member of the Communist Party. He was always a member of the 
Social Democrats, but he was hired by the GPU in 1934 to take over 
this magazine, Die Weltbiihne, then published in exile, which was 
not a front organization, nevertheless one of the most valuable organ- 
izational points of the NKVD. 

Mr. Arens. Where was that magazine published ? 

Mrs. Fischer. It was published in Prague. It was first published 
in Berlin, as an honest pacifist magazine. While Willi Schlamm was 
editor it had a good reputation. Then it was bought up before my 
eyes. An anti-Stalinist friend of mine who wrote for it wanted to 
get the magazine and made a bid for it, but it was bought from under 
his nose by Russian agents, who took it and installed Mr. Budzislawski. 
I knew it because I was present ; I knew the thing from the inside. 

So I wrote this profile of Mr. Budzislawski as an agent planted at 
Miss Dorothy Thompson's side to have a suitable cover for his ac- 
tivities. Miss Thompson was outraged. She wrote against.me. Eu- 
gene Lyons called me in and said, "Ruth, you are a character assassin ; 
you have assassinated Budzislawski's character." 

I said, "All right, I'll prepare you a memorandum on it." I went 
to the very good public library in New York City, where there is a 
complete file of Die Weltbiihne. I dug in it and made him a sub- 
stantial memorandum about all of the people that have written for 
it, by which Budzislawski's role as a Communist agent was estab- 
lished. End of story. He got an exit from this country. I do not 
know how. He went back to western Germany. He sneaked into 
eastern Germany. Today he is professor of political science at the 
University of Leipzig, one of the key spots for Communist indoctrina- 
tion. He broadcasts against America, and so on. He wrote an ar- 
ticle on how happy he had been to meet that great American, Mr. 
Wallace. I got the article and sent it to Miss Thompson. She now 
sees that my memorandum was not an assassination of Mr. Budzislaw- 
ski's character, and has written an article in the Saturday Evening 
Post on how she was fooled by Budzislawski. In the most impudent 
manner Budzislawski has written the article "I Was America's Best 
Known Woman", which was not only in his small publication but in 
Neues Deutschland, the Communist daily of the eastern zone, and 
broadcast all over Germany. He is really making the best of his 
stay in the United States. 

If you want another recent example, there is Marie-Claude Vaillant- 
Couturier, the widow of a French Communist. I want to speak about 
this case, if I may have your permission. She is the widow of the 
leading French Communist Vaillant-Couturier, whom I knew very 
well, and she is the general secretary of the Women's International 
Democratic Federation of Paris. She works with Joliot-Curie, and 
with Jeanette Vermeersch, the wife of Maurice Thorez, the leading 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 37 

French Communist. This women's federation pretends to have 80,- 
000,000 women organized. Its line is to arouse emotional opposition 
to wars by such propaganda as, "Your children will be torn to bits 
when the American imperialists throw the atom bomb." She has been 
in this country for 10 days, because her organization was recognized 
oy Trygve Lie of the United Nations. She has made a deal with the 
authorities here not to speak in official public meetings, but only in 
small private meetings, which only makes her presence to the Com- 
munists more useful. 

Mr. Arexs. I wonder if we could clarify this so there is no misin- 
terpretation in it. Is it your testimony that the woman who is a 
leader in this Communist-front organization has recently, in the 
course of the last 10 days, gained admission to the United States as a 
visitor or invitee of the UN Organization? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes; she applied for admission to this country on 
that basis. I would not have believed it if it were not for an American 
friend of mine who does not want to be named. Couturier is attend- 
ing the first constitutional convention of the Congress of American 
Women, which is taking place right now. 

Mr. Dekom. The Congress of American Women is listed by the 
Attorney General as a Communist-front organization. 1 

Mr. Arexs. What is the purpose of this woman's visit to the United 
States? 

Mrs. Fischer. Propaganda against the United States, and organiza- 
tion of Communist cells. 

Mr. Arexs. What is the nature of the visa which she received to be 
admitted to this country in the course of the last 10 days? 

Mrs. Fischer. B status of the United Nations Organization. She 
came here, not on official diplomatic status, but semi-diplomatic status. 

Mr. Arexs. As an invitee or guest of the United Nations? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes; that is right. And when she goes back, she will 
be also very useful. Yet, she is only a minor case, there are so many 
more important tilings going on here. If I were to set up a table of 
Communist priorities, I would regard her as highly dangerous, but 
not No. 1. She is an interesting example of what can still be done 
by clever people in utilizing the various institutions of this country 
to infiltrate new people in here. 

Mr. Arexs. Will you tell us some other examples ? You intimated 
this was only one example of other cases of persons of subversive char- 
acter who have gained admission into the United States as affiliates 
or invitees of an international organization for the purpose of engag- 
ing in subversive organization. 

Mrs. Fischer. I have not followed the UN activities here closely 
enough. So, I have only these cases to present to you. If I made a 
study out of it, which I do not want to do, I am sure I would find 
hundreds of similar cases in all of these affiliated organizations and 
various staffs which offer an infiltration route that is easily opened. 

Mr. Arens. May I refer back to a comment you made several min- 
utes ago with respect to the infiltration into this country of refugees 
during the war periods? May I observe, as you probably know, that 
the statistics show that during the war years approximately 250.000 
refugees from Europe were admitted into this country under our 

i Sep appendix, p. AS. 



38 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

immigration system? Would you again address yourself to that 
situal ion \ 

Mrs. Fischer. I can speak of my own experience, and my experi- 
ence has shown me that thousands of party-trained Communists and 
Communist agents of all nationalities were sent into this country 
under the cover of refugees. 

Mr. Arens. During what years? 

Mrs. Fischer. Since 1933, as long as the road was open. The flow 
was particularly intensive between 1939 and 1941. 

Mr. Arens. When was the last time you were in Europe? 

Mrs. Fischer. I have been in Europe twice since the war. I was 
there in 1947 and 1948. from this country. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any comment or appraisal to make with 
respect to the movement of subversive people, Communists, in the 
refugee or displaced-persons category to the United States? 

Mrs. Fischer. I can make the same comment: it is a convenient 
method for bringing people in here. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any comment to make respecting the de- 
gree of Communist infiltration, or the degree of acceptance of the 
Communist philosophy by those persons who are not technically dis- 
placed, but who were displaced after the termination of the war? 

Mrs. Fischer. After 1945 ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mrs. Fischer. I think these refugees are in the main composed of 
really honest people who want to have a refuge here, and who are the 
bitterest enemies of the Stalin system. They have suffered from 
it, and among them are very excellent elements. In this group, in 
the new group of 1945, there are people more decided to break with 
Stalinist methods of government than before, because after the war 
and during it they had experience with Communist governments. 
They learned more about it by the events in Czechoslovakia. The new 
group of refugees is better informed on Stalinism than before that, 
but the old method of smuggling in agents is far from having been 
abandoned. They are still using the same techniques to bring un- 
dercover people here, and I must stress at this point that this is only 
one of the techniques. They bring agents in not only in the guise of 
refugees but as the most respectable people, of such a status and be- 
havior as would never lead one to suspect that they have anything to 
do with Communist organizations. 

Mr. Arens. Do you care to address yourself, Mrs. Fischer, to the 
situation in the trade commissions and similar organizations which 
are in the United States, such as Amtorg and Tass, and other inter- 
national bodies, which are set up in the United States? 

Mrs. Fischer. In every Soviet organization in the United States 
there is a cell of the MVD, the Russian secret police. There is no 
Russian organization here which has not its secret cell, party cell, and 
police cell, which supervises the others. The man in charge is not 
always the top man from the outside. It may be that outsiders never 
see the man in charge ; never hear his name, but there is not a single 
organization outside Soviet Russia without such a supervising secret 
police cell. 

Mr. Arens. Is communism in the United States a local product, or is 
it a plant or a weed, that is being engendered and developed from 
abroad ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 39 

Mrs. Fischer. In the present situation, the American Communist 
Party has become increasingly a subsidiary branch of the Soviet 
Russian institutions. It does not work spontaneously; it does not 
move of itself, but is on orders from headquarters and is entirely con- 
trolled by a secret commission composed of Soviet agents who super- 
vise its activities. 

Mr. Dekom. Soviet agents in the United States ? 

Mrs. Fischer. In the United States. They may be of other nation- 
alities. For instance, it was a surprise to me that Mr. Dennis x did not 
allow himself to be defended by lawyers; that he wanted to defend 
himself personally, without the help of a lawyer in the present trial. 
That must be an order from Moscow. Dennis will not profit by legal 
tricks of this sort, but he must now make a case for himself ; build him- 
self up as a leader who defends the doctrine of communism without 
any regard for his person. It was a break in the entire line. He first 
was together with the others in being defended by the same lawyers. 
After a certain period, Dennis came out with the statement that he 
would defend himself. An expert sees immediately he has a secret 
order to refuse to be defended by a lawyer and to make the defense 
himself. 

Mr. Dekom. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mrs. Fischer. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. When did you become a citizen of it? 

Mrs. Fischer. In the year 1947. 

Mr. Dekom. When did you break with the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Fischer. I was in opposition to Stalin from 1923 on, and broke 
definitely with the party in 1926. 

Mr. Dekom. How did you first gain admission to the United States ? 

Mrs. Fischer. By immigration. 

Mr. Dekom. Were you a Communist at the time you received your 
immigration visa? 

Mrs. Fischer. No. 

Mr. Dekom. What is your objective or purpose of your forthcoming 
trip abroad. 

Mrs. Fischer. I have been twice in Europe in the last 2 years to 
gather material for my study on the Comintern in Europe. I am 
doing some work for Harvard University, and I intend to use these 
studies on Comintern activities. 

Mr. Dekom. Your analysis of the situation and your statements are 
based to a large extent, are they not, on your personal experience and 
personal work within the Comintern apparatus ? 

Mrs. Fischer. In the Comintern. It is a complicated thing to ex- 
plain, because it needs some detail which I do not want to take your 
time to relate. I was an oppositionist in German communism, a 
Titoist of this period, if you want to use a current expression. I was 
always at loggerheads with Moscow for many political reasons. I did 
not want Russian interference in German affairs. The Russians 
wanted to dominate the entire movement, to control it. I worked 
with Dmitri Manuilsky in Berlin, for instance, in 1925 and had terri- 
ble quarrels with him. One of the reasons I broke was that he inter- 
fered in everything that was going on. As a member of the Central 
Committee I had an intimate insight into the secret apparatus. I 

1 Eugene Dennis, General Secretary of the Communist Party in the United States. 



40 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

had the Soviet agent sitting in Berlin under my nose. I have known 
the connections between those in the Soviet Embassy there and the 
Central Committee of the German Communist Party. I knew where 
the money came from, in which suitcase it was carried out from Unter 
den Linden to the Central Committee of the German Communist 
Party, and having been in Moscow so often for a lot of conferences and 
consultations, I could see the other end, too. My life interest, to fight 
this type of organization, has been especially intensified after the 
experiences of the last years. I have had very many contacts with, 
ex-Communists, and my knowledge is constantly being renewed by 
the living evidence I get in conversations with people from all Euro- 
pean countries. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you care to comment on the embassies, whether or 
not, in your judgment, they are the focal points of Communist 
activity? 

Mrs. Fischer. I can only repeat that it would be naive to assume 
that there is not in every embassy a high officer of the NKVD, who, 
first, supervises the embassy and the embassy staff ; and second, gathers 
information on America or whatever country for the headquarters in 
Moscow. It is the system which we have to understand and which, 
we have to take the necessary measures against, the system which 
has to be really fully understood. The status of the Russian Com- 
munist Party is such that there is no group of men working under 
Russian Communist Party directions that has not been organized 
around the party cell, which has jurisdiction over all members of 
the cell, and of all affiliates to the cell. That is the strict statute of 
the Russian Communist Party, and all members of the Russian Com- 
munist Party in this country are, of course, under the discipline of 
their own party organization. 

The Chairman. We are very grateful to you for coming before 
the committee. That is all for today. The witness is excused from 
the subpena. 

The committee will be in recess until 10 : 30 tomorrow morning. 

(Thereupon, at 4:20 p. m., the committee recessed to reconvene 
Wednesday, May 11, 1949, at 10 : 30 a. m.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GROUPS 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 11, 1949 



United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee To Investigate Immigration 
and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. 0. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 11 : 45 a. m., in room 
424 Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran, chairman, pre- 
siding. 

Present : Senator McCarran. 

Also present: Richard Arens. staff director of the special subcom- 
mittee, Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional staff 
members. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. We will con- 
tinue with the hearing on S. 1694. 1 

Mr. Arens, present your witnesses. 

TESTIMONY OF BOGDAN EADITSA, FOEMEE CHIEF OF THE FOEEIGN 
PEESS DEPAETMENT IN THE INFOEMATION MINISTEY OF 
YUGOSLAVIA 

Mr. Arens. The first witness is Mr. Raditsa. 2 

The Chairman. Mr. Raditsa, will you kindly stand and be sworn. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before this committee of the Senate will be the truth, the whole truth 
and nothing but the truth, so held you God? 

Mr. Raditsa. I do. 

The Chairman. You understand the nature of an oath? 

Mr. Raditsa. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself ? 

Mr. Raditsa. I am Bogdan Raditsa from Yugoslavia. I was born 
in Yugoslavia. I was chief of the foreign press department in the Tito 
Ministry of Information in Belgrade in 1945. 

The Chairman. I think it is advisable that you go further into 
your background and knowledge and experience and training, and into 
whatever offices you have held. Mr. Arens will interrogate you, and 
you will kindly state what your background is which gives you the 
authority to make the statements which you are going to make. 

1 Senate bill 1694 was superseded on May 11, 1949, by Senate bill 1832, introduced by- 
Senator McCarran. 

2 The -witness appeared under subpena. 

41 



42 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly identify yourself from the standpoint 
of background and experience that you have had, the official connec- 
tions which you have had, upon which you base your statements. 

Mr. Raditsa. I came to this country twice. The first time I came 
to this country was in October 1940, as chief of the Royal Yugoslav 
Legation Press Service in Washington, D. C. Before that time, I 
was in Geneva, with the Yugoslav League of Nations delegation. 

In June of 1940, I was nominated as chief of the Yugoslav Press 
Service in Belgrade, where I went from Geneva. There in Yugo- 
slavia I could not take over my duties, because the Italian Fascist 
Government and German Nazi Government opposed my nomination 
to the Royal Yugoslav Government. The reasons for the German and 
Italian position against me at that time were that I was closely linked 
with the Italian and European anti-Fascist circles in Geneva and 
in Europe; that I knew and was a personal friend to Carlo Sforza: 
and of course, that my father-in-law was Guglielmo Ferrero, one of 
the greatest Italian historians. 

My wife and two children left Belgrade with me when I was nomi- 
nated in Washington. I came for the first time in October 1940 to this 
country. I stayed in Washington from October 1940 until April 1942. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity did you serve ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Counselor for the press relations of the Yugoslav 
Government. 

Then the Royal Yugoslav Information Center was formed in New 
York City, and I took over the press service. I stayed with the Royal 
Yugoslav Information Center and with the Royal Yugoslav Govern- 
ment until the end of 1943, when I resigned from the Royal Yugoslav 
Government to join Tito and the national liberation movement. 

As you remember, during the war we Yugoslavs in exile were di- 
vided on the issue of Yugoslavia. I joined the democratic members 
of the Royal Yugoslav Government who believed that we should go 
together with Tito. The main reason that I joined Tito was the na- 
tional issue. Yugoslavia, you know, Mr. Chairman, is composed 
mainly of three nations — Croat ians, Slovenians, and Serbians. The 
Croatians before the war in Yugoslavia had not an equal position w T ith 
the Serbians. I am Croatian. The Croatians and Slovenians are 
Roman Catholic. The Serbians are Greek Orthodox. 

The reason why we joined Tito was that Tito, in 1942, promised the 
Croatians in Yugoslavia their national rights and equality with the 
other peoples. We learned later that that was a Communist device. 
That is the reason why a great number of people during the war 
joined Tito and his Peoples' Front, and that was the reason why I 
and Dr. Ivan Subasich joined. After Teheran and Yalta, it was sug- 
gested by President Roosevelt and Mr. Churchill that Dr. Subasich 
jc : n Tito and form a government of a kind of unity between the demo- 
cratic forces and the Communists. I went back to Yugoslavia. 

The Chairman. To which of the three races in Yugoslavia did Tito 
belong? 

Mr. Raditsa. Tito belongs to Croatia. He is a Croatian by birth, 
but I, Dr. Subasich, and the majority of democrats who left the United 
States and Great Britain during the war and went back to Yugo- 
slavia, saw that neither Tito nor any Communist in Yugoslavia was 
interested in giving to any of the nationalities of Yugoslavia their 
national rights and national equality. When Tito took over Yugo- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 43 

slavia the Communists took over and the people felt that we were be- 
trayed. No national rights were given to any nationality except on 
paper, except in the Constitution. We have been taken over by one 
of the greatest centralisms which has been developed by the Communist 
Party. In a Communist state, federalism does not exist ; it is only a 
means to fool the people. As soon as the Communists take over, they 
are no more interested in giving to the people national equality and 
their national rights because the state is then completely subjugated to 
the mightiest monolithic centralism by the Communist Party, con- 
trolled and supervised by the Soviet Union and by the secret police of 
not only the domestic Communists but also the Muscovite secret police. 

The Chairman. Was Tito a Communist ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Tito was already a Communist after the First World 
War. During the First World War he fought with the Austrian and 
Hungarian Armies in Russia, and he took an active part in the Russian 
civil war. Then he was indoctrinated in the Soviet Union immediately 
after the war and sent to Yugoslavia to organize the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. When Tito took over the Government of Yugo- 
slavia, were you then in the Government ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Yes ; I was with the Government. 

The Chairman. Did you remain in the Government ? 

Mr. Raditsa. I remained with the Government until I succeeded 
in leaving the country. 

The Chairman. During the time that you served in the Government 
under Tito, what offices did you hold under the Communist form of 
government ? 

Mr. Raditsa. I held my professional office, Chief of the Foreign 
Press Department in the Ministry of Information, but I was not a 
real chief, I was a puppet, because my real chiefs were two persons, or 
rather three persons, the chief of the secret police, in which only a 
Communist can be a member, and two others who were members of 
the Communist Party and who did the whole job. I could only appear 
such, but neither I nor my superior the Minister of Information, Sava 
Kosanovic, who is now Ambassador of Yugoslavia in Washington, 
was free to do anything. All of us were surrounded by the Com- 
munists, and everything was done by the Communists. 

The Chairman. Did you have an opportunity, by reason of your 
position, to become familiar with the way the Communists worked? 

Mr. Raditsa. Yes ; I did, and I described extensively my experience 
under the Communists in my article which I published in the Readers' 
Digest when I came back in October 1946. 

One thing I must stress is that when we came to Belgrade in the 
beginning of 1915, we met the first Russians who came there, Russian 
officers of the Red Army and others of the different political depart- 
ments in Moscow who came there to supervise the formation of the 
Communist state. I was terribly impressed by their statements that 
war with the United States must come very soon, that America must 
be destroyed, and that the Red Army and the so-called new peoples' 
democracy are the vanguard of the world revolution which must 
destroy America. I was so impressed, Mr. Senator, because I had 
just left America where the popularity of the Russian people was, 
as you remember, unlimited and great, when nobody in America, no- 
body responsible, spoke about any possibility of war with the Soviet 



44 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Union. Those were people coming directly from Moscow; I mean 
they had not been mixed up with any western contacts. 

So my opinion, and the opinion of many of us who were there — I 
cannot mention their names — was that we were very afraid to hear 
from the Russians coming from Russia that the first thing which they 
must do is destroy America as the greatest enemy of the so-called 
people's democracy. 

The Chairman. What I wanted to get was the background upon 
which you are basing your statement. I think you have stated it 
sufficiently. You may proceed with your statement. 

Mr. Raditsa. Communist diplomacy is nothing but legalized espi- 
onage and a subversive network spread all over the free world. To 
be a diplomatic representative of a Communist state, means to ac- 
complish any kind of work which the Communist Party and the 
Cominform assign. There is no person holding an important or even 
a secondary position in connection with the economic, cultural, po- 
litical, or military department of any Communist government, be it 
of the Soviet Union or any other satellite, who, when sent to the 
United States or to any other free country, does not have a special 
assignment as to the collection of secret data, information, and facts. 

Each employee who is sent to a foreign country is first closely ex- 
amined by the department which sends him, and he must also be ap- 
proved by the secret police, which has the last word on the reliability 
of the man. In a Communist state, as was told to me in Belgrade by 
the Communist commissars, to be a spy is not derogatoiy, but the 
greatest sign of confidence and trust which can be awarded by the 
people's democracy to its best servants. As one of the Communist 
commissars put it in his instructions, as far back as 1945, to the diplo- 
mats sent abroad from Yugoslavia, the term "spy" is a sign of the 
greatest lojalty bestowed on any Communist follower by his superior. 

But there is something more. I remember having attended one of 
the conferences in the Foreign Ministry in Belgrade when the Com- 
munist instructors and high officials of the part}' explained the idea 
upon which the new Soviet type of diplomacy was to be lined up. 
One of the commissars read a text written by the main Communist 
brain truster in Yugoslavia, the present foreign minister, Edvard 
Kardelj. He said: 

International law does not exist in relation with the external world. The new 
peoples' and socialist democracies are radically opposed to the .bourgeois mean- 
ing of international law. International law belongs to the past. All our adepts 
must bear it in mind and not be deceived by the verbiage of the decaying western 
and Anglo-American conception of international law, which is only used to hamper 
the people's revolution and to impose upon us the Anglo-American imperialism. 
The new Foreign Ministry is being purged of the old diplomatic cadres whose 
treacherous attitude in serving the Anglo-American imperialists must be elimi- 
nated from our new diplomatic staff. The new members of our diplomacy must be 
trained in the new spirit of our people's democracy under the leadership of our 
famous Communist Party. It is through its noble and salutary work that our 
people have received their freedom. We must have in our ranks fighters, con- 
vinced civil servants, who will be able to follow the great work of our Socialist 
revolution, together with the Soviet revolution, and help spread these ideals all 
over the world. 

For the time being we nmst use in some historical temporary positions all facili- 
ties which international law gives us, but we must be on the alert not to become 
victims of the western powers who want to deceive us through their conception of 
international law. For us international law must be only a front through which 
we must work and fight for the victory of the world revolution everywhere. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 45 

To the Communists sent to the United States in 1946, the following 
instructions were given : 

To fight and act for communism, the Red Army is not enough. To facilitate and 
make possible the victory of communism, we have to work hard in the non- 
Communist countries. 

That work is multiform. 

We must incite discontent, uneasiness in the capitalistic and bourgeois states. 
The greater is the discontent in each capitalist and bourgeois country, the 
more fertile is the ground for communism. In the United States and in Great 
Britain we are going to have unemployment. The capitalists will not be able 
to export. Later on, the industrial power of the Soviet Union and of the other 
friendly peoples' republics will compete with the industrial production of the 
capitalist countries. They will be threatened by your industrial production at 
their own home. 

But we cannot simply wait for that day. Already now, we have to revolutionize 
the European and Asiatic Continents. Strikes, revolutionary impetus of the 
trade-unions and labor, weakening of capitalism through the demand for high 
wages so that they are not able to compete with the Soviet Union, obstruction 
of different reactionary governments in their anti-Communist policy, the incite- 
ment for nationalism everywhere, the hatred against the colonial empires, the 
uprising of trade-unions against their governments, the various helps to the 
Communist parties in the capitalist countries, propagandize the hatred against 
the reactionary in every country, and particularly develop in the United States 
the impression that the economic depression must be inevitable and try to con- 
vince more and more the people of Slavic descent to leave Canada and the United 
States and return to their countries of origin, bringing with them capital and 
machinery — this must be our main work in Canada and in the United States. 

Everything is permitted that will bring us toward the victory of communism 
in the world. 

Two worlds — 

as Mr. Kardelj said to me — 

the Communist and the capitalist, must irrevocably clash. We have to make 
certain concessions while stalling for time. We must consolidate our position 
before the external world in order to be ready to pass to the offensive when the 
hour strikes. 

We cannot today foresee the future. In the postwar world the process of 
socialization, communization in other words, can develop so fast, that great com- 
plications may arise between the Socialist and capitalist worlds. The same proc- 
ess will take place everywhere in Europe and in Asia. We can consider that 
imperialism is broken and the proletarian revolution is on the march. That 
revolution is linked with the Soviet Union through agreements of mutual political 
and economic assistance and is creating, as Stalin says, the union of various 
focuses of the revolution in one system which will go into a frontal attack against 
the imperialistic system. 

These instructions were sent out from Belgrade, January 1948, be- 
fore the Cominform was transferred from Belgrade to Bucharest. 
They concern the activities of Communist agents among the displaced 
persons, political emigrants, and other refugees. They say : 

Everyone knows what the existence of any organization or a free opposition 
means in the international political field. The countries of southeastern Europe 
have their political emigrants all over. We have to do our utmost to destroy 
their organizations completely, so as to hamper them from becoming any serious 
factor which could alter our political plans. We must convert the emigrants 
into a disorganized mass which nobody could take in consideration in any polit- 
ical combination. We have to send instructions to our Communist cells for 
action against the whole emigration from our countries. 

The British and American commands continue not to give us back Soviet 
citizens. It seems to us that that question will never be solved to our satis- 
faction. 

It is absolutely necessary to intensify all the pressure behind the Allies and 
to mobilize all possibilities for the full dispersion of the emigrants. 

To arrive at this result, we have to exploit our official relations with the enemy 
nations (Great Britain and America). For our action, we have to win for us 

98330 — 50 — pt. 1 4 



46 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

German Communists, the Germans of Russian origin, the Poles, and the Baltic 
Germans, some black marketeers who can easily cross the borders and those who 
have their domicile in the allied zones. It is not forbidden to take in considera- 
tion even the Nazi who know the Russian or Ukrainian Languages and who may 
be useful to us. It is categorically stressed that all our agents must have their 
families on our territory or in our zones. 
The basic principle of action is as follows : 

1. To check on and always incite the material and religious disagreements 
between the refugees. That which we have done so far is not enough. It is 
necessary to incite more and more the conflict between the West and the East, 
between the "old" and "young." 

To transform the refugees into an instrument of our higher policy we must 
incite and inflame the antagonism between the different political groups of the 
refugees, to bring about a full divergence in their daily life, in their press and in 
their action. The masses must be drawn into this struggle. 

We have to paralyze the cultural action among the refugees. For that we must 
employ people who have no ability and the people devoid of any talent, so 
that they will annoy the editorial boards of different magazines with valueless 
articles. In such a way they will disarm the action of the capable and important 
people who are dangerous to us. 

On the other side, a struggle among the exiles has to.be incited constantly, 
among the capable people particularly, among the politicians and leading person- 
alities, the fight between the talented and the untalented. 

We must work particularly among the people who are not intelligent but who 
think that they are very intelligent, in such a way to bring about hate, dissatisfac- 
tion, and apathy among the refugees. 

2. It is necessary to raise scandals and conflicts among the refugees so that 
the foreign world will be convinced that the cultural value of the emigrants is 
equivalent to zero. 

3. To foment the conflict between the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Ortho- 
dox chinches and to bring about to an open conflict between the Catholics and 
Orthodox, not only outside but inside the churches themselves. We have to spread 
theories among the refugees in such a way as to take under our complete control 
all the refugees in the camps. We must do our utmost that the leadership of the 
camps is in our hands. We must have all over in the camps in leading places 
useful innocents or fools so that we can use them for our cause. It is of the 
utmost importance to incite dissatisfaction and despair among the refugees. We 
have to stress with particular attention that the conflicts between the refugees 
and the allied camps authorities should always be great. Incite particularly Brit- 
ish and American policy against the DP's and refugees so that we always have 
serious conflicts. We have to do our utmost that every refugee hates the Allies, 
that every refugee considers every ally his enemy. 

4. As far as the emigree press is concerned, we must do everything in our 
power that the political conflicts should be very frequent. We have to destroy 
every influence of the emigree press and everything that is published in exile 
must be made to lose all of its importance. Everyone whom we succeed in bring- 
ing back has to be used for the future fight against the western imperialism. 

5. In all working groups, we have to infiltrate people who are capable to incite 
quarrels, fights, and constantly hamper all harmony. We must then inform the 
peasants that they should use the refugees for the hardest and most disgusting 
work. We must incite a deep divergence between the officers and lower ranks 
and particularly between the officers and soldiers. We must incite conflicts 
between the refugees and the employers who employ them. 

6. Systematically destroy every influence of the refugee institutions and par- 
ticularly their leadership. We must find out if some of the leaders are compro- 
mised so that the whole organization should be discredited. To do that we have 
to infiltrate elements who are capable of accomplishing this demoralization. 

The Chairman. When you deal with the term "refugee," how far 
does that extend ? Is it refugees, or is it those who are displaced ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Displaced persons; there are a great many of those 
who are not in the camps of displaced persons, who are living in Paris, 
Rome, or in German towns. 

The Chairman. I understand your statement to be that one of the 
instructions given out was to create discontent and discord among the 
refugees, which included displaced persons. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 47 

Mr. Raditsa. Which included displaced persons, and which included 
the foreign element in this country, too. 

Mr. Dekom. When you refer to the "emigree press," you refer to 
the foreign language press in the United States ? 

Mr. Raditsa. That is right ; which is also read in Europe among the 
exiled and displaced persons, and which at the same time is read by 
people in Yugoslavia, because all the Communist-dominated press is 
sent to Yugoslavia and sold publicly on the newsstands. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know how many Communist and pro-Communist 
Yugoslav papers there are in the United States ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Narodni Glasnik, Slobodna Rec, Zajednicar, 1 Enako- 
pravnost, Edinost ; those are the newspapers which are regularly sent 
to Yugoslavia. The line of those newspapers is the line of the Daily 
Worker, so that the ordinary Yugoslavian who is reading those news- 
papers in Yugoslavia receives only criticisms of the United States. 
This press has two objectives: to destroy every prestige of the United 
States of America, to give the impression to the people that the crisis 
is coming in America, economic crisis, that the people are living under 
very bad conditions ; and at the same time to give praise of the Soviet 
Union and of the so-called new peoples democracies. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have an estimate as to the total circulation? 

Mr. Raditsa. The biggest circulation is Zajednicar, which has 
around 100,000 copies weekly. The others are losing very much of their 
circulation now. Zajednicar is very important because it belongs to 
a fraternal union, 2 so every member of the fraternal union must re- 
ceive it. 

Following the instructions which I have read, Tito's high officials 
in the Yugoslav Embassies, consulates, and in the Secretariat of the 
United Nations have developed a systematic activity in behalf of the 
world revolution, which is not for a better understanding between 
the United States and Yugoslavia. 

One of the Yugoslav members of the Juridical Department of the 
Secretariat of the United Nations, Dr. Alexander Franich, appointed 
in 1946, participated, for instance, in a meeting, in July 1916, of 
Yugoslav-Americans in Prospect Hall, Brooklyn, N. Y., where, as 
reported by the Communist newspaper Narodni Glasnik (People's 
Herald) published in Pittsburgh, July 17, 1946, he declared the fol- 
lowing : 

As we in our bloody struggle with the enemy needed our free territory, so 
you too must have your free territory in this big city of yours, a free territory 
in your struggle with ignorance, superstition, and dishonesty. You need a free 
territory for the education of your children and your activities. 

The term "free territory" means, in Communist language, a Com- 
munist-dominated people's front or a Communist cell. In other 
words, 3^011 must build in your midst a Communist cell which is going 
to work. 

The Chairman. Referring there to what city ? 

Mr. Raditsa. That was in Brooklyn, N. Y. This was a speech made 
by Dr. Alexander Franich in New York, and I am quoting this part 

1 According to testimony subsequently presented to the subcommittee, the editorial policy 
of Zajednicar has undergone some change. See, for example, the testimony of Dr. Slobodan 
Draskovich, p. 613. 

- Croatian Fraternal Union. 



48 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

which was published by the Narodni Glasnik. Franich ended his 
speech : "Long live his majesty the working people I" 

During the last 3 years, since I have been buck in this country, 1 
have assisted the General Assembly as a newspaper reporter to the 
General Assembly and the work of different committees in Lake Suc- 
cess and in Flushing Meadows. I was very amazed to see that, during 
tin 1 first day when the Assembly opened, all the Yugoslav delegation 
was present there, but afterward, during the 2 or 3 months of the dis- 
cussions, the majority of the delegates were never in Lake Success or 
in Flushing Meadows. They were always going around the United 
States. In fact, they were not taking active part in the work of the 
different committees of the United Nations, except 10 of .them, but 
50 others or 30 others or 20 others were always going around through 
the United States making speeches, contacting people, giving them 
information, news, orders, instructions; but they were never in Lake 
Success where the}^ should be if they came for this purpose. 

The Chairman. By that you mean that they come to this country, 
using the United Nations as the reason for their coming, and then 
after coming here, they go around the country with Communist 
propaganda ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Are they doing anything alse besides disseminating 
Communist propaganda ? 

Mr. Raditsa. I suppose they are contacting people and giving them 
instructions, collecting data, economic, and political data about the 
activities in the United States. 

It has impressed me very much not seeing them there to take active 
part in the work of the committees after they got their visas and 
diplomatic immunity, and they should do like the other delegations 
do, the same as the Americans or the western delegations do. The 
members of the western delegation are constantly there. 

Mr. Dekom. What type of people do they send to this country? 
In what field are these people experienced ? 

Mr. Raditsa. They are mostly experienced in Communist work, 
sabotage, subversive work, people who are very much up on the 
Communist techniques and machinery. 

The members of the Yugoslav delegation to the United Nations 
General Assembly in New York, spent much of their time addressing 
Americans of Yugoslav descent. 

Narodni Glasnik of October 7, 1947, published the following news : 

The Serbian National Congress will be held on October 25 and 26. At this 
congress Vlada Simic, the Yugoslav delegate to the Assembly of the United 
Nations, will be the main speaker. 

Vlada Simic is a member of the People's Front of Serbia. He was 
sent here to address Americans of Serbian descent. 
Narodni Glasnik of October 14, 1947, said : 

The Dalmatian Club "Mihovil" will hold a meeting on October 18, 1947, in the 
Yugoslav-American Home, 1 405 West Forty-first Street, New York. The main 
speaker will be Josip Djerdja, Tito's delegate in the United Nations. 

Mr. Arens. What is the Yugoslav- American Home? What do 
you know about it ? 

1 Known also as the Jugoslavenski-Amerieki Dom. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 49 

Mr. R adits a. It is the center of Communist propaganda among 
Americans of Yugoslav descent, 

Mr. Arens. In New York City? 

Mr. Raditsa. New York City is the main center. It was formed 
during the war. It was opened during the war, then afterward it 
followed the same activities. 

The same newspaper, on October 14, 1947, announced that Dr. Joza 
Vilfan. Tito's first delegate in the United Nations, will hold a meeting 
of the Yugoslavs from Istria. 

Dimitar Vlahov, while in the United States 2 years ago as a dele- 
gate to the United Nations, spent more time visiting Macedonians 
and Yugoslavs in the Middle West than in attending sessions with 
the Yugoslav delegation in the Assembly. You must know who 
Dimitar Vlahov is. He is an old-time Communist. Before the war 
he was living in Vienna, Austria, and he was one of the major agitators 
of communism in the Balkans. With Georgi Dimitrov (now dictator 
of Bulgaria) lie was editor of the well known Communist newspaper 
called La Federacion Balkanique — the Balkan Federation — one of 
the most trustworthy men of Moscow. He came to this country as a 
member of the Yugoslav delegation to the United Nations. 

Slobodna Rec of April 29, 1947, page 2, publishes an article of 
Vlahov's under the title "What Vlahov Says About the Immigrants 
in the United States'' : 

* * * Americans of Slav origin represent a very considerable force, because 
they constitute 50 percent of all tbe workers in American heavy and war indus- 
tries. * * * The progressive role of Americans of Slav origin is today a well- 
known fact. They exercise an important influence between the American people 
and the Slav nations. 

* * * Until the attack of Hitler's Germany against the Soviet Union, Amer- 
icans of Slav origin, whose number amounts to 15,000,000 people, had no special 
mutual links, but, as they came to understand what a menace fascism represents 
for the Slav nations, they organized themselves and formed special committees 
for an efficient struggle against fascism. 

* * * They founded several very active committees, among which stand 
out the Committee for Yugoslav Relief, the Committee for Aid to Macedonia, 
the Association for Reconstruction in Yugoslavia, the special committee for 
collecting funds for building a modern hospital in Dalmatia ; further, committees 
for building hospitals in Macedonia and Hercegovina, as well as the committees 
of people from Lika and Hercegovina, for aid to those regions. * * * 

After praising the work of the American Slav Congress, Vlahov 
ends his article by saying : 

The great majority of our emigrants stand firmly by the Federative People's 
Republic Yugoslavia. 

Such items are regularly published in the Communist newspapers, 
and it is easy to see that UN delegates, while in the United States, are 
traveling around the country addressing Americans of Yugoslav 
descent. 

Dr. Joza Vilfan, the permanent Yugoslav Delegate to the United 
Nations, is a member of the Central Committee of the Slovenian Com- 
munist_ Party. Josip Djerdja and Dimitar Vlahov are members, 
respectively, of the Croatian and Macedonian Central Committees, 
while Vlada Simic is a member of the Communist-dominated Central 
Committee of the Serbian People's Front. 

After the break between the Cominform and Tito, it was very inter- 
esting to notice that many of the Yugoslav foreign civil-service 
employees in the United States and Canada have left their embassies 



50 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

and have joined the Cominform in Prague, in Moscow, in Bucharest, 
and other satellite countries. That means that they were sent here 
with the approval of the Soviet Union to do espionage work for the 
Soviet Union. They were accredited as Yugoslav members of the 
Yugoslav Federation. 

Tito's main political agent in Washington, D. C, Slobodan Ivanovic, 
has become editor of the new anti-Tito and pro-Cominform newspaper 
in Prague called Nova Borba (the New Struggle). This fact easily 
explains the function of the Communist-accredited diplomats in for- 
eign countries. Their main mission is not to develop diplomatic rela- 
tions but to work for the Soviet Union and its plans in the United 
States or wherever they are ; thus the world revolution must be prepared 
and propagated. 

Another member of Tito's staff to follow Ivanovic was Pa vie Lukin, 
first delegate to the United Nations. They followed the line taught 
them by their leaders, as stated in the words of Milentije Popovich 
( now Minister of Foreign Trade) . These words were always repeated 
in Belgrade to all the employees of the Communist departments and 
ministries : 

We Communists owe our loyalty only to the Soviet Union, as the sole father- 
land of socialism in the world. We must always act in such a manner that her 
interests shall be furthered and strengthened, as she is the sole guarantor of the 
xiltimate triumph of communism throughout the world. What do Yugoslav inter- 
ests matter compared to that? Our only function is to be one of the shields and 
one of the spearheads of the Soviet Union. 

During the present United Nations Assembly two well-known figures 
in the Communist world of the United States Slavs showed up in Tito's 
delegation. One is Srdjan Prica, and the other Steve Dedijer. They 
have both lived for long years in the United States. Before and dur- 
ing the war they were editors of the Serbian Communist weekly, 
Slobodna Rec (Free Expression). They were closely associated with 
Communist activities in the United States among Americans of Ser- 
bian, Croatian, and Slovenian descent. With Mirko Markovich, who 
is now in Belgrade, they were the brain trust of the American- Yugo- 
slav section of the Communist movement in the United States. 

Srdjan Prica left the States at the end of the war and went back to 
Yugoslavia, where he became the director of the American Department 
of the Yugoslav Foreign Ministry. He has now become director of 
the school for the training of the new Communist civil servants for 
foreign service. The main accent of the school is on the indoctrination 
of the students for their work in the United States and elsewhere in 
the free countries. Steve Dedijer, who had been brought up in this 
country, went to Germany with the American Army and then joined 
Tito's partisans. I do not know, but I have heard that he deserted the 
American Army, that he was not officially released from his duties in 
the American Army, but I do not have proof for this specific informa- 
tion. Anyway, as soon as he left the American Army in Germany, he 
got a very important position in the Communist Government in Bel- 
grade. He is now a delegate to the Social and Economic Council of the 
United Nations. While in Yugoslavia, he was the main contact be- 
tween the Yugoslav Communist Party and the foreign newspapermen 
and other personalities visiting Yugoslavia, especially the Anglo- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 51 

American. He was the official interpreter and guide to the 7 Protes- 
tant ministers who, 3 years ago. visited Tito's Yugoslavia and declared 
that in Yugoslavia there was freedom of worship, at the moment when 
the Croatian Primate, Archbishop Stepinac a was shamefully tried and 
put in jail. During all the trip of the ministers, Dedijer never left 
them. 

There is no doubt that Prica and Dedijer came here to get in touch 
with the Americans of southern Slav descent and with the American 
press. As it is well known, the majority of the American Communists 
of Yugoslav descent has taken sides with the Cominform against Tito. 
Once Prica's and Dedijer's followers in this country, they have now 
turned against Tito, thus remaining loyal to Stalin. It is easy to un- 
derstand that Prica and Dedijer have come now to the United States 
to tell their former associates that Tito has not betrayed the Com- 
munist cause and the postulate of the world revolution — still their only 
aim. As they badly need any material help from the United States to 
save the terrible collapse of Yugoslav economy provoked by the Com- 
munist imposition of the 5-year plan, they would like to have American 
Yugoslavs help the country in need and in distress. 

It is very pertinent to this matter to stress the fact that the Com- 
munist newspaper, Narodni Glasnik, once the staunchest of Tito's 
mouthpieces in this country, is now attacking Tito's United Nations 
delegates visiting Americans of Yugoslav descent, charging that 
they ''abuse American hospitality and foment trouble among the Amer- 
ican people." This Communist newspaper seeks to have the American 
Yugoslavs remain loyal to the Cominform and fight Tito on American 
soil. 

During the last war, Prica and Dedijer were very active in promot- 
ing pro-Soviet propaganda in this country among the American 
Yugoslavs. Their closest associate was Tito's present Ambassador in 
Washington, Sava Kosanovic, a frequent contributor of the Com- 
munist newspaper Slobodna Rec and the main speaker at all pro- 
Communist rallies organized by Prica, Dedijer, and Markovich. Al- 
ready at that time, Kosanovic, though being a member of the Royal 
Yugoslav Government in Exile, was taking instructions from Dedijer, 
Prica, and Markovich and was their puppet. 

Here I am not so sure if Toma Babin is an American citizen, but he 
has been residing in the United States for a long, long time. After the 
war, Tito's official in the Yugoslav consulate general in New York was 
Toma Babin. His main work was the control of the Yugoslav seamen 
who, during the last war, were in this country. As I learned after, 
in Yugoslavia, he was entitled to prepare the curriculum for every 
Yugoslav seaman who decided to go back to Yugoslavia and take part 
in the merchant marine. Many seamen, after the war, when they ar- 
rived in Yugoslavia, were liquidated upon Babin's instructions. The 
situation and the attitude, the work and activities of the New York 
harbor longshoremen of Yugoslav descent were in Babin's hands. 

A typical example of the Communist infiltration in this country is 
the case of two brothers: One, Dr. Lujo Goranin-Weissman, 2 and the 
architect, E. Weissman. Both of them immigrated to this country 

lArchbishop Aloys Stepinac, Primate of Yugoslavia. 

2 The person named by the witness is registered with the Department of Justice as an 
agent of a foreign government under the name of Goranin. In his registration statement, he 
reports that his name "at birth" was Weissman. For additional material, see testimony 
of William H. Smyth, p. 57, as well as appendix IV, p. A43. 



52 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

under the Yugoslav quota just before the last war. Not only did they 
no! have any trouble immigrating to this country, but the United 
States Government was very nice to them to give them jobs in th<> 
official United Slates Government agencies. During the war, I)r 
Lujo Goranin-Weissman was working at the Office of War Informa- 
tion, as radio announcer for Yugoslavia. The architect Weissinann 
was in UNRR A under the American quota. 

Immediately after the war. Dr. Lujo Goranin-Weissmann became 
the chief of the Yugoslav official news agency Tanjug, 1 in New York, 
while E. "YVeissrnann, on the recommendation of the Yugoslav Gov- 
ernment, became a high official in the Secretariat of the United Na- 
tions. Both of them are under the control of Dr. Joza Vilfan, the 
Yugoslav delegate to the UN, who as a former public prosecutor in 
Yugoslavia sent to their deaths hundreds of thousands of innocent 
Yugoslavs and is now developing the secret-police network from his 
luxurious house on Fifth Avenue in New York City; too luxurious for 
a country like Yugoslavia, where people are satisfied if they can get 
dry bread to eat. 

Mr. Arens. May I just ask a question there? I would like to know 
whether I interpreted correctly to my own mind what you have just 
said. Is it your testimony that a particular individual whom you 
have just named is the center of a New York secret police network in 
New York City? 

Mr. Eaditsa. Joza Vilfan was the public prosecutor in Yugoslavia 
before coming here. Now in the Communist state the position of the 
public prosecutor, as you may know, is the most important position; 
he decides about everything. The public prosecutor in a Communist 
state is the chief of the secret police at the same time, and everything 
is in his hands. 

Mr. Arens. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Raditsa. He is now in New York, the top delegate of Yugo- 
slavia to the United Nations. 

Mr. Arens. What is your testimony as to his activities at the pres- 
ent time in addition to his official connection as the delegate from 
Yugoslavia? 

Mr. Raditsa. My opinion is that he is the main, the top man, for 
the espionage in this country concerning the Yugoslavs; that he is 
controlling all the Yugoslavs engaged here in any kind of propa- 
ganda or espionage work. 

Mr. Arens. Upon what do you base the conclusion ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Upon his position in the country. He is a member 
of the central committee of the Slovene Communist Party and he was 
the public prosecutor of the country. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you. 

The Chairman. You may proceed. 

Mr. Raditsa. To get the exact picture of the kind of work which 
Dr. L. Goranin-Weissman is perpetrating now in his capacity of chief 
of the Communist main propaganda office, the Tanjug news agency, 
I am going to quote some of his news as printed or commented on in 
the Yugoslav Communist press. 

Abbreviation for Telegrafska Ageneija Nova Jugoslavia (Telegraphic Agency, Npw 
Yugoslavia). For additional information on this organization see appendix IV, p. A43. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 53 

The newspaper Politika, published in Belgrade, on April 8, 1940. 
carried the following item sent by the Tan jug outfit in New York : 

The progressive New York press, commenting on the Inst official statistical 
figures about the number of unemployed in tbe United States, emphasizes that 
the number of unemployed is far greater than is recorded by the official data 
given by the United States Government. 

In publishing the figures concerning each labor union, the progressive press 
says that the number of absolutely unemployed workers has already exceeded 
5,000,000 men and women. 

From the information sent by the New York outfit of the Tanjug 
news agency, all Communist newspapers in Yugoslavia are daily pub- 
lishing articles distorting the conditions of life in the United States. 
A series of such articles was recently published by some Communist 
newspapers under the title "The Collapse of the Legend of the Postwar 
Boom in the United States." I have in my possession these articles 
as published by the newspaper Slobodna Dalmacija (Free Dalmatia), 
December 1948. The following items may be read : 

Misery, exhaustion, and lack of education, such is the destiny of farmers in 
the United States. 

The policy of an irrepressible foreign expansionism spread by tbe American 
monopolistic capitalism is followed by a rapid increase of militarism. * * * 
To explain their new race in armaments as the only safe way out for American 
economy, the American warmongers assert that armaments stimulate labor 
development. This race of armament leads the country toward economic catas- 
trophe. * * * The real fact of America may be viewed in the deterioration 
of its standard of living, unemployment, destruction and pauperization of the 
farmers, increase of militarism, general economic insecurity, and a weak faith 
in tomorrow. 

All that is sent by the Tanjug News Agency in New York to 
Yugoslavia. 

In the newspaper Vjesnik we may find the following items (issue 
No. 1166) : 

The American Attorney General, Tom Clark, declared that many millions of 
boys and girls who are required to go to schools in the United States don't 
frequent any school. Two million children frequent schools which can only be 
called by such a name. Ten million Americans don't know how to read and write. 

Tom Clark does not reveal the reasons of such a situation. This fact is to a 
certain extent explained by the Women's Press, which is asking, "Why don't all 
children go to school?" and answers, "If all the children would go to school, they 
wouldn't work, and when they don't work the capitalistic profit would fall." 

This is how the meaning for social obligations is interpreted by the American 
authorities. They don't ask the parents to intervene in favor of their children's 
education and to encourage the law for the prohibition of the child labor. 

In issue No. 1130: 

The American magazine Fortune, which is in the service of the American war- 
mongers, writes in one article : "If we want more guns, we must to a certain 
extent deprive ourselves of butter." The American warmongers have gone so 
far that shamelessly, word by word, they apply the Hitlerite methods without 
even thinking of Hitler's destiny. 

The regular visits of Communist agents to the United States under 
the protection of diplomatic immunity has another goal. While the 
Communist visitors are here to collect information about economic, 
financial, military, and other matters, they are at the same time spread- 
ing defeatism and demoralization among the Slav Americans, trying 
to destroy in them faith in America's democracy. 

For more than 2 years, for instance. Sime Balen was the chief of 
the press service in the Yugoslav Embassy. He was usually contact- 



54 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

ing people of Sorb and Croatian descent in this country. He was, 
of course, delivering speeches at different rallies sponsored by Com- 
munist-front organizations. 

Sime Balen was telling his audiences, both privately and publicly, 
the following: 

The victory of the new democratic revolution in the world led by the Soviet 
Union and other new democratic people's republics is inevitable and imminent. 
Western Europe is already in process of being comnmnized. There will be no 
necessity for a shooting war. After conquering Europe and Asia by internal 
upheaval of the masses, we shall force the United States to surrender. The 
United States will be captured by internal disintegration, racial strife, and civil 
wars. An economic crisis will inevitably sap American might. An Anglo- 
American war will break out because of the two countries' economic rivalry. 
Everywhere in the United States we have allies who are going to do the work for 
us. We shall be here before you think so. It is better for you to leave sooner 
and to help us in this struggle. The Slavs are the most dynamic element in this 
movement. We must be all united in this work. 

While back home, Balen, Dedijer, and many others usually give 
public speeches and write articles and even booklets in which the 
United States is presented on one side as the exploiter of the working 
masses, on the other side as the giant whose legs are crumbling under 
the weight of the imminent people's rebellion. 

In his book, Notes on America, Dedijer says that there is no free 
press in the United States. As an example he gives the fact that 
labor in America does not have liberty to publish any newspaper, with 
the exception of the Daily Worker, because there is no freedom of 
press in the land of Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln. 

I must mention the fact that the notes about American life were 
taken by Mr. Dedijer while he was in San Francisco at the UNO 
Conference. He is the man who, with his brother now in the United 
States, has taken active part in the Anti-Fascist Youth Congresses 
held last year in India, where he was spreading Communist propa- 
ganda. 

It must be stressed that the attitude of Yugoslav Communist dele- 
gates in the United Nations is exactly, word by word, similar to the 
stand which the Soviet and other satellite delegates usually do take. 
They always vote with the Soviet Union and other satellite delegates. 

I would like to conclude that, in the case of the Communist diplo- 
mats and other Communist emissaries, we are faced with the organized 
Communist threat to our way of life. Through them, the fifth 
column, the Trojan horse, the dupes and innocents among the fellow 
travelers in our midst, are fed and equipped with means and ideologi- 
cal material. 

In this connection, everyone should know in the free world that we 
are engaged in a fight with a sectarian movement which is, at the same 
time, militaristic, imperialistic, and anti-religious, whose only goal is 
the conquest of power everywhere by all means and using our demo- 
cratic freedoms. Our duty is to react against such schemes plotted 
by the Communist conspiracy with all our means as freemen. Every 
individual engaged in any kind of diplomatic, commercial, and cul- 
tural activity belonging to a Communist state must be considered as 
the enemy to the fundamental rights of mankind and a conscious foe 
to our free society. 

We must not only consider him as such, but treat him as such. 
Stalin and every other Communist deny all the Christian and liberal 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 55 

values upon which our civilization has been built and improved. We 
must fight all of those who, under different ways, come to this free 
society with only one purpose, to destroy it. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, if it meets with your approval, I should 
like to read into the record an excerpt from the Foreign Agents' Regis- 
tration Act and then submit into the record a list of organizations 
and persons who have registered pursuant to the Foreign Agents' 
Registration Act, which will include the names of certain organ- 
izations and persons referred to by the witness in his testimony. 

The Chairman. Very well. 

Mr. Arens. I just want to read, if I may, the first part of the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act : 

The following, organizations shall be required to register with the Attorney 
General : 

Every organization subject to foreign control which engages in political 
activities. 

Every organization which engages in both civilian military activity and in 
political activity. 

Every organization subject to foreign control which engages in civilian military 
activity ; and 

Every organization, the purpose or aim of which, or one of the aims or purposes 
of which, is the establishment, control, conduct, seizure, or overthrow of a govern- 
ment or subdivision thereof by the use of force, violence, military measures, or 
threats of any one or more of the foregoing. 1 

Now Mr. Dekom would like to identify certain documents and place 
them into the record. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Chairman, the witness has made reference to the 
Tanjug News Agency which is the official news agency of the Govern- 
ment of Yugoslavia. The witness identified it as a propaganda group 
in this country. We have obtained from the Department of Justice 
photostatic copies of their registrations. I would like to call attention 
of the committee particularly to the registration dated October 2, 1948, 
in which one of the functions of the organization is outlined as follows : 

Press releases on material transmitted from Tanjug, Belgrade, for United 
States press institutions, organizations, and the individuals in United States of 
America. 

I would like further to call the attention of the committee to the 
personal registration of Louis Goranin, who was identified by the wit- 
ness as a Yugoslav Communist propagandist. 

Under question 1 (a) name of registrant, he gives the name "Louis 
Goranin." Under question 1(b) which requires him to list "all other 
names ever used by registrant and when used," he states as follows : 

Louis Weissman, which was name at birth and which is now used only by mem- 
bers of family. 

I offer that in evidence in support of the statement made by the 
witness. 2 

Mr. Dekom. I would further like to call attention of the committee 
to some of the mailing addresses which have been submitted by the 
Tanjug Agency to the Department of Justice. The following on the 
list are Communist or Communist-controlled newspapers or organiza- 
tions : The Daily Worker, which is the official organ of the Communist 
Party of the United States ; the news letter In Fact, which is published 

1 18 U. S. C, sec. 2386 (supp. I). 

1 The material referred to appears in appendix III, p. A43. 



56 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

by George Seldes. Then there is the newspaper Narodni Glasnik, 
Which is a Communist Croatian newspaper, published at 1010 East 
Street. Pittsburgh, Pa.; Naorodna Volya, a Bulgarian-language Com- 
munist paper published in Detroit, Mich. ; Nova Doha, a Czechoslovak 
Communist newspaper, published in Chicago; Slobodna Rec, a Com- 
munis Serbian newspaper, published in Pittsburgh^ and many others. 1 

I would also like to call the attention of the committee to the first 
person on this list : Louis Adamic, of Milford, N. J., about whom we 
will present additional testimony in the future. 

Mr. Chairman. I would also like to ask the witness for any com- 
ments which he may have on Louis Adamic. 

The Chairman-. Mr. Raditsa, you may do so. Who is he, what is he, 
where did he come from, and what is he doing now? 

Mr. Raditsa. He comes from Slovenia. He came to this country 
when he was a 12-year-old boy. He was the main brain trust of the 
American-Slav movement in the country. He is now in Belgrade with 
Marshal Tito. He was received 1 month ago by Marshal Tito and 
the main newspaper, Politika, published the picture. 

The Chairman. Is he connected with any Communist organization? 

Mr. Raditsa. Yes; he is in all the Slav-Communist movements; he 
was one of the officers of the American Slav Congress, and he was the 
chairman of the United Committee of South Slavic-Americans. 

The Chairman. When was he over in this country ? 

Mr. Raditsa. I think that he left this country in December of last 
year. 

The Chairman. What was he doing while he was here? 

Mr. Raditsa. Writing. 

The Chairman. Was he connected with any other organization ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Yes; he was connected with all of the left-wing 
American organizations of Slav descent. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Chairman, with your permission I would like 
to state that the staff has made an investigation of the connections 
of Louis Adamic. He has the longest record of Communist-front 
affiliations of any persons we have studied so far. Those are affilia- 
tions with more than 50 Communist fronts, and we will submit 
their sum total for the record with the permission of the chairman. 

The Chairman. All right. I think they should be submitted. 2 

Mr. Dekom. Have you any comment to make, Mr. Raditsa, on the 
activities of Sava Kosanovic, the Yugoslav Ambassador in Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. Raditsa. Mr. Sava Kosanovic, during the war, as I stated in 
my statement, was closely linked with the Communists in this 
country, the Yugoslav Communists. Since he became Ambassador, 
he has continued to visit the Communist front and pro-Communist 
organizations of Americans of Yugoslav and Slav descent. 

The Chairman. What evidence have you to give us that he was an 
active Communist or that he is ? 

Mr. Raditsa. I don't think that Mr. Kosanovic is a party member, 
but during the war he was associated with a group of the American 
Communists of Serbian descent. This group was editing and pub- 
lishing Slobodna Rec, the Communist weekly printed in Pittsburgh. 

1 The mailing lists of the Tanjug Agency, as submitted to the Department of Justice in 
compliance with the Foreign Agents Registration Act, appears in appendix III. p. A5S. 

2 The Communist-front connections of Louis Adamic will he found in appendix V, p. A73. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 57 

The Chairman. Do you know of any other activity of his in con- 
nection with communism? I am speaking now of the Yugoslav 
Ambassador. 

Mr. Kaditsa. Yes. I think he is still very active, because when- 
ever there is any rally or any meeting or any affair by the American 
Slav Congress or given by the Yugoslav American pro-Communist - 
front organization, he is always very anxious to get in touch with 
them, talk to them, and I am sure that he is still in contact with them, 
sending and giving them information and instructions as to how to 
proceed. 

The Chairman. He is representing a Communist form of govern- 
ment l . 

Mr. Raditsa. Of course he is representing a Communist form of 
government and a Communist state. His attitude in Yugoslavia, 
when he joined Tito, was very favorable to the Communists. He 
joined Tito against the will and decision of the Independent Demo- 
cratic Party of Yugoslavia. 

B3 the way, at that time the Democratic Party of Yugoslavia pub- 
lished a communique which condemned Kosanovic for joining Tito's 
government and Tito's People's Front. The majority of. the leaders 
of the Independent Democratic Party remained outside of Tito's front. 

Mr. Dekom. Thank you very much for appearing here today, Mr. 
Raditsa. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM H. SMYTH, ENGINEER, 44 WEST FORTY- 
FOURTH STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. Our next witness will be Mr. Smyth. 1 

Mr. Smyth, will you kindly come forward and be sworn? 

The Chairman. Raise j T our right hand, please. Do you solemnly 
swear that the testimony you will give before this Senate committee 
Avill be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Smyth. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Smyth, would you kindly identify yourself both as 
to name and address, and as to background and experience ? 

Mr. Smyth. My name is William H. Smyth and I live at 44 West 
Forty-fourth Street, New York, N. Y. My background is given in the 
beginning of my statement. 

Mr. Arens. Under those circumstances I suggest, if it is agreeable 
with the chairman, that vou read the statement. 

The Chairman. You may proceed. 

Mr. Smyth. You have called me here, I assume, to hear my opinion 
as to whether conditions existing in this country of ours call for legis- 
lation such as Senate bill 1694 2 of the first session, Eighty-first Con- 
gress, introduced by Senator Pat McCarran. 

My remarks will be based principally on conditions, as they appear 
to me, in the Yugoslav group in the United States. In order to enable 
you to judge my qualifications and trustworthiness to speak of these 

1 The witness appeared under subpena. 

2 Senate bill 1694 was superseded on May 11, 1949, by Senate bill 1832, introduced by 
Senator McCarran. 



58 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

mutters, I would like to give you the following information about my 
background and life: 

I was born of American Methodist missionary parents, May 23, 
1890, in Foochow, China; came to America in 1899; was graduated 
from Berkeley High School, California, and later in 1912, from the 
University of California as a civil engineer. I worked 5 years in my 
profession in San Francisco, then entered the United States Army in 
May 1917; served as captain, Field Artillery, with duty in France, in 
the army of occupation in Germany, and with the American mission 
in Vienna until my demobilization in September 1919, in Paris. 

I worked for an American export-import company in Turkey, 
Persia, the Causasus, and Yugoslavia until early 1921, then founded 
and operated, from 1921 until 1941 — 20 years — my own company in 
Yugoslavia, W. H. Smyth, Belgrade and Zagreb, my principal busi- 
ness being the importation of American motorcars, trucks, tractors, 
tires, oil, and so forth, and the export of Yugoslav products. I was 
elected a member of the Yugoslav Society of Engineers and 
Architects. 

In July 1941, when the American consulates were closed in Yugo- 
slavia, I closed my business and left the country. My wife and I 
were in Hungary from then until January 1942, when we left with 
the American Foreign Service personnel and other Americans for 
Lisbon. After 5 weeks there, we reached New York March 1, 1942. 
During 1942 and 1943, I spent a good deal of time helping the Army 
and other governmental organizations in such ways as I could through 
supplying data on the Balkans and the Danube Valley countries. I 
became a member of the American Legion and the American Society 
of Civil Engineers. 

Since 1945, I have devoted considerable time to the Threadmiller 
Corp., a small company a friend and I founded to produce and sell 
tools for cutting thread on lathes. However, during the entire 8 
years I have been home in America, I have constantly tried to keep 
track of Communist activities, especially in the Yugoslav group, which 
I know best, and in general, in other foreign-language groups. 

I spent this time in following Communist activities, because I hoped 
that some day the information obtained might be helpful in keeping 
my country a free republic. You must know, gentlemen, that I have 
a very special interest in this matter. In the spring of 1920, I lost 
practically everything I had to the Russian Communists in Baku, the 
Caspian Sea oil town. When the Germans invaded Yugoslavia in 
April 1941, 1 lost my business built up through 20 years of hard work. 
Now, I am starting again and I do not w T ant to lose out a third time 
through the working of any foreign "ism" in my own country. 

Senate bill 1694 has my hearty approval. My long acquaintance 
with Communists and with various foreign-language groups makes 
me believe that every foreign-language group in the United States 
has its own highly organized national section of the American Com- 
munist Party, each one with its own political bureau, national and 
State committees, local committees and cells reaching down to and 
directing the work of individual members and fellow travelers in 
their work as spies, agitators, organizers, propagandists, and so forth. 
Further, I feel sure this work is all controlled by Moscow, through 
agents sent here directly or indirectly as Moscow directs. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 59 

The large majority in all foreign-language groups is composed of 
good, loyal Americans. However, like most Americans, they are too 
tolerant to believe that anyone would work against the United States, 
the country they really love. This tolerance or incredulity appears 
to make many of them an easy prey to the constant and subtle prop- 
aganda fed to them by well-trained Communist workers. 

In support of my belief that Senate bill 1694 should be passed, I 
call your attention to the work of certain organizations and persons 
in the Yugoslav foreign-language group. Others, I feel sure, could 
give you corresponding information about organizations and persons 
in other foreign-language groups. Obviously, organizations do not 
usually call themselves "Communist"' organizations, nor do most indi- 
viduals show their party card. Thus, one can say only that this 
organization or that person must be a Communist, or is reported 
to be one, judging by the company he keeps and by the work of the 
groups or units to which he belongs. 

Mr. Arens. Before you get started, were you handed a list of Yugo- 
slav officials in this country by representatives of the subcommittee 
staff, persons in whom we were particularly interested, and asked to 
compile whatever information you might have on those persons ? 

Mr. Smyth. Sometime ago I received such a list and I looked over 
the names, but on this list of mine there is no use of giving you every- 
body, because it would take too long. I brought in a number of the 
ones whom I consider the most important and who offer the most 
striking examples. There will be a couple of Yugoslavs who have 
become American citizens. They have come to our country and do not 
behave like good guests. They seem to forget they have changed their 
place of residence and they keep working for their previous home. 

Mr. Aeens. You may proceed. 

First, I want to call your attention to the Yugoslav-American 
Home 1 at 405 West Forty-first Street, New York City. This building 
was purchased a few years ago by a group of Yugoslav Communists 
and sympathizers to have a central point for their activities. It has 
various meeting rooms, restaurant, bar, theater; is very well run, and 
appears to be, without any doubt, the center of Yugoslav Communist 
activities on the eastern coast, and is also used, as occasion demands, 
by the organizations considered to be Communist in several other 
foreign-language groups, as Bulgar, Greek, Italian, Czech, and Polish. 

According to the best information obtainable, Yugoslav Communist 
groups, Communist sympathizers hold open and secret meetings in this 
home. Important Communists appear at meetings, and there is a 
constant and well-planned series of concerts and other entertainment, 
all apparently directed to attracting as many Yugoslavs as possible 
for their gradual inoculation with the Communist virus. 

The president of this home is Harry Justiz, a New York lawyer of 
Yugoslav origin. The manager and bookkeeper is Vinko Ujichich, 
until a few months ago the cashier of the Yugoslav consulate general 
in New York. Justiz was the lawyer for the consulate. 

Mr. Arens. May I interrupt to ask you, Is Mr. Justiz the man who is 
presently under contempt for failure to answer questions ? 

Mr. Smyth. He is. 

1 Also known as the Jugoslavenski-Americki Dom. 



60 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

As they declared for the Com in form in the Tito-Corn inform split, 
they were obliged to relinquish those posts. The home is now in the 
hands of Cominform people. However, it is interesting to note that 
next Friday, May 13, the Friends of New Yugoslavia, a pro-Tito or- 
ganization, will give a banquet in the home in honor of the Yugoslav 
delegation to the United Nations and will show a Yugoslav film, 
Slavica. This would seem to indicate that, in spite of newspaper re- 
ports and wishful thinking, some connection exists between Tito and 
the Cominform. 

A number of organizations called clubs — as longshoremen, actors, 
partisans, veterans, and so forth — hold their meetings in this home. 
While they are called clubs, it is hard to believe that they are not 
"cells" in the organization of the Yugoslav national section of the 
American Communist Party. 

With regard to the various individuals I am naming, a brief descrip- 
tion is as follows : 

1. General Ljubo Ilic, one of Tito's generals, a well-known Com- 
munist; served in the Spanish civil war; later completed Communist 
political school course in Moscow; was one of principal Cominform 
agents in Paris; arrived in America with a Yugoslav diplomatic 
passport in 1947. Generally understood, his purpose was to control 
the work of the Yugoslav national section of the CPUSA 1 and then 
to organize Communist activity in Yugoslav colonies in the Argentine, 
Brazil, Chile, and Ecuador. General Ilic spoke both at open and 
secret meetings at the Yugoslav home. His talks, according to report, 
called on the workers in America to unite and to take over the power 
as they have done in other lands. 

2. Josip Mavra, said to have been arrested in the Argentine as a 
Communist and to have served a prison term accordingly. As he 
had been compromised in that country, it appears that the party sent 
Mavra to this country as a seaman. I understand he arrived with the 
usual seaman's papers, good for a 29-day visit, but was quickly admitted 
to the Yugoslav section of the CPUSA and was given a job as floorman 
and waiter at the Permanent Delegation to the United Nations of the 
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, 854 Fifth Avenue, New York 
City. (Incidentally, that is the building referred to by the previous 
witness as the home or place of residence of Joza Vilfan.) It was 
believed Mavra was the Cominform controller of the work of that dele- 
gation. Somehow, he secured a social-security card and now works as 
a longshoreman. Mavra is considered an excellent organizer, and one 
hears he is liaison between Yugoslav Communists of North and South 
America. I doubt that he has a visa to remain in the United States. 

3. Louis Weissman, called Lujo Goranin, American citizen of Yugo- 
slav origin. 2 Correspondent of Tan jug, the Yugoslav Government 
press agency, which would seem to bear out the belief many hold that 
Goranin is a member of the Yugoslav national section of the American 
Communist Party. Goranin organized and directed the Jeclinstvo 
chorus, a mixed group which appears at numerous meetings, concerts, 
etc., at the Yugoslav- American Home. Pie left the chorus when some 
months ago he declared for Tito, his reason being given that he was 
not in good health. He seems to be today one of the principal distrib- 
utors of Tito propaganda in this country. 

1 Communist Party of the United States of America. 

2 See also p. 51 and appendix IV, p. A43. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 61 

4. Captain Theodore Tijan, registered as Third Secretary of the 
Yugoslav Embassy in Washington, D. C, apparently acts as attache 
for the Yugoslav merchant marine and is almost constantly in New 
York at the merchant-marine offices, 8-10 Bridge Street. It is believed 
that the entire Yugoslav Communist courier service goes through 
Tijan. Yugoslav seamen, arriving in New York on ships of any flag, 
are said to report to his office to deliver and receive messages. Captain 
Tijan is a member of the Yugoslav Communist Party in Yugoslavia. 
It is said that he was the first Yugoslav to hoist the Communist flag 
on his ship. According to report, he appears and speaks at both open 
and at secret meetings of the Yugoslav Communists in New York. I 
understand he calls on the workers to take over the United States Gov- 
ernment as their brothers took over the government in Yugoslavia. 

5. Miodrag Markovic, Yugoslav consul general in New York. Ap- 
pears at most meetings in the Yugoslav- American Home in New York. 
In his talks, he is said to have regularly attacked the Marshall plan, 
the American capitalist system, and he bewails the lack of freedom 
possessed by American workers. 

6. Krista Djordjevic, Serb woman, married to Dr. Djura Djordjevic, 
professor in the Belgrade Medical School, known both in Belgrade 
and Zagreb as a Communist. Her home was searched several times 
by the police, and I believe that, at least once, she was arrested as a 
result. Her husband was not a Communist but gave her the money with 
which she helped leftist-minded students. She worked hard for parti- 
sans during the war. She came to U. S. A. in 1946, as representa- 
tive of Yugoslav Red Cross with UN; lived in New York and Wash- 
ington, and visited many Yugoslav colonies in this country, making 
Communist propaganda. She was said to appear regularly at open 
and secret Yugoslav Communist meetings. Now president of Yugo- 
slav Red Cross in Belgrade, she is reported to maintain contact with 
leading Yugoslav Communists here. 

7. Mima Dedijer, came here about May 1947, to replace Krista 
Djordjevic as Yugoslav Red Cross representative with UN and to 
be representative for the Children's Organization. Presumably, she 
carried on the same work as Krista in organizing Yugoslav women for 
communism. She regularly visited Yugoslav- American Home in 
New York and maintained contact with Yugoslav Communists here. 
She was a relative of Stevan Dedijer, a well-known Yugoslav Com- 
munist, who was attached for a short time to the UN Yugoslav dele- 
gation, and who now has a high position with Tito. He is the man 
that Mr. Raditsa said had been out in India. 1 

8. Marija Govorusic (Miss) , came here as secretary to Mima Dedijer 
in May 1947. As I remember, she was known to the police in Bel- 
grade as a Communist before World War II. Visited Yugoslav Com- 
munist meetings at various points in this country. 

Gentlemen, I have presented to you the above material as sifted out 
from sources I believe to be reliable. It seems to me, we have Gov- 
ernment organizations which should be able to check and verify this 
information, should you so desire. 

I consider the United States to be the home for each true American. 
It seems to me that we should exercise as much care in permitting 
guests to enter and dwell in our country as we would in permitting 

1 See p. 54. 

98330 — 50 — pt. 1 5 



62 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

them to enter and live in our private homes. That is why I hope that 
Congress will adopt this law so that the guardians of our American 
home may keep it clean for us and for our children. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting Louis Adamic? 

Mr. Smyth. I met him only once, and that was in January 1935, at 
the time and on an occasion when he spoke before the Public Affairs 
S 0C i e ty_I think that is what it was called— in Chicago. It was in the 
same hotel, the Palmer House, at which I was living. I happened to be 
in Chicago with my wife, back on a trip from Yugoslavia, and I 
attended that meeting. I could not attend the lunch because that was 
private, but the public was admitted afterward. I paid 50 cents, and I 
certainly had 50 cents' worth in listening to Louis Adamic tell the 
most untruthful stories about Yugoslavia. 

Afterward, the chairman stated that, while they did not allow any- 
one to make speeches, anyone who desired to could get up and ask 
questions. I asked him a number of questions which seemed to prove 
to everybody that he had been definitely slanting his talk. That is 
the only time that I met him personally. You see, Louis Adamic 
came here as a boy, I should say, when he was 12 or 14 years old. I 
believe he worked his way through college, and he is entitled to full 
credit for that. He is technically a good writer and a hard worker, 
but he got off on this Communist line. He was sent to Yugoslavia on 
some fellowship, Guggenheim or otherwise, back in 1933. The story in 
Belgrade, as they used to say — things are talked about in cafes, and I 
speak good Serbian and knew the place well — Adamic came to Bel- 
grade expecting that he would be received with open arms by King 
Alexander as a great man. He was kept waiting a bit, and his recep- 
tion was not too warm. The general talk around Belgrade was that, 
if King Alexander had pinned what we call a decoration on Adamic's 
breast, probably he would have come back to America and written 
glowing accounts about the country. That is what they called cafe 
talk over there. 

Adamic had one great fortune, which was that his book, The Native's 
Keturn, appeared just after King Alexander was murdered in Mar- 
seille. I think it was October 1931. Here the King was murdered. 
It was a sensational story, and right then and there a book came out 
on Yugoslavia. Of course, that made it a best seller, and then he was 
around on lecture trips, and he built himself up a whole lot. 

During this war, it is my firm opinion that Adamic has been one of 
the two or three top Tito men in this country. Right from the begin- 
ning, even when they had the Royal Yugoslav Government, he was a 
Tito man. 

I would like to add one thing. He could not be in Yugoslavia today 
unless Tito was sure of him, because the Tito government does not 
give visas to people unless they know they are members of the party. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your experience and study of the Com- 
munist and subversive activity in the United States, do you have any 
appraisal to make as to the point of attack on the problem from the 
standpoint of trying to cut off the conduit or pipe line into this 
country ? 

Mr. Smyth. One of the most important things we can do is to make 
a law whereby we can keep out people who have no business being here, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 63 

and, secondly, that we can throw them out right on their necks as soon 
as we catch them. 

One great loophole is this business of seamen. A foreign seaman 
comes in here with an international document giving him the right 
to spend 29 days in this country. He does not have to have a regular 
passport as an ordinary visitor is required to have. This seaman, if 
he knows the right people, and the Communist organizations seem to 
be full of them, gets a social-security card. You see, you go around 
to the social-security office and, what I have heard, there is no trouble 
in getting a card. One of these men takes you in there, and you state 
your name and you get your social-security card. From then on, you 
are free, you can go and get a job anywhere. 

This man I referred to, Joseph Mavra, people tell me has a social- 
security card, and without it he certainly could not work as a long- 
shoreman in the union, because they are pretty careful on that. How- 
ever, there he is covered. When he arrived here, as I believe I said, 
his first job was with the United Nations delegation, and then he got 
his social-security card. Now he can circulate around anywhere. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Smyth, do you know of any country behind the 
iron curtain where our seamen get reciprocal treatment? 

Mr. Smyth. I am quite sure that there are none. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you, Mr. Smyth. 

(Thereupon, at 5 : 30 p. m., the subcommittee recessed.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GKOUPS 



THURSDAY, MAY 12, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee To Investigate Immigration 
and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 4 p. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran (chairman) presiding. 

Present : Senator McCarran. 

Also present: Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee ; Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

You may proceed, Mr. Arens. 

TESTIMONY OF KIRILL MIKHAILOVICH ALEXEEV, FORMER COM- 
MERCIAL AIR ATTACHE, SOVIET EMBASSY, MEXICO 1 

Mr. Arens. Will the witness please stand and be sworn? I ask, 
also, that the interpreter will be sworn to give a true interpretation 
of the witness' answers. 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand, Mr. Alexeev. 1 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
before the Senate committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Alexeev. I do. 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear that you will interpret 
truly and correctly from the language used by the witness to the 
English language and vice versa, so help you God ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify yourself by name, occupa- 
tion, and background. 

Mr. Prokofieff. Kirill Mikhailovich Alexeev. He was formerly 
commercial attache, Soviet Embassy, in Mexico City. 

The Chairman. All right. How long was he commercial attache 
in the embassy at Mexico City ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. Two and one-half years. 

The Chairman. How old is he ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. Forty. 

The Chairman. Married or single? 



1 Mr. Vladimir Prokofieff, research analyst, Department of State, acted as interpreter 
for the subcommittee. 

2 The witness appeared under subpena. 

65 



§6 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Alexeev. Married. 

The Chairman. How long have you been in the United States? 

Mr. Alexeev. About 2 years. 

The Chairman. Where were you born? 

Mr. Alexeev. In Russia. 

The Chairman. What part of Russia? 

Mr. Alexeev. Central part of Russia. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. What was the occasion upon' which, he severed his af- 
filiation with the Russian Government in Mexico? 

Mr. Prokofieff. On the 26th of November 1946 he left Mexico City. 
He left the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. 

Mr. Arens. Why? 

Mr. Prokofieff. Because he does not approve of Soviet policy and 
he no longer wants to be a citizen of the U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Arens. Ask him if he is familiar with the international intelli- 
gence organization of the Soviet Government. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He is familiar with the international spying activi- 
ties of the U. S. S. R. just as every other responsible worker of the 
U. S. S. R. is acquainted. 

Mr. Arens. Before he proceeds with his prepared statement, would 
you ask him if he is acquainted with persons in the United States 
who are engaged in intelligence activities on behalf of the Soviet 
Government ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states he knows the system of espionage, Soviet 
system of espionage in the United States, but says that the Senate is 
better acquainted with the individuals engaged in this espionage than 
he is. 

Mr. Arens. Ask him if he knows the military attache of the Russian 
Embassy in Washington 1 and his activities in the intelligence work 
on behalf of the Soviet Government. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says that he was acquainted with the Soviet 
military attache, but at the moment he cannot recall his name. 

Mr. Arens. Does he speak of the present Soviet military attache 
in Washington, the man who is the present Soviet military attache? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He is speaking about the present attache. 

Mr. Alexeev. The present attache. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says that he can describe in general the activ- 
ities of the present attache, and he is acquainted with the present 
attache. He has heard things about him when he was in the U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Arens. Would you ask him to give his description of the ac- 
tivities, of which he has knowledge, of the present military attache 
of the Soviet Government in the United States, particularly with ref- 
erence to intelligence activities of this individual. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He has described in general the activities of the 
service attaches in the various Soviet embassies. He states that the 
service attaches are divided into three: the military, the naval, the 
air attaches. Each works within his field, but actually their activities 
are all coordinated by the NKVD in Moscow. 

The Chairman. What do the letters NKVD stand for? 

Mr. Prokofieff. The People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs. 

1 Major General Ivan A. Bolshakov, Military Attache. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 67 

Mr. Arens. Ask him to describe what these men do in the Russian 
Embassy in "Washington, from the standpoint of the intelligence work, 
spying, in other words. 

Mr. Prokofieff. The military attache carries on spying activities 
in respect to strategic points in the United States; he also carries on 
spying activities in respect to military industry, supply of the Army, 
the armament of the Army, in respect to the Air Force, everything in 
respect to the United States airports, the type and quantity of ships, the 
Air Force, information concerning other military information, and of 
course, in respect to the atomic bomb. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by spy activities? How does the 
individual in question get the information and where does he get the 
information? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says that it is very simple for the attaches to 
get information. 

Mr. Arens. Where does he get it ? 

Mr. Prokofteff. The first main source, of course, are the Commu- 
nist organizations in the United States of America. The second source 
of information are the hired informers, paid informers. The third 
source are the fellow travelers who ordinarily surround the Soviet 
embassies. 

Mr. Arens. Ask him what connection there is between the Com- 
munist-front organizations in the United States, if any, and the offi- 
cials, technical officials of the Government of Russia or of the iron 
curtain countries, who are here in the United States. 

Mr. Prokofieff. One of the front organizations, he says, is the 
Institute for Cultural Relations. In addition to this organization, 
the Embassy has contact with other organizations. He claims that 
all the fellow-traveler organizations have direct contact with members 
of the Soviet Embassy. He says not only do they have contact with 
members of the Soviet Embassy, but actually do not take one step 
without order from the Soviet Embassy. He states that contact be- 
tween fellow-traveler organizations and the Soviet Embassy is gen- 
erally in the hands of the first secretaries of the Embassy. He states 
that usually there are two secretaries in a Soviet Embassy. 

Mr. Arens. When he speaks of Soviet Embassy, does he confine him- 
self exclusively in this pattern to the Embassy of Soviet Russia or 
does he also include embassies and consulates of other iron-curtain 
countries ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that the satellite embassies are merely 
parts of the Soviet Embassy. He states that he is certain that satellite 
embassies do not even have their own codes for the purpose of sending 
secret messages. If the satellite embassies do have such codes, then 
they are in the hands of the Soviet Embassy. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent are the attaches and affiliates of the 
embassies and consulates of the Soviet Government or of iron-curtain 
governments in the United States active in the United States in the 
formation of Communist cells ? 

Mr. Prokofteff. He states that the local Communist Party has con- 
tact with the first secretary of the local Soviet Embassy, reports to 
him on its activities, and these reports are sent to Moscow. In Moscow, 
the foreign section of the central committee of the Communist Party 
sends directives to the first secretary as to where Communist organiza- 
tions should be established within the United States. The first secre- 



68 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

tary of the Soviet Embassy then issues the instructions to the heads of 
the local Communist Party, who in turn fulfill the directives. He 
states that one of the first secretaries has the responsibility for car- 
rying on, for organizing all of the spying activities of the Soviet 
Embassy. 

Mr. Arens. Ask him how extensive these spying activities are in 
the United States, either by the affiliates of the foreign government or 
by the Communist-front organizations in this country. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says spy activities are developed very highly 
in the United States of America; spy activities by the Soviet Embassy, 
by their sympathizers, by Soviet satellite embassies, are developed very 
highly in the United States. 

.Mr. Arens. How extensive is it ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says what can I compare it with? He states 
that only 5 percent of the spy activities are actually carried on by 
members of the local of the United States of America Communist 
Party. The rest, 95 percent is carried on by representatives of the 

u.s:s.r. 

Mr. Arens. In the United States? 

Mr. Prokofieff. In the United States. He states that all of the 
spy lines lead into the Soviet Embassy, despite the fact that different 
agents are used to do the spying. He states that in addition to the 
Embassy spy activities that are carried on, other units are used to spy. 

Mr. Arens. To what other units does he refer ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. Some of these agents in addition to members of 
the Soviet Embassy can be, he says, businessmen. 

The Chairman. I would like to get the latter part of his last answer 
there. He gave you one special expression right after you inter- 
preted. What did he say ? You said businessmen. Now what? 

Mr. Prokofieff. They can be bankers, as well. 

Mr. Arens. Are these bankers that he refers to people who are sent 
here by the Soviets as agents ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says they are sent here by the Soviet Govern- 
ment and carry on their affairs by means of money provided by the 
Soviet Government. 

Mr. Arens. Ask him if he would kindly express himself with refer- 
ence to the spying activities, if any, by persons who are in this country 
as affiliates of international organizations or as members or employees 
or affiliates of trading organizations, such as Amtorg or news associa- 
tions such as Tass, who presently enjoy certain immunity. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that Amtorg is not only a trading organ- 
ization but also a spying organization. Amtorg, he says, depends for 
its source of information upon sympathizers or members of the local 
Communist Party, and he says that Amtorg depends upon the acqui- 
sition of information from such of its employees as chauffeurs. 

The Chairman. As what? 

Mr. Prokofieff. Chauffeurs, beginning with chauffeurs. 

The Chairman. From there up or from there down? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says from bottom up, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Ask him if he knows what money or things of value 
are sent into this country by couriers of the Soviets for the purpose of 
aiding Communist-front organizations or for the purpose of purchas- 
ing propaganda to be disseminated among groups in the United States. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 69 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that the ways of sending money or things 
of value to this country are varied and many, but, of course, he says, 
the Soviets are not so naive as to send over a ton of gold or a box filled 
with currency. 

Mr. Arens. What do they do ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that, of course, the Soviet Union has 
commercial relations with various firms in the United States and dur- 
ing business contacts, business relations with a particular firm, they 
are able to keep some of the money that they receive from a business 
here in the States for the purpose of passing on to sympathetic or- 
ganizations for propaganda purposes. He states that the principle 
which guides the Soviet Union in making expenditures here is to make 
these expenditures at the expense of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. What is the objective of the Soviet espionage and propa- 
ganda activity and organizational activities in the United States, 
which he has testified is directed and controlled by the Soviet officials 
in this country. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that the first objective of the Soviets, 
Soviet spying activities, is, of course, to learn as much about their 
enemy as is possible. 

Mr. Dekom. Who is their enemy? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that the United States, of course, without 
question, is their enemy. He states that, for example, knowledge con- 
cerning the United States, such as a detailed biography of the present 
Senators, can be had in Moscow from the very beginning of his life 
until the present moment. 

Mr. Arens. How about the employees of the Senators? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He is convinced of this. He states that he him- 
self read and he knows there exists in Moscow such detailed informa- 
tion that we in the United States do not have. 

Mr. Arens. How many of these key persons that he has alluded 
to, who are in the United States directing the activities of the Soviet 
espionage organizational work in this country, enjoy diplomatic im- 
munity under our present law? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that every representative of the 
U. S. S. R. who has a diplomatic passport has a spy responsibility, 
and he says not less than 50 percent of those who come here without 
diplomatic passports have spy responsibility. 

Mr. Arens. Come here from where? 

Mr. Alexeev. From Russia. 

Mr. Arens. Would he include also the satellite countries ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that the satellites are nothing more than 
sections led and organized by the U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Arens. How many persons were accredited to the Soviet Em- 
bassy in Mexico where you served ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says there were at least 15 individuals in the 
Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. 

^ Mr. Arens. Ask him if he has received any contacts or communica- 
tions from the officials of satellite countries or from Soviet Russia 
or from Communists in the United States since he severed his rela- 
( tionships with the Soviet Embassy in Mexico. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says, since he left the Soviet Embassy in Mex- 
ico City, he has had one contact with a member of the American Com- 
munist Party, apparently some woman. 



70 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of that contact? 

Mr. Prokofieff. She came to find out from him whether he was 
not going to give out information concerning the U. S. S. R. ; informa- 
tion, of course, that would be useful to the intelligence services, and 
whether he would write about the U. S. S. R. 

Mr. Arens. Has he received any approaches or anything in the 
nature of a threat since he has been served with a subpena to appear 
before this committee? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that he did not inform anybody that 
he was going to appear before the Senate Judiciary Committee and 
consequently no one knows about it, and he hopes that nobody from 
our side has informed anyone of the fact that he was going to be 
present. 

The Chairman. You know now this is an open public hearing. 
Does he realize that? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He realizes that this is a public meeting and, 
therefore, he is a bit constrained ; he is constrained, and he is unable 
to speak freely. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly ask the witness if he has a prepared 
statement, a statement which he has prepared, expressing his addi- 
tional testimony in a public session which can be incorporated in the 
record ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. Yes ; he has such a statement. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, may that be received in the record as 
the additional statement of this witness? 

The Chairman. It will be inserted in the record. 

(The information is as follows:) 

[Translation] 

Organization op Spying in Soviet Embassies Abroad 

methods of soviet spying abroad 

All responsible workers of a Soviet Embassy are members of the secret intelli- 
gence service of the Soviet Government, operating in the fields corresponding to 
the positions they hold. Of these, the main individuals are (a) military attache^ 
(6) naval attache, (c) air attache, (d) press attache, (e) commercial attache, 
(f) the first and second secretaries of the embassies (everyone spies in the field 
corresponding with the duties he performs), (g) the Ambassador, (h) the cor- 
respondent of Tass. 

The most important person who has the right of controlling the above-listed in- 
dividuals is the highest representative of the NKVD. He usually has the posi- 
tion and the title of the first secretary of the Embassy. The remaining members 
of a Soviet Embassy can work only at the order of the first secretary, the repre- 
sentative of the NKVD. 

The military, naval, and air attaches carry on spying within their fields of 
specialization. Every one of them begins his activities by gaining the trust of 
responsible people occupying important positions in the military system of a 
given country. This way, they have the possibility of getting information through 
more or less legal means : By personal contact with official persons, conversa- 
tions with them, visits to plants, to military barracks and units, and strategic 
military points. After each conversation with an official person, the attache 
must prepare a report and immediately send it to Moscow. The report is pre- 
pared about all the details of the conversation, which often do not have any direct 
relationship with the problem of interest to the spy at the given moment. 

In Moscow, all of these reports are systematized and. according to them, de- 
tailed characterizations are made of all persons occupying responsible govern- 
mental positions in a given country. Often it is possible to find in Moscow de- 
tailed biographies of persons occupying governmental positions in various coun- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 71 

tries, about their way of life, habits and predilections and everything that con- 
cerns their character and personal life. All of these materials are classified 
and can be used only by persons specifically permitted to look at them. This is 
a colossal archive. 

When the attache goes over to direct spying work, he recruits agents. Usually, 
agents are recruited from among Communists and sympathizers, regardless of 
their national affiliation (in most instances people not born in the given country 
are included in the group of Soviet informers). The most desirable informers 
are people having contact with governmental institutions. Some of them are 
on pay rolls, but more often they receive remuneration for individual assign- 
ments. Very often they serve even without pay and merely because of ideologi- 
cal motives. 

If a country presents no interest from the point of view of naval or air ques- 
tions, then in the organization of the Soviet Embassy of the given country there 
may not be a naval or an air attache. For example, in Mexico at the present 
time there probably is only the military attache. All the military attaches 
are subordinate to and responsible to one boss — the NKVD. It has sections 
dealing with the various types of troops. All of these sections are unified in the 
Administration for Foreign Counterintelligence of the NKVD. 

The press attache gathers information from all sources connected with the 
press of a given country. He has informers among journalists and is the spe- 
cialist on the political aspect of life in a given country. He is subordinate to 
Tass, which, in its turn, is an organ subordinate to the press section of the For- 
eign Administration of the NKVD. 

The commercial attach^ carries on wide activities in establishing business con- 
tacts among the commercial and industrial circles in a given country. This work- 
er does not have any difficulty recruiting informers even from among the most 
well-to-do part of the population. Many, only from the desire to become one of 
the trade clients of the U. S. S. R., bring full information about the economic 
status of a country, about the banks, governmental industrial enterprises, etc. 

Besides these, paid informers work for the Sovient commercial representative. 
Many foreign employees of Soviet commercial organizations are informers for 
them. 

The Embassy secretaries. — Every secretary in an embassy carries on his work 
For example, the secretary of the so-called Society for Cultural Relations Abroad 
carries on and organizes pro-Soviet propaganda on one side and spy work on 
another. This secretary has a colossal number of informers among fellow trav- 
elers and Communists. He has connections in the culturally higher strata of the 
population and gathers information of the broadest and most varied character 
without any difficulty. 

The secretary responsible for consular questions knows the former Russians, 
and usually recommends to all desiring to return to the fatherland that to deserve 
this possibility they must fulfill specific spying assignments. 

The first secretary— the representative of the NKVD — is the most important 
and the most responsible organizer of spying in an Embassy abroad. He watches 
and controls all the other organizers of spying and immediately repbrts directly 
to the NKVD. He organizes spying through special agents working outside of 
the Embassy, controls them, and gives the assignments. He is responsible for the 
fulfillment of the most serious assignments, both of a political and economic char- 
acter (atomic secrets, etc.) . He looks after the spying done by foreigners, and by 
businessmen who have opened their enterprises with money especially assigned 
for this by the Soviet Government. He also controls the work of Communist 
organizations. 1 

Mr. Prokofieff. That statement is of a very general character. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you a question or two, please. Where 
did he receive his training for diplomatic service ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that he has an engineer's degree. He 
completed a course at the Machine Construction Institute in minin 
engineering. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mr. Alexeev. In Moscow. 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that he has a doctorate of technical 
sciences. 



g 



1 The original statement of the witness appears on p. 73. 



/ 2 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. Where did he get his training for diplomatic 
service ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that he was commercial attache, and that 
generally Soviet commercial attaches are specialists. 
i The Chairman. Before he became commercial attache in the Rus- 
sian Embassy at Mexico City, did he receive any indoctrination or 
training in communistic activity? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He states that he did not receive any instruction, 
any training in spying activities. He states he did receive training 
in specialized commercial activities for approximately 2 months prior 
to coming over to Mexico City, but he says despite what he has just 
stated — namely, that he had not received any specialied training in 
spying activities — still he is certain that every foreign representative 
of the U. S. S. R. receives instructions and is responsible for carrying 
on spy activities. 

Mr. Akens. By foreign representative, would he also include per- 
sons who are affiliates of international organizations or members of 
trading commissions, or semiofficial groups such as that? 

Mr. Prokofieff. He says without question he includes those par- 
ticular individuals as foreign representatives. 

The Chairman. I think we will hold over until the morning. Can 
he stay over until tomorrow morning ? 

Mr. Prokofieff. If it is essential, he can stay over. 

The Chairman. Yes; it is essential. He is under subpena: is he 
not? 

Mr. Dekom. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. He will be excused subject to the order of the sub- 
pena, and the committee will stand in recess until 10 in the morning. 
We will reconvene at 10 o'clock tomorrow morning, and it will be an 
executive session. 

(Thereupon, at 5 : 10 p. m., a recess was taken until Friday, May 
13, 1949, at 10 a.m.) 

(Following is the original statement submitted by the witness : ) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 73 

OpraHH3au;HH innnoHana b Cob6tckhx no- 
coJn>cTBax oa rpairaijeH. 



Me to ah CoBSTCKoro rmiioHEc-sa 3a rpaHHueii- BchkhJi oTBeTCTBeH- 
hhhH pa(5oxnHK coBeiCKoro noco^ibciBa, asjiHexcH paCoTHHKOM ce- 
Kpexnou pa3BeAosaTejrbHoii cjiysCH coBexcKoro npaBKTeJibCTsa, b 
o6^iacxH cooxBexciByioineM 3aHHMaeMoM km aojkhocth. Ochobhhmh 
E3 hkx, hbjikiotch: 

a. BoeHHHii axxane. 

<5. UopcKOK axxarne. 

B. AXXSUI3 B03AyiHHHX BO/ICK. 

r. Ilpecc-aixarie. 

A. KoMMepnecKHH aixai'ie, 

e # IlepBHe ceKpKTapn nocojbciBa, 11 BTopBie. (KascflHil b o6jia- 

CTH, COOTBeTCTBJTOmeK BEHIO.UHH ejJHM KM, 6Vl3aHHOCTHM« ) 

j:c, Hocojt, 

3. KoppecnoiiflGHi TACCa. 

FjiaBHHM jihh,om, KoxopEtS ii:.ieei npaso KoHxpojrxpoBaib BCex 
nepe^HC^eHHHX jivm,, HBJiaexca caind! CTapnmi? npeACTaBHTe.ro> HKB£, 
oCbiHHo HMeiwimS flOJDKHocxb 11 3saKne nepBoro ceKpexapn noco.Tb- 
ciBa. 

OcxajibHBie ^Jiemi coBeiCKoro nocoJEbCTBa, Moryx padoxaxb 
xoJibKO no 3aflaHHHM "nepBoro ceKpexapH^-npeflciaBHievTH HKB/U 

BoenmiS aTiaiue, aBiiamc:, h icopcKoS- Be^yx nmHOHCKyro 
pa6oxy, KasflHg b odjiacxH CBoeM cnemia.ibHociH. KaxeABiH* H3 hhx, 
Ha-^HHaei cbok) AeHTeJibnocTb c Toro, mto BHHKaeT b AOBepne ot- 
BeTCTBeHHiDC Jiim, 3aHHMaK>mix icpynHoe ncvioseHiie b BoeHHoM chc- 
Teiie flaHHoM cxpaHH.il nojry^aioT TaKHM oopa30M B03MoacHocib HMeib 
HHcpopuamBo, 6ojiqq vum MeHHe, jierajibHHM nop^AKOM, (nyTeu Jim- 



74 COMMTJTSnST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 



noro KOHxaKTa c ocpjmnajibHHMH Jivniaim, pa3roBopoB c hhmh /Ijoc- 

Jie Ka-KAoro paoroBopa c oiJumiiajibHBra jikiiom, aTTame noJtxeH coc- 

TaBHTb panopT h neMefl^ieHHo oiocjiaTb b MocKBy. PanopT cocTaB- 

Jisiercsi co BceMii noApoCHocTHin-i paorosopa, nacTo lie HiieroinHMH 

np^ttoro oTHoneHiiH k Bonpocy,KoTopNn b flajniHii MoxieHT HHTepe- 

cyeT paoBe/iHHKa. B MocKBe, Bee 3th panopTa CHCTeMaTH3HpyioT- 

ca h no hum cocTaBJLHKJTCH noApodHbie XapaKTepHCTHKH BCeX JIVDX, 

3 aHHi-iaioimcc oTBeiCTBeHHoe rocyflapcTBeHHoe noJiojKeHHe b flaHHOH 

CTpaHe.^/nocGineHHa. saBOflOB, BoeHHHX Ka3apit, MacieK h BoeHHO- 

CTpaTerHMecKux nyHKTOB. ) 

-^acTo, moxcho b MocKBe naiiTH noflpoo"- 
HHe <5norpac[)iiH, jrim. 3aHiiMaroun-ix rocy- 
AapCTBeHHoe no^iosceHHe b pa3JiHHHHX CT£a« 

Hax. Hx 0(5pa3 JKII3HH, npHBHHKH h HaK- 

jiokhocth h Bee mto KacaeTca kx xapaK- 
Tepa II JIHHHoF: BCH3HH. Bee oth waTepn- 
ajtbt 3aceKpeneHH 11 hmh noryT noJibso- 
BaTtca jinna cneiiiiajibHo k oToi.iy Aonyme- 
HHe.-3To orpoiXHtifi apxHB. 

3aieM, aTTame nepexoflHT ic HenocpeAciBeHHoM kiiiiohckom pa6o- 

Te-Bep6yK)T areHTOB. OcSHHno areHTti BepfiyioTca H3 ^ncia KOMMyHH- 

ctob ii conyBCTByioiuHX km, He 3aBnciiM0 OT; hx HauHOHajibHoJi npn- 

Ha£.7ie;KHocTH(B CoJibinnHCTBe CJiynaeB, b cociaB coBeTCKHX ocBeflo- 

MHTe^ieH,BxoAaT jvorvl, He poHAeHHtie b AaHHoi-i CTpaHe.) HandoJiee 

HSJiaTeJIbHBIMH OCBeAOMHTe^IflMIT, siBJvnoycn. JCORXl HMGIOlHIie OTHOHleHHe 

k npaBHTe^rbCTBeHHBTM yHpejKAeHiuiM. HeKOToptie H3 hhx pa6oTaioT 
na KajioBaHHii, ho name 3a onjiaxy no OTAeJibHBiM 3aAaKiiHM h oieHb 
^acTO coBceM 6ez omiaThi, a npocxo no HAeoJiorKHecKHM MOTHBaw. 
Ecjih CTpaHa He npeACTaBJiHeT co6ojo HHTepeca c tohkh 3pe- 

HMH MOpCKOH IWIH aBIiailHOHHoS, TO B COCXaBe COBeTCKOrO noco-Kb- 

CTBa AaHHoM CTpaHH, MopcKoro 11 aBnaiinoHHoro aTTame, MoaceT 
coBCe h He <5HTb.(HanpKMep b LfeKCHKe, b AaHHoe BpeMfl BepoHTHO 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 75 

Bcero XVW oaiih BoeHHKil aTTane. 

Bee BoeHHLie aTTsmie, coahhhhiotch h oTHHTBiBaiOTCfl nepe A oa- 
hhm X03HHHOU- KKB£. OH H M eei cboii ynpa^eHiw Beayioiwe pasjnrc- 
hhmh poAaMH bohck. TaKHM odpa 3 on,Bce m ynpaEJieHKH o6-beAe- 
hhjotch 3 ynpaaaeHKe imocTpaHHoK KOHTp-pa3BeAKH HKBfl. 

npecc-aTTarae.CofiHpaeT HHccopManrao bo Bcex hctomhhkob cbh- 
3 a H roK~c~npeccon b AaHHofi cxpaHe. Otter oeBeaomiTeJt«S cpeAH 

KypHajIHCTOB IT HBJIHeTCH HHc|>opMaT0pOM IKMEJITIWeCKOii CTopOHH KH3- 

HH AaHHoii CTpami. no/nraieH TACCy,KOToptiii b cboio onepeAb hb- 
jiaeTC-q opraHOM noAiHHeHHHM oTACJiy npeccn KHocTpaimoro ynpaa*e- 

nna HKBfl. 

KoiB.iep^ecKHii aiiane. KoimcepHecKHH aTTanie BeAex unipoKyio 
padoTy no ycTaHOB^eHino rojiobitx KOHTaKTOB, cpeAH KOMKepnecKHX 
h npoMi-niweHHtix KpyroB b AaHHOK CTpaHe. 3Toi.ty padoTHHKy ,He 
TpyAHo 3aBep6oBaTb cede ocBeflOHHTejreii, p,sx.e cpeAH cocrotfTeJib- 
hoM nacTH HaceJieHHH. MHome, tojh>ko h3 sejiaHMH nonacib b hhc- 
jio KJineHTOB ToproaTiH c CCCP, no CBoewy noHimy HecyT no^Hyra 
HHraopMamro o oKOHOMiraeCKOM coctohhhh dpaHH, daHKOB, rocy- 
AapcTBeHHHX npoMtnmieHHBix npeAnpiiaTiiHX n t.a. 

Kpoi.ie Toro, Ha coBeTCKoe ToproBoe npeACTaBHTeJiBCTBO,pado- 
TaioT h mraTHHe ocBeAo:inTeJiH. MHorae HHocxpaHKLie coTpyAHiir.H oas- 
BeTCKiix ToproBBix opraHH3aH.H:i, hbjihiotch iiHcfcopMaxopai.tH noe^ieA- 

Hero. 

BeAeT 
CeKpeTapn noco^ibCTBa, KaxcAHM cenpeTapb b noco^ibCTBe saasa: 



cboio padoTy.Hanpin.iep-B "iaK na3, odmecTBe KyjibTypnoil cbh3h 
c 3arpaHHqeH n .BeAeT 11 opraHH3yeT npocoBeTCKy nponaraHAy,c 
OAHOii ciopoHH,H EinHOHCKyio padoxy, c Apyroii. 3tot cenpexapb mte- 
ei Drpoimoe KOJiHHecTBO ocBeAOMHTeJieH H3 HHcaa CHMnaTiraaHTOB 
h KoiatyHHCToB. HueeT cbs3e b Kyjib TypHtix doJiee bhciuhx cjiohx 



70 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

HaceJieHna n cotfirpaex HHtpopMaijHH) caiioro rtirpoKoro vs. pa3Hoo6- 
pasHoro xapar.xepa n 6e3 oco<5oro xpyfla. 

Cenpexapb BeflajoimiJi KOHcyjtbcicnj,in BonpocaMii, 3Haa cocxaB 
diBiinix pyccKinc, odtrcHo peKOMeHflyeT bcgm ace-naioiuKM Bepnyxbc.q 
Ha pofliray, 3 acjryxcnxb sxy B03Moxcnocxb, nyxew B-inojiHeHHH onpe- 
fleJieHHbK rrnKOHCKKX 3aflaHnK, 

IlepBtiii cei<peTapb-pe3eAeHT HKBfl. flBJKeica rJiaBHBtM h caMUM 
oiBeTCTBeHHHM opraHH3axopoM iirnHOHcoica b noco^ibCTBe, 3a rpa- 
HKUjei:. Oh CJieAHi n KOHXpoJiiipyei ecex ocxajiEHHX opraHH3axopoB 
nniiOHasa h HeiteflJieHHO AOKJia£BiBaex npHMO b KKB/U Oh opraHH3yex 
ninnoHas Hepe3 cnemiajibHBix areHios, p^CioiaioiuHX BHe nocoJibCXBa 
flaex km 3aAaHHH vs. KOHTPOJiirpyeT hx. Oh oTBeicTseEeH 3a BirnoJiHe- 
HHe caj.iHX cepbesHHX nopy^eiiHil, itaK noJiiiTHHeCKoro TaK h skoho^ 
MHHecKoro xapaKTepaj aToiiHHX ceKpeioB n t.a.5 

Oh iiad^noAaeT 3a iunHOHaj.;n :inocTpaimaHH,KO!.a,repcaHTa;.:H otkpbib- 
rrmtii CBoe p,eJio na fleHbrn cnamiajibKO oTnymeHHue rjih 3Toro cob. 
npaBHieJibCTBoi.t. Oh icoHTpcwtHpyeT H pa6oxy KowxtyHHCxiraeCKHX op- 
F amis an; nil. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GROUPS 



THURSDAY, MAY 12, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration and 

Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met at 10 : 30 a. m., in room 424, Senate Office 
Building, Senator Pat McCarran (chairman) presiding. 

Present : Senator McCarran. 

Also present: Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee ; Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. Have all of the 
members of the committee been notified ? 

Mr. Davis. Yes, sir ; they have. 

The Chairman. We will proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Will the witness stand and be sworn. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK J. CASPAR 

The Chairman. Raise your right hand. You do solemnly swear 
that the testimony that you will give before this Senate committee will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Caspar. I do. 1 

Mr. Arens. If it is agreeable with the committee, I should like to ask 
Mr. Dekom and Mr. Schroeder of the subcommittee staff to conduct 
the interrogation. 

The Chairman. Very well. You may proceed. 

Mr. Schroeder. Will you identify yourself, please? 

Mr. Caspar. Frank Caspar, 102 Rockledge Road, Bronxville, N. Y. 
I don't use the "J," the middle name. 

The Chairman. What is your business ? 

Mr. Casper. Restaurant business. 

Mr. Schroeder. Date of birth ? 

Mr. Caspar. October 11, 1899. 

Mr. Schroeder. Date of citizenship and court, 

Mr. Caspar. The court is New York, on Christopher Street, but the 
year I don't remember — 1940 or 1941. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you name the place of your birth ? 

Mr. Caspar. Pozega, Yugoslavia. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us when you came to this country ? 

1 The witness appeared under subpena. 

77 
98330 — 50 — pt. 1 6 



78 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Caspar. 1922, in October. 

Mr. Dekom. And you did not become a citizen until when ? 

Mr. Caspar. 1940 or 1941. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you care to explain to the committee why you 
waited so long? 

Mr. Caspar. I was traveling, and I was a newspaperman, although 
I am sorry I did not do it before. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Caspar, do you know of a place or an organization 
in New York City called the Yugoslav- American Home or the Yugo- 
slavenski-Americki Dom? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us what sort of organization it is? 

The Chairman. Where is it, first of all ? 

Mr. Caspar. Forty-first Street, between Ninth and Tenth. 

The Chairman. On what floor ? 

Mr. Caspar. The whole building. 

The Chairman. The whole building? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; it used to be a church. 

What type of organization? 

Mr. Dekom. Yes. 

Mr. Caspar. I don't know what type of organization, but it is a 
gathering of Yugoslav people there, which was started several years 
ago. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell us the ideological persuasion of the 
people involved, the people who manage the place ? 

Mr. Caspar. At that time, when they started to gather and buy a 
home for themselves, there was nothing political involved or anything. 
The people, just some friends, got together and they wanted a home, 
a Yugoslav home, like the Poles, like the Czechs, and everybody else. 
One friend approached the other and asked for donations. At that 
time it was a certain psychological moment, because the Yugoslav 
people were suffering and the Yugoslav people were fighting the in- 
vasion of Hitler. So, everybody contributed as much as he could. 

Mr. Sciiroeder. You stated at that time it was not political. What 
do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Caspar. I assume, when you asked what type of organization, 
you expected me to say it has a certain political view. It may have 
now ; I don't know, but at that time when it was organized, and when 
it was started, it had absolutely no political views. 

Mr. Dekom. You realize you are speaking under oath. 

Mr. Caspar. That is right. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you or did you not tell to two representatives of 
this committee that the Yugoslovenski Dom was a Communist organi- 
zation ? 

Mr. Caspar. No ; not Communist organization, but it has people on 
top of it who are Communists. 

Mr. Dekom. You mean that it has people who control its activities 
who are Communists? 

Mr. Caspar. Right; that is right. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you still frequent the organization ? Do you still 
go there? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. You do? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 79 

Mr. Dekom. Could you tell us who these people are on top, their 
names and positions? 

Mr. Caspar. Harry Justiz. 

Mr. Dekom. What position does he hold? 

Mr. Caspar. He is the president. 

Mr. Dekom. "Will you name any others that you recall? 

Mr. Caspar. I would not know whether they are Communists. As 
a matter of fact, I would not know whether Justiz is a Communist. 
So far as I saw in the newspapers and so far as I heard from other 
people, I think he is. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Caspar, did you or did you not tell two representa- 
tatives of this committee that, in your opinion, Harry Justiz was a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Caspar. It is still in my opinion. 

Mr. Schroder. That he is a Communist ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes, but I gather that only from newspapers and from 
other people, not by talking with him. 

Mr. Dekom. "Would you name the other members, whether you 
think they are Communists or not? 

Mr. Caspar. Other members of that organization ? 

Mr. Dekom. Of the organization ; yes.. 

Mr. Caspar. "Well, I would not; I would not know that they are 
Communist. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you give us their names ? 

Mr. Caspar. A fellow by the name of Jurich. 

Mr. Dekom. What is his first name ? 

Mr. Caspar. I think, Alexander. 

Mr. Dekom. And what position does he hold ? 

Mr. Caspar. He is on the committee, something. . 

Mr. Dekom. Will you name any others ? 

Mr. Caspar. Fellow by the name of Zietz. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you spell that ? 

Mr. Caspar. Z-i-e-t-z, I think. Wait a minute. I have a letter 
from him. I can give you the exact spelling. Yes. Z-i-e-t-z, 
Antonia. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you offer that letter in evidence to the committee ? 

Mr. Caspar. If you need it. 

Mr. Dekom. Thank you. We will mark it "Caspar Exhibit." 

(The letter and the attached financial statements are as follows :) 

Yugoslav-American Home, Inc., 
1,05 West Forty-first Street, New York, N. Y. 
Dear Brother: The next regular quarterly meeting of the stockholders of 
Yugoslav-American Home, Inc., will be held on Sunday, May 1, 1949, at 2 : 30 
p. m. in the upper hall of our home. 

You are cordially invited to attend this important meeting and hear the 
progress of your home. 
The following agenda will be presented for approval : 

(1) Reading of the minutes from annual meeting, also minutes for the past 
3 months of the board-of-directors meetings ; 

(2) Report of the treasury; 

(3) Board-of -auditors report; 

(4) Report of house committee ; 

(5) Technical-committee report; 

(6) School-committee report; 

(7) Welfare committee. 
Fraternally yours, 

Anthony Zietz, Secretary. 



80 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Exhibit A 
Yugoslav-Amekican Home, Inc. 

balance sheet, mar. 81, 1949 

Assets : 

Current assets : 

Cash in bank $4,851.89 

Cash on hand 1,512.13 

Petty-cash fund 100. 00 

$6, 404. 02 

Merchandise inventory, Jan. 1, 1949 3, 000. 00 

Fixed assets: 

Cost Reserve 

Land and building $77,000.00 $5,360.00 

Construction 111,005.45 8,928.77 

Furniture, fixtures and equipment— 24, 158. 77 3, 211. 39 

Total 212, 164. 22 17, 500. 16 

194, 664. 06 

Total assets 204, 128. 08 

Liabilities : 

Notes payable $45, 000. 00 

Accounts payable 7, 144. 20 

Taxes payable 1, 444. 02 

Total liabilities 53, 58S. 24 

Net worth : 

Deficit Jan. 1, 1949 $748. 17 

Excess of operating income over expenses 211. 97 

Deficit March 31, 1949 960. 14 

Capital stock : 

Preferred $53, 500. 00 

Common 98, 000. 00 

151, 500. 00 
Net worth 150, 539. 86 



Total liabilities and net worth 204, 128. 08 

Receipts : 

Operating income : 

Food $10, 750. 52 

Liquor 8, 6S0. 45 

Beer 4, 926. 67 

Wine 1.292.10 • 

Hall rent 4,722. 00 

Check room 711. 42 

Soda 395, 63 

Admissions 102. 00 

Journal advertising 955. 00 

Donations 800. 00 

Cigarettes and miscellaneous 58. 56 

Banquet 328. 00 

Total operating income 33, 722. 35 

Other receipts : 

Share of common stock $2, 150. 00 

Sale of preferred stock 1, 400. 00 

Notes payable 3, 000. 00 

 6, 550. 00 

Total receipts 40, 272. 35 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 81 

BALANCE SHEET, DEC 31, 1948 

Assets : 

Current assets : 

Cash in bank $11, 182. 68 

Petty-cash fund 467. 22 

Cash on hand 100. 00 

Merchandise inventory estimate 3, 000. 00 

$14, 749. 90 

Fixed assets : Cost Reserve 

Land and building $77, 000. 00 $5, 360. 00 

Construction 106, 398. 75 8, 928. 77 

Furniture, fixtures and equipment 17, 370. 09 3. 211. 39 

Total 200, 76S. 84 17, 500. 16 183, 268. 68 

Total assets 198, 018. 58 

Liabilities : 

Notes payable $42, 000. 00 

Accounts payable 7, 144. 20 

Taxes payable : 

Withholding tax 845. 50 

Social security 222. 20 

New York unemployment insurance 299. 97 

Federal unemployment insurance 98. 75 

Sales tax 206. 13 

Total liabilities 50, 816. 75 

Net worth : 

Surplus, Jan. 1, 1948 $7, 446. 48 

Less income tax paid, 1947 769. 12 

Adjusted surplus 6, 677. 36 

Net loss, exhibit B 7, 425. 53 

Surplus deficit Dec. 31, 1948 748. 17 

Capital stock: 

Preferred 52, 100. 00 

Common 95, 850. 00 

Total capital stock 147. 950. 00 

Net worth 147, 201. 83 

Total liabilities and net worth 198,018.58 

Exhibit B 
Operating sales : 

Restaurant $32, 114. 74 

Beer 25, 334. 44 

Liquor and wine 18. 780. 25 

Hall rental 17, 796. 46 

Check room 2, 098. 53 

Admissions 2, 084. 00 

Soda 1, 660. 80 

Cigarettes and miscellaneous 378. 81 

Total 100, 248. 03 



82 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

ExniBiT B — Continued 

Cost of sales : 

Food $23, 212. 49 

Beer 8, 151. 94 

Liquor and wine 9, 939. 74 

Total cost of sales 41,304.17 

Hall, rental 1,944.35 

Less increase in inventory 39, 359. 82 

Cost of food, liquor, and beer 33, 081. 88 

Wages 3,651.88 

Bar expense 7,110.50 

Coal and fuel $1, 743. 05 

Total cost of sales 84, 948. 13 

Gross profit 15, 299. 90 

General and administrative expenses : 

Telephone $242. 37 

Gas and electric 2, 398. 00 

Office stationery and supplies 902. 29 

Postage 43. 34 

Miscellaneous 141. 18 

Refrigerator service 43.00 

Decorations 291. 01 

Piano tuning 75. 00 

Protection 36. 00 

Sound system 50.39 

Exterminator 96. 00 

Legal and auditing 502. 00 

Advertising 334. 00 

Insurance 509. 61 

Rentals 42. 84 

Insurance compensation 378. 20 

Permit and licenses 336. 70 

Entertainment 552. 00 

Taxes, schedule 1 6, 261. 57 

Total general and administrative 13, 235. 50 

Net profit before depreciation 2, 064. 40 

Depreciation : 

Building $2, 680. 00 

Construction 7, 216. 92 

Furniture and fixtures 1,737.01 

11, 633. 93 

Net loss from operations 9, 569. 53 

Nonoperating income : Donations and greetings 2, 144. 00 

Net loss forwarded 7, 425. 53 

Other capital receipts : 

Sale of common stock $8, 700. 00 

Sale of preferred stock 12, 800. 00 

Sale of furniture and fixtures 667. 00 

Telephone deposit returned 60. 00 

Notes payable 42, 000. 00 

Pay-roll and accrued taxes 3, 72". 50 

Depreciation reserve 11, 633. 93 

Total capital receipts 79, 586. 43 

72, 160. 90 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 83 

Exhibit B — Continued 

Other capital disbursements : 
Purchases : 

New construction $63, 602. 31 

Furniture and fixtures 3,293.27 

Income tax paid (1947) 769.12 

1, 944. 35 

Total capital disbursements $69, 609. 04 

Excess of receipts over disbursements 2, 551. 85 

Cash on hand and in bank, Jan. 1, 1948 9, 198. 05 

Cash on hand and in bank, Dec. 31, 194S 11, 749. 90 

Disbursements : 

Operating expenses : 

Merchandise purchases : 

Food $7, 671. 90 

Liquor 4, 519. 28 

Beer 1, 975. 38 

Wine 1, 011. 32 

Soda 260. 02 

15, 437. 90 

House expenses : 

Hardware, lumber, repairs 757. 00 

Music 291. 00 

Maintenance 57. 50 

Garbage removal and miscellaneous 267. 93 

Sanitary supplies 117. 63 

Building and janitor's supplies 135. 05 

Fuel 967. 11 

2, 593. 22 

Kitchen expenses : 

General kitchen expenses 1, 245. 22 

Linen and laundry 315. 06 

Supplies 145. 85 

Miscellaneous 36. 25 

1, 742. 38 

General administration : 

Wages $9, 102. 44 

Telephone 84. 79 

Gas and electric 1,020.54 

Office stationery and supplies 89. 00 

Postage 11. 51 

Exterminator 24. 00 

Auditing 90. 00 

Liquor tax 1, 200. 00 

Rentals 84. 49 

Water tax 98. 25 

Welfare 50. 00 

Advertising 520. 79 

Sales tax 222. 86 

Permits 15. 00 

Help, extra 30. 27 

Bank charges 4. 13 

Donations 25. 00 

Printing journal 1, 056. 35 

Miscellaneous 56. 70 



84 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Exhihit B — Continued 

■General administration — Continued 

Social security and union insurance $367.20 

Liquor bond 7.50 

$14. 100. 82 



Total operating expenses 33, 934. 32 

Purchases, furniture fixtures, construction $11, 395. 38 

Miscellaneous taxes 228, 33 

11, 623. 91 



Total disbursements 45, 558. 23 



Excess of disbursements over receipts 5, 285. 88 

Cash on hand and in bank, Jan. 1, 1949 11,749.90 

Cash on hand and in bank, Mar. 31, 1949 6, 464. 02 

Attest: Philip Ftjan, Blagajnik. 

Daniel Bronstein, C. P. A. 

Mr. Schroeder. Are you a stockholder of the Yugoslav Home ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. How much did you contribute ? 

Mr. Caspar. $500. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you contributed anything else ? 

Mr. Caspar. To the Dom; no. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you contributed anything to any organization 
connected with the Dom? 

Mr. Caspar. Connected with what? 

Mr. Dekom. Which is either connected with the organization, or 
has its headquarters in that building, or its offices or its activities 
in that building. 

Mr. Caspar. Well, I contributed to certain small organizations, like 
some of them issue calendars yearly. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you name them, those that you recall? 

Mr. Caspar. I would not recall now the name. 

Mr. Dekom. Could you estimate your total contribution to these 
organizations? 

Mr. Caspar. Lately, very little ; in the beginning, plenty. 

Mr. Dekom. By "plenty", do you mean $5 or $1,000? 

Mr. Caspar. No, thousand dollars. 

The Chairman. How many times a thousand dollars? Just one 
contribution? 

Mr. Caspar. One contribution of $1,000. Then several of hundred 
dollars, $500, but that was 1944, 1 think, or '45, something like that. 

Mr. Dekom. When did you make the latest contribution? 

Mr. Caspar. The latest — the latest, as a matter of fact, was a month 
ago. 

Mr. Dekom. How much was that contribution? 

Mr. Caspar. $100 to Balokovic, 1 for what purpose I don't even 
know. 

Mr. Schroeder. Do you mean to say you make contributions for 
purposes that you do not know what the money will be used for? 

Mr. Casper. So far as Balokovic, I know what they go for. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell the committee what it goes for? 

Mr. Caspar. For relief for the Yugoslav people. 

1 Zlatko Balokovic. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 85 

Mr. Dekom. Will you name the organization he represented? 

Mr. Caspar. He represented the Yugoslav Relief Committee. 

Mr. Dekom. Is that the American Committee for Yugoslav Relief ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Are you aware that that organization was listed by 
the Attorney General of the United States as Communist and sub- 
versive ? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Dekom. You are not aware of that? 

Mr. Caspar. No. That is the first time I heard that it is commu- 
nistic. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Caspar, could you tell us what sort of activities 
go on at the Yugoslovenski Dom ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; they give dances, they have meetings, they sing. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you describe the nature of the meetings? 

Mr. Caspar. I never attended the meetings, except the one for the 
Yugoslovenski Dom, which was, I think, about a month or two ago 
when the new board was elected, which was again the old board. 

Mr. Dekom. Could you name the persons who attended that meet- 
ing? 

Mr. Caspar. No, because there were probably two or three or four 
hundred. 

Mr. Dekom. Can you name the members of the board? 

Mr. Caspar. Justiz, I know, and Dr. Diamond, 1 who is the secre- 
tary. He is a physician. 

Mr. Schroeder. Did you not allow us to read a financial statement 
in your office ? 

Mr. Caspar. Right. 

Mr. Schroeder. With the list of the board of directors at the bottom 
of the statement. 

Mr. Caspar. Right. I never read it, and I never read the statement. 

Air. Schroeder. You mean you are a stockholder and you receive a 
statement 

Mr. Caspar. That is right. 

Mr. Schroeder. From the organization, and you never look at the 
statement? 

Mr. Caspar. That is lost so far as I am concerned. 

The Chairman. What is lost ? 

Mr. Caspar. The money. 

The Chairman. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Caspar. Because they don't know how to run the business there. 

The Chairman. Who does not? 

Mr. Caspar. The people that are in charge there. 

The Chairman. And yet you contributed to it a month ago. 

Mr. Caspar. A month ago ; no. I didn't say I contributed to them. 
Balokovic is something else, and what he represents and those people 
are something else, at the present. 

The Chairman. Was this the board of directors of this Yugoslav 
society ? 

Mr. Caspar. The committees which manage the place. 

The Chairman. They are the ones who got your contribution, aren't, 
they? 

1 Dr. Leopold Diamond. 



86 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Caspar. No, no, that again has nothing to do with the Yugo- 
slovenski Dom; the last contribution I made lias nothing to do with 
that organization there. 

The Chairman. You made the expression that the money is lost. 

Mr. Caspar. I figure I forget; I forgot about that money, same as I 
gave any other contribution; that is finished. 

Mr. Dekom. Is that the only contribution you ever made to the 
Yugoslovenski Dom ? 

Mr. Caspar. Right, right; except when I was there eating, and 
somebody came selling some tickets, which is $5 or $10, which I fre- 
quently did and never used the tickets. 

Mr. Arens. In these meetings which you have attended at the 
Yugoslav Dom, have you ever heard any addresses by affiliates of 
international organizations or by affiliates of consulates or embassies? 

Mr. Caspar. I said before that I never attended any meetings there 
except the one where the last board was reelected. 

The Chairman". Why did you attend then? 

Mr. Caspar. Just that I had the pleasant company and they took 
me up. 

The Chairman. I see. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Casp,ar, on the basis of your affiliation with that 
organization, is it not a fact that the Yugoslav Dom is a Communist 
cell? 

Mr. Caspar. I would not say a cell, but I would say they have a lot 
of members that are Communists. 

The Chairman. Do you know what is meant by a cell in that 
regard ? 

Mr. Caspar. It is sort of a center. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Caspar. I would not say it is a center, because I know many 

feople that frequent the place, and you have me as an example, and 
am not certainly a Communist. 

Mr. Dekom. It is your testimony that the people who run it are 
Communists, in your opinion? 

Mr. Casper. Some of them, not all. As a matter of fact, there is a 
big clash now between them. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Caspar, to your knowledge has any member of 
the Yugoslav diplomatic, consular, or UN service ever been present at 
the Yugoslovensky Dom ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you name them ? 

Mr. Caspar. Markovic, the consul. 

Mr. Dekom. Is that Miodrag Markovic? 

Mr. Caspar. I wouldn't know the first name. 

Mr. Dekom. He is the consul ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Who else of th° official family of a foreign power has 
been present at the Yugoslav Dom ? 

Mr. Caspar. By the name of, a fellow by the name of Prosen. 

Mr. Arens. Who is he ? 

Mr. Caspar. He is supposed to be chamber attache for trade. 

Mr. Dekom. Commercial attache? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. He is a very pleasant fellow, social, and I meet 
him always in Yugoslav gatherings. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 87 

Mr. Arens. You say he is always at Yugoslav gatherings ? 

Mr. Caspar. I have frequently met in Yugoslav gatherings; that 
does not mean in the Dom. 

Mr. Dekom. How many Yugoslav gatherings have you met him in? 

Mr. Caspar. How many ? Maybe five or six. 

Mr. Dekom. What other gatherings have you met him in other than 
at the Yugoslav Dom ? 

Mr. Caspar. He came a few times to eat in my places. 

Mr. Dekom. What other meetings, I mean. 

Mr. Caspar. Meetings social, social meetings. 

Mr. Dekom. Who else of the official family of a foreign power has 
been frequenting the Yugoslav Dom other than these two men? 

Mr. Caspar. Lately, nobody that I know. 

Mr. Dekom. W T ho prior to "lately"? 

Mr. Caspar. Prior, in the beginning, I remember General Hie, who 
was military attache, I think, for South America. 

Mr. Dekom. Ljubomir Hie? 

Mr. Caspar. Who married Zinka Milanov. 

Mr. Dekom. The Metropolitan Opera star, Zinka Milanov. 

Mr. Caspar. Right. 

Mr. Arens. What did you say about him? 

Mr. Caspar. That he was there on several meetings. 

Mr. Arens. How do you know he was there at several meetings ? 

Mr. Caspar. Because usually when I go there, I go to the bar, and 
passing by the corridors I meet them. 

Mr. Arens. How many times have you in the course of the last 2 
or 3 years been within the confines of the Yugoslav Dom? 

Mr. Caspar. Almost every week. 

Mr. Arens. Whom else have you seen there of the official family of 
a foreign power ? 

Mr. Caspar. I don't remember. I don't remember anybody else, 
except when General Hie was there, I think the Ambassador was there, 
too. 

Mr. Dekom. Sava Kosanovic? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

The Chairman. Who is the general? 

Mr. Dekom. General Ljubomir Hie. He married a Metropolitan 
Opera star. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting the aggregate 
membership of those who are affiliated with the Yugoslav Dom? 

Mr. Caspar. Any what? I didn't get it. 

Mr. Arens. Aggregate membership, how many people? 

Mr. Caspar. Nine hundred and something; that is what I heard. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Caspar, when you came to this country, were you 
a wealthy man or a poor man ? 

Mr. Caspar. I came from wealthy parents, but I came here poor. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you consider yourself well off now ? 

Mr. Caspar. I think so. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you made a good living in this country. 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You own three restaurants in New York, as I under- 
stand it. 

Mr. Caspar. At one time I owned more ; now I own three. 



88 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Dekom. Have you traveled to Yugoslavia in the last 3 years? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. How many times ? 

Mr. Caspar. Twice after the war. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell the committee why ? 

Mr. Caspar. To see my mother ? 

Mr. Dekom. Where is your mother ? 

Mr. Caspar. In Zagreb, Yugoslavia. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you visit any other places? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you name them? 

Mr. Caspar. In '47 1 was in Belgrade. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell the committee why? 

Mr. Caspar. Because I passed through there, Pan American Air- 
line. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you stop there ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; I stopped there 2 or 3 days. 

Mr. Dekom. Whom did you see ? 

Mr. Caspar. Nobody in particular, just a few friends. We had 
a good time. I think 3 days I stayed in Belgrade. 

Mr. Dekom. You met no officials of the Yugoslav Government? 

Mr. Caspar. Nobody. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you carry with you any letters to any officials ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; I did. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you name the officials to whom you carried letters ? 

Mr. Caspar. From Louis Adamic to Marshal Tito. 

Mr. Arens. Who is Louis Adamic? 

Mr. Caspar. He is a famous writer. 

Mr. Arens. Where is he located ? 

Mr. Caspar. In Milford, N. J. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of the content of those letters 
which you had ? 

Mr. Caspar. Would you care to see it ? 

Mr. Aren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Caspar. Here is the original letter. I never used it. I don't 
know whether they will understand it. 

Mr. Dekom. We will have it translated. 

Mr. Arens. This is a letter addressed to Marshal Tito ? 

Mr. Dekom. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. By Louis Adamic ? 

Mr. Caspar. Right. 

The Chairman. Let the letter be identified and made part of the 
files. 

Mr. Caspar. I would like to have it back. You can have it so long 
as you want. 

The Chairman. It will be identified and marked as a part of the 
files of the committee, and will go into the record when translated. 

Mr. Caspar. I will leave it here. You can translate it, and, if I 
may, I would like to have it back. 

Mr. Dekom. We will have it photostated and returned to you. 



Caspar Exhibit 2 



The Unit<xi Committee of South-Slav k Amerieai*s 



• .AWX ..  '< A, . -■ SV 

1>X, ST *. «?»V«X-*' 

*$*£ *. ■**.«.* > -'■ 
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Letter of introduction from Louis Adamic to Marshal Tito. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 89 

(The letter was marked "Caspar Exhibit 2" and appears opposite 
p. 89. A translation is as follows :) 

[Translation] 

November 20, 1946. 

Dear Marshal Tito : By this letter I want to introduce to you a personal, good 
friend of mine, Mr. Frank Caspar from New York, who is a devoted friend of the 
new Yugoslavia, and who has done so much to make Americans acquainted with 
the historical events in your country. 

As yourself, Mr. Caspar is a Croat. He remembers you as a labor leader from 
your early years in Zagreb. He came to America many years ago and in the 
course of years has become a very successful man. He is chairman of the Inter- 
national Geneva Association, which shows that he enjoys a high reputation in 
the names of restaurant and hotel owners. He is one of the most outstanding 
citizens of New York, and has a wide range of acquaintances and influence. 

Mr. Caspar is now visiting his old country and has expressed the desire to meet 
you on that occasion. I hope that your numerous daily duties will allow you to 
receive him. I am convinced that your meeting with Mr. Caspar would have very 
favorable results also in the United States. 

Please receive, Marshal Tito, also on this occasion, my warm personal regards. 
It is with joy that I look forward to a personal meeting with you in the near 
future. 

Death to fascism ! Freedom to the people! 1 

Louis Adamic. 

Mr. Arens. How many meetings a month or a week, on the average, 
are held at the Yugoslav Dom ? 

Mr. Caspar. I never attended the meetings there. 

Mr. Arens. How many meetings are held there, irrespective of 
whether you attended or not ? 

Mr. Caspar. I think they have every day some kind of a meeting; 
singing meetings, dancing lessons, and all kinds of things. There is 
a bulletin board there. Whenever I come in there, I see some func- 
tion, either upstairs or above that. 

Mr. Schroeder. You said whenever you go in there, and previously 
you said you had only been there once. 

Mr. Caspar. On a meeting, but I go there almost every week, down 
at the bar and eat. You didn't understand me. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever carry with you to Yugoslavia a letter 
from Sava Kosanovic ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. What year was that ? 

Mr. Caspar. 1947. Also it was dated '46. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you have a copy of that letter ? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you give the committee the contents ? 

Mr. Caspar. Well, he just wrote 

The Chairman. To whom was it addressed ? 

Mr. Caspar. Kardelj, 2 who is supposed to be the Vice President. 

Mr. Dekom. Of Yugoslavia? And Sava Kosanovich is the Am- 
bassador here? 

Mr. Caspar. Eight. He is the Vice President of Yugoslavia. He 
just recommended me as a supporter in the beginning, and donator, 
and help to the people, which I did, and recommended me to see that 
I should see Marshal Tito. 

1 Smrt fasizmu ! Sloboda narodu ! — (Death to fascism! Freedom to the people!) — is 
the motto of the Yugoslav Communist Party. 

2 Edvard Kardelj. 



90 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. Did you have a desire or did you just express a 
desire to meet and become acquainted with Marshal Tito? 

Mr. (a si \it. Acquainted? The same as I would be very much im- 
pressed and thrilled to meet either President Truman or some big head 
of a state. If I may. I would like to say something on my own accord 
on the beginning of a question there, later on. If you would allow me, I 
would like to say it now. 

The Chairman. Go ahead and say it. 

Mr. Caspar. I saw several articles in the papers coming from New 
York to Washington which, I think, are sensational and I don't think 
they are timely, because now in Yugoslavia and here among Yugo- 
slavs, there is a clash between two factions. Tito's people now are 
definitely trying to make friends with the Americans and with the 
western powers, and articles like that will not help the cause. And 
you said whether I am thankful to this country — there is not — this is 
the most wonderful country in the world. I am very thankful for the 
opportunity and everything else. I could never be a Communist, but 
nobody can blame me while the worst kind of people were fighting 
Hitler, no matter who they were, as long as they were fighting; because 
the Nazis killed my father, and they also wanted to kill my mother, 
because she is from Jewish origin ; anything that fought flitler, we 
supported her. First, we supported what-is-his-name that was killed, 
the big leader. 

Mr. Dekom. General Draza Mihailovich. 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. Later on Tito came, so he was the leader of the 
opposition and he fought. That is the time I supported that action. 
Later on — I have my family there — I became friends. I have known 
Sava Kosanovic 10 years now ; I knew him when I visited Yugoslavia 
in 1930 and when he started the action here. I was very intimate and 
I helped; as a matter of fact. I came last night, I went to -visit him, 
and I don't care who knows about it. I went to say "hello" to him. I 
haven't seen him in a long time. 

The Chairman. Who is that? 

Mr. Caspar. Kosanovic, the Ambassador. But that still does not 
mean that I am a Communist or even sympathize with communism, but 
at the present time there is a clash with the Comiform and the Tito 
people, and there is definitely a chance to make friends with Tito now. 
At least he is trying as far as I know. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us what the basis of your statement is 
that he is trying to make friends with the United States ? 

Mr. Caspar. Well, according to the impression that I had when I 
was there now in August and September, last August and September. 

Mr. Dekom. Who gave you that impression ? 

Mr. Caspar. The people. The people and certain officials there. 

Mr. Dekom. Officials where? 

Mr. Caspar. In Zagreb. 

Mr. Schroeder. Is the membership in the Yugoslav Dom divided 
between Tito and the Comiform? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes; that is right. 

Mr. Schroeder. Do you know the percentage ? 

Mr. Caspar. I would say, but I don't have to be right, 50-50. 

Mr. Dekom. What effect did the letter of Louis Adamic have in 
your dealings with Yugoslav officials? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 9 I 

Mr. Caspar. Except that I carried that on my suitcase. 

Mr. Dekom. On your suitcase ? 

Mr. Caspar. On top of my suitcase. 

Mr. Dekom. So it would be visible ? 

Mr. Caspar. Purposely. 

Mr. Dekom. And what happened ? 

Mr. Caspar. So, when they saw that, they didn't look at my luggage. 
They let me go. 

Mr. Dekom. In other words, the letter offered you immunity from 
the usual things that you must go through. 

Mr. Caspar. Probably, although I know they received some other 
Americans there without going through too much looking over the 
baggage and things like that. 

Mr. Dekom. But it is your testimony that that letter  

Mr. Caspar. That letter gave me a certain boost there. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you carry any other letters on your last trip from 
any other person in this country ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes : I carried several letters. I carried a letter to cer- 
tain relief peo*ple from the Red Cross there, from Americans. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you name them ? 

Mr. Caspar. That are connected with the Yugoslav relief ? 

Mr. Dekom. Could you name them ? 

Mr. Caspar. I really don't remember, but I think one is connected 
with a bank. 

Mr. Dekom. Whose name is Michael M. Nisselson ? x 

Mr. Caspar. That is right. 

The Chairman. What bank ? 

Mr. Dekom. Amalgamated Clothing Workers Bank ; is that right ? 

Mr. Caspar. No ; I think it is a different name, the bank. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you carry a letter from Zlatko Balokovic? 

Mr. Caspar. Not at that time. In 1948 I carried letters from 
Balokovic. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you have copies of those letters ? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us the nature of those letters ? 

Mr. Caspar. They were delivered to Dr. Rittig. 

Mr. Dekom. Svetozar Rittig ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you identify him ? 

Mr. Caspar. He is a priest, a Catholic priest who, by the way, mar- 
ried me in Zagreb in 1931. 

Mr. Dekom. Is he now connected with the Tito regime ? 

Mr. Caspar. Right. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you deliver the letter yourself ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; that is right. 

Mr. Dekom. What was the nature of the letter ? 

Mr. Caspar. To introduce me; that he should see that my stay in 
Yugoslavia is pleasant. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you carry any other letters on your 1948 trip ? 

Mr. Caspar. 1948, yes. To his sister, Balokovic's sister. Another 
letter to his sister, Zlatko Balokovic's sister, who is in Zagreb. 

1 Michael M. Nisselson is president of the Amalgamated Bank, operated by the Amalgam- 
ated Clothing Workers Union. 

98330— 50— pt. 1 7 



92 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Dekom. That is all ? 

Mr. Caspar. That is, I think, all. I don't remember having any 
Other letters of importance, except maybe a friend of his. I had two 
or three letters from him. 

Mr. Dekom. From him? 

Air. Caspar. Yes. 

M r. Dekom. But from no one else ? 

Mr. Caspar. This trip, no ; from nobody else. 

Mr. Dekom. How long were you in Yugoslavia ? 

Mr. Caspar. A month and a half in 1948. 

Mr. Dekom. You stayed in Zagreb all of that time ? 

Mr. Caspar. All of the time, except for 5 days I was on the sea, 
Opapia. 

Mr. Dekom. What did you do when you came back ? 

Mr. Caspar. Here? 

Mr. Dekom. Yes. 

Mr. Caspar. I resumed my usual life of business. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you hold a party in the Hapsburg House after 
your return ? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Dekom. To which you invited a number of guests ? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Dekom. How about your previous return? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; previous return, yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell us who the guests were? 

Mr. Caspar. Mostly of my organization, the Geneva. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you explain that statement? 

Mr. Caspar. I am the president of an organization, International 
Geneva Association, which is an organization of hotel and restaurant 
men, from busboy to managers. As a matter of fact, we have a lot 
here in Washington, managers and everything else. It is an organi- 
zation that has branches all over the world. I am the president of 
the New York branch, which is the largest branch. And they ten- 
dered me a party when I came back. 

Mr. Dekom. Were any members of the Yugoslav Dom or the Yugo- 
slav official family there? 

Mr. Caspar. I don't think at that time the Dom existed. 

The Chairman. In 1947? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Were any members of the Yugoslav official family 
there? 

Mr. Caspar. As a matter of fact, there were three friends of mine 
who are verj^ much against Tito's government and anything that it 
stands for. 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Caspar, do you remember making a statement 
in your office that you knew plenty, but you were afraid to tell it on 
account of your mother and crippled sister in the old country? 

Mr. Caspar. No, no sister ; a brother. 

Mr. Schroeder. A brother, then. 

Mr. Caspar. I didn't say I knew plenty. I just said, "I will tell 
gladly the truth and help out in any way I can." 

The Chairman. Did you express fear? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 93 

Mr. Caspar. I am not in fear exactly, but I figured that something 
may involve me in a truthful answer that probably would cause cer- 
tain retaliation to my people. 

The Chairman. Are you apprehensive now ? 

Mr. Caspar. Now I decide to tell whatever you want me to, or what- 
ever you want to know. I cannot invent things. 

The Chairman. You are not wanted to invent anything. We want 
all of the truth. 

Mr. Caspar. Anything you want I will tell you. Up till now I 
have told everything. 

Mr. Dekom. I have just one more question, and then I will have 
no more. 

Is it your testimony now that you did not say to two persons in 
your office that "I know plenty, but I won't talk,'' or words to that 
effect, but the phrase "I know plenty" was used? Is it your testi- 
mony that you did not say that ? 

Mr. Caspar. I don't remember it. 

The Chairman. You say now you do not remember it? 

Mr. Caspar. I don't remember saying that. I may have said some- 
thing to that effect, by which I meant I would say everything, like 
with this letter, and everything that would help you. 

Mr. Arens. You visited with the Ambassador before you came to 
this session today? 

Mr. Caspar. Not today, last night. 

Mr. Arens. Last night you visited with the Ambassador? 

Mr. Caspar. That is right, just to say ''hello." 

The Chairman. Was the fact that you were to appear before this 
committee discussed ? 

Mr. Caspar. Nothing. 

The Chairman. In the presence of the Ambassador ? 

Mr. Caspar. No; I haven't seen him for many years, and I don't 
see why I should not say "hello." 

The Chairman. You were under a subpena at that time to appear 
before this committee? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; that is right. 

The Chairman. You did not tell him why you were here? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Dekom. You said you have not seen him for years. 

Mr. Caspar. That is right. 

Mr. Dekom. Where did you get his letter when you went to Yugo- 
slavia? 

Mr. Caspar. Through Louis Adamic. 

Mr. Dekom. Through Louis Adamic? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes, right. He was in Washington; he brought me 
the letter. 

Mr. Dekom. He obtained the letter for you from the Ambassador ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. And then gave it or sent it to you ? 

Mr. Caspar. He gave it to me personally, and his letter also. 

Mr. Arens. Have you discussed with anyone the fact that you are 
appearing here today? 

Mr. Caspar. With no one except the immediate family or friends. 

Mr. Dekom. This letter from Louis Adamic is written on the letter 
head of United Committee on South Slavic Americans. 



94 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Caspar. I wouldn't even know what it is. 

Mr. Dekom. You have never been associated or contributed to them ? 
Air. Caspar. Yes; I have. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know that this organization is listed by the 
Attorney General as subversive and Communist? 
Mr. Caspar. Since when? 
Mr. Dekom. Last year. 
Air. Caspar. Well, this is 1947. 

Mr. Dekom. You have had nothing to do with this man or tliis 
organization since? 

Mr. Caspar. Since? No. 

Mr. Dekom. You have not seen him or talked to Adamic either? 
Mr. Caspar. Who, Adamic? 
Mr. Dekom. Yes. 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; I have before he went to Europe. 
Mr. Dekom. When did he go, approximately? 
Mr. Caspar. A month ago, I think. 
Mr. Dekom. Do you know why he went ? 
Mr. Caspar. For writing a book. 
Mr. Dekom. Do you know where he is now ? 
Mr. Caspar. I heard that he was last in Italy. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know whether or not he got in touch with any 
official or officials, Yugoslav officials, while he was there ? 

Mr. Caspar. He expressed and he told me that he was going to 
visit Tito and everybody else. 

Mr. Arens. Have you discussed with any member of the Yugo- 
slav Dom or with any affiliate of international organization or with 
any person affiliated with a consulate or embassy of a foreign power 
your presence here today, or the fact that you were under subpena 
*<-> appear today? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes ; I have, with several friends. Whether they were 
connected with the Yugoslav Dom, I don't know, but I have a lot of 
friends there. 

The Chairman. You discussed the fact that you were to be here 
today ? 

Air. Caspar. That is right. 

The Chairman. Will you name those parties with whom you dis- 
cussed that ? 

Mr. Caspar. Well, Jurich, Balokovic. They had a meeting the 
same day that I got the letter in my place. They had a certain meet- 
ing in my place, discussing, as a matter of fact, things to start a news- 
paper of their own against Cominform. That is what I heard. 
The Chairman. With them, you told them ? 

Mr. Caspar. When I met them on the stairs, I said, "I have a subpena 
to go to Washington," and they told me, "It is nothing new. Several 
from Pennsylvania, Yugoslavs, also had subpenas," as they told me. 

The Chairman. These people whom you met there and told that you 
had a subpena, told you that several people from Pennsylvania also 
had a subpena ? 
Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

The Chairman. Did they tell you how they knew that? 
Mr. Caspar. No ; I didn't ask them. 

Mr. Arens. Did they discuss with you your testimony 

Mr. Caspar. No. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES I>~ ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 95 

Mr. Arens. Which you proposed to give here ? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Arens. Did they give you any admonition or warning respect- 
ing your testimony ? 

Mr. Caspar. No ; they just said, "You have nothing to fear. Just tell 
them the truth," which I didn't even ask them. I know I have nothing 
to fear. 

Mr. Arens. Why did they say, "You have nothing to fear"? Did 
you indicate an apprehensive attitude toward them? 

Mr. Caspar. No ; they probably had the impression that I was either 
afraid or something. That is what their impression was. 

The Chairman. Why would they get that impression from you ? 

Mr. Caspar. I don't know. Even some of them told me, "It is an 
honor," and I consider it an honor. 

The Chairman. They told you not to be afraid. 

Mr. Caspar. That was only a remark ; yes. 

The Chairman. Who told you that? 

Mr. Caspar. I can't remember now. There were several of them 
there. 

The Chairman. About how many were there? 

Mr. Caspar. Six. 

The Chairman. Can you give us the names of the six ? 

Mr. Caspar. Balokovic, Jurich, fellow by the name of Eospadia ; but 
they are all against Cominform. 

The Chairman. That is all right. I am not asking about that. 
Where did you meet with these men ? 

Mr. Caspar. On the stairs, coming down. • 

The Chairman. On the stairs. 

Mr. Dekom. The Yugoslavenski Dom ? 

Mr. Caspar. No ; my place. I frequently offer them rooms for meet- 
ings, but meetings that I know are not subversive. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know the names of the organizations which 
sponsor those meetings ? 

Mr. Caspar. No ; that is not an organization. 

Mr. Dekom. Balokovic's group? 

Mr. Caspar. Only a group which by the spirit of the moment they 
called each other, "Now, let's sit down and discuss things." Balokovic 
was very nice about this. He is very much for this country and every- 
thing else. "Let us discuss things, how we should fight the Comin- 
form." 

Mr. Dekom. But he expressed no opposition to the Cominform be- 
fore the break, did he, to you ? 

Mr. Caspar. There are a lot of people, probably 

Mr. Dekom. Will you answer the question, please? 

Mr. Caspar. I don't remember. 

Mr. Dekom. Or any of these people 

Mr. Caspar. I never discussed 

Mr. Dekom. Who attended the Yugoslavenski Dom or this group 
that eats there, did they ever express opposition to the Cominform 
before the break between Tito and the Cominform ? 

Mr. Caspar. No, not that I know of. 

Mr. Dekom. They now express opposition to the Cominform only 
because Tito is on the other side. 

Mr. Caspar. That is possible, all right. 



96 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. They are for Tito. 

Mr. Caspar. They are for Tito ; yes. 

Mr. Schroeder. Mr. Caspar, do you have a room set aside in your 
restaurant for special meetings? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Schroeder. Would you care to tell us the type of meetings you 
have in this board of directors' room or this meeting room on the third 
floor of your establishment? 

Mr. Caspar. That is the Engineers, Swedish Engineers Club. 

The Chairman. The what engineers? 

Mr. Caspar. Swedish Engineers Club. 

The Chairman. Swedish? 

Mr. Caspar. Engineers Club; yes. They have headquarters there, 
and all of those pictures are their former presidents there. 

Mr. Schroeder. Do you rent that room to any other organization? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Schroeder. For meetings ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes, quite frequently I rent that room to a Yugoslav 
club. 

Mr. Schroeder. Would you name the club ? 

Mr. Caspar. That club has been in existence, I think, from 1920 
and is a club which is definitely against Tito or against Cominform or 
anything that is Communist. 

The Chairman. What is the name of it ? 

Mr. Caspar. The Yugoslav Club of New York. 

Mr. Dekom. Who is the president ? 

Mr. Caspar. They have a new president now. I forgot his name. 

Mr. Dekon. Who is the old one? 

Mr. Caspar. The only one was Cekich, 1 1 think, and he is connected 
with the bank, some trust bank. It is not Irving Trust and it is not 
Guaranty Trust. He is a very nice fellow and very much against 
anything that exists now in Yugoslavia. 

Mr. Arens. When you had your conversation with the Ambassador, 
what did you talk about ? 

Mr. Caspar. That I didn't see him for a few years and I want some 
of his Slivovica. 

Mr. Arens. What? 

Mr. Dekom. That is a type of Yugoslav plum brandy. 

Mr. Arens. Did you explain how you happened to be in Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. Caspar. I have some business. I was in company with a lady 
there, so I didn't speak anything about subpena or anything about 
that. 
• The Chairman. Where was that, at the Embassy ? 

Mr. Caspar. No, in h is private home. 

Mr. Arens. You told him you were here on business ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have business here ? 

Mr. Caspar. I had a house here, and I still have some business here. 

The Chairman. When did you announce that you were coming, or 
how did you arrange to have the meeting ? 

1 Theodore Cekich. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 97 

Mr. Caspar. I just came from the airport and I went on the tele- 
phone, called him up, "Are you home?" "Yes," so I went there with 
the company. 

Mr. Schroeder. Is it not a fact that you called an attorney the other 
day from New York and talked to an attorney in Washington ? 

Mr. Caspar. In Washington, no. 

Mr. Schroeder. Don't you have an attorney here in Washington ? 

Mr. Caspar. Sure I have. 

The Chairman. Who is it ? 

Mr. Schroeder. Didn't you call this attorney to discuss this affair 
with him ? 

Mr. Caspar. No. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you name the attorney ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. Crooks and Gilligan. It is in the same office. 
Crooks was at one time rent commissioner, so he didn't bother with his 
law practice, so Gilligan did everything for me here. 

Mr. Dekom. Who is your attorney in New York? 

Mr. Caspar. Ducker and Feldman. 

Mr. Dekom. Spell it. 

Mr. Caspar. Alan D-u-c-k-e-r ; F-e-1-d-m-a-n. 

The Chairman. On the day on which you were served with the sub- 
pena, did you make any call by telephone from New York to Wash- 
ington ? 

Mr. Caspar. Not me, except for room reservation. 

The Chairman. You did make that call ? 

Mr. Caspar. That is right, and this morning I called my wife. 

Mr. Dekom. You received a call from Zlatko Balokovic on the day 
you were served with the subpena ? 

Mr. Caspar. That is right. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us the nature of that ? 

Mr. Caspar. He wanted me to get him tickets for "South Pacific." 

Mr. Arens. Did you discuss with him your subpena ? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What did he say ? 

Mr. Caspar. "It is an honor." 

Mr. Dekom. Could you explain the meaning of that statement? 
What did it mean to you ? 

Mr. Caspar. It is nice to be invited by the Senate and help. If 
you in any way are suspicious of my political views, I think my 
attorney — I consulted him, but he says it is not necessary 

The Chairman. "When did you consult with him ? 

Mr. Caspar. Before I came here. 

The Chairman. This morning? 

Mr. Caspar. No, a few days ago in New York — has a letter that 
can prove when I came back from Yugoslavia that I offered my services 
in any way I can as an observer in Yugoslavia or anything, you 
know. 

Mr. Arens. How do you account for the fact, Mr. Caspar, if it is a 
fact, that you told the representatives of this subcommittee staff that 
you had plenty to tell ? 

Mr. Caspar. I can, I really — I can't explain, I cannot understand 
how I could have said that, if I did say that, except that I probably 
thought that I would like to help. I mean I am going this year 



98 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

again to see my mother, and if you want me to give you observations, 
reports, or anything, or anything in particular that you would like 
to know, 1 will gladly do it. 

Mr. Schroeder. You said that it was an honor. Didn't you state 
when this subpena was served on you, "Why do you want to do this 
to me ( Who is going to pay the expenses of my coming to Wash- 
ington '.'' 

Mr. Caspar. Now, you are exaggerating. I never said, "Why do 
you have to do this to me?" I never said that. I made a joke by 
saying, "Who is paying for this expense ?" You are not going to tell 
me that I said, "Why are you doing this to me?" It is a pleasure, it is 
a pleasure trip. 

The Chairman. Do you say that you did not say that? 

Mr. Caspar. I certainly did not say it. 

The Chairman. Nothing of that substance or effect? 

Mr. Caspar. No, except that I was joking, "Who is going to pay 
the expense?" and you were present. 

The Chairman. Who was present? 

Mr. Dekom. I was. 

The Chairman. Were you present when he was subpenaed ? 

Mr. Dekom. Yes. 

The Chairman. How many more were present ? 

Mr. Dekom. Just Mr. Schroeder and I. 

The Chairman. That is all. 

It is the admonition of the Chair, of the committee, that in view of 
the fact that your presence here may have elicited some newspaper 
attention, you in now T ise will discuss your testimony with anyone out- 
side of this committee room. 

Mr. Caspar. Eight. Did I do anything wrong by discussing that 
before I came here ? I didn't know that I should not have discussed it. 

The Chairman. No, not at all. You have a perfect right to con- 
sult your attorney. You have a perfect right to do anything you want 
to do. It is a question as to what you did, not w T hether you had a 
right to do it. This is a free country, and 

Mr. Caspar. That I know. 

The Chairman. You have a right to do as you please. 

The committee has a right just to know what it was that you 
did. 

Is there anything that you have, being as you are under oath, is 
there anything, any statement that you have made here that you care 
to revise or change or alter or modify ? 

Mr. Caspar. To the best of my ability I told everything the truth. 
As a matter of fact. I can tell you that my wife also visited Yugoslavia 
in spite of not having the permission of the State Department. 

Mr. Dekom. You mean she went without a proper passport? 

Mr. Caspar. Passport, yes, we got a visa in Paris. 

Mr. Dekom. The passport was not valid for traveling into Yugo- 
slavia. 

Mr. Caspar. That is right. 

Mr. Dekom. How did she get a visa ? 

Mr. Caspar. From the Yugoslav authorities in Paris. 

Mr. Dekom. And despite the fact that her passport was not valid 
for traveling into Yugoslavia ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 99 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

The Chairman. You were traveling, of course, under your proper 
name. 

Mr. Caspar. Yes. 

The Chairman. In every respect? 

Mr. Caspar. Right, and on the proper passport. 

The Chairman. And you have never changed your name? 

Mr. Caspar. Since I am a citizen, I have never changed my name. 

The Chairman. Before you were a citizen, what was your name? 

Mr. Caspar. My real name is Casparides. 

The Chairman. Casparides. 

The Chairman. That is the name in which you 

Mr. Caspar. Came to this country. 

The Chairman. And was that the name of your father? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is the name under which you were born? 

Mr. Caspar. Yes, sir. I started working in a factory in Chicago 
when I came, and they cut my name themselves in half and I left it 
that way. 

The Chairman. That is all. Thank you very much. 

The committee will recess until 4 o'clock this afternoon. 

(Thereupon at 11:40 a. m., a recess was taken until 4 p. m., the 
same day.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GROUPS 



FRIDAY, MAY 13, 1949 

United Senate Senate, 
Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration and 

Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 11 : 15 a. m., in room 
424, Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran (chairman), 
presiding. 

Present: Senator McCarran. 

Also present: Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee, Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Senator Cain of Washington, who is present before the committee, 
will present a statement. 

STATEMENT OF HON. HARRY P. CAIN, A UNITED STATES SENATOR 
FROM THE STATE OF WASHINGTON 

Senator Cain. Very briefly, I wish to encourage further considera- 
tion by your committee of the bill which the senior Senator from 
Nevada recently introduced on the subject of deporting subversives. 

Mr. Chairman, a few days ago, the senior Senator from Nevada 
introduced a bill to provide for the deportation of subversive aliens. 
At that time, I presented the case of an alien who has been guilty of 
activities which are designed to injure the welfare and international 
position of the United States. He is, of course, Charles Chaplin, who 
has made for himself a great fortune in the United States, but has 
never seen fit to seek citizenship in this great country of ours, which 
has sheltered him and has, in fact, kept him in luxury for more than 
35 years. 

I proposed the question then as to why action had not been taken 
to rid us of this alien, since he has in fact been associated with a 
number of well known Communist enterprises. 

Mr. Chairman, since my original presentation, I have made a more 
comprehensive study of the record of Charles Chaplin in order that 
the members of this committee may have a more adequate picture of 
the extent to which we have permitted our generosity and hospitality 
to be abused. 

For many years Chaplin has given consistent support to the Com- 
munist cause and to the Soviet Union. His public utterances provide 
a series of eulogies for the Stalinist dictatorship, but, Mr. Chairman, 

101 



102 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

iii that whole record I have not been able to find a single kind word 
for the United Slates. I remember that about -2 years ago the news- 
paper columnist, Ed Sullivan, published three questions which he 
hoped Chaplin would answer. These are the questions : 

1. Why didn't Chaplin entertain United States troops or visit our wounded in 
military hospitals during the war? 

2. Does Chaplin prefer democracy as defined hy Russian communism or democ- 
racy as ii is defined in the United States? 

:;. For 30 years Chaplin has earned a lush living in the United States, aban- 
doning his native land, England. Why hasn't Chaplin become an American 
citizen? 

Well, Mr. Chairman, as a result of these and other pointed questions 
aimed at him, Chaplin held a press conference in New York City. The 
headline in the New York Sun of April 15, 1947, provides a concise 
summary of his reply : 

Chaplin sidesteps query on Red link. 

The New York Sun report of the interview contains the following 
significant passages: 

Charlie Chaplin refused yesterday to give a direct answer to a reporter who 
asked him at a press conference whether he was a fellow traveler of the 
Communists. 

"That is too difficult to define," he said. "If you step off the curb with your 
left foot these days, they call you a Communist. I belong to no political party 
and I have never voted in my life." 

He had already denied being a Communist. His press agents had announced 
that at the conference he would answer any and all questions which reporters 
might put, but he didn't. 

The questioning eventually turned to the subject of dictators on 
which Chaplin has been a fluent speaker. Let me again refer back to 
the New York Sun of April 15, 1947, and I quote : 

He said that he had given up the idea of making a Napoleonic film because he 
doesn't like dictators. 

"Isn't Stalin a dictator?" a questioner snapped. 

"It hasn't been settled what that word means," Chaplin replied. 

There were, Mr. Chairman, the inevitable questions about his citizen- 
ship, or rather his lack of it. His answer to this pointed question was 
simply, "I am not a nationalist." 

The columnist, Ed Sullivan, provided us with a suitable answer to 
this kind of double talk. Let me quote from his column of April 12, 
1947 in the New York News : 

The marines who died at Iwo Jima, the World War II paraplegics, amputees, 
and the blinded must writhe at Charlie Chaplin's smug explanation that "I'm a 
very good paying guest in the United States" * * * to Chaplin, the 
U. S. A. is a boarding house, a motel, or a roadside inn where, in return for 
taxes you get liberty, freedom of speech, jury trial, freedom of religion, and 
everything else as some sort of room service. * * * Chaplin's answers 
to your three questions, as reported by AP, UP, and radio commentators, demon- 
strate that he believes the purpose of language is to conceal ideas, rather than 
convey ideas * * * so let's put it to him simply: Does Chaplin prefer our 
political philosophy, in which the state exists for the people, or does he prefer 
the Communist philosophy, in which the people exist for the state? * * * In 
other words, Charlie, is you is or is you ain't our baby? Are you with Uncle 
Sam or against him? 

Don't tell us, Charlie, that you are reluctant to discuss politics. During the 
war, instead of entertaining the troops or our wounded, you delivered nothing 
but political speeches for Russia, demanding a second front. So don't be 
tongue-tied now, Charlie. Speak right up, because the country is tremendously 
interested in your answers. * * * And Charles, don't repeat Thursday's 



e> 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 103 

error of saving, "I'm for the little people." Under our democracy, there are no 
"little people," all of us are just people, free-born. You confused the image 
of Independence Hall with the Kremlin * * * with the entire world dis- 
cussing ideology, Charlie, don't tell us you are not concerned with the world's 
gravest issue * * * and if you are not a '•nationalist." Charlie, what are 
you— a supreme being who surveys all worlds, and owes obligation to none of 
them V Speak up, Charlie, and this time no double talk. 

The New Leader of April 19. 1947, gave a further report on the 
Chaplin interview which will speak for itself: 

Chaplin hesitated to compare Russian expansion of today with German expan- 
sionism of yesterday. He echoed the Communist line by stating that Hitler 
used the same techniques against the Communists as are being used today. 
When told that those speaking out against the Communists today are in the 
main those who also spoke out against Hitlerism, Chaplin let it die there. 

It is touching, Mr. Chairman, to hear Chaplin talk of his love for 
the common man. It is touching to think, Mr. Chairman, that he has 
deigned to consider the poor American "nationalists," and the "na- 
tionalists" of more unfortunate countries. 

The New Leader of April 19, 1947, has this appropriate thing to 
say on the subject : 

Chaplin over and over again accentuated his belief in the common man ; his 
defense of the underdog. He claimed that his films arouse "pity" for the op- 
pressed of the world. This writer asked Chaplin: "Have any of the proceeds 
of your recent films gone toward helping the people of Europe, for example, 
rehabilitate themselves? Have these proceeds been used to aid the democratic 
resistance forces?" Answer: "Er — er — I don't know. But the military used 
my film, the Great Dictator, and we gave it to them whenever they requested it." 
He also boasted that he had made many speeches calling for a second front. 

I am sure that the men who grave their lives on the Normandy 
beaches, at Salerno, in Sicily, and North Africa — I am sure, Mr. Chair- 
man, that they must be grateful to Charles Chaplin that he made 
speeches on behalf of a second front. 

Even the men of Chateau Thierry or the Argonne Forest, the men 
who were cut down in the Ludendorff drive in 1918, will also look 
down with gratitude on Chaplin. I hark back to World War I, be- 
cause Chaplin has sat out in luxurious comfort two wars in which his 
native Britain and his hospitable United States were involved, in the 
defense of those freedoms which he perverts so glibly. 

His only recorded contribution to the war effort was a eulogy of 
the Soviet Union which ended with these words: "Russia, the future 
is yours." 

This is not the first, nor the last, nor the only instance in which he 
spoke in the most glowing terms of the most brutal dictatorship that 
this world has ever seen. Many of us will recall that in October of 
1942, he spoke on the subject of communism in Carnegie Hall, and 
he said then : 

I want to clarify something. For some time communism has been held up as 
a big bugaboo, and we were terrified of it. People say, what if communism 
spreads out all over the world? My answer to that question is: So what? 

Of particular significance in the unsavory history of Charlie Chap- 
lin is an incident that took place a little over a year ago; an incident, 
Mr. Chairman, which skirts perilously close to treason. At that time 
the House Committee on Un-American Activities had revealed that 
Hanns Eisler, who had been brought into this country as a result of 
pressure brought on the Department of State, was a high-ranking 



104 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Comintern agent. Steps were being taken to have Eisler deported. 
The entire Communist world was recruited to come to the assistance 
of agent Eisler and, as might be expected, Charlie Chaplin chimed in. 
The arrogance or stupidity of this person was, Mr. Chairman, almost 
unbelievable. As part of his campaign on behalf of an identified 
Communist conspirator, Chaplin sent a cable to Pablo Picasso, 1 self- 
admitted French Communist, urging him to stage demonstrations 
against the United States in France. It is with the greatest feeling 
of revulsion that I now read the text of his treasonable message : 

Can you head committee of French artists to protest to American Embassy in 
Paris the outrageous deportation proceedings against Hanns Eisler here, and 
simultaneously send me copy of protest for use here. Greetings. 

Mr. Chairman, I ask that the members of the committee seriously 
consider this act. Here is an alien, living in luxury for 30 years in 
this country, who urges a foreign Communist to stage demonstrations 
against the Embassy of the United States in a foreign country, on 
behalf of none other than a notorious Communist. In the words of 
the Argonaut of January 2, 1948 : 

For confounded impudence it would be all but impossible to find another in 
this country to equal Charlie Chaplin, a man who has come to regard America 
as his oyster, and with this regard disdains to hold a decent respect for the 
opinions of mankind. 

When reporters asked Chaplin about his association with Hanns 
Eisler, he replied that he was "very proud to be his friend." 

Chaplin's defense of Communists was not limited to this one man. 
He has quickly jumped to the defense of other Communists. I think 
we all remember the case of Gerhart Eisler, who came to this country 
as the supreme representative of the Comintern. In other words, he 
was the top commissar of Communist Party activities in this country. 
He has been convicted of contempt of Congress and of making false 
statements in connection with obtaining a United States entry permit. 
Again the Communist propaganda machine was recruited into a propa- 
ganda drive on his behalf. The Daily Worker of January 4, 1947, 
page 4, carried a statement on behalf of Gerhart Eisler. One of the 
more conspicuous signers of it was Charlie Chaplin. 

Similarly, Chaplin signed a protest on behalf of Eugene Dennis 
and Leon Josephson, well-known Communists who have been con- 
victed of contempt of Congress. 

A few years before, Chaplin spoke out publicly on behalf of Earl 
Browder, who was just then being released from prison, where he 
served a term for passport fraud. 

Chaplin has had numerous connections with Communist fronts and 
Communist-controlled organizations. Among them are the following : 

1. Chaplin was a sponsor of the Congress of American-Soviet 
Friendship and the National Council of American-Soviet Friendship, 
which is listed by the Attorney General of the United States as a 
Communist front. 

2. Chaplin was a contributor to the New Masses, monthly organ of 
the Communist Party. 

3. Chaplin was a speaker before the Artists' Front to Win the War, 
which is listed as a Communist front by the House Committee on Un- 

1 Famous French painter. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 105 

American Activities and the California Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 

4. Chaplin was a sponsor of the People's Radio Foundation, which 
is listed as a Communist front by the Attorney General of the United 
States. This organization was set up to procure radio stations for the 
Communist movement. 

5. Chaplin was a contributor to the Communist periodical Soviet 
Russia Today, which was branded by the California Committee on 
Un-American Activities as existing for "the sole purpose of carrying 
on propaganda on behalf of the Soviet Union." 

6. On November 14, 1942, page 4, Pravda, the official organ of the 
Soviet Communist Party, published a telegram of greeting from 
Charlie Chaplin. 

7. Chaplin was a patron, in Los Angeles, of a celebration on the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the Bolshevik dicta- 
torship in Russia. 

8. Chaplin made a substantial financial contribution to the Wallace 
campaign, which was completely sponsored by the Communist Party. 

9. As might well be expected from a man with his pro-Communist 
record, Chaplin was one of the sponsors of the synthetic "peace con- 
ference" in New York a few weeks ago. This conference, Mr. Chair- 
man, is part of the prefabricated anti-American propaganda drive 
which Moscow is now busily exporting as its part in the cold war. 

This relationship of Chaplin with the Communists has not been a 
one-way street. The Red propaganda machine has been appreciative 
of this friendship and has on many occasions informed the faithful 
of the Communist Party, through its propaganda organs, that Chap- 
lin's services to the Bolshevik cause have been substantial and appre- 
ciated. On a number of occasions the Daily Worker, official organ 
of the Communist Party, has reviewed the life and activities of Chap- 
lin in the most glowing terms. The Soviet propagandist, Ilya Ehren- 
burg, has lavished upon Chaplin the official approval of the Soviet 
government. Chaplin received special praise at the Soviet art show 
in Moscow, in November 1947. The Communist periodical Soviet 
Russia Today gave him special mention on the twenty -fifth anniversary 
of the Bolshevik Revolution. He received the praises of the Com- 
munist dictatorship of Rumania in a broadcast from Bucharest on 
January 13, 1949. 

Mr. Chairman, I think this is a substantial record. It well war- 
rants the conclusion that Charlie Chaplin does not believe in our sys- 
tem of government, does not support our Constitution, but has given 
his allegiance to the dictatorial system of Stalin. I have found no 
statement of his that expresses his attitude on the subject of commu- 
nism more clearly than this excerpt from a speech before 12,000 Cali- 
fornia ns made a few years ago. Speaking about the Soviet rulers 
and what he called the bogey of communism, Chaplin had this to say : 

I think it's about time we got rid of that bogeyman. 

People say they are godless men. Any country, any people who can fight for 
an ideal like they have been fighting, I say they approximate godliness. 

They must feel eternity in their souls. Again I say, they approximate God 
and God will understand, for He is not interested in techniques. 

I would only encourage, as one citizen, the fullest possible consid- 
eration of the proposed legislation. I am not an authority as to 



106 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

details, but I strongly support the substance and the purpose of the 
legislation, Senator McCarran. 

The Chairman. I am very grateful to you, Senator, because we 
receive from time to time rather discouraging attitudes and when 
we get a little encouragement, we are very happy to have it on the 
record. 

Senator Cain. May I ask one question while I am here, sir? I have 
recently been advised to my complete amazement that the laws of 
this land apparently are such that one who is a deportable alien very 
often cannot be deported because the country of his origin or his 
citizenship will not accept him. Does that happen pretty generally 
to be the fact, Senator McCarran ? 

The Chairman. We have information that the INS has right now 
something in excess of 3,000 such cases, people that this country desires 
to deport but the countries of their origin will not accept them. 

Senator Cain. Well, may I ask what happens to them ? Are they 
incarcerated in this country? 

The Chairman. They are just turned loose here. Some of them 
are criminals. 

Senator Cain. May I ask my last question: Would this committee 
be sympathetic if a bill were submitted on that subject for the pur- 
pose of study and scrutiny by the committee ? 

The Chairman. If you have anything that would suggest a solution 
to the problem, I would be for it. 

Senator Cain. I thank the Senator. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Senator Cain. 

TESTIMONY OF ELIZABETH TERRILL BENTLEY 

The Chairman. Miss Elizabeth Bentley will come forward. 1 

Remain standing. Raise your right hand. You do solemnly swear 
that the testimony that you are about to give before the committee 
of the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Miss Bentley. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly state your full name and identify 
yourself by occupation, background, and experience? 

Miss Bentley. My name is Elizabeth Terrill Bentley. At the 
present moment I am a lecturer, although next year I will be a school 
teacher. By background, I have a bachelor's degree from Vassar 
College, a master's degree from Columbia University, and 1 year's 
study at the University of Florence, in Italy. 

Mr. Arens. How about your previous employment ? 

Miss Bentley. I have 2 years' teaching experience at the Foxcroft 
School in Middleburg, Va., and after that mostly business experience, 
6 years running an export concern, various other business positions. 

The Chairman. I am advised that you have counsel here with you. 

Miss Bentley. Yes ; I do. 

The Chairman. Will the counsel kindly state his name, place of 
residence, and where his office is? 

Mr. Egan. My name is Joseph A. Egan. I am attorney at law, 
associated with Godfrey P. Schmidt, attorney for Miss Bentley. Our 
office is located at 51 Chambers Street, New York, N. Y. 

1 The witness appeared under subpena, accompanied by Joseph A. Egan, attorney. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 107 

Mr. Arens. Miss Bentley, do you have a prepared statement to 
submit to this committee on the subject matter under consideration? 

Miss Bentley. No; I am sorry. I was going to but I have just 
about gotten over grippe and I did not have a chance to do so. 

Mr. Arens. May I invite you to direct your attention to the subject 
matter under consideration, namely, proposed legislation for the pur- 
pose of excluding subversive aliens and deporting subversive aliens 
who may have gained admission to the United States. Will you please 
express yourself with reference to factual information that you pos- 
sess in regard to the entrance into this country of persons for the 
purpose of engaging in subversive activity and in general subversive 
activity in this country, which may be controlled and directed by offi- 
cials of foreign governments who are in this country ? 

The Chairman. I would like to admonish the witness in answering 
that question to confine her answers to first-hand information that 
you have yourself, that you gained yourself, and not to conjectures. 

Miss Bentley. Would that apply, Senator, to things that I have 
been told by my superiors in the Russian secret service, for example ? 
Would that be conjecture? 

The Chairman. If you have that and can tell from whom the in- 
formation came, we will accept it. We will receive it. Tell from 
whom you gained the information, when it was gained, how it was 
gained, and all about it. We will accept that if you can do that, but 
we want primary information here. You understand what that is. 

Miss Bentley. I should start out with my connections with espio- 
nage as they concern aliens. 

I was informed by my superiors in the Russian secret police that a 
very small percentage of Americans are involved in it, only those who 
are strictly necessary, such as people who must get Government em- 
ployment in order to obtain information. Of course, those would 
have to be Americans, because Russians could not secure those 
positions. 

The Chairman. I would like to interrupt you there, if I may. You 
say you obtained information from your superiors? 

Miss Bentley. I was informed by my superior in the Russian secret 
police of that. -i 

The Chairman. Well, how were you connected with the Russian 
secret police ? 

Miss Bentley. I worked with the Russian secret police from 1938 on. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Miss Bentley. I actually had contacts with them which I didn't 
realize at the time until later, long before that. 

The Chairman. Where did you work with them ? 

Miss Bentley. I worked with them first in New York, and then, 
from 1941 through 1945, 1 worked with Government employees in the 
Federal Government who were obtaining information for the Rus- 
sian secret police. 

The Chairman. How did it come about that you went into the em- 
ploy of the Russian secret police ? 

Miss Bentley. I at that time was a Communist, Senator, and I was 
sent, what they called, "underground." In other words, I was put in 
contact with one man who did not say it was espionage but rather 
gradually led me into it, to the point that when 1941 came along, I 
was so far in, I suppose, I didn't even think about it then. 

98330— 50— pt. 1 8 



108 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. Where were you born ? 

M iss Bentley. I was born in New Milford, Conn. 

The Chairman. And you are over 21 ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes. 

The Chairman. That is as far as you care to go ? . 

Miss Bentley. I don't think there is any great secret, Senator, be- 
cause all of the newspapers have mentioned I was born in 1908. 

The Chairman. All right. Where were you when you were em- 
ployed by the Russian secret police? 

Miss Bentley. I was not employed in the sense that they paid my 
wages. I was employed in the sense that I was an agent of theirs. 
In other words, during that period I either secured cover jobs for 
myself to pay my own way, or they secured a cover job for me to pay 
my way, because you see never, except when a secret agent — Russian 
police agent — is part of the Embassy, is it ever wise for you, for them 
to be paid by the secret police, because it might easily be discovered 
what they are doing. They must have always a sort of cover source 
of money. 

The Chairman. They must have a way of making a living. How 
do they work that ? 

Miss Bentley. That is arranged. They very often get Communist 
sympathizers to set up a business and give a man a job in it. There 
are numerous ways of doing it. 

The Chairman. Where were you and what were you doing when 
you first associated yourself or became a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Bentley. I was finishing the last part of my master's thesis 
at Columbia University campus. That was the end of '34 and be- 
ginning of '35. 

The Chairman. Had your studies prior to that led you up to a point 
where you concluded to join the Communist Party? 

Miss Bentley. I would say that my studies in Vassar had gotten 
me to the point where I was a complete pushover for communism. 

The Chairman. Did you find yourself alone in Vassar in that re- 
gard? 

Miss Bentley. No ; I would say that that is the general tendency, 
not only in Vassar, but in a goodly number of colleges. Other people 
have told me the same thing. 

The Chairman. You found it from your own experience in Vassar, 
however. 

Miss Bentley. I found it from my own experience in Vassar, very 
definitely. 

The Chairman. I think there will be no trouble with a woman of 
your fine intelligence to follow the admonition that I tried to give 
you. We want to confine the information that this committee will 
receive to first-hand information. 

Miss Bentley. I would say that my primary information would be 
through my association with the Russian secret police Among the 
first two Russian agents that I knew who were aliens — at the time I 
didn't know they were Russian secret agents, I was told later on — 
was a man named Joseph W. Eckhardt, who was a Lithuanian, part of 
the Soviet military intelligence, who at that time was sent here on 
a special mission to try and smuggle airplanes to Spain during the 
civil war. He was typical, I was told later by various of my contacts, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 109 

including the first secretary of the Russian Embassy that I will men- 
tion later, of one of the ways that Russians got their agents into this 
country by using what I would call satellite countries, countries very 
close to them, but countries which they felt would not excite as much 
suspicion as if an ordinary Russian came into this country. He 
was a Lithuanian. He came here ostensibly as a businessman. That 
is typical of a number of people who come in that way. 

His assistant was a man by the name of Michael Endelmann. He 
also was a non-Russian. He was of Polish extraction, born in Ger- 
many. He came to this country ostensibly as a businessman. Ac- 
tually he was part of the Soviet military intelligence. I have been 
told, I have not been able to verify, that this man either was or is 
at present working for the United Nations. I have not been able 
to check that. 

Those were typical of two cases where the Russians were using good, 
tested people who were non-Russians, who came either from satellite 
countries or quite nearby. 

Later on, I had dealings with people who were members of the 
Soviet Embassy. I am leaving out my first real contact with the 
Russian secret police, Mr. Golos, because he was naturalized, and that 
would not come in the same category. 

The Chairman. You will treat that, you will deal with that? 

Miss Bentley. Do you want me to deal with naturalized citizens? 

The Chairman. Yes; certainly. 

Miss Bentley. Mr. Jacob Golos was born in Russia, and had de- 
rivative citizenship when his parents came to this country and became 
citizens. He was a member of the GPU since away back in the early 
twenties. He had been a Russian revolutionary since, I think, he was 
six or seven. His function was to act for the Russian secret police in 
collecting^ information, and also he was one of three men on the Com- 
munist Party Control Commission, which controls all the people 
within the Communist Party, keeps them in line, also giving him a 
good opportunity to find good spy contacts there, people who could 
put up money for businesses and who could otherwise help the spying. 
He also was typical of the way they operated, because he was link be- 
tween the Communist Party and the consulate. He ran a travel 
agency called World Tourists. 

The Chairman. Where was that located? 

Miss Bentley. That was located in the early days in the Flatiron 
Building, in New York, and later at 1123 Broadway. As the head of 
that, since he was dealing with sending tourists to Russia, he con- 
stantly could go in and out of the consulate and because he had at one 
time written in some of the left-wing Communist papers, he also had 
access to Communist headquarters without suspicion and he, therefore, 
was a connecting link between the Communist Party and the Russian 
consulate. 

Mr. Arens. When you refer to the Russian consulate, this question 
comes to my mind. To what extent are Communist activities in the 
United States under the direction, control, and supervision of the 
officials of iron-curtain countries who are in the United States? 

Miss Bentley. The Communist Party in this country is completely 
dominated by Moscow. The usual link between the Communist Party 
is a man known as a Comintern agent. He may or may not be con- 



1 10 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

nected with the Embassy. At the same time, centered in the Embassy 
you have your Russian secret police, which handles all espionage in- 
telligence work in this country, including keeping track of Russian 
nationals, military, naval intelligence, and the ordinary Russian secret 
police work. That all comes out of the Russian Embassy originally, 
although they also, wherever they have consulates, have men there, 
too, to handle the same thing. That is where it originates. 

Now, that may not be a set pattern in the future. It was done in 
the past. I was told by the Russian secret police that this was done 
because the information can be carried by their diplomatic courier to 
Russia; there is diplomatic immunity, and they can send out vital 
information in code, whereas otherwise it might be difficult. 

Mr. Arens. How about persons who are affiliates of international 
organizations or of trading commissions, or in similar capacity ? 

Miss Bentley. Exactly the same thing. Mr. Golos was in constant 
contact with several people in the Soviet Purchasing Commission who 
were engaged in that work, also in the Amtorg Corp. One of 
my contacts, who was my Soviet superior, was the wife of the man who 
was then head of Tass Agency. 

Mr. Arens. Would you please identify that agency? 

Miss Bentley. Tass ; that is the Soviet news agency. 

Mr. Arens. In this country. 

Miss Bentley. She herself had a position at Amtorg. 

Mr. Arens. What is the Amtorg ? Would you identify that ? 

Miss Bentley. The Amtorg is the commercial agencv that has han- 
died business relations between this country and Russia for a good 
many years. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent did you have contacts or are there con- 
tacts existing now with persons who are in this country with immunity 
as affiliates of international organizations or as invitees of interna- 
tional organizations ? 

Miss Bentley. I don't think you would call Amtorg a diplomatic- 
immunity organization. I don't believe they have it. I don't think 
the Soviet Purchasing Commission has it. 

Mr. Arens. Another category; international. 

Miss Bentley. You are referring to the UN, or something of that 
sort. 

Mr. Arens. Any international organization. 

Miss Bentley. As I have stated before, I think that Mr. Michael 
Endelmann was or is in the United Nations. That is the extent of my 
knowledge as far as the United Nations is concerned. 

Mr. Arens. How about other international organizations ? 

Miss Bentley. The Embassy. My main contact after Mr. Golos' 
death was the first secretary of the Russian Embassy, who was the 
head of the Russian secret police in this country. The man's name is 
Mr. Anatoli Gromov. I think that has been brought out before. I 
know that he, as first secretary, was head, because at one point I was 
dissatisfied with my Russian contact and I asked to see the boss, and 
I was given Mr. Anatoli Gromov. He told me that it was the policy 
that the first secretary of the Russian Embassy was the NKVD man. 
That is the Russian secret police. 

Mr. Arens. What contacts did you have with persons who are in 
the official employment of the United States Government? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 111 

Miss Bextley. I had some 40 or 50 people who were giving me 
information, who were working for the United States Government. 
I think those were all listed last summer when I gave testimony here. 
They were practically all Communists. I think there were two or 
three that were not, but the rest of them were Communists. 

The Chairman. Were they or did they claim to be citizens of the 
United States? 

Miss Bextley. They were all native-born citizens except two of 
them who were naturalized Russians. Those two people were Mr. 
Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, who fled from Russia before the Bolshe- 
vik revolution, was in China, came to this country via the West Coast, 
and became a citizen; and his wife, whose name was the Baroness 
Witte, Helen was her first name, she was also born in Russia, came 
to this country and became naturalized. The rest of the people in 
the Government that I dealt with were all native-born Americans. 

The Chairman. What was the nature of your work when you were 
employed by the Russian secret police? 

Miss Bextley. At first the nature of my work was to be a courier. 
I was to come to Washington every 2 weeks, instruct these people in 
the techniques of espionage, how to get documents out of their place 
of employment. 

The Chairman. Instruct these people, you say ; what people do you 
mean? 

Miss Bextley. The Government employees with whom I was deal- 
ing; in other words, the Communists who were either employed previ- 
ously in the Government and whom I had transferred to me, or people 
whom we had sent into the Government for that specific purpose. 

The Chairmax. That is, when you use the word "government," you 
mean the Government of the United States ? 

Miss Bentley. I mean the United States Government ; yes. 

The Chairmax. To what departments did you go for your contacts 
with these people in your missions from New York to Washington? 

Miss Bextley. They were employed in several different depart- 
ments and they shifted during the course of the war. We had people 
in the Treasury. We had people in the Air Corps. We had people 
in the OSS. We had people in Nelson Rockefeller's CIAA, I think 
it was called. Let me see if I have overlooked somebody. We had a 
man in the Canadian Legation. 

Mr. Arexs. How about the State Department ? 

Miss Bextley. We had a man who got into the State Department 
but gave us very little information after he got in. 

The Chairmax. Was he one of your selectees, so to speak? 

Miss Bextley. He had been with the CIAA ; that showed signs of 
crumbling and, therefore, we urged him to go into the State Depart- 
ment where he would be more useful ; yes. 

The Chairmax. On your trips here, on your mission while you were 
so employed, did you have occasion to go to the State Department 
frequently or otherwise? 

Miss Bextley. I never saw any of these people at their place of 
employment. This was highly secret ; highly underground. We met 
sometimes in their homes, sometimes in restaurants, sometimes on park 
benches, whatever seemed to be a good method to handle it. I never 
went to their offices. 



112 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. When did your trips commence; that is, your trips 
coming from New York to Washington? 

Miss Bentley. I would say July 1941, just after Germany attacked 
Russia. 

The Chairman. After what ? 

Miss Bentley. After Germany attacked Russia. You remember she 
was attacked, I think, the end of June. 

The Chairman. From then on, how frequent were your trips ? 

Miss Bentley. I would say usually every 2 weeks, sometimes of- 
tener, if the urgency arose. Sometimes during vacation periods, pos- 
sibly not as often, but it would average at least once every 2 weeks. 

The Chairman. As to the Department of Commerce, does that come 
to your mind as a department in which you had those whom you com- 
municated with ? 

Miss Bentley. We did have a man in the Department of Commerce, 
you are quite right. We had one of the men in the War Manpower 
Commission but he was shifted someplace else. I forgot the War Pro- 
duction Board. We had three or four in there. 

Mr. Arens. How did you get them into the Government service ? 

Miss Bentley. Some of them were already there. They came in the 
early thirties, or the middle thirties, or the late thirties and were there. 
Some of them decided to come down and try for a job and through 
their own connections got in or we pulled strings to get them in, and 
some we deliberately sent in. If we found them in agencies that were 
of no use, like the man at the War Manpower Commission, we would 
pull strings to get them into an agency that was of use, say the OSS. 
We had one case of that sort. 

The Chairman. Looking back over it now, during the period that 
you have mentioned, about how many, approximately, did you have 
in these various departments in the aggregate ? 

Miss Bentley. I can't count them up exactly, but it was around 40, 
roughly. 

Mr. Arens. Those are direct Communist agents you are referring 
to? 

Miss Bentley. Yes; they were Americans, for the simple reason 
that you could not possibly get a Russian in there who would be ef- 
fective. They were forced to use Americans. 

Mr. Arens. These 40 do not embrace Communist sympathizers ? 

Miss Bentley. No. 

The Chairman. They were members of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Bentley. All but three. Two I would class as fellow travelers 
and one I was never quite sure where he stood or why he was interested 
in it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the dissemination 
of propaganda and the organizing of Communist Party cells in the 
United States by the agents of Russia ? 

Miss Bentley. That is exactly what their job is. That is what the 
Communist Party is set up to do, to organize cells, to bring into the 
Communist Party people who will be useful for whatever purpose they 
need them for, and in the case of intellectuals, pretty generally the 
thing they need them for is either espionage or propaganda. Those 
are the ones you need for teachers, Government employees, and so 
forth. That is about what it boils down to. But they also recruit 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 113 

workers for strategic plants, and they recruit farmers so that they can 
tie up food production. It is a long, very intensive program, of course. 

Mr. Arens. How extensive is this program ? 

Miss Bentley. I think it is a great deal more extensive than people 
realize because one Communist can be an extremely deadly person. 
You can put one Communist in a union local, and if he is smart 
enough, he can run it. That is a fair way of saying it and one Com- 
munist espionage agent in one Government department, if he gets in 
the right job, can do a devastating amount of damage, because I have 
seen it work out. 

The Chairman. You have seen it work out ? 

Miss Bentley. I have seen it work out. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your background and experience, do you 
have any appraisal to make as to the relative number of persons who 
are in the active direction of the Communist work in this country who 
have gained admisson into the United States from abroad, as dis- 
tinguished from persons who are native-born Communists? 

Miss Bentley. I would say that is almost impossible to answer, un- 
less you are sitting in Moscow. As I said, the only espionage which 
they trust to Americans is the sort of thing where they cannot use 
anyone but Americans, in other words, Government employment, 
for example. But the links beyond that and your higher-ups are all 
Russian-trained people. They may be from satellite countries, be- 
cause Russians do not trust Americans. That has been told me over 
and over again. Back in 1945, I was told that eventually there would 
be a war between this country and Russia, and I was told by the first 
secretary of the Russian Embassy again and again that what worried 
them the most was the fact that they didn't know that they could count 
on an American Communist, no matter how corrupted or no matter 
how "steeled," as they called it, in the event of war between the United 
States and Russia. Therefore, they have tried to limit their depend- 
ence on Americans to a minimum. 

They have used various means of bringing people in for espionage, 
of course. I was told every member of the Russian Embassy and 
consulates is working in espionage of various sorts, whether it is com- 
mercial or military or Russian secret police. The same is true of the 
Russian nationals in Amtorg and in Tass. 

The Chairman. What was the source of your information? You 
say "I was told." 

Miss Bentley. I was told this by Mr. Golos, and I was told this by 
Mr. Anatoli Gromov, the first secretary of the Russian Embassy, whom 
I mentioned before. 

Mr. Arens. Do you feel the same is true with reference to the 
satellites ? 

Miss Bentley. I can't give you any direct evidence but I would say 
very definitely "Yes." They also told me that it was difficult to bring 
in enough agents officially. Therefore, they have been sending, as I 
said, the type of Mr. Eckhardt and Mr. Endelmann in, ostensibly 
as businessmen from their satellite nations. 

I also know that during Mr. Golos' lifetime — the Russians were 
quite far-seeing at that time — they were intending to set up a program 
of bringing their own agents in with war refugees or DP's, because 
I remember back in those days they had started a scheme to try and 



114 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

let some of these Polish refugees then in the U. S. S. R. free from 
Russia to come to this country, holding their wives as hostages on the 
condition that they would come in and act as Russian secret police 
agents in this country. So, if they have done it that far back, they 
have certainly gone a lot further along that line. 

Mr. A hens. How else, by what other means are these agents sent 
into the United States, other than as affiliates of the consulates and 
embassies? 

Miss Bentley. They come in as official representatives of Russia, 
either in consulates or in commercial organizations or in news agencies. 
They come in through the UN. There was one case I remember where 
the ILO harbored a Soviet agent that I know. 

Mr. Arens. Would you identify the ILO ? 

Miss Bentley. That is the International Labor Organization, which 
I understand has complete immunity (does it not?) from the laws of 
any country, doesn't pay taxes, and so on. 

Mr. Arens. Are any of these persons w T hom you knew in the Ameri- 
can Government who were giving information to the agents of the 
Communists presently in the Government? 

Miss Bentley. So far as I know, there is only one. 

Mr. Arens. And who is what person ? 

Miss Bentley. Mr. William Remington. 

The Chairman. In what department ? 

Miss Bentley. I understand he is still in the Department of Com- 
merce, Senator. I haven't heard any differently. 

The Chairman. Remington? 

Miss Bentley. Yes, Mr. William Remington. 

Mr. Arens. You say there is only one. You mean only one agent ? 

Miss Bentley. Only one that I knew as an agent that I am quite 
sure is still there. I think the others are all out. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know where some of them are at the present 
time ? 

Miss Bentley. Well, Mr. Victor Perlo is now teaching in the Jeffer- 
son School 1 in New York City. I understand that Mr. Silvermaster, 
his wife, and Mr. Ullman, whom I also mentioned, are starting a hous- 
ing development on the Jersey coast. They are in various occupations 
now. I have been told that some of them went into the UN, but I have 
no verification. That would have to be checked on. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have the names of these people that you referred 
to, these forty-some-odd people that were the Russian agents in our 
Government? 

Miss Bentley. I don't have them right now. I mentioned practi- 
cally all of them, or a good many of them last summer before the Un- 
American Activities Committee. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you submit them to the committee ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes; I would be very glad to. I will give you a 
complete list of them, together with the jobs they held. Some of them 
wandered from agency to agency. I can give you a complete list of 
that, yes. 

Mr. Dekom. May that be received in evidence? 

The Chairman. Yes; that will be received w r hen it comes. That 
will be received in the record. 

1 Jefferson School of Social Science. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 115 

(The material submitted by Miss Bentley is as follows :) 

May 29, 1949. 

Mr. O. J. Dekom, 

Senate Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization, 

Senate Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Me. Dekom : I am enclosing herewith the list which the committee asked 

me for. 

Sincerely yours, 

Elizabeth T. Bentley. 

List of People Involved in Giving Information to the Soviet Government * 

united states government employees 

Nathan Gregory Silvermaster — Farm Security Administration, Department of 

Agriculture ; Board of Economic Warfare. 
William Ludwig Ullmann — Treasury, Air Corps (Pentagon). 
Harrv D. White — Treasury. 
George Silverman— Railroad Retirement Board, Air Corps (civilian employee, 

Pentagon). 

Lauchlin Currie — Administrative Assistant to President Roosevelt, Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration. 

William Taylor — Treasury. 

Solomon Adler — Treasury. 

Bela Gold — Board of Economic Warfare. 

SonyaGold (his wife) — Treasury. 

Irving Kaplan — War Production Board, Foreign Economic Administration. 

Frank Coe — Treasury. 

Norman Bursler — Antitrust Division, Department of Justice. 

Victor Perlo — War Production Board, Foreign Economic Administration. 

Edward Fitzgerald — War Production Board, Foreign Economic Administration. 

Harry Maedoff — Department of Commerce. 

Donald Wheeler — Office of Strategic Services. 

Harold Glasser — Treasury. 

Solomon Leshinsky — UNRRA. 

Peter Perazich— UNRRA. 

Alan Rosenberg — Foreign Economic Administration. 

J. Julius Joseph — Social Security Board, War Manpower Commission, Office of 
Strategic Services. 

Bella Joseph (wife) — Office of Strategic Services. 

Duncan Lee — Office of Strategic Services. 

Ruth Rivkin— OFFRA, UNRRA. 

Bernice Levin — War Production Board. 

Maurice Halperin— Office of Strategic Services. 

Helen Tenney — Office of Strategic Services. 

Willard Park— CIAA. 

Robert Miller — CIAA, State Department. 

Joseph Gregg — CIAA. 

William Remington — War Production Board. 

Bernard Redmont — CIAA. 

Michael Greenberg — Assistant to Lauchlin Currie in White House. Foreign Eco- 
nomic Administration. 

Vladimir Kazakevich — teacher of Army courses, Cornell University. 

Louis Adamic — Office of Strategic Services. 

Peter Rhodes — Broadcasting work for the Army in Africa and Italy. 

Abraham Brothman — Republic Steel Co., Reserve officer, United States Army. 

OTHERS INVOLVED IN BELAYING INFORMATION 

Helen Silvermaster (wife of Gregory) — photographing documents, courier. 

Anatol Volkov (son of Helen) — courier. 

Mary Price — secretary to Walter Lippmann, courier, copying documents. 

Louis Budenz — courier. 

John Abt — courier. 

Earl Browder — courier. 

1 The records of association with Communist fronts of some of the persons named by Miss 
Bentley appears in appendix V, p. A81. 



116 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

EMPLOYEES OF OTHER GOVERNMENTS 

Hazen Size — Canadian Film Hoard, Canadian Legation, Washington. 

Cedric Belfrage — British Passport Control (British Intelligence Service), New 

York City. 
Jennie Miller (wife of Robert Miller) — Chinese Purchasing Commission. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting fellow trav- 
elers or Communists w T ho are in the Government at the present time — 
in the Government service? 

Miss Bentley. No; whatever I have has been given to the FBI on 
that subject. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have knowledge of the presence in our Gov- 
ernment at the present time of fellow travelers or Communists? 

Miss Bentley. Somewhat. Yes; I have given it to the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. I would rather not mention names, because 
they are checking on the persons. 

The Chairman. Have you got others ? 

Miss Bentley. Others that are suspected, but, I mean, it is one of 
those things that needs proof on it. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other information respecting the issue 
which is before this committee, namely, the problem of entrance into 
this country of subversives and the problem of deporting subversives? 

Miss Bentley. Yes; there is one other aspect which is the back- 
bone of the Communist Party in this country, and that is an alien 
backbone. If you cut that lifeline between here and Moscow, vou 
will have thrown the Communist Party off base, because people like 
Earl Browder were never anything but front men. The real men 
who made the decisions and who carried out the orders were aliens 
sent to this country by Moscow. That even was carried to a point 
where in the party organizations and the party press you had aliens 
controlling it. Aliens were used as contact men with the Russian 
secret police for finding new espionage contacts. For example, 
Mr. F. Brown was an alien Italian — I understand he has been de- 
ported back to his native Italy, or else went of his own accord — who 
was on the central committee of the Communist Party for some time 
and later was in charge of the Italian Communist newspaper Popolo 
d'ltalia. Mr. F. Brown, in addition to his other duties, was a contact 
man for the Russian secret police. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by cutting the life line ; more spe- 
cifically what do you mean? 

Miss Bentley. I mean that if you deport aliens who engage in 
subversive activities you are taking away from the Communist Party 
the brains behind it and making it exceedingly difficult for them to 
operate. 

Mr. Arens. By aliens, whom do you refer to? What general cate- 
gory of persons do you mean — persons born abroad and sent into the 
country ? 

Miss Bentley. That is correct; people like Mr. Brown, who was 
never naturalized, the editor of the TJkranian Daily News, which was 
a Communist publication, Mr. Tkach. 1 1 don't believe was ever natural- 
ized. In addition to his duties as being head of the TJkranian Daily 
News, he was working with the Russian secret police. I worked with 
him, together with Mr. Golos. He found other agents for us among 
the Ukranians in this country. 

1 Michael Tkach. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 117 

Mr. Arens. Who is the present keyman of the Communist activities 
in the United States ? 

Miss Bentley. That I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. Who are some of the key persons ? 

Miss Bentley. You mean in the background ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Miss Bentley. I don't know, because since my days I believe they 
have been shifted, and it is impossible to tell you who is the keyman. I 
would say very definietely that the keyman in the Russian secret police 
in this country is always the first secretary of the Russian Embassy. 
That is the way it has always been. I see no reason why it should have 
been changed now. 

Mr. Arens. In the closing moments of our morning session, we 
began to inquire respecting the types of information which you as an 
espionage agent had been seeking. Could you elaborate on that ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes ; I would say they fell into two rough categories. 
One would be what you would call nonmiltiary diplomatic informa- 
tion, such as inside information on the attitude of American officials 
toward Russia, inside information on secret deals between this country 
and, say, Great Britain or Canada or China, or any type of information 
that did not involve actual military work. The other type would be 
strictly military. That would be production figures, as to how many 
planes were being produced, where they were destined, what theater of 
war or what country, on lend-lease ; it would be the same type on tanks, 
guns, all sort of military equipment, as to how much was being pro- 
duced, and where it was going. It would be information on latest 
developments. 

The Chairman. You say it would be or was ; you mean it was. 

Miss Bentley. It was, yes. It was information on specific new 
developments; for example, they were interested in RDX. We got 
information on RDX. 

Mr. Arens. What is RDX? 

Miss Bentley. RDX is a sort of explosive. I am not a chemist 
and I don't know too much about it; it recently appeared in the papers. 
Particularly on the B-29 — the B-29 was a new development during 
my days and we had a man who was a specialist in B-29. He was 
sent out to Dayton Field to do work on them, as a result of which 
we knew how they tested, how they stood up, we even knew about 
projected raids on Tokyo, and so on — that type of information. 

Mr. Arens. What efforts, if any, were made to obtain information 
while you were in the service on atomic bomb developments ? 

Miss Bentley. I was never asked about the atomic bomb. I don't 
know whether it was because they didn't know of it then or because 
they felt that I had no access to it. The closest I came to it was an 
adviser close to General Donovan 1 in the OSS, Duncan Lee. who had 
discovered that a very super hush-hush development was taking place 
at Oak Ridge, Tenn. He didn't know what it was. I reported it back 
to the Russians. That is the closest I came to the atomic bomb. 

Mr. Arexs. To whom did you make your report? 

Miss Bentley. Well, I made my reports to my superior in the 
Russian secret police. At first that man was Jacob Golos ; then, after 

1 Gen. William Donovan, wartime head of OSS. 



1 1 8 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

his death, it consisted of two unidentified Russian police agents; and 
finally, the first secretary of the Russian Embassy, Anatoli Gromov. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you make your reports, and how frequently 
did you make your reports? 

Miss Bentley. Well, every time I made a trip to Washington, I 
brought back with me all types of documents — I had microfilms of 
some of the documents, some were typewritten copies, some of them 
were handwritten notes which I had to retype, some of them were 
stenographic notes I had taken down from men who had memorized 
information and brought it out to me that way — that I revised, 
checked, marked what was important, put it in a large portfolio, or 
sometimes even a shopping bag if it reached that proportion, and the 
day after I got back from Washington, I passed that information on 
to my superior. 

Mr. Arens. From whom did you obtain this information? 

Miss Bentley. This information was obtained from Government 
employees. 

Mr. Arens. And who are the Government employees from whom 
you obtained this information? 

Miss Bentley. Well, it consisted of two groups ; one I call the Sil- 
vermaster group, because Mr. Silvermaster was head of it; one we 
called the Perlo group, because Mr. Perlo was the head of it; and 
about 15 other individuals that I dealt with individually. 

Mr. Arens. What department was each of these men located in? 
Give their entire full names. 

Miss Bentley. Well, starting with the Silvermaster group, the head 
of it was Nathan Gregory Silvermaster, who at the time I first knew 
him was with the Farm Security Administration. That was part of 
the Agriculture Department. About the end of 1941 or 1942, under 
our instructions and through some of his contacts in the Government, 
he got himself a position as the head of the Middle European Division 
of the Board (;i Economic Warfare, as it was then called. After he 
had been there some 6 or 8 months his immediate superior was sent a 
letter by General Strong, 1 who was then head of G-2, informing him 
that the FBI and the Navy Intelligence and the Army Intelligence had 
information proving that Mr. Silvermaster was disloyal and demand- 
ing his dismissal. Mr. Silvermaster brought me the original of that 
letter. 

The Chairman. A letter from whom? 

Miss Bentley. The letter was written by General Strong, who was 
head of Army Intelligence of the Army at that time. I made a copy 
of the letter. I remember it quite distinctly. And we told Mr. Silver- 
master to fight it, to try and keep his position. He did try, but it 
began to look like a hopeless case, and we got Mr. Lauchlin Currie and 
the late Mr. Harry D. White to intervene in the matter, to pull strings 
and to keep Mr. Silvermaster in the position. 

Mr. Arens. Who are those two people? 

Miss Bentley. Mr. Lauchlin Currie was executive assistant to the 
late President Roosevelt. Mr. Harry Dexter White was assistant to 
Henry Morgenthau in the Treasury — Under Secretary or Assistant 
Secretary of the Treasury. These men both pulled strings — they have 
admitted that before the Un-American Activities Committee when 

1 Brig. Gen. Allien Strong. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 119 

questioned— but it began to look as though he would not be useful to us 
there, because he was so smeared we were afraid that he would just be 
out of the question. So we got them to release him from the Board 
of Economic Warfare and sent back to the Agriculture Department, 
because he was no longer useful. After I knew him, he went into the 
Surplus Property Division, I think it is called, of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, and he was last there before he left the Government ; whether 
he left voluntarily or was put out, I don't know. That was some time 

Hi's wife, Helen Silvermaster, was not a Government employee. 
She helped in the photographing of documents that they brought 
home and in courier work. When I could not come to Washington, 
she would be a courier and bring the material up. His boarder, Mr. 
William Ludwig Ullman, started in the Treasury Department. Then 
he was drafted during the war, and through the intervention of George 
Silverman, who was then a civilian employee of the Air Corps in that 
division of the Air Corps which took care of production statistics, 
Mr. Ullman was gradually put in the Air Corps in the Pentagon where 
he rose rank by rank from a private to a major. He was in that part 
of the Air Corps that had access to airplane-production figures. He 
had an "in" to General Hildring's a office, which was then handling 
what the Armv would do about Germany. That is where his value lay. 
I believe that" he returned to the Treasury after the war, and he is 
out of the Government, too, now. 

Mr. Arens. During your visits, when you came to Washington as 
a courier, did you meet with him ? 

Miss Bentley. I met with all of them when they were there. Some- 
times it would be all three of them. Sometimes one would be off on 
a trip. Mr. Ullman was the one who went to Dayton on the B-29. 
Mr. Arens. Where did you meet with them ? 

Miss Bentley. At the Silvermaster house generally, except during 
the summer of 1942, at which time Mr. Silvermaster was about to be 
dismissed from the BEW, and because of that we were afraid he might 
be being tailed by the FBI. So, they used to pick me up on the street 
in their car and 'we would drive somewhere out of town and I would 
get the material there. 

Mr. Arens. Did you have any information respecting the Doolittle 
raid on Tokyo which you transmitted as a courier ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes; we knew about that raid, I guess, a week or 
10 days ahead of time ; yes. 

Mr. Arens. From whom did you secure the information on that 
raid? 

Miss Bentley. That was from William Ludwig Ullman, who was 
a specialist, as I understand it, in the B-29 program. 

Mr. Arens. To whom did you transmit the information respecting 
the raid ? 

Miss Bentley. I transmitted that to my Russian superior at the 
time. 

Mr. Arens. Where did you contact your Russian superior at the 
time? 

Miss Bentley. We had various meeting places. I can't tell you 
which restaurant it was. In general, we met at one of the Schraffts 

1 Maj. Gen. John H. Hilldring. 



120 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

in New York for dinner or one of the Longchamps or various other 
restaurants in about that price range, trying to make the meeting 
appear a casual social meeting, rather than something undercover on 
the street corner. 

Mr. Arens. When did you sever your connections as an espionage 
agent for the Communists? 

Miss Bentley. That is difficult to say, because I went to the FBI 
in August 1945, at which time I still had contact with the high-up 
Communists, such as William Weiner, and at the same time I had 
contact with Mr. Browder, who had then been ousted from the Com- 
munist Party, but the FBI was interested in what he was doing, and 
I had contacts with the Russian secret police. When I went to the 
FBI, they asked me would I continue with these contacts so that we 
could learn some useful information. 

Mr. Arens. How long did you continue in that capacity? 

Miss Bentley. Oh, I would say the last time I saw any of them 
was in about January or February of 1947. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received any threats or any reprimands from 
the Communists or from your old associates in the Communist es- 
pionage ring since you severed your connection with them? 

Miss Bentley. Well, since they became aware of what I was doing, 
I did have anonymous telephone calls, and after last summer I got 
threatening letters and the usual sort of thing. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any appraisal to make, on the basis of your 
background familiarity with this problem, with reference to the in- 
tensity of activity of the Communists in their espionage work in the 
course of the last 2 or 3 years ? 

Miss Bentley. They were stepping up espionage at about the last 
time I saw them because the situation had changed. This country was 
not as friendly as it was previously, and they were realizing that they 
must step it up. My opinion would be that they are intensifying it 
now, because it is utterly vital to them that the} 7 have this information. 

Mr. Arens. What efforts, if any, that you know about, are being 
made at the present time with racial groups or blocs in the United 
States? 

Miss Bentley. I can't tell you at the present time, since I am no 
longer with the Communists, any more than anyone who reads the 
Daily Worker, but they have been definitely aiming ever since I have 
been a Communist Party member at so-called racial blocs. That is, 
they have been terrifically interested in people of Slavic extraction 
in this country, whether they are Czechs or whether they are Poles 
or any one of that particular group. 

Mr. Arens. How do they manifest their interest, in what way? 

Miss Bentley. They have set up numerous organizations to work 
among them. They have tried to recruit agents from among them and 
so on. They have consistently shown an effort to try and do something 
with the Negroes. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the Negro leader of the Communist bloc among 
Negroes ? 

Miss Bentley. In the days when I was there, James Ford was the 
authority in the Communist Party on the Negro problem. 

Mr. Arens. Who is James Ford ? 

Miss Bentley. James Ford is a Communist of very, very long stand- 
ing, and ever since I have known him he was head of the Harlem sec- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 121 

tion of the Communist Party, a member of the Central Committee. I 
don't know where he is today. 

The Chairman. A Negro ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes; he is a Negro. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting the number of 
actual card-bearing Communists in the United States? 

Miss Bentley. Well, card bearing is a misnomer right now, because 
they are not bearing cards. When the situation gets tight, even your 
ordinary Party member discards his card, and espionage agents never 
under any conditions even have one issued to them. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any information respecting the number of 
Communist agents in the United States? 

Miss Bentley. Espionage agent, the whole works? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Miss Bentley. Not personally, no. It has been estimated by people 
I have talked to that it was around between eighty and ninety thou- 
sand, I think. It is anyone's guess. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly, so we understand your testimony, 
describe who falls in this category of this eighty or ninety thousand ? 

Miss Bentley. By that I would say a person who is a member of the 
Communist Party, in other words, under Communist discipline. He 
may be an open Communist, because he is more strategic to the Party 
as being an open one representing them; he may be an undercover 
Communist working in education or factories or elsewhere; he may be 
be engaged in sabotage or he may be working with the Russian secret 
police ; but he takes his orders from the Communist Party and he is 
under their discipline. That is the definition I would give of it. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your background and experience in this 
field, do you have any appraisal to make as to whether the top men in 
the espionage work are citizens or aliens? Let us take them first one 
group and then the other. First, the bulk of those who are the top 
men, who give the directions and orders, who are the bosses. 

Miss Bentley. There are no bosses in this country. The orders 
come directly from Moscow and are transmitted from Moscow to this 
country, but they have in this country aliens and naturalized aliens 
who are in contact with Moscow in order to carry out these directives 
and to see that they are carried out. 

Mr. Arens. What percentage or what estimate would you make on 
the relative number of the key people in this country who are aliens or 
foreign-born, who have been sent into the country? 

Miss Bentley. That I would not know. I cannot give you any 
estimate. You don't need very many of them. 

Mr. Arens. Whom did you see in our Government for the purpose 
of placing Communist agents in jobs? 

Miss Bentley. I personally didn't see anyone. I was supposed to 
stay in the background. It was arranged through the agents them- 
selves, as I said. In the case of Mr. Silvermaster. he himself arranged 
with" Mr. Currie and Mr. White not only to get himself out of a bad 
spot, but to help get Mr. Ullman into a better position, and he ar- 
ranged with Mr. Silverman for the same purpose. In general, we 
trained our agents to make what good contacts they could here in 
Washington in order that should they need to get into a better job, 
they would have the contact ready, although if we had, say, a man 
in a good spot in an agency we would send to that man someone else 



122 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

to be placed. For example, in the OSS we had Maurice Halperin, 
who was head of the Latin American Division of Research and 
Analysis. That was not the hush-hush division; that was the less 
secret division. We had a young girl, Helen Tenney, who knew 
Spanish, and we sent her into the OSS to fill out the application 
forms and to shunt herself towards Mr. Halperin to get a position. 
It so happened that when they saw her application forms at the door 
and knew she knew Spanish, they promptly seized her for a job in 
the very hush-hush division of the Spanish department of the OSS ; 
she did not get that far, but that was the general routing we followed. 

Mr. Akens. What makes a Communist? Why do people join the 
Communist Party ? Why did you join the Communist Party and ally 
yourself with this movement ? 

Miss Bentley. There really are two stages. One you go through 
before you even run into your first Communist. You go through a 
system of upbringing in education which in my day — and it is still 
going on today — tends to take whatever religion you have out of 
you and to undermine your faith in democracy at a very young age, 
at an age when a youngster needs something to hang onto, something 
to believe in, something to fight for ; instead you are left in a terrible 
state of confusion; you no longer have perhaps any belief in God. 
You have been taught that our democracy has failed, because all you 
have been shown in your college career is social injustices, and you 
are left high and dry not believing in anything. The zeal that you 
should turn towards believing in your own country and your own 
religion is unfortunately sidetracked into the Communist cause, be- 
cause the Communists come to you with a nice idealistic program and 
tell you, "Well, the only thing we can build on this earth is a decent 
life for mankind and you are part of it. Maybe you won't see it in 
your day, but it will come to pass one day." 

Mr. Arens. What do they believe in ? What did you believe in ? 

Miss Bentley. I believed that I was going to build a world that gave 
every man a decent break in every possible conceivable way, that every 
man would have a chance to a decent education, to a decent job. I had 
seen an awful lot of bad social conditions because my mother did 
volunteer social work when I was a kid. I believed there would be 
no more discrimination. That was what communism stood for to me, 
because, you see, a Communist is a very unscrupulous and clever 
psychologist who takes advantage of a person who is pretty con- 
fused and manages to sell him this program. Then, once he gets him 
in the party, then very, very gradually he conditions you by the read- 
ing you do, by the associates you go with, to the point where you 
simply don't believe anything else but communism and you follow 
right along with it to the point where they even get you to believe 
that any means justifies the end. That is as far as it gets you. 

Mr. Arens. Why did you sever your connections with the Com- 
munist Party? 

Miss Bentley. I was very fortunate, you see, because it is usually 
only the top people in the Communist Party that know what com- 
munism really is, that it is a fifth column of the Russian Government. 
A lot of your rank and file are not aware of that. My immediate su- 
perior was Jacob Golos, and he had been shrewd enough to keep me 
in the belief that I was still working for an idealistic world move- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 123 

ment. He died very suddenly of a heart attack without any pro- 
vision for his successor, and so as a result of that, I stepped into his 
boots and was thrown right into contact with a Russian secret police 
agent and with Mr. Earl Browder. The Russian secret police agent 
thought that if I had gotten that far in the apparatus, which is quite 
far for an American, that I must know the score, and, therefore, he 
went ahead and made no bones about the fact that I was mixed up with 
a thing that was not idealistic at all. 

Mr. Arens. What is communism, then, if it is not an idealistic 
philosophy, as you first thought it was ? 

Miss Bentley. Communism as it is going on at present is simply a 
fifth column of Russia, that is all. It is a materialistic philosophy, 
technically known as dialetic materialism, based on the idea that there 
is no God, there is no soul, there is only matter in the world. That is 
what it boils down to. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any other comments to make pertinent 
to the issue which you know is before this committee on the problem 
of excluding and deporting subversives ? 

Miss Bentley. Yes; just one, I think, which is that never have the 
Russians trusted the Americans. At some periods they have trusted 
them more than others. Therefore, the main key people in the Com- 
munist apparatus in this country, and particularly in your espionage 
apparatus, are going to be Russians or people from the Russian satel- 
lite countries ; in other words, non-Americans. The Russians do not 
trust the Americans because they are afraid of them in the event of a 
war. Therefore, since the key people in the Communist organization 
and in the Russian secret police are aliens, I feel that by passing that 
bill, you are cutting the lifeline to the party, and making their opera- 
tion extremely difficult. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Miss Bentley. 

LETTER OF GEN. JOHN THOMAS TAYLOR, DIRECTOR OF THE NATIONAL 
LEGISLATIVE COMMISSION, AMERICAN LEGION 

The Chairman. I would like to have inserted into the record at this 
time a communication from John Thomas Taylor, director of the Na- 
tional Legislative Commission of the American Legion, on the letter- 
head of the American Legion, endorsing the bill on which hearings are 
being held. 

Mr. Arens. I would like to read the letter. It is addressed to Hon. 
Pat McCarran, chairman, Senate Committee on the Judiciary. 

My Dear Chairman McCarran: With reference to the hearings now being 
conducted on S. 1694, the McCarran bill to amend the Immigration Act of October 
16, 1919, I have just received from Mr. W. C. "Tom" Sawyer, director, National 
Americanism Commission, the American Legion, the following message: 

"Please advise Senator McCarran that the American Legion desires to be 
heard in strong support of S. 1694 but is unable to have the proper spokesman 
available before May 18. 

"The American Legion has by repeated convention action urged that all per- 
sons affiliated with organizations or governments which advocate the overthrow 
of our Government by force or violence be barred, and that all aliens in the 
United States holding similar views be immediately deported. S. 1694 gives clear 
expression to these sentiments held by the American Legion. This bill by concen- 
trating the obligations for such visa denials or deportations solely on the United 
States Attorney General eliminates the many present escape possibilities and is, 
we think, a strong but fair bill. 

98330—50 — pt. 1 9 



124 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

"At almost every national convention we hear strong criticism of the ease 
with which subversive elements gain entry into the United States and the diffi- 
culty of evicting them. This criticism is usually vigorous and demanding. We 
respectfully urge the opportunity that the chairman of our national Americanism 
commission, Mr. James F. Green, be heard in support of this legislation on May 
18." 

During a telephone conversation on May 11 with Mr. Richard Arens he advised 
that when Chairman Green appears on May 18, on S. 1194 and S. 1196, he would 
be permitted to make a request for a separate record of his views on S. 1694 
for inclusion in the permanent records. This will be done, but in the meantime 
the brief message above is for your use before the committee when it meets 
today. 

That is signed "John Thomas Taylor, director, national legislative 
commission." 

The Chairman. The committee will recess until Monday afternoon 
at 2 o'clock. 

(Thereupon at 4: 50 p. m., the subcommittee recessed to reconvene 
Monday, May 16, 1949, at 2 p. m.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GKOUPS 



MONDAY, MAY 16, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration and 

Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiclary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee .met, pursuant to recess, at 2 p. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran (chairman) presiding. 

Present : Senators McCarran, Wiley, Ferguson, and Langer. 

Also present : Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee ; Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Arens, you may proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly stand and be sworn ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Crouch, you do solemnly swear that the testi- 
mony you are about to give before the committee of the United States 
Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Crouch. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL CROUCH, MIAMI, FLA. 

Mr. Arens. Will you please state your full name, address, and 
occupation. 

Mr. Crouch. Paul Crouch, Miami, Fla., journalist. 1 

Mr. Arens. With what company are you connected ? 

Mr. Crouch. I am employed by the Miami Daily News, Miami, Fla. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been employed by the Miami 
Daily News ? 

Mr. Crouch. I have been employed by the Miami Daily News since 
January of this year. 

Mr. Arens. In what capacity are you employed ? 

Mr. Crouch. 1 am employed in a supervisory capacity. 

Mr. Arens. Have you in the course of the last several years had 
any connection with the Communist Party in the United States? 

Mr. Crouch. I had connection with the Communist Party as a 
member of the party, as a member of many of its leading commit- 
tees, and as representative of the Communist'organizations to Moscow 
for approximately 17 years, from 1925 until 1942. 

The Chairman. Where were you born? 

Mr. Crouch. I was born at Moravian Falls, N. C. 

1 The witness appeared under subpena. 

125 



126 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. How old are you ? 
Mr. Crouch. I am 45 years of age. 

The Chairman. Married or single? 

Mr. Crouch. 1 am married. 

The Chairman. You are an American citizen? 

Mr. Crouch. I am. 

The Chairman. Will you just recite the events of your life, what 
schools have you attended, and so on ? 

Mr. Crouch. I was born in the Blue Ridge Mountains of north- 
western North Carolina. My father was a farmer, a Baptist min- 
ister, and a country school teacher. I received instructions in gram- 
mar schools in North Carolina, high school in Delaware, and sub- 
sequently extension studies from a number of universities. 

I went to work in a textile mill at Winston-Salem, N. C, my first 
employment. I was there a short time. I worked in newspaper work 
as an associate editor of The Fool Killer, later on a daily newspaper 
at Statesville, N. C. I entered the United States Army as a soldier 
for service in Hawaii in the spring of 1924, arriving in Hawaii in 
August of that last year. 

As previous to this time I had become interested in radical move- 
ments from an idealistic point of view 

Senator Ferguson. What job did you have when you first became 
interested ? 

Mr. Crouch. I was in newspaper work with Mr. James Larkin 
Pearson. 

Senator Ferguson. What? 

Mr. Crouch. The Fool Killer. 

Senator Ferguson. What is the Fool Killer ? 

Mr. Crouch. It was a humorous monthly magazine. Mr. Pear- 
son, the editor, was a Socialist, a friend of Eugene V. Debs, Upton 
Sinclair, Victor L. Berger, and many other Socialist leaders. I be- 
came interested in the Socialist movement from idealistic appeal, and 
joined the Young Peoples Socialist League as a member-at-large. 

Senator Ferguson. Did you start out first as a Socialist? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. Well, do you not think that a Socialist is just a 
slow moving-picture of a Communist ? In other words, a Communist 
is the Socialist in a hurry? 

Mr'. Crouch. To some extent that is true, Senator, but I think that 
it is very important to differentiate : socialism, the Socialist Party in 
America, from my knowledge of it, has used legal means for its propa- 
ganda, it does not act in a conspiratorial manner so far as I know; 
the Communist Party, on the other hand, is a conspiratorial organiza- 
tion. It does not plan to realize its objectives through peaceful means 
but through armed insurrection, through undermining the defenses 
of the country, and I think that in the methods 

Senator Ferguson. Is it not because they are in a hurry that they 
want to do it that way? 

Mr. Crouch. That is partly true, but I think the major difference 
is that the majority of American Socialist leaders believe in the 
principles of democracy, not that I am defending the Socialist Party. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you not believe that the Communists believe 
in their principles? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEX AND NATIONAL GROUPS 127 

Mr. Crouch. The Communists believe in their principles, but they 
believe their principles can be achieved only by forceful overthrow of 
the Government with the aid of a foreign nation. 

Senator Ferguson. Go ahead and complete your line of work now ; 
I wondered what you were working at when you first got into this 
communism. How long were you a Socialist before you became a 
Communist? 

Mr. Crouch. Roughly, about 5 years, in very rough terms. 

Senator Ferguson. About 5 years? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; and then I came into the Communist movement. 
It was a chain of circumstances that brought me into the Communist 
movement. 

To continue with the general record, my background, on entering 
the Army, I was not a member and I had no affiliations whatever or 
connections with the Communist Party, but because of my reading, I 
believed in its idealistic approach and so on. I had many commu- 
nistic views, which I stated very openly. My first assignment in the 
Army was to G-2, Military Intelligence. 

Senator Ferguson. You were a Communist when you were assigned 
to Military Intelligence? 

Mr. Crouch. I was not a Communist but I had many communistic 
views. I was not a member of the party. I had no connection with 
the Communist Party, but I had many views and looked upon the 
Soviet Union as a progressive step for the world. 

Senator Ferguson. You were in sympathy with the program. 

Mr. Crouch. I was in sympathy with the program. 

The Chairman. You may proceed. 

Mr. Crouch. I have prepared for the record and for the committee 
a very detailed statement covering many fields of Communist activi- 
ties among aliens in this country. I would like to present this for the 
record, and I ask the Chair's permission to read from this a one-page 
brief introductory statement. 

The Chairman. I think it might be well for you to read the one- 
page brief and maybe it would be well for you to go on with the state- 
ment, because you probably may be examined by the counsel for the 
committee or by members of the committee. 

Mr. Crouch. Gentlemen, I would like to make a general statement 
on matters concerning alien immigration as it applies to the danger- 
ous subversive activities of certain alien Communists who have been 
permitted to build a large and powerful apparatus in this country in 
the interest of a foreign power. 

Senator Ferguson. This is under oath, you understand. 

Mr. Crouch. This is under oath. 

Senator Ferguson. That is, the statement as well as the questions. 

Mr. Crouch. The statement as well as the questions. 

Senator Ferguson. Is under oath. 

Mr. Crouch. Yes, sir. 

The vast majority of those persons who direct the United States 
branch of the Communist International are foreign-born persons who 
are not naturalized citizens of this country. Men like J. Peters, 
William Weiner. Jack Stachel, John Williamson, Bill Gebert — the 
latter now a high official of the Polish Government — are the men who 
renllv have run the Communist Party in this country in the past. 
Native-born and naturalized American Communists, in the main, are 



128 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

nominal party officials and are used mostly to head the various party 
fronts. 

A stricter enforcement of existing immigration regulations would 
do something toward easing the present situation. I know of one 
instance where two displaced persons were admitted to this country 
under the sponsorship of a known Communist, Mrs. Celia Greenberg, 
of Miami Beach. Along with stricter enforcement, in my opinion, is 
the need for stricter immigration regulations. 

The Chairman. When was that incident that you speak of? 

Mr. Crouch. During the past 2 months. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you know the name of the displaced persons 
that came in under the sponsorship of this woman? 

Mr. Crouch. I don't recall; they were published in the Miami 
Daily News. 

Senator Ferguson. Will you get them for the record and insert 
them? 

Mr. Crouch. I will. 

(The information follows:) 

The displaced persons admitted under the sponsorship of Mrs. Charles (Celia) 
Greenberg were Joaquin Taub, age 27, and David Taub, age 24. Pictures of the 
two displaced persons and Mrs. Greenberg were published in the Miami Daily- 
News March 16, 1949. The address of Mrs. Charles (Celia) Greenberg is 
645 West Avenue, Miami Beach, Fla. 

Mr. Crouch. It is my carefully considered opinion, based on 17 
years' experience as a ranking Communist Party leader in this country, 
that this legislation is needed to curb the influx of alien Communists 
into the United States. 

If alien Communists were prevented from entering this country and 
those alien Communists in this country were deported, then, gentle- 
men, the Communist Party in the United States would be seriously 
crippled. 

Going into specific fields within the scope of the subcommittee's 
jurisdiction, I wish to speak on the basis of my 17 years of activities 
in the Communist Party. 

Senator Ferguson. May I just ask him there, because I may miss it 
later, you are of the opinion, then, as I understand it, that the great 
difficulty is with alien Communists, that if it was left to the Com- 
munists such as you had been 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. Who are native-born Americans, that this Com-' 
munist Party would not amount to much. 

Mr. Crouch. It would not be half as powerful as it is today. 

Senator Ferguson. It would not have the subversive elements in it? 

Mr. Crouch. It would not have half as many. 

Senator Ferguson. Let me cite the Bentley case and the Chambers 
case and some others that were agents ; do you think that it would wipe 
it out entirely, or just 

Mr. Crouch. Not entirely. 

Senator Ferguson. Or just cripple it. 

Mr. Crouch. It would cripple, but not wipe it out. Other legisla- 
tion is necessary to wipe it out completely. 

Senator Ferguson. You think that the tops are the Communists, 
the fellows who are at the top are the Communists that operate this 
subversive activities in America, they are aliens % 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 129 

Mr. Crouch. A great majority, the overwhelming majority of those 
who held key positions during the time I was in the party leadership 
were aliens. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you know any Americans that are leaders ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; I know some who have been brought into top 
leadership. 

Senator Ferguson. Who are they ? Differentiate between the alien 
or alien-born and American. 

Mr. Crouch. All right. For example, we have men like Dennis and 
Foster. In my opinion, and based upon my experience and what I 
have seen of the national office, even Dennis and Foster have had less 
to say in the formulation of vital policies than the alien Communists 
who are not known to the public and whom I mention here in my state- 
ment as I continue. 

Senator Ferguson. You then believe that the real brains behind the 
Communist Party in America are alien -born ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. You feel certain of that? 

Mr. Crouch. I do. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you feel that some of these others are used 
as fronts, because being native-born, they can get along with the 
native-born people and, therefore, can carry on as fronts; is that your 
opinion ? 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct, Senator. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you think that applies to Foster and Dennis ? 

Mr. Crouch. To a considerable degree. 

Senator Ferguson. When Browder was head, was he a native-born 
or not ? 

Mr. Crouch. Browder is native-born; yes. Most of Browder's 
speeches, however, were written for him by Jack Stachel, foreign-born 
and not a citizen. 

Senator Ferguson. Is he not a citizen now? 

Mr. Crouch. Jack Stachel ? 

Senator Ferguson. Yes. 

Mr. Crouch. I don't believe he is. I do not know personally if he 
became naturalized. My impression was that he was not a citizen. 
I am not certain on that point. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you feel that a Communist could take the 
^oath and become a citizen — that would not bother him at all, would it? 

Mr. Crouch. You mean the oath would not affect his actions ? 

Senator Ferguson. That is what I mean. 

Mr. Crouch. No ; it would not. 

Senator Ferguson. He would take it and know that he was not 
going to live up to it. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Because he was a Communist. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. He would do it so he could carry on his trade 
as a Communist. 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. That is your opinion, is it? 

Mr. Crouch. It is. 



130 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Wiley. Just one question, Mr. Chairman. Is it your con- 
viction that the men you have mentioned, like Foster and Dennis, owe 
primary and sole allegiance to Russia? 

Mr. Crouch. Entirely, exclusively. 

Senator Wiley. In other words, even if they have citizenship here, 
they are disloyal to America. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. When you were a Communist, did you owe alle- 
giance to Russia ? 

Mr. Crouch. I did. 

Senator Ferguson. You felt that your allegiance was to the Russian, 
the Communist Party in Russia, rather than to the United States 
Government ? 

Mr. Crouch. I felt that I had to take the orders which I knew came 
from Russia, rather than the orders of the American Government; 
that is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. That is correct? There was not any doubt 
about that? 

Mr. Crouch. My conscience was torn between the two but I took 
the orders from Russia during the time I was in party leadership; 
that is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. You feel that other Communists do the same. 

Mr. Crouch. They do. 

The Chairman. All right, proceed. 

Mr. Crouch. I have ahead}' mentioned the names of Peters, Weiner, 
Jack Stachel, John Williamson, and Bill Gebert as examples of the 
men wdio really have directed the Communist Party in this country 
during the years I was in a position of leadership. I should use the 
word "directed" in quotation marks and with qualification. The real 
direction at all times has come from Moscow. The decisions of the 
Russian Communist Politburo were transmitted by official representa- 
tives from Moscow. 

I would like to mention a few names of those I have personally 
known in this country as official representatives from Moscow. They 
include one Nassonov, one of the highest ranking officials of the Rus- 
sian Communist youth organizations, and John Pepper, commissar 
of war in Bela Kim's Soviet Government in Hungary in 1919. One 
representative of the Russian -controlled Communist International 
who came from Moscow 7 armed with full powers to appoint and re- 
move officials in this country was Harry Pollitt, general secretary of 
the British Communist Party. 

Senator Wiley. Did you see any authority in writing? How did 
you know he had full power ? 

Mr. Crouch. I met him when he spoke before a series of meetings 
of the Central Committee of the Communist Party at which I was 
present. He was introduced as the representative of the Communist 
International to me and to the other members of the convention. I 
met Pollitt for the first time in Moscow at a meeting of the Executive 
Committee of the Communist International. 

Mr. Arens. What type of visa did he have when he was in the 
United States and you saw him in New York? 

Mr. Crouch. I didn't see his passport. I don't know. I know it 
was the general practice to travel on forged passports of the people 
engaged in this work, but I did not see his visa or his passport. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 131 

Senator Ferguson. How many times were you in Russia? 
Mr. Crouch. Once for about 6 months. 

Senator Ferguson. Did you study at the college there — the school, 
the Soviet school ? 

Mr. Crouch. I visited while I was in the Soviet Union. I did not 
study as a student, but I visited the Lenin School, where Americans 
were being trained. I visited the military academy, the West Point 
of the Soviet Union, 1 and various other schools. 

Senator Ferguson. When you visited the training and the civilians, 
did you know what was going on there ? 
Mr. Crouch. I knew part of what was going on. 
Senator Ferguson. What were they training? 

Mr. Crouch. The training which American students there and stu- 
dents of every country in the world were receiving was political, 
including the political philosophies of Marx and Engels, Lenin's, writ- 
ings of Stalin, the revolutionary program of the Communist Interna- 
tional, the question of tactics, and they also received military training. 
Senator Ferguson. What do you mean "military training" ? What 
was the purpose of military training of these civilians? 

Mr. Crouch. These people were receiving military training so they 
might be able, in time of strikes and in time of revolutionary struggles 
and so on, to furnish military leadership in armed insurrections to 
overthrow their respective governments and establish Soviet 
governments. 

Senator Ferguson. We had knowledge here that they taught a man, 
for instance, from Detroit, as to how to take care of water plants, 
destroy water plants, and light plants, and so forth. Is that a fact ? 
Is that what they were teaching? 

Mr. Crouch. That is. I was shown several mimeographed mate- 
rials while I was in the Soviet Union which included detailed and spe- 
cific directions, data on the question of sabotage, of experiences 
obtained from various civil wars, how armies could be crippled from 
the rear, the effective methods of industrial sabotage, and everything 
of that nature. 

Senator Ferguson. You saw the memorandums which were being 
taught to these boys ? 
Mr. Crouch. Yes ; in English. 

Senator Ferguson. Were you an expert yourself in communism, that 
you didn't take this course? How did you come to get to Russia? 
Were you sent over, your way paid ? 

Mr. Crouch. My passage was arranged through Amtorg, as I 
describe later. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you describe that in there? I have not had 
time to read it. 

Mr. Crouch. I met Pollitt in New York the second time as the repre- 
sentative in this country of the Communist International. Another 
representative of Moscow in this country at one time was William 
Rust, now editor of the British Daily Worker. There were other rep- 
resentatives of the Communist International in this country I did not 
meet personally, but have known about. Two of them were Germans. 
One was Arthur Ewert. 

1 Frunze Military Academy. 



132 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Another representative I knew about, who represented the Commu- 
nist Intel-national in this country, was known in top party circles as 
Edwards. I did not personally meet this Edwards, who has been 
officially identified in testimony as being also known as Gerhart Eisler. 
He recently skipped his $23,500 bail and attempted to flee to Poland. 
Such a far-reaching decision as that of forfeiting bail and fleeing the 
country certainly was not made by Eisler alone. He would never have 
dared to do so without approval and instructions from the highest 
circles in Moscow. 

The Chairman. What causes you or authorizes you to make that last 
statement? What knowledge have you that gives you authority for 
making that statement. 

Mr. Crouch. Seventeen years of being subject to discipline of the 
American Communist Party, in which I did not even dare to move 
from one city to another without instructions from the Communist 
Party. Poland is a country behind the iron curtain, within the Com- 
munist orbit, and certainly no one would return to Poland on a vital 
matter like Eisler's return without official decisions of responsible 
Communist bodies. I know this based upon 17 years of experience of 
Communist discipline. I know w T hat Communist discipline means. 

Senator Ferguson. Does that prove to you beyond doubt in your 
mind from your experience that this man Eisler was a top man in 
communistic activities in this country? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes, definitely. 

Senator Ferguson. When he was going back on a Polish ship to an 
iron curtain satellite country, there is not any doubt in your mind that 
he was one of the top men and they were getting him out of the coun- 
try so he would not have to serve his time. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. You feel that the discipline is such that he 
would not undertake, nor would you in the same position when you 
were a Communist undertake, to go to that kind of a country, a sat- 
ellite, unless you had instruction to do it? 

Mr. Crouch. I would never had dared without instructions. 

Mr. Arens. What would have happened had you disobeyed ? 

Mr. Crouch. My opinion is that I would have been imprisoned and 
probably shot. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Crouch. The effort to save Eisler from even a short term in an 
American jail is striking indication of how important he is to the 
Russian Politburo. Gentlemen. Eisler was in this country for years. 
Peters, Weiner, Stachel, and other nonnaturalized citizens were the 
real heads of the Communist Party in this country, subject to Mos- 
cow's orders, of course. They were here for years without interference 
from the immigration authorities in this country, despite the constant 
efforts to build an apparatus for the overthrow of the Government. 

Gentlemen, Americans usually are used as nominal heads of the 
party. With few exceptions, however, when an American member is 
taken into the real top circles of the party it proves disappointing to 
Moscow. Most Americans who were admitted to the higher circles 
of party leadership were disgusted and nauseated at what they found 
there. Among the sad experiences with native American Communist 
leaders, I might mention here the efforts to take Americans like Louis 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 133 

Budenz, Julia Stuart Poyntz, and myself, merely to mention three 
names, into the circles where the real objectives and methods of com- 
munism are obvious to those participating in the work. 

The matter of perjury, obtaining passports under false names, and 
similar illegal actions, is only a part of the daily routine, i^s one 
example, when I was on the ninth floor of national Communist Party 
offices one day, Peters, Weiner, and Brown a — the latter previously 
known to me as Alpi, an Italian — asked me to go with a girl for whom 
they would obtain a passport illegally, through fraudulent representa- 
tion. Peters, Weiner, and Brown, alias Alpi, asked me to testify 
under oath that I was the father of this girl, a young lady introduced 
to me for the first time. I refused, and the party leaders were angry. 

Before leaving the names of these leaders who were far more im- 
portant in the formation of policy than the native American members, 
I would like to say a few words about Peters. 

Senator Ferguson. Did they get a man to act as the father of this 
girl so she would get a passport ? 

Mr. Crouch. I don't know. Brown, alias Alpi, remarked rather 
angrily that they would find somebody. 

Senator Ferguson. You have told us how strict this discipline was ; 
you could refuse this when you were a Communist ? 

Mr. Crouch. Principally because the party had already discovered 
I was very reluctant to engage in any conspiratorial fields of work, 
because the party already had been moving me out of that field and 
was moving me into fields where I. as a native American, was being 
used as one of their front figures ; in this capacity I was, as a native- 
born American and a native southerner, too valuable for the party 
at that time to take disciplinary action against. 

Senator Ferguson. Were vou cooling off at that time as a 
Communist? 

Mr. Crouch. I was. It was a gradual, long process. 

Senator Ferguson. Were you at any time wholeheartedly in favor 
and sympathy of this communistic activity and regime? 

Mr. Crouch. Not without misgivings and without being torn by 
conscience; not without realizing that there was much that was ex- 
tremely distasteful and extremely bitter, and yet I was so carried 
away with certain idealism in its language that I accepted this for a 
time before I found it was too much. 

Senator Ferguson. Were you ever threatened so that you felt your 
life would be threatened or bodily harm done to you if you left the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Crouch. Not in so many words, but I had good reason to have 
that feeling and to realize that there was considerable personal danger. 
My testimony covers that. 

Senator Ferguson. What gave you that feeling? 

Mr. Crouch. The fate of one Julia Stuart Poyntz was one case 
in question, and the general language that was used in the party, 
and terms used to the effect that "people don't quit the party." The 
general impression was given that once you are a party member 
and in the party leadership, you are expected to stay there. It was 
more the impression, general over-all knowledge of the tactics and 
methods and what I was learning about it in the Soviet, the purges 
in the Soviet Union and the methods used there, and the general 

1 F. Brown. 



134 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

knowledge which was confirmed just a short time after (his incident. 
I believe it happened within a matter of a few months, in June of 
1937, that Julia Stuart Poyntz disappeared, and all my investigations 
and discussions with party members, with ex-party members later, 
convinced me beyond any shadow of a doubt that she was murdered 
by agents of the GPU in the United States. This is one example. 

Senator Ferguson. You knew there was such an agency in the 
United States. 

Mr. Crouch. I knew there was for I had met, for example, the head 
of the GPU in the United States at one time and had discussed activi- 
ties in which he wished me to engage. 

Mr. Arens. That is the secret police of the Communists. 

Mr. Crouch. The GPU is the secret service of the Government of 
the Soviet Union. It has agents in various countries. At one time I 
met a Russian who was introduced to me in New York as the head of 
the GPU in the United States. 

Senator Ferguson. How large is it in the United States, if you 
know ? 

Mr. Crouch. I have no knowledge as to its membership. I might 
add that the head of the GPU sent for me to find out whether the 
Young Communist League, of which I was a national educational 
director at the time, was in a position to obtain through employees 
in Washington blank United States passports for the Soviet Govern- 
ment. 

Senator Ferguson. Were you able to get such passports ? 

Mr. Crouch. I was not. 

Senator Ferguson. Did you try to get them ? 

Mr. Crouch. I did not. 

Senator Ferguson. Did anyone try to get them ? 

Mr. Crouch. I don't know. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Senator Wiley. What was your answer? 

Mr. Crouch. My answer was I could not. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Crouch. Because he was for years the head of the Communist 
Party's underground apparatus in this country, the man who gave 
instructions to me on how to set up illegal apparatus and maintain it 
in readiness for going underground at any time was J. P'eters. Peters 
also directed the recruiting of American Communists for service in 
the Spanish Civil War. I personally saw him give various party 
organizers varying sums of money to pay fares to New York, pass- 
ports, and other expenses for those recruited. 

He gave me money for one recruit from the University of North 
Carolina, a student from Chapel Hill who, incidentally, never re- 
turned. Peters told me to advise this recruit for Spain that a passport 
would be obtained for him under another name in New York upon 
his arrival there. I mentioned the name of Bill Gebert, who for many 
years was a district organizer of the Communist Party in this country 
and a member of its central committee. Today, Gebert is a very high 
ranking official of the Government of Poland. 

I wish to emphasize at this time that my testimony should not be 
interpreted in any way as reflecting upon the basic loyalty in the 
United States of the overwhelming majority of foreign-born residents 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 135 

; n this country. However, some factors should be recognized and, in 
my opinion, legislation enacted to remedy them. It must be remem- 
bered that alien immigrants for the most part are unable to read 
English when they enter this country. A large percentage of the 
foreign-language press in the United States is controlled by the 
Communist Party. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you cite evidence of that fact? 

Mr. Crouch. I did not cite the names of the papers. For example, 
I might mention the Freiheit, the Jewish-language Communist daily. 
There has been, I do not know whether still published, a daily news- 
paper in the Hungarian language, called Uj El ore. There was at one 
time published a Greek daily paper and an Italian language paper. 
Spanish language paper, and papers — many other foreign languages 
at one time. There were two daily newspapers in the United States 
published in the Finnish language alone by the Communist Party. 

Senator Ferguson. Right there, I wonder if you could tell us where 
they get the money to do this. The subscriptions and advertisements 
do not pay these papers enough to survive ; do they ? 

Mr. Crouch. No ; practically all of the party's presses are operated 
at a loss. 

Senator Ferguson. Where do they get the money now? 

Mr. Crouch. Some of the money is raised from wealthy American 
sympathizers, strange as it may seem. There are people of consider- 
able wealth in this country. 

Senator Ferguson. Can you name the people that have donated to 
these papers? 

The Chairman. Of your own knowledge. 

Senator Ferguson. Yes ; I do not want him to give anything but his 
own knowledge. 

Mr. Crouch. I would not be able to recall at this time after these 
years since I was engaged in this work. I do know that when I was 
in the national office I saw a list of donations, running as high as $1,000,. 
in one donation for the Communist press. 

Senator Ferguson. From whom did you get money all of the time 
that you were a Communist ? 

Mr. Crouch. I received my pay from the national office of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Senator Ferguson. In dollars ? 

Mr. Crouch. In dollars ; yes. 

Senator Ferguson. That is the only kind you could use here ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes ; that is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Did you get paid while you were in Russia? 

Mr. Crouch. I got paid in Russian rubles. 

Senator Ferguson. Who paid you there? 

Mr. Crouch. The Communist International. 

Senator Ferguson. They paid you there in rubles and here in 
dollars. 

Mr. Crouch. That is right. 

Senator Ferguson. And your support and maintenance came from 
the Communists. 

Mr. Crouch. It did. 

Senator Ferguson. Both there and here. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 



136 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. What is the form of pay, in check form or was it in 
currency? 

Mr. Crouch. Invariably in cash or money orders. 

The Chairman. Money orders on the post office — postal money 
orders ? 

]\Ir. Crouch. Postal money orders or cash. 

Senator Langer. Can you not tell Senator Ferguson even one name 
of one of these rich people that donated? Can you not tell Senator 
Ferguson even one name? 

The Chairman. He did not say rich people; he said donations. 

Senator Ferguson. He said large donations, too. 

Mr. Crouch. Large donations. 

Senator Ferguson. I think you assumed the}^ must be rich. 

Senator Langer. Name one person. 

Senator Ferguson. Can you answer Senator Langer ? I asked you 
the same question — if you know. 

Mr. Crouch. I can describe a couple of individuals and you could 
check the names. I might be able to recall with great effort. One of 
the men who contributed — who told me that he contributed about 
$10,000 a year to the party — lived in New York, and I believe Mr. 
J. Lovestone, who was secretary of the Communist Party, will be will- 
ing to supply the name of this individual to the committee, since both 
Lovestone and I were guests at his home on the same occasion. I could 
recall incidents and his contributions amounted, as he told me, to 
approximately $10,000 a year. 

It must be recalled that many years have passed and these wealthy 
people who made contributions kept very much in the background, 
with a few exceptions. However, a check of the party press, some of 
these donations were published — a matter of record — and if you would 
examine the files of the Daily Worker, the files of Uj Elore, and I am 
sure if you examine the files of the Freiheit you will find the names 
published there of many contributors in amounts ranging from $500 to 
$1,000. 

Senator Ferguson. What do you think those people expected to 
gain from those donations ; have you any idea what their philosophy 
was? 

Mr. Crouch. It is difficult to answer precisely, with absolute knowl- 
edge as to what their outlook was. In my opinion, they were com- 
pletely under the domination of what they considered the Marxist- 
Leninist outlook on life. They read the propaganda of the party. 
They felt that everything was wrong in the world, that communism 
offered a way out. In other words, their outlook was far more like 
the members of some fanatical religious group than members of a 
political party. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Crouch. At considerable financial loss to itself, the Communist 
Party for years has operated a vast number of newspapers, a number 
of daily papers in foreign languages. The immigrants get their knowl- 
edge of America from the Communist-controlled papers in their own 
language. They are brought into all kinds of organizations controlled 
by Communists. This is particularly important now since the Com- 
munists have brought many central European countries under their 
iron dictatorship, countries like Rumania, Bulgaria, Poland, Czecho- 
slovakia, and so forth. The consular officials of these countries in the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES TNT ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 137 

United States know that immigrants from these countries have rela- 
tives at home. All kinds of pressure today is possible to induce or 
coerce aliens into entering the Communist-front organizations. 

Before we criticize or permit any reflection upon loyalty of aliens 
in this country, by and large, let us take steps to correct this situation. 
First, I would like to suggest, for your consideration, legislation which 
would prevent any foreign ambassador, consular, or other official of 
any other country in this Nation, from supporting any subversive 
group here or trying to influence aliens to enter such groups. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have knowledge respecting the activities of 
officials of foreign governments in this country or affiliates of inter- 
national organizations in connection with so-called Communist-front 
groups % 

Mr. Crouch. Not specifically. Only the source material which I 
have read from the press, and which is available, of course, to this 
committee. 

Senator Ferguson. When did you leave the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Crouch. 1942. 

Senator Ferguson. You had an absolute break with them ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. Did you advise them of that break or did they 
just become acquainted with it ? 

Mr. Crouch. The break, my break with the Communist Party, 
Senator, developed progressively from 1933 until 1942, beginning 
with the time when I was, as they would express it, called on the 
carpet, sharply reprimanded at a party conference in Denver, Colo., 
and later before a meeting of the central committee by Pat Toohey 
for the crime of failing to combat, for failing to expose the demagogic 
nature of Roosevelt and his administration. I was the party organizer 
in Utah in 1933, editor of the Carbon County Miner and a leader in a 
mine organization and in some strikes out there. In the paper which I 
edited, the Communist Party officials said they had read and reread 
and could not find one word of denunciation of Roosevelt. For this I 
was sharply lambasted, because the party at that time was denouncing 
Roosevelt and the New Deal with every use of adjective at its disposal. 

This difference increased, and it would take hours of the committee's 
time to go into the various details, an increasing break in views, but 
I would like to mention the period around 1936, when I read the testi- 
mony of the purge trials in the Soviet Union. I had known Bukharin 
and many other leaders who were on trial in the Soviet Union, and 
I knew the kind of testimony that was reproduced was utterly ridicu- 
lous, testimony which in my opinion based upon my years in the move- 
ment, could have been obtained from them — from men like Bukharin, 
whom I had seen in Moscow, had heard speak, and talked with — could 
have been obtained from them only through extreme forms of torture 
of himself or threats of torture of members of his family. 

The realization of Soviet Russia's being a dictatorship which was 
ruthlessly suppressing all opposition from without and within the 
party, having people shot by the thousands, exiled to Siberia by the 
millions, was a terrific shock. I talked with party members return- 
ing from the Soviet Union, and while I cannot recall specific names, 
the general picture which these party members presented was that of 
growing difficult economic position, and the fact that no one spoke 
very openly about any reported differences in the party, or in intra- 



138 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

party matters. In other words, people followed the line and did 
not open their months. Incidentally, in this connection, 1 was also 
called in 1933, again on the carpet by one John Harvey, an American 
trained at the Lenin School in Moscow, who upon his return to the 
United States was a member of the Politburo of the American Party 
for a time. Just back from the Lenin School, Harvey told me that 
I was not hardboiled enough, that we should not have all of this soft 
talk about democracy. I was guilty of bourgeois liberalism. 

Senator Lancer. Where were you in 193G ( 

Mr. Crouch. In 1936, I was district organizer of the Communist 
Party of North Carolina. 

Senator Langer. These party members that you talked with, were 
they here in the United States? 

Mr. Crouch. They were here, just returned. 

Senator Langer. Who are some of them that you talked with? 

Mr. Crouch. I talked at various times with Browder, with Foster, 
with Stachel, upon their return, and many more or less rank-and-file 
members. There were dozens of them. And after the years, I don't 
recall specific ones. 

Senator Langer. Besides Foster and Browder, and one or two more 
that we all know about, name some other people. 

Mr. Crouch. Well, I might name, for example, such names as George 
Siskind. There are many other people, but most of my work in that 
period was in contact with top party leaders. Bill Gebert was one 
of those. When I went to New York, most of the time I was in New 
York, was spent in discussions with Brown, whom I mentioned also 
by the name of Alpi, with Stachel, Weiner, Peters, and the various 
other men to whom I reported on the work I was doing, and received 
directions from them, discussed political line tactics, and things of 
that kind. 

Senator Langer. They did not know any more about the purge than 
you did, did they ? They weren't over there. 

Mr. Crouch. I didn't say that — don't misunderstand me. I didn't 
say, for the record, certainly did not mean to, that I got any infor- 
mation regarding the purge from any American Communist. My 
deductions and my views on the purge were entirely my own, based 
upon reading and rereading the printed testimony they gave in 
Moscow. I referred to the statements of American Communists 
partly, largely in connection with the economic conditions existing 
in the Soviet Union. 

Getting away from the matter of leaders, since the Senator asked 
about names of rank and file, there was a man named K. Y. Hen- 
dricks in North Carolina, in my district, whom I had known at the 
Gastonia strike, who had gone to the Soviet Union, worked over there 
in their factories, and was some years over there, although he faced 
charges in the United States, had been convicted and skipped bail. 
Hendricks returned to this country, preferring to live in the United 
States at the risk of imprisonment, rather than live over there, al- 
though Hendricks still remained a member of the Communist Party. 
This illustrates the contradiction. Hendricks told me much about 
the hardships of life there. When he returned to the United States 
in the middle thirties his stories of life in Russia, if made public, 
would have driven most of the Americans away from the move- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 139 

merit. And yet Hendricks, who told me about the terrible conditions 
over there, and in spite of the fact that he preferred to come 
back to the United States and serve a sentence in the penitentiary of 
North Carolina, preferred American prison to Russian freedom, still 
remained in the Communist Party. This illustrates the peculiar 
mentality of many Communists. 

Senator Ferguson. What was he sentenced for? 

Mr. Crouch. Sentenced in connection with the shooting of Chief 
Adderholt, during the Gastonia 1929 strike. 

Senator Ffrguson. What was his term of years? 

Mr. Crouch. I do not recall. I believe his sentence was 2 or 3 
years, to the best of my recollection. He served about 2 years. 

Senator Langer. Was he an American citizen? 

Mr. Crouch. He was an American citizen, native born, native of 
the Carolinas or Tennessee. 

Secondly, I would like to suggest for your consideration the possi- 
bility of schools in Americanism for aliens in this country, schools 
operated without cost for those attending, where English would be 
taught and where the principles of democracy would be made clear 
to those who have come to our shores. The radio also could be 
utilized effectively in foreign languages by stations in small commu- 
nities inhabited mainly by immigrants of one nationality. Our State 
Department is doing a splendid job with the Voice of America. While 
we are sending messages to Central Europeans behind the iron curtain, 
we must not forget those aliens inside our own borders who cannot 
speak the English language. The Communist Party in this country 
has prepared literally tons of foreign-language material to propa- 
gandize the non-English speaking foreign-born here. Cannot we 
publish, at Government expense, books on the true nature and value 
of democracy for distribution which will counteract the poisonous 
propaganda of foreign agents ? 

Senator Ferguson. You think we need a Voice of America to our 
foreign-born who are unable to read and write the English language 
here. 

Mr. Crouch. I do. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you think that the Communists are working 
among them and doing great harm among them by getting them into 
recruits and using them ? 

Mr. Crouch. They are. 

Senator Ferguson. We are missing that and going to Europe with 
our Voice, rather than here. You think that we need a lot of work 
right among our foreign-born here? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; in addition. 

Senator Ferguson. To teach them American institutions. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. And American principles. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct ; yes. 

Senator Wiley. Are they using the radio ? 

Mr. Crouch. These Communists ? 

Senator Wilet. Yes. 

Mr. Crouch. They are using the radio. They have been using the 
radio in English in the South. Not living in a foreign language 
community, I am unable to say whether the Communists have been 

98330 — 50 — pt. 1 10 



140 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

using the radio in the foreign-language areas of the country. I could 
not answer that. I don't know. 

Senator Ferguson. Do they not have foreign-language hours on 
various radios in large cities? Are you familiar with that? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes ; I believe they do. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you know whether any propaganda, Com- 
munist propaganda, is put out on those hours? 

Mr. Crouch. No; you see, 1 live in the South and am not in a posi- 
tion to listen to the stations. I do not know what they carry. I have 
no knowledge. 

Senator Wiley. Any utilization of television ? 

Mr. Crouch. I live in the South where we have just had television 
for about a month. I don't know. 

Turning to another subject in the field of the subcommittee's juris- 
diction, I have already mentioned the case of Mrs. Celia Greenberg, 
of Miami Beach, who has been officially identified as a Communist 
and who sponsored the entry of two displaced persons into the 
country. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you have any idea how wealthy she is ? 

Mr. Crouch. She is reputed fairly well-to-do and I have heard her 
name mentioned in discussions around the office in connection with 
people they were expecting contributions from. My impression is that 
she is upper middle class in wealth. 

Senator Ferguson. What knowledge did you have about her bring- 
ing these displaced persons in ? 

Mr. Crouch. The fact was published in — I got my knowledge 

Senator Ferguson. Just from the paper? 

Mr. Crouch. From the newspaper, seeing her picture, and imme- 
diately I recognized her picture as that of a Communist. I imme- 
diately called the attention of Mr. Hoke Welch, the managing editor 
of the Miami Daily News, to the fact that I knew that she was a 
Communist, and asked how it is possible for this Mrs. Greenberg, a 
leader whom I have understood to be not only a member of the party 
but a member of the county committee, to act as a sponsor for the 
entry into America of two so-called displaced persons. How is it 
possible? I don't know what happened subsequently. Mr. Welch, 
I understand, began making inquiries into it. But I do not know 
specifically what was done. I understand that they called this to 
the attention of Mr. Smathers, 1 the Representative from that district 
in Congress, and the paper quoted Mr. Smathers saying investigations 
were being made by the State Department. If I recall the language 
correctly, they said the State Department was going to make sure that 
such mistakes did not happen again in this respect; that they had 
checked on the displaced persons without finding anything wrong, 
but apparently had not checked on their sponsor. I am certain that 
if a check had been made on this case, that if the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in Miami had been asked about her, the State Depart- 
ment would never have accepted her as a sponsor. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you think it is possible to check and ascertain 
whether or not people are Communists when they are using the under- 
ground so much ? 

Mr. Crouch. It is not always possible. 

1 Representative George A. Smathers, Fourth District, Florida. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 141 

Senator Ferguson. In other words, how would I have found out 
that you were a Communist back in the early days when you were 
down on this paper in North Carolina — what was the name of it? 

Mr. Crouch. I was not a member of the Communist Party at that 
time. 

Senator Ferguson. You were following the party line, and you 
might as well have been a party member ; is that not right ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. For all intents and purposes. Well, suppose 
these people get up and they do not join, but they are really fellow 
travelers. You understand that term. 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. You were a fellow traveler at that time. How 
would I have checked and found that out ? 

Mr. Crouch. You would have had an investigator go to my neigh- 
borhood. 

Senator Ferguson. They are only human. They will go and ask 
your neighbors, "Is Crouch a Communist?" Do you think your 
neighbor would have known ? 

Mr. Crouch. I think they would ; my neighbors, yes. They would 
have told you I had very radical ideas. I might not be a Communist, 
but they would have told you I had radical ideas. I made no secret 
of it. 

Senator Ferguson. Will you judge it by radicalism? They do not 
want the word "radical" ; they want "liberal." 

Mr. Crouch. In this case. 

Senator Ferguson. How will you tell ? 

Mr. Crouch. It is my considered opinion that in the first place, if 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation had merely been asked about it, 
they would have been able to inform the State Department that the 
proposed sponsor was a member of the party. But as I understand 
the present regulations, the present activities of the FBI are limited 
primarily to gathering information, rather than releasing information, 
and even other branches of the Government find it difficult to obtain 
specific information as to whether anyone has a file as a Communist 
with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Senator Ferguson. So far as the legislative branch is concerned, 
that is true ; I will agree with you. I will have to agree with you on 
that. That is true so far as the legislative branch is concerned. 

Senator Wiley. How do }'ou know these two who were taken in were 
Communists ? 

Mr. Crouch. I do not know. I have no knowledge whatsoever that 
these two displaced people are Communists. Their sponsor is a Com- 
munist, has been officially identified as such. I knew her. I knew from 
the various remarks that had been made in telephone conversations 
that she was a member of the county committee. I knew she was very 
active in one of the leading fronts, and previously identified before a 
congressional committee, in the records of that committee, as a Com- 
munist. All of the committees, if their records were coordinated, and 
the work of the FBI coordinated, each would have a better idea of 
who the Communists in the country are, in my opinion. 

Senator Wiley. It is very possible she saw the light, like you claim 
you have. 

Mr. Crouch. If she did, she did so very, very recently. 



142 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

While the counl ry investigates displaced persons themselves, I think 
it, should make an even Stricter invest igat ion of the American sponsors. 

In this connection, gentlemen, I think there is a greater need for 
close coordination between the immigration authorities in this coun- 
try and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. If the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation Mere authorized and directed to supply the immigra- 
tion officials with the names of known Communists 

Senator Ferguson. Do you not think there is close liaison between 
Immigration and FBI? 

Mr. Crouch. Partially. I do not believe that there is the complete 
exchange of information in this field between the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation and the other Government departments, including Immi- 
gration, that is desirable. There is some coordination, it is true. I do 
not believe it is true to the extent that it should be. 

Senator Ferguson. You understand, then, that Immigration has its 
own inspectors, and that the Immigration inspectors do not have access 
to the FBI files? 

Mr. Crouch. I do not have personal knowledge. My impression is 
that other departments of the Government do not have. 

Senator Ferguson. Have you ever heard in Communist circles that 
that was true ? I do not want you guessing here. 

Mr. Crouch. No. 

Senator Ferguson. We need evidence; we need light. 

Mr. Crouch. I have not heard any remark on that in Communist 
circles. 

Knowledge of the identity. of native American Communists is very 
important in connection with the check on foreign visitors who may 
be coming here as their guests or employees. 

Another field, in my opinion, requiring careful investigation by this 
subcommittee and legislation to correct weaknesses is the field of un- 
restricted travel between the United States and Latin- American coun- 
tries, particularly Mexico and Cuba. 

In this connection, also, there is a matter of travel between this 
country and abroad where there are flight stewards on air lines, par- 
ticularly those on air lines where the union is under Communist domi- 
nation. Cuban party leaders can enter the United States at Miami 
with little or no formality. With the Pan American flight stewards 
and the many other Latin- American lines, with employees under Com- 
munist control, it is easy for flight stewards to act as couriers between 
the Communists of the United States and the various countries of 
Latin America. 

Senator Ferguson. When you say it is very easy, have you any 
knowledge that that was ever done ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. I have knowledge of similar circumstantial 
evidence which is quite conclusive. I might say that I know that the 
union for Pan American, local 500, Pan American Airways employees 
at Miami, Transport Workers Union, is Communist-controlled, and 
that the officials are members of the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. Where is this, now ? 

Mr. Crouch. I know that the top officials of local 500 at Miami, Fla., 
which includes all maintenance and flight service, flight stewards, in 
Miami, and in the Pan American Airways bases at San Juan, P. R., 
and Balboa in the Canal Zone, all being sections under control of this 
local, are Communists. I personally know that the present president 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 143 

of that local. Phil Scheffaky, is or recently was a member of the Com- 
munist Party; that M. L. Edwards, former president, is a member of 
the Communist Party. I have every reason to know that Armand 
Scala, the chief flight steward, is a very active Communist and work- 
ing with Charles Smolikoff of the Communist Party leadership there, 
with Edwards and Scheffsky, in continuing the Communist control of 
the local. Many references which I have heard around the office indi- 
cate beyond any* doubt in my mind that he was acting as a chief courier 
to Latin America. I know M. L. Edwards of the Communist Party 
was making very frequent trips to Panama and to San Juan, P. R., 
officially on union business, and that in party circles A. E. Loverne, 
of Panama, who heads the organization down there — I understand 
that Loverne is not his real name ; I cannot recall his real name — is an 
active member of the Communist Party. Edwards in personal con- 
versations with me in New York City spoke — I cannot recall the exact 
words — he spoke of the strength of the Communists down there, spoke 
of various trade-union leaders as Communists, and I got the definite 
inference from several days of conversation with him and with Phil 
Scheffsky that Edwards was actively engaged in work for the Com- 
munists, as courier in the entire Caribbean area. 

Senator Wiley. What was the date ? 

Mr. Crotch. The date of the conversation with Edwards and 
Scheffsky in New York was December of 1946. 

Senator Ferguson. Would you tell me then, in your opinion, if we 
allow Communists to go out of this country, we are taking a great 
chance those Communists, when they come back in, will bring back 
secret information to Communists here ? 

Mr. Crouch. Definitely. 

Senator Ferguson. You feel that certain ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. That if they are given passports to go out, the 
chances are that when they come ba<4v they will bring secret informa- 
tion and that they will also carry with them information to the Com- 
munists where they are going? 

Mr. Crouch. Directives to the Communists of other countries and 
information and reports ; that is correct. 

Senator Fergusox. And some of that will be subversive, as far as 
taking it out of this country and giving it is concerned ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. Much of it is likely to be concerned with stra- 
tegic military secrets of the country. 

Senator Laxger. How do you know ? 

Mr. Crouch. I know that from 17 years' experience in the Com- 
munist Party, from my discussions with the highest Red Army gen- 
eral officers in Moscow. I know from about 3 months of work in 
Moscow in the anti-militarist commission of the Communist Interna- 
tional — of which I was a member, in which details of work were 
formulated for the obtaining of military knowledge — relaying this 
knowledge to the Soviet Union was part of the task expected of 
Communists, where they could obtain it. 

Senator Laxger. In these 17 years that you claim, give us two or 
three illustrations of what you learned. 

The Chairman. Illustrations of what? 

Senator Langer. Of where they got hold of military secrets. 



144 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Crouch. All right. I would like to cite a case which the com- 
mittee can follow up and investigate, get all of the records from the 
"War Department, which I think illustrates this. I was in charge for 
several years of sending Communists into the armed forces of the 
country. I was instructed in Moscow in consultations with the general 
staff to concentrate on Panama as the most important strategic point. 

In carrying this out, I assigned a soldier by the name of Taylor to 
go to Panama. He entered the Army in 1929. He was from the mine 
fields of Pennsylvania. I don't recall his first name. I know his 
last name was Taylor. He was a miner from the area around Wilkes- 
Barre, Pa. I know that he was followed by others. I was succeeded 
in the position as head of the work on the armed forces by "Walter 
Trumbull. He informed me that about seven or eight soldiers were 
in Panama working in the Army in connection with plans that were 
prepared in Moscow, and also this culminated in the arrest of one 
of the men sent in by the Communist Party. I do not recall his name. 

The Chairman. An arrest where ? 

Mr. Crouch. In Panama by the "War Department. He was court 
martialed. His name and some facts regarding his court martial have 
been published recently in a book called Labor Attorney, by Louis 
Waldman. I would like to refer, and while many years have passed, 
so far as recalling names, I would like to refer the committee to this 
book for the name of this soldier who was sent in by the Communist 
Party, and I believe that Mr. "Waldman gives considerable details 
in connection with this. 1 

Senator Laxoer. "Well, now, we asked you a definite question. You 
told this committee a few moments ago you got your information by 
talking with the Red generals over there in Moscow. I asked you to 
name some instances where they got hold of strategic secrets. You 
are talking about a book somebody published. We are not inter- 
ested in that ; at least, I am not. I want you to tell us what you 
learned from these generals that you talked with. 

Mr. Crouch. In talking with the generals over there I got direc- 
tions for concentration points in Panama, which I carried through. 

The Chairman. "What did you carry through? 

Mr. Crouch. I carried through plans, sending the first soldier into 
Panama and giving directions for reports back to the United States 
on his progress in building a Communist organization inside the 
Army in Panama. I never received from him, and I was not — I was 
never personally; I would like to make this clear — I was never per- 
sonally in a position to carry out other parts of those directives regard- 
ing the relaying to the Soviet Union of military information obtained. 

The Chairman. "Where did you find this soldier that you sent in, 
and how did you get him into the military service? 

Mr. Crouch. I knew him in New York in the Youmr Communist 
League, and on a visit up there "Walter Trumbull and I were talking 
with him. I told him we were looking for soldiers to go into the 
armed forces and asked him how he would like to enter this. This 
was an important task, and Mr. Taylor agreed. In compliance with 
the directions, he entered the armed forces in Panama. 

1 Corp. Robert Osman, charged with violation of ninety-sixth r.rtiele of war, unlawful 
possession of defense plan, Fort Sherman, C Z., acquitted on retrial. (Labor Lawyer by 
Louis Waldman.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 145 

However, I would like to point out that after 1930 I was no longer 
the head of this department. This work was directed first by Walter 
Trumbull and then by Emanuel Levin, who was in charge of the 
details. Party officials are usually given very little information other 
than about their own specific fields of work. I was engaged in other 
fields of work, so I was not in the position personally to supply such 
information to Moscow. 

The Chairman. What was the name of this soldier? 

Mr. Crouch. Taylor was the soldier who was sent into Panama. 

The Chairman. Was he the only one that went into the armed 
services ? 

Mr. Crouch. He was the only one who had gone into Panama before 
I left. However, while I was still the head of the antimilitarist de- 
partment there were several hundred members of the Communist 
Party and Young Communist League who joined the National Guard, 
the ROTC, and other branches like that of the armed forces. For 
example, at Fort Snelling, at the National Guard camp, around 1929, 
the Communists and the other Communist leaders working with those 
we had sent into the National Guard were able to prepare a propa- 
ganda paper. We published a mimeographed magazine called the 
Fort Snelling Rapid Fire. I am sure if you wish to check with the 
War Department, the War Department would be glad to supply you 
with dozens of papers put out in 1929, published by the Communist 
Party, based on reports from their agents inside the armed forces. 

Senator Ferguson. Were you publishing this as a pamphlet for 
the soldiers? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; we were. 

Senator Ferguson. Communist literature ? 

Mr. Crouch. We were. 

Senator Ferguson. And the Army was permitting it? 

Air. Crouch. The Army did not willingly permit it. 

Senator Ferguson. You say they would be able to give it to us ? 

Mr. Crouch. The Army would be able to give you copies of the 
paper which they took away from some of the agents, from girls who 
waited outside the barracks, outside the barracks to hand these papers 
to the soldiers, to members of the National Guard, as they came out. 

Senator Ferguson. Then it was not printed by soldiers. 

Mr. Crouch. I said. I think the record will show that these papers 
were printed by the Communist Party, based on information given 
to them by their members inside the armed forces. 

Senator Ferguson. Giving information that was secret ? 

Mr. Crouch. Supposed to be secret. Soldiers were not supposed to 
publish such information; no. 

Senator Ferguson. Nothing was done about it ; nobod} 7 arrested ; 
nobody court-martialed ? 

Mr. Crouch. Some of the girls were arrested, but released without 
trials, and they were not — during the time I was in charge of this 
field — they did not detect any of the people who were sent in by the 
part} 7 . Walter Trumbull, who succeeded me, informed me that they 
had succeeded in placing approximately a dozen, anywhere from seven 
to a dozen, Communists aboard one battleship, the U. S. S. Oklahoma. 
The Communist members of the armed forces smuggled Communist 
propaganda aboard the battleship, stuck it up on walls and distrib- 
uted it in various ways aboard the battleship. 



14() COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Ferguson, As early as l!>-_!!> the Communisl Party was 
active in putting their members in the United States Army and the 
I fnited States Navy? 

Mr. (norm. It was. 

Senator Ferguson. For the obtaining of information and the 
converting of people to communism? 

Mr. ( Jrouch. Yes; for the additional purpose of obtaining military 
training themselves. 

Senator Ferguson. For the purpose of training, so they could help 
to overthrow this Government \ 

Mr. Crouch. Correct. 

Senator Ferguson. As soldiers? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. You say that as a fact? 

Mr. Crouch. That is the fact, because those were the instructions 
drawn up and the printed material of the Sixth World Congress of 
the Communist International, which is available in the Library of 
Congress from various governmental departments. I participated in 
drawing up some of the material contained in the Sixth World Con- 
gress. Some of this material was drawn up in the antimilitarist com- 
mission, on which I worked in Moscow, and some of this published 
material gives directives about converting an "imperialist" war to 
civil war, and the conditions under which revolution is possible, and 
so on ; the published material there. 

Senator Wiley. Time and place? 

Mr. Crouch. That is insignificant to the details that were drawn 
up, not for publication. 

Senator Wiley. Time and place of the Sixth World Congress. 

Mr. Crouch. It was held in 1928, in Moscow. 

Senator Ferguson. You have every reason to believe that the same 
thing would be going on today ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; I certainly would draw that deduction. 

Senator Ferguson. They put men in our Army for the purpose of 
getting information, also for the purpose of getting training to over- 
throw the Government at the right time. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Is that what you are telling us ? 

Mr. Crouch. That is my belief. 

Senator Ferguson. That is your absolute belief from the facts? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. Have you any Communist friends now ? Do any 
of them trust you now ? 

Mr. Crouch. No. 

Senator Ferguson. Are you in contact with any of them ? 

Mr. Crouch. I am not in contact with anyone whom I know to be 
a member of the Communist Party. 

Senator Ferguson. Have you been, in the last few years, in contact 
with people who have felt as you have and have left or w T ere with- 
drawing? 

Mr. Crouch. I have. 

Senator Ferguson. Are there many people deserting the Commu- 
nists in America? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes ; from all indications. 

Senator Ferguson. What can we do to make more desert? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 147 

Mr. Crotch. 0>e thing would be to publish material on the facts 
about the Soviet Union in terms of standards of living. I think, to 
make available to American party members comparisons of the stand- 
ard of living in this country — the wages paid American workers, wages 
paid Russian workers, the cost of a pair of shoes, of bread, of milk in 
this country — would be one of the most effective ways. I have already 
mentioned one way : That is the question of reaching the alien-born 
who are non-English-speaking people, who have less access to these 
facts, putting this material in English, in pamphlets, on the radio, and 
so on, of establishing schools in Americanism for them, where these 
facts would be presented. These are some of the ways in which this 
can be encouraged. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you think exposure by printing names and 
so forth of those who are actually Communists, that their neighbors 
know they are, would have anything to do with it ? 

Mr. Crouch. I do. I think also that another important factor in 
making it possible for Communists to break, and especially for Com- 
munists to cooperate with the Government in bringing in the facts at 
their disposal to the Government, is for all employers to make it clear 
that they are not going to discriminate against and victimize people 
who were once members of the Communist Party, who have realized 
their mistake and come forward and helped the Government. 

Senator Ferguson. In other words, desertion of the Communist 
Party, in your opinion, should not be held against a woman or a man 
in America to keep them out of employment. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. If they come out and tell the truth that they 
were Communists and actually desert the cause, they should be given 
credit and taken in employment, and so forth ; is that your opinion ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes ; it is my opinion that there are hundreds of peo- 
ple ; it is my conviction— of course, I do not — I want to make it clear, 
I do not have specific detailed facts; I am speaking of convictions 
based upon my years in the movement and my conversations with those 
who have broken — that the processes would be speeded up tremen- 
dously if the employers of the country made it clear that they will not 
follow a policy of job discrimination against people who have broken 
with the Communist Party, who place their knowledge of the Com- 
munist Party at the disposal of the Government. 

The Chairman. Sincerity as to desertion means a lot in that respect, 
and how is an employer to judge this sincerity of the desertion? 

Mr. Crouch. There have been many desertions from the Communist 
Party in this country. I do not believe there has ever been a case of 
one who has publicly deserted and who has publicly repudiated the 
Communist Party ever returning to the Communist Party, and the 
repudiation of the Communist Party should include cooperation with 
the Government in exposing the party propaganda, and so on. I think 
this should be sufficient evidence; that such cooperation should be 
sufficient evidence to intelligent people that such a person is honestly 
broken with the party and is cooperating in the interests of the 
country. 

Senator Ferguson. The Senator has asked you a very vital question. 
These people are very deceitful. They do not hesitate to use any 
deceit or any means of getting information. Suppose that you, being 
a Communist, you deserted — you say you desert — the Communists 



148 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

denounce you, and it is all a scheme for you to get certain employment 
so that you can later return the information to them. How are you 
going to tell this ? 

Mr. Crouch. In this case I think that the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation probably would be the best authority. The FBI would quickly 
determine from its discussions with those people the question of their 
sincerity. 

Senator Ferguson. That information is not made public. The em- 
ployer cannot call up the FBI and get any information. 

Mr. Crouch. I realize, Senator, that there is some difficulty about 
that ; but, by and large, I think that employers, using ordinary intelli- 
gence, would be able to determine this factor. Let us say that Mr. 
John Smith, who is not known to anyone, not known to any employer 
as a member of the Communist Party, suddenly informs the Govern- 
ment and releases a story to the press that he has broken with the 
Communist Party, appealing to other Communists to follow his ex- 
ample. There was nothing to make him do that. He was not known 
before, and also in denouncing the Communist Party he has done such 
damage to the party that it is very unlikely, extremely unlikely, that 
the party would ever have anyone damage it seriously in order to 
utilize them in strategic capacities. 

Senator Ferguson. In other words, you could not get back, could 
you, after telling what you are telling on this witness stand? You 
would not be able to go back into the good graces of the Communist 
Party in America; would you? 

Mr. Crouch. I certainly would not. 

Mr. Arens. You are under armed guard at this time; are you not? 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you feel that it is essential to have an armed 
guard ? 

Mr. Crouch. I do. 

Senator Ferguson. Why? 

Mr. Crouch. I feel that there is a real physical danger for those who 
publish the facts about Communist conspiracy, who inform the public 
of this knowledge. The physical danger perhaps is less after they 
testify than before. The danger to me would be probably less after 
this testimony than it was before, but there is still the danger. There 
is also the factor to be considered that the party, and especially MVD 
agents, have to weigh against each other two factors. One is the pub- 
licity, the harm to them, which results from physically wiping out, 
such as was employed in the Poyntz case to the best of my knowledge 
and conviction, and was probabty according to the published evidence, 
employed in the case of General Krivitzky, 1 to weigh that on one hand. 
They also weigh the fact that, if they can physically remove anyone 
who has done so, that this is an act of intimidation to those who pos- 
sess information and are planning to place it at the disposal of the 
Government. Certainly the question of the Government providing 
physical protection of individuals and their families to the point that 
may be necessary is very important, and in this connection I am glad 
you mentioned it, because I understand today there is no legislative 
step existing in which protection can be assured, under which the 
Department of Justice is able to assure a continued protection. 

1 Gen. Walter Krivitsky, former head of Soviet Military Espionage in western Europe 
■who was murdered in Washington, D. C, in February 1941. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 149 

I would like to add, since this is mentioned, that in Miami, Fla., the 
physical protection necessary for myself is being paid for by my em- 
ployer, because the Department of Justice does not have the legal 
authority. Not every employer in the United States is going to the 
expense of providing physical protection for his employees. Legisla- 
tion along this line, I think, is very desirable if the committee, if the 
Government in all of its branches, expects to receive the information 
that is necessary today on plots and threats against our national 
security. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting subversive activity 
in the country of affiliates of international organizations, or of affiliates 
of embassies and consulates of iron-curtain countries? 

Mr. Crouch. I have no specific information in this field, not being 
trusted for a long time before leaving the party. I do have informa- 
tion I am citing later in my statement about the use of the Soviet 
consulate at Miami, Fla., for the use of a Communist-front organiza- 
tion for the purpose of raising funds. If you would like, I have a 
short statement to go ahead with. 

Senator Langer. Would you mind if he answered my question about 
the IT years that he talked with these Russian generals, to find out 
what military secrets he found out? He has not told us about any 
of them yet. 

Mr. Crouch. I personally have not found any military secrets. 

Senator Langer. You told this committee that during the time you 
were in Moscow, sir, that you talked with Russian generals and found 
out strategy involving our military forces. I asked you to give con- 
crete examples, and you have not done it. 

Mr. Crouch. I stated the general plans that were drawn up in 
Moscow ; there were many of those. I was not in any position upon 
my return to carry all of them through. The specific task that was 
entrusted to me, such as getting Communists into the National Guard, 
I did. That is the work I did. I have not at any time stated that I 
obtained military secrets for the Soviet Union. I did not obtain any 
military secrets from this country. 

The Chairman. All right. That is your answer. Go ahead. 

Mr. Crouch. At a moment when a foreign power and satellite 
foreign powers are planning physical conquest of the world, including 
our Nation, it is very serious that such a situation can exist. Cer- 
tainly, it calls for more investigation and for concrete legislative 
action. 

Gentlemen, I wish to emphasize that it is necessary to fully safe- 
guard free speech, free press, and the other guaranties of our Con- 
stitution. No idea, however radical it may be, should be prevented by 
legislation. In fact, one cannot legislate against an ideal, nor should 
any attempt be made to do so. Anyone should have the right to 
advocate communism peacefully arrived at through legal and demo- 
cratic processes if he wishes to do so, but we must face facts. The 
American Communist Party today is not an organization interested 
in establishing communism through democratic action. It is an 
organization whose leaders are dedicated to civil war and armed 
insurrection as the means of overthrowing the Government and 
establishing a dictatorship. Such a revolution within the country 
would be impossible and unthinkable without the powerful role of 
a foreign power. If it were a question of the United States alone, talk 



150 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEX AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

of a revolution in this country would simply place one in the ranks 
of lunatics. The danger to this country is that the Soviet Union has 
a definite blueprint for conquering the entire world, country by coun- 
try, step by step, until personal liberty will be completely extinguished 
on this globe. The Communist leaders of this country are cooperating 
with the Soviet Union in every kind of action seeking to undermine 
the military strength of our Nation in the event of a war in the 
future, a war which the Communists regard as inevitable as the 
rising sun. 

Turning to specific examples in this field, I would like to call atten- 
tion of this committee to the fact that the Communist Party of Cuba 
controls and directs movements of the Pan American Airways do- 
mestic employees there. The head of the Cuban Union of Air-Line 
Employees in 1947 was Alberto Rodriguez Perez. In March 1947, 
Perez and two other Cuban trade-union officials came to Miami as 
fraternal delegates to the Florida State CIO Convention. Perez and 
the other two officials personally told me that they were members of 
the Cuban Communist Party. While in Miami, they had several meet- 
ings with Maurice Forge, an American Communist who was at that 
time head of the air-line division of the Transport Workers Union. I 
should add, however, that Forge has subsequently been removed from 
office by International President Quill 1 and the executive board of his 
union. 

I was present at one meeting between Forge and the Cuban repre- 
sentatives as their translator. Plans were laid in this discussion for 
building an elaborate organization of all air-line employees in Xorth 
and South America, with headquarters in Miami. 

Senator Wiley. Time and place ? 

Mr. Crouch. The time was March 1947. The place was in a restau- 
rant on Flagler Street, about the 300 or 400 block on Flagler Street, 
March 1947. 

Senator Wiley. I thought j'ou dissociated from the party long 
before that. 

Mr. Crouch. I dissociated myself from the party, but I was a union 
officer, I was editor of the Union Record, official organ of the Florida 
CIO; State, publicity director of the Florida CIO, and as such, I had 
to work with Communists in the trade-unions. 

Senator Ferguson. Then your answer to me was not quite correct — 
was it? — that you were not in contact with known Communists 
recently. 

Mr. Crouch. I believe I misunderstood. 

Senator Ferguson. You must have misunderstood my question. 

Mr. Crouch. I believed it was on intimate personal friendly terms. 

Senator Ferguson. When did you advise the Communists and the 
world that you had broken with them ? 

Mr. Crouch. I did not. I advised the Government of the United 
States. 

Senator Ferguson. When did you announce publicly that you had 
broken with the Communists, so that they would know that they could 
not trust you any longer? 

Mr. Crouch. I only announced publicly very recently. In March of 
this year, in Plain Talk magazine, was my first public article denounc- 

1 Michael Quill. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 151 

ing the activities of the Communist Party. First, I had advised the 
United States Government, immediately after the Communists had 
seized power in Czechoslovakia. 

Senator Fergusox. You told the FBI, in other words, 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 

Senator Fergusox. That you were breaking with them. 

Mr. Crouch. That I had broken with them. 

Senator Fergusox. That you had broken with them. Did that be- 
come known to the Communists ? 

Mr. Crouch. It did not. 

Senator Fergusox. That was the secret, so really when you pub- 
lished the article in Plain Talk that was your first public renunciation 
of communism. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct, Senator. 

Senator Fergusox. So when you go back and say that you had these 
contacts with these union members, CIO, in Miami, you were dealing 
with them as a Communist. 

Mr. Crouch. To give the details on this 

Senator Fergusox. Well, I mean that straightens out the facts that 
you answered me. 

Mr. Crouch. Many of them, for example, Perez, based on my past 
reputation, believed that I was still a member of the party. Forge 
personally knew I was not, Efforts were being made through 1946 
and 1947 to coerce me, to trick me back into the Communist Party. I 
was subjected in Texas and in Florida to every conceivable form of 
pressure to activize me in the party ; pressure which constituted the 
certainty of being forced out of my job and the probability of being 
blacklisted through the party. While I had then my personal con- 
victions, my personal conviction was that I was facing a very real 
physical danger for myself, and in spite of this I resisted all kinds of 
tricks, all kinds of efforts. 

For example, to make this perfectly clear, in 1946 in Texas, the 
international representative of the Transport Workers Union down 
there, one Ed Bock, told me to be at a conference at Houston, Tex. He 
wanted me to attend a conference on trade-union work and had the 
union treasury at Brownsville pay my round-trip fare. When I got 
there, I found for all practical purposes it would probably be called a 
Communist meeting. In the main, and among the speakers there was 
the district organizer of the Communist Party, a girl, and Nat Ross, the 
southern representative of the Communist Party. After he had 
spoken, Nat Ross called me aside and talked with me in a restaurant, 
and he said, "You should return to membership in the Communist 
Party. The Communist Party is willing to forget what you have 
done in the past ; your previous conflicts and so forth." The district 
organizer did everything possible and a book was sent made out from 
the Communist Party signed by the Communist Party of Texas. 

Senator Fergusox. What do you mean a book ? 

Mr. Crouch. A membership book was made out in my name in 1947. 
It was sent over to Florida and was delivered to my daughter by a 
Mr. Shansik, who was, according to my best information, the county 
organizer of the Communist Party in Miami at that time. 

Senator Wiley. What was the book ? 

Mr. Crouch. A membership book in the Communist Party and 
signed by Ruth Koenig, if I remember the name correctly. I think it 



152 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

was Ruth Koenig, of Texas. My daughter brought the book home and 
I tore it up and threw it in the wastebasket. 

In New York City in September of 1946, Charles N. Smolikoff, at 
that time Florida executive secretary of the CIO Industrial Union 
Council and representative in Florida of the Transport Workers Un- 
ion, told me he had previously spoken about details of the parly in 
Miami. Then lie said, "Douglas MacMahon" — that was the secretary 
treasurer of the Transport Workers Union — "tells me that you are out 
of the Communist Party." He said, "How come?" I told him, "Yes, 
I left the Communist Party." "You will have to get back in it," he 
said. I just remained silent while he talked. Later during a big ban- 
quet there he walked by and said, "Give me 50 cents." I took it out of 
my pocket and handed him the 50 cents. "I am ojoing to turn this in 
for your initiation back into the Communist Party," he said and 
turned around and walked off. 

I cite these as dozens of cases. I believe the last specific request to 
return to the Communist Party was in November 1947. 

Senator Ferguson. Could you get reinstated for 50 cents ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; if I was accepted by the central committee. 

Senator Ferguson. How much are the dues, then? 

Mr. Crouch. It is a sliding scale depending entirely upon wages. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have information respecting a contribution by 
the Soviet Government to the Communist Party in Miami ? 

Mr. Crouch. I would like to read my statement, finish the state- 
ment, which answers that question in detail. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Crouch. It was obvious, of course, that such an organization 
of two continents would have been under Communist control. It was 
agreed between Forge and the Cuban Communist union officials that 
Mr. M. L. Edwards, president of local 500, should make a tour of Latin 
America to put such an organization into action. Edwards, I might 
add, was personally known to me as an active member of the Commu- 
nist Party. Phil Scheffsky, present at the meeting, also is a member 
of the Communist Party. Forge, of course, knew that I was not a 
party member any longer and, therefore, his remarks were very cau- 
tious when I was the translator. The next day he continued his con- 
ference with the Cubans with a translator he could trust. He was 
named Raul Vidal. 

Gentlemen, under existing international travel regulations, any 
American Communist leader can fly to Havana for international Com- 
munist conferences without obtaining any passport or permit from 
the State Department. Also, such plans for sabotage of our country 
have involved sending party members into the armed forces, obtaining 
scientific secrets, and concentration of the party's activities on those 
fields which would be essential to our Nation in the event of war. 

The Chairman. Have you anything further in support of that last 
statement than what you have given this committee this afternoon? 

Mr. Crouch. I have, and what I have had has been turned over to 
the Department of Justice. I have been asked by the Department of 
Justice to request any interested governmental committees not to 
direct questions to me along that line. 

Senaor Ferguson. In other words, the FBI does not want you to 
disclose that in the public hearings? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 153 

Senator Ferguson. It is such information that they want to keep 
secret ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; that is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Will you take it up with the FBI as to whether 
or not you can testify before an executive session of this committee? 

Mr. Crouch. I will. 

Mr. Ferguson. On the same facts. 

Mr. Crouch. I will be glad to, and if I receive 

Senator Ferguson. May I so request 

The Chairman. Yes ; you can certainly request. 

Senator Ferguson. That the committee take it in executive session 
if we can get it ? 

Senator Langer. Who is the head of the GPU in this country ? 

Mr. Crouch. I do not know. 

Senator Langer. Who was when you were a party member? 

Mr. Crouch. I was introduced 

The Chairman. Can you answer that question ? Who was the head 
when you were a party member ? 

Mr. Crouch. At one time the head was a Kussian introduced to me 
by the name of Charlie. He was introduced to me bv one Nicholas 
Dozenberg, who was known to me as an agent of the GPU in the United 
States. Mr. Dozenberg. who had dropped out of public party activities 
to become a GPU agent, introduced me to this man who, he said, was 
the head of the GPU in the United States. 

I have no way of knowing who is the subsequent head or the present 
head of the GPU. I have no knowledge at all. 

That is why the Communist Party has spent so much time, effort, 
and money on centers like Detroit, Pittsburgh, the bay area in Califor- 
nia, the marine industry generally, and now the international airlines 
with a hub in Miami, Fla. 

There is one additional important matter I would like to cite in con- 
clusion. That is the role of Soviet consulates in giving aid to the 
Communist forces in this country; also the use by the Soviet Govern- 
ment of Amtorg and similar trading agencies for Communist work. I 
ATOuld like to cite the fact that about 2 years ago in Miami, Fla., a 
dinner was given with the Soviet consul as the guest of honor, and this 
dinner raised about $2,000. The money was turned over to the Ameri- 
can-Soviet Friendship Society, then headed in Miami by two Com- 
munists, Irving Gold and Shirley Hanna. These $2,000 were contrib- 
uted by the Soviet Government to the Communist Party in Miami, 
just as much as if a check had been written by the treasurer of the 
Kremlin. I wish to add that my own passage to the Soviet Union and 
the passage of George Mink, a fellow passenger, were arranged 
through Amtorg. This Mink later became an agent of the GPU. 

Gentlemen, I hope that this hearing will only be the beginning of 
the widest investigation by Congress into all of these fields and that 
it will quickly be followed by legislative action at the earliest possible 
moment. Under existing legislation, deportation proceedings against 
top Communist leaders are followed by endless appeals requiring 
months and even years before they are finally decided in courts. In 
the meantime, the alien Communists continue their day-to-day activi- 
ties. Why can we not take legislative action which would restrain 
those on appeal from any Communist activity, and also other legisla- 



lf)4 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

tion which would speed up the court action and final disposition of 
the case so that it would not drag on indefinitely ? 

Gentlemen, my decision to inform the Government of my knowledge 
of Communist activities obtained during 17 years in its ranks was 
made immediately after the seizure of Czechoslovakia and the death 
of Jan Masaryk. I realized that the military and the physical danger 
to the Nation is no delusion and is no remote threat at that. At what- 
ever costs to myself, including serious physical danger, I realized it was 
my duty to my Nation to let the Government and the people know what 
really is going on behind the Red curtain in this country. 

During my 17 years in the Communist Party under the influence 
of its false idealistic appeal, I personally recruited many hundreds of 
members into the party. I would like to appeal to those members to 
follow my example, to realize the mistake I made and the mistake they 
made, and to go to the United States Government immediately and 
place all knowledge they may have at the disposal of our country. In 
the Communist Party, as it exists here in America, we are not fighting 
an idea or a philosophy ; we are fighting an organized conspiracy con- 
trolled and directed by a foreign government aimed at the physical 
destruction of our independence and freedom. It is time for us to 
realize this danger and to take action before it is too late. 

Senator Langer. You say you recruited several hundred in this 
country ? 

Mr. Crouch. Yes; I have. 

Senator Langer. Would you mind giving the committee the names 
of them? I do not mean now, but write them out, the names and 
addresses. 

Mr. Crouch. I will be — I have. 

Senator Ferguson. Will you make up a list and give it to the 
chairman? 

Mr. Crouch. I will give the chairman the names of all that I can 
recall, specific information about the places in which they are located, 
and so on. 1 I would like to make a request that such list should not 
be made public, because many of those people are no longer today in 
the Communist Party. Many of the people, I am sure — it is my per- 
sonal belief — have left the Communist Party. How many have left 
and how many are in, I do not know. I am certain there are still 
many there. One, for example, who I know left the Communist 
Party, to cite a case, was Alexander Wright, Negro longshoreman, 
in Norfolk, Va., whom I recruited into the Communist Party. After 
2 or 3 years in the party, and after learning more about its program, 
he saw that the Communists were interested not in building his union 
but in using his union to build the Communist Party, so he left the 
Communist ranks. 

So many of those I recruited have already left. My guess is there 
are some "hundreds in the party whom I personally recruited. I 
would like to make this appeal to any publicity that my statements 
might receive, to join my example and to aid the Government in 
every possible way; that they are under the false illusion that they 
are fighting for progress, fighting for the cause of labor, and that 
every action that they do, that they think under these illusions is in 
the interest of liberty, is in the interest of wiping out liberty here 

1 Certain additional information submitted by the witness appears on p. 155. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 155 

and abroad, which if successful would bring the world under com- 
plete domination of totalitarianism for perhaps centuries to come. 

Senator Ferguson. I think there is one vital question, and that 
is for the American people to learn that this is a conspiracy, that com- 
munism is a conspiracy dominated by a foreign power ; that they are 
revolutionary in their thoughts, that they will not hesitate to carry 
out their policies even though it means the destruction of the United 
States or any other country that is not Communist. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Do you feel after your 17 years of experience 
with these people that that is an absolute fact ? 

Mr. Crouch. Absolute and unquestionable, well documented by the 
hundreds of pamphlets and books and everything ; above all, by knowl- 
edge to me because of my personal experience in the party, sitting in 
these meetings, seeing what was done, seeing how indifferent they 
were to such questions as perjury, the forging of passports, and things 
like that. 

Senator Ferguson. You feel then that you want to convey to this 
committee, as well as to the public, that this is not a political party, 
that communism and the Communist Party of America is not a polit- 
ical party. 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. It is a revolutionary party, it is a conspiracy 
under the domination of the Soviet Union to overthrow the capitalistic 
system. 

Mr. Crouch. Correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Crouch. That is correct. 

Senator Ferguson. Is there any doubt in your mind that that is 
true? 

Mr. Crouch. There is not the slightest doubt, not even any remote 
doubt; there is absolute knowledge that that is true. 

The Chatrman. Anything else? Any further questions? 

Thank you very much. 

The committee will be in recess subject to the call of the Chair. 

(Thereupon at 5 : 05 p. m., a recess was taken subject to the call of the 
Chair.) 

(Following is part of the additional information submitted by the 
witness on the instructions of the chairman:) 

Miami Daily News. 
Miami, Fla., September 20, 1949. 
Mr. O. J. Dekom, 

Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration and Naturalization, 
Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 

Washington, D. C. 
Deah Mr. Dekom : During the course of my testimony before the subcommittee 
last May I was directed to submit the names of people I remembered who were — 
to my knowledge — members of the Communist Party. 

I am preparing the lists in three sections. The first section, important Com- 
munist Party members not generally known as Communists to the public, is 
enclosed. The other two sections under which I am grouping all names I can 
recall, will be submitted in the near future. 

As the chairman is reported by the press to be in Europe at the present time I 
am sending this list to you. Please call it to the attention of the acting chairman 
and to members now in Washington, and to the chairman's attention on his return 
from Europe. 

98330— 50— pt. 1 11 



156 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

If the subcommittee desires me to testify in executive session and identify all 
names submitted as party members I will be glad to do so at any time, and to 
give any additional details and information. 

I am leaving Miami September 28 by plane for New York, where I am to 
testify as an expert witness in deportation proceedings against Betty Gannett. 
Proceedings will start September 29. I have no idea how long I will remain in 
New York in connection with the case. 
Respectfully and sincerely yours, 

Paul Cbouch. 

Individuals I Have Personally Known Who Were — To My Knowledge — 
Members of the Communist Party. Submitted by Direction of the Sub- 
committee To Investigate Immigration and Naturalization, Committee of 
the Judiciary, United States Senate 

Submitted in three sections: (1) Individuals important in the Communist 
Party whose affiliation is not generally known; (2) important leaders of the 
Communist Party generally known to the public; (3) rank-and-file members not 
publicly known as Communists. 

Section 1 

Joseph Gelders : Formerly of Birmingham, Ala., moved to New York. Active on 
district Buro, Alabama district, Communist Party. Head of Communist ap- 
paratus in Southern Conference for Human Welfare. Won confidence of 
President and Mrs. Roosevelt, visiting them at the White House and Hyde 
Park. Served as secretary for Representative Geyer (do not know whether he 
was on congressional pay roll or not) ; under direction of the Communist Party 
national committee drafted antipoll tax bill which Representative Geyer 
introduced. 

Howard Lee : Young southern attorney and youth leader, won confidence of 
Mrs. Roosevelt and was frequent White House visitor. Leader of Southern 
Conference for Human Welfare, Youth Congress, and other Communist Party 
fronts. During the war Drew Pearson in his column sharply denounced the 
failure of the War Department to promote Howard Lee and make him an 
officer in the Army. 

Rev. Malcolm Cotton Dobbs : Ordained minister. Head of League of Young 
Southerners, active in Southern Conference for Human Welfare and other 
Communist Party fronts ; friend of Howard Lee and worked closely with him 
in various Communist activities. Frequent visitor at the White House 1937 
to 1939. 

Dr. Eric E. Erricson : Professor of English at University of North Carolina for 
some 15 years (or more), recently left University of North Carolina and is now 
with another college in the State. Was head of Communist Party branch of 
professors and students at University of North Carolina 1932 through 1937 
(and I do not know how much longer). Is one of best known educators in 
North Carolina. Communist Party name "Spartacus." 

Rev. Don West : Ordained minister, poet, author, now professor at Oglethorpe 
University in Georgia. Cofounder of Highlander Folk School at Monteagle, 
Tenn. North Carolina district trade-union director of the Communist Party in 
1935 under name of Jim Weaver. Next year became district organizer of 
Kentucky district, Communist Party. Later was a contributor to Southern 
News Letter and other party-front publications. One sister. Belle, is married 
to Bart Logan, who succeeded me as Carolina district organizer. One sister 
is married to Nat Ross, Communist Party national committee representative to 
the southern districts. Another sister has spent years in Moscow as Daily 
Worker correspondent, writing under name of Jeanette Weaver. Was active 
in Southern Conference and other party fronts. 

Gilbert L. Parks: Owner of hotel at Port Royal. S. C. and owner of square- 
mile island facing Parris Island Marine Base: member Harvard Club. Was 
business manager of magazine edited by Mrs. Roosevelt before her husband's 
• lection as President of the United States. Was assistant to Rex Tugwell as 
Resettlement Administrator. Friend and neighbor of Leon Keyserling, now 
economic adviser to the President. (Parks introduced me to Keyserling at the 
latter's Beaufort, S. C, home.) Parks was member district committee. Com- 
munist Party in the Carolina district during 1937. Attended Chattanooga 
conference of southern Communist Party leaders with Browder present. In 
1938-39 active leader of Southern Conference for Human Welfare. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 157 

James Porter : Brother of Paul R. Porter, of the State Department and United 
Nations. Communist Party organizer for Norfolk, Va., in period about 1934-36 ; 
then went to Iowa and Communist Party State organizer. Attended many 
central committee meetings at which I was present between 1934 and 1937 or 
1938. Understand that at present James Porter is head of the coke division of 
the United Mine Workers for the State of Wisconsin. (Note: When James 
Porter was important Communist Party official his brother, Paul R. Porter, 
was national leader of extreme left wing of the Socialist Party with active sup- 
port from the Communists. Paul R. Porter's booklet. Which Way for the 
Socialist Party? (now in Congressional Library but not available elsewhere) 
praised enthusiastically in Daily Worker review, March 21 or 22, 1937). 

Leo Shiner : Miami attorney. Formerly OPA official in Washington ; moved to 
Florida about end of war : was head of Sugar Enforcement Division of OPA for 
the State. Active "undercover" Communist leader. Selected to head "under- 
ground" apparatus in Miami if Communist Party is declared to be illegal and 
known leaders are arrested. 

Dr. H. David Prensky : Miami Beach dentist. Official of the American Veterans 
Committee (AVC) ; formerly regional commander of AVC. Member of Dade 
County Committee of the Communist Party, active as an officer of the Uni- 
tarian church in Miami for purpose of carrying on Communist activities. 

Clarence Hiskey : Atomic scientist ; Reserve officer of United States Army. See 
hearings regarding Clarence Hiskey, including testimony of Paul Crouch, 
hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Repre- 
sentatives, May 24, 1949 — Government Printing Office. 

Joseph Weinberg : Prominent atomic scientist. 

Dr. David Bohm : Atomic scientist ; university professor ; understand he serves 
on loyalty board with Albert Einstein. In 1941 was active in Communist Party 
in Alameda County, Calif. 

Dr. Frank Oppenheimer : Atomic scientist ; brother of J. Robert Oppenheimer ; 
active member Communist Party, Alameda County, Calif., in 1941. 

Jacquenette Oppenheimer (Mrs. Frank Oppenheimer): Member of Alameda 
County Committee of Communist Party and department head, 1941. 

John P. Davis : Negro leader ; Washington, D. C, resident. Important leader in 
Communist Party for many years. Has many trade-union and political con- 
nections. Active in Southern Conference and other fronts. Once head of 
Negro Congress. 

Frank Diaz : International vice president, Cigar Makers Union, AFL ; member 
Florida State Committee, Communist Party. 

James Nimmoe : Miami organizer, Laundry Workers Union, AFL; member Dade 
County Committee of the Communist Party (Negro). 

Raul Vidal : Pan American Airways employee in Miami. Active Communist. 
Close friend of Bias Roco and other Communist Party top leaders in Cuba. 
Naturalized citizen. Brother-in-law of the consul general of Cuba in Miami. 

Dr. Addison T. Cutler : White professor at Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn. 
Very active member of Communist Party when I knew him in 1939-41. 

Prof. David Robison : White professor at Fisk University, was member State 
committee, Communist Party, 1939-41. 

Marcel Scherer : National director of Communist work among scientists for 
many years; in later years worked through FAECT, a CIO union. Wife is 
Lena Davis, one time Politburo member and formerly New Jersey district 
organizer of Communist Party. 

Rudolph Shohan : Once a top national leader of the Young Communist League — 
organizer for a dozen Western States — Shohan dropped out of all public work 
in order to become one of the most important international couriers. For 
years was liaison man between the Communists of the United States and 
Canada. Present whereabouts unknown. His former wife, Reva Gilbert, 
trained in the Lenin School in Moscow, is now Mrs. James W. Ford. Shohan is 
a nephew of — 

Mrs. Nat Vanish : Mrs. Vanish and her husband are owners of the Acme Furni- 
ture Store in Oakland, Calif. Very active in Communist front Jewish organiza- 
tions. Understand they now face deportation proceedings. 

Anna Cornblath : (Actually Mrs. Emanuel Levin, having been married to Levin 
for more than 21 years.) Husband now district organizer of Communist 
Party at New Orleans ; he was once national chairman of Workers Ex-Service- 
men's League and directed bonus march on Washington. Anna has held many 
important positions in the Communist Party for over 20 years, worked in 



158 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

national office. Is placed under this section because of her success in obtain- 
ing naturalization as American citizen in 1944. 

Mrs. Francis J. Gorman: Maiden name, Mary K. Bell, daughter of Colonel Bell 
of Brookings institute. Was member of a Governmenl employees branch of 
the Communist Party before her marriage to Francis J. Gorman, then presi- 
dent of the United Textile Workers. She frequently attended central com- 
mittee meetings of Communist Party. 

Israel and Sarah Peltz (brother and sister) : Once active leaders of Young Com- 
munist League in Washington, were trying to obtain Government jobs in early 
thirties. No knowledge subsequent careers. 

Gare (or Gore) : Don't recall lirst name and not sure of spelling of last 

name. Was news or telegraph editor of Chattanooga (Tenn.) Times during 
latier part of 1930"s and until late 1939 or early 1940, when he left the staff of 
the Times and moved away from Tennessee. Don't remember where he went. 
(Information could be obtained from the Times.) He was leading member 
in a group of about six editorial staff members of the Chattanooga Times and 
Chattanooga News in the Communist Party. 

Edwin McCrea : International representative Food and* Tobacco Workers Union 
in North Carolina. Refused to answer questions by House Un-American 
Activities Committee re Communist Party affiliations although he succeeded 
me as Tennessee district organizer in 1941. 

Irving Gold : Until recently important undercover leader of the Communist Party 
in Florida. As head of Soviet-American Friendship Society, he was once 
liaison man between Soviet consulate in Miami and the Communist Party. 
A dinner for the Soviet consul in Miami raised $2,000 which Gold spent under 
party directions. Left Miami about a year ago ; present whereabouts unknown. 

Lorent Franz: Young attorney or law student; member Alabama district com- 
mittee, Communist Party, 1938-41. Has repeatedly denied Communist Party 
membership in official investigations. Very active in Southern Conference 
for Human Welfare. 

Alton Lawrence : State secretary Socialist Party of North Carolina and at the 
same time member of district committee, Communist Party, 1935-37. Lived 
at Chapel Hill, cooperated actively with Dr. Erricson in Communist Party 
activities on University of North Carolina campus. 

Maurice Forge: Formerly international vice president of Transport Workers 
Union, head of air transport division ; removed from office by last convention ; 
chief strategist in Communist Party move to form new independent air line 
union. Forge is assumed name; real name Herman, is native of Russia; 
obtained citizenship through fathers naturalization. Member Young Com- 
munist League and Communist Party many years. 

Fred Swick, Ed Bock, M. L. Edwards, Armand Scala, Thomas Murray : Commu- 
nist Party members, associates of Maurice Forge, former officers air transport 
division, TWU-CIO, now trying to form new Communist-controlled union in 
air-transport industry. 

Paul Crosbie : New York insurance man. Close friend of Gilbert L. Parks. Very 
active undercover member of CP. 

Paul Schlipf : Plead of Alameda County CIO Industrial Union Council ; very 
active CP member. 

George Gray : Oakland, Calif., business agent of Steelworkers' Union. 

Maurice Travis : International president, Mine, Mill and Workers Union, CIO. 
Was active member YCL and CP in Oakland, Calif., in 1941. (Recent press 
reports that he has resigned CP membership to sign non-Communist affidavit — 
previously had not publicly admitted CP membership. ) 

Paul Heide : Close associate of Harry Bridges, business agent in Oakland of 
ILWU-CIO. Leading undercover member of CP. His wife and brother ac- 
tive in CP and leading officers in unions. (Brother : Ray Heide.) 

Harry Bridges : Note : As member of California district bureau I helped make 
decisions on policy which Bridges carried out. Schneiderman transmitted de- 
cisions to Bridges and brought reports from him to district bureau. 

Clifford Odets: Well-known playright. 

Paul Chown : Active member of Communist Party in Oakland, Calif. Was busi- 
ness agent of Steelworkers Union, CIO, in Oakland ; resigned during latter 
part of 1941 to take Government position, on Labor Relations Board staff for 
San Francisco area. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 159 

Saundra Martin : Business agent, Electrical Workers Union, CIO, for San Fran- 
cisco-Oakland area. Attended national conventions of Young Communist 
League and was one of national representatives of Young Communist League 
to a world conference in Moscow. Was for a time Alameda County organizer 
of Young Communist League. 
Rev. Gerald Harris : Alabama State vice president Farmers Union. Was one of 
leaders in Southern Conference for Human Welfare. Active CP member. 
Lives on farm near Birmingham. 
Martha Stone: Now living at Trenton, N. J. Former wife of Phil Frankfeld, 
prominent party leader. She was once a leading official of YCL, dropped out 
of all public activities for special work, apparently one of leading OGPU 
agents in this country. According to information from former CP members 
she appears to have been actively connected with kidnap-murder of Juliet 
Stuart Poyntz and is reported to have traveled to Mexico in connection with 
plans for murder of Trotsky. Is said to have worked closely with two other 
OGPU agents, George Mink and S. Epstein (the latter having obtained pass- 
port under name of "Sam Stone"). 

Miami Daily News. 
Miami, Fla., September 28, 1949. 
Subcommittee To Investigate Immigration and Naturalization, 
Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 

Washington, D. C. 
Gentlemen : I am enclosing section 2 of the list of Communists I have 
known during the years I was a member of the party. This section, including 
118 names, is of important national and district officials and leaders of the 
Communist Party. Most of them are avowed Communists or have been publicly 
identified with the party. Only those I personally know as Communists are 
included. Such leaders as Thompson of New York and Hall of Ohio are not 
included because I did not personally know them. I have not included anyone 
who has to my knowledge broken with the party, but it is probable that some 
of them have left the party without public announcement or without publicity 
having come to my attention. It has been reported recently that Max Bedacht 
and James W. Ford have been expelled but I have no definite confirmation, so 
their names remain on the list. (Some may now be out of the country.) 

A short list of former Communist International and OGPU agents also is 
enclosed. 

Respectfully yours, 

Paul Crouch. 

Communist International and OGPU Agents in the United States 

Louis Gibarti : Communist International agent in this country and possibly still 
here. Native of Hungary. Worked in Berlin as assistant to Willi Munzen- 
berg in anti-imperialist work in period around 1927-29. Came to United States 
about 1929. I saw him frequently during next 10 years (approximately) al- 
though I knew little of his specific work, although it was connected with colonial 
activities. Was not a Comintern rep as Pollit and others were ; but he was 
an agent to carry out certain specific work. I believe I saw him last in 1940 
or 1941. not certain of date. He attended most CP conventions and central 
committee meetings, where he was very inconspicuous. 

Nicholas Dozenberg : Personally introduced me to head Russian agent of OGPU 
in the United States of America. Reputed to have been one of Stalin's trusted 
international agents. Native of Latvia ; once national organization secretary 
of CP ; dropped out of public activities to take over OGPU work. Served prison 
sentence for distribution of United States money counterfeited in the Soviet 
Union. Now living in Florida. 

S. Epstein : Once editor of Freiheit, Jewish Communist daily. Reputed to have 
been actively connected with murder of Juliet Stuart Poyntz (with George 
Mink the actual murderer). Used name "Sam Stone" for obtaining passport. 



1 ()() COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 



Important National and District Leaders of the Communist Pauty 



Jack Stachel 
Steve Nelson 
John Williamson 
William Z. Foster 
!•'. Brown (Alpi) 

< !harles Dirba 
Roy Hudson 
Elizabeth Gurley Flynn 
William Weiner (A. Blake) 

< '.r.-l Winters 
William L. Patterson 
Anthony Bimba 
Martin Young 

V. J. Jerome 

Clarence Hathaway 

William W. Weinstone 

Rob F. Hall 

Paul Cline 

Morris Rappaport 

Pat Toohey 

Douglas L. MacMahan 

Herbert Benjamin 

George Gray 

William Simons 

Helen Kay 

Louise Todd 

Emanuel Levin 

Betty Gannett 

William Schneiderman 

Eugene Dennis 

Gilbert Green 

Alexander Bittelman 

George Siskind 

Nat Ross 

Phil Frankfeld 

A. Benson (Katzes) 

Ben Gold 

Henry Winston 

Alfred Wagenknecht 

James S. Allen 

Alexander Trachtenberg 

Ella Reeve Bloor 

Robert Minor 

George Morris 

Ted Wellman 

James Allender 

I. Amter 

Lena Davis 

Arnold Johnson 

Ann Burlak 

Elizabeth Lawson 

Bart Logan 

Rudy Lambert 

Ben Davis 

Irving Potash 

Beatrice Shields Johnson 

John Steuben 

Charles Drasnin 

Ruth Koenig 



Margaret Cowl 
Norman Talleritire 
Harrison George 
I Iy ( rordon 
Pettis Perry 
Anna Rochester 
Karl Brodsky 
Florence Plotnick 
Grace Hutchins 
H. Puro 
Tony Minerich 
H. E. Briggs 
Sam Hall 

Oleta O'Connor Yates 
Thomas R. Farrell 
 — - — Forrest (Utah org.) 
Gertrude Haessler 
Ben Gray 
A. B. Magil 
Otto Huiswood 
< harle.i N. Sinolikoff 
Morris Childs 
John Harvey 
Kennith May 
Louis Weinstock 
Sadie Van Veen (Mrs. Amter) 
Si Gerson 
Joseph Brodsky 
John Marks 
Bernadette Doyle 
Jack Strong (I. Sapphire) 
Homer Brooks 
D. Flaiani 
John J. Ball am 
Wert Taylor 
Fred Ellis 
Alice Burke 
William Gropper 
Otto Hall 
Don Henderson 
Francis Martin 
Harry Haywood 
Louis Colman 

Jane Speed (in Puerto Rico» 
Karl Reeve 
Esther Cooper 
Max Bedacht (expelled?) 
Edward F. Strong 
Andy Brown 
Tom MyerscougD. 
Fred Biedenkapp 
Anna Damon 
George Kaufman 
James W. Ford (expelled?) 
William F. Dunne 
Nathaniel Honig 
Donald Burke 
Michael Cold 
Rudy Lambert 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 161 

Miami Daily News, 
Miami, Fla., September 21, 19J f 9. 
Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration and Naturalization, 
Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 
Washington, D. C. 

Gentlemen : Since my testimony before your subcommittee last May I have 
learned of two matters which I believe should be called to your attention. 

1. The ense with which active Communist leaders have been able to acquire 
American citizenship in recent years. 

Example: Mrs. Emanuel Levin (Anna Cornblath), granted United States cit- 
izenship in 1944. For more than 21 years she has been married to Emanuel Le- 
vin, one of the most prominent Communist leaders in this country and at present 
CP district organizer in New Orleans. He was chairman of the Communist-front 
Workers Ex-Servicemen's League and organized the bonus march on Washington. 
For at least 21 years — to my personal knowledge — Mrs. Levin herself has been 
a leading Communist Party member and frequently worked in the national of- 
fice of the party in responsible positions. Why does the Government grant citi- 
zenship to such prominent Communist leaders? 

2. The Soviet Government's use of American soil as a basis for murder con- 
spiracy, in the case of L°on Trotsky. I knew that "Jackson," the murderer of 
Trotsky, had spent some time in the United States before going to Mexico. It 
was only recently that I learned that while he was in the United States (before 
going to Mexico to murder Trotsky) "Jackson" — under another name — was reg- 
istered with the State Department as an agent of the Soviet Government. Source 
of this information : Frank Jackson, formerly naval intelligence official 
in Washington. Jackson told me he questioned the man who later mur- 
dered Trotsky at length in an effort to get him to admit what United States 
intelligence then knew — that he was a part of the OGPU apparatus. In Mexico 
the Soviet murderer adopted the name of Frank Jackson, the United States offi- 
cial who had questioned him in Washington. t 

Respectfully yours, 

Paul Ceouch. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GROUPS 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 1, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee To Investigate Immigration 
and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 10 : 30 a. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran, chairman, presiding. 

Present : Senators McCarran, Eastland, Langer, and Donnell. 

Also present : Senator Kilgore. 

Also present : Messrs. Kichard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee ; Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

This hearing is conducted by the subcommittee with reference to 
Senate bill 1832, 1 in order that the Senate of the United States and its 
committees may have information so that they may intelligently vote 
upon the bill seeking to protect the interests of this country internally 
from enemies that have been coming to us and are coming to us. 

The Chairman. First of all, the resolution passed by the full Judi- 
ciary Committee, authorizing the chairman of this committee or any 
member of this committee to issue subpenas for the producing of wit- 
nesses, papers, property, or other items, before this committee or any 
subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee, will be inserted in the record 
at this point, giving the date of its enactment. 

Under date of March 9, 1949, the Special Subcommittee to Investi- 
gate Immigration and Naturalization, pursuant to Senate Resolution 
137 of the Eightieth Congress, as amended, unanimously adopted the 
following-quoted resolution : 

Resolved, That any member of the Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immi- 
gration and Naturalization, pursuant to Senate Resolution 137 of the Eightieth 
Congress, as amended, be and is hereby authorized to cause to be issued any and 
all subpenas for persons, papers, property, or other items in the matter of the 
investigation of the immigration and naturalization system. 

There will be inserted in the record at this point two subpenas issued 
by the chairman of this subcommittee, one for Mr. John E. Peurifoy, 
Assistant Secretary of State, and another for the Honorable Tom C. 
Clark, Attorney General of the United States. 

(The subpenas referred to are in the files of the committee.) 
During the course of the last year and one-half a subcommittee of 
the Senate Committee on the Judiciary has been conducting an inves- 
tigation of our immigration and naturalization system. In the course 

1 The text of S. 1832 appears on p. 2. 

163 



104 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

of tliis investigation substantial factual information has been assem- 
bled by 111* 1 subcommittee regarding subversive activity in the United 
States by agents of foreign governments. Much of this information 
has come from confidential sources. Some of this information has 
been acquired from the secret files of security agencies. As chairman 
of both the subcommittee and of the Judiciary Committee, I am keenly 
conscious of the need to protect sources of information and the dangers 
of premature disclosure of details in specific cases. 

I should, therefore, like to make this clear: I am not requesting 
that the security agencies of the Government publicly divulge either 
sources of information or detailed facts in specific cases which are 
currently under investigation or in which criminal prosecution is im- 
minent. I am determined, however, that the nature and extent of 
this problem shall be clearly revealed to the American people. This 
can only be done when those agencies of our Government which are 
in the best position to know make a revelation of the basic facts. 

You are here, Mr. Attorney General and Mr. Peurifoy, in response 
to a subpena duces tecum, purposely made broad enough to cover all 
the files of the Department concerning certain individuals named 
therein. But I want to state now for the record what I have already 
told you individually and in private conference. This committee is 
not asking you here and now to give up secret files with the custody 
and protection of which you are charged or to make public disclosure 
of specific information in any individual case. We are not asking 
that the files of the Federal Bureau of Investigation be bared to public 
view. We are asking for information, not for information extracted 
from your files, but for information concerning the basic facts of the 
situation which your files show to exist. 

To avoid any possible misunderstanding as to just what this com- 
mittee means by basic facts, I hand you now a list of questions. 

I will ask the Attorney General to respond first. I do not ask you 
to answer these questions now unless you see fit to do so. I do not 
want you to try to answer them from your own knowledge, memory, 
and information. But I ask you to follow these questions as the staff 
director reads them, and then I want you to take these questions back 
to your Department, have the necessary inquiries and research made, 
and come back before this committee 1 week from today and answer 
these questions fully and fairly. That is what this committee is ask- 
ing you to do, and you can do it without physically producing a single 
file, without impeding any pending or prospective investigations or 
prosecutions, without revealing any confidential sources of informa- 
tion. The only question I want you to answer today is: Will you do 
it ? I do not want you to respond until you have heard the questions 
which the clerk will now read. 

Attorney General Clark. Before he reads them, Mr. Chairman, 
could I make a statement, sir? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

STATEMENT OF HON. TOM C. CLARK, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE 

UNITED STATES 

Attorney General Clark. As I understand it, the committee is not 
requiring or insisting that we produce the files that they subpenaed, 
from your statement. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 165 

The Chairman. The committee is asking for the information which 
these questions will call for. I understand that you do not have 
the files here and you are not producing them. 

Attorney General Clark. We do not have them, and, as I say, if the 
committee were insisting on the files themselves, I wanted to read this 
statement that I was going to file for the record. And since I am 
here at this time, I would like to file it. 1 It may not be necessary to 
read it, but since the chairman has introduced a subpena I would 
like to show our position on the subpena, which is well known. 

These files, Mr. Chairman, as you well know, are files that list for 
the most part officials or employees of the United Nations or foreign 
governments. For example, among the 168 names, there were 4 that 
were duplications, so that leaves 164 names of individuals, and the 
subpena asks that I produce the files that I have on those individuals. 

Just to give you an idea of the type of file that is asked for: 
The name of the wife of the representative to the UN Security Council 
is one of the persons. Another is the former Assistant Secretary- 
General of the United Nations. Another is the editor of the Polish 
Press Agency. Another is the vice chairman of a foreign purchasing 
agency in the United States. Another is a clergyman. Another is an 
ambassador of a foreign country, not our ambassador, but of a foreign 
country to Belgium. Another is an ambassador from a foreign 
country to France. Another is an ambassador of a foreign country to 
Moscow. Another is a minister of foreign trade, a cabinet officer of 
a foreign country. Another is a minister of the interior, a cabinet 
officer of a foreign country. Another is a consul general of a foreign 
nation here in the United States. Another is a former ambassador 
to the United States of a foreign country. Another is a vice premier 
of a foreign country. Another is an ambassador to the United States 
of a foreign country. Another is a vice president of a peoples assem- 
bly of a foreign country. Another is an ambassador to the United 
States of a foreign country. Another is a military attache of a 
foreign embassy in the United States. Another is a cultural attache 
in an embassy in the United States. Another is a counsellor of an 
embassy in the United States. Another is a professor. One, for 
example, was a senator in the senate of a foreign country. 

That type of information, of course, is information that deals 
almost — I would say — exclusively with our foreign relations. Of 
course, it has considerable bearing on the internal security of the 
United States insofar as some of these people had been, and some 
presently are, in the United States. 

The Chairman. Mr. Attorney General, right there, let me say to 
you : It is not the names of the individuals that we are interested in. 
It is what they are doing that we are interested in. If this committee 
had reason to believe — and it has reason to believe — that those whom 
you have just mentioned are engaged in subversive practices in this 
country, it is within the jurisdiction of this committee to ask you to 
bring the information to us. TVe are not asking for the files. We are 
asking for the information. 

Attorney General Clark. If there was subversive activity being 
carried on by these people, I am sure the FBI would have that infor- 

1 The statement of the Attorney General was made part of the record and appears on 
p. 173. 



166 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

nuition, and if it was sufficient for prosecution and these people were 
subject to prosecution, you can be sure they would be prosecuted. Of 
course, under the law there are some people who come here from 
foreign countries who are not subject to prosecution. If they were 
subject to prosecution, such as Gubichev, 1 such as Radek, 2 whom we 
prosecuted in Seattle, you can bet your bottom dollar that they would 
be prosecuted and prosecuted completely. There has been no Attorney 
General more anxious to prosecute in proper cases. 

Now, if it is just information, general information, that you want, 
Mr. Chairman, as I have told you and as I told your assistant, I have 
always cooperated with the Judiciary Committee, as you well know, 
under three chairmen ; before I was Attorney General, with Senator 
Van Nuys, 3 and with yourself, Senator, and subsequently Mr. Wiley, 4 
and then yourself again. I have always appeared. No one had to 
serve a subpena on me, because I have always appeared from a tele- 
phone call. And frankly, Mr. Chairman, I was surprised when I was 
served with a subpena, because I have always volunteered whenever 
anyone wanted me to come to the Judiciary Committee. I look upon 
the Judiciary Committee as one of the closest things in my work. 

The Chairman. You should not have been surprised, Mr. Attorney 
General, because I went down at your solicitation to your Department 
with members of my staff and asked for this information, and I was 
very frankly told by yourself and Mr. Peyton Ford that I would not 
get it. 

Attorney General Clark. Well, I do not agree with that interpreta- 
tion of it, Mr. Chairman. As a matter of fact, after you left my office 
on the Monday before you issued this subpena without giving me any 
notice at all, I had instructed the various divisions in the Department 
to gather the information. And I have here, sir, a memorandum that 
was sent to me, after a conference with your assistant, by three men in 
my Department, in which they say just what your assistant wished 
and I told them what we could do about it. We were gathering that 
information when, on the radio, I was advised that I was subpenaed to 
produce 168 very confidential files. They are very confidential, very 
secret, in that they involve very delicate problems. I only wish that 
Dean Acheson were here and that it were not necessary that he be in 
Paris dealing with the many complications of our foreign affairs, so 
that he might tell you just how delicate a situation this is, insofar as 
the files that you have subpenaed and asked me to bring here are 
concerned. 

The Chairman. I do not think he knows any more about it than the 
witness we have subpenaed here, Mr. Peurifoy, because Mr. Acheson 
has not been there the length of time that Mr. Peurifoy has. 

Attorney General Clark. Mr. Acheson is pretty well informed and 
I have found Mr. Peurifoy, whom I have known very favorably for a 
number of years, to be exceedingly well informed on these matters. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

1 Valentin Gubichev, and employe of the UN, arrested in New York on espionage charges. 

2 Karl Radek, noted Soviet journalist, who was one of those executed in the great Stalinist 
blood purge. 

3 The late Senator Frederick Van Nuys, of Indiana, chairman of the Senate Judiciary 
Committee in the 78th Congress. 

4 Senator Alexander Wiley, of Wisconsin, chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee 
in the 80th Congress. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 167 

Attorney General Clark. We work very closely on these matters. 
We do not work publicly on them, of course; they are matters on 
which you cannot work publicly. 

If what the chairman wants is what I told you last night, sir, what 
I told you last week and the week before last, general information, 
then whatever information I can give consistent with the public 
interest you may rest assured that I will give and give gladly. 

The Chairman. Mr. Attorney General, you made that same state- 
ment to me on Memorial Day. You asked for an interview with me 
on Memorial Day. 

Attorney General Clark. That is right, sir. 

The Chairman. You came to my office, did you not? And you 
asked me to send a member of my staif down to your office on yesterday, 
and I did. You suggested that. And he stayed down there until 5 
o'clock and got nothing and came away. What is the use of making a 
stump speech here? 

Attorney General Clark. I am not making a stump speech, sir. I 
am just telling you that I went to your office on Memorial Day because 
I did not know whether you knew the importance and the delicate 
nature of this subpenaed information. 

The Chairman. Do you think I have been 16 years on this committee 
without knowing the nature of a subpena or the nature of what I am 
calling for ? Do you not give me credit for some sense ? 

Attorney General Clark. Definitely, sir. I have a very high regard 
for the chairman, as I do for all the members of the Judiciary Com- 
mittee. At the same time, there were four duplications on the sub- 
pena, which rather indicated that it was drawn rather hurriedly, Mr. 
Chairman. So I thought that as Attorney General. I owed myself, the 
Department, and the Senate, and yourself, sir, the duty of coming up 
and talking it over with you, and I thought we agreed. Then you sug- 
gested that Mr. Arens come down yesterday, which was wholly agree- 
able to me. and he came down. 

The Chairman. He came directly to your office, did he not ? 

Attorney General Clark. That is right. And I called up my first 
assistant, the Assistant Solicitor General of the United States, too, 
and an assistant attorney general, whom I instructed in Mr. Arens' 
presence to give him all the information that they possibly could. 
Kow. it takes time, Mr. Chairman, to get this information. We have 
many, many problems in the Department of Justice. We prosecute 
over 50,000 criminal cases every 3-ear. And we cannot get up informa- 
tion on 108 names overnight. It takes time. We have been trying 
to do that. I want to try to, if I can, and I shall give you all possible 
information consistent with the public interest. 

The Chairman. All right, General. Will you listen to these ques- 
tions \ 

Read the questions, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Arens (reading) : 

(1) How many Communists or Communist agents are known to the Depart- 
ment to have entered the United States as affiliates of international organiza- 
tions or as affiliates of foreign governments during each of the following periods : 
The past 5 years, the past 2 years, the past year, the first quarter of 1949 ; the 
month of April 1949, the month of May 1949? 

(2) How many aliens who entered the United States as affiliates of interna- 
tional organizations, and how many aliens who entered the United States as af- 
filiates of foreign governments, are known to the Department to have been engaged 



1(38 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

in espionage or related activities, or other activities of a subversive nature, prior 
to such entry? 

(3) How many of such aliens, in each class, arc known to the Department to 
be engaged or to have been engaged in espionage or related activities, or other 
activtiea of a subversive nature, in this country'.'' 

(4) Describe a typical pattern of such espionage or other subversive activity, 
and appraise the extent and scope of such activity. 

(5) How many aliens to whom visas have been issued as affiliates of inter- 
national organizations or as affiliates of foreign governments in the course of 
the last 5 years, have been excluded by the Attorney General from admission 
into the United States? 

(6) Does the Department have knowledge of Communist spy rings now exist- 
ing in the United States which include as active participants aliens who entered 
this country as affiliates of international organizations or as affiliates of foreign 
governments? 

(7) If so, describe the typical pattern of such spy ring. 

(8) To what extent do the records of the Department show espionage or 
distribution of subversive propaganda and the organization or promoting of 
subversive groups in the United States to be under the control and direction 
of aliens who have entered the United States as affiliates of international organ- 
izations or as affiliates of foreign governments? 

(9) To what extent do the records of the Department show espionage or 
other subversive activity in the United States to be engaged in by persons who 
are aliens, foreign-born, or of foreign-born parents? 

(10) Describe the extent, scope, and nature of the activity or activities 
of those organizations which have been proscribed by the Attorney General as- 
subversive organizations. 

(11) According to the information in the possession of the Department, how 
many aliens have been deported from the United States in the course of the last 
10 years under the statutes which provide for the deportation of subversives? 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Attorney General, a copy of those will 
be furnished to you. 

Attorney General Clark. I would appreciate that, sir. 

The Chairman. The question is: Will you answer them? 

Attorney General Clark. So many as it would be consistent witu 
the public interest for me to answer, I shall answer; yes, sir. Of 
course, it calls for quite a lot of detailed information. Those that I 
can answer, as I have consistently said, consistent with the public 
interest, I shall certainly answer. I will be happy to get up what 
answers we can insofar as the public interest will permit it. 

The Chairman. When will you be able to furnish that information 
to the committee, in your best judgment? 

Attorney General Clark. Well, I heard the questions read over for 
the first time a moment ago, sir. I will, as always, dispatch the pro- 
cedures in the Department as fast as I can, and I will advise you. I 
can let you know, possibly, this afternoon or tomorrow. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Senator Donnell. Will the Attorney General let the chairman 
know this afternoon when he can give the information? 

Attorney General Clark. When I can get it; yes. I would rather 
not guess right now. A lot of this is in detail and you have to break 
it down by quarters, by months. There is a lot of detail in it. 

The Chairman. All right. Let the chairman know as early as you 
can, this week if possible, when it will be convenient for you to come 
before this committee and furnish us answers to these questions. 

Attorney General Clark. Well, sir, I will do that, answers consist- 
ent with the public interest. 1 

1 The testimony of the Attorney General is resumed on p. 298. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 169 

Mr. Peurifoy. Mr. Chairman, do you have another series of ques- 
tions for the Department of State, or does this include us, too ? 

The Chairman. This includes you, too, except that there is a ques- 
tion here to which there is an alternate. The staff director will read 
the alternate question. That is, one question addresses itself to the 
State Department. 

Will you read that, Mr. Arens? 

Mr. Arens. It is an alternate question, as the chairman said, Mr. 
Peurifoy. All the other questions are the same, except question No. 5. 
[Reading] : 

In how many instances, if at all, has the State Department or any agency or 
officer thereof insisted upon the entry into this country of an alien concerning 
whom a recommendation has been made by the Visa Division of the Depart- 
ment that the entry of such alien is against the security interests of the United 
States? 

STATEMENT OF JOHN E. PEURIFOY, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF 

STATE 

Mr. Peurifoy. Mr. Chairman, my reaction is the same as the At- 
torney General's, namely, that I will do everything I can to answer 
these questions, insofar as the public interest is concerned. 

I would like to either read to you or hand to you, sir, a letter ad- 
dressed to you, by the Acting Secretary, Mr. Webb, concerning the 
subpena that was issued to me in the Department. 1 

The Chairman. Do you have charge of these files? 

Mr. Peurifoy. They are under my immediate jurisdiction. 

The Chairman. Have they been removed from your jurisdiction 
since the subpena was served? 

Mr. Peurifoy. No, sir. 

The Chairman. In any way ? 

Mr. Peurifoy. In other words, the head of the Department, of 
course, is responsible for everything in the State Department. 

The Chairman. Are you the head of that Department? 

Mr. Peurifoy. No, sir ; Mr. Acheson is Secretary, and Mr. Webb is 
the Acting Secretary in his absence. I am Assistant Secretary and 
under me the security work of the Department of State is carried on. 

The Chairman. In other words, the files are in your custody? 

Mr. Peurifoy. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And the subpena was served on you ? 

Mr. Peurifoy. That is correct, sir. It was served on my office, to be 
technical, but I have accepted it. 

The Chairman. You will not raise the technicality of nonservice '( 

Mr. Peurifoy. No, sir. 

The Chairman. In other words, whatever information is called for 
by these questions, you can, from the files and the records under your 
custody and control, answer the questions? 

Mr. Peurifoy. If, as to these files, it is in the public interest. 

The Chairman. I say : you can answer ? 

Mr. Peurifoy. Oh, yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Now, then, how many people are there who have 
access to these files in your Department? How many employees? 
How many personnel, one day with another ? 

1 The letter referred to appears on p. 171. 



170 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Peurifoy. I have a Security Division in which there are about 
80 or 90 people. 

The Chairman. Do you think, Mr. Peurifoy, that those 80 or 90 
people, highly trained, undoubtedly, and very worthy of confidence, 
are any more worthy of confidence than 9G Senators under oath? 

Mr. Puerifoy. Well, certainly I have the greatest respect for 

The Chairman. I do not care about your respect. I am not asking 
for that. Do you think they are any more worthy of confidence? 

Mr. Puerifoy. I think the answer to that, sir, is not a question of 
Senators against the employees of the Security Division. I think the 
answer is embodied in the letter of the Acting Secretary of State to 
you. 

The Chairman. I know, but I am speaking to you, now. You are the 
witness under subpena. 

Mr. Peurifoy. Shall I read this letter ? 

The Chairman. No. Not just now. You can read it later on. I just 
want to ask you again the question : Do you think that the 80 em- 
ployees that have access to these files, one day with another, are any 
more worthy of confidence than this committee, as we will put it, the 
five members who are under oath to uphold the Constitution of the 
United States? 

Mr. Peurifoy. Well, answering you personally, sir, I would trust 
the five members of this committee with any information I have, as 
an individual. But I think that each of us is competent in our respec- 
tive fields, or let us say, has more judgment in our respective fields, 
perhaps, than others may have. I am talking about the Senators now. 
I assume that all the members of your staff have also been security- 
cleared, and so forth. 

The Chairman. Certainly. Now, Mr. Peurifoy, just one or two 
more questions. These files being in your custody, you have access to 
them personally, do you not? 

Mr. Peurifoy. I do, if I have occasion to look at them, sir. 

The Chairman. And when you seek to have access to a particular 
file, you call for that file ? 

Mr. Peurifoy. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And that file has either a key number or a designat- 
ing initial ? 

Mr. Peurifoy. I believe that is right. I am not sure about that. 
Maybe it is handled alphabetically ; I am not sure. 

The Chairman. In other words, you do not have to call for a file by 
the name of the party on whom the file is made ? 

Mr. Peurifoy. Yes; I do. 

The Chairman. If you call for Covinsky or Maduski or someone 
else, the clerk knows the file? 

Mr. Peurifoy. That is the way I have to get them, Senator. They 
mav have another system in the Security Division identifying the files. 

The Chairman. I see. Mr. Peurifoy, I ask you to take with you to 
your office the statement that the chairman made at the outset of this 
meeting, and these questions. The Senate of the United States and 
the Congress of the United States have before them a very important 
bill, a bill that is seeking to protect the people of this country. For 
national security, the bill is introduced, and for no other reason. The 
staff of this committee, working over a year and a half, through two 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 171 

Congresses, has found certain information that gave rise to the neces- 
sity for information from your Department and from the Department 
of Justice. That information we believe should be presented to the 
Senate of the United States, that they may intelligently act upon a 
bill that is pending, that is introduced for the purpose of protecting 
the people of this country and this Government. For that reason, we 
ask you now, in all fairness, to give us full information based on these 
questions, in answer to these questions that we have propounded. 

Mr. Peurifoy. Mr. Chairman, I want first to assure you and the 
members of this committee that there is no one in this Government 
more interested in protecting the national security than I am. I think 
I have demonstrated that in the past. 

The Chairman. I think we are all equal in that, you and the mem- 
bers of this committee. 

Mr. Peurifoy. I would certainly assume that, sir. 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Petjrieoy. As for the second part of your question, I assure you 
that I will do everything within my power to give this committee such 
information as we possibly can. And it may be, after examining these 
questions, that we can do that, sir. If I may be permitted to, I would 
like to read this to the committee. 

The Chairman. You may read the letter, certainly. 

Mr. Peurifoy. This is addressed to the chairman. [Reading:] 

Department of State, 
Washington, May 31, 19J,9. 
Hon. Pat McCarran, 

Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate. 

My Dear Senator McCarran : Reference is made to the subpena duces tecum 
directed to Assistant Secretary of State John E. Peurifoy by the Subcommittee on 
Immigration and Naturalization of the Senate Judiciary Committee. The sub- 
pena, returnable June 1. 1949, commands Mr. Peurifoy to appear before the sub- 
committee and bring with him the files of the Department of State concerning 
more than 160 persons named in a list attached to the subpena. 

In the opinion of the Department of State, disclosure of materials contained 
in the departmental files of the type in question would be contrary to the public 
interest, and would be detrimental to the conduct of the foreign relations of the 
United States. 

It should be noted, in the first place, that these files contain extensive mate- 
rials that have been obtained by United States diplomatic and consular establish- 
ments abroad from confidential sources. Disclosure of these materials, and their 
sources, would not only hamper the future work of the missions abroad, but 
would also place many of the sources in personal jeopardy. 

Moreover, these files contain intelligence and investigative materials which 
have been furnished to the Department of State by other agencies of the Govern- 
ment. Section 161 of the Revised Statutes (U. S. C. title 5, sec. 22) lodges re- 
sponsibility for the custody, use, and preservation of departmental records and 
papers with the head of each executive department or agency. Pursuant to this 
statute, the heads of executive departments and agencies have prescribed regu- 
lations concerning their documents and materials. The agencies of the Govern- 
ment prior to making available intelligence and investigative materials to the 
Department of State have advised this Department that the contents of their 
.reports may not be disclosed without specific prior approval by them. These 
agencies have declined to approve disclosure of their materials contained in 
files such as those covered by the subcommittee's subpena. 

In April 1941. the Attorney General considered the question of furnishing, 
upon request, to the chairman of the House of Representatives Committee on 
Naval Affairs certain reports of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. In an 
opinion which decided against compliance with the request, the Attorney Gen- 
eral made the following statements, wheih I believe are relevant in considering 
the subcommittee's subpena issued to Mr. Peurifoy : 

98330 — 50— pt. 1 12 



172 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

"It is the position of this Department, restated now with the approval of and 
at the direction of the President, that all investigative reports are confidential 
documents of the executive department of the Government, to aid in the duty laid 
upon the President by the Constitution to 'take care that the laws be faithfully 
executed,' and that congressional or puhlic access to them would not be in the 
public interest. * * * 

"Disclosure of the reports at this particular time would also prejudice the 
national defense and be of aid and comfort to the very subversive elements 
against which you wish to protect the country. For this reason we have made 
extraordinary efforts to see that the results of counter espionage activities and 
intelligence activities of this Department involving those elements are kept 
within the fewest possible hands. A catalog of persons under investigation or 
suspicion, and what we know about them, would be of inestimable service to 
foreign agencies ; and information which could be so used cannot be too closely 
guarded. 

•Moreover, disclosure of the reports would be of serious prejudice to the future 
usefulness of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. As you probably know, much 
of this information is given in confidence and can only be obtained upon pledge 
not to disclose its sources. A disclosure of the sources would embarrass infor- 
mants — sometimes in their employment, sometimes in their social relations, and in 
extreme cases might even endanger their lives. We regard the keeping of faith 
with confidential informants as an indispensable condition of future efficiency." 

Authorization for the disclosure of confidential materials contained in or con- 
fidential information derived from the files of executive departments and agencies 
can only be given in accordance with section 161 of the Revised Statutes, referred 
to above, upon the responsibility of the head of the department or agency con- 
cerned. These Federal officers are not alone in their concern for the safeguard- 
ing of confidential materials in the executive departments and agencies. Con- 
gress itself by appropriate legislation has recognized the need for maintaining 
the security of such materials. 

The Department of State notes that a very large number of the persons 
named in the subcommittee's list are officials of foreign governments or persons 
connected with the United Nations whose status has been governed by the Char- 
ter and by the headquarters agreement between the United States and the United 
Nations. Departmental files of the sort covered by the subcommittee's subpena 
contain materials that relate to confidential negotiations conducted by the 
United States in the field of foreign affairs. Disclosure of the contents of 
such files would seriously embarrass the conduct of foreign relations by the 
United States, in negotiations with other governments and with the United 
Nations and in the participation of the United States in the United Nations. 
As you know, the implementation by the United States of the headquarters agree- 
ment has been the subject of close scrutiny in the United Nations General As- 
sembly, and has at times been used for vigorous propaganda attacks upon the 
United States. It is of great importance to the interests of the United States 
that no steps be taken which could furnish ammunition for such attacks or 
which could predispose members of the United Nations against the United States 
with respect to its implementation of the headquarters agreement. 

For the reason stated above, and with the specific approval of the President 
and pursuant to his direction, I must respectfully refuse to permit disclosure 
of departmental files of the sort covered by the subpena, and Mr. Peurifoy will 
not be permitted to produce them or testify as to their contents. 
Sincerely yours, 

James E. Webb, 
Acting Secretary. 

Senator Donnell. May I ask if Mr. Peurifoy has stated for the rec- 
ord when he will be able to advise the chairman as to the date at which 
he will be able to secure and furnish to the chairman and to this sub- 
committee the information requested, so far as consistent with the 
public interest? 

Mr. Peurifoy. I will try to do that by late this afternoon or to- 
morrow, sir. 1 

1 The testimony of the Assistant Secretary of State is resumed on p. 336. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 173 

Senator Donnell. May I ask also, Mr. Chairman, whether the let- 
ter from Attorney General Clark has been ordered to be inserted in 
the record? 

The Chairman. It is so ordered. 

(The letter referred to is as follows:) 

Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. C, June 1, 19.' t 9. 
Hon. Pat McCabran, 

Chairman. Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization, 

Committee on the Judiciary, 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Chairman : I have received a subpena, bearing the date of the 
2()th of May 1040, to produce before the Immigration and Naturalization Sub- 
committee of the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate on June 1, 1949, the 
files of the Department of Justice in the case of each of 168 persons whose names 
appear on a list attached to the subpena. 

The persons listed are, for the most part, officials or employees of the United 
Nations or of foreign governments. The treatment of persons in this category 
relates not only to the conduct of our foreign relations but to the maintenance of 
our internal security. 

Files pertaining to matters of this character are of an extremely confidential 
nature. After conferring with Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, and after careful consideration, I have concluded that 
it is not in the public interest that they be produced. 

On the basis of detailed study, it is the considered judgment of this Depart- 
ment that the President and the heads of executive departments are not bound 
to produce papers or give information to congressional committees when they 
deem the papers and information requested to be confidential and their produc- 
tion not to be in the public interest. And the determination of what informa- 
tion and which papers are confidential and the circumstances in which their 
disclosure would not be in the public interest is solely for the Executive to 
determine. 

The position of this Department is no different from that taken by the House 
Judiciary Committee in 1879 in the case of George F. Seward. Seward was 
consul general of the United States in China. He appeared before a House Com- 
mittee on Expenditures which was in charge of investigating his official conduct. 
A subpena duces tecum had been served upon him to produce certain books and 
papers. Seward refused. He was brought before the House to show cause at 
its bar why he should not obey the House through its subpena. The House 
referred the incident to its Judiciary Committee. 

Benjamin F. Butler, chairman of the Judiciary Committee, submitted a report 
stating that Seward was not in contempt ; that in contemplation of law, under 
our theory of government, all the records of the executive departments were 
under the control of the President of the United States. Although the House 
.sometimes sent resolutions to a head of a department to produce such books and 
records, nevertheless, in any doubtful case no head of a department would bring 
before a committee of the House any of the records of his office without permis- 
sion of, or consultation with, the President of the United States. The report 
pointed out that all resolutions directed to the President of the United States, 
if properly phrased, would contain the clause : "If in his judgment not incon- 
sistent with the public interest" (H. Rept. No. 141, Mar. 3, 1879, 45th Cong., 
3d sess., p. 3). 

"And whenever the President has returned (as sometimes he has) that, in 
his judgment, it was not consistent with the public interest to give the House 
such information, no further proceedings have ever been taken to compel the 
production of such information. Indeed, upon principles, it would seem that 
this must be so. The Executive is as independent of either house of Congress as 
either House of Congress is independent of him, and they cannot call for the 
records of his action or the action of his officers against his consent, any more 
than he can call for any of the journals and records of the House or Sen- 
ate" (Ibid.). 

Finally, the report stated that the highest exercise of the power calling for 
documents would be, in the course of justice, by the courts of the United States, 
but the House would not permit its journals to be taken from its possession 
by one of its assistant clerks and carried into a court in obedience to a subpena 



174 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

duly issued by the court. The report Indicated the perils incident to divulging; 
to any committee of the Boose 'state s screts," to the detriment of the country. 

"Somebody must judge upon this point. It clearly cann t be the House or 
its committee, because they cannot know the Importance of having the doings 
of the executive department kept secret. The head of the executive depart- 
ment, therefore, must be the judge in such case and decide it upon his own re- 
sponsibility to the people, and to the House, upon a case of impeachment brought 
against him for so doing, if bis acts are causeless, malicious, willfully wrong, 
or to the detriment of the public interest"' (Id. at pp. 3-4). 

Since the founding of the Government the Presidents of the United States 
have, from time to time, held information of various types to be confidential, and 
have refused to divulge or to permit the divulgence of such information outside 
of the executive branch of the Government. In 1796, for example, President 
Washington declined to comply with a request of the House of Representatives 
to furnish it with a copy of the instructions to ministers of the United States 
who had negotiated a treaty wuth Great Britain. The House insisted on its 
right to the papers as a condition of appropriating funds necessary to imple- 
ment the treaty. In declining to comply, President Washington stated : "As 
it is essential to the due administration of the Government that the boundaries 
tixed by the Constitution between the various departments should be preserved, 
a just regard to the Constitution and to the duty of my office * * * forbids 
a compliance with your request." (See Richardson, Messages and Papers of 
the Presidents, vol. 1, pp. 104, 196.) Later, President Jefferson refused to allow 
two members of his Cabinet to supply documents at the trial of Aaron BUrr. In 
1825 President Monroe declined to comply with a request from the House of 
Representatives to transmit to the House certain documents relating to the 
conduct of naval officers. In 1833 President Jackson refused to comply with a 
Senate request that he communicate to it a copy of a paper purporting to have 
been read by him to the heads of the executive departments relating to the re- 
moval of the deposits of public money from the Bank of the United States. In 
1886 President Cleveland supported his Attorney General's refusal to comply 
with a Senate resolution calling for documents and papers relating to the re- 
moval of a district attorney. Similarly, in 1843, a resolution of the House of 
Representatives called upon the Secretary of War to communicate to the House 
the reports made to the War Department by Lieutenant Colonel Hitchcock 
relative to the affairs of the Cherokee Indians, together with all information 
communicated by him concerning the frauds which he had been charged to in- 
vestigate. The Secretary of War advised the House that he could not com- 
municate information which Colonel Hitchcock had obtained in confidence, be- 
cause it would be grossly unjust to the persons who had given the information. 
The House, however, claimed the right to demand from the Executive and 
heads of departments such information as may be in their possession relating 
to subject of deliberations of the House. President Tyler, in a message dated 
January 31, 1843, said in part : 

"And although information comes through a proper channel to an executive 
officer, it may often be of a character to forbid its being made public. The officer 
charged with a confidential inquiry, and who reports its results under the pledge 
of confidence which his appointment implies, ought not to be exposed individually 
to the resentment of those whose conduct may be impugned by the information he 
collects. The knowledge that such is to be the consequence will inevitably prevent 
the performances of duties of that character, and thus the Government will be 
deprived of an important means of investigating the conduct of its agents" 
(Richardson, Messages and Papers of the Presidents, vol. 4, pp. 221-223). 

The reports of Colonel Hitchcock concerning the delegates of the Cherokee 
Nation were not communicated by President Tyler to the House. The reasons 
given by the President for the failure to send the papers and documents referred 
tf> were that suggestions, anticipated projects, and views dealing with the per- 
sonal character of persons would not be of aid to Congress in legislation, and their 
publication would be unfair and unjust to a Federal official and inconsistent with 
the public interest. 

These are only a few of the precedents to be found in the history of our 
Government. 

The sound public and constitutional policy expressed in these precedents has 
perhaps its best-known application with respect to congressional requests for 
information contained in the confidential reports of investigative agencies of the 
Government and in the files and records relating to the loyalty of Govern- 
ment personnel. With respect to the former, Attorney General Jackson on April 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 175 

30, 1041, wrote to the chairman of the House Committee on Naval Affairs declining 
to furnish that committee with certain reports of the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion. In his letter, which Attorney General Jackson indicated was written with 
the approval of and at the direction of the President, he reviewed the practice 
of a number of his predecessors as Attorney General and of a number of Presi- 
dents, which practice was in accord with the position taken. The practical 
reasons which demand in the interest of sound Government administration that 
such reports be held confidential were stated by Attorney General Jackson, as 
follows : 

"It is the position of this Department, restated now with the approval of and 
at the direction of the President, that all investigative reports are confidential 
documents of the executive department of the Government, to aid in the duty 
laid upon the President by the Constitution to 'take care that the laws be faithfully 
executed,' and that congressional or public access to them would not be in the 
public interest. 

"Disclosure of the reports could not do otherwise than seriously prejudice law 
enforcement. Counsel for a defendant or prospective defendant could have no 
greater help than to know how much or how little information the Government 
has, and what witnesses or sources of information it can rely upon. This is 
exactly what these reports are intended to contain. 

"Disclosure of the reports at this particular time would also prejudice the 
national defense and be of aid and comfort to the very subversive elements 
against which you wish to protect the country. For this reason we have made 
extraordinary efforts to see that the results of counser-espionage activities and 
intelligence activities of this Department involving those elements are kept 
within the fewest possible hands. A catalog of persons under investigation or 
suspicion, and what we know about them, would be of inestimable service to 
foreign agencies ; and information which could be used cannot be too closely 
guarded. 

"Moreover, disclosure of the reports would be of serious prejudice to the 
future usefulness of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. As you probably 
know, much of this information is given in confidence and can only be obtained 
upon pledge not to disclose its sources. A disclosure of the sources would 
embarrass informants — sometimes in their employment, sometimes in their social 
relations, and in extreme cases might even endanger their lives. We regard the 
keeping of faith with confidential informants as an indispensable condition of 
future efficiency. 

"Disclosure of information contained in the reports might also be the grossest 
kind of injustice to innocent individuals. Investigative reports include leads 
and suspicions, and sometimes even the statements of malicious or misinformed 
people. Even though later and more complete reports exonerate the individuals, 
the use of particular or selected reports might constitute the grossest injustice, 
and we all know that a correction never catches up with an accusation." 

It has long been recognized that the personnel records of the Government 
contain information of a highly confidential nature which is not to be disclosed 
except where the public interest might require such disclosure. President Tyler 
declined to comply with a resolution of the House of Representatives which 
called upon him and the heads of departments to furnish information regarding 
such members of the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh Congresses as had applied 
for office. In so doing, President Tyler stated : 

"Applications for office are in their very nature confidential, and if the reasons 
assigned for such applications or the names of the applicants were communicated, 
not only would such implied confidence be wantonly violated, but, in addition, 
it is quite obvious that a mass of vague, incoherent, and personal matter would 
be made public at a vast consumption of time, money, and trouble without 
accomplishing or tending in any manner to accomplish, as it appears to me, any 
useful object connected with a sound and constitutional administration of the 
Government in any of its branches. 

"In my judgment a compliance with the resolution which has been transmitted 
to me would be a surrender of duties and powers which the Constitution has 
conferred exclusively on the Executive, and therefor such compliance cannot 
be made by me nor by the heads of departments by my direction" (Richardson, 
Messages and Papers of the Presidents, vol. 4, pp. 105-106) . 

The Constitution lodges the executive power in the President. Among his 
duties conferred upon him by the Constitution and statutes is that of appoint- 
ing those persons who are to aid him in executing the laws. It is within the 
President's discretion whether information which has been elicited for the pur- 



1 7() COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

pose of enabling him to discharge his duty may be divulged by the executive 
bramh. William Howard Taft, following his term as President and prior to 
his appointment as Chief Justice, wrote with respect to this subject in his book, 
our chief Magistrate and His Powers, at page 129. 

"The President is required by the Constitution from time lo time to give 
Congress information on the State of the Union, and to recommend for its 
consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient, but 
tbis does not enable Congress or either House of Congress to elicit from him 
confidential information which lie acquired for the purpose of enabling him to 
discharge his constitutional duties, if he does not deem the disclosure of such 
information prudent or in the public interest." 

In this connection it is not inappropriate to call attention to the admonition 
of President Washington in his Farewell Address : 

"It is important, likewise, that the habits of thinking in a free country 
should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration to confine them- 
selves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of 
the powers of one department to encroach upon another. The spirit of encroach- 
ment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one. and thus 
to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism * * *" (Rich- 
ardson, Messages and Papers of the Presidents, vol. 1, p. 239) . 

Moreover, as pointed out by Attorney General Jackson in the opinion above 
referred to, "This discretion in the executive branch has been upheld and re- 
spected by the judiciary. The courts have repeatedly held that they will not 
and cannot require the Executive to produce such papers when in the opinion 
of the Executive their production is contrary to the public interest. The courts 
have also held that the question whether the production of the papers would 
be against the public interest is one for the Executive and not for the courts to 
determine." Ample judicial authority is cited in Attorney General Jackson's 
opinion. But particular attention is called to Boske v. Comingore (111 U. S. 459) , 
where the Supreme Court upheld regulations of the Secretary of the Treasury 
limiting the use to which certain internal-revenue records could be put, saying 
(at pp. 469-470) : 

"* * * w < (Jo not perceive upon what ground the regulation in question 
can be regarded as inconsistent with law. unless it be that the records and papers 
in the office of a collector of internal revenue are at all times open or right to 
inspection and examination by the public, despite the wishes of the Department. 
That cannot be admitted. The papers in question, copies of which were sought 
from the appellee, were the property of the United States, and were in his 
official custody under a regulation forbidding him to permit their use except 
for purposes relating to the collection of the revenues of the United States. 
Reasons of public policy may well have suggested the necessity, in the interest 
of the Government, of not allowing access to the records in the offices of collectors 
of internal revenue, except as might be directed by the Secretary of the Treasury. 
The interests of persons compelled, under the revenue laws, to furnish informa- 
tion as to their private business affairs would often be seriously affected if the 
disclosures so made were not properly guarded." 

The views set forth herein should not be construed as establishing a policy 
on the part of this Department of never furnishing information or documents to 
congressional committees upon their request. Each request will be considered 
on its merits, and will be complied with in appropriate cases where in the 
judgment of this Department the public interest will not be adversely affected 
and where the action would be consistent with the policies, orders, and directives 
of the President. As Attorney General Jackson pointed out in his opinion above 
referred to : 

"Of course, where the public interest has seemed to justify it, information as 
to particular situations has been supplied to congressional committees by me 
and by former Attorneys General. For example, I have taken the position that 
committees called upon to pass on the confirmation of persons recommended 
for appointment by the Attorney General would be afforded confidential access 
to any information that we have — because no candidate's name is submitted 
without his knowledge and the Department does not intend to submit the name 
of any person whose entire history will not stand light. By way of further 
illustration, I may mention that pertinent information would be supplied in 
impeachment proceedings, usually instituted at the suggestion of the Depart- 
ment for the good of the administration of justice." 

It is stated in the press that you intend to release certain confidential informa- 
tion contained in your files relating to internal security matters. Since the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 177 

Federal Bureau of Investigation is charged with protecting the internal security 
of the United States. I most sincerely urge upon you that before such informa- 
tion is made public the matter be cleared with this Department. If you have any 
information which you believe should be furnished to the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, I should be glad to receive it for appropriate action. 

On May 16, 1!)49, at a conference in this Department I advised you of the type 
of information we could furnish your committee and it was agreed, I thought, 
that we should prepare it. It is now being prepared. You will be informed as 
soon as this work has been completed, ami at that time we will make available 
to you as much of the material as then proves possible, consistent with the 
public interest. 

I desire, of course, to cooperate with your committee at all times. I am 
convinced, however, that it is my duty in the public interest to take the position 
stated in this letter. The President has reviewed the matter and has advised 
me that he not only concurs in this position but directs me to take it. 
Sincerely yours, 

Tom Clark, Attorney General. 

The Chairman. The matters sought by this committee are set out 
in the questions propounded to the respective officers who have re- 
sponded to the subpena. 

Senator Doxnell,. May I ask one further question, if you will per- 
mit an interruption ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Doxxell. I was not clear as to whether the alternate ques- 
tion that was asked of Mr. Peurifoy was in substitution for a question 
to the Attorney General, or whether it was in addition. 

The Chairman. It was in substitution. He will immediately see 
that. One is to the Department of Justice and the other is to the 
Department of State. 

There being nothing further to come before the committee at this 
time, the committee stands adjourned. 

Attorney General Clark. Mr. Chairman, I am here out of respect 
to the committee. You said a moment ago that I was here in response 
to the subpena and you can view it that way if you wish, but I have a 
high respect and regard for the great Judiciary Committee of the 
United States Senate, for its chairman, and for its members, and I 
am here in response to that high regard and respect that I have. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. 

(Whereupon, at 11: 15 a. m., the committee recessed, subject to the 
call of the Chair.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GROUPS 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 8, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration 
and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 2 p. m. in room 424, Sen- 
ate Office Building, Senator James O. Eastland presiding. 

Present : Senators Eastland, Wiley, Langer, and Donnell. 

Also present: Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee, Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members; Robert B. Young, professional staff, Committee on 
the Judiciary. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE PIRINSKY, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, THE 

AMERICAN SLAV CONGRESS * 

Senator Eastland. The committee will come to order. 

The first witness is Mr. George Pirinsky. 

At this point in the record we will insert the subpena duces tecum 
issued to Mr. Pirinsky. 

(The subpena duces tecum is in the files of the subcommittee.) 

Senator Eastland. Will you stand, please? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give be- 
fore the Judiciary Committee of the Senate of the United States is the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth so help you God ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Will you state your full name, please? 

Mr. Pirinsky. My full name is George Pirinsky. I am the execu- 
tive secretary of the American Slav Congress, whose headquarters are 
205 East Forty-second Street, New York City. 

Mr. Arens. Have you always used the name of George Pirinsky ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I have used the name Pirinsky and also I used the 
name of George Nikolov Zaikov. 

Mr. Arens. You are here in answer to a subpena duces tecum, Mr. 
Pirinsky ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. I would like to make a statement in connec- 
tion with the subpena. 

Mr. Arens. You may proceed. 

Mr. Pirinsky. On May 27, I was served with a subpena, issued by 
this subcommittee, commanding me to appear before you today and to 
bring with me certain records of the American Slav Congress. 

1 Accompanied by Joseph Forer, attorney. 

179 



180 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

This subpena is extremely broad in its scope, does not specify any 
documents with any particularity, or even with reference to any time, 
and is vaguely worded. Nothing in this subpena indicates, nor have 
I been informed of, the purpose for which this material is sought. In 
addition, the subpena apparently directs the preparation of lists and 
copies, rather than merely the production of existing records. 

Under these circumstances, it is a fair inference that the subpena 
is merely a fishing expedition designed to harass and interfere with 
the functioning of a going organization. 

Nevertheless, I have brought a mass of material with me, which I 
now deliver to the subcommittee. If this material is not adequate for 
the purposes of the subcommittee, I should be glad to consider supple- 
menting it if the subcommittee will inform me what else it wants and 
why. 

Since the subcommittee seems to be interested in the American Slav 
Congress, I wish to state a few words concerning this organization. 
The basic principles of our organization are stated in the constitution, 
which was adopted at our Second American Slav Congress in Pitts- 
burgh, in the fall of 1942. I feel confident that when you examine 
the constitution of the American Slav Congress 

Senator Eastland. I suggest that part of the statement is not re- 
sponsive to the subpena duces tecum. Now, the witness is under oath, 
and you, Mr. Arens, may proceed to ask questions. 

Mr. Pirinsky. Senator, I just want to tell you in one paragraph 
the purpose of the constitution I am bringing here, of the organization, 
of what it says. 

Senator Eastland. Of the constitution of the organization that you 
are bringing? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is right. 

Senator Eastland. You may proceed. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I feel confident that when you examine the constitu- 
tion of the American Slav Congress, a copy of which is in the material 

1 have given you, you will find that its principles and aims are dedi- 
cated to the promotion of the democratic traditions of the United 
States and the provisions of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. 
The purpose of the American Slav Congress is stated clearly in article 

2 of our constitution, which says : 

The American Slav Congress is a nonpartisan organization of freedom-loving 
Americans of Slav origin, dedicated to the strengthening of the democratic 
processes in the cultural, political, social, and economic advancement of our 
country and its friendship and cooperation with the Slav nations of Europe for 
the establishment and preservation of a just and durable peace for all democratic 
nations of the world. 

The American Slav Congress is the organization under whose lead- 
ership millions of Slavic- Americans made an outstanding contribution 
to the war effort of the country, for which the late President Roosevelt 
commended it very highly. In a letter, referring to the contribution 
of Americans of Slav descent to the building of America and the 
activities of the American Slav Congress, Roosevelt wrote : 

You who have helped to build the United States in factory and on farm, and 
have contributed so richly to the national culture, need not be told the meaning 
of America, nor of her blessings. And you who send your sons into battle and 
forge the weapons of war that spell victory need not be cautioned to keep your 
courage high and your faith firm. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 181 

The American Slav Congress remains true to Roosevelt's domestic 
and foreign policies of social improvements at home and friendship 
and cooperation with all freedom-loving peoples abroad. 

We especially supported and continue to fight for his policy of 
friendship between the American people and the peoples of the Slavic 
countries, with whose devotion to the cause of freedom and peace we 
feel well acquainted. We believe that a policy of friendship and 
cooperation between 145.000,000 Americans and 300,000,000 Slavs in 
Europe — the two main forces that brought about the defeat of the 
Axis Powers — cannot but result in friendship and cooperation among 
all freedom-loving peoples of the world for the building of a just and 
lasting peace. We consider this to be the key to the solution of the 
present division of Europe and the world into hostile camps and the 
turning of the tide toward understanding and peace. 

The organization was built mainly on a meeting at which former 
Attorney General Francis Biddle was present, on December 7, 1941, 
in Detroit. Mich. It was a defense-bond rally organized jointly with 
the Treasury Department and the Slavic groups in the city of Detroit. 
It was at that rally that Mr. Biddle, before speaking, was called to an 
emergency meeting at the White House and, before leaving told us of 
the attack at Pearl Harbor. 

He appealed to our people gathered at the banquet there to unite 
their forces and do everything possible to help speed the day of victory 
over the Axis aggressors. So it was in response to that call — although 
some beginnings were made before in founding the Slav Congress in 
Pittsburgh in 1938 — that the American Slav Congress came into exist- 
ence on a Nation-wide scale. 

About a few months later, a Nation-wide convention was called in 
Detroit, with 3,000 delegates. Mr. McNutt 1 was the principal speaker 
sent from Washington to address the convention. We were urged to 
help win the battle of production. American Slavs constituted about 
50 percent of the workers in heavy industry and thus we were in a 
position to make a contribution to the winning of the battle of pro- 
duction, which we did. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I wonder if we could new interrogate 
the witness on the subject matter here? 

Senator Eastland. I suggest the witness finish his statement, and 
then you may proceed, Mr. Arens. 

Mr. Forer. Mr. Chairman, I am appearing as counsel. I wonder 
if you would explain for my benefit and also for the purpose of the 
record, just what participation it is the practice of this subcommittee 
to allow counsel? 

Senator Eastland. Do you mean what participation is allowed you, 
sir? 

Mr. Forer. That is correct, sir. 

Senator Eastland. You may advise the witness. 

Mr. Forer. That is exactly what I want to find out ; that is, what 
participation is allowed. 

Senator Eastland. You may advise the witness as to his rights. 

Mr. Forer. And nothing else ? 

Senator Eastland. You may advise him as to his rights. 

Would you kindly identify yourself for the record? 

1 Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator. 



182 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Forer. Of course, sir. My name is Joseph Forer. I practice 
law in the District of Columbia; my office address is 1105 K Street 
NW. } Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Arens. Are you the counsel for Mr. Pirinsky ? 

Mr. Forer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been the counsel for Mr. Gerhart Eisler? 

Mr. Forer. Yes, but what does that have to do with this ? 

Mr. Arens. Have you been the counsel for Emil Costello ? 

Mr. Forer. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been counsel for Claudia Jones ? 

Mr. Forer. Just a minute. 

Mr. Chairman, I object to this line of questioning. It obviously has 
one purpose, to smear Mr. Pirinsky. I will not participate any further 
in it. 

Senator Eastland. I do not think that questioning has anything to 
do with the issue. You may put a statement in the record, if you 
desire. 1 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Pirinsky, when did you first gain admission into 
the United States ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. In 1923, August 1. 

Mr. Arens. Are you still an alien ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. To this question, I would like to say the following: 
That I have an immigration deportation trial on the 21st of this month, 
and I feel that it would be unfair to ask me now to answer this ques- 
tion. I will take the stand then and state my political beliefs. 

Mr. Arens. You are under a deportation order at the present time ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What is the membership of the American Slav Con- 
gress? 

Mr. Pirinsky. We do not have dues-paying members. It is not an 
individual-membership organization. The American Slav Congress 
is a very loose federation of cooperating organizations which come and 
go any time they want to. We just issue an appeal to all of the Slavic 
organizations, as during the war, for instance, to send delegates to a 
convention. Actually, there is no affiliation fee; there is nothing — 
just those that come to take part in discussions, as, at that time, the 
main question of winning the war, and then they go home. When 
we issue some appeal, those who agree with the policies and the pro- 
gram of the Congress participate in one or other forms. It is not a 
dues-paying organization, and has no membership list. 

Mr. Arens. How many persons are affiliated with the American Slav 
Congress even though they may not be actual members ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. We don't know ourselves, because sometimes the na- 
tional organization or some organizations send one or two representa- 
tives. We really have not figured out how many members there are 
in the organizations that have sent delegates or observers to our con- 
vention. 

Mr. Arens. What publications are issued by the American Slav 
Congress ? 

1 The statement detailing the record of Joseph Forer appears on p. 216. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 183 

Mr. Pirinsky. The Slavic American, a magazine. 
Mr. Arens. What is the extent of its circulation ? 
Mr. Pirinsky. It is about 8,000 copies. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a mailing list with you, of the publication ? 
Mr. Pirinsky. I was not asked to bring any mailing list of the 
publication. 

Mr. Arens. Have you, since you were admitted into the United 
States, made any trips to Soviet Russia ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No ; I haven't. 

Mr. Arens. What contacts, if any, have you had with affiliates of 
international organizations or with affiliates of consulates or embassies 
who have come from behind the iron curtain ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. We had a convention in 1946 in New York, and we 
invited representatives of the Slavic Committees of Europe to come 
to the convention and bring us greetings from the people that fought 
on our side during the war. We don't have any organizational ties. 
We have gone to the embassies to ask them to cooperate with us in 
bringing such guests or fraternal delegates from there, or asking them 
to send us some publications. We don't have organizational ties. We 
have exchanged greetings with them on various occasions and, as I 
stated, a few of them came to the conference and they spoke at Madison 
Square Garden; they spoke at our convention there as guests from 
Europe. They were mostly people that were in the underground 
liberation movement during the war. For instance, General Koslov, 1 
one of them, was the leader of the White Eussian partisans. He 
used to tell us how he went to the meetings of the Slav Committee 
in Moscow over German lines. Others were from the other Slav coun- 
tries ; Reverend Fiala 2 from Czechoslovakia. I am not sure that is the 
right spelling. 

Senator Eastland. You are a citizen of what country? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I was born in Macedonia at the time that was under 
Turkey. In 1912, the Balkan War broke out; and, after that, the 
Second Balkan War, and Macedonia was divided between the three 
Balkan countries that fought Turkey. My part of Macedonia was 
given to Bulgaria; so at that time I became a citizen of Bulgaria, 
because of that division of the country. That was under King Boris. 
I have not renewed my citizenship in Bulgaria ; so, actually, I am a 
citizen of the world. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Pirinsky, who is G. Dimitrov? 

Mr. Pirinsky. G. Dimitrov? 

Mr. Arens. Yes, sir; George Dimitrov. 

Mr. Pirinsky. Are you referring to the present Prime Minister of 
Bulgaria ? 

Mr. Dekom. The former secretary general of the Comintern. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know him. I read in the newspapers that 
he is the Prime Minister of Bulgaria. 

Mr. Arens. What contact have you had with him ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I have had no contact, 

Mr. Arens. Have you written articles for the Daily Worker in 
New York? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. 



1 Gen. Vasili Koslov. 

2 Frantisek Fiala. 



184 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. Did you write an article under date of August 31, 1935? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. How frequently have you written articles for the Daily 
Worker? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Very rarely. 

Mr. Arens. What records have you produced in evidence in answer 
to the subpena duces tecum ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I have all the press releases, all the pamphlets of the 
meetings, the financial reports, bank statements. 

Mr. Arens. Has not Mr. Dimitrov sent greetings and messages to 
the American Slav Congress? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. He did at the time of the Third Congress, 
when they had those delegates. 

Mr. Arens. Have you received any messages or greetings from Mr. 
Stalin ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Mr. Stalin also sent greetings to that Congress, ex- 
pressing the wish for friendship between the American people and 
the people of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member or have you ever been a member of 
the Macedonian- American People's Union? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The Macedonian-American People's League. Yes. 
I am the national secretary since it was founded. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a member or have you been a member of the 
United' Committee of South Slavic Americans ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes; I was a member. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been or are you now a member of the Amer- 
ican Committee for Yugoslav Relief? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No ; it is not existing now. 

Mr. Arens. Were you at one time a member? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The Yugoslav committee? Yes: I was. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not these organizations have 
been listed by the Attorney General as subversive organizations ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think they have been. 

Mr. Arens. And the American Slav Congress has been listed ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Outrageously, yes. We protested, and we stated 
that there is no basis for such listing of the American Slav Congress 
by the Department of Justice, whose former chief was the one that 
initiated it. 

Mr. Arens. Have you written eulogies on George Dimitrov in cer- 
tain publications? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. At the time of the Leipzig trials, I praised 
him very highly for his courage to stand up against the Nazi when he 
called for the fight against fascism. 

Mr. Arens. Who are the members of the board of directors of the 
American Slav Congress, or the controlling group ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. We have the officers ; that is, the executive commit- 
tee — Mr. Leo Krzycki. 

Mr. Arens. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. He went as a delegate to the Paris Congress for 
Peace, and I understand he is returning to the country. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not he is a citizen? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I believe he is. He is American-born. 

Then we have Prof. Jan Marsalka. He is also a delegate to that 
Congress, and I understand they are returning together. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 185 

Then, Stanley Nowak, from Detroit, is the national secretary. I 
am the executive secretary. Sam Nicolauk is the treasurer. Charlie 
Musil is the financial secretary. These are the officers of the American 
Slav Congress. 

Mr. Arens. What do you do for a living, Mr. Pirinsky ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I am a full-time paid executive secretary of the 
American Slav Congress. 

Mr. Arens. You are paid by the American Slav Congress ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is right ; since Pearl Harbor Day. 

Mr. Arens. What are the dues of the organization or the source 
of income of the organization? 

Mr. Pirinsky. There are no dues. We just appeal to Slavic Amer- 
icans and to organizations, whoever wish to support the program of 
the American Slav Congress, to contribute. 

Mr. Arens. By whom were you elected or appointed ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. By the national conference. 

Mr. Arens. The Slavic American journal follows the party line 
of the Communist Party ; does it not ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No; it doesn't. It follows the program of the Amer- 
ican Slav Congress. 

Senator Eastland. What is the difference between the program 
of the Communist Party and the program of the Slav Congress ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Is that the purpose of this hearing, to discuss the 
differences ? 

Senator Eastland. No, sir ; I would like to get that information. 

Mr. Pirinsky. The main purpose of the program of the American 
Slav Congress during the war was to help win the war. After the 
war, we felt that we should continue the efforts to help build a lasting 
peace. That is the basic policy of the American Slav Congress. I 
would like to see the people of the United States and the people of 
the Slavic countries in friendship and cooperating. Here at home, 
we were consistently following the policy of the late President Roose- 
velt, who wrote a few messages to the congress, and President Truman 
also was to come to address the second congress in Pittsburgh. I 
wrote him a letter, and he replied that he would try by all means to 
be at the congress, but Mr. Ickes 1 came, because of a previous engage- 
ment by President Truman. The letter he sent is dated August 11, 
1944, when he was a Senator. 

Mr. Arens. What is the difference, Mr. Pirinsky, between the party 
line of the Communist Party and the basic tenets or positions of the 
American Slav Congress ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I know what the policy of the American Slav Con- 
gress is, and that is what I stand for and feel responsibility for carry- 
ing out the policies. Outside of that, I am not responsible. I don't 
think that is the purpose of the hearing. 

Mr. Arens. You were one of the organizers of the Macedonian- 
American Peoples League? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. What is the purpose or objective of that organization? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The main objective of that organization — it was 
founded in reaction against a situation that existed among Macedo- 

1 Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior. 



186 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

nian- Americans here. Some Fascist leaders, Macedonians who were 
living in Bulgaria, came to this country and founded the Macedonian 
Political Organization, with headquarters in Indianapolis. These 
people were telling our Americans of Macedonian descent that Hitler 
will be the one to liberate Macedonia. At the same time they were 
carrying on assassinations of progressive Macedonian leaders. So, 
our organizations came into being as a reaction on the part of Macedo- 
nian Americans of their indignation and the protest of the policy of 
that organization. So, we formed the Macedonian People's League 
to fight against this policy of fascism that was being injected into the 
minds of our people, and also to protest against the assassinations and 
killings. 

Generally, we support the fight of the Macedonian people for free- 
dom. After the two Balkan wars, Macedonia remained oppressed. 
It was divided between the three Balkan countries, and we felt that 
whatever moral support can be given here to encourage this people to 
continue to work for their national independence should be done by 
us. 

Senator Eastland. That is the policy of the Tito Government; is 
it not? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That was a long time before we even knew T of Tito. 

Senator Eastland. Today it is to "liberate" Macedonia; is it not? 
Is that not the policy of the Russian Government and the policy of 
Tito? 

Mr. F'irinsky. It is the policy — Macedonia, for instance, is divided 
between the three countries now. Some Macedonians are in Greece. 

Senator Eastland. That is right. 

Mr. Pirinsky. Some are in Bulgaria and some in Yugoslavia. 

Senator Eastland. One of the aims in the civil war in Greece of 
those who have. revolted against the Greek Government is to liberate 
Macedonia ; is it not ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't think that is the aim of the civil war. I 
think the civil war in Greece started in December 1944, when the 
British troops intervened in the internal life of Greece and imposed 
again the King back to the Greek people that they had rejected. 

Senator Eastland. Is it not one of the aims of the revolutionary 
leaders of Greece to liberate Macedonia from Greece ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Senator, the history of the Macedonian movement is 
a long one. 

Senator Eastland. Answer my question, please. Is that or is that 
not one of the aims ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I haven't read in the newspapers that that is the 
aim of the people that are fighting in Greece now, to liberate Mace- 
donia. I think the Macedonians are participating in that fight, and 
these Macedonians want to see a democratic Greece and to live in 
peace with the people of Greece. That is, I view the events that are 
taking place that way. 

Senator Eastland. Do you think they want to liberate Macedonia ; 
that is, take Macedonia from Greece ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Who ? The Macedonians ? 

Senator Eastland. Yes. 

Mr. Pirinsky. All Macedonians, I understand, want to unite into 
one Macedonia that will not be a part of any Balkan state, but will 
have independence like other nations. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 187 

Senator Eastland. That is right ; they are fighting on the side of 
the guerrillas in Greece. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I understand many Macedonians have joined. 

Senator Eastland. That is the Macedonian liberation movement ; is 
it not? 

Mr, Pirinsky. No ; it is not. 

Senator Eastland. It is to free Macedonia ; is it not ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. As far as I know, there is no Macedonian libera- 
tion movement now. 

Senator Eastland. Did you not say that your organization favored 
an independent Macedonia? 

Mr. Pirinsky. To free Macedonia, yes ; we do. 

Senator Eastland. That is one of the issues in the civil war. 

Mr. Pirinsky. No ; I think the main issue in the civil war is to abol- 
ish monarchy and establish their own democratic government there. 
In such a Greece, I understand that the Macedonians will be also 
given the right to speak their language and to live as free citizens. 
The Macedonians were oppressed by the Greek King before and now. 
They resent this oppression like the American people here resented 
the British oppression in 1776. As a matter of fact, the slogan of the 
Macedonians, when I was there, was the same as the slogan of Patrick 
Henry : "Give me liberty or give me death." 

Senator Eastland. What is the slogan now? We are talking about 
the civil war in Greece at this time. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think the civil war in Greece was provoked by the 
British intervention. 

Senator Eastland. There are no British soldiers now in Greece; 
are there ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think there are some still — quite a few there, help- 
ing in the training, and things like that. 

Senator Eastland. That is the reason there is a civil war there 
now, because of the British soldiers there now; is that right? Is that 
what you say? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Because the British intervened and tried to impose 
the king back to the Greek people. I think that was the main reason 
for the civil war. 

Mr. Arens. What is the membership of the Macedonian-American 
People's League in the United States? 

Mr. Pirinsky. About 500, approximately. 

Mr. Arens. What literature or publications are issued by this 
organization ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. It doesn't have any publications. It reports its 
activities, or it writes about its activities, in a newspaper in Detroit, 
the Narodna Volya, but it does not have its own publication. That 
is an independent publication in Detroit. 

Mr. Arens. Do you receive any money for your services in that 
organization? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No, unless they call me to a meet in a - . They pay the 
expenses. I used to be paid by the Macedonian People's League before 
Pearl Harbor Day. I am now and used to be national secretary of the 
organization. Then, after that dinner at Pearl Harbor Day in De- 
troit, Mich., I was in charge of the arrangements committee, and it 
was decided to form the Slav Congress ; so I became a paid function- 
ary of the American Slav Congress after Pearl Harbor. 

98330 — 50 — ut. 1 13 



188 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Ahkns. Have you been a special correspondent for Narodna 
Volya, the Communist paper in Detroit? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Not a special correspondent, but I have written 
articles. 

Mr. A.RENS. Will you please explain the documents which you have 
brought to the committee in response to the subpena? "Will you please 
identify them? 

Mr. Pikinsky. This is the stationery of the American Slav Con- 
gress, the national committee. 

Senator Eastland. That will be received in the record as exhibit 
No. 1 at this point. 

(The document was marked "Pirinsky Exhibit 1" and appears in 
Appendix VI, page A85.) 

Mr. Pirinsky. These [indicating] are the employees of the Ameri- 
can Slav Congress. 

Mr. Arens. That will be marked "Exhibit No. 2 1 ' in the record at 
this point. 

(The document was marked "Pirinsky Exhibit 2" and appears in 
appendix VI, page A85.) 

Mr. Arens. By the way, what is your salary as executive secretary 
of the American Slav Congress ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. $75 a week. 

Mr. Arens. What is the position of each of the other employees who 
are listed on exhibit 2? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I stated already that Mr. Musil is the financial secre- 
tary. He works on a magazine. Others are office workers. 

Mr. Arens. What is the next document? 

Mr. Pirinsky. This is the financial statement from the inception 
to December 31, 1945. 

Mr. Arens. That will be marked "Exhibit No. 3" in the record 
at this point. 

Is the American Slav Congress tax-exempt ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No. 

Senator Eastland. Are donations to the American Slav Congress 
tax-exempt? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I beg your pardon ? 

Senator Evstland. Are donations to the American Slav Congress 
tax-exempt? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No; they are not tax-exempt. 

Mr. Arens. What the Senator means is : If someone makes a contri- 
bution to the American Slav Congress, can he deduct that as a contri- 
bution for tax-exemption purposes? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't think so. 

Mr. Arens. Exhibit No. 4 is the American Slav Congress financial 
report for the year 1946. Exhibit No. 5 is the American Slav Congress 
financial report for 1947. Exhibit No. 6 is the American Slav Con- 
gress financial report for 1948. 

( The documents were marked "Pirinsky Exhibits 3, 4, 5, and 6," and 
appear in appendix VI, page A85 et seq.) 

Mr. Arens. Let the record show that the witness has submitted cop- 
ies of the Slavic American for the fall of 1948, summer of 1948, spring 
of 1948, the winter of 1947, the fall of 1947. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 189 

Mr. Pirinsky. Here is the minutes of the first convention that was 
called in Pittsburgh, Pa., 1938, that is, the Tri-State Conference of 
Slavic Organizations. 

This is a pamphlet dealing with the first Nation-wide conference at 
Detroit, Mich., at which Mr. McNutt spoke. 

Here are two copies of the Voice of the American Slav. 

Mr. Arens. This must be another publication in addition to the 
Slavic American ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. There were just these two copies, as I understand. 

Here is a folder, and here are program books after each conference 
or convention. 

Mr. Arens. We will identify all the publications, which have been 
furnished and described by the witness, as "Exhibit No. 7." 

(The documents were marked "Pirinsky Exhibit 7" and filed for 
the information of the subcommittee. A list of the publications ap- 
pears in appendix VI, p. A105.) 

Mr. Pirinsky. Here are all the press releases and resolutions of 
which we happened to have copies. 

Mr. Arens. That will be exhibit No. 8. 

(The documents were marked "Pirinsky Exhibit 8'' and filed for the 
information of the subcommittee ; constitution in appendix VI, p. 106. ) 

Mr. Pirinsky. Here are the bank statements. 

Mr. Arens. That will be marked "Exhibit No. 9." 

(The documents were marked "Pirinsky Exhibit 9" and filed for the 
information of the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Forer. You will want that back, Mr. Pirinsky. 

Mr. Pirinsky. We especially want that back; that is, the bank 
statements and receipts. 

Mr. Arens. We will send this back to you. Will it be agreeable 
to you if this be returned to your attorney or do you desire that it be 
directly returned to the American Slav Congress ? 

Mr. Forer. No ; I suggest that it go directly to the American Slav 
Congress. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think it should be returned to the American Slav 
Congress. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Pirinsky, is it your testimony that you were one 
of the organizers of the Macedonian- American People's League? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you or did the organization receive, in recognition, 
the greetings of the secretary general of the Comintern % 

Mr. Pirinsky. We received a greeting from George Dimitrov to our 
conference in Chicago immediately after he came back from the trial 
in Leipzig. He was not, as far as I know from reading the newspapers 
at that time, the secretary general. He had just been liberated from 
the Fascist jail in Germany, and coming backhand hearing of our con- 
ference he sent a greeting. He stated in the greeting that his parents 
are Macedonians; so he feels that it was proper for him to send a 
greeting. 

Mr. Dekom. Did that greeting from Dimitrov contain the following 
statement : 

Only the Soviet system, as the experiences of the great Soviet Union glaringly 
proved, can guarantee the final liberation and the complete national unification. 
In this spirit, I wholeheartedly wish success to your convention? 



190 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Pirinsky. The national liberation and unification of Mace- 
donia? 

Mr. Dekom. I am quoting from the Daily Worker of August 31, 
1935. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't recall the exact content of the greeting. It 
was a greeting. 

Mr. Dekom. Where did the greeting originate? From what coun- 
try and what city did it originate? 

Mr. Pirinsky. 1 think it came from the Soviet Union, since he went 
there after he was liberated from Germany. 

Mr. Dekom. Was this greeting part of an article written by you 
for the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Pirinsky. It might have been; I don't recall. 

Mr. Dekom. May I show you the issue and ask you if it was? 

[The Daily Worker of August 31, 1935, 1 was shown to the witness.] 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you know a person by the name of Peter Grigorov? 

Mr. Pirinsky. In my course of activities I know thousands of people 
throughout the country, but I don't know if I am brought here to be 
questioned as to whom I know and whom I don't know. 

Senator Eastland. Answer the question, please. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I know many people throughout the United States. 
Yes; I know him. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us where he is now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think he is in Bulgaria. 

Mr. Dekom. Does he or did he hold, to your knowledge, an official 
position ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know what position he has there. 

Mr. Dekom. You say he does or does not ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Maybe he does; I don't know. I haven't been in 
Bulgaria. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you know a man by the name of Victor Sharenkov ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know what he did in this country? 

Mr. Pirinsky. He was president of the Bulgarian- American Peo- 
ple's League and also he edited the paper in Detroit. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you name the paper ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The Narodna Volya. 

Mr. Dekom. Is the Bulgarian-American People's League one of 
those listed by the Attorney General as subversive ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No. 

Mr. Dekom. Where is Victor Sharenkov now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. In Bulgaria, I think. I read in the paper he has 
returned. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know a man by the name of Boleslaw Gebert or 
"Bill" Gebert? 

Mr. Pirinsky. What is the purpose of asking me? I told you I 
know thousands of people. 

Senator Eastland. Answer the question, please. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you know a person by the name of Boleslaw 
Gebert? 

1 The full text of the article will be found in appendix VI, p. A108. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 191 

Mr. Pirinskt. Yes ; lie is the president of the Polonia Society. He 
also participated in the activities of the American Slav Congress. 

Mr. Dekom. He participated in the activities of the American Slav 
Congress ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think he attended the convention. 

Mr. Dekom. The Polonia Society that you mentioned, is that part 
of the International Workers Order ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I believe so. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know whether or not it is listed by the Attorney 
General as subversive ? x 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know. 

Mr. Dekom. Where is Boleslaw Gebert now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know. 

Mr. Dekom. You do not know that he is in Poland now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. It might be. I don't know. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you know Alexander Eizov ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes; I do. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell Us what his activity here was and your 
connection with him ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I understand he was a student. 

Mr. Dekom. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think in Bulgaria. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you know a man by the name of Mirko Markovich ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell us what he did here ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think he was editor of a Serbian paper in Pitts- 
burgh. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you give us the name of the paper? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The Slobodna Rec. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know where he is now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think he is in Yugoslavia ? 

Mr. Dekom. He is in Yugoslavia ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know whether or not he has recently been 
arrested for Cominf orm activities in Yugoslavia ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know a man by the name of Anthony Minerich ? 

Mr, Pirinsky. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know anything of his activities ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think he works on a Croatian paper in Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Dekom. And the name of that paper is? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Narodni Glasnik. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know that he was an official of the Young 
Communists' League and of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I do not know that, 

Mr. Dekom. Did you know a man by the name of Stephen Loyen 
or Stjepan Lojen? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think he has attended also the Conference of the 
Slav Congress, but I don't recall exactly. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know where he is now ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know. 



1 The International Workers Order is listed as "Communist" by the Attorney General, 
see appendix II, p. A8. 



192 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Chairman, we will introduce into the record the 
fact that Stephen Loyen is now in Yugoslavia. 1 

Mr. Pirinsky, in the latest issue of the Slavic American, whose 
picture is that on the front page? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Fadeyev. 2 

Mr. Dekom. Would you identify him for the committee? 

Mr. Pirinsky. He was one of the delegates to the peace conference. 

Mr. Dekom. From what country ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. From the Soviet Union. 

Mr. Dekom. He was the Soviet delegate to the recent peace con- 
ference in New York? 3 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is what I read in the newspapers. I did not 
meet him. 

Mr. Dekom. Did the American Slav Congress ever send any dele- 
gates to a foreign country for any activity? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes; we sent fraternal delegates to the congress in 
Belgrade, in 194G. 4 

Mr. Dekom. Would vou name the delegates? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't recall all of their names. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you submit them for the record, as soon as you 
can refresh your memory ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. You will find them in some of the material that I 
submitted, because we published all this. This is all a public record. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know Steve Nelson ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes ; I know him. 

Mr. Dekom. Could you identify him ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. What do you mean ? 

Mr. Dekom. Is he the same Steve Nelson who is the Communist 
Party organizer in Pittsburgh? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell us your connection with him? 

Mr. Pirinsky. He is a Croatian ; he is a Slav. I have met him in 
some of the restaurants in New York where Yugoslavs eat there. 

Mr. Arens. Have you been to the Yugoslavenski Dom 5 in New 
York City? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What has been your connection with the Yugoslavenski 
Dom in New York City? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I am one of the members of the corporation. 

Mr. Dekom. Who is the president of that ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I go there mostly for meetings of the American Slav 
Congress. 

Mr. Arens. It is a fact — is it not — that the Yugoslavenski Dom is 
Communist-controlled ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That I wouldn't say. 

Mr. Arens. Are you a stockholder in the Yugoslavenski Dom ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. 

1 Stephen Loyen's return as a repatriate to Yugoslavia is reported in the newspaper 
Slobodna Dalmaclja (Free Dalmatia), official organ of the (Communist) People's Front 
of Dalmatia. September 1, 1047. p. 1. 

8 Alexander A. Fadeyev (Fadeev), secretary general of the Union of Soviet Writers. 

3 Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace, arranged by the National Council 
of the Arts. Sciences, and Professions, March 25—27, 1949. 

1 The first postwar All-Slav Congress. 

5 Also known as the Jugoslavenski-Americki Dom or the Yugoslav-American Home. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 193 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been a stockholder in the Yugo- 
slavenski Dom? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Since it was organized. I bought a share for $50. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you ever heard of a Bulgarian Communist 
newspaper called Saznanye? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell us what your connection with Saznanye 
was? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I was contributing to the paper. 

Mr. Dekom. You mean money or articles? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Articles. 

Mr. Dekom. Under what name were you contributing articles? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Under my name and the name that I have from the 
old country. In the old country, my name was George Nikolov Zaikov. 
They usually have three names there. When I came to this country, 
I started to write in the newspapers under the name of Pirinsky in 
order to save my younger brother and other members of the family 
who are living in Fascist Bulgaria and who were being prosecuted 
because I was opposing the Fascist government. 

Senator Eastland. You came to this country in 1926 ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No ; 1921. 1 

Senator Eastland. You changed your name at that time? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I did not change it. I started to write under this 
name. 

Senator Eastland. In 1921 ? 1 

Mr. Pirinsky. Around 1924, 1925, or 1926 ; I don't recall now. 

Senator Eastland. Did Bulgaria have a Fascist government at that 
time? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes ; before I left the country. I left the countrv on 
the 10th of July 1923. 

Senator Eastland. You wrote under this name, now, frankly, 
because you were a Communist and you thought your people in Bul- 
garia would be prosecuted for that reason? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I started writing under this name — first I started 
writing poetry at that time. I felt that I would use some other name. 
I think this is usually done by writers. The political purpose was 
because in 1923, on June 9, the Fascist forces overthrew, through a 
coup d'etat, the Peasant government. I was just graduating from 
high school. 

Senator Eastland. It was a government that was violently anti- 
Communist ; was it not ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Winch ? 

Senator Eastland. The government in Bulgaria at that time. 

Mr. Pirinsky. It was pro-Nazi. Professor Tsankov 2 and the others 
sold Bulgaria to Hitler. 

Senator Eastland. But Hitler came to power in Germany in 1933. 

Mr. Pirinsky. Before that they established fascism in Bulgaria; 
that is, before Germany. 

Senator Eastland. And sold Bulgaria to Hitler in 1924? That is 
what you are testifying. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I also said that the Bulgarian Fascists started even 
before Hitler. 



1 The witness subsequently stated this date was 1923. 

2 Prof. Aleksander Tsankov, last Bulgarian Prime AJ 



rime Minister during 1 Nazi occupation. 



194 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. In the Yugoslavenski Dom organization, is there" a split 
at the present time between the Tito faction and the Coniinform 
faction ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know, because I have not attended any 
meeting. I just bought a share of $50. 

Mr. Arens. By faction, do you sympathize with the Tito faction or 
the Cominform faction? 

Mr. Pirinsky. 1 have not been at any of their meetings to discuss 
the question. 

Mr. Arens. When was the last time that you were in attendance at 
one of the meetings? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I was in the Yugoslavenski Dom three days ago, but 
it was at a meeting of the American Slav Congress. I spoke there. I 
have not attended the meetings of the corporation. 

Mr. Arens. Which group do you sympathize with in your views, 
the Tito faction or the Cominform faction? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Is that the purpose of this hearing? 

Senator Eastland. I do not think that is pertinent. You do not 
have to answer that question. 

I would like to know what dealings, if any, you have had with 
officials and parties or representatives of the Russian Embassy, the 
Polish Embassy, the Yugoslav Embassy, the Czechoslovak Embassy, 
the Rumanian Legation, the Bulgarian, or Hungarian Legations? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Some of these embassies I have not been to at all. 
I don't know anybody. The other embassies, like the Soviet Embassy, 
I have gone there to ask them — especially around the Third Congress 
of the American Slav Congress — to help us bring some of these 
cultural forces here to attend our conference and bring greetings. 
For cultural relations with the Slavic countries, we go sometime and 
ask them also for some of their publications, so that we can read also 
from their side what is taking place. 

Senator Eastland. Whom did you contact at the Russian Em- 
bassy ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know the people. I haven't been there for 
about 3 years. At the time our delegates were here, they had a recep- 
tion for the delegates. 

Senator Eastland. What other embassies have you had contact 
with ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I have been in the Yugoslav Embassy. 

Senator Eastland. Whom did you contact there? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Mr. Kosanovic, 1 the Ambassador. 

Mr. Arens. What was the purpose of your contacting him? 

Mr. Pirinsky. To establish this cultural relation with Yugoslavia, 
to ask them to send delegates to the conference of the American Slav 
Congress. 

Senator Eastland. Have you been contacted in the United States 
by any agent or representative of the Communist Party of any coun- 
try in the world, and have you been contacted in the United States 
by any representative or agent of any foreign government? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Some of these people have written us and some of 
them also came to the office for a copy of the Slavic American. 

Senator Eastland. Who was that? 

1 Sava N. Kosanovic. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 195 

Mr. Pirinsky. From the Yugoslav Embassy, nobody has come, as 
I remember. From the Soviet Embassy, I don't recall of anybody 
coming to the office here. 

Senator Eastland. You say no one from the Soviet Embassy has 
contacted you? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Nobody has come to the Slav Congress. 

Senator Eastland. Have they contacted you anywhere? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No; I have come to ask them for this material. I 
have come to their consulates. 

Senator Eastland. Have you been contacted by any representative 
of the Soviet Embassy, the Soviet Government, or Communist Party 
in any other place in this country ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't recall. If they wanted some publication or 
things like that, maybe I have given it to them, but I don't recall of 
anyone coming to the office of the Slav Congress to contact us. 

Senator Eastland. Have you been contacted by any representative, 
any agent, any employee of the United Nations? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't recall. I went to the United Nations a few 
times and I spoke there in the lobby with some of the Slavic repre- 
sentatives there. I was interested in this situation in Greece and I 
spoke to them of-it. 

Senator Eastland. To whom did you speak? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I spoke to the Yugoslav delegates, to the Bulgarian 
Professor Mevorah, 1 who was here at that time. 

Senator Eastland. What was the purpose of that meeting? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The United Nations? They were discussing the 
Balkan situation; the Balkan Commission had made a report on 
Greece. 

Senator Eastland. What did you have to do with it? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I didn't have anything to do with it. I wanted to 
find out what the situation was in Greece and what their stand was; 
that is, are they against or for the Greek Government there. 

Senator Eastland. What was your position? 

Mr. Pirinsky. My position is that of representative of the Mace- 
donian-American People's League. I am strongly opposed to the 
present regime in Greece. 

Senator Eastland. Have you been contacted by any agent or repre- 
sentative of the Communist Party or any affiliated organization? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't know which are the affiliated organizations 
of the Communist Party. I have spoken in the Yugoslav Home 2 there 
with Steven Nelson, for instance. 

Senator Eastland. Have you ever been employed by the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No; never. 

Senator Eastland. Have you ever been affiliated with the Commu- 
nist Party? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That was the question that came up at the beginning, 
and I stated that I am having immigration hearings on that question. 

Senator Eastland. Were you ever contacted by Gerhart Eisler? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No. 

Senator Eastland. Were you ever contacted by J. Peters? 

1 Nissini Mevorah. Bulgarian Minister to the United States. 

2 Also known as the Jugoslavenski-Americki Doni or the Yugoslav-American Home. 



196 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Pi kin sky. No. 

Senator Hastland. Did any representative of an international or- 
ganization from any of the Iron Curtain' countries — and by that I 
mean the Balkan satellites of Russia — ever contact you in the United 
States? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No. They came to our conventions as delegates. 

Senator Eastland. That is the only time you were contacted? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The only time I met with these people, that I re- 
call. I might have on other occasions where I have asked them for 
their publications or they have asked for our publications, but I don't 
recall. 

Mr. Dekom. Have any members of the legations, consulates, or the 
United Nations delegates or officials of iron curtain countries, other 
than the delegates at the 1946 convention, spoken before any of the 
Slav Congress meetings? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Dekom. You do not recall ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you give us the names of all delegates who 
came there in 1946 ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I think they are mentioned here in this folder that 
I gave you, dealing with the Third American-Slav Congress. All 
their names are there ; their pictures are there, and some of their state- 
ments. I do not recall all of them. 

Mr. Dekom. What is your connection, that is, the connection of 
your organization and not you personally, with the All-Slav Commit- 
tee in Moscow, or the All-Slav movement in Moscow ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. We don't have any connection. We exchange greet- 
ings, usually on the occasion of New Year, and so forth. Sometimes 
we write them for their publications. 

Mr. Dekom. Has there ever been any connection between them ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No organizational connection. The American Slav 
Congress is fully independent. 

Mr. Dekom. Has any action of the American Slav Congress ever 
been taken in response to an appeal or a request of the All-Slav Com- 
mittee or Congress in Moscow ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. During the war, they appealed to all Slavs through- 
out the world to fight fascism. We were in full agreement with that. 
That was our purpose. 

Senator Eastland. Before Germany attacked Russia? 

Mr. Pirinsky. There was no Slav Congress at that time, Senator. 

Senator Eastland. You were with the Macedonian People's League 
at that time, were you not, in 1940 and 1941 ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Yes. 

Senator Eastland. Before Germany attacked Russia, what was the 
position of that organization ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't recall exactly what was the position. We 
have been opposed to fascism since the organization was founded. 

Senator Eastland. But when Germany and Russia were allies, was 
not the Macedonian People's League favorable to Russia and the Nazis 
at that time ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. We never have been favorable to the Nazis. We 
always have opposed the Nazis. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 197 

Senator Eastland. Did it not support that combination of those 
two countries? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't think so; I don't recall. 

Senator Eastland. Did you not write anything around that time? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't recall if I have written anything around 
that time. Ma} T be I have. 

Senator Eastland. You say maybe you have? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Maybe I have ; I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Pirinsky, are you now or have you ever been a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I decline to answer this question on the basis of 
self-incrimination in connection with the trial that I have. 

Senator Eastland. Is it a crime to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No. I have stated my views on many occasions very 
openly, but I feel in view of that trial 

Senator Eastland. What are the views that you have stated Mr. 
Pirinsky? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I have that trial and I think that question I will 
answer then, 2 weeks from now. 

Senator Eastland. Mr. Pirinsky, I want you to answer that ques- 
tion. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I beg your pardon? 

Senator Eastland. I want you to answer that question. 

Mr. Pirinsky. Which question ? 

Mr. Arens. The question is : Are you now or have you ever been 
a member of the Communist Party? 

(Mr. Pirinsky consults with his counsel, Mr. Forer.) 

Mr. Pirinsky. I refuse to answer, as I say, on the ground that 
it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Arens. Is it a crime to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Not at all; I don't consider it a crime. 

Mr. Arens. Then how could you be incriminated by answering 
the question, assuming you answered the question affirmatively ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. With this witch hunting going on throughout the 
country, and then, I don't want to establish any precedent for any- 
body being hauled here and asked about his political opinions. This 
is the only reason. 

Mr. Arens. If you are not a member of the Communist Party, 
how could you incriminate yourself by answering the question \ 

Mr. Pirinsky. It is very hard to say in the present situation. 

Mr. Forer. Mr. Chairman, may I ask the Chair to rule on whether 
he considers it proper when a man claims a constitutional privilege 
that counsel for the committee should try to talk him out of the claim 
of privilege ? 

Senator Eastland. I think he has the right to show that it is no 
crime. If it does not incriminate him, he is not privileged. He 
is in contempt of Congress. 

Mr. Forer. In all deference to the committee, the man has claimed 
his privilege and is here acting on the advice of counsel. At that 
point I think you should recognize that he is privileged or rule that you 
do not recognize that he is privileged and not try to talk the witness 
into doing something else. 



198 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. I would like to submit respectfully to the acting chair- 
man of the subcommittee that in a court of law if a witness claims 
that his answer would incriminate him, counsel 1ms a right to inter- 
rogate the witness upon the area in which he would be incriminated if 
he should answer the question. 

Mr. Forer. That is not the case at all, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator Donnell. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that we go into ex- 
ecutive session to discuss that. 

Senator Eastland. Very well. The committee will proceed into 
executive session. 

(Whereupon, the committee proceeded into executive session.) 

Senator Eastland. You are excused, Mr. Pirinsky, but you are not 
discharged. We will have some more questions for you in a minute. 1 

Mr. Alfred A. Neuwald, alias Mathew Torok. 

TESTIMONY OF ALFRED A. NEUWALD (OR MATYAS TOROK), 

NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Will you be sworn, Mr. Torok ? 

Senator Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are 
about to give before the Judiciary Committee of the United States 
Senate will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I do. 

Senator Eastland. The subpena issued to Mr. Neuwald will be 
placed in the record. 

Mr. Arens. Will you state your full name, please? 

Mr. Neuwald. Alfred A. Neuwald. 

Mr. Arens. What other names have you gone under in the course 
of your lifetime, Mr. Neuwald ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I used to write some Hungarian articles under the 
name Mathew Torok, which is Hungarian. That is all. 

Mr. Arens. Would you speak a little louder, please. I have a little 
difficulty hearing you or understanding you. 

Mr. Neuwald. I have a sore throat. 

Mr. Arens I see. 

Mr. Neuwald. Mathew Torok. 

Senator Eastland. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes, sir, Mr. Forer. 

Mr. Arens. Will the counsel kindly identify himself? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer. I believe I identified myself previously 
in connection with the previous witness. The same identification will 



serve. 2 



Mr. Arens. What is your occupation or business? 
Mr. Neuwald. Right now, I am unemployed since December. 
Mr. Arens. What was your employment prior to that time ? 
Mr. Neuwald. I was manager of a transport company in New York 
City. 

Mr. Arens. What was the name of the transport company? 

Mr. Neuwald. Danubia Transport Co., Inc. 

Mr. Arens. What did this transport company do ? 

1 The testimony of George Pirinsky is resumed on p. 207. 

2 See p. 181. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 199 

Mr. Neuwald. Almost exclusively shipping relief packages to 
Hungary. Rumania, Czechoslovakia, and that is all. 

Mr. Arens. What contacts did you have in the course of your asso- 
ciation with this firm with the Hungarian Legation in Washington? 

Mr. Neuwald. I had some contacts, not only out of this connection. 
For a while in 1947, it was planned, we heard from Hungary, that 
duties will be imposed on packages to Hungary, various packages to 
Hungary, so I did my best to persuade the Hungarian consulate and 
especially the Hungarian Legation not to impose duties, because that 
would add to the hardship of the Hungarian people, because many 
people couldn't send packages from here to Hungary when the duties 
would make it more expensive. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly tell us about your contacts with the 
Hungarian Government representatives in this country in recent years, 
that is, since the war? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. I am not prepared much about the dates, but 
I will try to recall as good as I can. 

I don't know the date exactly, but I think the first contact I really 
had with the legation was when the wife of the Hungarian President, 
Zoltan Tildy, Mrs. Tildy, visited this country. At that time a 
kind of reception committee came together of Hungarian-Americans, 
and a smaller committee of five was appointed to talk to Mrs. Tildy 
and talk to the committee and arrange a meeting in New York, where 
Mrs. Tildy could talk to the Hungarians, the Americans of Hungarian 
descent. I was one of that committee of five. I remember the other 
names, the Reverend Takaro, 1 the Baptist Reverend Kocsis 2 

Senator Eastland. Are you an American citizen ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I am not yet. I am very sorry. 

Mr. Arens. I just wanted him to explain what he was doing there, 
Senator. The rest of those names, please. 

Mr. Neuwald. There are two. I think Mr. Abris Silverman, an 
art dealer. Fifty-seventh Street. That much I remember. Then we 
had long discussions 

Mr. Arens. You have two more names, I believe. 

Mr. Neuwald. Five altogether, myself included. I think that is 
four. I don't remember the five. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you try to refresh your recollection and get the 
name of the fifth member for the committee ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I will try and if I remember I will tell you. But 
right now I don't remember the fifth. I am not prepared. I didn't 
know why I was coming here. 

Mr. Arens. All right, sir. May I ask you when did you gain ad- 
mission into the United States? 

Mr. Neuwald. In 1934, January 31, I came as an immigrant. 
Before that, I came here as a visitor. 

Mr. Arens. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I was born in Hungary in a part of Hungary which 
later became Czechoslovakia. So I became automatically a Czecho- 
slovakian citizen. When I came to this country, I traveled with a 
Czechoslovak passport. 

Mr. Arens. What association do you have with persons of Hun- 
garian origin who are in the United States ? 



1 Rev. Geza Takaro. whose testimony appears on p. 864. 

2 Rev. Emery Kocsis. 



200 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Neuwald. I have been secretary, first, in Los Angeles, of a 
branch of the Hungarian-American Council for Democracy. 

Mr. Arens. Now tell us about that organization and move on to 
the next organization. 

Mr. Neuwald. I recall that, I think in 1943 in Chicago, a meeting 
came together and issued a statement in which they declared that 
Americans of Hungarian descent should do their utmost to help the 
war efforts of the United States and help to liberate Hungary from 
the Fascists and Hitler. This publication was published in Hun- 
garian and I think in American-language papers, some English- 
language papers. That was all that we had. 

Mr. Arens. What was the membership of the organization? 

Mr. Neuwald. No membership of the organization. We never had 
membership of the organization. 

Mr. Arens. But you were secretary of the organization. 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes; branch secretary of the Los Angeles branch 
because I lived there until 1945. 

Mr. Arens. Did that organization work among persons of Hun- 
garian descent ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. The whole activity of this organization was 
to hold meetings and talk to the people, to do your best to buy your 
war bonds, to save, the usual war work, but we never had any organiza- 
tion, just a few people, a president and secretary and treasurer. 

Mr. Arens. Who were the other members of the organization, other 
officers, other than yourself? 

Mr. Neuwald. The national president was a wonderful man you 
all know, Bela Lugosi, who was a star of Hungarian descent. The 
national secretary was a man. Dr. Moses Simon. Back in Hollywood, 
the chairman was a very well-known playwright, the author of 
Ninotchka and many other films. His name is Melchior Lengyel. I 
was secretary of that branch. The treasurer was a Mr. Deutsch. I 
don't remember. 

Mr. Arens. Is your organization still in existence ? 

Mr. Neuwald. No. Long ago it stopped to exist. 

Mr. Arens. Tell us about some other organizations with which you 
have been affiliated. 

Mr. Neuwald. I think in 1944, I am sure, in the summer, I had a 
long conversation with the Catholic priest of Los Angeles, Matyas 
Lani, and a gentleman from Washington. His name is Dr. Tibor 
Kerekes. He is a professor of the Georgetown University. We came 
to the conclusion that a relief organization should be prepared for 
the people of Hungary in case the war should end victoriously, natu- 
rally, and all Hungarians in this country should join the efforts and 
send relief to the people of Hungary. 

Senator Eastland. Did you send those packages ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Not only packages, but clothing, a relief organiza- 
tion. 

Senator Eastland. Were they sent to the government or to indi- 
viduals in the country? 

Mr. Neuwaid. Not individuals. It shod ' be organized somehow 
so that the most needy people should get the aid. 
Senator Eastland. Who handled it over there? 
Mr. Neuwald. I will come to it if you will allow me, Senator. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 201 

Mr. Arens. Is this the Hungarian- American Council for Democ- 
racy you are speaking about ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I am speaking about the relief organization which 
was formed, and later in 1945, I think, the first days of April 1945, 
I became the associate secretary of that relief organization. For that 
organization I worked for exactly 1 year. I was not rehired because 
it started to save on expenses. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you how many persons of Hungarian descent 
in the United States did you make contact with for this organization 
you are talking about now ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Personally, I really can't count, because we had meet- 
ings, relief meetings. Right now, I am sometimes embarrassed be- 
cause people know me and I don't know them. 

Mr. Arexs. I don't mean how many you knew personally, but how 
many persons were contacted by the organization through their mail- 
ing lists or their meetings ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I think all Hungarian organizations in this coun- 
try have been contacted. 

Mr. Arens. How many persons, though ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I don't want to make any hasty statement. The 
number of Hungarians in this country and the number of members in 
the organization is a big question mark to all of us. Some say there 
are a million Hungarians here. Others say only half a million. Some 
say this organization has 50 members. Others say 4,000. We don't 
know. 

Mr. Arens. Did your organization undertake to contact as many 
persons of Hungarian descent in the United States as possible? 

Mr. Neuwald. Correct. All the reverends, all the organization 
secretaries, all the churches were asked to go to the members, col- 
lect clothing, collect money, and we should through our organization 
send it to Hungary. Now I come to the distribution. This relief 
organization was under the control of the President's War Relief 
Organization, 1 a committee here in this country, here in Washington. 
As much as I know, we did have a permit to send all these shipments 
to Hungary. The relief organization established its own office in 
Budapest. 

Senator Eastland. Your organization? 

Mr. Neuwald. The relief organization. 

Senator Eastland. Your relief organization? 

Mr. Neuwald. It was all Hungarians. It was not mine. I was 
secretary. I was paid by the organization. 

Senator Eastland. It had its own office in Hungary? 

Mr. Neuwald. It had a representative, a small office in Hungary. 
By the way, at the beginning, now I recall, the military representative 
of the United States, Colonel Kovacs, 2 did wonderful work overseeing 
the distribution of the relief material to the people of Hungary. 

Mr. Dekom. You testified a moment ago you were an official of the 
Hungarian-American Council for Democracy, of which Bela Lugosi 
was national president. 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Is that one of the organizations listed by the Attorney 
General as Communist? 

1 President's War Relief Control Board. 
- Col. George Kovacs. 



202 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. Later it became. When this listing came out, 
the council created — it didn't exist. It was just a paper name. 

Senator Eastland. Have you ever done work for the Communist 
Tarty? 

Mr. Neuwald. No; I never did. 

Senator Eastland. What Communist -front organizations are you 
affiliated with? 

Mr. Neuwald. I am not affiliated with any organization which to 
my knowledge is Communist. 

Mr. Dekom. What was your connection with the International 
Workers Order? 

Mr. Neuwald. I knew the secretary. I knew several members of 
it. I think I have — I don't know whether I still have, because I didn't 
pay my things for a thousand dollars insurance in this organiza- 
tion 

Mr. Dekom. You were affiliated with that organization as a mem- 
ber or policyholder ? 

Mr. Neuwald. If you call that to have a $1,000 insurance policy, 
then I have a $1,000 policy. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know whether or not that organization has 
been listed as Communist by the Attorney General of the United 
States? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes ; I do. I know it has. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you knowa man by the name of John Florian, or 
Florian Janos? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes ; I know him. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you identify him, please? 

Mr. Neuwald. I think he is back in Hungary now. He was the first 
secretary of the Hungarian Legation and I met him several times. 

Mr. Dekom. What was the nature of your relationship with Mr. 
Florian? 

Mr. Neuwald. That question leads me to another organization 
which I was working for and with. That was in 1947, when about 
the same people, the same reverends, the same Americans of Hun- 
garian descent, came together and decided that in the view of the fact 
that 19-18 would be the centennial year of Louis Kossuth's revolution 
against the Hapsburgs we should celebrate the centennial here in the 
United States. At that time we came with this idea to the minister 
from Hungary, Prof. Rust em Vambery, and made the first contact 
with the legation regarding the celebration. We made the first con- 
tact with him and with the legation that the Hungarians would like 
to celebrate this centennial here in this country. At that time I think 
I met him for the first time. I am not sure, because it wasn't impor- 
tant to me, but I think I met him. 

Senator Eastland. You say you never have done any work for the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I never have. 

Senator Eastland. Have you ever been affiliated with the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Neuwald. Being an alien, Senator, I think I should be excused 
from answering this question because it might incriminate me. I 
don't want to seem 

Senator Eastland. Who told you to say that? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 203 

Mr. Neuwald. I asked, my counsel just before. 

Senator Eastland. Is he your counsel? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. 

Senator Eastland. Did you employ him? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. 

Senator Eastland. When did you employ him? 

Mr. Neuwald. Just yesterday. 

Senator Eastland. Who sent you to him? 

Mr. Neuwald. Do I have to answer that? 

Senator Eastland. Yes ; you have to answer that. 

Mr. Forer. Mr. Chairman 

Senator Eastland. You keep quiet. Wait a minute. I want you to: 
answer that question. 

Mr. Xeuwald. I went up to a lawyer I know in New York. 

Senator Eastland. Who was that lawyer ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Martin Popper. 

Senator Eastland. He can decline if he wants to, but if he declines 
it is at his peril. 

Mr. Forer. I am advising him of his rights. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Neuwald. I refuse to answer this question because it might 
incriminate me. 

Senator Eastland. You refuse to answer? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you prefer to be called Torok or Neuwald? 

Mr. Neuwald. Neuwald. 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us what type of connection, what type of 
work or service, or what activities you engaged in, in connection with 
Mr. Florian of the Hungarian Legation? 

Mr. Neuwald. I was informed, as secretary of the centennial com- 
mittee, that finally the Hungarian Government would give a visitor's 
visa to all those Americans of Hungarian descent who would go to 
Hungary to the centennial celebrations in Hungary. The Legation 
asked me, Florian and Dr. Sik, 1 the Minister from Hungary, asked me 
whether I would be kind enough to give them information as the Secre- 
tary of the centennial committee, whether the persons they were going 
to ask could be regarded as visitors, centennial visitors to Hungary, 
in which case they would get a visa. 

Mr. Dekom. Isn't it a fact that your function was to pass on the 
reliability, as far as the Communists were concerned, of the people 
who went over, that you would be consulted to pass upon visa 
applications ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Absolutely not. The matter of fact is that I recall 
I don't know how many hundreds and hundreds of such yellow sheets 
have been shown to me. I remember I think, except two or three cases, 
I always said, yes; these people should be accepted as centennial 
visitors, because I really did my utmost to help these people to go 
back to Hungary and visit Hungary after so many years of war and 
trouble from Europe. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you tell the committee why a Communist offi- 
cial would have you. who are presumably an American immigrant, 

1 Andrew Sik. 

98330 — 50 — pt. 1 14 



204 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

pass upon visa applications of other American citizens of Hungarian 
descent '. 

Mr. Neuwald. I don't know what you mean. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Florian was an admitted member of the Commu- 
nist Party. 

Mr. Neuwald. To me Mr. Florian was sitting in the consulate of 
Hungary and asked me, as the secretary of the organization, my opin- 
ion, which was 99 percent affirmative, yes, those people should go. 

Senator Eastland. He was requested to leave this country by the 
Government of the United States; was he not? 

Mr. Neuwald. I think I read it in the paper but I am not sure 
whether that is the case or not. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know whether or not Mr. Florian was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Neuwald. I know it from the papers that he was always called 
a member of the Communist Party but I never discussed with him 
this point. 

Senator Eastland. Is it not true, now, that you are the head of the 
Hungarian branch of the Communist Party in the United States? 

Mr. Neuwald. I was what ? 

Senator Eastland. It is true, is it not, that today you are the head 
of the Hungarian branch of the Communist Party in the United 
States? 

Mr. Neuwald. That is absolutely not true. 

Senator Eastland. You say under oath that that is false? 

Mr. Neuwald. I say it under oath. 

Mr. Arens. Will you then answer the question, Are you now or 
have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I still have to refuse because it may incriminate me. 

Senator Eastland. Were you in the Army during the First World 
War? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes, sir. 

Senator Eastland. The army of what country? 

Mr. Neuwald. I was in the Hungarian Army. 

Senator Eastland. Were you in combat? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes, sir. 

Senator Eastland. You came to this country in what year? 

Mr. Neuwald. I immigrated to this country in 1934. 1 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL MARLK, FORMER CONSUL GENERAL OF 

HUNGARY 

Mr. Arens. Will Mr. Marik please come forward ? 

Would you kindly be sworn ? 

Senator Eastland. Do you solemnly swear in the testimony you 
are about to give before the Judiciary Committee of the Senate of 
the United States will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Marik. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Marik, would you kindly state your full name for 
the record? 

Mr. Marik. Paul Marik. 2 

1 The testimony of Alfred Neuwald is resumed on p. 207. 
- The witness appeared under suhpena. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 205 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify yourself by occupation and 
residence ? 

Mr. Marik. I was a former Hungarian consul general in Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Before that, I was counselor of the Hungarian Legation 
here and for a time I was Charge d'Affaires at the Hungarian Le- 
gation. 

Mr. Arens. How long were you associated in these respective ca- 
pacities which you have referred to? 

Mr. Marik. Since December 1945. 

Mr. Arens. When did you sever your connections with the Hun- 
garian Government? 

Mr. Marik. I severed connections in February 14, 1948. 

Mr. Arens. Why did you sever your connection ? 

Mr. Marik. For political reasons. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by that ? 

Mr. Marik. For political reasons, the Cardinal Mindszenty trial. 

Mr. Arens. Are you personally acquainted or do you know the 
witness who has just been speaking? 

Mr. Marik. Yes ; I met him several times. I didn't know him as 
Mr. Neuwald. I used to know him as Mr. Torok. 

Mr. Arens. Upon what occasions have you met him or had contact 
with him ? 

Mr. Marik. I had contact with Mr. Torok as director of the Danu- 
bia Transport Co., New York, and also as the secretary of the centen- 
nial committee in New York. 

Mr. Arens. What committee is that? 

Mr. Marik. The centennial committee was formed in New York 
under the patronage of Minister Vambery 1 to celebrate the anniver- 
sary of the 1848 revolution. 

Mr. Arens. Upon what occasions have you seen him in the consu- 
late where you were employed or engaged ? 

Mr. Marik. He never appeared at the consulate where I was em- 
ployed or engaged, because I was in Cleveland and I had nothing to 
do with the New York consulate. I saw Mr. Torok once up in the con- 
sulate in New York, when I visited the New York consulate on of- 
ficial business connected with the Cleveland and the New York con- 
sulates. 

Mr. Arens. What was the nature of his business at that consulate ? 
Do you know ? 

Mr. Marik. I couldn't tell you what was the nature. I know he 
called on Mr. Florian who was in charge of issuing visas there. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you ever seen them together ? 

Mr. Marik. I saw them at the time up at the consulate in New York ; 
Mr. Florian had some documents in his hand, I believe; I am not 
positive. There was a third man present, a clerk called Mr. Cserna. 2 

Mr. Dekom. What were they doing? 

Mr. Marik. They were sitting in a room. I entered the room only 
to say "'hello'' and "gpodby" to Mr. Florian, and there I saw Mr. 
Torok and the third man. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you ever seen them passing or studying visa 
applications? 

1 Rustem Vambery. 
- Zoltan Cserna. 



.— 



206 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Marik. No; not as far as I know. 

Mr. Dekom. What is your knowledge on that subject? 

Mr. Marik. The Hungarian Government in L947 steadfastly re- 
fused to give visas to American citizens. On the other hand, the Hun- 
garian World Federation in Budapest invited Hungarians all over 
the world to come and visit Hungary in ID IS. The visa applications 
started to stream into the New York consulate and they were referred 
back to Budapest. Those applications were submitted to Budapest 
and they were refused. Then Mr. Torok and some of the other mem- 
bers of the committee protested at the Legation, saying that the Hun- 
garians are invited to go over to Hungary and they are refusing to 
give them visas. Minister Vambery forwarded the protest to Hun- 
gary and was instrumental in obtaining the Ministry's permission to 
issue a limited number of so-called centennial visas for American cit- 
izens of Hungarian origin who wanted to visit Hungary in 1948. 
Then Mr. Florian was sent up to New York to pass on those applica- 
tions. I later became the consul general at Cleveland but I was not 
authorized to pass on those applications. All the visa applications had 
to be forwarded to New York, to the consulate there. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know why that procedure was established? 

Mr. Marik. I have no exact knowledge, but I presume it was so that 
Mr. Florian, who was known to be a trusted member of the Hun- 
garian Communist Party, should pass on those applications. 

Mr. Arens. Do you know T whether or not Mr. Florian was a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Marik. Oh, yes. He was very proud of it. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know his connection with the Hungarian secret 
police? 

Mr. Marik. Rumors in Budapest had it that he was connected with 
the Hungarian secret police. I don't know whether it is true or not. 
It is just rumors. 

Mr. Arens. We don't want rumors. We want only knowledge that 
you have. 

Mr. Dekom. What is your knowledge of the role of Mr. Torok in the 
issuance of these visas ? 

Mr. Marik. Nothing definite, except what I heard and read of Mr. 
Alth's statement. Mr. Alth, 1 by the way, is the former Hungarian 
consul in New York. I have a very high regard for his integrity. 

Mr. Dekom. Where is he now ? 

Mr. Marik. In Houston, Tex. He resigned from the service. 

Senator Eastland. You say Mr. Florian was a Communist ? 

Mr. Marik. Yes. 

Senator Eastland. Do you know anything about this gentleman's 
connection with the Communist Party? 

Mr. Marik. No. I know that Mr. Torok was secretary of the Amer- 
ican-Hungarian Council for Democracy, which later was named a sub- 
versive organization, but I did not know and couldn't say whether he 
was a member of the Communist Party or not. 

Senator Eastland. Was he considered a Communist around the 
table? 

Mr. Marik. He was considered an extreme radical, I should say. 

Senator Eastland. A fellow traveler with the Communists?. 

i Aurel Alth. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 207 

Mr. Marik. Yes. Whether he was actually a member of the Com- 
munist Party, I have no knowledge. 

Senator Eastland. But an extreme radical ? 

Mr. Marik. Yes. 

Senator Eastland. Was this gentleman, Mr. Torok, around the con- 
sulate frequently ? 

Mr. Marik. I can't speak for the consulate in New York. As I say, 
I was not stationed there. The members of the consulate would be 
able to tell you that information. I was in New York only for 1 day 
for a short visit when Mr. Florian was there. 

Senator Eastland. He constantly associated with Communists ? 

Mr. Marik. I beg your pardon ? 

Senator Eastland. He constantly associated with Florian and other 
Communists ? 

Mr. Marik. That was in New York and I wouldn't be able to tell 
you. I will have to emphasize that I was stationed here in Washing- 
ton and also in Cleveland, Ohio, rather than New York. All this 
that we are referring to, sir, has taken place in New York. 

Mr. Dekom. Was he ever to your knowledge at the Legation in 
Washington ? 

Mr. Marik. Oh, yes : he called in 1946, when the Legation was estab- 
lished. I believe Mr. Torok was there. Then he was there again some- 
time in 1947. 

Senator Eastland. What name did he use then ? 

Mr. Marik. Always Torok. This is the first time I heard that he 
was called Neuwald. 

TESTIMONY OF GEORGE PIRINSKY AND ALFRED NEUWALD— 

Resumed 

Mr. Dekom. Is any member of your family, Mr. Neuwald, in 
Hungary now, any member of your immediate family ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes; my only sister. Not my only; the only sister 
living is in Hungary and Czechoslovakia and remaining alive. That 
sister is my oldest sister. The others have been killed by Hitler. She 
is 70 years old. She has two daughters. A brother of mine is now 
in Hungary. His name is Eugene Neuwald. He is visiting there. 

Mr. Dekom. Your brother? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes ; my brother. 

Mr. Dekom. He is visiting Hungary? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. No other members of your immediate family? 

Mr. Neuwald. Nobody else. The sister of mine and two daughters 
of hers, and a brother who is visiting there. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you or your wife been in Hungary since the war? 

Mr. Neuwald. I have been in 1917 for exactly 19 days, for business 
reasons for my company, Danubia Transport. I spent 19 days there. 

Mr. Dekom. Your wife has not been in Hungary ; is that your testi- 
mony? 

Mr. Neuwald. My wife was never in Hungary. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you provide any travel facilities, I mean steam- 
ship tickets or things of that sort for persons who wanted to go abroad ? 

Mr. Neuwald. No. We planned to have some facilities for these 
people. We talked to the steamship companies to make reservations 



208 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

but the whole tiling didn't work out, this whole plan. This committee 
gave up that undertaking. 

Mr. Dekom. You only handled parcels. You did not take care of 
travel arrangements; is that true? 

Mr. Neuwald. There was an organization; there w r as a company 
here, not a business company, the name of which was Travel to Hun- 
gary, Inc.. which 1 helped establish and which did not sell but tried 
to facilitate to get tickets through steamship lines. 

Mr. Dekom. How did the company earn its money! 1 Did it get a 
percentage or how ? 

Mr. Neuwald. It tried to make a service charge, but the end result 
was that we lost lots of money and had to make it good. 

Mr. Dekom. Did John Florian ever consult with you with reference 
to any person wdio wanted to travel to Hungary ? 

Mr. Neuwald. The only consultation which, as I told you before, 
was a certain amount of these visa applications had been shown to me 
as the secretary of the centennial committee. The question was, Do 
you or don't you regard this person as a bona fide centennial visitor \ 

Mr. Dekom. What other kind of persons would there have been, 
other than bona fide centennial visitors? 

Mr. Neuwald. Business travelers, commercial things, making some 
other visits in Hungary. 

Mr. Dekom. For example? Commercial, business ( 

Mr. Neuwald. To visit the family and having visits with the family 
having nothing to do with the celebrations there. 

Mr. Dekom. Then you were consulted on the issuance of visas? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. By Mr. Florian ? 

Mr. Neuwald. By Mr. Florian. 
• Mr. Dekom. I see. 

Senator Eastland. He testified to that. 

Mr. Neuwald. I have forgotten the name you mentioned before. 

Mr. Marik. Alth? Cserna? 

Mr. Neuwald. Cserna, I emphasize very much 

Senator Eastland. Why were you selected ? 

Mi'. Neuwald. Because I was secretary of that centennial committee. 

Senator Eastland. Because they knew you would select the kind of 
people, the type of people that they desired. That is true, too, is it 
not? 

Mr. Neuwald. No. If they had that idea in mind, Senator, very 
soon they had to give up that idea, because, as I mentioned before, 
maybe except two or three people, everybody was recommended. I was 
one of those people. 

Senator Eastland. Has an attempt ever been made to deport you? 

Mr. Neuwald. No; not any question ever. They never questioned 
me. This is the first questioning since I have been in this country in 
front of any official body. 

(Brief recess for executive session.) 

Senator Eastland. The committee will come to order. Let the 
record show that a majority of the subcommittee is now present, 
Senator Langer, Senator Donnell, Senator Eastland being in attend- 
ance. 

Mr. Neuwald, will you please stand? Do you solemnly swear the 
testimony you are about to give before the Immigration Subcommittee 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 209 

of the Judiciary Committee of the Senate of the United States is the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Netjwald. I do. 

Senator Eastland. Are you now or have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party? 

Mr. Netjwald. Senator, as I stated before, I have to refuse to answer 
tli is question because it might incriminate me. 

Mr. Young. On what "rounds are you relying in standing mute, sir? 

Mr. Netjwald. What is that ? 

Mr. Young. Upon what grounds are you relying when you stand 
mute? 

Mr. Forer. He stated them already. 

Senator Eastland. I want the record to show there is a quorum 
present. Why do you refuse to answer the question, Mr. Torok? 

Mr. Netjwald. I am not legally educated enough to explain that. 
My conviction is that if I answered that question 

Senator Eastland. You understand the question. 

Mr. Xeuwald. I understand the question. I think it might incrim- 
inate me later. 

Senator Eastland. Is it a crime to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Xeuwald. I don't think it is a crime in this country to be a 
member. 

Senator Eastland. How would it incriminate you ? 

Mr. Forer. May I make the same objection I made before ? 

Senator Eastland. No, sir. 

Mr. Neuwald. I am afraid to touch this question because it might 
incriminate me whatever I say. 

Senator Eastland. What political organizations do you belong 
to in the United States, Mr. Torok ? 

Mr. Neuwald. On the same ground I would refuse to answer this 
question. It might incriminate me. 

Senator Eastland. What subversive organizations in the United 
States do you belong to ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I don't regard organizations subversive. I stated 
before, I have been secretary of the Hungarian-American Council for 
Democracy which became, was at least in the opinion of Attorney Gen- 
eral Clark, subversive. I have an insurance policy from the 

Senator Eastland. Is that the only organization you belong to, of 
which you are a member? 

Mr. Neuwald. I have an insurance policy from the International 
Workers Order, $1,000 insurance. 

Senator Eastland. Are you now or have you ever been a 
Communist ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I have to refuse to answer on the same grounds. It 
might incriminate me. 

Senator Eastland. What contact, if any, have you had with agents 
or representatives of the Russian Government ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Never any. 

Senator Eastland. What contacts have you had with agents or 
representatives of the International Communist movement ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Knowingly, I have never had any contact. If I 
met one, I didn't know that he is a member of any organization. 



211 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Eastland. Your attorney is present. You have an attor- 
ney present ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes, sir. 

Senator Eastland. On the advice of the attorney you stand mute 
and refuse to answer the question about your political affiliations. 

Mr. Neuwald. That is right. 

Senator Eastland. Mr. Pirinsky ? 

Mr. Forer. Is this witness excused ? 

Senator Eastland. He can sit back there. I am not going to excuse 
him. 

Senator Langer. I would like to ask him a few questions if I may. 

Senator Eastland. Do you solemnly swear the testimony you are 
about to give before the Immigration Subcommittee of the Judiciary 
Committee of the Senate of the United States is the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I do. 

Senator Eastland. What is your name? 

Mr. Pirinsky. George Pirinsky. 

Senator Eastland. What is your office with the American Slav 
Congress ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I am the executive secretary of the American Slav 
Congress. 

Senator Eastland. Are you now or have you ever been a member of 
the Communist Party, Mr. Pirinsky? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I have stated already that I refuse to answer that 
question on the ground that it might incriminate me. I explained 
I have an immigration case in 2 weeks based on this matter. 

Senator Eastland. Is it a crime to be a Communist? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I don't think so. 

Senator Eastland. Why do you decline to answer? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I stated already, in view of this hysteria and witch- 
hunting that is taking place about the country, I don't want to con- 
tribute to it in any way. 

Senator Eastland. You do not think the American people should 
protect themselves from the traitors? 

Mr. Pirinsky. Well, I wish I was in another position to have a 
discussion of that, but I am not in position here to debate it. 

Senator Eastland. Are you now or have you ever been a Com- 
munist ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I say I refuse to answer that. 

Senator Eastland. Are you now or have you ever been affiliated 
with the Communist movement in the United States? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The same answer. 

Senator Eastland. You decline to answer on the advice of } T our 
attorney, is that true? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is correct. 

Senator Eastland. He is present ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is right. 

Senator Eastland. Senator Langer? 

Senator Langer. What did you say your name was? 

Mr. Neuwald. Alfred A. Neuwald. N-e-u-w-a-1-d. 

Senator Langer. How long have vou been here in the United 
States? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 211 

Mr. Neuwald. I emigrated to this country in 1934. 

Senator Langer. You are a citizen of this country ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I am not a citizen. 

Senator Langer. You never took out your first papers ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I have the first papers." 

Senator Langer. When did you get them ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Almost immediately when I came to this country 
I applied for the first papers. 

Senator Langer. Almost immediately ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. 

Senator Langer. Could you give us the year and the place? 

Mr. Neuwald. In New York City. I don't remember exactly the 
year. 

Senator Langer. Approximately, the approximate time. 

Mr. Neuwald. Approximately 1935. 

Senator Langer. Did you try to get your second papers ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Senator, it has a little story if you don't mind my 
telling you. 

Senator Langer. Go ahead and tell your story. 

Mr. Neuwald. I wrote and published several travel books between 
that time when I came until 1938, and I was engaged in hotel publicity. 
So between 1934 and 1938, the middle of the year 1938, I think 
August, I had to travel and had to spend time in Europe. The title 
of my book, little booklet, was "The Europe You Do Not Know," for 
the typical tourist, a thing describing the beauties of Europe. I came 
in 1938 back to the United States. On the basis of the entry permit. 
From 1938 until 1945 I changed my domicile a little too much. I 
lived in California and I came back to New York. I spent about 
8 months on war work in Virginia, in building work near Williams- 
burg. I had a job there. I moved around and I never had the 5 
years. Then I applied. When I applied for citizenship my first 
papers had expired. So just now I really sincerely hope that I am 
going to apply for citizenship and get it. My belief is very much 
shattered now because of this. 

Senator Langer. How do you make your living, what kind of job, 
what kind of work? 

Mr. Neuwald. I was, until the middle of December, manager of a 
transport company, and since December, that company didn't work 
out. I am without a job. I am trying to do something for myself 
and my very newly born daughter. 

Senator Langer. How many children have you ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Just one, a 10-month-old daughter. 

Senator Langer. You have a wife? 

Mr. Neuwald. Yes. 

Senator Langer. Where are you living now ? 

Mr. Neuwald. New York City. 

Senator Langer. This American Slav Congress 

Senator Eastland. He is not connected with that organization, 
Senator. 

Mr. Pirinskt. That is my group, not his. 

Senator Langer. Is this gentleman with any group? You are 
here just as an individual ? What is your name, sir? 

Mr. Forer. My name is Forer. I am counsel for these gentlemen. 

Senator Langer. You live in New York, too ? 



212 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Foeer. No; I live in Washington. 

Senator Langer. What is your name? 

Mr. Forer. Joseph Forer. F-o-r-e-r. 

Senator Langer. You are just trying to make an honest living over 
here, are you? 

Mr. Neuwald. T am. There was never a charge against me. I never 
was questioned anywhere since I was in this country. This is the 
first time I have appeared. 

Senator Langer. How old were you when you came over here? 

Mr. Neuwald. About 32. 

Senator Langer. Thirty-two years old. What school did you go to? 

Mr. Neuwald. What is that? 

Senator Langer. What schools did you go to in your home state? 
What country did you come from ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I was born in a part of Hungary which became 
Czechoslovakia in 1918. 

Senator Langer. How far from Vienna ? 

Mr. Neuwald. About 75 miles. 

Senator Langer. North or south or east or west ? 

Mr. Neuwald. South. 

Senator Langer. Were you ever in a little town called Mitteklorf ? 

Mr. Neuwald. Mitteklorf is near Vienna. I think I went through 
there. I lived in Vienna for several years before I came to this 
country. Did you wish to ask me why I came over? 

Senator Langer. Why ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I came before I emigrated to this country twice as a 
visitor, visting my brother who was here since 1914. I liked the 
country very much. I had a good living in Vienna. I was an insur- 
ance man with an insurance company. But somehow I fell in love 
with America and I came over of my own choice. I stayed, thinking 
that America should be my country. 

Senator Langer. You told the truth when you came in and got your 
papers. You came under your own name ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I came under my own name. 

Senator Langer. Did you tell them why you came here? 

Mr. Neuwald. That name Torok is an accident, because I wrote 
sometimes a few articles under the name Torok, and since Hungarians 
love their Hungarian so much and Neuwald is a typical German name, 
the Hungarians know me under the name Torok. I always pay my 
tax under the name Neuwald. It is really an accident. Torok is 
identical to Neuwald. I want to emphasize that I never used the name 
of Torok as a hiding or cover name, because everybody who was close 
to me knew that my name was Neuwald. 

Senator Langer. I would like to ask you one question but you had 
better ask your lawyer before you answer it. Have you ever done 
anything since you got over here against the Government of the United 
States ? 

Mr. Neuwald. I don't have to ask my lawyer. 

Senator Langer. You don't have to ask your lawyer? 

Mr. Neuwald. Because I never did. 

Senator Langer. You figure if you had been a citizen you would 
have been a good one, is that right? 

Mr. Neuwald. I had a peculiar theory regarding my activities in 
this country. I told to myself even if I am not a citizen, I am living 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 213 

in this country, and I really try to do my best for this country and 
for my fellow people, so somehow I became always engaged in charity 
work, in social work, and people came to me. I think I knew how to 
talk to people and get people organized. So really from the Catholic 
Church down to all kinds of people. That is why I can't answer cer- 
tain questions. All kinds of people were in contact with me. I re- 
member I did my best. I can say that to you in real conscience and 
truthfully. 

Senator Langer. You still want to become a citizen, do you not? 

Mr. Neuwald. I would like to. 

Senator Langer. If you were a citizen you would be a good one? 

Mr. Neuwald. I would try my best. 

Senator Langer. You are the gentleman who is an officer of the 
American Slav Congress? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is right. 

Senator Langer. What is your name ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. George Pirinsky. It is the organization that was 
founded on Pearl Harbor Day in Detroit, Mich. 

Senator Langer. What is the purpose of this organization? 

Mr. Pirinsky. It was founded for the purpose of helping to win 
the war. That was the purpose. 

Senator Langer. To win the war. 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is right. Former Attorney General Biddle 
was present at the banquet at which the organization began. 

Senator Eastland. Let me ask you this question: Did he later 
cite that organization as a Communist-front organization? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No. It was cited by the present Attorney General, 
but to tell you frankly, I have more respect for the opinion of the 
late President Roosevelt about our organization than about the opin- 
ion of Mr. Clark. 

Senator Eastland. I asked you about Mr. Biddle. 

Mr. Pirinsky. No ; he has not cited our organization. He was the 
one who called upon us to organize. 

Senator Langer. The theory of that was that you people who 
had relatives over in the old country could do a very, very fine job 
by telling them of actual conditions here. 

Mr. Pirinsky. The late President Roosevelt sent us a greeting in 
which he stated that America is proud of her citizens of Slavic descent, 
and he further stated that you who have helped build this United 
States in factory and farm and have contributed so richly to the na- 
tional culture need not be told the meaning of America or her bless- 
ings. Then he said, you who send your sons into battle and forge 
the weapons of victory need not be cautioned to keep your courage 
high and your faith firm. We were 100 percent behind the policies 
of the late President Roosevelt. We still insist now that we should 
live in friendship between the people of the United States and the 
people of the Slavic countries, the two main forces. 

Senator Langer. It would be just like the Sons of Norway or the 
Iberian Society? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That is correct. 

Senator Langer. Or the German- American Club or something 
else. 

Mr. Pirinsky. Like all others. 



214 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Langek. You call it the Slav Congress, and Biddle came 
to your dinner. 

Mr. Pirinsky. Senator Myers 1 spoke at our dinner in 1946 at 
the Astor Hotel and praised the organization. President Truman 
sent me a letter. We asked him to come to speak in 1944 in Pitts- 
burgh, at our national convention which we called to support the late 
President Roosevelt for a fourth term. President Truman wrote that 
he would very much like to, that he would check it with the Demo- 
cratic National Committee to find out if he is available on that date. 
He couldn't come, so Mr. Ickes 2 was the one to come. Then former 
Senator Tunnell 3 came to talk to us. Senator Magnuson 4 was present. 
Congressman Sadowski, 5 of Detroit, is one of the honorary members 
from Detroit, Mich., on the Michigan committee. 

Senator Langer. About how many members have you? 

Mr. Pirinsky. It is not a dues-paying organization, with individual 
membership. It is a coordinating body of various organizations 
throughout the country. They say that during the war they said the 
Slavic Americans constituted 51 percent of the workers in the heavy 
war industries. They said that we people were in a position to make 
a special contribution to the battle of production. We did. We or- 
ganized blood donors. 

Senator Langer. When did you come over? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I came in 1923. 

Senator Langer. When did you apply for citizenship? 

Mr. Pirinsky. The third month after I came. 

Senator Langer. Are you a citizen now? 

Mr. Pirinsky. No; I am not. I was refused because I came to 
northern Minnesota, the Mesabi Range. At that time I found the con- 
ditions of the miners in northern Minnesota very bad. They were 
given only $4 a day with big families. They couldn't support them. 
I say, Why don't you ask for a little more wages? They say they 
tried to ask, but still the Steel Trust has everything in his hands. I 
said this is a democratic country. It shouldn't be like that. They 
said it shouldn't be, but these are the conditions. It seemed to me 
that was wrong, so I became active in the fight of the miners of north- 
ern Minnesota to have the right of union for better wages. To the 
Steel Trust that was an un-American thing. So I was blacklisted. 
I couldn't find a job in northern Minnesota. 

Senator Langer. When was that ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. That was 1924. At that time it was considered a 
crime to belong to a union. I fought for the right to belong to the 
union, and I was blacklisted. 

Senator Eastland. Would you let the attorney ask a question? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Neuwald, I invite your attention to section 859 of 
the Revised Statutes, as amended, which reads as follows : 

No testimony given by a witness before eitber House or before any committee 
of either House or before any joint committee established by a joint or concur- 
rent resolution of the two Houses of Congress shall be used as evidence in any 
criminal proceeding against him in any court, except in a prosecution for perjury 
committed in giving such testimony, but an official paper or record produced by 
him is not within the said privilege. 

1 Senator Francis J. Myers, from Pennsylvania. 

2 Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior. 

3 Senator James M. Tunnell, of Delaware. 

4 Senator Warren G. Magnuson, of Washington. 
6 Representative George Sadowski, of Michigan. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN" AND NATIONAL GROUPS 215 

I invite your attention to this section which relates to privileges 
against incrimination in the statutes of the United States. 

Mr. Neuwakl, are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party? 

(Mr. Neuwakl conferring with his counsel.) 

Mr. Neuwald. I have to give the same reply, that I am not in a 
position to answer because it might incriminate me. 

Senator Eastland. The chairman is acting chairman of the sub- 
committee, Mr. Neuwald, and I demand that you answer the question. 

Mr. Neuwald. As stated before, on advice of my counsel, I have 
to refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Arens. Now, Mr. Pirinsky, Mr. George Pirinsky, are you now 
or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Senator Donnell. Read the statute to him, also. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Pirinsky, may I read you the same statute which 
I just read. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I heard it. I listened to it. 

Mr. Arens. Section 859 of the Revised Statutes as amended with 
reference to privilege against incrimination, reads as follows : 

No testimony given by a witness before either House or before any committee 
of either House or before any joint committee established by a joint or concur- 
rent resolution of the two Houses of Congress shall be used as evidence in any 
criminal proceeding against him in any court except in a prosecution for per- 
jury committed in giving such testimony, but an official paper or record pro- 
duced by him is not within the said privilege. 



I ask you now, Mr. George Pirinsky 

Mr. Forer. Excuse me, Mr. Counsel. May I say a word to the 
acting chairman? 

Senator Eastland. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Forer. Since the committee seems to be so interested in legal 
sources, I suggest that the committee consider not only the statute 
that was. read by its counsel just now, but I suggest also it consider, 
before it takes any action in the case, C ounselman v. Hitchcock, 
United States Reports. I call it to the committee's attention rather 
than discuss it. 

Senator Eastland. Thank you, sir. Proceed. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. George Pirinsky, I ask you this question : Are you 
now or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Pirinsky. I again answer, as I did previously, that I decline 
and refuse to answer. 

Senator Eastland. As chairman of this subcommittee, I demand 
that you answer that question, Mr. Pirinsky. 

Mr. Pirinsky. I say again, on the same ground and on advice of 
counsel, I refuse to answer the question. I want to protest against 
this. 

Senator Eastland. Any questions? 

Senator Donnell. No questions. 

Senator Eastland. Anything else? Any further questions? 

Senator Langer. Nothing else. 

Senator Eastland. The committee will now recess until 10 : 30 in 
the morning. We won't need you any more. 

(Thereupon, at 4:35 p. m., the subcommittee recessed until 10:30 
a. m., Thursday, June 9, 1949.) 



216 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Record of Joseph Fouek 

Attorney for Southern Conference for Human Welfare, Washington committee. 

Washington Star, January 7, 1948, page A-5. 
Attorney for Abram Flaxer. Washington Times-Herald, February 3, 1948, 

page 17. 
Attorney for Hanns Eisler. Daily Worker, September 25, 1947, page 2. 
Attorney for Roy Cole and Louis Jones. Washington Post, February 5, 1948, 

page 4-B. 
Attorney for Louise Bransten Berman. New York Star, September 21, 1948, 

page 1. 
Food. Tobacco, and Agricultural Workers Union, CIO Local 22. Counsel for 

Robert Black, W. C. Sheppard, and Edward McCrea. Daily Worker, July 24, 

1947, page 3. 
Attorney for Emil Costello. Washington Post, June 28, 1947. 
Attorney for Gerhart Eisler. Gerhart Eisler v. The United States of America, 

Supreme Court of the United States, October term, 1948, District of Columbia, 

No. 255. 
Civil Rights Congress. Attorney for Gerhart Eisler. Daily Worker, November 

20, 1947, page 3. 
Attorney for Gerhart Eisler ; signed brief to appeal conviction. Daily Worker, 

November 11, 1947, page 3. 
Attorney for tenants' organization, Brentwood Village, D. C. Washington Post, 

July 16, 1948, page 19. 
Progressive Citizens of America, Montgomery County chapter. Speaker, Silver 

Spring meeting, November 14, 1947. 
Signer of statement against Mundt anti-Communist bill. Washington Post, 

May 18, 1948, page 15 (advertisement). 
Progressive Party, District of Columbia. Platform committee chairman. Wash- 
ington Star, July 10, 1948, page A-10. 
Wallace for President Committee, Washington, D. C. Chairman of platform 

committee. Washington Star, June 30, 1948, page A-10. 
Attorney for James Branca. Washington Times-Herald, May 30, 1949, page 2. 
Washington Committee for Democratic Action. Member. 

National Lawyers' Guild, Washington, D. C. Member. Washington Times- 
Herald, June 3, 1949, page 1. 
American League for Peace and Democracy. Member. (Hearings, Committee 

on Un-American Activities, page 6413.) 
United Public Workers. Attorney. Daily Worker, January 27, 1948, page 1. 
Writer of article attacking FBI. Member, constitutional liberties committee, 

National Lawyers' Guild. The Worker, August 7, 1949, page 2, section 2. 
Attorney for Claudia Jones, Communist. Daily Worker, October 13, 1948, 

page 11. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GROUPS 



THURSDAY, JUNE 9, 1949 

United States Senate, 

Special Subcommittee To Investigate Immigration and 

Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. G. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to recess, at 2 p. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran (chairman) presiding. 

Present : Senators McCarran, Langer, and Donnell. 

Also present: Messrs. Kichard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee ; Otto J. Dekom and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. The sub- 
committee is proceeding with further hearings on Senate bill 1832. 

The Chair wishes to state at this time that on May 13 the committee 
instructed Miss Elizabeth Bentley to furnish for the record the list of 
persons who, to her knowledge, were involved in relaying information 
to the Soviet Government. Miss Bentley was informed she would con- 
tinue under subpena until such time as the list was received by the 
chairman. In accordance with these instructions, Miss Bentley sub- 
mitted her list last Thursday, at which time it was received by the 
committee and was ordered to be made a part of the record. Accord- 
ingly, Miss Bentley has been excused and is now excused from the 
subpena. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS FRANCIS BUDENZ, CRESTWOOD, N. Y. 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear that the testimony that you 
are about to give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the 
Judiciary of the Senate of the United States will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Budenz. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly state your full name, please ? 

Mr. Budenz. Louis Francis Budenz. 1 

Mr. Arens. And your address, please ? 

Mr. Budenz. Crestwood, N. Y. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Budenz, will you kindly identify yourself by voca- 
tion or occupation ? 

Mr. Budenz. At the present time I am assistant professor of eco- 
nomics at Fordham University in New York: prior to that time I was 
a professor at Notre Dame University ; and prior to that time I was 

1 The witness appeared under subpena. 

217 



218 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

managing editor of the Daily Worker. I could go back further, but 
I think that identifies me. 

Mr. Arens. What are the periods of time during which you were 
managing editor of the Daily Worker ? 

Mr. Budenz. Roughly, 1940 to 1945; that is, I was president of the 
corporation controlling the Daily Worker for the Communist Party, 
and during that period I also acted as managing editor. 

Mr. Arens. What is the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Budenz. The Daily Worker is the official organ of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Budenz, this subcommittee is considering the prob- 
lem of the exclusion and deportation of subversive aliens. You have 
been invited to appear here primarily with the view of supplying the 
subcommittee with such information as you have in your knowledge 
on this problem. As I understand it, you have a prepared statement, 
and I invite you at this time to present it. 

Mr. Budenz. This statement, which, of course, was gotten up this 
morning after I had learned something of the nature of the inquiry, 
will have to be supplemented occasionally by an oral amendment or 
two or an oral supplement. In addition, as you will note, I suggest 
to the committee that I be permitted to file a memorandum which will 
give more strength and detail to this statement. 

The Chairman. Very well. 

Mr. Budenz. As I understand, the committee, in ordering my ap- 
pearance here, desires me to state what I know about the following 
phases of alien activity within the United States : 

(1) The extent to which aliens or persons of alien origin are in- 
volved in the Communist movement. 

(2) Officials of foreign governments associated with Amtorg, 
United Nations, consulates, embassies, who are involved. 

(3) Concentration of efforts, means, methods, purposes, or work 
among the foreign-language groups, such as the American Slav Con- 
gress. 

On each of these matters I shall have to be more general today than 
would be the case if I had the opportunity to consider the subject more 
thoroughly. If the committee desires, as I have stated. I shall later 
on supplement these statements with a written memorandum, in order 
to assure accuracy. 

As to the first point, the Communist Party in the United States, 
so-called, is directed exclusively by aliens. It is also shot through, in 
its various organizational subdivisions throughout the country, with 
alien personnel. These political tourists, sent in here by Moscow in 
the main but some of them adopted later after their arrival here, have 
been ordered here by Moscow in order to steel the party here for com- 
plete service to the Soviet dictatorship. An American will be used, 
for instance, as a Communist International representative in China 
and the Philippines, as was Earl Browder before he became general 
secretary of the Communist Party here. Incidentally, as was James 
Allen, former foreign editor of the Daily Worker, that being prior to 
his return to America to assume active Communist work here. But 
an American will never be used in a responsible leading position as a 
channel of communication with Moscow from this country, unless he 
has as a superior an alien sent in for that purpose. This, then, is a 
general world pattern pursued by the Kremlin : that the direct respon- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 219 

sibility shall be in the hands of aliens in any respective country in 
which operations are carried on. It is the fixed design of Moscow to 
employ aliens in the most responsible positions in every country. 
This assures that nostalgia and patriotism may be reduced to the 
minimum in the steeled ranks of Stalin's servants. 

The native Communist leader, therefore, is always under the control 
of a superior who is an alien or an ex-alien, the latter having received 
his citizenship merely in order to serve the Kremlin more effectively. 
The Communist Party organization in this country, which is the fifth 
column of Soviet Russia in our midst and nothing else, can be likened 
to a tree. The roots are the political tourists, leading Communists 
such as the Eislers, the Peters, a man like Ferruccio Marini, who went 
by the name of Fred Brown. 

Gerhart Eisler was the Communist International representative 
here for years. J. V. Peters was the head of the conspiratorial ap- 
paratus for the Communist International, working with the Soviet 
secret police here. Ferruccio Marini, or Brown, was the organiza- 
tional or military director for the Communist International of the 
Communist Party here. The last of these men has returned to Italy 
upon orders, undoubtedly from the Communist International, just as 
Peters and Eisler have both returned to Europe. 

The Chairman. Who was the last, you say, of these? 

Mr. Budenz. Ferruccio Marini. a verv tall man with a dark beard 
and black hat, rather dramatic in appearance; known as Fred Brown, 
however, and writing under that name in the Party Organizer for 
years, that is, the paper serving as party organizer of the Communist 
Party. He was the military and demonstration authority, and inci- 
dentally, the organizational authority for the Communists here. 

The Chairman. Where did he live, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Budenz. He lived on Staten Island in New York for a time. 
He had a sort of a small farm out there, or at least a small residence 
out of the confines of the city proper. He lived in some other places, 
but I know of the Staten Island residence. He has, however, lately 
departed for Italy. 

The Chairman. Was he a writer for the Daily Worker? 

Mr. Budenz. Only in the sense that his reports on organization were 
sometimes referred to in the Daily Worker. His name undoubtedly 
appears in the Daily Worker connected with certain articles. He was 
. not a writer proper, he was located on the ninth floor of 35 East 
Twelfth Street — the rather notorious ninth floor, which is the na- 
tional headquarters of the Communist Party. So far as 90 percent 
of the Communist Party members were concerned, they did not know 
specifically of his existence. They knew of Fred Brown and of his 
organizational writings, but of him as a personality they knew very 
little. That is the case with the other gentlemen mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Budenz, in view of the fact that you have men- 
tioned Eislers name, do you have any information respecting Hanns 
Eisler, the brother of Gerhart Eisler, and how he was admitted into 
the country? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, sir. I could not go into the question of how he 
was admitted into the country because I want to be accurate and would 
have to refresh my memory on details. That, however, is a matter of 
national knowledge. This is a rather noted case, it is on the records 
of a number of Government agencies and I would not want to be in 

98330— 50— pt. 1—15 



220 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

detailed conflict with them out of just a lapse of memory on a point 
or two. 

The Chairman. The best evidence is somewhere else? 

Mr. Budenz. That is right; it is all in official records. 

The Chairman. The only trouble is that this committee has a great 
deal of trouble getting the best evidence. 

Mr. Budenz. I can say in a general way from my knoAvledge in the 
Communist movement that Hanns Eisler was admitted to America^ 
though a Communist, and after a great deal of difficulty of getting him 
in. However, he had been here before, and it is about that that I 
wanted to mention. He came over here in 1940, I would say, from 
Moscow, that is, direct from Moscow. He had been there made the 
head of the Red music bureau. This Red music bureau, the Inter- 
national Music Bureau, had been created by the Kremlin for the pur- 
pose of spreading sedition in various countries among musicians and 
music critics. 

The Chairman. What was the name of it? 

Mr. Budenz. The International Music Bureau in Moscow. 

He arrived here to receive a $20,000 scholarship from the Rocke- 
feller Foundation in order to develop new forms of music. This neces- 
sarily was used to develop certain forms of music, but was also used 
by Mr. Eisler to promote sedition in America. That I know, because 
I have been in a meeting where he produced for the benefit of the Com- 
munist leaders all of these revolutionary songs he had written — the 
Comintern song, "We Are Ready to Take Over,' 1 and other songs in- 
tended to inflame people against the government of the countries in 
which they lived. 

Mr. Dekom. You indicated there that in your opinion Gerhart Eisler 
left on instructions from Moscow. Would you enlarge on that state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Budenz. That necessarily has to be in part what people call 
speculation, but it is based on my sound experience in the Communist 
movement. It is also based on discussions in regard to devices used 
by Reds to move illegallv from country to country. After all, Poland 
is a satellite of Soviet Russia. It would be impossible, knowing the 
Communist movement as I do, how it is regimented, with the iron 
discipline that is in it, for Gerhart Eisler to move one step out of 
America, especially with the connivance of these two governments^ 
Poland and Czechoslovakia, unless he had received specific orders- 
from Moscow. The discipline is such that he would have immediately 
been degraded as professor of Leipzig University, and he certainly 
would not have been honored, according to the Communist sense of 
"honor," by being elected to be one of the 35 members of the Red- 
controlled People's Council of Eastern Germany. He is received with 
the greatest honor by Moscow's chief agents in Germany, and cer- 
tainly, had he taken this move in defiance of Moscow, he would not 
have been so received. 

The Chairman. When you use the words "he would not have taken 
this move," you mean his movement out of this country? 

Mr. Budenz. Most decidedly. You cannot, in the Communist 
movement, make a move like that just in this negative sense, so far as 
Moscow is concerned. If Moscow does not oppose it, then Moscow 
proposes it, or at least agrees with it. The discipline is such that there 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 221 

is no middle ground. You have no initiative on your own part 
whatsoever. 

We then have seen the roots of this fifth-column tree to be the 
political tourists sent into this country, symbolized by Gerhart Eisler 
and by J. V. Peters, who was a much more important person in direct- 
ing espionage and other activity in this country than has yet been 
developed. Unfortunately, much of his activity remains under 
obscurity because it was obscure operations. 

The Chairman. Just there, please. I think it is fair to say that in 
a conversation had with a very high official of this Government, the 
chairman of this committee made the statement that Mr. Eisler was 
the leading Communist of this country while he was here. That was 
taken issue with very sharply, that he was not the leading Commu- 
nist of this country. What would you say, based on your own 
experience ? 

Mr. Budenz. Of course, I have no desire to have any quarrel with 
anybody. 

The Chairman. I am not quarreling with anybody. 

Mr. Budenz. Nonetheless, Mr. Eisler was the leading Communist, 
so far as America is concerned, the leading Communist. He was the 
representative of the Communist International apparatus. The Com- 
munist Party of the United States could not move on any important 
matter without Mr. Eisler's consent, while he was that Communist 
International representative of it. The leadership, William Z. Foster, 
Earl Browder, or whoever it was, had to consult with Mr. Eisler, 
whether he was here under the name of Edwards or Berger, and I 
know from my personal experience. I have seen it, in other words, in 
the flesh, and, therefore, I know. 

As to whether Mr. Eisler got further directives, beyond instructions 
as CI representative from the Embassy of the Soviet Union through 
some obscure Soviet secret-police agent — obscure in the sense of appear- 
ing obscure — that is something I cannot tell you from my own direct 
experience. But, so far as America is concerned, so far as every active 
Communist in the national headquarters of the Communist Party of 
America was concerned, Comrade Edwards, or Hans Berger, was the 
man who channelized Moscow's instructions to the political committee 
(or Politburo) of the Communist Party. One of his chief sources of 
contact was Jack Stachel, who has always been a leading man in that 
respect. Therefore, Mr. Eisler certainly is the No. 1 Communist, or 
rather was;, during his residence here in the United States. The proof 
of this fact is the elaborate preparation made to rescue him and the ease 
with which he is received into very high quarters abroad. We will 
hear more of him, incidentally, in the future, in my opinion. 

The trunk of the tree consists of the Fosters, Browders, and others in 
the open party. The branches are composed of those who are members 
in reality but who act publicly as non-Communists. 

The sap of directives from the alien roots goes through the trunk of 
the open party to those men and women in the branches who act in 
American life as though they are not Communists. Therefore, the 
entire stimulus for the party, all of the most important directives, 
come through these alien political tourists up through the open party — 
the trunk as I call it — to the people in the branches, the concealed 
Communists, who are moving about in American life, even protesting 
that they are not Communists. 



222 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

In each of these divisions of this Communist organization — or tree — 
aliens are placed in key, though often obscure positions. That is, 
obscure so far as public scrutiny is concerned. But the percentage of 
aliens increases and the power of aliens rises as we get nearer to the 
roots. That is, nearer to the contact with Moscow, nearer to the place 
from which policy issues. The Communist Party leadership functions 
on directives received from Moscow. These directives are channelized 
to the party leadership by the Communist International representa- 
tive and the apparatus around him. Until recently, this representative 
was Gerhart Eisler, alias Edwards, alias Hans Berger. With him was 
associated J. V. Peters, who was responsible for the espionage of the 
Communist International, in cooperation with the Soviet secret police 
in this country. 

How do I know that ? Because Mr. Peters told that to me himself 
when, after he had directed many questions to me which indicated that 
he had a background knowledge of things, I asked him, "Was I privi- 
leged to know why he directed these inquiries at me?" 

"Yes, you have justified that confidence," he said. He told me that 
he was the liaison officer, or link between the Communist International 
apparatus and the Soviet secret police in this country. 

Mr. Arens. By "Soviet secret police in this country," just what do 
you mean ? 

Mr. Budenz. I can speak from my personal experience only on that 
score. I have reported on orders of the political committee to mem- 
bers of the NKVD in the United States. That has been stated many 
times, however; it is nothing new. It was in connection with the 
Trotsky case, but for 3 years I reported to the members of the Soviet 
secret police, meeting them two times a week, at least, in various 
restaurants in New York City and in the Hotel Stevens in Chicago. 

Mr. Arens. "Where is Peters now? Has he left, too, like Eisler? 

Mr. Budenz. Peters has left, the same as Eisler. He has returned to 
Hungary. I intend to deal with that in just a moment, if you please. 

Supporting the activities of these men within the party organiza- 
tion itself were several scores of other aliens sent in here under 
Moscow's directions. In order to bring them in, in a number of in- 
stances, use was made of the secret conspiratorial fund, which was in 
the hands of a committee of three when I was associated with the 
Communist Party leadership. The presence of this fund cannot be too 
strongly emphasized. The committee in charge of this fund was 
headed by Robert William Werner, whose real name is Welwel Warsz- 
over. He is an alien who was convicted during the Hitler-Stalin pact 
period of having conspired to misrepresent his citizenship. Although 
he was born in Russia, he swore he was born in Atlantic City. The 
Atlantic City records had been tampered with to sustain his assertion. 
That was established. Although convicted of fraud upon the Govern- 
ment in this case, he never served his sentence ; he was excused because 
of alleged heart trouble. 

The Chairman. When did he take that oath ? 

Mr. Budenz. That I am not quite certain of at this moment. It was 
in connection, I believe, with wishing to travel abroad. 

The Chairman. To use it for a passport ? 

Mr. Budenz. That I would not be certain of for the moment. 

The Chairman. How do you know he took such an oath ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 223 

Mr. Budenz. That is a matter of public record again, Senator. I 
knew it very vividly. 

The Chairman. Where is the record ? Could you advise us where 
we can get the record ? 

Mr. Budenz. I think he was convicted either in New York or Wash- 
ington, in the Federal court. He was convicted in the Federal courts. 1 
The case was quite vivid in my memory then, but it is quite some time 
ago. The whole story of the conviction is in the Daily Worker of 
1040. 

Other members of the committee when I was in the party were 
Lemuel Harris — offspring of a Wall Street brokerage house, I under- 
stand — and the late Charles Krumbein, then treasurer of the Com- 
munist Party. This fund is not only used to bring in alien Com- 
munists into the United States, but to send them into South America. 
It is also employed to finance illegal trips of native and alien Com- 
munists to Moscow and to other centers, when they travel on false 
passports or other illegal means. To the best of my knowledge, at 
least up to the moment when I left the Communist Party in October 
1045, Mr. William Weiner was the financial tsar of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. Arens. Do you mean in the United States? 

Mr. Budenz. In the United States. 

The Chairman. Does your discourse deal with that phase? You 
say "financial tsar"— what did that comprehend? What are we to 
understand by their financial set-up ? 

Mr. Budenz. I believe, Senator, that I shall cover that in a moment, 
but in order that I will not miss it, I would like to say this : The Com- 
munist set-up, organizationally, has no democratic inkling in it. The 
functioning of the Communist organization does not permit the use of 
parliamentary law. They only learn parliamentary law to exercise 
it in other organizations to destroy or control them. Within the 
Communist Party the entire control comes from above. The national 
committee meets and the leader gives a report just like a teacher to a 
class. The whole national committee agrees with that leader for 3 
days running, except that they explain how they are going to carry 
out the new policy which he has just enunciated. After the 3 days 
of unanimity, the leader makes the summary and that is the decision 
of the national committee. 

The Chairman. That was the decision he handed them in the first 
place. 

Mr. Budenz. That is correct; always, over, and over, four times a 
year. 

The Chairman. Why waste the 3 days ? 

Mr. Budenz. For two reasons. First to test out whether they are 
loyal. There is a special committee to see to that. Everything they 
say is taken down in shorthand or by some other stenographic device. 
Then that is very carefully gone over. In addition to that, the com- 
rades also show how they are going to carry this out. They explain 
the organizations they are going to penetrate, the unions they are going 
to capture, the people in public life they are going to approach, things 
of that sort. 

1 Welwel Warszower was convicted of violation of 22 U. S. Code, sec. 220, 22 U. S. C. A. 
§ 220, by the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New Tork. 
Affirmed by United States Supreme Court February 17, 1941, 321 U. S. 342. 



224 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. Where does he get his orders, this national leader ( 

Mr. Budenz. It happens that these orders are always in perfect 
harmony with the policy of Moscow at that particular moment. 

Mr. Arens. Where does he get his orders? 

Mr. Budenz. He gets his orders from the Communist International 
representative, who was Gerhart Eisler while I was in the party. 

That begins to explain the financial set-up. The financial set-up 
is equally dictatorial, and bureaucratic, The secret financial fund of 
which I speak is used, for example, to move a man into South Amer- 
ica. There are many planted in South America, either a number of 
alien Communists from here or of native Communists, under direc- 
tions. Most of those who go to Mexico and other parts of Latin 
America are alien Communists. These secret trips have to be financed 
and they are financed by Weiner. 

For example, when Browder makes his secret trip to Moscow on a 
false passport — which we now know that he did — lie has to go to 
Weiner for finances. He cannot put the details on the books of the 
Communist Party. When Mr. Dennis goes to Moscow — as we know 
that he did — on illegal passports, he gets his money from a similar 
source. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent is this fund used to bring alien Com- 
munists into the United States ? 

Mr. Budenz. It is used for that purpose, and it is also used to create 
auxiliary funds. For instance, the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Com- 
mittee was a direct product of Weiner's creation. That is, the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, from which Eisler functioned while 
here, was created by the secret fund committee in order to have a 
wider field of raising money. 

The Chairman. What does the fund amount to from day to day, 
if you have any knowledge of that subject ? 

Mr. Budenz. That is a complete mystery, known only to Mr. Weiner 
and the members of the fund. You see, if Communist Party leaders 
have some emergency difficulty, if they have to take a vacation, if they 
are ill, when their children are born, things of that character, they are 
paid in cash out of this secret fund. It has a wider use than just this 
business of helping aliens, though it is used definitely for that purpose. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent is this secret fund used for the purpose 
of bringing alien Communists or agents into this country ? 

Mr. Budenz. Originally, it was one of the chief means, and is yet, 
so far as I know, although now it is expanding its activities through 
the creation of such committees as the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee. I return to that in order to be accurate, because I know 
of the connection between Weiner and the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee, I know that Lemuel Harris, the next man I am going to 
mention, was very active in raising money for the Joint Anti-Fascist 
Refugee Committee. 

Mr. Arens. How did they use this money to bring alien Communist 
agents into the United States ? What do they do ? 

Mr. Budenz. Mr. Eisler is an exhibit, they brought him in. They 
brought others whose names I might recall if I had time to look over 
a list or something like that. I knew of a number of others. They 
would have constant communication with the Communists abroad and 
through that means bring them in. As a matter of fact, I sat with 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 225 

Mr. Harris when he was going over a list of those who still had to be 
brought over to the Western Hemisphere. 

Mr. Arens. I observed a few moments ago that you made mention 
of the use of this fund for the purpose of the international travel of 
Communist agents in this country, and I observed particularly your 
reference to travel between here and Mexico. How free is the move- 
ment of Communist agents between the United States and Mexico, 
to your knowledge % 

Mr. Budenz. Those that I know of have gone rather freely ; that is 
to say. I can give you an example. 

There is Comrade Chester, whose real name is Sinister, I think has 
received his first papers. He is alien-born. He is a well-known — in 
the party, I mean — as a secret agent. Many of these secret agents, 
incidentally, are linked up with the financial machinery. Chester was 
allegedly the assistant financial man or was in New York State, but 
he moves back and forth between here and Mexico. 

Mr. Arens. And he is an alien Communist? 

Mr. Budenz. He is foreign-born, at least. I think he has received 
his first papers. Of course, those things you do not know fully about 
all the time. 

The subdivision of this secret conspiratorial committee was the 
Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee, directed by both Weiner and 
Harris, to my knowledge. It must be remembered that the Joint 
Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee was the center of Eislers activities. 
From thence he sent Felix Kusman almost every day, or at least to 
my knowledge quite frequently during the week, to the national head- 
quarters of the Communist Party with his directives to the party 
leadership. 

The names of aliens functioning in the Communist Party could be 
given at some length. As an illustration, there is the case of A. W. 
Mills — that is his name in the United States, or was until recently — 
who, according to my latest information, is still secretary of the 
International Workers Order, the Communist front in the insurance 
field. No man or woman, incidentally, can be an officer of the Inter- 
national Workers Order unless sponsored or endorsed by the leading 
committee of the Communist Party, the political committee, or Polit- 
buro (now known as the national board). Everyone who serves in 
any office in the IWO or the International Workers Order must 
receive the approval of this political committee. 

Mills, who was born in Russia and was ordered for deportation as 
early as 1936, has been in this country illegally for many years. He 
is responsible for some of the most violent episodes in the history of 
the unemployment movement, and specifically, the bonus march to 
Washington. At least it has been so reported to me by leading mem- 
bers of the political committee. 

In 1940, during the Hitler-Stalin pact, when the Communists were 
halting our production of war munitions through strikes in the Allis- 
Chalmers Co. and elsewhere — in order to aid Hitler's victory — I was 
ordered to meet Mills secretly in Columbus, Ohio. I was in the open 
party, but most of the important members had gone underground. 
You had a very great difficulty in locating them. At that moment I 
was attending and reporting the convention of the United Mine Work- 
ers in Columbus, in 1910. Through a local member of the Communist 



226 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Party, who picked me up at Neil House, I was conveyed to the out- 
skirts of Columbus, where I met Mills in a small restaurant, He was 
then operating under cover, seeking to stimulate disguised Commu- 
nists to create strikes in munition industries. He gave me two reports 
on this matter to take to the national headquarters of the Communist 
Party, cautioning me to keep them on my person at all times. I have 
heard that Mr. Mills may be up for deportation again. He has re- 
mained here so long because Soviet Russia refused to receive him in 
1936. We seem to have no option but to leave him free to carry on his 
activities. 

At the moment, as I have indicated, Moscow is recalling a number 
of its agents who have been here. We see this in the "escape" of 
Gerhart Eisler with the connivance of Czechoslovak and Polish sat- 
ellite states. Eisler is worth much more than $25,000 to Moscow — 
or twenty-three thousand-odd dollars, which was his bail — and the 
Kremlin will gladly see that his bail is paid indirectly. It must be 
remembered that the Civil Rights Congress, which produced this bail, 
is completely under control of the Communist Party and cannot func- 
tion in any way without the direction of the Soviet fifth column here. 

Incidentally, I think I should underline that. The Civil Rights 
Congress, which went on Mr. Eisler's bail, is completely, body and 
soul, under control of the Communist Party. It was created by the 
combination of two organizations — the International Labor Defense 
and the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, both of them 
Communist fronts. The International Labor Defense was the name of 
a similar organization running around the world for the protection 
of Communists. In other words, the heart of this organization is the 
International Labor Defense, a purely Communist creation; that is, 
created by Moscow in many other countries, in addition to the United 
States, for the defense of Communists. 

This recall of the Soviet agents, in part, is also seen in the "volun- 
tary" return of J. V. Peters to Hungary and of John Santo [Szanto] 
to Rumania. 

Originally, the threat had been made by the high-powered and 
highly paid counsel for these men that their deportation would be 
postponed for at least 2 years through Supreme Court appeals. This 
tactic has now been dropped, and our immigration laws are partly 
being complied with by Moscow, which is a miracle. But it is a mira- 
cle due to the fact that Moscow clearly wants to recall these men 
merely for its own purposes. 

It is clear that these men are being recalled for two purposes, 
which had been called to my attention over and over again when I was 
in the Communist Party : 

(1) To train new espionage and subversive agents for the United 
States. This is somewhat important since it is now more difficult 
to get people to go over to the Lenin School in Moscow, which was 
formerly the place where subversive and espionage agents were 
trained for America. 

(2) To be able to organize a deadly propaganda against America 
in the respective countries to which these men have returned. We 
can, therefore, expect a new influx, under many guises, of Communist 
aliens for the purpose of steeling and directing the Soviet fifth col- 
umn here. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 227 

I might add here that the word "steeling" is frequently used in the 
Communist ranks to indicate that they are under the complete direc- 
tion and guidance of Stalin, and will show the same steel that he 
shows in his person and leadership. That is a famous expression in 
the Communist movement : u to steel ourselves as the great and inimita- 
ble Stalin x has steeled himself." 

The interesting thing to observe is the domination of the Communist 
Party by alien personnel and the association of that personnel in the 
domination of natives, who are particularly effective when posing as 
non-Communists. 

In addition to the oral directives transmitted to the party here, there 
is also the saturation of the party with documents and publications 
originating in Moscow. Every active Communist must read these 
documents and publications zealously, in order to understand what he 
should do and how to present the case for immediate Soviet purposes 
within this country. One of these publications is Xew Times, pub- 
lished as a supplement of the Soviet trade-union magazine, Trud, and 
coming to this country in beautiful translation in weekly editions. 
This is in reality the name in disguise of the Communist International 
magazine, and it contains directives which the Daily Worker staff, 
the editorial board and other active Communists must follow, as, of 
course, best they can under American conditions. 

Mr. Arexs. Who is the recipient of these publications ? 

Mr. Budexz. This publication comes through the Four Continents 
Book Co., which is a registered Soviet agent. 

Mr. Arexs. It is registered under the Foreign Agents' Registration 
Act? 

Mr. Budexz. It formerly was not, but it got caught and is now 
registered. It changed its name and then registered. The Daily 
Worker staff — each member, that is — receives free a copy of each 
weekly edition. It is also placed on certain newsstands in New York 
and, in some of the other larger cities, around university libraries and 
the like for the benefit of these men in the branches of the tree, the 
Communists acting as non-Communists. They dare not come around 
the Communist headquarters frequently, but if this literature is at 
these newsstands, they can come and purchase it and observe what is 
going on. 

Another publication which we should know much more about than 
is the case yet is the official organ of the Cominform, 2 coming here in 
English translations from Bucharest, Eumania. It is worth while 
noting that these publications at the present are making a world drive 
for stimulating a deeper study by active Communists of Joseph Stalin's 
History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This is the 
great propaganda and educational drive of the Communists, during 
the last 6 months particularly. 

This basic Communist book has as its central point the necessity 
for the overthrow of the United States Government by violence. 
Generalissimo Stalin is specific and detailed in this regard, naming 
the United States in particular as a nation whose Government must be 
shattered and completely destroyed by violence if the purposes of the 
Soviet dictatorship are to be served. He does this in his Foundation 

1 Stalin means man "of steel." His real name is J. V. Dzugashvili. 

2 For a Lasting Peace, for a People's Democracy. 



228 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

of Leninism. Specifically, this matter is dealt with in chapters 4 and 
G of this volume, though that thought runs through the whole book. 
In fact, so that you won't misunderstand those phrases — that is, direct- 
ing the imperialistic war to civil war, and the necessity of turning an 
imperialist war against your own country — those phrases are under- 
lined or italicized all through the book so they will be thoroughly 
understood as the basic idea of the Soviet dictatorship and its agents. 

There is also such a publication as Political Affairs, the official 
theoretical organ of the Communist Party in the United States. By 
its reprints from Soviet journals — which have not been noted too much, 
I am sorry to say — it acknowledges the complete thought control of 
Communists by the Kremlin. Every delicate indication of new Soviet 
policy is reflected in the articles in Political Affairs, but specifically 
in the reprints from Soviet publications. This goes to the extent 
of making it necessary for the Communists here to hold the same views 
on biological science which Stalin has dictated for the Soviet scientists. 

Witness the article in the February Political Affairs by I. Laptev, 
The Triumph of Mitchurin Biological Science, taken from Pravda 
on September 11, 1948. These articles, recopied or republished from 
Pravda and the other Soviet journals, must be read diligently, must 
be mastered by the active Communist, and must be used in his work. 

As to the second point indicated here in regard to the use of em- 
bassies of the satellites and other such matters, you must understand 
that I left the Communist Party before the Soviet Union had ob- 
tained control of any satellite save those of the Baltic countries. In- 
deed, as I left, I made a public statement prophesying the coming 
"creeping blitzkrieg," as I called it, which would engulf nation after 
nation in Europe and Asia and aimed at the attacks on the United 
States. That was a public statement I made when I left the party, 
and that is now confirmed by the "creeping blitzkrieg" which con- 
tinues to go forward and is now very much alive in China, alining 
500,000,000 people on the other side of the fence, if it is successful. 
Therefore, I cannot tell you of my own knowledge much of the activity 
by the satellite states, because they came into existence as such after 
I left the party. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you at this point, Mr. Budenz, just as an aside, 
of a matter I know will be of interest to the Senators here? When 
you were managing editor of the Communist Daily Worker, what 
was the party line which you promulgated and disseminated through 
your publications here with reference to the policy on China ? What 
approach did the Communists in this country undertake on China ? 

Mr. Budenz. There were two directives which the party had here 
that it must carry through : To see that there was a Red victory in 
Poland and in China. We were advised very decisively that China 
was the key to Asia and that Poland was a jumping-off place for the 
conquest of Europe, particularly with its great supply of coal. 

Therefore, the whole campaign in 1945 was — and this was brought 
home to us by Earl Browder when he was leader at that time of the 
party — that we must achieve the moral disarmament of America so 
that it would permit the Red conquest of China and of Poland. The 
fact is that very extensive activities were pursued in that respect; 
that is, to bring about the idea that the Chinese Communists were 
not Communists at all ; that they were merely agrarian reformers. I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 229 

have documents in my possession — with which I cannot burden the 
committee today — which show the adoration for Stalin by the Chinese 
Communists officially. They have an official document which pro- 
claimed, "Stalin has many of the attributes which we connect with 
the Divinity." We can imagine, therefore, that they certainly have 
a very close Communist connection with the world leader of the 
Communists. 

The Chairman. Do you know of your own knowledge or do you 
have any information of young Chinese having been taken to Moscow 
and there indoctrinated? Has that not been a policy going on for 
years ? 

Mr. Budenz. That is a policy going on for years. My personal 
knowledge would be what is legally termed "hearsay," but I can say 
morally here — because it was well known through the party — that that 
was done. We have the military leader of the Communists, Chou 
En-lai, who was sent to Moscow. He also was given an extensive trip 
to other countries at the expense of the Communist movement. So 
it has been with others. That applies not only to Chinese; it applies 
to every nation on the face of the earth ; that is,'the Communists within 
those nations. We have had a great delegation ourselves to Moscow 
in the Lenin School. I shall indicate that the present general secretary 
of the Communist Party was trained in the Lenin School, and specifi- 
cally in espionage and things of that sort. 

Mr. Arens. You mean the present general secretary of the Commu- 
nist Party in the United States? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, sir; Eugene Dennis. His name that he bears 
now is Eugene Dennis ; his original name is Francis E. Waldron. 

Senator Donnell. Mr. Budenz, why is it that so many of these men 
have aliases? What is the reason for that? 

Mr. Budenz. There are several reasons, all very convenient to con- 
spiracy. One of them is that these aliases are used on false passports 
to Moscow, Latin America, or other countries. The case of Browder is 
classic in that respect; that is, using the name of a man — the exact 
name escapes me just for a moment — who was a Soviet espionage 
agent himself. One of the names he probably used was that of a 
Soviet espionage agent, At the same time, he was knee-deep in the 
plot to get the false passport of the Soviet spy Nicholas Dozenberg. 
That is one purpose, to get these false passports so they may have free- 
dom of movement back and forth. 

Eisler also had the name "Liptzen" x coming into the country, and 
going out you will recall, representing him as a naturalized Ameri- 
can, but with the picture of Eisler on the passport. He went back and 
forth that way. 

There is a second reason. When these Reds are in America, they 
wish to conceal their identity here from the authorities. Therefore, 
if you hear that Edwards is up on the ninth floor of the Communist 
headquarters, you won't associate that with Eisler very quickly if 
you are looking for Eisler. You may, if you become skilled in the 
way the Communists take these names. Normally, you would not. 

Peters has so many names that I just get dizzy trying to keep track 
of them all. That was connected with the second purpose, to conceal 
his identity. Each time he took a new name it was because he was 

1 Samuel Liptzen. 



230 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

dealing with a different person or sets of persons. The Soviet secret 
police here use the same device. One man was known as Roberts, then 
as Rubinovitch when he registered at the Stevens Hotel in Chicago, 
but to Miss Ruby Weil, when I introduced him to her, he was known 
as John Rich. Consequently, there is quite a turn-over in these names. 
In that way, they avoid the authorities for years. That is a very con- 
venient device for them. 

There is a third reason, too : it enables them much more easily to 
function in another country because they may have a whole record 
here as Peters or Alexander Stevens or some of the other names that 
Peters took. If he goes back to another country — that is, from Hun- 
gary to France — he eventually may appear with a very good French 
cognomen, and it would be very difficult to say he is Peters unless 
you see his picture and know something about him. 

Part of the expectancy in 1945, however, of Communist leaders 
here, concerning the achievement of Red rule in Poland and China, 
was the hope of being able to set up agents more easily by means of 
the satellite states. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean by that? I do not quite under- 
stand you. 

Mr. Budenz. The political committee of the Communist Party 
had before it in 1945 instructions as to the necessity at all costs of 
forwarding Communist conquest in eastern Europe and in Asia, one of 
the arguments for America being that the ease of communication for 
Soviet agents would be heightened by the many channels thus opened. 

We must remember that when Communists discuss these plans, 
especially in the political committee or in the national committee, 
they explore it from all angles. That is supposed to be dialectical 
thinking. They try to give to those who are dealing with the matter 
as rounded-out a picture as they can of what the whole thing repre- 
sents. There was nothing more emphatically put forward, as I have 
said, than the urgency of us American Communists living up to our 
position in the greatest imperialist country in the world, as we called 
it, than the necessity of disarming America on Poland and China. 

One of the reasons given was that there would be an easier access 
of movement back and forth for the Stalinite agents from the Soviet 
fatherland to the United States. 

Mr. Arens. How would that come about ? 

Mr. Budenz. Through the use of more agents. 

Mr. Arens. You mean through their diplomatic channels? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, sir; those are the channels used today and used 
before that, and those are the channels mentioned. 

Mr. Arens. Am I clear in my impression that your testimony is at 
this time substantially as follows : 

That, with the control of China and other satellite countries by the 
Soviets, they would have their embassies and consulates as conduits 
through which they could introduce into this country additional 
agents? Is that substantially what you are saying? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes ; as witness the statement of Browder. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your testimony at this time that they are doing it 
at this time? 

Mr. Budenz. I cannot say of my own knowledge that they are. I 
can say this : that it follows completely the pattern of Soviet ruthless- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 231 

ness and policy. We must understand that the Soviet dictatorship, 
through these writings of Stalin and Lenin and the rest, which we 
quoted today, as I have shown, have committed themselves to the de- 
struction at all costs of the American Republic. 

It is sometimes hard for Americans who have not been Communists 
to appreciate that. They intend to carry that out with all the ruth- 
lessness that we have seen characterizing their actions in many quar- 
ters. Therefore, without having what you call legal evidence, but 
from my own definite knowledge of Communist discussions and activi- 
ties and tactics, I say that it is impossible that the satellite consulates 
are not being used for that purpose because the leaders of those coun- 
tries, when you examine their statements in the official organ of the 
Cominform, have all declared war against the United States — not 
active military war yet, but cooperation with Soviet Russia in war. 
There is a statement in the recent issue of the Cominform publication 
by the present leader of Poland, who says very definitely that Po- 
land is committed to destroying American imperialism. Therefore,, 
that, plus the ruthlessness with which the Communists carry on their 
activities, makes this a certainty, without legal support, that these 
consulates are acting in that fashion. 

The Chairman. When you were in the Communist Party in the po- 
sitions that you make mention of, were the consulates and. the em- 
bassies used, to your knowledge? 

Mr. Budenz. Not to my direct knowledge. But through my gen- 
eral knowledge, without having gone along personally with the cour- 
ier, I can say the means by which Eisler got his almost miraculous 
information came through the agencies of the Soviet diplomatic serv- 
ice. That was mentioned a great number of times and, as a matter 
of fact, once or twice it was mentioned very directly that word had 
come from the Soviet Embassy to Comrade Berger to this and that 
effect. The fact of the matter is that in law, of course, that is hear- 
say; therefore, I must stress that I was not present when any of these 
contacts were made and would not be. That is not the Communist 
method of procedure. 

Senator Donnell. I just want to ask you, Mr. Budenz, you referred 
to this book concerning the life of Stalin ; did you not? 

Mr. Budenz. This is Stalin's own work. 

Senator Donnell. Is it an autobiography? 

Mr. Budenz. It is the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet 
Union. 

Senator Donnell. Is that book widely circulated in this country? 

Mr. Budenz. Very, yes. 

Senator Donnell. Can it be bought at newsstands and from news 
dealers ? 

Mr. Budenz. No, but you must still have a Communist book store 
in "Washington. 1 It can be got there. 

Senator Donnell. You can get it at the Communist book store ? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. You can get it at the Communist book store in 
New York also, below the Daily Worker on East Thirteenth Street. 
As a matter of fact, it is very generously displayed. It is a red book; 
you cannot miss it. 

1 The Washington Cooperative Book Shop at 916 Seventeenth Street NW., Washington 
D. C, cited as subversive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark. See appendix 
II, p. 9. 



232 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Donnell. Some months ago, at this very table, there testi- 
fied Mr. Foster — William Z. Foster 1 — before either the full com- 
mittee or a subcommittee of the Judiciary Committee. I cannot quote 
him with exactness, and I may have incorrectly interpreted his re- 
marks, but the impression I got was that the contention is made at 
times, at any rate, that some of this Communist literature that uses 
language about the Army, and so forth, is figurative language, and 
is not intended to be literal. Do you mind telling us whether or not 
your belief is to that effect or whether it differs from that '. 

Mr. Budenz. My knowledge is that it is literal ; that is to say, we 
were constantly instructed in Daily Worker staff meetings and in 
many other ways constantly brought to our attention what these 
words meant. In addition to that, they are literally being carried 
out. How could Mr. Foster explain what happens in Hungary, Czech- 
oslovakia, China, and every place else, which is in complete accord 
with this program ? 

Senator Donnell. I want to make it clear that I' am not under- 
taking to quote with exactness, and I might be in error in the con- 
clusion that I drew as to what he said, but I certainly derived from 
his testimony that that contention was made there. 

Mr. Budenz. That is the part of the language which Lenin recom- 
mended to the Communists — that they are privileged to deceive the 
representatives of the imperialist states because they are only members 
of the executive committee of the ruling class and must be overthrown. 
Stalin specifically says that the bureaucratic "apparatus" — which is 
liis word for meaning the set-up here under the Constitution of the 
United States, the Army and the judicial arm — must be smashed by 
violence and destroyed completely so that no semblance of it remains. 
He asked the question specifically, as Lenin did : "Does this apply 
to the United States of America?" And the answer is that it em- 
phatically does apply to the United States of America. That is 
reiterated over and over again to the Communists in their secret 
schools, the schools on Marxism, Leninism, their Daily Worker staff 
meetings, everywhere that they have an opportunity to return to their 
fundamental principles and purposes. It is so frequently asserted and 
reiterated and published in the Communist publications of the past 
under the guise of referring to the history of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union that it would be no difficulty at all to locate it 
over and over again. 

There is no doubt at all from what I know that the offices and con- 
sulates of the Soviet satellites are being used extensively for all sorts 
of subversive purposes directed against the security of the United 
States. That is based on this analysis that I make. This analysis, 
incidentally, is not merely speculation. There has been a constant 
connection between the foreign Communist movements — if you wish to 
call them that — and the people of those countries who are Communists 
here. That has been a constant interlocking relationship back and 
forth, and this has all been under the discipline of the Communists, 
a discipline which Americans as yet do not understand at all because 
Communists can never reason why whatsoever — they obey the orders 
they are given. This relationship, therefore, is only carried' to a 
higher stage when it is used now under the cover of official cloaks. 

1 William Z. Foster, chairman of the Communist Party of America, appeared before the 
Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, on May 28, 1948. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 233 

The public statements by the Communist leaders of this country 
tell quite plainly of their hostility toward the United States, a hostility 
which the Communist conspirators always carry into action. Every 
statement made, every article written, must be written and read in a 
dynamic way, finding the directive in it, with the idea that an active 
Communist does not read for the purpose of just enlightening him- 
self; he reads for the purpose of enlightening himself in order to act 
as quickly as possible upon that enlightenment. All he seeks is the 
directive, and that is the instruction from above given to Communists 
as to how to proceed. 

As to Amtorg, it was a well-known fact at Communist headquarters 
that it was used for subversive purposes. 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Budenz, for the enlightenment of the Senators, 
would you tell what Amtorg is in this country? 

Mr. Budenz. Amtorg is the Russian trade agency. 

Mr. Arens. In this country now? 

Mr. Budenz. That is correct. My own personal knowledge of that 
is very limited. I only know that from constant reiteration of the 
fact from national headquarters of the Communist Party. 

Senator Donnell. Is it a corporation? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. 

Senator Donnell. Under the laws of what State or country is it 
incorporated? 

Mr. Budenz. It is incorporated here, 1 I am sure, but I don't know 
its definite form of organization. They have these agencies through- 
out the world. I do know, however, that the supposed rule 'that 
members of the Amtorg staff should not participate as Reds within 
the United States is not«observed, because on several occasions — and I 
recall one immediately — J. M. Budish, of the Amtorg staff, was very 
active in seeking to obtain recognition of Soviet Russia. He ap- 
proached me in that respect when I was not a Communist, because I 
unfortunately had been very active in that field myself, getting many 
resolutions in labor unions and the like; and he wanted a list of all 
those who had taken action in this respect, although he warned me that 
this work was being done a little off the beaten path of what Amtorg 
was supposed to do. 

Mr. Arens. Is Amtorg the organization which has recently been 
identified in the press as an organization which has been shipping 
atom-bomb information or materials to Russia? 

Mr. Budenz. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. Is this organization an agent of a foreign power oper- 
ating in this country? 

Mr. Budenz. That is right; it is openly an agent of the foreign 
power. There is no secrecy involved. 

Senator Donnell. Where is its New York address ? 

Mr. Budenz. It is down on Madison Avenue. 2 I know right where 
it is ; I know it very well, because we were supposed to avoid it, espe- 
cially when getting in contact with Soviet agents, and they were also 
supposed to avoid it so as not to be identified by any staff member while 
engaged in secret work. It is on Madison Avenue ; I cannot give you 
the exact address for the moment. It is just below midtown in New 
York. 

1 Amtorg is incorporated in New York. 

2 210 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 



234 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Donnell. Is there any effort made to conceal the identity 
of Amtorg there, or is it operated as an ordinary business establish- 
ment ? 

Mr. Budenz. No; it is an open business establishment. 

Senator Donnell. Does it carry its name in the telephone directory ? 

Mr. Budenz. Certainly, not only that, but it is registered here as 
coming to this country to engage in trade. It is not a secret organi- 
zation. Unfortunately, Senator, just at the moment I am not privi- 
leged to reveal some further information on this question which would 
strengthen my statement, because I have not yet been able to link up 
one Soviet agent with whom I dealt in Amtorg, although I am sure that 
I am about to do so. I cannot pursue the question any further until I 
am certain. I do not want to make wild statements. 

Of course, in addition, we have the notorious case of World Tour- 
ists, headed for years by the late Jacob Golos, 1 former head of the 
Control Commission of the Communist Party, and one of the chief 
Soviet espionage agents in this country. I know of this activity of 
Golos- from personal experience and in many conversations with him. 

It may be interesting to know that Golos was an alien all his life 
in this country, and that because of this fact, when he died, I was 
asked to write the obituary, knowing him very well. In that obituary 
it was said that, although he had been a great friend of the Com- 
munist Party, he had never been a member of it, That was done at 
the request of Earl Browder, which at that time I agreed to, and we 
wrote the obituary to that effect. As a matter of fact, for years Golos 
had' been head of the Control Commission, whose members held the 
lives of Communists politically in their hands. I don't mean literally 
the physical life, although that might be possible, too, but certainly 
their political life was in his hands of the Control Commission. 

With that commission you had to tile all your biography down to 
the smallest detail; that is, all your associates throughout your life, 
your relations to your family, your financial condition, anything at 
all that would show the circle in which you operated and the weak- 
nesses you had, or connections that mi<rht be of value to the party. 
As a matter of fact, while head of this Control Commission, and thus 
in control of all the information in regard to Communists, Mr. Golos, 
alien all these years, was at the same time directing espionage through 
the World Tourists. 

It should be noted, however, that there is a committee within the 
Communist Party for contact with the Soviet consulate and embassy, 
and with Amtorg and other such agencies. This committee does not 
say that is its purpose even within the party, but that is its purpose. 
When I was in the party one prominent member of this committee 
was Alexander Trachtenberg, head of the International Publishers, 
who had a legitimate cover for his relations with Moscow by publish- 
ing English translations of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. This 
threw him into constant touch and communication with Soviet repre- 
sentatives of various sorts. Mr. Trachtenberg, incidentally, has now 
succeeded Golos to the powerful place as head of the Control Com- 
mission of the Communist Part} 7 , although it now has a new title, 
the National Review Commission. It was to that commission that 

1 For the story of Jacob Golos, see the testimony of Elizabeth T. Bentley, p. 106. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 235 

Mr. Browder made his appeal, to Mr. Trachtenberg as its head, for 
reinstatement in the Communist Party- 
Mr. Arens. Is Alexander Trachtenberg an alien sent to this country ? 

Mr. Budenz. Trachtenberg is a native of Russia who has been in 
this country for many years. It is my understanding that he has 
received his citizenship. He was a left-wing Socialist when he first 
came into this country, and very quickly thereafter he became first 
a concealed Communist and then an open Communist. 

Mr. Akens. Would you give us a word further, before you proceed- 
to your next general subject, respecting this contact with the Soviet 
consulates, the embassy, and Amtorg with this committee, the Control 
Committee? 

Mr. Budenz. This special commission, as- it is called, which is not 
the Control Commission, has as its function the contact with Soviet 
sources of information, whch means Soviet consulates and embassy 
and Amtorg here. Once more, I have not been present when these 
contacts have been made. That is the purpose for the creation of the 
commission, however, and it exists for that purpose, and it is under- 
stood in the political committee and even by a considerable number of 
members of the national committee that that is the purpose of this 
commission. 

Mr. Arens. That is the commission that is now headed at the present 
time by Trachtenberg? 

Mr. Budenz. No. The commission which I said was headed by 
Trachtenberg is the Control Commission, which controls the political 
integrity of the members of the Communist Party from the Communist 
viewpoint. 

Mr. Arens. Is he the head of this commission that maintains liaison 
between the consulates and embassy and Amtorg, and the local Com- 
munist groups? 

Mr. Budenz. That is a commission of which Trachtenberg is a 
member. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the head of it? 

Mr. Budenz. That I am not advised. As a matter of fact, I don't 
think it has a head ; I think they all operate it together. As a matter 
of fact, the late Mr. Joseph Brodsky has referred to that commission 
in talking to me about a very specific case, and he mentioned no head. 
It receives its directives from secret Soviet channels and the Com- 
munist international representatives. 

Mr. Arens. Where is Trachtenberg now? 

Mr. Budenz. In New York, at the International Publishers Co., 
which is a Communist publication society or corporation which pub- 
lishes the translations of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin. It publishes 
all of the important Red theoretical works, either in popular form or 
in book form, for the members of the Communist Party and the others 
who wish to consult them. 

Mr. Arens. Who else are members of this organization, this 
commission ? 

Mr. Budenz. Other members that I remember included the late Jacob 
Golos ; the late Joseph Brodsky, for many years attorney for the Com- 
munist Party; Alexander Bittehnan, chief theoretician of the Com- 
munist Party here and an alien from Russia whose deportation hear- 
ing was recently held; Jack Stachel, member of the political bureau 
for the Communist Party ; and one or two others. A recent member 

98330 — 50 — pt. 1 16 



236 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

of this committee was Eugene Dennis, present secretary of the party, 
who had been trained in espionage at the Lenin School of Moscow. 

Senator Donnell. Mr. Chairman, may I ask Mr. Budenz a question ? 

The Chairman. Senator Donnell. 

Senator Donnell. Do you know who the present chief counsel is 
for the Communist Party in the United States ? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, I do. I can see his face right now. He was con- 
nected with Brodsky. The name starts with an F, but I cannot think 
of it for the moment. He takes care of all the legal technical matters 
for the Communist Party. 

Senator Donnell. Is he a New York lawyer ? 

Mr. Budenz. That is right ; Freedman is the name. 1 

Senator Donnell. Is he participating in this criminal case? 

Mr. Budenz. No. He looks after technical legal matters. That is, 
up to the time I left the party, he did. I don't know what happened 
since. He was, as a matter of fact, more and more taking over the 
functions that Brodsky used to exercise. 

Senator Donnell. Do you recall the name of the firm of which Mr. 
Brodsky was a member, if he was a member of a firm ? 

Mr. Budenz. I do not, although I have been there many times. 

Senator Donnell. Where was the office ? 

Mr. Budenz. In New York City, not far from the Daily Worker; 
it was in central New York City. I knew Brodsky very well long 
before I was a member of the. Communist Party. I have been in his 
office on a number of occasions, but it is one of those things where 
you go almost without knowing the address. 

Senator Donnell. Was there any concealment of his representation 
of the Communist Party, or did this man Brodsky permit it to be gen- 
erally known that he was the lawyer for the Communist Party? 

Mr. Budenz. There was both. It was known and yet, of course, 
many of his activities were very secret. He told me. for instance, of 
how they persuaded Golos to "take the rap/' as he put it, for all of 
their foreign agents here at the time when there was an enforcement 
taking place of the Foreign Agents Registration Act. Golos pleaded 
guilty and got a comparatively light sentence in return for his pleading- 
guilty. Then as a result, many of the other agents were not prosecuted. 
At least that is the way Brodsky represented it to me. He was talking 
about a case in which they thought maybe it would be essential that 
some action like that be carried out again in another field, and men- 
tioning that, he referred to the case of Golos and that Golos was 
ordered by this commisison — that is why I know about the existence 
of this commission very vividly, although I know about it from many 
other sources — to "take the rap 1 ' for the rest of the Soviet agents here. 
Brodsky also said that Golos did it quite reluctantly. 

As I have said, a recent member of this committee was Eugene 
Dennis, present sceretary of the party, who has been trained in espion- 
age in the Lenin School of Moscow, or at least so it was said in his 
favor within the party's leading circles. 

On the third point, the Communist Party has an elaborate machine 
for dealing with foreign-language groups. Today I cannot do justice 
to this subject and will have to put some of that in a memorandum 
which I shall volunteer to send to you. It relies upon them to furnish 

1 David Freedman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 237 

Soviet agents to be sent back to their own respective countries when 
necessary. It also uses those whom it can develop within these groups 
as contacts with foreign agents of their own nationality. 

This is done quite frequently. For a number of years, in order to 
stimulate this work, there was a. special commission on foreign lan- 
guage groups which met regularly on the ninth floor of the Communist 
headquarters in New York. The reason I know about this is that they 
detected that I was a frustrated Irishman and put me in charge of 
directing activities among the Irish. My mother's name, I am proud 
to say, was Sullivan, and my ancestors on that side come from Coun- 
ties Cork and Kerry. This was learned from my biography within the 
party, and after that I had no rest in regard to Irish activity. I was 
put on this commission because of the fact that they were trying to 
group all foreign groups, even those that spoke English. I met with 
that commission for a very long time, meeting on the ninth floor of the 
Communist headquarters in New York. This commission or commit- 
tee was directed by Mrs. Irene Browder, wife of the former Com- 
munist general secretary. Earl Browder, who is a registered agent — 
the fact that the former general secretary of the Communist Party is 
now a registered Soviet representative shows in itself close alliance 
between Communists and Moscow — which throws light on the foreign 
relationship in that respect, too — the alien relationship. 

The foreign-language group commission directed the Communist 
propaganda in every Communist Party foreign-language paper in 
this country. There is, of course, a number of such here and I am sure 
that your committee has a list of those papers, but I shall be glad to 
furnish any that you may want. We know right offhand there was 
a Lithuanian daily, a Hungarian daily, a Yiddish daily, and several 
other dailies in the foreign-language field in addition to a great num- 
ber of weeklies. 

Mr. Dekom. Can you identify the names of any of them if the com- 
mittee submits them to you ? 

Mr. Budexz. Yes. I can name the Uj Elore. 

Mr. Dekom. How about the Magvar Jovo, its successor in New 
York? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. The Slobodna Rec in Pittsburgh? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. That, however, was not a daily. 

Mr. Dekom. That is published three times a week. 

Mr. Budenz. Something like that. 

Mr. Dekom. The Narodni Glasnik, in Pittsburgh ? 

Mr. Budenz. That is right. There is a Russian paper, too. 

Mr. Dekom. The Russky Golos? 

Mr. Budenz. That is right. As a matter of fact, the Russky Golos 
had on its staff this military expert for the Daily Worker ; the man 
who wrote under a title of Veteran Commander 1 in the Daily Worker 
was connected with the Russky Golos. I can get his name. 

Mr. Dekom. How about the newspaper, Narodna Volya in Detroit? 
That is a Bulgarian language paper; do you recognize that name? 

Mr. Budenz. I don't for a moment. There is a Rumanian paper. 

Mr. Dekom. The Romanul-American I 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. 

* Sergei N. Kournakoff. 



238 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Dekom. There is a Polish paper, the Glos Ludowy, in Detroit ; 
is there not ? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes; I know that ; I have been out there to their offices. 
Back to this last-named paper, I have made a number of visits to the 
foreign-language papers in Detroit. 

Mr. Dekom. That is the Glos Ludowy? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. That was in connection with the whole cam- 
paign around Poland, incidentally, to get information to keep fresh 
on the Polish campaign because of its great urgency in the party, 
at least, ordered by the Communist International. 

Mr. Dekom. Can you tell the committee who the leaders of that 
group were? Did you have any contact with Boleslaw Gebert? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes; I know him very well. I did not recognize that 
pronunciation. I am not so apt at the original pronunciation of some 
of these names. 

Mr. Dekom. He went under the name of "Bill" Gebert. 

Mr. Budenz. "Bill" Gebert : yes. The thing is that he is head of 
the Polish work and of the Polish bureau of the IWO, which indi- 
cates how the IWO is used and the manner in which the IWO is used 
for double purposes. 

The Chairman. What is the IWO? 

Mr. Budenz. The International Workers Order, the insurance cor- 
poration of which Mr. Mills has been the general secretary. He has 
been since Max Bedacht quit. Bedacht was a member of the National 
Committee of the Communist Party, former general secretary of the 
party, and then general secretary of the IWO. There is a very close 
affinity between the two organizations, the Communist Party and the 
IWO. 

Mr. Gebert has been recently — when I left the party specifically — 
for a number of years head of the Polish bureau of the IWO, and like- 
wise from there penetrating out to affect a number of people in the 
Slav field; that is, Louis Adamic, Leo Krzycki of the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers, and other men originally not so close to the Com- 
munist movement. Gebert has been commissioned to carry on that 
activity. Before that he was the secret party representative in Detroit 
in the penetration of the automobile industry, and before that, district 
organizer of the Communist Party in Chicago. 

Mr. Dekom. Are } 7 ou aware of the fact that he returned to Poland 
aboard the Batory and is now an official of the Polish Government ? 

Mr. Budenz. That does not surprise me. No, I am not definitely 
aware of it, though I recently heard something to that effect. 

Mr. Dekom. You mentioned the name of Louis Adamic a moment 
ago. Would you enlarge on any knowledge that you have of your 
relationships — of the relationships of the party with him, or his re- 
lationships with the party? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, I could. I have told this several times in regard 
to Mr. Adamic, because he was one of those examples which could 
best show the activity of the party in striking down the morale of 
people and in getting them under the party's control. To my knowl- 
edge, Mr. Adamic was never an official member of the Communist 
Party. However, it was due to my constant nursing of Mr. Adamic, 
on orders of the political committee — since I had known him for a 
number of years — that I finally induced him to meet with the officials 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 239 

of the party in charge of the foreign language field. The man at that 
time was A. Landy. We had many meetings up in that hotel on 
Lexington Avenue where Adamic stays a great part of the time when 
he is in New York. As a result, Mr. Adamic agreed with Mr. Landy 
to carry out the party policies and agreed to man the whole committee 
which he was forming on Yugoslavia with people chosen by the party. 

Mr. Dekom. That is the United Committee of South Slavic- Amer- 
icans which was formed in Pittsburgh ? 

Mr. Budenz. I am not sure whether it was that. Yes, I think that 
was it. 

Mr. Dekom. Which later formed a relief organization, the American 
Committee for Yugoslav Relief. 

Mr. Budenz. That is correct. It had its office in New York, though. 

Mr. Dekom. Is it your testimony, then, that Louis Adamic agreed to 
do the work which was assigned to him by the party? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you define that work more fully? 

Mr. Budenz. That work was to penetrate the ranks of the Slavic- 
Americans, winning their cooperation, specifically, with the Tito Gov- 
ernment in Yugoslavia. Also, from there, cooperating with Gebert 
and bringing together the Polish, Yugoslav, and other Slav groups 
behind Soviet policy. It has much more details than that, but that is 
the agreement in general. 

Mr. Dekom. Are you aware of the fact that Mr. Adamic has now 
or has recently been in Yugoslavia, where he was received by govern- 
ment officials and has been in conference with them ? 

Mr. Budenz. I have heard something of that. It is interesting to 
note that he is now on Tito's side of the question, because one great 
point that was raised originally in regard to the party's attitude 
toward Mr. Adamic here was that he allowed his sympathy with the 
Slovenes, of which he is one, to overshadow some of the concepts he 
was developing. You must remember that Mr. Adamic became very 
bitter at Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Churchill. He thought they had 
blocked him from making a trip like that before, and out of that 
bitterness the party immediately sought to obtain fruits, and that 
was why these contacts were reestablished with Mr. Adamic. 

Mr. Dekom. Can you expand on the activities of Leo Krzycki, 
please? Will you define what those activities were? 

Mr. Budenz. He has been known to me for many years on a friendly 
basis. As a matter of fact, for more than 20 years I have known him 
very well. The thing is that Leo Krzycki is of Polish descent, an 
officer of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers, and was more and 
more worked on by the party and by Gebert. In fact, Gebert told 
me one day of his entire plan in regard to Krzycki, and only a half 
hour later, I met Krzycki and he told me of the plan Gebert laid 
down to me. He had just been in conference with Gebert. 

Mr. Dekom. Could you recall that for the committee? 

Mr. Budenz. Leo said that the time had come when men had to 
take a stand and he was going to take a stand. That is, he was going 
to take a stand among the Slavs for the great Slav State of Russia 
and for cooperation of all the Slavs in behalf of what he called Soviet- 
American friendship. 



240 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Budenz, do you have information respecting the 
issuance of passports to the International Brigade volunteers in the 
civil war in Spain ; that is, to young men who went from this country 
to Spain? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What is your information? 

Mr. Budenz. It should be better organized and I cannot do it to- 
day, but I will give you at least a general view of it. All these men 
were financed by the Communist Party, by this secret fund, and in 
addition to that, a special treasurer was sent over to France, David 
Leeds, who had been treasurer of the New York State Committee 
of the Communist Party for many years. Indeed, you will find, if 
you can investigate it, that many of these big front meetings, in- 
cluding some of the great meetings to organize the American work- 
ers in this country, were financed by cash handed out by Mr. Leeds ; 
that is, he paid for the hall with funds advanced out of the party 
treasury. The party has a bigger treasury than you think. It can 
go out, and finance all the meetings, and it gets the money back, you 
understand. 

The Chairman. Where does this treasury come from ? 

Mr. Budenz. Of my own knowledge I cannot say, but it certainly 
is supposed to come in part from Moscow. It also is to be raised in this 
country among those who have the means and who have the feeling of 
sympathy toward the party. The party has many, many such people 
in this country, upon whom it can draw. 

Mr. Arens. Could you tell us about these young men who were given 
these passports in the International Brigade and sent to fight in the 
Spanish Civil War? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. They were brought here and drilled. They 
were brought up-State in New York and drilled at Camp Beacon, par- 
ticularly. It was known then as Camp Nitgedaiget, the Communist 
Camp at Beacon, N. Y. They were also drilled at other Communist 
camps. Then they were sent across in an organized fashion, in viola- 
tion of the law, and every bit of the way they were directed by Com- 
munist representatives. 

Mr. Arens. Did they have American passports ? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, they had American passports, many of them to 
France, and then they slipped across the border. 

Mr. Arens. You say "in violation of the law." What do you mean ? 

Mr. Budenz. Many of them violated the law in going to Spain. 
They were not supposed to go to Spain. They were supposed to go 
to France and back. As a matter of fact, it was quite an issue for a 
while, but it was dropped. 

Mr. Arens. How many young men were taken or sent from this 
country by the Communists for that purpose ? 

Mr. Budenz. By the way, A. W. Mills was in on that, too. He 
helped to organize that in this country. That was his activity for 
quite a while under cover. 

Mr. Arens. What happened to these young men after they got 
over there, as far as their passports were concerned ? 

Mr. Budenz. They were smuggled across the Spanish border or got 
across in any way they could. As a matter of fact, many of them had 
difficulty in getting back. Sometimes their passports were given to 
other people. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 241 

Mr. Arens. Who did that ? 

Mr. Budenz. That was done under the direction of the Communist 
apparatus. 

Mr. Dekom. You mean the Communist apparatus took their pass- 
ports away from them ? 

Mr. Budenz. In many instances. 

Mr. Dekom. And then gave them to someone else ? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. For what purpose ? 

Mr. Budenz. For the purpose of moving back and forth in various 
countries. I can give you more information on that. This has to be 
a little desultory. I can give you more on this matter. I did n'ot 
know it was going to come up today. However, I can state that it was 
an organized plan ; it was acknowledged by Mr. Browder, because he 
made a trip to see them. Also, by many others. But the thing is 
that they were brought to certain camps and there trained and drilled 
with certain military men in charge. I don't know who they were. At 
any rate, they were then sent in an organized fashion to Europe, the 
idea being to get to France and to Spain as best they could ; that being 
organized likewise. Mills was a very important person in that activ- 
ity, and, as I indicated, a special fund was in Paris in the hands of 
David Leeds for the Americans going there. 

Mr. Arens. While we are on this question of Spain, what was the 
official party line with reference to Spain when you were managing 
editor of the Communist Daily Worker? 

Mr. Budenz. The official party line was to establish a Red Spain 
as one of the means to infiltrate Latin America. It was to do this 
through furthering the Republic, but through destroying everybody 
else also. That is a Communist tactic. That is the coalition govern- 
ment proposal for China. That was the reason they inveigled this 
Yugoslav back to Yugoslavia. Pardon me for not momentarily re- 
membering his name. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you mean Ivan Subasic ? 

Mr. Budenz. That is it. They inveigled him back to Yugoslavia, 
so that he would not be a name around which opposition could rally 
outside, and they offered him the most flattering position in the gov- 
ernment. Before he went, poor fellow, it was already planned by the 
Reds that he have his throat slit politically. They saved his life, but 
slit his throat politically. The reason I knew that was through an 
accidental cable that the British Communist Party sent me ; that is, 
wondering who Subasic was and what to do about it. I went to 
Landy. He stated, "The British comrades are indiscreet, you cannot 
tell about him the way we want. He is just going over there to be 
sacrificed. We cannot give that information in an open cable." 

He said for me to wire a cable back that information obtained from 
a number of Slav organizations showed that Subasic was at present 
desirable and working with the party, though his continued loyalty 
could not be vouched for. That is the best we could do, and over in 
London the Reds were supposed to know conspiratorial language as 
well as the Communists here. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly proceed with your statement? 

Mr. Budenz. To carry on with the use of the foreign-language 
groups, the party has established a number of Communist fronts. One 



242 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

of the chief of these is the International "Workers Order, which is 
divided into foreign-language divisions. That is for the purpose of 
making this penetration more effective. 

Mr. Arens. How many foreign-language divisions are there? 

Mr. Budenz. That I can't say, specifically. It is a matter of record 
in the IWO organizational set-up. 

Mr. Arens. Are there as many as 15 ? 

Mr. Budenz. That is right. Each one has a bureau headed the 
same as Gebert directed the Polish Bureau. 

Mr. Arens. In other words, there is a head of Hungarians in the 
foreign-language Communist section ? 

Mr. Budenz. Not Communist section, it is the International Work- 
ers Order; although there are also leaders here of the Hungarian 
Communists as such. 

Mr. Dekom. While you are on that subject, is it not a fact that many 
of these nationalities section leaders later became and are today the 
heads of foreign-language Communist fronts ; that is, they have been 
taken from the IWO and put in charge of these fronts ? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, and beyond that, the IWO is a sort of refuge 
for broken-down Communist organizers. I mean, broken-down partly 
physically, or if for a moment they have lost out in a trade-union or 
in Congress or some front groups. If they are Communist sympa- 
thizers they can get a job in IWO. For example, John Bernard, up 
in Minnesota, was on the IWO organizers' pay roll for a time. I 
know of offers to at least one other defeated Congressman who was 
working with the Communist Party. I believe for a time he accepted 
that to sort of bridge him over. There are also a number of trade- 
union organizers, as I indicated, who if they are defeated temporarily 
in their union, get to be IWO organizers. Sometimes they stay there, 
but frequently they try to use that as a jumping-off place to get back 
to office in the union or for expanded front activities. 

In regard to Spain, though, the question was asked as to the party's 
attitude on Spain, and there you may be interested to know that the 
moving picture Blockade was written by John Howard Lawson under 
orders of the political committee of the Communist Party. He was 
the author of that production and he is one of the most noted Com- 
munists of that group of writers. So that gives the attitude on 
Spain, which was to employ "democratic" propaganda for the achieve- 
ment of a Red Spain. 

In addition, there are a number of controlled organizations, created 
for specific groups and circumstances. Among these are the American 
Slav Congress, in which Krzycki operated quite extensively; the 
United Committee of South Slavic Americans, where Adamic was 
very active for a time and really remained so for quite a while ; the 
American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, which had difficulties as 
soon as Tito began to fight with Stalin ; and the Macedonian-American 
People's League. The activities of the Communists among the Mace- 
donians here is very intense, as I know from these reports. 

Mr. Arens. Who is the head of that group ? 

Mr. Budenz. That I can't recall for the moment, though I do know 
it. I was going to say I can't recall offhand all these people, because 
my meeting was in this casual fashion, once a month or so at the 
party headquarters. But I do know from these reports that that was 
the case. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 243 

Mr. Dekom. Do yon recall the name of George Pirinsky ? 

Mr. Budenz. Yes, I do ; I do recall his name. I was about to men- 
tion it. I knew him as editor of the Macedonian-Bulgarian publica- 
tion, a weekly. He was ordered for deportation in 1937 and that inci- 
dent is known to me, since I was associated about that time with work 
in the Middle West, Also I was then working with the Minority 
Groups Commission in the party. I recall Pirinsky largely under 
his assumed name of Nicoloff. I recall now that he was the leader 
of the Macedonian Red group in this country. 

The thing is that this Macedonian group was considered important 
in order to help Tito also. We must remember they played a part, 
because the Macedonians might have gone asunder had it not been for 
influence playing upon them from America. Therefore, they were 
very valuable for building up a Communist regime in Yugoslavia 
which would become a superstate among the people. The other or- 
ganizations are the Bulgarian-American People's League and the 
National Council, Americans of Croatian Descent. 

To sum up : 

There is a complete and extensive apparatus existing in this coun- 
try for the purpose of directing native Communists through alien per- 
sonnel. This apparatus begins with .the connection of the political 
committee of the Communist Party with Moscow through the alien 
agents of the Communist International. It then proceeds to branch 
out into many ramifications, with its driving force in the political 
tourists sent in here to function in various departments of American 
life. 

Now, we are aware that the Communists have a tactic of taking up 
causes which are worth while and hiding behind them, so we have this 
tactic of the Communists hiding behind the foreign-born. They 
claimed Eisler was a refugee when that certainly threw discredit upon 
all genuine refugees. They likewise have the American Committee for 
the Protection of Foreign-Born, a purely Communist-created organi- 
zation which rushes into print on behalf of Stalin's alien agents as 
though any effort to check any alien activity in the United States 
which is directed by Moscow is an attack upon the foreign-born. 

We know that any persecution of the foreign-born as such is thor- 
oughly anti-American. All our ancestors came from abroad, as a 
matter of fact, even if we are fourth generation or so, from Europe. 
Therefore, we cannot consider, even from our own viewpoint, that a 
stand against the foreign-born as such is a sound policy. But Red 
conspiracy is something different. This is a case of aliens sent in 
here by Moscow direction, or after they are here being used by Mos- 
cow direction and education against the United States. That is a 
completely separate question and the two should not be confused. 
The Communists seek to confuse them. They do a disservice, a very 
serious disservice, to the foreign-born, by seeking to advance this con- 
fusion. Of course, that is precisely what they plan, under any and 
all circumstances. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Budenz, you have stated here today in certain areas 
that if you would have the opportunity to refresh your recollection 
and perhaps make reference to some material which may be available 
to you, you will be able to present to the subcommittee more specific 
information in certain areas, particularly, as I recall, in the area of 
the foreign-born groups and alien groups in this country. I should 



244 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

like, if you care to express yourself, to know the approximate time 
when you feel you would be able to get this information better as- 
sembled. Would a week or two be sufficient? 

Mr. Budenz. I should think 2 weeks would be required. At the 
moment, I am correcting examination papers and that is a rather ex- 
tensive job. However, I could say 2 weeks, and hope it would be suf- 
ficient. 

Mr. Arens. We will communicate with you at that time. 

I want to pose one other question, which I believe Senator Donnell 
has in mind, with reference to your own particular background and 
your own reasons for leaving the party. Is that what you had in mind, 
Senator Donnell ? 

Senator Donnell. Yes. 

Mr. Budenz. My background is that I am a fourth generation 
American. My great-great-grandfather on my German side was one 
of the first settlers of Indianapolis. 

Senator Donnell. I had in mind, Mr. Budenz, the reasons for your 
leaving the party. I did not particularly have any matters of ancestry 
in mind. 

Mr. Budenz. I was not particularly trying to emphasize those fea- 
tures either, but you asked about the background, and in speaking of 
the background, you naturally begin with ancestors. I might say that 
every Hoosier is patriotic. Some of them do not remain in Indiana 
very long, but they never forget Indiana. Therefore, I had to bring 
that in. 

With respect to leaving the party, people join the Communist Party 
for different motives, as in all other organizations, but there is one dom- 
inant motive originally for the Reds; that is, their sense of injustice 
at some abuse or other which they, in their impatience, distort. That 
is, they may feel there is a discrimination against Negroes, as I do, or 
that labor has been exploited too much, as I felt, and then out of that 
distortion — and it is not always a distortion of the facts that an abuse 
may have existed, but it is a distortion of the manner in which the rem- 
edy is sought. 

For example, we are impatient with the monopolies, and correctly 
so, in my opinion. But the Communists in their hatred of that condi- 
tion go on to advance the greatest monopoly of all — the slave state, the 
sole employer who can destroy you and your family and relatives and 
your children — that takes all the manhood out of you. That is the 
story of the Soviet Union which I learned at the Daily Worker. It 
was given to us in the code concerning the things we could not write 
about, specifically the concentration camps in the Soviet Union. Orig- 
inally, we were ordered to defend these camps as reform institutions, 
and iater on, in 1943, we were told not to say a word about them. 

Mr. Arens. How many are there in the concentration camps in Rus- 
sia? 

Mr. Budenz. That has to be surmised. I don't believe anybody 
knows, including even the dictatorship. But the point is that we have 
this book on forced labor in Russia 1 which says 15,000,000 to 20,000,000. 
They do show 125 concentration camps, where they are located, so they 
have a basis for their estimates. We received much information at the 
Daily Worker, showing that slave labor existed on a tremendous scale. 
But that is not the sole thing to consider. 

1 Dallin and Nicolaevsky, Forced Labor in Soviet Russia. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 245 

The thing that I learned is, secondly, the complete control of the 
Communist's intellectual processes which the Kremlin demands, not 
only in Soviet Russia, but here in America. This became finally some- 
thing which you could not bear up under any more. For example, 
when an instruction comes to any Communist, whether it be myself 
or Mr. Foster, who was here, or anyone else, you do not ask, "Is there 
any element of falsehood connected with it?" or "How much of this 
view is valid?" That is, you cannot accept some of it and drop some. 
When a decree comes from Moscow, the Red leader says immediately, 
"How does this happen to be the most magnificent utterance ever made 
on this subject up to this moment?" Stimulated with this thought, he 
proceeds from that conclusion to carve out arguments as to why it is 
the best conclusion that could be reached. 

In some years that method of thinking, if you wish to call it that, 
completely destroys you. You do only that 'which you are told, no 
matter how you may vocally tell liberals and other people whom you 
meet, trade-union leaders and many others, what your reasons for this 
are, I met many distinguished men in public life whom I tried to 
convince and sometimes did convince that they should follow the 
policy recommended by the Communist Party— not as Communists, 
but as citizens of America — and this counsel was all reasoned out from 
the conclusions sent from Moscow. 

You can see how the line changes, and the Reds change with it. 
One instance, I think, will illustrate this best of all, and show you 
the mental condition the Communist finally gets himself into. There 
is the case of Earl Browder, for 15 years the head of the Communist 
Party here. At every one of the national committee meetings, of 
which I told you, the national committee members used to rise and 
say, "This report made by Browder, which was from 2 to 4 hours long, 
is the most magnificent utterance we have ever heard. It again marks 
him as the greatest Marxist-Leninist genius on the Western Hemi- 
sphere." And on and on along that line. 

It was admitted later when Browder was declared to be a revision- 
ist — that is, a traitor — that many of these statements praising Brow- 
der's reports had been written before anyone knew what he was going 
to say at all. That is symbolic of the method of the so-called leadership. 

Mr. Arexs. Is Browder an agent of the Kremlin? 

Mr. Budexz. I stated that he was a registered agent of Soviet 
Russia. 

The thing I want to call your attention to is that Browder could 
have made his peace and' would have made his peace, but the Kremlin 
needs a scapegoat. He was chosen as a revisionist and traitor for 
advocating what Moscow had previously advocated. At that time, 
when he advocated the peace between the United States and the 
Soviet Union — which was a cardinal sin, and Jacques Duclos, the 
general secretary of the French Communist Party, specifically said 
it was impossible — this device was used by Moscow to give a blow 
at Browder; that is, that peace between the United States and the 
Soviet Union is impossible. That is the whole burden of the Duclos 
theme, though written in Communist-Aesopian language. You can 
see it there in print — that Browder was condemned as a revisionist 
and traitor for having spoken out for peace between the United States 
and the Soviet Union. But that is exactly what Moscow had wanted 



246 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

said when American lend-lease was essential; it is exactly what 
Duclos had stated in France. 

Why was Browder treated in this fashion ? Because after the cold- 
war policy was decided upon, he was perfectly useless to Moscow. 
He could not go around any more with the new program, after all, 
but his sacrificial role could be useful for stimulating all the Com- 
munists to step into line. You should have seen them step into line 
with the new policy, shouting "revisionist" and "traitor" and at- 
tacking Browder in the most vituperative fashion. They wanted to 
go the limit in the cold war now; they wanted to show their zeal in 
the matter. Finally, Browder went to Moscow to show them he would 
do what Stalin wanted him to do, and he was commissioned a Soviet 
agent. He registered as such here in Washington. 

You say this method of destruction of a faithful Eed is ruthless? 
What is more ruthless today than the Communist leaders being com- 
pelled to declare they are in accord with the leaders of France and 
Italy in stating that they would welcome Soviet troops on the soil of 
their native land at the moment when they are being tried seriously 
in New York ? But the Communist is supposed to immolate his repu- 
tation, his whole being, at the feet of Moscow. That is driven home — 
everything for the party — and, of course, today the party is Stalin. 

That consciousness came home to me, and I realized that I was 
morally wrecked, that I was only an order blank, and that the orders 
came from very far away indeed. I said to myself, "Well, I don't 
know much about Stalin, but at least I know he is a public figure. But 
suppose the general secretary of the Leningrad Party should be the 
head of the Soviet Union, and that he would order some new cam- 
paign ? I would have to obey without reasoning and understanding." 
Of course, today the man rising is Georgi Malenkov, but in those days 
the general secretary of the Leningrad Party was supposedly slated to 
be the world leader in case Stalin died. 

To sum it up : This business of constantly receiving orders and trying 
to execute them, while it has an advantage of keeping you from think- 
ing, and, therefore, thinking how to carry them out, it has a debilitating 
effect on a person after a number of years, and that, I recognized, was 
something to be checked. Then I saw out of that how I had distorted 
the picture of the world, and how this Slav empire was certainly not the 
answer to the emancipation of the working people that it had promised. 
Instead of doing that, it brought about the enslavement of mankind. I 
had to turn to some place for morality, and since I had been educated 
and reared in the Catholic Church, I turned to it for morality, a convic- 
tion which, incidentally, also ran somewhat parallel to the recognition 
of the position in which I would eventually be in the Communist 
Party 

The Chairman. What do you mean by that expression "ran 
parallel"? 

Mr. Budenz. Of course, a person does not make up his mind suddenly 
on the several things that sometimes develop at the same time. My 
feeling that I should return to recognition of religion, and that religion 
for me was the Catholic religion, came about the same time as I began 
to recognize what the Communist international movement was doing 
to me. 

The Chairman. Did you give up your religion when you accepted 
the Communist principles? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 247 

Mr. Budenz. I gave up my religion before I became a Communist, 
but the thing is that the Communist leader cannot have a religion. He 
must be a militant atheist, though he may not express it. At this 
moment, that is a condition of leadership; that is, a Communist may 
permit uneducated workers, as Lenin says, to retain for a time some 
of their religious convictions if they are very strong and emphatic fol- 
lowers of the Communist line in general, but that is only in order to 
gradually explain to them the exploiting character of religion. That 
is very clearly set down in Lenin's writings. 

The Chairman. You have to give up your belief in theosophism to 
become thoroughly imbued with communism? 

Mr. Budenz. You have to give up your belief in God no matter how 
that belief may express itself. Stalin says in the History of the Com- 
munist Party of the Soviet Union — though it is a reiteration it is con- 
sidered very good, because it is simply expressed — in chapter 4, that 
historical materialism is the foundation stone of Marxism-Leninism, 
that is, of the philosophy upon which communism is based. 

Mr. Arens. What do you mean my "historical materialism" ? 

Mr. Budenz. That is to say that we live in a world purely material- 
istic, without a divinty or spiritual being. That is the foundation 
stone of communism. From that you proceed to seek to establish for 
the animal man, who has no other existence, an earthly paradise. That 
is not the way it is phrased, but that is the logic. Therefore, you 
have the promise of the Socialist state and the Communist society. 
Many people forget that there is the promise of the Communist 
society. The Socialist state which exists today in Soviet Russia is 
said to have placed the means of production and distribution in the 
hands of the dictatorship of the proletariat, although we know that is 
the dictatorship of the 13 oligarchs sitting in the Kremlin. But they 
claim they have the dictatorship of the proletariat and that they are 
going to extend it to the world. But out of this state, after the man 
becomes perfected through socialism, the state shall voluntarily wither 
away. What guaranty have you of that? None whatever, except 
the word of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin, the four great scientists 
of socialism. The state shall wither away and man, having become 
perfect under socialism, shall no longer quarrel with his neighbor; he 
shall be prefectly adjusted. The state shall be done away with, all 
armies and courts shall be ended, and money shall be abolished, and 
each shall give according to his ability and receive according to his 
need. That is the Communist side; that is the mesmerism that led 
Corliss Lamont to be a Communist, also, this man Lem Harris, both 
of whom have plenty of silver spoons in their mouths — that is, their 
belief that this will lead to the messianic future the Communists 
depict. 

Mr. Dekom. Has there been any indication in the Soviet Union that 
the state, the police, and the army or the control system have begun 
to wither away ? 

Mr. Budenz. To the contrary, all of this is constantly being strength- 
ened. As a matter of fact, in 1939, Joseph Stalin, at the Eighteenth 
Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union — incidentally, 
Senator, this is a good indication of how American Communists have 
to drench themselves in Soviet allegiance by having to read all these 
documents of the various party congresses of the Communist Party of 



248 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

the Soviet Union. And at this one, Stalin said that we will have to 
postpone indefinitely the withering away of the state; that you can- 
not attain the withering away of the state until the encirclement of 
socialism by capitalism is transformed into the encirclement of capital- 
ism by socialism. In other words until the world proletarian dicta- 
torship is established, with Soviet world conquest, Then you can 
hope for the withering away, but we will postpone that now, because, 
Stalin there claims — and this is a sample of Communist dialectic — the 
stronger the dictatorship becomes, the quicker it will wither away of 
itself. 

Mr. Arens. On the basis of your experience and background in 
Communist organization work and Communist activity in this country, 
could you express to the Senators the seriousness of the Communist 
threat in this Nation ? 

Mr. Budenz. Of course, I hesitate to do so because so many feel that 
an ex-Communist is necessarily filled with one idea. However, we 
all have a responsibility. I have a great desire to make amends for 
the disservice I did America through a number of years. 

The American Nation, in my humble opinion, although having seen 
what is happening, and knowing still what is happening in the Com- 
munist movement, has no appreciation of what great danger this 
Nation is in. I say that quite calmly in the hope that it will not be 
regarded as hysterical, but that it will be regarded as approaching 
reality. 

We have a regime in Kussia which says that it plans to destroy the 
United States. It has not said that once ; it has said it on every fun- 
damental occasion, and it insists that every Communist (as esssential 
to their training) read the articles which still have that thought. This 
includes not merely the document I referred to, which Stalin wrote, 
but the program of the Sixth Congress of the Communist Interna- 
tional, which was reiterated and strengthened by the Seventh Con- 
gress. Those are the fundamental programs of the Communist Inter- 
national, and they laid down there very specifically that the world 
proletarian dictatorship must be established by violence. And this 
world conquest includes the United States. This is the basis, and it is 
not yet appreciated by Americans. How could they fully appreciate 
the ruthless determination of this dictatorship to achieve its objective? 
Something should be learned of it from the state of other lands which 
are under the Soviet heel. These lands are being conquered not for 
themselves alone, but first of all to destroy our foreign markets, to cut 
down that 10 percent of our trade which is in foreign trade, to stimu- 
late a disintegration of the American economy, and, at the same time, 
to place in the hands of the Soviet Union an increasing number of 
men and women who can be expended endlessly as the Soviet dictators 
know how to expend them in the war against the United States. 

I cannot see how we can avoid these declarations by the Soviet 
Russian leaders, so specific and so constantly restated. 

Mr. Arens. Assuming that that is their objective, how serious is the 
threat at the present time, internally in the United States, from the 
Soviet agents and the Communist-front organizations, against our 
institutions? 

Mr. Budenz. So far as the winning of a considerable section of the 
American people to communism per se is concerned, even if there were 
a depression here, I have enough confidence in the American people's 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 249 

understanding to know that they will not embrace communism in it- 
self. The grave danger is that they will embrace all sorts of move- 
ments, causes, and activities which are disguised efforts of the Com- 
munists. In that way, and not just in depression times but even to- 
day, they could put a block on American action and paralyze the will 
of the American people so that we would not know how to proceed 
vigorously, whereas the Soviet Union, having no democratic relations 
with the people so far as obligation is concerned, can carry out its 
own purposes very rapidly. It can cause minorities to become arti- 
ficial majorities in a very short time. That, I think, constitutes a real 
danger, particularly when we consider this form of the Communist 
organization, which I pointed out, this treelike form, which can use 
so many people in these branches; that is in different walks of life, 
acting as though they are not Communists, but being used for those 
purposes. 

Mr. Arens. What is the ratio of actual Communists to non-Com- 
munists who are fellow travelers, we will say? 

Mr. Budenz. That is very difficult to ascertain. It is not in that 
way that the Communist movement measures its strength, although 
it would like to have more loyal members. It measures its strength 
on their key positions, where they are located. The theory is that 
one Communist should be at least as 1,000 men, if not more, and this 
is gained in part by key positions. For instance, if you are a head 
of the United Electrical and Machine Workers Union — I don't mean 
Fitzgerald ; l he was nothing but a tool when I knew him, but Matles, 2 
Emspack, 3 and Ruth Young 4 — 90 percent of the leadership of that 
union are Communists, whereas 90 percent of the membership is not 
Communist. In leadership there, you are in a position of authority 
by which you can move 500,000 Americans; and they have moved them 
to a degree, in accord with their program. So, it is the key positions 
into which the Communists get themselves that are of value. 

There are only 100,000 Communists, at the most, in the country; 
70,000, as far as dues are concerned. They influence 2,000,000 beyond 
the periphery, but their strength cannot even be measured by these 
numbers. I do not think that they can panic or paralyze the country, 
but I think we should recognize that they have a method which we 
do not think is as effective as it really is. 

The Chairman. Mr. -Budenz, we will have to suspend very shortly. 
You will remain under subpena and you will be excused at the call 
of the Chair. In the meantime, you will prepare to supplement what 
you have already testified by such data as you could produce at a 
later day. We will probably give you in the neighborhood of 10 days 
or 2 weeks to prepare that. Your address is known to the members 
of the staff of this committee; is that right? 

Mr. Budexz. Yes. 

The Chairman. Xoav, let me say that yesterday the chairman of 
this subcommittee was unable to be present due to attending other 
committees. I am advised that certain witnesses called before the 
committee refused to testify as to their being Communists, on the 

i Albert J. Fitzgerald, president, United Electrical, Radio, and Machine Workers of 
America (CIO). 

2 James J. Matles, director of organization. 

3 Julius Emspack, secretary-treasurer. 
* Ruth Young, executive secretary. 



250 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS- 

ground that it would tend to incriminate them. The answer or posi- 
tion taken by the witness must of necessity come under the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution, which provides that a witness may not be 
required to testify against himself. 

I have not presented this to the committee, and I express it only 
as the view of the chairman : that, where a witness takes the position, 
in answering a question propounded to him, that he might, by his 
answer, tend to incriminate himself, he must be the judge of his own 
incrimination, and, if he knows that his answer would incriminate 
him, then he must know his own criminal responsibility as to whether 
or not he is in part or in whole guilty of a crime and that his answer 
would be tending to convict him of that crime. 

Communism is not a crime under the law of the country. We have 
never made it a crime to be a Communist. 80, one who says he would 
not answer a question as to whether or not he is a Communist cannot 
take the position that, by answering the question, if he said he was a 
member of the Communist Party, he would be incriminating himself. 
However, one who takes that position as a witness places himself in 
that category; and the conclusion must come that, knowing his posi- 
tion, he seeks to take refuge under the provisions of the Constitution. 

So far as the Chair is concerned, he would not attempt to cite these 
witnesses, but would take them on their own face value and on their 
own answer that, if' they answered in the affirmative, they would be 
thereby incriminating themselves and, therefore, they refuse to answer. 
So, as far as the Chair is concerned, I would not attempt to cite these 
witnesses. Their answer stands for their own judgment on themselves. 

The committee will stand at recess, subject to the call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 05 p. m. the committee was recessed, subject to 
the call of the Chair. ) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS AND 
NATIONAL GKOUPS 



SATURDAY, JUNE 18, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Subcommittee to Investigate Immigration 
and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. 0. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to call, at 11 a. m., in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran (chairman) , presiding. 

Present : Senators McCarran, Eastland, and Donnell. 

Also present: Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee, Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Fainaru, will you please stand and be sworn? 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY FAINARU, MANAGING EDITOR, ROMANUL- 

AMERICAN, DETROIT, MICH. 1 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judi- 
ciary of the Senate of the United States will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Will you kindly state your full name and identify your- 
self by occupation ? 

Mr. Fainaru. My name is Harry Fainaru, managing editor of the 
Romanul-American. I will say it in English, if you want me to: 
Rumanian-American. 

The Chairman. Rumanian-American. 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right, that is the English name for the name 
I just mentioned. 

The Chairman. Where is it published ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Detroit. I am the managing editor of the paper lo- 
cated at 2144 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit 11, Mich. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly give your date and place of birth? 

Mr. Fainaru. I am born in Rumania, August 30 — that is the old 
calendar, you know — 1889. 

Mr. Arens. When did you enter the United States ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I believe in 1920. 

Mr. Arens. You entered in 1920 ? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

1 The witness appeared under subpena, accompanied by Maurice Braverman, attorney. 

251 

98330— 50— pt. 1 17 



252 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. Are you a naturalized citizen ? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. When were you naturalized? 

Mr. Fainaru. In 1927. 

Mr. Arens. What is the circulation of your paper? 

Mr. Fainaru. With regard to that I would like to inform the com- 
mittee that our paper, like any other paper, publishes annual reports 
which are published in the paper during the month of October, as 
you probably know. I would like to ask the Chairman if it would be 
permitted, before you continue asking me further questions, that I 
read a statement to the committee? 

The Chairman. I think if you answer the questions and then make 
the statement it will be more in conformity with our procedure. 

Mr. Arens. Could you give us an estimate as to the circulation of 
your paper? 

Mr. Fainaru. I would say on the average about 2,500. That is a 
weekly publication. 

Mr. Arens. Yes. Do you have a copy of your paper with you by 
any chance? 

Mr. Fainaru. Oh, yes. Mr. Chairman, may I read the statement 
now? 

The Chairman. No; we will ask you questions and then you can 
make your statement. 

Mr. Arens. How long have you been associated with this publica- 
tion? 

Mr. Fainaru. Since 1937. 

Mr. Arens. What was your occupation prior to your affiliation with 
the paper? 

Mr. Fainaru. Well, I had several but I don't think that such ques- 
tions are relevant to the contents of this subpena. 

The Chairman. Well now, listen, the committee is going to be the 
judge of that. You will kindly answer the questions. 

Mr. Fainaru. I do think, Mr. Chairman, that such questions on the 
basis, at least of the subpena, are irrelevant, and I think that as you 
will understand, it seems to me that the contents here, according to 
my own judgment, is really a flagrant violation of the freedom of 
the press. 

The Chairman. We will be the judge of that too, so you go ahead 
and answer the questions. The committee will be the judge of all 
those things. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly state for the committee what your 
occupation was prior to your affiliation with this paper. 

Mr. Fainaru. Oh, I did tutoring. 

Mr. Arens. Where? 

Air. Fainaru. And languages, private. I worked in a shop ; that is, 
I worked in several shops. 

The Chairman. What kind of shops? 

Mr. Fainaru. Knitting mills. 

The Chairman. Knitting mills? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. Well, I guess that would cover quite a 
few. I still would like to ask the chairman to permit me to read this 
statement. 



. COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 253 

The Chairman. As soon as you answer the questions. Just answer 
the questions and we will get through here and move along with our 
business. The questions will be propounded to you and the com- 
mittee will pass on whether they are relevant, material, or competent; 
that is a matter for the committee to determine. 

Senator Donxell. Mr. Chairman, may I ask that the question be 
entered whether these are all of the occupations that he has been 
engaged in? 

The Chairman. Were you engaged in other occupations than those 
you have mentioned, of working in the shop and teaching; that is, 
before you went into the position with this paper? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not within my knowledge, not besides teaching, work- 
ing in shops in different capacities. I don't think so unless my memory 
escapes me, but I do not think so. 

The Chairman. That is the best of your recollection that those were 
all of your occupations prior to going into the position with the paper,, 
is that right? 

Mr. Fainaru. Yes. 

The Chairman. You do not recall any other occupation? 

Air. Fainaru. Not besides teaching and working in factories. 

Mr. Arens. What were you teaching? 

Mr. Fainaru. I taught languages. 

Mr. Arens. To whom? 

Mr. Fainaru. To pupils. 

Mr. Arens. In your home? 

Mr. Fainaru. Both in my home and I also taught in the adult educa- 
tion project. 

Mr. Arens. What other names have you used other than the name 
Harry Fainaru ? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is my name, sir. 

Mr. Arens. What other names have you gone under? 

Mr. Fainaru. I am sure that you know very well that as a news- 
paperman 

The Chairman. Just answer the question. What other names have 
you gone under ? Have you gone under any other names ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No. 

The Chairman. None at all ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No ; except I used pen names in the paper, if that is 
what you mean ? 

Mr. Arens. W T hat pen names? 

The Chairman. What other pen names did you use? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't think 

The Chairman. Never mind that. 

Mr. Fainaru. I stand on my constitutional rights. 

The Chairman. What is your constitutional right in that regard? 

Mr. Fainaru. I think that article I of the Constitution states — 
that is, Article I of the Bill of Rights, states very definitely that there? 
can be no abridgement of the freedom of the press. 

The Chairman. Nobodv is questioning the freedom of the press; 
that has nothing to do with the names that you used. 

Mr. Fainaru. Mr. Chairman, I do consider, while you gentlemen 
may be lawyers and I am not — I claim ignorance to legal matters — I do 
think as a citizen that I know something about our own Constitution. 



254 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

The Chairman. If you will just kindly answer that question, you 
will get along very nicely. If you do that, we will get along fine here. 
Just answer the question which is very simple to answer. What other 
names did you use, whether they be pen names or whatever you call 
them. What other names did you use? 

Mr. Braverman. Mr. Chairman, may I ask a question ? 

The Chairman. What is your name ? 

Mr. Braverman. Maurice Braverman. 

The Chairman. Where are you from ? 

Mr. Braverman. Baltimore, and I am an attorney representing him. 

The Chairman. You may represent him. 

Mr. Braverman. May I ask what the matter is which is under 
inquiry ? 

The Chairman. The matter under inquiry is S. 1832: that is the 
matter of inquiry. 

Mr. Braverman. I am not too familiar with the subject matter of 
the bill, 1832. Could I have a brief summary of the bill ? 

The Chairman. You can have a copy of the bill. 

Mr. Braverman. Senator, there is nothing in the subpena that says 
anything about that. 

The Chairman. If you will proceed, please, to answer the question. 
What other names have you used ? I do not care whether they were 
pen names or pencil names or what they were. 

Mr. Fainaru. I still believe 

The Chairman. I am not asking what you believe. 

Mr. Braverman. May I consult with my client ? 

The Chairman. Just let him answer the question. What is the use 
of wasting time ? Answer the question. 

Mr. Fainaru. Do you mind if I consult with my attorney ? 

The Chairman. Answer the question and then consult with your 
attorney. Consult with your attorney about names that you have 
used — why ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Because it is my considered judgment that to ask an 
editor of a newspaper what names he has been using in the capacity 
as a newspaperman is an abridgment of the freedom of the press. 

The Chairman. That is a matter for the decision of this committee 
and for the Congress of the United States. Now proceed to answer 
the question. 

Mr. Fainaru. Well, I used even initials. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Fainaru. If that satisfies you, but I still protest, Mr. Chair- 
man  

The Chairman. Did you go by any other name ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Sure, I used all kinds of names because in a news- 
paper 



The Chairman. What other names? 

Mr. Fainaru. When you have a newspaper which is small 

The Chairman. Never mind that, tell me what names you used. 

Mr. Fainaru. Look 

The Chairman. I am not looking; tell me what names you used 
and then we will look. 

Mr. Fainaru. You are the chairman of this committee 

The Chairman. Listen, it is going to save you a lot of trouble if you 
answer that question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 255 

Mr. Fainaru. I am not trying to evade a question but I want to find 
out from you, Mr. Chairman of this committee, whether or not it is 
legitimate to ask an editor of a newspaper to tell a committee what 
names he has been using in that capacity. 

The Chairman. Yes ; it is legitimate and I, as chairman, instruct 
you. Now proceed, sir, to answer the question. 

Mr. Braverman. Mr. Chairman, may I consult with my client? 

The Chairman. Just a minute, just let him answer this question. 
You should have consulted with your client before this. Let us move 
along. If you have an answer to your question go ahead. 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't know whether I did, but I did. I told you I 
used initials. 

The Chairman. Did you use any name ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I used" a name on a column called Pavel Marin. I 
don't use any name. 

The Chairman. You do not use any name ? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right, when I write in my newspaper. 

The Chairman. All right. You were asked if you used any names. 

Mr. Fainaru. May I read my statement ? 

The Chairman. Have you fully answered the question ? Have you 
used any names? 

Mr. Fainaru. To the best of my recollection. 

The Chairman. Remember, you are under oath. 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

Senator Donnell. I suggest that the record show that the counsel 
of this witness has been handed a copy of S. 1832. 

The Chairman. What initials did you use? 

Mr. Fainaru. I beg your pardon? 

The Chairman. What initials did you use ? 

Mr. Fainaru. My own, H. F. 

Mr. Arens. What other names did you use as a nom de plume or as 
a designation of writings that you have published? 

Mr. Fainaru. Frankly, I don't recall. 

Mr. Arens. Did you use other names ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not that I recall. 

Mr. Arens. What was your name at birth ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Well, I don't know. I remember the name when I 
was born, but as far back as I can remember it was Fainaru. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your statement to this committee that you have 
not used other names other than Harry Fainaru to go by and to be 
called by and designated by ? 

Mr. Fainaru. You mean here. 

The Chairman. Anywhere. 

Mr. Fainaru. Well, I think you gentlemen ought to be at least more 
specific if you want a fair answer. You ask me, now you come out 
and ask me what my name was at my birth. 

Mr. Arens. What other names have you used other than Fainaru ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Other than Fainaru? 

]\Ir. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Fainaru. I told you a few that I recollect. 

The Chairman. Tell us the few. What few do you recollect? 

Mr. Fainaru. I beg your pardon. 

The Chairman. What few do you recollect ? 



256 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Fainaru. H. F., Pavel Marin 

The Chairman. And? 

Mr. Fainaru. When I became a citizen, if that is what you are 
looking for, I translated the first name into American but the second 
name is still the same. 

Mr. Arens. What was your first name ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Herscu, H-e-r-s-c-u, but that was changed when I be- 
came a citizen. 

Do you mind if I read my statement ? 

The Chairman. Just a minute. 

Mr. Arens. You are appearing before this committee in answer to 
a subpena duces tecum, a subpena which requires you to produce cer- 
tain documents? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

Mr. Aren. Did you bring those documents or records with you ? 

The Chairman. Did you bring the documents with you ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Yes, I did, some. 

The Chairman. Will you produce them, please? 

Mr. Fainaru. I would like 

The Chairman. Produce the documents if you have them, never 
mind what you like. 

Mr. Fainaru. In connection with this subpena, Mr. Chairman 

The Chairman. I am not going to sit here and argue with you. If 
you have those documents with you, I want them produced and turned 
over to the chairman of this committee. 

Mr. Fainaru. All right. Here is one. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask, if the chairman please, to ask the witness 
on each particular document. that was requested? 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. A list of all present and former officers and employees 
of Romanul-American, do you have that with you? 

Mr. Fainaru. A list of all present ? 

Mr. Arens. And former officers and employees of Eomanul- 
American. 

Mr. Fainaru. I have a list that I presented to you over there which 
corresponds to the report made to governmental authorities last 
October. 

Mr. Arens. Does this list include the former officers and employees 
too? 

Mr. Fainaru. Within my knowledge, within my knowledge. I 
think there is one exception, that three people in that report that you 
have there are no longer officers. 

Mr. Arens. What are their names? 

Mr. Fainaru. The name is Nick Opris, O-p-r-i-s, Louis Apopolson, 
and Charles Oltean. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I should like to mark this newspaper 
clipping which the witness has just submitted as "Exhibit No. 1" and 
ask that it be received as part of the record at this point. 

The Chairman. It will be so marked and so received. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 257 

(The clipping was marked "Fainaru Exhibit 1" and is as follows:) 

Statement of the Ownership. Management, Circulation, etc., Required by 
the Act of Congress of August 24, 1912, as Amended by the Acts of March 3, 
1933, and July 2, 1946 

Of ROMANUL AMERICAN published weekly at Detroit, Mich., for October 1, 
1948. 

State of Michigan, 

County of Wayne, ss : 
Before me, a notary public, in and for the State and County aforesaid, person- 
ally appeared Maria Mila, who, having been duly sworn according to law, deposes 
and says that she is the business manager of the Romanul American and that 
the following is, to the best of her knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management (and if a daily paper, the circulation) of the aforesaid 
publication for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of 
August 24, 1912, as amended by the acts of March 3. 1933, and July 2, 1946, 
(embodied in sec. 537, Postal Laws and Regulations) printed on the reverse side 
of this form, to wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing editor, and 
business managers are : 

Publisher : Roumanian American Publishing Association, Inc., Detroit, Mich. 

Editor (edited by a committee). 

Managing editor : Harry Fainaru, Detroit, Mich. 

Business manager : Maria Mila, Detroit, Mich. 

2. That the owner is: (If owned by a corporation, its name and address must 
by stated and also immediately thereunder the names and addresses of stock- 
holders owning or holding 1 percent or more of total amount of stock. If 
not owned by a corporation, the names and addresses of the individual owners 
be given. If owned by a firm, company, or other unincorporated concern, its 
name and address, as well as those of each individual member, must be given.) 

Roumanian American Publishing Association, Inc., 2144 East Grand Boulevard, 
Detroit, Mich. Stockholders: Maria Mila, 17217 Marx, Detroit, Mich.; Harry 
Fainaru, 2144 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit, Mich. ; Nick Kish, 5767 Sheridan, 
Detroit, Mich. ; Charles Oltean, 4434 Seventh Street, Ecorse, Mich. ; Nick Opris, 
1879 Sweeney Street, North Tonawanda, N. Y. ; Nicholas H. Catana, 722 South- 
field Road, Lincoln Park, Mich. 

That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or 
holding 1 percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages, or other securities 
are : None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the owners, stock- 
holders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of stockholders and 
security holders as they appear upon the books of the company but also, in cases 
where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the company 
as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation 
for whom such trustee is acting, is given ; also that the said two paragraphs con- 
tain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circum- 
stances and conditions under which stockholders and security holders who do not 
appear upon the books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a 
capacity other than that of a bona fide owner ; and this affiant has no reason to 
believe that any other person, association, or corporation has any interest direct 
or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than as so stated by her. 

5. That the average number of copies of each issue of this publication sold or 
distributed through the mails or otherwise, to paid subscribers during the 12 
months preceding the date shown above is 2,768. 

Maria Mila, Business Manager. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 28th day of September 1948. 
[seal] John J. Nowak, 

Notary Public, Wayne County, Mich. 

(My commission expires June 5, 1950.) 

The Chairman. What is the next one ? 

Mr. Arens. Do yon have a list of the persons 

Senator Donnell. Pardon me, Mr. Chairman, I do not think the 
witness has told us yet whether or not this list contains the names of 



258 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

all prior employees and officers. He says he has given us a list and that 
some are not now officers, but he does not say whether the list contains 
the names of all the earlier employees and officers. 

Mr. Arens. I was under the impression it contained all but three. 

Senator Donnell. I understood that he was supplying this list and 
that three of that list are no longer officers. 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

Senator Donnell. I understood that what Mr. Arens read to him in 
substance was that he was to bring in a list of all present and prior 
officers and employees. 

Mr. Arens. That is right. 

Senator Donnell. He has given us a list of some but he does not give 
us a list of the prior«officers and employees. 

The Chairman. That is correct. 

Mr. Fainaru. That list is as per October 1948. 

Senator Donnell. Yes. 

Mr. Fainaru. From that list, three that you have there, you know, 
three are no longer members of the corporation. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a list of the officers with you who were 
officers and who no longer are officers ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I told you the three that I mentioned subsequently 
are no longer officers. 

Senator Donnell. Mr. Chairman, as I understand it, this gentle- 
man has produced here a list of the persons who in September 1948, 
the date of this affidavit on this clipping being September 28, 1948, 
were then officers of this publication ; is that right ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Yes. 

Senator Donnell. He has told us that three persons listed in that 
are no longer officers. May I ask him, Mr. Chairman, whether or not 
there are persons not mentioned on here who were previously officers 
or employees of this publication and if so, do you have the list of those 
persons who were previously officers or employees who are not listed 
on this exhibit 1 ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No ; I don't have that. 

Senator Donnell. Were there persons other than those listed on 
exhibit 1 who were previously officers or employees of the publication? 

Mr. Fainaru. I couldn't tell you that. To the best of my recollec- 
tion, I think that is the list with the exception of the three that I just 
mentioned. 

Senator Donnell. You do not think there were any other persons 
who were officers or employees before September 1948, except those 
who are listed in exhibit 1 ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not to the best of my recollection. 

Senator Donnell. All right. 

Mr. Fainaru. The only thing that has to be done, if I should be 
mistaken, is to check, but I inquired and I wanted to have the list and 
I got this clipping which is based on the report that we send every 
year to the Government. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Arens. Now, do you have a list of the contributors to the 
publication ? 

Senator Eastland. You mean financial ? 

Mr. Arens. No; who contributed material, articles. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 259 

Mr. Fainaru. At this point I think that it is asking me to divulge 
the trust given to us by the people who contribute to the paper. 

The Chairman. The question is, Have you got that list? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't have it. 

The Chairman. You were asked to bring it? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

The Chairman. You did not do it ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Why not ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Because it is impossible to do a thing like that. 

The Chairman. Do you have it in your possession? 

Mr. Fainaru. No. 

The Chairman. Do you have it in the paper you are working for ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I have a number of papers. 

The Chairman. Do you have a list of the writers that have 
contributed? 

Mr. Fainaru. No; we do not keep track of the writers who write. 
They send articles, we publish them, and that is all. 

The Chairman. No matter who sends an article, you publish it ; is 
that right? 

Mr. Fainaru. If it is in accord with the position of the paper. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly produce a list of all officers outside 
the United States, including agents of foreign governments, foreign 
correspondents, or foreign newspapers which have submitted mate- 
rial or information for publication in the Romanul-American ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Would this committee ask any editor, whether it is 
the New York Times or the Washington Post 

The Chairman. That is not the question. You are not answering 
the question. Listen to the question and answer it. 

Mr. Fainaru. I am listening. 

The Chairman. Then answer it. 

Mr. Fainaru. I think I am within my constitutional rights to re- 
fuse to supply to this committee the sources of the information of our 
paper or of any other paper and I deem it that I would be in con- 
tempt of my newspaper profession if I would present to this commit- 
tee sources of information that I gathered and I obtained for my 
newspaper. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to do that ? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right, on my constitutional grounds. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Senator Donnell. Mr. Chairman, I assume that the chairman by 
the use of the term "all right" does not mean it is all right ? 

The Chairman. I do not. 

Mr. Fainaru. May I read my statement? 

The Chairman. No ; you answer the questions. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Dekom has a number of names he would like to ask 
the witness about. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Dekom. Mr. Fainaru, did you know a person by the name of 
Alexander Lazareanu ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I have known Mr. Lazareanu and I have known 
many other people. As a newspaperman I see loads of people, even 
Senators and Congressmen. 



260 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Dekom. Will you tell us your relationship with Mr. Lazareanu ? 

Mr. Fainaru. My relationship was as a newspaperman and from 
what I know he was the press attache of the Rumanian Legation. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever receive any money from Mr. Lazareann? 

Mr. Fainaru. No; I never received any money from Mr. 
Lazareanu. 

The Chairman. Do you mean to say that you did not receive any 
money from the party named ? 

Mr. Fainaru. From whom ? 

The Chairman. The party named ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 

The Chairman. You never received any money ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever receive any money indirectly from him, 
through other persons, which came from him ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know Mihai Ralea ? 

Mr. Fainaru. He was Minister of Rumania in Washington. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever receive any money or checks from him? 

Mr. Fainaru. Never. 

Mr. Dekom. Nor through him ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Never, except for subscriptions of the newspaper if 
they received the check. That I don't know. I am not in the busi- 
ness — I mean I don't tackle that phase of the newspaper. If they 
received the check for the subscriptions to the Legation, that is a 
different matter. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever receive any money from or through any 
person in the Rumanian Legation in Washington or the so-called 
Rumanian consulate in New York, except for subscriptions? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. You did not? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. Did your newspaper or other members of the staff of 
the newspaper, to your knowledge, receive money transmitted through 
the Rumanian Embassy in Washington or the Legation in New York 
City? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not that I know of, sir. 

Mr. Arens. The consulate in New York ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever publish or arrange for publication of 
books, pamphlets, for which money came from the Rumanian Lega- 
tion or Mr. Lazareanu? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Did your organization publish a book against King 
Michael of Rumania ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Certainly. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you receive any money for that from Mr. La- 
zareanu or any other person connected with the Rumanian Govern- 
ment ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever receive from Mr. Lazareanu any infor- 
mation which you published in your paper ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I still maintain that any sources 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 261' 

The Chairman. You can answer that "Yes" or "No." Just answer 
it "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Fainaru. Mr. Chairman, I still feel 

The Chairman. That is all it calls for, "Yes" or "No ; " 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't think I can answer "Yes" or "No." I feel that 
I am a newspaperman and I have a right to obtain any information 
from whatever sources. 

The Chairman. What about that question, can you not answer 
"Yes" or "No"? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't feel that I should answer, on constitutional 
grounds. 

The Chairman. You are refusing to answer? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right. 

Air. Dekom. Did you ever receive from Mr. Lazareanu articles 
which you published in your paper, either that he himself wrote or 
that he transmitted to you from other sources? 

Mr. Fainaru. I receive a lot of material from all kinds of sources, 
the Rumanian Legation just as well as the Polish Embassy and French 
Embassy and so on, just as well as I received from the State Depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever receive from Mr. Lazareanu photostatic 
copies of documents from the Rumanian Government ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I still maintain that I am within my constitutional 
rights not to answer questions as to sources of information. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer that last question ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I do on the basis of article I of the Bill of Rights of 
our Constitution. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

Mr. Dekom. Did Mr. Lazareanu write articles for the Romanul- 
American ? 

The Chairman. That can be answered "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Fainaru. To the best of my ability, to the best of my recollec- 
tion, no. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent, if any, did you make confidential re- 
ports to the Rumanian Legation in Washington? 

Mr. Fainaru. I never made any confidential reports to anyone. I 
am not in the employ of the United States Government. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent did you make reports, even though they 
may not have been confidential, written reports or typewritten reports, 
to the Legation, Rumanian Legation ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I am not in the habit of making confidential reports, 
sir. 

Mr. Arens. Did you make any reports to the Rumanian Legation 
here ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not that I remember. 

Mr. Arens. Do you read Rumanian ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Evidently. 

Mr. Arens. Would you mind, for the benefit of the committee, read- 
ing a little of this photostatic document a here and see if you can iden- 
tify it ? Could you just translate it as you read it, please ? 

The Chairman. Translate as you read, if you can. 

1 This document was subsequently identified as "Riposanu Exhibit 2" and a translation 
appears on p. 273. The photostatic copy submitted in evidence was filed for the informa- 
tion of the subcommittee. 



262 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Dekom. Have you ever seen that report before? [Handing 
document to the witness.] 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't know this one. I can see it. 

Mr. Arens. Can you translate it? 

Mr. Fainaru. Sure. 

Mr. Arens. Would you do so, please ? 

Mr. Fainaru (reading) : 

The information that we give here has a single end, to help to cement friendly 
relations between our adopted land and our land of birth and to continue in the 
struggle to isolate and defeat fascism wherever it may raise its head. 

Do you want me to read further ? 

Mr. Arens. Do you say you have or have not any recollection of 
writing that ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No. 

Mr. Arens. Would you say that you did not prepare it ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 

The Chairman. The question was, Would you say you did not pre- 
pare the document ; to which you answer, "No, sir"? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is right ; to the best of my ability, I would say 
I did not prepare it. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't see anything wrong in it. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you ever read that particular report before? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't recall about it. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you play any part in preparing that report ; supply 
the information for that report ? 

Mr. Fainaru. As a newspaperman, I discuss questions with many 
people. 

Mr. Dekom. I mean directly, not as a newspaperman ? 

Mr. Fainaru. You must realize I am a newspaperman of a particu- 
lar newspaper and as such I am concerned with the country of my 
birth and the country of my adoption. It would be very unnatural if 
I weren't interested in things Rumanian. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you help prepare that report? Or provide the 
information for that report? 

Mr. Fainaru. I had discussions with many people from my own 
organization, if that is what you mean, about what reactionary forces 
among the Rumanians there are, what the policy is 

Mr. Dekom. Did any member of your staff prepare that? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't know. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever have that report in your possession be- 
fore? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't recall. I don't recall, because I get a lot of 
stuff in my office just like any other newspaper. 

Mr. Arens. Have you submitted any report ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not to my knowledge. 

The Chairman. To the Rumanian Legation? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not to my knowledge, but I certainly did discuss with 
people and as a newspaperman I wanted to find out, for instance, about 
Rumania and in that capacity I did just like any other newspaperman 
would do. 

Mr. Arens. Have you ever been offered any money by attaches of 
the Rumanian official family here in Washington or in New York? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, sir. 



communist activities in alien and national groups 263 

Mr. Arens. I just wanted to elaborate on that last question. Has 
anyone else, other than members of the official family of the Rumanian 
Government in the United States on behalf of the Rumanian Govern- 
ment offered you money ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever reprint articles from Rumanian Commu- 
nist newspapers such as Scanteia? 

Mr. Fainaru. Our newspaper, like any other newspaper, reprints 
articles from many newspapers, including Scanteia. I still protest 
against this kind of questioning. 

The Chairman. Answer the question "Yes" or "No." A "Yes" or 
"No" would have answered that question. 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't think I have to answer "Yes" or "No." I do 
think that it is the privilege of a newspaper to reprint from any news- 
paper, whether it is English, French, Greek, or Chinese; that is the 
privilege of the freedom of press. 

The Chairman. Who is questioning that? The question is, Did 
you? 

Mr. Fainaru. I question the right of the gentleman to ask me a 
question like that. 

The Chairman. Read the question, Mr. Reporter. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever reprint articles from Rumanian Communist news- 
papers such as Scanteia? 

The Chairman. Answer that "Yes" or "No." 

Mr. Fainaru. I would say that our newspaper and myself have 
reprinted articles from many other newspapers and also including 
Scanteia. 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever publish any attacks against any person 
because he or she attempted to collaborate with the United States ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I think if you will examine our newspapers you will 
find out what our editorial policy is, and what our editorial policy is, 
in my opinion, is not in the province of this committee. 

The Chairman. Read the question, Mr. Reporter. I want you to 
listen to the question and answer it. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever publish any attacks against any person because he 
or she attempted to collaborate with the United States? 

Mr. Fainaru. I say that- 



The Chairman. Just answer the question "Yes" or "No" and then 
you can make any explanation you wish. 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't think the nature of the question warrants my 
answer because 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer the question ? 

Mr. Fainaru. It is a violent attack on the freedom of the press. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer the question or will you 
answer it ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I say that our position of the paper is to work — — 

The Chairman. Do you refuse ? Or will you answer ? That is all 
there is to it — one of the two, you certainly do. Do you refuse or wiU 
you answer ? 

Mr. Fainaru. That isn't 

The Chairman. Nevermind. You can answer ? 



264 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Fainaru. I can answer how I see fit. 

The Chairman. Do you refuse to answer the question propounded 
to you or will you answer it ? 

Mr. Fainaru. We believe in collaboration between the United States 
and the present Rumanian Government. 

The Chairman. That was not the question propounded to you at 
all. Read the question, Mr. Reporter. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

Mr. Dekom. Did you ever publish any attacks against any person because he 
or sbe attempted to collaborate with the United States? 

Mr. Fainaru. Not that I remember, not that I recollect — to launch 
an attack upon a person because he wants to collaborate with the 
United States, since our own paper stands for collaboration between 
the United States and the Rumanian People's Republic. 

The Chairman. You did not ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I do not understand, sir, the very nature 

The Chairman. You do not understand ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No ; because it is so inconsistent. 

The Chairman. What is it you do not understand about that 
question ? 

Mr. Fainaru. This is it : The question is whether we attacked any 
person because he is for collaboration with the United States. It is 
a very vague question because the question is, for what? Because 
we are for collaboration between the two countries. Our paper is for 
that. Whatever publication we issued is to establish friendly rela- 
tions between the two countries. 

The Chairman. Nobody is asking you about your paper. Did you 
ever publish any article ? The reporter will read the question to you 
again if you want it read. 

Mr. Fainaru. I would like to see the article. I cannot answer 
questions in this manner. 

The Chairman. You say you cannot answer it? 

Mr. Fainaru. No ; because I don't know. 

Mr. Dekom. What is the connection between your paper and the 
International Workers Order or any of its branches or affiliates ? 

Mr. Braverman. May I consult with my client? He asked me a 
question. 

The Chairman. When did you become his counsel ? 

Mr. Braverman. Mr. Chairman, I became his counsel yesterday. 

The Chairman. Yesterday? 

Mr. Braverman. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I do not think it is necessary. 

Mr. Braverman. Mr. Chairman, he received a subpena not knowing 
what the inquiry was, merely as to bringing along a list of material 
that was already public knowledge, material that 

The Chairman. That has nothing to do with the question pro- 
pounded here. Let him answer the question. 

Mr. Braverman. He may have to be advised to refuse on his con- 
stitutional rights. 

The Chairman. Let him answer the question. Read the question, 
please. 

(The pending question was read by the reporter, as follows:) 

Mr. Dekom. What is the connection between your paper and the International 
"Workers Order or any oi' its branches or affiliates? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 265 

The Chairman. Can you answer that question? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't exactly know whether I can. Do you mind 
if I consult with my attorney ? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Fainaru. Our paper supports the activities, the program, of the 
order and especially of the Romanian-American Fraternal Society, 
which is the fraternal organization among Rumanian- Americans — one 
of the fraternal organizations. 

Mr. Arens. What money have you received from those organ- 
izations ? 

Mr. Fainaru. In what sense do you mean money ? 

Mr. Arens. Other than for just subscriptions? 

Mr. Fainaru. Do you mean for publicity? 

Mr. Arfns. For publicity or for support of your paper ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Well, the support does not come from the order as 
such, if that is what you mean. The lodges, the membership, organize 
affairs, banquets, picnics, and what have you. They individually 
contribute and this you will find even in the paper. We have pub- 
lished that regularly ; whenever we have a campaign, we publish the 
people who contribute just as the organizations who contribute. 

Mr. Dekom. Is it not a fact that the International Workers Order 
is listed as a Communist-front organization by the Attorney General? 

Mr. Fainaru. What has that to do with this ? 

The Chairman. Do you know whether it is a fact or not ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Do I know ? I am a newspaperman. 

The Chairman. Then you do know it is a fact. What is the use 
of parrying with this thing \ 

Mr. Fainaru. I know it is a fact that the Attorney General listed it. 

The Chairman. That is all you were asked for. 

Mr. Arens. How many times in the course of the last year have you 
been in contact, either by personal visits or by communication by tele- 
phone or correspondence, with the officials of the Rumanian Govern- 
ment in the United States or attaches of the Rumanian official family? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't know. 

Mr. Arens. What would be your best estimate ? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't know ; a few times. Whenever I had a chance. 
If I was in Washington I would go over. 

Mr. Arens. When was the last time that you were in contact with 
such persons? 

Mr. Fainaru. I don't know. I don't recall exactly; possibly in 
May or April. 

The Chairman. Of this year? 

Mr. Fainaru. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. What contact have you had with them since you have 
received this subpena ? 

Mr. Fainaru. Since I received this subpena ? 

Mr. Arens. Yes. 

Mr. Fainaru. Xo contact whatever, but I do expect to visit them. 

Mr. Arens. Are you now or have you ever been a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Fainaru. That is the $64 question. I wonder whether this 
committee would ask any editor 

The Chairman. Just answer the question. 



266 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 
Mr. Fainaru. Whether the New York Times 



The Chairman. Never mind what you think ; answer the question. 

• Mr. Fainaru. I still maintain 

The Chairman. Never mind what you maintain. 

Mr. Fainaru. This is not relevant to the subpena. 

The Chairman. Are you going to answer that question or not ? 

Mr. Fainaru. You know very well; you know very well, because 
this is a public record, there is a public record of my membership. I 
think it is irrelevant. I think it is a complete violation of the Consti- 
tution in asking such a question. You wouldn't ask any other editor 
his political affiliation. 

The Chairman. Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Fainaru. I told you. 

The Chairman. What is it? 

Mr. Fainaru. It is a public record that I am. 

The Chairman. You are then? 

Mr. Fainaru. I said that anybody who knows anything about my 
activities knows that I am, but I protest against 

The Chairman. That you are what? 

Mr. Fainaru. A member of the party. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Fainaru. But I protest against this questioning. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Senators? 

This witness will not be excused from the subpena. You will be 
held under subpena here subject to the call of this committee. 

Mr. Braverman. He has a right to return to Detroit? 

The Chairman. He may return to Detroit, but he will be subject to 
recall. His expenses will not be paid to Detroit and back here again. 
He will be called here on Monday or on Tuesday, whenever the com- 
mittee reconvenes. 

Mi-. Arens. May I suggest, too, that he be requested to stay here 
for the purpose of hearing the testimony of three other witnesses on 
this matter? 

Mr. Braverman. Just on procedure, Senator? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Braverman. Am I to understand that he is to stay in Washing- 
ton for an indefinite period ? He is an editor of a newspaper. 

The Chairman. Not at all. At the end of the day's proceedings, we 
will let you know as his counsel. We want him to remain here now. 1 

Mr. Braverman. For the balance of this proceeding? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for the record the 
subpena which was issued to Mr. Fainaru. 

The Chairman. That may be done. 

(The subpena is in the files of the subcommittee.) 

TESTIMONY OF PAMFIL RIPOSANU, FORMER FIRST COUNSELOR OF 

THE RUMANIAN LEGATION 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Riposanu, will you kindly raise your right hand 
and be sworn ? 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear that the testimony you 
are about to give before the subcommittee of the Committee on the 

1 The testimony of Harry Fainaru is resumed on p. 293. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 267 

Judiciary of the Senate of United States will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Riposanu. I do. 1 

Mr. Arens. You may proceed to read your statement. 
Mr. Riposanu. My name is Pamfil Riposanu. My occupation was 
a lawyer in Bucharest, and after the coup d'etat, after 1944, 1 became 
Secretary General of the Presidential Council of Ministers of Rumania, 
first in the government of General Sanatescu, and I was Secretary 
General of the Presidency until 1946. 

In 1946, I was appointed first counselor and Charge d'Affaires in 
"Washington, D. C. I was there until February. In February 1947, 
I left Washington, and I came back on August 19, 1947. I decided to 
resign on August 26, 1947, because at that time there was a great 
purge in Rumania by the Communist Party. They dissolved the oppo- 
sition party, the democratic party of Rumania — that is, of Dr. 
Maniu — and they arrested him. As a protest, I resigned. 

During my political career. I was a member of the Rumanian Na- 
tional Peasant Party, which is and always has been the real demo- 
cratic party in the country. Although we were always opposed to 
communism, the creed of our party was to try to find an understand- 
ing with Russia, which was our largest and most powerful neighbor. 
During the war, the National Peasant Party was opposed to nazism, 
and its leader, Dr. Iuliu Maniu, was greatly restricted by the authori- 
ties. At this period, I was attorney and good personal friend of Petru 
Greza, the present Prime Minister of Rumania. 

Mr. Dekom. I have here a copy of Dr. Petru Groza's book, In 
Umbra Celulei or In the Shadow of the Cell. He mentions his friend,, 
one Riposanu. 

Mr. Riposanu. From the beginning to the last page he mentions 
my name as being his best friend. 
'Mr. Dekom. He is now the Prime Minister of Rumania X 
Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 
Mr. Dekom. This is his book ? 

Mr. Riposanu. This was written while he was in jail. 
Mr. Dekom. Thank you. 

Mr. Riposanu. He was arrested for a period of time, and I had oc- 
casion to visit him in prison almost every day, and at the same time I 
visited Mr. Iuliu Maniu. Therefore, I am in a position to know, to dis- 
close, that the man who saved Groza's life at that time was the greatest 
democratic leader of the Rumanian people, Dr. Iuliu Maniu. Today 
this man, a man of 76 years, is in chains, sentenced to life imprison- 
ment by the same government whose present head he saved from a 
Nazi execution squad. I myself am forced to live in exile as a result 
of the totalitarian nature of that same government. 

I have been asked to testify on the activities of the Rumanian Com- 
munist officials in this country, on the basis of my experience as a 
diplomatic official of the Rumanian Government. 

After I arrived in the United States, the Foreign Ministry appointed 
to the Legation a man by the name of Alexander Lazareanu, whom 
I had never met before in my life. At the beginning, he appeared to 
be a humble employee in his job as cultural attache. However, after 
the fake election of 1946 — I came here before the election— when the 

1 The witness appeared under subpena. 
98330— 50— pt. 1 18 



268 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Communists completely seized power by falsifying the election ret urns. 
Lazareanu let me know that he would from that time on be the master 
mind of tlu> Legation. 

I found out later that he was the agent of the Communist Party and 
the Rumanian secret police. He was the direct representative of Ana 
Pauker, the Communist dictator of Rumania, and was appointed at 
her direction. Ana Pauker who also holds the rank of a colonel of 
tanks in the Soviet Red Army, has made herself since that time For- 
eign Minister of Rumania. She is also one of the top members of the 
Cominform. 

Lazareanu was in contact with and under the direction of the Soviet 
secret police (NKVD), a certain man here, I think Boldin, from the 
Russian Embassy. He was always in contact with the Russian 
Embassy in Washington. He used to travel many times to Detroit, 
Cleveland, and Chicago, and other places where there are many Amer- 
icans of Rumanian descent. He has done a great deal of traveling 
back and forth between Bucharest and Washington. He distributed 
some books of Communist propaganda in America — Cleveland, Ohio, 
and others. He made some speeches. He was very clever. He tried, 
for instance, to buy radio time of a Rumanian program for one hour, 
in Detroit, for propaganda purposes and other things. 

There was a Rumanian hour on the Detroit radio. He offered to 
pay for this hour, to be used for the Communist propaganda, and he 
made this olTer to certain men whose names I have already submitted 
to the committee. He offered a sum of money for this hour to be used 
under the direction of the Legation. 

The chief propaganda agency through which the Rumanian Com- 
munist officials worked in this country is the Communist newspaper 
Romanul-American, published in Detroit. 

Mr. Arens. Is that the same paper that was identified here or dis- 
cussed by the previous witness ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Is this it? [He shows the witness a copy of the Ro- 
manul-American.] 

Mr. Ripsoanu. Yes. The editor of this paper is a former member 
of the staff of the Daily Worker of New York. Fainaru is his 
name, but his real is name is Herscu Froim. He published many 
articles in the Michigan Herald, a Communist paper, too. He took an 
active part in the strike of the Automobile Workers Union in Detroit. 
He is a well-known Communist. 

Mr. Arens. This person is the witness who just previously ap- 
peared ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Senator Donnell. Mr. Fainaru? 

Mr. Riposanu. He is the same. He had always attacked the Amer- 
ican policies when they were not in accord with the policies of the 
Soviet Union. In addition to that, this newspaper has reprinted 
directly, word for word, many articles from the Communist newspa- 
pers in Rumania. Let me cite an example for you. While I was 
Secretary General of the Presidency of the Rumanian Government, 
with the rank equivalent to an Under Secretary in the United States 
I tried very hard to work for collaboration between the leftists and 
the democratic parties, as well as work for collaboration between our 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 269 

nation and the United States. For this, I was later attacked very vio- 
lently by the Communist press in Rumania. 

I was' accused of all sorts of crimes and was labeled an "American 
spy" and, of course, being paid off in American dollars. One of the 
most significant articles against me accused me of conspiring and plot- 
ting against the Rumanian Government with the vice president of the 
Rumanian National Peasant Party. It was stated in the article that 
from July 6 to July 12, 1947, 1 was in the city of Brasov. This is very 
amusing, because I was actually during that entire period in the city 
of Bucharest — some 200 kilometers away. I did not leave that city for 
one moment. For this, I had the best proof — the best alibi in the 
world — I lived in the house of the Prime Minister, Mr. Petru Groza. 
I could not be in two places at the same time. All his guards could 
see me every day and every night. 

These articles were reprinted word for word by the Romanul- Amer- 
ican in Detroit, with the most serious accusations made against me, 
because I worked for collaboration with the United States. Let me 
emphasize this : that these charges were made against me by a news- 
paper published here in the United States. 

Mr. Dekom. Dr. Riposanu, do you have photostatic copies of those 
articles? 

Mr. Riposanu. I think I have. 

Mr. Dekom. Would you submit them in evidence? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. As a word of explanation. Doctor, these photostats pur- 
port to be, first, copies of articles appearing in the Communist papers 
in Rumania? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. And secondly, copies of 

Mr. Riposanu. This one is from Rumania, and the same in the 
United States, the Romanul-American. 

Mr. Dekom. Was that a word-for-word reprint? 

Mr. Riposanu. It was. It appeared like an original article, however. 

The Chairman. Who was the publisher of the American paper that 
reprinted it? 

Mr. Riposanu. It is written on the first page of the paper — Fainaru ; 
his name is on there. 

The Chairman. Is that the same paper that was referred to by the 
witness that just preceded you? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes ; the same paper. 

Senator Donnell. I suggest that those photostats be identified as 
exhibits. 

Mr. Arens. This will be Riposanu exhibit No. 1. 

The Chairman. It will be marked and received. 

(The newspapers were marked "Riposanu Exhibit No. 1" and filed 
for the information of the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Riposanu. These newspapers were published in the United 
States, of course. 

At one time — it was in 1916 — I was Charge d' Affaires 

Mr. Arens. In the Rumanian Legation? 

Mr. Riposanu. The legation in Washington. Lazareanu came to 
my office and asked me to give Fainaru $300. 

Mr. Arens. Is this Fainaru the same Fainaru who just testified? 



270 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. He had to ask me, because I was Charge 
d' Affaires at that time. Minister Ralea was in Bucharest and I was 
head of the legation and, of course, had charge of the money. He told 
me that Minister Ralea had been regularly paying Fainaru $300 a 
month and that he had come to get it now. Lazareanu asked me to give 
him $300 because, he told me, he was paid every month $300 for his 
newspaper. I refused to pay, because I did not want to pay for any 
Communist activities. 

I know from other members of the Legation, such as Vogel, 1 press 
attache, that Lazareanu tried to buy another paper, Solia; that is, to 
pay for the publication of articles along the Communist lines. 

Mr. Arens. Is that another paper in the United States? 

Mr. RirosANU. Yes. It was the paper of the church, but from cer- 
tain men of Detroit he tried to buy this paper in order to write articles 
in his line. 

Mr. Arens. I see. 

Mr. Riposanu. It was for publication. 

Mr. Dekom. You do not mean actually to buy outright? 

Mr. Riposanu. Just so they would be under their order. 

Mr. Dekom. To follow the Communist line ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Senator Eastland. Subsidize? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. He made a certain offer to a certain priest in 
Detroit, whose name is in your file. 

There was very close vigilance over members of the Legation. For 
the 6 months that I was in Washington, every step of mine was fol- 
lowed. I do not know how, or wjio, but when I went to Bucharest in 
March 1947, 1 saw a dossier in which was a list of all the persons whom 
I visited in Washington, all the people who had been in my house as 
visitors. When I visited, for instance, the Army and Navy Club in 
Washington, they made a great fuss over it. The reports of the secret 
police said— 

Riposanu was reported with the head of the American Army — 

and the name of a certain officer, who happened to be a good friend of 
mine, from Washington, was given. 

When I returned to Rumania in March 1947, I was shown a dossier 
of my telephone conversations in Washington. I was told that one 
report was sent through the Russian Embassj 7 to the Russian secret 
police in Moscow 7 and that another report was sent to the Rumanian 
secret police. Therefore, I have good reasons to believe that even my 
telephone conversations must have been overheard and recorded by 
some means unknown to me and then sent to both Russia and Rumania. 

Mr. Dekom. That is, your telephone at home? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Not in your office ? 

Mr. Riposanu. In my house. 

Mr. Dekom. You rented a house ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. It is your conclusion that your private house in Wash- 
ington was tapped? 

Mr. Riposanu. I cannot say, but I saw all of the conversations. 

1 The testimony of Alfons Vogel appears on p. 289. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 271 

Mr. Dekom. Was that in Bucharest ? 

Mr. Riposanu. In Bucharest, in a dossier of the police. I had the 
opportunity to see this dossier and all my conversations were recorded 
with London, Paris, Washington, and all. 

In my opinion, the Communist governments of all satellite coun- 
tries use everyone — not only diplomats, every person, every chauffeur, 
every man who is sent here — for espionage and propaganda. That is 
my opinion. They use every man from the Legation for this purpose. 
This is true of all satellite countries, because, you see, nobody can leave 
the country now without having his visa approved by the secret police. 
Always, when a man leaves the country, whether it is Rumania, Hun- 
gary, Poland, they have to have a visa from the secret police. In every 
country, in the secret police is a Russian, who is the real boss behind 
the national chief of the secret police. In my country, for instance, 
is a man with the name of Nikonov. 

In my opinion, members of the legations from iron curtain coun- 
tries are sent to the United States for the purpose of engaging in 
espionage and subversive activities. The purpose of this network 
of espionage is very clear in my mind and nothing secret. They try 
to execute step by step what Stalin himself wrote in his book — world 
domination. 

Unfortunately, most people don't believe what Stalin expresses in 
his own words in his Foundations of Leninism, as we did not believe 
Hitler when he wrote his Mein Kampf. But later we saw that Hitler 
followed step after step what he wrote in his book. Nothing else but 
the forces of the Allied Powers could put a stop to Hitler's aims. 

The Nazi Fuehrer — the man with the little mustache — has disap- 
peared in the ruins of Berlin, but unfortunately for mankind his role 
has been taken over by the man with the big mustache from the Krem- 
lin, who is working hard to accomplish the work of his "younger 
brother." 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, you are here in response to a subpena ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. Mr. Chairman, I would like to offer for the 
record the subpena. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Eastland. Would you say from your knowledge of the 
Rumanian officials of this country, that Russia has a far-reaching 
and competent police force at work in the city of Washington ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. All agents who are sent now in the so-called 
Rumanian Legation, Bulgarian, and satellite countries, are nothing 
else than simply agents of the Russian secret police. 

Senator Eastland. And the secret police is very active here? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Would you say the same thing is true with other affili- 
ates coming from those governments, such as trading commissions, 
members of press agencies, and affiliates of international organizations 
from those countries? 

Mr. Riposanu. Nobody can leave those countries without having a 
visa from the secret police and it means this man must be cleared ex- 
tensively — all his life, how he believes, and what is his creed. Nobody, 
unless he is a Communist, can leave the country. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent are the Communist activities in the 
U. S. A., on the basis of your experience, controlled and directed by 



272 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

officials or attaches of the foreign governments v ho are in this 
country '. 

Mr. Riposanu. I think all of it is under the domination and control 
of the Soviet Embassy, bnt not. openly. They try to hide that they are 
under the control of the Soviet Embassy, but they report. I 
remember when I was in my country and because I was close to the 
Premier — because I could say I saved his life — I was in the position 
to see some dossiers and always they were sent through Moscow. It 
means that all reports were sent not only within the particular coun- 
try, for instance from Rumania to Rumania, but also to the secret 
police of Moscow. 

Mr. Arexs. Do you have information respecting payment of money 
for dissemination of propaganda through the Rumanian Legation 
in Washington, other than the payment which you have referred to 
on this one paper ? 

Mr. Riposanu. I do not have others; I was only a few months in 
Washington, because, in the meanwhile, there were changes in my 
country. I think other members of the organization that worked —  — 

Mr. Arens. Are you familiar with the Communist organizations 
which have been designated by the Attorney General as Communist- 
front organizations ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Some of them. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any observations to make with respect to 
the control and organization of the Communist fronts in the United 
States by agents, either in embassies, consulates, or international 
organizations ? 

Mr. Riposantj. I cannot understand the question. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have any comment to make respecting whether 
or not the Communist-front organizations in the United States are 
under the control and direction of agents of foreign powers who are 
sent into the United States ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. You have in the United States, of course, 
persons of many different origins. I think every legation works in 
its so-called national group. For instance, Lazareanu was well known 
as a Communist. He worked among the Americans of Rumanian 
descent. I think — I don't know — other legations work in the same 
way. 

Mr. Arens. But you can speak from knowledge about the Rumanian 
Legation ? 

Mr. Riposanu. That is correct. He had orders to work among 
the Rumanians and Americans of Rumanian descent who are located 
in Chicago and all over the United States. 

Mr. Arens. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Dekom. Dr. Riposanu, I will read you the name of an organi- 
zation. 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. The Alianta Romanilor Americani Pentru Democratie, 
which is the Alliance of Romanian Americans for Democracy? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you a comment to make on that organization? 

Mr. Riposanu. No. 

Mr. Dekom. Is it a Communist organization? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 273. 

Mr. Riposanu. I don't know, but I think it is registered on the 
Attorney General's list. 

Mr. Dekom. I hand you a photostatic copy of a report. Can you 
identify it for the record ? 

Mr. Riposanu. I received the report in the Ritz Hotel the first day 
I arrived in the United States. It was in the delegation of Americans 
of Rumanian descent in New York. Then the original of this memo- 
randum was presented to Minister Ralea in the name of the Romanul- 
American. It goes on about the Groza government, about the situa- 
tion here, about the role and the attitude of leaders and organiza- 
tions of Americans of Rumanian descent. 

Mr. Dekom. Are any attacks made in that against American persons 
or Members of Congress ? 

Mr. Riposanu. It is an attack against a certain Hon. Congressman 
George Dondero, of Michigan, for he addressed a memorandum to the 
United States Congress concerning the problem of Bessarabia. This 
memorandum was in fact dealing in the biggest part about the ques- 
tion of Bessarabia, a Rumanian province seized by Russia. "The 
report," said the Romanul-American. "is full of lies." 

Mr. Arens. Doctor, will you identify that document again, please? 
What is that document that you hold in your hand ? 

Mr. Riposanu. It was handed in at the Hotel Ritz in New York, 
in the first days that the Rumanian Legation arrived here. 

The Chairman. That is now marked for identification in the hearing 
as what ( 

Mr. Arens. Exhibit No. 2, sir. 

The Chairman. It will be marked and received. 

(The photostat was marked "Riposanu Exhibit No. 2" and filed for 
the information of the subcommittee. The translation is as follows :) 

[Translation] 

Memorandum 

The information which we give here has a single goal — to assist in cementing 
the ties of friendship between our adopted country and our country of birth, 
and to continue the fight to isolate and defeat fascism wherever it attempts to 
raise its head. 

We consider every manisfestation of fascism, regardless under what mask it 
presents itself, as a deadly danger to our adopted country and a deadly danger 
to the new democracies, among which our fatherland is included. 

Three important groups exist among Rumanian Americans here in America : 

1. The liberal group organized around the Union and League R. A. S. 
[Romanian-American Society] with the newspaper America. 

2. The workers' group organized around the Romanian-American Fraternal 
Society of the International Workers Order, with the newspaper Romanul 
American [Romanian- American]. 

3. The church group, which is in fact divided in additional subgroups with the 
newspaper Solia [Mission]. 

In the latter group there were also included elements of the Foaia Poporului 
[People's Journal] and two other newspapers which have appeared recently and 
are published at intervals of a month, two, or three, months. The newspapers in 
question are : Adevarul [Truth] and Lumina [Light]. 

Besides these newspapers, there is also the magazine written in the English 
language — the New Pioneer — edited by Mr. Theodore Andrica, the organ of the 
organization Cultural Association for Americans of Romanian Descent. The 
editorial committee of the magazine, besides Mr. Andrica, is made up of the 



274 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

priest, George Babutiu (Greek Catholic) and Miss Sylvia Damian, with Mr. loan 
Burnea as principal collaborator. The politics of this group is similar to that of 
the church group. 

II 

In order to have a clearer picture of these groups and of their activities, with 
regard to new Rumania, it is necessary to give a summary of their position during 
the time of World War II. 

The newspaper Romanul American (formerly Desteptarea [Awakening]) 
carried on an intensive campaign for the unification of our national groups in 
order to keep our adopted country from falling into the talons of fascism and 
to assist our country of birth to escape from these talons. 

In October 1941 we succeeded in achieving the unity of our national group, 
creating the Alliance of Romanian-Americans for Democracy which has played 
an extremely important role during the entire time of the war, but a much less 
important one since the end of the war. 

The Alliance of Romanian-Americans for Democracy is composed of: The 
Union and League R. A. S. ; R. A. Fraternal S. of the IWO, the national benefit 
and insurance society with a workers character ; the Junior League ; the League 
of Romanian Volunteers of World War I ; and the Baptist Association (the latter 
only until the year 1943 ) . 

Independent local organizations, parishes, political, social, and women's groups 
took part in the local sections of the Alliance. 

Since the beginning of the Alliance, the Rumanian Orthodox Episcopate has 
conducted a vicious campaign against it and against the compotent organizations, 
slandering the organizations and their leaders. 

SOME OF THE ACTIVITIES OF THE "ALLIANCE" 

The activities of the Alliance are divided into two principle phases : 

((.•<) On the political and ideological theme. 

(6) War activities, as for example, the buying and giving to the armed forces 
of our country' over 20 ambulances, the buying of war bonds, donations to the 
Red Cross, to the USO (the Service organizations on all fronts, as well as here 
in the training camps, for our soldiers), donations of blood, charity donations, 
etc. 

In the ideological and political field, there was carried on an intense campaign 
among Rumanian-Americans and among Americans against the Fascists and 
against the saboteurs of the United Nations. 

This campaign was directed at the Fascist clique which organized itself 
politically in the organization Free Romania, which was an instrument of 
former King Carol II. Besides Solia, they had the Graiul Romanesc [Rumanian 
Voice] and the magazine in English, Free Romania. 

The ideologists of these publications were the priests Stefan Opreanu, 
Gligheriu Moraru, and the editor George Zamfir, who was condemned to imprison- 
ment for fraud. 

Not only that this clique did nothing to help the victory of the United Na- 
tions, not only that it attacked the Alliance, but it never attacked the Antonescu 1 
government. Their entire ideology in the Glasul Romanesc [Rumanian Voice] 
resembled the ideology of Mein Kampf. Once they published an editorial which 
was translated almost word for word from Mein Kampf. 

The Alliance of Romanian Americans for Democracy, with its component 
societies and organizations, and the newspapers Romanul American and Ameri- 
ca have conducted an energetic campaign to unmask the activities of those named 
above, demanding that they be arrested and their press suppressed. 

The campaign was carried out with success when the three mentioned above 
were arrested, tried, and condemned to approximately 2 years in prison and 
fined, and their press suppressed. They were pardoned — not fully — by President 
Truman immediately after his installation in power. 

The other important political campaign was that against the former King 
Caron II [Carol] when he tried several times to enter the United States. The 
attempts of the former King were destroyed by the activities of the Alliance 
and the newspaper Romanul American. 

1 Gen. Ion Antonescu, the head of the Kumanian Government during the Nazi occupa- 
tion, leader of the Iron Guard, the Rumanian Fascist organization. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 275 

The Alliance functioned even in Rumania under the auspices of the OWI, 1 
a Government propaganda agency. The Alliance was entrusted with prepara- 
tion of speeches which were delivered on one hand by Mr. Louis I. Bozin, the 
secretary-treasurer of the Alliance, and on the other hand by Mr. Peter Neagoe, 
Speeches were also delivered by Mr. Carol Davila, the former Rumanian Minister 
in Washington, as long as his attitude was correct. Now, Mr. Davila has for 
more than 8 months been against the Groza 2 government. 

Mr. Andrica, the Priest Babutiu, the Priest Spataru (Greek Catholics), as well 
as the Romanian Orthodox clergy, have never ceased making attacks against 
the progressive and democratic forces of the country. During the entire time 
of the war, the Alliance and its component organizations, spearheaded by the 
newspapers Romanul American and America, which supported the Alliance, 
published manifestos, booklets, and other material on both a national and local 
scale aimed at the unification of our group and the American people to urge 
the Romanian people to withdraw from the war on the side of Nazi Germany. 
We condemned the dictate of Vienna 3 and we urged the necessity that Tran- 
sylvania should be definitely returned to Romania. 

* With the liberation of Rumania from the Nazi-Antonescu yoke, the Alliance 
again took a positive stand for the unity of the three great powers — the United 
Srates, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain as the sole guarantee for a just and 
enduring peace and one which would permit the countries to enter upon the road 
of democracy. 

With regard to Rumania, the Alliance refused to take a position opposed to 
the Groza government although Mr. Davila, who was its honorary President, 
tried in July 1945, to forcibly lead the Alliance into a position contrary to the 
Groza government by threatening to resign as honorary president. The leader- 
ship of the Alliance, nonetheless, rejected the demand of Mr. Davila. 

Mr. Davila went so far as to try to influence the newspaper Romanul American 
not to attack Mr. Iuliu Manin " anymore, but without success. The gentleman 
also demanded that the Alliance should unite with the priests who are opposed 
to the Groza government. In the face of the correct and democratic position 
of the Alliance, Mr. Davila was forced to resign. 

Although the Alliance has done very little on a large scale, nonetheless, its 
national officers have issued various declarations on behalf of the unity of the 
three great powers, in favor of the Groza government, and for the reintegration 
of Transylvania in the democratic body of new Rumania. 

IV 

Despite the fact that pressure upon the Union and League and upon the news- 
paper America (particularly since they were always for Maniu) has been very 
great, it has not yet happened that they have fallen victim to this pressure. 
Thus, the position of the newspaper America, although none too positive and 
clear toward the present Rumanian Goverment, still it cannot be said that they 
are against it. It must, however, be pointed out that as a result of the pressure 
of certain reactionary circles from the Union and League, it has published from 
time to time articles which could not be considered favorable to the Groza govern- 
ment nor the Soviet Union. In other words, the position of the newspaper 
America is sometimes hesitant. 

The reactionaries and Fascists who opposed the Alliance of Romanian-Amer- 
icans for Democracy are now in front of the opposition to the Groza government, 
against the Soviet Union, and are carrying on a campaign which is beginning 
to penetrate our large masses. 

Foaia Poporului, Solia, and in a more openly Fascist way, Lumina and 
Adevarul are carrying on a dirty campaign. Lumina is the organ of the so- 
called Rumanian National Committee for Democracy. The open leaders of this 
committee are Rudi Nan of Youngstown, Ohio; George Stanculescu, former 

1 Office of War Information. 

2 Petru Groza, present puppet Prime Minister of Rumania. 

3 The Treaty of Vienna, signed under Nazi auspices, returned to Hungary part of the 
territory of Transylvania which was annexed by Rumania after World War I. 

4 Iuliu Maniu was the head of the Rumanian Peasant Party and the leader of the demo- 
cratic forces of Rumania. He was the only leader to emerge in postwar Rumania who had 
the genuine support of the people. He was arrested by Communists on the usual trumped 
np treason charges. 



276 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

functionary of the Rumanian Consulate in Cleveland, Ohio; the priest loan 
Truta, also of Cleveland; the priest George Babutiu, also of Cleveland; and 
the priest loan Spataru of Youngstown, Ohio (the last two are Greek Catho- 
lics). With them is Theodore Andrica, who is in the capacity of American 
journalist, has been in Rumania and who at the present is getting ready to go 
there anew; the priest Alexander Cucu of Akron, Ohio (former Guardist* in 
Rumania, who was put in a concentration camp here in America during the war 
as a dangerous person to the security of our adopted country) ; the priest George 
Moldovan of Farrell, Pa. (an old former Guardist in Rumania). Also with 
them are Nicholas Martin Neamtu, counseler of the Episcopate, the priests 
Glicherie Moraru, Stefan Opreanu, and others less known. With this group 
there were secretly Andrei Popovici, former consul in New York, George 
Anagnostache, former consul in Cleveland, and others, such as Nicholas T. Cucu 
and loan Cucu (two brothers) [who are] very active in their work of dis- 
ruption and anti-Soviet propaganda and against Mr. Groza and his collaborators. 

Their propaganda is carried on with the knowledge and under the guidance 
of Maniu. It is said that they have even received money from the country 
[Rumania]. The newspapers Lumina and Adevarul are distributed free. The 
same [is true of] Foaia Poporului and the New Pioneer. The circulation of the 
newspapers Solia and Foaia Poporului does not exceed 1,000 copies each. 

In the meetings that they have, and in the press, their propaganda is similar 
to that of Goebbels : The Red Army kills thousands of Rumanians, violates girls 
of 8-10-12 years of age, steals everything, despoils the people's wealth. The 
<Jroza government is a Communist government. The Jewess, Ana Pauker, runs 
the government, liberty does not exist in Rumania. The people die of hunger 
and everything they have is taken away from them. Maniu has the support of 
the majority of the people. He is the idol of the people. He is the great cham- 
pion of the Rumanian democracy, etc., etc., etc. 

Briefly, these are the things propagated by the Manist opposition here. Finally 
there are the Rumanians who have [recently] come from the country, par- 
ticularly, the young ones, and all of them sing the same tune. According to our 
information, these elements are instructed by a conspiratory organization in 
Rumania, tied up with Maniu and the Iron Guard. They also receive some 
instructions by means of ships when they come here. 

There has never been more violent anti-Soviet and anti-Groza propaganda car- 
ried on than that carried on by these elements. In step with this propaganda, 
is an intensive anti-Semitic campaign asserting that "Russians and Jews run the 
country." 

When the Hungarian reactionary-chauvinistic clique of America began a 
campaign that Transylvania should be given to Hungary, they were silent and 
only when they were unmasked by the newspaper Romanul American, did they 
begin to see something in the form of a memorandum presented to a reactionary 
representative from the State of Michigan by the name of Dondero, 2 which memo- 
randum was inserted in the Congressional Record (official gazette) by this 
representative. Actually, this memorandum dealt largely with Beassarabia 3 
and is full of lies against the Groza government and accusations against the 
Soviet Union concerning the present situation, and very little concerning 
Transylvania. 

This memorandum was handed to Representative Dondero by Nicholas Mar- 
tin Neamtu, the counselor of the Orthodox Episcopate here, and it is said that it 
was prepared by Andrei Popovici. 



During the time of the war, the newspaper Romanul American and the R. A. 
Fraternal S. of the IWO were the most important instruments in the political area 
as well as in the organizational area, just as they have been since Mr. Groza came 
into power. In our opinion and that of others, the Romanul American is the most 
important and effective organ in exposing and unmasking of the Manists and of 
other Fascists and pro-Fascists and anti-Semites. It is the most important and 
useful organ in bringing into the light of day the questions pertaining to new 
Rumania and the program of the Groza government and the democratic forces of 
our mother country. 

1 Member of Iron Guard in Rumania. 

2 Representative Oeortre Dondero. 

3 Bessarabia is the former northeastern province of Rumania which was annexed by 
Soviet Russia during the period of the Hitler-Stalin pact. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 277 

This and the fraternal newspaper published notices, held popular meetings, and 
have published a brochure in the English language, The Truth About Rumania, 
which had a large distribution, as well as an important echo among Americans 
and among Rumanian-Americans. Mr. Davila firmly insisted that the brochure 
should not be published (when he designed in July 1945), because it unmasked 
Maniu. As can be seen, the newspaper Romanul American is the only newspaper 
here that is carrying on an effective fight in exposing Maniu's treacheries. 

VI 

We have decided to inform the Groza government about the situation here and 
about the role and attitude of our group. 

We hope that this information will persuade the Rumanian Government to take 
into consideration the attitude and fight of this group, the only one which has 
stood completely and openly with the action of the present Government and the 
Democratic National Front from the beginning, considering it beneficial for the 
Rumanian people and as the true path of real democracy in conformance with 
the political traditions of our adopted country, as symbolized by the program of 
the lamented and great President Roosevelt. 

When diplomatic relations between our adopted country and our country of 
birth are reestablished, we hope that the new Rumanian representatives here will 
facilitate the process of strengthening these relations by democratic ways. 

It would, indeed, be a tragedy s if, with the reestablishment of the legation, the 
representatives of new Rumania would allow themselves to be drawn into mis- 
takes and would accept as coworkers the former functionaries of the legation 
and consulates. All of them, from the greatest to the smallest, are dangerous ele- 
ments to the cementing of friendly relations by democratic means, and in many 
cases are susceptible to fascism. 

And just as America requests and has press correspondents and agents who 
send reports from Rumania, it is necessary that new Rumania should have here 
press agents and press correspondents who can inform public opinion about 
Rumania and Rumanian opinion about America. 

It is absolutely necessary that our Rumanian newspapers in America, together 
with the rest of the press, should i - eceive all kinds of news from Rumania, not 
only on political questions, but also on the progress which the people is making 
in all the areas of its national existence, economic, political, social, organizational, 
and cultural. 

It is necessary that our Rumanian press should receive such information, 
especially from Transylvania and from Banat, since a large majority of American- 
Rumanians are from Transylvania and Banat. 

It is also necessary that the Orthodox Church here should have a church head 
who would conform to the vital interests of the Rumanian churches and the 
Rumanian people, and who would help to cement the tides of friendship between 
us here and our brothers at home. 

Mr. Arexs. "Who is it that transmitted this document to you? 

Mr. Riposaxu. Two American Rumanians who have been in the 
delegation, who received the Rumanian Legation in New York. It 
was in September 1946. 

Mr. Dekom. Who are those? 

Mr. Riposaxu. A man named George Vocila. Fainaru, and others. 
It was handed in the name of the newspaper Romanul-American. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you see any of the persons who were part of that 
delegation in this room, for example, the gentleman on your left 
[Mr. Fainaru] ? 

Mr. Riposaxu. Yes. 

The Chairman. What was that delegation ? 

Mr. Arexs. Would you again clarify for the record who this dele- 
gation was and where it was and what was transmitted ? 

Mr. Riposaxu. It was many people from Detroit, Cleveland, and 
Chicago. I did not know at that time these people. Then there re- 
mained only a few of them. Among these were the president of the 
organization of Rumanians, the Union and League, the represen- 
tative of this newspaper Romanul-American, and Vocila. 



278 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Dekom. There were three men that handed you this 
memorandum ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Only two. 

Mr. Arens. Who of the two ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Voeila or Fainaru. 

Mr. Arens. It was handed to you in your presence ? 

Mr. Riposanu. That is correct. 

Mr. Arens. In the name of this newspaper ? 

Mr. Riposanu. In the name of this newspaper, they wrote in the 
contents of the memorandum. 

Mr. Arens. How many persons of Rumanian descent are there 
in the United States ? 

Mr. Riposanu. I think over 200,000. 

Mr. Arens. To what extent is there Communist cultivation or dis- 
semination or propaganda among persons of Rumanian descent in the 
United States ? 

Mr. Riposanu. There are not too many, but they tried always to 
keep and occupy the key positions in all organizations. For instance, 
the biggest organization of Americans of Rumanian descent is in 
Cleveland, Union and League. 

Mr. Arens. Is it your testimony that this activity is controlled by 
the consulates and the legations and representatives sent into the 
country ? 

Mr. Riposanu. I don't think only through legations, there were cer- 
tain people in legations who had this charge. Usually, the man who 
had the trust of the Communist Party, not the chief of the Legation 
or the chief of the mission. He could be a chauffeur or a doorman. 

Mr. Arens. You mean his official position might be that of 
chauffeur? 

Mr. Riposanu. Lazareanu was the cultural attache, but he was the 
head. We had a driver, for instance, a chauffeur in the legation, 
Sterian. 1 

Mr. Arens. To what extent do these diplomats or semidiplomats, 
persons enjoying immunity under our laws, actually address these 
groups and visit with them and meet with them and talk with them ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Lazareanu used to travel very often among the 
Rumanians. He sent books for Communist propaganda. You can 
find one of their so-called friends of the Communists in Cleveland, 
Ohio, the former president of the Union and League of Rumanians. 

The Chairman. Any questions ? 

Senator Donnell. Doctor, in your statement on page 4, near the 
bottom, you say that Lazareanu came to your office and asked you to 
give Fainaru $300 ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Senator Donnell. Is this Fainaru the same man who was on the 
witness stand just before you this morning ? 

Mr. Riposanu. It was not for the man but for the newspaper which 
he represented. 

Senator Donnell. Yes. Lazareanu came to your office and asked 
you to give for Fainaru $300 for the newspaper? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Senator Donnell. Where is Lazareanu? 

1 Vasile Sterian. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 279 

Mr. Riposanu. Lazareanu was put out of the United States because 
later they found out he was not only the cultural representative but 
was the representative of the Cominform and for that reason the 
United States Government asked the Rumanian Government that he 
be recalled. 

Senator Donnell. So Lazareanu was expelled from the United 
States? 

Mr. Riposanu. At the demand of the United States Government. 
It was proved who was Lazareanu. 

Senator Donnell. I understand from your statement that Lazar- 
eanu told you that Minister Ralea had been regularly paying him $300 
a month ? 

Mr. Riposanu. Yes. 

Senator Donnell. Where is the Minister, Ralea? 

Mr. Riposanu. He is in Rumania. 

Senator Donnell. Did you look over the payments of the Lega- 
tion at any time and find out whether these payments had been made? 

Mr. Riposanu. I did not, because that was not my work. It was 
other employees who did this. 

Mr. Braverman. Mr. Chairman, I want to make a statement. My 
client (Mr. Fainaru), asked for the right to make a statement and 
he was not allowed to make it. This witness was allowed to make his 
statement. 

The Chairman. He will have the opportunity of making the state- 
ment, 1 not right now, but he will have the opportunity. 

TESTIMONY OF MIRCEA METES, FORMER FIRST SECRETARY OF 

THE RUMANIAN LEGATION 

Mr. Arens. The next witness is Mr. Metes. 

The Chairman. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

You do solemnly swear that the testimony that you are about to 
give before this subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary 
of the Senate of the United States will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Metes. I do. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly identify yourself by name, occupa- 
tion, and residence? 

Mr. Metes. My name is Mircea Metes. 

Mr. Arens. You are here in answer to a subpena to appear before 
this committee ? 

Mr. Metes. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. Do you have a prepared statement? 

Mr. Metes. Yes. 

Mr. Arens. You may proceed. 

Until September 6, 19-18, I was First Secretary of the Rumanian 
Legation here in Washington. I was assigned in the summer of 1946, 
and since that time I have not returned home. I resigned from the 
Legation because my thinking and my ideals were different from 
those of the people who are now ruling Rumania. I was subpenaed 
before this committee to testify on what I know concerning the activ- 
ities of the personnel of the Rumanian Legation outside of their legal 

1 See p. 203. 



280 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

tasks and of the activities of Communists among the Rumanians in 
this country. From my own personal observation and experience I 
can state that the personnel of the Rumanian Legation are engaged 
in —  

(1) Undermining the loyalty of Americans of Rumanian origin 
by means of propaganda and Communist organizational work. 

(2) Maintaining contact with Communists and pro-Communists 
for the purpose of obtaining information about the United States 
and about Rumanians living in this country. 

(3) Operating a secret police cell in the Legation to spy on the 
people there and to terrorize them. 

These facts I know from my own experience ; I have personal 
knowledge of them. I not only watched the operation of the secret 
police unit, but I have had occasion to learn directly of their plans 
to set up Communist organizations among American citizens of 
Rumanian origin. 

In order that you may understand the situation, I would like first 
of all to explain conditions in the Legation itself. During a part of 
my term with the Legation, there was a cultural counselor by the 
name of Alexander Lazareanu. ^rom his actions and his authority, 
it was obvious to all of us that Lazareanu Mas the representative of 
the secret police and of the Communist Party in the Legation. 

He was very timid when he first came here. He did no work in 
the Legation. He tried just to meet people and to contact people. 
He tried first to contact people at different legations here in Wash- 
ington from behind the iron curtain, and then in January 1947, he was 
sent to Bucharest by Mr. Raiea, the Rumanian Minister in the United 
States, supposedly to get in touch there with leaders of the political 
parties in Rumania and to arrange that the staff of the Legation would 
be increased and that the former salary levels be restored. 

I know, however, because it was told to almost everyone in the 
Legation that one of the real purpc ses of Mr. Lazareanu's trip to 
Rumania was to try to replace Mr. Riposanu. who was supposed to 
go for a trip to Rumania on an official mission. We did not believe 
it was possible, but Lazareanu succeeded. We did not believe it be- 
cause Mr. Riposanu. when Antonescu ruled Rumania, was one of the 
men who helped Dr. Groza, the present Prime Minister. 

When Lazareanu came back 2 months later, he had an order from 
his information ministry that he was appointed as chief of the press 
delegation here in Washington. He also became the chief adviser to 
Mr. Ralea, the Minister, who made no minor or major decision without 
the advice of Mr. Lazareanu. 

The Legation staff was composed of representatives of various 
ministries. Most of them were from the Foreign Ministry, I mean 
the counselors, secretaries, attaches, and others. Lazareanu and Vogel 
were working for the cultural and press services and belonged to the 
Ministry of Information. 

Lazareanu and his henchmen were constantly spying on everybody 
in the Legation and sending back reports to Bucharest. They went 
to extreme and even ridiculous ends to accomplish this purpose. One 
day, I had to go to the basement, where some old records were stored, 
to look up some old material. When I turned on the light, I saw 
Sterian, who was supposed to be the chauffeur of the Legation, stand- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 281 

ing on top of a box. He was slightly stooped over because the ceiling 
was low. I noticed that someone had bored holes in the basement 
ceiling and Sterian was listening in on the conversation which people 
were having in the room above. You might be interested in knowing 
that Sterian was at one time a bodyguard to the Communist dictator 
of Rumania, Ana Pauker, and was obviously an agent of the Rumanian 
secret police. He even took it upon himself to open other people's 
mail, even personal mail. I believe also that Mr. Sterian was a mem- 
ber of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Rumania. 

Mr. Dekom. And he was here as a chauffeur? 

Mr. Metes. »He was here as a chauffeur of the Legation. He was 
recalled on demand of the Department of State and sent back to 
Rumania. 

Lazareanu later became chief of this press service. He assumed the 
responsibility for all the work of the press service of the Legation. 
Since he became chief of the press delegation, he did no more work 
than he had done before. It was always Mr. Vogel : who worked on 
the press bulletin for which the material was taken from American 
newspapers, from Associated Press releases, and from the teletype, to 
inform Mr. Ralea. 

Among the most important duties of Lazareanu was to send in- 
formation about everything that happens in the United States, to keep 
liaison with the leftists and with the Communist Party of the United 
States, and with the legations from behind the iron curtain. 

Here is how it happened that I saw these things. In August 1947, 
while Mr. Ralea was in Europe, Mr. Mardarescu, 2 who was Charge 
d" Affaires, called me into his office. Mr. Lazareanu was also there. 
Mr. Mardarescu, in the capacity as the active chief of the mission, said, 
"Mr. Metes, we want to ask you to do something." 

I sat down. First Mr. Mardarescu spoke to me and then Mr. 
Lazareanu. Lazareanu said : 

Mircea, since you are a Transylvania-horn Rumanian, since your wife is the 
daughter of a priest, and since for the most part the Rumanian-Americans came 
from Transylvania, you can understand them better, they can understand you 
better, and they can trust you. You are the only one. since Riposanu is no 
longer a member of the Rumanian Legation, who will be able to help us. 

Transylvania is one of the northern provinces of Rumania. People 
from Transylvania emigrated to the United States before the First 
World War, some 45 or 50 years ago. 

Mr. Dekom. There is also a difference in dialect ? 

Mr. Metes. Yes; old-time Transylvanians speak a language which 
is quite different from the language of old Rumania. They have also 
been under entirely different cultural and historical influences. I 
think 999 out of 1,000 Rumanians in the United States came from 
Transylvania. 

Mr. Lazareanu told me : 

You will be able to get their confidence. It will not be very difficult work for 
you. First, you are to inquire about the number of Rumanian people ; secondly, 
what kind of political beliefs or leanings they have, what kind of organizations — 
not just political, but also religious, cultural, and sport organizations — they have. 
You will be sent there from the Legation. The Legation will pay your expenses, 
but you mus t not tell them what mission you have there ; just that you made a 

1 For the testimony of Alfons Vogel, see p. 289. 

2 Vlad G. Mardarescu, counselor of legation. 



282 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

trip for pleasure, and to become acquainted with your people from Transylvania. 
Then, after you are there 5 or 10 days, you will come back and you will make 
a report about what you did there, about what information you got from these 
people. On another occasion, you will be sent back, also for a so-called pleasure 
trip, to Cleveland and Detroit, and other cities in which there are Rumanians, 
and try to make small political organizations, or to advise the already existing 
organizations, no matter whether they had religious or cultural affiliations, to 
federate or to form a coalition under the leadership of "progressives" in order to 
become stronger. 

"Progressives" was the word they used very often to describe extreme 
leftists or Communists. They never spoke in the Legation of the Com- 
munist Party or the members of the Communist Party as "Commu- 
nists." They were "Progressives," all of them. 
Lazareanu continued : 

But you must not call these organizations political organizations at first. 
You should only suggest that they be organized, because organizations and 
organized people are stronger than a people completely dispersed. 

Then you will have to contact those Rumanians who we know have leftist 
leanings and have them take over the leadership of the organizations you will 
form. 

You must not call these organizations Communist organizations, but just pro- 
gressive organizations. You have to inform them about what happened in 
Rumania, about the new freedom of the Rumanian working and peasant classes, 
about the freedom of everybody who works in Rumania ; and to let them know 
that Rumania is completely independent ; that just Wall Street and the Ameri- 
can warmongers say that Rumania lost its independence, is a part of Russia, is 
ruled by the Russians, and it has to follow the Russian line. 

Afterward, you will be able to establish one or two small organizations, but 
not directly connected to you — you must not have any direct connection with 
these organizations. You will leave them in charge of the people who we know 
are truly and certainly "progressive" and go on to others. 

I said : "Yes, it is true, I am from Transylvania, but I have no politi- 
cal inclinations and I really do not like to play politics. I have never 
played politics in my life. I am not the most suitable person to be 
sent there, maybe I will make mistakes and the Legation will have 
trouble. I do not consider these Rumanians as a Rumanian colony 
in the United States. They are not Rumanian citizens, but American 
citizens, and I think if the American authorities hear about our doings 
there, not only myself, but the Legation, will have some repercussions 
and not a pleasant position here. We do not have the right to mix 
into American interior affairs. I think you will have to think more 
about this offer before starting this work. 

"Secondly, I do not consider this Rumanian minority in the United 
States politically very important to the United States, because they are 
no more than 100,000 or 150,000 people. In comparison with the popu- 
lation of the United States, it does not represent an electoral or politi- 
cal force at all. Furthermore, they are very divided, not just politi- 
cally, but religiously and culturally, and it is dangerous even to try 
to organize them. 

"Thirdly, if I go there and try to organize them, I have to tell them 
things which they like to hear, because I cannot just get in touch with 
them and tell them to get organized. 

Suppose I would be able to establish a small organization there, 
what importance would this organization have on United States in- 
ternal politics or in Rumania?" 

They said, "You are wrong. You are wrong, first, because it is not 
important that such an organization must have millions of members. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 283 

It is enough to have a nucleus first. This organization will grow and 
they will get more people. I agree with you that you will never be 
able to introduce into this organization all the Rumanian- Americans, 
but later, 5 or 10 years later, when the moment comes, we will have 
here a small organization on which we can count." 

I said, "Yes, maybe you are right, but really I prefer not to be sent 
out in this capacity. I do not think I am the right man for this job. 
If you think otherwise, I ask you to wait until Mr. Ralea returns and to 
speak to him. It is a sufficiently important thing not to make a quick 
decision." 

Lazareanu said, "I am sure Mr. Ralea will have the same opinion 
as I have." 

I said, "Yes, but even so, let's wait a little." 

They agreed. They did not ask me until Mr. Ralea returned. After 
his return Mr. Ralea told me, "You know, Mr. Metes, I intend to send 
you for a short trip to Cleveland and Detroit." 

I said, "Yes, Mr. Mardarescu and Mr. Lazareanu told me some weeks 
ago about these things, but really, I do not think that this assignment 
will be suitable for this trip." I tried to explain to him my position. 
I suggested that someone else be sent there, even Mr. Lazareanu. But 
Lazareanu said, "I would go there, but my appearance is not a Tran- 
sylvanian appearance; I have a kind of Jewish face and I cannot 
say that I am a Transylvanian. I cannot say, even if I speak Ru- 
manian well, that I am a person from Transylvania." He also said, 
"You have another factor that helps you; your wife is the daughter 
of a Transylvanian priest." 

After I spoke to Mr. Ralea, he asked me if I spoke to Lazareanu, and 
I told him that I had. Later, at a small meeting we had with Mr. 
Lazareanu, Mr. Vogel, and Mr. Mardarescu, Mr. Ralea said, "I have 
the same opinion as Mr. Metes has concerning this matter." 

Lazareanu immediately began to restate his arguments; but Mr. 
Ralea said, "No, I prefer to send a cable to Bucharest and ask the 
Foreign Ministry if such activity is or is not indicated." 

Later on, some of the people from the Legation went to Cleveland 
and other places. I believe these trips were for organizational pur- 
poses. My opinion is confirmed by the fact that they tried to hide 
from me, even to deceive me, about their travels. I would like to tell 
the committee about one such instance in the summer of 1948. 

One day, I had to obtain the monthly signatures on the salary state- 
ments. I went to the offices of Preoteasa, Magureanu, 1 and Lazareanu, 
but none of them was in. I was told that they had not come in that 
day, but no one knew where they were. I thereupon called the home 
of Lazareanu (where Preoteasa also lived), and Madame Lazareanu 
answered. She told me that Preoteasa had left Washington last night 
with Lazareanu to go to Cleveland. 

The next day, I asked Magureanu whether he had been away, and 
lie, surprised at my question, said, "Yes; I was in New York with 
Lazareanu." 

Later on. I asked Lazareanu, "Did you go to Cleveland yesterday?" 
He said, "No ; I was in New York. Just Mr. Magureanu and Mr. Pro- 
teasa were in Cleveland." The fact is that they all three were in 
Cleveland. Madame Lazareanu said they went to Cleveland, when I 
psked her. 

Grisore Preoteasa. Minister Counselor. Constantin Margureanu, First Secretary. 
98330—50 — pt. 1 19 



284 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

One of the most important links in the propaganda chain of the 
Rumanian Legation is the Rumanian Communist newspaper — "pro- 
gressive newspaper," they used to call it — Romanul-American, pub- 
lished in Detroit. It is edited by Harry Fainaru and George Vocila. 

This newspaper describes everything that happens in the United 
States, or that is done by the United States, as completely wrong ; and 
everything that happens in Russia and in the countries behind the iron 
curtain as wonderful. For someone like myself, who has seen condi- 
tions in Rumania under the Communists, this attitude is completely 
ridiculous. Everything in this country is unimaginably better than 
in Rumania, even before the war, when we had no Communist govern- 
ments and conditions were very much better than they are now. 

Mi*-. Dekom. In the light of your own personal experiences, would 
you discuss the comparison between life in the United States and life 
in Rumania? 

Mr. Metes. I was considered wealthy in my country. My father 
was a lawyer, and I had more opportunities in my country than the 
average Rumanian. I had a car ; I had a telephone ; I had a bathroom. 

I really tell you that I never could imagine that a workingman or 
a former peasant from Rumania could have here, or anywhere in the 
world, such a good life as they do in America. I saw some Rumanians 
who came 45 years ago, knowing nothing about anything, two or three 
or four grades in elementary school, having here the best material 
situation I could imagine for myself there in Rumania. I myself 
did not have in Rumania what these people have, and I was considered 
in my country wealthy. I know a family of four or five people who 
have four cars, two bathrooms — and he is not an intellectual. When 
the man came here, he was a poor Rumanian peasant from Tran- 
sylvania. 

To return to the subject of the Romanul-American, Fainaru and 
Vocila were always invited to the Rumanian Legation for receptions, 
and so forth. They came very often to the Rumanian Legation, and 
they always spoke first with Mr. Lazareanu and then sometimes 
they saw also Mr. Mardarescu or Mr. Ralea. 

Mr. Lazareanu came back from his trip to Rumania after Ana 
Pauker took over the Foreign Ministry in the fall of 1947. He brought 
with him an important lot of papers in a small suitcase. They were 
photostatic copies of documents and important for propaganda 
reasons — Rumanian official documents taken from files of the Foreign 
Ministry, the Ministry of Justice, or the Ministry of Interior. 

I saw many of them on Lazareanu's desk ; not all of them, because 
there were hundreds concerning Rumanian political leaders who were 
refugees in the United States or in Europe ; also concerning Rumanian 
political leaders in jail in Rumania — Mr. Maniu, Mr. Leucuta, 1 and 
others. After this set of documents were brought here, Mr. Fainaru 
began a series of articles based on these documents in the Romanul- 
American. 

I recognized them immediately because, by chance, I saw one of the 
photostats laying on the desk of Lazareanu and the same photostatic 
copy appeared in the Romanul-American. It was about Mr. Niculescu- 
Buzesti, one of the former Rumanian Foreign Ministers. 

I asked Lazareanu, when I saw the newspaper, if he wrote the 
article. He said, "No ; it is Fainaru 's article." 

1 Aurel Leucuta, Minister of Economy in the post-armistics coalition government. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 285 

"But," I said, "even if you did not write the article (it was written 
in a better Rumanian language than Fainaru is able to speak or 
write), the photostatic copy is yours." 

He said. "Oh, no; it is not mine. It is the Foreign Ministry's." 

I said. ''Yes, but is the Romanul- American the Rumanian Foreign 
Ministry's official gazette to get such photostatic copies?" 

He said, "No; it is the only way to fight these * * * (and he 
used very unpleasant words to characterize the so-called reac- 
tionaries)." 

I also believe that Lazareanu, as well as other members of the Lega- 
tion, wrote articles for this newspaper occasionally, because some of 
the Rumanian articles in this newspaper are too well written in the 
Rumanian language to be considered written by Fainaru, or any other 
Rumanian who did not finish his studies in Rumania. This is ob- 
vious, because the Rumanian-Americans speak Rumanian very badly. 
Even if they speak it correctly, they speak the language of 45 years 
ago in Transylvania. 

Perhaps, also, some English articles are written by Lazareanu, be- 
cause he speaks English well. He made phonetic English studies in 
London, and he writes English well. 

I also have knowledge of the fact that Fainaru received money from 
Minister Relea. I was the bookkeeper and cashier of the Legation, 
and I paid the salaries and had to check all the bills that came in. All 
the bank statements were brought to me for checking. 

When we arrived in this country, we opened a general account in 
the American Security Trust Co. under the name of the "Legation 
of Rumania." At the same time, Mr. Ralea opened a bank account 
for his personal use and for so-called special expenses. This account 
was also at the American Security Bank under the name of "Mihai 
Ralea, care of Legation of Rumania." This statement was sent di- 
rect to Mr. Ralea, because it was his personal account. 

Once, by error, the postman delivered to the wrong person, an 
envelope with Ralea's bank statement. The statement was perhaps 
so folded that he saw just the "Legation of Rumania" through the 
window of the envelope, and he brought this statement to my office. 
I don't remember exactly whether the statement was sent from the 
American Security Bank or another one. 

Since the envelope was similar to the envelopes we always received 
our bank statements in, I opened it. 

Later, I took out the checks to go over them. I checked one ; it was 
for Brentano's Book Store. The second one was "Pay to the order 
of H. Fainaru, $600," and then written out "Six hundred" with the 
signature of Mr. Ralea. 

Mr. Arens. Is that H. Fainaru, the same Fainaru who testified this 
morning ? 

Mr. Metes. Since I do not know another person with this name, 
since Mr. Fainaru. who is sitting here, was seen by me in the Legation 
as a guest of the Legation, as a guest of the Minister, as a guest of 
Mr. Lazareanu, I don't think it is possible for it to be another one. 
But to the best of my knowledge, this Mr. Fainaru must be the same 
as H. Fainaru, whose name was written on that check. I am sorry I 
did not know enough and I was not attentive enough to make a photo- 
static copy, just to show the truth. It is too late, but I remember 
the check exactly. I saw "H. Fainaru," and I was surprised, because 



286 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

I could not imagine — it was not the normal checking account of the 
Legation, because that was used to pay salaries, electricity, and other 
expenses of the Legation. There was assigned to the Legation and 
handled by the Minister a so-called special fund. In Rumania, the 
Finance Ministry calls this special fund the "fund for higher inter- 
ests of the state." 

This special fund is allocated to different departments in the coun- 
try. For instance, the War Department, the Department of the In- 
terior, and the Department of Foreign Affairs used to have a higher 
special fund in order to be able to spend this money for certain in- 
formation they have to buy. 

Perhaps the committee would be interested if I explained that the 
Rumanian budget has a provision concerning the creation of a "fund 
for higher interests of the state." All other normal funds, appropri- 
ated specifically for a specified purpose, must be justified by docu- 
ments, but not the special fund. 

At the Legation, if I had to pay a bill, I had to get a receipt, trans- 
late the receipt into the Rumanian language and send it to the Ru- 
manian Foreign Ministry. The special fund was justified only by 
the person who handled the money directly to the chief of the depart- 
ment. In this case, the special fund has to be justified by Mr. Ralea 
directly to the Foreign Minister. This money was used to pay for 
information and propaganda purposes. 

We all knew that Mr. Lazareanu got from Mr. Ralea from this spe- 
cial fund for different purposes. Sometimes when he gave the money, 
I was there. The bills for the normal expenses of the press service 
came directly to me to pay from the other fund. 

Mr. Arens. What was the amount of the fund ? 

Mr. Metes. I don't remember exactly. I remember, first, it was 
$30,000. Then, a few months later — I don't recall, because I did not 
handle this money — he asked for and received more money. When 
Ralea left on a trip to Europe, or even here in the United States, he 
used to give a certain amount to Mr. Lazareanu for so-called expenses 
of the press service. What is strange is that the expenses of the press 
service were paid through the regular way from the Legation's ac- 
count. So, I don't know what other kinds of expenses Lazareanu 
might have had. 

When I saw Fainaru's name on a check, I was surprised, and realized 
that it was not a statement of the Legation's, because I did not remem- 
ber paying Fainaru from the Legation's account at any time. I knew, 
because I used to check the books of the Legation. 

We did make payments to Brentano's, because we bought books 
there for the Legation or the Government. 

I had made payments to the Romanul-American and America, an- 
other newspaper published for Rumanians, for some advertisements 
concerning packages to Rumania. But these checks were made out 
to the order of America, or Romanul-American, but never to "Mr. 
Fainaru," or any person in particular. 

I put the checks back in the envelope with the statement. I went 
to Mr. Ralea and gave him the envelope. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know of other instances in which money from 
the special fund was paid out? 

Mr. Metes. Yes. In February 1948, 1 sent the salaries for the peo- 
ple at the so-called New York consulate. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 287 

Mr. Crivelescu, the vice consul, sent a servant, a Rumanian citizen, 
from New York to Washington with some papers. I say "so-called con- 
sulate" because this consulate was opened without asking the normal 
permission of the Department of State. One year later, this consulate 
had to be closed at the request of the State Department. 

When the servant arrived in Washington, I wanted to use this oppor- 
tunity, in order to send the salaries to New York, without having to 
go through the formalities of registered letters and such things. I 
put the checks in an envelope. Before I sealed the envelope, Mr. 
Lazareanu came to me and gave me a little white sheet of paper 
folded over, and said, "Please put this paper in ; there is $300 in the 
envelope. Seal it, but not with the normal glue, but also with the 
official seal of the Legation, sealed with sealing wax, and give it to 
the servant to take to New York." 

It was a sheet of paper about the size of that [indicating] stenotype 
paper — a little wider maybe — folded in two or three. He left my 
office and I opened this paper and I saw written there, "Dear Nelu" — 
Nelu is the first name of Crivelescu — "I send enclosed herewith $300 
for our friend 'M' " — just the letter 'M.' — "Please try to get a receipt 
from him and if it is not possible to get such a receipt, then you will 
have to make a receipt and I will countersign that payment was 
really made. You will know why I send the money." 

I put the money in the envelope, sealed it, and gave it to the servant. 

That day, and not very much later, the telephone rang at the Lega- 
tion. This was not a switchboard telephone and when someone called 
the Legation the bell rang everywhere where there was an extension. 
One was on my desk and I picked it up and I said "Hello, Rumanian 
Legation." Lazareanu or somebody else said "We are speaking." He 
had picked up the telephone before I did. I listened for awhile. He 
said "Dear Nelu, I sent that money for our friend, Mr. May. Then 
he explained to him that he should give this money to "our friend" and 
to try to get a receipt. On several other occasions, I heard about infor- 
mation being given to the people at the Legation from this source 
concerning relations and and difficulties and quarrels among Rumanian 
and Hungarian political refugee leaders here in the United States. 

To fully understand these activities of the Rumanian Communists, 
I may perhaps try to explain to you their attitude, their beliefs — those 
beliefs which move them. In the fall of 1947, for example, one of the 
members of the Rumanian staff, Mr. Vasiliu, 1 who was the third secre- 
tary, and myself, were called to the Minister's residence. Mr. Ralea 
tried to make a friendly speech to us. He tried to emphasize all the 
defects of the capitalistic system and to describe for us the Commu- 
nist Party's fight for what he called "freedom and democracy." That 
was one of his favorite phrases "freedom and democracy." In con- 
clusion he said : 

I want to draw your attention to the fact that this is not a novel, not a story, 
it is true. More than half of the people of the world are directed toward com- 
munism. Maybe these people have a serious reason for doing it. Sooner or 
later, you can be sure, Socialist and Communist rule will be established all over 
the world. 

Mr. Vasiliu, the third secretary of the Legation, had been accused 
by Sterian , the chauffeur-spy member of the Communist Party, of 

1 Mireea Vasiliu, Third Secretary. 



288 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

having meetings with Mr. Riposanu, already considered a dangerous 
political refguee and a big reactionary. Vasiliu, a young man about 
25 years old or 26 years old, was very, very embarrassed and afraid, 
because he knew exactly what would happen to him on going back to 
Rumania with any such recommendation from Mr. Sterian. 

Ralea called Vasiliu and me to the residence to influence us to go 
back to Rumania and to join the Communist Party if it were possible, 
and to become good Communists. That speech lasted over an hour 
and a half, but the point of it was that since half the people living in 
this world are going toward communism, perhaps it is something 
good and in a period of time, the whole world will be Communists. 

The same opinion was, of course, held by Lazareanu and some of 
the others. I remember one particular instance, almost 3 weeks after 
I sent in my resignation. One Friday night at 11 : 30, Mr. Preoteasa, 
the charge d'affaires and Mr. Lazareanu came to my apartment and 
they tried to convince me to go back to Rumania. 

T was no longer a member of the Legation. I had sent my resigna- 
tion by cable to Rumania, so there was nothing to explain, because I 
was very, very clear. 

They stayed about 35 or 40 minutes, trying to convince me to go 
back. They said, "Don't you think you are a traitor?" I said, "To 
whom? To the Communist Party, or my country? My country is 
ruled by 2,000 people and since I have some education, I remember 
that the population of Rumania is over 17.000,000. I don't think 
those 17,000,000 people living there would consider me a traitor of the 
Rumanian people." 

They said, "If you do not go back, don't forget, your family is there. 
Your family will suffer for your action." 

Mr. Chairman, that was the worst blackmail I could ever imagine 
from a so-called diplomat, because that is what they were sent here 
for, to be diplomats. 

When their persuasion and threats failed to intimidate me to go 
back to Rumania, they said, "Five or ten years later you will have to 
answer for this." 

I said, "To whom?" 

They said, "To the people." 

I said, "What people? There are so many people in the world." 

They said, "To the American people, even to the American people." 

The implication in their threat is that the Communist Party would 
take over the United States in 5 or 10 years. Maybe they wanted 
to say that 5 or 10 years later the American people would be under 
Communist rule where everybody is afraid, where the secret police 
and the jail are always behind the people. 

This is my statement, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. Arens. I have no questions, Mr. Chairman. Thank you Mr. 
Metes. 

The Chairman. Very well, Mr. Areiis, call your next witness. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Vogel, will you please stand and raise your right 
hand ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 289 

TESTIMONY OF ALFONS VOGEL, FORMER PRESS COUNSELOR, 

RUMANIAN LEGATION 

The Chairman. You do solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before the subcommittee of the Committee on the 
Judiciary of the United States Senate will be the truth, the whole 
truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Vogel. Yes, so help me God. 

Mr. Arexs. Mr. Chairman, at this point in the record I should like 
to insert the return of the subpena served on Mr. Vogel. 

(The subpena is in the files of the subcommittee.) 

Mr. Arexs. Will you identify yourself by name and occupation and 
residence ? 

Mr. Vogel. My name is Alfons Vogel. I have no occupation at this 
time, and I live in Scarsdale, N. Y. 

Mr. Arexs. You are here in response to a subpena ? 

Mr. Vogel. Yes. 

Mr. Arexs. To appear before this committee? 

Mr. Vogel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arexs. What affiliations have you had in times past with the 
Rumanian Government? 

Mr. Vogel. I was appointed in July 1946, as press counselor to the 
Rumanian Legation in Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Arexs. How long did you serve in that capacity ? 

Mr. Vogel. I served as press counselor for the first 6 months. 
When Mr. Lazareanu, 1 who was on the staff of the Legation, came back 
from Rumania in March 1947, he informed me, after an observation 
of mine, that it is of no use to make suggestions like the one I made 
during the conversation, because he is the new chief of the press serv- 
ice, and that I have to follow his orders. I was very amazed, in any 
case, and I asked, "Why is it?" I told him, "You have never been a 
newspaperman and I have been a very active newspaperman." 

He said, "You are a sports writer, that is all." 

I said, "Nevertheless, sports writer or music reviewer, I am a pro- 
fessional newspaperman, and you have never been a newspaperman. 
And suddenly he was appointed press counselor. He was before that 
cultural counselor of the Legation. 

He came over 1 month later than I did. I came over on September 
14, 1946, and he came in October, the 12th or 13th, 1946. During the 
first 6 months, in any case, I got the impression, while officially press 
counselor of the Legation, that I could not act normally, such as I 
understood it. It is true that I had been for the first time in diplo- 
matic service. I was previously an active lawyer and sports writer 
and juridical writer. I was not perhaps too experienced in the diplo- 
matic service, but nevertheless I thought out of what I have learned 
at law school and what I have read on different occasions, that the 
first mission, the first duty of a diplomat is to try to keep in shape the 
relations between the two different countries. Ours was a special case, 
because Rumania has been in the Axis, and I thought my duty would 
be to try to show to the American people and to the American public 
opinion the truth, that the Rumanian people are very democratic 
minded, very religious, they like their property and they are against 

Alexander Lazareanu. 



290 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

totalitarianism. But my first steps, I saw, did not agree with the 
views of some people of the Legation and I was hindered in my 
activities. 

They have asked me to print a bulletin ; for instance, to write about 
Rumania. 

I told them, "Now, I am only several weeks here in the country, and 
besides, as I see the American press, it is of no use, for instance, to 
spread a bulletin about Rumania. There are in the United States 
almost 140,000,000 inhabitants and we cannot issue a bulletin to reach 
the masses of the American people." 

Mr. Arens. In what publications or how was this information to be 
disseminated ? 

Mr. Vogel. They did not tell me exactly. But one of the ways they 
told was just to take a telephone book or telephone books from all over 
the country, for instance, as one way, of which they gave me an ex- 
ample, because I asked, "How would you distribute such a bulletin ?" 

"Besides," they told me, "We will get addresses from friendly organ- 
izations we have here, with names of Rumanians and names of friends 
of Rumania and so on." They did not tell me exactly. 

Mr. Arens. How were you to disseminate the information or propa- 
ganda, by letters or bulletins ? 

Mr. Vogel. A bulletin, a periodical bulletin which they asked me to 
print. I told them, "Besides that, we need a budget." 

Mr. Arens. What is the name of this bulletin or publication which 
is disseminated to these persons ? 

Mr. Vogel. The Rumanian News, I guess. The official one, issued 
by the Legation, was the Rumanian News, I guess. 

Mr. Arens. What is the extent of its circulation ? 

Mr. Vogel. When I was with the Legation, there were 700 copies, 
and it was not printed. 

Mr. Arens. Have you had any contact in the course of your affilia- 
tion with the Rumanian Embassy, with Mr. Fainaru, one of the pre- 
vious witnesses ? 

Mr. Vogel. I saw him several times at the Legation. 

Mr. Dekom. Have you ever seen this newspaper [indicating] be- 
fore? 

Mr. Vogel. The Romanul- American, yes ; we have, in the Legation. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know what the political line of this newspaper 
is? 

Mr. Vogel. My opinion is that it is Communist. 

Mr. Arens. What information, if any, do you have respecting the 
payment of money to Mr. Fainaru or his paper by the Rumanian offi- 
cials in this country ? 

Mr. Vogel. I have two recollections, exactly. Once, I saw on Mr. 
Lazareanu's desk a slip of paper handwritten in red with some items. 
It was quite a slip of accounting. One item that I recall exactly was : 
"Mr. H. F." and I did not know any other person as "H. F." except I 
know Mr. Harry Fainaru. Underneath it was "for brochures." 

Maybe seeing it once, and not knowing maybe some details, some 
amplications, some amplifjang explanations, it wouldn't mean too 
much, but it was just during the period when we got at the Legation 
almost 10 copies — maybe there were 12 — and, as I testify here under 
oath, I wouldn't be able to say exactly 10 or 12 copies — of the booklet 
against His Majesty, King Michael, of Rumania. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 291 

Mr. Dekom. Who published that booklet ? 

Mr. Vogel. It was printed ; yes, sir. Then Lazareanu came in with 
an envelope with some of the booklets, and handed me the booklet, and 
said, triumphantly — "Look how we work." 

From one point of view, I understood the nuance in his tone — "how 
we work." That meant, number one, "I don't work in the way they 
understood." Number two, that they understood their "duties." 

I looked in the booklet and I saw it was the usual smear propa- 
ganda, not almost generally against the Royal House, against the 
Dynasty, but directed against King Michael. Maybe I am not dynas- 
tic from a structural point of view. My personal belief is in the 
usual republican — I mean the usual American republican spirit. I 
prefer a president to be elected, as you have it here, for instance, and 
to be committed to the constituents and to the people. Nevertheless, 
I knew personally some of the members of the Royal Family in 
Rumania and my opinion is that they helped a lot to improve that 
country. 

Mr. Arens. Would you kindly confine your next comment to the 
information you may have respecting the transmission of money to 
Mr. Fainaru? 

Mr. Vogel. Yes, sir. 

When I got this booklet, I asked Lazareanu, "Where did you print 
it — here in Washington?" Because I knew there is no print house 
with Rumanian letters in Washington. 

He said, "No, it is from Detroit." This, you know, meant, in any 
case it was through "friends." 

I told him, "That is quite expensive." 

He said, "Well, I did arrange everything; I managed to arrange it." 

I "congratulated" him on being able to do that. Then, seeing the 
slip of paper with the name "H. F." and the amount of money — $400 
or $500 — the amount of money was mentioned beneath it — "for bro- 
chures" and the amount of money $400 or $500 — I can't recall exactly — 
I could see that. 

The same afternoon Minister Ralea met me on the stairs and he told 
me, "Why did you tell me that Lazareanu steals money from the Lega- 
tion and tries to put it in his pocket ?" He said, "He explained to me 
this morning everything about where he spent $2,200." The $2,200 
was an amount of money which I knew, from the First Secretary of 
the Legation, was the balance of an account for the press. 

I used to get money from this account, for instance, to pay the 
news services, the papers we had, to pay for pencils, to pay for en- 
velopes we needed, but the rest I did not get a cent in any case. 

I know now where he paid a part of this amount of $2,200. When 
1 saw this "H. F." and "for brochures," I connected with it the bro- 
chures Lazareanu brought me. That was one time. 

Mr. Dekom. Before you go on, did the brochures have any indi- 
cation as to where and by whom they were printed? 

Mr. Vogel. I don't recall. The only thing I recall is that Lazareanu 
told me that they came from Detroit. 

Mr. Aeexs. Will you continue with your other instance, please? 

Mr. Vogel. Yes, sir. Another time — we were on the third floor — 
and near mv room was the switchboard, in a small room. Once I had 
to go inside — I don't recall for what — and I opened the door, because 



292 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

I thought nobody was in there, because Lazareanu's office was on 
the corridor, the second or third room, and this room was for a 
secretary. 

I opened without knocking — it was quite a public room, I would 
say — and when I opened the door, I saw inside Lazareanu and Mr. 
Fainaru, and Lazareanu was handling bank notes — dollars — it is 
easy to differentiate the size of a dollar bill from other currency — 
to Mr. Fainaru. I could have thought, "Maybe there is nothing in 
the whole matter" but Lazareanu, as soon as he saw me, quickly put 
the money back in his pocket like this [indicating]. I apologized 
for entering without knocking, and went out. 

Those were the two occasions I know of in connection with money, 
between the two of them. 

Mr. Dekom. Do you know of any instances when the people of 
the Legation or Lazareanu have tried to buy or bribe or subsidize 
other newspapers? 

Mr. Vogel. Yes. Once he instructed me to discuss the matter with 
an individual — I don't know exactly what the person's title is-^to 
buy the paper Solia, which was mentioned, because Solia was a paper 
founded by one of the Rumanian churches here, which was against 
the Rumanian Government's activities, I would say. 

I asked him, "Why don't you do that?" 

He told me, "They know I am a Communist and you are not a 
Communist." 

I told him, "Well, but it is very dangerous to do such a thing." I 
speak from the legal point of view, as a former lawyer, that they 
just wanted to bribe somebody to buy campaigners in this way. 

Several times afterward he told me, "Well, we find the means 
to do it." Once also he told me, "I am in connection with somebody 
to buy a radio broadcast in Detroit." But, of course, as they did not 
use to talk too much to me, I do not know too much. 

Mr. Dekom. Were you ever asked to speak before any leftists or 
pro-Communist groups? 

Mr. Vogel. Yes. I was asked in 1947, January or February. It 
was a meeting at the beginning of February of 1947. 

The Chairman. Who asked you? 

Mr. Vogel. Officially, the Minister of the Rumanian Legation, 
Mihai Ralea. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mr. Vogel. Here in Washington. The meeting was at Detroit. 
At the same time, I had to leave for Paris on February 6th for admin- 
istrative matters of the Legation to see Foreign Minister Tatarescu, 1 
and I asked Minister Ralea, "How could I go?" It was, I guess, in 
Detroit — it is written in the paper Roumanul-American, a January 
1947 issue, and you can find it easily. 

I asked him "How could I go the 3d or 4th of February if I have 
to leave from New York to sail on February 6?" I did not want to 
go because I did not want to be a tool for communistic purposes. 

He told me, "Why do we have to ? Lazareanu, always he has to say 
something. He had designated you to go." He said, "Before he left, 
he told me you have to go there." 

I answered him, "Why I especially ?" 

1 Gheorghe Tatarescu. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 293 

He told me, "Because you are not a Communist and that would be 
much better for us." 

I told him, "Professor (he is a professor) , it would not be possible 
for me. I want to go to Providence, R. I., before sailing overseas, for 
family business, and it would not be time enough for me to go there 
before leaving the United States, to see some of my family." 

He said, "O. K., we will get somebody else." The next day, he told 
me, "Mr. Riposanu will go there." Mr. Riposanu went, and when he 
came back and I had an opportunity to talk to him, he was very 
disappointed in what he had seen. He told me it was a kind of a 
Communist gathering. The attendance was very poor, about 110 or 
120 people, if I recall correctly. 

. Mr. Dekom. Mr. Chairman, we ask that the witness be kept under 
subpena, but excused temporarily. 

The Chairman. Very well ; it is so ordered. 

Are there any more witnesses ? 

Mr. Akens. Mr. Chairman, we have no more witnesses, except that 
Mr. Fainaru wanted to make a statement, and I want to ask him one 
question before he proceeds with his statement. 

The Chairman. Very well. You are under oath still, so will you 
take the stand? 

TESTIMONY OF HARRY FAINARU, MANAGING EDITOR, ROMANUL- 
AMERICAN, DETROIT, MICH.— Resumed 

Mr. Arens. I would like to invite your attention to one of the laws 
of the United States, Mr. Fainaru, and then ask you a question with 
reference thereto. I invite your attention to the Foreign Agents Reg- 
istration Act, which provides for the registration of any individual 
affiliated or associated with or supervised, directly controlled, financed, 
or subsidized, in whole or in part, by any foreign principal. 

I ask you whether or not you or your paper have registered under 
this act? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, we didn't register, because we are an American 
newspaper for Rumanian-Americans. 

Mr. Arens. Have you registered under this act ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, because I am an American citizen. 

Mr. Arens. Has your paper ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, because we are an American newspaper, written 
for Rumanians ; that is, for Americans of Rumanian descent. 

Mr. Arens. I believe you had a statement which you wanted to read. 

Mr. Fainaru. My name is Harry Fainaru; I am a citizen of the 
United States of America. I am managing editor of the newspaper 
Romanul-American, located at 2144 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit 11, 
Mich. 

As a citizen I am fully aware that among the many functions of con- 
gressional committees are also the power to investigate with a view of 
providing corrective measures that would strengthen the democratic 
processes and institutions of our country. But I was shocked to re- 
ceive a subpena from the Immigration and Naturalization Subcommit- 
tee of the Senate Judiciary Committee of the United States Congress, 
whose contents direct me to violate the Constitution of the United 
States and its Bill of Rights, which I pledged to uphold and defend 



294 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

under oath, just as you, the members of the above-mentioned commit- 
tee, have given your oath when you took your seats in the Senate of 
the United States. 

There is a United States law which requires every newspaper to 
publish annually a report concerning its ownership and circulation. 
The newspaper Romanul-American, like any other newspaper, has 
complied with the law. Any inquiry that goes beyond that law is a 
clear violation of the Constitution and its Bill of Bights, a violation 
of the freedom of the press. 

The subpena served on me by your committee (Commanded me to 
bring along the following : 

* * * a list of all present and former officers and employees of the Roman- 
ul-American, a list of all persons who have been officers, employees, agents, 
contributors of the Romanul-American ; a list of all persons who do now or have 
in the past had ownership, either in part or in whole, of the Romanul-American, 
or any of its facilities ; a list of all persons, agents, associations, corporations, 
or other organizations which have furnished the Romanul-American with in- 
formation for purposes of publication in its columns ; a list of all sources outside 
of the United States, including agents of foreign governments, foreign corre- 
spondents, or foreign newspapers, which have supplied material or information 
for publication in the Romanul-American, either directly or indirectly ; and a 
list of all foreign publications, including newspapers, pamphlets, and books from 
which material has been copied, condensed, or used, either directly or indirectly, 
for publication in the Romanul-American. 

My newspaper has complied with the law, and there is now on file 
with the proper governmental authorities, statements as to the owner- 
ship and circulation of my newspaper. It is obvious, therefore, that 
this inquiry is not set up for any legitimate purpose of government but 
is part of an attack on the basic American freedoms, including the ab- 
solute freedom of the press. 

It is further obvious that the contents of the subpena as quoted 
above is so far-reaching in scope, so daring in its un- Americanism, 
that I consider it my sacred duty — as a citizen of this country, as a 
journalist and editor, and as a member of the American Newspaper 
Guild — to call it to the attention of the entire American press, to the 
editors and publishers of this country, and to the American people as 
a whole, that the implications inherent in this subpena, if carried to 
its logical conclusions, would destroy the fundamental rights of the 
freedom of the press, which have been won by our people with their 
blood. 

I would be held in contempt by the entire newspaper profession of 
this country if I allowed this attack on the freedom of the press to go 
unanswered. 

Article I of the ten original amendments to the Constitution states : 

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or pro- 
hibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the 
press * * *. 

Viewed in the light of the above constitutional article, and in the 
light of our long history of the freedom of the press, the contents of 
the subpena constitutes a flagrant violation of article I, and commands 
me further to commit a similar violation, which, under oath, I pledged 
to uphold and defend. 

Mr. Arens. Are you familiar with the freedom of the press in Com- 
munist. Soviet Russia ? 

Mr. Fainaru. No, I was not there. But I know what I read in the 
papers. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 295 

It is obvious that by the very wording of the subpena, the Com- 
mittee has usurped its congressional powers, and by implication, 
attempts to effect a smear or to question the patriotism of the news- 
paper I edit. Therefore, as managing editor of the Romanul-Ameri- 
can, I state that conformity to policies of agencies of government is not 
a test of freedom of the press, but rather, it is a subversion of that 
basic freedom. 

The newspaper Romanul- American is dedicated to the principle of 
the freedom of the press as guaranteed by the Constitution but it does 
not thereby sacrifice its constitutional right to take an independent 
position on any public question which it considers to be in the best in- 
terests of its readers and the American people. 

From its inception, it has been a fighter and defender of the rights 
of man, a fighter and defender of the civil and democratic liberties of 
the American people, of which the Americans of Rumanian descent 
are an integral part. 

It has a long and honorable record in the struggle for peace, de- 
mocracy, security and freedom for the common man, in the struggle 
for the rights of labor. Naturally, it does not identify the interests 
of the Nation with those of Wall Street and the men of the trusts. 

William Cullen Bryant, one of America's distinguished editors and 
poets, posed the question of the freedom of the press very precisely in 
1837, when he said : 

The right to discuss freely and openly, by speech, by the pen, by the press, all 
political questions, and to examine and animadvert upon all political institutions 
is a right so clear and certain, so interwoven with our other liberties, so neces- 
sary, in fact, to their existence, that without it we must fall at once into despotism 
or anarchy * * *. 

We deem it our sacred honor and privilege to serve the people of 
this country, made up of men and women of all races, creeds, colors, 
and nationalities. It is for that reason that our newspaper rallied 
the Americans of Rumanian descent during the hour of our Nation's 
greatest peril. To rally them behind the war program that was to 
defeat the destroyers of our basic human and constitutional rights, 
and to unite them for battle so that our country would not suffer the 
fate suffered by our kin in Rumania, when they were thrown into a 
criminal Fascist war by the traitor, Gen. Ion Antonescu, and the 
so-called political refugees of the Grigore Niculescu-Buzesti, Cretzianu 
and Radescu * type who, unfortunately, have been embraced by certain 
people in our own State Department as "ardent democrats and 
patriots." 

Just as we dedicated all of our energies and abilities during the 
war in the interests of our Nation, so are we dedicated now to the 
preservation of the peace, to the preservation of the rights and liber- 
ties established by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, which no 
one must be allowed to tamper with, including especially the protec- 
tion of the rights of all minorities and those of the foreign-born — 
citizens and noncitizens alike. 

In accord with this principle, our newspaper has fought and will 
continue to fight against the outrageous use of the weapon of deporta- 

1 The late Grigore Nicolescu-Buzesti, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Rumania. 
Alexandre Cretzianu, former Rumanian Ambassador to Turkey, and former secretary- 
general of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 

Nicolae Radescu, former Prime Minister of Rumania. 
All three of these men found refuge in the United States. 



296 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

tion in order to intimidate foreign-born Americans. It is no accident 
that this weapon has been used especially against labor leaders and 
leaders of working class organizations by Wall Street, in order to 
weaken labor and divide the American people in their opposition to 
the Wall Street program. 

In view of the above considerations, I ask that this committee with- 
draw this subpena and thus contribute to the maintenance of the free- 
dom of the press, instead of violating that provision of the Consti- 
tution which clearly guarantees it. 

The Chairman. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, that is all I have. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fainaru, you will be regarded as being under 
subpena. 1 

The committee stands adjourned, subject to the call of the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 2 p. m. the committee was recessed, subject to the 
•call of the Chair.) 

1 The witness was released from subpena on July 25, 1949. Correspondence to Harry 
Fainaru, dated January 13, 1950, was returned with the following notation : "Sorry, Mr. 
Fainaru is not connected with this office anymore. Romanul American, 2144 E. Grand 
J3oulevard, Detroit 11, Michigan." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES AMONG ALIENS 
AND NATIONAL GKOUPS 



FRIDAY, JULY 15, 1949 

United States Senate, 
Special Suobcommittee To Investigate Immigration 
and Naturalization of the Committee on the Judiciary, 

Washington, D. C. 

The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2 p. m. in room 424, 
Senate Office Building, Senator Pat McCarran (chairman of the com- 
mittee) presiding. 

Present: Senators McCarran (presiding) and Eastland. 

Also present : Senators Magnuson, McGrath, Miller, O'Conor, and 
Ferguson. 

Also present : Messrs. Richard Arens, staff director of the special 
subcommittee ; Otto J. Dekom, and Frank W. Schroeder, professional 
staff members. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

The record will disclose that some weeks ago we submitted certain 
questions to the Department of Justice and also to the State Depart- 
ment bearing on the subject matter of the bill S. 1832. Sometime 
thereafter the Department of Justice rendered answers, by way of a 
communication to the chairman, to the questions as propounded. The 
State Department on that occasion did not render answers. 

Later we communicated with the State Department, and have their 
answers, which will come up tomorrow at the hearing. 

The chairman of this committee thought best that the questions and 
their answers be not submitted or made public during the time that 
certain trials were in progress, one in New York and one here in the 
city of Washington. Those trials having been concluded and disposed 
of, the Attorney General and his assistants ate now before the com- 
mittee, and the questions and answers will go in the record, and then 
the Attorney General will read the questions and give his answers as 
submitted. Then, on each question and each answer that is given, 
any member of the committee or the counsel may interrogate the At- 
torney General. 

Mr. Arens. Mr. Chairman, if you please, I should like to place in the 
record at this time the letter of transmittal from the Attorney General 
which accompanied the information in answer to the questions sub- 
mitted by the chairman. 

The Chairman. The letter of transmittal will be inserted in the 
record. 

297 



298 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

(The letter referred to is as follows :) 

Department of Justice, 
Washington, D. C, July 14, 19Jfi. 
Hon. Pat McCakran, 

Chairman, Committee on the Judiciary, 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Senator : Attached hereto are answers to the 11 questions pro- 
pounded to the Department of Justice on June 1, 1949, by the Special Subcom- 
mittee to Investigate the Immigration Laws, under Senate Resolution 40, Eighty- 
first Congress, during hearings on S. 1832, a bill to amend the Immigration Act 
of October 16, 1918. 

In conformity with my advice to your subcommittee at that time, the questions 
have been answered insofar as it has been deemed consistent with the public 
interest. In harmony with this, I recall that the chairman stated that he was 
not requesting the divulgence of either sources of information or detailed facts 
in specific cases which are currently under investigation or in which criminal 
prosecution is imminent, nor the production of secret files, the custody and pro- 
tection of which is a responsibility of this Department, or to make public dis- 
closure of specific information in any individual case. 

With these considerations in mind, the questions have been answered to the 
best of this Department's ability. Some of the questions, because of the confi- 
dential nature or the availability of the type of information involved, are more 
or less detailed than others. For example, to answer question 6 in more detail 
than has already been answered in question 3, which is related, would call for 
information concerning possibly existing internal-security situations and neces- 
sarily involve cases which would be currently under investigation. To answer 
question 2 in detail, which relates more to foreign than to domestic intelligence, 
would require months of work and considerable manpower which is urgently 
needed in current operations of the Department. For an example in this re- 
gard, the information and statistical analysis upon which the answer to ques- 
tion 9 is based required several months of research and careful study. 

I should state in conclusion that this letter and attachments are in response 
to the subcommittee's request for replies to its 11 questions and should not be 
construed as an expression of the views of this Department with respect to the 
bill under consideration. 

Hoping that the accompanying material will be of assistance to your subcom- 
mittee, and with kind personal regards, I am, 
Sincerely, 

Tom C. Clark, Attorney General. 

The Chairman. The Attorney General may now read the questions 
and give his answers as they are submitted to us. As each answer is 
given, members of the committee or counsel for the committee may, 
after the answer is given, interrogate the Attorney General. 

All right, General, you may proceed. 

STATEMENT 0E HON. TOM C. CLARK, ATTORNEY GENERAL 0E THE 
UNITED STATES; ACCOMPANIED BY PEYTON FORD, THE ASSIST- 
ANT TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL ; MICHAEL J. HORAN, SPECIAL 
ASSISTANT TO THE ATTORNEY GENERAL; WATSON B. MILLER, 
COMMISSIONER 0E IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERV- 
ICE; AND L. PAUL WININGS, GENERAL COUNSEL, IMMIGRATION 
AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE 

Attorney General Clark. The first question is : 

How many Communists or Communist agents are known to the Department 
to have entered the United States as affiliates of international organizations or 
as affiliates of foreign governments during each of the following periods: The 
past 5 years; the past 2 years; the past year; the first quarter of 1949; the 
month of April 1949 ; the month of May 1949? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 299 

To answer this question, it must be assumed that representatives 
from iron-curtain countries are Communists or Communist agents. 
Based on that assumption, the following statistics are submitted. 
Countries included are Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, 
Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Rumania, U. S. S. R., and Yugoslavia. By 
way of explanation, it should be pointed out that these statistics reflect 
the number of admissions to the United States under subsections 3(1) 
and 3 (7) of the Immigration Act of 1924, as amended (8 U. S. C, 
203 (1) and 203 (7) ), as recorded by the Immigration and Naturali- 
zation Service of the Department of Justice. They do not necessarily 
reflect the total number of visas issued in these categories, which is a 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Department of State. In other 
words, the total number of admissions may exceed the total number 
of visas issued, inasmuch as a person to whom such a visa was issued 
may have made several trips to and from the country on the same visa. 
It should also be pointed out that, aside from recording the admission 
of persons possessing 3 (1) and 3 (7) visas, the Department of Jus- 
tice has no jurisdiction over the admission of persons in these catego- 
ries (8 U. S. C, 136 (r), 215; 22 U. S. C. 288d). It should also be 
noted that not all of the countries involved were designated as "iron 
curtain" 5 years ago. 

The following statistics are as of May 1, 1949. Complete figures for 
the month of May 1949 are not yet available. 

Table 1 



Period 



5 years ended June 30. 1948 
2 vears ended June 30, 1948 
Year ended June 30, 1948. . 

Julv 1 to Dec. 31, 1948 

Jan. 1 to .Mar. 31, 1949 

April 1949 



Total 


Sec. 3(1) 


6,563 


5.725 


2.192 


1,430 


778 


520 


316 


247 


230 


152 


46 


31 



Sec. 3 (7) 



838 

762 

258 

69 

78 

15 



Senator Ferguson. Could you tell us what' 3 (1) is? 

Attorney General Clark. 3 (1) is diplomatic. 

Senator Ferguson. What is 3 (7) ? 

Attorney General Clark. 3 (7) is UN. 

Senator Ferguson. So, there are no others coming in except diplo- 
matic and UN. 

Attorney General Clark. That is what the question asked for, 
"international organizations or as affiliates of foreign governments." 

Senator Ferguson. And you assume that they are all Commu- 
nists because they are part of the government and it is a Communist 
government ? 

Attorney General Clark. That is right; they are either representa- 
tives of a Communist government to the UN or representatives of 
their own government here in the consular service. 

Senator Ferguson. Sometime ago eight men came across on a 
diplomatic visa and went out to a plant in Buchanan, Mich., and 
worked in that plant to learn to makes axles. Would that kind of 
people be included in this diplomatic group? 

Attorney General Clark. If they had diplomatic visas, yes, sir. 



98330— 50— pt. 1- 



-20 



300 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Ferguson. If they had diplomatic visas? Do you know 
whether or not we are admitting any people to do that kind of job 
who are not under a diplomatic passport ? 

Attorney General Clark. Not to my knowledge. 
Mr. Ford. They came in, I am advised by Mr. Miller, as 3 (1) 's. 
Mr. Miller. The Hastings Equipment Co. at Buchanan, Mich. 
Senator Ferguson. The Clark Co. 
Mr. Miller. That is the one. 
Senator Ferguson. They came in as diplomats ? 
Mr. Miller. Officials under 3(1), not diplomats ; officials of foreign 
governments, because all industry in Russia is nationalized, and shop 
foremen and superintendents and so forth could thus be called officials 
of the Russian Government. 

Mr. Ford. Diplomats are officials of a foreign government. 
Senator Ferguson. Would that be a similar passport to what the 
Senator would use if he went into one of these countries ? 
Mr. Ford. Yes, sir. 

Attorney General Clark- I am not too familiar with some of these 
things on passports. They are all issued by the State Department. 
However, I have with me some immigration officials. 
Senator Ferguson. I want to clear up one point. 
Attorney General Clark. This is supposed to include all of the 
visas that were issued in the 3(1) category and 3(7). 
Senator McCarran. 3 (l)'s are diplomatic? 

Attorney General Clark. Those are officials of a government, Mr. 
Miller tells me. 

Mr. Ford. Diplomatic. 

The Chairman. Officials of a government or diplomatic? 
Senator Ferguson. How would a man who is going to take training 
as a workman to make these axles be classed as a diplomat or how 
would he be a government official within the meaning of that? 
Mr. Ford. I do not know, Senator. 

Senator Ferguson. Mr. Miller, you are familiar with the eight men 
out at Clark Equipment Co. ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, sir ; we kept pretty good track of them while they 
were there and where they went after that. Our answer to that ques- 
tion was gleaned by an investigation we were able to make informally ; 
and we were told that, because all or nearly all the industrial economy 
in Russia was nationalized, these persons, who might have just been 
shop foremen or superintendents, could be classified as officials of the 
Russian Government. 

Mr. Ford. It is up to the foreign government to designate anybody 
they want to do so. 

Senator Ferguson. That is what I want to get at. So that, when 
they want to send agents in like those eight men, they would send 
them in as diplomats ? 

Mr. Miller. As so recognized by this Government. 
Senator Ferguson. They could not come in as visitors, because 
Communists are not admitted as visitors. 

Attorney General Clark. We will not let them in, just as we turned 
down three or four the other day. 

Senator Ferguson. They are excluded ; are they not ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 301 

Attorney -General Clark. Yes, sir. However, very often it de- 
pends on the government, I suppose. The only experience I had in 
it was when they had a meeting in New York about a month or two 
ago and officials of the government came in. I think Russia had 
three or four and some of the others. 

Of course, the Immigration and Naturalization Service has no su- 
pervision over the 3 (l)'s and 3 (T) ? s. They would not know why 
the}^ were issued. You might ask Mr. Peurifoy about this. 

Senator Ferguson. You say you made the best investigation you 
could? 

Mr. Miller. Quite informal. Because of the two classifications, we 
have statutory prohibition against putting them under bond or, even 
after their status has expired, to attempt to send them out of the 
United States without the assent of the State Deparment. 

Senator Fergusox - . Why could you not make the complete inves- 
tigation even though you cannot put them under bond? 

Mr. Miller. Because of section 15 of the act of 1924. 

Senator Fergusox. You think that prevents you ? 

Mr. Miller. I know it does. 

Senator Fergusox. Where did those people go after they left the 
Clark Equipment Co.? 

Mr. Miller. They separated. One or two of them went to other 
plants where small contracts were being executed on behalf of the 
Soviet Government, the said contracts having been negotiated through 
the Russian purchasing corporation known as Amtorg. 

Senator Fergusox. Are any of those people still in this country? 

Mr. Miller. We were able to note the departure of all of them, sir, 
with the exception of one, and in that instance we think there was a 
gross error in the spelling of the name and we were not able and we 
have not yet been able to note his departure. 

Senator Fergusox\ So, there could be one still remaining now ? 

Mr. Miller. There could be one still remaining. 

Senator Ferguson. How long ago did they come in? 

Mr. Miller. I have forgotten the date, sir; but you and I dis- 
cussed that at the time, I believe. 

Senator Fergusox. I remember. 

Mr. Miller. Because they did more than a year ago, and it was an 
axle contract. 

Senator Fergusox. Yes ; there was a contract. They made a con- 
tract with the company through the State Department. 

The CuAimrAX-. How long were they in this country ? 

Senator Ferguson. He said better than a year ago. 

When did the last one leave, Mr. Miller? 

Mr. Miller. I do not have the figures with me, sir ; but they come 
and go, of course. It is my recollection that we checked the last one 
of them in the fall of 1948. As to the last one, we could not make 
identification of or locate the man. 

Senator Ferguson. Does that leave your department rather up in 
the air in relation to these people after they get in here ? You cannot 
do much about it ? 

Attorney General Clark. Sometimes we make representation to the 
State Department as to the activity of people who are here under these 
visas. Then they have authority. Mr. Peurifoy would know more 



302 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

about the details of that. We ask that people be withdrawn. That 
has happened in the past. 

Senator Ferguson. Are these people you give us the number that 
have come in or that you believe are here at this date ? 

Mr. Ford. I think the question will answer it, if you will read 
the question. 

Senator Ferguson. As of May 1. That would mean that the 
many were remaining that you had checked. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Ford. Yes. 

Senator Ferguson. That could not be right. From July 1 to 
December 31, 316. 

Attorney General Clark. That is the number that entered, accord- 
ing to the question. 

Mr. Ford. You cannot be accurate on it, Senator, because they 
could come and go on one visa. One man might enter 10 times. 

Attorney General Clark. This is the number of individual visas 
that were issued ; is that right ? 

Mr. Ford. Number of admissions. 

Mr. Horan. The Service records the admission of the people under 
these visas. In other words, a person who possesses one visa that may 
have been issued may enter 10 times and be recorded by the number 
of admissions that have been under a 3 (1) visa. In other words, 
it does not necessarily mean that there are 6,563 visas issued; it 
means that that many admissions were had under the 3(1) visa. 

The Chairman. In other words, one individual holding a visa may 
come in any number of times ? 

Mr. Horan. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How do you know it is the same individual every 
time? 

Mr. Horan. If he is in possession of the visa issued to him, he is the 
same one, but the Service just records the number of admissions. 

The Chairman. Could not someone else come in on his visa ? 

Mr. Horan. No. sir 

The Chairman. Why not? 

Mr. Horan. It is not issued to him. He could not, according to law. 

Mr. Ford. Certainly he might. 

Attorney General Clark. It is improbable, however. They have 
descriptions of people. 

Senator Ferguson. I wonder if I could ask whether this date April 
1949 is just one single date. Is that the whole month of April; 46; 
31 and 15 ? 

Attorney General Clark. That is 46 admissions. 

Mr. Arens. If the Senator please, I should like to clear up one point. 
Mr. Miller can check me on this, but the approximate figures that we 
have are that, since 1938, 151,000 Government officials, 3 (l)'s, have 
been admitted into the United States. Since that period, 8,520 3 (7) 's, 
affiliates of international organizations, have been admitted into the 
United States through 1948. Now, is it the testimony of the Depart- 
ment here that the Department and the Immigration Service does not 
have power to exclude any of those aliens ? 

Attorney General Clark. Under these visas ? 

Mr. Arens. As 3 (l)'sand3 (7)'s? 

Mr. Miller. Would you like to have the law which applies to the 
situation read into the record ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 303 

The Chairman. What is your answer under the law as you construe 

it? 

Mr. Miller. The law is perfectly clear. 

The Chairman. What is your answer? 

Mr. Miller. The answer is "Yes," Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Yes, what? 

Mr. Miller. The Immigration and Naturalization Service or the 
Department of Justice cannot apprehend the people and force their 
departure from the country without the consent of the Secretary of 
State. 

The Chairman. How about excluding them ? 

Mr. Miller. We can exclude persons in category 3 (7) under certain 
circumstances. The Attorney General has the power, also, after in- 
vestigation, to admit under provisions of the law called the ninth 
proviso of the act of 1917. Not many are excluded, however. 

Senator Ferguson. What is the law about excluding? You say the 
Attorney General has discretion? 

Mr. Miller. The Attorney General has discretion under the ninth 
proviso of section 3 of the act of 1917 to admit persons temporarily 
otherwise excludable, which is invoked very, very seldom, and very 
sparingly. 

Mr. Arens. It is clear, is it not, that it is the view of the Department 
in interpreting the law that it has no power to exclude a 3 (1) or a 
3 (7)? 

Mr. Ford. That is correct. 

Mr. Miller. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Arens. As a practical matter, the Department has not excluded 
any 3 (l)'sor3 (7)'s? 

Mr. Miller. May I state a case where exclusion might be made? 
That would be a person coming in other than under formal circum- 
stances, such as a correspondent who has a sort of cachet or charter 
to the United Nations, although a representative of a communistic 
newspaper in Europe. That sort of person could be excluded. 

Senator Ferguson. Do I understand that, if any check was to be 
done on exclusion of 3 (l)'s and 3 (7)'s, it would have to be done by 
the State Department in not issuing the visa ? 

Attorney General Clark. That is true. 

Senator Ferguson. After they get the visa and then they come in? 

Attorney General Clark. Yes, sir. 

Senator Ferguson. And they stay in practically as long as they 
want to without much investigation because of the nature of this 
section? 

Attorney General Clark. If we should find that it is not to the in- 
terest of the United States that they stay here, we would make repre- 
sentation to the State Department. 

Senator Ferguson. Have any been excluded under that? 

Attorney General Clark. Yes. 

Mr. Ford. The question is, Senator, whether they maintain their 
status as 3 (l)'s and 3 (7)'s. 

Senator Ferguson. That is rather a broad classification. As you 
say, they are working for the government. 

Attorney General Clark. Sometimes they lose their diplomatic 
status by the change in diplomats, things like that. 



304 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Senator Ferguson. Does this diplomatic status go so far that if 
he were down here in Washington he would have immunity from 
arrest ? 

Mr. Ford. That is a question of international law. 

Senator Ferguson. And where he lives is Russian territory? 

Mr. Ford. It is a question of international law which is very com- 
plex and very confused. 

Senator Ferguson. International law has not been codified. 

Mr. Ford. There are marked differences of opinion. 

Attorney General Clark. Some countries claim that anybody con- 
nected with a consulate enjoys diplomatic immunity, and therefore is 
not subject to arrest. Others say they have to be in the diplomatic 
class. 

Senator Ferguson. What do we say ? 

Attorney General Clark. That is our position, as we understand it : 
that all of our people are. 

Mr. Ford. We took the position in the Gubitchev 1 case that he did 
not enjoy diplomatic status. The Russians said he did. 

Senator Ferguson. Would you say the eight men at Clark Equip- 
ment Co. had diplomatic status? 

Mr. Ford. No, sir. 

Senator Ferguson. You would have said not? 

Mr. Ford. Yes, sir. 

Senator _ Ferguson. Therefore, their visas technically should not 
have been issued under the classification ? 

Mr. Ford. No; that classification goes to two things: Diplomatic 
status and officials. There is a difference. 

Senator Ferguson. What about officials ? Would you say they were 
officials? 

Mr. Ford. They say they are officials. 

Attorney General Clark. If we had the facts indicating violation 
of Federal law, we would say that we would have the right to prose- 
cute them because they would not enjoy what we would claim to be 
immunity from prosecution. We have done that in two cases: The 
Redin 2 case and the Gubitchev case. We would have done that, I 
assume, in the Carr 3 case if we had had the evidence. 

Senator Ferguson. In other words, their official status would not 
give them diplomatic immunity? 

Attorney General Clark. That is right. 

Mr. Arens. I wonder if I could make one more inquiry to make this 
clear. If a person presents himself at a port of entry in the United 
States with a visa as an affiliate of a foreign government or a visa as an 
affiliate of an international organization, it is the view of the Justice 
Department that, under the law, notwithstanding the fact that the man 
may be excludable as a subversive if he did not have one of these two 
visas, because of the fact he has a 3 (1) visa or 3 (7) visa the Depart- 
ment cannot stop him ? Is that not true ? 

Mr. Miller. That is correct. 

The Chairman. That is your answer? 

1 Valentin Gubitchev, a UN employee who was arrested on espionage charges. 

2 Lt. Nicolai Redin, of the Soviet Navy, who was charged with espionage in Seattle and 
acquitted. 

3 Sam Carr, organizing secretary of the Communist Party in Canada, who was convicted 
in Canada of being a Soviet espionage agent following the exposure of a Sovet spy ring 
in Canada and the United States by Igor Gouzenko, former code clerk at the Soviet Embassy 
in Ottawa. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 305 



Attorney General Clark. As I understand it, yes. 

Mr. Arens. Since 1938, there have been approximately 150,000 
3 (l)'s admitted and approximately 8,000 3 (7)'s admitted. 

Mr. Miller. As disclosed by the annual report of the Attorney 
General. 

The Chairman. Of that number, how many have been excluded, or 
deported ? 

Mr. Arens. None have been excluded, as I understand it, because 
the Department takes the view that they do not have power under 
the law. 

Senator Ferguson. You mean this Department, the Department of 
Justice? 

Mr. Arens. The exclusion is only a function of the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service. I am speaking only of the exclusions. 

Attorney General Clark. In addition to the statistics shown above, 
there have been 11 known Communists admitted from countries other 
than those listed above, who were accredited to international organ- 
izations under sections 3 (2), 3 (3), or 3 (T) of the 1924 act, as 
amended. 



Table 2.— Number of admissions of aliens as government officials, their families, 
attendants, servants, and employees under sec. 3 (1) of the Immigration Act 
of 1924, as amended, by specified countries of last permanent residence (years 
ended June 30, 1944 to 1948, and July 1, 191,8 to April 1949) 



Country of last permanent residence 


Total 
1944-48 


1944 


1945 


1946 


1947 


1948 


July 1948 

to April 

1949 1 


Total. 


5,725 


1,616 


1,634 


1,045 


910 


520 


430 






Bulearia 


7 
322 

7 
104 

1 

3 

551 

76 

4,493 

161 








2 

107 

1 

39 


5 

117 

2 

25 


14 


Czechoslovakia - 


20 
4 
2 


7 


71 


66 


Estonia 




Hungary. -- .. 


5 
1 


33 


30 


Latvia - - 




Lithuania 






3 

94 

16 

227 

31 




Poland-- 


30 

1,552 
8 


141 

5 

1,444 

31 


166 

724 
51 


120 
55 

546 
40 


63 


Rumania - _- -- 


4 


U. S. S. R. (European and Asiatic) 

Yugoslavia. . 


178 
75 







• Preliminary. 

Table 3. — Number of admissions of aliens as members of international organiza- 
tions under sec. 3 (7) 1 of the Immigration Act of 1924. as amended, by specified 
countries of last permanent residence (years ended June 30, 1946 to 1948, and 
July 1948 to April 1949) 



Country of last permanent residence 


Total, 
1946-48 


1946 


1947 


1948 


July 1948 

to April 

1949 2 


Total 


838 


76 


504 


258 


162 






Bulgaria 


4 
115 




3 
60 


1 
33 


2 


Czechoslovakia 


22 


26 


Estonia .. 




Hungary. . 


6 




4 


2 


1 


Latvia 




Lithuania 


1 

ion 

6 
489 
111 






1 

28 

4 

136 

53 




P.Jand 

Rumania 


2 

47 
5 


76 
2 

306 
53 


19 


U. S. S. R. (European and Asiatic) 


85 


Yugoslavia 


29 







• Clause added by act of Dec. 29, 1945 
2 Preliminary. 



306 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Mr. Arens. Could I ask one question here, General, if you please? 

In your table here you list persons to whom visas have been issued, 
those who have come from Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia. In your 
opening comment you made the assertion that persons coming from 
iron-curtain countries are deemed to be Communists. You have Lat- 
via, Lithuania, and Estonia included there. Is it not fair to say that 
these officials who arrived prior to the taking over of their countries 
by Communists are not in that category ? You did not mean to imply 
there that those persons would be ? 

Mr. Ford. That is why we put the last sentence in on the first page. 

Attorney General Clark. That is 5 years ago. 

Mr. Arens. That just clarifies the record that the statement of 
persons coming in from iron-curtain countries being classified as Com- 
munists would not embrace these people from the Baltic States before 
they were taken over by the Communists. 

Attorney General Clark. The second question is : 

How many aliens who entered the United States as affiliates of international 
organizations and how many aliens who entered the United States as affiliates 
of foreign governments are known to the Department to have been engaged in 
espionage or related activities, or other activities of a subversive nature, prior 
to such entry? 

The Department of Justice in this field is confined primarily to 
domestic espionage, counter-espionage, sabotage, subversion, and re- 
lated matters affecting the internal security. Foreign intelligence is 
handled by the Central Intelligence Agencj\ While some information 
of this type is made available by the Central Intelligence Agency to 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation of this Department, it would 
be impossible to furnish complete data in reply to this question unless 
all the persons in this category, for an indefinite number of years as 
the question would indicate, were checked against all the files of the 
FBI which would require months of time and considerable personnel 
to accomplish. Even if this were done the answer would not be con- 
clusive because this is primarily a responsibility of CIA. 

The Chairman. I would say that the committee has the information 
from the Central Intelligence Agency and we will make that a part 
of the record following the appearance of the State Department to- 
morrow. 

Attorney General Clark. Question No. 3 is : 

How many of such aliens, in each class, are known to the Department to be 
engaged, or to have been engaged, in espionage or related activities, or other 
activities of a subversive nature, in this country? 

The Department of Justice has espionage and intelligence investiga- 
tions pending concerning approximately 685 aliens, not all of whom, 
however, are necessarily confined to the above classes. Approximately 
4 percent of the foregoing investigations involve persons attached to 
the United Nations at New York City. This is not to imply that these 
parties are actively engaged in espionage or intelligence work but 
merely that available information requires these investigations and 
that they are presently in progress. 

Four : Describe a typical pattern of such espionage or other subversive activity, 
and appraise the extent and scope of such activity. 

An example of an alien attached to a foreign diplomatic establish- 
ment engaged in attempted espionage activity in the United States 
is the following case from the files of the Department, concerning a 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 307 

military attache of an embassy of an iron-curtain country in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

The attache arrived in the United States subsequent to 1945 and 
remained in his diplomatic capacity until his departure prior to 1949. 

It has been determined that the attache was under instructions to 
organize a military intelligence network in the United States. The 
general staff of this country is known to have issued specific detailed 
instructions to the attache in Washington in 1946 regarding the organ- 
ization and objectives of these intelligence operations. 

Intensive investigation of the attache was begun shortly after his 
arrival and continued until his departure. This investigation dis- 
closed that his principal contacts in the United States were certain 
other naval and military attaches and consulate personnel of his own 
and other iron curtain countries. 

The investigation also reflected that the activities of the attache 
were apparently aimed at developing individuals who were associated 
with foreign-language groups and publications in this country. He 
was known to have been engaged in the purchase of considerable equip- 
ment, usually through United States brokers. 

It was reported that the attache sent regular reports to his superiors 
in his own country concerning developments in the United States, 
but there has been no definite evidence developed that he obtained 
other than information from public sources. The investigation re- 
flected that the attache was, without question, dedicated to organizing 
an intelligence network in the United States to obtain espionage infor- 
mation, but from sources available it would appear that he was not 
successful. 

It may be, therefore, that other iron-curtain countries have issued 
instructions of a nature similar to those known to have been issued 
to the attache in the foregoing example, outlining the objectives of 
intelligence activity in the United States. Such cases as the so-called 
Canadian espionage -case, the case of Nicolai Redin who was tried in 
Seattle in 1946, and others, indicate that aliens attached to official 
establishments may be active in intelligence activities or in directing 
such activities. It may be recalled that Igor Guzenko, the code clerk 
who defected in Canada in 1945, estimated that 60 percent of all per- 
sons attached to the official establishments of one iron-curtain country 
are engaged in intelligence activities of some character. 

The success or failure of a foreign intelligence network, dedicated 
to espionage or other subversive activities in the United States, will 
of course be influenced by the number of individuals recruited by them 
in the United States who have access to the kind of information 
sought by the intelligence service or who are in a position to engage 
effectively in other subversive activity. 

Other examples are as follows : There is the case of an employee of 
an iron-curtain country's consulate whose main duty apparently was 
developing the Communist Party among national groups in the United 
States-. This employee is suspected of having submitted data through 
the embassy of the employing country and appeared to be a close 
friend of the head of that country's intelligence service. This 
employee does not participate openly in Community Party activity in 
this country but has maintained his contacts through the leaders of 
the nationality groups. 



308 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Another person and his wife, who are active in the American-Rus- 
sian Institute, the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee (both organ- 
izations have been named by the Attorney General, pursuant to Exec- 
utive Order 9835, as Communist organizations), and many other 
organizations, are reported to be the medium of exchange between the 
consulate of an iron-curtain country and the Communist Party of the 
United States. 

An employee of the United Nations is reported to be a contact of a 
suspected agent of an iron-curtain country. Another employee, who 
is suspected of working for the intelligence service of an iron-curtain 
country, is believed to have obtained a United Nations position through 
an embassy official of that country. 

Another person who is the subject of an investigation has departed 
from the United States to an iron-curtain country, reportedly carry- 
ing a diplomatic pouch containing information regarding intelligence 
matters in the United States. This person was closely associated with 
an iron-curtain country's official. 

Numerous reports have been received that a certain newspaper 
published in the United States was subsidized by an iron curtain 
country. The publisher of this newspaper has reportedly maintained 
close contact with the diplomatic officials of that country and has 
printed news favorable to that country. 

An official of an iron-curtain country's legation serves as super- 
visor and controls all activities on behalf of the Communist Party 
among a nationality group. In that connection it is reported that 
the Cominform ordered each of the satellite countries to organize 
in each ministry of foreign affairs a section for political counter- 
espionage. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask a question here, Senator ? 

Does the Immigration and Naturalization Service or Depart- 
ment of Justice receive CIA intelligence reports on persons who are 
seeking admission into the United States? 

The Chairman. What is CIA? 

Mr. Arens. Central Intelligence Agency. 

Attorney General Clark. I am sure the FBI would exchange infor- 
mation of that type. 

Mr. Arens. Even though the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service or the Department of Justice knew of the activities of these 
people whom you have described here in answer to this question prior 
to their admission in the United States and even though the Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Service may have known that these indi- 
viduals were coming into the United States to engage in these activ- 
ities, under the existing law the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service and Department of Justice are powerless to exclude them? 
Is that true ? 

Attorney General Clark. I have made representations successfully 
to our State Department that did exclude them, but under the law we 
would have no authority to exclude them under these categories. 

Mr. Arens. That is your understanding, too, of the law, Mr. Com- 
missioner ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, Mr. Chairman and, as the Attorney General said, 
upon negotiation when we exchange viewpoints with the Department 
of State agreement has been reached. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 309 

Mr. Arens. Do you know of a single case in the course of the last 
10 years where the State Department has refused to issue a visa to 
a person applying as a 3 (1) or 3 (7) ? 

Mr. Miller. I am not sure I have that information. We would not 
have that information generally. 

Attorney General Clark. I know of some personally in the last 3 
months. I believe they were 3 (l)'s and 3 (7)'s. It was this meeting 
in New York. I think they did exclude some in those categories. 

Mr. Arens. It would not be exclusion technically but failure to 
issue visas ? 

Attorney General Clark. That is right. Under the law, as you 
have indicated, we would not have authority at all. 

Question No. 5 is : 

How many aliens to whom visas have been issued as affiliates of international 
organizations or as affiliates of foreign governments in the course of the last 5 
years have been excluded by the Attorney General from admission into the 
United States? 

None. The Attorney General is without authority to exclude per- 
sons possessing 3 (1) and 3 (7) visas (8 U. S. C. 203 (1), (7) ) . Aliens 
in these categories are exempt from the exclusion statutes (8 U. S. C. 
136(r);22U.S.C.288d). 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you right there, General, and perhaps Mr. 
Winings might be able to give an answer to this question, with respect 
to the headquarters site agreement through which the 3 (7) 's come, 
section 6 provides as follows — section 6 of annex 2 : 

Nothing in the agreement shall be construed as in any way diminishing, 
abridging, or weakening the right of the United States to guarantee its own 
security and completely to control the entrance of aliens into any territory of 
the United States other than the headquarters district and its immediate vicinity 
as to be defined — 

and so forth. Do you have a comment to make on that ? 

Mr. Winings. I was going to say that I think the extract as you 
read it speaks for itself. If the person is coming to the United Nations 
Headquarters, he is authorized without our interference to proceed to 
and from the headquarters area. 

We do under section 6 have authority to limit him to the head- 
quarters area if he is an admissible alien under our law, but we can- 
not keep him out of the United States as such. We can keep him out 
of the territory of the United States which is not composed of the 
headquarters district and vicinity. 

Mr. Arens. Do you care to comment on the operation of this sec- 
tion insofar as the Justice Department is concerned in trying to keep 
people in the so-called headquarters district ? 

Mr. Winings. That is a legal question. I think probably I am not 
•competent to discuss it. 

Attorney General Clark. It is difficult to do. Of course we do have 
regulations in the Immigration Service, particularly on reporters 
and newspaper people. 

The Chairman. You would have to keep the individuals under con- 
tinual surveillance. 

Attorney General Clark. To be 100 percent effective, we would. 
It would be almost impossible to do that with these large numbers. 
For example, we have provided that newspaper people, of which 
there are quite a number sent here from iron-curtain countries, not 



310 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

only have to enter the United States on the east coast but they have 
to go to the headquarters of the United Nations and remain there. 
You will remember there was quite a discussion in the newspapers at 
one time when I denied the right of one of the newspaper reporters 
to come down to Washington with I believe the Prime Minister of 
France or some country over there, and later we let him come down 
for one afternoon. We have the regulations to implement the statute 
you mentioned, sir. 

The Chairman. Does Gubitchev come under that category ? 

Attorney General Clark. We contend that Gubitchev is not immun- 
ized by his papers that are here. That is why we are prosecuting him. 
He claimed, as did the Russians, that he was in the diplomatic cate- 
gory. 

The Chairman. He is a little out of his regimen as a newspaper 
reporter. 

Attorney General Clark. He was not in the newspaper category. 
He was connected with the Russian Government. 

Mr. Winings. He was an architect assigned to the Russian dele- 
gation of the United Nations. 

Attorney General Clark. He was not a newspaperman? 

Mr. Winings. He was not. 

The Chairman. Did you say he was an architect? 

Mr. Winings. Engineer or architect. 

Attorney General Clark. He was connected with the Russian 
group that was with the United Nations. 

Question No. 6 is : 

Does the Department have knowledge of Communist spy rings now existing in 
the United States which include as active participants aliens who entered this 
country as affiliates of international organizations or as affiliates of foreign 
governments? 

As will be noted, this question calls for information concerning 
internal-security matters in the United States, which include as active 
participants aliens affiliated with international organizations and 
foreign governments. 

In order to answer this question, the Department would have to dis- 
close information concerning matters presently under active investiga- 
tion. It is believed that the disclosure of such information would be 
inconsistent with the public welfare by reason of the national-security 
interests involved. 

The Chairman. I might say we have further information covering 
this point also from the Central Intelligence Agency. 

Attorney General Clark. Yes. 

Question No. 7 is : 

If so, ('.escribe the typical pattern of such a spy ring. 

The answer to this question would likewise require the disclosure of 
information concerning cases under active investigation, which it is 
believed would be contrary to the public interest. However, as a 
typical example of the type of case which would be involved, refer- 
ence is made to the case concerning the attache as set forth in answer 
to question 4. 

Question No. 8 : 

To what extent do the records of the Department show espionage or distribu- 
tion of subversive propaganda and the organization or promoting of subversive 
groups in the United States to be under the control and direction of aliens who 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 311 

have entered the United States as affiliates of international organizations or as 
affiliates of foreign governments? 

Presented herewith are data relating to propaganda activities of 
agents of foreign principals in iron-curtain countries who are regis- 
tered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act (22 U. S. C. 611 et 
seq. ) . It should be pointed out, however, that the fact of filing pro- 
paganda as defined in the act does not in any way indicate that it is 
subversive. The requirements of the act are that political propa- 
ganda transmitted through any instrumentality of interstate or for- 
eign commerce shall be appropriately labeled and copies thereof shall 
be filed with the Librarian of Congress and the Department of Justice. 
Under section 4 (c) of the act, copies of the propaganda are available 
for public inspection at the Library of Congress. That portion of the 
following data concerning propaganda activities conducted by foreign 
embassies and consulates in this country relates to information which 
was obtained from sources other than registration under the Foreign 
Agents Registration Act, since diplomatic officials are exempt from 
registration under section 3 (a) of the act as amended. 

A compilation of data regarding registrants from iron-curtain coun- 
tries according to citizenship indicates the following : American citi- 
zens, 73 ; aliens, 35. These figures represent not only individuals who 
are registered as agents of foreign prinicipals from these countries but 
also officials and other persons in policy-determining positions in cor- 
porations or associations who have registered as agents from the 
countries involved and who are required to file the so-called exhibit-A 
forms. 

Mr. Arens. Before you get into the specific ones you allude to in 
your statement, do you care, as Attorney General of the United States, 
to make an appraisal on the basis of your experience and background 
as to the extent to which the Communist "apparatus" in the United 
States is under the direction and control of agents who are sent into 
the United States? You set forth a number of particular instances 
of Communist activity which are under the direction and control of 
agents. I wonder if you would care to make an over-all appraisal. 

Attorney General Clark. We have some evidence to that effect that 
the line of the Communist Party here is the line of the foreign govern- 
ment. As far as any direct connections are concerned, those are 
matters which I would rather not discuss at this time. They involve 
the case in New York. However, I think you could read the propa- 
ganda that is put out and go through some the picket lines that I have 
to go through every time I make a talk anywhere and you can recog- 
nize it pretty easily. 

Mr. Arens. Do you care to elaborate on that, General, and make any 
general appraisal as to whether the Communist "apparatus" in the 
United States is under the direction and control of a foreign power 
or whether it is a home-grown product? 

Attorney General Clark. As I say, that is one of the problems in- 
volved in this case in New York, and I would rather not comment on 
it any further than I have. 

BULGARIA 

The only information available concerning propaganda activities 
carried on by Bulgaria concerns the distribution of an English-lan- 
guage magazine entitled "Free Bulgaria", which is published in Sofia, 



312 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

Bulgaria. This publication is distributed by the Bulgarian Legation 
in Washington. There is no information available on the number of 
copies distributed or the number of recipients. 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

The press department of the Czechoslovak newspapers in New York 
City distributes a Czechoslovak news bulletin, published Monday 
through Friday, to Czechoslovak newspapers in this country. In the 
past, the consulate general has also distributed an English-language 
biweekly magazine, The Central European Observer, published in 
London, but it is not known whether this publication is still being 
distributed here. 

LATVIA 

Mr. Rudolf Shillers. registration No. 284, 5529 Hudson Street, New 
York 14, N. Y., is registered as an agent of the Latvian Minister and 
Charge d'Affaires, Washington, D. C. He describes his activities on 
behalf of his foreign principals as that of following up the American 
press concerning articles and essays about Latvia and other Baltic 
countries, writing press reports, cooperating with relief organizations 
whose activities are beneficial to Latvian displaced persons. 

Registrant reports that he made one speech on November 18, 1948. 
Other than that, he reports no propaganda activities and does not 
list expenditures on behalf of a foreign principal. 

LITHUANIA 

Mr. Anthony O. Shallna, registration No. 182, 305 Harvard Street, 
Cambridge 39, Mass., is registered as an agent of the Lithuanian 
Government. Registrant describes his activities as that of "honorary 
consul of Lithuania" at Boston. 

He lists no expenditures on behalf of a foreign principal and 
states that he made six speeches at political rallies. Independence Day 
exercises, and before professional and business groups. 

POLAND 

(1) The Gdynia America Line, Inc., registration No. 81, 32 Pearl 
Street, New York City, is registered as an agent of the Gdynia 
America Shipping Lines, Ltd., of Gdynia, Poland. 

Registrant distributes press release advertising its steamship serv- 
ices. It also conducts radio programs designed to advertise its 
passenger and cargo services. Registrant reported that it conducted 
2G Polish-language broadcasts, 26 Italian-language broadcasts, and 
39 French-language broadcasts. The broadcasts in Polish and Italian 
were in the nature of weekly programs over Station WHBI, Newark, 
N. J., and Station WHOM, New York City. The French-language 
broadcasts consisted of spot announcements during the "French Hour" 
over Station WBNX. 

(2) The Polish Press News Agency (PAPRESS), registration No. 
372, 50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City, is registered as the United 
States agent of the Polish Press News Agency, Warsaw, the semi- 
official news agency of Poland. Registrant reports no distribution 
of news releases in this country. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 313 

(&) Mr. Randolph Feltus, registration No. 381, 128 East Fifty-sixth 
Street, New York City, is registered as a public-relations adviser to 
the Polish Ambassador to the United States. Registrant in his last 
supplemental statement reports no distribution of any propaganda 
in this country on behalf of the Ambassador. 

(4) Mr. Andrzej Liwnicz, registration No. 383, 299 Madison Avenue, 
New York City, is registered as an agent of the State-owned film 
monopoly, Film Polski of Warsaw, Poland. 

Registrant stated that $6,725 was expended by him on behalf of 
his foreign principal. 

During the month of November 1948, he reported five film show- 
ings at two schools, the Polish consulate and the Polish Research 
and Information Service in New York, and at the Polish Embassy 
in Washington, D. C. In Ma} 7 1949, he informed this office of the 
distribution of five different 16-mm. film titles and miscellaneous 
Polish newsreels which were exhibited by two schools, the Polish 
Research and Information Service, the Polish Embassy, and one 
individual. 

(5) Mr. Leopold Szor. registration No. 410, 151 East Sixty-seventh 
Street, New York City, is registered as an agent of Dr. Wilhelm Billig, 
general director, Polish Radio, Warsaw. 

Registrant stated that his expenditures amounted to $2,000. 

Registrant's activities include the sending of radioscripts to War- 
saw and broadcasting UN news daily to Warsaw from the British 
Broadcasting Corporation's studios in New York City. The UN broad- 
casts over BBC were discontinued on December 15, 1948. Registrant 
reported 12 radio programs over the Polish radio, Warsaw, and 13 
Sunday broadcasts over station WHBI, Newark, N. J., for the Gdynia 
America Line, Inc. 

(6) The Polish Research and Information Service, registration No. 
473, 250 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York City, is registered as 
the official information office in this country of the Press and Informa- 
tion Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Polish Gov- 
ernment in Warsaw. 

Registrant reported that his expenditures on behalf of the foreign 
principal amounted to $70,515 (approximately). 

Registrant engages in the following informational activities in this 
country : 

1. Prepares publications and distributes to newspapers and other publications, 
press services, libraries, educational institutions, and, in some case, public 
officials : 

(a) Biuletyn Polski, a Polish-language news bulletin published Monday 
through Friday. Registrant reported that from January 1, 1949, to May 1, 
1949, there were 67 issues of this publication, 250 copies being distributed per 
issue. 

(b) Vocational Education, described by registrant as a report. During 
May 1949, 5,000 copies of this report were distributed. 

(c) The Polish Army Learns About Brotherhood, was described by regis- 
trant as a report. On March 31 and April 15, 1949, 400 copies were distributed. 

(d) Jewish Life in Poland, a bimonthly publication. On March 31 and 
April 15, 1949. 1,200 copies were distributed. 

(e) Social Welfare in Poland, was described as a report. On March 31 and 
April 19, 1949, registrant reported that a total of 5,400 copies were distributed. 

(f) Cultural Life in Poland is a bulletin. On February 22 and March 14, 
1949, 6.000 copies were distributed. 

(g) Poland of Today, an English-language monthly magazine. During the 
period March 5-14, 1949, registrant reported a circulation of 15,000 to 16,000 



314 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

copies, which is probably the correct monthly circulation for this publication. 
For the month of February 1949, registrant reported the same circulation 
figure as given above. 

(h) A pamphlet containing a statement by the chairman of the Polish Dele- 
gation to the UN ; 800 copies were distributed in February 1949. 

(i) Poland and the Ruhr Question, a pamphlet, 800 copies of which were 
distributed in February 1949. 

(;') The Polish Minister on Human Rights, a pamphlet, 800 copies of which 
were distributed in February 1949. 

2. Distributes copies of broadcasts received from Poland, known as Warsaw 
Daily Broadcasts, to the press attaches at the Polish Embassy in Washington 
and the Polish Legation in Ontario, Canada, the director of the Polish Press 
News Agency in New York City, and to the Federated Press in New York City. 
Registrant reported that copies of Warsaw Daily Broadcasts were distributed 
to four named individuals daily. 

3. Distributes documentary films and photographs and participates in 
exhibitions. 

4. Conducts research, on request, on various problems of Polish life. 

5. Officials associated with registrant have delivered lectures on Polish 
matters. 

Rumania 

The Rumanian Legation in Washington distributes at irregular 
intervals an English-language press bulletin entitled "Rumanian 
News." No figures are available on the distribution of this pub- 
lication. 

u. s. s. E. 

(1) Helen Black, registration No. 6, 15 West Forty-fourth Street, 
New York City, is registered as an agent of Press Photo and the 
Literary-Musical Agency (Presslit), both of Moscow. 

Registrant reported that during the period her expenditures on be- 
half of her foreign principals amounted to $4,447.45. 

On behalf of Press Photo, registrant sells photos and mats re- 
ceived from the U. S. S. R. to newsphoto agencies, newspapers, maga- 
zines, and book publishers in this country. Registrant reported the 
following figures as covering the distribution during the latter half of 
1948 of photographs on behalf of Press Photo : July, 169 ; August, 52 ; 
September, 154 ; October, 72 ; November, 62 ; December, 36. 

During the period from July 1 to December 31, 1948, registrant re- 
ported that on behalf of the Literary-Musical Agency she negotiated 
for the publication of 14 books and 2 plays. 

(2) The Four Continent Book Corp., registration No. 94, 38 West 
Fifty-eighth Street, New York City, is registered as an agent of the 
All-Union combine, Mezhdunarodnaya Kniga, Moscow. 

Registrant reported that its expenditures on behalf of its foreign 
principal for the period July 1 to December 31, 1948, amounted to 
$13,564.61. 

Registrant sells Soviet books, pamphlets, periodicals, and news- 
papers in this country and exports American books and publications 
to the U. S. S. R. 

The following figures were given for publications distributed in 
excess of 35 copies : 

January 1949 : 4,100 copies of Russian-language books in 54 different titles ; 
2,140 copies of 14 different periodicals ; 4,310 phonograph records. 

February 1949 : 2,350 copies of Russian-language books in 25 different titles ; 
1,250 copies of 12 periodicals. 

March 1949 : 3,650 copies of Russian-language books in 35 different titles ; 
4,182 copies of 13 periodicals. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 315 



April 1949 : 1,750 copies of Russian-language books in 25 different titles ; 2,435 
copies of 13 periodicals ; 150 copies of 2 kinds of maps ; 2,200 copies of colored 
picture postcards on 22 different subjects ; 775 phonograph records. 

(3) Artkino Pictures, Inc., registration No. 103, 723 Seventh Av- 
enue, New York City, is registered an an agent of Sovexport Film of 
Moscow. Registrant distributes Soviet films in this country. 

Registrant reported that during the 6-month period covered by the 
supplemental statement its expenditures on behalf of its foreign prin- 
cipal amounted to $19,351.13. 

Registrant reported that during the period from August 23, 1948, to 
February 22, 1949, it released 12 new films and 5 news films. Reg- 
istrant also gave the following information : 



Month 



Films distributed 



Soviet 



German 



35-mm. bookings for — 



Soviet films 



German films 



January 1949 _ 
Februarv 1949 
March 1949. . . 
April 1949 



58 copies 

51 copies 

56 copies 

52 copies 



C copies.. 
14 copies. 
16 copies. 
do... 



20 theaters. _ 
16 theaters. . 
18 theaters.. 
16 theaters.- 



12 theaters. 
9 theaters. 
27 theaters. 
16 theaters. 



(4) Earl Russell Browder, registration No. 374, 55 West Forty- 
second Street, New York City, is registered as an agent of three 
Soviet publishing houses, all located in Moscow — the United States 
Publishing House of the Council of Ministry of the U. S. S. R., the 
State Art Publishing House of the Committee on Art Affairs of the 
Council of Ministry of the U. S. S. R., the Publishing House of the 
Central Council of Trade-Unions. 

For the 6-month period ending March 31, 1949, registrant stated 
that his expenditures on behalf of the foreign principals amounted 
to $948.46. 

On behalf of his foreign principals, registrant negotiates with 
American publishing houses for the publication of Russian books in 
this country (books are submitted to publishers in Russian or in Eng- 
lish translation) and offers articles received from the U. S. S. R. for 
publication by newspapers and periodicals in this country. During 
the 6-month period ending March 31, 1949, registrant reported that he 
had negotiated for the publication of four books and had given five 
lectures. 

(5) World Tourist, Inc., registration No. 485, 18 West Twenty- 
third Street, New York City, is registered as an agent of the All- 
Union Joint-Stock Company Intourist of Moscow. Registrant acts 
as a tourist agency, selling tourist and travel documents, tickets, and 
so forth, but reports no dissemination of travel, tourist, or other pub- 
licity material in this country. 

(6) The New York bureau of the Telegraph Agency of the 
U. S. S. R. (TASS), registration No. 464, 50 Rockefeller Plaza, New 
York City, is registered as an agent of the Telegraph Agency of the 
U. S. S. R., Moscow. Registrant transmits news from this country to 
the U. S. S. R., but reports no dissemination of information in this 
country. 

(7) The Embassy of the U S. S. R. in Washington, D. C, dis- 
tributes an English-language magazine, published twice monthlv, 
entitled "U. S. S. R. Information Bulletin." 



In addition, the Em- 



98330— 50— pt. 1- 



316 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

bassy has distributed various press releases from time to time, such 
as the lengthy four-part release distributed in the United States in 
February 1948, entitled "Falsificators of History." 

YUGOSLAVIA 

(1) Mr. Monroe Stern, registration No. 386, 1520 Sixteenth Street 
NW., Washington, D. C., is registered as the information officer 
for the Yugoslav Ambassador to the United States. Registrant 
answers inquiries and assists in the preparation of speeches and state- 
ments made by the Ambassador and helps prepare pamphlets and 
other publications distributed by the Embassy. 

According to information supplied by registrant, the Yugoslav 
Embassy issues, on occasion, press and news releases (with a circula- 
tion varying from 15 to 350 during the year 1948) and distributes 
various pamphlets and publications of diverse circulation (e. g., on 
one occasion in 1948 the circulation of one pamphlet was 400; on 
another, 10,000) . 

Registrant reported on October 25, 1948, that 4,500 copies of the 
publication News of Yugoslavia were distributed. He also reported 
on September 29, 1948, the distribution of 5,000 copies of The UN- 
Cooperation Must be Secured, which is a pamphlet containng a speech 
by Mr. Edvard Kardelj, the chairman of the UN delegation from 
Yugoslavia. 

(2) Tanjug, registration No. 493, 36 Central Park South, New 
York City, is registered as the United States agency for the Yugoslav 
news agency Tanjug of Belgrade, Yugoslavia. 

Registrant reported the following figures for expenditures on behalf 
of its foreign principal: October 1948, $1,558.36; November 1948, 
$10,381.49; December 1948, $1,402.59; January 1949, $2,794.73: Feb- 
ruary 1949, $1,281.17; March 1949, $2,674.09. 

Registrant distributes press releases based on material transmitted 
from Yugoslavia to a mailing list consisting, as of December 1948, of 
approximately 490 newspapers, periodicals, news services, or interested 
individuals or organizations in this country ; distributes photographs 
received in single copies from Belgrade; and transmits news reports 
to Belgrade. 

An example of activity on the part of persons attached to an em- 
bassy of an iron-curtain country is as follows : 

In 1947, the Department was informed that a meeting of leaders of 
an iron-curtain country nationality from the United States, Canada, 
and the country's Embassy, Washington, D. C, was held in New York 
City. This meeting was called for the purpose of discussing policy 
and certain differences of opinion which had arisen concerning future 
activities of the elements of this iron-curtain country in the United 
States. Represented at the meeting, according to the Department's 
source of information, were persons affiliated with the Nationality 
Groups Commission of the Communist Party of the United States; 
Serbian Section, Communist Party, U. S. A. ; Croatian Section, Com- 
munist Party, U. S. A. ; Macedonian Section, Communist Party, U. 
S. A.; American Slav Congress: Slovenian Section, Communist Party, 
U. S. A. ; and Croatian Section of the Communist Party of Canada. 

After a general policy meeting among these individuals, two per- 
sons from the country's Embassy in Washington were introduced, and 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 317 

there was a general discussion of the United Committee of South 
Slavic Americans. The latter organization has been designated as 
Communist under Executive Order 9835. 

In the course of discussions, it was pointed out that several represent- 
atives felt that the United Committee should be made a part of the 
American Slav Congress (another organization which has been desig- 
nated as Communist under Executive Order 9835). 

Mr. Arens. You are speaking, of course, of the Yugoslav Embassy 
as you referred to before ? 

Attorney General Clark. Yes. 

One of the persons from the Embassy is reported to have stated that 
the poor condition of affairs with regard to the United Committee must 
be blamed on the Communist Party and no one else, and that the 
United Committee was the responsibility of party members. He is 
reported to have criticized those who felt that there was no need for 
this organization, and mentioned that various debts incurred by the 
committee could be taken care of; and that, in order to implement suc- 
cessfully the continued activities of the organization, the party must 
assign responsibility to comrades in New York. Pittsburgh, Detroit, 
Chicago, and elsewhere to work with the committee. This person also 
reportedly stated that it was not desirable that the United Committee 
of South Slavic Americans become a mass organization like the Ameri- 
can Slav Congress and that, if necessary, the Embassy was ready to 
help by sending two or three people from the particular iron-curtain 
country into the various localities to speak at such meetings as could 
be arranged. He reportedly advised that the Communist Party had 
assumed leadership in the particular iron-curtain country and that 
the Communists in the United States must, in their own way, assume 
leadership and take the responsibilities for carrying on the work of 
the organization. 

The other person from the Embassy delivered an address echoing 
the sentiments of his colleague. After the discussions, the following 
conclusions w T ere accepted by the various representatives attending the 
meeting : 

(1) The American Slav Congress should be the Communist 
Party's top organization in the United States, and it will continue 
to work as a mass organization. 

(2) Certain specific Communist Party members were to be as- 
signed responsibility for the work of the United Committee of 
South Slavic Americans in the indicated cities of the United 
States. 

(3) The American Committee for (this particular national- 
ity's) Relief and the American Association for Reconstruction 
in the particular iron-curtain country would continue on their 
existing basis. 

Mr. Arens. Again, General, it is obvious that you are speaking of 
the American Committee for Yugoslavia Relief and the American 
Association for Reconstruction in Yugoslavia ? 

Attorney General Clark. I was mistaken when I said that was 
Yugoslavia. This example is an embassy, but it is not necessarily the 
Yugoslav Embassy. It is an embassy here in Washington, D. C, how- 
ever. 

Mr. Arens. General, I have just one observation. It is apparent — 
is it not ? — from the facts which you have developed here, that there 



318 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

is a direct tie-up — at least, in the instances which you have set forth — 
between the affiliates of the foreign governments and your Commu- 
nist "apparatus" in the United States ? 

Attorney General Clark. I would not be in a position to go any 
further than I have in this statement. I think the statement is pretty 
clear on that; and, having these cases pending over the country, I 
have gone over this statement very carefully. If I said anything ad 
libbing here, I might say something that affects those cases. I do 
not think what I have written here would. I know you understand. 

Mr. Arens. I understand, General. 

Attorney General Clark. The ninth question is : 

To what extent do the records of the Department show espionage or other 
subversive activity in the United States to be engaged in by persons who are 
aliens, foreign-born, or of foreign-born parents? 

Espionage and subversive cases are not classified on a basis of the 
nationality of the participants and suspects. Hence, current statistics 
in this regard are not practicably available. However, after several 
months of research, a statistical analysis has been made, based on a 
careful study of 4,984 of the more militant members of the Communist 
Party, United States of America, as of 1947. 

Of that 4,984 cases analyzed, it was found that 2,202 or 44 percent 
of the individuals studied were either of Russian stock (i. e., born in 
Russia or of Russian or mixed parentage, with at least one parent born 
in Russia) or were married to persons of Russian stock. Thirty-seven 
percent of the individuals studied were of Russian stock, and 7 percent 
were married to persons of Russian stock, making the total 44 percent. 

These 2,202 cases may be further broken down as follows : 

A. Subjects of Russian stock : 

1. Subjects born in Russia 

(a) Aliens 79 

(6) Naturalized citizens 756 

Total 835 

2. Parents born Russian 

(a) Both parents 742 

(6) 1 parent 277 

Total 1,019 

Total subjects of Russian stock 1, 854 

B. Subjects married to Russian stock : 

1. Spouse born Russian 88 

2. Parents of spouse born in Russia 

(a) Both parents 185 

(6) 1 parent 75 

Total 260 

Total subjects married to Russian stock 348 

Total subjects of, or married to Russian stock 2, 202 

It was further found that an additional 614 subjects of the individu- 
als studied, or 12.5 percent of the 4,984, were either of stock from the 
countries adjacent to Russia (Poland, Finland, Rumania, Lithuania, 
Turkey, Latvia, and Estonia) or were married to persons of such 
stock. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 319 

The following is an analysis of these 614 cases : 

A. Subjects of stock from countries adjacent to Russia : 

1. Subjects born in such countries : 

(a) Aliens 36 

(6) Naturalized citizens 334 

Total 370 

2. Parents born in such countries : 

(a) Both parents 134 

(6) 1 parent 56 

Total 190 

Total subjects of such stock 560 

B. Subjects married to such stock : 

1. Spouse born in such country 15 

2. Parents of spouse born in such country : 

(a) Both parents 20 

(6) 1 parent 19 

Total 39 

Total subjects married to such stock 54 

Total subjects of, or married to, such stock 614 

Combining the statistics relating to Russian stock with those relat- 
ing to stock from countries adjacent to Russia, it will be seen that 2,816, 
or 56.5 percent of the 4,984 cases analyzed, were either of stock from 
Russia or the adjacent countries or were married to persons of such 
stock. 

In addition, it was found that 1,739 individuals, or 34.9 percent of the- 
total 4,984 subjects, were either of stock from other foreign countries 
or were married to stock from other foreign countries. 

The following are the statistics : 

A. Subjects of other foreign stock : 

1. Subject born in other foreign countries : 

(a) Aliens 102 

(&) Naturalized 795 

Total 897 

2. Parents born in other foreign countries : 

(a) Both parents 327 

(&) 1 parent 270 

Total 597 

Total subjects of other foreign stock 1,494 

B. Subjects married to other foreign stock : 

1. Spouse born in other foreign country 84 

2. Parents of spouse born in other foreign country : 

(a) Both parents 77 

(6)1 parent 84 

Total 161 

Total subjects married to other foreign stock 245 

Total subjects of, or married to, other foreign stock 1, 739 



320 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 



Thus it will be seen that a total of 4,555, or 91.4 percent of the 
4,984 subjects, were either of foreign stock or were married to persons 
of foreign stock; 3,908 of these, or 78.4 percent of the total 4,984 sub- 
jects, were of foreign stock, and 647, or 13 percent of the total 4,984 
subjects, were married to persons of foreign stock. 

In only 429, or 8.6 percent of the 4,984 cases, were the subject and his 
parents, and if married the spouse and the spouse's parents, all born 
in the United States. 

To recapitulate — 



Number Percent 



1. Subjects of, or married to, Russian stock ..: 

Subjects of, or married to, stock from countries adjacent to Russia 

Total of Russian and adjacent countries.-. 

2. Subjects of, or married to, other foreign stock 

3. Total, all foreign stocks 

4. Subject and parents and if married, spouse and parents all born in the United 

States 

5. Total 



2,202 
614 



2,816 
1,739 



44.0 
12.5 

56.5 
34.9 



4, 555 
429 



91.4 
8.6 



4,984 



100.0 



According to the World Almanac, 1947, the 1940 census reported 
34,576,718 persons of white foreign stock in the United States, includ- 
ing 2,610,244 persons of Russian stock. The total white population 
of the United States was reported as 118,214,870 and the Negro popu- 
lation was reported as 12,865,518, making a total population of 
131,669,275. 

Accordingly, less than 2 percent of the white population consisted 
of Russian stock, yet 44 percent of the subjects of these 4,984 cases 
were either of Russian stock or married to Russian stock. 

Stock from the countries adjacent to Russia consisted of 3,971,077 
persons, or less than 3 percent of the total white population of the 
United States, yet 12.5 percent of the subjects of these 4,984 cases 
were either of stock from these countries or were married to persons 
of such stock. 

White stock from all other foreign countries consists of 27,995,397 
persons, or about 24 percent of the total white population of the 
United States, yet 34.9 percent of the subjects of these 4,984 cases were 
either of such stock or married to persons of such stock. 

Only approximately 30 percent of the white population of the 
United States consisted of foreign white stock, yet 91.4 percent of the 
subjects of these 4,984 cases were either of foreign stock or married to 
persons of foreign stock. Seventy-eight and four one-hundredths 
percent of the subjects of these cases were of foreign stock and 13 
percent of the subjects were married to persons of foreign stock. 

On the other hand, only 8.6 percent of these subjects were born in 
the United States of parents born in the United States and, if mar- 
ried, had native-born spouses of native-born parents, although about 
70 percent of the white population consisted of native stock. 

It should also be noted that of the 4,984 cases studied, 217, or 4.3 
percent, were aliens. 

The membership of the Communist Party has fluctuated consid- 
erably during the past 2 years. In January 1947 the Communist 
Party, U. S. A., claimed 74,000 members ; in February 1948 it claimed 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 321 

68,000 members; in August 1948, 60,000 members; and in October 
1948, 59,000 members. 

Ten: Describe the extent, scope, and nature of the activity or activities of 
those organizations which have heeu proscribed by the Attorney General as 
subversive organizations. 

Presumably this question is concerned with the organizations which 
have been declared by the Attorney General to come within the scope 
of Executive Order No. 9835, relating to the loyalty of Government 
employees, wherein the Attorney General is charged with the responsi- 
bility of furnishing to the Loyalty Review Board of the Civil Service 
Commission the names of organizations which, after appropriate inves- 
tigation and determination, he has designated as totalitarian, Fascist, 
Communist, or subversive, or as having adopted a policy of advocating 
or approving the commission of acts of force or violence, to deny others 
their rights under the Constitution of the United States, or as seeking 
to alter the form of government of the United States by unconstitu- 
tional means. The considerations below refer specifically to the 
organizations which have been designated as Communist and sub- 
versive pursuant to the afore-mentioned Executive order. 

The activities of Communists among various groups follow a gen- 
eral pattern, each presumably intended to meet the special require- 
ments of the group. For activity among youth there are the teen-age 
clubs, summer camps, dances, and high-school and college organiza- 
tions. Among national minority groups and racial groups, the activi- 
ties are planned to accentuate nationality and racial differences, to 
emphasize any discrimination, to retard Americanization, and to 
prevent their successful assimilation into our way of living. In their 
activities among labor groups, Communists continually aim to create 
a feeling of class consciousness. Thus the pattern, while different to 
meet the needs of each group, is always gaged toward the same aim of 
pitting class against class, group against group, in an endless effort 
to foment strife, discontent, confusion, and disorganization. 

Dealing in general with the question of the extent, scope, and nature 
of the activities of the organizations which have been designated as 
Communist and subversive pursuant to Executive Order 9835, it may 
be observed that the extent of the activities of these groups varies 
with the vScope of their activities. Some organizations extend not 
only within the continental United States but to the Territories as 
well. Others, which by their titles are designed to influence minority 
groups, operate only where those groups are found. They extend 
geographically according to the nature of the group, whether it be 
an organization operating among youth, labor, racial minorities, for- 
eign-nationality groups, or groups brought together for some specific 
cause or purpose. 

The scope of their activities is generally indicated by the names 
of the organizations themselves. Some clearly were organized for 
the purpose of fostering American policy favorable to the current 
policy of a foreign state; others are designed to promote the defense 
of specific individuals or to serve generally as legal defense or legal 
aid groups for Communists, or others whose cases can be rendered into 
causes celebres to serve the ends of the Communists; others again are 
designed to teach Communist dogma and tactics. The nature of the 
activities of these organizations follows the general pattern of at- 



322 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 

tempted infiltration, followed by the obtaining of strategic control, 
except, of course, in those cases where the organization is created by 
the Communists themselves. Many times actual Communist control 
is disguised through the use of apparently innocent individuals in 
seemingly key positions, whereas real control rests in the hands of 
persons who appear to occupy lesser positions. The nature of the 
activities varies with the objective of the organization ; if it is designed 
to raise funds, there may be a few formal meetings other than a large 
conclave with attendant publicity; others whose purposes relate to 
indoctrination operate through meetings in local branches or lodges, 
through schools, through publicity campaigns, through the form of 
handbills, pamphlets, and organization publications. 

Mr. Arens. May I ask you one question ? 

As you probably know, the Senator's bill, S. 1832, provides for the 
exclusion and expulsion of persons who are affiliates of subversive 
organizations proscribed by the Attorney General. Without at this 
time getting into the details of the bill, would the general care to 
express himself respecting the extent of the investigation and the 
care which is used by the Department of Justice as a prerequisite to 
the proscription of a particular organization as a Communist organi- 
zation ? 

Attorney General Clark. First, let me say, back in 1946, 1 think, we 
got from all the agencies of the Government whatever information 
they had on these various organizations and that was turned over to 
about 30 lawyers in the Criminal Division. It was sifted through 
those lawyers. Then I organized each of the assistant attorneys gen- 
eral, including Mr. Ford, the assistant, the Solicitor General, and the 
Assistant Solicitor General, into a panel and each one of those organi- 
zations was then reviewed by this group of assistant attorneys general, 
the assistant, Solicitor General, and Assistant Solicitor General. 
When they narrowed them down, if they all agreed I went over them 
and I would place them on the list. If they did not agree, then we 
would have a meeting, usually at lunch, at which we would discuss 
each of the organizations that was not agreed upon. We might ask 
for more information from the FBI or whatever sources furnished the 
information. 

Mr. Arens. As a prerequisite to the proscription, there were FBI 
reports as to the activities of the organization or a careful investiga- 
tion of the organization ? 

Attorney General Clark. Not only FBI but we got them from every 
agency that had any investigative groups or had any investigation. It 
was all correlated among all the agencies of the Government, 

Mr. Arens. How many organizations have been proscribed by the 
Attorney General as subversive organizations ? 

Attorney General Clark. I do not know the exact number but the 
total is about 170, 1 would say. 

Mr. Ford. I do not know the total either. 

Attorney General Clark. There are two lists. Some are Fascist, 
some are Nazi. The total would be around 170 or 175. 

Question 11 is: 

According to the information in the possession of the Department, how many 
aliens have been deported from the United States in the course of the last 10 
years under the statutes which provide for the deportation of subversives? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN ALIEN AND NATIONAL GROUPS 323 

As of April 15, 1949. 3,278 warrants of deportation had been issued 
which were not enforceable by reason of a refusal by the aliens' coun- 
tries of origin to issue passports or other travel documents with which 
to effect deportation. Of the aliens covered by these warrants, 2,147 
are iron-curtain nationals and of that number 1,180 are Russians. Of 
the 3,278 deportation orders, 112 were specifically issued under the act 
of October 16, 1918, as amended, which relates to subversive classes. 

Senator Magnuson. Mr. Clark, could I ask a question right there? 

Attorney General Clark. Yes. 

Senator Magnuson. Supposing it is determined that an individual 
was subversive and let us assume that his origin was an Iron-Curtain 
country and that country refused, either deliberately or otherwise, 
to accept him ; then is there any other course we can pursue ? Is there 
any other place we can send him or must he just stay here ? 

Attorney General Clark. We can send him to only two places and 
those two only under the agreement of those countries. The two 
places are the place of birth and the other is the place from whence 
he came to the United States. As a consequence we have, as I have 
pointed out many times, Senator, some 4,000 alien Communists in the 
United States who, as I described it, are walking the streets. 

Senator Magnuson. They could be here by design? 

Attorney General Clark. Definitely, some of them are. 

Senator Magnuson. They could be here because their country will 
not issue the passport to allow them to come back. 

Attorney General Clark. That is right. 

Senator Magnuson. In order to deliberately keep them here. 

Attorney General Clark. I believe that is true in several instances. 
Of course they could go to another country if they were able to get a 
visa and wanted to get a visa, but they have to apply for it themselves. 
I cannot force them to go, you see. I think one visa has been issued 
by the Russians since 1945. With that exception we have not been 
able to obtain any. 

Senator Magnuson. Would you favor legislation that would allow 
the Attorney General some procedure whereby these people could 
either be sent to seme place? If they are deemed to be subversive, 
surely