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Full text of "Communist activities in the Chicago, Illinois area. : Hearings before the Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, Eighty-ninth Congress, first session"

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COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE 
CHICAGO AREA-PART 2 

(LOCAL 347, UNITED PACKINGHOUSE WORKERS OF AMERICA, CIO) 

HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

EIGHTY-SECOND CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 



SEPTEMBER 4 AND 5, 1952 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 




UNITED STATES 
30VERNMENT PRINTING OPFICD 
^4(44 WASHINGTON : 1952 



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COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
United States House of Representatives 

JOHN S. WOOD, GeoTgiSi, Chairman 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania HAROLD H. VELDE, Illinois 

MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri BERNARD W. KEARNEY, New Torli 

CLYDE DOYLE, California DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

JAMES B. FRAZIER, JE., Tennessee CHARLES E. POTTER, Michigan 

Frank S. Tavennee, Jr., Counsel 

LOUIS J. RUSSELL, Senior Investigator 

John W. Caeeington, Clerk of Committee 

Raphael I. Nixon, Director of Research 

n 



CONTENTS 



September 4, 1952— 

Testimony of : Page 

Roy Thompson 3754 

I>eon Beverly 3773 

Samuel Curry 3807 

Joseph Parks 3809 

September 5, 1952— 
Testimony of: 

Leon Beverly (resumed) 3813 

Herbert March 3814 

Donald T. Appell 3831 

Oscar Behnke 3831 

ni 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AKEA— PAET 2 
Local 347, United Packinghouse Workers of America, tlO 



THURSDAY, SEPTEMBEB 4, 1952 

United States House or Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON Un-American Activities, 

Chicago^ III. 
public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 : 35 a. m., in room 237, Federal Building, 
219 South Clark Street, Chicago, 111., Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) 
presiding. 

Committee members present : Representatives John S. Wood (chair- 
man), Francis E. Walter, Morgan M. Moulder, James B. Frazier, 
Jr., Harold H. Velde, and Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel ; Donald T. Appell, William Jackson 
Jones, and Alvin Stokes, investigators ; and John W. Carrington, clerk. 

Mr. Wood. Let us have order, please. 

The chairman, on behalf of the members of this committee, desires 
to acknowledge with grateful appreciation the receipt of the following 
telegram, which I now read into the record : 

Chairman Wood, 

House Un-American Activities Subcommittee, 

United States Courthouse, Chicago, III.: 
We of the American Legion decry and condemn the vicious efforts and 
despicable tactics of Communists and fellow travelers here who, seeking refuge 
under the constitutional guaranties of free speech and peaceable assembly which 
they seek to destroy, have sought to prevent your subcommittee from carrying 
on its proper investigation of unions Communist-dominated and -inspired. 

We do hereby declare, as we have done over the years, our continued confidence 
in your committee; and we, the delegates to the Cook County Council of the 
American Legion, representing 394 posts of the American Legionnaires, do place 
at your disposal our strength and resources, and joining in this declaration of 
faith is Elliodor M. Libonati, chairman of the Americanism commission of the 
department of Illinois. 

iKviNG Breakstone, 
Commander of Cook County Council, American Legion. 

Whom do you call, Mr. Counsel ? 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Roy Thompson. Will you come forward, please? 

Mr. Wood. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn, please ? 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you shall give this subcommittee 
shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Tho:mpson. I do. 

Mr. Wood. Be seated. 

3753 



3754 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE CHICAGO AREA 

TESTIMONY OF ROY THOMPSON 

Mr, Wood. Are you represented by counsel? 

Mr. Thompson. I am not. 

Mr. Wood. If, during the progress of your interrogation, you deem 
it necessary to have counsel, please let me know, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Thompson. My name is Roy Thompson. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you here in response to a subpena served on you ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, I am, in response to a subpena served on Roy 
Thompson. 

I would like to say, following the questioning of what is my name, 
that I hold in my hand a subpena that was issued and served on me 
directing that I be here on this date at 10 : -30 a. m. I am not holding 
this subpena by solicitation. I am not here by solicitation; and, fur- 
thermore, I would like to say that I am not here with any animosity 
in my heart or any envy toward any individual or group of individuals. 
I am not here on the side of any group. I am not here on the side of 
any individual that desires to weaken trade-union movements. I am 
not here as an instrument from the hand of any group or any individual 
that desires to do things that are detrimental to people. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Counsel, the policy of the committee has been that 
the witnesses confine their answers to questions that are asked, and I 
will ask that that be followed. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I be permitted to ask him this one question ? 

You are here, as I understand it, solely in response to this subpena ? 

Mr. Thompson. I am here solely in response to this subpena. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien and where were you born, Mr. Thompson ? 

Mr. Thompson. I was born in Marianna, Ark. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what year? 

Mr. Thompson. In 1913. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your educational training? 

Mr. Thompson. I went to the eighth grade. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a resident of the city of Chicago ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Thompson. I have lived in Chicago since 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. Since you came to Chicago in 1941, how have you 
been employed? 

Mr. Thompson. My first employment was at Goldblatt's Warehouse 
at Thirty-ninth and Wolcott. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did you remain employed there? 

Mr. THO]\rpsoN. I worked there approximately 1 year. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your next employment? 

Mr. Thompson. My next employment was with Armour & Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. Armour & Co.? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you remained as an employee there from that | 
time until the present time? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. While employed at Armour & Co., have you been a 
member of a union ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; I have. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. What union ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3755 

Mr. Thompson. Local 347, UPWA. 

Mr. Tavenner. Local 347 of what? 

Mr. Thompson. That is the United Packinghouse Workers of 
America, CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. United Packinghouse Workers of America ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any official position in that local ? 

Mr. Thompson. I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. What? 

Mr. Thompson. At one time I was chief steward of the plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the approximate date? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I would say around the year of 1946; I 
couldn't be too exact. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you speak just a little louder, please? 

Mr. Thompson. I think it was around 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any other positions ? 

Mr. Thompson. I was chairman of the local union's grievance 
committee for 2 years or more. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the approximate date ? 

Mr. Thompson. Around 1947, up until 1951'. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any other positions in the union? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; I haven't. 

Mr. Tavenner. While a member of the union, were you solicited at 
any time to become a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 

Mr. Thompson. I would say it was around 1944. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a result of the solicitation, did you join the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I joined the Communist Party; I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I am not. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you cease to become a member? 

Mr. Thompson. I ceased to become a member of the Communist 
Party around the latter part of 1948, 1 would say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who solicited you to join the party ? Or let me put 
it this way : Will you tell the committee the full circumstances under 
which you were recruited into the party, and by whom ? 

Mr. Thompson. I would like to at this point tell the committee the 
circumstances under which I was recruited into the party. 

I was approached by an individual on this basis : That the Commu- 
nist Party was one of the main organizations that carried the fight 
for the rights of the Negro; and being extremely interested in any 
group that was interested in that fight, not only the Negro but any 
minority group, I was sold on the idea that I should join the Com- 
munist Party, on the grounds that the Communist Party was inter- 
ested in the affairs of the Negro and the advancement of all minority 
groups. It was on that basis that I became a member of the Com 
munist Party. I was solely interested in the fact that the gentleman 
approached me on the ground that the Communist Party was the 
champion of the rights of the Negro, and it was for that purpose and 
that purpose only that I joined the Communist Party. 

I would like to further state, since I am on that, that, to my regret, 
I discovered that the Communist Party was neither sincere nor honest 



3756 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

in its much talk about its position in defending the rights of the 
Negro. 

I also discovered that the Communist Party was concerned about 
destroying the name of the accredited leaders of the Negro people, 
for the sole purpose of taking or monopolizing; or, in other words, 
once they knew that the confidence of the Negro people in their leaders 
had been destroyed, that would have paved the way for the dommation 
of the Negro people by the Communist Party. And, when I dis- 
covered that fact, I no longer — I ceased to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party. When I discovered the Communist Party was say- 
ing one thing and doing another, I ceased to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party and fought the Communist Party just as I would have 
or just as I will fight the Klan or any other organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. What led you to the conclusion that the Communist 
Party was really not interested in the advancement of the Negro race, 
but was endeavoring to utilize it as a tool, which I think is the sub- 
stance of what you have said ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I would like to say this : When I saw men 
like Adam Clayton Powell, Archibald Carey, Kalph Bunche— men 
that have given their all, and men that are in the fight for the advance- 
ment not only of the Negro people but of all peopl^when I saw those 
men viciously attacked and referred to as "stool pigeons," "company 
agents," then I knew that, behind the record of such men commg to 
such attacks, the sole purpose of it was to destroy the confidence of 
the people in those men, making it easier for other groups to set up 
their leaders and dominate the Negro and other minorities. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you say such conduct enabled the Communist 
Party to set up other groups, do you mean by that to place in positions 
of leadership members of the Negro race who would be subject to the 
domination and control of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is exactly what I mean. Say, for instance, if 
you were a Congressman and somebody destroyed the people's con- 
fidence in you, then someone else would be elected, and that is exactly 

what I mean. • • i. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio was it that solicited your membership in the 

Communist Party ? 
Mr. Thompson. There was a gentleman by the name of Jesse Perez. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell it, please ? 
Mr. Thompson. P-e-r-e-z. 
Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any official position in your union at 

the time ? 

Mr. Thompson. As near as I can recall, he later became sergeant 

at arms. 

Mr. Tavenner. In local 347? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. After you became a member of the party, were 
you assigned to any group or cell of the party ? 

Mr. Thompson. In the party I was assigned to what is known as 
group 4. 

Mr. Tavenner. Group 4. 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many persons composed group 4 when you 
first joined? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3757 

Mr. Thompson. Well, roughly, when I first joined, I would say 
approximately 20 people. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the unit grow in size as time went on ? Or did 
it maintain about the same membership ? 

Mr. Thompson. Tliere was a little increase, and I would not say too 
much. 

Mr. Tavenner, It was the policy of the Communist Party — was it 
not ? — to work in small groups, and none of the cells ever became large 
numerically. Isn't that correct ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, the groups that I attended were always small 
groups, unless there was a larger meeting, composed of all groups; 
but, more or less, I attended the small-party groups. 

Mr. Ta\i:nner. Who were the leaders of the group to which you were 
assigned, group 4? 

Mr. Thompson. Group 4? The leader of group 4 was one Miss 
Annie Alexander. That was one of the leaders. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, let me ask you, did she hold any position in 
the union ? 

Mr. Thompson. Not to my knowledge ; no, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she employed or connected with local 347 in 
any way ? 

Mr. Thompson. She was a member of local 347. 

Mr. Tavenner. A member? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you this, first : Were all of the members 
of group 4 members of local 347, or were persons outside of your local 
also members ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, we had people to come in as instructors that 
I didn't know them to be members of group 4, but people occasionally 
came in as instructors. 

Mr. Tavenner, But the rank-and-file members of group 4 were per- 
sons who belonged to your local union, 347 ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right; you have given us the name of Annie 
Alexander as one of the leaders of this group. Can you recall who the 
other leaders were ? 

Mr. Thompson. There was a lady by the name of Mrs. Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Washington? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall her firet name ? 

Mr. Thompson. Symanthia Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. What function did she perform in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Thompson. I wouldn't like to say on that, because I am not 
clear on what her function was in the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she hold a position in the local union ? 

Mr. Thompson, No ; she didn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of the local union? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; she was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the name of any other leader of 
that group ? Do you recall who was the secretary ? 

Mr. Thompson. For a short period of time there was a lady by the 
name of Jessie Obitz, 

Mr. Tavenner. 0-b-i-t-z, is that the spelling ? 

24044— 52— pt. 2 2 



3758 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Thompson. I am not sure how the name was spelled — Jessie ! 
Obitz, and I don't know how you would spell it. j 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether it is Obitz or Obritz? j 

Mr. Thompson. It is Obitz. ] 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of your local union ? j 

Mr. Thompson. Yes; she was. i 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she hold any official position in the union ? 
Mr. Thompson. She later became chief steward of what is known < 
as the Morris division. ' 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you say Morris division ? 
Mr. Thompson. That is right, M-o-r-r-i-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like for you to give the committee the names | 
of other persons who were members of your group 4, as far as you can. 
Mr. Thompson. There was a man by the name of Joe Dennis, a 
member of group 4 ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Joe Dennis. 
Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat position did Joe Dennis hold in the union, 
if any ? I 

Mr. Thompson. He held no position at all. i 

Mr. Tavenner. But he was a member of your union ? ' 

Mr. Thompson. He was a member of our union. • 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall a person by the name of Pete Davis? i 
Mr. Thompson. Pete Davis; yes; I recall Pete Davis. 1 

Mr. Ta\tenner. Was Pete Davis a member of group 4? ! 

Mr. Thompson. To the best of my knowledge, he was a member 
of group 4, and he met with us on various occasions, with group 4. 
Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your union ? i 

Mr. Thompson. He was a member of the union ; yes, sir. i 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any official position at any time? 
Mr. Thompson. No ; not during my time. I 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall others? 

Mr. Thompson. Members of group 4, you mean ? i 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 1 

Mr. Thompson. Eugene Cornelius. ■ 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of local 347 ? 
Mr. Thompson. That is a man. 
Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of local 347 ? 
Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any position at any time? 

Mr. Thompson. He later became chief steward of the Cold Pork 

Division. ! 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall others ? 1 

Mr. Thompson. There were other people who attended the meetings, 

who attended the Communist Party functions, but whether or not they | 

were members of the Communist Party or not, I am not too clear on i 

that. I was also in the meeting with a gentleman by the name of Mr. \ 

Curry, but I had never believed that Mr. Curry was a member of the j 

Communist Party and I never regarded him as such. j 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me make this suggestion to you: It may be 
better that you not mention the names of persons that you are uncer- 
tain about, and only refer to those in public session as being members, 
or mention in public session those of wliom you are certain. The 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3759 

committee may desire to hear from you in executive session regarding 
persons you may be in doubt about, in order that it may make further 
investigations. 

Mr. Thompson, do you recall a person by the name of Joseph Bezen- 
hoffer, also known as Joe Marlovits ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, I have been in meetings with Joseph Bezen- 
hoffer, and I never knew him by the name of Marlovits, but I knew 
him as Joe Benzenhoffer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of local 347 ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; he was a member of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold a position at any time in that local ? 

Mr. Thompson. At one time he was president of the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many meetings did you attend with him, do 
you think? 

Mr. Thompson. I wouldn't know the exact number, but I attended 
several meetings with him. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the character of the meetings, were they 
open meetings of the Communist Party, attended by the public gener- 
ally, or were they closed meetings which dealt only with Communist 
Party matters? 

Mr. Thompson. These meetings I attended, one meeting that I at- 
tended consisted of Mr. Bezenhoffer and other people, and the question 
discussed at that time was who was to be president of the local union. 
That was a closed Communist cell meeting. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Where was that held ? 

Mr. Thompson. The meeting that took place around the discussion 
of who should be the president of the local union, to the best of my 
knowledge, was in the home of Mr. Herbert March. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did Mr. March hold in the union ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, during that time Mr. March was organizer 
of the local union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Local 347 ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has he held any other position in the local since 
that time ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; he held no position in the local to my knowl- 
edge. He had been district director prior to that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. This, you say, was a closed Communist Party meet- 
ing held in his home ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Who were those present at that meeting, as well as 
you can recall ? 

Mr. Thompson. The best I can recall, there was myself, Mr. Herbert 
March, Joe Bezenhoffer, and Mr. Curry. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know Mr. Curry's first name ? 

Mr. Thompson. Mr. Samuel Curry. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did he hold in the union ? 

Mr. Thompson. He was at one time district secretary. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold a position at that particular time in 
the local union ? 

Mr. Thompson. At that particular time, no. 

Mr. Tavenner. But at one time he was financial secretary ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 



3760 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Financial secretary of local 347? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien was this meeting held ? 

Mr. Thompson. I am not sure on the date of that particular meet- 
ing, so I wouldn't like to say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you fix the year? 

Mr. Thompson. I would rather not attempt that, because I am not 
sure of the dates. 

Mr. Tax-enner. What was the purpose of the meeting? 

Mr. Thompson. The purpose of the meeting was to decide on who 
would be the candidate for president of the local, and the discussion 
was centered around the running of two men, and the discussion was 
around whether to run Mr. Bezenhoffer or Mr. Curry for the oiRce of 
president of the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. So this was sort of a family affair, of the Commu- 
nist Party, to determine which of its own members should be the 
president ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, Mr. Bezenhoffer raised a question of his 
health not permitting him to run, and we were trying to overcome 
that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, how did the Communist Party propose to 
determine who should be the president of the local, and I thought 
that that was a matter left up to the vote of the local. 

Mr. Thompson. Well, by right it was a matter that should have 
been left up to the local, but it was discussed and the decision on who 
was to run was reached at that caucus, and the candidate agreed upon 
at that caucus was the man that came on the ballot and elected. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was that man ? 

Mr. Thompson. The man was Mr. Curry. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was a result of the decision made by the Com- 
munist Party in the meeting at the home of Herbert March ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of other occasions when the Commu- 
nist Party made similar discussions for its union? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, the first time that I was proposed to run for 
the office of chief steward I was informed about it at a Communist 
Party meeting at Forty-ninth and Ashland Avenue, and the deci- 
sion that I be the candidate for chief steward of the plant was reached 
at that meeting, Forty-ninth and Ashland Avenue. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Thompson (continuing) . On other occasions, the first time that 
it was mentioned to me that I should be the candidate for the chair- 
man of the grievance committee of the plant, that was first suggested 
in the home of a man by the name of Jim Keller. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Jim Keller known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. He was known to me to be an organizer for the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the union ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; he was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. So it is not merely a question of Communist mem- 
bers of the union dictating how the union shall be organized and run, 
but it is a matter of Communists outside the union controlling and 
directing them ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3761 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Jackson. May I ask a question at this point: How many 
members of the union would have any knowledge of such a meeting 
as the one that you have just discussed, where a decision was made 
that certain candidates were to stand for election ? Among the rank 
and file of the workers in any plant would there be any widespread 
knowledge of such a meeting ? 

Mr. Thompson, No ; there was never any widespread knowledge of 
a decision reached at a Communist Party meeting, and if every de- 
cision reached at a party meeting was to do a certain thing, the mem- 
bers were usually informed of that is being a decision of the board, or 
the local. 

Mr. Jackson. Arrived at by their own officers and their own 
officials? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right ; it was never known that the decision 
was arrived at as a result of the Communist Party caucus, those things 
were kept strictly secret. 

Mr. Ta'S'enner. Are you prepared to say, as a result of your ex- 
perience in the Communist Party, whether the Communist Party was 
strong enough to influence and dictate the organization of your local 
union 347 ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, the facts speak for themselves. The first 
time that I ran for chairman of the local union's grievance committee, 
that was suggested, the first knowledge that I got of that came from 
a man by tlie name of Jim Keller, who was an organizer for tlie 
Communist Party, and in party meeting there was no opposition to 
this proposal that I be the candidate for chairman of the grievance 
committee. When this was thrown out by the organizer of the Com- 
munist Party, Jim Keller, there was no opposition to that proposal, 
and so it went over. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Would you say the decision of the Communist 
Party constituted a mandate to its members to put across the program 
■which it had decided upon ? 
Mr. Thompson. That is right. 
Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of group 4 ? 
Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many groups were organized within the United 
Packinghouse Workers Union ? 

Mr. Thompson. To the best of my knowledge there were about 
three groups, approximately three groups. 

Mr. Taat:nner. Where were they organized? I mean by that in 
what shops. 

Mr. Thompson. Well, the group 4 to consist of the members of 
the Communist Party that worked more or less on the Morris side, 
what is known as the beef side, and the other groups, the other side of 
the track at the pork division, more or less. That is the pork and 
sausage side. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean there were three other groups makino- 
four in all, or do you mean just three groups in all ? 

Mr. Thompson. It was about three groups in all, to the best of my 
knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did your group get the No. 4 designation, if 
there were only three groups f 



I 



3762 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Thompson. That I don't know. I was just assigned to group 4. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know anything of the membership of the 
other gi^oups ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, the only knowledge I have of the membership 
of the other groups was when we have a general party meeting, but 
I never visited the other cells, the other groups 1 and 2 like that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the total membership of the other cells, 
the other two groups ? 

Mr. Thompson. I don't know exactly that. 

Mr. Moulder. Wliich do you mean by this group ? 

Mr. Tavenner. You testified the membership of your group 20. 

Mr. Thompson. It was approximately that ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many members were there in local 347? 

Mr. Thompson. You mean members of the union ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, members of the union. 

Mr. Thompson. Well, the membership of the union was a kind of 
fluctuating thing, at peak season it is around 6,000, and in the dull 
season this time of the year it is around 3,000, or 3,500. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell the committee how it could be that a 
group of 20 people, members of the Communist Party, could control 
the action of 6,000 members ? 

Mr. Thompson. Are you asking that information of me ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I think it is quite a simple thing. Wlien you 
get Communist Party groups situated throughout the plant, and those 
groups are constantly meeting, the rank and file membership of the 
local union only meets approximately once a month. Well, the Com- 
munist Party meets constantly, and they are constantly meeting, and 
those that meet they make constant contact with the people who don't 
meet, and so they keep the people informed of whatever decisions are 
reached at these party cells. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like for you to give the committee now 
the names of any other person known to you to be members of the 
Communist Party, regardless of whether they were members of your 
particular group, that is group 4. 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I have attended Communist Party meetings 
where lots of people were present, and I attended a meeting in the 
home, there was a man by the name of Les O'Kear. 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you give that name again ? 

Mr. Thompson. Les O'Rear. 

Mr. Tavenner. Could you spell it ? 

Mr. Thompson. I don't know how to spell it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you identify him further ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, to my knowledge Mr. Les O'Rear is one of 
the representatives in the national office of the union, and at the time 
I met him he was giving the general theory of Marxist theory. 

Mr. Tavenner. Very well, you met in the Communist Party meet- 
ing at his home. 

Mr. Thompson. It was a cell, it was in my home, not in his home. 
I have met in party meetings, in the home of a man by the name of 
Mr. George Green, around Wentworth Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner, George Green — and has he held any position in the 
union to your knowledge ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3763 

Mr, Thompson. At one time he was vice president of the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what local ? 

Mr. Thomnson. Of local 347. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned the meeting which was held at your 
house, and what was the purpose of that meeting ? 

Mr. Thompson. The purpose of the meeting held in my home was to 
discuss the attitude of a man by the name of Willie Howell. This 
man at one time ran for several positions in my local, and he had later 
moved out into the Swift plant. We were discussing the position of 
Willie Howell and his attitude toward the Communist Party and its 
activities. The discussion was led by several people there, in the 
home. There was a lady by the name of Mrs. Patricia Lewis, who 
participated in the discussions also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I knew her to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of any local union ? 

Mr, Thompson. Not to my knowledge, she was one of the secretaries. 

Mr. Tavenner. Secretary to whom, or of what ? 

Mr. Thompson. At that particular time I think she was acting as 
secretary to the district director. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of your union. Would you give us the spelling of 
Howell ? 

Mr. Thompson. Howell, Willie Howell. H-o-w-e-1-1. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your purpose in discussing his attitude 
toward the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, Willie's love for the Communist Party was 
on the diminishing side, and he had begun to express his opposition 
to the Communist Party tactics, and the discussion around Willie at 
that time was how to deal with him in the light of his changing attitude 
toward the Communists. 

Mr. TA\rENNER. Well, how was he dealt with? 

Mr. Thompson, Well, that I don't know. He was working in the 
Swift plant at that time, and I don't know how he was dealt with. 

Mr, Tavenner. Had he formerly been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, he had formerly been a member of the party. 

Mr, Tavenner. And he had also been a member of local 347 at one 
time? 

Mr, Thompson, That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had he held an official position in 347 while he was 
a member of the party ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; he had never held an official position in 347. 

Mr, Tavenner. Were there any other persons at that meeting whose 
names you can recall ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, Mrs. Annie Alexander was at the meeting, 
and that is about all I can recall that was there. 

Mr, Tavenner, Now, can you give us the names of other persons 
that you learned to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Thompson, There was a man that attended the party meetings 
by the name of Joe Poskonka, and I don't know how to spell that. 

Mr. Tavenner. P-o-s-k-o-n-k-a? 

Mr. Thompson. I think that is it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your local ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; he was. 



3764 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA I 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he at any time hold a position in it? j 

Mr. Thompson. At one time he held a position of recording 
secretary, and I attended party meetings with Mr. Lane Thomas. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any position in the local ? ; 

Mr. Thompson. Yes; he held an official position in the local. I 

Mr. Tavenner. What was it ? 

Mr. Thompson. The position of inside guard. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is, of local 347? 

Mr. Thompson. Of local 347, yes; that is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether Thomas Wood was a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes; I met in several meetings with Mr. Thomas 
Wood. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those closed Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Thompson. They were cell meetings ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any position in local 347? \ 

Mr. Thompson. He was later chief steward of the Morris side. 

Mr. Tavenner. George Manning. Was George Manning known to 
you to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. George Manning and I have attended meetings | 
together, party meetings. ' 

Mr. Tavenner, Closed Communist Party meetings ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. i 

Mr. Tavenner. What position, if any, did George Manning hold 
in local 347? 

Mr. Thompson. During the time that I ran for chairman of the | 
grievance committee, the chief steward, George Manning, ran for i 
executive board member at large, and he was elected. Since that 
time he has not held any other official position. ; 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Sidney Davenport known to you to be a ' 
member of the Communist Party ? i 

Mr. Thompson. We had several meetings together, and we met in | 
party cells together. i 

Mr. Tavenner. What position, if any, did he hold in local 347? '• 

Mr. Thompson. He held the position of inside guard. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Were you acquainted with Leon Beverly ? i 

Mr. Thompson. Yes; I am acquainted with him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the Comnumist Party, to your : 
knowledge ? ; 

Mr. Thompson. To my knowledge I have met with him in party 
meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. In closed party meetings ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position, if any, did he hold in local 
union 347? 

Mr. Tpiompson. He held the position at one time as trustee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Pete Davis known to you to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; he was. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position did he hold in local 347, if any? 

Mr. Thompson. He held no position in local 347. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of it? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes; he was. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3765 

Mr. Tavennek. Levi Johnson. 

Mr. Thompson. Levi Johnson I have met in party meetings, and 
we have met in party meetings together. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he hold any position in local 347? 

Mr. Thompson". No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member? 

Mr. Thompson. He is a member, but he held no position in the 
local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Perry Dunson, was he known to you to be a member 
of the Conununist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson, I have been in meetings with him. 

Mr, Tavenner. Closed Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Thompson. Closed meetings; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner, What position, if any, did he hold in local 347 ? 

Mr, Thompson. The only position to my knowledge he held was 
chief steward of the wool division, 

Mr, Tavenner, Were you acquainted with James Avery? 

Mr, Thompson, Yes ; I was very well acquainted with James Avery, 

Mr, Tavenner. Was he known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson, Yes ; he was, 

Mr, Tavenner, On what do you base that knowledge ? 

Mr. Thompson. We have met in party meetings together. 

Mr. Ta-venner, Closed party meetings? 

Mr, Thompson. That is right, 

Mr, Tavenner, Wliat position, if any, did he hold in local 347? 

Mr, Thompson, At one time he was chief steward of the plant, and 
at one time he was first vice president of the local, and he was execu- 
tive board member at large, 

Mr, Tavenner, Were you acquainted with James Cutno ? 

Mr, Thompson, Yes : I am acquainted with James Cutno. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of the Communist Party to your 
knowledge ? 

Mr, Thompson, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Tavenner, On what do you base your knowledge ? 

Mr, Thompson, We have met in party meetings together. 

Mr, Tavenner. Closed party meetings? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. What position, if any, did he hold in local 347? 

Mr. Thompson. The position held by James Cutno was chief steward 
of the hot-pork division, 

Mr, Tavenner, Was George Kovacevich known to you to be a 
member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Thompson, I have never known him to be a member of the 
party. I have never met him at party meetings, 

Mr. Tavenner, Were you acquainted with Ben Terry ? 

Mr, Thompson, Yes; I am very well acquainted with Ben Terry, 

Mr, Tavenner, Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party? 

Mr. Thompson, We have met several times and in several closed 
meetings, and the general meetings of the Communist Party, 

Mr, Tavenner, Did he hold any official position in local 347 ? 

24044 — 52— pt. 2 3 



3766 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; Ben Terry held a position in the locaL He was 
sergeant at arms. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were yon acquainted with INIollie Penkovosky? 

Mr. Thompson. Mollie Penkovosky I met in the home of Mollie 
Penkovosky on occasions where we had closed meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she an employee of Armonr & Co. ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; she was not. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was her employment, if you know ? 

Mr. Thompson. At one time she was, or acted as, a counselor for the 
local — and that is in the welfare department — and she would give 
counsel as to how people could get services from the different agencies 
of the Government. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us the character of the meetings that 
were held in her home ? 

Mr. Thompson. The character of that meeting more or less dealt 
with the delinquent members that had not paid dues, and we also 
discussed the general theory of communism. 

; Mr. Tavenner. Was she an instructor in the Communist Party, in 
Communist Party matters? 

Mr. Thompson. She acted in that capacity on several occasions, in 
the closed cells, as an instructor. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the type of instruction that was given to 
the Communist Party members in their closed meetings? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, the instruction was very broad in the Com- 
munist Party meetings. One of the main topics of discussion was 
around people that are in positions, and whether or not to support 
or defeat those people, and the next thing discussed was around various 
legislative proposals in the Congress. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you given a program of study of Communist 
Party literature in your meetings? 

Mr. Thompson. We were constantly given literature to study. 

Mr. Tavenner. What general type of literature were you given to 
study ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I couldn't say that right now. We were 
given any number practically at every party meeting, and we had the 
sale of literature — all types of Communist literature were sold at prac- 
tically every party meeting. 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder left the hearing room.) 

( Representative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Literature dealing with Marxism and Leninism ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right; it covered all subjects of communism. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the instructors in addition to Mollie 
Penkovosky ? 

Mr. Thompson. The instructors? There was a lady by the name 
of Dorothy Cole that gave instructions in the party meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was she a member of your local or an employee at 
Armour ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; she wasn't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not she was a functionary 
of tlie Communist Party? 

Ml'. Thompson. I don't. All I know is that she gave instructions in 
communism. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall the names of other instructors? 



COM^IUNIST ACTIViriES IX THE CHICAGO AREA 3767 

Mr. TnoMPSOx. Yes. We had other instructors in the party. 
Some of tlie instruction was given at times by Mr. Herbert March. 

Mr. Tavexner. What was the nature of the meetings conducted 
by liim? 

"Mr. Thompson. They were practically the same, practically the 
same thing — communism, how to deal with people, leadership, and 
how to elect good i)eople, and who was the best qualified for this 
position, or what not. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did he at any time engage in instructing the mem- 
bership on the theory of communism ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, on several occasions. 

i\Ir. Tavenner. Can you recall others ? 

Mr. Thompson. We were given instructions by a Mr. Charley 
Hayes. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Was he a member of your local, or employed at 
Armour ? 

Mr. Thompson. No; he wasn't a member of the local. He wasn't 
a member of the local. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us any fin-ther identifying infonna- 
tion regarding him? 

Mr. Thompson. To the best of my knowledge, he was an employee 
of the Wilson plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right, can you give us others ? 

Mr. Thompson. Jim Keller would give instructions at party cells. 

Mr. Tavenner. He is the person you have already referred to as a 
functionary of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

A man by the name of Gil Green gave instructions in the cell, also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he was a functionary of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I know him as the head of the Illinois party, the 
head of the party in Illinois. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you give us others ? Can you give us the names 
of any persons on a higher level in the Communist Party who ap- 
peared before your group to lecture or in any other capacity? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I attended the Communist Party convention 
held in what is known as the People's Auditorium, where a man by 
the name of Eugene Dennis appeared and talked to us. This con- 
vention consisted of people from all over. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde returned to hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Eugene Dennis never appeared before your group 
meetings here in Chicago? 

Mr. Thompson. He never appeared before the little groups. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Did William L. Patterson ever appear before your 
group ? 

Mr. Thompson. I was in one meeting with Mr. Patterson. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Tell the committee about that, please. 

]\Ir. Thompson. Well, this meeting occurred at Forty-third and 
Michigan Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. In Chicago ? 

Mr. Thompson. In Chicago ; yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the nature of the meeting? 



I 



3768 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Thompson. The nature of that meeting ran something similar 
to other meetings that were held — on the leadership of the party, and 
the ability of the party to develop people into leaders. That was the 
general nature. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it a closed Communist Party meetmg? 

Mr. Thompson. It was a closed Communist Party meeting. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have mentioned the name of Lane Thomas as 
having attended your meetings. Do you know whether he attended at 
any time in the role of an instructor ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes. In addition to acting as a director of our lit- 
erature department, seeing to it that the members were supplied with 
literature, he also appeared in the role of an instructor on various 

occasions. 

Mr. Tavenner. You mentioned a person by the name of ihomas 
Wood earlier in your testimony. Did you receive information at any 
time that he had withdrawn from the party 'I 

Mr. Thompson. He informed me that he was no longer a member 
of the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long ago was that? 

Mr. Thompson. That is less than 6 months ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I think it is fair to any of these individuals 
whose names you have mentioned, that if you have information that 
they have withdrawn from the party since the time you knew them 
to be members, that you should tell the committee about it. Do you 
recall having received knowledge or information that any of the 
persons, in addition to Mr. Wood, whose names you have mentioned, 
have withdrawn from the party ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, Mr. Davenport informed me that he was no 
longer a member of the party. That is Mr. Sidney Davenport. And 
he informed me he was no longer. 

And Mrs. Jessie Obitz informed me she was no longer a member of 
the party. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any others ? 

Mr. Thompson. That is to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, can you recall in whose homes your group 
met, other than those you have already mentioned ? 

Mr. Thompson. I think I told you that we met in the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Mollie Penovosky. That was in the Ida B. Wells Housing 
Project, around South Parkway. 

And we also met in the home of Mrs. Annie Alexander, at Forty- 
ninth and Michigan Avenue. And I attended one meeting in the 
liome of Mr. Herbert March. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you testify earlier that you had attended a 
meeting in the home of George Green ? 

Mr. Thompson. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of that meeting? 
Mr. Thompson. Well, the purpose of that meeting, we were nearing 
elections, and we also discussed how we should mobilize people to plug 
for the candidates, once they had been agreed upon. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is, the candidates or the people within your 
union? 
Mr. Thompson. That is right. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3769 

Mr. Tavenner. And George Green, as you have said before, was 
the head of the Communist Party for the State of Illinois ? 

Mr. Thompson. Oh, no. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is Gil Green, yes, I beg your pardon. 

Mr. Thompson. That is Gil Green. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are there any other homes in which you met, as 
far as you can recall ? 

Mr. Thompson. I can't recall any other homes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Sam Parks? 

Mr, Thompson. Yes, I am acquainted with Sam Parks. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know where Sam Parks was employed ? 

Mr. Thompson. I knew him as an employee of the Wilson plant. 

Mr. Tavenner. What group would that have made him a member 
of, if he were a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I don't know, and I don't know of any of the groups 
in the Wilson plant, and I don't know whether we had them listed 
as groups or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Sam Parks a member of the Communist Party, 
to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Thompson. I have met in Communist Party meetings with him 
on several occasions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were those open meetings or closed meetings ? 

Mr. Thompson. Closed meetings. 

(Representative James B. Frazier, Jr., left hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a man by the name of 
Randolph Luke ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, I was. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he known to you to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I have met in party meetings with him, on two 
different occasions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he a member of your local 347 ? 

Mr. Thompson. He was financial secretary of the local at the time. 
He was financial secretary at the time. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long did he remain financial secretary, or when 
did he cease to be financial secretary ? 

Mr. Thompson. He ceased to be financial secretary around the latter 
part of 1947, to the best of my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. What were the circumstances surrounding his leav- 
ing the position of financial secretary of your local ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, there was a question of a misappropriation of 
funds that caused Randolph Luke to no longer be secretary of the 
local. ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the amount of funds ? Any substantial 
sum? 

Mr. Thompson. It was reported $43,000. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were the funds ever recovered by your local union ? 

Mr. Thompson. Not to my knowledge. I don't have any knowledge 
of it being recovered. It may have been, but I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he bonded ? 

Mr. Thompson. I think to the tune of about $2,000. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was he prosecuted ? 

Mr. Thompson. Not to my knowledge. 



3770 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is lie now ? 

Mr. Thompson. Tlie last I saw of him, he was at Sixty-third and 
South Parkway, the last time I saw him. 

Mr. Tavenner. How lontr ago was that ? 

Mr. Thompson. It has been about 4 or 5 weeks ago. 

Mr. TA^^i;NNER. Was there any device or argument presented by the 
Communist Party to soften the feeling of the rank-and-file members 
of your union with regard to that matter? 

INIr. Thompson. I don't understand your question. What is your 
question again ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there a report made by the members of the 
Communist Party to the effect that this man Luke had been prose- 
cuted and sent to jail as a result of the defalcation? 

Mr. Thompson. There was a report to the membership of the local 
union that the man had been prosecuted and given a sentence of 
6 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who made that report? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, right now I wouldn't recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not interested in the individual who made it, 
but who caused that report to be made? Was that done as a result of 
agreement by the Communist Party ? That is what I am getting at. 

Mr. Thompson. I never met in any party meetings where they dis- 
cussed whether or not to report this thing to the membership. I did 
meet in a party meeting where there was a discussion around the 
reported leakage of funds, and there was a discussion around the bad 
handling of moneys, and I met in a party meeting where we discussed 
that, the possibility of some funds being misappropriated. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Do you have any information as to what disposi-' 
tion was made of that money, or any part of it? 

Mr. Thompson. Not at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did any information come to your attention at any 
time that any part of it may have been used for the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; I never got any information to that effect. 

]VIr. Tavenner. Can you recall more of the circumstances under 
which the rank-and-file members were advised that this man had been 
prosecuted and sentenced to jail? Why was that report made to the 
rank-and-file members, if it were not true? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, it is only natural that the rank and file would 
be interested in the report that $43,000 had disappeared, and there 
was considerable unrest among the rank and file around the disappear- 
ance of the $43,000; and, after some considerable time, then it was 
reported that the man was prosecuted. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did that occur, and when was that report 
made ? 

Mr. Thompson. To the best of my knowledge, it was around some 
time in 1947. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was president of the local at that time ? 

INIr. Thompson. Mr. Joe Bezenhoffer was president at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, do you know, was that announcement made 
at a public meeting of the local ? 

Mr. Thompson. The announcement that he had been sentenced was 
made at the local meeting; yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then it was an official announcement? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3771 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who made the announcement ? 

Mr. Thompson. I couldn't recall just now ^A•ho made the announce- 
ment, but the announcement that the man had been prosecuted and the 
case handled by Euclid Taylor, was made at the local meeting. 

Mr. Tavennek. Well, who is Euclid Taylor? 

Mr. Thompson. Euclid Taylor was an attorney for Randolph Luke, 
and Euclid Taylor acted in defense of Randolph Luke, and at the local 
meeting anr.ouncement that Luke had been prosecuted, it was also 
announced that he had an attorney by the name of Euclid Taylor. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are positive that it was also announced that 
this man Luke had received a jail sentence ? 

Mr. Thompson. Six months jail sentence and 2 years probation, I 
think it was. 

Mr, Tavenner. Are you positive that there was no such trial ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; I am not positive on that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he served a 6 months' 
sentence ? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I constantly had seen him during that time, 
and I don't know whether he did or not, but I constantly saw him. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, have you considered that that was a misstate- 
ment of fact that he had been prosecuted and sent to jail ? I mean, we 
are proceeding here on the theory that that was not a truthful state- 
ment, and I just want to make certain how much you know about that. 

Mr. Thompson. The only thing I can say to that, that I constantly 
saw Randolph Luke during this time that I thought he was serving a 
6 months' sentence. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, in other words, in the light of that statement, 
you appear confident in your own mind that he didn't serve a jail 
sentence, if you saw him continuously ? 

Mr. Thompson. It didn't look logical to me that he had served a 
sentence, as I was constantly seeing him. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you are not in a position to state of your own 
knowledge whether there was a trial or not ? 

Mr. Thompson. No ; I am not in a position to state that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been affiliated with the Civil 
Rights Congress of Illinois ? 

Mr. Thompson. Yes ; I have been. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that? 

Mr. Thompson. That was around 1947, or 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you recall any members of the Civil Rights 
Congress whom you know to be members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Thompson. I met on several occasions with Mr. John Gray. 

Mr. Tavenner. When you say "met with him," in what capacity do 
you mean ? 

Mr. Thompson. In the Civil Rights Congress; and we also met in 
the Communist Party meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Closed Communist Party meetings? 

Mr. Tiio>iPSON. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner, Was Dorothy Cole also a member of the Civil 
Rights Congress? 

Mr. Thompson. I have seen her at the conferences, too. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



3772 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr, Wood. Mr. Walter, do you have a question ? 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Thompson, every right-thinking person in this 
country owes you a debt of gratitude for the contribution you have 
made in the defense of this Republic. If more men displayed the intes- 
tinal fortitude that you have displayed by coming here, I am sure that 
the traitors in our midst would be diminished very considerably. 

I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. Mr. Chairman, I want to join in with my colleague, 
Mr. Walter, in expressing my appreciation of the great contribution 
you have made, and a contribution which you have made to the col- 
ored people as well as a contribution to every decent American, and I 
sincerely appreciate it. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Jackson ? 

Mr. Jackson. I join with my colleagues, Mr. Thompson. It is a 
difficult thing to do, and we realize that, to give such testimony as 
3'ou have given today. However, in the mortal fight in which this 
Nation is engaged, the world is engaged, there is going to be testimony 
such as the kind you have given here today that is going to make pos- 
sible eventual victory. I hope the Federal jurisdiction over the wit- 
nCvSs will be extended, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. It is my purpose to excuse the witness from further 
appearance at the present time, but with the privilege of recalling him 
if it should be determined that his testimony is necessary, and he will 
be under the subpena until such time in the future as he may be 
notified. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that he be continued 
on a subpena to a specific day, say the 16th of October. 

Mr. Wood. At which time, if the committee does not desire any 
further evidence, he will be notified. 

Well, it is so ordered. 

I add my voice to that of my colleagues in expressing to you our 
deep appreciation on behalf of the committee and on behalf of the 
people of this community and the Nation, for your very valuable con- 
tribution to the work we are seeking to do; and we hope it will be 
of some benefit to the American people, in portraying the conspiracy 
that is in our midst now, and which is seeking to engulf the entire 
country. 

With our sincere appreciation, you may be excused until the 16th 
of next month, unless you are otherwise notified. 

Mr. Thompson. May I conclude with a word ? 

Mr. Wood. If it isn't a lengthy statement, we will be glad to hear it. 

Mr. Thompson. I would like for the record to show that I am not 
on the side of anyone who desires to weaken the labor movement. I 
would like for the record to show that I have served a sentence in 
jail in defense of the democratic labor movement, and that is the type 
of labor movement that I intend to continue to fight for. 

I would like for the record to show that for a strong and demo- 
cratic labor movement, and for the rights of the Negro people, that 
I will not only make what you might call minor sacrifices, but I am 
willing to lay down my life for it. 

Mr. Wood. We will take a recess at this point, of 10 minutes. 
(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Wood. Let us have order, please. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3773 

Counsel, are you ready to proceed ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Leon Beverly, please. 

Mr. Wood. You solemnly swear the evidence you shall give this 
Bubconimittee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Beverly. I do. 

Mr. Wood. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Beverly. I am. 

TESTIMONY OF LEON BEVERLY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

EUGENE COTTON 

Mr. Wood. Counsel, will you identify yourself for the record ? 

Mr. CoTiON. Eugene Cotton ; address 141 West Jackson Boulevard. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Beverly. My name is Leon Beverly. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Beverly ? 

Mr. Beverly. I was born in the Jim Crow State of Jackson, Miss. 

Mr. Tavenner. When? 

Mr. Beverly. October 24, 1914. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been ? 

Mr. Beverly. I went to second year in high school. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now live in Chicago ? 

Mr. Beverly. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Beverly. Since 1918. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you now employed ? 

Mr. Beverly. I am employed at Armour & Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you w^ork for Armour & Co. ? 

Mr. Beverly. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the nature of your employment ? 

Mr. Beverly. I am a hog butcher. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the local union there? 

Mr. Beverly. I am. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the name of the union ? 

Mr. Beverly. Local 347, United Packinghouse Workers of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. You said 347 ? 

Mr. Beverly. Local 347, United Packinghouse Workers of America, 
CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you worked at the Armour plant ? 

Mr. Beverly. This is the fifteenth year. 

Mr. Tavenner. Fifteen years ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you worked continuously for Armour & Co. 
for a period of 15 years ? 

Mr. Beverly. I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you first become affiliated with local 347 ? 

Mr. Beverly. I joined the first day I was employed in Armour 
«S;Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you hold any official position with the local at 
this time ? 



24044 — 52— pt. 2- 



3774 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Beverly, I am at present the president of local 347. 

Mr. Tavenner. There was testimony this morning by Roy Thomp- 
son that you were at one time a trustee of local 347, is that correct? 

Mr. Beverly. I will tell you. Counsel, I am no stool pigeon, and I 
don't like to go behind admitting anything that a stool pigeon said, 
but I was a trustee. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were a trustee ? 

Mr. Be\t:rly. Yes. 

Mr. Walter. What do you mean by "stool pigeon" ? 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I feel that anj^^ member of my union 
who smears our local union and international union at a time when 
we are in a fight for a M-age increase to make living conditions better 
for our membership, in the character that was carried on previous to 
me, in the tradition of trade-unionism, is considered as a stool pigeon. 

Mr. Walter. Does that not mean a person who tells on somebody 
else for doing something wrong ? 

Mr. Be^trly. It is not my understanding. 

ISIr. Tavenner. Well, are you in favor of members of the Com- 
munist Party being officers in your union ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you think this committee, which has been set 
up by Congress for the purpose of investigating into subversive mat- 
ters emanating from abroad as well as in this country, which affect 
the possible overthrow of the Government of this country, should in- 
vestigate it? Do you think that it should be investigated? 

Ml". Bea^rly. Congressman, I wish you would state your question 
clearly. I don't quite follow you. 

Mr. Tavenner. I said, in your opinion, do you think that this 
committee should investigate communism? That is, in substance, 
what I mean. Do you think the Congress of the United States was 
right in setting up a couunittee to investigate communism? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman. I feel this way : I think if the com- 
mittee was interested in investigating un-Americanism, I feel that they 
should investigate the Ku Klux Klan and the AVhite Circle League, 
and by asking that question as to the tactics of smear that has been 
done by this committee, I am subject to incriminating myself; and 
so, therefore, I invoke my privilege under the fifth amendment and 
refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Taatenner. In other words, you won't say that, in j^our opinion, 
this conmiittee should investigate communism? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that because you are a member of the Communist 
Party yourself, and you don't want to be investigated ? 

Mr. Beaerly. The same reasons, I refuse to answer that question 
under my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taa'enner. It was testified here this morning by Roy Thomp- 
son that you were a member of group 4 of the Communist Party, which 
was an organization or cell of the Communist Part}' within local 347. 
Was that testimony true or false? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3775 

Mr. TA^^-:NNER. Well, do you know whether there is a cell of the 
Communist Party within 347? 

Mr, Beverly. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do 3'ou know whether many of the officers of your 
local 347 in the past have been members of the Communist Party? 

jSIr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavexner. On May 20, 1949, there was a mass rally held at 
30() East Forty-third Street under the auspices of the South Side 
Tenants' Council. You are reported as having said at that meeting : 

My union has not been very open in tlieir actions in the present fight of 
tenants against landlords because we have been kept too busy by a fellow named 
Philip Murray, who is trying to push all progressives out of our union. He 
hasn't been very successful thus far and will be less successful in the future. 
The fight within our union is a bitter one. We are being called Communists 
because we stand up for what we know to be right. 

Were 3'ou truthfully quoted or correctly quoted in that statement? 
(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Be\t:rly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, is it true that you were being called Com- 
munists in your local union, you and others, as mentioned in this 
statement? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my rights 
under the privileges of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, what effort was it that Philip Murray was 
making to get Communists out of the union, out of "our union," as 
stated here? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr, Tavenner. Do you mean to say that Philip Murray, the head 
of the CIO, is smearing the members of your union ? 

Mr. Beverly. I have stated before, I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Taa^enner. Well, you have said this committee was engaged in 
a smear campaign against your union, haven't you ? You have made 
that statement, haven't you? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you won't say now that this committee is 
smearing your union, then? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Will you direct the question again, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Read the question. 

Mr. Beverly. The question before that. 

(Whereupon, the question referred to, and the answer, were read 
by the reporter.) 

Mr. Beverly. I don't remember making a statement about this com- 
mittee here ; and I would like to say, when I said about "smear," I have 
offered through my local union an invitation to this committee to come 
down to our local union hall and investigate and see. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are attempting to investigate it right here. 
Just help us here now, and then maybe we can determine what to do 
later. So I would like for you to tell us what you know about group 
4 of the Communist Party, in your union, and would you tell us ? 

Mr. Walter. Before you go into that, I would like to ask the witness 
this question : 



3776 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

If we should accept your invitation to come to the union hall, would 
you, in the presence of your union, answer the question of whether or 
not you are a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Beverly. I invited you, CongressmaUj to come in and see the 
local union in action. 

Mr. Walter. Would you answer that question, if we came? 

Mr. Beverly. I would not answer any question that might incrim- 
inate me here, or any place else, and I only invited the committee 
down to our union hall to see how the local functions, with 7,000 
people. And you only call a few people down here, and we have got 
7,000 people in our union. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Counsel, in that connection, since the witness has 
mentioned a letter that he says he sent to the chairman of the com- 
mittee, I have been handed what purports to be a communication, 
and it is signed with a typewriter and, of course, I have no way of 
knowing whether it is properly vouched for by this witness or not. 
There is a typewritten signature of Leon Beverly, president, and 
George Kovacevich, the recording secretary, and it is written on the 
letterhead of the United Packinghouse Workers of America, and it 
is dated the 3d of September 1952. 

In this communication there is this expression, in the third 
paragraph : 

You say you are here to investigate communism in our local union. Ob- 
viously you cannot get a picture of how a 7,000-member union works by haul- 
ing before you 4 or 5 individuals, or even a dozen. Our union is run demo- 
cratically. It cannot be dominated or infiltrated by 5, 10, or even 100 people. 
It is run by its 7,000 members. 

Now, you say we cannot get any picture of the situation out there by 
subpenaing four or five or even a dozen people here. So we liave done 
the best we could, in the time we have, by subpenaing you, the presi- 
dent of the union. Obvioitsly, you should know what is going on in 
the union, being president of it. 

You heard testimony here since you have been in this room today 
to the effect that decisions respecting the election of officers of your 
union have been made, and at the time, in closed Communist meet- 
ings, and they have been carried out by those people selected by the 
Communists in the union being elected to office in the union, and that 
you were one of them. 

Now, you have here the best forum that I know of in the world to 
repudiate that and say it is not true, if it is not true, and we are 
giving you the same sounding board to make your declaration about 
it that we did the witness who said that it was true. 

Is it true or false, when he said that the decisions were made in the 
Communist meetings in your presence, and that you participated in 
them ? Is that true or false ? 

Mr. Beverly. The elections in my local union are run by secret 
ballot. 

Mr. Wood. Just answer my question : Is that true or is that false ? 

Mr. Beverly. I would like to have the privilege, sir, to answer the 
question in my own way, and my union is run democratically. Every 
member has a right to vote by secret ballot, and they are notified of 
the meetings, and all of the necessary preparations made. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3777 

Mr. Wood. I know that is wliat you said, but now let me ask you 
again : Have you ever attended the Communist Party meetings at 
wliich proposed officers of your local union were agreed upon in that 
meeting of the Communist Party, and later elected to office in your 
union ? Now, can you answer that '"yes" or "no," and will you give me 
that answer ? Were you ever present at one of those kind of meetings ? 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I have made an official invitation to 
you at any time 

Mr. AVooD. I understand that, but I want an answer to that 
question. 

Mr. Beverly. And I still say that I refuse to answer any question of 
that type, using my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wood. That is all. You can proceed, Mr. Counsel. I apologize 
for breaking in on you. 

Mr. Beverly. Would the committee accept the invitation? 

Mr. Wood. If the committee cannot get a bona fide answer to the 
question that the committee is interested in here, in an open forum 
with the public present, I do not know what good purpose is to be 
served by us coming out there. 

Mr. Beverly. You can get at the source of it out there. I would like 
to invite you to see how the election is run. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Have you at any time signed a non-Communist 
affidavit in pursuance to the provisions of the Taft-Hartley Act? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. T.WENNER. It was also testified to by Roy Thompson that you 
were a member of the Communist Party; is that true or false? 

Mr. Beverly. The same reasons, I refuse to answer that question, 
under my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

]\Ir. Tave^stner. Are you a member of the Committee to Survey 
Trade Union or Labor Conditions in Europe ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have before me a letter, a photostatic copy of a 
letter on the stationery of the American Committee to Survey Labor 
Conditions in Europe, under date of March 30, 1952. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter left hearing room.) 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. That is signed by Charles Velson, in which appears 
on the margin certain identifying information. There appears on the 
margin "Committee Pro Tem, Leon Beverly, Packinghuse Workers, 
Chicago." 

Will you advise the committee whether or not you did serve, either 
on the committee pro tem of the xYmerican Committee to Survey Labor 
Conditions, as appears on this stationery of the organization 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I stated before, I refuse to answer the 
question, under my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\trnner. Will you advise the committee how the American 
Committee to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe was formed, and 
what its purposes were ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did the organization receive the money, from 
what source did it receive the money which it needed on which to 
operate ? 



3778 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I have asserted my privilege on that 
question. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. You, as president of your local, know 
whether or not any funds were contributed by your local for the ad- 
vancement of the purposes of the American Committee to Survey 
Labor Conditions in Europe. Did your local contribute any funds 
for that purpose? 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I assert my privilege under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Wood. You mean for that reason you refuse to answer the 
question ? 

Mr. Beverly. I am not refusing. I only am asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wood. Asserting your privilege under the fifth amendment is 
not a proper answer to the question. Do you decline to answer it, or 
will you answer it ? 

Mr. Be\'erly. I decline to answer it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the reason for your declining to answer? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, it is my understanding that this com- 
mittee here has been smearing this organization, also. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has been what ? 

Mr. Beverly. Has been smearing this organization. 

Mr. Tavenner. What organization ? 

Mr. Beverly. The Trade Union Committee To Survey Conditions 
in Europe, and I feel that anything I might say concerning that 
committee might be incriminating, and so I 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the basis for your information that this 
committee is smearing the American Committee To Survey Labor 
Conditions in Europe? What do j^ou mean by that ? 

Mr. Beverly. That is the impression I get. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the source of your information ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I am not too sure of my source of information, but 
I can check to find out. 

Mr. Tavenner. This committee has not cited as a communistic 
organization the American Conniiittee To Survey Labor Conditions 
in Europe. 

Mr. Beverly. That is the impression that I had. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, it hasn't; does that change your answer? 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I would like to ask. Is this committee 
regarded as no question about its loyalty ? 

Mr. Tavenner. We are endeavoring to investigate it now, through 
you ; you have an opportunity to tell us the facts regarding this or- 
ganization. 

Mr. Beverly. Before I can intelligently answer the question, it 
would help me to be in a position to answer your questions, and 
does 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has taken no official action what- 
ever with regard to that committee. 

Mr. Jackson. Did you question the loyalty of the committee before 
you lent your name to it ? 

Mr. Beverly, I refuse to answer that question. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3779 

( Witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Beverly. Has any of the witnesses appeared before this com- 
mittee questioned the loyahy of that group, in either executive ses- 
sions or open hearings, has any witnesses 

Mr. Tavenner. There has been no official action taken by this com- 
mittee, and what connection some witness may have mentioned it, 
I would be unable to tell you from memory. 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, if joi\ could make it clear to me 
whether any of the witnesses that have appeared before this commit- 
tee in executive session • 

Mr. TA^'ENNER. No ; you can't put me on terms about it. I am asking 
the question. 

Mr. Beverly. Then I will reconsider the question and I will be in 
a better 

Mr. Tavenner. You say you want to reconsider the question? 

Mr. Beverly. If I can get that information from you, has any 
witness appeared before this committee in executive session 

Mr. Tavenner. I will not be put on any terms about it at all, except 
to tell you that the organization has not been officially cited, and now 
you can use your own choice of whether you answer it or not. 

(Representative Francis E. Walter returned to the hearing room.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Be\'erly. Congressman, I wish I coidd explain myself, what 
I am trying to find out, if you could assure me that no other witness 
before this committee has questioned the loyalty. 

Mr. Tavenner. That would change your answer, would it? 

Mr. Beverly. I would be inclined to reconsider. 

Mr. Tamsnner. You would tell us all you know about this organiza- 
tion if this matter has not been testified to before the committee? 

Mr. Beverly. I am not saying I would answer all questions, but 
I reconsider my decision. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand. 

Mr. Chairman, I think in the light of the witness' discussion and 
attitude, that he should be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Wood. I so direct that the witness answer the question, because 
in consideration of it the answering of that question could not possibly 
tend to incriminate the witness, and I would also like for the record to 
disclose that there are present five members of the subcommittee. 

Mr. Beverly. Kead the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. IVill you read the question? 

(The reporter read from his notes, as follows :) 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. You, as president of your local, know whether or 
not any funds were contributed by your local for the advancement of the pur- 
poses of the American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe. Did 
your local contribute any funds for that purpose? 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, we did donate some money for the 
purpose of an ad in the newspaper. 

Mr. Tavenner. How much? 

Mr. Beverly. It was $333.33. 

Mr. Tavenner. To what publishing company or newspaper did 
you pay it? 

Mr. Beverly. We paid a portion of a share to publish the statement 
in the newspaper that would accept it to explain the situation around 



3780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

of the refusal of the State Department to give passports to some of 
our membership. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who of your membersliip, passports to what 
persons ? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, we had two proposed, as I remember; there 
was Mike Santinia. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell the last name, please ? 

Mr. Beverly. S-a-n-t-i-n-a, and it might be "ia" or it might not 
be ; and Joe Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the name of the otlier person ? I thought 
you said several. I thought you said two. 

Mr. Beverly. I said Mike Santina and Joseph Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were selected to go as delegates to what? 

Mr. Beverly. Between the two, only one was supposed to go. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why apply for two passports when only one 
was to go ? 

Mr. Beverly. The union hadn't made a final disposition of how 
many was going on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Which one was chosen to go ? 

Mr. BE^'ERLY. There wasn't any final decision made on it. 

Mr. Tavenner. What newspaper was it that published the mate- 
rial for which you paid ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know exactly what newspaper it was; it is 
either the St. Louis Post or the Washington Post, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, there is quite a bit of distance between 
St. Louis and Washington. Did you receive a subpena to produce 
the records showing the amount of money paid by your union to the 
American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe ? 

Mr. Beverly. I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to offer in evidence a subpena 
directed to the United States marshal, Chicago, 111., wherein he was 
commanded to summon Leon Beverly, president of Local 347, United 
Packinghouse Workers of America, to be and appear before the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities or duly authorized subcommittee 
thereof of the House of Representatives of the United States, of which 
John S. Wood is chairman, and he is to produce all correspondence 
between local 347 and the Committee To Survey Trade Union Condi- 
tions in Europe, together with all records of disbursements, includ- 
ing canceled checks made payable by local 347 to the Committee 
To Survey Trade Union Conditions in Europe, or to any individual 
or agency or organization acting for or in behalf of said committee, 
and further he is to produce all correspondence between himself and 
the said committee. 

I desire to offer the subpena in evidence and ask it be marked. 

Mr. Wood. Does it show the service? 

Mr. Ta\t3nner. It is to be marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 1," and 
which subpena shows on the back thereof that it was served on the 
21st day of August 1952 by T. P. O'Donnell, marshal, by Stanley 
Brickel, deputy United States marshal, 

Mr. Wood. It will be admitted. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 1," 
is submitted herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you produce the records called for by the 
subpena ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3781 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Beverly. I would like to offer for the record 

Mr. Wood. Just let counsel have the records that you are called 
upon to produce under the subpena. 

Mr. Beverly. I would like to make sure of it, and I would like to 
have a list of my own records of what I am producing here. 

Mr. Wood. You and counsel can make a list of them before you turn 
them over to us, if you are apprehensive that we won't return them 
to you. 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room.) 

(Documents handed to committee counsel by the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You have finished, have you ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Beverly, do these documents which you have 
turned over in response to the subpena constitute all of the docu- 
ments, all of the records of disbursements, all canceled checks made 
payable by local 347 to the Committee To Survey Trade Union Condi- 
tions in Europe ? 

Mr. Beverly. As far as I know, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or to any individual or agency acting for or in 
behalf of said committee ? 

Mr. Beverly. As far as I know, those are the only ones we had in 
our files. 

Mr. Tavenner. I notice that you have not produced any corre- 
spondence between yourself and the said committee in pursuance to 
tJie subpena. 

Mr. Beverly. One of them is signed there, if I am not mistaken. 

Mr. Tavenner. I beg your pardon, there is one letter, a copy of one 
letter of February 21. Does that constitute all of the correspondence 
that took place between you, either as president or in your individual 
capacity with the American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions 
in Europe? 

Mr. Beverly. As far as I know, those are the only papers we have 
got. 

Mr. Tavenner. You would know whether or not you had any other 
correspondence, or whether you had any correspondence individually 
with the American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, 
would you not ? 

Mr. Beverly. I can't place offhand, when you say personally, I 
don't know; a lot of the letters addressed to the local are addressed 
to me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you have not produced any correspondence 
between you individually and the committee. 

Mr. Beverly. Not that I remember. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you have any correspondence as officer 
of the American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, 
with your union ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't remember whether I did or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you were on the committee pro tem of that 
organization, were you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, you are asking me about pro tem, that- 
you just mentioned. 

24044— 52— pt. 2 5 



3782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. You would know whether you had any 
correspondence. 

Mr. Beverly. Are you directing me or the committee directing me ? 
I have ah^eady invoked my privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. You decline to answer that question on the ground 
that to do so might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Beverly. Previously I did decline, and I am asking you, Are 
you asking me, directing the question, or is it the committee that is 
directing it? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I am acting for the committee, and I think 
it is the same thing. 

Mr. Beverly. Am I directed to answer the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. We will find out. 

Mr. Chairman, I want to ask if there is any uncertainty in the 
witness' mind that he be directed to answer the question of whether 
or not he has any correspondence or copies of any correspondence 
engaged in by him as a member of the committee pro tern of the 
American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe. 

Mr. Beverly. That question has already been answered, the last 
question you asked me was whether I was a member of this committee. 

Mr. Wood. It will not hurt to clarify the situation by answering 
the question again, if you insist it has been answered. I don't know. 
Have you got such correspondence as described in the last question 
propounded to you ? 

Mr. Beverly. I have no correspondence other than what I have 
produced, to my knowledge ; that is all I can answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you have copies of correspondence in 
your possession at one time which you have not produced here now ? 
Let me get the question plain. That is correspondence between the 
committee, American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in 
Europe, and local union 347, or with you individually, or with you 
as the president of local 347. 

Mr. Beverly. Those are the only ones I have, I don't remember get- 
ting any letters direct to me personally, and if I did I don't keep 
those files of all correspondence referred to me personally. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you destroy any letters that you received? 

Mr. Beverly. Not to my knowledge, and I get a lot of mail and I 
don't keep files personally, I keep the files of the union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I will ask you whether or not you have in 
your custody correspondence or copies of letters either directed to 
you as a member of the committee pro tem or by you as a member of 
the committee pro tem of the American Committee To Survey Labor 
Conditions in Europe. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 
(Kepresentative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, your inference is that I am a member 
of that committee, and I have refused to answer that question, as far 
as my membership on the committee, but as far as the other corre- 
spondence I have tried to answer to the best of my ability, and I don't 
have any other. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is not an answer to my question, Mr. 
Chairman. 



COMMTJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3783 

The question is wlietlier or not he has in his possession any cor- 
respondence or copies of letters directed, to him as a member of the 
committee pro tem of the American Committee To Survey Labor Con- 
ditions in Europe, or any letters signed by him or copies thereof. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I think he should be directed to answer that 
question. 

Mr. Beverly. I wasn't subpenaed here as a member of this com- 
mittee, and the question I would like to know is. Am I again asked to 
answer a direct question of whether I am a member of that com- 
mittee or not ? 

Mr, Tavenner. The question is perfectly plain, if you don't under- 
stand it I will ask that it be reread to you. 

Mr. Beverly. The question assumes I am a member of the 
committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have asked for the production of any letters writ- 
ten to you as a member of the committee pro tem of that organization, 
or letters composed by you as a member of that committee. 

Mr. Beverly. I have already answered the question. Congressman, 
pertaining to the letters, and I don't have any, to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any such letters in your possession, 
or copies of letters? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know how to explain the thing. I don't have 
any other letters, the letters that come directly to the local they are 
placed on file and the letters that come directly to me, I might keep 
them a couple of days or I might not, and I don't know. 

Mr. Wood. Let me see if I can clarify it. Have you had any such 
letters to your knowledge? 

Mr. Beverly. The best way I can answer that, I may have and I 
may not have. 

Mr. Wood. Do you know? 

Mr. Beverly. 1 don't know exactly whether I got any letters per- 
sonally or did they come directly to the local, and I don't have any 
personal letters. 

Mr. Wood. Have you any recollection of having had any such 
correspondence ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't have any recollection, that is what I am 
trying to explain. 

Mr. Tavenner. The witness has not addressed an answer directly 
to my question. Did you receive any letters from any source as a 
member of the committee pro tem of the American Committee to 
Survey Labor Conditions in Europe ? 

]\Ir. Beverly. Well, can I answer it I may have and I may not 
have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you write any letters and send out any letters 
as a member of the committee pro tem of the American Committee 
to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't have any recollection as a member of that 
committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. That you ever sent out any ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't remember any, if my name is on those that 
I sent as far as the local is concerned. 



3784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not going to examine and question you now 
about the documents that you turned over, I want to look at them 
during the noon recess, and I think that will save time. But I do 
want to ask you one or two more questions before recess. You stated 
in the earlier part of your testimony that Mr. Bezenhoffer, Joseph 
Bezenhoffer, was one of those who applied or who was selected as a 
delegate, and who applied for passport. I hand you a photostatic 
copy of an application for passport which bears the photograph of 
the individual making the application. Will you examine it and 
state whether or not that is Mr. Bezenhoffer ? Do you recognize the 
photograph ? 

(Document was handed to witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. The photograph is a pretty good likeness but I 
couldn't be absolutely sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are reasonably satisfied that that is a photo- 
graph of Mr. Bezenhoffer ? 

Mr. Beverly. I have answered your question, Congressman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, then, let us have the answer. Are you satis- 
fied that that is the photograph of Mr. Bezenhoffer ? 

Mr. Beverly. It looks like him. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was Mr. Bezenhoffer's address, do you know? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know offhand. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know what street he lives on ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know where he lives, and I don't know the 
exact number where he lives. 

Mr. Wood. He asked you if you knew the name of the street upon 
which he resides. 

Mr. Beverly. No, I don't know ; it is on the North Side someplace ; 
I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me see if I can refresh your recollection. Do 
you know whether or not he may have lived at 3746 West Dickens 
Avenue, Chicago ? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, I don't know what street Joe Bezenhoffer lives 
on. 

Mr. Tavenner. How is that ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know exactly what street he lives on. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been in his home ? 

Mr. Beverly. I have been there once. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you go when you went to his home ? 

Mr. Beverly. To be absolutely frank with you. Congressman, I 
don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. I like the honor of being called Congressman, but 
I am only counsel. You are right the first time. 

Mr. Beverly. I am recognizing you on your way up. I was at his 
house once and w^iere it is I don't know, and I am not familiar with 
the North Side. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I would like for you to examine the photo- 
static copy of the application for passport again, and see if the name 
of the applicant is Joseph Marlovits, and that the name Joseph Marlo- 
vits appears right above the photograph which you said according 
to your best judgment was the photograph of Mr. Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Beverly. On the piece of paper which you showed me, it was 
Marlovits, if that is what I 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3785 

Mr. Tavenner. I want you to answer as to what you see, and you 
see that the application is signed by a different name from the person 
that you said was chosen. 

Mr. Beverly. It says Marlovits. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why was the name Marlovits used instead of Bezen- 
hoffer, in the making of the application ? 

Mr. Beverly. I couldn't answer that, and I don't know anything 
about it, why the names are different. 

Mr. Wood. I didn't understand you, sir. Did you say you didn't 
know? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know anything about this. 

Mr. Wood. Did you know anything about the application being 
made? 

Mr. Beverly, I never saw that before. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever hear him called by the name of 
Marlovits ? 

Mr. Beverly. I only know him as Joseph Bezenhoff er. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, then, you stated that you protested the action 
of the State Department in denying a passport application, and whose 
application was it that you were sponsoring, was it Marlovits or was it 
Bezenhoff er ? 

Mr. Be^t:rly. I wasn't sponsoring anything, I was protesting the 
denial of the passports to Mike Santina and Joseph Bezenhoffer, to my 
knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, there is no Joe Bezenhoffer who made an ap- 
plication. Bezenhoffer made it in another name, using another 
name. 

Mr. Beverly. That is your statement, and that is all I know. 

Mr. Tavenner. It appears on the application ; doesn't it ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know, I only Iniow Joe Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is the first j-ou have ever known of that ? 

Mr. BE%rERLY. It is the first I have known of it. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Is this the first time you have ever heard him called 
by any name other than Bezenhoffer ? 

Mr. Be^terly. Counsel, let me say again, Bezenhoffer is the only 
name I have ever known Joe about. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, at any rate, Mr. Bezenhoffer was selected as 
one of the delegates to go on this trip wliich was being sponsored by 
the American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Euroj^e. 
That is true ; isn't it ? He was at least selected for that purpose. 

Mr. Be\\erly. Joseph Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Tavenner. By the local. 

Mr. Beverly. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I wish that you would examine the applica- 
tion again, and state what the application states the purpose of this trip 
to Europe was. Examine it and read it. 

Mr. Be\terly. The paper you gave me, it says certain things about 
the person you are talking about. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you point out, please, the place? Will you 
state the reason set forth in the application for the travel ? 

Mr. Beverly. On a piece of paper it says, I don't know if this is 
Austria, to visit relatives, friends, and pleasure in Italy as a tourist. 
That is what the piece of paper says. 



3786 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what the application, the photostatic copy 
of the application for passport, says? 

Mr. Beverly. That is what the paper here says. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is what the paper is. I desire to offer the 
photostatic copy of the application for passport in evidence and re- 
quest that it be marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 2." 

Mr. Wood. It will be admitted. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 2," 
is submitted herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, did your union know that its delegate and 
representative was to use a different name from the name by which he 
was generally known and he was to represent to the State Department 
that the purpose of his trip was not to engage in this survey of labor 
conditions in Europe, but that it was a pleasure trip to Austria to 
visit relatives and to France and to Italy for pleasure ? 

Mr. Beverly. I would like for you to separate the questions you 
ask me. 

Mr. Tavenner. All right. I think there was only one question. 
Will you read it ? 

Mr. Beverly. Will you read it to me? One is the name and the 
other is the purpose, there is two questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you or the officials of your union know that Mr. 
Bezenhoffer was making application to travel on this survey of labor 
conditions in EurojDe under a name different from that by which he 
was known ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. The only thing I can say. Counsel, is that it was our 
understanding that he was making application for a passport but 
under what conditions we don't know. We had no way of knowing 
what was the proper name, and the only thing we knew was Joseph 
Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you or any of the officials of your union know 
that Mr. Bezenhoffer in making his application to travel in foreign 
countries, pursuant to the authority given him as a delegate, actually 
applied and said that he proposed to visit Western Europe, Austria, 
to visit relatives, France, pleasure, Italy, pleasure, as tourist ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I will still say I don't know, I know what the papers 
say you have got this, but I don't know what terms he made the appli- 
cation in, and your paper states one thing, but we wouldn't have had 
any objection. 

Mr. Tavenner. This isn't my paper, this is Mr. Bezenhoffer's 
application. 

Mr. Beverly. I didn't see him fill the paper out. I knew him as 
Bezenhoft'er, and as far as pleasure was concerned, if there had been 
any pleasure there, I am sure the local wouldn't have had any objection 
to that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You protested to the State Department their re- 
fusal to issue a passport to a person who would not give his right name 
or state the real reasons or purposes of his trip, and followed by that 
spending $333.33 of the union's money to advertise it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3787 

Mr. Walter. I think probably we would save a lot of time if we 
would let the lawyer answer the questions directly, instead of through 
a conduit. 

Mr. Cotton. Would you rather I not consult with the witness? 

Mr. Walter. No; just don't put every word in his mouth, in re- 
sponse to the questions. 

Mr. Cotton. Do you have any reason to believe I have been? 

Mr. Walter. I have been watching you do it. 

Mr. Cotton. Is there any objection to my continuing to consult? 

Mr. Walter. No. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Let me say this, on you first question, now, we never 
knew the State Department refused the passport, we never knew, and 
they never asked us, and on the second point, since this came up, I 
understand there has been some indication or something that he prob- 
ably does have a different name, but I want to come back again that 
the only thing I know is Joe Bezenhoffer. I hope I have made myself 
clear. 

Mr. Walter. How could you protest to the State Department for 
their failure to issue a passport to a person who never, according to 
the records, applied for a passport ? 

Mr. Beverly. The State Department never told me that, the one 
thing I knew. 

Mr. Walter. You protested to the State Department because of its 
failure to issue a passport to Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Beverly. That is right. 

Mr. Walter. And Bezenhoffer never applied for a passport in the 
name of Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Be\t:rly. Well, the State Department never notified us to that 
effect. 

Mr.' Wood. Did they notify you that Bezenhoffer had applied for a. 
passport in that name? 

Mr. Be^^rly. No, we didn't hear a word from them ; nothing. 

Mr. Wood. You have testified that you didn't know that he signed 
his application for a passport in a fictitious name ? 

Mr. Beverly. That is correct. 

Mr. Wood. And likewise you didn't know that he put on his pass- 
port a different purpose of the visit to that which he was authorized to 
do by being selected as a delegate, and those two things you have 
testified to. 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know whether the name is fictitious or not, 
and the only thing I knew was Joseph Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Wood. You didn't know that he signed his passport in any other 
name than Bezenhoffer? 

Mr. Beverly. That is right. 

Mr. Wood. And you didn't know he put on it the purpose of the 
visit to be different from what it really was, and you didn't know that? 

Mr. Be\^rly. That is right. 

Mr, Wood. If you had known either one of those things, would you 
have spent the local's money, $333.33 in a protest against the passport 
not being issued, if you had known that it was made in the name that 
wasn't his and for a purpose that wasn't bona fide. Would you have 
spent that much of your local's money in protesting about it ? 



3788 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Beverly. I would like to answer this way, by the same token, 
Mike Santina, he didn't get a passport either. 

Mr. Wood. That is not what I asked you. We are dealing with a 
passport here now that was obviously applied for in the name other 
than the person's real name. And for a purpose other than its real 
purpose. Now, if you had known those two things you say you did 
not know, would you have spent your local's money to protest it? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know which is correct, all I know is Joseph 
Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Wood. I didn't ask you that, I just asked you if you had known 
that he applied for the passport under a different name than his own, 
and for a different purpose than he intended 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know that is true. 

Mr. Wood. If you had known he did do it, would you have spent 
the money, your union's money, in protesting against the State De- 
partment's action ? 

Mr. Beverly. We would still have had the same situation, Mike 
Santina was going, we still would have had the same situation. 

Mr. Wood. That is not an answer to my question. I am trying to 
find out whether you would or you would not have taken the funds out 
of your local union and 

Mr. Beverly. As far as spending the money, we would still have had 
to spend the money because Mike Santina was involved. 

Mr. Wood. You would have spent the money anyhow ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Jackson. How did you receive notification that the State De- 
partment had turned down or denied the applications ? 

Mr. Beverly. Bezenhoffer told me. 

Mr. Jackson. He told you, he came to you, and did he ask you to 
protest on his behalf ? 

Mr. Beverly. That was a local decision. 

Mr. Jackson. Did he ask you if the local would take action? 

Mr. Beverly. No ; we make reports to our local on all of the busi- 
ness we transact. 

Mr. Jackson. And you made a report in this connection, and did 
you notify the local that the passport had been disapproved or turned 
down? 

Mr. Beverly. They were notified through the executive board. 

Mr. Jackson. The local was in what manner ? Was it brought to 
the attention of the local ? 

Mr. Beverly. Bezenhoffer made a report to the executive board and 
that was a matter before us, and we make reports on it. 

Mr. Jackson. Did he tell you that he had filed it under a name other 
than the one under Avhich he was generally known ? 

Mr. Beverly. This is the first I have seen anything in writing on 
this. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Bezenhoffer's original name 
may have been Marlovits ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't have any information on that, to that effect, 
the only thing I know is Joseph Bezenhoffer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know you have never heard it used, the name 
Marlovits ? 

Mr. Beverly. I only know Bezenhoffer. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3789 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know of any reason that Bezenlioffer may 
have had for using a former name, if that be true, instead of using 
the name by wliich which he is generally known in your community ^ 

Mr. Be\^rlt. There are a lot of people I know, there are a lot of 
people that change their names and I wouldn't Iniow what would be 
the thing in this case. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you discuss this matter with Bezenlioffer? 

Mr. Be\t:rl,y. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. The matter of the use of a different name ? 

Mr. BE^^ERLY. No. 

]Mr. TA^'ENNER. Did you discuss with him the fact that he had 
assigned a different purpose in Europe than that which he was 
actually intending to engage upon ? 

Mr. Beverly. No. I couldn't discuss it with him because I didn't 
know the reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know who did advise him how to prepare it ? 

Mr. Be\t:rly. No ; I wouldn't know that, either. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Bezenlioffer conferred with 
anyone in your local as to how he should apply ? 

Mr. Beverly. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he conferred with any mem- 
ber of group 4 of the Communist Party as to how 

Mr. BE^^:RLY. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether he conferred with Herbert 
March in the matter of preparing his application ? 

Mr. Beverly. No; I don't know anything to that effect, either, 
Counsel. 

Mr. Wood. It is now^ 1 : 27. We will adjourn until 2 : 45 this after- 
noon. 

(Whereupon, at 1 : 27 p. m,, the committee recessed until 2 : 45 p. m., 
the same day.) 

afternoon session 

The subcommittee reconvened at 3 p. m.. Representatives John S. 
Wood (chairman), Francis E. Walter, James B. Frazier, Jr., Harold 
H. Velde, and Donald L. Jackson (appearance made during course of 
hearing) being present. 

Mr. Wood. We have four members of the subcommittee present, 
which constitutes a quorum. 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Will Mr. Beverly come forward again, please? 

TESTIMONY OF LEON BEVEELY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

EUGENE COTTON— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I desire to offer in evidence the docu- 
ments which were presented by the witness pursuant to the subpena 
duces tecum. 

]Mr. Wood. I understood that the witness and the counsel desired 
the return of the originals ; and if that is true, that can be done. It 
will take a few days to have them photostated, and I will see that 
they get back to you. 

Mr. Cotton. Thank you. 

24044 — 52— pt. 2 6 



3790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Ta\tenner. I offer first a copy of a letter from Leon Beverly, 
president of local 347, to Mr. Charles Velson, acting secretary of the 
American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, bear- 
ing date of February 21, 1952, and ask that it be marked "Beverly 
Exhibit 3." 

Mr. Wood. Just go ahead and describe them all, please, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Ta^tsnnp^r. A copy of a letter of M. Santina, secretary-treasurer, 
local 347, addressed to Mr. Charles Velson, acting secretary, American 
Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, bearing date of 
November 15, 1951, and ask that it be marked as "Beverly Exhibit 
No. 4." 

An original letter on the letterhead of the American Committee 
To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, signed Charles Velson and 
addressed to Mr. Leon Beverly, president of local 347, bearing date 
of January 29, 1952, and ask that it be marked as "Beverly Exhibit 
No. 5." 

A page — page 20-A — of the Sunday, January 20, 1952, issue of the 
St. Louis Post-Dispatch and ask that it be marked "Beverly Exhibit 
No. 6." 

A check, No. 8075, of United Packinghouse Workers of America, 
Local 347, bearing date November 15, 1951, payable to Charles Velson, 
acting secretary, which check is marked "Void," and ask that it be 
marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 7." 

A check, No. 8080, of United Packinghouse AVorkers of America, 
Local 347, bearing date of November 15, 1951, payable to Charles 
Velson, acting secretary, in the amount of $333.33, which shows en- 
dorsement on the back thereof by Charles Velson, American Com- 
mittee To Survey Labor Conditions, and ask that it be marked as 
"Beverly Exhibit No. 8." 

Mr. Wood. Does that conclude the exhibits ? 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. Would you indicate to me now whether or not that 
embraces the entire record of documentary evidence that you turned 
over to counsel ? 

Mr. Cotton. I didn't follow them. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you look at them and see if they constitute 
all that you delivered ? 

( Documents were examined b}^ Mr, Cotton. ) 

Mr. Wood. Does that embrace all of the documents that were turned 
over under the subpena ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes. 

Mr. Wood. Let them be admitted in the record as indicated; and 
as soon as possible to have them photostated, will you please return 
thom to them, Mr. Counsel? 

Will you furnish your name, or your client's, as to which one you 
want them sent to ? I mean the address. 

(The documents above referred to, marked "Beverly Exhibit Nos. 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8," are filed herewith.) 

Mi-. Beverly. You can return it to union headquarters, 4859 
Wabash Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Beverly, how did local No. 347 receive its 
invitation to send delegates to Europe? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3791 

]\Ir. Beverly. I would like — are you through questioning me on 
the Joe Bezenhoffer thing ? Are you through questioning me on that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't know whether I am or not. 

Mr. Beverly. The reason I asked, I wanted to make sure that the 
record shows my position correctly, and there were so many questions 
asked around this thing, I wanted to make sure. 

Mr. Wood. Are there any corrections of the testimony you want to 
make at this time ? 

Mv. Beverly. It is not a correction, but I want to make sure it is 
clear, my position. There were so many questions asked, back and 
forward, that there might be a possibility of my position not being 
correct, not being understood correctly. 

Mr. AVooD. We are not so much concerned about your position as 
we are about your answers. Your answers that you gave are correct, 
are they ? 

Mr. Beverly. They are correct. 

Mr. Wood. Wherever you did answer. 

Mr. Beverly. Wherever I did answer, they are correct, but I wanted 
to make sure that the record shows it in that way. 

Mr. Wood. The record will show that, 

Mr. Beverly. The point is this : In the matter of Joe Bezenhoffer, 
I stated that I only laiow Joe by "Joe Bezenhoffer," and that is No. 1. 
And No. 2 

Mr. Tavenner. That appeared plainly from the testimony, and I 
don't know^ of any occasion for reviewing the testimony. 

Mr. Be\t:rly. Could I finish my statement ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I don't think so, if it is a matter of reviewing 
what your testimony has been. That is perfectly plain, and the record 
is clear. 

Mr. Beverly. I just want to make sure that my position is clear on 
this point. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, your statements are clear. 

Mr. Beverly. The point I am trying to make there was some dis- 
cussion of another name after the passports had been issued and taken 
back. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is right. 

Mr. Beverly. That is right. 

Mr. Beaterly. As long as that is understood ; I want to be sure of 
that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will repeat the question: How did local No. 347 
receive its invitation to send delegates to Europe? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Be^terly. Well, this committee, they sent out several invi- 
tations from other unions, from other countries, and we received 
one. 

Mr. Tavenner. What countries? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, to my knowledge, Italy and France. 

Mr. Tavenner. Any others? 

Mr. Beverly. I think there were some more, but those are the only 
ones I recall clearly at this point. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where are the invitations which you received? 

Mr. Beverly. We have them here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you produce them, please ? 



3792 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Now, did you receive those invitations through the American Com- 
mittee to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe? 

Mr. Wood. Perhaps they will show. 

Mr. Be-v^rly. I don't know how they came. They came in through 
the mail. 

Mr. Tavenner. I asked you this morning to produce all of the 
records that you had of correspondence between you and your union, 
and tlie American Committee to Survey Labor Conditions in Eu- 
rope. Now, do you have any other documents besides those that 
you are now presenting? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Beverly. I understand this is a general release to all unions. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. But my question now is that you produce all 
other documents that you have between you or your union, and the 
American Committee to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, in addi- 
tion to those that you are now presenting. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. We have other releases relating to the subject, if 
that is what you want. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want all correspondence ; that is what the subpena 
called for. 

Mr. Beverly. These are not correspondence ; these are releases. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, they were sent you. It is all correspondence 
and records that w^ere sent you by the American Committee To Sur- 
vey Labor Conditions in Europe. 

Mr. Wood. Do you want to interrogate on these ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to get all of them. 

Mr. Beverly. This was to be different; it was to be a release 

Mr. Tavenner. I am asking you to produce all records of every 
character that were transmitted from the American Committee To 
Survey Labor Conditions in Europe, to you or to your union. 

Mr. Beverly. Well, I have this one here. This is a release. 

Mr. Tavenner. But I am asking for all of them. Is that all? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, look at them and see if that is what you want, 
Congressman. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, do you have any other records of any kind 
that were transmitted from the American Committee To Survey Labor 
Conditions in Europe, to you or your organization ? 

Mr. Beverly. That is all, that you have got there. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. The letters which you have produced appear to be 
a lettei" of May 4, 1051, from the American Committee To Survey 
Trade Union Conditions in Europe, signed by Charles Velson, secre- 
tary, addressed, "Dear Sirs and Brothers," to which is attached a 
photostatic copy of a letter in French, addressed to Mr. Velson, room 
501, 799 Broadway, New York, under date of April 24, 1951, ad- 
dressed to "Dear Comrade," and signed "A. Leleap, Secretary Gen- 
eral." Do you know of what organization Mr. Leleap was secretary 
general ? 

Mr. Beverly. Counselor, I only know what was in the letter, and 
it states there — that is all I do know, what is in the letter. 

Mr. Tavenner. The letter is postmarked Paris, if I did not say so. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3793 

And a second letter, bearing date of April 26, 1951, from Rome, 
addressed to the American Committee To Survey Trade Union Con- 
ditions in Europe, Charles Velson, secretary, and signed "Guiseppe 
de Vittorio, Secretary General, CGIL." 

Do you know what the initials "CGiL" stand for ? 

Mr. Beverly. No, I don't. The release you have is a mimeographed 
release there, and the letter is a photostatic copy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Those were invitations which you received to send 
the delegates. That is the invitations received from Velson. 

I desire to offer the documents in evidence as one batch, and ask 
that they be marked as "Beverly Exhibit No. 9." 

Mr. Wood. They will be admitted, with the same qualification thai 
as soon as they can be photostated, they will be returned to their 
owner. 

(The documents above referred to, marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 
9," are filed herewith.) 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did you also receive an invitation from a Frencli 
labor union which was addressed to M. Harold Nielson, district presi- 
dent. United Packing House Workers of America, CIO, which -p"* 
have had translated ? 

Mr. Beverly. I have never seen this before. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not seen it before ? 

Mr. Beverly. No. Probably it came out of the files, and how it got 
there, I don't know. It is not a 347 letter, anyway. 

Mr. Tavenner. This will explain — the letter which I am about to 
read to you, this will explain the source of that document. 

This is a letter on the United Packing House Workers of America 
stationery, and bears date of June 11, 1951, and it is signed by Ralph 
Helstein, president, and it is addressed to Mr. Ashley Nichols, Pass- 
port Division, Department of State, Washington, D. C., "In re Joseph 
Marlovits and Michael Santina." 

Dear Sib: This organization is an international union, affiliated with the 
CIO. Our office has been advised by one of our local unions that the above two 
members have experienced some difficulty in securing passports for a trip on 
which the local had contemplated sending them, in response to invitations re- 
ceived from certain unions abroad. 

We have further been advised by our legal department that you have indicated 
that the Department of State may be in a position to remove the obstacles to 
the issuance of the passports if you can be more fully advised concerning the 
purpose, nature, and source of payment for the contemplated travel. 

Now, let me stop at that point. What was the source of funds for 
the contemplated travel of these delegates? Where was the money 
coming from to pay the expenses of these delegates ? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, if they went, you mean ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Well, what we had planned to do, we had planned 
to give a dance, or some affair, or a raffle, to raise the money. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who do you mean by "we" ? 

Mr. Beverly. ^Yhat is that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. You say "we" intended to hold a raffle. 

Mr. Beverly. The union. I represent the union. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the union take action on that? Was that taken 
up at a union meeting ? 



3794 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Bea'erlt. Well, that wasn't finalized, because the passports 
were refused, 

Mr. Tavenner. I know, but you certainly wouldn't arrange for 
delegates to go on a trip like this without making very definite ar- 
rangements about their expenses, would you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Those are the actual facts. A lot of time elapses, 
and 

Mr. Tavenner. You expected to pay this money out of the treasury 
of your organization ; didn't you ? 

Mr. Beverly. No, we expected to raise the money by giving a raffle 
or some kind of a dance, or something along that line. That is the way 
it was intended. 

Mr. Tavenner. This is what your president said about it: 

We have investigated and found the following to be the facts : The expenses 
of the individuals involved on their trip are to be paid entirely by the local union. 
The individuals involved are traveling as representatives of the local. The 
local has decided to send them on the trip as a result of an invitation received 
at the district office of the international union in Chicago. The original of the 
invitation is attached hereto. 

And it is the original which I just presented to you. 

Mr. Beverly. What is the difference if the local raised the money, 
as long as the local gets the money ? 

Mr. Tavenner. And as long as the local stands good for the pay- 
ment of their expenses. 

I desire to offer the letter in evidence, and ask that it be marked as 
"Beverly Exhibit No. 11." 

Mr. Wood. That is one of the documents produced ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. It is received. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Beverly Exhibit No, 
11," is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you stated at the time you elected the dele- 
gates, you knew that invitations had been received from certain unions 
in Europe, and you stated France and Italy, and those are the only 
two that we have presented here. 

Now, what other unions in Europe invited your delegates to come 
to their countries? 

Mr. Beverly. I didn't say other unions. I said other unions were 
offering invitations, and you misunderstood me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, from what countries? 

Mr, Be^^rly. I don't remember offhand. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, what countries were they to travel in? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, those are the only ones we discussed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Those are the only ones you discussed in the meet- 
ings, in your union meetings ? 

Mr. Beverly. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you discuss them in any other meetings ? 

Mr. Be\terly, It was the only countries we discussed in our union 
meetings, 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you discuss other countries in other meetings? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't follow you. Counselor. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. The only thing we discussed was Italy and France, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3795 

Mr. Tavenner. The only thing or the only countries that you dis- 
cussed your delegates going to were France and Italy ? 

Mr. Beverly. Those are the only ones I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew, as a matter of fact, that the delegates 
were intending to go to other countries besides France and Italy, didn't 
you? 

Mr. Beverly. No ; I had no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know they did. Yours were not permitted to 
go, but you know other delegates that went on this same trip did go to 
other countries; don't you? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't know that ? 

Mr. Beverly. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a handbill adver- 
tising a report from Europe — are you listening to the question ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes. Go ahead. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a handbill adver- 
tising a report from Europe by three Chicago unionists just returned 
from Europe, and according to the report, they were scheduled to tell 
the truth about what is going on right now, as the article says, in 
France, Poland, Italy, ancl the U. S. S. R. Does that not refresh your 
recollection ? 

Mr. Beverly. As to what are you referring to ? 

Mr. Tavenner. As to your knowledge that these delegates did go 
to Russia. 

Mr. Beverly. The way I understood your question, you asked me 
did I have knowledge that the delegates from our local were going to 
any other country, and that is the question I was intending to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Ancl I further asked you whether or not you knew 
that the delegates from other unions did go to the U. S. S. R., or other 
countries. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel at great length.) 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Beverly. Will you restate the question ? 

(The question was read by the reporter as follows :) 

And I further asked you whether or not you knew that the delegates from 
other unions did go to the U. S. S. R., or other countries. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, BE^^^RLY. I refuse to answer this question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have already stated to this committee that you 
did not know that delegates had gone to any other country than France 
and Italy, and you have already answered that question ; and I am now 
handing you this circular to refresh your recollection. 

Mr. Beverly. I stated awhile ago. Counselor, that I didn't know any 
of the delegates from any local was to go to any other country, and 
that is what I was trying to answer awhile ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I will have to ask that the witness 
be directed to answer that question in the light of his former answers ; 
and if there is any question about his former answers, we will look it 
up in the record. 

Mr. Beverly. Which question is that ? 



3796 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you ascertain, Mr. Reporter, whether or not 
the Avitness testified to the effect that he did not know that delegates 
went to any countries in Europe other than France and Italy ? 

(Whereupon, the record was read by the reporter, as follows :) 

Mr. Tavenner. Those are the only ones you discussed in the meetings, in your 
union meetings? 

Mr. Beveely. That is right. 

Mr. Tavennee. Well, did you discuss them in any other meetings? 

Mr. Beverly. It was the only countries we discussed in our union meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you discuss other countries in other meetings? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't follow you, Counselor. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. The only thing we discussed was Italy and France. 

Mr. Tavenner. The only thing or the only countries that you discussed your 
delegates going to were France and Italy? 

Mr. Beverly. Those are the only ones I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. You knew, as a matter of fact, that the delegates were intending 
to go to other countries besides France and Italy, didn't you? 

Mr. Beverly. No ; I had no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You know they did. Yours were not permitted to go, but you 
know other delegates that went on this same trip did go to other countries, 
don't you? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know that. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't know that? 

Mr. Beverly. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. In the light of the witness' answer he didn't know. 
I am intending to refresh his recollection. 

Mr. Wood. I think unquestionably under the decisions of the courts, 
the counsel will tell you that, having answered a question one time, 
now your memory has been refreshed about it, we are entitled to an 
answer now after refreshing your recollection, and you are directed 
to answer the last question that was asked you. 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I must have misunderstood him. I 
thought he was talking about my two delegates, and when I said from 
my union 

Mr. Wood. I do not think you could have misunderstood those 
questions and answers. It seems perfectly plain to me, 

Mr. Beverly. I did misunderstand them. I thought he was refer- 
ring to our two delegates. The only two countries I knew they was 
supposed to go to was Italy and France. 

Mr. Wood. If there should be any hereafter about it, you are 
entitled to advance that theory, but it does not register very much 
with me because you have answered it three times. 

Mr. Beverly. Only once, to my remembrance. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does the document refresh your recollection to the 
point where you now remember that delegates from unions other 
than your own visited countries in Europe other than France and 
Italy? 

Mr. Beverly. I didn't think I would have to answer that question, 
Counselor. I exercise my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, am asking the witness be required to 
answer it. 

Mr. Wood. I have already so instructed him. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. In the light of the names on this document, that is 
on the basis that I assert my privileges, Mr. Congressman. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3797 

Mr. Wood. I have not seen the document; and the question is: 
Having now refreshed your recollection by anything that you have 
seen, do you still say that you did not know the delegates from any 
other local unions in America went to other countries than France and 
Italy, on this particular trip? That is the question that you are 
being directed to answer. 

Do you answer it or do you not ? 

Mr. Beverly. Congressman, I would like for you to look at the 
names on that list, and then you can understand why I am exercising 
my privileges. 

Mr. Wood. I do not see, as to the names on the list, what effect that 
would have on your refusal to answer. I do not know what you re- 
freshed your recollection about, or what you used to refresh your 
recollection ; but if you now know whether they did visit other coun- 
tries, I think that you should answer the question, in the light of what 
you have previously said. 

Mr. Beverly. The names of some of the people on that document 
are some of the people who have been subpenaed by this committee. 

Mr. Walter. Wliich ones ? 

Mr. Be%t:rly. That is my understanding. 

Mr. Wood. One of them is your own name. 

Mr. Beverly. A name that has been named before this committee. 

Mr. Wood. What is your reply, or do you answer? Let us get 
along. 

Mr. Beverly. Can you question me without reference to that 
document ? 

Mr. Wood. Read the question Mr. Tavenner asked last. 

(Whereupon, the record was read by the reporter as follows:) 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a handbill advertising a 
report from Europe by three Chicago unionists just returned from Europe ; and, 
according to the report, they were scheduled to tell the truth about what is going 
on right now, as the article says, in France, Poland, Italy, and the U. S. S. R. 
Does that not refresh your recollection? 

Mr. Beverly. Can that question be rephrased to refer to this docu- 
ment, without reference to the document ? 

Mr. Wood. The question has been asked you now, which you have 
just heard read, and that is the question that you are being directed 
to answer ; and what are you going to reply ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Be\t:rly. I will not answer any question in reference to that 
document, but I will answer the question that later I did hear of some 
of these delegates going to other countries. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you hear it ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question, under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Didn't you as a matter of fact know that the dele- 
gates from your own union expected to go to Russia ? 

Mr. Beverly. I did not. 

Mr. Tavenner. You had no knowledge of that? 

Mr. Beverly. I had no knowledge of that. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first learn that they intended to go, 
or that any of the delegates intended to go or had gone to Russia ? 

Mr. Be^t:rly. I don't know how soon afterward. 



3798 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AKEA 

Mr. Wood. Let us see if we can simplify it. Was it before they went 
or after tliey returned that you learned of it ? 

Mr. Beverly. It was probably after they returned. 

Mr. Wood. Do you remember ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't remember the exact dates ; it would be after 
they returned. 

Mr. Tavenner. It would have to be after they returned; is that 
what you said ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How did you learn it ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I have already asserted my privilege on that under 
the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke earlier in your testimony of efforts that 
were made to cause the State Department to change its ruling with 
regard to the delegates from your local. What action was taken to 
endeavor to get the State Department to change its ruling? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. We adopted resolutions and sent to the State De- 
partment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who do you mean by "we"? 

Mr. Beverly. When I say "we," I am speaking in the terms of my 
local union, and a letter was sent to some Ruth Shipley. 

Mr. Tavenner. By whom ? 

Mr. Beverly. At the direction of the local, and a telephone call was 
made by myself to Washington. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you also send a telegram? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, usually whenever the union directs a telegram 
or anything, it usually will be in my name or some other officer's name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you send a telegram ? 

Mr. Beverly. I think I did. I can't remember. I am almost sure. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the photostatic copy of a tele- 
gram addressed to Mrs. Ruth Shipley on May 31, from Chicago, 111., 
and I will ask you if that is the telegram you sent. 

Mr. Beverly. To the best of my recollection, this probably could 
be it, and I couldn't say exactly word for word, but it is probable. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are satisfied that that is the telegram you 
sent, aren't you ? 

Mr. Beverly. I couldn't swear to the exact wording of it, but it was 
along these lines. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the photostatic copy of the tele- 
gram in evidence and ask that it be marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 12," 
and I desire to read at least part of it. 

Mr. Wood. Let it be admitted. 

(The document above referred to, marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 12," 
is submitted herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. It reads : 

In the name of 6,.^00 members of our local union, we vehemently protest high- 
handed action of your agents in taking away passpoi-ts of the secretary-treasurer 
and chief griev airman who were designated to represent Armour workers 

in a tour of F ance and other European countries at the invitation of Frencli 
and other labor unions. 

I would like to stop at that point. What other labor unions were 
you referring to ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE CHICAGO AREA 3799 

Mr. Beverly. I stated, I think, a while ago that those are the only 
two unions that we had any idea of our two delegates, or one of them, 
going. 

Mr. Tavenner (reading) : 

Our membership is indignant at such undemocratic, dictatorial, and un-Ameri- 
can effort to erect an iron curtain between the working people of our country 
and of countries of Europe. We demand that the said passports be returned 
at once and that you affirm your intention to respect basic rights of our elected 
representatives as guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States and by 
the declaration of human rights of the United Nations to which our country is 
signatory. Please reply by return mail. 

LocAX, 347, United Packinghouse 

Workers of America, CIO, 
Leon Beverlt, President. 
Michael Santina, 

Secretary-Treasurer. 

Who drafted that telegTam ? 

Mr. Beverly. Who drafted it ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. Wlio prepared it ? Who composed it ? 

Mr. Beverly. Well, the officers get together and write telegrams- 
Mr. Tavenner. Who were they ? 

Mr. Beverly. They are signed there. 

Mr. Tavenner. You and Michael Santina ? 

Mr. Beverly. That is my recollection, and sometimes the two of us 
get together. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio did it on this occasion ? 

Mr. Beverly. To the best of my recollection, Mike and I worked 
on that one. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did anyone else? 

Mr. Beverly. Not to my remembrance. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, you spoke of having sent a resolution into 
the Department of State, and I will ask you to examine this photo- 
static copy of what purports to be a resolution, and ask whether 
that 

Mr. Beverly. As far as I can recollect, this looks like the resolution. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the date? 

Mr. Beverly. The date says "June 13." 

Mr. Tavenner. Of what year ? 

Mr. Beverly. 1951. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, the telegram which you sent was dated May 
31 ; so, apparently you took your action in sending the telegram before 
you submitted the matter to your membership for action. Isn't that 
true ? 

Mr. Beverly. Let me see the telegram again, please. 

(iDocument was handed to the witness. Witness conferred with his 
counsel. ) 

(Kepresentative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room.) 

(The following members of the committee were present at this 
point: Representatives Wood, Walter, Frazier, and Jackson.) 

Mr. Wood. I do not want to unduly rush anybody, but will you try 
to expedite your answers as quickly as you can, so {fT"^^ save some 
time? ri ^^ 

Mr. Beverly. I would like to say that, as to telegrams, sometimes 
we send our telegrams in advance and then get approval by the 
local, the officers of the local. We have those. 



3800 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did the local approve it? 

Mr. Beverly, do your minutes show that ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know whether the minutes show it or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the copy of the resolution in evidence 
and ask it be marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 13." 

Mr. Wood. It will be admitted. 

(The document above referred to was marked "Beverly Exhibit No. 
13" and is submitted herewith.) 

Mr. Taa^nner. I desire to read this portion of the resolution. 
[Reading :] 

Therefore, be it resolved that local 347 send a strong protest to the State 
Department in Washington condemning such undemocratic and dictatorial and 
un-American action as to deprive the American citizens of the right to travel in 
Europe, especially in France and Italy, both friendly nations to the United 

States. 

Now, that is a plain indication that at that time you had in mind 
that your delegates would travel in countries other than France and 
Italy. 

Mr. Beverly. We didn't have no mind of our delegates going any- 
place but France and Italy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why do you state "the right to travel in Europe, 
especially in France and Italy, both friendly nations"? Didn't you 
contemplate at that time that they were to travel in other countries, 
particularly countries that may not have been so friendly ? 

Mr. Beverly. We didn't have any special reason for putting that 
in there, and we were only trying to let the Passport Division know. 

Mr. Tavenner, According to your statement, that language had no 
special significance at all, and you had no knowledge of any intention 
of any of these people traveling in the U. S. S. R. ? 

Mr. Beverly. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. I want to be certain that I understand your answer. 
Did you at any time learn that your two delegates, Mr. Santantia and 
Mr. JBezenhotfer, were expecting to travel in the U. S. S. R. or other 
iron-curtain countries ? 

Mr. Beverly. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now,, what other action was taken besides these ac- 
tions, forwarding of these various resolutions, your telephoning, and 
your telegraphing the Department of State with regard to their 
actions ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Beverly. I think there was some contact made with the national 
office. 

Mr. Tavenner. How was that contact made, and by whom ? 

Mr. Beverly. I didn't make the contact. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you take any part in any subsequent 
action, any other action besides tliat which has been described here 
so far ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Beverly. You see, the dates and all of these things are kind of 
vague to me, but I do know that we sent a letter or something to some 
trade-union in France, I think it was, to contact the United States 
Embassy there, I think it was, to see if they could get some cooperation 
to get our passports. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3801 

Mr. Tavennek. Do you have a copy of that letter? 

Mr. Beverly. No; I don't. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where is it ? 

Mr. Beverly. It mip;ht be in the files ; I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you produce it ? 

Mr. Beverly. I can check and see if we have got it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you produce it if you find it ? Will you make 
a search for it and produce it if you locate it ? 

Mr. Beverly. We will make a search for it, and we will advise you, 
and you will be advised on that if we find it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you produce it ? 

Mr. Beverly. We will have to decide at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. We want to look at it, and that won't 

Mr. Beverly. We will have to decide at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, I ask that a subpena duces tecum be submitted 
to the witness requiring his return here and to produce it. 

Mr. Wood. It is included in the one already served on him. 

Mr. Tavenner. It may not have been described in a way that would 
be covered by that subpena, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Very well. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, was any other effort made in which you took 
part to brinj; pressure upon or to cause the State Department to be 
induced to change its ruling? 

Mr. Beverly. The only thing I can remember other than that was 
the ad, and I think we got that in the records. 

Mr. Tavenner. You spoke of that, and you stated that the $333 
which you paid was your half. 

Mr. Beverly. Our share. 

Mr. Tavenner. How is that? 

Mr. Be\terly. Our share. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your share? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, who paid the rest of it? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know offhand, someone, I don't know who 
they were offhand, what other unions. 

Mr. Tavenner. They were unions, were they ? Did any grovip other 
than a legitimate labor union make any contribution to that fund? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I don't have any personal knowledge of other unions 
myself, and I don't have any personal knowledge myself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, my question was whether there was any 
other organization besides a legitimate union which contributed to 
that fund. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. It was my understanding that there were other 
unions who contributed to it, but who they were I don't know. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have asked you that question, Mr. Beverly, twice, 
and you certainly must have understood. Will you please answer it? 

Mr. Beverly. You said other organizations. 

Mr. Tavenner. Other unions. 

Mr. Beverly. Not that I know of. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall whether any meetings were held to 
take action with regard to this problem of having the State Depart- 
ment change its ruling witli regard to your delegates? 



3802 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Beverly. That is something that was brought up at our union 
meetings. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it brought up in any other meetings at which 
you attended ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer the question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a meeting called by the American 
Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in Europe at the Midland 
Hotel on May 4, 1952, which was attended not only by you but by Mike 
Santina, one of the proposed delegates, and Joseph Bezenhoffer, the 
other proposed delegate, Charles Velson, Edward Bradshaw, Alfred 
De Boven, Joseph Chatley, Leon Straus, Joseph Blackwell, Walter 
Frank, V. M. Gibson, Burl Jack Nichols, William Aloysius Wallace, 
Clarence Eoyster, Oliver Gregory, and Grace Baumann.^ 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I did attend a meeting there, but I don't know 
whether all of those names were there or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend any meetings other than this meet- 
ing called by the American Committee To Survey Labor Conditions in 
Europe, relating to this subject? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. That is the only one I can recall. 

Mr. Tavenner. There were no others, do you mean that? 

Mr. Beverly. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it ithe purpose of this meeting on May 4 at the 
Midland Hotel, to formulate plans of action through mass meetings 
and the raising of funds and publicity, circulation of petitions, to 
exert pressure upon the State Department to rescind its ban on travel 
in iron-curtain countries ? 

Mr. Beverly. My recollection of the meeting was to protest to the 
State Department of denying passports to our delegates. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't the subject under discussion at that meet- 
ing the restriction on travel to iron-curtain countries ? 

Mr. Beverly. Not to my recollection, and I don't remember that 
entering into our discussion or not. 

Mr. Tavenner. I can't quite hear you. 

Mr. Beverly. I don't remember any discussion of that kind, and 
I don't know whether that is the kind of discussion they had or not, 
and the only thing we were concerned about was the passports for our 
two delegates. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't a plea made at that meeting that the State 
Department should permit citizens of the United States to travel in 
iron-curtain countries? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't remember iron-curtain business, I know the 
gist of it, the way I remember it, was that the delegates be allowed 
to travel in Europe, and I don't know about the other phraseology. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3803 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not state in that meeting that — 

we should take this question, that is, the general question of travel, to the 
shops, and that we don't realize the publications we have now, but we should 
use our present publications and tie in this passport situation with the phase of 
hysteria in which we live. 

Did 3^011 make that statement ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Bevepclt. I don't know exactly the statement I made, but it 
might have been along that line, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, now, what was your idea in taking the pass- 
port situation back to the shops ? 

Mr. Beverly. To protest clenying the two members of our union 
passports, and that w^as the whole idea I had in mind. 

Mr. TA\Ti:NNER. Do you recall this statement having been made by 
Walter Frank : 

I am a citizen of this country by choice, I was born elsewhere. When I took 
the oath of citizenship I swore to defend the Constitution and I will defend 
the Constitution against the State Department. They are the ones that are 
trying the revolutionary movement to destroy every last vestige of democracy. 
The same as Hitler and Mussolini did. It is not only a question of passports, 
it is a question of restricting liberty. We are all in the same boat. All of us 
labor leaders are considered subversive. I think if we take this fight to the 
people it will break wide open even this witch hunt. Our fight is for peace and 
to present the war makers, and to defeat them and the whole reactionary 
scheme. It is important that we get factual information about the world to the 
woi'kers, so that they can bust wide open the warmongers. We have got to 
get to the liberal element, win over the trade-union movement, and beat them 
on all civil-rights questions. 

Do you recall the substance of that statement having been made by 
Waltei- Frank? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't recall all of what you have read there. 

Mr. Tavenxer. You are acquainted with Walter Frank? 

Mr. Be^-erly. I wouldn't know him, I don't know Walter Frank, 
personally, just like I know a lot of people in the union, there would 
be a lot of people but I don't know Walter Frank, 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. Do you recall whether at that meeting ]\Ir. Charles 
Velson, the acting secretary of the American committee to survey labor 
conditions in Europe, read a report? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I remember him reading a report. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall this part of the report : 

The committee has .iust been able to keep its head above water. We have 
spent just about as much as we brought in. We raised $20,000 and had an outgo 
of the same thing. We had affairs, some pamphlets and got contributions, and 
the Packinghouse Workers have taken the greatest initiative in this committee. 
You don't recall anything having been said about $20,000 of income? 

Mr. Beverly. No ; I couldn't say. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, let me ask you, how much did the packing- 
house workers contribute to the American Committee To Survey Labor 
conditions in Europe? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]Mr. Beverly. The only tiling I know of was the contribution for 
the ad. tliat is tlie only thing I know about. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am speaking now of your entire organization of 
the Packinofhouse AVorkers. 



3804 COMMXTNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Beverly. I don't know ; I know of no other. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you ever take up contributions from among 
the workers for the benefit of the American Committee To Survey 
Labor Conditions in Europe ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't recall taking up anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you remember a discussion of a subject at that 
meeting which has been the subject which has created an interna- 
tional incident, the arrest in a European country of William Otis, 
an American newspaperman ? 

Mr. Beverly. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. You don't remember that being discussed? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't remember that being discussed at all. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the final action taken by that group, 
which met on May 4 in the hotel, as you have mentioned it? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't recall. That has been quite a while ago, 
Counsel, and I couldn't truthfully say what the final action was, the 
only thing I knew was that we discussed the passport. 

Mr. Wood. We will stand in recess for 10 minutes. 

(A brief recess was taken.) 

Mr. Wood. We will proceed. 

(Members of the subcommittee present were : Representatives Wood, 
Walter, Frazier, Velde, and Jackson. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Beverly, do you know why the State Depart- 
ment did not accede to the pressure that was brought to bear upon 
them to grant passports to the two delegates from your local ? 

Mr. Beverly. The State Department never answered any of the 
communications or anything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know the reason ? 

Mr. Beverly. No; I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Mr. Bezenhoffer and Mr. 
Santina or either of them, are members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me ask you a few questions regarding the use 
of your name by organizations which have been declared to be Com- 
munist-front organizations. My purpose in asking the question is 
to determine how those organizations obtained your support if they 
did, and other facts regarding their activities. I show you a circular 
issued by the Midwest Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 
Will you look at the exhibit and state if your name appears thereon as 
a sponsor. 

(Whereupon a document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Does your name appear thereon ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I have looked at the piece of paper and I see the 
name of Leon Beverly on there. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sponsor the organization? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privileges 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who solicited your sponsorship or endeavored to 
obtain your sponsorship ? 

Mr. Beverly. The same answer for the same reason. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3805 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a letterhead of 
the Illinois assembly of the American Peace Crusade, dated June 27, 
1951. Will you look at the exhibit and state if your name appears 
there as a sponsor ? 

Mr. Be\terly. I see my name on that piece of paper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, were you a sponsor of that organization? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavexxek. I show you a pliotostatic copy of a mimeographed 
circular of the Chicago committee of the American Peace Crusade, 
and will you look at this exhibit and state if your name appears there 
as a sponsor. 

(The document was given to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I see the name of Leon Beverly on that piece of paper. 

Mr. TA^^:N^NER. Were you a sponsor of that organization? 

Mr. Be\'erly. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of the conference 
call by the National Labor Conference for Peace, and will you look 
at this exhibit and state if your name appears there as a sponsor? 

(The document was given to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Be^t:rly. I see the name of Leon Beverly on that piece of paper. 

Mr. Ta^-enner. Were you a sponsor as reported in the exhibit? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of the letterhead of 
the provisional trade union committee to sponsor report from Europe, 
dated October 12, 1951. 

(The document was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you look at the exhibit and state if your name 
appears thereon as a member of the sponsoring committee? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. I see the name of Leon Beverly on that piece of paper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Now, I stated in my first question that I was asking 
you regarding Communist-front organizations, and this organization 
has not been cited as a Communist-front organization. 

Mr. Be\'erly. Let me see the exhibit again, please. 

(The exhibit was again shown to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. What is the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Would it alter your answer to tell you that that 
organization has not been cited as a Communist-front organization? 

Mr. Beverly. "What answer do you mean? 

Mr. Tavenner. ^Vhether or not you were a sponsor of that organiza- 
tion as shown by that document that you have just examined. 

Mr. Be\trly. In view of some of the names on that piece of paper, 
I exert my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenn^er. What names did you have reference to? 

Mr. Beverly. I have read in the newspapers that some of the names 
on that piece of paper 

The Tavenner. Did that include Grant Oakes, of the Farm Equip- 
ment Workers ? 



3806 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Beverly. They have been named in these proceedings, and I 
would be ghid 

Mr. Tavenner. Yon also have in mind the name of Herbert March, 
local 347? 

Mr. Beverly. I am not referring to any specific names. 

Mr. Tavenner. Or Abe Fineglass of the Fur and Leather Workers ; 
did you have that in mind ? 

Mr. Beverly. There are a number of names there that have been 
mentioned in the newspapers as mentioned by this committee. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend the Illinois State convention of the 
Civil Rights Congress held at the Packinghouse Labor and Com- 
munity Center, 4859 South Walnut Avenue, on January 19 and 20, 
1952? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you elected to membership on the State board 
of the Civil Rights Congress at that convention ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner, Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason, 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Beverly, as I understand it, at various union meet- 
ings, legislation under consideration in the Congress of the United 
States was discussed by the membership. Did you attend meetings at 
which legislation was under discussion? 

Mr. Beverly. You mean meetings of my union? 

Mr. Walter. Yes. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Beverly. Sure, we discussed legislation in our union meetings. 

Mr. Walter. Did anybody ever indicate to you the position your 
union should take with respect to any particular legislation ? 

Mr. Beverly. I don't quite get your question, when you say "any- 
body." 

Mr. Walter. Anybody outside of the union, 

Mr. Beverly. Our union is run by the membership, and I think I 
have stated that before, and we have got a democratic union run by 
the rank and file. 

Mr. Walter. I know how democratic it is. As a matter of fact, did 
not the Comnumist Party indicate its interest in the defense of the 
immigration and naturalization code which was just enacted into law ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to answer that question under my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. That is all. 

Mr. Frazier. I have no questions. 

Mr. Velde. I have no questions, I yield to my colleague from Cali- 
fornia, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3807 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Beverly, did you agree with the decision made 
by the national CIO in 1949 to expell certain Communist-dominated 
unions ? 

Mr. Beverly. I refuse to ansAver that question. 

Mr. Jackson. Mr. Chairman, I have nothing further except that I 
feel that the State Department, especially the Passport Division under 
the supervision of Mrs. Euth Shipley, is to be commended and highly- 
congratulated by this committee and by the American people for the 
very close rein she keeps on the issuance of passports. 

Mr. Wood. Is there any reason why the witness should not be ex- 
cused from further attendance? 

Mr. Ta-vt^nner. Only to remind the witness, I think, that under the 
forthwith subpena issued to him he should be directed to come here 
tomorrow morning. 

Mr. Wood. I direct that the subpena be served. 

Mr. Tavenner. It has been, and it is a forthwith subpena, and I 
suggest that you direct that he report back here at TO o'clock in the 
morning. 

Mr. Wood. You will report back here at 10 o'clock in the morning, 
and until that time you are excused. 

(Wliereupon tlie witness was excused, as above directed.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to call Sam Curry. 

Mr. Wood. Will you raise your right hand and be sworn, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you shall give this subcommit- 
tee shall be tlie truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God^ 

Mr. Curry. I do. 

Mr. Wood. Do you represent this witness? 

Mr. Cotton. I do ; yes. 

Mr. Wood. There is no need of further identification of counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL CURRY, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL, 

EUGENE COTTON 

Mr. Taa^nner. You are Mr. Sam Curry? 

Mr. Curry. That is true. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born? 

Mr. Curry. February 16, 1917, Charleston, S. C. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your educational training? 

Mr. Curry. High school, started college, dropped out. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you now live in Chicago ? 

Mr. CuERY. I do. 

Mr. Taa^nner. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Curry. Oh, since roughly 1926 or 1925. 

Mr. Taa'enner. How are you now employed? 

Mr. Curry. I am a representative of the United Packinghouse 
Workers of America, CIO. 

Mr. Taat:nner. What official position do you hold ? 

Mr. Curry. A representative of the United Packinghouse Workers 
of America, CIO. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you held that position? 

Mr. Curry. Roughly 2 years, very roughly, perhaps a little over or 
under. 



3808 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. How loii^' have you been a member of that union? 

Mr. Curry. Of the United Packingliouse Workers of America ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Curry. Since 1941. 

Mr. Tavenner. How have you been employed since 1941? 

Mr. Curry. I worked for Armour & Co. up until the time that 
I got a leave of absence to leave the employment of Armour & Co. 
and work for the union. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that? 

Mr. Curry. In November or December, I think it was 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. IVliat other positions have you held in your union 
besides the position of representative? 

Mr. Curry. No other paid position. 

Mr. Tavenner. What other unpaid positions? 

Mr. Curry. I was a departmental steward, grievance committee 
member, recording secretary, financial secretary and president. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a copy of the Daily Worker for October 
5, 1949. In the last column on page 15 there is a news item datelined 
Chicago, saying you were elected chairman of the National Labor 
Conference for Peace. What is the National Labor Conference for 
Peace ? 

Mr. Curry. I respectfully decline to answer that question, exer- 
cising my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. What privilege under the fifth amendment? 

Mr. Curry. I think that the fifth amendment is the one that doesn't 
allow you to testify if your testimony might be self-incriminating. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it because of your fear that to answer the ques- 
tion might tend to incriminate you that you refuse to answer ? 

Mr. Curry. That is true. 

Mr. Wood. Mr. Counsel, the answer of the witness in describing 
his conception of the fifth amendment is erroneous, and he said he 
thought the fifth amendment was a provision of the Constitution 
that didn't allow a man to testify against himself. That isn't the 
provision at all. The fifth amendment provides that no person shall 
be compelled to give testimony against himself in a criminal pro- 
ceeding. Now, is it that provision of the fifth amendment that you 
invoke? 

Mr. Curry. That is the provision, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with an article datelined 
Chicago, appearing in the Daily Worker for July 5, 1950, to the 
effect that the Chicago Labor Conference for Peace released a state- 
ment calling for the immediate withdrawal of American troops, 
planes, and ships from Korea? 

Will you look at the article ? 

(A document was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state if your name appears tliere as one 
of those having signed that statement ? 

Mr. Curry. What is your question, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state whether or not your name appears 
there and whether you signed or authorized the signing of your name 
to that statement? 

Mr. Curry. On this document that you have presented to me, I see 
printed the name of Sam Curry. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3809 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you sipi it or authorize it to be signed in 
your behalf ? 

Mr. Curry. I decline to answer that question, exercising my priv- 
ileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a copy of the Daily Worker of April 
3, 1950, and in the last column on page 4 appears an article date lined 
Chicago regarding the statement released by the Chicago chapter of 
the National Committee To Defeat the Mundt Bill, and do you see 
your name signed to that statement ? 

(The document was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. Curry. In this document that you have presented to me, I see 
the name of Sam Curry printed. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your name ? 

Mr. Curry. I decline to answer that question exercising my priv- 
ileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Wood. You are asked whether or not your name is Sam Curry. 

Mr. Curry. For purposes of the record, my name is Sam Curry. 

Mr. Tavenner. But you will not admit whether you are the same 
Sam Curry whose name appears in that article? 

Mr. CuERT. I decline respectfully to answer that question exercising 
my privileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Curry. I decline to answer that question exercising my priv- 
ileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you ever been u member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Curry. I decline to answer that question exercising my priv- 
ileges under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Wood. Is there any reason why this witness should not be ex- 
cused from further attendance to the committee ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. It is so ordered. 

(Representative Walter left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I will call Mr. Sam Parks. 

Mr. Wood. Will you hold up your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you shall give this subcommit- 
tee shall be the truth, the w^hole truth, and nothing but the truth, so 
help you God ? 

Mr. Parks. I do. 

Mr. Wood. You are represented by counsel? 

Mr. Parks. I am. 

Mr. Wood. There is no need for counsel to further identify himself. 

(Mr. Cotton appeared as counsel for the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Shall we proceed? 

Mr. Wood. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL JOSEPH PARKS, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS 

COUNSEL, EUGENE COTTON 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please? 

Mr. Parks. Samuel Joseph Parks. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Parks? 



3810 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Parks. September 24, 1914, in Memphis, Term. 

Mr. Ta\^nxer. Do you live at this time in Chicago ? 

Mr. Parks. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. Parks. Ever since December 30, 1939. 

Mr. Tavenner. How have you been employed since you have been 
in Chicago? 

Mr. Parks. Could I make a request of the counsel, please, for my 
own benefit? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Parks. I would like to know the gentlemen from Congress that 
I am testifying before, who they are, and where they are from, and 
I would like to know that myself because I don't know them. 

Mr. Wood, Well, it is not material, being Members of Congress, but 
since you have requested it I will grant your request. The gentleman 
on my far right is Mr. Frazier, from your native State of Tennessee, 
and the next man here on my right is from the State of Pennsylvania, 
Mr. Walter. The man on my left is Mr. Velde, from this State, from 
your own State of Illinois, and Mr. Jackson, from the State of Cali- 
fornia, and I am from the State of Georgia. 

Mr. Tavenner. How have you been employed since you arrived 
in Chicago in 1939 ? 

Mr. Parks. In 1939 I was employed at Carnegie steel works, the 
Joliet works, a coke works, a dusty coke plant, and I was employed 
there until 1942, and I began to work then in construction work, and 
I remained in construction work until September of 1943, and in Sep- 
tember of 1943 I was employed by Wilson & Co., in the freezer de- 
partment, as a freezerman. 

From 1943 until 1948 I had partial employment by the company 
and partial employment by my local union, and in 1948 I was dis- 
charged by Wilson & Co. after our terrific strike. 

Mr. Tavenner. And how have you been employed since 1948? 

Mr. Parks. I have been employed since 1948, or from 1948 to 1949 
there was substance from the local union to aid people who were strike 
victims of the strike, and in 1949 I was appointed manager of the 
Packinghouse Labor and Community Center. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the period of 1943 to 1948, what union was 
it with which vou were affiliated? 

Mr. Parks. Local No. 25, UPWA-CIO. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Wliat number? 

Mr. Px\RKS. Local No. 25. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you hold any position in the union? 

Mr. Parks. I was elected steward in the freezer department in the 
month of October 1943. In June of 1944, I defeated the company 
union clique, and I became the president of the local union. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you president? 

Mr. Parks. From June 1944 until September 9, 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Since 1948 have you held any official position in the 
union ? 

Mr. Parks. I was secretary-treasurer of district council No. 1 
from the year of 1946 until the year of 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a copy of the Daily Worker for April 26, 
1946, and on page 7 there is a news item, date-lined Chicago, to the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3811 

effect that a housing conference would be held under the auspices of 
the Soutli Side Communist Party. According to this article you ^Yere 
scheduled as a speaker. Did you speak on that occasion ? 

Mr. Parks. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
granted me under the fifth amendment of the United States Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Tavexner. By whom were you solicited to take part in that 
program ? 

Mr. Parks. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
granted me under the fifth amendment of the United States Constitu- 
tion. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Have you ever been connected in any manner with 
the Abraham Lincoln School ? 

Mr. Parks. I refuse to answer that question by the privileges 
granted me under the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Roy Thompson testified during the course of this 
hearing that he knew you to be a member of the Communist Party 
while you were employed in the Wilson plant. Was that statement 
true or false ? 

Mr. Parks. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
granted me under the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Well, were you a member of the Communist Party 
at any time you were employed with the Wilson plant? 

Mr. Parks. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
granted me under the Constitution of the United States, the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Ta\'exxer. Are you a member of the Communist Party now? 

Mr. Parks. I refuse to answer that question under the privileges 
granted me under the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the 
United States. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Wood. Are there any questions ? Is there any reason why the 
witness should not be excused from further testifying ? 

Mr. Tavexx^^er. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. It is so ordered. 

Mr. Tavexxer. I believe it would split a witness' testimony to at- 
tempt to take another, and I believe it would be more satisfactory to 
begin in tlie morning. 

Mr. Wood. I will announce for the witnesses who are here that 
we are going to adjourn jiow and recess until 10 o'clock instead of 
10 : 30 in the morning, and we will ask the witnesses to be here at that 
time. Until that time the committee is in recess. 

(Whereupon at 5 p. m., a recess was taken, to reconvene the following 
morning at 10 a. m.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA— PAET 2 
Local 347, United Packinghouse Workers of America, CIO 



FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 5, 1952 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the Committee 

ON Un-American Activities, 

Chicago^ III. 

public hearing 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to recess, at 10 : 30 a. m., in room 237, Federal Building, 219 
South Clark Street, Chicago, 111., Hon. John S. Wood (chairman) 
presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives John S. Wood (chair- 
man), Francis E. Walter, Morgan M. Moulder (appearance as noted 
in transcript) , Harold H. Velde, and Donald L. Jackson. 

Staff members present: Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel; Thomas 
W. Beale, Sr., assistant counsel ; Donald T. Appell, William Jackson 
Jones, and Alvin Stokes, investigators ; and John W. Carrington, clerk. 

Mr. Wood. Let us have order, please. 

Let the record show that there are present four members of the sub- 
committee. 

Are you ready to go forward, Mr. Counsel ? Who do you call ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Herbert March. 

Mr. Chairman, before calling this witness, we had served a subpena 
duces tecum on the witness Mr. Beverly. 

Mr. Wood. Is he ready to respond ? 

Mr. Cotton. We have what papers we have found. 

Mr. Wood. Will you please submit them to counsel? 

(Documents handed to Mr. Tavenner.) 

Mr. Wood. Does that comply with the subpena duces tecum? 

Mr. Tavenner. I should ask him if these are all of the papers. 

If you will have him come forward. 

You may stand right there, if you like. 

TESTIMONY OF LEON BEVERLY— Resumed 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Beverly, there have been handed me two papers 
in response to the subpena that was served on you. Are these all of 
the papers in, the possession of you or your union, regarding the in- 
vitations from labor unions abroad? 

Mr. Beverly. That is all we have. 

3813 



3814 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all you have ? 

Mr. Beverly. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is all. 

Mr. Wood. Is there any reason why this witness should not be ex- 
cused from further attendance at this committee? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Wood. Then it will be so ordered. 

Who do you have now ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Herbert March. 

Mr. Wood. Will you please raise your right hand? 

Do you solemnly swear the evidence you shall give this subcommit- 
tee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, 
so help you God ? 

Mr. March. I do. 

Mr. Wood. Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF HERBERT MARCH, ACCOMPANIED BY HIS COUNSEL^ 

EUGENE COTTON 

Mr. Wood. Mr. March, you are represented by counsel ? 

Mr. March. I am. 

(Mr. Eugene Cotton, 141 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IlL, 
appears as counsel for Mr. March. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. March. Herbert March. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. March ? 

Mr. March. November 8, 1912, in New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was "March" the name under which you were born ? 

Mr. March. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your name ? 

Mr. March. Herbert Fink." 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you legally acquire the name "Herbert March" ? 

Mr. March. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have your name changed by order of a 
court ? 

Mr. March. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you adopted the name "Herbert 
March" ? 

Mr. March. I did as many other people normally do; I changed my 
name. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you change it? 

Mr. March. I would judge sometime when I was about 16 years 
of age. 

Mr. Tavenner. You took no legal steps to have your name changed ? 

Mr. March. I took no legal steps. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee briefly wliat your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. March. I have gone through high school, and I spent a year 
at college. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you attend college? 

Mr. March. College of the City of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. When was that ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3815 

Mr. March. I orraduated from high school in, I think it was, 1928, 
and I completed the year in 1929. 

Mr. Tai-enner. Will you state to the committee, please, briefly what 
your employment record has been since 1935 ? 

Mr. March. Since 1935, I have worked in the food and packing 
industry 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Excuse me, w^hat was that ? 

Mr. March. In the food and meat-packing industry, until 1937. At 
the end of 1937, I went to work for the CIO as an organizer, in the 
packing industry; and I have in one mamier or another been em- 
ployed by unions in the packing industry and other industries since 
that time. 

Now, if you want me to detail it, I can. 

Mr. TA\^]srNER. We will probably ask you more in detail about that 
as we proceed. 

In 1935, you were employed how ? 

Mr. March. In 1935, part of the time I was employed at Armour 
&Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long had you been with Armour & Co.? 

Mr. March. I started with Armour & Co. in 1933. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to 1933, how had you been' employed? 

Mr. March. Well, a good portion of that time I was unemployed. 
There were times w^hen I hacl jobs for a month or 2 months. 

Mr. Ta\tenner. How were you employed during the year 1932 ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Do you now live in Chicago? 

Mr. March. I do. 

]Mr. Tavexner. How long have you lived in Chicago ? 

Mr. March. I have lived in Chicago since either the latter part 
of 1932 or early 1933. 

Mr. Tavexner. Where did you reside prior to the time you came to 
Chicago in the latter part of 1932 ? 

Mr. March. I lived in Kansas City from 1930, sometime in 1930, 
to the time I came to Chicago. Prior to that, I lived in New York, 

Mr. Tavenxer. Did you reside in Detroit at any time in 1932? 

Mr. March. Not that I can recall. 

Mr. Tavenxer. Were you in Detroit during the year 1932, to your 
recollection ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you arrested in Detroit on June 3, 1932 ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you used any name other than the name of 
Herbert Fink or Herbert March ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Ta^'exxer. Have you used the name Harry Martin? 

Mr. March. Tlie same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavexxer. Have you ever been fingerprinted by a police de- 
partment of any city? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason, it is verv common 
for people to be fingerprinted in Chicago. 



3816 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you fingerprinted in Detroit? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you fingerprinted in the city of Chicago? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with a person by the name of 
JackKling? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know Ahnied Saladin ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Tavenner, was the witness fingerprinted? 

Mr. Tavenner. We will present evidence in regard to it. 

Mr. Walter. All right. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Lillian Husa? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Shirley Kling, sometimes 
known as Shirley Graham? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know Tony Morton ? 

Mr. March. .The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were these individuals arrested with you in the 
city of Detroit ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photograph and I ask you to examine 
it and state whether or not the photograph of the person — the person 
on the extreme right of the photograph as you are looking at it — is 
a photograph of yourself. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the photograph in evidence and 
ask that it be marked "March Exhibit No. 1," and we will show it to 
the committee. 

Mr. Wood. It is so ordered. 

(The photograph above referred to was marked "March Exhibit 
No. 1" and is filed herewith.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You notice the photographs of five other persons 
besides the one that you were requested to identify. Are those photo- 
graphs of persons who were arrested with you in the city of Detroit 
in 1932? 

Mr. March. I have answered the same question in another form, 
and I refuse to answer the question asserting my privilege under the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time used the name Harry Mariach ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time used the name Harry 
Marich ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason, 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you used the name Herbert Phillips at any 
time? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3817 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you used the surname Gerbeck ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you used the name Gruber ? 

( The witness conferred with his counseL ) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you arrested in the city of Chicago, on August 
8,1936? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is possible I am mistaken as to the year in which 
I intended to ask you. Were you arrested in the year 1938, in the 
city of Chicago ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I am only speaking of one time and not two separate 
times. 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall having testified before the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities in Chicago on November 18, 
1939? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. How do you think you would be prosecuted criminally 
for admitting that you testified before this committee? 

Mr. March. I have been advised by counsel that it isn't necessary 
for me to outline in detail the reasons for asserting the privilege. I 
have reason to believe that any testimony relative to that may be used 
for purposes of incriminating me, and therefore I assert the privilege. 

Mr. Walter. Let me give you some worth-while legal advice. You 
couldn't possibly be prosecuted for answering that question. 

Mr. March. I regard myself as the best judge for myself as to 
whose legal advice to take, and I prefer to take that of counsel than 
to take the advice, legal advice, by this committee, which isn't friendly 
to labor, or my union, or anything that I know of. 

Mr. Walter. Not friendly to labor? I don't suppose you know 
that for 20 years I have championed the cause of labor in the Congress 
of the United States. Go ahead. 

Mr. March. That is a self-serving statement. 

Mr. Walter. Well, the record speaks for itself, of course. 

Mr. March. Well, if you are so interested in labor, I don't see why 
you come into a situation where a union has had its contract canceled 
by a company throughout an industry at a time when the union and 
the company are engaged in a very serious wage and contract dispute 
and enter into a mess such as this for the purpose of casting reflection 
upon the union and weakening it in its struggle with the company. 

Mr. Walter. Well, of course, you are trying to create the impres- 
sion that labor and communism are one and the same thing, and those 
of us who are sincerely interested in labor resent that. Because your 
ilk is ruining the labor movement in America. 

Mr. March. My friend, if you were so concerned about whether or 
not this would harm our union, the least this committee could have 
done would have been to contact some of the officers of this union and 
ask them whether we had any feeling that an inquiry of this kind 



3818 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

at this time would have any reflection on the fight of workers for 
higher wages. 

Mr. Walter. We would have done that but for the fact that we 
don't confer with Communists or ask their advice about anything. 

Mr. March. Are you referring to the international officers of our 
union in that sense? 

Mr, Wood. We are giving you the opportunity to deny that you 
have Communist affiliations, and how about doing that for us ? 

Mr. Walter. Let us get the thing cleared up now. 

Mr. March. I assume that you will ask questions of me, and I will 
answer them in the manner that I think is best. 

Mr. Wood. That will protect you. 

Mr. March. Yes. 

Mr. Jackson. I think the record should show that the witness is 
not here because he is in labor, is an official of labor, but because he 
has been identified as a member of the Communist Party, and that is 
the only reason you are sitting in the witness chair, and it isn't because 
you have anything to do with labor. 

Mr. March. That is a matter of opinion. I have devoted the whole 
of my adult life to building unions and fighting for workers, and that 
has been my life's activity, and if you can think of any other reason 
why I am here 

Mr. Wood. If you have not devoted any part of it to the advancement 
of the Communist cause, this is a good place to say so. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would like to repeat the question. Did you testify 
before the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in Chicago 
on November 18, 1939? 

Mr. March. I previously asserted my privilege relative to that 
question. 

Mr. Walter. Did he, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes; he claimed that he would not answer the 
question. 

Mr. Walter. I am asking you if he did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Walter. All right. 

Mr. Tavenner. The records of the committee for the year 1939 show 
that you did appear as a witness before the committee, at which time, 
and that was on the 18th day of November 1939, at which time you 
were asked this question : 

Are you a member of the Communist Party? 

Answer : I am certainly not. 

Question : Have you ever been a member of tlie Communist Party? 

Answer : I have not. 

Were those statements made by you before this committee ? 

Mr. March. You are referring to the hearing that took place, that 
hearing that took place 3 days before we had a labor-board election in 
the Chicago Armour plant ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I don't know. 

Mr. March. Well, I have already asserted the privilege relative to 
the hearing, and I wish to decline to answer, and assert my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE CHICAGO AREA 3819 

Mr. Taveistner. If the questions and answers were properly re- 
ported, were they true ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
UJider the fifth amendment. - 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party on the 
18th day of November 1939? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you an official of the Packinghouse Workers 
organizing committee on November 1*8, 1939 ? 

Mr. March. I believe I was, I believe I was district director at that 
time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you later become director of district 1 of the 
United Packinghouse Workers ? 

Mr. March. The designation of district 1 took place in 1943, 1 was 
elected to the post of district director in October of 1943. 

Mr. Tavenner. What position do you hold at the present time in 
your union ? 

Mr. March. I am an employee of local 347, employed as local 
organizer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you held any other positions with the union 
besides those which you mentioned ? 

Mr. March. Oh, at one time I believe I was vice president of local 
347, and I was once president of the Chicago Packinghouse Workers' 
joint executive board. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you a director of district 1 of the 
United Packinghouse Workers ? 

Mr. March. I was director for a period of about 5 years, from Oc- 
tober 1943 to I believe the latter part of May, or the early part of 
June 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat were the circumstances leading up to and 
surrounding your leaving that position ? 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson left the hearing room.) 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of page 11 of the 
Sunday Worker, for June 27, 1948, beginning in the first column of 
which is an article relating to your resignation as director of district 
1 of the United Packinghouse Workers, CIO. I want to read one 
paragraph from that article, which you may follow by looking at it : 

March, referring to Herbert March, a member of the national committee of 
the Communist Party, resigned after the union's executive board voted to 
comply with the Taft-Hartley law. 

Did I read that correctly ? 

Mr. March. I think I locate those words on this piece of paper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, you have them before you, and you are satis- 
fied that I read them correctly, are you not ? 

Mr. March. I was reading another paragraph at the time, perhaps 
you ought to reread it, I am not sure. 



3820 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr, Tavenner (reading) : 

March, a member of the national committee of the Ck)mmunist Party, resigned 
after the union's executive board voted to comply with the Taft-Hartley law. 

Mr. March. You have correctly read what appears on this paper 
here. 

Mr. Tavenner. AVere you a member of the national committee of 
the Communist Party in June of 1948 ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are also quoted in this article, if you will look 
at the article again, as saying : 

I have always disdained to conceal the fact that I am a Communist. I have 
always felt that my Communist views strengthen my ability to serve the union 
and fight for the best interests of our membership. 

Do you see that language ? 

Mr. March. I see that language on this piece of paper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you make that statement? 

Mr. March, I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend the convention of the Communist 
Political Association held in New York City, July 26-28, 1945, at 
which time the Conununist Party of America was revived or 
reconstituted ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not on that occasion receive 83 votes in your 
favor and were elected to membership in the national committee of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of page 3 of the 
Daily Worker of May 8, 1947. In an article date-lined Cleveland, 
your name is mentioned and you are referred to as district director 
of United Packinghouse, "who is also a member of the national 
committee of the Communist Party." 

Do you pick it up in the article ? 

(Document was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. March. I see the words that you read on this piece of paper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that reference a reference to you ? 

(Representative Donald L. Jackson returned to the hearing room.) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Alphonso Malachi ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wasn't he president of your local 347 of the Pack- 
inghouse Workers organizing committee 

Mr. March. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In 1937? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Taat^nner. I notice that you make your replies before my ques- 
tions are completed. Does that indicate that you have made up your 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3821 

mind before coming here that you would not answer any questions 
relating to the subject of communism. 

Mr. March. Perhaps I am a little too fast, I thought that you had 
completed your question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether Alphonso Malachi is a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party or was a member ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Alphonso Malachi testified before the Special 
Committee on Un-American Activities on November 17, 1939, and he 
identified you at that time as a member of the Communist Party, and 
stated that he had seen you in Communist Party meetings. Was that 
testimony true or false? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at any time affiliated with the Young 
Communist League ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of page 2 of the Daily 
Worker for January 23, 1933, in the second column of which appears 
an article date-lined Kansas City, and you are mentioned as having 
addressed the Daily Worker anniversary meeting, and you are referred 
to there as a district organizer for the Young Communist League. I 
am asking you to look at the article. We will point it out to you. 

(Document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you see whether or not you are referred to as 
district organizer for the Young Communist League? 

Mr. March. Will you repeat the question, please? 

Mr. Tavenner. In the second column, date-lined Kansas City, you 
are mentioned as having addressed the Daily Worker anniversary 
meeting, and in that article you are referred to as district organizer 
for the Young Communist League. Do you see that ? 

Mr. March. I see on this paper some of the words that you have 
mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, do you see the words "district organizer for 
the Young Communist League"? 

Mr. March. I see those words here. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did that designation refer to you in the article? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the understanding of the committee that the 
American Youth for Democracy was a successor to the Young Com- 
munist League. Were you ever affiliated in any manner with the 
American Youth for Democracy? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of the program in 
celebrating the first anniversary of the American Youth for Democ- 
racy, and listed among the sponsors of this celebration is Herbert 
March. Do you see the name Herbert March appearing as a sponsor? 

Mr. March. I see here Herbert March appearing on this piece of 
paper under a caption "sponsors." 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a sponsor of that meeting ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 



3822 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a clipping from the Daily Worker of 
March 11, 1942, which is a statement by the Citizens Committee to 
Free Earl Browder. Will you look at the clipping and state whether 
or not your name appears as one of the signers ? 

( Document was handed to the witness. ) 

Mr. March. What was the question, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you look and see if your name appears as one 
of the signers? 

Mr. March. On this paper, under a designation "signers," I see the 
name Herbert March. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, did you sign it ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. Is that the name you were operating under at that 
period ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know anything about this committee at all? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know anything about the American Youth for 
Democracy ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Velde. How could that possibly incriminate you, to tell us that 
you have heard of the AYD ? 

Mr. March. I think I previously stated I have been advised by 
counsel it is not necessary for me to outline the reasons why I think 
answering questions might incriminate me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know, as a matter of fact, that Earl Browder 
at that time, that is, March 11, 1942, was head of the Communist Party 
in the United States? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a catalog of Abra- 
ham Lincoln School for the 1943 fall session. On page 8 do you see 
the names of Earnest DeMaio, Albert Egen, and Herbert March listed 
as lecturers or instructors in the course on trade-union leadership ? 

Mr. March. I see the names you described listed on page 8 of this 
document you have handed me. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Ernest DeMaio ? 

Mr, March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you the Herbert March referred to as lecturer 
in that school? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you an instructor or lecturer at the Abraham 
Lincoln School during the 1944 winter session ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time been affiliated with the Inter- 
national Labor Defense? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3823 

Mr. Tavenner. According to a letterhead of that organization, 
dated in October of 1943, you were listed as a member of its national 
committee. Do you recall that? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to information in the files of the commit- 
tee there was a Congress of Civil Eights held in the city of Detroit on 
April 27 and 28, 1946, at which time the International Labor Defense 
and the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties merged to 
form the Civil Rights Congress. I show you a copy of a call to that 
conference which reflects the name of Herbert March, district director, 
United Packinghouse Workers, Chicago, as a sponsor. Do you see 
the name of Herbert March as a sponsor of that meeting? 

Mr. March. I see the name Herbert March so listed on this docu- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you district director of the United Packing- 
house Workers of Chicago in April of 1946 ? 

Mr. March. In April of 1946 I was district director of the United 
Packinghouse Workers of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is the designation and description given in the 
article of the Herbert March who was a sponsor, is it not? 

Mr. March. Let me have a look at it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the description ? 

Mr. March. This document under the name Herbert March has 
"dist." I assume. 

Mr. Cotton. May we have the photographers instructed not to take 
photographs during the course of the proceedings ? 

Mr. March. On this piece of paper under the name Herbert March 
I read, "Dist. Dir. United Packinghouse Workers, Chicago." 

Mr. Moulder. What was the date of the meeting in Detroit? 

Mr. Tavenner. April 27, 1946. 

Mr. Jackson. May I make a request at this time? I think it would 
be advisable if the citations of the Attorney General or the committee, 
they are not necessarily at each one, but they could be added after the 
testimony on the respective organizations to show the subversive and 
Communist nature of the organizations so cited. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask a few questions? 

Do you recall where you were on the 26th day of April 1946? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. I am just asking the question, if you can recall where 
you were on that day. 

Mr. March. I have answered that. 

(Representative Harold H. Velde left the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. The American Youth for Democracy was cited as 
subversive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark on 
Decernber 4, 1947. The Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder 
was cited as Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark on April 
27, 1949. 

The Abraham Lincoln School was cited as an adjunct of the Com- 
munist Party by Attorney General Tom Clark on December 4, 1947. 

The International Labor Defense was cited as subversive and Com- 
munist by Attorney General Tom Clark on June 1, 1948, and again 
in September of 1948. 



3824 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

The National Federation for Constitutional Liberties was cited as 
subversive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark on De- 
cember 4, 1947, and September 21, 1948. 

The Civil Rights Congress was cited as subversive by Attorney Gen- 
eral Tom Clark on December 4, 1947. 

Mr. March, did you participate in a demonstration on behalf of the 
Communist Party members on trial at Foley Square, New York City, 
in June of 1949? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you chairman of a conference of the Midwest 
Bill of Rights Conference held in Chicago in November of 1950 ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. JMarch. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the Daily Worker of November 29, 
1950, at page 8, that conference was called for the purpose of trying to 
have the Wood-McCarran Act repealed. You are quoted in that 
article 

(The document was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. As having stated : 

We have got to prepare the workers so that a plant goes down, if necessary, 
whenever any worker is fired as a subversive. 

Did you make that statement ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that your judgment of what should be done when 
a person working in a plant is arrested as a subversive ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you contend that a person who has done some 
subversive act should not be arrested if they happen to be a member 
of a labor union? 

Mr. March. May I consult with my attorney ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. Could I ask a question ? 

Mr. March, if you saw an act of sabotage being connnitted by a 
person known to you to be a member of the Communist Party, would 
you report such an act ? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. If I saw anybody performing any act of sabotage, I 
would do what I could to prevent such an act taking place, regardless 
of who the individual was. 

Mr. Jackson. If unable to stop the act, would you report it to the 
FBI, or the proper security agencies? 

Mr. March. Well, that is a very "iffy" question. 

Mr. Jackson. That is not particularly "iffy." I think if a person 
dynamites a plant, it is not "iffy" as to whether or not you will take 
proper action to notify the authorities. 

Mr. March. If I saw somebody committing an act of sabotage of 
any kind, be he Comjnunist, Congressman, or who he might be, I 
would report that to the proper authorities. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3825 

Mr. Tavenner. Would you call out of a plant the rank-and-file 
members of your union if a member of the union were apprehended 
in violating any law relating to subversive conduct? 

Mr. March. Just so that I make the picture clear, I don't call 
anybody out of any plant. Our union has a procedure by which it 
votes on whether or not a strike is to take place. 

Mr. Tavenner. I understand, but would you, to the best of your 
ability, lead those members out of the plant ? 

Mr. March. For what reason ? 

Mr. Tavenner. For the reason that I mentioned: That someone 
connected with the union was being charged or had been found guilty 
of subversive conduct. 

Mr. March. Wliat would happen if somebody were charged, or 
found guil-ty of subversive conduct, at some future date ; and my atti- 
tude toward that would be determined by the facts relative thereto 
at the time it would occur. I don't know, and I can't answer in 
advance. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then let us get your explanation of this statement, 
which you have not denied having made at this meeting : 

We have got to prepare the workers so that a plant goes down, if necessary, 
whenever any worker is fired as a subversive. 

Mr. March. I have already answered that question. I refuse to 
answer it, asserting my privilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. In other words, then, isn't that the same thing as 
stating that you would take such action if a person was fired on that 
ground ? 

Mr. March. I am not in a position to judge what conclusions you 
may draw. All I did on that question was assert my privilege and 
refuse to answer. I imagine you are at liberty to assume things one 
way or the other, or any way you want. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the Midwest Bill of Eights Conference a section 
or division or project of the American Committee for Protection of the 
Foreign Born, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. The American Committee for Protection of the 
Foreign Born has been cited as subversive and Communist by At- 
torney General Tom Clark on June 1, 1948. 

According to the Daily Worker of October 24, 1949, at page 3, a 
Trade-Union Committee for Political Freedom was formed in Chicago. 

(Representative John S. Wood left hearing room.) 

(Representative Harold H. Velde returned to hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. (continuing). The purpose of which was to protest 
the conviction of the 11 top Communist Party officials. 

You are quoted as having said : 

Big business will move next against the trade-unions, if the convictions are 
allowed to pass. 

Were you correctly quoted ? 

Mr. Makch. I see the words that you have read, appearing on this 
paper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you correctly quoted ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 



3826 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. "Were you affiliated in any manner with the Chicago 
Peace Congress held on June 29, 1940 ? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder left hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Was the Chicago Peace Congress the forerunner of 
the Emergency Peace Congress, which in turn set up the American 
Peace Mobilization, if you know ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of the call to the 
Chicago Peace Congress, and your name appears thereon as a sponsor. 
Do you see it? 

Mr. March. I see the name "Herbert March" on this document. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who solicited your sponsorship of this movement ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a sponsor ? 

Mr. March. The same answer for the same reason. 

Mr. Walter. May I see that, please ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

(Document was handed to Representative Walter.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you affiliated in any manner with the Ameri- 
can Peace Mobilization ? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Velde. Do you know anything about this organization ? 

Mr. March. What organization ? 

Mr. Velde. The American Peace Mobilization. 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Velde. Is there anything wrong with a movement that is de- 
signed to bring about peace ? 

Mr. March. No. I think we need considerable movement to bring 
about peace. 

Mr. Velde. Well, then, tell us what you know about the American 
Peace Mobilization. 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. I just want to say for the record that the American 
Peace Mobilization was not a movement toward peace for the United 
States, but a movement toward peace for Soviet Russia. 

Mr. Walter. I do not think that that is an accurate description. 
I think what you mean is that it was designed for us to surrender to 
Soviet Russia. 

Mr. Tavenner. The American Peace Mobilization was cited as sub- 
versive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark on December 
4, 1947 ; and again on September 21, 1948. 

I show you a photostatic copy of a call to the Chicago Peace Con- 
gress. I think I have already shown you that. 

Have you ever been affiliated with the International Workers' 
Order? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The International Workers' Order was cited as sub- 
versive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark December 
4, 1947. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3827 

According to information in the files of the committee, you are 
listed as a trade-union sponsor of the Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee 
Committee. Will you tell the committee the circumstances under 
which your sponsorship of that organization was solicited, if you were 
a sponsor ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my priv- 
ilege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee was 
cited as subversive and Communist by Attorney General Tom Clark 
in December of 1947 ; and again in 1948. 

I show you a photostatic copy of a circular issued by the Joe 
Weber Defense Committee. Will you examine this document, please, 
and state whether or not your name appears thereon as a member? 

(Document was handed to the witness.) 

Mr. March. I see on this document the name "Herbert March." 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlio is Joe Weber ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. For what purpose was the Defense Committee for 
Joe Weber organized ? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know Joe Weber to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a letterhead of the 
Provisional Trade Union Committee for Repeal of the Smith Act. 
Will you look at this document and state whether or not your name 
appears thereon as a sponsor? 

(Document was shown to the witness.) 

Mr. March. I see the name "Herb March" on this document. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a sponsor? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a letterhead of 
the Provisional Trade Union Committee to Sponsor a Report From 
Europe. Will you examine this paper and state whether or not your 
name appears thereon as a member of the sponsoring committee? 

( Document was handed to the witness. ) 

Mr. March. I see on this document the name "Herb March." 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the Report From Europe ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who were the trade-unionists who made the trip to 
Europe, or any of them, that you may know? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the purpose of sending a delegation to 
Europe 

Mr. March. By whom? 

Mr. Tavenner. If you know ? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you consulted by Joseph Bezenhoffer re- 
garding his application for a passport to be used in his trip as a dele- 



3828 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

gate to Europe under the auspices of the Committee to Survey Labor 
Conditions in Europe ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you advise him, or any other person selected 
to be a delegate, as to how the application for passport should be pre- 
pared ? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a circular issued by the Midwest Com- 
mittee for the Protection of Foreign Born, Chicago, 111., and it is a 
call to Midwest conference to defend the Bill of Rights and for the 
defense of foreign-born. Will you look at the circular and state 
whether your name is listed as a sponsor of this conference ? 

(Document was handed to the witness.) 

(Representative Morgan M. Moulder returned to hearing room.) 

Mr. March. I see on this document the name "Herb March." 

(At this point, Representatives Walter, Moulder, Velde, and Jack- 
son were present in the hearing room.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sponsor that meeting? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I show you a photostatic copy of a handbill con- 
cerning a memorial in tribute to Jack Johnstone, held at the Hamilton 
Hotel ballroom, April 19, 1943. Will you look at it and state whether 
or not your name is listed as a member of the sponsoring committee ? 

(Document handed to the witness.) 

Mr. March. I see, under the sponsoring committee, the listing "Her- 
bert March." 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Were you acquainted with Jack Johnstone ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you acquanited with the fact that he was the 
trade-union secretary of the Communist Party? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taatcnner. Were you a member of the sponsoring committee as 
shown by the handbill presented to you ? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a photostatic copy of a letterhead dated 
September 17, 1945. Is the signature on this letter yours? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you read the letter? 

Mr. March. I would suggest that you read it. It is very indistinct, 
and I don't think I can see it clearly. 

Mr. Tavenner, You would rather not read it? 

Mr. March. Well, you are paid to work here, and I am here under 
subpena. 

Mr. Tavenner. Well, as you are under subpena to be here, and to 
answer questions, I will ask you to read it. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. March. Since one of the Congressmen has expressed some 
doubt as to whether or not I would read it correctly, I would like to 
know whether I am directed by this committee to read this? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3829 

Mr. Walter. Yes, you are directed to read the exhibit. 
Mr. March. On this piece of paper I read the following : 

Septembb^s 17, 1945. 

Deab Comrade: There will be a si)ecial meeting of all Communist Party 
members employed in the packing industry on Friday, September 21, at the 
Carver Center, Forty-second and Michigan, at 8 p. m. 

At this meeting extremely important business will be taken up by leaders of 
the Communist Party in Illinois relating to how Communists are to carry on 
their work in unions, what the program of the Communist Party is in industry, 
and method of organization, as well as an explanation of the new constitution 
and i>olicy of the Communist Party. 

This meeting is extremely urgent, and you cannot fail to attend. 
Comradely yours, 

Herbert March. 

Did I read it correctly ? 

Mr. Ta\tsxner. Yes, sir; in every respect. 

Mr. Velde. What significance does the term "comradely" have? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. I will say the witness read it so well, he earned his 
fee today from the Government, so we are all being equally well paid. 

Mr. March. That is one kind word. Thank you. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the photostatic copy of the letter 
in evidence, and ask that it be marked as "March Exhibit No. 2." 

Mr. Walter. It is so ordered. 

(The document above referred to, marked "March Exhibit No. 2," 
is filed herewith. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that letter signed by you or did you authorize 
the signature of your name to that letter ? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privi- 
lege under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta%^nner. Did you compose the letter? 

Mr. March, The same answer, for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was a meeting held of the party members em- 
ployed in the packing industry at the time indicated in this letter? 

Mr. March. I refuse to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did you take part in the proposed meeting or in 
any other meeting for the purpose of explaining to the members how 
the Communist Party should carry on its work in the unions, and 
what the progi-am of the Communist Party is in industry, and the 
method of organization ? 

Mr. March. The same answer, for the same reason, 

Mr, Tavenner. I notice that tliis is not an invitation to appear; 
this is a "directive" to appear. The language is : 

This meeting is extremely urgent, and you cannot fail to attend. 

Mr, Moulder. On the date it was written, what official position did 
he hold in the union? 

_Mr. Tavenner. On September 17, 1945, what position did you hold 
within the packinghouse union? 

Mr. March. I believe that on September 17, 1945, I was district 
director of district 1 of the United Packinghouse Workers of America. 

]\Ir. Walter. Mr. Tavenner, is that the call that was sent out to all 
Communists to acquaint them with the plan the Communists had to 
capture all labor unions? Is that the call ? 



3830 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES . IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. This related, according to our investigation, to an 
explanation of how the Communist Party was to be organized within 
the shops ; which, if you recall, according to the date, and other evi- 
dence the committee has had, followed upon the reorganization of the 
Communist Party, after the abandonment of the Communist Political 
Association. 

Mr, Walter. There was a call at about the time of the plan the Com- 
munist Party had to take over the labor movement, or capture it ; and 
I am just wondering when that was. But go ahead. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat position did you hold in the Communist Party 
on September 17, 1945 ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. Is this a good place for a break, Mr. Tavenner? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walter. The committee will stand in recess for 10 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. Walter. The committee will be in order. 

(At this point, the committee members present in the hearing room 
were Representatives Walter, Moulder, Velde, and Jackson.) 

Mr. Walter. Proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. I show you a handbill of the Provisional Mayday 
Committee of 1939, and will you examine it and state whether or not 
your name appears thereon as a member of that committee. 

Mr. March. I see on this document the name "Herbert March." 

Mr. Ta^^nner. Were you a member ? 

Mr. March. Of what? 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Provisional May Day Committee. 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the State board of the Illi- 
nois-Indiana district of the Communist Party for 1946 ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question for the same reason. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Walter. The witness declines to answer that question. The 
mere memberehip in the Communist Party couldn't possibly involve 
you in any trouble unless you advocated the overthrow of the GoveiTi- 
ment through force and violence. Now, is that why you are refusing 
to answer? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Velde. Well, do you advocate the overthrow of our Government 
by force and violence ? 

Mr. March. I decline to answer that question, asserting my privilege 
under the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Jackson. I think that that is an excellent point to end it on. 
I have no questions. 

Mr. Walter. Is there any reason why the witness should not be 
excused ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused from further attendance under 
the subpena. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Donald Appell. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 3831 

Mr. Walter. Hold up your right hand. Do you swear the testi- 
mony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Appell. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD T. APPELL 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name ? 

Mr. Appell. Donald T. Appell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat position do you hold ? 

Mr. Appell. I am an investigator for the House Un-American Ac- 
tivities Committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been an investigator of this 
committee ? 

Mr. Appell. For 6 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of the investigation by the com- 
mittee in the area of Chicago, have you had occasion to apply to the 
city police department for the city of Detroit to obtain a fingerprint 
specimen of a person by the name of Harry Martin ? 

Mr. Appell. In connection with the investigation leads were ob- 
tained indicating an arrest of Herbert March in the city of Detroit 
under the name of Harry Martin. Inquiry was made of that depart- 
ment, and a record made at the time of arrest, including on the reverse 
thereof the right thumbprint of Harry Martin, which was obtained 
from the Detroit Police Department. The original record was re- 
tained by them and a photostatic copy was provided for the committee's 
records. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you submit the records which you obtained to 
the police department of the city of Chicago, to have a comparison of 
fingerprints made with records of the city of Chicago ? 

Mr. Appell. A personal request was made of the city of Chicago 
Police Department for an identification or a comparison of the right 
thumbprint shown on the reverse of the card obtained from the Police 
Department of Detroit with any fingerprints on record with the Chi- 
cago Police Department of Herbert March, and a comparison was 
made by that department. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. I have no further questions. 

(Witness was excused.) 

Mr. Walter. Will you call the next witness, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Oscar Behnke of the police department of 
Chicago. 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please? You swear 
the testimony you are about to give to this subcommittee of the Com- 
mittee on Un-American Activities of the House of Representatives 
of the United States shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Behnke. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF OSCAR BEHNKE 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

Mr. Behnke, Oscar Behnke, B-e-h-n-k-e. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are appearing here pursuant to a subpena ? 

Mr. Behnke. Yes, sir. 



3832 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE CHICAGO AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. What official position do you hold in the police 
department of the city of Chicago ? 

Mr. Behnke. a fingerprint technician. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know whether or not the fingerprints of 
Herbert March were taken by the officials of the police department 
of Chicago at the time of his arrest on August 8, 1938 ? 

Mr. Behnble. They were. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you requested by a representative of this com- 
mittee to make a comparison of a fingerprint obtained from the police 
department of the city of Detroit with the fingerprint record of Her- 
bert March taken August 8, 1938 ? 

Mr. Behnke, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your opinion after examination of the two 
fingerprints ? 

Mr. Behnke. The fingerprint of Harry Martin, arrested June 3, 
1932, in Detroit, one fingerprint was taken on the back of the arrest 
card, which is identical to the Herbert March, who was arrested on 
August 8, 1938, and a photograph was also taken of Herbert March 
on that date. 

Mr. Tavenner. From that are you of the opinion that the finger- 
prints were of the same person ? 

Mr. Behnke. The fingerprint of Harry Martin on this arrest card 
is identical to Herbert March. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. Call your next witness, Mr. 
Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the subpenas of several witnesses 
have been extended to October 16, and there are other witnesses who 
have been subpenaed for a later period after this week, and we will 
desire to notify them of another date for their appearance, but this 
is as far as the committee is prepared to go in the light of the engage- 
ments of committee members at this particular time. 

Mr. Walter. In the light of the engagements of the committee 
members. 

Mr. Tavenner. We understood you could not stay here longer than 
Saturday of this week and it was not planned to go longer than that 
period. 

Mr. Walter. You will notify the witnesses of the next date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Walter. The subpenas are extended until that date. We will 
have some testimony in executive session, as I understand it, and the 
committee will now recess until 2 o'clock. That is for the open session 
and we will go into executive session. 

(Whereupon, at 12 : 05 p. m. the committee was recessed until 2 p. m. 
the same day.) 



(Note. — The chairman and each member of the committee and the 
committee staff expresses appreciation and sincere thanks for the 
courteous cooperation extended to the committee in its work in Chi- 
cago by the Chicago Police Department, the radio, and the newspapers. 

Gratitude and appreciation are also expressed to the officials and 
employees of the Federal Building in Chicago for their courtesies and 
assistance during these hearings, j 

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