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Full text of "Communist activities in the Minneapolis, Minn., area. Hearings"

V^ JU>0^ A ' / 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON UN-AMEEICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OF KEPRESENTATIYES 

EIGHTY-EIGHTH CONGKESS 

SECOND SESSION 



JUNE 24, 25, AND 26, 1964 
INCLUDING INDEX 



Printed for the use of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities 



HARVARD C0Ll£6C LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERIWIENT 

JAN 14 1965 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
£6-729 WASHINGTON : 1964 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 

United States House of Representatives 
EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana, Chairman 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

JOE R. POOL, Texas DONALD C. BRUCE, Indiana 

RICHARD H. ICnORD, Missouri HENRY C. SCHADEBERG, Wisconsin 

GEORGE F. SENNER, Jk., Arizona JOHN M. ASHBROOK, Ohio 

Francis J. McNamara, Director 
Feank S. Tavbnner, Jr., General Counsel 

ALFRED M. NiTTLEj CoU7l8el 

William Hitz, Counsel 

n 

Y51AWU 3D3JJ03 QRAVRAH 

TM3Mir«3VOO ?JTA12 03TIHIJ 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Synopsis 1667 

Jime 24, 1964 : Testimony of — 

Ruthann Withrow 1690 

Afternoon session : 

Ruthann Withrow (resumed) 1715 

Norman John Boehnlie 1751 

June 25, 1964: Testimony of— 

Claude McDonald 1781 

Martin Mackie 1800 

Ruth Lois Gordienko 1807 

Afternoon session: 

Kenneth E. Tilsen _. 1828 

Rose Tillotson Renaud 1858 

James A. Brown 1861 

Carl Ross 1863 

Clarence H. Sharp 1869 

June 26, 1964: Testimony of— 

John Edward Forichette 1873 

Norman John Boehnke (resumed) 1894 

John Howard Tillotson 1898 

Hanley Leon Hemmingson 1912 

Hilda Tania Hemmingson 1 1915 

Index i 

m 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The leg;islation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946]; 60 Stat. 
812, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and Hovse of Representatives of the United States 
of Avierica in Congress assembled, * * * 

TAET 2-ErLES OF THE EOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 
******* 

17. CommiUee on Un-Atnerioan Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

(q)(]) Committee on Un-Amciican Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time invest i^ations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propa-janda activities in the United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instiL!;ated from foreisin countries or of a dou'cstic ori'-iin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed l)y our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Con,';;ress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United vStates, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such heariu'/s, to re(|uire the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairmTin of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

Rule XII 

legislative oversight by standing com.mittees 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in ai)praising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it uiay deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent reports 
and data submitted to the Congress b^- the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE SSTH CONGRESS. 

House Resolution 5, January 9, 1963 

****** ^ 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTEES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commencement of each Congress, 

* * * * --h * * 

(r) Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

******* 

Rule XI 

POWERS ANIJ DUTIES OP COMMITTEES 

• ****♦* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shaU report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpeuas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

******* 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of the House shall exercise continuous watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

V 



SYNOPSIS 

On June 24, 25, and 26, 1964, a subcommittee of the Committee on 
Un-American Activities held public hearings in Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, relating to the Mimiesota-Dakotas District of the Communist 
Party of the United States, its organization and objectives, and the 
strategic and tactical methods designed to aid in accomplishing those 
objectives; organizations created and controlled by the Conununist 
Party to advance its policies ; propaganda activities conducted in sup- 
port thereof ; and conspiratorial activities in association with foreign 
Communist governments. 

Subcommittee Chairman Edwin E. Willis, in his opening remarks, 
noted that on February 18, 1964, Gus Hall, general secretary of the 
Communist Party of the United States, had held a press conference 
in Minneapolis during which he had asserted that : 

One of tbe definite conclusions I have already come to is that the State of 
Minnesota needs a bigger Communist movement and a Communist Party, and we 
are going to do everything we can to give the Communists of Minnesota assist- 
ance both in the sense of speakers and literature and finance in order to raise 
the work of the Communist movement to a higher level. * * * 

"Has the Communist Party lived up to the pledge made to the Com- 
munists of this district?", Mr. Willis asked in his statement opening 
the hearings. "Just what are the commissars of the Communist Party 
doing to build the Communist movement in this State?" "Wlio are 
their agents? What are they now doing to subvert the democratic 
process in this district?" The search for answers to these vital ques- 
tions, he added, was a part of the purpose of the committee's hearings 
in Minneapolis. 

The subcommittee was also authorized to inquire into the question 
of affiliation with Communist organizations — as distinguished from 
technical or formal membership in them. 

Mr. Willis pointed out that the "Congress cannot and does not legis- 
late in a vacumn." Its actions must be based on facts, nationally and 
locally, which are pertinent to legislation it is considering. A variety 
of bills dealing with communism and security had been referred to 
the committee. In order to determine intelligently whether they 
should be reported favorably to the House, the committee had to keep 
up to date on current Commimist strategy and tactics. He said that 
the Minneapolis hearings were part of its effort to do this. 

RUTHANN WITHROW 

The first witness before the subcommittee on June 24 was Kuthann 
Withrow, an employee of the city of Minneapolis who had been a 
member of the Communist Party from May 1, 1958, until March of 
1961, acting in cooperation with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Miss Withrow's initial contact with the Communist Party had come 
about as a result of her mail request for a copy of the Communist pub- 

1667 



1668 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINTSTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

lication The Worker which she had intended to use in preparing a term 
paper for a course in sociology at the University of Minnesota. 
Months Liter, she was contacted by a member of the Freedom of the 
Press Committee, a Communist front, who told her that he had re- 
ceived her letter. He informed her of the stand taken by The Worker 
and how active the Communist Party was in many different areas, such 
as "civil rights" and the "peace movement" in the Twin Cities areas. 

Within the week she visited the offices of the FBI, where an official 
confirmed the facts about party activity given her by the member of 
the Freedom of the Press Committee. She agreed to act as an FBI 
contact within the party. 

Miss Withrow, assumed to be a potential recruit by the party, was 
carefully eased into its ranks through the soft-sell of social affairs 
such as picnics and bazaars sponsored by the Freedom of the Press 
Committee in its capacity as a front for recruitment. When she first 
joined the Press Committee it was composed of both Communists and 
non- Communists, but eventually the latter dropped away. New ones 
were not encouraged to take their place, and the organization became 
completely Communist. 

Prior to her admission into the party, Miss Withrow had been care- 
fully watched. Her work for the Press Committee was a major factor 
in her acceptance. Prospective members were also screened by means 
of the Marxist study group technique where their ideas were drawn 
out, analyzed and revised by the discussion leader who was, of course, 
a party member. After the prospect became a party member, his 
education was continued within the party club to which he was as- 
signed. The witness was accepted into the Communist Party on May 
Day (a significant party political holiday) in 1958. 

Miss Withrow was soon elected chairman of her imit, the North Side 
Club. Meetings were held twice a month; one for the purpose of 
general and theoretical study, the other on the practical role the club 
would play in local affairs. Security precautions included the fol- 
lowing techniques: notice of meetings by personal contact only or, 
if the telephone were required by last minute changes, the meeting was 
referred to verbally as a, social "for coffee"; automobiles were ref|uired 
to be parked a block or more from the house where meetings were 
held ; when meetings ended, members left in ones and twos. 

In addition to Miss Withrow's North Side Club, five other clubs 
were active, to her knowledge, in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area: 
Industrial 1 and 2 ; Women's Branch ; South Side ; and Lenin Branch. 

In the late spring of 1960, the party decided to penetrate the Demo- 
cratic-Farmer-Labor (DFL) clubs, legitimate units of the Democratic 
Party. Miss Withrow, who had been in the DFL's Fifth Ward Club 
prior to her admission in the party, testified that the Communists 
were instructed not to reveal on their DFL application form, as was 
required, the fact that they were members of the Communist Party. 

Their main objective was to influence enough people within that 
organization so that, without it being known, the DFL would promote 
the policies and programs the Communist Party wished promoted. 
These programs and policies would then have the backing of a re- 
spectable organization, she said. Happily, she concluded, they had 
little success. 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1669 

Regarding another organization, the local Parent Teachers Associa- 
tion, which was also a target of infiltration by the party, Miss Withrow 
testified that — 

one party member, a woman, who was a member of a local 
PTA, reported at this club meeting * * * that she had been 
asked to run for an office in the PTA * * *. She was given 
defuiite orders at that time that she was not to nui for an 
office herself. She was in some quarters known as being a 
member of the Communist Party and they did not want that 
much known of the leadership. ^Vllat she was told to do was 
to pick out some other woman in the PTA that she felt that 
she could most easily influence * * * get this woman elected, 
and then * * * support, certain issues without it ever being 
known that the Communist Party was behind them. 

These instructions were given to a Mrs. Betty Smith, a member of 
Miss Withrow's club, by Samuel K. Davis, State secretary of the 
Communist Party. The w^itness did not have direct laiowleclge of the 
outcome of this party venture. 

In the area of trade union activities, the party was very secretive. 
All discussion was restricted to the State secretary and the members 
of the Communist Party directly involved. 

Regarding "peace" and pacifist activities, Miss Withrow stated 
that "every party member in the city was ordered, if at all possible, 
to take part, in any peace demonstration that occurred * * *." Party 
members were "definitely supposed to take part" in the peace walks 
in Minneapolis and St. Paul. If they did not they had to explain 
why at the next meeting of their club. The purpose, of course, the 
witness explained, was to gain support within these organizations for 
the policies the Communist Party wanted promoted. 

In addition to promoting Commimist programs within non-Com- 
munist groups, party agents were expected to exert pressure for or 
against certain persons within these organizations. The party, for 
example, was determined to remove from the membership of the 
Democratic-Farmer-Labor [Party] a Mrs. Ruth Gordienko — because 
she had previously served as an undercover operative for the FBI. A 
leaflet containing inflammatory charges against her was circulated in 
the DFL for the purpose of discrediting Mrs. Gordienko in the eyes 
of the membership, even though she had been sponsored by the chair- 
man of that organization. Miss Withrow was repeatedly ordered to 
press the party's smears against the woman but refused to do so, a 
factor which subsequently led to her failure to obtain support for her 
own reelection as chairman of the North Side Club of the party 
in 1961. 

Following her appearance as a Government witness before the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Board on June 29, 1963, Miss Withrow 
was similarly attacked by the party in a circular branding her an 
"informer." 

Significant information was given by this witness relating to the 
all-out effort of the party to establish a national youth organiza- 
tion in 1960. The sequence of events in Minneapolis leading to its 
establishment began in May 1960 at a meeting attended by Gus Hall, 
national secretary of the Communist Party, and Sam Davis, secretary 
for the Minnesota-Dakotas District of the party. The purpose of the 



1670 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MENNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

meeting was to generate support and funds for tlie new youth gToup 
and to get advance subscriptions for its forthcoming publication, 
l^ew Horizons for Youth, which would be used as a "door opener to 
organizing youth activity." 

Miss Withrow accepted the task of organizing the activity in her 
area. Phil Bart, national organizational secretary of the CPUSA, 
provided her with materials for promoting Neiv Horizons for Youth. 
In addition, Danny Rubin, director of all youth activities for the 
CPUSA, came to Minnesota to contribute his experience to Davis' 
efforts in the State and to Miss Withrow's locally, in Minneapolis. 
Other key cities across the Nation were also on Rubin's itinerary in his 
effort to promote a party-controlled national youth conference in 
Chicago on December 30, 1960, at which the new Communist youth 
group was to be established. 

J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the FBI, issued a release a week prior 
to the organizational conference, committee counsel noted, which in- 
cluded the following statement on the nature of the new group : 

Its purpose is to formulate plans for a new national youth organization — one 
whose programs and activities will be clandestinely directed by party members. 

On December 29, 1960, one day before the conference, Danny Rubin 
issued, in reply, a press release which stated, in part : 

We refuse to allow Mr. Hoover and people with such paranoia to inject 
communism as an issue into our conference. We welcome participation by 
anyone who agrees with the purpose for which the conference is called without 
regard to their political label. 

FBI operative Withrow testified, however, that Rubin's claim was 
false. She said that attendance at the conference was "by invitation 
only" and, in addition, that there were "young men who were keeping 
everybody out except those that could prove that they were delegates." 
Party control was evident on the floor itself, she said, "through two of 
the men who were leaders at this conference, who I knew to be party 
members." Overall control of the Chicago conference was effected 
by Danny Rubin and Danny Queen. Miss Withrow stated that "if 
somebody would bring up an issue you could see them check it out with 
Mr. Rubin first. And then quite often if some controversy developed, 
they would look at him to settle it." 

The national youth group formed at Chicago was given the name 
"Progressive Youth Organizing Committee." Mrs. Alva Buxenbaum 
was elected chairman; Mr. Marvin Markman, executive secretary and 
organizer. 

(Markman had been identified as a member of the Communist Party 
before this committee on February 2, 1960, committee counsel stated, 
while Mrs. Buxenbaum had aided the Communist cause through par- 
ticipation in various functions, including the first annual convention 
of Advance, an organization against which the Attorney General of the 
United States had initiated proceedings as a Communist front.) 

Miss Withrow had an opportunity to see Communist "democracy" in 
action during her work with a committee charged with drafting a 
"Youth Bill of Rights" at the Chicago conference. In the beginning, 
she said, there was "quite a lively discussion" but no action was taken 
because the drafting committee's leaders informed the group that a 
proposed bill was coming from "the people on the East Coast." Wlien 
this draft arrived, it was read, voted on, brought on the floor, and 
accepted. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1671 

Wlien Miss Witlirow returned to Minneapolis after the conference, 
she met Avith the State party leaders to report on the youth meeting. 
After that, she Avas "to start organizing a definite youth group, taking 
advantage, if possible, of the paper Neio Horizons as a focal point, 
but to start organizing young people into an organized group, 
which * * * when it was running, would then aililiate itself with the 
Progressive Youth Organizing Committee." 

The name of the new local group was Youth for Political Action, 
she said, and "after it was formed and running, the officers * * * were 
to affiliate themselves with the Progressive Youth Organizing 
Committee." 

Miss Withrow left the Communist Party in March 1961. She had 
decided to leave the organization at least 3 or 4 months prior to her 
resignation because her party assignment to youth activities and the 
party's exploitation of young people had made her "a little sick." 
She explained to the committee that during the Chicago conference the 
delegates had been allowed to take notes — a practice usually forbidden. 
She had made written references, during the course of the conference, 
to the fact that Eubin and Queen — and through them, the party — 
completely controlled the proceedings of the meetings. Subsequently, 
her notes were discovered and she was compelled to give a full explana- 
tion at several meetings justifying her actions "from the party point 
of view." She also had been directed to write a Marxist analysis of 
what she had done wrong. This she refused to do. Following this 
episode she resigned. 

Miss Withrow described the Communists' tactics for luring young 
recruits mto the party in these words : 

they take issues that are important to the young people, 
get to know the youth this way, and then turn the young per- 
son's attention to * * * more important issues * * * gain 
their confidence, and then over a period of time start using 
them for their own means * * *. 

Since party personnel in her district were "getting older all the 
time," she testified, the party was afraid "they will all die off" and it 
would not be able to continue. Moreover, since communism is the 
movement of the future, in their view, it would take the enthusiasm 
of youth to make it go forward "to answer the comitry's problems." 

This outlook accounted for the fact that the party did not want the 
witness to resign, even though she was teclmically in disgrace. She 
was one of its youngest club chairmen and therefore useful in its youth 
work. She was given a 6 weeks' leave of absence and told to use the 
time "to do some strong studying in Marxist classics and change my 
attitude," she said. The party's "therapy," however, failed. 

NORMAN JOHN BOEHNKE 

Norman John Boehnke was the second witness to testify on June 24. 
Mr. Boehnke was bom in Bellingham, Minnesota. He has been em- 
ployed as crew dispatcher by tliel3rreat Northern Kailroad since 1951. 
His introduction to communism and the party came about in 1958 



1672 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

when a complete stranger, a Socialist Labor Party member ^ named 
Jack Barisonzi, came to his apartment one Sunday afternoon soliciting 
funds for Morton Sobell's legal defense. (Sobell had been convicted 
of the charge of conspiring to collaborate with Julius and Etliel 
Rosenberg in stealing classified atomic bomb information on behalf of 
the Soviet Union.) 

Barisonzi, a packinghouse worker in south St. Paul, proceeded to 
inform Boehnke of the Marxist view of history and nationalism, con- 
cluding with the theme that "we are moving into a society of socialism 
and * * * man's allegiance ought to be to this current of history, 
rather than to his native land." After Barisonzi left the witness' 
apartment, Boehnke asked himself how an American citizen who was 
gainfully employed, as Barisonzi was, could use his freedom to try 
and free a traitor like Sobell. The following week he contacted the 
Mmneapolis office of the FBI where an agent suggested he accept 
Barisonzi's invitation to attend a meeting for SobelFs defense. The 
witness did not go to this meeting, but later, with the concurrence of 
the FBI, did attend several meetings of the Minnesota Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born, where he was introduced to many of its 
key people, including Pat Gleason, who told the witness that he 
had been in the 1932 bonus march in Washington, D.C., as a mem^jer 
of the Communist Party. 

When asked by committee counsel to describe the objectives of the 
Minnesota Committee for Protection of Foreign Born,- Boehnke 
replied : 

Well, its stated objective is as the name indicates; it is for 
the protection of the foreign born. Now, I attended that 
meeting that night in which Louise Pettibone Smith was the 
principal speaker. However, I never heard her make any 
reference to what protection they had given to any foreign 
borns, except those who were members of the Communist 
Party. * * * 

The witness declared that the Minnesota Committee for Protection 
of Foreign Born was a branch of the American Committee for Pro- 
tection of Foreign Born and that it served as a "screening device" of 
foreigners who might become potential candidates for recruitment 
into the party. 

As liad been the case with INIiss Withrow, Boehnke was assigned to a 
Marxist study group for the purpose of indoctrination and further 
screening. He spent over a year in such preparatory "study." 

The witness was accepted into the party conditionally in 1960 by 
Sam Davis, party leader in the district, pending further "investiga- 

1 The Socialist Labor Party, which was founded in 1890, claims to be the "only bona fide 
party of Socialism in America." Its publication states that it has "no connection 
whatsoever with other parties * * * calling themselves Socialist or Communist * * *." 
The SLP has not been the subject of any hearing before this House committee nor has it 
been cited as subversive by any ITederal authority. 

2 Counsel offered for the record the fact that this organization, which was established 
on May 21, 1952, had been cited by this committee as a regional unit of the American 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. The national body had been itself cited aa 
Communist by the U.S. Attorney General in 1948. As early as 1942 it had been classified 
by the Special Committee on Un-American Activities as "one of the oldest auxiliaries of 
the Communist Party in the United States." The Subversive Activities Control Board 
found that the Communist Party, in establishing the ACPFB, had for its purposes "to seek 
to prevent the denaturalization and deportation of officers and members of the Party * * • 
and to win the good will of the foreign born and obtain from them adherents to and sup- 
port for the party and for party programs." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1673 

tioii" to assure his loyalty "to the cause." Several months later 
Boehnke was assigned to and attended his first club meeting at 
Kuthann Withrow's North Side Club, where he was admitted into 
party membership formally. His supposed ideological purity, the 
payment of an initiation fee of 50 cents, familiarity with the party 
oath, and a subscription to The Worker launched Norman Boehnke 
into his twin roles of Communist and midercover operative for the 
FBI. 

In discussing party organization, Boehnke pointed out that all 
activities of the Minnesota-Dakotas District of the party were directed 
from the Twin Cities. The witness noted parenthetically that this 
district was proud of its contribution to the party cause in that Gus 
Hall, national leader of American Communists and graduate of the 
Lenin Institute of political warfare, was a Minnesotan by birth. 

Boehnke said that it was the function of the district committee to 
organize clubs in upstate Minnesota and both Dakotas. The district 
secretary's job was to oversee the activities of the clubs, to promote 
the party's publication. The Worker, and in general to see that the 
respective branches were carrying out their functions and the direc- 
tives of the party. 

Beneath the party's district sti*ucture were the two city committees 
of St. Paul and Minneapolis. Their membership was composed of the 
chairmen of the clubs in the respective cities. At the city committee 
meetings, it was the duty of the club chairmen to report on the actiA^i- 
ties of their clubs, whether they were meeting twice a month as re- 
quired, and whether dues and other obligations were being met. 
These city committees provide the continuity and control between 
the state apparatus and the local clubs as a "sort of an overseer," 
Boehnke said. 

While the party had encountered growing opposition in recent 
years, it attempted to minimize the ill effects of it by means of pep 
talks to the membership and by taking all the credit for organizing a 
host of activities. It chalks up a long list of successes," including 
demonstrations for peace, demonstrations to ban nuclear testing, sit- 
ins, freedom rides, and demonstrations to defeat the ban on Com- 
munist speakers on college and university campuses, he said. 

In the area of political activity, the witness stated that the party — 

always selected candidates who promise to be "soft on com- 
munism," who promise to * * * stand up for laws, amend- 
ments, legislation that will give the Communist Party a little 
more elbowroom * * * if a candidate makes a statement that 
he will vote to abolish * * * the Plouse Committee on 
Un-American Activities, they automatically * * * support 
that candidate. 

Party propaganda is carefully tailored to the party's targets. 
Boehnke pointed out that in respect to housewives, mothers, and wom- 
en's groups, peace is the primary appeal. The basic purpose of the 
party's peace tactic is the supporting role it plays in behalf of Soviet 
military policy. The witness elaborated: 

The Communist Party of the United States, as well as every 
Communist Party in the world, is fully aware that * * * the 
balance of military power is in favor of the United States. If 



1674 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

it were to come to war tomorrow * * * the Commmiist 
powers would be defeated. Their immediate need is to stall 
the war so that there will be "peace" * * * but if * * * ^e 
were weaker than the Soviet Union, then * * * they would 
not hesitate to precipitate a war. 

Boehnke's testimony substantiated Miss Withrow's on a number of 
counts, including the security measures taken as a result of the 
Supreme Court's decision of June 5, 1961, which forced the party to 
go deeper underground. He also stressed the effort expended by the 
party in the recruitment of young Americans which "takes years of 
preparation." The witness declared that the Commmiist Party has 
had "tremendous success" in cultivating the young. 

On the subject of the success of known Communists in obtaining 
speaking engagements before college groups, the witness said that 
while he had heard high ranking officials of the party speak on 
•campuses in the Twin City area, "not once have I been able to hear 
them say, or tell us, what communism actually is in practice." He 
elaborated : 

They have never told us why Khrushchev had to build up 
the "Wall of Shame" in Berlin, why they don't have free elec- 
tions behind the Iron Curtain, why he had to send in the Red 
Army to butcher the people of Hungary. All I have heard 
these Communists do was use their freedom to tear down 
America * * * I can see absolutely nothing good or worth- 
while, letting a Communist speak on our campuses. 

Boehnke testified that he was assigned a variety of tasks as a Com- 
munist. As a guard at a party picnic, an event ironically billed as a 
"freedom of the press" outing, he was instructed to bar all non-Com- 
munists — which, of course, included newspaper reporters. Boehnke 
said that Rose Tillotson Renaud, secretary of the Minnesota-Dakotas 
District of the Communist Party, and Ralph Taylor, its chairman, 
were also the secretary and chairman, respectively, of the Press Com- 
mittee. 

In addition, the witness said that even before he was officially a party 
member, the Communists kept him busy. He was assigned various 
research activities which included the submission of technical intel- 
ligence on the railroad which employed him. At other times he 
was required to walk the streets distributing party literature. 

Failure to submit to party discipline and duties subjected the offend- 
ing member either to the embarrassment of self-criticism or outright 
expulsion, he said. Even those with rank and seniority were not 
exempt. The former chairman of Boehnke's district, Clarence Sharp, 
was purged for his refusal to admit his "guilt and apologize for his mis- 
take" in not properly organizing a meeting which featured as a speaker 
Frank Wilkinson, executive director of the National Committee To 
Abolish the Un-American Activities Committee. Sam Davis, general 
secretary of the district, blamed the meeting's failure on Sharp, who 
then had to appear before "what can be described as a Communist 
court," said Boehnke. The final result was that Sharp had the option 
of confession or expulsion. Boehnke said that when Sharp left the 
"court," he remarked : 

Thank God I'm living in America. If this was Soviet 
America or if I were living in Soviet Russia, I would now be 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1675 

facing the firing squads; however, it is now the American 
laws that are protecting me. 

In his testimony on party front groups, the witness made a sig- 
nificant point regarding party "affiliation," as distinguished from 
technical membership. In discussing the Minnesota Committee To 
Defend the Bill of Rights,^ an emergency committee formed after the 
Supreme Court decision of June 1961, Boehnke said he had met one 
functionary named Tania Hemmingson who was quite active with 
this committee, but who "on a number of occasions" had told him 
that she did not join the party because if she did she would become 
subject to deportation [because she was a naturalized citizen]." The 
witness had seen her, however, in "closed-door sessions of the Com- 
munist Party." 

Congressman Willis commented that the House Committee is inter- 
ested in developing information on people who are "affiliated" with 
the party and take part in its affairs but who prefer to remain in the 
background, thus avoiding a technical membership status. 

Boehnke testified that the Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill 
of Rights tried to conceal its association with the party "for the 
purpose that it could attract people who have a natural instinct to 
uphold the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution." 

Mr. Boehnke's final comments, which laid bare the myth represented 
by the party that it was primarily just another "political party," 
touched upon his industrial intelligence-collection role during his 
period of "indoctrination." Counsel asked the witness about the 
reports he had prepared, "the subject matter of which would reveal 
useful information relative to * * * possibly defense facili- 
ties * * *". Concerning this intelligence assignment, the witness 
reaffirmed that on a number of occasions he was asked to provide the 
party with information on the railroad. He wrote a number of re- 
ports, he said, which were turned over to Sam Davis, who in turn for- 
warded them to Chicago. 

At this point, Boehnke concluded his initial appearance but was 
recalled on the last day of hearings, at wliich time he testified as 
follows : 

He was introduced at a party meeting to a John Howard Til- 
lotson, a student at the University of Minnesota, by Betty Smith, 
Boehnke's club chairman and district executive committee member. 
Tillotson, however, declined to participate that evening at another 
party meeting when invited because it would be "too obvious that he 
had association with the Communist Party," said Boehnke. Betty 
Smith, he continued, further characterized Tillotson to him as a "hard 
worker for the cause" and suggested Boehnke "work with" Tillotson, 
who "was the channel * * * that the Communist Party used to extend 
its influence and activities at the University of Minnesota." 

At another party meeting called to discuss the selection of delegates 
to the Soviet-sponsored Helsinki youth festival in 1962, Jolin Tillot- 



1 Committee counsel noted for the record that the House Committee conducted an investi- 
gation of the National Assembly for Democratic Rights in October 1961 and fniuul that 
it was controlled by the Communist Party for the purpose of conducting mass activity and 
propaganda with the end objective of reversing the Supreme Court's decisions of June 
1901, which had upheld the constitutionality of the registration and disclosure provisions 
of the Internal Security Act of 1950 and the Smith Act membership clause. Facts devel- 
oped during that hearing revealed the Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of Eights 
to be a creature of the National Assembly for Democratic Rights. 



1676 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

son's name, as well as that of John Forichette, was proposed as that 
of a prospective delegate. Forichette, a member of Boehnke's club, 
declined the trip since he was a city employee of Minneapolis, but 
Tillotson attended the youth festival, Boehnke said. 

The witness testified that in the fall of 1962 Tillotson, at the home 
of Rose Tillotson Renaud, his grandmother, discussed a forthcoming 
article which the youth was preparing for publication in New Hori- 
zons^ the official youth organ of the party. 

Concluding, Boelinke summarized his party experience as follows : 

It is generally believed by the public that the Communist 
Party of the United States is just another political party. 
However, my experience in the party has given me mounting 
evidence that it is a party dominated by the Soviet Union. 

He cited as an example the fact that he had edited for Mr. and 
Mrs. Sam Davis moving picture films which they had taken while 
traveling in the U.S.S.R. He said they had gone to the Soviet Union 
not simply for the visit but to attend the Lenin Institute. 

Boehnlie testified that after Mrs. Gordienko had first been publicly 
identified as an FBI informant, her photograph was circulated within 
the party circles to embarrass her. At this time, she said, Claude 
McDonald suggested that Mrs. Gordienko should be pushed down a 
flight of stairs. 

Committee Chairman Willis expressed the committee's apprecia- 
tion to the witness as follows : 

The great majority of the citizens of this Nation * * * 
are fully devoted to this country and the principles on which 
it is founded. Most of us, in some way, give something of 
ourselves to our country. A few give far more than others. 
You and Miss Withrow are two of those few. 

CLAUDE McDonald 

The first witness during the second day of hearings on June 25 was 
Claude McDonald, identified as a member of the Communist Party 
by both Miss Withrow and Mr. Boelinke, who knew him as such dur- 
ing their active years in the organization. He refused to discuss 
party membership and, with the exception of stating his name and 
address, invoked the self-incrimination clause of the fifth amendment 
and also other amendments in refusing to answer any questions asked 
by committee counsel. 

McDonald refused to refute or affirm the statements made under 
oath by the two previous witnesses, namely, that he was a member of 
the district executive committee and a high official in the party's tri- 
State territory. Staff investigation indicated that he had also been 
a party member in 1943 while working as iho, financial secretary of 
Local 1152, United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of 
America. "VSHien asked about this, the witness refused to answer for 
the same reasons. 

The witness continued to plead the fifth and other amendments 
rather than deny committee information to the effect that he spon- 
sored and attended a meeting of the American Peace Crusade in 
Washington, D.C., on March 15, 1951. The APC, committee counsel 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1677 

noted, was cited as a Communist front in a 1957 SAC.'B report. It 
had been organized during February 1951 in the New York City 
offices of the national Communist Party and had purportedly held 
its March meeting- for the purpose of launching a nationwide orga- 
nization to which would be affiliated various local groups throughout 
the country. McDonald declined to admit subsequent participation 
in the formation of the IVIinneapolis Council for Peace — later changed 
to the Minneapolis Chapter of the APC, a local unit classified as an 
"integral part" of the parent body by the same SACB report. 

When asked whether he had provided funds for the party or the 
use of his home for the concealment of one Martin Mackie, a member 
of the party's undergi'ound apparatus during the 1950's, the witness 
again invoked the fifth and other amendments in his refusal to answer. 

Miss Withrow had told the SACB on Marcli 17, 1964, that a party 
announcement in early 1961 had designated a four-man committee, 
including McDonald, to reactivate the party's city committee in Min- 
neapolis. The witness, who belonged to the same Communist club as 
Miss "Withrow, invoked the fifth and other amendments when asked 
if this were true. 

Similarly, the witness refused to confirm or deny committee 
evidence that his credentials as a delegate to the Democratic-Farmer- 
Labor organization had been challenged. He invoked constitutional 
protection when asked if he had circulated a document entitled, "There 
Is Nothing To Fear But Fear Itself" in which he castigated those who 
informed the DFL credentials committee of an attemj^t by the. Com- 
munist Party to infiltrate the convention with Communist delegates. 

He also declined to state on the basis of the fi.fth and other amend- 
ment grounds whether, in his high party position in tlie tri-State 
party territory, he was aware of any success achieved by the party 
"to raise the Communist movement to a higher level" in the district 
as Gus Hall, general secretary of the CPUS A, had promised. 

OSCAR MARTIN MACKIE 

Oscar Martin Mackie was the second witness on June 25. Mackie 
(alias Maki) was employed by Gopher Bumper Exchange, Inc., and 
the previous day had been identified under oath by Mr. Boelmke as 
a member of the Communist Party in the latter's own cell — the North 
Side Club. 

Chairman Willis posed the following question to Mackie : 

We hear and read a great deal about the alleged fact that 
this committee asks questions without the right of confronta- 
tion and all the rest of it. If Mr. Boehnke was called to the 
stand and resworn and would confront you so you could 
know exactly who your so-called accuser is, would you answer 
the question? 

Mackie again invoked the fifth, sixth, and first amendments in his 
refusal to answer. He also asserted these same amendments in declin- 
ing to answer if it was not true that the Communist Party, if it were 
successful, would abolish these three amendments to the U.S. Con- 
stitution. 

When confronted with a statement contained in the Daily Worker 
of November 24, 1942, naming Mackie as State secretary of the Com- 

30-729 — ^64 2 



1678 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

munist Party in Minnesota, the witness declined to say whether this 
was true, as well as whether he was the party's candidate for the of- 
fices of Governor of Minnesota in 1940 or for mayor of Duluth in 
1941. 

Mackie had also been listed as an alternate member of the National 
Committee of the Commmiist Political Association in 1945, accord- 
ing to House Committee information, and in 1946 was appointed 
chairman of the Minnesota Communist Party. 

When confronted with his 1959 application for membership in the 
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, on which he had 
written "no" to the questions: 1) "Are you a Communist?" and 2) 
"Are you in sympathy with the Communist philosophy?", Mackie de- 
clined to state whether his written replies were true at that time or 
whether, if true, his answer did in fact contradict committee infor- 
mation to the contrary — as well as the testimony of sworn witnesses. 
Mackie again invoked the fifth and other amendments in his refusal 
to answer. 

RUTH LOIS GORDIENKO 

Mrs. Ruth Lois Gordienko, the committee's third witness on June 
25, was a resident of north Minneapolis and had been a dedicated 
member of the Communist Party of the United States during 1948 
and 1949 and of the Communist Party of Canada in 1950. Mrs. 
Gordienko broke with the party over the issue of the Korean war. 
Following her return to the United States in 1950, she ceased all her 
party activities, but did not give notice or resign from the party for- 
mally. In 1952 she agreed to act as an undercover contact for the 
FBI on certain Communist-front activities. 

Mrs. Gordienko had become a Communist through her former hus- 
band, George Gordienko, a professional wrestler and Canadian 
Communist who came to the United States on a work visa and later 
became a premedical student at the University of Minnesota. 

The witness testified that prior to her marriage her husband-to-be 
indoctrinated her with his beliefs that the American Government was 
"corrupt" and "imperialistic" and that the "Soviet Union was the 
nation that was going to lead the world in the ultimate goal of com- 
munism on a worldwide basis." Part of the witness' indoctrina- 
tion included attendance with her husband at the Marxist Socialist 
Club on the campus of the University of Minnesota. The purpose of 
this "Communist-front organization," according to Mrs. Gordienko, 
was to interest "j^oung people into looking into communism, hoping 
to eventually recruit them." The Marxist study club was under the 
direction of one Kenneth Tilsen, a University of Minnesota law stu- 
dent "known on campus as a Communist Party spokesman," whom she 
knew in fact to be a party member. Operating behind a reformist 
facade in discussions on the Negro question, agronomy theories, etc., 
the Marxist campus club never advertised itself as Communist. 

Following one year's attendance at these club meetings, Mrs. Gor- 
dienko, though not a student at the university, enrolled in the Commu- 
nist Party through Kenneth Tilsen and was assigned to its university 
women's club which was directed by Tilsen's wife, Rachel. The club, 
made up of the wives of University of Minnesota students, was one of 
four pnrty clubs on the campus. In addition to her duty to become 
"fully knowledgeable" about Marxist-Leninist theories, the witness 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1679 

had to distribute party literature throughout the student housing area. 
She testified that one of the four cells on campus was a secret "profes- 
sional cell," consisting of professors and assistant professors who were 
"higlily protected" from exposure. 

Mrs. Gordienko became aware of the existence of this club in 
1948 through Rose Tillotson Renaud, who managed the party's book- 
store and who was later the party's principal executive officer for the 
Minnesota-Dakotas District. Mrs. Gordienko received her first lesson 
in party secrecy and discipline when she innocently asked Rose Re- 
naud which professors belonged to the professional cell. Renaud im- 
mediately admonished the witness for her naive inquisitiveness. 

In the area of party youth activities, Mrs. Gordienko's testimony 
corroboratecl that of Miss Ruthann Withrow. Mrs. Gordienko stated 
that the party's youth had their own separate cells but, following the 
establisliment of the Labor Youth League, younger Communists "were 
assimilated into * * * the adult cell groups, and because of this 
switching I was assigned to the North Side cell of the Communist 
Party." 

The witness was assigned tasks in the North Side Club as follows : 
to help organize and recruit members for the Labor Youth League 
and to "infiltrate into the National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People," which "the Communist Party of Minneapolis 
wanted to take over." However, not enough party members attended 
the NAACP election to effect their plan to "pack the meetmg" and 
therefore did not take over the leadership, she said. Those persons 
responsible for this failure were later chastised by the party lead- 
ership. 

Mrs. Gordienko's husband, George, left the University of Minne- 
sota, found employment in a flour mill, and was reassigned to a trade 
union cell of the Communist Party. He subsequently learned that 
the U.S. Immigration Service was going to deport him to Canada, 
his native land, as an imdesirable alien. Against the party's wishes, 
he decided not to fight the pending Government action and to return to 
Canada voluntarily before proceedings were instituted against him. 
The party, therefore, had him and his wife transferred to .the Commu- 
nist Party of Canada through a letter written by Carl Ross, the 
district secretary, to another Mr. Ross, a Canadian party functionary. 
When the Gordienkos moved to the province of Manitoba in late 
1949, they were "immediately accepted into the Communist Party in 
Canada automatically and were assigned to a cell group in Winnipeg." 

Shortly thereafter, they were reassigned to the role of "sleepers," 
that is, they were to disassociate themselves from "any members of the 
party, even on a personal level" and then "assimilate within society, 
making the complete break with the party," she recalled. The purpose 
of this maneuver, she said, was to provide the party with "the second- 
string leadership of the Province of Manitoba, which would take over 
immediately the Communist Party apparatus on an underground 
basis if the Canadian Government were to remove * * * these leaders 
from their activity as the directors." In such an eventuality, she re- 
marked, her husband was to assume the function of educational di- 
rector, while she would administer the party's financial reports. 

The witness remained in Canada during the year 1950, returning 
to the United States in early 1951 as a result of her disenchantment 
with the party line on the Korean war which was, in effect, that "the 



1680 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Americans had started a war of aggression npon other peoples" and 
that "we were trying to subjugate the Korean people." Mrs. Gordi- 
enko held that the "American^Government had gone * * * to assist 
the Koreans in holding onto tlie freedoms that they had." However, 
when she expressed these beliefs, Mr. Gordienko criticized her by 
stating, "You are nothing but a damn capitalist." 

The witness returned to Minneapolis following this episode. She 
informed the House Committee that while this incident precipitated 
her withdrawal from party affairs, two other prior factors had con- 
tributed to her defection : 

First of all, the one reservation I had, which I did not voice, 
was the fact that I came from a good Christian family. Once 
I got into the Connnunist Party I fully realized I could not 
liold Christian ideals upon which our Nation has been 
founded * * * which is the strength of our jSTation and be- 
come a good Communist. You can't do both. * * * 

The second reservation * * * that I had was very startling 
to me. When I vras in discussion with Communists * * * 
when they discussed how or what would take place in our city 
when the" revolution came * * * I was told that we would 
blow up the bridges in ]Minneapolis, v.e would barricade the 
streets, the mass communication system would be taken over 
by the Communist Pai-ty. * * * For this type of politics my 
stomach was weak. 

During 1951, Mrs. Gordienko was inactive in the Communist move- 
ment. Subsequently, however, following a visit to the local offices 
of the FBI, she began working as a Federal operative in three party 
fronts: the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Bom, 
the Freedom of the Press Committee, and the Minneapolis Chapter of 
tlie American Peace Crusade. She was a board member of the latter 
group. Ironically, this group was a party front which generated 
protests against America's role in the Korean war — the policy which 
had previously led to Mrs. Gordienko's break with communism.. 

Committee counsel asked the witness if the following statement by 
the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee relating to the American 
Peace Crusade reflected her experience with that organization : 

As a part of Soviet psychological warfai-e against the United States, Com- 
mnnist fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Communist aggression 
by idealizing Russia's aims and methods, disci-editing the United States, spread- 
ing defeatism and demoralization. * * * 

The witness replied that it was a "very fitting explanation of the 
American Peace Crusade." 

She concluded her testimony by observing, relative to her appearing 
as a witness before the committee, that she had once been very dedi- 
cated to communism and to the U.S.S.R., but that after realizing her 
error, "my attitude since * * * has been, if I could do this much for 
Russia, I certainly can do this much for my own country." 

KENNETH E. TIL8EN 

Kenneth E. Tilsen, the next witne-ss, was born in New^ Leipzig, 
North Dakota, had been a resident of St. Paul, Minnesota, since 1933, 
and a practicing attorney in the city since his graduation from the 



COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1681 

University of ]\Iinnesota Law School in 1950. Tilsen had been iden- 
tified by Mrs. Gordienko as a member of the Communist Party and its 
leading spokesman on the University of ^Minnesota campus. 

He read a prepared opening statement to the effect that the com- 
mittee had no leo-islative purpose in soliciting information about his 
background prior to September 23, 1950— the date of passage of tlie 
Internal Security Act. Chairman Willis, after restating the com- 
mittee resolution, pointed out that Tilsen's objection lacked validity 
because the resohition authorizing the IMimieapolis hearings had other 
legislative purposes in addition to that of monitoring the Internal 
Security Act. 

The witness was then asked to confirm or deny the substance of 
Mrs. Gordienko's statement, which he had heard the day before, that 
she knew him to he a leading party member on the University of 
Minnesota campus in 1948 and that he had enrolled her in the party. 

Following an exchange between tlie witness and chairman concern- 
ing the subjects of executive sessions, premature revehition of wit- 
nesses' names, committee responsibilities and witnesses' rights, Tilsen 
testified that he was not a member of the Communist Party^and had 
not been one during the period concerning which, accordin<]^ to his 
claim, the ooimnittee had authority to inteiTogate him — that is, since 
September 23, 1950. Without invoking the self-incrimination clause 
of tlie fifth amendment, he refused to respond to questions pertaining 
to his activities in 1948 and 1949 on the basis of a 10-point memoran- 
dum offered, but not accepted by the chairman, as grounds for refusal 
to answer. Though his objections were overniled, he still refused to 
answer about his pre-1950 party activities. 

When asked wliether, since his 1950 demarcation date, he had had 
any affiliation or discussion with any persons known to him to be, or 
to have been, members of the Commmiist Party, the witness said he had 
not. He refused to answer when questioned about the activities of 
Rose Tillotson Renaud on the University of ^Minnesota campus, par- 
ticularly her efforts on behalf of a secret professional cell of professors. 

ROSE TILLOTSON RENAUD 

Rose Renaud, identified under oath by Norman Boehnke as district 
secretary, the highest executive position of the Communist Party in 
the Minnesota-Dakotas District, refused on the groimds of the first, 
fifth, and sixth constitutional amendments to acknowledge this identi- 
fication. Other than giving her name, address, and birth date, she em- 
ployed the same objections in refusing to testify regarding any knowl- 
edge of various matters about which testimony had been received, 
including her succession to Sam Davis' position as the district's top 
official, the secret professional cell at the University of Minnesota, 
Ralph W. Taylor as the party's district chairman, the current mem- 
bership of the party's district, and the channel for party directives and 
instructions from Gus Hall in New York City. 

Finally, citing the same reasons, she refused to admit whether she 
was the party's candidate for mayor of St. Paul in 1940 or to cor- 
roborate Miss Withrow's statement concerning the party's elaborate 
recruiting activities in the youth field. 



1682 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

JAMES A. BKOWN 

James A. Brown (also known as Jack Brown) declined to answer 
the committee's questions on the grounds of the fifth and other amend- 
ments, except to disclose his name, address, and birth date. He refused 
to affirm or deny Boehnke's testimony that he had been a member of the 
city committee in Minneapolis, that Ralph Taylor was its secretary, or 
that he himself was chairman of the South Side Club of the party. 

He also cited the fifth and other amendments in refusing to answer 
when asked if he had been active in party trade union activity and 
whether he had attended the party's 1960 farm conference in Min- 
neapolis at which Gus Hall had expomided the party's Ime on agri- 
cultural issues. 

CARL, ROSS 

Carl Ross, identified by Mrs. Gordienko as the party's intermediary 
who facilitated the transferral of the Gordienkos from the American 
to the Canadian Communist Party, declined on fifth and other amend- 
ment grounds to answer questions about this and other information 
concerning his activities supplied by her. Ross gave his name and 
address but declined for the same reasons to state whether, as stated 
in published reports, he had been a national official of the Commmiist 
Party for almost 30 years. 

He declined to answer, on the same grounds, questions about his 
activities in the party following Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin 
at the 20th Soviet Party Congress in February 1956, and to state 
whether he had been appointed to the "collective leadership" and the 
National Executive Committee of the CPUSA in 1957. The witness 
also refused to confirm his publicized break with the party in 1958 or 
to state whether he was still a party member. 

CLARENCE H. SHARP 

The next witness, Clarence H. Sharp, had been identified by Mr. 
Boehnke as a former chairman of the party's Minnesota-Dakotas Dis- 
trict. Boehnke testified that Sharp had been removed from office and 
expelled from the party for failure to carr;^ out a directive concerning 
arrangements for Frank Wilkinson's speaking tour. Sharp employed 
the fifth and other amendments in his failure to respond to this inquiry. 
He again took refuge under the fifth and other amendments when 
asked by the chairman whether he was under party "pressure" 
to remain mute, even though he apparently had not been a party 
member since 1963. The witness was informed that consideration 
would be given to granting him immunity from prosecution should 
he agree to testify at a later date, thus removing any fear he might have 
of self-incrimination. 

JOHN EDWARD FORICHETTE 

The first witness to be heard on Friday, June 26, was John Fori- 
chette, a city engineer's assistant, who was employed by the city of 
Minneapolis and identified as an active member of the Communist 
Party by Miss Withrow and Mr. Boehnke. The witness, invoking the 
fifth and other amendments, declined to admit party membership or 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1683 

whether he had used two different middle names (^that is, William and 
Edward) when applying on two difi'erent occasions (7 years apart) 
for employment with the city of Minneapolis. 

Forichette, on the same grounds, refused to answer when asked 
whether he had truthfully written "No" on his 1960 and 1961 applica- 
tions for city employment to the question : 

Are you a member of any political party or organization which advocates the 
overthrow of our constitutional form of government in the United States? 

Counsel brought out that as an assistant to the city engineer, Fori- 
chette had access to official plans concerning highways, bridges, water 
and light facilities in Minneapolis, etc. The witness refused to disclose 
whether he had transmitted any teclmical intelligence acquired on his 
job to the Communist Party. 

He also invoked the same constitutional privileges when asked the. 
following questions based on the testimony of Miss Withrow and Mr. 
Boehnke: whether in 1959 he was treasurer of the Miscellaneous 
Branch of the party in Minneapolis ; his residence was used for meet- 
ings of the North Side Club; he was elected club secretary of The 
'Worker in 1961 ; he helped activate Marxist youth groups in the Twin 
City area and was the appointed delegate, along with Miss Withrow, 
to the party's Chicago youth conference in late 1960. 

JOHN HOWARD TILLOTSON 

John Howard Tillotson, subject of Miss Withrow's and Mr. 
Boehnke's testimony, refused on the basis of the fifth and other 
amendments to verify whether he had attended functions of the 
Freedom of the Press Committee and the Youth for Political Action ; 
acted as a Communist conduit for activities on the University of Min- 
nesota campus; attended the 1962 Helsinki youth festival — there to 
support Communist anti-American propaganda objectives; prepared 
articles for a party publication ; shunned closed-door party meetings, 
thereby avoiding the technicality of party membership ; was a member 
of the Progressive Youth Organizing Committee, as stated in the 
Minnesota Daily. 

Tillotson further declined to discuss committee information that he 
had attended PYOC meetings in New York in June 1962 and again 
m 1963. Nor would the witness discuss on the grounds of the fifth and 
other amendments whether, following President Kennedy's announce- 
ment of the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962, he had distributed 
leaflets on the University of Minnesota campus on October 24 in sup- 
port of the Cuban Communist regime or engaged in any local "peace" 
programs in Minneapolis. 

HANLEY LEON HEMMIXGSON 

Hanley Leon Hemmingson of Warroad, Minnesota, a former resi- 
dent of Minneapolis, employed the fifth and other amendments in his 
refusal to answer when asked if he was a member of the North Side 
Club of the party, as Boehnke had testified. The witness also refused 
for the above reasons to say whether he was a member of Local T, 
Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners, engaging in union activities 
to further the party's program. 



1684 COMIVIUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Hemmingson was queried by counsel concerning a letter to the editor 
of a Minneapolis newspaper of April 5, 1964, which demanded the 
withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam and which was signed by a 
Hanley Hemmingson, He refused to discuss the authorship of the 
letter or whether, if he was in fact the author, the contents of the 
letter were Communist motivated. Hemmingson also invoked the 
fifth and other amendments in refusing to answer counsePs question 
about his current party membership. 

HILDA TANIA HEMMINGSON 

The last witness, Hilda Tania Hemmingson, gave name and 
birth date, but refused to answer as to her place of birth on the 
basis of the fifth and other amendments. Wlien asked if her place of 
birth was Kishinev, Rumania, as committee information indicated, she 
again invoked constitutional amendments in her refusal to answer. 

She refused for the same reasons to confirm or deny Boehnke's testi- 
mony that she was an active member of the Minnesota Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born, or to state whether she was aware that 
its purpose was to propagandize for the repeal of the immigration 
and Nationality Act, especially those provisions which prevented Com- 
munists entry into, or facilitated their deportation from, the United 
States. 

Mrs. Hemmingson declined to confirm or deny Mr. Boelmke's testi- 
mony that she had regularly attended closed meetings of the Commu- 
nist Party, many of which were held in her Minneapolis residence; 
was a member of the Freedom of the Press Committee ; and was active 
in the Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights, a group 
working for the repeal of security legislation. 

Mr. Ichord, acting subcommittee chairman, concluded the hearings 
by stating that they had been fruitful and productive of information 
desired and needed by the committee to assist in its legislative duties 
on behalf of Congress. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., 

AREA 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 24, 1964 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Minneapolis^ Minn. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 10 a.m. in Courtroom No. 2 of the U.S. Court- 
house Building, Minneapolis, Minn., Hon. Edwin E. Willis (chair- 
man) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Loui- 
siana; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri; George F. Semier, Jr., of 
Arizona ; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana ; and Heni-y C. Schadeberg, of 
Wisconsin. ) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Ichord, 
Senner, Bruce, and Schadeberg. 

Committee member also present : Representative John M. Ashbrook, 
of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred 
M. Nittle and William Hitz, counsel; and Neil E. Wetterman and 
Philip R. Manuel, investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

This subcommittee of the House Committee on Un-xAmerican Ac- 
tivities is convened today in INIinneapolis, Minnesota, to conduct hear- 
ings upon the subjects of inquiry and for the legislative purposes set 
forth in a resolution of the full committee adopted May 27, 1964. 
This hearing is being held on the authority of that resolution which 
reads as follows : 

BE IT RESOLVED, That hearings be held, by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities or a subcommittee thereof, at such times and places as the chairman 
may determine, and that the staff be authorized to conduct investigations deemed 
reasonably necessary in preparation therefor, relating to : 

1. As concerns the Minneapolis, Minn., area and Minnesota-Dakotas Dis- 
trict of the Communist Party of the United States : the structure and organi- 
zation of the Communist Party of the United States ; its major objectives, and 
the strategic and tactical methods designed to aid in accomplishing such objec- 
tives ; the major areas of Communist Party concentration ; organizations created 
and controlled by the Communist Party to advance the policies and objectives 
of the Communist movement; Communist propaganda activities conducted in 
support of such objectives ; and conspiratorial activities in aid of, and in asso- 
ciation with, foreign Communist governments, for the following legislative 
purposes : 

(a) to provide factual information to aid the Congress in the proposal of any 
necessary remedial legislation in fulfillment of the directions contained in the 

1685 



1686 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

mandate to the committee by House Resolution 5, of January 9, 1963, and Public 
Law 601 of the 79th Congress ; 

(&) to assist the Congress in appraising the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of title I of the Internal Security Act of 1950 ; 

(c) to provide factual information to aid the House in the disposition of 
presently pending and proposed legislation, including, but not limited to, H.R. 
953, a bill to amend the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 so as to 
authorize the Federal Government to bar from access to defense facilities 
individuals who may engage in sabotage, espionage, or other subversive acts; 

(d) consideration of the advisability of amending the Internal Security Act 
so as to impose certain disabilities, in the manner and form therein provided, 
upon those persons "affiliated with" Communist organizations as well as upon 
persons who are members thereof. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, That the hearings may include any other 
matter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it, or any subcommittee 
thereof, appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

The Congress of the United States is continually proposing, debat- 
ing, weighing, and voting for or against proposed legislation. The 
Congress — and particularly the House — is the representative of the 
people. The legislation with which it deals is the business of the 
people because it concerns the people's welfare — whether it be in the 
field of defense, agriculture, labor, banking, or security, which, of 
course, includes the problem of communism. 

The Congress cannot and does not legislate in a vacuum. Its ac- 
tions, of course, must be based on consideration of constitutional issues. 
But they must also be based on facts, nationally and locally, pertinent 
to the legislation it is considering. If it is to enact good laws and 
reject bad bills — and only by doing so can it serve the people's inter- 
ests — then it must have sound and thorough knowledge of those prac- 
tical conditions which determine whether particular legislation is 
desirable. The facts, the truth, are essential. 

These needed facts are developed in a variety of ways: by staff 
studies, by investigation, by hearings, and by floor debate. 

This, basically, is why the committee is conducting hearings in 
Minneapolis today — just as it has in numerous other cities over the 
years. 

Intermittently over the past 35 years, and consistently for the past 
26, the House of Kepresentatives, determining that the Communist 
movement poses a threat to the security of our Nation, has appointed 
committees to investigate Communist activities and to report their 
findings to the House. It has done this so that, insofar as the legis- 
lative process permits, the House may take appropriate and effective 
action to protect our country from those who would undermine and 
subvert it in the interest of a foreign power. 

This is presently the mandate of this subcommittee. We are here 
to carry out duties imposed on us by the House of Representatives. 
Research has been conducted, investigation has been made — and now 
we have reached the hearing stage of the legislative process. 

A variety of bills dealing with communism and security have been 
referred to the committee. In order to determine intelligently 
whether we should report them favorably to the House, we must de- 
velop facts — keep up to date — on changing Communist activity, 
strategy, and tactics. 

Further, should we decide to report any of these bills, then the other 
Members of Congress will want to pass intelligent judgment on our 
judgment and decide whether they should vote for or against those 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1687 

bill. And they, too, want the facts — a public record of the informa- 
tion on which we base our recommendations — to see if they concur 
or disagree with our interpretation and analysis of the information we 
have developed. 

The Congress of the United States has found, formally and offi- 
cially, that there is a worldwide, revolutionary Communist movement 
which has the aim of establishing a global totalitarian dictatorsliip by 
means of, to quote the Internal Security Act, "treachery, deceit, infil- 
tration into other groups ( governmental and otherwise), espionage, 
sabotage, terrorism, and any other means deemed necessary * * *." 

The Subversive Activities Control Board has found that the U.S. 
Communist Party is a disciplined unit of the world Communist move- 
ment, operating under the control of the Soviet Union and having as 
its aim the imposition of a Soviet-style dictatorship on the United 
States. The Supreme Court of the United States in a June 5, 1961, 
decision upheld this finding. 

The Communist Party, U.S.A., is a monolithic, conspiratorial, 
highly organized and disciplined paramilitary organization with its 
national headquarters in New York City. Geographically, it has 
divided this country into second-echelon units called districts. The 
area in which this city is located is classified by the national commit- 
tee of the party, which makes such determinations, as the Minnesota- 
Dakotas District. 

Many in this room will recall that just about 4 months ago Gus Hall, 
the general secretary and top boss of the U.S. Communist Party, paid 
what was, I am sure, an unwelcome visit to Minneapolis. In the course 
of a press conference held in this city on February 18, he made the 
following statement : 

One of the definite conclusions I have already come to is that the State of 
Minnesota needs a bigger Communist movement and a Communist Party, and we 
are going to do everything we can to give the Communists of Minnesota assist- 
ance both in the sense of speakers and literature and finance in order to raise 
the work of the Communist movement to a higher level. By this the Communist 
movement of Minnesota is stronger — the labor movement will be stronger — 
the civil rights movement will be stronger — and the democratic movement will 
be stronger. 

For the good of Minnesota, I would pledge that we do everything we can to 
build the Communist movement within the State. 

Has the Commmiist Party lived up to the pledge made to the Com- 
munists of this district by Gus Hall ? Is it pouring more money into 
this area — more literature — more speakers ? 

Just what are the commissars of the Communist Party doing to build 
the Communist movement in this State ? What have they done in the 
past ? How have they done it or tried to do it ? Who are their agents ? 
What are they now doing to subvert the democratic process in this 
district ? 

These are some, though by no means all, of the questions to which 
the committee hopes to obtain answers. But all the answers the com- 
mittee needs to carry out its functions cannot be obtained in one place 
or one hearing. Not long ago, on April 29 and 30, it went to Buffalo, 
in the New York District of the Communist Party, to obtain answers 
to these and similar questions. In the near future, it will go to other 
cities and areas for the same purpose. 



1688 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Obtaining answers to such questions is a vital part of this com- 
mittee's function. It needs information of this type to carry out not 
only the legislative duties I have described, but also its watchdog 
or oversight function — its analysis of how well the executive branch 
is administering the various laws concerning subversion and security 
which are recognized as being within the jurisdiction of the committee. 

What kind of legislative results flow from committee hearings such 
as these ? 

On March 26 of this year, President Johnson signed into law H.R. 
950, the National Security Agency security bill. The bill had been 
approved in the House by a vote of 240 to 40, and Senate support of 
it was so overwhelming that the vote was not tallied. This bill, intro- 
duced by the late chairman of this committee, was the direct result of 
the extensive investigation the committee made of the 1960 defection 
to the Soviet Union of two NSA mathematicians, Bernon F. Mitchell 
and William H. Martin. 

Committee investigators spent 2,000 man-hours on that investiga- 
tion. Running down leads and developing facts led them to 15 dif- 
ferent States — and resulted in 16 hearing sessions, all of which were 
executive in order to protect the operations and procedures of the NSA, 
wliich is probably the most sensitive of all U.S. security agencies. 
The committee's hearings led to 22 specific reforms in NSA security 
procedures, and fmally — as I have indicated — to the enactment of a 
law earlier this year which, so far as is humanly possible, guarantees 
that there will always be sound and effective security procedures in 
effect at the NSA. 

And so the hearings of this committee have a direct bearing on the 
day-to-day deliberations of the Congress and on the national security — 
which is your security. 

I will now read for the record the order of appointment of the sub- 
committee conducting these hearings. 

June 23, 1964. 
To : Mr. Francis J. McNamara, 
Director, Committee on Un-American Activities 

Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the Rules of this Committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consist- 
ing of Honorable Richard Ichord, Honorable George F. Senner, Jr., Honorable 
Donald C. Bruce, and Honorable Henry C. Schadeberg, as associate members, 
and myself, as Chairman, to conduct hearings in Minneapolis, Minn., com- 
mencing on or about Wednesday, June 24, 1964, and/or at such other times there- 
after and places as said subcommittee shall determine, as contemplated by the 
resolution adopted by the committee on the 27th day of May 1964, authorizing 
hearings concerning certain Communist activities in the Minneapolis, Minn., 
area, and other matters under investigation by the committee. 
Please make this action a matter of committee record. 
If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this 23d day of June 1964. 

/s/ Edwin E. Willis, 
Edwin E. Willis. 
Chairman, Committee on Un-American Activities. 

Now, we are pleased to have also with us not only the subcommittee 
members I have named, but a member of the full committee who hap- 
pens to be present; we are delighted to have him with us, Mr. Ash- 
brook of Ohio. 

Now, I have two or three comments to make other than this open- 
ing statement before we hear our first witness. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MESnSTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1689 

We almost invariably, and on all occasions, except one that I can 
remember, conduct our hearings, open hearings, in a Federal court- 
room, and we are delighted and pleased to have been extended the cour- 
tesy of the judge for the use of this chamber for these hearings. As I 
say, we are the guests of the presiding judge and we must always 
abide by the rules of the judge of the particular court facility we 
occupy. 

I have here a letter which I will simply pharaphrase, and which is 
signed by the chief judge here, reminding us that he has instructed 
the United States marshal to adhere strictly to the rules that no photo- 
graphic equipment or voice recording machinery will be permitted in 
the U.S. Courthouse Building, in connection with the hearings of this 
committee June 24, 25, and 26. He reemphasizes that this court is 
quite religious in enforcement of its rules of conduct and decorum of 
those to whom it may permit the use of court facilities. The ban on 
smoking during proceedings and recesses must be strictly adhered to. 
Those are the rules, and we will abide by them. The marshal of tliis 
court is an executive officer; he will be in attendance with deputies, 
and they will maintain, I hope, the same decorum that is respected in 
this courtroom. 

I do hops there will be decorum. It is not a particularly attractive 
job to be chairman or member of this committee. This committee was 
created by Congress, by the House. There are 20 committees of the 
House — standing committees. This committee is just one of them. 
The jurisdiction of each of these 20 committees is spelled out in words 
that anyone can understand in the rules of the Plouse in accordance 
with the resolution creating the particular committee. This commit- 
tee was created 26 years ago, and so we are just a committee of the 
House. We operate by direction of the House. It is part of the legis- 
lative process. So, though not a pleasant job, it is one of those things 
that has to be done. As I say, I do sincerely hope that all the people 
here, who — as we are guests of the judge of this court — are in turn the 
guests of this committee, will make every effort to maintain decorum, 
because decorum will and must be maintained. 

I understand that attorneys for some of the witnesses summoned to 
appear during these hearings have contacted members of our staff 
to inquire when their respective clients may be expected to appear. 
That's understandable ; I am a lawyer and have been a lawyer for 38 
years. I like to accommodate and convenience lawyers as much as I 
can, as would a judge. 

It is not likely that I can pinpoint Avho will be called at exactly what 
liour — things won't vrork out that way — but w^e do want to be as ac- 
commodating as possible and so I say that none of the witnesses who 
have been formally summoned or subpenaed to appear today will be 
heard today. That is as far as I can go. So, the attorneys can guide 
themselves accordingly. They, and l:hey alone, can make up their 
minds as to whether they prefer, nevertheless, to remain and hear 
whatever evidence might be adduced VN'hich might involve their clients. 
It is their choice, and to that extent I can and do accommodate them. 
The summoned or subpenaed witnesses will not be heard today, but be- 
yond that I cannot tell, so everyone should be in attendance tomorrow 
and day after tomorrow. 

Counsel, please call your first witness. 



1690 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Miss Euthann Withrow please come forward. 

The Chairman. Please stand. Do you solemnly swear that the testi- 
mony you are about to give before this committee will be the truth, the 
whole truth, and notliing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Miss Withrow. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF RUTHANN WITHROW 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow, would you kindly state your name and 
residence for the record ? 

Miss Withrow. Ruthann Withrow, 1719 Glenwood Avenue North, 
in Mmneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was the date and place of your birth ? 

Miss Withrow. It was on August 9, 1935, and I was bom in Minne- 
apolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been a lifetime resident of the city of 
Minneapolis ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions 
and any degrees that you may have received? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I graduated from high school in Minne- 
apolis in 1953, and from 1953 to 1956 I attended classes at the night 
school at the University of Minnesota. I did not graduate ; however, 
I did attend courses in psychology, sociology, and a few others. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Would you relate your employment since the com- 
pletion of your educational training ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, during the years I attended night school, I 
was working for the branch of General Motors. I worked there for 
about 4 years. I worked then at the University of Minnesota approxi- 
mately a little over 2 years, and I am presently working for the 
city of Minneapolis, and I have held a few short-term jobs. 

Mr. NinxE. Have you ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you simply state the period during which you 
maintained that membership? 

Miss Withrow. I became a member on May 1, 1958, and I remained 
a member until March of 1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period of your association with the Com- 
munist Party, were you at all times acting in cooperation with an 
agency of the United States Government ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was that agency? 

Miss Withrow. The Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of course, during the period of your association in 
the party, you were at no time in sympathy with it or its purposes 
or objectives; is that correct? 

Miss Withrow. Definitely so. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances relating to your becoming associated with the Communist Party 
or the Communist movement? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1691 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, I was first contacted by a member of the 
Freedom of the Press Committee attempting to sell me The Worker. 
At that time he tried to either sell me The Worker or the subscription, 
and he explained the role of the paper to me and got into the role of 
the Communist Party in the struggle of the working class. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us approximately when this contact 
was made with you by a member of the Freedom of the Press Com- 
mittee ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Approximately in February of 1956. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the House committee in more detail 
what method of approach was employed in attempting to interest 
you in The Worker and in the work of the Freedom of the Press 
Committee ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, it was explained that, first of all. The Worker 
was the only paper in which the people could get the truth about 
some of the major issues around the country ; that these things were 
never printed m the daily papers ; that The Worker supported many 
of the crucial issues; and that the Freedom of the Press Committee 
and the people on it and in sympathy with it were the only ones 
who could help keep The Worker gomg, who could help keep bring- 
ing the truth before the people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you invited to become a member of the Freedom 
of the Press Committee ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Not immediately. I was invited to social affairs 
given by the committee, to picnics, and after a little while I eventually 
was invited to join. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien did you finally join the Freedom of the Press 
Committee ? 

Miss. WiTHROw. It was in 1957. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you were invited to join the Freedom of the 
Press Committee, were you advised as to whether or not there was any 
relation between that committee and the Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHROW. No ; there was no knowledge on my part that some 
of the people were connected with the Communist Party, but there 
was no statement made at that time. I later knew that there were 
both party members and nonparty members on the committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was the purpose of the Freedom of the Press 
Committee ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, the main function was to give social affairs. 
They sponsored an annual picnic, used any means, mamly to raise 
funds for The Worker, to sell The Worker, and to gather — as much 
as they could — public opinion to support the issues printed in The 
Worker. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have stated that there were included as members 
of this committee, Communists and non- Communists. How would 
you describe the type of organization which the Freedom of the Press 
Committee represented in party language ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Pardon ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. How would you describe the Freedom of the Press Com- 
mittee which included, as you have said. Communists and non- 
Communists? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, at the time I joined it, it was definitely a 
front group. 



1692 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr, NiTTLE. Front g-roup ? 

Miss WiTHKOw. For the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. For the Communist Party ? 

Miss. WiTHROw. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us what relation the rather hi^h- 
sounding title "Freedom of the Press Committee" bore to the activities 
of this group ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, they constantly used the phrase "freedom of 
the press." However by this they meant, as I saw it, even toward the 
beginning of my membership — by this they generally meant freedom 
to state their opinions in The Worker^ mainly freedom to support their 
paper and to push their paper. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is, freedom to support The Worker^. 

Miss WiTHROW. The Worher. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The official Communist Party publication? 

Miss. WiTHROW. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the character of the Freedom of the Press Com- 
mittee change with time during the period of j^our membership in the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHRow. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did it confine itself to membership of Communists and 
non-Communists ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, as I stated, when I first joined, there were 
both Communists and non- Communists on the committee. Over a 
short period of time, though, all of the non-Communists eventually 
dropped away from the work of the committee, and toward the end 
of my service on the committee, as it stood then, it was strictly party 
members. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us briefly whether you have knowledge 
why the non-Communists dropped out of the work of the committee? 

Miss WiTHROw. You mean to explain their actions ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Well, I mean to ask, Did they withdraw from it upon 
ascertaining its true nature or was it for other reasons ? 

Miss WiTHROW. I would say in some cases this was true. Others, 
they just slowly dropped away and new ones were not encouraged to 
take their place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. AVere you later asked to join the Communist Party 
following your activity, your initial activity in the Freedom of the 
Press Committee? 

Miss WiTHROW. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This leads me to ask whether, in addition to serving as 
a propaganda organization, Communist fronts such as the Freedom 
of the Press Committee play any role in the recruitment technique of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Definitely so. I know that immediately prior to 
my being told or suggested that I join, my activity was watched quite 
closely. I was asked many questions at that time, and I am sure that 
my work on the committee was a major factor in my acceptance into 
the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to admission to formal membership in the Com- 
munist Party, does the Communist Party engage the prospective re- 
cruit in any systematic preparation or indoctrination for such 
membership ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Very definitely so. There are many personal con- 
tacts between the prospective member and Communist Party mem- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1693 

bers and, also, there is usually a Marxist or a "progressive" study 
group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say one of the preliminary steps is to invite the 
prospective recruit to join what is called a Marxist study group? 

Miss WiTHROw. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you explain how the Marxist study group func- 
tions, and explain more fully its purpose ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, it is usually a discussion group. It is quite 
often a large nmnber of people; a lot of party members attend. It is 
led, usually, by either a State Connnunist leader or somebody that they 
pick to lead the discussion. They use as the basis for discussion either 
one of the Marxist classics, an article in The Worker^ or an article in 
one of the other publications like Political Affairs. This was very 
popular, and they'd use this for discussion and they'd attempt to draw 
out, particularly, those people that they were thinking about recruit- 
ing, to get their ideas, to change their ideas on the particular subject 
being discussed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are Marxist study groups set up in schools and insti- 
tutions and other places ? 

Miss WiTHROW. No, not here. They were held in private homes. 
On a couple of occasions they were held in the location that the party 
used for a bookshop. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was attendance at Marxist study groups likewise com- 
pulsory for members of the Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, they expected members of the Communist 
Party to attend frequently, but the actual constant attendance was not 
compulsory, that was more or less replaced by the educational period 
in each club meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that, following that, the preparation for member- 
ship in the Communist Party is conducted in Marxist study groups, 
but after you become a member then your Marxist indoctrination is 
continued in the party club, or in the cell as it is sometimes called ? 

Miss WiTHROw. That's right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the Communist Party, in recruiting members, do 
so with great caution ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, I remember they did when I was recruited, 
and I could see it shortly thereafter. I imagine they are still con- 
tinuing this policy and perhaps to a further extent than they did then. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee in more detail the manner 
in which your membership was effected in 1958 ? 

Miss WiTHROw. I knew I was being considered for quite some time. 
I more or less just suspected this, because every once in a while I 
would be asked what otherwise would be considered odd questions about 
my background or my education or, in particular, my thoughts on 
certain issues that were in the newspaper, and then about, oh, 6 weeks 
before I was actually accepted, the State secretary ^ at the time really 
quizzed me on my ideas, on my background, in very much detail, and 
then at the same time he told me that he had put in my application for 
membership, that he was going to sponsor me, and that he would let me 
know when and if I was accepted. Then about 6 weeks later, on 
May Day of 1958, 1 was accepted into membership and I attended my 
first meeting. 

1 Samuel K. Davis. 

36-729—64^ 3 



1694 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. To what sources does the Commimist Party look for 
prospective members ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, as I remember it, they looked just about every- 
where. They would prefer to look among their relatives and the peo- 
ple they have close contacts with. They also, I know, lookat their 
jobs and in other organizations that they are able to get into, for 
possibilities of people to recruit. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state briefly what official positions you have 
held in the Communist Party ? 

The Chairman. Well, now, Counsel, may I ask a question at this 
point ? I am not clear on something. 

The joining came about when, in 1958? 

Miss WiTHROw. I actually joined, I remember it well, because it was 
May Day of 1958; May 1. 

The Chairman. And then you related your membership in this press 
club,^ and that began in 1956 ? 

MissWiTHRow. 1957. 

The Chairman. Well, in 1957 to the date of your joining, I don't 
know that the record is clear whether from the very beginning or only 
from the date of your becoming a member you were connected with or 
reporting to the FBI. 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, I talked to the FBI when I was first contacted 
by a member of the Freedom of the Press Committee. 

The Chairman. I see. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Briefly, what official positions have you held in the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss Withrow. I was chairman of the North Side Club in Minne- 
polis for 2 years. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hold any other offices ? 

Miss Withrow. Pardon? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hold any other offices ? 

Miss Withrow. No elected office, no. I was appointed to more or 
less take charge of the hoped-for youth organization in 1960. 

Mr. Nittle. In the course of your activities as chairman of the 
North Side Club, did you acquire knowledge of the Communist Party 
structure in the Minnesota-Dakotas District ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes ; this was more or less headed by the State board 
and 

Mr. Nittle. When you talk about the State board, for a moment 
I would like to interrupt you if I may. Are you referring to the State 
board for the State of Minnesota, or are you referring to the board 
controlling the States of Minnesota and North and South Dakota ? 

Miss Wtthrow. Well, this, at the time at least I was in this, was used 
interchangeably. It was referred to as the State board but, what was 
ment by that, it was the board of the Mmnesota-Dakotas District. 

Mr. Nittle. All right. Will you proceed to describe the organiza- 
tional structure of the Communist Party during the period of your 
membership ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, as I said, this was headed by the State board, 
which was the elected officers of the State and selected members of the 
State committee, the next body, and then under that was the local 
leadership, the clubs. 



^ Freedom of the Press Committee. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1695 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the top echelon was the State board? 

Miss WiTHROw. That's right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how was that appointed or selected? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, this was done at the State conventions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the State conventions of the Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHROW. That's correct. 

Mr. NriTLE. Under the State board was the State committee, as the 
next echelon in the chain of command flowing down toward the rank- 
and-file members ; is that right ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How was the State committee selected ? 

Miss WiTHROW. This also at the State convention. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And then you had the local club organizations, is that 
right? 

Miss WiTHROW. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who constituted membership in the clubs? Are they 
the rank-and-file members ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Yes ; they are the rank-and-file members ; yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And they are persons such as yourself, who are initially 
recruited into the party as Communist Party members; is that right? 

Miss WiTHROW. Yes, that's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us what were the primary functions of 
these groups in the organizational chain of command, starting with 
the State board? What was the function of the State board? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, the State board, in essence, would make the 
local policy or, if there was anything that had been transmitted from 
New York, they would pass this and their local policies down to the 
State committee, who would issue instructions to the club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I gather that the instructions issued out of New York. 
Is that the national headquarters you are referring to? 

MissWiTHRow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. They are issued out of New York, came to the State 
board in the top echelon of this district leadership, then the State 
board passed the orders down to the State committee, and then the 
State committee would pass the orders down to the local clubs, which 
constituted the rank and file ? 

Miss WiTHROW. That is correct.^ 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is the f miction of the State convention ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, this would meet — I was not a member long 
enough to know how they really met — but this would meet, on occa- 
sion, mainly to discuss the current issues that were before the party, 
proposed work before the party, and then the main function, of course, 
was to elect a new State committee and a new State board to take 
over for the following period of time. 



^ Subsequent to the public hearings in Minneapolis, Ruthann Withrow made available to 
the committee staff certain material designated "Withrow Exhibits Nos. 5 and 5A." (See 
pp. 1749, 17.'-)0.) 

This communication -was given to Miss Withrow by Sam K. Davis, Minnesota State 
secretary of the Communist Party, who had received the letter and questionnaire from 
Gus Hall, general secretary of the Communist Party, U.S.A. Miss Withrow, then 
chairman of the North Side Club in Minneapolis, was directed by Sam K. Davis to 
complete the questionnaire and return it to him for forwarding to Communist Party 
headquarters in New York City. Davis advised Miss Withrow that he would be very 
interested in many of her answers to the ouestionnaire. 



1696 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. The convention was utilized, if I understand you cor- 
rectly, as a means of explaining policy to the leadership so that it might 
be executed by them ? 

Miss WiTJiKOw. Well, I wouldn't exactly say that the committee 
explained policy to the leadership, I think it was just about the other 
way around, the leadership explained the policy to the committee and 
to the convention. 

Mr. NrrrLE. So that the convention was not a democratic instru- 
mentality for devising policy and debating it, but was rather a means 
of disseminating orders w^iich the leaders of that convention received 
elsewhere? 

Miss WiTiiROw. This is certainly the way I saw it the time I at- 
tended. 

Mr. NrnxE. And these orders came from where ? 

Miss WiTJiKOw. Well, in some cases it was definitely stated that 
they came from New York. In other cases it was more or less as- 
sumed this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. After you were recruited into the Communist Party in 
May 1958, you told us you were assigned to a club or cell of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Miss WiTiiRow. That's right. 

Mr. NrrxLE. That's the lowest unit in the hierarchy of the party; is 
that right? 

MissWiTHRow. Yes. 

Mr. NrrrLE. And you were subsequently appointed to the position 
of club chairman ? 

Miss WiTiiRow. That's right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What other offices were established for the management 
of the club in addition to the office of club chairman ? 

Miss WrniRow. Well, at least in the club that I belonged to there 
were just the club chairman, the educational director, and the treasurer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you first explain your duties as a club chairman ? 

Miss WiTMRow. Well, I was to meet regularly with State leaders, 
particularly, it seemed inmy case, the State secretary of the party. He 
would, in essence, tell me wdiat w^as going on, what was to be promoted 
before the club; he would leave any instructions with me as to — even 
in some cases as to what the issues were to be brought up before the 
club, and I was to pass this information on to club members, initiate 
discussions, and just, in general, be responsible for the work of the 
club in the North Side area. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period of your membership in the party, 
would you be able to tell the committee w^ho was the State secretary of 
the Communist Party at that time ? 

Miss WiTiiKow. While I was a member Samuel K. Davis was the 
State secretary. 

The Chairman. I didn't understand that last. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you repeat your answer as to who was State 
secretary of the Communist Party during your membership in the 
party ? 

Miss WiTiiRow. That was Mr. Sam K. Davis. 

Mr. NittFjE. Would you tell us, please, what were the duties and 
functions of the educational director of the club or cell ? 

Miss WiTHRow. Well, the major assignment of the educational di- 
rector was to record each meeting, prepare a sort of a lecture on 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1697 

usually an article that appeared in The 'Worker or in Political Ajfairs. 
This would be on some party policy that was currently being promoted 
or some issue that was currently before the country to get the view and 
(he support of the i)arty members there. It w^as, in general, to lead any 
discussion, to answer any questions if there were any. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that we uudoi-stand, then it was the function of the 
educational director to bring the party line to the club through an 
oxj)lanation of messages contained in The Worker and Political Af- 
fairs ? 

MissWiTHRow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. 2'he Worker is a weekly publication of the Communist 
Party ? 

Miss WiTHRow. That's correct. 

INIr. NiTTLE. TV^iere is it published? 

Miss WiTiiRow. It is published in New York. Wliile I was a mem- 
l)er they had a Midwest edition, I think, that contained excerpts pub- 
lished in Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You also mentioned a publication called Political 
Affairs ? 

INIiss WiTiiROW. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that the monthly theoretical publication of the 
Communist Party? 

M i ss Wit i \ now. Yes. 

The Chairman. Where was that published ? 

Miss WiTiiROw. As far as I know, that also was published in New 
York. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How often were meetings held by the North Side Club ? 

Miss WiTi!Row\ T ^sually it was every 2 weeks. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And wlioi-e were these meetings held ? 

Miss WrniRow. In tlie houies of tlie club members. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what way is notice given to club members as to par- 
ticular meetings or changes in meetings ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, generally it was decided at the meeting 
where the next one would be and exactly when, but if some change 
had to be made it was usually done by personal contact. Sometimes 
the chairman or the person responsible for the change would go around 
and see everybody and tell them that such and such meeting was 
changed to some place else or some other time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of doing this by personal con- 
tact? Could not the tele]:)hone as well have been used? 

Miss WiTiiRow. Well, only on very few occasions was the telephone 
used, especially to change meeting dates, and then it was made in very 
general terms, saying something like, "Instead of coming over to my 
house tomorrow, come over to somebody else's house for coffee." That 
I can remember; they never said the party meeting had been changed; 
they just would not use the phone for this purpose. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was that an attempt to maintain the secrecy of the 
meeting? 

Miss WiTiiRow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In your capacity as chairman of the North Side Club, 
did you attend any conventions of the Communist Party as a delegate 
representing your group ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes, I did ; in November of 1959 and then the same 
convention when it reconvened in February of 1960. 



1698 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you give us in a little more detail, some of the 
major issues acted upon at the conventions ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, usually there was discussion of any current 
party policy or on civil rights or the peace movement ; sometimes, if 
there "was any major strikes going on, how the party wanted their mem- 
bers to support this. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have knowledge of the existence of clubs 
other than the North Side Club within the Minneapolis or St. Paul 
area ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Usually this wasn't discussed too much, but at one 
club meeting there was a report given from a State committee meet- 
ing in which the person giving the report listed the clubs, and at that 
time he listed six. Did you want me to name them? 

Mr. jSTittle. Yes, if you will. 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, if I remember it was the Industrial 1 and 2; 
it was the club I belonged to, the North Side Club; there was the 
Women's Branch ; the South Side ; and there was one called the Lenin 
Branch. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I note you described one of the clubs as the Women's 
Branch. Is there any significance in that? 

Miss WiTPiRow. Well, it wasn't explained. I would just assume it 
was made up entirely of women. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us why the one club was described as 
the Industrial branch 1 and 2? Did that have any significance? 

Miss WiTiiROw. Well, again 

Mr, NiTTLE. To your knowledge. 

Miss WiTHROw — this wasn't thoroughly explained. I imagine it 
meant that those people in that club were members of some — were 
workers at some industrial plants. This was the only occasion on 
which the clubs were named, and there was no explanation given as 
to who made up these clubs. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the conduct of these apparently conspiratorial 
activities, was the Communist Party membership alerted to, or ad- 
vised of. the possibility of being prosecuted under the law by reason 
of their Communist activities ? _ 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes; -this was discussed quite often, especially as 
it got toward the late 1959 and early part of 1960. And then all 
through the year 1960 this was discussed veiy often. 

Mr.NiTTLE. Were there any discussions at party meetings by Com- 
munist Party officials with respect to the requirements for registration 
under the Internal Security Act and whether that law would be com- 
plied with? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, again this was discussed. There was one 
time I remember here in Minneapolis where the State secretary, Mr. 
Davis, at that time said that the party will never register under 
the McCarran Act, will never comply with it, no matter what laws 
they passed, and I was at a 40th anniversary meeting in Chicago 
in which ]Mr. Hall made, in essence, the same statement. 

Mr. ISTiTTLE. In connection with the adoption of security measures, 
were any measures ever adopted within the party based upon the 
idea that there may be possible defections within the membership 
itself? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1699 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, there were certain security measures that 
were taken. For example — this is just sort of a broad example — I re- 
member it was strongly suggested at several club meetings that the 
members at the end of the meeting leave only one, two, or at the 
most, three at a time, to not to call attention to the fact that there 
had been a meeting there. And then I think I said that the phone 
was seldom if ever used for party business. And the time when 
the Cormnmiist Party and The Worker were sharing an office on 
Hennepin Avenue, they — at least the times when I went up there, 
the State secretary made a point never to either mention names in 
that office or to discuss important party business in the office for fear 
somebody would overhear it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, we'd like to pass to another subject for the 
moment. To your knowledge was any effort made by the Com- 
munist Party to infiltrate political organizations ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes, there was. I was very much involved in one 
attempt that was made. It occurred mainly in the late spring of 
1960. The party, after the State convention — this had been discussed 
and decided at the State convention that the party was going to 
attempt to get into any and all Democratic-Farmer-Labor clubs that 
it could. Well, on the North Side, I was involved to the extent that 
I already was, prior to my membership in the Commmiist Party, a 
member of the DFL Fifth Ward Club, so I was able to see within 
the Communist Party club certain members were ordered to attempt 
to gain membership in the Fifth Ward DFL Club. They were also 
ordered not to answer the question in the DFL application about past 
or present Communist Party membership. They attempted — there 
were a couple that carried forth their attempt to gain membership in 
this club. They attended meetings, put in their applications. I think 
it took about 2 or 3 months for this to be settled. There was one other 
party member besides myself in that club, but the people applying 
at that time, I am happy to say, were not accepted by the DFL. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the DFL club was alert to the problem, and 
placed a question in the application as to whether the applicant was 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHROw. That's correct. At that time I was not known by 
the DFL as a Communist Party member, nor was the other person 
who was a member of the DFL club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow, I will hand yow a copy of a document 
marked for identification as "Withrow Exhibit No. 1," bearing the 
caption "An opening discussion . . . on . . . THE 1960 ELECTIONS 
by a trade unionist," dated June 15, 1960. Tlie author is not identified 
on the document or pamphlet, but is simply described as a "trade 
unionist." Did that document come into your possession ? 

Miss WiTiiRow\ Yes, I received this at a meeting of the North Side 
Club of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I beg your pardon ? 

Miss Withrow. I received this document at a meeting of the North 
Side Club, North Side Communist Party Club. 

(Document marked "Withrow Exhibit No. 1." See pp. 1726-1729.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Under what circumstances did you acquire it ? 

Miss Withrow. It was given to me mainly as chairman. There 
were a couple other copies passed out to be used as discussion at this 



1700 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

club meeting, one of the first discussions on how the Communist Party 
was going to take part in the campaigns for the 1960 election. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you remember the approximate time when that was 
disseminated at the chib ? 

Miss WiTHRow. I don't remember the exact date, but I think it 
was shortly after the date of June 15, 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you happen to laiow who the author of that docu- 
ment was ? 

Miss WiTHROw. I don't know of my own personal knowledge, but 
I was told by Mr. Davis, who gave this to me, that it was Leo 
Giovannini. 

Mr. jSTiTTLE. And by "Mr. Davis" you are referring to Sam Davis 
who was the State secretary of the Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHROw. That's right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Leo Giovannini as a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

]Miss WiTHRo^v. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he hold any official office in the party ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Not that I know of, at the time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you examine that document again. Miss With- 
row, and tell the committee whether that document is an official state- 
ment of Communist Party policy directed to the club membership as 
a mandate to party members in the State of Minnesota ? 

Miss WiTHROw. I can't really say how official it was, except that it 
was distributed by the leadership and it was used as a basis for action 
by the party during the coming months. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us whether that, in effect, constituted a 
direction or mandate to members of your party cell as to the course that 
should be pursued in the 1960 elections ? 

Miss WiTHRow. I would say that yes, this is generally what was 
expected of party members, what they were supposed to do in the 1960 
campaign. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want to direct your attention to the last paragraph 
on page 2 of the document. You will note that the following lan- 
guage is included, and I am quoting from the document : 

Certainly the situation is ripe for work in the DFL clubs, and we should discuss 
with specific comrades to find their way into DFL clubs, actively participating, 
but having certain specific issues for concentrated effort * * *. 

Would it be correct to interpret that as a direction to Communist 
Party members to infiltrate and literally to ride upon the back of a 
reputable political organization in an effort to inject the Communist 
Party line within its deliberations? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, this is definitely true, and I think it was — 
one thing I would like to say is I think this was summed up prior to 
this statement at the State convention when this policy of infiltra- 
tion of the DFL was discussed. The reason given at tlie time was that 
the party should realize that the DFL was considered the party or, 
rather, tliat the working people in Minnesota considered the DFL 
tlieir party, so that the Commmiist Party, to remain as they call 
themselves "the vanguard of the workers," would have to get in 
on the level of the working people to promote their policies, and since 
the working people were in the DFL that this was the best place to 
do it. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1701 

Mr. NiTTLE. With respect to the general policy of infiltration into 
anv organization or group, what was the objective of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, their main objective was to influence enough 
people within that organization so that, without it being actually 
known, they could promote the crucial issues, the policies, and the 
pi'ograms that tlie Connnunist Paity wished promoted, and then they 
would have the backing of a respectable organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge of any Communist Party 
activity relating to the infiltration of civic organizations ? 

Miss WiTHKOw. Well, again, no direct knowledge. There were 
reports in party club meetings by members of what they had been 
able to do within organizations like the PTA and certain peace 
groups. 

Mr. XiTTLE. AVliat was the method of operation of the Communist 
Party in its infiltration efforts? By that I mean to say, did it attempt 
to control or use those who were in established leadership, or did the 
Communist Party members seek to entrench themselves in leader- 
ship? 

Miss WiTHRow. Well, I think this question could only be answered 
by an event that happened at a party club meeting. This one woman 
who — this one party member, a woman, who was a member of a 
local PTA, reported at this club meeting at which the State secre- 
tary was in attendance that she had been asked to run for an office in 
the PTA by several of her fellow members. She was given definite 
orders at that time that she was not to run for an office herself. 
She was in some quarters known as being a member of the Communist 
Party, and they did not want that much known of the leadership. 
What she was told to do was to pick out some other woman in the 
PTA that she felt that she could most easily influence, that she felt 
that she was closest with, and use what other influence that she had 
to get this woman elected, and then they felt that then she could con- 
vince this woman at times to support certain issues without it ever 
being known that the Communist Party was behind them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you be able to tell the committee who was 
the person in the party who gave the instructions to the party member 
relating to her conduct in the PTA? 

Miss WiTTiRow. It was the State secretary, Mr. Davis. 

INIr. NiTTLE. To whom was the order given ? 

Miss WiTiiRow. To Mrs. Betty Smith. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And was Betty Smith a member of the Communist 
Party, known to you to be such ? 

Miss WiTHRow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What club or cell was she a member of ? 

Miss WiTHRow. She was a member of the same club that I was chair- 
man of. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to learn of any Communist 
Party activity in trade unions ? 

Miss WiTHROW. On a couple of occasions, one member would bring 
up one or another issue in the trade union that he was working in, 
but in general this was — at least I as chairman knew that discussions 
of trade union affairs were reserved for discussion between the member 
of the Communist Partv invoh^ed and the State secretary or between 



1702 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES INT THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINTST., AREA 

members, Communists involved in the issue, in order to protect them ; 
they did not discuss them in front of others. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the trade union activities of the Communist 
Party were maintained with a degree of secrecy and the instructions 
with respect to that activity were confined to direct communications 
between the top party officials and the party members involved ; is that 
right? 

Miss WiTHROw, As I saw it, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In any manner brought to your knowledge, did the 
Communist Party leadership direct its attention to religious organiza- 
tions ? 

Miss WiTiiROw. Well, there was discussion several times that some- 
thing should be done, but at least while I was a member, I laiew of no 
organized attempt to get into any religious organization. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the Communist Party direct its members to infil- 
trate so-called pacificist groups or to engage in demonstrations on the 
subject of peace within the Minneapolis-St. Paul area? 

Miss WiTHROw. Oh, very defijiitely. Every party member in the 
city was ordered, if at all possible, to take part in any peace demonstra- 
tion that occurred, to join, if possible — unless it seriously interfered 
with something else — the peace groups, the established peace groups ; 
and, oh, for example, in the peace walks in Minneapolis and St. Paul 
that have been held here in the past, party members were definitely sup- 
posed to take part and, on occasion when they didn't, they had to 
explain themselves at the club meeting immediately following why they 
weren't there and give an explanation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any specific instruction relating to the 
Women's International League for Peace and Freedom? 

Miss WiTHROw. I knew very little about this group. I knew a couple 
of party members that did belong. They wanted me to join, but at 
the time I did not. 

The Chairman. Mr. Counselor, I think at this point it might be wise 
to have a 5-minute recess to rest the fingers of our reporter. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any significance attached by the Communist Party, 
or importance given, to undertaking active participation within the 
peace groups ? 

Miss WiTHROW. I think the main objective was the same as when 
they tried to get into many other groups — is to widen their area of 
contacts, to know more people, to gain support within these organiza- 
tions for the policies that the Communist Party wanted promoted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. For a moment, returning to the party structure as you 
have outlined it, did any changes occur in that party structure during 
your period of membership ? 

Miss WiTHROW. It remained pretty much the same until, I think, 
it was the early part of 1960, when it was announced that one new 
body was being reactivated. Apparently, there had been a city com- 
mittee in the past which more or less ran the city party structure, but 
it had fallen into disuse ; and now, as a result of a State committee 
meeting, this was being reactivated and that four members of the 
State committee would act as this committee. I think the reason, if 
I remember right, was to free the top leaders for rural activity, so 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE MIXXE.APOLIS, MINTST., AREA 1703 

that they could get out of the city more often and still have the party 
running well. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now we would like to turn your attention to certain 
methods, of which you may have knowledge, by which the Communist 
Party finances itself. During your membership in the Communist 
Party, were you required to make regular payment of dues? 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes ; there were monthly dues that had to be paid. 
Also, there was a sort of semicompulsory contribution of an equal 
amount to the party sustaining fund. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How were these dues handled or recorded within the 
North Side Club during the period of your membership ? 

Miss WiTHROv/. Well, in this particular club they were paid to 
the treasurer, and after recording them and doing all his balancing, 
he immediately turned the money over to the State secretaiy,^ who 
was also a member of this club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were all funds obtained by the club retained for the 
use of the club or local party use ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, this complete accounting, as I remember it, 
was never given, but I think it was explained once that a small per- 
centage was retained by the club and another small percentage to the 
State and the rest was sent to the national office. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The national office in New York ? 

]Miss WiTHROw. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge as to any special assessments 
for funds being made by the party in addition to the payment of dues ? 

Miss WiTHROw. This came up very often. There would be some 
issue that was being supported that they needed funds for, so the 
announcement would be made at the club that such-and-such special 
assessm.ent would be made. Sometimes a certain amount was named, 
other times it was to equal the amount of the club dues, or very in- 
frequently just the amount that the party member felt he could give. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. What methods would be used in making such special 
assessments ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, in our club usually the State secretary would 
announce that this fund was being taken up at this time, and the club 
mem.bers would pay this amount within a short period of time to the 
club treasurer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What other methods were employed for the raising of 
party funds ? 

Miss WiTiiRow. Well, one way, especially if a party member finan- 
cially could not make a large donation himself, he was to approach 
his contacts, that is, the people he knew outside the party who he could 
approach either truthfully, telling them that it was for some Commu- 
nist Party-sponsored thing, or for some progressive issue, give some 
reason to get money from this nonparty member. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did the party engage in the sale of any material ? 

IMiss. WiTiiRow. Yes, they had — not the whole time I was a mem- 
ber, but part of the time I was a member, they had a bookshop at which 
there was all forms of party literature and they made some money 
selling that. They always pushed party literature in club meetings 
and occasionally at The 'Worker picnic. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Can you explain the procedures employed by the Com- 
munist Party for raising funds? 

1 Samuel K. Davis. 



1704 COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Miss WiTiiRow. Most of the time, well, actually quite often, they 
sponsored affairs, too. Very seldom — I really at the moment can't 
think of any occasion — did they openly state that these affairs were 
sponsored by the Communist Party. Most of tlie time it was stated 
that it was sponsored by the Freedom of the Press Committee, but 
in party circles it was know^n it was for the party, these funds would 
go directly to the party bypassing the Freedom of the Press Committee 
entirely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What type of affairs are you referring to that w^ere 
held by the Communist-front groups ? 

Miss WiTHR0w\ Occasionally wdien there were Conununist leaders 
from out of town they would come and give speeches, and, oh, some- 
times, well, there was The Worker bazaar. The support w^ent mainly 
to the Freedom of the Press Committee for The Worker and mainly 
picnics and some social affairs. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Was financial support of the Communist Party a matter 
of compulsion for the party membership ? 

Miss. WiTHROw. Oh, definitely ; yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien party members neglected or refused to fulfill 
their assignments, whether as to fundraising or otherwise, would they 
be subjected to disciplinary action by the Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHRow. At least at first, at the very minimum, they would 
have to explain their actions at party club meetings and answer many 
questions as to why they did this, what their attitudo was in doing it 
this way. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any personal experience in that respect ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, I can remember one experience in particular 
It refers to about the time wdien the party was, just after they had 
attempted to infiltrate the DFL [Fifth] Ward Club. Another woman, 
Mrs. Gordienko, joined the DFL club, and the party was determined 
that they were going to get her expelled, embarrass her, embarrass the 
ward club, and there were many orders that were given to party mem- 
bers as to actions that they were to take, in particular those members 
of the ward club who were also in the DFL or who could at least merely 
attend meetings of the DFL, and many of these ordere — for example, 
I was ordered, since I was an officer of the DFL [Fifth] Ward Club, 
to use my influence with the other officers, to use whatever influence 
I had among the membership, to hopefully, to get the membership or 
the other officers to raise the question of expelling Mrs. Gordienko. 
And this I refused to do and I had to explain myself on a couple of 
occasions on this. Then later the other member, the other Communist 
who was a member of the ward club, filed formal charges against Mrs. 
Gordienko in an attempt to get her out, and I was again ordered to 
back up these charges, to do everything possible in my power to get 
the club members in particular — they had given up on the other offi- 
cers — but to get the DFL club members in particular to back the 
charges and have Mrs. Gordienko expelled. 

I did not back these as well as I should and I refused to go any 
further and again I was called up before the club to explain my actions. 
And I was told that when the final hearing came up I was supposed 
to go completely all out and support this statement of charges, even if 
it would mean that in some way I would myself be exposed as a Com- 
munist Party member and possibly expelled from the DFL myself. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1705 

because this was very important to the party and they felt that it was 
a crucial issue that they were going to win. 

"Well, again when I still didn't follow the party orders, and this 
put me somewhat in disgrace with the party leaders, and I think it 
was — I was told it was one factor in which the State secretary, Mr. 
Davis told me later, was one factor in his withdrawing support in my 
reelection for club chairman in 1961, the fact that I did not follow 
orders on this issue. 

The Chaikman. Miss Withrow, you mentioned Miss or Mrs. Gordi- 
enko. Could you tell us who she was ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, the party was very much against her, and 
when they first heard her name it was explained to me why they were 
against her. Apparently some years before she had been a member 
of the Communist Party and had also worked for the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Withrow, I hand you a copy of a letter 
marked for identification as "Withrow Exhibit No. l-A," entitled 

"North Minneapolis Is a Progressive Community Let's 

Keep It That Way." It appears upon the face of the exhibit that it 
was issued by the Fifth Ward Club of the Commmiist Party of Min- 
nesota. This document refers to an incident at the Fifth Ward Club, 
and without naming the person involved, it appears to refer to Mrs. 
Gordienko, about whom you just told us. I hand you a copy of that 
document and ask you whether that document was distributed by per- 
sons Iniown to you to be members of the Communist Party? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, this was distributed on the north side on a 
house-to-house basis by members of the North Side Communist Party 
Club. I knovv' it was also mailed out to other people, DFL leaders, 
some city and State DFL officials. 

(Document marked "Withrow Exhibit No. 1-A*' and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. That leaflet particularly attacks anticommunism as 
"reactionary," and anti-Communists as "hate mongers." May I read 
to you paragraph 4 of Exhibit 1-A : 

Therefore, it was shocking when these hate mongers were given comfort by 
the chairman of the Fifth Ward DFL Club, who recently sponsored for member- 
ship in the DFL an admitted informer for the FBI, who publically lingered mili- 
tant unionists, progressives, and alleged Communists, whenever reaction needed 
her "services." It was even more shocking when the president of the Minneapolis 
Painter's Union seconded the chairman's motion to accept her membership. This 
union oificial praised this informer, stating that she had pointed out members of 
his union as "Communists." 

Was reference there made to Mrs. Gordienko, attempting to defame 
her as an informer? 

Miss Withrow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 1-A in evidence. I also 
offer Exhibit 1 in evidence. 

The Chairman. Documents 1 and 1-A will be received in evidence 
at this point. 

May I ask you a question at this point ? Maybe counsel will develop 
it, but it occurs to me — during the years we have been talking about, 
from 195G until your last service to the FBI, did you ever become 
suspect by party members, did you get by with it, did you have any 
experience in that connection? 



1706 COAIMUNIST ACTIVITIES INT THE MIKNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, I think I could say that up mitil the very 
early part of 1961 1 am positive there was no suspicion of any sort. I 
think possibly just prior to my resignation from the party there was 
suspicion, of one sort or another, but I think it was more that I was a 
Trotskyite more than anything else. 

The Chairman. Perhaps counsel will develop that, that you were a 
Trotskyite? 

Miss WiTHRow. Well, this term- 



The Chairman. I understand the term. 

Miss WiTHRow. Well, they meant that I was developing ideas that 
were revisionistic or against the good of the party or against the 
policies of the party. 

The Chairman. All right, go ahead. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Withrow, did the party consider the project, 
their unsuccessful attempt to have ]\Irs. Gordienko discredited and 
expelled from the DFL, a complete failure ? 

Miss Withrow. Not completely. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Why do you say that ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I think from the very beginning they were 
quite sure that they couldn't get Mrs. Gordienko expelled, but one of 
their purposes was to embarrass the DFL, to embarrass Mrs. Gor- 
dienko, and, I think, cause as much hard feelings and controversy as 
possible within the ward club, and to a very small extent I think they 
did this. So they didn't feel that it was completely a failure. 

Mr. NiTTLE. They were satisfied to create an issue and a disturbance, 
is that right ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What other tactics or methods of harassment can 
you tell us about that were used by the Communist Party for the 
purpose of discrediting, or seeking revenge upon, former members? 

Miss Withrow. Well, there was one thing in my own case where 
I know they made up and distributed a leaflet similar to this one. 
I found out from friends that they distributed in my home neighbor- 
hood and they did also send it to some DFL members in an attempt 
to discredit me within the DFL. 

Mr. Nittle. I hand you a copy of a leaflet, which I believe is the 
leaflet you are referring to, marked for identification as "Withrow 
Exhibit No. 2." On its face issued by "Freedom of the Press Com- 
mittee — Kalph Taylor, Chairman," this leaflet is entitled "Sh! Sh! 
The Secret Word Is Money" and attacks you for your appearance 
as a Government witness during 1963. Is that leaflet the one to 
which you just referred ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes. 

(Document marked "Withrow Exhibit No. 2" follows :) 

Withrow Exhibit No. 2 
Sh ! Sh ! The Seceet Word Is MONEY 

Riithann Withrow of 700 Emerson Ave. No. testified recently in Wash. D.C. 
against Sam K. Davis, former Minnesota manager of THE WORKER, who the 
Justice Dept. is trying to force to register under the Nazi-like McCarran Act. 
She admitted being paid $100 a month by the FBI (Mpls. Tribune 1/30/63) for 
her "cooperation" as an informer against her neighbors who work for peace, 
fair housing, labor's rights, and freedom of the press. 



COMMUXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1707 

WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE FBI IN CIVIL BIGHTS ? 

Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., recently repeated charges by Negroes that 
FBI agents in the South are sympathetic w^ith white racists, and that the FBI 
bad not made a single arrest on behalf of Negro citizens. 

In a notable radio broadcast (station WBAI, New York City, 10/18/62), 
former FBI agent Jack Levine stated that from his experiences the FBI is 
rampant with racism and anti-Semitism. (See "The Nation" of 10/20/62). 

WHAT IS THE MCCARBAN ACT? 



It has been called the worst anti-freedom law in our country's history. It 
was copied from Nazi laws and hurried thru Congress during the Korean War 
hysteria. Its sponsor was the House Un-American Activities Committee, foun- 
tainhead of Dixiecrat and ultra-right prosecutions. As have thousands of op- 
ponents, the Norfolk, Va. "Journal and Guide" summed up HUAC as "a 
Congressional committee pretending to be looking for Communists, but which 
in truth is trying to stop all efforts on the part of Negroes to achieve civil rights. 
(March 11,1961). 

"The real aim of . . . the McCarrans is . . . to discredit all progressive 
ideas and defeat all progressive measures, using anti-Communist hysteria 
to cloak and justify their drive for power." (from resolutions of CIO 
National Convention, 1951) 

FBI informers are recruited by threatening "exposure" by HUAC or loss of jobs 
or prosecution for some past offense. These common stoolies have no interest in 
efforts for a better society ; they must add new names and new incidents, or their 
personal gain in cash and privileges from the FBI-HUAC-McCarran crowd 
will end. 

Ruthann Withrow and another public informer, Ruth Gordienko, are active in 
the local DFL party. It might be well for DFL'ers to ponder that Senator 
Joseph McCarthy charged the Democratic party with "20 years of treason" on 
evidence that is on a par with the McCarran Act case against the Communist 
Party. In opposition to the McCarran Act, a Mpls. Tribune editorial of July 9, 
1961 asked, "Are we ready to start down the road of believing that only the 
Republican and Democratic parties are safe to belong to, and that some day per- 
haps even one of them ....?" 

It is one thing to agree or disagree with Communists — in whole or in part. That 
is an American's right. It is another to outlaw communist thought, as the 
JlcCarran Act does, which weakens freedom of speech and association for 
everyone. 

Should the ultra-right gain power, it may well be the Democratic, and not the 
Communist party in the dock. 

"When the practice of outlawing political parties and various public 

groups begins, no one can say where it will end." — Supreme Court Justice 

Hugo Black 

For more information, refer to the accompanying literature, and/or read THE 
WORKER. It is available at the library. Also at 6th and Hennepin, 15c a copy, 
$1.25 subscription for three months. 
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS COMMITTEE--Ralph Taylor, Chairman. 

P.O. Bos 3621, Loring Station, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 
*labor donated* 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Ralph Taylor, whose name appears on 
that leaflet as chairman, to be a member of the Communist Party? 

Miss Withrow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know what position he occupied in the party ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I know he was a member and at one time 
I know he — I came to know that he was a club chairman and also he 
was up in the State leadership. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Does the Communist Party attach any specific impor- 
tance to the recruitment or influencing of youth? 



1708 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Miss WiTHKOW. Oh, very definitely, especially, primarily in recruit- 
ment, I think the, well, in fact, they stated it several times. They knew 
they had to recruit young people in the party because otherwise their 
])arty membership was getting older all the time and they were afraid 
that it would become completely ineffective. And also, they were 
always attem])ting to influence young people even outside the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in party discussions and projects 
regarding youth ? 

Miss With ROW. Yes, I did. These discussions actually were always 
going on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you recollect the official discussions that took place 
and as to date, perhaps, or time, during your experience in the ])arty ? 

Miss WiTiiKow. I wovdd say most official discussion look place at 
the State convention, the different sessions of the State convention. 
Also, there was some discussion at a State committee meeting which 
I attended as an observer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, will you tell the committee what knowledge you 
possess of the Communist Party's all-out effort in 19G0 to establish 
a national youth organization ? ^ 

Miss WiTHRow. Well, I'd say in 19G0 all these discussions came to 
a head when it was aimounced thai a new youth paper was being 
started. This announcement was made, by the way, at a meeting here 
in Minneapolis when Mr. Gus Hall was the speaker. Mr. Hall talked 
about it, a major announcement was made by the man who was State 
secretary at that time, Mr. Davis. He announced that this paper, 
NeiD Tlorizon.^ For Youth^ would be published later in the year. They 
hoped in the meantime — this was in May of 1960 — they hoped in the 
meantime that the time would be used to organize support for this, 
to get donations, get advance subscriptions to guarantee the publica- 
tion, to use the paper, this youth paper, as sort of a door opener to or- 
ganizing youth activity. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The youth paper you are referring to is ? 

Miss WiTHiiow. Ne\D Horizons For Youth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow, I hand you a packet of correspond- 
ence, marked for identification as "Withrow Exhibit No. 2-A," which 
includes a letter of Phil Bsn^t. 

The Chairman. From whom? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Phil Bart, B-a-r-t, Mr. Chairman. Phil Bart, at that 
time, was identified as the national organizational secretary of the 
Communist Party and a member of the National Executive Commit- 
tee of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiT'TLE. You referred to May discussions on the subject, and 
1 handed you that document marked "Withrow Exhibit No. 2-A." 
Will you tell the committee what that is? 

Miss WiTiiROW. Well, this is material I received over a period of 
time, most of it from Sam Davis, the State secretary of the party, 



1 The 17th National Convention of the Communist Party, U.S.A., which convened Dec. 
lO-l.S, 1959, In New York City (the last to meet to date), adopted a resolution "On The 
Youth Question" which, in part, contained the followinfi: language : 

"The incoming National Committee, within a period of no more than .30 days after the 
adjournment of this convention, shall appoint a full-time director of youth' affairs and 
establish a functioning national commission on youth affairs composed oif youth and adult 
members. This commission, among other things, shall issue a regular national party youth 
bullolin. We urge that in a brief period of time those state committees which have not 
yet done so, shall establish political and organizational responsibility for youth affairs." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1709 

which was in (connection with Nexo Horizons^ giving goals, both sub- 
scription and hnancial goals, giving ideas on how to use the paper, 
how to get support for the paper. This, as I say, I received this 
from Mr, Davis. 

(Documents marked "Wi throw Exhibit No. 2-A.'* See p[). 17;>0- 
1741.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also hand you a copy of a letter dated September 22, 
lOGO, addressed to "Dear Ruthann," and signed "Danny Kubin," and 
ask whether you can identify that exhibit for the record? 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes; this is a letter I received in the mail from 
Danny Rubin in which it explained when he would arrive in town 
on a visit to Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what was the purpose of his visit; is that set 
forth in the body of the letter ? 

Miss WiTiiRow. He states it out specifically; the major, over-all 
reason was that he was coming here to help organize the youth 
activity that was starting in this area. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow, would you, for the benefit of the com- 
mittee, read the entire letter into the record? I think it is fairly 
brief. 

( Document marked "Withrow Exhibit No. 2-B follows : ) 

Miss Withrow. It starts out : 

[Withrow Exhibit 2-B] 

Sept. 22, 1960 

Dear Ruthann : 

I had hoped to give you plenty of notice on exactly when I would be in your 
area, but others made last minute decisions on meeting dates that prevented 
long range planning. As yet I do not have my train schedule worked out and 
will have to send you details in a couple of days, but I plan to arrive Wed., Nov. 
9, G:10 a.m., from Seattle via Northern Pacific. I plan to leave Minn. Sat, 
Nov. 12, at 7 :30 a.m. 

The purpose of the trip as we view it here is : 

1. To get as good a picture as possible of mass youth developments and of 

progressive youth activities. 

2. To discuss concretely the plans of a number of progressive youth to form 

a national organizing committee for a new progressive youth organization 
at a Conference in late December. 

3. To help build New Horizons for Youth and get constructive suggestions for 

its improvement. 

4. To pass on and discuss thinking on problems of developing mass and progres- 

sive youth activity. 

In helping to fulfill these objectives you might consider trying to arrange 
some of the following : 

1. Meet with youth groups and individuals who are at different levels of associa- 

tion with the organized left. 

2. Public speaking engagements before campus organizations and other youth 

groups, if possible. Meetings with broad youth leaders. 

3. Meetings with adults who want to discuss outlook toward youth activity. 

4. Leading one or more sessions of Marxist study groups or classes. 

5. Viewing actual activities of mass youth groups and of progressive ones. 

Topics that I am particularly prepared to speak on at public events are: 
The Youth Issues In the National Elections 

Is There An American Youth Movement and Where Is It Headed? 
Where Young People Have to Point Their Lives In Order to be Happy 
The UN Sessions and our Future 

The Assault on .Jim Crow and The Interests and Ideals of Youth 
A I'rogram to Meet the Needs of Working Youth 
The Daily Proof that American Youth Need Socialism 
36-729—64 4 



1710 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

For Marxist study groups I am particularly interested in leading discussions 
or lecturing on : 

The Youth Question as a special question 
Class Ideology as it enters our lives 
Developing a working class outlook on life 
The theory of strategy and tactics 
Marxist principles of criticism and self-criticism 

I have had experience in leading dozens of study groups and classes in nearly 
all major subjects of Marxism, though I can lay no claim to being an expert. 

A few words on my background that may be helpful in arranging any public 
gatherings or in judging what I'm capable of handling. 

Present Activity 

Editor, New Horizons for Youth 

Member, ADVANCE, New York socialist youth organization 

Training 

Graduate of Swarthmore College with honors (in political science, history 

and economics) 
Graduate of University of Penna, Law School 
Apprentice tool and die maker until called before Eastland Comni. 

Mass Activity Experience 

Boy Scout officer 

Jewish Young People's League, officer 

Executive Director, Citizens for a Free City College, Youth Division (Mem- 
ber of Phila. Fellowship Commission) 

Chairman Student Council Elections Comm. (at Swarthmore) 

Active in NAACP, Fellowship House, UNClub, International Brotherhood 
of Electrical Workers, and on campus in NSA and IRC 

Left Youth Organizations 

Young Progressives of America, state officer 
Labor Youth League, state chairman 
Socialist Youth Union of Phila., officer 

Plense let me know if you are able to arrange any of the kinds of activities 
for me I've suggested so that I may prepare. 

Regards, 
Danny RuMn 
Danny Rubin 
365 Amboy Street 
Brooklyn 12, New York 

P.S. I'm sending a copy to Sam & asking him to arrange my stay. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibits 2-A and 2-B in 
evidence. 

The CiiAiRMAisr. Those exhibits will be received and marked 
accordingly. 

Mr, In iTTLE, I want to ask yon some further questions with respect 
to Exhibit 2-B that you just read. When did you receive that letter? 

Miss WiTHROw, It was a few days after the date of September 22, 
1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you acquainted with Danny Rubin prior to the 
receipt of that letter ? 

Miss WiTHROw. I was acquainted with his name; I knew him as 
editor of New Horizons. Also, Mr. Davis had talked about him a great 
deal and had said that he was coming out here. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you say Mr. Davis, are you referring to Sam 
Davis? 

MissWiTHROW. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know what position Danny Rubin held rela- 
tive to the overall Communist Party effort in the field of youth? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1711 

Miss WiTHROw. 'Well, I knew — this was from reports by Mr. 
Davis — I knew that he was a member of the Commmiist Party, and 
just prior to liis coming out here Mr. Davis also told me that he was 
being sent by the National Committee of the Communist Party as a 
representative for youth activities. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, in fact, meet with Danny Rubin in Minne- 
apolis subsequent to your receipt of that letter? 

Miss WiTHRow. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us when you met with him ? 

Miss WiTHROw. It was during the time of his visit, November, oh, 
around the 10th or 11th, I think it was. I met with him twice. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In November ? 

MissWiTHROw. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of 1960? 

MissWiTHRow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What did you discuss with him ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, the first meeting Mr. Rubin and I — and there 
were several State CP leaders there — and first we just discussed the 
general progress of the youth organization in this area, what was to 
come in the near future, and at that time I was asked to take charge of 
the activity in this area and I was promised the help of Danny Rubin 
and the State Communist Party leaders. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you give a summary of Mr. Rubin's activity 
while he was in Minneapolis ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, I know of two occasions where he met with 
me and at least one other representative of the party here. Also, he 
met with State leaders, and there was one social affair that I partici- 
pated in that Mr. Rubin spoke. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you aware of any specific groups that he contacted, 
other than what you have mentioned ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Just the, so far as I know, just the party people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And as to individuals he saw, they were party people ? 

Miss WiTHRow. The ones I knew of, except for the one occasion 
where he spoke before some young people. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know what that occasion was? Wliere he did 
speak before young people ? 

Miss WiTHRow. This was a meeting that was arranged by myself 
and two other party people at which some young people from the 
university and some young working people were invited. He took one 
of his topics here and he spoke for a couple hours on that before these 
young people, about the youth movement and where it is going, or is 
there a youth movement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you gather that his visit to Minneapolis was just 
one stop on his tour of the entire Nation in an effort to set up the con- 
ference in Chicago which would ultimately result in the formation of 
the Progressive Youth Organizing Committee ? 

Miss WiTHROw\ Yes, this was my impression. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The letter which you have just read in the record, 
does that not make that fact clear ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, yes, it does, especially in the beginning when 
he says w^here he is coming from and that he will be leaving Minneap- 
olis for other places. 



1712 COMlVrUNIST activities in the MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Withrow, I hand you another copy of a 
"Dear friend" letter, marked for identification as "Witlirow Exhibit 
No. 3." It is dated November 7, 1960, and announces a national con- 
ference to be held in Chicago, Illinois, Friday, December 30, 1960, to 
January 1, 1961. Does this letter identify the conference which you 
later attended in Chicago during 1960 ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, this does. 

(Document marked "Withrow Exhibit No. 3." See pp. 1742-1745.) 

Mr. Nittle. Could you tell us the circumstances under which you 
received that letter. 

Miss Withrow. I don't think that I myself received one of these. I 
have seen it before, but I did not receive one of these letters. 

Mr. Nittle. Were copies of that letter disseminated within the 
Communist Party in Minneapolis ? 

Miss Withrow. I think I remember seeing one at a club meeting. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation, in referring to this Chicago conference, stated 
in a press release on December 22, 1960: "Its purpose is to formulate 
plans for a new national youth organization — one whose programs and 
activities will be clandestinely directed by party members.'' 

Following the announcement of J. Edgar Hoover, a press release 
was then issued on December 29, 1960, by Alva Buxenbaum, Milton 
Anthropoulos, and Dan Rubin, stated for the Conference Initiating 
Committee : 

We refuse to allow Mr. Hoover and people with such paranoia to inject com- 
munism as an issue into our conference. We welcome participation by anyone 
who agrees with the purposes for which the conference is called without regard 
to their political label. 

Now, one would assume from this statement of Buxenbaum, An- 
thropoulos, and Dan Rubin, in response to Mr. Hoover's announce- 
ment, that the Chicago conference was open to youth, including those 
"of varying views and affiliations," as was said by Alva Buxenbaum 
in opening remarks at the conference. 

I want to inquire of you, Miss WithroAv, whether the conference at 
Chicago was open to any youth who desired to attend and express his 
views ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I know it was open by invitation only and 
even then, upon arriving in Chicago and upon arriving at the con- 
ference hall, there were young men who were keeping everybody out 
except those that could prove that they were delegates to this 
conference. 

Mr. Nittle. And w^as the attendance at the conference controlled 
by tlie Communist Party ? 

Miss Withrow. I would say through two of the men who were 
leaders at this conference, who I knew to be party members, they defi- 
nitely were in control of even their discussions on the floor. 

Mr. Nittle. Now^ I hand you a copy of the introductory remarks by 
Alva Buxenbaum for the Chicago Conference Initiating Committee. 
It is marked for identification as "Withrow Exhibit No. 4," and I di- 
rect your attention to page 3, paragraph 4, which states, "He," re- 
ferring to J. Edgar Hoover, "is trying to divide by injecting a false 
issue. His cliarges of secret communist meeting and communist 
control are obviously ludicrous." 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINISTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1713 

Now, is it your knowledge, as well as that of Mr. Hoover's, that the 
Chicago conference was controlled by the Communist Party? 

Miss WiTiiROAV. Very definitely so, mainly through Mr. Rubin and 
through Mr. Danny Queen, who I was also told was a member of the 
Communist Party. This was proved to me on the floor, whenever 
discussions were held, if somebody would bring up an issue you could 
see them check it out with Mr. Kubin fii-st. And then quite often 
if some controversy developed, they would look to him to settle it. 

(Document marked "Withrow Exliibit No. 4." See pp. 1746-1748.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was a national youth group formed at this Chicago 
conference ? 

Miss WiTHEOw. Yes, there was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the national youth group named that was 
formed ? 

Miss WiTHROw. It was named at the conference the Progressive 
Youth Organizing Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have knowledge of those who assumed posi- 
tions of leadership within the Progressive Youth Organizing Com- 
mittee? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, I remember the top two, at least. Mrs. Alva 
Buxenbaum was elected chairman; Marvin Markman was elected 
executive secretary, or he was given that position of executive secre- 
tary and, also, he was authorized to be sort of a traveling organizer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Through what procedure were Mrs. Buxenbaum and 
Mr. Markman appointed these positions ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, a group of people from New York, a lot of 
the work was done on the East Coast, and a group of the people from 
New York brought a slate of candidates, proposed candidates to this 
conference. They proposed this slate at the conference, tliere was an 
election, and their slate of candidates was elected. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that Marvin 
Markman was identified as a Communist Party member by Albert 
Gaillard in testimony before the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities on February 2, 1960. Mrs. Buxenbaum shared speaking 
honors with Herbert Aptheker, a member of the National Committee 
of the Communist Party of the United States, at the first annual con- 
vention of Advance. The latter organization has been proceeded 
against by the Attorney General under the Internal Security Act, 
alleging it to be a Communist front. 

Miss Withrow, did you participate in any caucuses within the con- 
ference in Chicago, and if you did, will you describe what transpired? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I participated in the committee that was sup- 
posed to draft the document that would be later called the Youth Bill 
of Rights. I think there was about a dozen or more people on this 
committee. There was quite a lively discussion in the beginning, but 
no action was taken, in that the people heading up the committee 
asked to wait until a draft that was proposed from, I think it was 
Philadelphia, or the people on the East Coast, arrived at the confer- 
ence. When this draft arrived it was read at the committee meeting, 
voted on, and accepted without very much discussion and brought on 
to the floor and accepted there. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you know who the people were from the East ? 

Miss Withrow. No names were mentioned as to who was bringing 
it, but just that it was late and it caused a great deal of problems. 



1714 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE AIESTsEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend any meetings Ayith members of the 
Commmiist Party during the conference for the purpose of phmning 
methods to guide the participants in the youth conference in Chicago ? 

Miss WiTHROw. No; I personally dictn't. I did notice that there 
were a couple of private meetings of a few people with Danny Rubin, 
but I couldn't say that the conference was well planned out in advance. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you receive any assignments to carry out relating 
to the Progressive Youth Organizing Committee upon your return to 
Minneapolis ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, one of the first things that I had to do was 
meet a couple times with the State Communist Party leaders and 
report on what happened at tlie conference and the part that I 
and the other delegate from Minnesota took part in at the conference. 
After that I was supposed to start organizing a definite youth group, 
taking advantage, if possible, of the paper Xein Horizons as a focal 
}3oint, but to start organizing young people into an organized group, 
which, when it was organized and when it was running, would then 
affiliate itself with the Progressive Youtli Organizing Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the course of the conference in Chicago an an- 
nouncement for a holiday party to be given by the New Horizons for 
Youth Committee was discovered in one of the conference rooms. 
The address noted on the party announcement or invitation, as to 
where the party was to take place, was given as 690 14th Avenue NW., 
New Brighton. Was that not a Minneapolis address? 

Miss WiTiiRo\v. Yes. 

]Mr. NiTTLE. Upon tlie announcement your name was listed as one to 
which the usual ESVP should be directed. However, the date fixed 
for the party was a date prior to the Chicago conference. Can you 
explain how this turned up at the Chicago conference 3 days after the 
party was held in Minneapolis ? 

]Miss WiTHRow. Well, I know that both I and INIr. Forichette, who 
was the other delegate to the conference, took certain materials with 
us to this conference to sort of give an example of what we were doing 
here in this city, what sort of activity was going on. I know that ^ 
took one of those invitations, but also I know I brought mine back with 
me, but possibly he gave his to somebody or lost it there, I really 
couldn't say. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know John Forichette to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

]\Iiss WiTHRow. Yes ; he was a member of the same club that I was 
cliairman. 

]\Ir. NiTTLE. Would you tell us whose address was the address upon 
the announcement; namely, 690 14th Avenue NW., New Brighton, 
Minnesota. 

Miss WiTHROw. That was ]\Ir. Harry Mayville's address. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that Henry Harri- 
son Mayville appeared before the Committee on Un-American Activi- 
ties on October 3, 1961, in its investigation of the National Assembly 
for Democratic Rights. He invoked the fifth amendment in refusing to 
affirm or deny current party membership or to give — and to the giving 
of — testimony respecting "the Minnesota Committee To uphold — or 
rather Defend — the Bill of Rights, and invoked the fifth amendment 
with respect to any questions relating to the National Assembly for 
Democratic Rights. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MIN'NEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1715 

What can you tell us of the new activity for the New Plorizons group 
in Minnesota ? 

Miss WiTHROw. There were only two actual members of the New 
Horizons of the Youth Committee when I left the Communist Party 
and that was myself and Mr. Forichette. The other party State leaders 
were a great force in organizing. We received names of young people 
which we were told to contact, to use Neio Horizons to first get sub- 
scriptions, but to use it as an opening point in which we could discuss 
certain issues, and if we got any encouragement at all we were to invite 
these young people to attend meetings of the new youth group which 
we would, with this nucleus, begin. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We have just a few more questions in conclusion. Miss 
Wi throw. 

We should like to ask whether from your experience as a member of 
the Communist Party, do you feel there is justification for concern 
about the Communist movement within the United States ? 

Miss WiTHROw, Yes ; I think there is definitely a need for concern. 
They have a possibility of a great potential. I think there would be 
more concern perhaps if the Government wasn't taking action now or 
wasn't initiating action, or if some of the informed people weren't 
taking a stand on the subject. 

The Chairman. Before actually winding up the testimony of this 
witness I think there are further questions, and I think the time is just 
about proper for us to recess. It is now roughly not quite 12:30, 
so the committee will reconvene at 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12:30 p.m., the subcommittee recessed, to reconvene 
at 2 p.m. the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, JUNE 24, 1964 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2 p.m., Hon. Richard H. Ichord, 
presiding.) 

(Members present: Representatives Ichord, Semier, Bruce, and 
Schadeberg of the subcommittee, and also Representative Ashbrook.) 

Mr. Ichord. The committee will come to order. 

Congressman Willis, the chairinan of the full committee as well as 
chairman of this subcommittee, has been detained by other legislative 
business. 

Before the recess the committee counsel was questioning the witness 
Ruthann Withrow. The counsel will continue with the interrogation. 

Proceed, Mr. Counsel. 

TESTIMONY OF RUTHANIT WITHEOW— Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow, we had been discussing Connnunist 
Party activities among youth, and in connection with that I w^ould 
like to ask whether you are acquainted with John Howard Tillotson. 

Miss Withrow. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien did you first get to know him ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I knew his name before I knew him, in that 
his name was one of those given me as one of the young people I should 
contact in the formation of this youth group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was his name given to you by a functionary of the 
Communist Party ? 



1716 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes; it was given to me by Mr. Davis, the State 
secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did John Tillotson, to your knowledge, attend a picnic 
in August of 1960 sponsored by the Freedom of the Press Committee? 

Miss WiTHROW. Yes, he did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you have already described the Freedom of 
the Press Committee as a Communist front and Communist organi- 
zation. 

Miss WiTHROW. That's right. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Nittle, could you pull the mike just a bit closer to 
you, please. 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. It is a little difficult to hear you up here. 

Mr. Nittle. Was Mr. Tillotson present at any fund-raising activi- 
ties of tlie Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTiiROW. Well, he was present at this picnic and he was also 
present at a bazaar that was held in the fall. 

Mr. Nittle. And by whom was the bazaar held ? 

Miss WiTHROw. It again was sponsored by the Freedom of the Press 
Committee. 

]Mr. Nittle. And when you are referring to the fall, you are refer- 
ring to the fall of 1960 ; is that right ? 

Miss WiTiiRow. That's right. 

Mr. Nittle. You also told the committee about a visit of Danny 
Rubin to Minneapolis. Was the name of John Tillotson given to 
Danny Rubin in any connection ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, it was one of the names that was discussed 
at the time as the nucleus of the group. 

Mr. Nittle. And could you tell us more in detail about the nature 
of that discussion? 

Miss WiTiiROw. Well, it was when Danny was here. Plans were 
gone over rather carefully as to how this youth group should be started, 
who should be contacted to form the beginnings of it, and what should 
be done after it got really going. 

Mr. Nittle. Who gave the name of John Tillotson to Danny Rubin ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, he didn't give it specifically to Danny Rubin, 
but he brought it up at a small meeting where I attended and Danny 
Rubin was there. It was Mr. Davis. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you have knowledge why Sam Davis would give the 
name of John Tillotson to Danny Rubin ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, it was among a number of names of young 
people that Mr. Davis had contact with that he felt could be involved 
in this new youth group. In most cases it was, these first few people 
were people that were either relatives of party members or someone 
close to the party. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have any contact with John Tillotson with 
respect to tlie Progressive Youth Organizing Committee conference 
which was held in Chicago ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, he did take a subscription to New Horizons 
and then after we returned from Chicago we held a meeting in Feb- 
ruary which was to be the first meeting of an organized youth com- 
mittee, and Mr. Tillotson was one of those that was invited and he did 
attend. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN,, AREA 1717 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that was in February of 1961 ? 

Miss WiTHRow. That's correct. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Who organized and directed the meeting held in Min- 
neapolis in Febiiiary 1961 at which Jolni Tillotson w\as present? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, there were three individuals responsible for 
the actual organization of this meeting and the invitations to the 
various people that came. I was one, Mr. Forichette, and Betty 
Smith, and this was done, in essence, as a party assignment. 

Mr. Senner. Excuse me, did you say Betty Smith ? 

Miss WiTHROw. That's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you have alread}' identified Betty Smith and John 
Forichette as members of your Connmunist cell, is that right? 

Miss WiTHRow. That's correct, 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of the meeting in Minneapolis 
in February? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, it was to gather as many of these young 
people together who had been contacted over the, oh, month or so be- 
fore and who had voiced any interest in helping to start a Marxist 
youth organization in the city, and it was to get these people to- 
gether in the hope of forming at least a nucleus committee from which 
a large youth organization could grow. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any title selected for this new organization that 
was to operate in coimection w^ith the Progressive Youth Organizing 
Committee ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes, at this meeting the name of the organization 
was to be Youth for Political Action, and after it was formed and 
rumiing, the officers, after they were elected, were to affiliate them- 
selves w4th the Progressive Youth Organizing Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the national group of the Progressive Youth 
Organizing Committee was interested in establishing a branch or 
affiliate here in Minneapolis and did so under the name Youth for 
Political Action ? 

Miss WiTHROw. In essence, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was John Tillotson active in this meeting ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, he took part in the discussion as. did every- 
body there. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There are a few additional facts we would like to have 
from you with respect to your initial contact with the Communist 
movement. Would you tell us in more detail what explanation you 
can give for your contact with a member of the Freedom of the Press 
Committee, in 1956, 1 believe it was? What brought this about? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, it actually was a result^ — in October of 1955 I 
was attending the University of Minnesota and was taking sociology, 
and for a term paper the subject of my term paper was to be "Com- 
munism in America." While I was doing research at the public 
library I — among other things, I came across a mailing address for the 
Twin City area to get a copy of The Worker^ so I sent for one hoping 
to use some of the information in The Worker in building up my term 
paper. Well, quite a while passed and I had to hand in the term 
paper, I couldn't wait any longer ; and in general I forgot all about it 
until I was one night contacted by a member of the Freedom of the 
Press Committee, who said he had received the letter, but this was some 
months later. 



1718 COMIMTJXIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MESTNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you explain the circumstances under which you 
associated yourself cooperatively with the FBI in the investigation 
of Communist activities in the Minneapolis area ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, with this initial contact by this gentleman 
representing the Freedom of the Press Coixanittee, in addition to 
talking about The Wo7'ker and the stand taken by The Worker, he 
also discussed the role that the Communist Party had played in the 
past and the role that they were presently playing, how active they 
were in so many different areas, civil rights, peace movement, how 
active they were in the Twin City areas, and he made quite strong 
claims about what they were doing in the Twin Cities. Well, this 
bothered me a little because I guess I just hadn't realized that the 
Communist Party here was so active ; I hadn't heard too much about 
them. On a national scale, yes, but in the Twin Cities I just hadn't 
heard much about them, so this bothered me a little, figuring I didn't 
believe that they were this active. So a day or so later I went down 
and I talked to somebody in the Burep.u's office, the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, to find out mainly in my own mind if even half of 
what he said was true. 

Well, this gentleman in the Bureau's office satisfied me that a good 
portion of what this Freedom of the Press Committee member said 
was true, that they were very active, they were a growing committee, 
and we discussed this for quite some time. And that day he asked 
me if I was contacted again if I would help the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, and I agreed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Miss Withrow, you told us that you believe 
there was justification for concern about the Communist movement 
within the United States. I would like to ask you whether you feel 
that if corrective action is not taken that the Communist situation 
within the United States could prove highly dangerous ? 

Miss Withrow. I personally feel it could, because mainly, although 
they aren't very great in numbers, the party here, as I saw it, is very 
active and actually very dedicated ; and from what I read and see has 
happened in other countries, the Communist Party in the satellite 
countries before they took over certainly was not very big, and it is 
not beyond the realm of possibility that the same thing could happen 
here, and I just feel that something must be done to curtail these 
activities. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Do you have any specific suggestions for legislative 
or judicial action ? 

Miss Withrow. I really — it is such a big question I am afraid I 
am not qualified to answer this, but I hope that more qualified people 
will continue to do something about this. 

Mr. XiTTLE. You left the party in 1961, is that right ? 

Miss Withrow. That's right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what led you to leave it at that time? 

Miss Withrow. Well, the specific issue and the occasion I used to 
leave the party occurred shortly after I came back from the Chicago 
conference. During this conference I had made extensive notes, which 
is one of the few times when we were allowed to make notes. Well, in 
these notes I included, perhaps I went too far, I included references to 
the fact that the conference was so completely controlled by Mr. Kubin 
and Mr. Queen and, through them, by the Communist Party that in 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1719 

some instances it was rather obvious. Well, these notes were discovered 
by some party person, and I was called on the carpet for this. I had 
to give full explanation before several meetings, before a few full- 
party club meetings to various individuals, to one of the State leaders; 
in general, I had to explain my actions and attempt to justify them from 
a party point of view, and more or less I refused to do this. I was — 
at that time I was ordered to write a Marxist analysis of what I had 
done wrong and again I refused to do this and I resigned at that point. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did your assignment to youth activities on behalf of 
the Communist Party lead you to make your decision to leave this 
Avork ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Yeiy definitely. I had actually been — while work- 
ing in the youth activities, I was not working too hard. I, in some 
cases, was able to slow down activities, but in general I had been look- 
ing for some way, manner, or form in which I could get out of the as- 
signment and get out of the Communist Party without causing too 
much stir. This had been going on for at least 3 or 4 months prior to 
my actual resignation that I was looking for some occasion on which to 
leave. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Just what type of reaction did you have when you were 
made aware of the party's plans concerning their designs on American 
youth? 

Miss WiTHROW. To be very truthful, it made me a little sick, because 
the way they actually used the young people that they can get in touch 
with, the way they take issues that are important to the young peo- 
ple, get to know the youth this Avay, and then turn the young person's 
attention to what is described as more important issues and gain their 
respect, gain their confidence, and then over a period of time start us- 
ing them for their own means, hopefully in the end to recruit a lot of 
the young people into the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your opinion as to the future potential of the 
Communist Party in the United States ? 

Miss WiTiiRow. Well, I would hope that it would be curtailed either 
by legislation or judicial means, because, as I said, they are very active 
and I think they do have quite a potential the way they — they are very 
convincing the way they are able to exploit the, oh, the unfortunate or 
the injustices that do occur in this country. They are able to exploit 
them for their own ends and make people believe that their answer is 
the only answer. 

Mr. iSTiTTLE. Do you have anything further you would like to add to 
your testimony in conclusion ? 

Miss WiTHROW. Well, it is a pretty big question, but there is one 
point I would like to emphasize, and that again is the way they do use 
people, whereas so many times it is referred to as contacts, they don't 
always think of them as people, but just contacts. There were standing 
orders to be on the lookout for recruits, to be on the lookout for people 
who they could eventually influence to support them on issues or 
financially. They looked among their relatives, on their jobs, among 
their neighbors, and they were even ordered to join several organiza- 
tions so as to expand their area of influence; and this is actually one 
of the reasons why I really resent the misuse of the term, both locally 
and nationally, the misuse of the term "liberal," because I consider 
myself a liberal, but I do not consider myself liberal enough to bend 



1720 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

SO far over backward to defend tlie rights of these people who want 
to supplant our form of government with a dictatorship that I am 
going to let them walk all over me. 

I hope that through legislation, through judicial action, that the ac- 
tivities of the Communist Party can be curtailed. I think that's about 
all I can say. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have. Miss Withrow, offered testimony, or were 
subpenaed to testify, before the Subversive Activities Control Board 
recently ; is that correct ? 

Miss Withrow. That's correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We are interested in a brief statement with respect to 
the identity of two persons active in the Minneapolis area. Did you 
know a Claude McDonald ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party ? 

Miss Withrow. I knew him to be a member of the Communist 
Party. For a short time he was a member of the same club I belonged 
to, and then in 1960 he was named as one of those who would take 
the city committee, who would be on the city committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Clarence H. Sharp ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, I did. I knew that he was also at one time 
State chairman of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the conclusion of the staff interrogation, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I have a few questions concerning the 
organization of the Communist Party liere in Minnesota. 

I didn't understand. Miss Withrow, the distinction between the State 
board and the State committee. How do you distinguish between the 
two ? 

jNIiss Withrow. Well, the State 

]\fr. IcHORD. You said that the State board was the policymaking 
body? 

Miss Withrow. Yes, sir. In essence, it would be the executive group 
of the State committee. It was usually made up 

Mr. IcHORD. The members of the board were members of the State 
committee? 

Mips Withrow. Yes; they were taken from the State committee. 
There were usually the elected officers, plus maybe one or two other 
members of the State committee, who would serve as an executive 
group for the State committee. 

Mr. TcTTORD. They were elected at the State convention ? 

Miss Withrow. That's correct. 

Mr. IcHORD. You attended two of those conventions I understand? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I attended three sessions, but it actually was 
all one convention. 

Mr. IcHORD. Where was that convention held ? 

Miss Withrow. They were all held, let's see, well, tliey were held 
in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE MINISTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1721 

Mr, IcHORD. They were in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area ? 

MissWiTHROw. Yes. 

Mr. IcHORD. You stated that you were chairman of the North Side 
Communist Club? 

Miss WiTiiROW. That's right. 

Mr. IcHORD. As well as holding the position of treasurer and, I 
believe you said, educational director ? 

Miss WiTHROw. No, I did not say that I was treasurer or educa- 
tional director. Those offices also existed within our club, but I held 
the position only of chairman. 

Mr. IcHORD. How did you become chairman? Were you elected? 

Miss WiTHROw. I was ; at the first meeting where elections were held 
that I attended, I was nominated by the State secretary of the party 
at that time and I was unanimously elected. 

Mr. IcHORD. That would be Mr. Sam Davis ? 

Miss WiTHROw. That's correct. 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you know how long the North Side Club had been 
in existence at the time you became a member of it ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, actually the first, very first meeting I at- 
tended was not a meeting of the North Side Club ; it was held in south 
Minneapolis, but at that time I did not have enough knowledge of 
the structure of the party in the city to really know if this club had a 
name. It was shortly after that that I started attending meetings 
of the North Side Club. 

Mr, IcHORD. At the State convention, do you know how the delegates 
to the convention were selected? Did they come from the various 
clubs and how were they elected as delegates ? 

Miss WiTHROW. They were nominated and elected at each club; 
each club sent a certain number of delegates, depending on the size of 
the club and the number of dues that had been paid in the past year. 

Mr. IcHORD. I am very interested in the direction which you said 
came down from the State board in regard to gaining membership in 
the DFL. Does the DFL have an application for you to sign before 
you become a member ? 

Miss WiTHROw. They have a rather informal application blank, 
and you have to have at least one sponsor. 

Mr. IcHORD. One of the questions on that application blank is 
whether or not you have ever been a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Miss WiTHROw. It was at the time of this attempt by the party to 
infiltrate the DFL. 

Mr. IcHORD. Did I understand that you were directed by the State 
leadership of the Communist Party not to answer that question ? 

Miss WiTHRow. I was not; the other members who were joining 
at that time were directed not to answer. I had been a member of the 
DFL prior to my joining of the Communist Party. 

Mr. IcHORD. I see. 

Miss WiTHROw. A rather inactive member, but still a member. 

Mr. IcHORD. You mean they answered the other questions on the 
application form and didn't answer the question on communism ? 

Miss WiTHROW. They either did not answer it or answered "No," 
that they were not members of the Communist Party, 



1722 COMJVrUNIST activities in the MIXXEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. IcnoRD. Were those people questioned for their failure to an- 
swer that question on the application blank ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, in essence, the attempt actually fizzled out, 
because only one woman made an issue of it, and she caused quite a bit 
of controversy within the DFL club for some time, but eventually 
even she withdrew her application. 

Mr. IcHORD, Of course this was just simply an application blank; 
it wasn't in the form of an affidavit or anything like that ? 

Miss WiTHROw. No, it was a very informal application, mostly to 
get the person's name, address, and telephone number and enough 
background about them so that the other people in the ward club knew 
a little about them. 

Mr. IcHORD. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, I have just one or two questions. 

Miss Withrow, when you were chairman of the North Side Commu- 
nist Club, how many people w^ere members in that club? 

Miss Withrow. Well, it varied considerably over a period of time. 
At times there were only about 4 or 5, and other times it got up to 12 
or 13. 

Mr. Senner. In regards to the answer that you gave relative to 
counsel's question on disciplinary action taken against a member of 
the Communist Party for failure to comply with orders from the 
upper echelon, has there been any, or is there any, intimidation, 
coercion, threats against a member who wants to come out of the party, 
either by exposure, bodily harm, or something else? It is a compli- 
cated question. A'\^iat I am trying to say is. If a Communist who 
decides that this philosophy, that this is not for him or her and wants 
to get out of this cell or out of the group, is there any threat, either by 
exposure or otherwise against that person ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, I think to answer this I'd have to state two 
specific cases that I saw or took part in. One was the case of the 
former State secretary of the Communist Party, who did break with 
the party. He forestalled, shall we say, any further threat of ex- 
posure. He was somewhat known, but he forestalled any further 
threat of exposure by making a statement to the papers himself. How- 
ever, after he did break with the party, there was a great deal of dis- 
cussion on the club level — I happened to come into the club, the same 
club he had been in — just after he resigned, so between the members 
of that club there was a great deal of discussion on what should be 
done. Now, in some cases, personalities got involved, what can we 
do to him now, and also, this was brought up at the State convention. 
In general, it w^as more or less left to the current officers to decide what, 
if anything, should be done. I think, due to the fact that the gentle- 
man in question was popular with many of the people who stayed in 
the party, the question was just let slide a little bit, although we were 
more or less given orders that nobody was to see him again, nobody 
was to talk to him, to avoid him whenever possible. 

The other instance that I can think of is the time when I actually 
resigned. Even though I was, shall we say, in disgrace with the party 
leaders, they did not want me to resign. I had several discussions 
with the State secretary, and the final discussion I had with him where 
I told him flatly that I resigned, I am getting out, I don't want any 
more to do with it, even though he had been strongly opposed to many 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1723 

of the things I had done in the past, he attempted to get me to stay 
m the party. Finally we compromised, at his insistence, that I take 
a 6 weeks' leave of absence and that if I did not change my mind then 
my resignation would be effective, but I was told at that time to use 
that 6 weeks to do some strong studying in Marxist classics and change 
my attitude. 

Mr. Senner. Is there any pressure applied toward you since your 
resignation from the party relative to releasing any information or 
knowledge that you obtained while you held membership in the party ? 

Miss WiTHKOW. Well, it was just generally assumed that I wasn't 
going to. 

Mr. Senner. How was it generally assumed that they could keep 
you quiet ? That is what I am trying to get at. 

Miss WiTHROW. There were no threats, actually. I don't think the 
subject was ever brought up and discussed, actually. 

Mr. Senner. They didn't threaten to expose you through some devi- 
ous means as a member of the Communist Party if you would by chance 
relate, reveal, expose activities of the Communist Party in Minnesota ? 

Miss WiTHROw. No, they didn't, at least not at that time. 

Mr. Senner. Do you know of any case where threats of bodily harm 
have been directed toward a member who wants to resign from the 
Communist Party ? 

Miss WiTHR0"w. AVell, I myself never heard any such threats of 
physical harm. 

Mr. Senner. In regards to your membership in it and your activity 
as the chairman of the North Side Club, besides the philosophy behind 
the political aspect of the Communist Party, was there any promise of 
reward ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, there was always the strong indication of 
the fact that as you go up in the party you gain a little more power, 
at least I never got so far, never got as high in the party as to get any 
promises of reward or anything, but they attempted at least — I think 
because I was a young member and one of the youngest chairmen 
they had — they attempted to point out the prestige that was attached. 

Mr. Senner. In other words, you would be the leader of whatever 
world we have tomorrow in the event their movement is successful? 

Miss WiTHROw. Yes ; one of the young leaders then. 

Mr. Senner. Wliy are the Communists directing their attention 
to the youth of this country in your opinion ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Well, I think the most obvious reason is that the 
current party membership is getting older all the time and they are 
afraid that they will all die off and it won't continue, but they do 
attempt to use the enthusiasm of youth to carry out some of their 
policies. The young people, influence the young people to really get 
enthusiastic and go forward, and this is the movement of the future, 
this movement is going to answer the country's problems, this is the 
only answer. 

Mr. Senner. In this area of the North Side Club, how many fronts 
or groups have the Communist Party joined, to your knowledge, to 
divert their activity into some responsible movement or group ? 

Miss WiTHROw. Actual front groups, you mean, or 

Mr. Senner — fronts, or PTA projects for example; you name it. 

Miss Withrow. Well, it is a little difficult to tell because, except for 
the groups like the Freedom of the Press Committee, the others join- 



1724 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

ing the PTA, joining peace groups, things like this, were encouraged 
to do this on an individual level, to consult with their immediate 
leaders about it. In many cases a lot of the party members would not 
know what the party member sitting next to them, what organization 
they might belong to, unless they brought it up in a report. 

Mr. Senner. One last ciuestion. When you made your various trips 
and excursions to the respective con^i'entions, who footed the bill for 
the movement to these various areas and the expenses ? 

Miss WiTHRow. Well, I made two trips to Chicago and in both 
cases I was given a little help, a small amount from the party leader- 
ship, and I was supposed to make up the rest in my own money. 
However, the Bureau helped me because I could not afford to make 
these trips b}' myself. 

Mr. Senner. As chairman of the North Side Communist Club did 
you receive any money from New York, the national headquarters? 
Did you receive money back to the club from the New York head- 
quarters ? 

Miss WiTHROw. This was a little out of my jurisdiction in that most 
of the finances were discussed only by the treasurer and the State sec- 
retary, who was a member of the club. We never did, as I remember 
it at least, get a full accounting of M'hat moneys we got back, what 
moneys we had on hand. 

Mr. Senner. I have no further questions. Thank you very kindly. 

Mr. Bruce. Miss Withrow, I would like to pursue a question raised 
by the gentleman from Missouri, Mr. Ichorcl. On the matter of the 
State conventions and the elections at your State conventions, was 
there competition for the offices that were up for election at the State 
conventions ? 

Miss Withrow. There were — the previous State board submitted 
a list. I don't know how big the State committee was prior to this, 
but they were to expand at this meeting to 34 members on the State 
committee. 

Mr. Bruce. Yes. 

Miss Withrow. The previous State board submitted a list of 34 
names who they considered qualified to fill these positions, and these 
34 people were elected. 

Mr. Bruce. They submitted 34, and the 34 were elected ? 

Miss Withrow. That's correct. 

Mr. Bruce. Were nominations allowed from the floor of the con- 
vention ? 

Miss Withrow. I think there were a couple of nominations, but 
there were also withdrawals. 

Mr. Bruce. They withdrew ? 

Miss Withrow. Yes. 

Mr. Bruce. Was it your definite impression that it was a handpicked 
group that was presented ? 

Miss Withrow. Oh, very definitely. 

Mr. Bruce. In other words, there was no semblance of a free and 
open selection by the delegates to the convention? 

Miss Withrow. The slate was presented, there was little or no dis- 
cussion, and the whole slate was elected. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Schadeberg. I have no questions. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1725 

Mr. AsHBftooK. Miss Withrow, in reference to your meeting that 
you discussed with Mortimer Daniel Kubin, was that under the auspices 
of the Communist Party or a front group, or was it just an informal 
meeting that you had ? 

Miss Withrow. Well, now, I attended a couple of meetings with 
Mr. Rubin, which one 

Mr. AsHBROOK. You mentioned one meeting where you had dis- 
cussion, or Mr. Rubin had a discussion, of youth activities, and so 
forth, to meet, I think you used the term, "college people," and other 
youth leadei-s who might be interested. 

Miss Withrow. Well, this was a meeting that was requested by Mr. 
Rubin. It was organized by myself and two other members of the 
Communist Party, and we invited some of the young people whose 
names we had been given by Mr. Davis and a few others. These were 
mostly university students, a few young working people, but this was 
sponsored technically by the Progressive Youth Organizing 
Committee. 

Mr. Ashbrook. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Miss Withrow, I will no doubt have something 
more to say about it, but at this time I certainly want to offer you the 
thanks of this committee and the side of Congress that it represents 
for your appearance and for your splendid cooperation. 

Miss Withrow. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

For the record, I think it would be appropriate for me to say this. 
The witness who has just left the witness stand named certain in- 
dividuals, and the witness to succeed her on the stand will probably 
name many more. Now, in compliance with the rules of the House 
and of this committee, I want it noted in the record that before this 
morning, quite some time ago, all those persons who were named and 
will be named were given a written opportunity to appear in execu- 
tive session to comment on, to explain, to refute, deny, or demolish 
the allegations. We didn't have any takers; nobody responded to 
the executive session we had this morning in another room for that 
purpose. There was one witness who appeared, not for that purpose, 
but on something else which I need not go into. But I want the record 
to note the compliance with the rules of the House and of this com- 
mittee in the interest of fair play. 

The committee will stand in recess for 10 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

(Withrow exhibits Nos. 1, 2-A, 3, 4, 5, and 5-A follow.) 



36-729 O— 64- 



1726 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

WiTHROw Exhibit No. 1 

An opening discussion . . . on . . . 

— Tiffi 1960 ELECTIONS — 

by a trade vmionist 

• ' •• June 15, 1960 

Since our la.st assees.aen-c of the ■political situation, which was 
after Humphrey's uithdrawal from the Presidential race, a number of 
new developments have taken place. 

Of course, the overriding event nhich has affected all political 
avenues throughout the country has been the U-2 affair and the 
ensuing failure of the Summit to convene. Oomrade Gue Hall's remarks 
on this matter need no repeating here, but two points need emphasis 
for this disoussion. But first let me reiterate that nhile the 
Kruechev visit to the U.S. did not change the basic course of U.S. 
imperialism, it did tend to open the door for the peace forces, while 
also providinjg the Republicans with the opportunity to wrap themselveB 
more tightly with the mantle of Peace which they have loosely worn 
since Korea. Ko^-'ever, neither the peace forces, which includes us. 
nor the Democratic Party with all of its different currents, or the 
labor movement made mucji tangible headway in exposing the illusion 
that the Republican party is the party of peace. 

The first affect of the U-2-Suramit failure that needs emphasis 
Is that it unmasked the real foreign policy of U.S. monopoly, made 
untenable the peace pose of Ike and the Republicans, created new 
opport\xnities and tasks for the peace forces, opened the door for the 
Democratic party, and started a stir in the labor movement. These 
positive features we must look into more concretely and exploit to 
the fullest in all of our mass work to advance the fight for peace 
in the context of the 1960 elections. 

The second effect of the Sumuiit failure was to provide the 
Republicans as well as the most reactionary sections of the Democra- 
tic Party, a chance to turn on the old, but still useful refrain, 
that the Soviet Union, notwithstanding its smiles of the recent past 
is the same Soviet Union bent on aggression by hook or crook. In 
playing this old tune, with all of its variations and new arrangements 
it hopes to build a crisis situation to weld a "national unity" in 
order to step up the cold war with all of its implications. And, 
according to Nixon, this may last another 50 years. 

While the concrete actions of the Soviet gnion exposesthis 
propaganda, our emplmsis should be that this policy holds dim pros- 
pects for the labor movement and all democratic forces , can only 
lead to V7ar and self-destruction, and that our national interest 
demands a return to the oath of ami tv , accommodation, and genuine 
negotiations. 

Of course, while searching deeper on these two points, we must 
attempt to see the overall picture, but our thinking of answers and. 
programs must be geared specifically to our area of operation. 



COMMUNTIST ACTIVITIES EST THE MESTNEAPOLIS, MESTN., AREA 1727 

WiTHROw Exhibit No. 1— Continued 
I960 Election Discussion Page 3 June 15, '60 



At this point, ~e must grapple -Tith these specifics: 

(1) Hou to particip'i.te in the exposure of the real Nixon and Rocke- 
feller '."Thile continuing denrinds of peaceful coexistence through 
disarmament, for civil liberties, for medical aid to the aged, etc. 

(2) How to advance the candidac:' of Stevenson while pressuring all 
candidates and the Democratic Party for the positive positions 
indicated above. 

As for the Republicans, vre need only to look at their slate of 
State candidates, remind ourselves that Goldwater was the State 
convention keynoter, and toss in Judd as the National Keynoter and 
we hc.ve a pretty sour concoction; notwithstanding this, and iiithout 
too much effort spent, re should be alert to any possibilities. 
At least, we can be gathering information on Nixon and Rockefeller 
that can go into leaflets for various social groups. In light of the 
Madison Square Garden meeting, and events else\;here, is Lhe Twin City 
Sa.ne Nuclear Policy Comaiittee merely a paper organization? — at any 
rate, it is the broadest peace vehicle and ve should look into it. 

Also, the Mpls . Independent Negro Voters League, which presently 
has 300 members organized mostly through churches and clubs, like 
the Sane committee, could exert influence on both parties. Here, I 
wish to insert that ve should arrange a meeting witn our Negro 
comrades discussing very concetely the Indep . Voters League:- its 
aims, potential, and how can they participate in actually promoting 
its programs. Also, can -.ve influence other Negroes with political 
experience, especially among the working class or with left leanings 
to actively participate in the Voters League functions. Also, tne 
NAACP must be considered as an organization for political pressure 
on both parties . 

On the Stevenson candidacy and the Democratic Party, the State 
DFL convention passed a resolution coirj.uending him as the caliber of 
ma.n for Democratic Pres . ca.ndidrte. Vve cannot overlook, hov/ever, 
that through Eugenie Anderson and Freeman, strong shades of Acheson- 
Truman got into the foreign policy plank. Certainly the situation 
is ripe for -Tork in the DFL clubs, and we should diecuss with specific 
comrades to find their way into DFL clubs , actively participating, 
but having certain specific issues for concentrated effort; such as, 
bringing the "Draft Stevenson" ca.mpaign into the DFL organization, 
using the better statements of Stevenson, Humphrey, etc. as a means 
of influencing regular DFL'ers. This certainly requires compiling 
such speeches and statements for these specific comrades. Since 
there is a large independent vote — is it possible to find ways for 
an independent grouping for Stevenson — such as along the lines of 
independent Floyd Olson groupings. Here I am not thinking of old 
Pror:ressive Party people in the leadership, altho they should not be 
excluded, but our outlook should be for new and broader forces. 
In view of the break-through in the fight for peace by a number of 
International Unions — Amalgaraa.tea , Packing, lUE etc. -- can any 
loca.ls be influenced to get into the draft Stevenson movement? 
Wha.t about Farmers? What about the 9th District Farmer-Labor Federa- 
tion? Also we should find our way to the stat^ leader of the 
Draft Stevenson movement. 



1728 COMMIINriST activities in the MESTNTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 1— Continued 

I960 Election DiBcusEion Page 3 June 15, '60 

On the Senate Rn.ce and Humphrey:- We must use hie favorable remarks 
on peace and civil rights nnd farm proolerns, pushing him to positively 
proclaim repeal of pH nnti-lrbor legislation. 

On the Congressional scene, as of noT7, the most important 
election is that of V.'eir -nd Rr.rth, v;ith '.7eir topping the list. 
Why? buoauBe notr/ithstandin^, all their irnpcrf ections , they are from 
the labor inovement, accept its leadership, and are presently in 
office. I 'jould even suggest that 'Teir's re-election may hang in 
the balance, because of changes in the composition of population in 
his district, his age and poor methods of campaigning, as uell as hie 
not being inthe good graces of the DFL heirarchy. As of nov/, I 
T/ould BUf^gest the v/hole Minneapolis p-rty mobilized for the 3rd 
District , 

Of course, our comrodes and friends must be provided 'jith the 
tools for ?ction in the 8th and 9th Districts and we should take a 
good look at the 7th District rith some discussion rrith residents 
of the District. 

A special look should be taken of the 5th District, bearing in 
mind the possibility of defeating Judd and the character of Matthews' 
ca.mpaign . 

Also, our coinrades in the trade unions, and especially in the 
C.L.U. nnd COPE, should consider the possibility of Inbor's own 
org-^nization Intthe 3rd District in the lig-ht of iTeirs cpndidacy, and 
specifically try to org-.nize a 3rd District Farmer-La.bor conference. 

This year is also a State election year. Any program, from 
highways to hospitals, etc., requires a budget for millions of dollars 
v/hich has to come either from the corporations or the people. Taxes 
obviously is ^:oing to be the major issue. This means sales tax, 
v;ithholding tax, payroll tax, direct, indirect, and all the gimmicks 
of enabling legislation for the; same. 

A bigger step must be taken on the question of Open Occupancy 
with our eyes turned to the labor r.:ovt.ment and the churches, partic- 
ularly in those areas •.vhere there is little or no Negro or other 
minority population. 

Labor's program for unemployment compensation, industrial compen- 
sation and minimum rages must find wnys of blending v/ith the net ds 
of the rural ond fan;, areas. 

Without getting into the question of v/hether or not the Party 
should run a candidate, in any case the Party must issue material . 
Here, hovever, inste'-d of an all-inclusive document, v;e should 
consider leaflets on specific issues directed to specific sections of 
the popuLation , "fith the aim of moving people into action in one 
form cr another for the 1960 election. 

Also, rhat is the situ'^tion in the Dakotas, and what con we do 
to influence it? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1729 
WiTHROw Exhibit No. 1— Continued 
1960 Election Discussion PfiRC 4 June 15, 1960 

Finally, re must take note of the Cit]' Charter Election and the 
leadership that Inbox gave. The vote tends to sho-7 that at least 
for those "^ho voted it 'Tas pretty auch defined as a vote of the poor 
vs. the rich '.7ith the snote: of the DFL voting with the rich. The 
"No" coalition, led by Ir.bor , iiicludt-d sonie Republicans as well as 
Independents. On the basis ot fiis, and the CLU's attack on those 
DFL leaders xvho voted v/itii the "i;.o?jopoly press", is it possible to 
open ne\T doors for a re-a.lign.',ient of forces in the affairs of the 
city and beyond? 

An enlarged State Committee i.iceting should be called with only 
one point on the agenda - the 1960 elections. If possible, sepa.rate 
meetings should be organized in the Dakotas. 

/// /// /// 



Space for Discussion Notes: 

7 



/ 



1730 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

WiTHROw Exhibit No. 2-A 



■^O-'Wa^^ 



Seer 

Enolosed are the following: 

1, The TaroBpeotUB of the very important new youth newspaper, ICSW HCBIZOHS . 

2, Memorandum eummarizing all neceeaary Information in connection with the paper, 
5» list of Buagestlons on ralaing funds and collecting subs . 

k. Questionnaire asking young people vhat they •want in MEM HQR 12016 . 

We need $5,000 and 2,000 suhs @ $1,00 a year by September 1 to launch and main- 
tain Mew Horirona . The drive opens June 1. 

We propose that your area raise $ / <^0 and 't O subs by September 1, If 
that figure has not already been agreed to, we hope tbat after discussion with 
progressiTe youth and adults, you will see your vay clear to accepting these 
goals. If you can't, let ua know. 

In order to assure a truly national character to the paper, we would like to 
have a young person from your area to serve as c^rT/\^. -gyi:!^;^^^;^,,,^,^^ . 

We •want to put the name or pen name of the young person on the masthead. We 
vould also like a a sketch of this person's youth activities and organizations 
vhloh can be used for publication, 

PubUo atmouno^nesb by ads In the left and liberal press and by a large mailing 
of the printed prospectus will take place possibly in early June but certainly 
by the third \Jeek in June, We would like each area to order copies of the printed 
prospectus to mall locally to adults and youth. The prospectus asks for money 
(frcm adults especially) and for subs (from jrouth ospecially), V/e vlll pay for 
the prlxiblng. 
f .S ^^kn-iyi. /?'H-<t^<--v^ _-2^U«_v-70<^ c^-^ CHu- Yours truly, 

^JixM^ ^-/JUa-'x-^ c^^-^-ca^ ^^-o-rwr" , Danny Rubin, editor 



We accept the suggested goals _______ subs ; $_ 

We propose Instead subs ; $_ 

The neme of the youth to be cm the masthead is: 



Address ( for correspondence vlth editor only) 
Sketch of activities for publication: 



The number of copies of the printed prospectus we want is 
Mail them to : __________^________^.^_^__^____^.^____ 

Ifeme 



Address City Zone State 

We need all the above Infonnation by May 27, Any other comments are, of course, 
velcome. 

Mall the reply form to Daniel Bubln, Boom 235, 799 Broadvay, New York 3, N,Y, 
First Contributions vlll be appreciated. 



COMMUNIST ACmVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1731 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

Dear Comrade: 

On the Initiative of a number of young people, 
a Marxist monthly Is being launched some time In the 
month of September. The name of the new magazine Is 
*'New Horizons," 

That such a paper Is timely and can be of 
tremendous help In crystallizing a Marxist youth 
movement Is evident to all of us. 

It Is ny opinion that all those formerly 
active In the youth movement, especially f ormer 
YCL^ere or LTL'ers, should help fin&nciaiJiy W 
launching this paper. Those working on starting 
the paper are doing a very excellent Job from all 
the material that we have seen. They look for 
support from many circles among youth as well as 
adults • 

I therefore want to appeal to you personally 
as a former YCL»er or LTL»er to pledge $10. as a 
contribution and solidarity with this new youth 
venture. If you can, send your own $10,, or col- 
lect $10. from a group of your co-workers. 

This Is a personal appeal to you and I would 
urge you to act as I am doing. Send the money di- 
rectly to me and I will turn It over to them as a 
contribution from all "former youth." This will 
be presented to the youth paper In the nane of 
Henry Winston, Gil Green and Bob Thompson. 

Comradely yours, 

Phil Bart 
3rd floor 
23 West 26th St., 
New York 10, N.Y. 



1732 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROw Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

im'! HORIZOI-IS 

Founders Fund and Suliscription Drive - June 1 to September 1, i960 

What folloTTS are au^rGestlons to aid friends of riET/ HOI^I Z CTIS in raising money and 
securinG' subBcriptione. There is, of course, no pattern to fit all circumstances. 

A successful carapaicn requires; 

1. Conviction that MM HOSIZOHS is very important. 

2. Planning and orc'anizatlon. 

3. Follovr-throuGh - to see that desires become reality. 

I mportance 

1. Read the Open Letter ( prospectus ) of IMT HORIZONS . 
Appeal to Adults ( Especially for contributions to sustain the paper) 

1. By aidinc l^OT HORIZONS, adults help the rapidly croTring youth movement for 
democratic advances and thus they contribute to a better future for our 
country. 

2. Adults vnlll be helping assure a better future for their ovm children. 

J. I'TEV/ HORIZONS nill help their children and other young people understand 

the iTorld they live in and more effectively participate In chanclnc 

that world for the better. 
k. The publisher, Youth Publications, Inc., is composed of a group of young 

people and not any organization. It depends on its individual supporters 

for its e:-:istence. 

5. T/e are here to stay; Tie feel certain of our need and confident in our 
future. 

6. Besides a financial contribution, we hope adults uill encourage their 
children to subscribe. 

7. Suggestions and criticisms from adults vrill be nelcomed by the editors. 

Appeal to Youth ( Hspecially for subs) 

1. It should be made clear to young people that MUf HORIZONS is their arm 
foruia for e:rpresslon. Everyone is welcome to contribute his or her work, 
opinions, suggestions, etc. 

2. I'lUT HORIZONS is controlled by no organization, but rather it is run by a 
group of young people. It depends financially on its readers. 

r. The desire of ^137 HORIZONS ' Editors to write what its readers want is 

shown by the "Reader s Opinion Poll". 
k. By carrying nation-wide nevfS and views on youth's problems and activities, 

NB7 HORIZONS will be helping to further the actions of youth for their 

needs. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVmES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1733 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

LIST OF SISCIFIC SL'GGBSTIONS 

( Many of these projects can "be planned and some carried out before first publica- 
tion.) 

I. First Steps in Gettinf; Contributions and Subs 

1. Subscribe and contribute yourself. 

2. Have your parents and relatives make a conti-lbut7lon. 

3. I.Ialre a list of your close friends and visit them for subs and: money. 

h. Have your friends and your orcanization help you visit others for subs and 
money. 

II. Further Steps 

No one can do everything at once. V/e suGCest tacklinc some of these bicser 
projects after makinc headvray on the "First Steps". 

1. Go to procreosive summer resorts and ask if you may collect subs and/or 
funds for rnj/ HORIZONS . After cetting approval, orcanize the canvassing. 

2. Plan social events, summer picnics and educational events to raise monej' 
and collect subs. Ilembers of the AMI HOHIZOHS staff v;lll be available 
for such Catherines. 

-. Since subs are only $1 a year, many people can buy tiro or three subs and 

make cif^s of the extras. 
k. Get people to pledge a large sum of money to be paid over a long period of 

tine. Then organize periodic collections of the money. 
5 Place adc in local papers. ( To be financed locally) 
6. Ask school and public libraries to take subs. 

III. THiere and Hon to Sell Single Copies 

1. Sell JET HOP, IZ DNS to friends in your organization. 

2. Ask your organization to sell NEVf HORIZONS . 
Z. Door-to-door canvassing. 

h. Sales at recreation centers, corner candy stores, dances, high schools, 
college, evening schools. ( Check regulations on hovr close to schools, etc. 
you may sell the paper). 

5. Plan to hit the same places and people T7ith succeeding issues. 

6. Make arrangements v/lth nev/sstands to carry EJ HOBIZONS . Report to us the 
maximuri price they nlll pay us in your community, 

7- Plan to sell the paper at major events of a political and/or youtliful 

nature. Consider here, the problem of possibly antagonizing the organizers 
of the event. Consult vrith us T7hen in doubt. 

TV. Promotional Offers 

1. For every 15 nen subs collected by an individual, Wl! HORIZONS is offering 
a choice of one of the folloT;ing LP records: 

a. Bernstein; Vfest Side Stor.y ; Columbia 

b. Odetta; Ballad for Americana and Other American Folk Song s; Vanguard 

c. Beethoven's Violin Concerto ; Oistrnlch and French Orchestra; Angel 

2. Sell a six-month Introductory sub for 50p apiece or buy one for a friend. 
Z- For a bundle of 10 or more single papers ( not subs ) the price is 69; per 

copy, money to be paid in advance. 

V. Business -Like Methods 



1. Me prefer that you use official NE\7 HORIZONS receipt books uhich vre will 
send you. Make sure you give a receipt for any money taken for the publica- 
tion, nhether a contribution, sub, or other. 

2. If you like, vre can mail subs belonging to several people all to one address. 



1734 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

NEIV HORIZONS FOR YOUTH ^_^ _ _- 
Youth Publications, Inc. 799 Broadway, New York 3, N.Y. 

PRESS RELEASE 

The publishers of New Horizons for Youth today released the 
following statement: 

In September of this year the first issue of a new, national, 
progressive monthly will appear. Called NEV) HORIZONS FOR YOUTH , 
it will cover all subjects of interest to young people — social, 
cultural, athletic, political. And, in the spirit of youthful 
inquiry, constructive controversy will be welcomed. 

This publication will be written by and for high school, collof 
and Working youth and its program is: 

1. Peaceful coexistence with all nations, socialist and 
other; disarmament; an end to the draft and compulsory 
ROTC. 

2. Integration In schools, eating places, shops and every- 
where NOW. An end to cancerous racism. 

3. A vast job-training and jobs program; a steep Increase 
in the nations school, housing and other welfare pro- 
grams, using funds released by disarmament. 

U. Expansion of democracy, youthful inquiry, and academic 
freedom by eliminating McCarthyism, past and present, 
from our national life and by the firm defense of the 
Bill of Rights. 

5. Examination and advancement of the democratic, labor . 
and socialist traditions and aspirations of the America 
people, especially of its younger generation. 

6. Instead of the false answers of cynicism and demoraliz- 
ation, ideals of service to society and confidence in 

a brighter future, exemplified by the heroic actions 
of Negro students in the sit-in movement. 
The following distinguished citizens are among a larger group 
of Adult sponsors of this publication: 

Dr. Herbert Aptheker, Elmer Benson, Dr. V,/,E.B. DuBois, Dr. 
Barrows Dunham, Roverand Stephen Frltchman, Rockwell Kent, 
Carl Marzani, Rov. vmiiam Howard Melish, Capt. Hugh Mulzac, 
George B. Murphy, Jr., Scott Nr.arinp, Prof. Dirk Struik 



COMMUNIST ACmVITIES IN THE MESTNTEAPOLIS, MESHST., AREA 1735 

WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

Their endorsement dees not, of course, indicate respon- 
sibility for the day-to-day policies and views cf the publication. 

The editorial board will be comprised of the following 
young people: 

Daniel Rubin, Editor 
Joseph Bauer, Managing Editor 
Edward Fujima, Business Manager 
Wendy Margolls, Public Rolaticn Director 
Felix Carter, Philadelphia 
Anne Griffin, Now York 
Nina Potetz, New York 
Kathy Bobbins, Philadelphia 
Judy Sindcc, New York 
Mike Stein, New York 
NEVJ HORIZONS FOR YOUTH is under no organizational sponsor- 
ship or control. The y.uth who will be participating in the publica 
tion of this tabloid-size paper have diverse backgrounds in many 
youth orcanizatirns and activities such as scouting, trade unions, 
and church groups. Their views of social and political issues vary 
but fall within the broad spectrum of the left. 

The paper will print news, creative writing and letters 
sent in by interested young people. 

Slnoe New Horizons for Youth is not subsidized by any 
organization or large advertisers, it will depend on public contri- 
butions to supplement funds from subscriptions. 

Subscriptions may now bo secured at $1,00 per year from 
Youth Publications, Inc., Room 235, 799 Broadway, New York 3, N.Y. 



### 



1736 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

YOUTH PUbL„..\TIONS. INC. 

RM. 235. 799 BROADWAY 

NEW YORK 3. N.Y. 

Wl HCBEOK FCB YOUTH; A EROCKESS EEPCET 
Publication Date 

The staff of Mew Horlzona for Yputh Is hard at work to get the first 
lasue In Septenber off on the right foet. On Septenber 9 the paper will roll 
off the presses and It will be in your hands within a few days of that date. 

Besponses So Far 

Eesponses fron young people across the country have been very enoouraaing. 
Conultteee of youth to pranote N.H.Y. have been established in Philadelphia, 
Detroit, and Chicago thus far. 

Many wonderful ideas and naterials have cone in. VJe have received enoujii 
poetry to cover every inch of space in the first edition. Sone art work, includ- 
ing drawings for a r.iasthead, hes cotie in. 

Answers to our questionnaire have been nost Instructive. One lesson we 
have drawn fron then is that we need as nuch coverage of develop-aents in science 
as we can manage. 

Keep it all coning, including nore poetry. Let's have sone photographs of 
those hot youth actions. Vfhat we can't print, if it has value, we will try to 
ulneograph and give as wide a circulation as possible. Not all areas are sending 
us news clippings or stories on youth problens and activities. If you want the 
rest of the country to know what is going on In your neck of the woods, you'll 
have to get the uaterial In by August 20 to EDke the first Issue. 

Sone areas haven't yet selected the correspondent or Editorial Council neri- 
ber requested. We need the nanes fron each area to publish in the first issue. 

Artists and Designera 

We need designs for our nasthead by August 26. Cartoons dealing with so- 
cial and political questions are also needed, VJe'll run a cartoon per issue. 

Rresent Plans for the First Issue 

1, The two conventions and youth electoral activity (news coverage). 

2, Surzier sit-ins and other plans and activities In the fight for Negro aqual- 
Ity (news coverage). 

3, Youth in peace narches, international youth gatherings such as the latin 
Anerlcan Youth Congress (eyewitness report), youth activities around the 
world (news coverage). 

k, Afterriath of the San Francisco House On-Anerican hearing protests, activity 
against loyalty oaths in high schools and colleges, acadenlc freedon viola- 
tions (news coverage). 

5, Sunner Job situation for youth and its li.ipaot on Juvenile delinquency (news 
coverage). 

6, Satire colunn (regular feature). 

7, Cultural section, featuring this Issue a review of past and coming TV seas- 
ons, and other subjects (regular feature). 

8, Sports colunn — a progressive slant enphaslzlng special aspects, non-profes- 
sional sports, etc. (regular colunn). 

9, Teen-age section — news briefs on activities and discussion of hot teei 
topics (regular feature''. 

10, College student section ~ news briefs, lEA Congress, etc, (regular feature). 

11, Working youth — news briefs (regular feature'', 

12, Cartoon (regular feature). 

13, Educational feature — first subject will be the contribution of radicals and 
socialists In pointing to solutions in tines of national crisis. 

(see p. 2) 



COMMUNIST ACnVITIES IN THE MINN^EAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1737 
WiTHROw Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 



lU, Mieoellaneous srjaller Itens. 

We have adopted a general word Unit for a single article of 1*75 words. Only 
the educational feature will te longer. 

Your connents are welccoe. 

Uninterrupted Publication 

We want to avoid the chronic energenoy appeals for funds that so riany left 
publications are forced to nake. We want to have uninterrupted publication. To 
do this we need to get off to a good financial start. The warn reception for 
the paper has not yet taken the fom of sizeable financial support. OrgBnlEed 
efforts to secure contributions froi adults and subs fron youth must be stepped 
up sharply if we are to avoid the problens nentioned. 

Soue people are waiting for bundles of the first issue before really getting 
to work on circulation and finances. Before putting in the large initial outla;- 
for publication we need sons assurance of success. Guesses on circulation are 
not enough. That is why we need a naxlnun of subs and contributions prior to the 
first Issue. Even after publication subs are crucial. They give the paper sta- 
bility that the ups and downs of bundles cannot give. 

A few areas have not definitely ccnnltted thenselvea on sub and contribution 
goalsi Unless we hear differently we will assune agreeaent on the suggested 
goalSf all of which are rather nlninal. 

As of ^ \ "^ "^ I ^0 your state is credited with ^C subs 

(goal ^0 ) and $ O in contributions (goal "|(>C ) . 

Bundle Orders 

As stated previously, a bundle of single copies will be sold to ycu at the 
rate of 6^ per copy if the noney is paid in advance. Bundles not paid ixi advance 
will cost 75(^ per copy. Please fill in the order blank beloij for your first 
buaile order. How is the tine to figure out how riany you can use and how you ijill 
sell then. Enclosed is a sheet of suggestions for circulation and fund raisir.^;. 



Please fill in the dates en school schedules in your area and return proiiptly. 
This will help us plan our publication schedule. 

High School College 

Start of Fall i960 Tern 

Christnas Vacation Fron to Fron to ■ 

Beginning of exans 

End of Fall Tern 

Start of Spring I96I Tern 

Easter Holiday Fron to Fron 

Beginning of Exans 



End of Spring Tern 



X wish to receive copies of the first issue of Hew Horizons for Youth 

and be billed for then at the rate of 6^ per copy. It is ny understanding that 
If the bill is paid prior to shipment the price will be?.-^ per copy. Ship the 
copies (bundle) to 

Kane Address 

City ... Zone atate 



Our standing bundle order until further notice is 



1738 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 



ON_N_§W_ HORIZONS FOR. YO_UTH 

Dear Friend: 

SOMETHING_ A new horizon extends before us. In September, 1960, 

B^^^ttl ^ "^^ youth publication, NEW HORIZONS , will appear. 

NEW It will be written by and for high school, college and 

working youth and will have contributions from dis- 
tinguished writers of all ages. All problems and activi- 
ties of young readers as they grow into adulthood - social, 
cultural, athletic, scientific, political - will be its concern. 

Designed to illuminate the great events stirring the American 
youth, NEW HORIZONS will stand on the following program: 

1. Peaceful coexistence with all nations, socialist and 
other; disarmament; and end to the draft and compul- 
sory ROTC. 

2. Integration in schools, eating places, shops and every- 
where NOW I An end to cancerous racism. 

3. A vast job-training and job program; a steep increase in 
the nation's schod, housing, recreation and health pro- 
grams, utiliang funds released by disarmament. 

4. Expansion of democracy, youthful inquiry, and academic 
freedom by eliminating McCarthyism, past and present, 
from our national life and by the firm defense of the Bill 
of Rights. 

5. Examination and advancement of the democratic, labor 
and socialist traditions and aspirations of the American 
people, especially of its younger generation. 

6. Instead of the false answers of cynicism and demoraliza- 
tion, ideals of service to society and confidence in a 

brighter future, exemplified by the heroic actions of 
Negro students in the sit-in movement. 

WHY NEV/ Should we be able to soar through space in a rocket taking a 

HORIZONS ' ' few quick photographs of our planet, surely they would re- 

veal: 

* Man-created wealth in the U.S.A. capable of giving youth 
the highest level of well-being and culture known to recor- 
ded history. 

* Poverty for 2 million young people, unemployment for more 
than a million of them; fear of H-bomb destruction; a star- 
ved educational sustem,; the poison of race hatred; and the 
widespread demoralization called juvenile delinquency. 

* A great section of humanity ;hat has chosen to build social- 
isnn in their countries as their answer to man's eternal 
search for an ever richer and fuller life for each new 
generation. 

* Another vast part of humanity, mainly the darker peoples, 
struggling for the freedom to make their own decisions and 
to live in dignity; in this area the youth are often playing 
the driving role. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MESHSTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1739 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

Page 2 

♦ A ferment among American young people unmatched since 
the 1930's, with heroic action by Souther Negro students 
and thousands of supporters, numerous actions for peace 
and the right of youthful inquiry. 

Because this rocket-eye view of the world and of our country 
is so exciting, keeping pace with the speed of our rocket 
travel, we have decided to launch NEW HORIZONS . 

These exciting events need recording and deeper thought as 
to their meaning. Youth needs a place of its own in which tc 
exchange opinions on these events as well as on other aspectf 
of the life of youth. We think our publication can help. 

Our paper will also welcome controversy that is creative. 

Besides the tremendous sit-in movements in the South, 
student petitions to end A-bomb tests, peace walks. World 
Youth Festivals, actions against ROTC and against high scho 
and college loyalty oaths, there are other stirrings. Young 
people are searching anew for radical ideas which will re- 
generate Annerican life. Witness the birth throughout the 
country of study groups and forums. 

Because of this new current too, we believe publication of 
NEW HORIZONS now is especially timely, 

NEW HORIZONS will appear as a monthly, tabloid-size 
newspaper. 

In creating this publication, a group of us fronn various cities 
and with diverse backgrounds have formed ourselves as a 
staff. We have also asked a number of well-known adults to 
serve as sponsors. Some of their names and ouisare listed 
below. 



IS NEEDED 



NEW HORIZONS can be successful only if large sections of 
the youth and many progressive adults feel that it is a neces- 
sary project that they will support. 



You can support it by: 

* Subscribing now at the price of $1.00 per year. (The price 
per issue will be 10^. ) 2, 000 subs are needed by September 

1 to give the paper a good start. 

* Contributing your dollars to the $5,000 fund needed to start 
publication. A gift sub will be given for every $5. 00 contri- 
bution. 



* Contributing newsworthy material on youth activities, 
problems of youth, sumitting creative writing, cartoons, 
letters, etc., to NEW HORIZONS , Room 235, 799 Broadway, 
New York 3, N. Y. 

Let's hear from you now! The fall will be too late if NEW 
HORIZONS is to be born on schedule -- September, 19o0. 

EDITORIAL BOARD 

We are waiting for the addition of a few more young people 
from cities around the country before publishing the full list. 



1740 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROw Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

Page 3 
ADULT SPONSORS 

We, the undersigned, welcome the launching of the youth 
publication outlined in this folder. 

Our endorsement does not, of course, necessarily indicate 
approval or responsibility for the day-to-day policies and 
views of the paper. 



Send me NEW HORIZONS for one year. Find enclosed $1. OC 
in check, money order or cash for my subscription. 

Enclosed also is my contribution of $ to maintain 

NEV/ HORIZONS. 

Name 

A ddress 



City _Zone State 

Send my gift eubscription to: 

Name 

Address 

City Zone State 



M5^ii£.^y:.£li?f'i5£ ^^^ money orders payable to 

Mailing address: 

NEW HORIZONS 

Room 235 

799 Broadway 

New York 3, New York 



COMMinsriST activities in the MnsTNEAPOLIS, MESnsr., AREA 1741 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 2-A— Continued 

Page 3' 
ADULT SPONSORS 

We, the undersigned, welconne the launching of the youth 
publication outlined in this folder. 

Our endorsement does not, of course, necessarily indicate 
approval or responsibility for the day-to-day policies and 
views of the paper. 



Send me NEW HORIZONS for one year. Find enclosed $1. OC 
in check, money order or cash for my subscription. 

Enclosed also is my contribution of $ to maintain 

NEW HORIZONS. 

Name 

A ddress 



City Zone State 

Send my gift eubscription to: 

Name 

Address 

City Zone State 



Make_a^ll checks and money orders payable to : 

Mailing address: 

NEW HORIZONS 

Room 23 5 

799 Broadway 

New York 3, New York 



' The original exhibit, as this reproduction indicates, had two page 3's. 
36-729 O — '64 6 



1742 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

WiTHROW Exhibit No. 3 

1 ..ve'.tcr 7, i960 

Door friend: 

Koop Doceribei 50 thrcush JtrUtTy 1, 1961, p'jr fjr s :ii.et tiportont 
svent, Ve Invito you to corie t , Chicofe ;, Il].lr At", tj ottv^d e nptl>nel 
oonfaronce vhloh vUl oetoblleh u c /itilttci to ar^riza a retior«l suclel- 
let-crlyntod jnuth or/jmlzot l->n. 

Thlo Ib the oge :f epcoe explcretlm end of out /irtljr. V'o iiuat vnrk to 
asBui-o the hiBione uee ?f :-iDderti tochn 'IJGy; wo riuet donnrd end eetebliah 
the hi^hoct eter.derda of Qoclel c srduct , The ^jale of netljirl freodTi, 
of pef^oof'.iT. c -cxlotence, if deriDcrocy, of ending ecin'Tiic expl; Itet Ion, 
of production t-) benefit the maa jf hunenlty rather thrin f .t hu^e por- 
aonel profits, cf equal and froterncl rclotlons anong psoploe -- these 
goele ere stirring nilllora to action end heroic eolf-soorlflce. 

Thoee eentLnonte ere Inspiring 00 nany Anerloan youth In the struggle 
for a better life, for a better world. A couple of hundred thousand of us 
led by Nogro students In the South acted for hunen dignity. Thoueenda nore 
In Nov York, Los Angeles, Minnesota narohed for peeoe. largo nanbers in 
Ban Francisco and throughout the land acted to end thought control. The 
daciand for Job training end decent Jobs grovs, Va cannot be colled the 
silent ienoretlon. 

^ r- ,T'"'f ^'^ pr'^ductlrin teohnlgue and social Justice autocjotlcelly 
vent lizrd in hand, toon ou. country vcula be x.t-n Unoo :■ I'rjht c* aocl»l 
adT-anoe for the velfare of ell its people rather than fcr the benefit of 
the ovnars of the huge corporations. 

But the prccilBo of a full, rich, happy life for ell our people i« 
not being realized. It is the greet gsp between our country's potaiitlal 
and its claina on the one hand, and life no it ie on the ether, that la 
atlrring so nany of us young people Into octlon. Vie aro fed up vith pra- 
tendlons to denocrccy vhlle Kugro end other nlnorlty youth ere dunled 
©quel opportunity in education. Job trolnlnc, t*iploy-ont, voting, uae af 
public facllltiae, etc.; vhllo vhite youth ere poisoned by laciet ti-alolnj; 
vhlle young peoplo i.uet take lojulty oeths or have thjl. political beliefs 
InYeetlgated In order to obtain coll^Ge loen funds, >-»iuftu frai hljb 
school, or obtain a Job; vhlle the Houee Ur-Aiorlcnn Cimlttte ri.d lavs 
like the Soith and McOerran Acta continue to Tlolata the Bill of hi;]^tB 
and vhlle atudente are beir^ expelled, sonperided end otliemlce preaaured 
foi cit-in activity, for proteatliifi civil deferaa drill rtd -ther oxercise 
of their rl(;ht6. 

let us look at the crucial issue of peace as It eff'^cta our land Would 
ve oonfildor It peaceful If the lESIf e&rt plnnRS over Bt. I/:^u1p or If Cuba 
persuaded the rest of the vorld net to buy frxi ueT Du constant throats 
to reoUT'.e tasting and repeated calla for ncre arr^nentn indicate eupport 
for peoceT This is no voy to and the lntorfer«jnce of nllitary service In 
the Uvea of youth. It la no vay to cut the ianedlnte nllltary budget 
vblch should be done ao that funda vlll be aveileble for oorely needed 
social velfare projects like ech ole end hoapltalfl. 

Ve are fed up vlth bning told hov veil off ve all are vhen ve knov 
that one-qunrter of the thioe to flvo nllllono of ura.ployod are youth 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOUS, MINN., AREA 1743 

WiTHROW Exhibit No. 3— Continued 



under 25 yeore of fl;ic, vhen grovlng nunbera of youth are Tlctlna of nental 
and enotloiMl aicturbancee and the dlrorco rate for yc-jne narrlagos Is bo 
high. 

It la elckenlng to eoa the proti-rel-^r.a to ajrallty vhllo corruption 
In publlo effalra la revealod vith every neiv rrwopeper j^dllna. The 
drive for big profits rother then ejciel cdvtincc ond Jueticc o'uldoe *he 
aotlona of the 'bankers end crporatl jna who oapi-jsa 9dlf -i i^^teoua shock 
at "Juvenile delinquency." 

These condltlcna are hcvlng an irtiereo iripact jn averyjr.e'a pareonel 
life In a thoueand veye, big end pnall. Ko ore can llvo ur.tjuched by 
then, And lert^e nuribera of our G^riaratlon beve concluded they nuet act 
to clian^e those conditions. Learning leseona frm those etrug^jles and 
tiproaood by nevly revealed achloverionta In the lands of socle llsn and by 
their grofwlng noral authority, nore and ncre of us are bc[:,lnrlng to look 
for naw anavers and naw directions. In seeking solutions to our problens, 
can ve not ask: la not labor vital in helping youth to echleve its 
needs? la It not true that all youth, Negro and vhlte, have to stick to- 
gether to Inprove condltiona? Do not the tinea denand the creation of a 
now youth oraanlzation based on socialist prinolploa? 

Because so neny young people era dieaatisfied and are acting and 
searching for ansvers, ve believe it is tlnely to begin to organlzo a 
0«« BOO la list -oriented youth organization. It vill exanlno and help ad- 
varxe ^he •irroorBtlo, labor, and eoolallat trsdltloiM of the Anorloan 
people. This will give Ita perticipente gi3oi.v. u^i^rst«^Tidlng nf ythj 
young people have so nany problois in such a vealthy country and vlU 
give thji perspective in their activitiee in behalf of Aaerloa's youth. 

At cur conference we propose to establish an or^nltation oonnittae 
that vill help build such an or^nlratlon. We believe the orgpnirlng 
ocmlttee can be of aeiTvlce to the nany local progressive groups nov In 
existence by supplying educetlonel naterial, suggesting activities, and 
peaalng on orgBnlzatlonal axperlonces of sinllar groups. Ve urge you to 
present your idees at the Chicago conference. 

In our Judgment the Confarenco agenda should Include: 

1. A statanent of purpoeo end ori^anlzfltion. 

2. Adoption of an orgBnlring plan. 

3. Initiation of aujgoations for a caDpaicn on key iseuee of ooncarn 
to youth, 

h, Ceslepnetion of a oomittee to continue the vjrk of the conference. 

Your Buggoetlonfl for an agenda and on all other questions discussed 
Izx this letter vill be nost velccue. Tleese let ua know as soon as poa- 
alhle. 

Adrtreaa all oonnunloat iona or inquirloa to Roon 636, 799 Broadway, 
Hew York 3, Jl, Y. 

The oonferenoe will begin Friday erenlng^ Deoenber 30, at 7O0 po, and 



1744 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROw Exhibit No. 3— Continued 
-3- 

wlll end Sunday, probably In the evening. We will. Inform you of the 
exact place later, U'e hope to meet you at this significant national 
gathering of youth representatives. 

Fraternally youra. 

Matt Chapperon, « Editorial Board, Studies on the Left 

Aaron Libaon, President, Socialist Youth Union of Philadelphia 

Bill March, Chairman, Eugon Debs Society, U.C.L.A, 

Marv Markraan, President, ADVANCE, Socialist youth group in New York 

Lenny Potash, Los Angeles folk singer 

Ronny Radosh, President, Socialist Club, University of Wlscon.in 

Danny Rubin, Editor, New Horizons for Youth 

' « Orp;ar\lr<^tlonal affiliations are listed for identification purposes 

only, una do not necessarily Indloata ouppcrt fop the conferencs by 
- such groups* 



/4^^^i^ f^^^'<^'^^ " ^'-^'O^c. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEiAPOI/IS, MINN., AREA 1745 
WiTHRO^ Exhibit No. 3— Continued 

niiKT 8?gg;9P 7t30-10,30 P.M. 
It Ifatlcmal Anth«m 

2. Orcetlngs - Chloago Armngmenta CoraDlttoo 

3. Ouoat Speaker • Lula Safold 

V, Tntroduotory Remarks - Alva Buxenbaun for the Tnltlatln^ Cowslttee 
-, A'iwtlor. c? an Acsnda an'3 other Cor.fcro.;ii l.rT-r.gr'.-.^.t 
c» Discussion of Tntroduotory Remarks and general discussion 

Saturday Morning Qj30 - liOO 

Plenary Session 

1. Reoort froo Credentials Committee 

2» Reoort froo Coordinating Conralttee elected by Conference 

CoBsnlttee Meetings 

1 Deelarsitlon of Ihtentlona Coaalttee 

B Organizational Structure Committee 

C Organizing Plan CoiiTnlttee 

D Youth Bill of RiK'.ta CoTralttee 

E Miscellaneous Resolutlor? Committee 
Lunch m Hall 1:00-1 rU? P.m. 
Saturday <* f ternoon Session IrU^-UrOO 
Plenary Session 

1. Guest Sneaker - Pearl "art, attorney 

2. Report '>om Dec"'TTtlon o-^ Tptentlons Conmlttee (Committee A) 

3. Discussion and *.ct1on on Renort 
SaturJay V\p.ht 

Gala Party (Pl^oo tobe annoimced) 
P^AC"TTJL NKV TEA^. TOML/; 
Su nday Session 12rOO - 5rOO 
Report from Coramittcos B, C, D, E 
"discussion and -Xctlon on Committee Renorts 
'Zlectlons 
' d 1 oumment 



1746 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MESfNEAPOMS, MINN., AREA 

WiTHROw Exhibit No. 4 

Introductory n pr'nr''"-- 

By Mva Buxonbii'-' ^or tho 

Conference Tnt^'^tlnp Commltt'^'^' 

The Tnlttatlng Conmlttee v;olco!^es you to t^is eonforor.'^c. Thf^ 
c^on-it.toe consists of those oconle who signed th. c^^ll nnd no- ■ nr>oplo 
rrorr other nro«3 vho did not have a chance to slpn. Here t.h'^y -rrj. 

Why have we called this conforenco? "^hese are our rcicr. ;. 

We live In a stirring era of human history, f'lan's achicv-^ntr 
i"oneh ♦'■"om the core of the atom to t^a '-r^onslty of space. Auto^1.1*■lo^ 

f' ^,<>c-r.lcal advances maVe him caoable of nroduelnR onoufrh food -- "• 
o+;'-or cn.nnodltlns to Imorove his well bolnr ten fold. 

No loss st'rrlnc are his efforts tog uarantoe that those scimt'- 
ric r■^,^ Industrial developments will work for his bettcr'^Gnt nn'l no*- 
bo u"3od as instruments for a^-nlhllatlon, onslavmont an'l nnomnlovner.t. 

T' ■";r '^-''nrf? Cor -> better ""Ife include t'^'^ "'ovrir"*'^ ''or r>n:\rr 
nnd intltjnal Inde-^endence an(^ the establ^ shnont an'l j-^'"' -h of t*^*^ 
coci.O'st con-itr'es. "'any hundreds o'* mllHom the vot-i ] over have 
(j<^c1'ied the orly way to Protect their work and lives n- \ the lives of 
their children Is to act resolutely for oeace. 

Asia, A^f-lca and T^tlp America are no longer tho rol'l ninei o'" 
Imperialist 'vers. The sh': JOSses of the move-cnts for ''ull natJonii 
1' iependr i:;o on these continents point dramatically to tho rn-^ldly 
c anrlnp • orld we i Ive In. 

In Asia, Japanese youth have Inltlat' * ". strong and cffoctlvo 
poTC" movement. South Korean yo\Jth holped t^' oust Syncn->n Ihco. 
"■".r'-lsh youth were the naln spear^^oad of t'^e r3Volt against tie "orsdc- 
rr" dictif orshlp. 

In * f rloa the movement to end colonial do-.iiiatlon, de-i^'t. 
attemnts at suppression, Is devoloolng ra'^ldly and the icr? ? rf Ltr, 
Impact makes certain their achievement of full Independence. 

The people of Cuba have t^-cn o"*" *: shackles of forotpn domi- 
nation under the shadow of their onprf^sor. 

Er>ch day the strength of scciailsr. 'n the Soviet Union. Poor>lo's 
China and other socialist countries Is" Rrowlnp; and challoni»lnr tho 
United Ttatos In ♦'leld after field. The U.S.S.R. Is now laylnr dowr. 
n challenge to ourc country that the people of both countries cr>n or."ly 
benefit from. - i-fho can produce more goods and services and create n 
bettor life for' their peonle, 

T'lose developments ^ro more and more caoturlnr t' - hearts and 
Imagination o*" Ignited GtatTS youth through thoip vIt' -^••d doternlm- 
tlon shown by those pooole In building their countrV-., -^nd are adllnr 
l-potiis to t'^o already active oolltlcal and social mr.v -ents In our 
'vvn country. 

American youth are nart of this world-'-Uo movor.f r.t md dciand 
for ft life t lat measures uo to today's possibilities, '"•. year nro thorc 
v.'>re only nor.aslonRl rumblings among tho jT'it-.^. But 3 i": the first 
? It-Ins, vhlch took olace on February 1. I960 in Groensbor^, Nt.'.K 
"nrollna. an ever growing number of youth, ''ogro and white, have b'^on 
■"^Islnp; tielr voices, domandlnr a brighter future for all youn" people. 

".'^m Crow ffi-.st Go Nowi"t "Coe;)clstence or No Existence"- "an 'r.: 
fr Corrresslonal "inquisition."' t "Job Training for Youth.'"; "Vands O'T 

'. .'" These are the shouts of severjil fc»»e hundred thounanl yo"i»'. 
The horolc Nogrc slt-lnners are in tho forefront of the movor.rr^- o 
youtV for a bettor cr>untry. 

As youth rocognlB* the nr'od fo-, -ncj the possibility of at'r.lnr: 
better living conditions, the numbers of f^ose art-«n« to a--" '^vc 
those conditions will Increase. They . "'■' see t .« power of t'.oir 
united action and this too will brim* adaPvtons to their ranks. 



COMMUNIST ACrrVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1747 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 4— Continued 

-2- 

Youth organl nations, new and old, thnt. - - active on one or n-r'h- 
or of youth's problems are ^alnln)? strcr.'^*^^:-i n i p?aylnc n pn.^ltlvc rol'- 
In our country's development. But sonet'i^'- '." irilsslng from this zc^r.'^ 
of mountlnR youth activity and organization. \ rev; youth orpanizntlor. 
In needed which will oonslttently work on all tho interrelated Issues 
"-^o'nn American youth. 

• An organization which it dedicated to the strengthening o" -tccTuI 
Toexlstence and the freel.ig of youth from the burdens of i.'l'tary 
TPTvlce and that realizes onless the ^trurele for peace Is succcr.sful 
.:'^':re will bo no future at all for yotith. 

ry or:?nr Izatlon that will fight uncomnr 1ml singly to uproot now t^. 
cinoer of raclsir. which eats at tho heart o'" -■" nation. 
' A-^ orf;?n1 ration that will flpht for Job traln'ng and .lobs so tf-'t 
every youth has a chance to earn a living and begin family llff. vit- 
out worrying about the next meal. 

• An or.-anlzatlon that v/^ll work for better schools and ''or hirhor 
education that will not be barred to anyone for lac',^ of tuition. 

• An orcanlzatlon wording for an expansion of democracy, cnforcm.'^nt of 
tho Bill of Rights and an end to wltchhuntlng and repression, with- 
out those youth shall be hard lut to Inquire and to cnrry on tho 
nocessary struggle for Improved conditions. 

There Is need for a youth organization thnt will ta''c a firm stnnrl 
en all these Issues facing youth. And ther^ '-need for a youth orranl- 
z.T^lon that will provide a olace to delve ^r. "■ 'ho cfxusos o'" socItI pro- 
olons and their solutions, that will provide -- opportunity for youth 
to examine the Ideas of scientific socialism and for those w>o winh, 
the chance to study this outlook more deeply, Tt should bo open to 
membership for those vho do not necessarily agroo with all Its prlncl- 
-^■'f^s or activities, 

•» 

Such an organization would contrlbut* to youth an undcrstTrd'ng of 
the role the working class can an' wjl.l play In the winning of yuth'- 
neods and ma.lor social advamos. * vo'O ' -<ake a special contribution 
to building the v/ldest sort cr i/tv-vi i :tIon of youth and tholr orranl- 
rritlons for youth's needs. Tn part thlp would bo done by domonstrat rr 
the valuo o*" the closest ties of Negro and vhltc and by showing how nn*^ ■ 
communism is used to divide .youth. Tn short. It would be do'licatcd 'o 
the examination nr'l advancement of the democratic, labor and socialist. 
traditions and as^'rntlons of the American peoole. 

Growing out 0" tho sit-ins and oth'^r yout*^ actions, there lea ncv 
flourishing of nrof^rcsslve and socialist youth crt^anl z-'.t' ons, action 
ind study grouns, choruses and piibllcatlons. Th^ s tostl^'os to the 
r-^ed for and possibility of building a national youth c-ani zatlon 
making this unique contribution to American life, V'e .s-11 vigorously 
promote the building of such groups In more and more Icj-'lltics and 
•■'nir Ritherin*- together nationally. 

We shall devote our energies to t^e creation of s';c ^ a national 
i>anlzatlon In tho near future, aiming at a Founding C-^nvortlor. 'irhir 
c ."^ar, We Invito yoi>th throughout our country to 1o'n us In t'^n 
.^ofthy effort. 

J. F/lrar Hoover's fear of what we are doing and of Araorica!i yo":t>: 
■• :? very cltar. He and the other flcCarthylte forces are in troublo ••■n> 
u 1-. 'mcrican people and they are beginning to take vlld 3'<n(;;s. l-^jv-r 
■• • ' 'ils thf^ thousands In San Francisco who protested the a^-temptn o:" i,h'- 
■> Ur -American Committee to undermine democracy, jr- • -.r.ears *-ht 
• :o slt-inriars. And part of the local press ha- r,crT>\r oovor's 
..t^Tints to Inject lalse issues Into this conferen o and pr^ -.^nt o::r- pi-r 
right to peaceful assembly and free speech. 

A few years ago there was another man who saw comn.unlots cvory- 
.ere and was fearful of them. That was Tames Forrestal, .lecrotary of- 



1748 COMMUlSriST activities in the MINNEAPOLIS, MESnsr., AREA 
WiTHROw Exhibit No. 4— Continued 

-3- 

Defense, 'le ended his own life by lumping out oC a window nhoutln;^ 
that tho Russians were after him. 

As the McCarthyltes swlnjf wildly more and more sections of y^vith 
and our whole oeople conclude that they are dangerous to all we hold 
denr - the Constitution and Bill of Rights, etc. Right now t^e can- 
-lalj^n to abolish Moover's bosom buddies, the Mouse Un-AmerlcinR , Is 
reaching a peak. Tens of thousands of students and other Arr, ricans 
have signed petitions calling for aboil t' on of the Committee. A Inrce 
lobby to Washington has been called by rromlnent citizens for Tanuf\rv 2. 

FBT appropriations are coming up ani Moover is having Increar:!"'' 
^'.'ficulty here as th6 nask is ripped off his undemocratic activitTc:-. 
So scare headlines ar* his answer. H»»w 

Hoover by the wlldness of his attac'^'s on all "ho work for a bctt'.r 
life for the peoole of our country admits that he Is on the dcTcnTlvo. 
'^t Is we who are here and the youth all over the' covintry who aro r.ovlr.n 
ahead for our needs, No longer are youth and others covered by tho 
attempts to snear and divide. Rather they grow more determined to end 
witch-hunting and repression and wor^ for Improvments ln social condi- 
tions. They knov they are not alone, that w^de sections of our neonlf.- 
are with them. 

Hoover and his friends would like to prevent this conference fron 
taking place. Every method Is be^n? used. He Is trying to divide by 
In.lectinj? a false Issue, 'Ms charges of secret conununist meet^nr and 
communist control are obviously ludicrous. The letter of invitation 
to this conference was sent out widely to t'- 'r croups ap'-l Indi viduils 
the initiators thou^jht would like to exnloro t-.c proposals ind'c-Ttod 
in the letter. That letter was sent out *'ovc; her 7. Several newspnpcrs 
Including . New horizons for Youth , summarlzod the letter of InvHntion 
and listed its signers" 'fcny Thousands read t^ose public stories. As 
we said at our nrcss cof^ference we welcome partlf^' pation by -(^yjr.c, re- 
gardless of whether they are Democrats, Communists cr Re nub"" 'n-.i, l' 
they are favorable to t^e ourooses for w' Ich the conference \-ns called. 

We consider It an Insult to r --'•;:' vor ind to youth generally to 
assert that we can be controlle" by ap.yone. The only ones we knov of 
"ho are trylnr to control this co-^forenc ^ are J. Edgar Hoover anii his 
in-jociates. And we certainly will not allow him to succeed in control- 
ling us, telling us what to attend, what ideas to explore, etc. 

Those In attendance have varying beliefs and affiliations and we 
shall democratically make our own decisions despite Hoover's attempt to 
interfere. 

We will not be frelghtened by small groups of hoodlums incited by 
some sections of the press for wo know that the vast majority of peoplf- 
in our country and In Chicago support our right to free sneoch and 
assembly whether or not they agree with all our views, ^nd the moss- 
ages received and guest speakers here Indicate that this is true. 

Nor will we let those newspapers that lie and distort cause 
dissension, '/e will conduct ourselves in a nanner that is an exanDlo 
of dignity, decorum and democracy. 

We are sure f^is conference will be successful in whatever conclu- 
sions we reach despite all attempts to prevent Its taking place. 

Hoover is especially vicious in his attacks against us. This is 
because we have much to contribute to, as Veil as learn from other 
■"•erlcan youth in the course of pur Joint efforts to make our coxmtry 
fully what it can be - » country that rpovid«s a secure, full, rich 
life for its future generations. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREIA 1749 
WiTHROW Exhibit No. 5 
COMMUNIST PARTY, U.S.A. 



■iiita»c.JMi»ii>...:.L iM»iwrjai«i « in—i i iw.»-iCMl»iiii.—ii— iii M i, .^mmmmmeH.m ui.r 
23 WfST 26'^ SIRfET • NJW YORF )r n 1 • MU 5 i.'iO 



fsbruary 19, I960 



I%ar Club CtakiraMi: 



Or»«tlims! In a rsry real mhm jou ar* tlw l»e(«r of tbo Party. Tou nr* 
tba l»«4«r of our Party at tha point of production. Tou ara tha pilot at the point 
vtarsra our pollolaa ara glvan tbi teat of Ufa, of realltjr. This !■ generally ac- 
e«pt«d. But wbat ii not alvaya fulljr raallzed la that you are alao at the point 
vfaara our pollolea get tbair ipark, tbalr initial atart. A thought for a full pol- 
ler o*n begin only frori r^al axperlanca aad uot fro* abatract dlt'suailons — frcn 
■oaa experience that you at olub chalmam participate In yourself, or fron experl* 
enoea that you bear frna your club BBabera dally. 

One of tba aoat atubbom veaknaaaea of our Party li that v« do not get the 
full benefit of auoh experlencaa, and ve In tba leading bod lea need thoaa so-called 
•■all experlenoea Ilka life oeeda the aua. Tbia Includes suanarlzed erperlences, 
IndlTldual erparlencea, reactlcna both lAss and Individual to our Ideals, experl- 
enoea In struggle or e\fen Juat indlTldual expressions and discussions. Abore all 
ws oaad your frank raaotlooa aa olub cfaalraaa t.. our policies, to our press, to 
our sp*eetaea, to our leaflets. Otbsrvlae ve mj be putting out aaterlal that ve 
tblak Mate tba problaaa of the day but ve sight actually be shooting far off the 
mrk. 

Ve IMat to taka itapa to aaaura tbs corraetloo of this vaakaess and guarant- 
•• tfai eoBtlnuad flov nf Iteaa la both diatrlots. Wa vould Ilka Tery auoh to get 
yonr thinking cd bcsr bnat va oao aooosvllab this. 

Ib or^ar to gat a ela«rar piatiira of our Party, ve are enoloelng a abort 
quaatloaaali«. Plaaaa fill It out to tba bast of your ability and return It aa 
aooB aa poaalbla. Alao aand la your tbougtata on any otbar aatter that you aay 
tblak laportaat to o«r Party. 

Plaaaa fMI fra* to azpraaa your tbouthta on any qwstloo, whether poaltlre 
or oagatlTa, vbstbar polltleal or paraooal. Uae as aany srtr* sheets as you vant 
to and attaob tfaaa to lbs quaatlonoalra. But pleaaa return all of this a»terlal 
by Marota l^tb, either to your aeotloo or atata office. If for soms reason you can 
not ha^ thla la by tba I^tb, aead it aa soon after ttaat date as possible. If for 
soaa reaaoB you do not vaot to algn or Indicate the naaa of the club, this Is per- 
fectly alrlgbt baoauae vtet va ara Interested la Is getting the generalized picture 
of tbs Party. 

Thanking you for your cooperation and hoping to hear froa you, not only In 
anawar to tba quaatlontalre, but at any tlae, I aa 

Cooradely youra, 



Oua Ball, 
Oeneral Secretary 



1750 COMMUNIST ACmVITIES IN THE MINNBAPOIylS, MINN., AREA 
WiTHROw Exhibit No. 5-A 

(fh I960) 

Ilnd of club. Shop ? XMuttrUl lalchborbood ___ Oth»r ^JTlUjeJ 0»mPjUi ^ 

Bcw ivny do you •■tlakta at tba tot«l wabarahlp of roar olUbt IB otter vorAt, 
b(^ Miny ccnilder nissMlT** Mibora of tta* eliA vtetter tha/ p«]r du»a or attend 
■aatlnca or notT , {p Bcw May vitera pay doaaT Ui 

Bcw aany soai to iBotlnci «noa a yaar ______ tvloo a yaar .___ 

■ora or !••• ragularlyt ^ — — — 

Bow »ny ara Racro O Pnarto Klaan ^ llaxlo«a<<Aairloaa ^ 

■cw •iny ara vorkani 3 f»>«ara ■tuaanta / profaaaloaala _____ 

In bualnaaa ____^ uoaaqployad ) n ohjuJ 

*;». mkL^aV V ^** -»^^ Jt 1^^ M»akar* an yaiit «mb SO yMra of afi 3 

Eon Moy ara 50 or <imt I 

Bow loac tera you, yeuraalf, baas a igbir of tka Hrty eZifT^ 

Bcw oftan doaa your alub aaat ^<iA>tliltu 

B(^ wny leaflata baa your olob laauad darlac ttaa pact y»«r D 

Bow aany Wortoy raadjara ara tbara la your elA MMt ar Jurla«latlea ^^ 

Bear May Po lltleal yfalra doaa your oUk aall (^ — 7 . - 

Btw aaoy club aaabara raad yplltloal Affajrt <^ 

Do you baTa aducaticoal diaouaaloaa, eUaaaa or laoturaa UjLo 

What aaaa organlMtloaa do tha aa^Mra balooc to ^TH '^ , 1/^ IlL' , 

What la the aaln aaaa vork lad by your elub or by your alob aaifeara ^^^^^^^ 



What, oDcretaly, haa your cli^ dooa abouti 

tha 17th Comrantlco raaolutlooa S(li)-eA^ JjUl£t/jd dtS-^uj 
tha i960 alaotloaa ^^'■m^ ciu<lMXy9^<i^O(!t^ , rvTlS^i Vj LArrU 

clTll rlghta lagialatloD • . 

quaitlona of dtacrlalmtlcc <^ A^y^f^-:t?J i.j fA.^ 

tha atruggla for p*aoa iH^j2J/~tL^ A^^vvy g^i^g^ f UJ 1 1. lU) 

Do you bars any pUna for tba work of tba ooali« yaart {gQ '^SUuZo^^ -* jtku 

Hov would you aatlaata tba laadarablp or balp you fat froa your aaetlon, oouot^, 
•tata or national? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1751 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel, will you please call your next witness ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Would Norman John Boehnke please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Please stand and raise your right hand. Do you 
solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give before this 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Boehnke. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF NORMAN JOHN BOEHNKE 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, would you, for the purpose of the record, 
please state your full name and residence? 

Mr. Boehnke. My name is Norman John Boehnke, and that is 
spelled B-o-e-h-n-k-e. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. Boehnke. I was born May 23, 1926, at Bellingham, Minnesota. 
My parents' names are Gustav and Marie Boehnke. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Boehnke. I have had 10 years of education at Bellingham, 
Minnesota. I did not complete my high school education ; I completed 
that by correspondence here in St. Paul. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation and by whom are you 
employed ? 

Mr. Boehnke. I am employed by the Great Northern Railroad as 
a crew dispatcher. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been employed with the Great 
Northern Railroad ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Since 1951. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us your prior employments and the 
dates of them ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, from up to 1947 I worked with my father on 
the farm, and from 1947 to about 1949 I worked for Standard Oil as a 
gas delivery man, and then I again worked with my father on the 
farm, and in 1951 1 came to St. Paul. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever held membership in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what period were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party and in what area did you hold such membership? 

Mr. Boehnke. I paid my initiation fees to become a member in the 
Communist Party in 1959. I became an actual member in 1960 and 
continued as a member until 1968, and I held membership in the North 
Side Club of the Communist Party, the North Side branch orj I should 
say, the youth branch of the North Side Club of the Communist Party, 
and also the South Side branch of the Communist Party, all in Min- 
neapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you kindly tell the committee the circumstances 
and reasons for your joining the Communist Party? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, it was in 1958, one Sunday afternoon, that I 
was approached by a certain individual, who stated that he was in the 



1752 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

southeast area of Minneapolis to solicit funds in support for Morton 
Sobell. 

Mr. NiTTLE. By the way, who was this individual so that you can 
refer to him by name in the record ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. The individual that contacted me ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. BoEiiNKE. His name was Jack Barisonzi. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you spell that ? 

Mr, BoEHNKE. That's B-a-r-i-s-o-n-z-i. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Proceed. 

Mr. BoEiiNKE. He stated to me that he was in the southeast area of 
Minneapolis to solicit funds in supj)ort for Morton Sobell. Morton 
Sobell had been tried and convicted on the charge of conspiracy to 
collaborate with Julius and Ethel Rosenberg to steal atomic bomb 
secrets and have the information smuggled over to the government of 
Soviet Russia. And how an American citizen who was gainfully 
employed, as this man said he was, could use his freedom to try and 
free a traitor like Sobell is something that I could neither understand 
nor tolerate. 

Nevertheless, he tried to explain to me that mankind had once a^ain 
approached the turning point in history, which was just as decisive 
and final as when man moved out of the tribal stage into the com- 
munal stage, and from the communal stage into nationhood, and 
now he says we are moving into a society of socialism and that man's 
allegiance ought to be to this current of history, rather than to his 
native land. As he left, left my apartment, that afternoon, he gave 
me an invitation to attend a future meeting at the Lemington Hotel, 
which was to be the Morton Sobell Defense Committee — which was to 
be sponsored by the Morton Sobell Defense Committee. 

After he left, I began to wish that I had not let him in my apart- 
ment and I began looking for means that I could do something to 
stop this kind of activity that I felt was harmful to our country. 
About a week or so went by, and finally it dawned upon me that the 
best I could do would be bring the matter to the attention of the FBI. 
I called the Minneapolis office of the FBI, and the agent that I talked 
to, he was quite interested. He suggested that I go ahead, attend this 
meeting — I should feel free to do so — and if I wanted to I could give 
him a report on it. Nevertheless I think I did what other, or millions 
of other, Americans would have done at that particular moment, I 
declined to go, but as time wore on it bothered me; my conscience 
disturbed me that I had knowledge of certain activity which I had 
been doing nothing about. And finally I agreed to volunteer my 
services to the FBI and work my way into the Communist Party so 
that I could put myself in a position where I could report its activities 
to the FBI. 

Mr. N1TT1.E. And did you then serve cooperatively with the FBI 
during your entire period of association with the Communist Party ? 
Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I would like to ask, with respect to the conversations 
you had with Jack Barisonzi, did he identify himself with respect 
to any membership in any organization ? 

Mr. BoETiNKE. He identified himself as a packinghouse worker in 
south St. Paul and also as a member of the Socialist Labor Party. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1753 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee, please, how you were 
recruited into the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, naturally aft«r I agreed to volunteer my serv- 
ices to the FBI my first problem was to find means of getting into the 
party, and the Minnesota Conmiittee for the Protection of the Foreign 
Born oft'ered that opportunity. I became aware of the fact that they 
were going to hold a meeting in southeast Minneapolis, the location 
was the Wesley Methodist Foundation. I also became aware of the 
fact that Louise Pettibone Smith was to be the principal speaker. I 
had had a prior newspaper clipping from the Minneapolis paper which 
listed that organization as suoversive, and I felt or convinced myself 
this would be a good opportunity to work my way or to find the con- 
tact that I needed to get into the party. 

I attended this meeting, and the first person that I contacted was a 
person by the name of Tania Hemmingson. She indicated that she 
was active in the membership of the Minnesota Committee for the 
Protection of the Foreign Born and she was also acting as a sort of 
caretaker of a literature display table. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us the steps by which your recruitment 
in the party resulted from this initial contact with the Minnesota 
Committee for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, I was introduced to various people, one of 
them as Alma Fole^, through this Minnesota Committee for the Pro- 
tection of the Foreign Born, and I continued to take part in various 
meetings of the Minnesota C^ommittee for the Protection of the For- 
eign Born. I came, was introduced to more and more people, I got to 
know where their office was ; I was invited up to their office, which was 
in the third floor, I believe, of the Upper Midwest Building of Min- 
neapolis, which is on Hennepin Avenue. 

There I met a fellow by the name of Pat Gleason. Pat Grleason — I 
had a number of visits with him. He identified himself as having 
been and being a member of the Communist Party. He stated to me 
that he had been in the 1982 bonus march in Washington, D.C., as a 
member of the Communist Party, and he also was active in the Minne- 
sota Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born. I indicated 
to him that I was very interested in his work and also in the Communist 
Party, and he went ahead and asked me to subscribe to The Worker. 
which is the official newspaper of the Communist Party. 

I did take a subscription, and he then went ahead and took me down 
to the second floor to the office of the Worker Bookshop and intro- 
duced me to a fellow by the name of Mr. Sam Davis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you later ascertain whether or not Sam Davis was 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. It was already then known to me that Sam Davis was 
a member of the Communist Party. I had heard that through various 
discussions in my contacts with the Minnesota Committee for the 
Protection of the Foreign Born. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where did you say the offices for the Minnesota Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born were located ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. It was in the Upper Midwest BiiTlding on Hennepin 
Avenue in Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What floor did they occupy ? 
Mr. BoEHNKE. Third floor. 



1754 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Worker Bookshop to which you referred, what 
floor did that occupy ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That was on the second floor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And of the same building ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Of the same building. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us where the headquarters of the Com- 
munist Party was located in Minneapolis ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, the office on the second floor in the Upper Mid- 
west Building was commonly known as the Worker Bookshop, but 
Sam Davis was the secretary of the Minnesota-Dakotas District of the 
Communist Party, he had his office up there; likewise the chairman 
of the Minnesota-Dakotas District of the Communist Party had his 
office up there, and so it is safe to assume, I believe, that the office was 
right in the Worker Bookshop. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And do I understand you to say that the headquarters 
was camouflaged under the designation of the Worker Bookshop in 
fact? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us what the Minnesota Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born was and what its objectives were ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, its stated objective is as the name indicates; 
it is for the protection of the foreign bom. No, I attended that meet- 
ing that night in which Louise Pettibone Smith was the principal 
speaker. However, I never heard her make any reference to what pro- 
tection they had given to any foreign borns, except those who were 
members of the Communist Party. I did hear her say on many occa- 
sions that night that the Government of the United States was just as 
vicious as Nazi Germany and that the rules or one of the laws that 
gave our Government those powers to be as vicious as the government 
of Nazi Germany was the Walter-McCarran Act. And it was a very 
vicious attack, and, I repeat, there was not one instance, one reference, 
made as to what help they had given to various members or various 
people who were foreign born who had come here and needed 
protection. 

Mr. NnTLE. Could you tell us whether, to your knowledge, the Min- 
nesota Committee for Protection of Foreign Born was a branch or 
affiliate of the national organization known as the American Com- 
mittee for Protection of Foreign Born ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, it definitely is a branch of it. The Minnesota 
Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Bom very definitely is a 
branch of the American Committee for the Protection of the Foreign 
Bom, and the American Committee for the Protection of the Foreign 
Born is listed as subversive. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. And, Mr. Chairman, may I state this committee's 
Gmde to Subversive Orgainizations notes that the Minnesota Commit- 
tee for Protection of Foreign Born, Minneapolis, was cited in this 
committee's House Report 1182 in 1957 as a regional office of the Ameri- 
can Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 

The Guide further states that the Minnesota committee was estab- 
lished on May 21, 1952, Mrs. Alma Foley was secretary. The Lamp^ 
the official publication of the American Committee for Protection of 
Foreign Born, announced that representatives of defense committees 
meeting in Minneapolis voted to establish a provisional Minnesota 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1755 

Committee for Protection of Foreign Born at that time, the immediate 
purpose of which was to defend Peter Warhol, Charles Rowoldt, and 
Harry Roast, whom the Government sought to deport for subversive 
and Communist activities. 

May I further state for the record that the American Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born was cited as Communist by Attorney Gen- 
eral Tom Clark, now Justice Clark, in letters to the Loyalty Review 
Board released in 1948. It has also been cited by the Special Commit- 
tee on Un-American Activities in a report to the House, in 1942, as "one 
of the oldest auxiliaries of the Communist Party in the United States." 
It was likewise cited by the Internal Security Subcommittee of the Sen- 
ate Judiciary Committee, in a Senate document in 1956, as having as its 
purposes the defense of the cases of Communist lawbreakers. 

Proceedings were instituted against the American Committee for 
Protection of Foreign Born under the Internal Security Act of 1950. 
The Subversive Activities Control Board, after extensive hearings in 
which the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born was 
represented, found the organization to be a Communist- front organi- 
zation. The Board found that the Communist Party in establishing 
the American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born had for its 
purposes "to seek to prevent the denaturalization and deportation of 
officers and members of the Party," that is, the Communist Party, "and 
to win the goodwill of the foreign born and obtain from them adher- 
ents to and support for the party and for party programs." 

The findings of the Board were recently, on December 17, 1963, 
upheld by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia 
Circuit. That case is now on certiorari before the Supreme Court. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Counsel, if I may, I believe it also is important to 
add that the Conmiittee for the Protection of the Foreign Bom also 
served as a sort of screening device of foreigners who might become 
potential candidates to be recruited into the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that the front organization in this case — as was the 
testimony, I believe, of the prior witness. Miss Withrow, with re- 
spect to another — was used as a recruiting device for the Communist 
Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And they made in this case an appeal to the foreign 
born by ostensibly being an organization created in their aid, is that 
right? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Correct. 

Mr. NriTLE. Did the Conununist Party headquarters remain at the 
address you have given, Midwest Building, Minneapolis, during the 
period of your membership in the Communist Party, or was it at any 
time located elsewhere ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. No ; during my period of membershsip the headquar- 
ters was always located in tbe Upper Midwest Building; it has never 
changed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We learned from Miss Withrow, likewise, that as a 
method of recruitment and indoctrination the Communist Party would 
assign prospective recruits to Marxist study groups as a form of prepa- 
ration. Were you assigned to attend Marxist study groups prior to 
your acceptance into membership of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I was. 



1756 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where were these Marxist study groups held ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. They were held at the home of the general secretary, 
or I should say, pardon me, it is the secretary of the Minnesota-Dakotas 
District of the Communist Party, Sam Davis. They were held at the 
home of Gunnar Shanks, and also at the Betty Smith home. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, were you invited to attend these Marxist study 
groups ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, I hand you a copy of a leaflet marked 
for identification as "Boehnke Exhibit No. 1." It is a typed announce- 
ment and it reads as follows : 

[Boehnke Exhibit No. 1] 

ANNOUNCING 

THE MARXIST THEORY CLASS 

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 10, 1959 

AT GUNNAR SHANK'S HOME 

4132 LONGFELLOW AVE. 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

SUBJECT TO BE DISCUSSED: 

THE 1960 ELECTIONS 

DISCUSSION LEADER— SAM DAVIS 

You are most cordially welcome, 

and please bring a friend. 

Can you identify that leaflet or notice? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, I can. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee what you know about it ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, I received this notice, this invitation, to at- 
tend a Marxist class through the mail, and I do not know who the 
sender of this announcement was. But I did subsequently go ahead 
and attend this meeting, this Marxist class meeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And that is one of the several of the Marxist classes 
that you have attended, is that right ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In these groups that met with you in Marxist study, 
was the group composed of party members and nonparty members 
alike? 

Mr. Boehnke. I later discovered that most of the people who did 
attend these classes were members of the Communist Party. How- 
ever, it was also open to nonparty members, and I do believe on a 
number of occasions there were certain people who did attend who 
were not members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the Marxist study group likewise used as a re- 
cruiting device for those who were non-Communist members in 
attendance ? 

Mr. Boehnke. It was used as a recruiting device and also in prep- 
aration of preparing an individual to become a member of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. With respect to those members who were in attendance 
at the Marxist study group that you described as members of the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1757 

Communist Party, did you ascertain their party membership through 
meetings of the Communist Party at a later date ? 

Mr, BoEHNKE. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you remain in attendance at the Marxist 
study groups prior to your joining the party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. I attended these Marxist study groups from the end 
of 1959 to sometime, or I should say, rather, 1958 — that's my mistake — 
1958 to about 1960. 

Mr. NiTTLE. People you met with in the Marxist study groups 
whom you identified, namely, Gimnar Shanks and Betty Smith, did 
you ascertain whether or not Gunnar Shanks was a member of the 
Communist Party and whether or not Betty Smith was a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes. It developed at future meetings that both 
were members of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you meet with them in closed party meetings ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us how your membership was finally 
effected in the Communist Party after your attendance at Marxist 
study group meetings ? 

Mr. BoEHNKB. Well, I made frequent visits to the Worker Book- 
shop where I had frequent conversations with Mr. Sam Davis. One 
time he stated to me that he had heard a great deal about me and 
he then slipped me a note and asked me if I wanted to join the move- 
ment. He did not state this verbally, he slipped me a note and he 
says, "We cannot talk about this issue because the Worker Bookshop 
might be bugged, the FBI might be listening in," and so he passed me 
a note. At that particular moment I did not, I had no answer for 
him and I told him I wrote back on a note that I wanted time to think 
about it. He then took the notes and burned them up in an ash tray, 
and after some further visits up to the Worker Bookshop I was 
again asked in the same manner whether I would be interested in 
joining and my answer at that time was, "Yes." 

It was at this time that I — he asked me to pay my initiation fees, 
he asked for 50 cents, and he says, "You can consider yourself as a 
member of the Communist Party as of this moment, but before we can 
assign you to an actual club and actually accept you into full mem- 
bership, we shall have to do some investigating about you." He says, 
"Don't feel bad about it, this is a matter of party routine, we cannot 
let every individual into the party, we must make certain that they 
are loyal to the cause." And it took quite some time, or I should say 
quite some months, before I was assigned to a club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you testified that you entered upon actual 
membership in 1960. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how was that membership effected in your case? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, I was called by Sam Davis to come over to his 
house and he said he had something for me to do that night. I drove 
up to his house and he asked me to drive to another place. We drove 
to the residence of Betty Smith and, as it turned out, it was a club 
meeting of the North Side Club. Comrade chairman of the club at 
that time was Ruthann Withrow, and as I listened in to the meeting 
she announced the agenda for the evening and she announced that the 

a6-7a9 0—64 .7 



1758 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINN^EAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

agenda contained the admittance of a new member to the Communist 
Party. I was admitted into membership that nig;ht and Sam Davis, 
who was also a member of the Communist Party, he asked me if I 
was familiar with the Communist oath. I said I was, and so I was 
accepted into full membership of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you then assigried to any particular cell or group 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. I was assigned to the North Side Club of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlio were the officers of the North Side Club at the 
time of your initial assignment ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. If I recall correctly — I do know that Ruthann With- 
row was the comrade chairman of the club, and I am not quite posi- 
tive who the secretary was at that time, but the members were Sam 
Davis, of course Ruthann Withrow, Betty Smith, Ellen Davis, Hanley 
Hemmingson, Claude McDonald, Martin and Tonia Maki. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How do you spell the last person's name ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Maki? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr, BoEHNKE. M-a-k-i. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it also spelled M-a-c-k-i-e ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. I believe that's the way the Minneapolis phone di- 
rectory lists it. It is on Russell Avenue, North Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Proceed. 

Mr. BoEHNKE, And Evelyn Borchardt, Ernest Borchardt, and John 
Forichette. 

Mr. NiTTLE, How do you spell Borchardt ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. B-o-r-c-h-a-r-d-t. 

Mr. NiTTLE, And how do you spell the surname Forichette? 

Mr, BoEHNKE, F-o-r-i-c-h-e-t-t-e, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did any subsequent changes take place in the leader- 
ship of the North Side Club while you were a member of it? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, a change was effected in 1^61, I believe it was. 
Ruthann Withrow had been the previous comrade chairman and as 
her testimony indicated she resigned and it was Betty Smith who was 
then selected as comrade chairman of the North Side Club, 

Mr, NiTTLE, How often did the North Side Club meet ? 

Mr, BoEHNKE. As a rule the club met about twice a month, one meet- 
ing was for educational purposes and the other was for the club to 
study local events, to determine how they could apply Marxist-Leninist 
guidance to those issues, 

Mr. NiTTLE, Where were these meetings held ? 

Mr, BoEHNKE. They were usually held at members of the club, like 
for instance Betty Smith, Sam Davis, and the Hanley Hemming- 
son residences, and others. 

Mr, NiTTLE, Were these meetings closed to the public? By that I 
mean to say were persons in admittance only those who were members 
of the Communist Party and known by you to be such ? 

Mr, BoEHNKE, They were absolutely closed to the public. These 
club meetings were absolutely closed to the public. As a matter of 
fact, we had instructions never to park our car in front of the homes 
where these meetings were held. We were advised or instructed to 
walk a number of blocks whenever possible so as to conceal the fact 
that a meeting was taking place. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1759 

Mr. NiTTLE. For just a moment I would like to return to the ques- 
tion of identification of places where meetings were held. Were any 
meetings held at the home of John Forichette whom you identified as 
a member of that cell ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE, Not during my membership of the Communist Party. 
John Forichette, at the time, did not have the facilities to have a club 
meeting, but I do understand that at later dates he did have them. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the approximate total membership of the 
North Side Club? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, it varied a great deal. It had sometimes as 
many as 6 and it w ent up 8, 10, 12 ; it varied a great deal. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Would you describe the structure of the Communist 
Party in Minnesota as you knew it? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, one cannot speak of the Communist Party in 
Minnesota without speaking of the Communist Party in Minnesota, 
North and South Dakota, because this is known as the Minnesota- 
Dakotas District of the Communist Party. It is directed by a district 
executive committee who are made up of members who have their 
homes, they reside here, right here in the Twin Cities, and all ac- 
tivities, that is, all Communist activities that are activated in this 
area, that is, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, are planned right 
here in the Twin City area. 

I believe it is also important to note that the Minnesota-Dakotas 
District of the Communist Party has made some valuable contributions 
to the national Communist Party. For instance, Gus Hall was born 
here in Minnesota; Virginia, Minnesota, in 1932 — I believe it was 
1932. Now, this is a matter of public record. He was sent to Moscow 
to attend the Lenin Institute of Political Warfare. Now he is the 
general secretary of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That's the national Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. The national Communist Party. That's one of the 
contributions that the Communist Party here in Minnesota has made 
to the national party. We have had a former member of the Commu- 
nist Party who was editor of the Daily Worker^ and now we have 
Sam Davis who has served more or less his apprenticeship here in the 
party and now he is editor of the Midioest Worker of the Commimist 
Party. He has moved to Chicago. So, I think the party has been 
very effective ; it has made a great contribution to the national party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who comprised the leadership of the district commit- 
tee or district executive committee during the period of your member- 
ship? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, when I became a member Sam Davis was the 
national secretary, I mean, Sam Davis was the secretary of the Minne- 
sota-Dakotas District of the Communist Party. Since his becoming 
editor of the Midwest Worker in Chicago, he was succeeded by Rose 
Renaud Tillotson or Rose Tillotson Renaud. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That's Rose Tillotson, T-i-1-l-o-t-s-o-n ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And Renaud, R-e-n-a-u-d ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. The chairman at the time I be- 
came a member was Clarence Sharp. He was, during my period, ex- 
pelled from the party and he was succeeded by Ralph W. Taylor. 
The other members of the executive committee are Claude McDonald, 
Leo Giovannini. 



1760 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you spell Mr. Giovannini's last name for the 
record, please ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. G-i-o-v-a-n-n-i-n-i. His first name is Leo. And 
then there was also Betty Smith, who also goes under the name of 
"Sunne" Smith. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, would you tell the members of Congress 
what was the principal function of the district executive committee 
of the Communist Party for the Minnesota-Dakotas District ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. One of the functions of the district committee was 
to establish, organize clubs in upstate Minnesota, North and South 
Dakota. On a number of these occasions it was the district commit- 
tee that had to make arrangements to see that an organization by the 
name of the Freedom of the Press Committee would meet to finance 
this trip. It was usually Mr. Ralph Taylor, prior to him it was Sam 
Davis, who traveled these areas to organize clubs, meetings, and sell 
'Workers^ and to sort of make sure that all these clubs were meeting, 
that they were carrying on the functions, the directives of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the next lower echelon of the district struc- 
ture? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Beneath the district structure we had two city com- 
mittees, one was the city committee of St. Paul, and the other was the 
city committee of Minneapolis. The city committee of St. Paul I 
am not very familiar with, but I am familiar with the Minneapolis 
City Committee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. There was a separate city committee for the conduct of 
the Communist operation in St. Paul and a separate one for the con- 
duct of the operation in Minneapolis, is that correct ? 

Mr. Boehnke. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What knowledge do you have of the leadership of the 
Minneapolis City Committee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, the leadership of the Minneapolis City Com- 
mittee, the secretary was Ralph Taylor. Betty Smith, Claude Mc- 
Donald, James A. Brown, who also goes under the name of Jack 
Brown, and at one time Clarence Sharp, had held membership in the 
city committee, and it also at one time contained Samuel K. Davis and 
Leo Giovannini. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that G-i-o-v-a-n-n-i-n-i, as nearly as you can spell it % 

Mr. Boehnke. That is correct ; yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat was the function of the city committee ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, in the early part of my membership I did not 
have the opportunity to meet with the city committee, but toward the 
end of my membership it was established that a new city committee 
should be formed and it should be made up of all comrade chairmen 
of the various clubs so that they could report to see and give an account 
whether their clubs were meeting as they were directed to meet, twice 
a month, whether their dues and all their obligations to the Commu- 
nist Party were being fulfilled. This was one of the functions of the 
city committee, because it was closer to the local area it could serve as 
sort of an overseer. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The city committee directed the activities of the clubs ? 

Mr. Boehnke. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Through the club chairmen who would meet on the city 
committee ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1761 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to the North Side Club of the Communist 
Party, which was situated in Minneapolis, do you have knowledge of 
any other Communist Party clubs within the Minneapolis area ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, I one time attended a city committee meeting 
at the home of Betty Smith at which it was announced by Ralph Tay- 
lor the members of the various clubs, and as I recall the Ralph Taylor 
Club contained a person by the name of Mr. Oscar Mahlke. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you spell his surname, please ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. M-a-h-i-1-k-e. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I understood that the spelling of that might be — ac- 
cording to a note I have, and I might be in error, but I want to be 
certain — the spelling of the surname was M-a-h-1-k-e ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is what I meant to say. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I thought you had said M-a-i, but I understand it to be 
M-a-h-1-k-e. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. No, it is M-a-h-1-k-e. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You told us of the Ralph Taylor Club. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Then one time we had a Youth Organizing Club 
which contained Betty Smith as director, myself, Ernest and Evelyn 
Borchardt, and John Forichette. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You say at one time you had the Youth Organizing 
Club. Would you just briefly explain that ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, it was in 1961, following the June Supreme 
Court decision upholding the registration clause of the McCarran Act, 
that the party issued instructions or directives that the North Side 
Club was too large, it must meet, have a smaller membership so as to 
not attract too much attention. First the club was divided in two, and 
following, some months thereafter, we had a meeting, that is, a club 
meeting in which Betty Smith read directives of the party. It stated 
that a youth organizing branch of the North Side Club was to be 
organized, and that club functioned for a short period. I don't recall 
exactly how long because I left that club, but I understand that it quit 
functioning. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you were associated with the club who were 
the officers of it ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Betty Smith was the director and I was the treasurer 
of that group. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you have also mentioned an organization 
known as the South Side Club. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That club was formed just prior to my termination 
of my association with the Communist Party, and the names that I re- 
call are Jack Brown, Frausile Hanson, and myself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mentioned a Jack Brown, do you know his ad- 
dress ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. It is on Park Avenue; I do not recall the number, 
but it is on Park Avenue. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you able to help us on the spelling of the first name 
of Frausile Hanson ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. F-r-a-u-s-i-1-e. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, I hand you a photostatic copy of a docu- 
ment marked for identification as "Boehnke Exhibit No. 1." It bears 



1762 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

the title "The Need for Us," and in the opening paragraph asks the 
question : 

What is our group? Generally speaking, it is a group, Marxist- Leninist, ori- 
ented in ideology, committed to study, and organized for political and social 
activities. It includes workers, housewives, mothers, students, etc. 

What organization is described by this document? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. This document describes the Communist Party of 
the United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want to correct that ; that should be Boehnke Exhibit 
No. 2. Would you note that as "Boehnke Exhibit" on the cover, if 
you have a pencil ? 

(Document marked "Boehnke Exhibit No. 2.") (See pp. 1778- 
1780.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did that particular document come into your pos- 
session ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, we -were scheduled to have a youth branch 
meeting of the North Side Club over at the Borchardt residence and 
it was at this meeting that Betty Smith, who was the youth director 
at that time, read this document. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what was the purpose or intent of the document ? 
Wliat was its use ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, first of all the document in simple terms was 
sort of a pep talk to fellow members of the Communist Party. It 
stated that even though the Communist Party has encountered grow- 
ing opposition in recent yeare, nevertheless the party has also been 
able to chalk up a long list of successes, and it pointed out to the dem- 
onstrations for peace, the demonstrations to ban nuclear testing, the 
sit-ins, the freedom rides, and the demonstrations to defeat the Com- 
munist speakers' ban on college and university campuses, and accord- 
ing to this document the Communist Party takes credit for organizing 
all these activities and it describes them as indications that the party 
is successful. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The document includes the statement that it is "or- 
ganized for political and social activities." Wliat type of political ac- 
tivities does the party participate in ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, first of all, as far as political activities are 
concerned, during our various club meetings I have noticed that they 
always selected candidates who promise to be "soft on communism," 
who promise to give the — to stand up for laws, amendments, legislation 
that will give the Communist Party a little more elbowroom, and the 
party automatically directs to support these candidates. Like, for in- 
stance, if a candidate makes a statement that he will vote to abolish 
or cut the appropriation for this conmiittee, the House Committee 
on Un-American Activities, they automatically go ahead and support 
that candidate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What are the social activities to which the document 
refers ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, like Freedom of the Press Committee, picnics, 
bazaars, and so on and so forth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The document further states that the program "in- 
cludes workers, housewives, mothers, students, etc." How does 
the Communist Party expect to reach these workers, housewives, 
mothers, and students ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1763 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, to take for example unions, or rather workers. 
The Communist Party does intend to infiltrate the workers' unions, 
that is, the unions of labor, and also distribute leaflets, and through 
these acti\dties they hope to reach the minds of the workers. And 
housewives, they try to appeal to them through peace, the need for 
peace. At various times literature has been distributed to the effect 
that : Mothers, do you want your sons to go to war, and so on and so 
forth, do you raise your sons to be cannon fodder ? And they use these 
activities to, or these slogans to, appeal to the emotions of mothers. 

It would naturally have an appeal, and through these 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what way are they making this appeal about peace, 
and so on, and sons being used as cannon fodder ? Do they relate that 
to any particular area ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, actually the history of this goes back as far 
as World War II when the Communist Party gave Nazi Germany 
the green light to invade Poland. They passed out various slogans : 
"The Yanks aren't coming," and so on and so forth ; "We want peace." 
And after Nazi Germany invaded Soviet Russia, then the slogans 
changed, and the same thing took place during the Korean war. They 
did not want us to take part in the Korean war and they knew to 
withdraw or impair American support they'd have to appeal to 
mothers and sweethearts,, and they said, "Write your Congressman 
to get us out of the Korean war," and various activities like that. 

Now, in our time they are saying the same thing, that mothers do 
not raise their boys to become soldiers, they want them to have peace- 
ful lives. I think I have got various literature displays — I don't have 
them with me — which contain descriptions of that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I take it you mean to say that since they envisage the 
Communist coimtries as our only enemy, they now want "peace" so 
there is nonresistance to their aggressions ; is that right? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, the Communist Party here in the United States 
realizes full well that at this very moment the balance of military 
power is in favor of the United States. The Communist Party of 
the United States, as well as every Communist Party in the world, 
is fully aware that at this very moment the balance of military power 
is in favor of the United States. If it were to come to war tomorrow, 
the Soviet powers, or the Communist powers, would be defeated. 
Their immediate need is to stall the war so that there will be "peace," 
they need a breathing spell, but if the balance of power were on the 
other side, we were weaker than the Soviet Union, then there would 
be no doubt in my mind — as a matter of fact, a number of quotations 
have been made by various Communist leaders that they would not 
hesitate to precipitate a war. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Further pointing to the document, the document elab- 
orates on the many successes of various groups interested in achiev- 
ing peace. It also indicates a strong support for such groups and pro- 
grams calling for disarmament. Why ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, I think part of that question was answered 
by my previous answer. They do want us to disarm at this moment 
for the simple reason that they want to shift the balance of military 
might in favor of the Soviet Union. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To what extent has the Communist Party participated 
in peace demonstrations in this area ? 



1764 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. BoEHNKE. As long as I was a member of the Communist Party 
or associated with the Communists, I was always told, and I know 
that other members of the Communist Party were always advised, to 
take part in peace demonstrations, ban the nuclear tests, and so on 
and so forth. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The document further states : 

We can help to bring other groups into action by pointing out why it is in their 
self-interest to become involved and take a stand. 

For instance on an issue like a communist speaking in a university, or from 
another platform. 

Now, to what extent has the Communist Party engaged in an effort 
to eliminate the so-called Communist speaking ban in colleges ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, the document refers to the success of students 
in New York, how they had successfully lifted the ban on Commu- 
nist speakers, and I think it is a matter of public record of the success 
that they have had right here in Minneapolis when Ben Davis, who 
is the chairman of the national Communist Party, spoke here. The 
number of people attracted is an indication that they were successful 
in lifting that ban. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During your period of membership in the Communist 
Party, did you make regular payment of dues to the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I have. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And were you required to do so ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to paying dues, were assessments levied 
upon members for special purposes ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. In addition to the dues we were to pay what was 
called or known as the sustaining fee, and that was required, and we 
also had voluntary contributions. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were any members known by you to be heavy financial 
contributors to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes; one individual in particular. His name was 
John Forichette, an employee of the city of Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us about that ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, I know on more than one occasion he volun- 
teered and gave his full pay check to the Communist Party whenever 
the Communist Party asked for it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What other methods were employed by the Communist 
Party to obtain or raise funds ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, on a number of occasions we had meetings of 
the Freedom of the Press Committee, which were usually open only 
to members of the Communist Party, to finance trips of Communists 
like Ralph Taylor who would travel into North and South Dakota. 
We would have to dig into our own pockets to finance that. We had 
picnics, two picnics in which efforts were made to raise money, bazaars 
were used to raise money, a number of activities that they employed to 
raise money for the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were all funds that were raised by your local cells 
retained for local use ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. I cannot give you the exact figures or exact percent- 
age, but a certain percentage went to the youth movement. A great 
portion was kept here and the balance of it went to the national office. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1765 

Mr. NiTTLE. When you refer to the youth movement, were you re- 
ferring to the youth movement of the Communist Party in the Min- 
neapolis area or in this district ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. In the Twin City area. 

Mr. NiTiLE. Were records kept of party dues and, if so, how were 
they recorded ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, records were kept. During my period that I 
served as treasurer I was instructed by Betty Smith to use a check 
book, to list only the first initials, and for each month they paid dues 
to write the number one, and whenever this number or this amount 
was turned over to the secretary of the Minnesota-Dakotas District, 
I was supposed to put a cross across it which would indicate to fellow 
members or certain members of the party that dues were paid and 
they were handed over to the secretary. The reason for this was very 
fully explained, that if these records should fall into unfriendly hands 
nobody would be able to know how to decipher them. 

On another occasion we were to, we were asked to solicit pledges 
for the party. Certain people were to make pledges who were known 
to be heavy contributors to the party. We were to use an envelope 
and use tickets such as they use at movies, and so on and so forth, and 
use different colors. For instance, probably a yellow ticket would 
mean $5, and in each person's envelope we'd have the initials and if 
he paid that $5 we'd tear that ticket in half. That meant that he 
had made a payment, but to an outsider, an unfriendly person, they 
would never be able to understand what the meaning of that was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following the Supreme Court decision of June 5, 1961, 
which upheld the constitutionality of the registration provisions of 
the Internal Security Act and the findings of the Subversive Activities 
Control Board requiring the Communist Party to register as a Com- 
munist-action organization, was there any apparent change within the 
party structure ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes ; there was a complete change. To give you an 
example, there was a number of clubs who were listed as being too 
large, the North Side Club of the Communist Party was too large, it 
could attract too much attention whenever meetings or club meetings 
were held there, so it was suggested that the club, or any large club, 
break in two, and it was also stated that we would no longer know 
in advance when club meetings would be held, that we would either 
be notified by telephone or by courier or some way, but we'd have no 
advance notice or knowledge of when a club meeting was to be held, 
only the comrade chairman would have the power to call a meeeting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This change, did it come about as a result of any party 
directive and, if so, would you explain the circumstances to this com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Following the Supreme Court decision there was 
about three party directives that were issued, that were to prepare the 
party to go underground, so all these shifts in the party structure 
were party directives, they came from the higher echelon, they were 
not as a result of any local decision. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now we will turn to another subject for a bit, Mr. 
Boehnke. Does the Communist Party attach any particular signifi- 
cance or importance to the recruitment of youth ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, it very definitely does. I believe it was in June, 
no, it was earlier than that, it was in the early part of 1962, that an 



1766 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

announcement was made by Betty Smith that she had directives to 
organize a club whose sole function was to participate in youth orga- 
nizing activities, and I became a part of that club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To what extent has the Communist Party of Minne- 
apolis achieved any success in the recruitment of youth or in obtain- 
ing their support for the Communst Party programs ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, I cannot give you any statistics as to the 
success that they have had, but I do know, because you do not recruit a 
Communist in just a few years, it takes years of preparation, it takes 
years, but I do know that they have had tremendous success in pre- 
paring certain youth bodies who will eventually become potential can- 
didates for recruitment into the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, we have heard certain educators state, 
on occasion, that members of the Communist Party should be permitted 
to speak at colleges and universities because they claim that denying 
members of the Communist Party the right to speak is not compatible 
with academic freedom or an objective education. Would you give 
us your opinion as to whether or not the appearance of known leaders 
of the Communist Party on college and university campuses con- 
tributes in any way to useful knowledge for students ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, on a number of occasions I have heard high 
ranking party officials speak here in the Twin City areas and in our 
campuses, and not once have I been able to hear them say, or tell us, 
what communism actually is in practice. They have never told us why 
Khrushchev had to build up the "Wall of Shame" in Berlin, why they 
don't have free elections behind the Iron Curtain, why he had to ^nd 
in the Red Army to butcher the people of Hungary. All I have heard 
these Communists do was use their freedom to tear down America, and 
if that's all they want to use their freedom for, then I can see abso- 
lutely nothing good or worthwhile, letting a Communist speak on our 
campuses. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What do the Communists expect to achieve through 
their speaking engagements on campuses ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, naturally their first step is to confuse the young 
minds, to have them believe — naturally their first purpose is to confuse 
young minds as to whether America is a possibly vicious country as 
they would like to have us believe, because they know their minds are 
still a vacuum, they can be filled with any ideas, and they also know 
that from that in the future that they will become the future leaders 
of America. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want you to return to the security measures employed 
by the Communist Party in the Minneaoplis area. Was there an exer- 
cise of greater security following the Supreme Court decision of 1961 ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, there was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe some of the security measures used 
by the party thereafter ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, like I stated in my previous testimony or in 
the prior statement there, following the June Supreme Court decision 
we were no longer to meet on schedule as we had previously done, we 
were to meet on orders of the comrade chairman, and whenever pos- 
sible he would state that he would call us by phone, he'd say we'd have 
a beer drinking party tonight, and that would mean that we would 
have a meeting. If he would say we will be drinking wine tonight 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1767 

that would mean that there would be no meeting. It was emphasized 
that we should not park in front of homes where the meeting was 
held ; we were to avoid the telephone as much as possible. I also might 
add that whenever meetings were held, whenever we did have club 
meetings, the radio was turned on because they always feared that 
the homes were bugged by the FBI and therefore it would sort of foul 
up what was taking place. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What were your instructions with respect to the park- 
ing of automobiles in the vicinity of meetings or gatherings ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. AVe were to park them about two, three blocks or as 
far away as possible, and then walk up to the house. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And were guards stationed at special affairs ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, take for example the picnic that we were to 
have at Lake Minnetonka. It was described as a Freedom of the Press 
Committee picnic, but everybody who was a member of the Communist 
Party knew that it was a picnic for Communists and I, for example, 
arrived there about 10 o'clock in the morning and already at that time 
I was instructed by Sam Davis that John Forichette, that the two of 
us — that is, John Forichette and myself — were to stand guard and let 
in only those who we knew to be friendly or to be members of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of a leaflet marked for identification 
at "Boehnke Exhibit No. 3," entitled "The Soviet Union Through the 
Eyes of an American Worker," and ask you if you can identify that 
as the notice or announcement of the meeting at Lake Minnetonka to 
which you just referred. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I do. 

(Document marked "Boehnke Exhibit No. 3" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the picnic ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the occasion for the picnic ? I note that it was 
in celebration of the Communist Party publication The Worker; is 
tliat correct ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, that's not what it was stated to be, but it was ; 
the party has always tried to have annual picnics, but in order to con- 
ceal their activities they would describe it as a Freedom of the Press 
Committee picnic. As a matter of fact, Mr. Ralph Taylor, who is now 
the chaiiTnan of the Minnesota-Dakotas District — he was also chair- 
man of the Minnesota-Dakotas District — ^was also chairman of the 
Freedom of the Press Committee and he is the person who made 
arrangements for this picnic. He did not describe it as a Worker pic- 
nic or a Communist picnic, but as a Freedom of the Press Committee 
picnic. 

Mr. Nittle. The exhibit also notes that Sam Davis, secretary of the 
Minneapolis Communist Party and correspondent for The Worker, 
would speak about the Soviet 

The Chairman. What exliibit are you talking about now ? 

Mr. Nittle. Exhibit No. 3. [To witness] — would speak about the 
Soviet Union in the light of his recent 3-month trip to the Soviet 
Union. Did Sam Davis speak on that subject ? 

Mr. Boehnke. I left that picnic rather early that afternoon and 
he did not speak up to the time that I was there, and later I learned 
from a later club meeting that he was not permitted to speak. 



1768 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also hand you a news article and attached photo- 
graphs, marked for identification as "Boehnke Exhibit No. 4," which 
appeared in the Minneapolis Morning Tribv/ne of September 11, 1961. 
This article, under the by-line of Sam Newlund, Minneapolis Tribune 
staff writer, refers to "a Communist-sponsored picnic at Lake Minne- 
tonka" which took place on the preceding day, and notes that "The 
event was billed as a 'freedom of the press' picnic, but reporters were 
barred." The article also states that "several reporters were 
evicted * * * and at least one scuffle developed between pic- 
nickers * * *." 

Were any security measures placed in effect by the Communist 
Party at this picnic ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, they were. 

(Document marked "Boehnke Exhibit No. 4" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what was the purpose of that ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, as I have already indicated, this was in fact 
nothing else but a Communist picnic. It was not a Freedom of the 
Press picnic as was advertised, that was just a slogan, and the directors 
of the Communist Party did not want non-Communists in this par- 
ticular picnic grounds, and already, earlier in the morning, I was 
chosen, together with John Forichette, to stand guard. In the after- 
noon various party members were chosen to stand guard. It was only 
members of the Communist Party who were chosen to stand guard. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The photograph appearing in the Minneapolis Tribune 
is captioned "Two Men Were Ejected From Picnic," and noted the 
ejected persons to be Erik A. "Dunders" ^ and Elmer Grotins, who 
sought to report the picnic for a Latvian paper. The photograph also 
shows two unidentified men in the center of the picture in the act of 
ejecting the two reporters. Can you identify these two men ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I can. They were Clarence Sharp and Ralph 
Taylor, both members of the Communist Party at that time. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You have already identified Ralph Taylor as chairman 
of the Freedom of the Press Committee. Who was its secretary ? 

Mr. Boehnke. The secretary of the Minnesota-Dakotas District of 
the Communist Party was Rose Tillotson Renaud. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And she was also secretary of the front called Freedom 
of the Press Committee ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I believe you already told us about the primary func- 
tion of this committee. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes. 

Mr, NiTTLE. From your observations while a member of the Com- 
munist Party, can you tell the committee how demanding the party is 
of a member's time ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, that can be a long, long story. Even before I 
became a member of the Communist Party, that is, an actual member 
of the party, I was required to do various research work on the rail- 
road and submit that information to the Communist Party. It was 
Mr. Sam Davis who usually asked this information. That's only part 
of it. Some of these reports, I done awful extensive work on it, and 
then there was walking up and down the streets passing out Commu- 

1 Correct spelling D-u-n-d-u-r-s. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1769 

nist literature and attending meetings and prepare for this and pre- 
pare for that. Whatever spare moment that one has the party seems 
to find means to utilize that spare moment. 

The Chairman. In other words, they are very demanding of the 
member's time? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Proceed with your next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. If a member should fail or fall short in fulfilling a 
party demand, would he be subjected to party discipline ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, he would. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, I have here marked for identification as 
"Boehnke Exhibit No. 5" a statement in leaflet form entitled "Here Are 
the Facts, What Do You Think," issued as indicated upon the leaflet 
by "A Committee of Four," and the document relates to Clarence H. 
Sharp. It appears from the document that Mr. Sharp came into dis- 
favor with the party leadership when he refused to submit to self- 
criticism and thereby rejected party discipline, that this incident cre- 
ated a dissenting faction among the rank-and-file membership. Are 
you familiar with this particular incident? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, I am. 

(Document marked "Boehnke Exhibit No. 5," follows :) 

Boehnke Exhibit No. 5 
Hebe Abe the Facts; What Do You Think? 

Clarence Horatio Sharp has given almost a lifetime to the Progressive move- 
ment. He has given unselfishly of his time to this movement for more than 
30 years of his life. Recently he was removed from the chairmanship of the 
Communist Party for the states of Minnesota, North and South Dakota, a 
position he held respectfully for the past several years. He was purged be- 
cause he dared criticize Secretary Sam K. Davis, who spearheaded the vicious 
movement for Sharp's ouster as chairman. Sharp has even been threatened 
with expulsion altogether from the Party if he fails to admit to Davis his guilt 
and apologize for his mistakes. Will this fighter for workers' rights now be 
labeled an "Enemy of the Working Class" by the likes of Davis? 

Davis is moving from Minnesota and going to Chicago where he will take 
over other Party responsibilities. Is he afraid to stay around and face the 
consequences of his malicious work? Was not Davis also resi)onsible for the 
purges of such outstanding fighters as Martin Mackie, Carl Ross, Alma Foley, 
and others? Where are we going? What are we doing? Must we now again 
turn our backs on another crusader of the Progressive movement? Where's 
all the gratitude? And how do you suppose his wife Sig feels? 

Do you feel the present action against Sharp is justified? Do you feel Sharp 
should be subjected to such humiliation, ridicule, embarrassment, and heart- 
break? Who then is to succeed this valiant fighter for freedom and will such 
a successor be qualified and capable of carrying out the.se responsibilities? 
Must there be a change? Can Davis once more be allowed to tear our movement 
apart? 

Flood "The Worker" office in New York with your comments and opinions. 
Address all mail to "The Worker," Box 28m Madison Square Station, New York 
10, New York. 

These are the facts ; what do you think? 

A Committee of Four. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee what were the circum- 
stances surrounding the removal of Clarence Sharp as chairman of 
the Minnesota-Dakotas District of the Communist Party for his al- 
leged failure to admit guilt and apologize for his mistake? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, the party had arranged for Frank Wilkinson 
of California to come and speak at the Labor Temple. It was pretty 



1770 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

much party routine that when they negotiated or made agreement for 
hall rentals like that, that everything be kept orally. Somehow or 
other the fact that Frank Wilkinson was going to come to Minneapolis 
was broadcast over KSTP television, and when the labor people be- 
came aware of the fact that Frank Wilkinson was going to speak here 
they immediately canceled the reservations. Frank Wilkinson had 
already arrived and when he arrived here he had no place to speak. 
Sam Davis, he was the general secretary of the Communist Party at 
that time, as the head of this district he had to explain that situation 
to the higher echelon, and so he turned on Clarence Sharp, as I recall, 
the way the facts seem to indicate, and exposed him as a man who was 
forgetful, he was getting too old to be effective in the party, and he 
placed the entire blame of this situation on Clarence Sharp. After 
this event took place it was also brought out that there had been a 
great deal of friction between these two gentlemen prior to this event ; 
however, I am not aware of it. I was always under the assumption that 
they were friends, and Clarence Sharp, at that time, he was called in 
to make a sort of self-critical analysis of himself. He appeared before 
what can be described as a Communist court and in this court — I was 
not present at this court but it was, what took place at this meeting 
was, revealed through other members of the party. Clarence Sharp 
had submitted about 80 charges against the Communist Party where 
they had done injustices to him. I cannot fully describe whether 
they were personal charges or not, but nevertheless it was established 
that he was either to, he was given the choice either to admit that he 
had done wrong or else be expelled from the party, and he was given 
no other alternative, and when it was established at a club meeting 
that when Clarence Sharp left that Communist court, so to speak, 
he made the statement "Thank God I'm living in America. If this 
was a Soviet America or if I were living in Soviet Russia, I would 
now be facing the firing squads; however, it is now the American 
laws that are protecting me." And even after that he was still given 
90 days' time to either admit that he had done totally, that he was 
wrong in this entire mixup, which he failed to do and he was subse- 
quently expelled from the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. From your experience in the Communist Party, are 
Communist Party members accorded an opportunity to present a de- 
fense to the party leadership when they are accused of violating party 
orders ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. From my experience in the Communist Party I 
can only say this, that when the Communist Party discovers fault you 
are automatically guilty and you will be charged that way unless you 
can prove your innocence. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you familiar with, and can you enlighten the com- 
mittee about, the factors involved in the referred to purges by the 
Communist Party of Martin Maki, Carl Ross, and Alma Foley? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, that was a situation that took place before 
my time. I am somewhat aware of it, but I cannot give you firsthand 
or personal information. 

The Chairman. Well, then, proceed with the next question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you say from your experiences in the Commu- 
nist Party that in order to remain a member in good standing you 
would have to adhere strictly to all decisions and orders of the leader- 
ship without any dissent or differentiation? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1771 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mentioned a moment ago the Miimesota Commit- 
tee To Defend tlie Rill of Rights, I believe. What was the primary 
function of the Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. This was an emergency committee that was formed 
following the June 1961 Supreme Court decision. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who comprised the leadership of the Minnesota Com- 
mittee To Defend the Bill of Rights? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Harry May vi lie, who also goes under the name of 
Henry Mayville. He was the secretary of the Minnesota Committee To 
Defend the Bill of Rights, and active in this organization were 

Mr. NiTTLE. Before you go on, let me ask you whether you knew 
Hany Mayville to be a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. I was in New York during which he stated that he 
was a member of the Communist Party. It was in the hotel room that 
he made that statement. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were the other members you were naming? You 
named one other, I believe. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Earl Sorg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Earl Sorg to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Earl Sorg on two different occasions identified him- 
self as a member of the Communist Party. One time, I was over at 
the Sam Davis residence. Ellen Davis was home, Sam Davis had 
already moved to Chicago, and Earl Sorg was at the Davis home to 
do some electrical work. We were served coffee and lunch, and it was 
during this period that Earl Sorg stated that his business would de- 
cline every time pressure was put on the Communist Party or the Com- 
munist Party received a great deal of publicity, because he said he was 
a member of the Communist Party and that his community was aware 
of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you continue naming the leadership ? You have 
named Henry Mayville and Earl Sorg, both of whom you have iden- 
tified as party members. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. There was active in the Minnesota Committee To De- 
fend the Bill of Rights, myself, Harry Mayville, Bill Taragos, Meridel 
LeSueur. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You named a Bill Taragos. Would you give us his full 
name and spelling of his surname? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. It is Bill Tarrgos, T-a-r-r-g-o-s. That's William J. 
Tarrgos. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And how do you spell his last name ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. T-a-r-r-g-o-s. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is that T-a-r-a-g-o-s, Ta-rog-as ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. No, it is T-a-double r-g-o-s. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you identify William J. Tarrgos ^ as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. I was taking part in the city committee of Minne- 
apolis at one time which was only open to members of the Communist 
Party and Bill Tarrgos ^ was to be at this meeting, and he was also 
assigned to a club, but I cannot recall which club that was at this 
moment. 



* Correct spelling T-a-r-a-g-o-s. 



1772 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr, NiTTLE. A Communist Party club ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In what area ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. South Minneapolis. 

The Chairman. We will take a 5-minute recess at this point. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Boehnke, you were identifying: those persons who 
were in a leadership capacity in the Minnesota Committee To Defend 
the Bill of Rights. You have already identified William J. Tarrgos, 
Harry Mayville, and Earl Sorg as active in that organization, and 
you have identified them as members of the Communist Party. Now, 
would you tell us what other persons were active in the leadership 
of that organization ? 

Mr. Boehnke. A person by the name of John Baker, who was ac- 
tive ; Doctor 

Mr. Nittle. Would you tell us whether you knew him to be a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Boehnke. On one occasion I drove Betty Smith over to the 
Baker residence, which was at Talmage Avenue, and she stated that 
he was a member of the Communist Party but he was in position 
where he had to conceal his membership, and she also brought out the 
fact that his wife was opposed to Communist activities. 

Mr. Nittle. Where did John Baker live, if you remember? 

Mr. Boehnke. On Talmadge Avenue, southeast Minneapolis, or 
east Minneapolis, rather. 

Mr. Nittle. Proceed with those who were active in that organiza- 
tion. 

Mr. Boehnke. Dr. J. Cleveland Cradle. I have met him on a num- 
ber of occasions. He took part in a closed-door meeting of the Com- 
munist Party, and also Meridel LeSueur, she was active in the Min- 
nesota Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights. 

The Chairman. And you knew both of them to be members of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Not Meridel TveSueur, I cannot positively identify 
her, but I do know that Mr. Baker and Dr. Cradle were. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Proceed. 

Mr. Boehnke. And I think that includes all of the names of the 
Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights. Also, a person 
by the name of Tania Hemmingson was quite active in the Minnesota 
Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights, although she is not a member 
of the party. But she pointed out to me on a number of occasions 
that she has not become a member of the party because if she did she 
would become subject to deportation. But on a number of occasions 
I have met with Tania Hemmingson in closed-door sessions of the 
Communist Party. 

The Chairman. Let me point out that what you just said there is 
consistent with the opening statement I made about this person and 
another one you named a while ago. where I pointed out that part 
of the coverage of the Internal Security Act of 1950 may be extended 
to affiliation. We are interested in that, and so you are now testifying 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1773 

about people who were affiliated and who took part but who, for rea- 
sons you have stated, preferred to remain in the background, is that 
the substance of it ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct ; that is the substance. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the National Assembly for Democratic 
Rights at the New York rally in September 1961 ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of 
Rights represented at that affair ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. The Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of 
Rights, and also the Communist Party in this area was represented. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who were in the delegations from this area in attend- 
ance at that convention ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Tania Hemmingson, who I have already identified ; 
Earl Sorg, who I have already identified as a member of the Com- 
munist Party ; Harry May ville, likewise ; James White in Hastings, 
Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know James White to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. As we was in New York walking down the street we 
had a private little talk and he said, he stated to me at that time that 
he belonged to the Earl Sorg Club in Hastings. Two other members 
who were present were Oscar Mahlke, who I have already identified, 
and a person by the name of Joe Lima from Superior, Wisconsin, and 
he is also a member of the Communist Party by his own admission 
to me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I state for the record that the House 
Committee on Un-American Activities, in October 1961, conducted an 
investigation of an organization known as the National Assembly for 
Democratic Rights, which held a meeting at the St. Nicholas Arena 
in New York City, an assembly which Mr. Boehnke has testified he was 
in attendance at. 

In a report issued following the investigation, this committee found 
that the National Assembly for Democratic Rights was created and 
controlled by members and officials of the Communist Party, was 
organized as a propaganda device for the conduct of mass activity 
in support of the objective of reversing the Supreme Court decisions 
of June 5, 1961, which upheld the constitutionality of the registration 
and disclosure provisions of the Internal Security Act of 1950, and 
the Smith Act membership clause. The testimony revealed that there 
were various supporting organizations created in support of the As- 
sembly, and among them was the Minnesota Committee To Defend 
the Bill of Rights. 

Mr. Boehnke, what did you find to be the primary function of the 
Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights ? 

Mr. Boehnke. It was an organization that was to function as every 
other Communist-action organization; it tried to conceal its associa- 
tion to the Communist Party for the purpose that it could attract 
people who have a natural instinct to uphold the first and fifth amend- 
ments of the Constitution. 

Mr. NiTn.E. And did it have a special function to engage in propa- 
ganda activities 

Mr. Boehnke. Very definitely. 

3&-729 O — 64 8 



1774 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE — in opposition to the Internal Security Act of 1^50 and 
the Smith Act? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Very definitely ; it was one of their prime targets to 
stir up public sentiment against those two acts. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of 
Rights under the complete control and direction of the Communist 
Party of the United States ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. You are speaking of the Minnesota committee now ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, the members that drafted various propaganda 
leaflets of the party were members of the Communist Party that 
drafted various propaganda literature that the Minnesota Committee 
for the Protection of the Bill of Rights passed out, and I would say 
that it was under the direction of and control of the Conmiunist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us how you personally were selected as 
a delegate to be in attendance at the National Assembly for Demo- 
cratic Rights at the convention held in September 1961 in New York 
City? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, actually the party at that time was searching 
for delegates and being that I worked for the railroad I was in a 
position to put myself available as a delegate because I could travel 
on a pass, and I made this situation or circumstance available to the 
party and that is one of the reasons that I became a prospective to 
become a delegate, so, in other words, I more or less volunteered to 
become a delegate. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the situation with respect tx) the other per- 
sons you named as being in attendance with you? How were they 
selected ? Were they directed to go by the Communist Party leader- 
ship in the Minneapolis area ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. At this time I do not believe the party was in a 
position to order those directives as much as they wished to. They 
directed various people who they felt could go and were financially 
able to go, but the party knew that it was going to be faced with a legal 
battle. At that time it did not believe that it had the financial resources 
to actually force anyone to go ; it was more people were selected on the 
basis who could contribute funds themselves to go. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you familiar with the fact that Henry Harrison 
Mayville appeared before the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities on October 3, 1961, in connection with its investigation of 
the National Assembly for Democratic Rights and that in his appear- 
ance here he pleaded the fifth amendment in his refusal to affirm or 
deny his own current party membership or to give testimony with 
respect to the Minnesota Committee To uphold — or rather. Defend — 
the Bill of Rights, and with respect to testimony relating to his activi- 
ties in connection with the National Assembly for Democratic Rights? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I am aware that he did appear. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. Was his appearance before the House Committee on 
Un-American Activities discussed in any meetings of the Communist 
Party which you might have attended ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Rather briefly, and the reason for that was that Mr. 
Mayville was one of the parties involved with Clarance Sharp during 
the Frank Wilkinson situation, which Clarence Sharp subsequently 
was expelled from the party, so there was not too much discussion as 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1775 

far as Harry Mayville was concerned, but one thing is certain, he did 
obey party instructions, that is, to take the fifth amendment. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance upon party instructions given 
to him to conduct himself in that way ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. No, I wasn't. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you aware of the existence of party directives with 
respect to the testimony that witnesses such as Henry Mayville would 
give before this committee ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What were those instructions ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, we received about three different directives or 
instructions that if we were contacted by any agent, that is, any agent 
of the FBI to tell about our party association, and someone, some 
Federal agency tried to force any party member to register, we were to 
take the fifth amendment. If the House Un-American Activities 
Committee subpenaed us we were to take the fifth amendment, and if 
we received any mail, any order through the mail to register or state 
our party association, we were to ignore it. If the mail was sent by 
registered letter, then we were to return it with just the notation, "Re- 
fuse to answer on the grounds of the fifth amendment." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may we have a brief few minutes to 
discuss a matter with the staff director ? 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for a couple of 
minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, did the Communist Party ever assign 
you reports to prepare, the subject matter of which would reveal use- 
ful information relative to the national facilities and possibly defense 
facilities, national security facilities? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, on a number of occasions I was asked to pro- 
vide the party with information as to what was taking place on the 
railroad, and I have written a number of reports, I believe it was 
three of them, and these were turned over to Sam Davis, who was 
then the secretary of the Minnesota-Dakotas District of the Commu- 
nist Party, and he personally indicated to me that they were sent 
on to Chicago. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, in the prior conference with you by the 
committee investigator you identified certain persons as active in 
the Communist Party in this area. There are some names here that 
we have not had occasion to mention in testimony today in connection 
with the activities of the Communist Party in the Minneapolis area, 
and we would like to establish their identity at this time. 

Did you know a Herdis Brown to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, she is the wife of Jack Brown, who is also 
known as James Brown, and she is a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Herbert Clements ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes. And on various occasions I have worked with 
Mr. Clements in party assignments, and it was during these assign- 
ments that he, on a number of occasions, admitted to me that he was 
a member of the party. 



1776 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Violet Giovannini ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I did. She is the wife of Leo Giovannini, 
and she took part in closed-door Communist meeting^s. She cooked 
for trade union meetings, and she is a member of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Elsie McDonald ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes; she is the wife of Claude McDonald, who has 
been identified as a member of the Communist Party, and on a number 
of occasions it has been established that she is a member of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you know her to be a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Sig Sharp ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I do. She is the wife of Clarence Sharp. 
She also goes by the name of Sig Pearson, I believe, and that's spelled 
P-e-a-r-s-o-n, I believe, and she was one of the party functionaries, 
and at one time read a party directive as to how we were to respond 
to the Supreme Court decision of June 1961. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Irene Shanks ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. She is the wife of Gunnar Shanks and she, together 
with Gunnar Shanks, at one meeting of the Communist Party volun- 
teered to handle party funds. She is a member of the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you identify her as attending closed Communist 
Party meetings ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Ann Taylor ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. She is the wife of Ralph Taylor. I have never 
met Ann Taylor in a club meeting, but I have met her in a National 
Farm Conference of the Communist Party, which was held here in 
Minneapolis, and that party was only open to members of the Com- 
munist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke, I would also like to clarify your testi- 
mony with respect to Meridel LeSueur. In executive session before 
this committee on May 13, 1964, you testified in response to questions 
posed to you by me as follows : 

"Question : Now, do you identify Meridel LeSueur as a member of 
the Communist Party ?" 

And you replied, "Yes." I then asked : 

"Question: And how do you make that identification?" 

And you replied, "Well, Sam Davis left for, he was transferred 
from Minneapolis to Chicago, and we had a farewell meeting for Sam 
Davis, and that was held in the Pioneer Hall in St. Paul, and only 
members of the party could attend that, and she was there and she 
also made a speech that night. That was only open to party members." 
And then I asked : 

"Question : And she had been active in the various party activities 
in the area, to your knowledge?" To which you replied, "Yes." 

Now, I believe today when I asked you with respect to Meridel 
LeSueur's party membership, you said that you cannot positively 
identify her, to your knowledge. 

Mr. Boehnke. What I mean to say there is this, that she was not 
a member of our North Side Club. I did not see her paying any dues 
to the Communist Party, but as my previous testimony indicates, she 
did take part in the farewell of Sam Davis, which was open only to 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1777 

members of the Communist Party. It was only members of the Com- 
munist Party who were speakers that night. They were Sam Davis 
himself, Ben Davis of New York, Ellen Davis, Rose Renaud and 
Meridel LeSueur. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Tom Foley ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, I did know Tom Foley. He is the husband of 
Alma Foley, who is the secretary of the Minnesota Committee for the 
Protection of the Foreign Bom. The first time I met Mr. Foley was 
in the Andrews Hotel. It was a Sunday afternoon, the Minnesota 
Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born had a speaker, I 
do not recall who it was, and I was beside Mr. Foley, sat beside Mr. 
Foley, and we got to talking together and it was at that time that 
he admitted his membership in the Communist Party to me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I suggest that we allow the present 
witness to stand aside and resume his testimony later in the hearing. 
We have no further questions to ask of him at this time. 

The Chairman. That will be accorded; in other words, he will 
resume and complete his testimony later on. 
Mr. NiTTLE. At a later time, yes, sir. 

The Chairman. So the witness is excused. I suppose that will be 
the last witness this evening ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. May I say one more thing, Mr. Chairman. I offer in 
evidence Exhibits 1 to 5 that have been referred to as Boehnke Exhibits. 
The Chairman. They will be received in the record. 
That will complete the hearing this evening. 

Before adjourning until tomorrow, however, I would like to make 
a clarification or correction of a statement I made earlier. I said 
earlier that all persons who had been named or referred to or charac- 
terized, in one way or another, by the previous witness and by the one 
that just left the stand had all been given an opportunity by written 
letter to appear this morning in another room at an executive session 
and afforded an opportunity to voluntarily testify and to, as I said be- 
fore, explain, refute, deny, question, or comment on the reference to 
them. I was in error as to one person. I regret it. Actually, one per- 
son whose name crept into the record, who was referred to, was only 
notified this morning that this executive session, if he cared to avail 
himself to voluntarily appear and testify, that that opportunity would 
be given to him Friday. We discussed the matter with him and his 
attorney. We offered, if he cared to be heard, to hear him in executive 
session during one of tlie recesses we had ; but we were told by him and 
his attorney that they would prefer to wait until Friday, at a time 
designated in the notice this morning, to decide whether the witness 
would or would not avail himself of the opportunity to voluntarily 
appear Friday. In any event, he will be given that opportunity. The 
person's name, after consideration, is Mr. John Tillotson. I say I re- 
gret I made an all-covering statement when one of the witnesses could 
only be afforded that opportmiity Friday if he cares to, but he will be 
given an opportunity. 

We will stand in recess until 9 : 30 tomorrow morning. 
(Whereupon, at 6 :15 p.m., Wednesday, June 24, 1964, the subcom- 
mittee recessed to reconvene at 9 :30 a.m., Thursday, June 25, 1964.) 
(Boehnke Exhibit No. 2 follows :) 



1778 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

BoEHNKE Exhibit No. 2 

THr: NEED FOR US 

irhAt is our group? Generally speaking, it is a group, Marxist-Leninist, 
oriented in ideology, committed to study, and organized for political 
and social activities. It includes workers, housewives, mothers, students, etc. 

We can say th.iu is fine, great, but aren't the pressures at this time in our 
lives just a little too great to bear the burden of such groups? Isn't there 
a McCarrant act that is and has been attempting to smear progressives and 
label organizations? What about the sometimes successful attempts of the 
ultra-right and its' youth counterpart the TAP to disrupt progressive aeetinga 
and activities? Isn't anti-cor.muniem a strong weapon that can be used 
against any group putting forward an advanced postition? And doesn't this 
help to isolate the group and force others to break contact with ik in 
order to keep their shirts clean? 

These questions can be drawn into a fine argument for disbanding our groups, 
drastically changing their character, orawling~'"tTvtfl^he woodwork, or deciding 
en masse to join some respectable organization. 

Before we juftp to conclusions let us look at a number of other things 
happening around us today 

Reactionary ti-eno.o may be stronger, Right activity may have ir.creaaed; but 
are these factors oucceding in keeping the American people silent and 
motionless? iJidn't 5000 youth demonstrate their desire for peace and an 
■ end to nuclear testing in FeJimnary? Di(Jn't thousands more ralk for peace 
coast-to-coast oij Uaster weekend? Haven't thousands of courageous Negro and 
white youth, and tdults, participated in sit-ins, freec'oa rides, voter 
registration, boycotts, and other forms of struggle for equality? Didn't 
thousands of youth, and hindreds of adult leadern and organizations demonstrate 
their contempt for the House un-imerican Committ'^e in ian Fraaoioco, and in 
the months thut followed? Didn't New York City College 3tudent3 and faculty 
(together with tremendous support and solidarity from academic communities 
across the country) defeat the "communist apeakoft; ban"? Tddn't thousands of 
Minnesotans hear Ben Davis, and uphold their right to hear him? Haven't 
significant forces in the iKkazti labor movement begun to apeak out for peace 
(Mazey, Gorman, Bridges, MineAliill, Packing, etc.) and for civil liberties, 
and for action on Labor's problems? UAW, Isn't there a host of publications 
(left, peace, free-inquiry, controversial, and socialist-oriented) being 
read and circulated? Are not more and more people faced with automation, the 
continuing military draft and national guard ser/^ce; aren't more and mora' 
people becomin,^ interested and feeling challenge '■ by the advances made in 
socialist countries. Are not youth especially drawn to the historic program 
of building conimuniam in the USSR? Tkaa of thousands have turned out to 
listen to and question progressives, Marxist, oocialists, and communist. 

Now that the picture is a little more complete, perhaps we can see the 
necessity for us to tackle some of our obstacles and what unique role and 
contributions we can bring into this picture. .Vhat are sone of the unique 
features we can bring to these movemonta? 

The fact that we aea a ralationahip betwean the issues of peace, civil rights, 
job sooarity, and recreational and aduoatlonal needs is in itself an advanced 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1779 

BoEHNKE Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

position. R« oan, and auat, ti« together thaa* iasuea ao that othara may 
aee the cpmsion eneiijr and realise that any action on any issue can not be 
won independently oT the others. 

We oan help to bring other groupe into aotion by pointing out wh^ it is in 
their aelf-lntereat to ]B>come involved and take a stand. 

For instance on an issue like a communist speaking in a university or from 
another platform. I'eople of diverse views and organizations — faculty, League 
of 7/omen voters, WJLPF, democrata, republicans, sooialiat, students, workers, 
etc. realized that the denial «f rights to one group or individual could 
mean arbitrary denial to all. Free Speech and free choice were at stake, and 
this became the isaue. 

The meaning of unity is the agreed on struggle around a minimum program that 
advances a democratic issue and at the same time fight the main force that 
opposed it. 

There will be times when we initiate an aotion and other groups can be urged 
to participate as the oaapaign unfolds. It is possibel for a group to raise 
the Ideological level of the action, introduce advance content, and still 
be part of the whole activity. 

On tlie other hand, content more advanced than a group is ready for can isolate 
you from them; but progeoting the same program and ideas as other goups may 
retard the development and understanding of the whole. 

The necessary balance must be found for each situation. 

Another important factor is the ability to bring a long range perspective 
to our work and program. We should be able to explain the foroes in society 
that are at work and add aome clarity in our explanation of the rapidly 
changing world scene. We can also present questions and concepts of socialist 
life for disouosion, investigation, and argumention. 

Is it necessary, and can we overcome fear, frustration, and political noodir.t ..;.' 
Are not many areas of people's movements today groping for"goal8", lc%<ieri.hij>, 
and despite all talk of "no ideology", difloussioao are rar.ging far and widi. 
around important questions of "where are ve heading", "ho can we insure pis.-c'', 
""ffhat happens to my job if there is dioarmamdnt", "who are our allies and 
cnemiea", what alternatives are there to the status quo" and others. 

The old maxim "in unity there is strength" will become incroalingly cora 
important and is already being realised by eoiae Itsaders in the peace, lab-r, 
and civil rights fiolda. We oan play a most neccafiary and important role li 
this process - one that will win respect for us, help the particular aove^dnts , 
and help, bring about tiMty and clarity against the ultra-right. 

Beaidea, everyon e needs a club as a center of aotjvi^. Why? to raiae quoations 
and problems where many heads are better than one. To bring problems where 
similar experiences of others may help supply the answer or part of it. To 
undertake projects where a division of labor is necessary, and where the scope 
of a project would be too limited if only can be <lono to inprovo or aoc'.ify 
it next time. To have give and take dioouaaloao around a givan topic. To 
build healthy huaan relationships t it follows tirnt such groups ou^jht to 



1780 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
BoEHNKE Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

oontlnua to 1>ulld their menberahip ajid expana tholr aotirlties. 

Croups ■hould striv e to unite around a prograa of education and activity. 
The exolusictna of one or the other for a long period ȣ detrimental. 

Second, it ie moet important for groups to tie themselves in with, and 
engage in some aspect of the major aovements, to constantly work for 
cooperative efforts among various organizations, and to build xmity around 
a given program. ThAvA, groups should initiate actions of their own when 
this can )>roduce a positive reaction and response from the oomaunity or 
from other groups that are involved. 

For instance, the 'Ben Davis appearance | the Ixrga distributions of the 
Worker during the newspaper strike, the study oa taoonite, etc. 

The need for ua io gra^X, and we are going to laore than live up to our 
responsibilitj^ff. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., 

AREA 



THURSDAY, JUNE 25, 1964 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Minneapolis^ Minn. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 9 :30 a.m. in Courtroom No. 2 of the U.S. 
Courthouse Building, Minneapolis, Minn., Hon. Edwin E. Willis 
(chairman) presiding. 

(Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Loui- 
siana ; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri ; George F. Senner, Jr., of Ari- 
zona; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; and Henry C. Schadeberg, of 
Wisconsin.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Ichord, 
Senner, Bruce, and Schadeberg. 

Committee member also present : Representative John M. Ashbrook, 
of Ohio. 

Staff members present: Francis J. McNamara, director; Alfred M. 
Nittle and William Hitz, counsel ; and Neil E. Wetterman and Philip 
R. Manuel, investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel will call his first witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Would Claude McDonald please come forward. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing by the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. McDonald. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CLAUDE McDONALD, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
BENJAMIN DRAKE, JR. 

Mr. Nittle. Would the witness please state his name and address 
in full for the record. 

Mr. McDonald. Claude McDonald, 1621 Fifth Street North, Min- 
neapolis. 

Mr, Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Drake. May I answer that ? 

Mr. Nittle. Would the witness respond to the question as to whether 
he is represented by counsel ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 

1781 



1782 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Of course, this is a usual preliminary question. It 
is inconceivable that this could involve any of your constitutional 
rights, particularly when it has to do with advice in order to protect 
you, so I will direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We see you are accompanied by an individual. 

The Chairman. He has been directed ; he hasn't answered. 

Mr. McDonald. I have Mr. Ben Drake 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, I cannot hear the witness at all. 

Will you speak into the microphone ? 

Mr. McDonald. Mr. Ben Drake. 

The Chairman. What was the answer? 

Mr. McDonald. Mr. Ben Drake, sitting aside of me. 

The Chairman. He is your counsel ? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Drake. Benjamin Drake, Jr., a member of the Minnesota Bar, 
licensed to practice in this Federal court. My address is 1029-34 
Plymouth Building, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. McDonald, would you state the date and place of 
your birth ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Again this is the usual preliminary question for 
the record for purposes of identification and background, and you are 
directed to answer the question. 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. The Chair disagrees with you and directs you to 
answer the question. 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell the committee your educational 
training ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What have been your principal employments ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES LN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1783 

Mr, McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. McDonald, I think if you choose to invoke 
those reasons for your refusal to respond to future questions, you may 
simply state that you will refuse to respond for the same reasons. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, if I may interrupt with one question. 

Mr. McDonald, are you a United States citizen ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. The basis of the fifth amendment is apprehension 
or fear that the answer or response to a question would subject the 
person to criminal prosecution or tend to incriminate him. Do you 
honestly fear that to answer the question as to whether or not you are 
an American citizen w ould involve you in the fashion I liave indicated ? 

Mr. McDonald. I i-espect fully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my right imder the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. McDonald, were you present in the hearing room 
during the testimony of Ruthann Withrow and Norman Boehnke 
yesterday ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow testified that she knew you as a member 
of the Communist Party dunng the time she was active in that organi- 
zation. Mr. Boehnke likewise identified you as a member of the 
Communist Party during the period he was active in the Communist 
Party. Were you a member of the Communist Party during the pe- 
riod 1958 to 1963 ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Do you claim that these witnesses when so testify- 
ing were untruthful ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under tlie first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment to the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, in the testimony yesterday, Mr. McDonald, you 
were not only identified as a member of the Communist Party, but 
identified as one of the top leadei-s of the Conrmunist Party in the 
Minnesota-Dakotas District. You were identified as being a member 
of the district executive committee. Was that testimony correct? 



1784 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds tliat any answer given may incriminat/e me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment to the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTr.E. Mr. McDonald, were you in 1943 the financial secretary 
of Local 1152, United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of 
America, Minneapolis, Minnesota? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NrrrLK. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
serving in that capacity, namely, financial secretary of Local 1152? 

Mr. McDonald. I resi)ectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment to the 
United Stat-es Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of a January 1943 open letter to 
the Congress of the United States titled "A McvSsage to the House of 
Representatives," which is marked for identification as "McDonald 
Exhibit No. 1." 

As appears upon the exhibit, this letter was sponsored by the Na- 
tional Federation for Constitutional Liberties and opposed the re- 
newal of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities in 1943. 
I direct your attention to the fourth page of the exhibit, where your 
name, "Claude McDonald," identified as financial secretary. Local 
1152, United Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers of America, Min- 
neapolis, Minnesota, is among others listed as a signer of this message. 

Did you authorize your name to be used as a sponsor of this message? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment to the 
United States (Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 1 in evidence. 

The Chairman. Let it be admitted at this point. 

(Document marked "McDonald Exhibit No. 1," and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Ni'rrLE. At the time your name appeared oji this list, were 
you aware that the National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 
prior to that date had l)een publicly described as Communist by 
Attorney General Francis Riddle? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment to the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 
was likewise descril>ed as Communist and subversive in House reports 
of the Special Committee on ITn-American Activities commencing 
in a report of June 25, 1942, and certain subsequent reports. Like- 
wise in hearings on the Civil Rights Congress, the Subversive Activi- 
ties Control Board in its report, of July 26, 1957, characterized the 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties as an organization 
" 'operating in the field of civil rights under [Communist] Party 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1785 

domination and headed by responsible Part^ functionaries.' The 
National Federation for Constitutional Liberties, the National Negro 
Congress and the 'dormant' International Labor Defense merged into 
the Communist 'created' Civil Rights (Congress." 

Were you aware that the National Federation for Constitutional 
Liberties was a Communist-dominated organization headed by Com- 
munist Party functionaries at the time you sponsored the message 
to Congress? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answ^er given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment to the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, If I may, I would like to ask another 
question. 

Mr. Witness, do you believe in the first, the fifth, and the sixth 
amendment of the United States .Constitution ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
L^nited States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1943 
at the time you sponsored Exhibit No. 1 ? 

Mr. McDoNAiiD. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you serve as financial secretary of the 
United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America in Minne- 
apolis? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment to the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it not a fact, Mr. McDonald, that the United Elec- 
trical, Radio and Machine Workers of America was expelled from the 
CIO by vote of its convention in 1949 for being under the control of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you acting under Communist Party directives in 
1943 at the time you opposed the renewal of the Special Committee on 
Un-American Activities? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now I hand you a photostatic copy of the minutes of 
the sponsors meeting, and a list of those in attendance as the sponsors, 
of the American Peace Crusade held at 1702 12th Street, Northwest, 
Washington, D.C., on March 15, 1951. The document is marked for 
identification as "McDonald Exhibit No. 2." 



1786 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MESTNEAPOLIS, MINN,, AREA 

I direct your attention to the last page where Claude McDonald of 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, is listed as being in attendance at the sponsors 
meeting in Washington, D.C., on March 15, 1951. 

Were vou in attendance at this meeting of the American Peace 
Crusade ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
ITjiited States Constitution. 

Mr NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 2 in evidence. 

The Chairman. The document will be received at this point. 

( Document marked "McDonald Exhibit No. 2." See pp. 1794-1799. ) 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Subversive Activities Control Board in its report 
of 1957 found the American Peace Crusade to be a "Communist- front 
organization" and ordered it to register as such. Now I should like 
to inquire, Mr. McDonald, whether you were a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time of your attendance at the March 15, 1951, 
meeting of sponsors of the American Peace Crusade in Washington, 
D.C.? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of 
the Ignited States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Subversive Activities Control Board further 
found that the American Peace Crusade was admittedly created in 
February 1951 with offices in New York City. Now would you tell 
us, please, what was the purpose of the March 1951 meeting of spon- 
sors in Washington, D.C. ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is to be noted from the exhibit, Mr. McDonald, that 
there were representatives and sponsors in attendance at the Wash- 
ington meeting from several States throughout the United States. 
Was not this Washington, D.C, meeting in effect a national confer- 
ence with representatives in attendance from several States of the 
United States? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this not a national organizational meeting of the 
American Peace Crusade one month following its creation in Febru- 
ary in New York City ? 

Mr. McDonaivD. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Can you tell us of your own knowledge whether or 
not the American Peace Crusade, w^hich was founded in New York 
City in February 1951, was created there at the national headquarters 
of the Communist Party ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1787 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Now, on page 1 of the exhibit of the minutes of the 
sponsors meeting, the minutes record that the agenda accepted at the 
meeting was as follows, and I direct your attention to Items I to IV: 

I. (a) Progress Report on Crusade's Activities. 

(b) New Political Developments in the Fight for Peace. 

(c) Program and Preparations for the Pilgrimage. 

II. The Ballot Campaign. 

III. People's Peace Congress. 

IV. Proposals for Organizational Structure of the Cru- 
sade. 

Mr. McDonald, was it not, in fact, a purpose of this meeting to 
create a nationwide organization with affiliated organizations in 
various localities throughout the United States, and to accomplish 
this through the activity and assistance of representatives who were 
in attendance at this national meeting in Washington, you being one 
in attendance? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In its 1957 report, the Subversive Activities Control 
Board further found that a local organization named the "Minne- 
apolis Council for Peace" was a chapter of and an integral part- of 
the American Peace Crusade and that the Minneapolis Coimcil for 
Peace subsequently changed its name to the "Minneapolis Chapter of 
the American Peace Crusade." 

Did you participate in the formation or activities of the Minne- 
apolis Council for Peace and the Minneapolis Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Peace Crusade ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the Communist Party at the 
time of your attendance at this meeting in Washington ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you acquainted with Martin Mackie ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
TTnited States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party underground during the 1950's? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 



1788 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN,, AREA 

my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at that time make your home available so 
that Martin Mackie might remain in hiding ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you made financial contributions to Communist 
causes ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment 
of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now I hand you a photostatic copy of page MW-3 of 
the official Communist publication The Worker^ Sunday, May 8, 1960, 
marked for identification as "McDonald Exhibit No. 3," in which an 
ad appears captioned "Minnesota," which reads, "Greetings to The 
Worker and the Midwest Edition." C. E. McDonald is identified as 
one of the sponsors of the ad. 

Did you participate in the sending of greetings to The Worker on 
the May Day occasion noted by the advertisement ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

(Document marked "McDonald Exhibit No. 3," and retained in 
committee file.) 

Mr. NiTFLE. It is noted that, in the advertisements on that page, 
greetings from other persons and groups appear thereon, and from 
other Communist parties and sympathizers. 

Did you make any financial contribution to The Worker for the pub- 
lication of this greeting ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at a Communist Party picnic 
sponsored by the Minnesota-Dakotas Freedom of the Press Committee 
at Lake Minnetonka on Sunday, September 10, 1961 ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photograph taken at this particular picnic, 
in which there appears a photograph of two individuals. This photo- 
graph is marked as "McDonald Exhibit No. 3-A." 

Is not the individual on the left of that photograph Claude 
McDonald? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1789 

(Photograph marked "McDonald Exhibit No. 3- A" and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. And is not the person to the right, to whom you appear 
to be talking, Dr. J. Cleveland Cradle ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Dr. Cradle was identified by Mr. Boehnke as being 
a member of the Communist Party. Do you know Dr. Cradle to 
be such ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not one of those who acted as a guard at the 
picnic grounds ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or mav violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In testimony before the Subversive Activities Control 
Board on March 17, 1964, Miss Withrow testified that in the early 
part of 1961 it was announced at a Communist Party meeting that 
the city committee of the Communist Party of Minneapolis had been 
reconstituted or reinstituted and that temporarily, at least, four mem- 
bers would take charge of this committee; namely, Clarence Sharp, 
Betty Smith, Leo Giovannini, and Claude McDonald. Were you 
appointed to such position of authority on the Minneapolis City Com- 
mittee in 1961 ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were Clarence Sharp, Betty Smith, and Leo Giovan- 
nini also appointed to similar positions of authority at that time? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During this period were you not also a member of the 
North Side Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gromids that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Following the Supreme Court decision of 1961, which 
upheld the constitutionality of the Internal Security Act of 1950, did 
the North Side Club of the Communist Party receive orders to split 
into smaller groups as a matter of party security ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

36-729—64—0 



1790 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE, Were you not then at the same time a member of the 
district executive committee of the Conunmiist Party ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke testified before the Subversive Activities 
Control Board on May 17, 1964, that you were in attendance at a meet- 
ing of the Communist Party during May 1962, which was held at the 
residence of Betty Smith. He testified that at this meeting Mrs. Smith 
announced that she had been released from other duties of the party 
so she could devote full time to the youth movement. 

Were you in attendance at that meeting ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke further testified that John Forichette 
was in attendance at that meeting. Was John Forichette in attend- 



ance 



Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of 
the United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Mr. Forichette to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

• Mr. NiTTLE. At this same meeting in May 1962, according to ad- 
ditional testimony before the Board, a piece of paper w^as passed 
around containing the names of the new State board of the Minnesota- 
Dakotas District of the Communist Party. 

Were not Rose Renaud and Ralph Taylor thus identified as being 
secretary and chairman, respectively, of the district committee? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, may I at this point request that Exhibit 
3-A be received in evidence. 

The Chairman. It will be admitted. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, during the 1962 convention of the Democratic- 
Farmer-Labor group, were you not challenged as to your credentials 
and then rejected as a delegate as a result of alleged Communist Party 
activities ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1791 

Mr. NiTi'LE. Mr. McDonald, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 
statement entitled ''There Is Nothing To Fear But Fear Itself,'' 
marked for identification as "McDonald Exhibit No. 4." 

A notation is contained on the statement that it was being issued by 
C. E. McDonald. Did you distribute that exhibit at the Demo- 
cratic-Farmer-Labor convention ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to aswer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my ridits under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

(Docmnent marked "McDonald Exhibit No. 4'" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTPLE. In your attempt to serve as a delegate to the conven- 
tion, was it your purpose to introduce the Communist Party line at 
the convention? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I refer you to the statement, and in it are you not, in 
effect, highly critical of those who informed the Democratic-Farmer- 
Labor credentials committee of the attempt by the Communist Party 
to have party members seated as delegates, and you did not refute 
any charges that the Communist Party attempted to infiltrate this 
convention? I ask you now whether if at that time you had such 
knowledge. 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NrPTLE. At the time when you sought to have your credentials 
accepted as a delegate to that convention, were you not then a member 
of the district executive committee of the Communist Party and the 
top official in the Minnesota-Dakotas District ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights imder the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is informed that a person named Carl 
Flodquist and yourself were expelled from Local 386 of the Brother- 
hood of Painters, Decorators, and Paperhangers of America, respec- 
tively, on November 2, 1961, and February 5, 1962, for "subversive 
activities." Is this correct ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question pn 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of 
the United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee has received further information that 
prior to your expulsion from Local 386 you and Carl Flodquist would 
caiicus with certain other members of the local for the purpose of 
employing certain tactics to disrupt union meetings. Is tliis infor- 
mation correct? 



1792 COjMMUNIST activities in the MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to regular union meetings, did you and Carl 
Flodquist ever caucus with persons known to you to be members of 
the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you continued to caucus with certain members 
of Local 386 despite your expulsion and since your expulsion? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not a member of the Communist Party at 
the time of your expulsion from Local 386 ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights mider the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you currently a member of the district executive 
committee of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. McDonald, yesterday the chairman of this com- 
mittee in his opening statement called attention to the fact that Gus 
llall, the general secretary and top boss of the Communist Party 
of the United States, paid a visit to Mumeapolis some few months 
ago, February 18 to be exact, and while here he made a public state- 
ment, m which he said, in effect, "we" are going to do everything we 
can to give the Communists of Minnesota assistance, both in the sense 
of speakers and literature and finance in order to raise the work of the 
Communist movement to a higher level. 

Now, as one of the top leaders in the Minnesota-Dakotas District of 
the Communist Party you would certainly be in a position to inform 
this committee as to whether or not Gus Hall has implemented his 
promise. 

Will you tell us, please, what knowledge you possess as to any 
assistance that Gus Hall has rendered to the Communist Party in this 
district since his visit here ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1793 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Has the national headquarters rendered you any addi- 
tional assistance ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. One final question. In the Communist Party case, 
the Subversive Activities Control Board found, and the court of 
appeals sustained the finding, that the Communist Party of the United 
States was a disciplined organization operating in this Nation mider 
Soviet Union control to install a Soviet-style dictatorship in the United 
States. 

To your knowledge, is the Communist Party of the United States 
a disciplined organization operating in this Nation under Soviet 
Union control ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gromids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr, NiTTLE. Mr. McDonald, if you did not have such knowledge and 
truthfully said so, how could that possibly incriminate you ? 

Mr. McDonald. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendment of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NriTLE. I have no further questions of this witness, Mr. Chair- 
man. 

Mr. IcHORD. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Senner. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Bruce. No questions at all. 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. No qucstious. 

Mr. Abhbrook. No questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

I think the reporter needs a rest so we will recess for a few minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

(McDonald Exhibit No. 2 follows:) 



1794 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
MoDoNAU) Exhibit No. 2 

MINUTES OF SPONSOHS MEETIIfil 
AHERIGAK PEACE CRUSADE 

1703 ir;th St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 
March 15, 1951 

PBESSKTj A full llBt of thoBo attendlne Is otttchcd to th« minutes. 

Dr. Philip Morrison presided. He propooed the following agendo, which 
vaa ftccepted ty the meeting: 

1, (a) Procrena Report on Cruoada'a Activities 

(b) lleiw Political Eevelopmente In the Tight for Peace, 

(c) Program and Prepnratlona for the Pilgrimage 

111 The Ballot Canpalgn 
111, People's Peaoo Congress 
IT. Proposals for Organizational Structure of the Crusade. 

1. (a) Baport hy Dr. Morrison. 

In mid-December, a group of people Interested In -neace net at the Hotel 
Brevoort In Ngw Tork City and discussed the need for r now peace organization. 
Out of this dlecusslon came the Btateraent of Principles and the Proposals for . 
setting up the Anerlcan Peace Crusade which envisaged three concretg actions to 
Implement this progran for peacet (l) a ballot campaign; (2) the peace pilgriii>- 
age to Hashington; and (.'^) a People's Peace Congress in tho midwest. Initiated 
by seven people - Dr. Clementina J, Paolone, Obstetrician and Chairman of Amei^ 
lean Women for Peace, Hew Tork, V. Y,, Kr. Ernest DeMelo, Vice-President, United 
Ziectrical, Radio and Machine Wor'cers, Chicago, 111., Dr, Phljip Morrison, Nu- 
clear Physicist, Cornell University, I!ew York., present today, as well as Dr. 
Lucius C. Porter, Torner Profoaaor of Philosophy at Yenching University, Chins; 
retired Congregational' □iBsinnary, Bsllolt, Wise, Dr. Linue Paulirg, Chairman 
Dept, of ChSElstry, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., Dr. 
V,X.B, DuBols, Historian, Sociologist and JLnthropologist, Hew Tork, H. Y, and 
Mr. Charles Howard, Attorney and Publlslier and Ponner Member of Republican 
State Comnlttee, Des Mo!nea, Iowa - Invitatlona were sent out to a number of 
prominent AocrlcoAa. The first public announcement was made on the first of 
Tebruary, To date nearly 3X) sponsors have Joined In supporting our program 
and activity. More thfin 130,000 copies of the Call to this Pilgrinage have 
been distributed; more than 500,000 copies of the Ballot (including those repro- 
duced locally as well as the more than 300,000 printed nationally) are in circu- 
lation; more than 27 city and state comnlttees end coua'^ils of the Crusade have 
been formed; and above all the presence here In Washington of upwards of 2500 
delegates Indicate our growth. 

(b) Ppw fotiUaal Perfllgpaflata In the ne)i\ f<?r Feagg. 

Dr. Morrison Indicated hie belief that we are not far from some kind of 
settlement in Korea as a result of the military situntlon, anong other iactora. 
And there la a new development since the launching of the Crusade. This Is the 
Insistence among the American people and arising; in 3u:ope that there bo a set- 
tlement within the Big Powers of the differences anor^g them, and that every op- 
portunity be seized upon by the State Department and the Adjainistratlon to nego- 
tiate such differences. The Conference of Deputy yorel£:n Ministers now being 
held in Paris rauct not fall. Thla is the time to insist that negotiations be con- 
tinued until agreement Is reached. With this in mind, we propose that the follo^^ 
Ing letter (copy attached) ba submitted to Secretary Acheson by the delegation 
which has an appointment with the State Derpt. at lt30. In addition, our prograa 
for the next two months should emphasise the urgency of Insisting on negotiation 
as a major issue. 

DISCTOSIOSt 

Dr. Paolonst Indicated her fundaaentai agreeoent with Dr. Morrison's posi- 
tion. 

The do!!©Yis of people she sees every day have a deep desire for peace and . 
insist that somebow vet nuot be averted. Although there is confusion on 
some political issues, tba desire for peace is so real that it should not 
bo difficult for us to win suoport of our program If we present it simply 
and directly to the people theosolves. 

Mr, Dellftiol stressed the point that vo muat not be fooled by the talk 
about 8\.0T)plne war preprratlons, and that there might be peace. We want 
peace, but we will got It only if we continue fighting for it vlgoroualy. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN,, AREA 1795 
McDonald Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

Mlrratea of Sponsors Meeting - 2 

The people want peaco nnd to live well; they dont want to die. There 
must be no letdown In our wor!{ for peace. 

Mr. Slater: Vhlle there 1b trenendoua desire for peace, many p5i!jple 
have b»on affoctel by antl-Sovlet propaganda. In naterlal put out 
by the Crusade, we should answer sone of this propagnnda which Is be- 
ing uaod to sell the Idoa of an Ineritablo wej. 

Lucy Brovml In addition to the points ralced by Dr, Morrison, we nust 
ralao with the Ancrlcen people the queetion of the extpmlrAtlon of 
the Koroem people by 0"iX military policy In Zorea. This la the qamo 
policy v;hlch woa carried out by tho I'azls In a different form, '."ha 
iiierloan people are not avare of the extent of this wholaeaie hutchery 
6jyl destruction of the Koroan people by our nethode of warfbro. 

Er, Horrlnoa Interjected with the corment that preciooly thla point of 
vlo»f was er.'iiodied In a etateraent to be submitted to Oan. HarBhall would 
be precentcd by tho delegation to the Defense D«ipt, This statement 
raises the question of the conduct of our war in Korea ajid o-jj> troat- 
ment of VecTo ooldlero In the U,S, Army, \ylth particular reference to 
the case of Lt, Gilbert &a an Indication of racist ;^sA (liKcrimlnator7 
policlee. 
(Tha letter to Oen. Marshall la attached) 

Jose Correla! Proof of the popular support for the poe'tlon taken by th« 
imerlsan Peace Crusade le tho fact t>iat In recent alsctlono a canlltete 
rur»nlcg on a etatowlds ticket In California vfhosa prct^ao was centarcd 
fcroujid the peace question Identical with that of the Cruaaie oecured 
nearly 300,000 votto, Ajao, there ha* to be a etronger rclatlonahlp 
betveea tt^e psaco rao cement and the fl^ht agelnat ti-is dlacrimlnatory 
troatcent of tho Negro people In the United States. The California 
delagation hatl chartered a special plana which brought 24 delegatoa, 
Begro and white, ^.o Vaehlngton, The plane had atopped at Kloni^hfs where 
the Hegro delegates were refused service In the Jim Crou dlnln,'; ruoa 
»t the airport. The opportunity was taken to ciddresa nore than 150 
people eating iu tha dining room. The letter to Secy. Achfsou should 
indicate that the oyea of the Neci'o people of Amorlca and of the col- 
ored people of the world are on Vij«hiagtoQ, 

In further discussion, several additional points were proposed, Oeorge 
Xletomn of the I^or Vorkera Union urged that special emphasis be glTsn 
to opposition to the raarnilag of Oemiany, 

Say 'rrlTia of California felt that the vholeaelo blucyj.iBtinj; of wortcers 
li, tho taarltlne liadua'criea on the west coast in the cane of defetise 
should ba taclcljd. 

Oeorge Pirinelcy of the Ainorlcan Slav Coc^reas felt that there should be 
a special protest on the freelnc of the Kasi wsi' crlmioala. 

?rof. Morrison pointed out thet many of these points were dealt with 
and that once we starto-d tiklag uy special Iesuos, there would be no end. 
On tha othar h.-.-'.d. if tha pointB were conaider*! rnifflclsatly import- 
ant, there was Btill an onportunlty to modify the loiter to the State 
Sept, aud the other docuiuenta. 

It wao finally decided that the letter to Mr, Acheaoc 'ihould be modi- 
fled in line with Hy. C.ts-rol(i*o tuffrcsticn, cxd tb-it ^.n a<itiit,iana.l soct- 
anee b* put in on the rpir-ifc :Biit of Oe.nra.Ty,, In fuvt-,or i5iicu«3lon, 
Eev, Hill and iflrs. Zsu-nan of Michigan Indicated that Stc-j, ichecon'a at- 
tacks on the Crdsarie '^^^re a. direct interf9,recc<* wvib thu r'.rht ic tpeak 
for psaco cui th;*t ths-e should l>9 sotite cperlid attention Ri^en to 
this elgnificsuit tv>i/it, i'-.irviier diacusoloa bsrpu^t out the idea faat 
the daloeation vj tho Ju.tics l/»it. on the riglit to eos.Jt- for pooffo 
thouli dwJ. not only «r!th 'ilvs Iflictoeiifc of D.-. EvJoia and the other 
offlturs o;' tli» 'ethC'B iufoiajiilon Centbi- l;ut with all the otiinr airpocts 
of lafrircamonta on tvj. r'.ght t ; speak for psicdc ''•v-^-^- aa blACkliatlng 
of workers in the Bcjj'ltlme indvistjry, ate, 

( c ) fissz£sJ:.f::v.yixi'J.lsx-^I:3.Jl.-x.lllst:iu:A 

Mr, Simon roportsd oa the a^erkJa for th« ?ll<{Tla&g« i»'! the fa^t t'.At the 
progrtua was beloi; coiaprass'ja Into one dny since r^oat of the dal'gates could ^ct 
stay over. Copy of the agenda le attached. 



1796 COMMUNIST ACTiyiTIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
McDonald Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

Minuteo of Sponsors Meetlng-3 

Kf, Klalnman reported that a nun'ber of lator delegates with the Labor Peace 
Conference hed asked for appointments vlth Charles Wjlgon, Office of Defense Mo- 
bilization, 2rlc Johnston, Sconomlc Stabilizer, end Mr. DlSalle, Director of Price 
Ststllljatloo, but were refused. The labor delegates v;anted to protest these re- 
fusals In the traditional labor manner, by throwing a picket line around these of- 
fices. 

Doxiglas Glasgow, Director of the Touth Sponsoring Connlttne, Indicated that 
elollar refuaals had boen raade by the Office of Selective Service pjai the Defense 
Dept. w>iom they wanted tj see on the question of the draft and 'julversal nllltary 
training, In conjunctlo.i with gome of the wocen df legates, the youth wanted ts 
protest these refusals by o. well-planned vigil outside of the Vhlte House or Se- 
lective Serrtc© offices. 

In t!i« discussion that follo-^ed. Dr. Morrison Indicated that It hiad been 
decided that oil activities conducted on Thursday would be officially th^se of 
the Crasad?, He felt that any activities carried on ttet day by other grouyis 
would be picked up by the press vfho would distort It and use It to s^ear the 
Pllgrlraage. He felt It would be unv.'ise for the youth and labor delegates to car- 
ry out these actions. Dr. Paolone concurred, polntin,; out that last sumner v;hen 
the American Vomon for Peace had a delegation to tlie U.N., a sit-dnvm which l-ad 
been carried on airaultrjieously by sore youth delegates, had b«en distorted by 
the press and oversliadov;ed the activity of the far larger group of wonen dele- 
gates. Rev, Hill also felt this would not be a correct activity. 

As a result of the discussion, Mr, Klelnnan and Kr. Olasgow i<ould withdraw 
their proposnlE, rather than press the matter for a Tote. Dr. !:orri30D su^asted 
that they secure the largest pooslble deleeatlon and v;lth then Insist on seeing 
the government officials Involved. He also suggested that If they were still re- 
fused an appointment, that a statement be Issued to the press, 

II. BALLOT CAMPAIGN 

The ballot canpalgn has been laxir.ched and has a -.^Ide and successful response. 
More than 500,000 ballots have been distributed, nationally and IoceII;;. Aaong 
these are special ballots reproduced by women jrroups, youth, language groups, la- 
bor groups, etc. However, the cannalgn has not really moved Into hlf^h gear be- 
cause of the need for local and national groins to slmultpneously tac".rle the or- 
ganization of the American Peace Crusade and prepare for the Pllgrinsr:?. After 
the Pilgrlciage the time should be used to rjost effectively roach out ncross the 
countr;/ with ballots. In view of the urgency of the Issue of negotiiitlon ar.d peace- 
ful settlement which he had referred to l:i his opening remarks. Dr. Morrison raised 
the oiieetlon th^t this point co'old be Liade a part of the ceaipaign by adding it as 
a question on the ballot. This was agreed upon by the r.eetlng. 

III. PKIPLI'S PEAC3 COIiOHSSS 

The original Statement of Principles envisaged a great PetTple's Congress 
for Peace to be held In the late spring sonevherc in the nldwcst which wTald be 
a constituent assenbly or orcanlzatlon for the peace movenent. Further discus- 
sions have been held iqjon this. We understand the Chicago Committee of the Peace 
Crusade, of which Dr. Lovett and Rev, Joseph Evanu are co-ehalrnien, have proposed 
that it be In Ciilcago the weekend of June 1, 2 and 3, innedlately following the 
Memorial Daj- hollda,-/, and that this be not only the usual tyne of congress but 
should embody features of cultural activities and features of a peace exposition. 

Dr. Iloyes, temporary executiye director of the Chicago Council of the Peace 
Crusade, stated that Chicago could not take complete responsibility, but would be 
willing to act as host for such a congress and that this would be discussed vdth 
the IllinolB delegation, 

Mr. Sloon stated that Mr, Glasgow (who had to leave) had Indicated that the 
youth group proposed to hold a youth festival Jointly with the congress '.fhlch would 
have eports activities, folk dancing and other cultural activities. Dr. :'.orrlson 
added that It Is most Important for local groups to feel that talent anl suggest- 
ions for this program was not only wanted, but was necessary . Mrs. Alice Rubenberg 
of New York pointed out that In developing such a program the local groups .mist 
take respontlblllty for financing such a tremendous program If It Is t3 ba success- 
ful. 

17. CBOAHIZATIff.'XL STATOS 

Dr. Morrieon Indicated that until now the Initiating sponsors, with t'-.e 



COMIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MrNNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1797 
McDonald Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

Mlnutefl of Sponsors M«etlDg-4 

hslp of eome of th? ot'ner sponaors, had talcen the najor share of rssponalblllty 
for runr.ir^ the Ci-uaada. ?or the period 'jatll the Congress, we need sone type of 
orgaclzavlonfil structure ^Ich, on the one hand, would have some degree of aathoi^ 
it7 and responsibility, and on the other, would he flexlole. Informal, and aboTo 
all. not filve nay Impresal'^n of bolr.f^ a frozen stricture. Vfith thlo In mind, he 
proposed t.Tat there he tvo provisional co-ohalrnen and a provisional plannlr^ ooo>- 
nlttee of eooe 25-.1j prominent figures. In thjo Interim period, thlo group togeth- 
er with th* eo-chalroen, wou-ld have the power to enlarge Itself by cooptlng addi- 
tions! memiere and undertake responsibilities regarding staff, administrative act- 
lTlti£3, etc. It was proposed that Dr. CuBole and I>r. Hobert Korss lovevu bo 
provisional co-chalmen. Dp, Korrlson further sugceated that pending formal ao- 
ceptance by the Individuals Bomloatod, there be no public inr.ouncemant . 

TIafortunately, Dr, DoBqIb vas out of the country and could not be present 
at the Pllgrlmege. Dr. Lo^ttt stated that he felt this nomination mbs an honor, 
partlralarly at beins proposed as a colleague of Dr. DuBols. He Indicated that 
he wo'jid be glad to give the matter consideration but could not make a definite 
coizmltnent At the tljoe. 

Prcpoanls for the slate for the planning comnlttee Included tba followlngJ 

Prof. Philip Mij-ri^oa 2<riiglaa Olaagow Paul Bobesot 

Ernest DoHalo Alvln Chrlatman Hev. Stephen Trltchman 

Dr, Claaentlaa J, Paolone s^tb, Thereeo Eoblason Pyke Tarmer 

Dr. Liicius Poster Mrs. Me?y Church Terrell John Clark 

Dr, Linus Paulipe Rev. Joai=r^ Iraaa R«p.yacklBghouBe Workers 

Abbott SlBoo Prof, Henry Pratt Talrchlld Hary Dreler 

Blehoji ixthur '<!, Moulton Bishop Benjanln D. Ea^ell Hlch*el Vood, A.T.L. 

Xarly Larsen Hon. Xlaer A, Be&son Kov.Treeman of Kana.Clty 

Leo Krzycki Bishop Caneron C, Allcyae Dr. T. K. Stama 

DlSCUSSIdJ; Mrs, Robinson said she waB leaving Washington, D. C. Becauaa 
of this, aod because of hsr ill health, she did not feel she could serve on the 
conaittee, although she would give whatever assistance possible. She proposed 
Dr. Jernagln. 

■W .. «• -if w * «• 

Rr, Simon pointed out that the list had been prepared with full undarstand- 
Ing that sooe seetlons, geographic and In terma oi area of Intere* were not fully 
represented. Tor thlo reason, the proposal was made that the planning committee 
should emlarge Iteolf. Tor eiample, Mr. Glasgow had reported that the youth would 
like to have more time to decide youtji nooineee. This wae true also with r«sarl 
to a representative from the south. 

In roepocee to criticism on lack cf woman on the slate. Dr. Horrision pro- 
poee4 Kiss nta Ha/;en: Mrs. Andrew Simkins and Prof. Louise Pettebone Smith. A 
representatiye oi the faro groups suggeeted that several from among the following 
be added to the conElttee — Archie ■'right, Alvin Chrietman, Tred Stover or 
Morrla Sloan. 

The meetlBg w»s adjourned 



na t a a M * 



dpo\m/65 



1798 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
McDonald Exhibit No. 2— Continued 

Li=;t of Those in Attandanco, Sponsors' Meeting, Anericac Posce CrMsado 
March 15, 1951 
1704 R St. N, W. Washington, D.C. 



C&LI>t)Rt. U 

Ralph C. Bo&ls 

Youth Cormlttee of Peace Crvisado 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

Jose Corrals 

I.P.P., ilarlne Cooks 4 Stawards 

San Francisco, Cal . 

Carl. L. Cr«ln 

Long Beach Poaoe Council 

Long 3each , Cal. 

Jack J. Fleier 

Coma. Against Ponazif Ication of Canaany 

Los Angeles, Cal . 

Betty Hirachfelder 

Amarloan Russian Institute Peace Coon. 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Ray Irvine 

I.L.W.U. 

San Francisco, Cal . 

William Uaok 

A.F. L. Laborers, Local 261 

San Francisco, Cal. 

Urs. V. liyerson 
Neighborhood Wonen ft)r Peace 
Los Angeles, Cal. 



Mr». Georgia A. Br»dfofd 
East Chicago, Ind. 



George Hartridge 
Denver, Colo. 



C. E. Slator 
Denvor, Colo. 



CDimECTICUT 

Rer. Dudley Burr 
Congregational Church 
East Hartford, Conn. 

Dorothy Haven 
People's Party 
Fall VilUge, Conn. 

Prof. John UarsallCB 
American Slav Congr«BS 
Hew Haven, Conn. 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Frederlolc A. Blossom 
Washington, D. C. 

Mrs. Theresa Robinson 
Chair. Civil Liberties Comm. ImprovBd 
Bonevolant t Protective Orderof the Silts 
of the World, Washington, D. C. 

Arthur Stein 

Chair. Projresaive Party 

iVashlngton, D. C. 



Mrs. Dorothy Bushnell Cole 
Chicago, 111. 

nrnest Dsllaio, Int' 1 . V.P. UEBW.tt 
Pres. Dlst. Council U, UERUVfA 
Chicago, 111. 

liihop H. H. Hooper 
l.'atarena Church 
Chioaso, 111. 

Rev. !Jas3ie L. Kennard 

Pastor for Youth, Metropolitan Ccnraunlty 

Church, Chicago, 111. 

Dr. H^nry H. Noyes 

Exec. Secy. Chicago Peaoe Crusade 

Chicago, 111. 

Idell U:iiblos 

Chicago Worasii for Peaoe, Chicago, 111. 

Prof. Robert Morss Lovett 

Former Govemraontal Secy, of the Virgin 

Islands and Co-Chalnnan of the Chicago 

Council of the Crusade 

Chicago, 111. 



KANSAS 

Rev. E. A. Freeman 
Ulnlster, First Baptist Church 
Pres. Kansas City t.'.A.A.C.P. 
Kansas City, Kans. 



John T« Gojack 
Intl. V.P. UHWW 
Ft. Wayne, Ind. 

Fanny Hicks 
Gary, Ind. 

TIrsaline HIU 
Gary, Ind. 

Lois Uueci 
Gary, Ind. 

E. Pita 
Oary. Ind. 



Dr. Ruth Bleier 

Chair. Uaryland Cooima for Peace 

Baltimore, Ud. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1799 
McDonald Exhibit No. 2 — Continaod 

Sponsors - 2 



tilCHIGAIl 

Rav. Charles A. Hill 
Hartford Ave. Baptist Church 
Chair. lUchigan Peace Council 
Detroit, Mich. 

Robert E. Jones 
S. Haven, Michigan 

Estiier Karson 

Detroit Peace Crusade Coram. 

Detroit, tUch. 

Mrs. Ida Olshansky 
Progres-iv; P&rty 
Detroit, Mich. 

Mrs. Lenoro Piaeza 

Apple^ate, i!ldi« 



Geogje Plrinsky, 2xeo. Dlr.- 
teerican, Slav Congress 
i;ow York, N. Y. 

Paul Robeson 
Hew York, N. Y. 

Hon. Robt. H. Scanlan 

Trl-Cit>' Civil Liberties CaoB. 

ALP 

Troy, K. Y. 

Prof. Philip Morrison 
Cornell University 
Ithaca, \. Y. 

Abbott Simon 
Mev/ York, N. Y. 

•Douglas Glassow 
New York, N. Y. 



Claude tloDona Id- 
Minneapolis, Uinn. 



Mrs. Louise Hunt' 
Portland, Me. 



NCT HAMPSHIRE 



Ima C. Otto 

Ce nter Sandwich, N.H. 



VEW MEXICO 

Ednunde T. Chip 
in:5! 4 S'V, Local 890 
Hurley, U. M. 



Victor Allen 

Spencer Cooperative Society 

Spencer, II. Y. 

Dr. Edward K. Barsky 
New York, 11. Y. 

Lucy Brown, 
Hew York, II. Y.- 

Prof. Henry Pratt Falrchlld 
.New York, tl. Y. 

Abe Feinglaas 
IFISIU, rep. Ben Gold 
Chicago, 111. or H.Y. 

Georgs Kleinman 

IFLVVU 

Hem York, H. Y. 

Merria.'s M. Uoore 

ALP 

Troy, N. Y. 

Dr. Clamentlna J. Faclons 

Obstetrician, Chair. American Women for 

Peace 

Mew York, N. Y. 



Ima Baiman 
Cleveland Council ASP 
Cleveland, Ohio 

John Bozeman 
UE, Local 707 
Clevela nJ, Ohio 

Hugh DeLacy 

Foraer Congressnan, Dlr. P.P. Ohio 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Florence Doujher 
Cleveland, 0. 

Fred Haug 
Cleveland, 0. 

Joseph Kres 

US Liistrict Council j(7 
Cleveland, 0. 

Mrs. Anne 3. liorrow 

?P 

Cleveland, 0. 

Edward W. Webb 
Cleveland, 0. 



PEI-TSYLVAMIA 

Dr. Frederick K. Stanm 
Congregational Christian Church (Ret) 
Plunstedville, Pa. 

SOOTH CAaOLIHA 

Urs. Andrew 'i, SL-nklns 
Republicar. Party Loader 
Colijnbia, S. C. 



Sidney Berger 

Secy. Wisconsin Council APC 

"ffilv/aukee, .'isc. 

Elijah Jones 

Anti-Segregation Committee 
MiliTaukee, Wise. 



dpo^^*\ 



1800 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Mr. Nittle, call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Martin Mackie. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly SAvear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Mackie. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF OSCAR MAETIN MACKIE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOHN S. CONNOLLY 

Mr. Nittle. Will the witness please state his name in full and give 
his address for the purpose of the record ? 

Mr. Mackie. My name is Martin Mackie. I live at 801 Russell 
Avenue North, Minneapolis. 

Mr. Nittle. How do you spell your name ? 

Mr. Mackie. M-a-c-k-i-e. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you also spelled your name M-a-k-i ? 

Mr. Mackie. I have. 

Mr. NiiTLE, Is your full name Oscar Martin Mackie ? 

Mr. Mackie. That is right. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Mackie. Yes. 

Mr. Ni^rTLE. Would counsel kmdly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Connolly. My name is John S. Connolly. I am an attorney 
at law admitted to practice in Minnesota, and my office is 303 Degree 
of Honor Building, St. Paul. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Mapkie, would you state the date and place of your 
birth ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. This is preliminary background information fol- 
lowed in all proceedings, so I direct you to answer the question. In 
other words, I don't agree with you. 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Mackie, I have before me a photostatic copy of 
your application for membership in the United Brotherhood of Car- 
penters and Joiners of America. In this application it appears that 
you state your place of birth to be Vir^nia, Minnesota. 

Now, how could it possibly incriminate you to state that you are an 
American citizen born in the United States ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you making that response to the question, as to 
the place of your birth, as a result of instructions given to you by the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN,, AREA 1801 

Communist Party of the United States to make just such a response to 
each question of this committee? 

Mr. JVLvcKiE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you hear the testimony of Mr. Boehnke yesterday 
at which time he testified he knew you to be a member of the North 
Side Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. ]\1ackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member 

The Chairman. Counsel, excuse me. 

We hear and read a great deal about the alleged fact that this com- 
mittee asks questions without the right of confrontation and all the 
rest of it. If Mr. Boelmke was called to the stand and resworn and 
would confront you so you could know exactly who your so-called ac- 
cuser is, would you answer the question ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Mackie, are you as of this moment a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights uiider the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTi.E. When did you first join the Communist Party and 
what were the circumstances under which you joined ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rigiits under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not a Communist Party candidate for the 
office of Governor of Minnesota in 1940 ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Witness, we are here to determine facts to estab- 
lish legislation that will protect the security of this Nation. You have 
been subpenaed and have been given an offer to appear in a different 
capacity also, in an executive session. We bend over backwards try- 
ing to afford you an opportunity to help this coimtry. Is the reason 
that you raise the first, the fifth, and the sixth amendment, to prevent 
this committee trying to find facts that will help us protect this coun- 
try's security ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 



1802 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. Sejstner. Mr. Chairman, one further question. 

Is it not true that the Communist Party, if they are successful, 
would abolish the hrst, the hfth, and the sixth amendments to the 
United States Constitution^ 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds tiiat any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. Would there be any question that this committee pro- 
pounded to you in any way, both to help you and your reputation, 
help this committee from a legislative standpoint, that you would an- 
swer other than this phrase that you have been reading to us here for 
the last 5 minutes ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chaimian. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. Nittle. The Communist Daily Worker^ the official publication 
of the Communist Party, in its issue of November 24, 1942, reports 
you as holding the position of State secretary of the Communist Party 
in Minnesota at that time. Did you hold that office ? 

Mr. JVIackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you the Communist Party's candidate in 1941 
for the office of mayor of Duluth, Minnesota ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. The proceedings of the constitutional convention of 
the Communist Political Association, a convention of the Communist 
Party held in 1945, lists Martin Mackie as an alternate member of the 
National Committee of the Communist Political Association. Are 
you the Martin Mackie to w^hom the article refers ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Were not Carl Eoss and Clarence Sharp both mem- 
bers of the National Coimnittee of the Communist Political Associa- 
tion at the time of your membership on that committee ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may mcriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Now^, the Communist Daily Worke?' of September 23, 
1946, reports that in 1946 you have served as chairman of the Commu- 
nist Party in Minnesota. Would you tell us when you were ap- 
pointed to such office and how long you remained in office as chairman 
of the Communist Party in Minnesota ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1803 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Claude McDonald ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights of the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know him to be a member of the Communist 
Party and a State officer or member of the district executive commit- 
tee of the Commmiist Party in the Minnesota-Dakotas District? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you at any time during the period 1952 to 1954 
while chairman of the district committee of the Communist Party go 
into hiding at the residence of Claude McDonald at the direction of 
the Communist Party national headquarters? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights of the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you trying to avoid prosecution under antisub- 
versive statutes at that time, or was there some other purpose for 
your going into hiding at the home of Claude McDonald ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. During the period 1952 to 1954, did you have occasion 
to meet Ruth Gordienko and was she introduced to you at that time 
as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights of the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. From the period 1952 to the present time, have you 
held any official position in the Communist Party other than as a 
member of the North Side Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. jSIackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Could you tell us why you were no longer continued 
in the office of chairman of the Communist Party in the Minnesota- 
Dakotas District but retained your membership in a cell of the party 
in Minneapolis ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 



1804 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Mackie, in the opening of the interrogation I made 
reference to membership in the United Brotherhood of Carpenters 
and Joiners of America. I want to ask you whether you did not, in 
fact, on June 22, 1959, make such an application ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

The CHAiRMAisr. It is inconceivable to me that applying for mem- 
bership in that fme organization could have any such effect, so I 
direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights mider the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of that application, 
dated June 22, 1959, and signed by one Oscar Martin Mackie. The 
application is marked for identification as "Mackie Exhibit No. 1." 

Did you execute that application, and is that your signature appear- 
ing thereon ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

(Document marked "Mackie Exhibit No. 1" follows :) 

Mackie Exhibit No. 1 

APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP IN THE 

UNITED BROTHERHOOD OF CARPENTERS AND 
JOINERS OF AMERICA 

[TYPE OB PRINT PLAINLY] 

L. U. No. City Minneapolis 1 State Minn. 

Name of applicant MACKIE, Oscar M. 

LAST NAME FIRST NAME MIDDLE NAMB 

Address 801 Russell Avenue N., Minneapolis 11, Minn. 
Date of birth 5-11-1906 Where born Virginia, Minn. 
Date Initiated Amount Initiation Fee Paid 100.00 

□ Apprentice [x] Beneficial D Honorary 

How many years have you worked at the trade? 5 

Employed by Ernest Pesis 

How is Your General Health ? good. Are You Married ? yes 

Are you afflicted with any ailment which is liable to make you a burden on 

the United Brotherhood? no 
Are you a citizen of the country in which you are nov7 making application for 

membership? yes 
If not a citizen give date and place in which you received your citizenship 

papers. (Sec. 42, Par. J.) 

Date and place of court 

Day Month Year 

City State or Province 

Have you ever been a member of the U. B. ? no 

L. U. No. and date when dropped or expelled 

Were you ever rejected by any Local Union of the United Brotherhood? no 

Do you hold membership in another labor organization? no 

Name of such labor organization: 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1805 

Are you a Communist? no 

Are you in sympathy with Communistic philosophy? no 

Are you willing at all times to comply with and abide by the Laws of the 

United Brotherhood, District Councils and Local Unions? yes 
If it is found at any time that you have made false statements of any land in 

this application, are you willing that your membership shall be declared 

void, and card issued to you annulled, and all money paid by you 

forfeited? yes 
Signature of Applicant : Oscar Martin Mackie 

APPLICANT MUST SIGN 

Date Signed by Applicant 6-22-59 Social Security No. 471-10-0041 
„ , /Hanlev Hemmingson L. U. No. 7 

Vouchers : I Carl Achteley L. U. No. 7 

We, the Investigating Committee, report favorably on the above 

application. 

ORIGINAL I" 

Investigating Committee. 
This Application must be fully completed and sent promptly to the General 
Office by the Financial Secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In this application for membership the questions are 
asked of you, "Are you a Communist?" and "Are you in sympathy 
with Communistic philosophy?" To both of those questions you 
answered "No." 

Was your application tn^ithf ul in that respect ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
gromids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In this application you list one Hanley Hennningson 
as a voucher for your application. Mr. Boehnke yesterday testified 
that he knew Hanley Hemmingson to be a member of the North Side 
cell of the Conmiunist Party. Mr. Boelinke testified, of course, that 
you were also a member of the North Side cell of the Communist 
Party. 

Did you know Hanley Hemmingson as a member of the Com- 
munist Party at the time you obtained him as a voucher on your 
application ? 

Mr. JVIackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me ' or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Wliat is the date of that application ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. June 22, 1959, Mr. Chairman. 

The CHAiRMAisr. Well, obviously the witness should be asked a direct 
question. 

Were you a member of the Communist Party on the date, hour, and 
the minute that you signed that application ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Well, you see, sir, counsel has referred to evidence 
that we all heard, under oath, indicating that on that date you were 
a member of the Communist Party ; at least that is my recollection of 

36-729—64 10 



1806 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

the trend of the testimony. If that be true, you understand, of course, 
that there is a direct contradiction between what you said in that 
application and what these witnesses swore to. Now, in view of that 
I ask you again : Would you care to comment on, explain, retract, say 
anything, or deny what you said in that application? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the Consti- 
tution. 

The Chairman, Let me see that application. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 1 in evidence. 

The Chairman. It will be so received and marked. 

How are we going to mark it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. It has been marked as "Mackie Exhibit No. 1." 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not denied membership in this union because 
of the false statement in the application relating to the question of 
Communist Party membership ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now associated with or employed by Carl Ross 
in a corporation known as the Gopher Bumper Plating, Inc. ? ^ I am 
referring to the same Carl Ross who allegedly served with you as a 
member of the National Committee of the Communist Political As- 
sociation in 1945. 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Since your employment with the Gopher Bumper Plat- 
ing, Inc., have you discussed any phase of Communist Party activity 
with Carl Ross ? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge is Mr. Ross aware of your member- 
ship in the North Side Club of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Mackie. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
this witness. 

Mr. Senner. No questions. 

Mr. Ichord. No questions. 

Mr. Bruce. No questions. 



1 Certification from Minnesota Department of State of articles of incorporation and 
amendment show original name of corporation as Gopher Bumper Plating, Inc., and change, 
as of Oct. 22, ia62, to Gopher Bumper Exchange, Inc. 



CORIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE :,IIXXEAPOLIS. MINX"., AREA 1807 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. Xo questioiis. 

Mr. AsHBRooK. No questions. 

The Chairmax. The witness is excused. Call your next witness, 
Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]Mrs. Ruth Gorclienko. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnl}' swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the tmth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. GoRDiEXKO. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF SUTH LOIS GOEDIENKO 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Gordienko, would you please state your full luime 
and residence for the record I 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Ruth Lois Gordienko, spelled G-o-r-d-i-e-n-k-o. 
My address is 1901 Oakview — one word — Lane, North Minneapolis, 
Zone 27. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I was born November 2, 1926, in Minneapolis, 
Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you been residing in the city of Minne- 
apolis? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I have resided in Minneapolis all my life with the 
exception of 1 year that I lived in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, and 
3 years' residence in the State of Texas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the year of j'our residence in Manitoba, 
Canada ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. 1950. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what were the 3 years of your residence in Texas? 

Mrs. Gordienko. 1955 to 1958. 

Mr. Nittle. Now would you relate the extent of your formal edu- 
cation ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I attended North High School in North Minneap- 
olis and continued in school through the 11th grade. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you held membership in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you briefly state the period during which you 
were a member and where ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I was a member of the Communist Party in the 
State of Minnesota in 1918 and 1949. I was a member of the Cana- 
dian Communist Party throughout the year of 1950. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a bona fide member of the Communist 
Party during those years 1948, 1949, and 1950 ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Absolutely. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you terminate your membership in the Commu- 
nist Paity at the end of 1950 ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. At the end of 1950 I had an ideological break 
with the Commmiist Party over the Communist Party's viewpoint on 
our participation in the Korean war, but I did not make a formal 
break with the Communist Party. 

Mr. Nittle. That is, you never gave any ]iotice to any party official 
that you were resigning or leaving? 

Mrs. Gordienko. No, sir. 



1808 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTixE. But you nevertheless made a complete break and ceased 
activities on behalf of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And as a bona fide member ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, following your break with the Communist Party, 
did you later agree to cooperate with the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation in the investigation of Communist a,ctivities in the Minneapolis 
area? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what period did you serve the United States 
Government in that capacity ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. In the years 1952 through 1954. 

Mr. NiTPLE. Would you tell the committee, please, the circum- 
stances leading to jour becoming a member of the Communist Party in 
1948? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I initially became involved in the Communist 
movement in the State of Minnesota when I met who is now my former 
husband, George Gordienko. George was a Communist himself. He 
taught me that the American Government was "corrupt," "imperial- 
istic." He taught me about communism. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, first, who George Gordienko was 
and what he was doing, what his occupation was, where he came 
from ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. At that time he was a citizen of Winnipeg, Mani- 
toba, Canada. He was liere in the United States on a work visa. He 
was engaged in the livelihood as a professional wrestler. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he subsequently a student at the University of 
Minnesota ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was he a student at the time you met him? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, he was. I had prior knowledge of George 
Gordienko because of his work in the professional wrestling field, but 
I did not meet him until after he became a pre-med student at the 
University of Minnesota. 

The Chairman. What year would that be? 

Mrs. Gordienko. It would be '48, sir. 

The Chairman. And when did you marry ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. We married in '48. 

The Chairman. She was about to relate the circumstances under 
which she joined. 

Mrs. Gordienko. George Gordienko taught me that and tried to 
indoctrinate me — and, of course, he was successful — that our country 
was "corrupt" and that the Soviet Union was the nation that was going 
to lead the world in the ultimate goal of communism on a worldwide 
basis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he inform you whether or not he was a member of 
the Communist Party, and, if so, when ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I do not recall, sir, at this time when he told me he 
was a Communist, but he did tell me he was a member of the party, 
that he believed in communism. 

Mr. NiTTLE. But he was a Canadian citizen ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1809 

Mr. Nettle. You stated you married George Gordienko in 1948 ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

jNIr. NiTTLE. And were any children born of tliat union? 

Mrs. Gordienko. We have a son, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now tell us how you came to join the Communist Party 
and what were the circumstances leading up to that? 

jNlrs. Gordienko. George Gordienko took me out to the University 
of Minnesota where — I would like to make it quite clear that I was not 
a university student — he took me to the University of Minnesota to the 
Coffman Memorial Union Hall where we jointly attended the Marxist 
Socialist Club. 

The Chairman. Were you married then ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. No, not at the beginning. 

We attended the Marxist Socialist Club on the university campus. 
The club at that time was under the direction of Kenneth Tilsen, a 
young law student at the University of Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did he live on the campus area? 

Mrs. Gordienko. He resided in what we call here in the State of 
Minnesota and in our city as the Quonset house project, a project that 
was put up for the veterans of the Second World War. He resided 
there with his wife, Rachel. It was just a short distance from the 
actual campus area. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You stated you attended meetings of the Marxist 
Socialist Club ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. On the university campus ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr, NiTTLE. At Coffman Hall ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Could you tell us what was the function or purpose of 
that organization? Did you ascertain its objectives? 

Mrs. Gordienko. The purpose of the organization, to my knowledge, 
was to recruit young people from the campus area into the Communist 
Party. Its purpose was to carry on, conduct lecture programs, which 
eventually they hoped would interest some students or young people 
into looking into communism, hoping to eventually recruit them. To 
my knowledge, this was a Communist-front organization. 

I would like to mention at this point that Kenneth Tilsen, while 
he was a law student on the University of Minnesota campus, was 
also known on campus as a Communist Party spokesman for the party 
of Minnesota. He did not try to hide this affiliation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Kenneth Tilsen to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know his wife, Rachel Tilsen, to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, we will go into more detail on that later, but for 
the moment we would like to explore a little more the nature of the 
Marxist Socialist Club which was operating on the campus of the 
University of Minnesota at that time. Would you discuss or describe 
the composition of the rank-and-file membership of the Marxist So- 
cialist Club at the time you were a member of it ? 



ISIO COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MIN^NEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mrs. GoRDiEXKO. Meetings of the jNIarxist Socialist Club were ordi- 
narily attended by different numbers of students, 50 to perhaps 100, 
depending on the subject that was being discussed at that meeting. 
The people that I saw that attended the Slarxist Socialist Club meet- 
ings, to my knowledge, which part of it I knew from the beginning 
and part I learned later, the majority of the people coming to these 
courses did not comprise the Communist Party members, they were 
istudents who were, I am sure, quite eager to learn and be exposed 
to different diverse ideas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So that as a Communist front, which you have already 
stated it to be, it was composed of Communists and non-Communists ; 
is that right ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr, NiTTLE. In what way was the Communist leadership of the 
Marxist Socialist Club able to indoctrinate and recruit? How did 
they accomplish this ? 

JMrs. GoRDiEXKO. I recall specifically that they conducted several lec- 
tures or courses on the Negro question or the Negro problem in the 
United States. This is a subject that many young people are interested 
in. They were very interested back in "48 and apparently they are very 
interested in it today for the full rights of the Negro people. These 
courses on the Negro question were to interest the young people. On 
one occasion Robert Kelly, who was a State labor organizer for the 
Communist Party, attended the Marxist Socialist Club as a speaker, 
and I do recall that on one other occasion the agronomy theory was 
discussed in the classes. Lysenko, sir, was a Russian agronomist. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mean to say they used idealist, reformist ideas 
as a facade to obscure the real Communist Party purpose with respect 
to that agitational program ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I would say yes. sir. They did not advertise the 
club to be a Communist-front organization and would use only their 
club meetings as a method to indoctrinate or recruit. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long did you continue in attendance at the meet- 
ings of the Marxist Socialist Club ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. Approximately a year. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who recruited you into the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. I was recruited into the Communist Party by Ken- 
neth and Rachel Tilsen. I went to their home where they "lived just 
shortly off campus in the Quonset house project and I signed the Com- 
munist Party application card in their residence, and they kept the 
card. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, after your membership application was filed and 
you joined the Communist Party at the residence of Kenneth and 
Rachel Tilsen, were you assigned to any Commimist cell or club at tlie 
university ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I was assigned to the university w^omen's group of 
the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. You were still not a student there ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. No, sir; I never was a student at the University 
of Minnesota. 

The Chairman. Now, at the moment we are now referring to, the 
date of your enlistment, were you then married ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. I married George in '48, when I began going to 
tlie campus. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MIN^NEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1811 

The Chairman. I understand. You said that when you began go- 
mg to the club you were not. Now, I don't know how long after it Vv'as 
that you say you were enlisted or you joined. Now, when you joined 
were you still single 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. You mean the Communist Party, sir ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. Prior to joining the Communist Party, sir, I mar- 
ried George Gordienko. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You stated you joined the women's cell. 

The Chairman. Pardon me. 

You say that you joined up in the home of Mr. Tilsen. Do you 
recall if your husband was with you ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I don't recall, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You stated that you were assigned to a women's cell. 
Do 3'OU mean to say that the women were segregated from the men in 
the cells at the university campus at that time ^ 

Mrs. Gordienko. In this one club; yes, sir. It was strictly a 
women's club. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And composed of what women ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. There were four of us who belonged to the cell. It 
was Rachel Tilsen, who was the chairwoman of the club herself, Bar- 
bara Perry Roehrich, who testified in the SACB in Washington, and 
myself and one other individual. Her name was Borchardt. Her 
husband was an agronomy student on the campus. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What I was particularly interested in ascertaining 
about the women who were in this cell is : Were they wives of students 
or other persons connected with the university 

Mrs. Gordienko. The three others 

Mr. NiTTLE. Or was the cell open to persons other than those con- 
nected with the university ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. We were all wives of students. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have any knowledge of other cells in existence 
on the campus at that time ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. To my knowledge, sir, there were approximately 
four cells in operation on the University of Minnesota campus at the 
time. 

Mrs. Nittle. How did you obtain that knowledge ? 

Mr. Gordienko. By talking to different members of the Communist 
Party. Being very active on the campus, I ascertained this informa- 
tion. 

The Chairsian. Were you asked thus far what, if any, special as- 
signment your cell carried out, or such things ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Our main assignment was to study Marxism- 
Leninism and to become fully knowledgeable of this. We also dis- 
tributed party literature, Communist Party literature, at the univer- 
sity Quonset house project. On one occasion Kenneth Tilsen and I 
did a distribution in the area. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you engage in demonstrations, picketing, mass 
movements, of any kind ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Not at that time, sir, not as we know it today. 

Mr. Bruce. In the study of Marxism-Leninism, was there any con- 
centration at all on the study of historical and dialectical materialism ? 



1812 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir, there was; although when I joined this 
chib, our studies began on the basic features of Marxism-Leninism. 
We did study the theory. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I might add, and the "inevitability" of communism 
in our Nation. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, if I may, I would like to ask this ques- 
tion : Was the study based primarily on education or also on indoctri- 
nation? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I would say, sir, that it was a combination of the 
two, to indoctrinate us and develop us into educated Marxists. 

Mr. Senner. Rather than just the understanding or the education 
of Leninism or Marxism? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you continue in attendance at meetings of the 
Marxist Socialist Club after you joined the party and after you were 
assigned to the women's cell on the campus ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, I did attend some meetings after that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have any instructions, after becoming a 
member of the cell, to assist in the recruitment or indoctrination of 
non-Communist students ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. No, I was not assigned that, sir. We were mak- 
ing efforts, I might add, though, to increase the membership of our 
club, but I directly was not assigned to recruit new members into the 
cell. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Your f miction was to do what ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. My function was to study Marxism-Leninism. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did I understand you to say you were also interested in 
obtaining new members of the club ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, this was the object of the club proper. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In the course of your activities there on the campus as 
a member of the Communist cell, did you become aware of the existence 
of any faculty cell at the university at that time ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I became aware of the existence of a professional 
group on the University of Minnesota campus. I learned this from 
Rose Tillotson Renaud. 

Mr. Nittle. That is the Rose Tillotson Renaud who was identified 
by Mr. Boelinke yesterday as now the secretary of the Minnesota- 
Dakotas District of the Communist Party and a top leader in this dis- 
trict? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. Rose brought over on several 

Mr. Nittle. By the way, what was the official position of Rose Til- 
lotson Renaud in the Communist Party in 1948 when you knew her? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Rose Tillotson Renaud managed the bookshop 
for the Communist Party, which was located at that time on lower 
Hennepin Avenue. I know that she was on the State board of the 
party. I cannot recall at this time what her definite position was. 

Mr. Nittle. But she was even then a top leader of the Communist 
Party, is that right ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Regarding the professional cell on the U. of M. campus. Rose 
Renaud would bring me mailing lists to do for the Civil Rights Con- 
gress, et cetera, and on one occasion she told me that there was the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1813 

professional cell group on campus. At that time I was quite naive 
in the ways of the Communist Party. I blurted out to Rose, I said, 
"Well, that's very nice," I said, "who are they?" And this was my 
first lecture in Communist Party secrecy and discipline. When I 
said, "Gee, that's nice. Rose, who are they," first, she told me that 
you ne^'er ask the name of a member of the Communist Party or the 
cells and that the professional cell groups were highly protected. I 
was told that they consisted of professors, assistant professors, et 
cetera, those men in the professional field. 

The Chairman. Well, you knew then, or at least you found out 
then, that part of the security of the party is not to permit one cell 
to know too much about another one ; is that right ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. Yes. 

I also was told, delving a little further into the security angle of 
the Communist Party operations in our Nation, I was also told in 
my residence in North Minneapolis on DuPont Avenue by Rose that 
she was going to take a trip, and I still hadn't learned my lessons well 
enough, apparently, because I smiled and said, "That's nice, where 
are you going to go. Rose?" And Rose Tillotson Renaud gave me 
another lecture. I did have a good teacher, much better than I hoped 
they had taught me, I am sure. 

The Chairman. Wliat you are now saying has been fortified over 
the years by our hearing records. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You mentioned that you were preparing mailings for 
the Civil Rights Congress for Rose Renaud ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the Civil Rights Congress ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. The Civil Rights Congress is the legal front or- 
ganizational arm of the Communist Party, mainly to defend its mem- 
bers when they are brought to a court of j ustice. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you remain in the campus cell, or were you later 
reassigned to another cell or unit of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. lYliile I was a member of the university women's 
group on campus, a founding convention or conference was held in the 
city of Chicago, Illinois, which established the Labor Youth League, 
which is a Communist front and is now defunct. The Labor Youth 
League was to take the place of the prior Young Communist League. 
When the Labor Youth League was established, the Communist Party 
apparatus in our Twin Cities area reassigned the Communist cell 
groups, where in the past until the LYL was established the youth 
were set in their own separate cell groups the party had then a spec- 
ialized cell of union members and the neighborhood groups, et cetera. 
When the Labor Youth League was established, the youth of the Com- 
munist Party were assimilated into what we called the adult cell 
groups, and because of this switching I was assigned to the North 
Side cell of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And when did this occur ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Approximately 1949, give or take a month. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, upon your assignment to the North Side Club 
of the Communist Party, where were the meetings held ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. All meetings of the cell group, the women's club 
on campus was held 



1814 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr, NiTTLE. No; I am referring now to the meetings of your North 
Side Club, cell, to which you were reassigned. 

Mrs. GoEDiENKO. I beg your pardon, sir. The meetings were held 
in the residence of Elizabeth Kunning on Plymouth Avenue North 
and Freeniont North. This was a split bungalow that was shared on 
the other side by Carl Ross and his family. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I see. Who was Carl Ross at that time ? Is this tlie 
same Carl Ross to whom we have referred in testimony or questioning 
this morning as being in 1945 a member of the National Committee of 
the Communist Political Association ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. It is the same Carl Ross I have heard referred to. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what position in the Communist Party did Carl 
Ross have at the time you knew him ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. To my knowledge, district secretary. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What activities were you assigTied to in the North Side 
Club of the Communist Party at that time? Would you just briefly 
state that? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Would you repeat your question, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What activities were you assigned to in the North 
Side Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. Tavo major assignments were to work as an orga- 
nizer to develop the Labor Youth League, expand its membersliip, and 
also to infiltrate into the National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People. The Communist Party in Minneapolis wanted 
to take over the leadership of the NAACP. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period you were active in the party were 
the Communists successful in seizing leadership of the NAACP in 
Minneapolis ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I knew that in some areas they had key people, 
but in the election that came up where we were to pack the meeting 
and elect Communist officers, some of the Communists did not show up 
and the plan was inoperable and we did not take over the leadership, 
for which members of the party were later chastised. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, in addition to your training in Marxist and Len- 
inist doctrine at your Marxist Socialist Club and at your cell meetings, 
were you sent to any Communist Party training school ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I attended a 1-week school in Mesabi Park near 
Hibbing, Minnesota, which was sponsored by the Communist Party. 
It was a 1-week school. We studied what we had studied in our cell 
groups all the time, the Communist Party, U.S.S.R., Marxism and 
Leninism. We studied Value^ Price and Profit^ which I believe, was 
authored by Leontiev.^ 

Mr. NiiTLE. What was the duration of the instruction at that school 
for the course you took ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Per day or how long did 

Mr. NiTi^LE. How long did the course last at the school ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. One Aveek. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you describe the instruction offered at the 
school ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. The instruction ? 



1 Leontiev is a nom de plume for Lev Abramovich, a Russian political economist who did 
an annotated interpretation of Marx's Das Kapital. Value, Price and Profit is a section of 
Leontiev's interpretation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1815 

Mr. XiTTLE. Yes. 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. We vrere taught by Robert Kelly, the lecturer, 
the principles of Marxism, Leninism, et cetera. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Approximately how many persons were in attendance 
at the school at the time you were there ? 

Mrs. GoiiDiENKO. I would say 30 to 40 people who were members of 
the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, who v.'ere in charge of the school ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. The instructor w^as llobert Kelly. The enter- 
tainment director was Lucy Kelly, the wife of Robert Kelly. And I 
was assigned the position as principal of the school. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what were your functions as principal? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Mostly to maintain order, make sure that the 
Communist students at the school attended the meetings, and to open 
the meetings. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How^ long did you remain active in the North Side cell 
of the Communist Party ^ 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Until the end of 1949. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your husband assigiied to any Communist cell 
during this period you were active in the North Side Club ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, after some time. He had originally be- 
longed to a cell group on the University of Minnesota campus. It 
was a student group. He later clroppecl out of pre-med school and 
he took a job in Minneapolis in the flour milling industry, and at that 
time he was transfered from the student group of the Communist 
Party and reassigned to a trade union cell of the Communist Party. 
I do know that George was told to sell Worker subscriptions to his 
coworkers and, if nothing else, attempt to get them to read it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you remain in the North Side cell during the year 
1949? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO- Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what happened toward the end of 1949 ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. We learned that the Immigration Department 
was apparently very interested in having George Gordienko removed 
or deported back to Canada as an undesirable alien. We discussed 
this in our home, and George decided that we should leave, for Winni- 
peg. He w^ent to the State oiRce of the Connnunist Party, told them 
what the Immigration Department was planning from our knowledge, 
told them that we were going to move to Canada. The Communist 
Party objected, telling George he should stay in this area and let the 
Innnigration Department start their case and the party would then 
have a very good test case in court. George refused on the basis that 
it made no difference where we resided so long as we were Commmiists, 
because the aim internationally, of course, is the same. His position 
at that time was that he could work as hard for communism in Canada 
as he could in America; it made no difference whatsoever. He then 
w'as given a letter of transfer from Carl Ross, district secretary of the 
Communist Party for Minnesota and the Dakotas, stating that both 
George and I were to be accepted in the Winnipeg, in the Communist 
Party there, as good, trusted, loyal members of the party. This let- 
ter we carried with us across the border when we crossed the inter- 
national border. George Gordienko had it in his suit. AYlien we got 
to Canada, George brought the letter down to, incidentally, another 



1816 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Communist by the name of Ross in Winnipeg, whose first name I can- 
not recall. The letter came from Carl Ross in Minneapolis to a Mr. 
Ross in Winnipeg. 

Mr. NiTTLE. So here was a communication between Carl Ross, a 
top district official of the Communist Party in the United States, ad- 
dressed directly to a Canadian official of the Communist Party au- 
thorizing the transfer and requesting that you and your husband be 
accepted there as trusted members ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. All right, proceed. Did you and your husband receive 
an assignment to any Canadian Communist Party cell ? 

Mr. IcHORD. Now, Mr. Nittle, at that point. 

I think, Mrs. Gordienko, you have gotten into a very important 
field. Do I understand that you were able to transfer from the Com- 
munist Party of the United States of America to the Communist Party, 
of Canada merely by a letter of transfer ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 

Mr. IcHORD. And that letter was written by whom in the Commmiist 
Party of the United States of America ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Carl Ross, district secretary of the party for the 
district here, 

Mr. Ichord. And do you know the name of the person in Canada, 
the member of the Communist Party, who accepted you into the Com- 
munist Party of Canada merely by that letter of transfer ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. The letter was given to a Mr. Ross in Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, Canada, and on the strength of the letter from Carl Ross 
we were immediately accepted into the Communist Party in Canada 
automatically and were assigned to a cell group in Winnipeg. 

Mr. Ichord. I say that is important because I think it shows very 
clearly that the Communist Party is worldwide, rather than being 
merely here in the United States of America. 

I have one other question, Mrs. Gordienko. I was very interested 
in your response as to why you joined the Communist Party. As I 
understand your testimony, you became a member of the Communist 
Party because of your association with George Gordienko, whom you 
later married, and also because of some of the things which you were ad- 
vised that the Communist Party was fighting for, and one of the things 
that you indicated, or at least inferred, was that you were interested 
in civil rights. As you know, the Senate of the United States has re- 
cently sent, or recently passed and sent back to the House the Civil 
Rights Bill of 1964. Wlien that bill was up in the House of Represent- 
atives, I supported it ; I spoke in behalf of the bill and voted for the 
bill because I have always been interested in the matter of civil rights. 
It will probably be taken up by the Congress and passed by the House 
of Representatives, finally passed and sent to the President before July 
4. There are many serious constitutional issues involved in that bill, 
and I am not going to fall out with any Member of Congress who might 
have voted differently than I did. Personally, I think it is a good 
bill; it should be passed, and I am confident that it will be passed. 
I do realize, though, that there are many responsible people in the 
civil rights movement. There are also some irresponsible people. 
Definitely, among those irresponsible people would be, in my opinion, 
members of the Communist Party. Now, have you, during your 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1817 

membership in the Communist Party, in your association with these 
people whom you say are Communists, did you later conclude that the 
Communist Party, rather than being genuinely motivated by a sincere 
desire to help the cause of civil rights, was motivated by desire to cause 
racial and class strife? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. It is my opinion that this is true. I know when 
I was in the Communist Party, Mr. Congressman, that the Communist 
Party did give great emphasis to what they referred to in their lingo as 
the Negro question. They referred to the Negro people and the area in 
our country where they live to be the "black belt.'" They referred to 
the Negro people as the advanced section of the American "proletariat" 
or working class and they did want to recruit these people into the 
Communist Party. 

Now, in all due respect to the Negro people in Minneapolis — and I do 
have a few personal friends who are Negroes of which I am very 
proud — in due respect to the Negro people in this area, I can state for a 
fact that the Negro membership in the Communist Party was extremely 
small, they wanted no part of it. 

Mr. IcHORD. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Bruce. Can I pursue that just a little bit. Is it not true that 
the greatest failure of the Communist Party from your point of obser- 
vation, having been a member of the party, was the failure, in spite of 
the millions of dollars and the great emphasis to recruit masses of Ne- 
groes into the Communist Party, did they not consider this a failure 
themselves ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Sir, I don't feel that I am really qualified to an- 
swer that question. I want to be honest in declining to answer that. 

Mr. Bruce. I appreciate that. 

Mrs. Gordienko. I am sure that if they feel they have failed that 
they shall try again. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. "VVlien did you arrive in Canada with this letter of 
transf erral ? 

Mrs. GoRDEENKO. In January of 1950. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you and your husband receive assignments to any 
Canadian Communist Party cell ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. We were both assigned to Communist 
cells. We were in different groups. 

Mr. Nittle. In separate cells, assigned to separate cells, is that it? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, did you engage in cell group activities in Canada? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir; I belonged to the Canadian Communist 
Party, which is a foreign political party, while I was a member or 
actually a citizen of my own country, the United States of America. 
I did participate in my cell group activities in Canada. 

Mr. Nittle. Well, now, how long did you engage in these activities, 
and if they were terminated, tell us in what manner that occurred? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I attended several cell meetings in Winnipeg, and 
after we, of course, were assigned to our cell group, after attending 
a few meetings, George and I were notified by the Manitoba Province 
Communist Party that we were to become what is commonly known in 
the circles as sleepers. 



ISIS COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. As what ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Sleepers, we were to completely- 



Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat is meant by that, would you explain ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, Mr. Nittle, I certainly shall. We were to dis- 
associate ourselves with the Communist Party, disassociate ourselves 
with any members of the party, even on a personal level, that we were 
to assimilate within society making the complete break with the party. 

Mr. Nittle. That is, only on the surface, not actually? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, supposedly. At the same time that we were 
told to assimilate within society as common, ordinary people, we were 
given the assignment to take, be part of. the second-string leadership 
of the Province of Manitoba which would take over immediately the 
Communist Party apparatus on an underground basis if the Canadian 
Government were to remove by legislation or imposition of law, to re- 
move these leaders from their activity as the directors. So George and 
I tlien became, on Communist Party orders, the second-string leaders 
for Manitoba. George was to take over as educational director, and 
I was to take over doing the office work in handling the party financial 
reports, et cetera. 

The Communist Party in Canada was concerned also with one other 
problem, and that is the fact that I, an American citizen, as a Com- 
munist belonged to a foreign political organization. They felt that 
my citizenship should have been revoked or would have been revoked 
under present American laws, and this was another problem that they 
had. 

Mr. Nittle. How long did you remain in Canada ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I remained in Canada completely through 1950. 

Mr. Nittle. Wlien did you return to Minneapolis from Canada? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. To the best of my recollection, sir, it was February 
of 1951, January or February. 

Mr. Ntttt.e. Whnt were the circumstances that prompted your 
return to Minneapolis ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Well, I was residing in Winnipeg, the Korean 
war, of course, had brolcen out. The Communist Party line stated 
that the Americans had started a war of aggression upon other 
peoples, that we were trying to subjugate the Korean people. My 
viewpoint was contrary to this. I believe that the American Gov- 
ernment had gone into Korea to assist the Koreans in holding onto 
the freedoms that they had. Wien I expressed this viewpoint in 
my home, George Gordienko and I had a bitter ideological battle 
which ended with the words of George Gordienko, which I shall 
quote, "You are nothing but a damn capitalist,"' unquote. I appar- 
ently had waved the red, white, and blue a little too strenuously in 
defending my country in their participation in the Korean war to 
preserve freedoms for other people. As a result of the ideological 
break our marriage fell apart. I think it would be wise to avoid 
personalities in this, but it did result in my returning to my home 
State and my home city of Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. Nittle. Did your husband ever return to the United States 
after the separation in 1951 ? 

Mrs. GoRDiEMKO. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTi-E. Did you finally divorce him? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1819 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, prior to your returning to the United States, 
did you give any notice to the Communist Party either in Canada 
or elsewhere of the termination of your membership? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. No, sir. 

Mr. NrrxLE. After your return to the United States, did you report 
to any of the Communist Party officials here ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. No, sir; I felt it wasn't at all important to me. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What were the circumstances which led to your re- 
sumption of activity in connection w^ith the Communist movement? 

The CiiAiKMAN. Well, before that question, may I ask a question 
that has been on my mind in view of what you last said. Mrs. 
Gordienko, you said initially that you were, well, in answ^er to a 
question whether you were a bona fide member, you used the word 
"absolutely," then you related the cause which prompted you to get 
out of the party. By "bona fide," then, and your subsequent disas- 
sociation, do I understand this to be about the situation, that you 
were a good-faith, bona fide member all along, to the extent of what 
you knew, consistent w^ith what you w^ere being told and taught, 
but then having gone through this experience and the shock of South 
Korea and learning more perhaps of what the real ideology is, that 
that is what caused you to revolt ? Is that about it ? 

Mi's. Gordienko. Yes. I would like to make it crystal clear to the 
committee here today that when I said "absolutely I was a bona fide 
member of the Communist Party," I would like to have it made 
crystal clear to the committee that I w^as a Conununist with a 
dedication to the Communist Party, that I became a Communist who 
looked to the United Soviet Socialist Republic as the model for what 
we should establish in our Nation. I would further like to point 
out that prior to the participation of America in the Korean w^ar for 
the presei-vation of freedom of other peoples, that I did have some 
prior reservations that led up to this. This is a very complex ques- 
tion. I am trying to pinpoint it. But as long as you have opened 
the question up I would like to bring out two more statements. 

First of all, the one reservation I had, which I did not voice, was 
the fact that I came from a good Christian family. Once I got into 
the Commmiist Party I fully realized I could not hold Christian 
ideals upon which our Nation has been founded and the Christian 
ideals which is the strength of our Nation and become a good Com- 
munist. You can't do both. You may hold certain Christian ideals, 
but they are going to be following the Communist Party line. 

The second reservation, Mr. Congressman, that I had was very 
startling to me. When I was in discussion with Comnuniists in the 
city of Minneapolis when they discussed how or what would take 
place in our city when the revolution came, that is, the Communist 
revolution, I was told that we w^ould blow up the bridges in Min- 
neapolis, we would barricade the streets, the mass communication 
system would be taken over by the Communist Party. It was as- 
sumed by these individuals within the party that the bourgeois, the 
warmongers, et cetera, were to go to the armory, which is a sub- 
stantial building here in our area, for protection, and the Commu- 
nists would surround the armory. Eather than try to enter the 
armory they would surround it and wait until they got hungry and 
starved and they would come out. And this is one other reservation 



1820 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

I had, SO that by the time the Korean war came along and the Com- 
munist Party line immediately followed that we were the aggressor, 
I had already had, to put it in a very earthy type of language, sir, I 
had already had enough. For this type of politics my stomach was 
weak, 

Mr. IcHORD. I would like to know from whom she heard talk in 
those terms about revolution by force and violence. 

This is the point I am making, Mrs. Gordienko: In America we 
have a constitutional form of democracy. We can hold any political 
]3eliefs that we want to hold. A person has a right to be a socialist, 
he even has a right to be an anarchist, but when he becomes a 
member of the party or when he gets to the point where he is advocating 
the overthrowal of this Government, which we can change by political 
means at any time, then he has gone too far. Whom did you hear while 
you were a member of the Communist Party make such statements as 
"that, overthrowal of our Government by force and arms? 

Mrs. Gordienko. One moment, please. 

(Witness conferred with chairman. ) 

The Chairman. Information comes to me, as chairman, that an 
answer to this question at this time would involve persons not hereto- 
fore named and, therefore, who have had no opportunity to be notified 
to refute it, and I must say for the record also that there are many 
reasons for the situation being what it is. 

Mr. IcHORD. I understand the rule, Mr. Chairman. I understand 
why the witness did not answer that question under the rules. But I 
do want this witness called into executive session where I will have 
the opportunity to ask that question. 

The Chairman. That definitely will be accorded. 

I have a long-distance call that I must accept. We will stand in 
recess for just a few minutes. 

(A short recess was taken. ) 

The Chairman. Proceed, Counselor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Gordienko, what were the circumstances which 
led to your resumption of activity in connection with the Communist 
movement after your return from Canada, but this time on behalf of 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Knowledge became available to me that George 
Gordienko was trying to secure a work visa to come to the United 
States to resume his career as a professional wrestler. 

The Chairman. Pardon me at that point. 

How far did lie pursue his pre-med or medical studies? 

Mrs. Gordienko. To the best of my recollection, Mr. Congressman, 
approximately a year. He left the pre-med studies because he wanted 
to devote his time to the Communist Party. It was not an academic 
failure on his part, to give him due justice. 

The Chairman. But he did not complete his medical course? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Right. 

The Chairman. He did not ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Right. 

Mr. Bruce. Did he wrestle under the name Gordienko? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, under George Gordienko. 

The Chairman. I am sorry I interrupted you. 

I forgot what the question was. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1821 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question, Mr. Chairman, was a request of the 
witness to relate the circumstances of her resumption in Communist 
activity upon her return. 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. During the year of 1951, as I believe I already 
have stated, I was completely inactive in the Communist movement. 
I learned that George Gordineko was attempting to get a work visa to 
return to the United States to engage in professional wrestling once 
again. I was concerned enough to ascertain whether or not he would 
be allowed to reenter the country, because I have a son by marriage, 
and I was a typical mother when it comes down to the facts and I 
was concerned for Peter if his father should return. 

If you would excuse me, I don't want to go into great detail of how 
this happened, but I did have a conversation in regard to this with the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. I thought to myself, well, now, 
where can I go to ascertain whether or not George would actually be 
allowed to reenter this country, and I called the Bureau on the phone 
and asked them the question, and after a period of time I began work- 
ing against the party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, did you make any direct contact with Communist 
Party officials thereafter with a view toward resuming your member- 
ship in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you join any Communist cell or pay any dues to 
the party? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. No, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the nature of your activities then on behalf 
of the Government ? 

Mrs. GoRDTENKO. I began working in the Communist-front groups 
in the Twin Cities area. One was the American Peace Crusade, the 
Freedom of the Press Committee, to some degree, and also the Com- 
mittee for the Protection of the Foreign Born. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was there a Minneapolis chapter, then, of the Ameri- 
can Peace Crusade ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir ; I was on the board of it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose and objective of the American 
Peace Crusade? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. To protest our American part in the Korean war. 
When the Korean war was over, our line in our American Peace Cru- 
sade was to then turn the attention of the public to Indochina and 
Vietnam. I was told by a party official that we had success in the 
Korean war propaganda tactics. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is the Communist Party did have success ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, the Communist Party did have some success 
in this and they must now turn their attention to Indochina and 
Vietnam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What success did they have to which you refer ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. They did not explain this fully, but, of course, a 
great deal, if you recall back in the times of the Korean war, there was 
a great sentiment against the war as it progressed. The Communist 
Party felt they had a victory. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How did the American Peace Crusade go about dis- 
seminating its propaganda in relation to the Korean war or American 
participation there? 

36-729—64 11 



1822 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I was on the board of the American Peace Crusade 
and in our agitational propaganda type of work we put out a newslet- 
ter speaking of peace, et cetera. We cut the stencils, mimeographed, 
used the stationery facilities of United Electrical, Radio and Machine 
Workers of America, if I recall the title correctly. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That was the union which had been expelled from the 
CIO as Communist dominated 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — and of which we had occasion to speak in the inter- 
rogation of Mr. McDonald ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes. 

Wlien we went to the union office to prepare our newsletter, we had 
a key to the office where we had access to it, we would go there in the 
evening and complete the entire job. We sent out approximately, per- 
haps, to the best of my recollection at this time, shortly under 1,000 
newsletters per month in this area and some into the Dakotas. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And what 

Mrs. GORDIENKO. I 

Mr. NiTTLE. Pardon me, go ahead. 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. If I may indulge here to add one point. While I 
was on the board of the Peace Crusade, on the board to put out the 
monthly newsletter, I wrote an article regarding the issue of peace 
and war that was confronting our Nation and the world. When I 
wrote the article and returned it to another member of the board, I 
was told that my viewpoint in my article was pro-American. My 
article was rejected with the statement that I should take the article 
back home and reslant my article to a pro-Soviet sympathy, which I 
did. I took it home, completely rewrote it, slanted it to the Soviets, 
brought it back, and it was submitted with the explanation that "this 
is a schoolteacher's dream." 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Gordienko, may I ask you a question at this point. 
The Internal Security Subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Commit- 
tee, in Senate Document 117 published April 23, 1956, said this, and 
I quote: 

As part of Soviet psychological warfare against the United States, Communist 
fronts seek to paralyze America's will to resist Communist aggression by idealiz- 
ing Russia's aims and methods, discrediting the United States, spreading de- 
featism and demoralization * * " — 

and that — 

specializing in this field * * * have been such organizations as the American 
Peace Crusade. 

In your experience with this organization, did you find this to be 
true? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I find that is a very fitting explanation of the 
American Peace Crusade as I knew it, very fitting. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Gordienko, before we conclude your interroga- 
tion by the staff, I would like to note that in the course of his testi- 
mony, Mr. Boehnke, the prior witness, had occasion to identify cer- 
tain persons as members of the Communist Party. I would like to ask 
you certain questions with respect to some of them of which you may 
have knowledge. 

Did you, during the course of your association with the Communist 
Party, have occasion to know James A. Brown as a member of the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1823 

Communist Party? Mr. Brown was identified by Mr. Boehnke as a 
member of the city committee of the Communist Party. 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. On one occasion I met James or Jack Brown in 
the residence of Samuel K. Davis at Sixth and Newton Avenue, North. 
I can't recall if this was the first time I met him, but I did meet him 
there at a social function. He is an auto repairman. He had at that 
time a little garage of his own, and I brought my car over to have it 
fixed. During the course of our conversations he did relate to me per- 
sonally that he was a member of the Communist Party. 

The Chairjvian. At this point, Counsel, may I suggest a question. 

AVas the article to which you referred printed by the American 
Peace Crusade and, if it was not, do you know why it was not ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Mr. Congressman, the article that I wrote, my 
slanted version to the pro-Soviet way of thinking, was submitted to 
the board to which I belonged, and it was printed then in the little 
paper that we put out. 

Mr. NrrTLE. Did you know Dr. Cleveland Cradle to be a member of 
tlie Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. I met Dr. Cradle through the Meridel 
LeSueur family. Deborah LeSueur sent Dr. Cradle to my residence ; 
Dr. Cradle was sent to my home by Deborah LeSueur. I saw Dr. 
Cradle at the Freedom of the Press annual picnic in Hastings, Min- 
nesota. It would be in the '52 to '54 period, I am not sure of the exact 
date. I had prior conversations with Dr. Cleveland Cradle, who told 
me personally that he was a member of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Archie L. Anderson to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NmiiE. Would you tell us how you acquired that knowledge? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO, While I was a member of my first cell group of 
the Communist Party, that is, the university campus women's group, 
I was assigned to attend a local conference of the Communist Party. 
At this conference — it was a closed-door conference — there was no 
press allowed, no outsiders whatsoever, all those were definitely as- 
signed from their Communist cell groups to the conference. I at- 
tended this conference, and Archie Anderson was in attendance at 
the conference. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Samuel K. Davis to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. Samuel K. Davis has been active in the 
Communist movement for quite an extended period of time and he 
belonged to the North Side Club of the Communist Party, to which I 
belonged. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, and he was identified by Mr. Boehnke as being 
secretary of the North Side Club during the period of his member- 
ship in the party. 

Did you know Ellen Davis to be a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us who she was and how you established 
that identification ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Ellen Davis is the wife of Samuel K. Davis. I re- 
ferred previously to a trip that Eose Tillotson Renaud was going to 
take. When I asked her where she was going and I got another party 



1824 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

disciplinary talk, Kose was going to make a trip at a time that some 
of the 11 indicted Commmiist leaders were on trial in Judge Medina's 
court. A fundraising affair was in the hopper in Minneapolis, and 
Rose came and asked me if I would take over the organizing, the top 
organizing, for this dinner to raise finances for the 11 Communists in 
Medina's court, and I called upon women of the Communist Party, 
on Rose Renaud's instructions, to set up the subcommittees. Ellen 
Davis was on the subcommittee. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Rose Pogen LeBelle also on the list which was 
furnished you by Rose Renaud ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. Yes. I called upon Rose Pogen LeBelle to 
assign her the position of taking care of the nursery for the young 
children during the dimier, and I recall this very specifically because 
she did not perform her duties as she should have. This is the only 
part of the dinner or the affair that fell down in any way. And I 
might add that the party at that time on the 1-day dinner raised 
approximately $1,500 for defense of members of the Communist 
Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How many were in attendance at the dinner ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Approximately 300. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Martin Mackie to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Martin Mackie, to my knowledge, belonged to the 
State board of the Communist Party. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you have occasion to see him at any time at the 
home of Claude McDonald ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I went to the residence of Claude McDonald; I 
went in the company of a man who himself had identified himself 
to me to be a member of the party. I am not going to mention his 
name because of the prior problem that was involved in the naming 
of another individual. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us, first, what period was this ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. During the period of '52 to '54 when I was work- 
ing for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. As this individual 
and I approached the front door, and he either rapped on the door or 
rang the doorbell, I can't recall which, but it seemed as though he 
was using a code system in approaching the door, and I instinctively 
stepped behind him — he was taller and a little broader shouldered 
than I was — and the individual came to the door, saw the party 
whose name I feel I cannot mention here at this time, and opened 
the door; and when I walked in behind this individual, they were 
very upset, and Martin Mackie was in the home. It was a very 
poignant meeting as far as my own feelings were concerned. Martin 
Mackie is an individual in society, he has always been a very strong 
character, and it was quite a revelation to me to see the condition 
that Martin had broken down to. As I came into the living room 
the kitchen lights were on and so was the room preceding it, which I 
think was a dining room, but the last two rooms were in darkness; 
and after a period of time Martin appeared from out of the dark- 
ness, and his general attitude and his general behavior was that of a 
hunted individual, and I feel it was very poignant. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Margaret Ross during the period of 
your association with the Communist movement ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Yes. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1825 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat did you know about her ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. I knew Margaret Koss, the wife of Carl Ross, to 
be a member of the Communist Party. She at one time made a joke 
that ahhough she was a little older than many of us younger Com- 
munists were at that time, that was 10 years ago, that she was still 
assigned to the youth section of the Commimist Party, had not reached 
the age where she could go into the adult groups, and this was from 
the — this was a conversation from Marge Ross herself. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During what period did you know her, and when did 
this conversation take place ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. I have known Marge Ross since 1948 activities 
and through to 1954 when I was working for my country. I don't 
recall where this took place. It was very vivid in my mind as far as 
the speaking but I cannot place the location. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, that concludes the staff interrogation 
of this witness. 

Mr. Senner. I would like to ask you this question. You stated that 
you know Kenneth Tilsen, is that correct ? 

Mrs. GordiejStko. Yes. 

Mr. Senner. And Rachel Tilsen ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes. 

Mr. Senner. How many times have you met them ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. Well, I went to the residence of Rachel Tilsen to 
go to my Communist cell meetings and we held them approximately 
twice a month. All meetings were in the residence of the Tilsen fam- 
ily. And over a year's period of time, 2 times 12 is 24 meetings. I 
visited at their home also on personal occasions. 

Mr. Senner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Schadeberg. Mr. Chairman, I have one or two questions. 

Was it in the Tilsen home that you said you signed up with the 
Communist Party to become a member ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKo. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Schadeberg. And at that time you said you signed your appli- 
cation for membership, were you issued an identification card or a 
membership card in the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. I was not able to retain a copy of the application 
form. The card that I filled out was kept by the Tilsens, Kenneth and 
Rachel Tilsen. 

Mr. Schadeberg. In other words, you never had a card that you 
carried as an identification ? 

Mrs. GoRDiENKO. No, sir ; I was not a card-carrying Communist. 

Mr. Schadeberg. Did they issue one up in Canada ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. No. 

Mr. Schadeberg. That is all. 

Mr. Bruce. Was that not the typical operation of the party be- 
ginning slightly before that time, that you did not carry a card? 

Mrs. Gordienko. Yes, they had made a great switch from the period 
of the 1930's up until the early '40s and made a switch. 

Mr. Bruce. They had determined that carrying a card was a little 
too dangerous ? 

Mrs. Gordienko. I would presume that this would be their way of 
rationalizing. 

Mr. Bruce. Thank you. 



1826 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MTNNT., AREA 

The Chairman. Mrs. Gordieiiko, before you leave the witness stand, 
I would like to extend to you the appreciation of myself and of the 
subcommittee for your valuable and obviously sincere and truthful and 
extensive testimony. It is not easy to admit publicly that you have 
been wrong ; that you associated yourself with an organization which 
you did not realize at the time — I appreciate the fact completely — was 
not only un-American but anti-Ainerican. I admire you for your 
humility in admitting your past mistake, for your sincerity in having 
done what you could do to make amends, for your clearheadedness in 
seeing that this was the thing to do, and, most of all, for your courage 
in doing it, because I know, as every person ought to know, that it 
was not an easy thin^ to do. 

There are, accordmg to reliable statistics, hundreds of thousands of 
ex-Communists in this country. Only a relative handful have had all 
the qualities to do what you have done during the years since you left 
the Communist Party. You were young when you joined the party 
movement, you were emotionally involved. Yet when a showdown 
came, wlien the issues were clearcut, when it was your country or 
communism, you did not hesitate in making your choice, and you made 
your choice even though it meant leaving your husband and the breach 
of your marriage. 

The Communists, of course, have not forgiven you for leaving the 
party; they never will. This, perhaps, is the essential difference be- 
tween the Communists and our own way of life. In coimnunism there 
is only hatred and vengeance. You and all of us know what tliere is in 
the American way of life. 

Again, Mrs. Gordienko, I salute you. I think you are a very re- 
markable woman, and we all appreciate very deeply the contribution 
you have made to this committee, to the Congress, and to your country. 

Before you leave the stand, I have to make another statement. 

Regarding the question propounded to you by Congressman Ichord 
a moment ago, which for reasons I indicated you could not and should 
not answer, let me say this : Rule XI, sec. 26 (m) of the House reads as 
follows : 

If the Committee determines that evidence or testimony at an investigative 
hearing may tend to defame, degrade, or incriminate any person, it shall — 

( 1 ) recei v^e such evidence or testimony in executive session ; 

(2) afford such person an opportunity voluntarily to appear as a witness; 
and 

(3) receive and dispose of requests from such person to subpena additional 
witnesses. 

Now, the committee, during the last recess, determined that, of 
course, for you to testify under oath as to what we have a pretty 
good idea you were about to answer, that this would tend to defame, 
degrade, or incriminate the person or persons involved. Having done 
that, then it is our obligation under the rule, first, to receive that testi- 
mony of yours in executive session. After having done that, to afford 
the person or persons you will testify about under oath an opportunity 
voluntarily to appear as a witness, not under a summons, not an order, 
not a subpena — give them an opportunity voluntarily to appear in 
executive session. To do what? To be t-old by us substantially what 
your testimony will be, and given an opportunity voluntarily, openly — 
under oath, too — to deny, affirm, comment on, question, refute, any- 
thing he wants to do, openly, voluntarily, under oath. And if accept- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1827 

ing that opportunity voluntarily to appear, lie would challenge what 
you had to say under oath and he would have persons he had in mind 
who would support his challenge and his refutation and denial, then 
the third step would have to be taken. We would have to receive and 
dispose of, in our own way, whether such persons should be subpenaed 
as witnesses. 

Now, the situation is this : We have made the determination we will, 
before leaving Minneapolis, Minnesota, take your sworn statement in 
executive session here. Then, of course, the person or persons involved 
will have to be afforded an opportunity voluntarily to appear as a 
witness, again in executive session. Now, whether that can be accom- 
plished, the second step or the third step, before we leave here, I don't 
laiow, but the rule will be followed. 

Mr, Ichord, I am carrying out my statement to you without con- 
sultation. I took it upon myself awhile ago to say I would, and now 
it has been determined that it shall. 

Mr, Ichord, Yes, Mr, Chairman, I know that the Chair, since he 
has been chairman of this committee, has always been zealous to pro- 
tect the constitutional rights of every witness called before this com- 
mittee, and I certainly want those rules adhered to myself. But I 
understand that Mrs, Gordienko will be called into executive session 
while we are here in Minneapolis, will she not ? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

So, Mrs. Gordienko, could I admonish you I will do the best I can 
to hear you as soon as we can, you are still under subpena. I must say 
that as a piece of legalism. So bear with us, and we could meet today 
or it might have to be tomorrow. 

Again, thank you very much. 

Mrs. Gordienko, Congressman Willis, would you permit me to 
make a few closing statements ? 

The Chairman, Yes, 

Mrs. Gordienko. I will make them under 2 minutes, I hope. 

The Chairman. We have a 5-minute rule in the House, so try to 
make it even shorter so we can go to lunch. 

Mrs. Gordienko. As I have previously stated under oath, when I 
became a Communist I was dedicated to communism, I was dedicated 
not to the United States of America, but I was dedicated to the United 
Soviet Socialist Republic. When I realized the error of my mistake 
my attitude since then has been, if I could do this much for Russia, 
I certainly can do this much for my own country. 

You have made a reference, sir, to courage, to which I would like to 
add, I hope we never see the day come to America where common 
integrity is called courage. And I do appreciate, Mr. Congressman, 
your expression of appreciation. 

Thank you, 

(Witness excused.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will stand in recess until 
2 :30 p.m. 

(Whereupon at 1 p.m., Friday, June 25, 1964, the subcommittee re- 
cessed, to reconvene at 2 :30 p,m, the same day.) 



1828 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

AFTERNOON SESSION, FRIDAY, JUNE 26, 1964 

(The subcommittee reconvened at 2:30 p.m., Hon. Edwin E. Willis, 
chairman, presiding) . 

(Members present: Representatives Willis, Ichord, Senner, Bruce, 
and Schadeberg, of the subcommittee, and also Representative Ash- 
brook. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Kenneth Tilsen. 

The Chairman. Do you solomnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I do. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF KENNETH E. TILSEN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HAROLD D. FIELD, JR. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you kindly state your full name and address for 
the record ? 

Mr. Tilsen. Kenneth E. Tilsen, 1653 South Victoria Road, St. Paul 
IB-Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Tilsen ? 

Mr. Tilsen. Yes, lam. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address. 

Mr. Field. My name is Harold D. Field, Jr. I am with the law firm 
of Leonard, Street and Deinard, 818 Farmers & Mechanics Bank 
Building, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the date and place of your birth, Mr. Tilsen ? 

Mr. Tilsen. November 4, 1927. I was bom in New Leipzig, North 
Dakota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you resided in the city of Mimieapolis ? 

INIr. Tilsen. I do not reside in the city of Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. St. Paul, rather. 

Mr. Tilsen. Actually, my address is St. Paul, I reside in the village 
of Mendota Heights. 

Is the question how long have I resided in this general community ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. Tilsen. Since 1933. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now would you relate the extent of your formal 
education? 

Mr. Tilsen. I am a graduate of high school and of the University of 
Minnesota Law School. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date of your graduation from high 
school ? 

Mr. Tilsen. It was in the spring or June of 1945. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliat were your years of attendance at the Univereity 
of Minnesota Law School ? 

Mr. Tilsen. I attended the University of Minnesota Law School 
from October 1, 1946, to December 21, 1950. 

I assume these questions are preliminary ? 

The Chairman. Yes, they are. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1829 

Mr. TiLSEN. Thank you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation for the record, please ? 

Mr. TiLSEN". I am an attorney. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And to what bars are you admitted to practice? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I am admitted to practice before the State and Federal 
courts and before the United States Supreme Court. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien were you admitted to the bar of the State of 
Minnesota ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. January 5, 1951. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, were you in attendance in the hearing room yester- 
day and today ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And did you hear the testimony of the prior witnesses, 
particularly the testimony of Mrs. Euth Gordienko ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Gordienko has informed the committee that dur- 
ing the year 1948 she attended meetings of the Marxist Socialist Club 
with her husband, George Gordienko, at Coffman Memorial Hall on 
the campus of the University of Minnesota. She further stated that 
while attending these classes she made your acquaintance. 

Did you know Mrs. Gordienko during that period ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I cannot conceive that the question asked can be reason- 
ably comiected to the subject matter of this hearing or to the need, 
or that this committee has any need, to know the answer to that question 
in connection with a legislative inquiry. 

In that connection I have prepared a statement as to why I will not 
answer that question and would like permission to give to counsel and 
the chairman of the committee a copy of that statement and to read it. 
It is very brief. 

The Chairman. You may read it. I hope it is brief. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I was born on November 4, 1927, in New Leipzig, North 
Dakotii. Since approximately 1933 my family has lived in St. Paul, 
Minnesota. In May of 1945, while still in high school, at the age of 
17 and just before completing my senior year, I enlisted in the United 
States Navy. I completed high school and shortly thereafter was 
called into active duty in the U.S. Navy. 

The war ended, and I was discharged from active duty in the fall 
of 1946. Immediately upon my discharge, I enrolled at the University 
of Minnesota. I remained enrolled continuously thereafter, including 
all summer sessions, until my graduation from the law school at the 
university in December of 1950. 

Between October 1, 1946, and December 21, 1950, I completed both 
my undergraduate and graduate work at the university, was granted 
a degree of bachelor of science in law on June 11, 1949, and a degree 
of bachelor of laws on December 21, 1950. 

While at the university I was married, and my wife gave birth to 
the first two of our five children. I was continuously employed while 
at the university and for approximately the last 2 years I worked be- 
tween 40 and 50 hours a week on the dock of a trucking firm near the 
campus of the university. 

On January 5, 1951, 1 was sworn in before the Supreme Court of the 
State of Minnesota and admitted to practice law in the State of Min- 
nesota. I have been actively engaged full time in such practice ever 
since. 



1830 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

After being served with a subpena by this committee, I requested 
of the committee that it furnish information as to the subject to be 
under inquiry at these hearings. The only information I have re- 
ceived, namely, the committee's resolution of May 27, 1964, states that 
the committee is interested in appraising the execution by the admin- 
istrative agencies concerned of Title I of the Internal Security Act of 
1950, and, in addition, is interested in information relative to the Sub- 
versive Activities Control Act of 1950. Both of these laws were en- 
acted on September 23, 1950. 

On the basis of the May 27, 1964, resolution, I have made what prep- 
aration I could, and I am prepared to answer to the best of my ability 
any questions the committee may put to me pertinent to the subject 
mider inquiry. In doing so, however, I wish to state that I cannot 
accept as pertinent to the subject under inquiry any matter predating 
September 23, 1950. 

I will answer all questions put to me pertinent to the subject under 
inquiry subsequent to September 23, 1950. It does happen that the 
enactment of the statutes referred to in the committee resolution co- 
incides with the period of time when I physically removed myself and 
my family from the campus of the University of Minnesota to St. 
Paul and when I commenced the practice of law. 

I have not lightly or easily reached the conclusion to refuse to answer 
any questions prior to this period. I recognized it to be my duty, as 
a citizen and especially as a lawyer, to cooperate with the Congress 
in its efforts to obtain the facts needed for intelligent legislative action. 
On the other hand, I firmly believe that the first amendment freedoms 
of speech, press, religion or political belief and association must be 
respected in a congressional investigation. Particularly pertinent is 
Chief Justice Warren's warning in the Watkms case, arising out of 
proceedings before this same committee, that, and I quote : 

Remoteness of subject can be aggravated by a probe for a depth of detail even 
farther removed from any basis of legislative action. A third dimension is added 
when the investigators turn their attention to the past to collect minutiae on 
remote topics, on the hypothesis that the past may reflect upon the present. 

I therefore believe that an inquiry reaching back into my college days 
some 14 years ago could not and would not be pertinent either to the 
subject under inquiry or, indeed, to any valid legislative purpose. 

The Chairman. Now what was the question. Counsel ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question related to the testimony of Mrs. Ruth 
Gordienko, with respect to her attendance at Marxist Socialist Club 
meetings at the University of Minnesota during the year or period 
1948, and whether he at that time knew Mrs. Gordienko. 

The Chairman. Mr. Tilsen, you have raised certahi objections to 
answering that question and apparently rely on a copy of the resolu- 
tion of the full committee, adopted May 27, authorizing these hearings. 
Although it is in the record, I will reread that resolution because 
apparently that is the basis of your refusal, the limitation of the 
resolution. 

The resolution already in the record reads : 

BE IT RESOLVED, That hearings be held by the Committee on Un-American 
Activities or a subcommittee thereof, at such times and places that the Chairman 
may determine, and that the stafE be authorized to conduct investigations deemed 
reasonably necessary in preparation therefor, relating to : 

1. As concerns the Minneapolis, Minnesota, area and the Minnesota-Dakotas 
District of the Communist Party of the United States : the structure and orga- 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1831 

nization of the Communist Party of the United States : its major objectives, and 
the strategic and tactical methods designed to aid in accomplishing such objec- 
tives ; the major areas of Communist Party concentration ; organizations created 
and controlled by the Communist Party to advance the policies and objectives 
of the Communist movement ; Communist propaganda activities conducted in 
support of such objectives ; and conspiratorial activities in aid of, and in asso- 
ciation with foreign Communist governments for the following legislative 
purposes : 

(a) to provide factual information to aid the Congress in the proi>osal of any 
necessary remedial legislation in fulfillment of the directions contained in the 
mandate to the committee by House Resolution 5, of January 9, 1963, Public Law 
601 of the 79th Congress ; 

(b) to assist the Congress in appraising the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of Title I of the Internal Security Act of 1950 ; 

(c) to provide factual information to aid the House in the disposition of 
presently pending and proposed legislation, including, but not limited to, H.R. 
953, a bill to amend the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 so as to 
authorize the Federal Government to bar from access to defense facilities 
individuals who may engage in sabotage, espionage, or other subversive acts; 

(d) consideration of the advisability of amending the Internal Security Act 
so as to impose certain disabilities, in the manner and form therein provided 
upon those persons aflSliated with Communist organizations as well as upon per- 
sons who are members thereof. 

BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED That the hearings may include any other mat- 
ter within the jurisdiction of the Committee which it or any subcommittee thereof, 
appointed to conduct these hearings, may designate. 

That is the resolution. Now, the resolution is legalistic and all that, 
but you of all witnesses appearing before the committee are qualified 
to judge its import and its full coverage. Now, you have made a state- 
ment, which we cheerfully receive, but not only because you are a 
member of the bar — we would do the same thing for any lay wit- 
nesses — in which you outlined your early life, your service in the 
armed services, your attendance at college, your struggle to obtain an 
education, all of which is very laudable, as many of us have had to do 
the same thing to obtain our education and to serve our own country. 

The basis of your objection to testifying is, and I am ruling from 
a mere hearing of what you said, limited, really, to a very minuscule 
portion of the purpose of this hearing, namely. Item (b) of the reso- 
lution, to assist the Congress in appraising the execution by the ad- 
ministrative agencies concerned with Title I of the [Internal] Security 
Act of 1950. In other words, you object to everything connected with 
the jurisdiction of this committee before the [Internal] Security Act 
of 1950 and imply, therefore, that the only reason why this committee 
is here is to inquire into the Internal Security Act. And it would be 
nice, of course, from your point of view, if this were true, that that is 
the only reason why we are here; but it isn't, and the resolution speaks 
for itself, and you of all witnesses, as a lawyer, must realize it. Prob- 
ably I am using more words in ruling than I ever have before, because 
you are an attorney, you can understand what I am talking about, that 
your refusal to disclose whether you knew Mrs. Gordienko is com- 
pletely unfounded and so it is not acceptable and not valid and, there- 
fore, 1 direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Before I respond to the question pending, could I have 
a statement by the chairman as to why he believes the question asked 
is pertinent to the subject under inquiry ? 

The Chairman. You have been identified — you heard the testimony, 
according to your previous answer — as having been a meraber of the 
Communist Party, as having been the spokesman, in thi words of 



1832 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mrs. Gordienko, of the Communist Party on the campus of the uni- 
versity ; that you didn't hide that fact ; that you were connected with — 
in what capacity is unimportant — actively with the club having to 
do with Marxist-Socialist ideology ; that you recruited Mrs, Gordienko 
in the party, which is part of the area authorized by this resolution 
of this committee. Now having been so identified under oath, you 
are given an opportunity now to confirm or deny, and then from your 
own lips I suppose will follow questions, well, what someone says you 
were then, can it be brought up to date, are you still now ? Sol say, 
on the basis of the resolution which I have just read and on the basis 
of a summation of the testimony you have asked a question as to per- 
tinency, going far afield in covering it, I consider the question to be 
very pertinent and that is why I have ordered, and now order, you 
to answer the question. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I respectfully refuse to answer that question on each of 
the following grounds : 

1. There has not been a meaningful explanation describing either 
what the topic under inquiry is or the connective reasoning whereby 
the precise question asked relates to the topic under inquiry, nor has 
there been a disclosure of the specific legislative need for an answer to 
the question. 

2. The authorization of this subcommittee does not extend to events 
prior to September 23, 1950, and the effective date of the Internal 
Security Act of 1950 and the Subversive Activities Control Act of 
1950 referred to in the resolution of May 27, 1964, authorizing the 
present hearings. 

3. Insofar as it calls for an answer prior to September 23, 1950, at 
which time I was 22 years old, the question is not pertinent to the 
subject here under inquiry. 

4. Insofar as the subcommittee seeks information prior to Septem- 
ber 23, 1950, the subcommittee is not pursuing a valid legislative 
purpose. 

5. Compelling an answer to the question would abridge freedom of 
speech and association in contravention of the first amendment. 

6. The questioning is being conducted in violation of House Eule 
11, 26 (m), in that my request to be heard in executive session rather 
than in public session has not been granted. 

7. The questioning is being conducted in violation of Rule XVI of 
this committee in that my name and the fact that I was under subpena 
were made public prior to the date of my appearance here. 

8. Article I, section 9, clause 3, of the Constitution of the United 
States prohibits this committee from requiring me to answer that 
question at this hearing. 

The Chairman. ^Vliich is that ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. That is the clause that reads, "No bill of attainder or 
ex post facto law shall be passed." 

9. Rule XI of Public Law 601 of the 79th Congress governing this 
committee is so broad and so vague that it violates both the first 
amendment and the due process clause of the fifth amendment. 

10. If the claimed basis for the pertinency of the question relates 
to some subject of inquiry not mentioned in the committee resolution 
of May 27, 1964, I have been deprived of an adequate opportunity to 
prepare for the hearing and the subcommittee does not have authority 
to question me about such subject of inquiry. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1833 

The Chairman. I have been trying to make a summary of your 
objections. Let me ask you this simple question : Does it include the 
invocation of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. The due process clause of the fifth amendment, yes. 
The privilege against self-incrimination, to which I assume the chair- 
man is inquiring, no. 

The Chairman. Well, now we know roughly where we stand. 

You say in this objection or refusal to answer the question that we 
are engaging in matters prior to 1950, the date of the Subversive 
Activities Control Act, and so on, to which I have already addressed 
myself, which I consider completely inappropriate and without merit. 

Now, you refer in No. 6 — since you raise it we might as well put it 
on the table, I didn't raise it — ^you say, in No. 6, the questioning is 
being conducted in violation of House Kule XI, 26 (m), in that your 
request to be heard in executive session rather than in public session 
has not been granted. 

Now, you of all persons, you and your attorney here, know that that 
is not true. You know that you appeared — were given an opportunity 
to appear, and did appear, with your attorney yesterday morning at 
y o'clock in a separate room — and you were given an opportunity of 
voluntarily appearing and you received a copy of this letter: "Pur- 
suant to House Kule XI, 26 (m)" — and this letter was addressed to 
you many days before this hearing commenced — "the Committee 
on Un-American Activities has received certain testimony in executive 
session." That would be the testimony of Mrs. Gordienko. "In the 
course of this testimony," now revealed of Mrs. Gordienko, "a person 
by the name of" your name, "a resident of" this area, "was identified as 
having been a member of the Communist Party. 

"A subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities will 
meet at 9 [o'clock] a.m. on June 24, 1964, in the city of Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, in Courtroom [No.] 2 (Sixth Floor), U.S. Courthouse, 110 
South Fourth Street," and this is not the room referred to. "At that 
time, if you so desire, you will be afforded an opportunity voluntarily 
to appear as a witness. At the same time, the subcommittee will re- 
ceive and dispose of any request made by you to subpoena additional 
witnesses. 

"This is not a subpoena or summons requiring you to appear. 
However, if you desire to avail yourself of this opportunity, you 
should so advise the Director of the Committee not later than Friday, 
June 19, 1964. He may be reached at Room 226, Cannon House Office 
Building, Washington 25, D.C., telephone number: Capitol 4-3121, 
extension 3051. Very truly yours," signed by myself, plus this addi- 
tion to your letter 

Mr. Senner. What was the date of the letter ? 

Mr. IcHORD. I think that should be in the record, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr.NiTTLE. June 10, 1964. 

The Chairman. — "The privilege hereinabove given does not release 
you from the compulsion to appear at the hearing pursuant to the 
subpoena already served upon you." 

In other words, you were subpenaed to be here today in open session, 
but then, consistent with the rule that you now are trying to invoke, 
you were given an opportunity voluntarily to appear — after having 
been warned that somebody had named you — in another room, to 
preserve anonymity and your reputation and to refute, deny, explain, 



1834 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

question, do anything you please, voluntarily on your own without 
compulsion. 

You appeared with your attorney and you said the rule had no 
application and you desired the right to present additional grounds 
beyond that rule why you should be heard in executive session. I 
granted you and your lawyer that privilege, in addition to your volun- 
tary opportunity to say what you pleased. And if you had — if you 
had testified voluntarily, if you had offered sincere testimony ques- 
tioning what you subsequently heard Mrs. Gordienko to have said, I 
even told you m that executive session that the chances were you 
wouldn't have to appear in a public session. You didn't want that. 
Then, as I said, your attorney made a motion nevertheless, disagreeing 
as he did — I want to I'e frank — with my interpretation of the rule, 
nevertheless couldn't it be arranged that you would be heard in execu- 
tive session. In order to save you and your attorney the embarrass- 
ment of having to make this in open session, I permitted you to make 
the additional motion in executive session and that motion was made, 
arguments were made — your attorney is a very brilliant, a very fine 
gentleman ; as far as I know, you are, too, I am not questioning that — 
but we were so convinced that he was wrong that I had to overrule 
that. 

1 am sorry you repeat this in open session. You bring it on your- 
self. Now, those 

Mr. TiLSEN. May I respond just briefly ? 

The Chairman. That is your reliance on an alleged violation of 

our 

Mr. TiLSEN. Can I respond ? 
The Chairman. I haven't finished. 

Now, you say the questioning is being conducted in violation of 
Rule XXI of this committee, in that your name — I mean Rule XVI 
of this committee, in that your name and the fact that you were sub- 
penaed were made public prior to the date of your appearance here. 
Let me say this about that. I am glad you bring it up. That is the 
rule of this committee. "VVe have never violated it. Some press people, 
radio people, TV people — and I am not naming names, but it is true — 
inquired about it. We didn't leak those names out, your name or any 
name out. It crept into the press. How, I don't know. We are not 
responsible for it. But I now say, with all the press and TV and 
radio people present, if they are willing to indicate to me that a member 
of my staff or a member of my staff, from top to bottom, did cause 
these names to be in the press before this appearance, and if that is 
true, that person will be fired in 5 minutes, because we have never 
violated that rule. But from place to place where we appear, somehow 
the names do come out, and I have a pretty good idea sometimes as to 
who leaks them out in order to make us the scapegoat. But I say 
there is no foundation to that. We didn't publish your name or the 
name of anybody else. 

You refer to some — you say that Rule XI of Public Law 601 con- 
cerning this committee is so broad and so vague that it violates both 
the first amendment and the due process clause. Well, now, if that 
is so, your quarrel is not with me, your quarrel is with the Congress of 
the United States. As I said in opening this session, this committee 
is one of 20 standing committees of the House created by the Congress, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1835 

SO we are here as a creature of the House, as an agent of the House, 
under the mandate of the House, and if anybody quarrels with the 
rule that you refer to, which is Public Law 601, based on that law, then 
your quarrel is with the Congress and not with Ed Willis or with the 
members here. And, furthermore, referring to decisions that you 
quoted, I tell you there are a lot of decisions affirming this jurisdiction. 

I didn't mean to be so long, I didn't mean to be pointed, but I was 
disappointed that things in executive session were attempted to be 
rehashed here. So again I say to you that your refusal to respond to 
that question as to events even prior to 1950, which unquestionably will 
be brought up today, is completely unfounded and I direct you, for the 
third time, to answer. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Mr. Willis, if I may just briefly respond. 

With respect to objection 6, I think the record should be clear that 
we did make a record of our position as to the meaning of Rule XI, 
26(m). 

The Chairman. You did. 

Mr. Telsen". And our belief that I am entitled, as a matter of right, 
to an executive session pursuant to clause 1, and you explained to us 
very clearly, as you have now explained again, that it is your belief 
that pursuant to clauses 2 and 3 you have complied with that rule. 
The inclusion of that as a grounds for objection was not intended to be 
a basis to reargue the matter already argued early yesterday morning, 
but simply a simple statement of fact that we preserve our position 
relative to what we believe to be in lawyerlike fashion the proper 
meaning of Rule 6. 

We recognize the position that you have stated in executive session 
and the position you have now stated, and I am certain that you 
recognize the position we stated in executive session and the reason for 
including this as a grounds for objection in order that it could appear, 
if it ever has to, at a subsequent time. The only comment I would 
make is that certainly I w^ould hope that in the course of this interro- 
gation that comments such as untruth or false would not be used by 
any of us, sir. 

The Chairman. I think you are right and I would correct it. I 
would say it is not consistent with our appreciation of the, situation. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Thank you. 

The Chairman. You are absolutely correct. We had a very pleas- 
ant executive session yesterday. Your rights were preserved, a 
transcript was made, they are right there, and for the sake of ano- 
nymity, for your own protection, a record having been made that you 
wouldii't repeat it here, because now having repeated it, in fairness 
to me and the committee, I have been, I think, rather forced to say 
what I just said. I regret the incident, but you brought it on your- 
self, because unless I had made this statement, then it would appear 
that you would have your way and one side of the record wouldn't 
be complete. So, anyway, you were ordered to answer the question, 
consistent with the rules of the committee and the Supreme Court deci- 
sions requiring the chairman to order a witness to answer, to give him 
an opportunity to think it over again and consult with your lawyer. 
So consult with him and if you hold onto your position, why, then the 
record is made. 



1836 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. TiLSEN. I think the record is clear that I have stated both in my 
statement of position as to what I will answer and what I won't and 
my legal grounds for not answering. 

Thank you. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a member of the Communist Party in the 
years 1948 and 1949 and 1950 wliile a student at the University of 
Minnesota ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Since September 23, 1950, or more exactly since any 
date in which this committee can lawfully, under my interpretation of 
law, inquire of me, I have not been, and am not now, a member of the 
Communist Party. 

Mr. Nittle. Now, Mr. Tilsen, did you on the date of September 
23, 1950, submit your resignation from the Communist Party? 

Mr. Tilsen. I believe I have answered that question to the extent 
that it is pertinent to the subject under inquiry. 

The Chairman. So you draw a sharp line in your testimony, and I 
suppose that will be the pattern ? 

Mr. Tilsen. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Beginning with 1950 ? 

Mr. Tilsen. September 23, for lack of a better date to pick. 

The Chairman. Well, that is your position. It sounds nice from 
your point of view. But again, I don't accept it. You told us every- 
thing that was nice about you before that date, and we have sworn 
evidence the other way, but that's your decision. And without the 
necessity of repeating what you have said or I have said, you may, 
if you want to, for the sake of timesaving, say that for "reasons pre- 
viously indicated, I refuse to answer." 

Mr. Tilsen. I believe I have answered the last question. 

The Chairman. Well, now, in connection with your last — 

Read the question. Or counsel can restate it. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you a member of the Communist Party during 
the years 1948, 1949, and 1950, while a student at the University of 
Minnesota ? 

Mr. Tilsen. Could the reporter read my answer. I believe I have 
answered it and I think that is 

The Chairman. No. It was a double-barreled answer. You said 
since that time you were not. 

Mr. Tilsen. That is my answer to the question. I think the ques- 
tion is a multiple one and I don't believe I have to answer such a 
question "yes" or "no." 

The Chairman. You are right. 

Split it into two. Ask the one you just asked singly, on its own four 
legs ; will you ? 

Mr. Nittle. The question posed the witness is, Were you a member 
of the Communist Party during the years 1948, 1949, and 1950 while a 
student at the University of Minnesota ? 

Mr. Tilsen. I submit, Mr. Chairman, that I have answered that 
question. To the extent that my answer is nonresponsive, if the 
Chair feels it is nonresponsive, to assist the committee in moving for- 
ward I would state that the nonresponsive character of the answer, 
if it is such, is on the basis of the grounds and explanations that we 
have just covered. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1837 

The Chairman. In other words, you refuse to answer that question 
for the same reasons heretofore advanced ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Well, I actually believe I have answered it. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, I haven't heard the answer and I 
would like to hear the answer. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Insofar as the answer calls for information, as the 
question calls for information within the authority of this committee 
subsequent to September 23, 1950, I have answered the question by 
stating that I am not, and have not been and am not now, a member of 
the Communist Party. I haven't waited for you to expand it. In- 
sofar as it asks for information prior thereto, then I stand upon the 
objections, and that is what I was trying to explain to the Chair. 

Mr. Chairman. What objections ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. The objections and all of them, the statement and my 
10 grounds of objection. If the Chair wants me to reread them, I 
will. 

Mr. Chairman. All right, for the grounds previously urged, on 
the grounds previously urged? 

Mr. TiLSEN. That is right. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, one question. 

The Chairman. Wait. 

The committee does not accept any or all of these grounds put to- 
gether. I caution the gentleman that he has not invoked the protection 
of the fifth amendment and, therefore, I order you to answer the ques- 
tion directly. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I have, sir. 

Mr. Chairman. The self-incrimination part of the fifth amendment? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Well, so that the record is clear, I will specifically re- 
fuse to answer that portion of the question that asks for any informa- 
tion prior to September 23, 1950, on the 10 grounds enumerated a few 
minutes ago. 

Mr. Chairman. Without invoking the privelege of the self-incrim- 
inating part of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. l^LSEN. That is correct. 

Mr. Chairman. All right, now we have a clear-cut case and we can 
proceed where we are. 

Having set forth in the record your position and ours, I now direct 
you to answer that question, and limited to the question on its face, 
namely, were you a member of the Communist Party in 1948, '49, and 
'50 while a student at the university. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I stand on my partial answer, or on the answer I have 
given and the objections I have raised. 

The Chairman. You acknowledge you have only given a partial 
answer, and I caution you that this is crucial under the procedures of 
the House and under the rules. If you are satisfied with your answer, 
I am satisfied with the record I have made out. I am not satisfied with 
your answer, and I think that — well, things will take care of them- 
selves. 

Proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. During the period you were in attendance at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, were you an officer of the Marxist Socialist Club ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Mr. Chairman, I refuse to answer that question for all 
pf the grounds already stated. 

36-729—64 12 



1838 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

The Chairman. But not including an invocation of the self -incrimi- 
nating provision of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes. 

Mr. Chairman, you may assume that I do not intend at any time 
during the course of these sessions to invoke such privilege. 

The Chairman. I think we understand each other pretty good. 
We are making a good record. 

Since I don't agree with you, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Same response, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. And your position is the same? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you an official spokesman on the campus of the 
University of Minnesota while a law student there on behalf of the 
Communist Party of Minnesota ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Mr. Chairman, with respect to the last question and this 
question, in addition to the grounds that are stated, and I am going to 
refuse to answer this question, I have not had a meaningful explana- 
tion describing either the topic under inquiry or the connective rea- 
soning whereby the precise question asked relates to the topic under 
inquiry, nor has there been a disclosure of the specific legislative need 
for an answer to that question. 

Now, I raise this objection specifically again with respect to the last 
question prior to the direction and I raise it with respect to this ques- 
tion in addition to it being included within the other 10 objections. 

The Chairman. Well, I discussed that in my ruling a while ago, and 
I think I related the pertinency of it and I think the pertinency ap- 
pears on the face of the resolution, but perhaps counsel might want to 
add an explanation. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, Mr. Chairman. I certainly would agree that the 
pertinency appears with indisputable clarity under the circumstances. 

Now with respect to the resolution, Mr. Tilsen, I am sure you are 
aware it authorizes the subcommitee and the committee to investigate 
Communist activities in the Minneapolis area. You have been advised 
that the committee is interested in ascertaining the activities of the 
Communist Party on the campus of the University of Minnesota, par- 
ticularly in connection with the testimony received from J\Irs. Ruth 
Gordienko. We are asking you about Communist activities, your 
Communist activities, at the university, and it seems to be clearly rele- 
vant to the resolution which authorizes this investigation of Com- 
munist activities in the State of Minnesota. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Without arguing the point, I urge each one of the 10 
objections in response to that question. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Witness, you stated your background about law and serving 
your country — and in a way I can almost follow myself, except from 
moving out of Minnesota and gomg down to Arizona — and I am in- 
terested in legislation that would help former members of the Com- 
munist Party to regain and return and recapture their beliefs in the 
American democratic principles, and this means that I am interested 
in those members, whether they were members prior to September 23, 
1950, or otherwise. And I would like very much to ask you this ques- 
tion. You told us now that you are not a member of the Communist 
Party since September 23, 1950. Were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party prior to that time ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IK THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1839 

Mr. TiLSEN. I fail to see the pertinency of the question, Mr. Senner, 
to the topic under inquiry here or to the legislative need for an answer 
to such a question. 

Mr. Senner. Counsel, wouldn't you agree that perhaps a lot of our 
youth of this country back in 1948, 1949, 1950, took the wrong turn 
down the road and want to make the correction, want to come back and 
join our society, join our people, believe in our fundamental doctrines 
of the United States Constitution, some of these provisions that you 
have raised here today? Shouldn't this committee be interested in 
trying to help those members come on back and join our society ? That 
is the pertinency as far as this member of this subcommittee is con- 
cerned. I have explained it to you now. Maybe you don't agree with 
it. But the question is now, again, Were you a member of the Com- 
munist Party prior to September 23, 1950 ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Well, Mr. Senner, you have included a nmnber of 
questions, including those asking for my beliefs, but I believe that you 
want me to respond to the original question, and the one that you 
just restated at the end, and not to any of the intermediate questions. 

Mr. Senner. The others are statements, they are really not ques- 
tions. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Thank you. 

I am not going to answer that question for the reasons already given 
and on the grounds already given. 

I would like to, in addition, specifically, call the chairman's atten- 
tion to the 10th ground for objection, that if the claimed basis for the 
pertinency of the question relates to some subject of inquiry not men- 
tioned in the committee resolution of May 27, 1964, then I have been 
deprived of the adequate opportunity for the hearing, and this par- 
ticularly is true in view of the fact that there are a number of questions 
about my beliefs that he has inquired of, and the subcommittee does 
not have authority under the resolution to question me about such 
subject of inquiry. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, if I 

The Chairman. Of course, the resolution, the last paragraph there- 
of, states — 

the hearings may include any other matter within the jurisdiction of the Com- 
mittee which it or any subcommittee thereof, appointed to conduct these hear- 
ings, may designate. 

So it is within the resolution. However, you have answered. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Tilsen, have you since September 23, 1950, ever 
filled out an affidavit in which you have denied that you have ever 
been a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Mr. Senner, I do not believe the question is pertinent, 
but I will answer it anyway. I don't believe that I have ever had 
an opportunity to fill out, or a reason to fill out, such an application. 
It may have happened ; if so, I have signed it without it making any 
impression upon my mind. I have no recollection, one way or the 
other, with respect to the question you ask. 

Mr. Senner. When you took the bar examination, I understand 
that was in the year 1951 ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Tilsen. No, it was in 1950, sir. 

Mr. Senner. January of 1950 ? 



1840 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. TiLSEN. No; to the extent that it is pertinent, it was in the 
summer of 1950. 

Mr. Senner. Wlien were you admitted to practice law before the 
district court ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. January 5, 1951. 

Mr. Sejtner. Wlien were you admitted to practice before the United 
States Supreme Court ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I am not sure. I think it was December of 1962, and 
I could be wrong. 

Mr. Senner. But it was at least 5 years after you graduated ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Senner. Do you recall on any of these forms whether or not 
questions were asked of you whether or not you belonged to a subver- 
sive group or to the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Mr. Senner, without waiving any pertinency objections 
that I have, because I don't really agree that you have the right to ask 
these questions, the answer is that I have no recollection of any sort 
of any questions of that type. If such questions were present, I 
answered them. 

Mr. Senner. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. "VYliat is the line of demarcation ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. September 23, 1950. 

The Chairman. Since September 23, 1950, have you had any affilia- 
tion, ties, meetings, discussion of Communist projects and Communist 
plans, current Communist activities, and so on, with persons known 
by you to be, or to have been, members of the Communist Party ? 
' Mr. TiLSEN. No. 

The Chairman. Go on, Mr. Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr, Tilsen, did you in 1948 recruit Mrs. Ruth Gordienko 
into the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Tilsen. Mr. Nittle, I refuse to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

The Chairman. Since those grounds do not include invocation of 
the self-incrimination provision of the fifth amendment, I direct you 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Tilsen. I stand on the grounds that I have indicated. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Tilsen, did you hear the chairman's opening state- 
ment at the commencement of these hearings ? 

Mr. Tilsen. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I might say that, just in, I would suppose, a further 
amplification or an explanation of the purpose of the hearings, we 
want to know if you are aware of what I said in the opening statement, 
not that I could trick you as a lawyer, but I wouldn't even try. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you personally invite Robert Kelly, whom Mrs. 
Gordienko identified as a State labor leader of the Communist Party, 
to address the Marxist Socialist Club on the campus of the University 
of Minnesota in 1948 ? 

Mr. Tilsen. I respectfully refuse to answer it for the grounds 
already stated. 

The Chairman. And for the reasons previously indicated, I will 
order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Tilsen. And I will stand on the grounds and reasons indicated 
in the record. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1841 

Mr. NiTTLiE. Did you assign Mrs. Gordienko to a women's cell group 
of the Communist Party at the University of Minnesota ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Well, Mr. Nittle, I really fail to see the purpose of the 
questioning. I have indicated in my statement 

Mr. NiTTLE. I thinlv the purpose of this question is very obvious to 
you, Mr. Tilsen. 

Mr. TiLSEN. No, it isn't. I have stated in my statement the ques- 
tions that I will answer and the questions that I will not; and, of 
course, this question is quite clearly within those that I believe, as a 
legal right, I do not have to answer and you do not have a right to 
ask. And I see no basis for continuing to ask questions that we have 
agreed we have a disagreement on. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Here is a question I think you may want to answer : 
In the course of your activity, or activity testified to by Mrs. Gordienko, 
as a leader of the Marxist Socialist Club and as a Communist Party 
spokesman upon the campus of the University of Minnesota, did you 
acquire any knowledge with respect to whether or not the Communist 
Party of the United States was a disciplined organization operating 
here under Soviet Union control with the objective of installing a 
Soviet-style dictatorship in the United States ? 

Mr. TiLSEN". I didn't follow the question. 

Well, it is a rather multiple question and with respect to all the 
propositions or prepositions in the introductory portion I would re- 
fuse to answer, and with respect to the conclusionary portion I would 
have no Iniowledge with which to answer one way or the other. I 
can't do any better than that. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Ruth Gordienko testified that at your home in 
Minneapolis you took her membership application, that she signed a 
blank at your home for membership, and that she was thereafter as- 
signed to a women's cell group. Are you aware of these facts? Did 
you hear her testimony with respect to that ? 

Mr. Tilsen. I heard her testimony, if that is the question, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you have anything to say in denial or in affirmation 
of that testimony or in explanation of it ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Well, Counsel, you have asked me if I have anything 
to say in denial or affirmation or in explanation ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, that is right. 

Mr. TiLSEN. And in response to that, I would just like to read two 
sentences from Justice Black of the United States Supreme Court. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I don't think we need to hear about Justice Black. 

Mr. TiLSEN". This is in response to your question. 

The Chairman. The counsel has asked the question, and he may 
respond to it. He can quote Justice Black or anybody else. 

You asked for an opinion question, you asked for it, so let him 
respond. 

Mr. Senner. The only point I was trying to make, Mr. Chairman, 
was whether or not this is a majority opinion or a minority opinion. 

Mr. Tilsen. It is just a comment he makes in the Wilkinson case. 
He says : 

In the atmosphere existing in this country today, tlie charge that someone is a 
Communist is so common that hardly anyone active in public life escapes it. 
Every member of this Court has, on one occasion or another, been so designated. 
And a vast majority of the members of the other two branches of Government 
have fared no better. If the mere fact that someone has been called a Com- 



1842 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MtNTSTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

munist is to be permitted to satisfy a requirement of probable cause, I think 
it plain that such a requirement is wholly without value. 

The Chairman. Now having said it, the majority was the other 
way ; but let it go at that. 

Now, Mr. Nittle, would you ask a factual question ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Five to four, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you saying by your response to that question that 
you were never, in fact, a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I believe the record is clear as to my response. I have 
responded to the period of time 

Mr. Nittle. I am asking you whether you are saying whether or 
not you have ever been a member of the Communist Party. 

The Chairman. He is not. Proceed to the next question. 
, Mr. Nrm.E. Did you at the time of your attendance at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota during the years 1946 to 1950 know Kose Tillot- 
son Renaud? 

Mr. TiLSEN. In view of the fact that I do not believe that any ques- 
tion prior to September 23, 1950, is pertinent to the subject under 
inquiry, I urge that and each other ground that I have already stated 
in response to that question. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you know Eose Tillotson Renaud to be a member 
of the State board of the Communist Party in Minnesota at the time 
of your attendance at the university ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I make the same response, Mr. Nittle. 

The Chairman. And I order you to answer for the reasons I have 
given. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes, and I stand on the grounds. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Boehnke testified that during his membership in 
the Communist Party from the period 1960 to 1963, he knew Rose 
Tillotson Renaud to be a member of the Minnesota-Dakotas District 
of the Communist Party executive committee. We are interested in 
ascertaining information in relation to the activities of Rose Tillotson 
Renaud at the University of Minnesota, and the techniques of opera- 
tion of Communists in respect to their attempt to indoctrinate and 
recruit Communist Party members at universities or other places in 
the country. 

Now, this information would be of great value to the committee, for 
you have had an intimate experience in the operation, or it appears 
to the committee, according to testimony received, that you have had 
an intimate experience with respect to the Communist Party opera- 
tions in connection with universities. "We think you would want to 
cooperate in an area that involves the national security and to give 
this committee the benefit of your experience and testimony. 

We heard a prior witness, Mrs. Gordienko, who had been a member 
of the Communist Party at one time, a bona fide member, and she 
testified today, and we believe her testimony was of great importance 
on this factfinding mission and in this investigation. ^ Now we are 
asking you, as an American citizen, a lawyer, a practicing lawyer, to 
give this committee that information. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I am sorry, Mr. Nittle, I don't know what question 
is pending. 

Mr. Nittle. I am quite sure you know what the question is. Do you 
know Rose Tillotson Renaud as a member of the Communist Party, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1843 

and can you tell us about her activities in connection with the direc- 
tion, organization, or administration of Communist youth groups at 
the University of Minnesota during the period while you were in 
attendance there ? Is that clear ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I assume in view of all of your comments that the 
question relates exclusively to the period prior to September 23, 1950, 
and if that assumption is correct, I believe I have stated my grounds for 
refusing to answer, and I would stand on them. 

The Chairman. I think you may assume the question relates to the 
period prior to September 23, 1950. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Then I have refused to answer. 

The Chairman. So you stand on your same answer ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes, I do. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer. 

Mr. TiLSEN. And I stand on it. 

The Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Tilsen, Mrs. Gordienko testified today that she 
received information from Rose Tillotson Renaud, a top Communist 
Party official in 1948, of the existence of a professional cell of the Com- 
munist Party at the University of Minnesota campus. It is of im- 
portance to the committee to determine, and to know, whether that 
cell continues in existence there, and we believe that by reason of the 
testimony with regard to you by Mrs. Gordienko, you would possess 
knowledge of the fact whether such a cell existed at the university at 
that time. 

Now would you tell the committee, please, whether you have any 
knowledge of the existence of a professional cell of the Communist 
Party at the University of Minnesota during the period you were a 
student there ? 

The Chairman. He is again talking about the period prior to 
September 23, 1950. 

Mr. Tilsen. Well, because the question contains a number of factors 
concerning the university and implies a knowledge which I do not 
have, I would like to state that I possess no knowledge as to any 
Communists on the campus of the University of Minnesota at this 
time or at any time that I believe is involved in the investigation of 
this committee or is pertinent to the subject matter of this committee. 

Now with respect to the question as clarified by the chairman, I will 
not answer it because I do not believe that the committee has a right to 
inquire into that matter which is not pertinent to the subject matter. 

The Chairman. Well, now, you are blowing hot and cold. You 
can't get by with that. You have opened the door, and I am therefore 
going to order you to answer the question not only before, but after, 
September 23, 1950, For your self -edification, you answered the ques- 
tion by saying you have no knowledge before or after, but, however, in 
the context of the question you refuse to answer. You can't do that. 
I now very definitely order you to answer the question. And under the 
laws of the Supreme Court of the United States, you have opened the 
door on this and other questions along that line. 



1844 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. TiLSEN. Mr. Willis, I believe you have misunderstood my an- 
swer. 

The Chairman. I hope I did for your sake. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Perhaps the court reporter would reread my answer. 

(The reporter read the answer.) 

The Chairman. I hold onto my ruling. Answer the question. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I hold onto my grounds. 

The Chairman. Not your grounds, you have waived those grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Tilsen, I am going to ask you 

The Chairman. Well, let's understand each other, and if that is the 
import of your answer I will accept it. All that you said in answer 
to this question relates to the period prior to September 23, 1950, and 
you meant to go no farther. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Subsequent to, not prior ; after, subsequent, not prior to. 

The Chairman. Oh, I see. So you refuse to answer the question as 
to any period prior to ? 

Mr. Tilsen. Yes. I do. 

The Chairman. That clarifies it. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And you will not tell the committee whether or not you 
possess any information 

The Chairman. He has answered that question, if you are going into 
the same area. 

In light of your lack of invocation of the constitutional provisions 
which I regard, we regard, as acceptable, I direct you to answer the 
question as to the period prior to September 23, 1950. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I believe the record is clear as to my refusal and the 
grounds thereof, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. In other words, you refuse to answer despite the 
order ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. That is correct. 

The Chairivian. All right, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, Mr. Tilsen, perhaps you will assist the commit- 
tee at least in giving it information from which it may develop leads 
as to others who may possess such knowledge as to the existence of a 
secret professional cell at the University of Minnesota, if you were to 
respond to the inquiry as to whether or not you knew Rose Tillotson 
Renaud to be the Communist Party official in charge of, or participat- 
ing in. Communist Party activities at the University of Minnesota. 

Mr, Tilsen. Can I assume that you are talking about the period 
that I believe is pertinent to the subject under inquiry, or can I assume 
you are talking about the period that I believe is not pertinent to the 
subject under inquiry? Could you respond to that? 

The Chalrman. Yes, I think you should, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I am referring to your knowledge of her activities prior 
to September 23, 1950. Would you answer the question with respect 
to that period ? 

Mr. Tilsen. With respect to that period, my answer is a refusal 
based upon all of the grounds that I have indicated, including specifi- 
cally, of course, the fact that it is outside the subject, the periods in 
which this committee can inquire. 

Mr. Nittle. There was testimony received by the committee that 
Carl Ross, a top Commimist Party official, was a chairman during the 
period of your attendance at the University of Minnesota. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1845 

Did you know Carl Ross to be active in connection with any youth 
activities in which you may have been engaged at the University of 
Minnesota ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. In order to keep the record straight and avoid the nec- 
essity, would you make it clear again that you are inquiring prior to 
September 23, 1950? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Prior to September 23, 1950, I will not answer the 
question. 

The Chairman. For the reasons previously indicated ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. For the reasons given, yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Martin Mackie, another top Communist 
official in the State of Minnesota, during the period of your attend- 
ance at the University of Minnesota ? 

Mr. TiLSEisr. Mr. Nittle, I don't believe I am going to answer any 
questions of that nature as to who I did, or did not, know because I 
don't believe that it can be demonstrated to be proper questions and 
questions that are pertinent to the subject under inquiry and that there 
is a legislative need for an answer to these questions. I have stated 
10 grounds for refusing to answer. 

Mr. Nittle. I understand that. 

Mr. TiLSEN. And I am relying on each one of the 10, although 
specifically calling your attention to these factors again. 

Mr. Nittle. There is always a possibility you might change your 
mind. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I doubt that, Mr. Nittle, really. 

Mr. Nittle. You are convincing me of it, too. 

The Chairman. You are refusing to answer for the reasons pre- 
viously indicated? 

Mr. TiLSEN. That is correct. 

The Chairman. And lacking proper constitutional grounds, I will 
order you answer it. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I stand on my grounds. 

The Chairman. And j^our general argument is that you are not 
going to ; I mean no witness has a right to direct our method of ques- 
tioning, particularly when a witness is invoking what he conceives to 
be constitutional rights. 

So, Mr. Nittle, if you have questions as to any other party member, 
fire away ; if not, move. 

Mr. Nittle. Wlien you fix the date of September 23, 1950, as the 
"iron curtain" of your testimony, is it because you were, prior to Sep- 
tember 23, 1950, a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Mr. Nittle, I do not believe it is appropriate to accom- 
plish 

The Chairman. Well, now, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I don't believe it is a question that can be answered, 
nor do I believe it is a question that is susceptible to an answer, but I 
would do my best to answer it in my own fashion. 

I do not believe that you can accomplish by innuendo, in asking a 
question, that which you cannot accomplish directly. My reasons for 
refusing to answer the question, and my refusal of this question, have 
been spelled out in the statement of my motivation and in the quota- 
tion from Justice Black, and I do not believe that the question is, there- 



1846 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

fore, proper as to form and does not call for any facts whatsoever. 
It calls for my beliefs, which I have given. 

The Chairman. So therefore you invoke your right 

Mr. TiLSEN. Actually, I would call your attention to the impropri- 
ety of the form of the question. It does not call for facts, it calls for 
my opinion. 

The Chaieman. I think it is completely proper. I am a lawyer, and 
we have a way of fouling up things. You are pussyfooting on that 
one, and I will direct you to answer. 

Mr. TiLSEN. To the extent the question calls for facts, although I 
do not believe it does, I will then stand on each ground I have already 
preserved. 

The Chairman". Accepting none of them, I direct you to answer. 

Mr. TiLSEN. I stand on the grounds. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let me put it to you directly : Were you not, immedi- 
ately prior to September 23, 1950, a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I believe I have already refused to answer that question 
for the grounds, all of the various grounds, urged already in this 
record. 

The Chairman. It is in a very direct form, so therefore I direct you 
to answer it. 

Mr. TiLSEN. And I stand on the grounds, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. JiTow I want to pose another question, which I don't 
think you can claim to be an innuendo. 

In testimony before the Subversive Activities Control Board on 
January lo, 1954, Barbara Louise Roehrich, who was identified by 
Mrs. Gordienko as a member of her cell at the University of Minnesota, 
stated, testified that she executed an application for membership in 
the Communist Party during February of 1949. She further testified 
that Rachel Tilsen was the chairman of the University Village Club 
of the Minneapolis Communist Party and Minnesota State treasurer 
of the Labor Youth League and that she, Rachel Tilsen, took her ap- 
plication for membership in the Communist Party during February of 
1949. Mrs. Roehrich also testified that Kenneth Tilsen and several 
others asked her to join the Communist Party. 

Now, did you during February of 1949, or at any time during the 
year 1949, ask Barbara Roehrich to join the Communist Party? 

Mr. TiESEN. I respectfully decline to answer that question on all of 
the grounds already urged. 

Mr. Chairman. Not accepting them, I direct you to answer. 

Mr. Tilsen. I understand that. 

Mr. Chairman. You persist in your views ? 

Mr. Tilsen. Yes, I do. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Tilsen, in one of your very initial answers I 
made a note that you said that you were admitted to the bar of Min- 
nesota in 1951. Did I misunderstand you? 

Mr. Tilsen. That is correct, January 5. 

The Chairman. This may seem repetitious, but I didn't completely 
understand the questions of Congressman Senner. Did you have to, 
or did you, execute an affidavit of any kind in connection with your 
admission to the bar in 1951 ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1847 

Mr. TiLSEN. I answered Mr. Senner that I may well have. If there 
were such applications I signed them. I have no recollection what- 
soever of the information that Mr. Senner requested. 

The Chairman. Do you have any knowledge of the fact that, not 
referring to you or your recollection, but as a matter of requirement, 
that all lawyers admitted to practice in Minnesota must file an affidavit ; 
do you have knowledge of that ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Are you referring to a non- Communist affidavit, Mr. 
Willis? 

The CHAiRMAisr. Any kind of affidavit. 

IVIr. TiLSEN. Well, you do have to lile an affidavit, yes, or an applica- 
tion. 

The Chairman. But the point is, you don't know whether that af- 
fidavit contains the question as to disclaimer of membership, present 
or past ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I have no present recollection, no. I don't know what 
it requires at this time. 

The Chairivian. And I imderstand that you were admitted to prac- 
tice before the Supreme Court- of the United States in '60 or '61 ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I think I said December of '62. That is my best 
recollection. 

The CHAIR3IAN. All right. Well, there I do know that an affidavit 
is required. You did sign an affidavit ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. If it was required, I signed it, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether that affidavit contains a dis- 
claimer provision ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I have no present recollection. 

The Chairman. Well, I can tell you that it has questions along that 
line. 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes, and if it has such questions, I am sure I signed 
them. 

The Chahuvian. And your answer would have been "No"; it would 
not have been an admission that you were ever associated with the 
Commimist Party ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Well, we are getting into a hypothesis. Whatever 
answers the application called for, I answered truthfull}^. 

The Chairman. One of the things I am going to require that counsel 
get and put into the record at this point is the form of affidavits, if 
any, required in applications by the bar of this State and of the United 
States Supreme Court. Will you see that that is done, Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir.^ 

The Chairman. Are you a notary public ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes, I am. 

The Chairman. Did you have to sign an affidavit as a notary public ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. I am not objecting to the questions, although I do feel 
that they are not pertinent to a legislative inquiry because I am not on 
trial, Mr. Willis, but I am answering your questions, because I am 
subpenaed here, without regard to their pertinence at this point in 
view of the situation right here. 

The Chairman. Now, you made this voluntary statement, let me 
make this one. It doesn't come with too much good grace for you to 



1 For copy of these applications, marked for identification as "Committee Exhibits Nos. 
1 and 2," respectively, see pp. 1850-1857. 



1848 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

advance that point because you have been sort of bragging, you want 
us to go into the period after September 23, 1950, and when you sort 
of squeeze on specific questions you make an argument that this is silly, 
yet you will be generous enough to answer. Now I am asking you : 
Did you sign an affidavit as a notary public ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Sir, if there was such — I have been a notary public 
for some time and I have signed any papers and all papers required to 
be a notary public. I have actually right now no recollection, or not a 
specific recollection, of the nature of the papers required to become a 
notary public. And I didn't mean to infer I was squeezed, I simply 
meant to infer that without criticism of the chairman that we were 
embarking into a discussion of myself. 

The Chairman. I think this turns out to be a minor field, these 
affidavits, but yet that is the only period you want to talk about, 
and you know the pertinency, I am sure, as a lawyer, of questions 
along these lines, signing an affidavit asking questions, possible ques- 
tions, about affiliation with, or actual membership in, the Communist 
Party. So that answers that. 

You have taken the position that you will, for the reasons thought 
by you to be substantial, refuse to answer all questions involving 
membership in, affiliation with, knowledge of, party afi'airs prior to 
September 23, 1950, so as a sharp line of demarcation, and we had 
hoped to question you about many things thereafter but you won't 
answer questions even about afterwards, and so on. So, from our 
point of view, those are all the questions I have. 

Do you have any ? 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, I have no questions. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, I have one or two. 

Counsel, since September 23, 1950, have you met and dealt with 
Carl Ross? 

Mr. TiLSEN. He has been a client of mine on a matter that has no 
political significance or consequence. 

Mr. Senner. I don't want you to disclose attorney-client relation- 
ship, that would be the last thing I would ask. Have you had any 
dealings with Martin Mackie since September 23, 1950 ? 



COMMUNIST ACTrV'ITIES IX THE MIKNiE.\POLIS, MINN., AREA 1849 

Mr. TiLSEN. No. 

Mr. Senner. Fred Fine ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. In connection with a business transaction through the 
mail, but not to the best of my present recollection in person, but it 
had no political consequences whatsoever. 

Mr. Senner. You were an incorporator, were you not, for a corpo- 
ration, the Gopher Bumper Exchange, Inc. ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Yes. 

Mr. Senner. And which Carl E. Koss was an ojficer of that corpo- 
ration ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. Well, Mr. Senner, I will ask your good judgment as 
to whether or not the question does call for a violation of the attor- 
ney-client privilege. The corporate documents of that corporation 
are of public record. 

Mr. Senner. And whatever those documents would indicate, you 
would not deny ? 

Mr. TiLSEN. No, of course not. 

Mr. Senner. Have you contributed, aided, given comfort to, the 
Communist Party since September 23, 1950, either directly or 
indirectly ? 

Mr. Tilsen. No, sir. 

Mr. Senner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. ScHADEBERG. I have no questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Next witness. 

(Documents marked "Committee Exhibits Nos. 1 and 2," respec- 
tively, follow:) 



1850 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MrNNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 



Committee Exhibit No. 1 

MINNESOTA STATE BOARD OF LAW EXAMINERS 

APPLICATION FOR PERMISSION TO TAKE BAR EXAMINATION 

(Answers typewTilten arc much easier to read. All question must be answered.) 

TO THE STATE BOARD OF LAW EXAMINERS FOR MINNESOTA: 

I hereby make application to take the examination for admission to the Bar to be held in the month 

of. _ , 19 , and in connection therewith make true and correct answers 

to the following questions: — 

1. (a) Give your full name. 

(b) Age. 

(c) Married or single. 

(d) If married, give date and place of marriage. 

(e) Date and place of birth. 

(0 If born in a foreign country, when did you come to the United States? Give port of entry and 
name of ship. 

(g) If naturalized, give date and place. 

(h) Have you ever changed your name, and if so, state facts fully. 



2. (a) Present address. 

(b) Give specific addresses of your place of abode during the past five years, and specify the dates 
and length of time of residence at each place. 



(c) If your legal residence during the past five years has been different from your place of abode, 
give the same information with respect to your legal residence. 



3. Give names, date and place of birth, present residence and occupation of parents. In the event 

that either parent is dead or retired, give address and occupation at time of death or prior to 
retirement. 



4. (a) What high school or high schools have you attended, and between what dates? 



(b) Are you a high school graduate? If so, give name and address of school, and date of gradua- 
tion. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1851 
Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 

5. (a) Did you attend college other than law school? If so, state what college or colleges and when, 
specifying dates. 



(b) What college degrees, if any, have you received? Give date, and name of college. 



6. (a) Did you attend a law school? If so, state what schools ana when, specifying datos. 



(b) What degrees in law, if any, have you received? Give date, and name of school. 



7. (a) Have you ever been employed by an attorney or firm of attorneys, or studied in a law office? 



(b) If so, give a complete list of such offices and their addresses and state the period specifyinR 
dates of your employment or study in each. 



(c) If employed, state the nature and extent of your duties in such employment. 



(d) Have you ever participated or engaged in any act either individually or together with or on 
behalf of any attorney, which act was contrary to the canons of legal ethics? 



8. Have you ever applied for admission to practice as attorney or counsellor in any court in any other 
state or country? If so, specify when and where; whether you were admitted to the bar, and if so, 
how long and where you practiced. 



(a) Do you intend to apply for admission to practice as attorney at law in any other state or 
country ? 



1852 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 



Committee Exhibit No. 1 — Continued 



9. If you have been admitted as an attorney in any other state or country, have any charges of any 
kind ever been preferred against you as an attorney and counsellor at law? If so, when and with 
what result? 



10. Have you previously applied for admission to the bar of the State of Minnesota? If so, how many 
times, when, and with what result? 



11. Have you ever been engaged in any occupation, business or profession other than law? If so. when 
and where, specifying fully the names and addresses of your employers, the positions you have oc- 
cupied, and the period of such employment, giving dates. Are such employers willing to appear be- 
fore this Board or make a statement to it in your behalf? What is the address of your present 
business employment? 



Have you ever been engaged in any business or profession on your own account? If so, state in de- 
tail the nature thereof, the time during which you were so engaged, where the business was locat- 
ed and what became of it. 



13. Have you ever been a party to, or otherwise involved in, any legal proceeding, civil or criminal? If 
so, state facts fully. 



Give the names and addresses of three attorneys, other than law school faculty members and 
those who have made affidavits in support of your application, residing in Minnesota to whom you 
refer as to your character, and state how long you have known each. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MENNEAPOLIS, MESTN., AREA 1853 
CoMMiTTKE Exhibit No, 1 — Continued 

15. Give the names, addresses and business of four persons residing in Minnesota, other than attor- 
neys, to whom you refer as to your character, and state how long you have known each. 



16. State fully the various reasons for your desire to be admitted to practice law in this state. 



17. If you are a veteran were you Honorably Discharged? (submit a copy or evidence of said discharge) 



Business Phone Number 

Residence Phone Number 



Signature of Applicant- 



STATE OF MINNESOTA, 
COUNTY OF - 



_ _ _ _ - . _ - - being first duly sworn 

deposes and say^: I have read the foregoing questions and answers, and that the signature appended 
thereto is my own; that said answers and all of them are true of my own knowledge. 



Signature of Applicant..-.- 



Subscribed and sworn to before me this 
day of - ..- - 1 19 - 



Notary Public. 



(Two original applications must be filled 
out, signed, and filed by each applicant) 



36-729 — 64 13 



1854 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 
Committee Exhibit No. 2 

Supreme dourt of the Bnited States 



APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION TO PRACTICE 



PERSONAL STATEMENT 



1. Name 

^ Print or type name in full) 

2. Office address of applicant 



3. Eesidence address of applicant 

4. Date of birth 5. Place of birth 

6. Social Security Number 

7. Names of parents: (o) Mother's maiden name 

(b) Father's name 

8. Courts of last resort to which applicant has been admitted to practice 



9. Are you engaged in the practice of the law? State the nature of your practice, 

whether by self, in partnership, or associated with or employed by others, giving the name 
of firm or employer 



10. List firms or other organizations with which you have been formerly associated, or by which 
you have been employed, as a lawyer 



11. State extent of undergraduate and legal education and where received 



12. Have you ever changed your name or been known by any name of surname other than those 
appearing on this application T If so, state and give details 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1855 
Committee Exhibit No. 2 — Continued 

13. Have you ever been disbarred or suspended from practice before any court, department, 
bureau, or commission of any State or the United States or have you received any repri- 
mand from any such court, department, bureau, or commission pertaining to your conduct 

or fitness as a member of the bart If so, answer in detail and attach a separate 

statement if necessary 



CERTinCATION 

I certify that I have read the foregoing questions and have answered the same fully and 
frankly. Said answers are complete and are true to my own knowledge. 



(Signature of applicaot) 



Dated this of , 19.. 



STATEMENT OF SPONSORS 

We, and 

(Print or type names in full) 

, being members of the bar of 

the Supreme Court of the United States and not related to the applicant, state that the applicant 
is personally known to us, that possesses all the qualifications required for admia- 

(He or she) 

sion to the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States, that we have examined 

(His or her) 

personal statement and believe it to be correct, and we afSrm that personal and pro- 

(His or her) 

fessional character and standing are good. 



(Signature) 

(Business address) 



(Sig^nature) 

(Business address) 



1856 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 



Committee Exhibit No. 2 — Coutinued 

DETACH AND RETAIN 



Supreme Court of the lanited 3tatts 



NOTICE TO APPLICANTS FOR ADMISSION 



The full text of Rule 5, which governs admission to practice, is printed on the back of this 
notice. 

Attached is the form for the personal statement required by paragraph 2, of the rule, in- 
cluding space for endorsement by two sponsors. The sponsors must be members of the bar of 
tlie Supreme Court of the United States who know the applicant personally and are not related 
to him by blood or marriage. 

The applicant must obtain a certificate from the clerk (or presiding judge) of the highest 
court of a State (Territory, District, Commonwealth, or Possession) evidencing the fact that he 
has been a member of the bar of such court for at least 3 years and is in good standing. 

The personal statement, properly indorsed, and the certificate constitute the application for 
admission. Promptly after receipt the Clerk will notify the applicant whether or not the papers 
are in proper form and after being notified that they are in order he may appear for admission 
on any day thereafter that the Court is in session. Open sessions are not held on Friday or Saturday. 

The Court convenes at 10:00 a.m. and admissions are the first order of business. 

It is essential that the applicant see the admission clerk (Room 154) between 8:30 and 9 :00 a.m., 
on the day he wishes to be admitted in order to have his name placed on the admission list for that 
day. He will at that time give the clerk the name of the attorney who is to move his admission. 

The motion for admission may be made by any member of the bar of the Supreme Court of 
the United States and it is only necessary that tho member assure the Court that he is satisfied the 
applicant possesses the necessary qualifications. Such assurance may be given from personal 
knowledge, upon information and belief, or after examination of the application. The motion 
should be brief, e.g., "I move the admission of John Doe of New York. I am satisfied that he 
possesses the necessary qualifications." 

The admission fee is $25.00. Payment should be made at the time of signing the roll by check 
payable to "The Clerk, Supreme Court, U. S.'' 

An application will be considered current for 1 year from the date of the clerk's certificate 
referred to in the third paragraph of this notice. After that time the papers will be returned 
for renewal. 

JOHN F. DAVIS 

Clerk of the Supreme Court of the United States, 

Washington 25, D. C. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1857 



Committee ExHiBrr No. 2 — Contlnaed 
RULE 5 

Admission to the Bar 

1. It shall be requisite to the admission of attorneys 
or counsellors to practice in this court, that they shall 
have been such for three years past in the highest court 
of a State, Territory, District, Commonwealth, or Pos- 
session, and that their private and professional char- 
acters shall appear to be good. 

2. In advance of appearing for admission, each ap- 
plicant shall file with the clerk (1) a certificate from the 
presiding judge or clerk of the proper court evidencing 
his admission to practice there and that he is presently 
in good standing, and (2) his personal statement, on 
the form approved by the court and furnished by the 
clerk, which shall be indorsed by two members of the 
bar of this court who are not related to the applicant. 

3. Admissions will be granted only upon oral motion 
by a member of the bar in open court, and upon his 
assurance that he is satisfied that the applicant pos- 
sesses the necessary qualifications. 

4. Upon being admitted, each applicant shall take 
and subscribe the following oath or affirmation, viz: 

I, , do solemnly swear (or 

affirm) that I will demean myself, as an attorney and 
counsellor of this court, uprightly, and according to 
law; and that I wiU support the Constitution of the 
United States. 

See Rule 52 (f ) for fee required. 



1858 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Carl Koss, 

I beg your pardon, Mr. Chairman, we would like to call another 
witness before this one. 

Rose Tillotson Renaud. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly affirm that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I solemnly affirm. 

Mr. DiL WORTH. Mr. Chairman, my client, Mrs. Renaud, has a nerve 
deafness which requires not necessarily loud noise, but clear enuncia- 
tion, so if she doesn't understand you, bear with us, please. 

The Chairman. Oh, surely. 

TESTIMONY OF EOSE TILLOTSON RENAUD, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HARRISON P. DILWORTH 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Renaud, would you kindly state your full name 
and residence for the record, please ? 

Mrs. Renaud. My name is Rose Renaud. My residence is 628 
West Jessamine, St. Paul. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented today by counsel ? 

Mrs. Renaud. Yes, I am represented. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please state his name and office address 
for the record ? 

Mr. Dilworth. My name is Harrison P. Dilworth. My office ad- 
dress is West 1462 First National Bank Building, St. Paul, Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Renaud, would you tell the committee the date 
and place of your birth ? 

Mrs. Renaud. February 9, 1901. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And where were you born ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mrs. Renaud. Sir, you will have to repeat the question. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us what schools you have attended, 
what educational training you have had ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Renaud, you have been identified by Mr. Boehnke 
as the district secretary of the Communist Party for the Minnesota- 
Dakotas District. Are you presently the district secretary of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you succeed Sam Davis as district secretary ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1859 

my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]\Irs. Gordienko testified that during the period of her 
membership in the Communist Party, during the years 1948 and 1949, 
you on one occasion told her of the existence of a highly secret pro- 
fessional cell of the Communist Party at the University of Minne- 
sota, which consisted of professors and others. Did you make such a 
statement to Mrs. Gordienko ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at that time in charge of the Communist 
Party's contacts at the University of Minnesota ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As one of the top officials of the Communist Party in 
this district today, it is believed that you would possess knowledge 
whether or not there presently exists a Commimist cell at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota composed of professional members. Do you 
have knowledge of the existence of any such cell at the University of 
Minnesota today ? 

Mrs. Renattd. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke in hearings before the Subversive Ac- 
tivities Control Board on March 17, 1964, testified that while he at- 
tended a Communist Party meeting at the residence of Betty Smith, 
during May of 1962, a piece of paper was passed around which named 
the State board of the Communist Party, noting your position on 
the board to be that of secretary and the position of Ralph Taylor 
to be that of chairman of the district. Were you present and in at- 
tendance at that meeting ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is Ralph W. Taylor presently chairman of the Com- 
munist Party district committee ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you confirm Mr. Boehnke's testimony to the 
effect that other members of the district executive committee, in addi- 
tion to yourself as secretary and Ralph W. Taylor as chairman, are 
Claude McDonald, Leo Giovannini, and Betty Smith ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United States 
Constitution. 



1860 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. As district secretary of the Communist Party, do you 
possess knowledge of the entire membership of the Communist Party 
in the Minnesota-Dakotas District ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As district secretary, do you receive instructions di- 
rectly from the general secretary of the Conmiunist Party at New 
York City at its national headquarters ? 

Mrs. Renaud, Sir, you will have to repeat the question. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you receive your instructions from Gus Hall, the 
general secretary of the Communist Party of the United States ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully declme to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not, in fact, the Communist Party candidate 
for mayor of St. Paul during 1940 ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights mider the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Of course, you recognize that the courts and the com- 
mittee have only recognized the fifth amendment's self-incrimination 
clause as justification for refusal to answer questions pertinent to these 
inquiries. 

Mrs. Renaud. I would like you to repeat the question, please. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I stated that the committee does not recognize the first 
amendment as a basis for refusal to testify, nor have the courts up- 
held that position. 

The Chairman. Well, that is a statement. That is not a question, if 
that is all you said. 

Mr. NiTTLE. We do recognize, however, your fifth amendment privi- 
lege with respect to the self-incrimination clause thereof. 

Would you tell the committee in what way the district executive com- 
mittee, of* which you are secretary in the Minnesota-Dakotas District, 
communicates with the national headquarters of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is interested in the. efforts of the Com- 
munist Party to indoctrinate and recruit youth. Miss Withrow testi- 
fied that, in this area and in this district, the Communist Party has 
made extensive efforts to recruit youth into the Communist Party in 
order t-o strengthen its membership and leadership. 

Could you tell the committee whether the Conmiimist Party has 
been successful in the recruitment of youth in this area ? 

Mrs. Renaud. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendment of the United 
States CJonstitution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1861 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. IcHORD. No questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. Call your next witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. James A. Brown. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Brown. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES A. BROWN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
RALPH STRANGIS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Brown, would you kindly state your full name and 
address for tlie record ? 

Mr. Brown. My name is James A. Brown. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And where do you live ? 

Mr. Brown. 4020 Park Avenue, South, Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you also known as Jack Brown ? 

Mr. Brown. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Brown. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Strangis. My name is Ralph Strangis. My office address is 
1200 Builders Exchange, Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, Mr. 
Brown ? 

Mr. Brown. I was born 7/12/23. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Where? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
gromids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

The Chairman. This is a usual preliminary background question. 
It does not involve constitutional provisions referred to, and I will 
order you to answer the question. 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What has been your formal education ? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

The Chairman. This is no proper invocation, but under the Su- 
preme Court decisions I must warn you of this, so I direct you to 
answer the question, that particular question. 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 



1862 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boelinke testified lie was a member of the Commu- 
nist Party in the Minneapolis area during the years 1960 to 1963 and 
that during that period he knew you to be a member of the city com- 
mittee of the Communist Party. "Was his testimony accurate ? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you not know Ralph Taylor to be the secretary of 
the city committee, and other members of the committee besides your- 
self to consist of Betty Smith, Claude McDonald, Clarence Sharp, Sam 
K. Davis, and Leo Giovannini, at the time of his entry into the Com- 
mmiist Party ? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In addition to having been a member of the city com- 
mittee, were you not also a chairman of the South Side Club of the 
Communist Party in Minneapolis ? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you assigned to, or associated with, the Commu- 
nist Party trade union activity group within the St. Paul-Minneapolis 
area ? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee has been informed that a national Com- 
munist Party farm conference was held in 1960 at the Andrews Hotel 
in the city of Minneapolis, attended by all the national and leading 
party officials. 

Were you in attendance at that meeting or farm conference at the 
Andrews Hotel in 1960? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NriTLE. Did not at that meeting Gus Hall, the general secretary 
of the Communist Party of the United States, advise the national 
and local leadership of the Communist Party line to be adopted in 
relation to its activities pertaining to farming and farmers? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NriTLE. Are you as of this moment a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS; MINN., AREA 1863 

my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Senner. ]Mr. Chairman, I noticed the witness has a button on. 
Wliat kind of button is that ? 

Mr. Brown. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. I have no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

Call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Carl Koss. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Ross. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF CARL ROSS, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, JOSEPH 

PERRY 

Mr. Nittle. Will you state your full name and address for the rec- 
ord, please ? 

Mr. Ross. Carl Ross, 415 East 39th Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Ross ? 

Mr. Ross. I am. 

Mr. Nittle. Will counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr.PERRY. My name is Joseph Perry, 516 New York Building, St. 
Paul 1, Minnesota. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you state the date and place of your birth, Mr. 
Ross? 

Mr. Ross. July 22, 1913, in Hancock, Michigan. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

The Chairman. There is no conceivable such connection and I direct 
you to answer the question. 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you been known by any name other than Carl 
Ross? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you at any time known as Carl Edwin Rasi, 
R-a-s-i? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the Constitution. 



1864 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES m THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE, Have you at any time been known by the surname of 
Rosenbloom ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the "first, fifth, or sixtli amendments of the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Ross, for the purpose of the record, were you pres- 
ent in the hearing room when Mrs, Ruth Gordienko testified this 
forenoon ? 

Mr. Ross. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTi^E. She testified that she Imew you as an official of the Com- 
munist Party in 1950 and that you were the author of a letter of trans- 
ferral addressed to the Communist Party of Canada, l)y which her 
membership and that of her husband in the Canadian party might be 
facilitated and Communist Party activities continued in that country. 
Were you a member of the Communist Party in 1950? 

Mr. 'Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the "first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U. S. Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you execute such a letter of transferral ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answergiven may incriminate me or violate mj 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth 'amendments of the U.S. Consti- 
tution. . 

Mr. NiTTi-E. Are you currently affiliated in any way with the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
gi'ounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U.S. Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds tliat any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixtli amendments of the U.^S. Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Ross, according to published reports yon; were a 
member and national officer of the Communist Party for a petiod of 
approximately 30 years, at least from the early 1930's to 1958, at which 
time the public press stated you reportedly broke with the Coitfmllnist 
Party. Did you cease to be a member of the Communist PartV 'vi\ the 
year 1958? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U.S. Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. According to a newspaper accoimt in the Minneapolis 
Star in the summer of 1963, it was reported that : 

Carl E. Ross, former state secretary of the Minnesota Communist Party and 
once a member of tlie nine-man national Communist executive committee, has 
become what he used to call a "hated capitalist." 

Apparently disenchanted after serving communism for 27 years, Ross broke 
with the party in 1958 and today is the president of a Minneapolis corporation. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1865 

Did you give that information to the newspaper reporter ? 

Mr. 'Ross. I respectfully de-cline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
lights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U.S. Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it true, as stated here, that you are disenchanted with 



communism 



Mr. Eoss. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
gromids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or the sixth amendment of the U.S. Con- 
stitution. 

The Chairman, Mr. Ross, in view of that last question — I knew, of 
course, that it and others would be asked — but let me state this in all 
sincerity. I wish you had taken advantage of our invitation for you 
to appear before us in executive session yesterday morning, and perhaps 
in executive session you could have been of great aid to us and perhaps 
to yourself. I am just making that statement because some people do 
that and are mighty happy about it. Now, you refuse to answer 
whether 3'ou are now a member. Our information, in all fairness, 
is that he said it is reported that you broke away in 1958 and someone 
gave news to this newspaper a while ago that you were disenchanted. 
I wish you would think about it some of these days and, if you ever feel 
like it, get in touch with us. 

Proceed, Counselor. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Ross, the committee realizes that you have acquired 
considerable knowledge by reason of your extensive experience as a 
member of the Coimnunist Party in the past. It was hoped that you 
would assist this committee by making available the knowledge you 
possess of Communist Party operations. 

Wlien did you first become a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendments of the U.S. 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The Daily 'Worker of October 20, 1953, in a published 
report indicates that you were a member of the Young Communist 
League prior to moving to Minnesota in 1934. Were you a member of 
the Young Communist League in 1934 ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U.S. Con- 
si jtution. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this. Under an act of Congress, 
never mind the detail, but under certain machiner 

Mr. Ross. I can't hear you, sir. 

The Chairman. Under an act of Congress we passed some time ago, 
under certain technical conditions that I needn't go into, immunity 
from prosecution can be granted, which in this instance, if applied, 
would remove the apprehension which you have been saying you had 
if you would respond to these questions. 

If such a procedure were to be suggested, would you then agree, 
your fears having been removed, to appear before us in executive ses- 
sion or in public session — we will let you choose — and respond to ques- 



1866 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

tions on information we have and which you could answer with great 
aid to your country ? 

Mr. Ross. I would respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds that any answer given might incriminate me or might 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

The Chairman. That's the point, that it would not, but go ahead. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, your statement to the witness was to be 
interpreted by this committee, as I take it, as a preliminary question. 

The Chairman. It is just an open question. I say "should it be 
done." I am not inviting him. I want to test what his reaction would 
be. This closes the matter so far as I am concerned. 

Proceed. 

Mr. Senner. Mr. Chairman, while counsel is looking at a ques- 
tion to follow up, may I ask one here ? 

Mr. Ross, apparently you founded the Gopher Bumper Exchange, 
Inc. ; did you not ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds that it may incriminate me or may violate my rights under 
the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U.S. Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. Wliat is the purpose of this corporation ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U.S. Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. Senner. I have a photostatic copy of the articles of incor- 
poration. It says : 

The purposes of this corporation shall be to engage in the business of plating, 
reconditioning, repairing, salvaging, and selling automobile bumpers and related 
sundry parts and by-products, and to own, operate, manage and improve real 
estate, generally to buy, sell, and exchange real property, rent and lease prop- 
erty, to make mortgages on real property, to purchase, manufacture, acquire, 
hold, own, mortgage, pledge, lease, sell, assign, transfer, invest in, and trade in 
goods, wares, merchandise and property of every kind and description, and to 
carry on the above business and any other business authorized by the Laws of 
the State of Minnesota with all the powers of the Laws of the State of Minnesota 
confer upon a corporation. 

If that is the purpose of this corporation, how could that tend to in- 
criminate you ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or the sixth amendments of the U.S. 
Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. Is Mr. Kenneth Tilsen an incorporator of that cor- 
poration ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendments of the 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is Martin Mackie an employee of, or in any way asso- 
ciated with, your corporation ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendments of the 
Constitution of the U.S. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1867 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Fred Fine an incorporator or officer of this cor- 
poration with you ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendments of the 
U.S. Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not serve on the National Executive Commit- 
tee of the Communist Party with Fred Fine ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendments of the 
U.S. Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not elected to the National Committee of 
the Communist Party at a closed session of the party's 16th National 
Convention held in New York City in February 1957? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendments of the 
Constitution. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nittle, I think you referred to a Mr. Fine. 
Did you ask the witness who Mr. Fine is ? 

Mr. Nittle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bruce. Did you ask him who he was or whether he was em- 
ployed by him ? 

Mr. Nittle. Whether he held any office. 

The Chairman. Who is Mr. Fine ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that it may incriminate me or may violate my rights under 
the first, the fifth, or the sixth amendments of the U.S. Constitution. 

The Chairman. Do you know whether he now is, or was, a former 
member of the party's national committee ? 

Mr. Ross. Is that a question ? 

The Chairman. Do you know whether Mr. Fine formerly was a 
member of the Communist Party's National Committee ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may violate, may incriminate me or 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments under the 
U.S. Constitution. 

The Chairman. I want to go back to the thought that occurred to 
me awhile ago. Our counsel stated that, according to our information, 
you broke away from the party in 1958, and I refer to the possibility 
of a voluntary appearance in executive session upon grant of im- 
munity. Now I am going to ask this question because it is on my mind, 
it has happened quite a few times before. Witnesses whom we thought, 
according to our investigation, would voluntarily testify suddenly, 
right before taking the stand, appear with a lawyer and invoke the 
fifth amendment. We have very reliable information that in many 
instances this was the result of pressure. I am going to ask you: 
Were you pressured into not answering these questions, particularly 
those affecting your activities since 1958 ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first and the fifth and the sixth amendments of 
the U.S. Constitution. 



1868 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Nittle. 

Mr. Nittle. I just have a few more questions, Mr. Chairman, in the 
hope that the witness might see fit to cooperate and to give the com- 
mittee the benefit of his knowledge. 

The Chairman. I have asked him that, so go to something else. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Ross, the House Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities' hearing held in November 1961 made inquiry into the diffi- 
culties experienced by the United States Communist Party as a result 
of Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin before the 20th Soviet Party 
Congress in February 1956. The committee did receive information 
in the course of that hearing with respect to these difficulties. I won- 
dered whether you would cooperate in rounding out the committee's 
knowledge by testifying with respect to these occurrences within the 
party with which you were intimately connected as a member of the 
National Executive Committee of the Communist Party at that time. 

Were you not appointed to a "collective leadership" of the Com- 
munist Party and made a member of the National Executive Commit- 
tee of the Communist Party in 1957 ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the U.S. Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

Mr. Ighord. Mr. Chairman, I do have one question. 

Mr. Ross, I would like to ask you whether or not you have had any 
discussions with Kenneth Tilsen relating to the Communist Party since 
the date of the company's incorporation, and I am speaking of the 
company which was brought out in the questioning of Mr. Seimer, 
namely, the Gopher Bumper Exchange ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my rights 
under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the U.S. Constitution. 

Mr. IciioED. No further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Bruce, Mr. Ross, would you be described by the Communist 
Party as a "deviationist" ? 

Mr. Ross. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or to 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
U.S. Constitution. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. The committee will stand 
in recess for 10 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel, call your next witness. 

Mr. Nittle. Clarence Sharp, come forward, please. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before tliis committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Sharp. I do. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1869 

TESTIMONY OF CLARENCE H. SHAKP, ACCOMPANIEB BY COUNSEL, 

GEORGE STEVENSON 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your full name and residence for th& 
record, please ^ 

Mr. Sharp. Clarence H. Sharp. I live at 2630 Colfax, South 
Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Sharp. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Stevenson. George Stevenson, 1625 Park Avenue, Minneapolis, 
Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth, Mr. 
Sharp? 

Mr. Sharp. Bristol, South Dakota, July 26, 1891. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. This is a preliminary foundation question and it 
does not involve your rights, so I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the Constitu- 
tion of the United States. 

The Chairman. For reasons I indicated, namely, that it could not 
have any such effect, following Supreme Court decisions that I should 
warn you of that ruling, I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Sharp, Mr. Boehnke testified that you were 
formerly the chairman of the district executive committee of the 
Minnesota-Dakotas District of the Communist Party; that you were 
apparently expelled from the Communist Party and removed from the 
chairmanship of the party for failure effectively to carry out a party 
order to arrange for Frank Wilkinson's speaking engagement in 
Minneapolis during March of 1962. Were you then expelled from 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you as of now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer that question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 

36-729— 164 14 



1870 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been reinstated in the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
ground that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me a leaflet titled "Here Are The Facts ; 
What Do you Think?" which Mr. Boelinke testified was circulated 
on your behalf by an anonymous "Committee of Four." The state- 
ment states that, and referring to you, Clarence Sharp : 

Recently he was removed from the chairmanship of the Communist Party for 
the States of Minnesota, North and South Dakota, 

and then the statement follows, 

He was purged because he dared criticize Secretary Sam K. Davis, who spear- 
headed the vicious movement for Sharp's ouster as chairman. Sharp has even 
been threatened with expulsion altogether from the Party if he fails to admit 
to Davis his guilt and apologize for his mistakes. * * * ^ 

This article, at least at the time it was circulated, indicated you had 
been disciplined to the extent of being removed from your office in the 
party and that you were merely threatened with expulsion unless you 
apologized for your guilt. Now, did you make any apology ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. No further questions of this witness, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sharp, one of the techniques, methods, of the 
Communist Party well known to us and, I think, to you, frankly, is 
that when a member deviates from the party line or acts in a way 
contrary to accepted procedure, he must submit to what is called self- 
criticism openly or before a committee. Now, as counsel pointed out 
to you, it is our information, and we have means of getting informa- 
tion, that you were expelled from the Communist Party by Sam Davis 
last year for refusing to indulge in self-criticism. Is that true? Is 
our information correct ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
ground that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. Now, as I indicated to the previous witness, and it 
would fall in the same category, namely, we have fairly admitted for 
the record that our information is that you are no longer a member 
since last year for the reasons I have stated, and it has happened in 
the past that prospective witnesses who, in discussions with our in- 
vestigators, tell us they are willing to recant and are anxious to talk 
and supply information to the benefit of the Government but, at the 
last minute, appear and invoke the fifth amendment; and we are 
aware that in specific cases — I am telling you what I know — that this, 
in some instances, has resulted from pressure by party members or ap- 
propriate representatives. 



1 See Boehnke Exhibit No. 5, p. 1769. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1871 

Now I want to ask you in all frankness : Have you been pressured 
into invoking the fifth amendment, which you may, we don't deny that 
right, because of pressure brought on you, particularly as to questions 
dealing with you, relating from the period since your expulsion in 
1963 ? That is my question. Have you been pressured into invoking 
the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. As you well know, you and all the witnesses who 
have thus far appeared, as well as those not summoned and not sub- 
penaed, were afforded an opportunity, nonpublic, confidential, to 
appear before the committee voluntarily to answer questions regard- 
ing things that would be revealed in public. You were afforded that 
opportunity to appear yesterday morning at 9 o'clock in another 
room here, were you not ? 

Mr. Sharp. Yes. 

The Chairman. You didn't avail yourself of that, is that right ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
ground that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. I am going to take a shot again, because sometimes 
it works. We have passed a law for that purpose, that whatever fear 
a former member might have which compels him, in his own con- 
science and under his own rights, to invoke the provisions of the fifth 
amendment, that we can remove that fear under an act of Congress 
by giving immunity so that there would be no fear — fear of prosecu- 
tion or self-incrimination or whatever. If we should undertake such 
a procedure and thus give you an opportunity to speak freely, would 
you do that ? 

Mr. Sharp. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may tend to incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Chairman, perhaps the witness doesn't want to 
make up his mind on that at this time. I would only ask the witness 
to confer with his attorney and perhaps he would be willing to contact 
the chairman in regard to immunity at a later date. 

The Chairman. Yes, I should have said that. I stated it to the last 
witness. 

Keep it in mind. You are at liberty to do what you want, but if 
ever you would be of that mind, we would be glad to talk to you, and I 
think, we believe, honestly believe, that you have much information 
that you could give us if you cared to avail yourself of that route, so 
think about it. 

The witness is excused. 

The committee will stand in recess in connection with the public 
hearing here until tomorrow morning at 9 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 5 :55 p.m. Thursday, June 25, 1964, the subcom- 
mittee recessed to reconvene at 9 a.m., Friday, June 26, 1964.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., 

AREA 



FRIDAY, JUNE 26, 1964 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Minneapolw, Mrnn. 

PUBLIC HEARINGS 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-Ajnerican Activities 
met, pursuant to recess, at 9 a.m. in Courtroom No. 2 of the United 
States Courthouse Building, Miimeapolis, Minn., Hon. Edwin E. 
Willis (chairman) presiding. 

( Subcommittee members : Representatives Edwin E. Willis, of Loui- 
siana ; Richard H. Ichord, of Missouri ; George F. Senner, Jr., of Ari- 
zona; Donald C. Bruce, of Indiana; and Henry C. Schadeberg, of 
Wisconsin.) 

Subcommittee members present: Representatives Willis, Ichord, 
Senner, Bruce, and Schadeberg. 

Committee member also present: Representative John M. Ash- 
brook, of Ohio. 

Staff members present : Francis J. McNamara, director ; Alfred M. 
Nittle and William Hitz, counsel; and Neil E. Wetterman and Philip 
R. Manuel, investigators. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will please come to order. 

Counsel will call his first witness. 

Mr. NiTTLE. John Forichette, come forward, please. 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. FoMOHETTE. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN EDWARD PORICHETTE, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOSEPH PERRY 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you please state your full name and residence 
for the record? 

Mr. Forichette. Jolin Forichette, 1025 Knox Avenue North, Min- 
neapolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. Nittle. Will you spell your last name? 

Mr. Forichette. F-o-r-i-c-h-e-t-t-e. 

Mr. Nittle. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Forichette. Yes. 



1874 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. Perry. Joseph Perry, 516 New York Building, St. Paul 1, 
Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forichette, you have stated your full name to be 
John Forichette. Do you have a middle name ? 

Mr. Forichette. Yes. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your middle name ? 

Mr. Forichette. Edward. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you used any name other than John Edward 
Forichette ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer may incriminate me or may violate my 
ri^^hts under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the U.S. Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you used the name John William Forichette? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. I don't think that that answer is proper. I see no 
possible such result, and therefore I must direct you to answer the 
question. 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. ]Mr, Forichette, in applications for examination with 
the Minneapolis Civil Service Commission, you have stated your date 
and place of birth to be May 31, 1926, at Rochester, Minnesota. How 
could the fact of your birth in the United States possibly incriminate 
you? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution, 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you not presently employed by the city of Min- 
neapolis as an assistant to the city engineer ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How could your employment by the city of Mimieapo- 
lis possibly incriminate you ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1875 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gi'oiuids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forichette, were you in the hearing room during 
the course of these hearings and did you hear the testimony of Ruth- 
ann Withrow and Norman Boehnke? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Now, both Miss Withrow and Mr. Boelmke testified 
under oath that they knew you to be an active member of the Com- 
munist Party in the Minneapolis area. Were you a member of the 
Communist Party during the period 1958 to 1963, which was the period 
covered by their testimony ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wlien did you first become a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate to the committee the extent of your 
formal education? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forichette, I hand you a copy, a photostatic copy, 
of a 1953 application for examination of the Minneapolis Civil Service 
Commission. It is marked for identification as "Forichette Exhibit 
No. 1." , . . . . 

In this application a "John William Forichette" makes applica- 
tion for the position of junior clerk, No. 4606, typist. The signature 
of "John W. Forichette" is appended to the application in an affidavit 
swearing to the truth of the statements contained in the application. 
The affidavit appears to have been taken to those statements and your 
signature and affidavit on January 29, 1953. 

Would you please examine the signature of John W. Forichette on 
the last page of the application and tell the committee, please, whether 
that is your signature ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments to the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 1 in evidence. 

The Chairman. The exhibit will be received at this point. 

(Document marked "Forichette Exhibit No. 1." See pp. 1886- 
1889.) 



1876 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forichette, I hand you a photostatic copy of a 1960 
application for examination of the Minneapolis Civil Service Com- 
mission. It is marked for identification as "Forichette Exhibit No. 2." 
In this application a "John Edward Forichette" makes application 
for the position of engineer aid 1, No. 5802. 

Do you identify the signature "Jolin E. Forichette" appended to the 
affidavit of the application ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments to the United 
-States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit 2 in evidence. 

The Chairman. The exhibit will be received in evidence. 

(Document marked "Forichette Exhibit No. 2." See pp. 1890- 
1893.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forichette, I want to direct your attention in both 
exhibits to the bold print toward the lower part of the last page where 
the statement is contained : 

In order that this application may be received and further acted upon it is 
necessary that the applicant subscribe to the following oath before a notary 
public or other officer authorized by law to administer oaths. 

Now, the required oath to which reference was just made reads as 
follows : 

I, the undersigned applicant, being first duly sworn, upon oath declare that 
I have carefully read the several answers and statements by me made in this 
application, and that the same are true to the best of my knowledge and 
belief, and that I have read and fully understand the foregoing waiver and 
release and have voluntarily subscribed my name thereto. 

Did you execute that oath in Exhibit 1 before H. W. Kircliner, a 
notary public, as indicated? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gromids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As to Exhibit 2, did you execute the oath before 
'Crystal Halverson, a notary public, as indicated ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As noted, the name you gave in your 1953 application 
to the city of Minneapolis was John Edward Forichette. In your 
1960 application you make application under the name of John 
William Forichette. 

Now, would you please tell the committee whether your correct 
name is John Edward Forichette or Jolin William Forichette, and 
why you used the name of John Edward Forichette in one applica- 
tion and the name of Jolin William Forichette in the second appli- 
cation ? 

Mr. FoRiCHEiTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution, 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1877 

Mr. NiTTLE. I want a correction made for the record. The first 
application was John William and the second was John Edward, 
just the reverse of what I asked. 

With that correction, Mr. Forichette, I repeat the question. Is your 
answer the same ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Now, I want to direct your attention to question 12 of 
Exhibit 2, your 1960 application, in which you are asked : "Have you 
filed an application for a Minneapolis Civil Service Examination 
before?" and to which vou have responded in your application under 
oath "No." 

Wliy did you not inform the Minneapolis Civil Service Commission 
of your prior application under the name of John William Fori- 
chette? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the groimds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

The Chairman. The subcommittee must go into executive session, 
but will be back in a matter of minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Coimsel will proceed. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forichette, I now direct your attention to question 
14 of Exhibit 2, the 1960 application, where you were asked the 
question : 

Are you a member of any political party or organization which advocates the 
overthrow of our constitutional form of government in the United States? 

It appears upon the application that you answered "No" to that ques- 
tion under oath. 

Was your response to question 14 a truthful one? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Likewise, in response to question 14 on Exhibit 1, you 
answered "No" to the same question under oath. 

Was your answer a truthful one ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I also direct your attention to Exhibit 2 wherein you 
have listed the name of Hanley Hemmingson as a reference. A Han- 
ley Hemmingson was identified by Mr. Boehnke as a member of the 
North Side Club of the Communist Party. 

Is this not the same Hanley Hemmingson that you listed as a 
reference on that application ? 



1878 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the groiuids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not a member of the North Side Club of 
the Communist Party together with Hanley Hemmingson ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I now hand you a photostatic copy of a 1961 applica- 
tion for examination of the Minneapolis Civil Service Commission, 
marked for identification as "Forichette Exhibit No. 3." In this 
application a "John Edward Forichette" applies for the position of 
draftsman 1, No. 6123. 

Do you identify the signature "John Forichette" appended to the 
application as your own ? 

Sir. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
^he grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I offer Exhibit No. 3 in evidence. 

The Chairman. It will be received at this point in evidence. 

(Document marked "Forichette Exhibit No. 3" and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. There is no affidavit required to Exhibit 3; the form 
was apparently altered at that time, but I do refer you to question 14 
of Exhibit 3, where you are asked the question : 

Are you a member of any political party or organization which advocates the 
overthrow of our constitutional form of government in the United States? 

To which question you have replied in the application "No." 

Was this a truthful answer to the question ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At the time you executed Exhibits 1, 2, and 3, were you 
a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gi'ounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifdi, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. At the time you executed Exhibits 1, 2, and 3, did you 
not, in fact, have personal knowledge and understanding, and did you 
not believe, that the Communist Party of the United States was a 
political party or organization which advocates the overthrow of our 
constitutional form of government ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Would you describe the duties which you performed 
in connection with your city employment ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1879 

Mr. FoRicHETTE. I respectfullj decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fiftli, and sixtli amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. As an employee of the engineering department did not 
your duties place you in contact with, and did you not have access to, 
the city plans relating to the highway, bridge, water distribution sys- 
tem, sewer, street lightings and signal improvements, and other struc- 
tures ? 

Mr. FoRicHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. Senner. ]Mr. Chairman — Counsel, Witness, I noticed you kind 
of laughed at that question. Is there something humorous in that 
question ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectf ully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I just wanted to state for the record 
that in the reference to "counsel," Mr. Senner was not referring to 
committee counsel. 

Mr. Senner. For the record this is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Forichette, have you at any time discussed your 
duties or the duties required in your city employment, or did you 
communicate any information acquired in the course of your em- 
ployment, to any person or persons known to you to be a member or 
members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answ^er this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Let the record show the witness did not smile in re- 
sponse to that question. 

Were you ever requested to provide information of your employ- 
ment to anyone known to you as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boelinke testified that on becoming a member of 
the Communist Party he was assigned to the North Side Club and it 
was at that time that he met you at a closed meeting of the Communist 
Party. Did you attend closed Communist Party meetings with Mr. 
Boehnke ? 

Mr. Forichette. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that meetings of the 
North Side Club of the Communist Party, in fact, were held at your 
residence, 1025 Knox Avenue North. Is this information correct? 



1880 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not that address, namely, 1025 Ivnox Avenue 
North, the residence also of Hanley and Tania Hemmingson prior to 
their moving tO' Warroad, Minnesota ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfuUy decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was the code phrase that "cards were to be played" 
used to indicate a meeting — that a meeting of the Communist Party 
was scheduled at your residence ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer tliis question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were Hanley and Tania Hemmingson in attendance 
with you and Mr. Boehnke at meetings of the Communist Party at 
your home ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respe<3tfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given maj^ incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Tania Hemmingson, the wife of Hanley 
Hemmingson, t-o be a member of the Commimist Party ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I rcspectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTo;. Did you, in 1959, hold the position of treasurer of the 
Miscellaneous Branch of the Communist Party in Minneapolis? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To whom did you give the money collected for dues 
from party members or other financial contributions? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that on occasion you 
have given a full week's pay to the Communist Party. Have you 
made contributions of your entire city pay check ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respcct fully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fiftli, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, in November 1959, attend a meeting of the 
State convention of the Communist Party, at which you served as a 
delegate of the North Side Club of the Communist Party in Minne- 



€OM]MUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MtNN., AREA 1881 

apolis ? Testimony to this effect was given by Miss Withr'^w before 
the Subversive Activities Control Board. Did you attend that State 
convention as stated ? 

Mr. FoKiCHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights mider the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke testified in hearings before the Subversive 
Activities Control Board that during March 1961 you attended a 
North Side Club meeting, at v/hich time the club membership regis- 
tered with the national office of the Communist Partv in New York 

City- 

Did you complete a registration form to be delivered to the national 
headquarters ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. It is the committee's information that at a meeting of 
the North Side Club of the Communist Party at Martin Mackie's res- 
idence during March of 1961 you were elected Worker secretary. 
Were you elected to that office at the March 1961 meeting by a total 
of nine votes ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate rne or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend a meeting of the Communist Party in 
St. Paul during June of 1961 at the residence of Rose Tillotson 
Renaud, at which, according to Mr, Boehnke's testimony before the 
Subversive Activities Control Board, Communist Party members of 
the Twin Cities were to receive instructions as to how to respond to 
the June 5, 1961, decision of the United States Supreme Court which 
upheld the order of the Board requiring the Communist Party to 
register in accordance with the provisions of the Internal Security 
Act of 1950 ? Did you attend that meeting at Rose Tillotson Renaud's 
which I have described rather fully in my question ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not that particular meeting addressed by Carl 
Winter, a member of the National Executive Committee of the Com- 
munist Party of the United States, headquarters at New York City ? 

Mr. FoRiciiETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution, 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke testified about this meeting and he said 
that Carl Winter stated that the world knows how "rotten and dirty 
the United States really is" and that the "comrades have nothing 
to fear from the anti-communist ruling of the Supreme Court, for 
behind them stands the power and might of the Soviet Union." 



1882 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Did Carl Winter say that in addressing the meeting at which you 
were in attendance ? 

Mr, FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Just prior to the commencement of that meeting at the 
home of Kose Tillotson Kenaud, Mr. Boehnke stated that he heard you 
tell Ralph W. Taylor, who succeeded Clarence Sharp as chairman of 
the district executive committee, of your plans to activate certain 
youth activities to be followed by a political discussion. ^ 

Did you say that, did you engage in that conversation with Ralph 
Taylor and make a statement to that effect ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then ask Ralph Taylor to assist you in this 
plan ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you thereafter engage in any activities which had 
as their objective the indoctrination of youth ? 

Mr. FoRicHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you assigned as a guard at the Communist Party 

Eicnic at Lake Minnetonka, September 10, 1961, a picnic sponsored 
y the Freedom of the Press Committee ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at a meeting of the youth or- 
ganizing branch of the Communist Party held at the residence of 
Betty Smith in February 1962 ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wasn't a principal subject of discussion at that meet- 
ing a revival of Marxist youth organizations in the Minneapolis-St. 
Paul area ? 

Mr. FoRiciiETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this queston on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In this discussion it was stated that the purpose of 
establishing such organizations was for contacting those "youth that 
have left-wing leanmgs, organize them, for upon them will fall the 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1883 

future of the Communist Party of the United States," and was it not 
also stated, "It takes a very long time to train them," and that "the 
need for selling the Party to the youth is all the more urgent now." 

Was that discussion in connection with plans for recruiting youth 
made at that particular meeting ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke testified before the Subversive Activities 
Control Board that Betty Smith stated she had been released from her 
other obligations by the city committee of the Communist Party in 
Minneapolis so that she could devote her full time to organizing the 
youth movement which would meet in groups of two or three as was 
the pattern being followed by all other clubs. 

Was Mr. Boelinke's testimony an accurate account of what was 
said and discussed at that meeting ? _ 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I Tcspectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may vio- 
late my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not in attendance at a Communist Party 
meeting at Betty Smith's residence in March of 1962 at which time she 
stated that the State board of the Communist Party would be com- 
prised of Kose Renaud as secretary of the Minnesota-Dakotas District, 
and Ralph Taylor as chairman ? 

Mr. FoRicHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may mcriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At this meeting were not the names of Rose Renaud 
and Ralph W. Taylor given to the members in attendance by noting 
them on a piece of paper which was passed around, because, as Mrs. 
Smith stated, the names would not fall into the hands of the FBI in 
case her residence was bugged ? 

Mr. FoRiciiETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend a Communist Party meeting in Sep- 
tember of 1962, as testified to by Mr. Boehnke, the purpose of said 
meeting being a discussion to find means on how to further the aims 
of the Communist movement in North Dakota? Did you attend a 
Communist Party meeting in September of 1962 for the purpose 
of furthering the aims of the Communist movement in North Dakota ? 

Mr. FoRicHETTE. I rcspcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not subsequently in October of 1962 in at- 
tendance at a Communist Party meeting at which Arnold Johnson, 
currently the public relations director of the Communist Party in the 
United States, a member of the national committee, was present ? 



1884 COMMUNIST ACTIVIHES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfullj decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. ■ -, nn 

Mr. NiTTLE. At this October 1962 meetmg with a national oliicer 
of the Communist Party in attendance, did not Ralph Taylor give 
a report on his trip to North Dakota ? 

:Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. . . 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of Arnold Jolinson s visit to 
the Minnesota area on that occasion '? 

Mr. FoRicHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was it one of his purposes to be there to instruct the 
members of the Minnesota-Dakotas District as to the position they 
should take in the forthcoming elections ? 

Mr. FoEicHETTE. I rcspectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you present at a meeting of the Communist Party 
at Betty Smith's residence in December of 1962, at which time Mrs. 
Smith criticized the leadership of the Communist Party on the ground 
that the various clubs were not meeting and functioning "the way 
they should" ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend a youth conference in Chicago with 
Miss Withrow during the latter part of 1960, at which time the form- 
ing of a new youth group of the Communist Party was discussed ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I rcspectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to this conference in Chicago, had you had dis- 
cussions with Danny Rubin, also known as Mortimer Daniel Rubin, 
the national youth director of the Communist Party, concerning the 
youth situation in Minneapolis and St. Paul ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1885 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Danny Rubin ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

]Mr. XiTTLE. The committee possesses information that Danny Rubin 
was a ^lest at your residence during one of his visits to Minneapolis. 
Is this information correct ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Would you tell the committee, please, how many youths 
in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area you have personally contacted with 
the intent of interesting them and then recruiting them into the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now, as of this moment, a member of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Have you been instructed by Communist Party func- 
tionaries to invoke the fifth amendment in response to questions of this 
committee ? 

Mr. FoRiCHETTE. I respcctfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, and sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions. 

The Chairman. The witness is excused. 

(Documents marked "Forichette Exhibit Nos. 1 and 2," respectively, 
follow.) 



36-729—64 15 



1886 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 



FOEICHETTE EXHIBIT NO. 1 



MININEAPOLIS C3VIL SERVICE COMMISSION 

ie9 OrTY BALL 



DATC BECSIVTED 

m^^i-f.:< 2 03 r: 



APPLICATION FOR EXAMINATION 



IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS; 



IK Ike t/xc> below 





Ansavr 


^X quest 




< in p. 


». or on a 


TYPPmnr 


m\. 




f 




• blank 
M CXSflll 


M 


Ihe Vot 
nacrpo 


era Regia 
ia Volcra 


'R^i.'n'r 


buraau 


" 


« 


uB« lor 
thr a^ 


a jcctioa) 
or., afl 


•UHla bT t 
of .o.pp 
cr appoiot 


he appjlc 
llcatlolt 


or ckc d 


auflic 
lachar 


8« 


B> aure 


to adTiae 
of •ddraaa 


h. Ci.l 


1 Ser.ice 


Comaa 


.on ol 





D* nor wife in ike tpace b 


tlo. 


Approve. .'•..^^.-.?...^...^^/.?.. ... 


t 




IWuon 


RnarV.a 





Regiatration Ok. 

R«ceipt laaued 

Application lodeied. 

RiJKtil 

Eiaa. at 

Oral not 

Relerenc 



cJ:- 



-L 







Fi.al A.eraie 



yj Copy n*ctl> fr«« Pi«nc nolle* 



{l.u '- 




■tf^,.<^. . ri<:. . , . . ,^^ TeLphoo. No. . PS . d-.fU. . 

ly in ths City of MioDAapolia inoedijatvljr prior to dat* 



I. Titl* of Poaiti 
a. Nan (printl FaXJ.tiA €. 7^ 'JffA ?l k6'.//.'' .^-.T^. 

3. VWr— T.i.St. 

4 . Since vfaat dat« love you 

o"Uii^ .P-M^lf-^ (t^f 

5. Sine* wtat date have you raided cont Lnu<M!&lj|*ui t\»J^^^ of Minnesota iimediciteXy prior to date 

of fiiii^ 'f^!ey^<-ff*,^<>7. ^..■C^.J^f'^'/J' 

■•mil D.J ^^ .. !..♦ 

6. Aro you a citim»n of the Unitid Stat**'. .^Jt*.^. ^*tv jf": 

7. I ... born. . .^i^ . . . 2J ■ ■ ""/. fX''"*.'. 'i)3^f^^Jk^^kk^^.^ • -v ;;;.;.„■ • 

8- *9^..-,%'^-,;^^'' '^k): Kbi, (*^; F.«ii. ( ). iJll.TH dSJiTIFICATt: O ii 

9. Vhit i» your hoight? Feet . ^^«rV?< . .Inche»-.^^*r^*T>. .••ight . . /. .V!^ . . .Pouad.. 

Ia k.r. fa.i Slrlpp.d 

10. a»ck: Mirried ( ): Sunjle (•fTtidoawi ( ); Divorcod ( ) ; Seporated ! ). 

II. Arc you in good hMUh?^jT«. . .Hav« you any phwical infir»ity or deforaity that would in any my 
diMjoalify you froc the full diachorgo of tbe dutie« of the petition to which you •eok enjloy- 
nn\) Ejtplaln. . /?^>1U< 



12. rtiv« you fll«i on application for o Minnqwli* Ciwil S*rvic« Ejaminotioo before? .'^^.Vbn and 
for ebnt p<iaition?."r7. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES EST THE MLNTSTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1887 



FoEiCHETTE EXHIBIT No. 1 — Continued 



13. H»»« you .ver br^n nrrfattdi. , . /^rr'. 

*!. •r»' "T^ 

Disposition of case t y Poitco or Courts 



.Natyr« of off«o* 



Full •mrlaiMl.ioa .S<^uld acccnoia, •rrllotlon. Tkl> <<i.stl«. lUo poliilni lo .ll >l..r l.f,.cii,„, ,( ,f.„ i„ 

14. Are you a leaber of any poliUcal party or organisat ion which advocatet tb« o»»rth*c« of otir ccutit- 
utional for. of gov»ri.«»nt in I he United Statem'> . yZ^~7 If ■o.nciK tfc 



t^ orgODisoti 



15. Hjv ray of your enplo)r.r. eve^ Jitc^rgad you^ . . -^^^^^ ■ ■ ■ U •<>. »b> ? //p«, m *ML .f. . ^. 

.*:;*,.T^^.,.,<>4^.«??'/^^^ 

IS. !*»• you «Y«r worked for the City of MinDKipol U ? . . . /Z^T". . . If •o. when onl by itet departaeiit »rv 

you bKftXoytdy fry 

17. If th» pcBition for ehich you are applying in tlii» opplicotioa roquiree c Tclid lireme or certificate 

to practice yoiir traJe or prof»«»ioo in the City of MiniiKipolie , do you p«uea> etch a ii!»Bae?.— r. . . . 

DwcriptioD of license ..»-r 

Grode o.' lioenae.^. No of Iicdm ,.—... . Dec. i..ued — If poeition require, regi.- 

ioo giTo Rsgiatrat loo No. rri State .-r;. 







Major eubject. >«-H<r . 
Minor »ii>).ct.r564<ML<. 
Did you gradijjt.e'.^;5<»r^. 
Decree receiiedrr. . . . . . . 



CourseB taken: 



Poet 
Gradtfit 



Degree receiwed , 



Bitfinecs 
School 









/f5-/ 



Coura* taioen ^,-^ 

L^...f<*l 

Did you ccwplete couirs*' 

-^trr. 



CorreepondeDoe 

Exteneion 
Other Training 



Courses taken: 



Nu^>er of crediti 
received 



Trorio 
Scliool 












Ottrtr 



Couruff trken 



aber 
Traini 



n'*'* 
//««/« 



/Iff 



tf90 



Coura«8 token 



(!^**r.. ; 



1888 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 



FoRiCHETTE EXHIBIT No. 1 — Continued 



Bsqinmr.c .ilh your PHESEXT or MOST RECQ/T »^lo7i»Dt or ooci^tlcn. Iiit in rf»i.r«» ort.r 
on of youi .crk hi.tory.ll ..NECESSARY to q»v« CCWLETT: i»f or«it ion. Give all fort, (or all 
part tiae pcflitioos. (If a trade give length of tine onH plooe as a|7f>reDt ioe . am louraA^^vrD. aa 
Kut.r.l ir MORE SPACE IS NEEDCD ATTACH ADDITIONAL SJCETS USING TVC SAI«; HEADINGS AS 
SHOWN BELOW FOH EACH PCSITION. 






p»..t,,.n h,M -^^^yV^ C-€e^T^ p.rt T.~ ( ) I- _. :^^>-- 



H.,S^li.f- 



(B.- ip-ci fit) 









Tr». of bu.i....^^^^-"^^/ ^J^^y-^l-^ot.l 

/' y '1, F.n Ti~ (' 

i,XfV-^ P.rt Tii>, ( 




Poiitioe he I d .^^-ty%^vAj i,XfV^ P.rt Tii>. ( ) 



E.»ln,.r.'?<^W.i/.Oa*^. "^i^ryjft-vStfcl.cT^.'ITIct dlUr 



A^d 



r,...'?^- 



y. 



Cut •••) St. I. 'jHfr^ .. /?f%'A'yrr\, , 



D,....>2. 

^° p^ 






l!t,k..t.^^, ^rrr 



>^.ry per aoalk 



Tecel aMtk... . 
Fall T>«e ( ) 
P.rt ?■■> «-+• . 



.s-y>r 



Ad< 



City aul St.t 

Typ. of b>,.i.,,.'/5«a/»y^ /^*,^i^rT.t.l M 
hell L<a.a{-^'£«?Z. 



( ) 
r^tx T.i«i (»--♦-' 



Iff ci^Z^xi^T^ /z^ 

/.l.,y per^jo.^ .^,^,,,^, M 



ptr.or, .jpift i.«l /yir^^ ._. ^ ' j_ 

^Sc/ 



*<dre 









Capley«e.t P«rio<i 
Gi>< .i.ct <l.t.. 









^a6 



HiiW 



e»»!oyer.jil**W. 'r'*X<Cl(. 

AMre.. . .V'. . i^*/</.^4P< 

City. '/^^— ^.--r^. 



E.ploy.,t r.rloj 




Be. .on /or l,..,„f 
(8- .p.cllic) 

^, ^c^Xytr, 



Type of \,u,x„,„i/'fi':a.^yrrri 

Wo. y.r.o.. .»i|>cr»i.«d. .<^^|^.y^y 



l*JU. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN,, AREA 1889 



Indiccte her 



FoEicHETTE EXHIBIT No. 1 — Continued 



!^y. 



i€ii y«cira not occouDt»d f c 

2p4»Clf AC d<lt»» . 



I - 1 7 - y.r. J> .(/ - "?/. .-'/C, 

Jr-.H-t X=, ^-.yy 



21. Describe any additionai inforiwtioo or traininq awJ •xperience you bare which 
qualifies you for the position for *bich this applioatioa iM maom . 



C1t« lh« naB?* of 1 iTo reliable peraoiiA to aboa tho CooBiAJiioii can refar, v1m> ore Sufficiently 
fGBiXicr oith your qualif icat i:jp« aud charocter to qiT« inforvation c^out yo»i. Paracxu who hare 
had •xp*>rioDC». Bbcyid ^ iv« tb« ncBwrn of at Isoit thiee forafrr «aployerB or ■i^rrisort. 



r(^.<^^4^-fltrr\ . . / V^ 

^:^^..^C^^^. 

. L^^r^. . %yf^ 

V.my.../^^ 



Present ^.ddr««« 



ffe.7f.if 



S&S...%.7.7:^. 

QR.i.niH. 






}f^^^;- 



^^cnJP^T?^,^,^-^ 






^■'^<^--^-' 



.^^ ^.-'f.<^r8<<7vfx <gy^./vy *^ — • 



S3, tf pan AKE HCT «iUiaj to ha"* us atk ysur prwsat ci^layvr «x>ut your lork. cbsck h*r« ( 
M. If fW «"^'' »o"l^ uaiie; any OIMJi H*£ than tiiat ()lT»n on thii opplioatioo indlcat* ama b«r» 



^-r'-r^ 



BEFORE EIG^ii^*3 THIS APPLICATION, READ CAREFfLLY TIC FCLLOfWC fAIVER 

_ part of thi« applicGtioo nH in cciaciii«rrt ion of bwisg p*rBitt«d to tal» the encBiAot ien for 
th» po«itioo bereii. appiierl for, uicluiJiDi^ BU?!a pr'^rticni tests a» the Civil Service CaBSiSSioo sbal 1 
d»«e n^ceesctv Vo deterisiae ev phyMinal fitiosM cuid eligibility. I, tt» wsderaigBed appiioact, do hereby 
Toijntnrily reitsase. rei ■ nqujLflh . aud (ore\-«r diacbta'-.T* fbi City of |)UiUEe<^>olis . itsagJiDta. offioers 
' ' ' € . .■ Jaange or\ui]urf that I 

3aiixitioo au do hereby 

^...#-;..^^,.....>^M^. 



*»:ployee« £ rce 
■iokr susfain in c 
Tolun^crily osju^ 



and uVh. claias, deMfacie. or 'y%\mt^ of actioo iz 
h c by reaccE o/ »y port icipct loq iu i 
coeLn«cV iota tiuro/i" 



in ORDER THAT THIS APPLICATION Kr\Y BE^JCECEIVED AND FURTH£3H ACTE) UPCM IT IS fCCESS- 
ARY THAT THE APPLICANT SUBSCRIBE TO THE FOLLOBIHC OATH BEFORE A NOTARY PUBLIC OR CTHCT 
OmCEJ^ AlfTHORIZEDBY LA» TO ATWINISTER OATHS: 

ippiictmt. beiog first dulv ■vera. iqx« ooth declare that I hove cwrefullv read 
i^ateiMDts by «> soi'V ia thu <>ippl krc t ioo , and that the mjtsa ar« tri» to the 
bwlief and tSit I tejre read anS fully undcrstfSDd tbe foregoing wniTer 



I. the uckdersigoed < 
the saTercl aQBHer& and 
best c4 7i\ knoeledqe cmd 
CBid releoie ond have vol 



.19 .O 



1890 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

FORICHETTE EXHIBIT NO. 2 



|i3NNZA?*3L-3 GTOE, DEVICE CC^Si»SS3ION 
!}9 art EAU. 



DATK BBCnVED 



|:i |; 



ai**OSTANT INSTRUCTIONS: 

^v-a^i tij« public notice rTlmlioy to iW.t trsjiiia*tiaii and 
make ra?* that 7<m hRT« complied with cU tha rsquirt- 

ALL qa«ationa in IN*K 

TaXe Uiia blaiik to tha Vvtore Resutratiun 
chei-kinc nni««« MLoneapolis Voten Aerifctratioa Ls waiv«d 

Fal.^s TtftUnsants mc^ by the »pplicJLat nn vurficiaBt 
cauA* for ro>«ctioo of mi ^^>ll<%doD or tbit dicchaxf* of 
1^9 einplcT^o ftft«r Appobitmeot. 



APPLICATION FOa EmUfflllATION 

Do not wrlu tn th* ipaaa bdov. 




2. Name { prist) 

3. Address . 



rn N. fW_V 
-^r-V^" 



Telephone No- 



4. Si&oe what date have you residecl continukuily in tJM City ci Minneapolis immediately prior to date oi fiBng 

\ij/U, 19^9 , 

HODk 0«T Y««r 

5. Since what date have you resided cootinuously in the State of Minnesota immediately prior to date of filinj; 



6. Are you a citizeo of the United Statea? 

lay 

7. I wu bom 

33 



y as 



31 



1926 



8. Age 



Sex (check); Male ( ); Female ( ). 



n f^-- 



9. WlMt k yo«ir height? Feet 



Inchei 



7.5 



Weight 



130 



PouDds. 






10. Check: Married ( ), SingU (X ); Widowed ( ); Divorced ( ); Separated ( ). 

11. Are you in fpx>d health? y.4-S Have you any physical infirmity of deformity that wnuld in any way 

iliiilMlifj you from the (uO dlKfaarge of the dutiei of the pocition to which you seek employment? Explain 



12. Have you Bad an application for a Minneapolis CMl Service Examination before? . ao When and for 

what poaition? .. 

(r--a. Ut, E.p,.y„, H,^^ M «« .-1^ Bo«d E.C.J . .. ' 



P08ITIQJJ 



PQRICHETTE. John Edward 



F.DDRSS8 

1710 Hawt horne Ave. No. 



rresta:/ ( Wo i 



BI.^riDATE 



DATES 



DI3?0SlKflN OR 
CHARGES OTHER REMARKS 



.-/.^J- <^^ -^ 









CHECKED AT IDENTIFICATIC:^' BUREAU BY 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MrNTNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1891 



FoEicHETTE EXHIBIT No. 2 — Continued 



IS. Hav« ycu ever been arrestsd? 



Otr or town 

Dijpo«ition of caae by Police or Court 



IncliKl* ««cb ( 



-J^atuie of offense . 



run cxplaoatloo akauid a«naaip«aT ftpvUcaOoa Tbla qvMtlaa slao p«rt«ln« :a an Klnor Uiil*ctUnM e< lb* Law. 

14. Axe >-ou a member of icy political party or orgaiuzatiOD which advocates the overthrow of our coIUti^ational form of 

no 
jovemmont in the Unitod State*? - If so, name the orgamzatjon 

T<B o Ko 

15. Have any of youi employers ever discharged you? !j If so, why? 



16. Have ywa ever worked for the City of Miimeapclis? ^ 

empJoyod? 



If 



vben and by what depaitment were y<xi 



17. If the position for which you are applying in this application requires a valid license or certiflcate to practice your 

trade or profenion in the City of Minneapolis, do you possess such a hcense? 

TCm or >• 

Description of Ucente . _ „ 

Grade of license _. No. of license Date issued If po«itioa n e q ulrei registTation 

giva Registration No State 

18. Education: In space below give a complete outlme of your education and training including dates If nvjre space 
il needed attach additional sheets. 





Naaa aad Avirau of Scbool 


Clrtl. 
Eisbut GnMia 

>tBitll«d 


DaU 
KatcTtd 


DaU 
Ltft 




Qnd>, 
School 


Lakefleld public 
hlghschcel 


1 t S 4 

S < 7 g 


9-19^0 


6-19AA 


Did 7011 flaisfa tha 

retnlar eoorw? JA? .. 


•^ Hi«h 
f^ Sehool 

v- ' CoU««« 


Bai* 


1 1 S 4 




Did 70U rradoaUT 11* ] 


flsrthlngt^n Jr, 

Coll95« 


118 4 
$ « 7 8 


9-19A7 


6-A9 


Major aubJwtUlfe, X?^a 

Minor »ubjert 

Did yoa gTB^uataf -rt-^^ _ 
D«cro« rfcalTed 


Post 

Graduat* 










Counaa Uken: 

D«sra« r»caivad 


BnslaaM 
achool 










Couraa takan: 


Did yon completa eourma ! 


or 

Extonlon 

or 

CmivTiminiBC 








\-v 


Counea taken: 


Nu2!ibar of crcdiu 
, r««lv»d 


Timd* 
Sekod 


IXinwoody InduBtrl 
Institute 


»-• 


9-1959 


5-196d 


^fcour^a lai«,: 

■ilshway i Surv«yltii 






OUxr 

Tmhunc j 








Coorsaa taJcan: 













A 



1892 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 



FoRiCHETTE EXHIBIT No. 2 — Continued 

Experience: 

Beginning with your PRESENT or MOST RECENT employment or occupation, list in revene order aU of your 
work hiitor>-. It is NECESSARY to give COMPLETE informabon. Give all facts for all part time position!. (If a 
trade give length of time and place as apprentice, as journeyman, as master). IF MORE SPACE IS NEEDED 
ATTACH ADDITIONAL SHEETS USING THE SAME HEADINGS AS SHOWN BELOW FOR EACH POSITION. 



Wl//e. 



Student 
TSjnwooay" Thgu atrial 
TnatttxTtfl 



AddrMa- 

City and SUt« 

Typ* of bnaineaa- -^apt. J^§8 

PomtioD held tO..»'at_i260 

D»ti«« 

No, parsoafl anpOTTiaed 



Employmest Psiriod i , [ PvMson for le«vii 

Giv« oi«rt dat«« Salary per month . (be .pecific) 



From 

To 

Total months 

Full Tlm« ( ) 
Part Tima ( ) 



Highest 

Loweet 



7"^ fpiel Honey ftil Re5ulatrtiP"np'o7™«'''P«"o<i 
^^^"rtnrnrepol-tF-, Vim. 1^^^"^^^' 



CTty and SUto 

Typ« of btulneaa 

Position s... Inspac fr 

^ , Quail Ity cantrsl en asGo 

tKlUot 1 

No. p«T*ona ioperriaed 




Reajon for lasting 
(be specific) 

layff (3u» 

Jtooespistien 

•f oonfrac!r 



"Tren^ 




PreceEB Analytt 



-Employmont Period 
K GiVa exact datet 



Tot*] drodOu/ 



gsthffljced an:' c«Br.putaa Ilea dale fdr sceduling ef tatsrlaTs 



Salary per month 
HUhaat ?^0 



L««t 



Reaj^-^n for loarisg 
vba specific) 

layff 



No. persons «upcrTlo€d . 



Employe A SE ocl ated Pac k a ging 
. „ 421 2^ ft .^ 

Addraaa -, — ,__; _,_ 

TpTi IThn 

City and Sl&ta 



Tyya of bualneoa- -z^ _•_ 



Poaitioa 
Dstka 

No. pCraCTIfl 6TI] 



Emploxroont Period 
GiTa esact datca ' 

lz31 



^-55 



To 

Total moQtha^w 



Fan Tlma (-^ 

^lT~hdppar with praduct to bo pagkaseTT hol p an aasegbly l^lne 



Salary P«r month 
Highe»t ^4^5._ 
Loweat 
Laat_ 



2 00 



K--ieson for learlnc 
ib« specific) 



none 



Empioyar Cook Paint A Var nlah :■ 
Add«.._ Chicago » Franklin 
r^:^ J... FcIb., Vlnn. 

City and Btata .. „ . l ± ^ 1 

^^lllhlTTifilnt 

Type of bnslneaa- 



Potitiaa 



Ll-ta-filarli 



Employment Period 
GiTe exact dates 

7-^9 



5-53 



5^ 

Total months 

Full Time <St ) 
Part Tiaaa ( ) 



Salary per month 

Hifhart 215_ 

Loweat -I5O 

r... 215 



"keoaon for leaving 
(be specific) 

Cj'Jlt 



dlssatlafled with 
tnetype of warlc 



Datiee B^ll li^ialt Bf»llpapflr, Tftrnlsh 



No. persona sarenia^d-. 



EBipk>y«r V 1 nUi Jil, 
A«r«a..^?55 Lll*a 

City and SteU 



rpiB,~2'5Tvinn. 



^^ •' '""'" ' f ral r iw 

Position held 



Employmaat Period 
GiTs exact dates 

T-8-23-59 

2 



Total moatha- 
Poll Tim* 
Part Thou 



r^ 



Salary per month 

Higheat_23l 

Loweat - 
Laat. 



*2ri 



Reason for leaviEg 
(be ipeciflc) 

tJ-finl9h- 

tralnl nn a % __ 

Dunw»>dy 



No, per^&a aaperria^d 

Datiaa »An,—ciukX nt Ji T\, 11 i rU , ftd I lea > f r . r anw U , nw -g lv lng M na 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN" THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1893 



FoBiCHETTE EXHIBIT No. 2 — Continued 



20. Indinte here »ry tiro* during tie past ten years not accounted for above. Give reajooj tuch aj une!nplo)'Tnent, 
iDiieu, and study. Ctvs specific dates. 

10-^6 ta Q-;8 ungBpl ayad 



9- A7 to 6-49 attended Worthlngtan Junior Ctllaga 
1-A5 to 11-45 Any 



21. De»crib<? any additional infomatioQ or training and experience you have which in your opinion qualifies you for 
the pocition for which this application is made. 

IS cenths st ftun«oody anr< 2 ^:o.^ths working f«r the f.tata highway dept. 



22. Give the names of five reliable persons to whom the Commission can refer, who are sufficiently familiar with 
your qualifications and character to gi^-e infoimation about you. Persoot who have had experience, dbrakl jtrt 
the name^ cf at leait three former employers or supervisors. 




P?«a<at Addrvu 



Qtiat-; hljhway Uapt 
IXin*o«dy Ind. Inst 



I 63 N 12 £t 



}-Jri2.5.- 

• 4421 4 Avs S9 



LI 5-37<il ^rrpleysr 



r^ r 4*-'^ 



Ta 5-436;i 



_t_?P*i Head 

MntxiTttmi frl«nd'' 
pan a 



contractor 

Irus i "t'aa c h«r 



23. If you ARE NOT willing to have ui xak your present employer about your work, checJc here ( ). 

24. If you have worked under any OTHEH N.\MS than that given on this application indicate name here: 



L.in VKm» nrst :<sa>« lUddl* Nam* 

EEFOSE SiGNlNa TH;3 APPUCS.TIOK. READ CASISPULLT THE FOLLOWING WAIVER 

part cf tins rppUcatior and in cocaidorlti-?ij of b^ia^ _j^rniilt«d to take the anamination for the poaitioQ hereis 



eluding 
ribijity, 1, t're \md«r&i(lled 



I and in cocsidonti-?!] of b^-a^ _{^rnii'.t«d to take tii« a:tairin&tion for the positioQ herein apnhed- 
xs at th." Civil Semce CornmifiO'On shall de«m necesaary lo dettrmiae my phys.col fitness tnd «li 
hcxnt, Jo hir»>)7 voiuDlArUy release, raiilKjUish, and for«ver discbarire the Cit^ of Minnaapoln, 
fu asrenLa, officer* tjui emplovee* from any az<d all claima, demandii, or cauees of action for any damage or injury that 1 might 
■lutiitD in connonion witj or by rexeoB of a.f p«;rticipatla^ in u.jd ■ w a m t n atioo and do boraby voluntarily aaaoma ali riaka 13 ctto- 
nactioo tbo^with. /' '■'-v^^ 

Ay^lfeant'B Slfnatur* 

rN ORDER TEAT THIS APPLICATION MAY BF SlKEIVSD AND FURTHRR ACTED UPON . 
THAT THS APPLICA>fT 8U3S-;SlBr: TO TiSlI FOLLOWING OATH BIJ^ORE A NOTARY PUBLIC OB 
AUTHORIZED BY LaT» TO ADULKISTBR CATHB: 
STATE OF MINNESOTA \ 
COUNTY OP HENNEPIN j "^ 



I, Iha uadami^wi cppi;cL,it, M-z^ firrt du\j rwora, upon 
statenMDU by rr.a made lc tr.:e appl!<-4tioc, r..^ that th« a£Lin 
kaf* r*ad and fuliy undera^aAd Uu fornffcing v^ver and rslen 



«-.t^ d«r.lftre that ! kare carefully r«ad the • 
am traa to the b«at of my knowlodga and 
4 and hava ToIantariXy subecribed my n^Ka th 




.M^.'^ 



(SEAI^t_ 



IC7 ^yF|i«Twijf»0». «i;jitZ«C [~1.-|< 



1894 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

The Chairman. Call your next witness, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTKE. Would Norman J. Boeluike please come forward ? 

Mr. Chairman. The witness has already been sworn and it was an- 
nounced that he would return, so it is not necessary to swear him 
again. 

Proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF NOEMAN JOHN BOEHNKE-^Resumed 

Mr. NiTTLE. For the purpose of the record, will you State your name ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. My name is Norman John Boehnke. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mr. Boehnke, are you acquainted with Jolin Howard 
Tillotson ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. 'Wliat is his occupation ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, when I met Jolm he was a student at the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And when did you meet him ? 

Mr. Boehnke. It was in early 1962. We had a youth branch meet- 
ing of the North Side Club scheduled at the Borchardt's residence and 
I was to pick up Betty Smith. As I arrived at the Smith residence 
John Forichette was there — I mean John Howard Tillotson was 
there — and I was introduced to Mr. Tillotson by Betty Smith as one 
of the faithful members, and Betty Smith then suggested to Mr. 
Tillotson that he should come along to the Borchardt residence to hear 
a tape recording speech by Herbert Aptheker. 

Mr. NiTTLE. At this point, I understand, you stated that you Avere in- 
troduced to him by Betty Smith 

Mr. Boehnke. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — at her residence, Betty Smith, whom you have identi- 
fied as a member of the district executive committee? 

Mr. Boehnke. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "What was the introduction that was given ? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, I was introduced to Mr. Tillotson by Betty 
Smith as a faithful and loyal member. 

Mr. NiTTLE. That is, you were described to him as a "faithful and 
loyal member"? 

Mr. Boehnke. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think jou last testified that the suggestion was made 
that he come along to the Ernest Borchardt residence for this meeting. 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, that is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Ernest Borchardt whom you have identified as a mem- 
ber of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Boehnke, That is correct ; and he declined on the grounds that 
if he did go it would perhaps become too obvious that he had associa- 
tion with the Communist Party. And for that reason he did not 
attend. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What happened after that? 

Mr. Boehnke. Well, we left for the Borchardt residence, Betty 
Smith, and John Tillotson also rode with us part of the way. We left 
him off at Tenth and Olsen Highway, North Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Then did you and Betty Smith go on to the meeting at 
the Borchardt residence? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1895 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, we did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you tlien have a conversation with Betty Smith 
relating to John Howard Tillotson? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Betty Smith then described Mr. Tillotson as being 
a hard worker for the cause and she recommended to me that I should 
get in touch with him and work with him, and she also made it very 
phiin that Jolui Tillotson was the channel, or one of the channels, that 
the Communist Party used to extend its influence and activities at 
the Univei"sity of Minnesota. 

]Mr. NrrTLE. Did you subsequently hear of the activities of John 
Howard Tillotson ? 

Mr. BoEHXKE. Yes, we did. It was in the early summer of 1962. 
We had a club meeting at the Betty Smith residence. John Forichette, 
Betty Smith, and myself were in attendance, and we discussed the 
Helsinki youth festival to be held in Helsinki, Finland, and 

Mr. NiTTLE. By the way, what was that Helsinki youth festival? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. It was a youth meeting that was sponsored by the 
Socialist countries of the world, including Soviet Russia and Eecl 
China. 

We were faced with the pi'oblem of sending delegates to Helsinki, 
and two delegates were named, two prospective delegates were named. 
They were John Howard Tillotson and Jolin Forichette. John Fori- 
chette immediately declined on the grounds that he was an employee 
of the city of Minneapolis. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think it may be we should note on the record that 
when you referred to the Helsinki festival as being staged by the "So- 
cialist" nations you were using Marxist terminology, and by "So- 
cialist'' you meant the Communist nations? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You are not referring to such highly respected coun- 
tries, which have Socialist systems, such as Sweden ? 

Mr. BOEHNKE. No. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This was not sponsored by countries other than Com- 
munist countries, is that right ? 

]\Ir. BoEHNKE. That is correct. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was any discussion had at that meeting with. respect to 
how the attendance of delegates at the Helsinki youth festival would 
be met ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, we also discussed the problem of financing the 
delegates, and it was Betty Smith who then stated that she had in- 
structions that each member was to donate 1 week's salary for this 
])ii]-pose, and John Forichette immediately responded that he would. 

Mr. NiTTLE. John Howard Tillotson was not in attendance at that 
particular meeting? 

Mr. BoEiTNKE. No, he was not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. To your knowledge was John Tillotson a delegate to 
the festival from the Minneapolis area ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, he was. 

Mr. NiTTLE. When did you next hear of him ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, that was in the fall of 1002. We had a meet- 
ing at the Rose Tillotson Renaud home, who happens to be the grand- 
mother of John Tillotson, and we had a Communist Party jneeting 
schedided there that evening, and prior to the meeting getting started 



1896 COMJMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

John Howard Tillotson discussed with Betty Smith an article that 
was, that he had prepared to have printed in the New Horizons^ which 
is the official youth organ of the Communist Party. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did Betty Smith meet with John Howard Tillotson ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, she did. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Will you tell us about that ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Well, as I indicated, she talked and discussed with 
John Howard Tillotson the article that was to be printed in the New 
Horizons. This was prior to the meeting getting started, and again 
when the meeting started, that is, when tlie comrade chairman called 
the meeting into order, John Howard Tillotson again left the meeting 
and I assume it was for the same reasons that I have previously stated. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did you have any other meetings or contact with 
him? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. No, I did not. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the staff has no further questions of 
the witness. 

Mr. Bruce. With regard to the question that w^as asked and your 
testimony that there was discussion between John Tillotson and Betty 
Smith about an article that was to appear in New Horizons.^ did such 
an article ever appear, to your knowledge ? 

Mr. Boehnke. I cannot honestly state whether it did appear or not ; 
I really do not know. 

Mr. Beuce. Thank you. 

Mr. Schadeberg. Mr. Boehnke, early in your testimony you stated 
that one of the ways in which you got interested in the party was that 
you were solicited at your home, at your apartment, for funds. 

Mr. BoEHXKE. That is correct. 

Mr. Schadeberg. By Mr. Barisonzi ? 

Mr. Boehxke. Jack Barisonzi. 

Mr. Schadeberg. How did he happen to come to your door ? 

Mr. Boehnke. He explained to me that he was in the southeast area 
of Minneapolis canvassing the area for the purpose that was stated, 
to solicit funds for Mortin Sobell, and one of the reasons he was in 
southeast Minneapolis area was that it was near to the university and 
he was interested in contacting students. 

Mr. Schadeberg. That's all, ]Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Boehnke, is there anything else you wish to 
add? 

Mr. Boehnke. Yes, there is, Mr. Chairman. 

It is generally believed by the public that the Communist Party of 
the United States is just another political party. However, my experi- 
ence in the party has given me mounting evidence that it is a party 
dominated by the Soviet Union, 

To give you an example, in 1961, for instance, Sam Davis and Ellen 
Davis made a trip to ^\<6 Soviet Union. They brought back films of 
their trip. I spliced those films and then I had Ellen Davis narrate 
those films, and as she narrated them she brought out the facts, pointed 
out the different individuals who were instructors that she attended in 
the Lenin Institute. So this brings out the fact that the party is foreign 
controlled, and whenever Communists asked for passports to go to a 
foreign country there is a reason for it besides just going for a visit. 

The Chairman. Anythmg else ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1897 

Mr. BoEHNKE. And No. 2, the question has been raised why peo- 
ple who have been former Communists do not want to talk. I be- 
lieve I got part of the answer. We have all heard the testimony of 
Kuth Gordienko. I was a member of the party when she was pub- 
licly identified as having been associated with the FBI. On one oc- 
casion, or on a number of occasions, her picture was passed around so 
that we could all recognize her when we saw her, and the purpose of 
it was not only to embarrass her but at one time the statement was 
made that a certain party should place himself in a position where, 
when she would walk down stairs, she would be pushed. 

The Chairman. Has that person been identified during these hear- 
ings, the person who made that statement ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Yes, that person testified yesterday. 

The Chairman. What was his name ? 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Claude McDonald. 

The Chairman. Mr. Boehnke, now that you have completed your 
testimony, I would like to say a few words to you and Ruthann Wi th- 
row. I have already commented about Mrs. Gordienko. 

The great majority of the citizens of this Nation, and of those in 
this hearing room, are fully devoted to this country and the prmciples 
on which it is founded. Most of us, in some way, give something of 
ourselves to our country. A few give far more than others. You 
and Miss Withrow are two of those few. 

Both of you could have gone about your way, as so many of us do, 
concerning yourselves largely with earning a comfortable living, car- 
rying out your basic citizenship duties, and spending your spare time 
in relaxation and leisure of one kind or another. 

In the interest of our Nation's security, you were asked to give up 
this normal pursuit of happiness, which is a right of every American 
citizen. You were asked to give it up for an unpleasant, time-con- 
suming job, a job involving self-sacrifice and danger and possible pub- 
lic disgrace and contempt — a job made necessary by the fact that there 
are those who would destroy our Government and rob the American 
people of their rights, freedom, and liberties. 

You could have said "No" to the request, as so many others have 
done. It is to your everlasting credit that you said "Yes." By doing 
so, you proved your willingness to give to and for your country and 
your neighbors — including even those who would not understand the 
true significance of your act and would vilify you for it. 

I know that, like others who have made the same sacrifice, both of 
you have already been called names. The epithet "informer" has 
been hurled at you — and will be hurled at you in the future — by the 
unthinking, the ignorant, and the evil. 

Both of you, I feel sure, have the intelligence and strenglh of char- 
acter not to be swayed or dismayed by them. These name callers, by 
their actions, prove only their inferiority to you, no matter what their 
station in life may be. 

Therefore, speaking not only for myself, but for the committee and 
the great majority of the American people, I am sure, I congratulate 
you for the job that you and Miss Withrow have done so well, for the 
sacrifices you have made for your country and your fellow man. For 
these things you will always have the appreciation and gratitude of 
tliis committee, of the Congress, and, as I say, at least the majority, a 
large majority, of the American public. 



1898 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Good luck to you. 

Mr. BoEHNKE. Thank you. 

( Witness excused. ) 

Tlie Chairman. The committee will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The subcommittee will come to order. 

Counsel, call your next witness. 

Mr. NrrrLE, Would John Howard Tillotson please come forward ? 

The Chairman. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN HOWARD TILLOTSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOHN E. EISBERG 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Tillotson, would you please state your full name 
and residence for the record ? 

Mr. Tillotson. John Howard Tillotson, T-i-1-l-o-t-s-o-n, 403 19th 
Avenue South, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mr. Tillotson. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address? 

Mr. EiSBERG. My name is John F. Eisberg, E-i-s-b-e-r-g, 400 Eand 
Tower, Minneapolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Tillotson, would you state the date and place of 
your birth ? 

Mr. Tillotson. June 12, 1943 ; Aberdeen, South Dakota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education, 
giving the dates and places of attendance at educational institutions ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the United States 
Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you presently a student at the University of Min- 
nesota ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the Constitution 
of the United States. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you enter the University of Minnesota in Septem- 
ber, commencing with the September term 1961, and continue there 
continuously to date ? 

Mr, Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or violate my 
rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments to the Constitution of 
the United States. 

Mr, Nittle. Prior to that were you graduated from high school? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I direct you to answer that question. There has 
been no evidence that would bear along that line. It is preliminary. 
I think it should be disclosed for the record. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1899 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. ]\Ir. Chairman, I respectfully decline to answer this 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How long have you resided at 403 Nineteenth Avenue 
South in Minneapolis? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever maintained your residence at 628 Jessa- 
mine Street, St. Paul ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSox. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Were you in attendance on Tuesday when Miss Ruth- 
ann Withrow testified in the course of these hearings ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Do you know Miss Ruthann Withrow ? 

jMr. TiLLOTsox. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow has testified that you were in attend- 
ance in August of 1960 and in the fall of 1960 at functions sponsored 
by the Freedom of the Press Committee. Was her testimony correct ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know the Freedom of the Press Committee 
to be a Communist created and dominated organization at the time 
of your attendance at the functions related by Miss Withrow? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gromids previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then know Ralph Taylor and Rose Renaud 
to be the leaders of the Freedom of the Press Committee ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you then know Ralph Taylor ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Miss Withrow testified further that you were in at- 
tendance at the organizing meeting of a group called the Youth For 
Political Action which, as Miss Withrow testified, was directed and 
controlled by members of the Communist Party. Was her testimony 
correct ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON". I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Counsel, I think at this point I should ask this 
question : Were you in the room when Miss Withrow and Mr. Boehnke 
testified ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. Mr. Chairman, I respectfully decline to answer this 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. I think you were, and I think I should pohit out, 
in all fairness, that Miss Witlirow and Mr. Boelinke, sticking to ob- 
viously their own knowledge and nothing beyond their own knowledge, 
did not identify you as a member of the Communist Party directly. 
They did identify you as being on the fringe meetings and as a func- 
tionary or a channel or conduit relating to university campus activities. 
But these questions relate to your knowledge of certam individuals 



1900 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

who have been identified directly as members of the party and are 
very relevant because it confirms whatever conclusions one might 
want to draw from these activities of yours that Miss Withrow and 
Mr. Boelinke testified about ; and, furthermore, it is pertinent to these 
hearings, because one of the purposes of the hearings here in Minne- 
apolis, in Buffalo, and those to follow, is the consideration of the ad- 
visability of amending the Internal Security Act so as to impose 
certain disabilities in the manner and form provided in that act upon 
those persons affiliated with Communist organizations, as well as upon 
persons who are members thereof. In other words, there are a lot of 
different ways that a person can be helpful to the party. Perhaps — 
perhaps, I say — one of the most helpful ways is to remain in the back- 
ground, attend functions up to a certain point, and then to retire from 
the room when perhaps it is advisable to retire, and I am sure counsel 
will directly relate Mr. Boehnke's testimony about your coming in 
and out of certain occasions. 

I want to describe the pertinency of this evidence. If I have not 
related it specifically and correctly, counsel, I hope, will supplement 
it after awhile. In other words, perhaps those of the greatest value 
to the party are people with affiliations with it who remain on the 
fringe rather than having direct membership. 

Proceed, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of the organization known as 
Youth For Political Action? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you at that time know that Miss Withrow, John 
Forichette, and Betty Smith, who were in attendance at that meeting, 
were members of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully declme to answer this question on 
the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. You heard the testimony of Mr. Boehnke in the course 
of these hearings today and his preliminary testimony? 

Mr. Tlllotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was Mr. Boehnke known to you to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke testified this morning that you were intro- 
duced to him at Betty Smith's residence in the fall of, or rather in the 
early part of 1962, and that at that time, at the time of the introduc- 
tion, Betty Smith informed you that he was a faithful member of the 
cause. Was that introduction made to you ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the groimds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you, at the time you met Mr. Boehnke, know Betty 
Smith to be a member of the Communist Party and holding an official 
position on the executive committee of the Minnesota-Dakotas Dis- 
trict of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of your coming to the residence 
of Betty Smith on that occasion ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1901 

Mr. TiLLOTSON^. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware that Betty Smith was to attend a 
meeting subsequently that evening of the North Side 3'Outh branch of 
the Communist Party at the Ernest Borchardt residence ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you laiow Ernest Borchardt to be a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

JSIr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at the Betty Smith residence with the view 
of talking to her about youth activities at the University of Minne- 
sota? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not invited to go along to the meeting, that 
meeting of the North Side Club of the Communist Party at the Er- 
nest Borchardt residence ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you say that you did not wish your connection 
with the matter to be too obvious ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boehnke testified that the same evening after you 
parted company with him and Betty Smith, that Betty Smith told 
him to utilize you with respect to youth activity and that you were one 
of the channels that the Communist Party used to extend its mfiuence 
at the University of Minnesota. 

What I should like to ask is whether or not you are knowlingly one 
of the channels of the Communist Party for that purpose ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Boelinke testified that at a meeting of the youth 
branch of the Communist Party in the early summer of 1962 there 
was a discussion with respect to your possible attendance at the Hel- 
sinki youth festival together with the atte^Eidance of John Forichette, 
and that there was a discussion relating to the financing of this trip. 

Now, you did attend the Helsinki youth festival in the summer of 
1962; did you not? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previomsly stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And were you not in attendance at Helsinki as a dele- 
gate from the United States ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiiTLE. Were the expenses of your attendance there, or any 
part of them, assumed by the Communist Party of Minneapolis ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. How was your attendance financed there ? 

36-729 — 64 16 



1902 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you attend the Helsinki youth festival for the pur- 
pose of giving- support to the anti- American propaganda objectives 
of the world Communist movement ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend the youth festival with the purpose of 
giving direct support to the foreign policy objectives of the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON, I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Tillotson, if in fact your attendance there was 
not to support the foreign policy objectives of the Soviet Union, and 
you truthfully said that it was not, how could that possibly incriminate 
you ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. Are you asking me a question, Mr. Nittle? 

Mr. NiTTLE. I think it is a question. 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. Would you please repeat it ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. The question was if you did not, or rather, if your 
attendance at the youth festival in Helsinki was not with the purpose 
of giving support to the foreign policy objectives of the Soviet Union, 
and if you truthfully said that it was not to give support to the foreign 
policy objectives of the Soviet Union, how could such an answer 
possibly incriminate you? 

Mr, TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Mr. Boehnke also testified that in the fall of 1962 he 
drove Betty Smith to the home of Rose Renaud, Rose Renaud, as 
you know, has been identifi.ed in the course of these hearings as the 
secretary of the Mimiesota-Dakotas District of the Communist 
Party, Wliile en route he testified Betty Smith told him that she 
was to meet with you and others concerning a youth group which was 
to be active in connection with your campus activities at the uni- 
versity. Mr. Boelmke testified he was not in attendance at the meet- 
ing that was scheduled but that subsequently he received information 
that you did attend this meeting. Did you ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Mr. Tillotson, from the testimony that has been 
produced in this record under oath, it would seem that some of your 
contacts were with people rather high up in the echelons of the Com- 
munist Party in this area and that you didn't function publicly and 
didn't make appearances as a party member in closed meetings, and 
so on. Was that your real assignment, to have higher contact, as 
really a channel as one witness described it, with the university 
campus activities ; was that your real assignment ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. Mv. Chairman, I respectfully decline to answer this 
question on the grounds previously stated. 

The Chairman. Do you know Mr. Sam Davis ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1903 

The Chairman. And I think you were just asked if you knew Mrs. 
Renaud. [To counsel.] You just asked him that — did you ask him 
that question? 

Do you know Mrs. Renaud ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTixE. Mr. Boehnke also testified this morning that he was in 
attendance at a scheduled meeting of the Communist Party in the 
fall of 1962 at the residence of Rose Renaud. He said that you were 
present at the residence of Rose Renaud and that you and Betty Smith 
were discussing an article that was to appear in the publication New 
Horizons For Youth ^ that you left shortly before the commencement 
of the meeting of the Commimist Party. 

Did you have the conference with Betty Smith at the home of Rose 
Renaud in the fall of 1962 as Mr. Boehnke testified ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. xaxTLE. Were you aware that this party meeting was to take 
]:)lace at that time at the home of Rose Renaud ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr, NiTTLE. And were you in attendance at that time because you 
knew Betty Smith would be in attendance at that meeting? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And was not Betty Smith in charge of the youth ac- 
tivities of the North Side cell of the Communist Party and the Com- 
munist Party in the Minneapolis area ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was she not then known to you to be the chairman of 
the Communist Party Youth Organizing Club ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. W^ere you advised by some Communist Party func- 
tionary that you should skip out before the meeting went formally 
into session so that you could not be identified as a Communist Party 
member by reason of the fact that you would be in attendance at a 
closed party meeting? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you seek to take advantage of that, what you may 
call a legal technicality, if one exists in this situation ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Tillotson, have you been a member of an organiza- 
tion known as the Progressive Youth Organizing Committee? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON, I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr, NiTiT,E. Did you not bring your membership in that organiza- 
tion to the attention of students at the University of Minnesota? 

Mr, TiLLOTSON, I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 



1904 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr, NiTTLE. I have before me a copy of the Minnesota Daily dated 
June 15, 1964 [Tillotson Exhibit No. 1], where it is stated at page 1 
what appears to be a headline article about this committee's hearings, 
I mean the House Committee's hearings 

The Chairman. I can't hear you. 

Mr. NiTTLE. — appears to be a headline article about this committee's 
meeting, in which you are identified as a member of the Progressive 
Youth Organizing Committee, stated in this article to be "now 
defunct." 

Are you a member of that Progressive Youth Organizing Com- 
mittee ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Tillotson Exhibit No. 1" follows.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1905 



TiLLOTSON Exhibit No. 1 
[The Minnesota Daily, June 15, 1964] 





HUAC 
To Begi 



Students to 



by TOM BACHELDER 

Eleven Minnesotans, including one University student, have been 
subpoenaed to appear before the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities in its Minneapolis hearings. June 24 through 26, John Tillot- 
M.in. v%ho attended the University until spring quarter, received his 
subpoena last week. 

A committee to protest HUAC's hearings was organized Friday night. 
The committee, which calh itseli Citizens Against HUAC, will sponsor 
at least one picket of the hearings, according to Denis W'adley. CLA 
senior and public relation? representative for the committee. 

THE COM\:iTTEE is supported by the Young Democrats (YDFL), 
the Young Socialist Alliance and the Youth For Progressive .Action. 
Other groups are expected to join at the steering committee meeting 
Tuesday. 

Tillotson is a former president of the Student Peace Union. He was 
also a .member of the Progressive Youth Organizing Committee, now 
defunct. 

Tillotson refused to speak for the other ten people who have beeo 
subpoenaed, but he did say that "HUAC has very carefully picked 
people who've been called names for a long time, who they think can't 
defend themselves." 

HUAC did not tell Tillotson why he was being subpoenaed, 'it may 
revolve around my student peace activities," he said. 

Tillotson said that he will refuse to answer any questions put to him 
by the committee. He said he will the press last week. HUAC must 



plead the first, fifth and sixth 
amendments. "They can't cite me 
for contempt, because ihey honor 
the fifth amendment." he added. 

.Although some people have lost 
their jobs as a result of HU.AC in- 
vestigations, Tillotson docs not ex- 
pect this to happen to him. 'Ten 
years ago, if I had planned to go 
into a profession or something, it 
would have hurt me much more," 
he said. 

Ihe names ot the 1 1 people sub- 
poened by HUAC were released to 



have leaked out this information, 
Tillotson said, since there was no 
other way for the press to get it. 

HUAC's rules, however, state 
that the names of people sub- 
poenaed should be kept secret un- 
til the hearings start, Wadley said. 

The picket will take place out- 
side the Federal Courthouse, prob- 
ably from eight a.m. to five p.m., 
June 24. Citizens Against HUAC 
may also picket the committee's 
arrival at the airport. A parade per- 
mit will also be applied for, Wad- 
iey said. 



1906 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN,, AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is it now defunct ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you tell us the circumstances under which you 
first became associated with that organization? 

Mr. TrLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you invited to participate in the creation of 
such an organization in this area by one Danny Rubin? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you ever discuss any phase of youth activity in the 
Minneapolis area with Danny Rubin? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee is informed that the Progressive Youth 
Organizing Committee was set up at a conference in Chicago on 
December 31, 1960. On December 22, 1960, the Director of the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation. J. Edgar Hoover, was quoted as 
saying that this conference was arranged by Communists and : 

Its purpose is to formulate plans for a new national youth organization— one 
whose programs and activities will be clandestinely directed by Party members. 

This statement appeared in a Department of Justice press release. 

Were you aware during your membership in this Progressive Youth 
Organizing Committee that it was a Cominunist-created organization 
designed to influence youth ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Daniel Rubin to be a national official of 
the Communist Party charged with conducting the Communist Party's 
youth affairs ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I state for the record, Mr. Chairman, that Danny 
Rubin or Mortimer Daniel Rubin, in a report released July 1960 by 
the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, was identified 
as having been a member of the Communist Party's National Commit- 
tee and given full responsibility for the Communist Party's youth 
affairs. 

The Chairman. He is in California, isn't he? 

Mr. NiTTLE. In New York at the present time, so far as I know. 

Mortimer Daniel Rubin was described in the Attorney General's 
official report of June 1, 1963, as the national youth director and a 
member of the National Committee of the Communist Party. As a 
matter of fact, in hearings before the Subversive Activities Control 
Board an order was entered on December 4, 1963, against Mortimer 
Daniel Rubin requiring him to register as a member of the Communist 
Party imder the Internal Security Act. The order described him as 
the national youth secretary of the Communist Party. 

In the first issue of Nev:) Horizonn For Youth of October 1960, 
Mortimer Daniel Rubin is identified in that publication as the editor. 
In subsequent publications he was identified as associate editor, and 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1907 

finally in the spring of 1962 his name was dropped from the publica- 
tion for some reason. 

Xow, Mr. Tillotson, the committee has information that you at- 
tended a conference of the Progressive Youtl\ Organizing Committee 
in Xe^Y York City in June 1962 and another conference in June 1963. 
Did you attend either or both of these conferences ? 

oNIr. TiLLOTSOx. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. "WHio paid your expenses for attendance at these con- 
ferences ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfulh^ decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

jNIr. NiTTLE. While in NeAv York City did you not engage in con- 
ferences with Danny Rubin ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSOx. I respectfully decline to answer this question on tlie 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you also engage in conferences with Marvin Mark- 
man? 

Mr. TiLLOTSOx. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not Marvin Markman a leader on behalf of the 
Communist Party in creating this Progressive Youth Organizing 
Committee as an instrmnentality of the national leadership of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. TiLLOTSOx. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE, Did you know Marvin Markman to be a Communist 
Party member at the time of vour attendance at the conferences in 
June 1962 and June 1963 ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSOx. I respectfully decline to answer tliis question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, the Committee on Un-American Ac- 
tivities received public testimony in February 1960 relating to Marvin 
Markman. The witness, Albert Gaillard, himself a former member 
of the Communist Party, identified Marvin Markman as a member 
of the Communist Party. 

Now, Mr. Tillotson, were you also a member of an organization 
known as the Fair Play for Cuba Committee while in attendance at 
the University of Minnesota ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSOX. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you participate in any way in organizing a chap- 
ter at the university or in the recruiting activities of that organiza- 
tion ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSOx. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you take part in a so-called spontaneous demon- 
stration as a member of the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, in a 
demonstration planned by members of that committee, in front of the 
North Rock Memorial Auditorium on the campus of the University of 
^linnesota in March of 1962 ? 



1908 COIVIMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINTTOAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you at any time distributed propaganda ma- 
terial in support of the Communist regime in Cuba on the campus of 
the University of Minnesota with the objective of injecting on the 
campus the Communist Party propaganda line with respect to it? 

Mr. TiLLOTsoN. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a photostatic copy of a leaflet captioned 
"What Are The Facts?", marked for identification as "Tillotson Ex- 
hibit No. 2," and I ask you whether or not this item was disseminated 
by you at a rally on the University of Minnesota campus on October 24, 
1962, immediately following President Kennedy's announcement of 
the missile crisis in October of 1962 ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSOx. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

(Document marked "Tillotson Exhibit No. 2" follows.) 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1909 



TiLLOTSON Exhibit No. 2 

WAT ARE THE PACTS? 

1. W« »re huddri); towrrd w»r, Th? U.S. Dersrlrasnt o/ Defend; annour.ted it will 
search and if nccessiry fcink tji^ Bhip» en rrwtf? ts CVb« tn«t essy fc-e c«srying 
"offrnsive waspont". A U.S. biock*<3e of Cut» is kq act of w»r, 

3. The »r»y h«e been directed by President K*^n«<3y tc "prepsrc for ».ny ever^tvaiities 
...thojid these offensive prcpsri. :icn« con^ifius." Ciyil Tefynse unita are being 
• lertt-d. U.S. trtx)ps tnd ws»8hip» are in ■fSie C;rib^e*n. T;ii« twana a war — 
not Juat in Ka?a.na or Hotcow, but In Me^ YciW rvi4 MiL^laea[^olia. I;: a^ana 
life &a4 that of your children — even «U* future of tha wftai* i*.Vit.3n raes, 

3,. We claim to be Insuying Anericin asfctyj an «i« actrusily j.nvotir^ a var. W« 

h»f* not pursued what the PIr*^ Iden-i caii&i* ''a pallcy of pstience and rastruint". 
The U.S. collabocaie':! in an inrtaion sttir-.vt L~. CXibo two years age. A« a ccs— 
sequence of li.lia, and of our ecoiioasic boyiott, Cuba has turned to ths Soviet 
L'nior. for eccrioaic and eiiitsify aid whicfe inrlode* Kieaile b^»«:. 

4. If the Soviet* have eetsMifhed offenaiTe tslsple basesi in Cuba, thsy are pursuing 
a policy li^e thst cf the United States in ite cstabliahaen'i eif bases around the 
Soviet Union. AH n ia«ile bag**^ 'ar.y»^»8ra in th« *2ri« const itut* "' a clear 
and prestr.t dari^ir" to worlrl p««ce «nd lasst b-t disdsantled. The Cu-'sn crisis ia 

a drsieatlc systo! of trie nea4 for world 4ia«xsuiB<ntg 

5. President Kennedy has tiadr wa? with Cuba a dc fscto nucleer war >uit>. Kueeia. How 
Ion; will tbrcai tsnd counts £«>thraat diploasncy eooiinue without remitLig io 
nuclear war? 

6. Senator Msyiis ts!orS!° !:%« vam«d t\iai aa si'mck Mpon Cuba would e.ott tii« United 
States "the napiXfrt of ti;e c;gs8«a e* tlse p«opl« of Uiti« Aweriea for dec»^«a" 
( Nev. rox"« Tiia«s, lupt, I, 1933). T!»ie will disgracB aai dishonor ua ia tha 
eyes oTThe vorld, T^,* worl4 vill rais* s cry aecibst U.S. lawl«ssa«M and tha 
use of brute forc«, 

»«AT SHOUU) WB DOT 

1. We should deaand an end to tha tloeksde. Tbe blockade can triffcr a nuclear 
war at any noisent, 

2. Cuba'a president, Dorticoe, recently arid that Cuba would diaant coapletely in 
return for "cffectlw guaranteas and satisfactory prooT' against renewed 
a$::ression such »a the April 19tl ir.VssioQ, This mftusi* that tiisre ia a basis 
fur diacussion of diilf ecencec. It is iapgntive to our existence that we pursue 
discussions. Negotiations Bhon:ld co«e first, not war . 

3. President Kifr.nedy has asked the UN to order Cuba to disaantle their aissile 
bases. We suggest that a UN police force In the Caribbean would be iLn"effectiTe 
guarantee" againat irar. This would b« a fair basis for sgreeatent. 

t£P.''.^L 12. jj]l£ Pygai d eri t^ to try to wpr> cut our differences with Cuba , TT>s 
urfcency of this caBOOt be ovcreaph3si»td . ' 

( Orgsnized by eitisens conecnvsd witis the drive towsrd war with Cubei 
John Tillotaon, 628 Jessaainc, Stv-Pauli Lois Doty, 3725 Second Ave. S., 
Minneapolis; Kit Lyons, Csrleton College, Northflcld, Minn.) 



1910 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINISTEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. The leaflet contains at the bottom the following 
statement : 

(Organized by citizens concerned with the drive toward war with Cuba: 
John Tillotson, 628 Jessamine, St. Paul * * *.) 

and includes the names of two other persons as well. Are you not the 
John Tillotson referred to as one of the organizers "concerned with 
the drive toward war with Cuba" ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. 628 Jessamine Street is the residence, or at that time 
was the residence, of Rose Renaud ; was it not ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you at any time on October 24, 1962, or in the 
month of October, a resident of 628 Jessamine Street, St. Paul? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. This leaflet, in response to a question contained in it, 
"Wliat Should We Do?" gives three suggested courses of action, the 
first being "We should demand an end to the blockade," and urging 
an appeal to President Kennedy to try to work out differences with 
Cuba. 

Was this document written for you by, or its contents suggested to 
you by, any person known to you to be a member of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who prepared the document ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who financed the printing of the leaflet? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Who typed up the initial copy ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Have you not also used the address 628 Jessamine 
Street for the receipt of the Communist Party publication New 
Horizons For YoutJi? 

Mr. Tillotson. 1 respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Why did you not have this publication directed to 
your actual residence? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. While at the University of Minnesota were you also a 
member of the Student Peace Union? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nittle. Were you instructed by Betty Smith or any functionary 
of the Communist Party to infiltrate that organization on l)ehalf of 
the Communist Party? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1911 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not, in fact, distribute Exhibit 2 at a rally or 
demonstration of the Student Peace Union on October 24, 1962? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON, I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiT'iT.E. Did you also become a member of the Minnesota Turn 
Toward Peace Center at Twenty-seventh Avenue Southeast, Mimie- 
apolis 14, Minnesota ? 

Mr. TnxoTsox. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have before me a copy of the letterhead of the Minne- 
sota Turn Toward Peace Center and the name of John Tillotson ap- 
pears on the printed portion, on the left, side of the page, as a member 
of the executive council of that organization. 

Are you the same John Tillotson who is a member of the executive 
council of the Minnesota Turn Toward Peace Center? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you instructed by any Communist Party func- 
tionary to infihrate this organization ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this <iuevStion on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. And was it your purpose in serving as a member of the 
executive council to attempt to inject into it or to utilize this orga- 
nization as an agency or means for communicating the Communist 
Party line on particular issues of importance to the foreign policy of 
the TTiiited States? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you engage in activities for the Fair Play for Cuba 
Committee, the Student Peace Union, and the Minnesota Turn Toward 
Peace Center for the purpose of advancing the propaganda objectives 
and foreign policy of tlie Soviet Union and other Communist countries ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Nitti^e. I have l>efore me a photostatic copy of an article that 
appeared in the Minnesota Daily of March 10, 1964. It is entitled 
"New Committee Formed For McCarran Protest." The article ad- 
vises that a group was fonned to picket the hearings in St. Paul on 
March 17 and 18 of the Federal Subversive Activities Control Board. 
The article states : 

The Board will attempt to determine whether two Minneapolis residents should 
register as Communists under the provisions of the McCarran Internal Security 
Act. 

The group, which calls itself the Ad Hoc Committee for Civil Liberties, met 
Friday and yesterday to organize and select a six-member steering committee. 

The steering committee members named in the article included your 
name, John Tillotson, sophomore; the name of John Baker, a retired 
Minneapolis city employee ; and others. 

Did you participate in the initial organization of this committee ? 

Mr. Tillotson. I respectfully decline to answer this qu3stion on 
the grounds previously stated. 



1912 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Is not the John Baker named in this article the same 
John Baker who was identified in testimony of Mr. Boehnke as a 
Communist Party member and active on the Minnesota Committee 
To Defend the Bill of Eights ? 

Mr, TiLLOTSOK. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was John Baker associated with you in this enterprise 
because of his assignment to activities of the Communist Party aimed 
toward discrediting the Internal Security Act of 1950 ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet and caucus with John Baker at any 
Communist Party meeting for the purpose of establishing this Ad 
Hoc Committee for Civil Liberties ? 

Mr. TiLLOTSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on the 
gromids previously stated. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The staff has no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Senner ? 

]Mr. Senner. I have no questions. 

Mr. IcHORD. Mr. Bruce ; Mr. Schadeberg, do you have any questions * 

Mr. Bruce. No questions. 

jMr. Schadeberg. No questions. 

]\Ir. IcHORD. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. IcHORD. Call your next witness, please, Counsel. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would Hanley Hemmmgson please come forward? 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HANLEY LEON HEMMINGSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, SHELDON D. KAELINS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state your name, full name, and address for 
the record ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. Hanley Leon Hemmingson, Warroad, Minne- 
sota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel, Mr. Hemmingson ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel kindly identify himself for the record, 
stating his name and office address ? 

Mr. Karlins. Sheldon D. Karlins, 512 Builders Exchange, the 
name is spelled with a "K". 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Hemmingson, when did you move to Warroad, 
Minnesota ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Prior to your residence in Warroad, did you reside at 
1025 Knox Avenue North, in Minneapolis ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IX THE MI^STNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1913 

my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal educa- 
tion? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gromids that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Hemmixgson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights mider the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you in attendance at the hearing when Mr. 
Boehnke testified? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights mider the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTOLE. He testified that you were a member of the North Side 
Club of the Communist Party. Were you a member of the North Side 
Club of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. HEManxGSON. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you still a member of the North Side Club of the 
Communist Party or have you been recently assigned to another Com- 
munist cell? 

Mr. Hemsongson, I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you met in cell meetings with the prior witness, 
John Forichette? 

Mr. Hemmixgsox. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you meet in closed party meetings with Betty 
Smith, Ellen Davis, Claude McDonald, Martin Mackie, and Evelyn 
Borchardt at your residence ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you a member of Local 7 of the Brotherhood of 
Carpenters and Joiners in Minneapolis ? 

Mr. Hemshngson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you know Archie Anderson to be a member of the 
Communist Party ? 



1914 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was not Arcliie Anderson likewise a member of Local 7 
of the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners in Minneapolis ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you not aware of the fact that Archie Anderson was 
expelled from the Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners in 1963 
due to Communist activities ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Had you met with Archie Anderson for the purpose of 
planning or engaging in union activities to further tlie aims of the 
Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not know Martin Mackie to be a member of 
the same North Side Club of the Communist Party with you ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you aware that in 1959 Martin Mackie was barred 
from membership in the Carpenters Local No. 7 for falsely stating 
he was not a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of tlie United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, in fact, named as a voucher for Martin 
Mackie in his application by signing his application for membership 
in the Carpenters Local No. 7 on June 22, 1959 ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
tlie grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Since you assumed residence at Warroad, Mimiesota, 
Iiave you continued to engage in disseminating the propaganda line of 
the Communist Party in support of the goals of the world Communist 
movement ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
tlie grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my riglits under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1915 

Mr. NiTTLE. I hand you a copy of a "letter to the editor" published 
in the Minneapolis Smiday Tribmie of April 5, 1964, entitled or 
captioned by the editor as "South Vietnam Action Opposed." It is 
signed by Hanley Hemmingson, Warroad, Minnesota. The letter, as 
published, is as follows : 

What right do our armed forces have for being iu South Viet-Nam? When 
men and material were first sent to this former French colony, there was no 
justification for military action. We were told that our forces were "advising 
and training" South Viet-Nam soldiers. These activities are now costing more 
than 1 million dollars per day, and about 150 American soldiers have lost their 
lives in direct military action. Now there is talk of a much greater involvement. 

Who wants this war? Only those who profit by war and those whose military 
careers are aided by conflict. Our forces should be withdrawn at once. 

Are you the author of the article and did you cause it to be published 
in that newspaper ? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you, as a Cormnunist Party member, more con- 
cerned about the success of the expansionist efforts of the Communists 
than the lives being lost by American soldiers in resistance to Com- 
munist aggression? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now, as of this moment, a member of the 
Communist Party? 

Mr. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may mcriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mr. Chairman, I have no further questions of this 
witness. 

]\Ir. IcHORD. Any questions from the committee ? 

The witness will be excused. 

I think, Mr. Comisel, before you call your next witness that we 
should take a 5 -minute recess in order for the reporter to rest his 
fingers. The committee wall be in recess for 5 minutes. 

(A short recess was taken.) 

Mr. IcHORD. The committee will come to order. 

Mr. Counsel, will you call your last witness, please ? 

Mr. NiTTLE. Yes, sir. 

Would Tania Hemmingson come forward, please? 

Mr. IcHORD. Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are 
about to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HILDA TAMA HEMMINGSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, SHELDON D. KARLINS 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you kindly state your full name and residence 
for the record ? 



1916 COMlVnJNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MESTNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mrs. KCemmingson. My name is Hilda Tania Hemmingson, and I 
live at "WaiToad, Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you represented by counsel ? 

Mrs. HEM3IINGS0N. Yes, I am. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would counsel please identify himself for the record, 
statins: his name and office address ? 

Mr. Karlins. Sheldon D. Karlins, 512 Builders Exchange, Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Mrs. Hemmingson, how long have you resided at War- 
road, Minnesota ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate m}^ rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Were you not, prior to your residence at Warroad, a 
resident of Minneapolis ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you state the date and place of your birth? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline — I was born on March 
29, 1914. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Wliere ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the groimds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. The committee, Mrs. Hemmingson, has information 
that you were born abroad, to be exact, in Kishinev, Rumania, and is 
interested in ascertaining whether or not you are a citizen of the 
United States. Are you a naturalized citizen of the United States? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Would you relate the extent of your formal education? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What is your present employment ? 

Mrs. Hem^iingson. t respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you been known by names other than Hilda Tania 
Hemmingson ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the groimds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your maiden name Hilda Roast, R-o-a-s-t ? 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1917 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution, 

Mv. NiTTLE. Have you also used the name Tuba, T-u-b-a, Pecinic, 
P-e-c-i-n-i-c? 

]\Irs. Hemmingsox. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you ever been known under the name Tania 
Moss, M-o-s-s ^ 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
T^nited States Constitution. 

jNIr. NiTTLE. Did you hear the testimony of Mr. Boelmke in the 
course of these hearings ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
iTiited States Constitution. 

'Sir. NiTTLE. Mr. Boelmke testified that he knew you to be an active 
member of the Minnesota Committee for Protection of Foreign Born. 
Were you active in that organization ? 

INlrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Did you know this organization to be a branch of the 
national unit known as the American Committee for Protection of 
Foi'eign Born ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
Ignited States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of your activity on behalf of 
that organization ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. While you engaged in these activities on behalf of this 
organization, were you aware that it was a Communist organization ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. What was the purpose of the organization? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

36-729—64 IT 



1918 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINT«TEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was this organization, to your knowledge, organized 
for the actual purpose of conducting agitation and propaganda aimed 
to repeal the Immigration and Nationality Act, particularly those 
provisions which prevent the entry into the United States of Com- 
munist aliens and provides for the deportation of Communists? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. In a report of the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities, Report No. 1182, of August 16, 1957, on the subject "Com- 
munist Political Subversion," this committee declared that the Min- 
nesota Committee for Protection of Foreign Born was a "regional" 
organization of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Born; that the Minnesota Committee was established on May 21, 1952, 
with Mrs. Alma Foley as secretary. The Lamp^ which is the official 
publication of the American Committee for Protection of Foreign 
Bom, in its June-July 1952 issue, announced that representatives of 
defense committees meeting in Minneapolis voted to establish a "provi- 
sional" Minnesota Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, the im- 
mediate purpose of which was to defend Peter Warhol, Charles Ro- 
woldt, and Harry Roast, against -whom there were deportation orders 
by reason of Communist activities. 

What knowledge do you have of the creation of the Minnesota 
Committee for Protection of Foreig^i Born ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. You know Alma Foley, of course ? 

]Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. She was identified as a leading official of this com- 
mittee, of the Minnesota Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 
by Mr. Boehnke. How long have you known Alma Foley? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Boehnke testified that you attended a number of 
closed meetings of the Communist Party. Have you attended closed 
Communist Party meetings in the Minneajoolis area ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Have not such meetings been held at your residence, 
your former Minneapolis residence at Knox Avenue? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the gi'ounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1919 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you not formerly reside at 1025 Knox Avenue 
North in Minneapolis as Mr. Boehnke testified? 

Mrs. Hemmingsux. I respectfully decline to answer tliis question on 
the tp'ounds that any answer given may incriminate me or nuiy violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Was this address also the residence of John Fori- 
chette? 

INIrs. He:mmixgson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Were you not also a member of the Freedom of the 
Press Committee while residing in Minneapolis ? 

]Mrs. Hemmixgson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incrimiiiate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Among other functions of the Freedom of the Press 
Connnittee that you may have attended, did you not attend a picnic 
sponsored by the Freedom of the Press Committee on September 10, 
1961, at Lake Minnetonka ? 

Mrs. Hemmixgsox. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution, 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mrs. Hemmingson, I hand you a copy of a photograph 
marked for identification as "Tania Hemmingson Exhibit Xo. 1," 
which the committee is informed w^as taken at this picnic. The photo- 
graph includes a woman in a standing position, wearing apparently a 
dark spotted dress, the only person identified as standing in this 
picture. 

I ask you whether or not you are the person, the lady standing in 
that photogi"aph ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Was not that a true reproduction of a scene or incident 
at the picnic on September 10, 1961, at Lake Minnetonka ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully declme to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may mcriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. I offer this exhibit in evidence. 

Mr. IcHORD. There being no objection it will be received in evi- 
dence and marked as "Tania Hemmingson Exhibit No. 1." 

(Document marked "Tania Hemmingson Exhibit Xo. 1," and re- 
tained in committee files.) 

Mr. NiTTLE. Have you attended other functions of Communist-front 
groups in the Minneapolis area ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answ^er this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 



1920 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Did you attend a meeting at the Andrews Hotel on Jan- 
uary 14, 1962, sponsored by the Minnesota Committee To Defend the 
Bill of Eights? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the gi'ounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Was your presence there in support of the objectives 
of that organization ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me 

JNIr. Nittle. Have you made financial contributions to that orga- 
nization ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Was it known to you to be an objective of this orga- 
nization to obtain the repeal of security legislation ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfidlj^ decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may violate 
my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the United 
States Constitution. 

"Slv. Nittle. At the meeting of the Minnesota Committee To Defend 
the Bill of Rights of January 14, 1962, was not John Abt, the Com- 
munist Party attorney, the featured speaker ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Do you know John Abt to be the Commimist Party 
attorney ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on tlie grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fiftli, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Did you have knowledge at that time of any testimony 
received relating to John J. Abt, given by Whittaker Chambers before 
this committee — testimonv which this committee received from him on 
August 3, 1948 ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question on 
the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. Nittle. Mr. Chairman, I would like to state for purposes of the 
record that Whittaker Chambers testified before this committee on 
August 3, 1948, that John J. Abt was a member of the so-called Ware- 
Abt-Witt group in the early 1930's, which was composed of Commimist 
Party members employed by various agencies of the United States 
Government at that time. Abt held legal positions with various U.S. 
Government agencies from 1933 until December of 1938. He was in 



COMJVrUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1921 

the legal division of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration when 
Chambers knew him. Chambers stated that this undergroimd Com- 
munist group to which Abt belonged was organized to carry out the 
Commimist Party's plan to work its members into high policymaking 
positions in our Government, with espionage as one of its eventual 
objectives. There was other testimony given with respect to him 
by Elizabeth Bentley, which I will not relate at this time. 

Mrs. Hemmingson, did you know John Abt to be in attendance at 
that meetmg for the purpose of supporting the objectives of the Minne- 
sota Committee To Defend the Bill of Eights ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights imder the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. XiTTLE. Mrs. Hemmingson, the committee is in possession of 
information, which it believes to be reliable, that during 1948 you 
were a member of the Communist Party in Minneapolis. Were you 
a member of the Communist Party at that time ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights mider the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. Are you now a member of the Communist Party or 
under its discipline ? 

Mrs. Hemmingson. I respectfully decline to answer this question 
on the grounds that any answer given may incriminate me or may 
violate my rights under the first, fifth, or sixth amendments of the 
United States Constitution. 

Mr. NiTTLE. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. IcHORD. The witness will be excused. 

Mr. Bruce, I imderstand that does conclude the witnesses to be 
heard. I understand you have an observation to make at this time. 

Mr. Bruce. The only observation I would like to make for the 
record is that what we have seen in ai>proximately 3 days of hearings 
here in Minneapolis, Minnesota, certainly should give encouragement 
and strengthening of dedication to those who believe in a free system. 
What we have heard has been an example of strength. 

We are all aware, and it is on the record, that the Communist Party 
of the United States of America is a part of a worldwide organization 
that is dedicated to the overthrow of our system. And yet, unlike 
events that liave happened in otlier countries in very recent years, in 
our society the right to be heard does not beget the liquidation that has 
happened in Cuba or has happened throughout the years in the Soviet 
Union and other Communist countries. But in our system the right 
to be heard, the right to have fair presentation, the right to invoke the 
Constitution of the United States with its provisions, has never been 
more clear tlian it has been here in these last 3 days. 

The opportunity provided the witnesses who had been named, or 
to individuals who had been named in executive hearings behind closed 
doors in advance, to be notified that they had been named and who 
had named them, be given the opportunity to come in and voluntarily 
present their witnesses, present evidence to the contrary, certainly 

36-729— «4 18 



1922 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES TNT THE MTNlSrEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

is an exciting and a wonderful thing in an age when totalitarianism 
seems to be moving ahead so rapidly. 

The fact that the right to be sitting in front of the building in a 
picket line, orderly, well-mannered pickets; to come into the room 
and listen as they lay down their picket signs; to participate as ob- 
servers in the due process of law, I don't know when I have ever been 
more proud of being an American citizen, to know that the rights of 
individuals to dissent, to invoke the Constitution. 

I think it is significant and interesting that of all the witnesses that 
were called, all except one of those who had been named, invoked 
the fifth amendment. 

One further observation. 

Mr. IcHORD. Of course, that is their right, constitutional right. 

Mr. Bruce. Absolutely; I would not change it for the world. It is 
a very basic right that protects the innocent as well as the guilty. 

One point I would like to make. For a long time, as Chairman 
Willis stated earlier, those who have served their country in the 
capacity of undercover agents for the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
have been subjected to the most bitter type of harassment from the 
official Communist press, the front press, and occasionally from some 
other areas who are misguided in their interpretation and understand- 
ing of the role of the FBI undercover agent. I think it is interesting 
to note that those who were named in secret testimony by FBI under- 
cover agents, not one of them, not one of them either in the oppor- 
tunity to appear voluntarily and give their evidence, produce their 
witnesses, took advantage of it, and not one, not one contradicted the 
testimony of the FBI undercover agents before this committee. 

I have nothing further to say. Thank you for the opportunity, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. IcHORD. The chainnan of the full committee. Congressman 
Willis, and also chairman of this subcommittee, had to leave early be- 
cause of other legislative business, and as acting chairman I would like 
to make a few observations as to what I consider to be the import of 
the hearings which we have had here in the great city of Minneapolis. 

The hearings have not produced any startling information. The 
committee did not expect these hearings to produce any startling in- 
formation. I say this even though there was evidence adduced that 
Communists look to a day when they will blow up bridges and engage 
in other acts of physical destruction prior to seizing power by actual 
violence. That testimony was given by Mrs. Gordienko, and since I 
pursued a line of questioning I would like to make sure that the au- 
dience and press understand our proecdure. 

Rule XI, 26 (m), a rule of the House of Representatives, provides 
that if the committee determines that evidence or testimony at an in- 
vestigative hearing may tend to defame, degrade, or incriminate any 
person, that testimony shall first be taken in executive session. Mrs. 
Gordienko was instructed by the staff of that rule not to mention any 
person in connection with Communist activity unless they have had 
a chance to come in, without a public hearing, in an executive session, 
a closed hearing, and voluntarily give the committee mformation or 
statements which would repudiate the testimony that has been given 
against them. 

All of the witnesses here today were given that opportunity to ap- 
pear in executive session and explain, refute, before their name was 



COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE IVONNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 1923 

mentioned publicly— with the exception of John Tillotson whose name 
was mentioned inadvertently prior to the time set for him to volun- 
tarily appear before the committee if he so desired. That was a slip- 
up on the part of the committee. Everyone makes a mistake, and 
gentlemen, I hope you will not make that mistake again. Personally, 
I rather doubt that he would have appeared in executive session even 
if this slip-up had not occurred, and the fact of the matter is that he 
did not avail himself of the opportunity when the time came. The 
committee, however, does owe Mr. Tillotson an apology. 

I make this statement that the hearings have not produced any 
startling information even though they have produced evidence of 
Communist Party discussion of plans to physically harm a former 
member who was working against, and unquestionably hurting, the 
party. I say that even though they have produced evidence of the 
party's subservience to the Soviet Union and the training of its 
leaders in that country. There is nothing startling about this infor- 
mation, in the sense that other hearings of this committee have pro- 
duced similar information. Other hearmgs have produced evidence 
of Communist plans and attempts to infiltrate and control political 
groups, civil rights organizations, PTA's, local governments, and take 
advantage of our youth, et cetera. 

The hearings, however, I thinlr, have been fruitful. Thej have 
produced elements of information desired and needed by the commit- 
tee to assist in its legislative duties, the kind of information which was 
referred to by Chairman Willis in his opening remarks. This infor- 
mation will serve not only the committee, but the entire Congress, be- 
cause after all this committee is just an arm of the Congress. The 
power to investigate is essential to the very existence of a Congress, 
and it is particularly essential when you have a conspiracy which is 
headed up by the Cormnunist Party as its instrument to conquer the 
world through international conununism. 

It is the committee's hope that the information produced here will 
have a further use and that it will help to, that is, it will help to keep 
the American people generally, and the people of this area, alert to 
the fact that communism is a very real problem and danger, both 
here at home as well as abroad; that it must be fought here as well 
as abroad. Here it must be fought fairly, intelligently, and effec- 
tively, if our freedoms as Americans are to be preserved. 

The hearings here have not been trials. No one has been on trial 
before this committee. They have been conducted in open session 
and certainly it could not be said that they are star-chamber pro- 
ceedings, which you would have under a nation like Russia or some 
other of the totalitarian powers. The hearings certainly provide no 
basis for hysteria, but neither do they provide any basis for com- 
placency. Their import, I believe, will be clear to all intelligent, 
clear-thinking Americans. 

In closing, I would like to express the appreciation of the com- 
mittee to Chief Marshal Hemenway, the deputy marshal of Min- 
neapolis, as well as the police, city police of Minneapolis, for your 
splendid job in maintaining order throughout these hearings. You 
are to be commended greatly. 

I wish to express the appreciation of the committee to Judge 
Devitt for the use of these chambers. I hope we haven't worked the 



1924 COMMUNIST ACTIVITIES IN THE MINNEAPOLIS, MINN., AREA 

reporter too hard throughout these hearings. I want to express the 
appreciation of the committee to the people of Minneapolis for the 
hospitality which you have extended to the committee. It has been 
many years since I myself have been here in Mimieapolis. Some of 
the members of the committee are visiting Minneapolis for the first 
time. I could not help but be impressed by the beautiful downtown 
city district surrounding this Federal building. You have made 
great progress in the years since I have been here. You have a 
beautiful city ; you have a great State ; you have a great people. It 
has been a great pleasure to visit you here. 

If there are no further statements, as acting chairman I will de- 
clare this meeting in adjournment until fni-ther call by the Chair. 

(Whereupon, at 12:;^)5 p.m., Friday, June -26, 1964, the committee 
adjourned subject to the call of the Chair.) 



INDEX 



INDIVIDUALS 

A Pagi 

Abramovich, Lev (pen name Leontiev) 1814 

Abt, John J 1920,1921 

Acheson (Dean) 1727, 1794,1795 

Acbteley, Carl 1805 

Allen, Victor 1799 

Alleyne, Cameron C 1797 

Anderson, Archie L 1823, 1913, 1914 

Anderson, Eugenie 1727 

Anthropoulos, Milton 1712 

Aptheker, Herbert 1713, 1734, 1894 

B 

Baker, John 1772, 1911, 1912 

Barisonzi, Jack 1672, 1752, 1896 

Barsky, Edward K 1799 

Bart, Phil 1670, 1708, 1731 

Bauer. Joseph 1735 

Bauman, Irma 1799 

Beals, Ralph C 179« 

Benson, Elmer A 1734,1797 

Bentley, Elizabeth 1921 

Berger, Sidney 1799 

Bernstein (Leonard) 1733 

Black, Hugo 1707, 1841, 1845 

Bleier, Ruth 1798 

Blossom, Frederick A 1798 

Boehnke, Gustav 1751 

Boehnke, Marie (Mrs. Gustav Boehnke) 1751 

Boehnke, Norman John 1671-1677, 

1681-1684. 1751-1880 (estimony. 1783. 1789. 1790. 1801. 1805, 
1812, 1822, 1823, 1842, 1858, 1859, 1862, 1869, 1870, .1875, 1877, 
1879-1883, 1894-1898 (testimony), 1899-1903, 1912. 1913, 1917, 
1918. 

Borchardt, Ernest 1758, 1761, 1762, 1894, 1901 

Borchardt, Evelyn (Mrs. Ernest Borchardt)— 1758,1761,1762,1811.1894,1913 

Bozeman, John 1799 

Bradford, Georgia A 1798 

Bridges (Harry) 1778 

Brown, Herdis (Mrs. James A. (Jack) Brown) 1775 

Brown, Jack. (See Brown, James A.) 

Brown, James A. ( Jack) _1682, 1760, 1761, 1775, 1822, 1823, 1861-1863 (testimony) 

Brown, Lucy 1795 

Burr, Dudley 1798 

Buxenbaum, Alva 1712, 1744-1746 

Buxenbaum, Mrs. Alva 1670, 1713 

C 

Carter, Felix 1735 

Chambers, Whittaker 1920 

Chapperon, Matt 1744 

Chip, Edmunde T 1799 

Christman, Alvin 1797 

Clark, John 1797 

i 



ii INDEX 

Page 

Clements, Herbert 1775 

Cole, Dorothy Buslmell 1798 

Connolly, John S 1800 

Correia, Jose 1795, 1798 

Cradle, J. Cleveland 1772, 1789, 1823 

Grain, Carl L 1798 

D 

Dagwell, Benjamin D 1797 

Davis, Benjamin J., Jr 1764, 1777, 1778, 1780 

Davis, Ellen (Mrs. Samuel K. Davis) 1676, 1758, 1771, 1777, 1823, 1896, 1913 

Davis, John F 18r)6 

Davis, Lionel 1893 

Davis, Samuel K 1669, 

1670, 1672, 1674,-1676, 1681, 1693, 1695, 1696, 1698, 1700. 1701, 
1703, 1705 1706 1708-1711, 1716, 1721, 1725, 1730, 1753, 1754, 
1756-1760, 1767-1771, 1775-1777, 1823, 1824, 1858, 1862, 1870, 
1896, 1902. 

DeLacy, Hugh 1799 

DeMaio, Ernest 1794, 1797,1798 

Devitt. Edward J 1923 

Dillworth, Harrison P 1858 

Dougher, Florence 1799 

Drake, Benjamin, Jr 1781 

Dreier, Mary 1797 

DuBois, W. E. B 1734,1794,179.5,1797 

Dundurs, Erik A 1768 

Dunham, Barrows 1734 

E 

Eisberg, John F 1898 

Evans, Joseph (M.) 1796,1797 

F 

Fairchild, Henry Pratt 1797,1799 

Farmer. Fyke 1797 

Feinglass, Abe 1799 

Field, Harold D., Jr 1828 

Field, Jess 1888. 1889 

Fine, Fred 1849, 1867 

Fleier, Jack J 1798 

Flodquist, Carl 1791, 1792 

Foley, Alma (Mrs. Tom Foley) 1753,1754,1769,1770,1777,1918 

Foley. Tom 1777 

Forichette, John Edward (William) 1676, 

1682, 1683, 1714, 1715. 1717, 1758. 1759. 1761. 1764, 1767, 1768, 
1790, 187.3-1893 (testimony), 1894, 1895, 1900, 1901, 1913, 1919 

Forrestal, James 1747 

Fox, William 1889 

Freeman 1727 

Freeman, E. A 1797, 1798 

Fritchman, Stephen (H.) 1734,1797 

Fujima, Edward 1735 

G 

Gaillard, Albert 1713, 1907 

Gilbert 1795 

Giovannini, Leo 1700, 1759, 1760, 1776, 1789, 1859, 1862 

Giovannini, Violet (Mrs. Leo Giovannini) 1776 

Glasgow, Douglas 1776, 1797, 1799 

Gleason, Pat 1672, 1753 

Gojack, John T 1798 

Goldwater (Barry) 1727 

Gordienko. George___ 1678-1680, 1682, 1808, 1809, 1811, 1815-1818, 1820, 1821, 1829 
Gordienko, Peter 1821 



INDEX iii 

Page 
Gordienko, Ruth Lois (formerly Mrs. George Gordienko) 10G9, 

1676, 1678-1682, 1704-1707, 1803, 1807-1827 (testimony), 1829- 
1834. 1838. 1840-1813, 1846, 1859. 1864. 1897, 1922. 

Gorman 1778 

Green, Gil 1731 

Griffin, Anne 1735 

Grotins, Elmer 1768 

H 

Hagander, Hamlin 1889 

Hagen, Uta 1797 

Hall, Gus 1669, 1673, 

1677, 1681, 1682, 1687, 1695, 1698, 1708, 1726, 1749, 1759, 1860, 1862 

Halverson, Crystal 1876, 1893 

Hansen, John C 1893 

Hanson, Frausile 1761 

Hart, Pearl 1745 

Hartridge, George 1798 

Haug, Fred 1799 

Haven, Dorothy 1798 

Hemenway (Raymond) 1923 

Hemmingson, Hanley Leon 1683, 

1684, 1758, 1805, 1877, 1878, 1880, 1893, 1912-1915 (testimony) 
Hemmingson. Hilda Tania (Mrs. Henley L. Hemmingson, also known as 

Tania Moss. Tuba Pecinic : nee Roast) 1675, 

1G84, 1753, 1772, 1773, 1880, 1915-1921 (testimony) 
Hemminsfson. Tania. (See Hemmingson, Hilda Tania.) 

Hill, Charles A 1795. 1796, 1799 

Hill. Ursaline 1798 

Hioks, Fanny 1798 

Hirshfelder, Betty 1798 

Hooper, H. N 1798 

Hoover, J. Edgar 1670, 1712, 1713, 1747, 1748, 1906 

Hovrard, Charles 1794 

Humphrey ( Hubert) 172&-1728 

Hunt, Louise 1799 

I 
Irvine, Ray 1795, 1798 

J 

Johnson, Arnold 1883, 1884 

Johnson, Eric 1796 

Johnson (Lyndon) 1688 

Jones, Elijah 1799 

Jones, Robert E 1799 

Judd (Walter) 1727, 1728 

K 

Karlins, Sheldon D 1912, 1915 

Karson, Esther 1795, 1799 

Karth (Joseph E.) 1728 

Kelly, Lucy (Mrs. Robert Kelly) 1815 

Kelly, Robert 1810, 1815, 1840 

Kennard, Massie L 1798 

Kennedy (John F.) 1683, 1908-1910 

Kent, Rockwell 1734 

Khrushchev (Nikita Sergeevich) 1674, 1682, 1726, 1868 

King, Martin Luther, Jr 1707 

Kirchner, H. W 1876, 1889 

Kleinman, George 1795, 1796, 1799 

Kres, Joseph 1799 

Krzychi, Leo 1797 



iv ESTDEX 

L Page 

Larsen, Karley ^ I'O'' 

LeBelle, Rose Pogen 1824 

Leontiev {See Abramovich, Lev) 

LeSueur, Deborah 1823 

LeSueur, Meridel 1771, 1772, 1776, 1777, 1823 

Levine, Jack 1707 

Libson, Aaron 1744 

Lima, Joe 1773 

Lovett, Robert Morss 1796-1798 

r^senko (Trofim) 1810 

M 

Mack, William 1798 

Mackie, Martin. ( See Mackie Oscar Martin. ) 

Mackie, Oscar Martin (also known as Maki)__ 1677, 1678, 1758, 1769, 1770. 1787, 
1788, 1800-1807 ( testimony ), 1824, 1845, 1848, 1866, 1881, 1913, 1914 

Mackie, Tonia (Mrs. Oscar Martin Mackie (Maki)) 1758 

Mahlke, Oscar 1761, 1773 

Mackie, Martin. {See Mackie, Oscar Martin.) 
Maki, Tonia. ( See Mackie, Tonia. ) 

March, Bill 1744 

Margolis, Wendy 1735 

Markman, Marvin 1670, 1713, 1744, 1907 

Marsalka, John 1798 

Marshall (George C.) 1795 

Martin, William H 1688 

Marzani, Carl 1734 

Matthews 1728 

Mayville. Henry Harrison (Harry) 1714. 1771-1775 

Mazey (Emil) 1778 

McCarthy, Joseph 1707 

McDonald, Claude 1676, 1677, 1720, 1758, 1760. 

1776, 1781-1799 (testimony), 1803, 1822, 1824, 1859, 1897. 1913 

McDonald, Elsie (Mrs. Claude McDonald) 1776 

Medina (Harold R.) 1824 

Melish. William Howard 1734 

Mitchell, Bernon F 1688 

Moore, Merriam M 1799 

Morrison, Philip (D.) 1794-1797, 1799 

Morrow, Anne B 1799 

Moss, Tania. {See Hemmingson, Hilda Tania.) 

Moulton. Arthur W 1797 

Mueci, Lois 1798 

Mulzae, Hugh 1734 

Murphy, George B., Jr 1734 

Myerson (Mrs. V.) 1798 

X 
Nearing, Scott 1734 

Newlund. Sam 1768 

Nixon (Richard M.) 1726,1727 

Noyes, Henry H 1796,1798 

Nurmi, Mrs 1893 

O 

Odetta 1733 

Olson, Floyd 1727 

Otto, Irma C 1799 

P 

Paolone. Clementina J 1794, 1796, 1797, 1799 

Pauling, Linus (Carl) 1794,1797 



1 Incorrectly spelled Karly. 



INDEX V 

Pearson, Sig. (See Sharp, Sig.) 

Pecinic, Tuba (See Hemmingson, Hilda Tania.) Page 

Peretz, Nina 1735 

Perry. Joseph 1863, 1873 

Piazza, Lenore 1799 

Pirinslcy, George 1795, 1799 

Pita, E 1798 

Porter, Lucius C 1794, 1797 

Potash, Leonard Harry (Lenny) 1744 

Q 
Queen, Danny 1670. 1671, 1713, 1718 

R 

Radosh, Ronny 1744 

Rasi, Carl Edwin {See, Ross, Carl E.) 

Renaud, Rose Tillotson (Mrs. Frederick L. Renaud) 1674, 

1676, 1679, 1681, 1759, 1768, 1777, 1790, 1812, 1813, 1823. 1824, 1842- 

1844, 1858-1861 (testimony), 1881-1883, 1895. 1899, 1902, 1903, 

1910. 

Roast, Harry 1755, 1918 

Roast, Hilda. (See Hemmiugson, Hilda Tania.) 

Robbins, Kathy 1735 

Robeson, Paul (Sr.) 1797,1799 

Robinson, Theresa 1797, 1798 

Rockefeller (Nelson A.) 1727 

Roehrich, Barbara Louise Perry 1811, 1846 

Rosenberg, Ethel 1672, 1752 

Rosenberg, Julius 1672, 1752 

Ross 1679,1816 

Ross, Carl E. (also known as Carl Edwin Rasi; Rosenbloom) 1679. 

1682, 1769, 1770, 1802, 1806, 1814-1816, 1825, 1844. 1845, 1849, 1858, 

1863-1868 (testimony). 

Ross Margaret (Mrs. Carl E. Ross) 1824,1825 

Rowoldt, Charles 1755, 1918 

Rubenberg, Alice 1796 

Rubin, Mortimer Daniel (Danny) 1670, 1671, 1709-1714, 1716. 

1718, 1725, 1730, 1735, 1744, 1884. 1885, 1906, 1907 
Running, Elizabeth 1814 

S 

Safold, Lula 1745 

Sandee, Judy 1735 

Scanlan, Robert H 1799 

Shanks, Gunnar 1756, 1757, 1776 

Shanks, Irene (Mrs. Gunnar Shanks) 1776 

Sharp, Clarence Horatio 1674, 1682, 1720, 1759, 1760, 

1768-1770, 1774, 1776, 1789, 1802, 1862, 1869-1871 (testimony), 1882 

Sharp, Sig (Mrs. Clarence Horatio Sharp ; also known as Sig Pearson) 1776 

Simkins (Mrs. Andrew M.) 1797,1799 

Simon, Abbott 1795-1797, 1799 

Slater, C. E 1795, 1798 

Sloan, Morris 1797 

Smith, Betty (also known as Sunne Smith) 1669, 

1675, 1701, 1717, 1756-1758, 1760-1762, 1765. 1766, 1772, 1789, 1790, 
1859, 1862, 1882-1884, 1894-1896, 1900-1903, 1910, 1913. 

Smith, Louise Pettibone 1672. 1753, 1754, 1797 

Smith Sunne (See Smith, Betty) 

Sobell, Morton 1672, 1752, 1896 

Sorg, Earl 1771, 1772, 1773 

Stalin (Jose?) 1862, 1868 

Stamm, Frederick K 1797, 1799 

Stein, Arthur 1798 

Stein, Mike 1735 

Stevenson (Adlai E.) 1727 

Stevenson, George 1869 

Stover, Fred 1797 

Strangis, Ralph 1861 

Struik, Dirk (J.) 1734 



Vi INDEX 

r£ Page 

Taragos, William J. (Bill) 1771,1772 

Taylor, Ann (Mrs. Ralph W. Taylor) 1776 

Taylor Ralph W 1674, 1681, 1682, 1706, 1707, 

1759-1761, 1764, 1767, 1768, 1776, 1790, 1859, 1862, 1882-1884, 1899 

Terrell, Mary Church 1797 

Thompson, Robert (Bob) 1731 

Tillotson, John Howard 1675, 

1676, 1683, 1715-1717, 1777, 1894-1896, 1898-1912 (testimony), 1909, 1923, 
Tillotson, Rose. ( -See Renaud, Rose Tillotson. ) 

Tilsen, Kenneth E 1678, 

1680, 1681, 1809-1811, 1825, 1828-1857 (testimony), 1866, 1868 

Tilsen, Rachel (Mrs. Kenneth E. Tilseu) 1678, 1809-1811, 1825, 1846 

Truman (Harry S.) 1727 

U 
Umbles, Idell (M.) 1798 

V 

Vance 1889 

W 

Warhol. Peter (John) 1755,1918 

Warren. Earl 1830 

Watkins (John T.) 1830 

Webb, Edward W 1799 

Welch, George 1S93 

White, James 1773 

Wier,^ (Roy W.) 1728 

Wiese, Bill 1889 

Wilkinson. Frank 1674, 1682, 1769, 1770, 1774, 1841, 1969 

Wilson, Charles 1796 

Winston, Henry 1731 

Winter, Carl 1881, 1882 

Withrow, Ruthann 1667- 

1674, 1676, 1677, 1679, 1681-1683, 1690-1750 (testimony), 1755. 

1757, 1758, 1783, 1789, 1860, 1875, 1881, 1884, 1897, 1899, 1900 

Wood, Michael 1797 

Wright, Archie 1797 

ORGANIZATIONS 

A 

Ad Hoc Committee for Civil Liberties— 1911,1912 

Advance 1710, 1713, 1744 

American Committee for Protection of Foreign Bom (see also Minnesota 

Committee for Protection of Foreign Born)__ 1672, 1680, 1754, 1755, 1917, 1918 

American Hoist & Derrick 1892 

American Peace Crusade 1676, 

1680, 1785-1787, 1794-1799, 1821-1823 

Minneapolis Chapter 1677, 1680, 1787, 1821 

American Russian Institute Peace Committee 1778 

American Slav Congress 1795, 1798, 1799 

American Women for Peace 1794,1796,1799 

Associated Packaging 1892 

Auto Workers, United. {See Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Im- 
plement Workers of America. 
Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, 

United 1778 

B 

Boy Scouts of America 1710 



1 Incorrectly spelled Weir. 



INDEX 



CIO. (See Congress of Industrial Organizations (OIO) ) Page 

California Institute of Technology (Pasadena, Calif.) 1794 

Carleton College (Nortbfield, Minn.) 1909 

Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of 1678, 

1683, 1800, 1804, 1805 

Local 7 (Minneapolis) 1913,1914 

Chicago Peace Crusade 1798 

Chicago Women for Peace 1798 

Citizens Against HUAC 1905 

Citizens for a Free City College, Youth Division 1710 

City College of the City of New York (N.Y.C.) 1778 

Civil Rights Congress 1784, 1785, 1812, 1813 

Committee Against Renazification of Germany 1798 

Committee of Four 1769, 1870 

Communist Party, Canada 1678, 1679, 1682, 1807, 1816-1818, 1864 

Manitoba Province 1817, 1818 

Communist Party of the United States of America 1669, 

1670, 1673, 1677, 1687, 1695, 1749, 1764, 1792, 1793, 1860, 1868, 1883 
National Structure : 

National Committee 1678, 1708, 1711, 1713, 1906 

Executive Committee 1708, 1864, 1867, 1868, 1881 

National Conventions and Conferences : 

National Farm Conference, 1960, Minneapolis, Minn___ 1682, 1776, 1862 
National Youth Conference, December 1960-January 1, 1961, 

Chicago, 111 1670, 

1671, 1683, 1712-1714, 1716, 1718, 1742-1748 

Sixteenth Convention, February 9-12, 1957, New York City 1867 

Seventeenth Convention, December 10-13, 1959, New York City— 1708 
Districts : 

Minnesota-Dakotas District (Minnesota, North Dakota, South 

Dakota) 1667-1924 

District Executive Committee 1675, 

1676, 1759, 1760, 1790-1792, 1803, 1842, 1859, 1869, 1892, 1900 

Youth section or movement 1764-1766, 1813, 1825, 1901, 1902 

Minnesota 1695, 1714, 1802, 1810, 1864 

State Convention, November 1959 and February 1960 1697- 

1699, 1708, 1720-1722, 1724, 1880 

State Board 1694, 

1695, 1720, 1721, 1724, 1790, 1812, 1824, 1842, 1859, 1883 
State Committee-1694, 1698, 1702, 1708, 1720, 1721, 1724, 1729 

Minneapolis- St. Paul area 1677-1679 

Cells within the University of Minnesota 1679, 1832 

Professional cell_1679, 1681, 1812, 1813, 1848, 1844, lS.-)9 

Student cell 1679, 1815, 1843 

Women's cell 1678, 1810-1813, 1823, 1841 

Earl Sorg Club 1773 

Industrial 1 Club 1668, 1698 

Industrial 2 Club 1668, 1698 

Lenin branch 1668, 1698 

Minneapolis City Committee 1673, 

1677, 1682, 1702, 1720, 1760, 1761, 1771, 1789, 1862, 1883 

Miscellaneous Branch 1683, 1880 

North Side Club 1668, 

1669, 1673-1677, 1679, 16a3, 1695-1701, 1703, 1705, 
1720-1724, 1751, 17.-)7-17.59, 1761, 1762, 1765. 1776, 
17S9, IROl, 1803, 1805, 1806, 1813-1815, 1823, 1877- 
ISSl. 1S94, 1901. 1913, 1914. 

Youth Organizing Club 1751, 1761, 1762, 1901, 1903 

Ralph Taylor Club 1761 

St. Paul City Committee 1673, 1760 

South Side Club 1668, 1682, 1698, 1751, 1761, 1862 

Trade Union cell 1679, 1813, 1815, 1862 

University Village Club 1846 

Women's branch 1668, 1698 

North Dakota 1883, 1884 

New York District (New York) 1687 



viii INDEX 

Communist Party, Soviet Union : 

Congresses : Pagf 

Twentieth Congress, February 1956, Moscow 1682, 1868 

Communist Political Association (May 1944 to July 1945) 1802 

National Structure : 

National Committee 1802, 1806, 1814 

Congregational Christian Church (Plumstedville, Pa.) 1799 

Congregational Church (East Hartford, Conn.) 1798 

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 1707, 1785 

Cook Paint & Varnish Co 1892 

Cornell University (Ithaca, N.Y.) 1794, 1799 

D 

Democratic-Farmer-Labor (Party), Minnesota 1668, 

1669, 1699, 1705-1707, 1721, 1727-1729, 1790, 1791 
DFL Clubs 1700, 1727 

Fifth Ward Club (Minneapolis) 1669,1699.1704-1706 

Democratic Party 1668 

Detroit Peace Crusade Committee 1799 

Dunwoody Industrial Institute 1891, 1892 

E 

Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, International Union of (lUE) 1727 

Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers of America, United (UE) 1785. 

1794, 1798, 1822 

Local 707 (Cleveland) 1799 

Local 1152 (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1676,1784,1785 

Electrical Workers, International Brotherhood of (IBEW) 1710 

Elks. {See Improved Benevolent & Protective Order of the Elks of the 
World. ) 

F 

Fair Play for Cuba Committee 1907, 1911 

Fellowship House 1710 

Freedom of the Press Committee. {See National Committee for Freedom 

of the Press.) 
Fur and Leather Workers Union of the United States and Canada, 

International 1795,1799 

G 

General Motors Corp. : 

Trucks and Coach Division (Minneai>olis, Minn.) 1888 

Gopher Bumper Exchange, Inc 1677,1806,1849,1866-1868 

Gopher Bumper Plating, Inc. {See Gopher Bumper Exchange, Inc.) 

I 

Improved Benevolent & Protective Order of the Elks of the World (Wash- 
ington, D.C.) 1798 

International Labor Defense 1785 

J 

Jewish Young People's League 1710 

K 

KSTP (television station, Minneapolis, Minn.) 1770 

L 

Labor Youth League 1710, 1731, 1813, 1814, 1846 

League of Women Voters 1779 

Lenin Institute (also known as Lenin School of Political Warfare) 1673, 

1676, 1759, 1896 

Leonard, Street and Deinard (Law Firm) (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1828 

Long Beach Peace Council 1798 

Longshoremen's and Warehousemen's Union, International 1798 



INDEX ix 

M 

Page 

Marine Cooks and Stewards, National Union of 1798 

Maryland Committee for Peace 1798 

Metropolitan Community Church (Chicago, 111.) 1798 

Michigan Peace Council 1799 

Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers, International Union of 1778 

Local 890 (Bayard, N. Mex.) 1799 

Minneapolis Civil Service Commission 1874-1878, 1886-1893 

Minneapolis Council for Peace. (See American Peace Crusade, Minne- 
apolis chapter. ) 

Minneapolis-Honeywell Regulator Co 1892 

Minneapolis Independent Negro Voters League 1727 

Minnesota Committee for Protection of Foreign Born (see also American 

Committee for Protection of Foreign Born) 1672, 

175^1755, 1777, 1821, 1917, 1918 

Minnesota Committee To Defend the Bill of Rights 1675, 

1684, 1714, 1771-1774, 1912, 1920, 1921 
Minnesota Turn Toward Peace Center. [See entry under Turn Toward 

Peace. ) 
Morton Sobell Defense Committee (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1752 

N 

NAACP. (See National Association for the Advancement of Colored Peo- 
ple (NAACP)) 
National Assembly for Democratic Rights, September 23, 24, 1961 (New 

York City) 1714, 1773, 1774 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 1679, 

1710, 1727, 1814 

Kansas City 1798 

National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy : 

Twin City Sane Nuclear Policy Committee (Minneai>olis-St. Paul, 

Minn.) 1727 

National Committee for Freedom of the Press : 

Minneapolis Freedom of the Press Committee 1674, 

1683, 1684, 1691, 1692, 1694, 1704, 1706, 1707, 171&-1718, 1723, 1760, 
1762, 1764, 1767, 1768,1788, 1821, 1823, 1882, 1899, 1919. 
National Committee To Abolish the Un-American Activities Committee.. 1674 

National Federation for Constitutional Liberties 1784, 1785 

National Negro Congress 1785 

Nazarene Church (Chicago, 111.) 1798 

Neighborhood Women for Peace 1798 

New Horizons for Youth Committee 1714, 1715 

P 

Packinghouse Workers of America, United 1727, 1778 

Painters, Decorators and Paperhangers of America, Brotherhood of 

(Minneapolis, Minn.) 1705 

Local 386 (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1791, 1792 

Parent Teachers Association (PTA) (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1669, 

1701,1723, 1724, 1750 

Peace Information Center 1795 

People's Party, Connecticut. (See Progressive Party, Connecticut.) 

Philadelphia Fellowship Commission 1710 

Progressive Party 1727, 1798, 1799 

Connecticut People's Party 1798 

Progressive Youth Organizing Committee 1670, 

1671, 1683, 1711, 1713, 1714, 1716, 1717, 1725, 1903-1907 

R 
Republican Party (Columbia, S.C.) 1799 

S 
Socialist Labor Party 1672, 1752 

Socialist Youth Union of Philadelphia 1710, 1744 



X INDEX 

Page 

Spencer Cooperative Society 1790 

Student Peace Union 1905, 1910, 1911 

Swarthmore College (Swarthmore, Pa.) 1710 

T 

Tri-City Civil Liberties Committee 1799 

Turn Toward Peace : 

Minnesota Turn Toward Peace Center 1911 

Twin City Sane Nuclear Policy Committee. (See entry under National 
Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy. ) 

U 
UN Club 1710 

United States Government : 
Defense, Department of : 

National Secux-ity Agency (NSA) 1688 

Immigration and Naturalization Service. (See entry under Justice 

Department.) 
Justice Department : 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 1688, 

1G90. 170.5. 171S. 1752, 1753, 1775, 1808, 1820, 1821, 1824, 1922 

Immigration and Naturalization Service 1815 

National Security Agency. (Sec entry under Defense, Dept. of.) 
Senate, United States : 

Internal Security Subconmiittee of the Judiciary Committee 1755 

Subversive Activities Control Board 1669, 

1672, 1677, 1687, 1720, 1755, 1765, 1784, 1786, 1787, 1789, 1790, 1793, 
1811, 1846, 1859, 1881, 1906, 1911. 

Supreme Court 1765 

University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) : 

Eugeu (sic) Debs Society 1744 

University of Minnesota (Minneapolis, Minn.) 1675, 

1678, 1681, 1683, 1811, 1815, 1828-1830, 183(>-1838. 1841-1846, 1859, 
1887, 1888. 1894-1896, 1898, 1899, 1901-1903, 1905, 1907, 1908, 1910 

Marxist Socialist Club 1678, 

1809, 1810, 1812, 1814, 1829, 1830, 1837, 1840, 1841 

University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pa.) 1710 

University of Wisconsin (Madison, Wis.) : 

Socialist Club 1744 

W 

WBAL (radio station, New York City) 1707 

Wesley Methodist Foundation 1753 

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom 1702, 1779 

Worker Bookshop 1753, 1754, 1757 

World Youth Festivals : 

Eighth Youth Festival, July 29-August 6, 1962, Helsinki. Finland 1675, 

1676, 1683, 1895, 1901, 1902 
Worthington Junior College (Worthington, Minn.) 1887,1891,1893 

Y 

Yenching University (China) 1794 

Young Americans for Freedom (YAF) 1778 

Young Commimist League (YCL) 1731,1813,1865 

Young Democrats (YDFL) 1905 

Young Progressives of America 1710 

Young Socialist Alliance 1905 

Youth for Political Action 1671, 1683, 1717, 1899 

Youth Publications, Inc 1732, 1734^1736, 1740, 1741 

PUBLICATIONS 

C 
Capital, Das (Kapital) (book) 1814 

D 
Daily Worker 1759 



ESTDEX 



Lamp, The (publication of American Committee for Protection of For- Page 
eign Born) 1754, 1918 

M 

Minneapolis Star 1864 

Minneapolis Sunday Tribune 1915 

Minnesota Daily 1911 

N 

New Horizons For Youth 1670, 

1671, 1676, 1708-1710, 1714-1716, 1730-1741, 1744, 1748, 1896, 1906 

S 
Studies on the Left 1744 

V 

Value, Price and Profit (Leontiev) 1814 

W 

Worker, The 1692, 1699, 1704, 1706, 1707, 1760, 1767 

Midwest Edition 1759 

Worthington Daily Globe 1888 



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